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1

Effect of acetylation and succinylation on solubility profile, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity and emulsifying properties of mucuna bean (Mucuna pruriens) protein concentrate.  

PubMed

Mucuna protein concentrate was acylated with succinic and acetic anhydride. The effects of acylation on solubility, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity and emulsifying properties were investigated. The pH-dependent solubility profile of unmodified mucuna protein concentrate (U-mpc) showed a decrease in solubility with decrease in pH and resolubilisation at pH values acidic to isoelectric pH (pH 4). Apart from pH 2, both acetylated mucuna protein concentrates (A-mpc) and succinylated mucuna protein concentrate (S-mpc) had improved solubility over the unmodified derivative. Acylation increased the water absorption capacity (WAC) at all levels of ionic strength (0.1-1.0 M). WAC of the protein samples increased with increase in ionic strength up to 0.2 M after which a decline occurred with increase in ionic strength from 0.4-1.0 M. When protein solutions were prepared in salts of various ions, increase in WAC followed the Hofmeister series in the order: NaSCN < NaClO4 < NaI < NaBr < NaCl < Na2SO. Acetylation improved the oil absorption capacity while the lipophilic tendency reduced the following succinylation. Emulsifying capacity increased with increase in concentration up to 2, 4 and 5% w/v for U-mpc, A-mpc and S-mpc, respectively, after which an increase in concentration reduced the emulsifying capacity. Both acetylation and succinylation significantly (P < 0.05) improved the emulsifying capacity at pH 4-10. Initial increase in ionic strength up to 0.4 M for U-mpc and 0.4 M for A-mpc and S-mpc increased the emulsion capacity progressively. Further increase in ionic strength reduced emulsion capacity (EC). Contrary to the effect of various salts on WAC, increase in EC generally follows the series Na2SO4 < NaCl < NaBr < NaI < NaClO4 < NaSCN. At all levels of ionic strength studied, S-mpc had a better emulsifying activity (EA) than both A-mpc and U-mpc. EA and emulsifying stability (ES) were pH-dependent. Maximum EA and ES were recorded at pH 10. ES of protein derivatives were higher than those of U-mpc in the range of pH 4-10 but lower at pH 2. Studies revealed that both A-mpc and S-mpc had better ES and EA than the unmodified derivative when protein solutions were prepared in salts of various anions. PMID:15146970

Lawal, O S; Adebowale, K O

2004-04-01

2

Capacity for absorption of water-soluble secondary metabolites greater in birds than in rodents.  

PubMed

Plant secondary metabolites (SMs) are pervasive in animal foods and potentially influence feeding behavior, interspecies interactions, and the distribution and abundance of animals. Some of the major classes of naturally occurring SMs in plants include many water-soluble compounds in the molecular size range that could cross the intestinal epithelium via the paracellular space by diffusion or solvent drag. There are differences among species in paracellular permeability. Using Middle Eastern rodent and avian consumers of fruits containing SMs, we tested the hypothesis that avian species would have significantly higher paracellular permeability than rodent species. Permeability in intact animals was assessed using standard pharmacological methodology to measure absorption of two radiolabeled, inert, neutral water-soluble probes that do not interact with intestinal nutrient transporters, L-arabinose (M(r)?=?150.1 Da) and lactulose (M(r)?=?342.3 Da). We also measured absorption of labeled 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3OMD-glucose; M(r)?=?194.2 Da), which is a nonmetabolized analogue of D-glucose that is passively absorbed through the paracellular space but also transported across the enterocyte membranes. Most glucose was absorbed by all species, but arabinose fractional absorption (f) was nearly three times higher in birds (1.03±0.17, n?=?15 in two species) compared to rodents (0.37±0.06, n?=?10 in two species) (P<0.001). Surprisingly, the apparent rates of absorption in birds of arabinose exceeded those of 3OMD-glucose. Our findings are in agreement with previous work showing that the paracellular pathway is more prominent in birds relative to nonflying mammals, and suggests that birds may be challenged by greater absorption of water-soluble, dietary SMs. The increased expression of the paracellular pathway in birds hints at a tradeoff: the free energy birds gain by absorbing water-soluble nutrients passively may be offset by the metabolic demands placed on them to eliminate concomitantly absorbed SMs. PMID:22389702

Karasov, William H; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Bakken, Bradley Hartman; Izhaki, Ido; Samuni-Blank, Michal; Arad, Zeev

2012-02-28

3

Modification of water absorption capacity of a plastic based on bean protein using gamma irradiated starches as additives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some properties of a bean protein starch plastic were modified by irradiation of the starch. Two kinds of starch from bean and cassava were irradiated with doses until 50 kGy before their inclusion in the composite. Water absorption of the resultant product was reduced by 36% and 60% in materials containing bean and cassava starch, respectively. A large decline in the elongation is observed till 10 kGy in both materials, while tensile strength diminished by 11% in the cassava composite.

Köber, E.; Gonzalez, M. E.; Gavioli, N.; Salmoral, E. M.

2007-01-01

4

Managerial ties, absorptive capacity, and innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managerial ties—the boundary-spanning ties and interpersonal connections of top managers—contribute to a corporation’s innovativeness\\u000a in emerging economies because of the absence of market supporting institutions, transparent laws, and clear regulations. Moreover,\\u000a managerial ties are apt to interact with absorptive capacity to facilitate knowledge sharing and innovation. This paper examines\\u000a the joint influence of managerial ties and absorptive capacity in two

Shanxing Gao; Kai Xu; Jianjun Yang

2008-01-01

5

Evaluation of an Absorption Heat Pump to Mitigate Plant Capacity Reduction Due to Ambient Temperature Rise for an Air-Cooled Ammonia and Water Cycle: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Air-cooled geothermal plants suffer substantial decreases in generating capacity at increased ambient temperatures. As the ambient temperature rises by 50 F above a design value of 50 F, at low brine-resource temperatures, the decrease in generating capacity can be more than 50%. This decrease is caused primarily by increased condenser pressure. Using mixed-working fluids has recently drawn considerable attention for use in power cycles. Such cycles are more readily amenable to use of absorption ''heat pumps.'' For a system that uses ammonia and water as the mixed-working fluid, this paper evaluates using an absorption heat pump to reduce condenser backpressure. At high ambient temperatures, part of the turbine exhaust vapor is absorbed into a circulating mixed stream in an absorber in series with the main condenser. This steam is pumped up to a higher pressure and heated to strip the excess vapor, which is recondensed using an additional air-cooled condenser. The operating conditions are chosen to reconstitute this condensate back to the same concentration as drawn from the original system. We analyzed two power plants of nominal 1-megawatt capacity. The design resource temperatures were 250 F and 300 F. Ambient temperature was allowed to rise from a design value of 50 F to 100 F. The analyses indicate that using an absorption heat pump is feasible. For the 300 F resource, an increased brine flow of 30% resulted in a net power increase of 21%. For the 250 F resource, the increase was smaller. However, these results are highly plant- and equipment-specific because evaluations must be carried out at off-design conditions for the condenser. Such studies should be carried out for specific power plants that suffer most from increased ambient temperatures.

Bharathan, D.; Nix, G.

2001-08-06

6

MSME Innovation Performance: erformance: erformance: erformance: erformance: The Role of Absorptive Capacity The Role of Absorptive Capacity The Role of Absorptive Capacity The Role of Absorptive Capacity The Role of Absorptive Capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual framework is proposed in this article showing how the social capital of a community shapes the innovation performance of micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) through the exercise of absorptive capacity as the mediating phenomenon between the two. Its significance stems from the unprecedented effort of explaining how community social capital matters in the innovation performance of MSMEs,

Banjo Roxas

7

Street Storm Water Conveyance Capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The street hydraulic capacity to convey storm water is dictated by the street gutter geometry and hydraulic characteristics. With the consideration of traffic safety, the street hydraulic conveyance capacity is also subject to a reduction defined by the water velocity and flow depth in the street gutter. In this study, the street hydraulic equa- tion is re-arranged to demonstrate that

James C. Y. Guo

2000-01-01

8

Service absorptive capacity: Its evolution and implications for innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of absorptive capacity has been part of the strategy and innovation discourse for a few decades. As industry and business practices have evolved, so has the understanding of the mechanisms responsible for developing and growing the absorptive capacity of contemporary organizations. In this paper, we trace the evolution of this concept and its operationalization and measurement. We particularly

Bertha Jimenez; Bojan Angelov; Bharat Rao

2010-01-01

9

The Zone of Inertia: Absorptive Capacity and Organizational Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe how interruptions in organizational learning effect institutional absorptive capacity and contribute to organizational inertia. Design/methodology/approach: An exploratory model is presented as a heuristic to describe how interruptions in organizational learning affect absorptive capacity

Godkin, Lynn

2010-01-01

10

Development of a New Free Radical Absorption Capacity Assay Method for Antioxidants: Aroxyl Radical Absorption Capacity (ARAC).  

PubMed

A new free radical absorption capacity assay method is proposed with use of an aroxyl radical (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(4'-methoxyphenyl)phenoxyl radical) and stopped-flow spectroscopy and is named the aroxyl radical absorption capacity (ARAC) assay method. The free radical absorption capacity (ARAC value) of each tocopherol was determined through measurement of the radical-scavenging rate constant in ethanol. The ARAC value could also be evaluated through measurement of the half-life of the aroxyl radical during the scavenging reaction. For the estimation of the free radical absorption capacity, the aroxyl radical was more suitable than the DPPH radical, galvinoxyl, and p-nitrophenyl nitronyl nitroxide. The ARAC value in tocopherols showed the same tendency as the free radical absorption capacities reported previously, and the tendency was independent of an oxygen radical participating in the scavenging reaction and of a medium surrounding the tocopherol and oxygen radical. The ARAC value can be directly connected to the free radical-scavenging rate constant, and the ARAC method has the advantage of treating a stable and isolable radical (aroxyl radical) in a user-friendly organic solvent (ethanol). The ARAC method was also successfully applied to a palm oil extract. Accordingly, the ARAC method would be useful in free radical absorption capacity assay of antioxidative reagents and foods. PMID:24063575

Nagaoka, Shin-Ichi; Nagai, Kanae; Fujii, Yuko; Ouchi, Aya; Mukai, Kazuo

2013-10-10

11

Evaluation of an Absorption Heat Pump to Mitigate Plant Capacity Reduction Due to Ambient Temperature Rise for an Air-Cooled Ammonia and Water Cycle: Preprint.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Air-cooled geothermal plants suffer substantial decreases in generating capacity at increased ambient temperatures. As the ambient temperature rises by 50 F above a design value of 50 F, at low brine-resource temperatures, the decrease in generating capac...

D. Bharathan G. Nix

2001-01-01

12

Innovation and regional absorptive capacity: the labour market dimension  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2003, Eurostat published an ‘experimental’ dataset on regional innovation levels derived from the Second Community Innovation Survey. This dataset, part of the European Innovation Scoreboard, also contains a range of regional labour market indicators. In this paper, we report an exploratory analysis of this data, focussing on how the labour market characteristics of regions shape regions’ absorptive capacity (RACAP)

Stephen Roper; James H. Love

2006-01-01

13

Just what is this 'absorption capacity' of the European Union?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a tendency in some political discourse now to say that, because the Constitution that was meant to prepare for enlargement failed to be ratified, the enlargement process has now hit a roadblock called 'absorption capacity'. An alternative narrative is that the Constitution proposed some useful but marginal systemic changes, but its ratification was badly mismanaged by some political

Michael Emerson; Senem Aydin; Julia De Clerck-Sachsse; Gergana Noutcheva

2006-01-01

14

Evaluation of an Absorption Heat Pump to Mitigate Plant Capacity Reduction Due to Ambient Temperature Rise for an Air-Cooled Ammonia and Water Cycle: Preprint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air-cooled geothermal plants suffer substantial decreases in generating capacity at increased ambient temperatures. As the ambient temperature rises by 50 F above a design value of 50 F, at low brine-resource temperatures, the decrease in generating capacity can be more than 50%. This decrease is caused primarily by increased condenser pressure. Using mixed-working fluids has recently drawn considerable attention for

D. Bharathan; G. Nix

2001-01-01

15

Meet me halfway: research joint ventures and absorptive capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a representation of a firm’s ‘effective’ R&D effort level that reflects how both its R&D approach and R&D budget influences its ability to realize spillovers from other firms’ R&D activity, i.e. its ‘absorptive capacity’, and generalizes the commonly employed representation. The ability to choose an R&D approach is accommodated by positing a three-stage game in which the choice

Morton I. Kamien; Israel Zang

2000-01-01

16

Water absorption of expanded polystyrene boards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water absorption of expanded polystyrene boards was studied with the aim of developing a procedure for prediction of long-term absorption on the basis of short-term absorption data.The specifications of EN 12087 on test methods for determining long-term water absorption of expanded polystyrene by total immersion over a period of 28 days have been discussed and some disagreement between the

I. Y. Gnip; V. Kersulis; S. Vejelis; S. Vaitkus

2006-01-01

17

Assessing Water System Managerial Capacity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In September 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hosted the National Capacity Development/Operator Certification Workshop in Dallas, Texas, with 150 participants representing EPA Headquarters and Regions, states, third-party technical ass...

2012-01-01

18

Absorption Capacities and Limits of Stability for Hybrid CES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Naturally developed in the process of evolution mechanisms for biomass degradation are too slow for application inside intensive Closed Eco-Systems CES for Life Support in space So it is suggested different methods of catalytic degradation for plant biomass to accelerate CES material turnover The work is an attempt to analyze the process of inedible plant biomass catalytic incineration as a source of CO 2 for new plant generation photosynthesis and growth It is a common knowledge now that incineration of phyto-mass supplies into the atmosphere of CES not only CO 2 but also gaseous toxic agents such as SO 2 NO x etc inhibiting photosynthetic processes Mathematical modeling has demonstrated that when the limit value of intensity of production processes and matter turnover specific for every closed system is exceeded the gaseous toxic agents destroy the system This value is directly proportional to system specific material turnover rate CES buffer absorption capacity and non-linearly dependant on the tolerance of the plant component to the impact of flue gases Ratios have been derived by assigned intensity of matter turnover to evaluate buffer absorption capacities required for designing stable CES functioning

Rygalov, V.; Carras, G.

19

Protective Capacity and Absorptive Capacity: Managing the Balance between Retention and Creation of Knowledge-Based Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: In order to understand the pros and cons of an open organization regarding the flow of knowledge between firms, this paper introduces the concept of "protective capacity". The purpose of the paper is to elaborate the concept of "protective capacity" especially in relation to absorptive capacity, by presenting a number of propositions.…

Andersen, Jim

2012-01-01

20

Water dimer absorption of visible light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory measurements of water vapor absorption using cavity ring-down spectroscopy revealed a broad absorption at 405 nm with a quadratic dependence on water monomer concentration, a similar absorption with a linear component at 532 nm, and only linear absorption at 570 nm in the vicinity of water monomer peaks. D2O absorption is weaker and linear at 405 nm. Van't Hoff plots constructed at 405.26 nm suggest that for dimerization, Keq=0.056±0.02 atm-1, ?H°301 K=-16.6±2 kJ mol-1 and ?S°301 K=-80±10 J mol-1 K-1. This transition peaks at 409.5 nm, could be attributed to the 8th overtone of water dimer and the 532 nm absorption to the 6th overtone. It is possible that some lower overtones previously searched for are less enhanced. These absorptions could increase water vapor feed back calculations leading to higher global temperature projections with currently projected greenhouse gas levels or greater cooling from greenhouse gas reductions.

Hargrove, J.

2007-07-01

21

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF WATER ABSORPTION IN SOFTWOOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas water can frequently come in contact with wood-based building envelope components, little work has tried to measure and model moisture uptake in orthotropic wood. This paper presents experimental results and numerical simulations of water uptake in softwood. Water absorption coefficients were measured and shown to vary according to the orientation of the fiber grain. Helium pycnometry was employed to

Luis Candanedo; Dominique Derome

2005-01-01

22

Measuring Water Vapor with Differential Absorption Lidar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the need for global measurements of water vapor profiles with low bias and high vertical resolution there is currently no operational remote sensing system that would deliver such data. A possible solution to this problem is offered by the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) approach. The basic principle of operation will be described and some background on atmospheric light absorption by water vapor will be given. DLR's airborne water vapor DIAL system WALES represents the currently most advanced system worldwide using a multiwavelength technique to cover the troposphere and lower stratosphere simultaneously. A few examples of measurements made with this system will illustrate the power of this active remote sensing method.

Wirth, Martin

23

Paracellular absorption in laboratory mice: Molecule size-dependent but low capacity.  

PubMed

Water-soluble nutrients are absorbed by the small intestine via transcellular and paracellular processes. The capacity for paracellular absorption seems lower in nonfliers than in fliers, although that conclusion rests largely on a comparison of relatively larger nonflying mammals (>155g) and relatively smaller flying birds (<155g). We report on paracellular absorption in laboratory mice, the smallest nonflying mammal species studied to date. Using a standard pharmacokinetic technique, we measured the extent of absorption (fractional absorption=f) of inert carbohydrate probes: L-arabinose (M(r)=150.13Da) and cellobiose (342.3) that are absorbed exclusively by the paracellular route, and 3-O-methyl D-glucose (3OMD-glucose) (M(r)=194) absorbed both paracellularly and transcellularly. f was measured accurately in urine collection trials of 5-10h duration. Absorption of 3OMD-glucose by mice was essentially complete (f=0.95±0.07) and much higher than that for L-arabinose (f=0.21±0.02), indicating that in mice, like other nonflying mammals, >80% of glucose is absorbed by mediated process(es) rather than the passive, paracellular route. As in all other vertebrates, absorption of cellobiose (f=0.13±0.02) was even lower than that for L-arabinose, suggesting an equivalent molecular size cut-off for flying and nonflying animals and thus a comparable effective TJ aperture. An important ecological implication is that smaller water-soluble plant secondary metabolites that have been shown to be absorbed by the paracellular path in cell culture, such as phenolics and alkaloids, might be absorbed in substantial amounts by bats and small birds relative to nonflying mammals such as mice. PMID:23000883

Fasulo, Verónica; Zhang, ZhiQiang; Price, Edwin R; Chediack, Juan G; Karasov, William H; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique

2012-09-19

24

ABSORPTIVE CAPACITY AND KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER PROPENSITY : TOWARDS THE OBTAINING OF A COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absorptive capacity and knowledge transfer were used by many different authors to explain organizational events. Firms are increasingly relying on knowledge acquired from other firms to facilitate the development of their own capabilities. The importance of absorptive capacity keeps on growing since the first paper of Cohen and Levinthal (1990). Moreover knowledge transfer meets the same development accompanied by the

Vincent CHAUVET

25

Absorptive Capacity at the Individual Level: Linking Creativity to Innovation in Academia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The absorptive capacity construct has been examined across various country, interorganization, and organizational level phenomena. This paper presents a framework that adopts the absorptive capacity framework to explain the relationship between creative and innovative performance at the individual level. The framework is illustrated by predicting…

Da Silva, Nancy; Davis, Ashley R.

2011-01-01

26

Vitamin B12 absorption capacity in healthy children  

SciTech Connect

B12 absorption was investigated in 47 healthy children aged 7 months to 15.8 years (median 4.9 years). The patients had either recovered from giardiasis, the post-gastroenteritis syndrome, or had celiac disease in remission (treated with a gluten-free diet). The B12 absorption was measured by a double-isotope technique using /sup 57/CoB12 and /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/, the latter being the inabsorbable marker. The radiation dose was minimal. The results were presented as fractional absorption of B12 (FAB12). Within the different age groups, the absorption test was performed by means of the following oral amounts of B12: 0- less than 1 year, 0.5 microgram; 1-3 years: 1.7 micrograms, 4-6 years, 2.5 micrograms; 7-10 years; 3.3 micrograms; and 11-15 years, 4.5 micrograms. When using these oral amounts of B12, the medians (and ranges) of FAB12 were found to be: 1-3 years (n = 18), 37% (16-80%); 4-6 years (n = 10), 27% (19-40%); 7-10 years (n = 9), 32% (21-44%); and 11-15 years (n = 8), 27% (19-59%). The FAB12 in two children aged 7 and 11 months was 31% and 32%, respectively. These results may be interpretated as reference values for B12 absorption in children. Further absorption tests were performed in seven children representing the four age groups from 1 to 15 years. When a high oral amount of B12 was given (i.e., three times the saturation dose), the FAB12 ranged from 0 to 20% (median 9%), whereas a low amount (i.e., one-ninth of the saturation dose) produced fractional absorptions from 65 to 82% (median 74%).

Hjelt, K.; Krasilnikoff, P.A.

1986-03-01

27

Direct absorption spectroscopy of water clusters  

SciTech Connect

Water plays a major role in solar absorption in the atmosphere in the mid- and near-infrared, particularly at altitudes of less than 15 km. The earth's atmosphere also acts as an insulator by trapping up-welling radiation. This phenomenon is known as the greenhouse effect, and water vapor is a major contributor through its mid- and far-infrared absorption. Fourier Transform infrared spectrometry has been used to study the vibrational spectroscopy of water clusters prepared in a supersonic expansion. The clusters are assigned as being composed of 10--100 waters based on consideration of the free OH and bound OH vibrations and the experimental conditions used. Four vibrational features were observed simultaneously including the bend, free OH stretch, bound OH stretch, and an unresolved group of intermolecular vibrations. No absorption features were observed between 4,000 and 8,000 cm{sup {minus}1}. This is the first observation of the bending vibration for any size gas-phase water cluster.

Goss, L.M.; Sharpe, S.W.; Blake, T.A.; Vaida, V.; Brault, J.W.

1999-10-28

28

Water absorption of methacrylate soft lining materials.  

PubMed

The water absorption of soft methacrylate prosthetic materials is very high compared with rigid methacrylates and is not at an equilibrium value even after 6 yr. This very high and prolonged uptake can be explained qualitatively in terms of the presence of water soluble impurities which form sites for the formation of water droplets. These droplets grow until the osmotic and elastic forces balance; this mechanism can be accompanied by creep or even rupture under the osmotic pressure. Desorption on the other hand, is rapid and obeys diffusion laws, giving diffusion coefficients of 5-7 X 10(-8) cm2 s-1. PMID:2706307

Parker, S; Braden, M

1989-03-01

29

Why Absorptive Capacity is More Essential in Some Situations? The Contingency View of Supply Chain Knowledge Sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to recognize the underlying logic of why organizations with higher absorptive capacity can leverage supply chain knowledge more efficiently in particular circumstances, this paper examined the relationship among supply chain knowledge accessibility, absorptive capacity, performance, and three environmental contingencies. We find that absorptive capacity is an important internal capability which can be differentiated among firms and a key

Heng Liu; Xiyao Li; Chenlu Zhang

2009-01-01

30

Water absorption in horizontal corrugated boards under water sprays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were performed to determine the water absorption propensity of four different corrugated boards oriented horizontally and exposed to vertical water sprays from above. The corrugated samples used in the experiments were taken from cartons and partition boards from the FM Global Standard Plastic Commodity and from the inner and outer cartons of the FM Global Class II Commodity. These

T. M. Jayaweera; H.-Z. Yu

2006-01-01

31

Technology Transfer from Acquisition FDI and the Absorptive Capacity of Domestic Firms: An Empirical Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to establish the role of absorptive capacity in technology transfer from acquisition FDI in U.K. manufacturing. It finds that the rate of productivity change following a foreign take-over is higher the higher the pre-acquisition productivity level of the acquired firm, indicating the importance of absorptive capacity. However, beyond some critical level of initial productivity, the rate of

Sourafel Girma

2005-01-01

32

Oil revenues and accelerated growth: absorptive capacity in Iraq  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the Iraqi economy's capacity to absorb revenues from increasing oil prices are linked to the maximum level of investment in the period preceding the 1974 price increase on the premise that domestic savings were consistently exceeding domestic investments and the further premise that technological progress is the result of investment. An effort to expand public investment beyond actual

Al-Eyd

1979-01-01

33

49 CFR 179.201-10 - Water capacity marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Water capacity marking. 179.201-10 Section 179...Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.201-10 Water capacity marking. (a) Water capacity of the tank in pounds stamped...

2011-10-01

34

Absorption  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The process of absorption is a cellular process (microscopic). Absorption cells line the stomach and intestine walls and allow small nutrients (broken down from the food we eat) to pass through and into our blood. The process of absorption is much like a leaking balloon filled with water. The balloon is the stomach or intestine, the tiny holes are the absorption cells, and the water is nutrients leaving.

Katie Hale (CSUF;)

2002-09-26

35

Absorption of Solar Radiation by Water Vapor in the Atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absorption of solar radiation by water vapor in the atmosphere has been studied, with use of Fowle's observed results and application of Elsasser's transmission function. The results are compared with those of other workers. Mügge-Möller's absorption curve and Karandikar's are discussed. As a result of calculations, an absorption chart is obtained from which both the absorption of solar radiation by

Giichi Yamamoto; Gaishi Onishi

1952-01-01

36

A Functional Perspective on Learning and Innovation: Investigating the Organization of Absorptive Capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the intra-organizational antecedents of firm-level absorptive capacity (AC). Specifically, we examine how the functional areas of R&D, manufacturing and marketing contribute to the absorption of knowledge coming from different external knowledge sources. The econometric results on a representative sample of Swiss firms show that non-R&D-based AC plays a significantly different role compared to the standard R&D-based one that

Marcel Bogers; Stephane Lhuillery

2011-01-01

37

Early prediction of water-holding capacity in meat by multivariate vibrational spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study had the dual purpose of (a) investigating the feasibility of measuring fundamental vibrational information in fresh porcine meat using infrared (IR) absorption and Raman scattering, and (b) investigating if the vibrational spectra obtained within 1 h after slaughter contained information about the water-holding capacity (WHC) of the meat. Preliminary studies performed at a research slaughterhouse revealed a high

Dorthe Kjær Pedersen; Sophie Morel; Henrik Jørgen Andersen; Søren Balling Engelsen

2003-01-01

38

Effect of antioxidant oxidation potential in the oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “oxygen radical absorption capacity” (ORAC) assay (Ou, B., Hampsch-Woodill, M., Prior, R.L. (2001). Development and validation of an improved oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay using fluorescein as the fluorescent probe. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49, 4619–4626) is widely employed to determine antioxidant content of foods and uses fluorescein as a probe for oxidation by peroxyl radicals. Kinetic

Roger H. Bisby; Rachel Brooke; Suppiah Navaratnam

2008-01-01

39

Absorption of water by thin, ionic films of gelatin.  

PubMed

This paper discusses absorption of water by thin, dry films of gelatin. Experiments using a wet-stamping technique were performed to characterize water uptake in terms of (i) equilibrium profiles of the water density inside the gel and (ii) the kinetics of water absorption. It was found that, in contrast to pure gelatin films, which absorb water approximately uniformly, films of gelatin doped with ionic additives have exponentially decaying equilibrium water profiles. The process of water absorption by both doped and undoped gels was described by a theoretical model based on the minimization of grand potential functional. The results of this model are in agreement with the experiment. PMID:15875375

Fialkowski, M; Campbell, C J; Bensemann, I T; Grzybowski, B A

2004-04-27

40

Measurement of krypton-85 in water by absorption in polycarbonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a method for quantitative measurements of Kr85 in water by absorption in polycarbonates. The method is based on exposure of polycarbonate samples in water and uses the high absorption ability to noble gases of some polycarbonates like Makrofol® and Makrolon® for sampling Kr85 from the water. After the exposure, the radiation emitted from the samples is measured

K. Mitev; D. Pressyanov; I. Dimitrova; S. Georgiev; T. Boshkova; V. Zhivkova

2009-01-01

41

An empirical study of the relationship between absorptive capacity and technology transfer effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the relationship of Absorptive Capacity (AC) and its elements to Technology Transfer Effectiveness (TTE) in the flexible packaging industry in Thailand. The relationship of each AC element to each dimension of TTE is assessed. Findings are that TTE is related to all AC elements, but not all to the same degree. While all AC elements were found

Naruemon Whangthomkum; Barbara Igel; Mark Speece

2006-01-01

42

Technology management capability and new product development performance: The mediating role of absorptive capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

New product development and technology management are both of significance in obtaining firms' competitive advantage. By proposing a conceptual outline for a general model that explains the relationship between technology management capability and new product development performance, we examine the impact of technology management capability on new product development performance, as well as the moderating effects of absorptive capacity on

Weiwei Wu; Ying Yang; Qiang Deng; Bo Yu

2010-01-01

43

THE REIFICATION OF ABSORPTIVE CAPACITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW AND REJUVENATION OF THE CONSTRUCT  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conduct a detailed analysis of 289 absorptive capacity papers from 14 journals to assess how the construct has been utilized, examine the key papers in the field, and identify the substantive contributions to the broader literature using a thematic analysis. We argue that research in this area is fundamentally driven by five critical assumptions that we conclude have led

BALAJI R. KOKA; SEEMANTINI PATHAK

2006-01-01

44

Developing and Validating Field Measurement Scales for Absorptive Capacity and Experienced Community of Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on knowledge transfer in organizations has been hampered by the lack of tools yielding valid scores for studying critical constructs in concert. The authors developed survey measures of absorptive capacity (the ability to transform new knowledge into usable knowledge) and experienced community of practice (the extent to which a person is…

Cadiz, David; Sawyer, John E.; Griffith, Terri L.

2009-01-01

45

Patient Safety, Knowledge Creation and the Absorptive Capacity of Rural Hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patient safety is a priority issue in health care and rural hospitals face unique circumstances in this arena. This article applies the concepts of organisational learning in general and absorptive capacity in particular to the efforts by rural hospitals to continuously improve patient safety performance. Strategies are discussed through which rural hospitals might better identify patient safety related information, techniques

Lynn Godkin; Madeline Adcock; Tara Duva; Debbie Verrett; Jennie Godkin

2008-01-01

46

ABSORPTIVE CAPACITY AND INNOVATION IN THE KNOWLEDGE INTENSIVE BUSINESS SERVICE SECTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innovative activity is performed to a considerable extent in the service sector, namely within the so-called knowledge intensive business services (KIBS). Particularly emphasizing the role of absorptive capacity, we analyze possible determinants of incremental and radical firm innovation using firm micro data from the KIBS Foundation Survey. The results show that access to knowledge through networking and cooperation is of

Andreas Koch; Harald Strotmann

2008-01-01

47

Absorptive capacity for radical innovation: A case study in the semiconductor industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absorptive capacity is one of the most important constructs to emerge in organizational research in recent decades for gaining insight into the link between knowledge and innovation. In 1989, Cohen and Levinthal analyzed the role of R&D in this context and distinguished “information generation” and the “ability to assimilate and exploit existing information” for innovation purposes [5]. They proposed a

Pascal Le Masson; Patrick Cogez; Yacine Felk; Benoit Weil

2011-01-01

48

Knowledge sharing and innovation capability: Does absorptive capacity function as a mediator?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge is increasingly regarded as the critical resources of firms and has been advocated extensively in the management literature. Much recent attention has been focused on the importance of effective ldquoknowledge sharingrdquo and its relationship with firmspsila performance. A plethora of work has also found evidence to support the notion that absorptive capacity plays an important role in the firmpsilas

Song Zhi-hong; Fan Li-bo; Chen Shu

2008-01-01

49

Gatekeepers of Knowledge versus Platforms of Knowledge: From Potential to Realized Absorptive Capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lazaric N., Longhi C. and Thomas C. Gatekeepers of knowledge versus platforms of knowledge: from potential to realized absorptive capacity, Regional Studies. The development of clusters rests on geographical proximity, cognitive interactions as well as entrepreneurial initiatives. Sophia Antipolis, a multi-technology cluster in Valbonne, France, is a good illustration of the type of challenges local systems of innovation face in

Nathalie Lazaric; Christian Longhi; Catherine Thomas

2008-01-01

50

Assessing the capacity reliability of ageing water distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents two new efficient algorithms for estimating the capacity reliability of ageing water distribution systems recognising the uncertainties in nodal demands and the pipe capacity. Capacity reliability is defined as the probability that the nodal demand is met at or over the prescribed minimum pressure for a fixed network configuration. Uncertainties in the nodal demands and values of

Chengchao Xu; Ian Goulter; Kevin Tickle

2003-01-01

51

Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This investigation involved the development of a numerical model for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine, and the use of the model to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The sensitivity analysis was performed by selecting a nominal condition and determining performance sensitivity for each variable with others held constant. The variables considered in the study include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicated in particular that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy. The dynamic model should be valuable as a design tool for developing new absorption machines or modifying current machines to make them optimal based on current and future energy costs.

Vliet, G.C.; Lawson, M.B.; Lithgow, R.A.

1980-12-01

52

A simplified method for forest water storage capacity measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simplification of direct methods to measure canopy storage capacity is presented. It is based on measurement of water retained by vegetal entities (needles, stems and branches) and the up-scaling of these measurements using the determination of the surface of canopy elements from common vertical photographs taken from the ground. The specific water retention capacities of Pinus sylvestris pine needles

P. Llorens; F Gallart

2000-01-01

53

Handbook for Capacity Development: Developing Water System Capacity under the Safe Drinking Water Act as Amended in 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The SDWA 1996 Amendments require that States, in order to receive full funding from the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF), must develop 'capacity development' strategies. Under these plans, all new and existing community water systems must demon...

1999-01-01

54

Communicating explicit and tacit knowledge within and across organizational borders: Their impact on absorptive capacity and competitive advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on knowledge management and organizational learning, we address how tacitness and explicitness of the knowledge acquired from one's partner affect the way communication mechanisms help build the firm's absorptive capacity. We also examine the different roles the two absorptive capacity subsets play in the development of firms' competitive advantage when knowledge types vary. With a sample of 286 corporations

Chen Yin; Xu Er-ming

2010-01-01

55

The positive effects of relationship learning and absorptive capacity on innovation performance and competitive advantage in industrial markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study utilized structural equations modeling (SEM) to explore the positive effects of relationship learning and absorptive capacity on competitive advantages of companies through their innovation performances in Taiwanese manufacturing industry. The results of this study showed that relationship learning and absorptive capacity positively influence upon innovation performances of companies, and further have positive effects on competitive advantages of companies.

Yu-Shan Chen; Ming-Ji James Lin; Ching-Hsun Chang

2009-01-01

56

GASTROINTESTINAL ABSORPTION OF SOLUBLE URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The manuscript describes results of an experiment to determine the gastrointestinal absorption of uranium from drinking water in 12 health adults. Most of the uranium ingested was excreted in feces in the first 2 days following ingestion of the water. The absorption was the same ...

57

Absorption refrigeration: cooling with hot water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption cycle is a process by which refrigeration effect is produced through the use of two fluids and some quantity of heat input, rather than electrical input as in the more familiar vapor compression cycle. Both vapor compression and absorption refrigeration cycles accomplish the removal of heat through the evaporation of a refrigerant at a low pressure and the

Rafferty

1984-01-01

58

Absorptive capacity and a failed cross-border M&A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Chinese companies are increasingly using cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&A) to source knowledge or strategic assets. For many, global acquisitions have proven to be highly problematic and value-destroying. The purpose of this paper is to address this critical acquisition failure issue from an absorptive capacity perspective. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Guided by the framework that focuses on how acquiring a

Ping Deng

2010-01-01

59

Calculating the “economic absorptive capacity” of Palestine: A study of the political uses of scientific research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  From the Balfour Declaration to the establishment of Israel, there was a marked shift of Zionist attitudes towards the “economic\\u000a absorptive capacity” of Palestine. In the early years of the Mandate, many Zionists did not themselves adopt an unrestricted\\u000a definition of how many Jews could live in Palestine. On the contrary, confronted with an undeveloped and neglected country,\\u000a leaders like

Ilan Troen

1989-01-01

60

The Carbon Dioxide Absorption Capacity of Amsorb?? is Half That of Soda Lime  

Microsoft Academic Search

0.01) and S (503 6 89; P , 0.001). The CO2 absorption capacity (L\\/100 g absorbent) of A was 5.5 6 1.2, signif- icantly less than those of M (10.7 6 1.7) and S (12.1 6 1.8; P , 0.001). In the study with the Aestiva 3000 canister, the longevity of A was 218 6 61 min, significantly less than

Hideyuki Higuchi; Yushi Adachi; Shinya Arimura; Masuyuki Kanno; Tetsuo Satoh

2001-01-01

61

Absorptive Capacity as a Guiding Concept for Effective Public Sector Management and Conservation of Freshwater Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of an organisation to recognise the value of new external information, acquire it, assimilate it, transform, and\\u000a exploit it, namely its absorptive capacity (AC), has been much researched in the context of commercial organisations and even\\u000a applied to national innovation. This paper considers four key AC-related concepts and their relevance to public sector organisations\\u000a with mandates to manage

K. Murray; D. J. Roux; J. L. Nel; A. Driver; W. Freimund

2011-01-01

62

Predicting and mapping soil available water capacity in Korea  

PubMed Central

The knowledge on the spatial distribution of soil available water capacity at a regional or national extent is essential, as soil water capacity is a component of the water and energy balances in the terrestrial ecosystem. It controls the evapotranspiration rate, and has a major impact on climate. This paper demonstrates a protocol for mapping soil available water capacity in South Korea at a fine scale using data available from surveys. The procedures combined digital soil mapping technology with the available soil map of 1:25,000. We used the modal profile data from the Taxonomical Classification of Korean Soils. The data consist of profile description along with physical and chemical analysis for the modal profiles of the 380 soil series. However not all soil samples have measured bulk density and water content at ?10 and ?1500 kPa. Thus they need to be predicted using pedotransfer functions. Furthermore, water content at ?10 kPa was measured using ground samples. Thus a correction factor is derived to take into account the effect of bulk density. Results showed that Andisols has the highest mean water storage capacity, followed by Entisols and Inceptisols which have loamy texture. The lowest water retention is Entisols which are dominated by sandy materials. Profile available water capacity to a depth of 1 m was calculated and mapped for Korea. The western part of the country shows higher available water capacity than the eastern part which is mountainous and has shallower soils. The highest water storage capacity soils are the Ultisols and Alfisols (mean of 206 and 205 mm, respectively). Validation of the maps showed promising results. The map produced can be used as an indication of soil physical quality of Korean soils.

Hong, Suk Young; Han, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Yihyun; Lee, Kyungdo

2013-01-01

63

Predicting and mapping soil available water capacity in Korea.  

PubMed

The knowledge on the spatial distribution of soil available water capacity at a regional or national extent is essential, as soil water capacity is a component of the water and energy balances in the terrestrial ecosystem. It controls the evapotranspiration rate, and has a major impact on climate. This paper demonstrates a protocol for mapping soil available water capacity in South Korea at a fine scale using data available from surveys. The procedures combined digital soil mapping technology with the available soil map of 1:25,000. We used the modal profile data from the Taxonomical Classification of Korean Soils. The data consist of profile description along with physical and chemical analysis for the modal profiles of the 380 soil series. However not all soil samples have measured bulk density and water content at -10 and -1500 kPa. Thus they need to be predicted using pedotransfer functions. Furthermore, water content at -10 kPa was measured using ground samples. Thus a correction factor is derived to take into account the effect of bulk density. Results showed that Andisols has the highest mean water storage capacity, followed by Entisols and Inceptisols which have loamy texture. The lowest water retention is Entisols which are dominated by sandy materials. Profile available water capacity to a depth of 1 m was calculated and mapped for Korea. The western part of the country shows higher available water capacity than the eastern part which is mountainous and has shallower soils. The highest water storage capacity soils are the Ultisols and Alfisols (mean of 206 and 205 mm, respectively). Validation of the maps showed promising results. The map produced can be used as an indication of soil physical quality of Korean soils. PMID:23646290

Hong, Suk Young; Minasny, Budiman; Han, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Yihyun; Lee, Kyungdo

2013-04-23

64

Measurement of water absorption in human cornea with differential absorption optical coherence tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

OCT has emerged in recent years to a powerful technique to measure tissue properties. Recently, OCT has been enhanced by methods providing spectroscopic information. Since water is a major constituent of most tissues, the measurement of its concentration in tissue is important for tissue diagnostics. We present measurements of water absorption in human cornea in vitro with a differential absorption optical coherence tomography technique. This technique uses two OCT images recorded simultaneously with two different light sources, one centered within (1488nm) and one centered outside (1312nm) of a water absorption band. To study influences of scattering on the absorption images and on the calculated differential absorption coefficient, the cornea was measured and imaged under three different conditions: At first, the cornea was imaged in a hydrated condition, immediately after removal from the aqueous nutrient solution. Then it was dehydrated and imaged a second time, finally it was rehydrated, however, the water was replaced by Deuterium oxide, which shows negligible absorption in the used wavelength region, but otherwise has similar optical properties as water. The cornea containing H2O is well distinguishable from the cornea containing D2O with our method. For quantitative determination of absorption, we performed a linear regression analysis of logarithmic backscattered intensity versus imaging depth in the cornea for each wavelength. The difference of the slopes corresponds to the difference in the absorption coefficient. If the difference in the water absorption cross section is known, the water concentration in tissue can be calculated. The results are in good agreement with those expected theoretically.

Pircher, Michael; Götzinger, Erich; Leitgeb, Rainer; Fercher, Adolf F.; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.

2003-07-01

65

Preliminary Listing of Municipal Water Supply Capacities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication is a current listing of available data on water supply facilities of all U.S. communities with a serviced population of over 2,000. The tables presented are essentially a first-cut consolidation of available facility data. The data are pre...

1976-01-01

66

Investigations of the 1 KHz Sound Absorption in Sea Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using a combination of sound absorption data from a large spherical resonator and relaxation frequency data from the temperature jump technique, it has been demonstrated that there is an increased sound absorption in sea water below approximately 1 kHz. T...

V. P. Simmons

1983-01-01

67

Heat capacity of water: A signature of nuclear quantum effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this note we present results for the heat capacity at constant pressure for the TIP4PQ/2005 model, as obtained from path-integral simulations. The model does a rather good job of describing both the heat capacity of ice Ih and of liquid water. Classical simulations using the TIP4P/2005, TIP3P, TIP4P, TIP4P-Ew, simple point charge/extended, and TIP5P models are unable to reproduce the heat capacity of water. Given that classical simulations do not satisfy the third law of thermodynamics, one would expect such a failure at low temperatures. However, it seems that for water, nuclear quantum effects influence the heat capacities all the way up to room temperature. The failure of classical simulations to reproduce Cp points to the necessity of incorporating nuclear quantum effects to describe this property accurately.

Vega, C.; Conde, M. M.; McBride, C.; Abascal, J. L. F.; Noya, E. G.; Ramirez, R.; Sesé, L. M.

2010-01-01

68

Water Vapor Differential Absorption LIDAR Design for Unpiloted Aerial Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This system study proposes the deployment of a water vapor Differential Absorption LIDAR (DIAL) system on an Altair unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platform. The Altair offers improved payload weight and volume performance, and longer total flight time as c...

P. F. Mead R. J. DeYoung

2005-01-01

69

Cycle Simulation of HotWater Fired Absorption Chiller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design limits were examined to determine the lowest temperature for hot water that can be used as a heat source to drive a hot water fired absorption chiller. Advantage was taken of the fact that the cycle calculation method using the minimum temperature difference is quite effective. This minimum temperature difference was the lower of the two temperature differences used to get the logarithmic mean temperature difference that need to design the evaporator, absorber, condenser and generator in an absorption refrigerator. This report proposes a new solution algorithm employing this minimum temperature difference to make a cycle simulation of the hot water fired absorption chiller. It shows the lowest usable temperature for hot water and makes clear the chilled water and cooling water temperature conditions that can provide the lowest temperature.

Esaki, Shuji; Iramina, Kazuyasu; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Ohnou, Masayuki; Kaneko, Toshiyuki; Soga, Takashi

70

Cooling capacity of molten salts and alkalis containing water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of cooling molten salts and alkalis in austempering and martempering by adding water to the bath at any temperature, which was developed and put into operation at the Gor'kovskii Metallurgical Plant, guarantees: 1) a constant temperature of the bath within limits of ±5°C; 2) constant amount of water in the bath, which increases the cooling capacity four to

V. N. Biryukova

1967-01-01

71

The nature of the minimal water retentive capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A soil uniform in texture is able to retain some water in equilibrium against gravity, providing that neither temperature nor tension gradients are effective. Such soil water is referred to as suspended moisture. The intrinsic minimal retentive capacity corresponds to maximal content of suspended moisture. The tension gradient does not operate after the solum has wetted through, and all gravitational

A. A. Rode

72

21 CFR 130.12 - General methods for water capacity and fill of containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false General methods for water capacity and fill of containers...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD STANDARDS: GENERAL...12 General methods for water capacity and fill of containers...The term general method for water capacity of containers...

2013-04-01

73

Absorption  

PubMed Central

Given that mind–body interventions constitute a major portion of complementary and alternative medicine used by the public, it seems important to explore those human characteristics that may contribute to the efficacy of mind–body interventions in those who are most likely to benefit. One such characteristic, absorption, reflects an individual’s cognitive capacity for involvement in sensory and imaginative experiences in ways that alter an individual’s perception, memory, and mood with behavioral and biological consequences. Thus, one’s level of absorption may potentially create differential treatment effects in mind–body intervention outcomes. Conducting practical clinical trials helps address the challenge of determining whether a specific mind–body modality intervention may be effective. Such trials may be strengthened by including measures of personality dimensions such as absorption.

Menzies, Victoria; Taylor, Ann Gill; Bourguignon, Cheryl

2009-01-01

74

Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation for Carrying Capacity of Regional Water Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of regional water resources capacity provides a scientific basis for further water resources utilization and social\\u000a economic sustainable development. This paper mainly studied on the case of Lanzhou City located in the western China. By using\\u000a the method of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation and basing on the historical datum of 40 years, this paper evaluated the current\\u000a situation of water resource

Li Gong; Chunling Jin

2009-01-01

75

Absorptive removal of biomass tar using water and oily materials.  

PubMed

Water is the most common choice of absorption medium selected in many gasification systems. Because of poor solubility of tar in water, hydrophobic absorbents (diesel fuel, biodiesel fuel, vegetable oil, and engine oil) were studied on their absorption efficiency of biomass tar and compared with water. The results showed that only 31.8% of gravimetric tar was removed by the water scrubber, whereas the highest removal of gravimetric tar was obtained by a vegetable oil scrubber with a removal efficiency of 60.4%. When focusing on light PAH tar removal, the absorption efficiency can be ranked in the following order; diesel fuel>vegetable oil>biodiesel fuel>engine oil>water. On the other hand, an increase in gravimetric tar was observed for diesel fuel and biodiesel fuel scrubbers because of their easy evaporation. Therefore, the vegetable oil is recommended as the best absorbent to be used in gasification systems. PMID:20801021

Phuphuakrat, Thana; Namioka, Tomoaki; Yoshikawa, Kunio

2010-07-22

76

Heat capacity of water: A signature of nuclear quantum effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this note we present results for the heat capacity at constant pressure for the TIP4PQ\\/2005 model, as obtained from path-integral simulations. The model does a rather good job of describing both the heat capacity of ice Ih and of liquid water. Classical simulations using the TIP4P\\/2005, TIP3P, TIP4P, TIP4P-Ew, simple point charge\\/extended, and TIP5P models are unable to reproduce

C. Vega; M. M. Conde; C. McBride; J. L. F. Abascal; E. G. Noya; R. Ramirez; L. M. Sesé

2010-01-01

77

Statistical characterization and capacity of shallow water acoustic channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on statistical characterization and capacity evaluation of shallow water acoustic communications channels. Wideband single-carrier and multi-carrier probe signals are employed to measure the time-varying channel response, and to estimate its statistical properties that play an important role in the design of bandwidth-efficient and power-efficient communication systems. To assess the capacity of an underwater acoustic channel, we first

Andreja Radosevic; John G. Proakis; Milica Stojanovic

2009-01-01

78

Optical absorption of pure water in the blue and ultraviolet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The key feature of the Integrating Cavity Absorption Meter (ICAM) is that it produces an isotropic illumination of the liquid sample and thereby dramatically minimizes scattering effects. The ICAM can produce an effective optical path length up to several meters. As a consequence, it is capable of measuring absorption coefficients as low as 0.001 m-1. The early version of the ICAM was used previously to measure the absorption spectrum of pure water over the 380-700 nm range. To extend its range into the ultraviolet, several modifications have been completed. The preliminary tests showed that the modified ICAM was able to measure the absorption of pure water for the wavelength down to 300 nm. After extensive experimental investigation and analysis, we found that the absorption of SpectralonRTM (the highly diffusive and reflective material used to build the ICAM) has a higher impact on measurements of absorption in the UV range than we had expected. Observations of high values for pure water absorption in the UV, specifically between 300 and 360 nm, are a consequence of absorption by the Spectralon RTM. These results indicated that even more serious modifications were required (e.g. SpectralonRTM can not be used for a cavity in the UV). Consequently, we developed a new diffuse reflecting material and used fused silica powder (sub-micron level) sealed inside a quartz cell to replace the inner SpectralonRTM cavity of the ICAM. The new data is in excellent agreement with the Pope and Fry data (380-600 nm) and fills the gap between the 320 nm data of Quickenden and Irvin and 380 nm data of Pope and Fry. We present definitive results for the absorption spectrum of pure water between 300 and 600 nm.

Lu, Zheng

79

Physicochemical properties of macrogol ointment and emulsion ointment blend developed for regulation of water absorption.  

PubMed

Pressure ulcers can form with excess pressure and shearing stress on skin tissue. Because pressure ulcer is often accompanies by exudates, selection of appropriate topical emulsion ointment is difficult. Blended ointments consisting of emulsion base and water-soluble base are clinically used for adjustment of wound moist environment. Because regulating the amount of wound exudates can enhance treatment efficacy, two new blended ointments were developed. LY-SL blended ointment consisted of lysozyme hydrochloride water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion (LY-cream) and sulfadiazine macrogol (polyethylene glycol) ointment (SL-pasta). TR-SL blended ointment consisted of tretinoin tocoferil oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion (TR-cream) and SL-pasta (TR-SL). LY-SL and TR-SL were applied to Franz diffusion cell with cellulose membranes for the evaluation of water absorption characteristics at 32 °C. Water absorption rate constants (mg/cm(2)/min(0.5)) were 12.5, 16.3 and 34.6 for LY-cream, TR-cream and SL-pasta, respectively. Water absorption rate constants for LY-SL and TR-SL (SL-pasta 70%) exhibited intermediate values of 21.2 and 27.2, as compared to each ointment alone, respectively. Because amount of water absorbed was linearly related to square root of time, it was suggested that water-absorbable macrogol was surrounded by oily ingredients forming matrix structure. This diffusion-limited structure may regulate water absorption capacity. This is the first report of physicochemical properties of macrogol ointment and emulsion ointment blend developed for regulation of water absorption. The blended ointment can properly regulate amount of exudates in wounds and may be useful for treatment of pressure ulcers. PMID:21820500

Noda, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Kazuya; Sanagawa, Akimasa; Sobajima, Yu; Fujii, Satoshi

2011-07-27

80

Numerical simulation and performance assessment of a low capacity solar assisted absorption heat pump coupled with a sub-floor system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype low capacity (10kW) single stage Li–Br absorption heat pump (AHP), suitable for residential and small building applications has been developed as a collaborative result between various European research institutes and industries. The primary heat source for the AHP is supplied from flat plate solar collectors and the hot\\/chilled water from the unit is delivered to a floor heating\\/cooling

A. A. Argiriou; C. A. Balaras; S. Kontoyiannidis; E. Michel

2005-01-01

81

Oxygen absorption into moving water and tenside solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen absorption into water and waste water is an important process taking place with both natural and technical means, and a tool for a theoretical determination of the oxygen transfer coefficient, KL, is desirable.The objective of this investigation was to study the environment at and near the liquid side of a gas–liquid interface in order to present a model for

Tom Pedersen

2000-01-01

82

Sensitivity of the global water cycle to the water-holding capacity of land  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of the global water cycle to the water-holding capacity of the plant-root zone of continental soils is estimated by simulations using a mathematical model of the general circulation of the atmosphere, with prescribed ocean surface temperatures and prescribed cloud. With an increase of the globally constant storage capacity, evaporation from the continents rises and runoff falls, because a

P. C. D. Milly; K. A. Dunne

1994-01-01

83

Measurement of krypton-85 in water by absorption in polycarbonates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes a method for quantitative measurements of Kr85 in water by absorption in polycarbonates. The method is based on exposure of polycarbonate samples in water and uses the high absorption ability to noble gases of some polycarbonates like Makrofol and Makrolon for sampling Kr85 from the water. After the exposure, the radiation emitted from the samples is measured by gross beta counting or gamma spectrometry. The results from the conducted experiments demonstrate a very good linear correlation between the measured signal and the activity concentration of Kr85 in the water. A possible practical application of the method is to monitor Kr85 concentration in water in at-reactor pools and wet spent fuel storage facilities.

Mitev, K.; Pressyanov, D.; Dimitrova, I.; Georgiev, S.; Boshkova, T.; Zhivkova, V.

2009-05-01

84

Absorptive capacity as a guiding concept for effective public sector management and conservation of freshwater ecosystems.  

PubMed

The ability of an organisation to recognise the value of new external information, acquire it, assimilate it, transform, and exploit it, namely its absorptive capacity (AC), has been much researched in the context of commercial organisations and even applied to national innovation. This paper considers four key AC-related concepts and their relevance to public sector organisations with mandates to manage and conserve freshwater ecosystems for the common good. The concepts are the importance of in-house prior related knowledge, the importance of informal knowledge transfer, the need for motivation and intensity of effort, and the importance of gatekeepers. These concepts are used to synthesise guidance for a way forward in respect of such freshwater management and conservation, using the imminent release of a specific scientific conservation planning and management tool in South Africa as a case study. The tool comprises a comprehensive series of maps that depict national freshwater ecosystem priority areas for South Africa. Insights for implementing agencies relate to maintaining an internal science, rather than research capacity; making unpublished and especially tacit knowledge available through informal knowledge transfer; not underestimating the importance of intensity of effort required to create AC, driven by focussed motivation; and the potential use of a gatekeeper at national level (external to the implementing organisations), possibly playing a more general 'bridging' role, and multiple internal (organisational) gatekeepers playing the more limited role of 'knowledge translators'. The role of AC as a unifying framework is also proposed. PMID:21431779

Murray, K; Roux, D J; Nel, J L; Driver, A; Freimund, W

2011-03-24

85

Absorption coefficient of CDOM in Zhejiang coastal waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) exists in all natural waters. Researches on optical properties of CDOM play an important role in ocean color remote sensing retrieval. The optical properties of CDOM in Zhejiang coastal waters were investigated from August 18, 2009 to June 9, 2011 covering four seasons. Based on the measured data, the distribution of the absorption coefficient of CDOM was analyzed. The results showed that absorption coefficient at 440 nm (a(440)) decreased with the offshore direction, and the relatively high value of a(440) was observed generally in the coastal waters and low value in the adjacent waters. The distribution reflected the terrigenous origin characteristics of CDOM. The relationship between salinity and a(440) of the four seasons was discussed. The results demonstrated that a(440) had a significant negative linear relationship with the salinity. That is to say, CDOM took on the conservative behavior in the research region.

Fan, Guannan; Mao, Zhihua; Chen, Peng; Huang, Haiqing

2013-09-01

86

Water cooled absorption chillers for solar cooling applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A broad line of absorption chillers designed to operate with hot fluids at as low a temperature as practical while rejecting heat to a stream of water was developed. A packaging concept for solar application in which controls, pumps, valves and other system components could be factor assembled into a unitary solar module was investigated.

Biermann, W. J.; Reimann, R. C.

1982-03-01

87

Continuous solar air conditioning with ammonia\\/water absorption cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The considered cycle involves the replacement of the vapor compression function of a conventional compressor with a generator, absorber, and a circulation pump. The generator utilizes heat to produce a refrigerant vapor at high pressure. This vapor is condensed and expanded for cooling. The refrigerant combines subsequently with an absorbant and is returned to the generator. The ammonia\\/water absorption cycle

E. A. Farber; C. A. Morrison; H. A. Ingley; J. A. Clark

1976-01-01

88

Influence of microcracking on water absorption and sorptivity of ECC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the water absorption and sorptivity properties of mechanically loaded Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC). ECC is a newly developed high performance fiber rein- forced cementitious composite with substantial benefit in both high ductility and improved durability due to tight crack width. By employing microme- chanics-based material design, ductility in excess of

Mustafa Sahmaran; Æ Victor; C. Li

89

Water absorption and swelling of glass\\/epoxy syntactic foams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of experimental and theoretical investigation of glass\\/epoxy syntactic foams at a long-term (10 years) exposure in water are presented. Specimens for experimental investigation were made from EDT-10 epoxy filled with MSO-779 hollow glass spheres. Seven types of specimens with filler volume fraction varying from 0 to 0.6 were tested. The curves of long-term water absorption and swelling were

V. A. Kochetkov; R. D. Maksimov

1996-01-01

90

Heat capacities of mass selected deprotonated water clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat capacities of mass selected deprotonated water clusters (H2O)n-1OH- have been measured in the size range n = 48-118, as a function of temperature. We have found that they undergo a melting-like transition in the range 110-130 K. The transition temperature is size dependent with a strong correlation with the dissociation energy around the shell closure at n = 55.

Zamith, Sébastien; Labastie, Pierre; L'Hermite, Jean-Marc

2013-01-01

91

A comparison between ammonia-water and water-lithium bromide solutions in vapor absorption refrigeration systems  

SciTech Connect

A Vapor Absorption Refrigeration (VAR) System is similar to a Vapor Compression Refrigeration (VCR) System. In both systems the required refrigeration is provided by refrigerants vaporizing in the evaporator. However, in the VAR System, a physico-chemical process replaces the mechanical process of the VCR system and heat rather than a mechanical and electrical energy is used. The advantages of this system lie in the possibility of utilizing of waste energy from industrial plants as well as of using solar energy. The study included an investigation to analyze the Vapor Absorption Refrigeration systems using ammonia-water and water-lithium bromide solutions. A fundamental VAR system is described and the operating sequence is explained. Since the most common VAR systems use ammonia-water solution with ammonia as the refrigerant and water-lithium bromide solution with water as the refrigerant, the comparison of the two is presented in respect of the coefficient of performance (COP), the cooling capacity and the maximum and minimum system pressures. It is concluded that the VAR system using water-lithium bromide solution provided better performance than the system using ammonia-water solution. However, there are some points to be considered such as: the danger of crystallization and impossibility of operating in very low temperatures because of the use of water as the refrigerant.

Horuz, I. [Univ. of Uludag, Bursa (Turkey)

1998-07-01

92

Modeling sulfur dioxide absorption by fine water spray  

SciTech Connect

A novel theoretical model was developed to determine the removal efficiency of sulfur dioxide using fine water spray. The droplet pH, diameter, S(IV) concentration, sulfur dioxide concentration, and liquid-to-gas ratio are found to influence the absorption of sulfur dioxide by the fine water spray. The results demonstrate that the absorption of sulfur dioxide by the fine water spray increases as the droplet diameter falls. The concentration gradient between the interface of the gaseous and liquid phases causes the absorption of sulfur dioxide by the droplets to increase as the initial S(IV) concentration decreases or the sulfur dioxide concentration increases. The results indicate that the performance of the fine water spray in removing sulfur dioxide is generally improved by reducing the droplet diameter or the initial S(IV) concentration, or by increasing the sulfur dioxide concentration, the droplet pH or the liquid-to-gas ratio. The proposed model reveals the parameters that should be controlled in using a fine water spray device and a method for improving its performance in removing sulfur dioxide.

Cheng-Hsiung Huang [Yuanpei University of Science and Technology, Hsin Chu (Taiwan)

2005-07-01

93

Experimental study and parameterization of gas absorption by water drops  

SciTech Connect

Mass transfer between liquid drops and a continuous gas phase occurs in a large number of industrial processes and many engineering disciplines such as chemical and nuclear engineering, atmospheric sciences, environmental engineering, and so on. Liquid-phase mass-transfer coefficients are determined for the absorption of sulfur dioxide by water drops larger than 1.1 mm in dia. A local model based on the large eddy interfacial model proposed for Fortescue and Pearson (1967) is obtained by the characteristic interfacial scaling. In particular, the agitation process of the liquid phase in the interfacial region is characterized by the interfacial liquid friction velocity. Experiments of sulfur dioxide absorption and desorption from large individually free-falling water drops are also carried out in a 5-m rain shaft under various environmental conditions. These experimental results agree well with those from the local model characterizing the interfacial process in water drops greater than 1.1 mm in dia.

Amokrane, H.; Saboni, A.; Caussade, B. (CNRS, Toulouse (France). Inst. de Mecanique des Fluides)

1994-12-01

94

[Fog water absorption by the leaves of epiphytes and non - epiphytes in Xishuangbanna].  

PubMed

Xishuangbanna is located at the northern margin of tropics. Its climate is different from that of typical tropics, but the rainforest there is not very different from that of the typical tropics in Southeast Asia. The main problems in Xishuangbanna are seasonal drought and low temperature. Fog may contribute to the development of rainforest here, but related studies are few. This study is aimed to know whether the leaves of epiphytes and non - epiphytes in Xishuangbanna can directly absorb fog water and contribute to their water status recovery, and whether epiphytes are more competent than non - epiphytes in their leaf fog water absorption. The study was conducted in dry season, and four species of epiphytes and six species of non - epiphytes were investigated. The effect of fog was imitated by spraying leaves with distilled water. For epiphytes and non - epiphytes, their leaf water potential (phi), relative water content (RWC), and amount of absorbed water increased gradually with the time of spraying, but the phi of epiphytes increased more quickly than that of non - epiphytes. The leaves of epiphytes Bolbitis scandens and Rhaphidophora decursiva could absorb fog water more quickly, and increase their RWC more greatly than those of non - epiphytes, indicating that these epiphytes were more competent than non - epiphytes in their leaf fog water absorption. The fog water absorption capacity of the leaves in epiphytic orchid Coelogyne occultata and Staurochilus dawsonianus was lower than that in Amischotolype hispida and Mananthus patentflora, but higher than that in other four non - epiphytes. The phi of epiphytes at early evening when no fog was formed was significantly lower than that at early morning, suggesting that fog water was absorbed by epiphytes at night to improve their leaf water status. Non - epiphytes did not need to absorb fog water directly through leaves, and they could recover their leaf water status through absorbing soil water by root system. Epiphytes except C. occultata had a much more leaf biomass than non - epiphytes, which was also beneficial to their leaf fog water absorption. Because there was abundant fog in dry season in Xishuangbanna, the phi of test ten species was higher than -0.8 MPa, indicating that water stress was not serious in dry season. PMID:16964926

Zheng, Yulong; Feng, Yulong

2006-06-01

95

Water vapor absorption in the atmospheric window at 239 GHz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absolute absorption rates of pure water vapor and mixtures of water vapor and nitrogen have been measured in the atmospheric window at 239 GHz. The dependence on pressure as well as temperature has been obtained. The experimental data are compared with several theoretical or empirical models, and satisfactory agreement is obtained with the models involving a continuum; in the case of pure water vapor, the continuum contribution based upon recent theoretical developments gives good results. The temperature dependence is stronger than that proposed in a commonly used atmospheric transmission model.

Bauer, A.; Godon, M.; Carlier, J.; Ma, Q.

1995-04-01

96

Absorption of solar radiation by water vapor in clear and cloudy skies: Implications for anomalous absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present ground-based measurements of integrated atmospheric absorption obtained using a zenith-pointing spectrometer for the wavelength region 550-1000 nm. A nonlinear, least squares fitting routine is used to fit the structured and unstructured components of the spectra, including the water vapor bands at 720, 820, and 940 nm. The structured component is found to be well-accounted for by line-by-line calculations

Christian Hill; Roderick L. Jones

2000-01-01

97

A Data Analysis of the Index System of Assessment Water Environmental Carrying Capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a key problem of making the environment and economy sustainable development plan to analyze and appraise the state of water environmental carrying capacity objectively. This paper, based on the water environmental carrying capacity definition, from eco-efficiency angle of the water resource and environment, put forward the index system of assessing water environmental carrying capacity. In order to prove

Yu Zhuang; Meiru Ji; Lifang Wang

2008-01-01

98

An Exergy Analysis of LiBr-Water Absorption Refrigerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absorption refrigerators are very efficient as a heat recovery unit in a co-generation system.In order to design an absorption refrigerator for an arbitrary heat source properly, it is important to consider not only quantity but also quality of heat flow. The evaluation of exergy loss in each component is also effective for the improvement of system. This paper deals with the exergy analysis on a LiBr-water absorption refrigerator consisted of a single-and a double-effect cycle driven by the exhaust gas of the micro gas turbine with the output power of about 30 kW. Moreover, exergy loss in absorption process was eva1uated. As a result, it was shown that 80% of the exergy loss in an absorber was caused in absorption process, and the exergy loss decreased with decreasing the change in solution concentration in absorber. In these calculated results,the maximum cooling load of 77.8 kW was obtained from the exhaust gas with the temperature of 2900°C by utilizing both a single-and a double-effect cycles in combination. The energy and exergy efficiency of the system was 88.0% and 25.6%, respectively.

Asano, Hitoshi; Fujii, Terushige; Wang, Xiao; Origane, Takafumi; Katayama, Masatoshi; Inoue, Umeo

99

A water vapor monitor using differential infrared absorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A water vapor monitor was developed with adequate sensitivity and versatility for a variety of applications. Two applications are the continuous monitoring of water in ambient air and the measuring of the mass of water desorbed from aerosol filters. The sample gas may be held static, or flow continuously through the 56 cc sample cell, temperature controlled at 45 C. Infrared energy from a tungsten-iodide bulb passes through a rotating filter wheel and the sample cell to a PbS detector. The infrared beam passes through the sample gas twice to produce a total optical path of 40 cm. The infrared beam passes alternately through two semicircular narrow bandpass filters. Absorption by the water vapor in the sample produces a 30-Hz modulation of the detector signal that is proportional to the water concentration. The maximum concentration that can be measured accurately is approximately 5%.

Burch, D. E.; Goodsell, D. S.

1981-09-01

100

Bomb calorimetry, the gold standard for assessment of intestinal absorption capacity: normative values in healthy ambulant adults.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Intestinal absorption capacity is considered to be the best method for assessing overall digestive intestinal function. Earlier reference values for intestinal function in healthy Dutch adults were based on a study that was conducted in an inpatient metabolic unit setting in a relatively small series. The present study aimed to readdress and describe the intestinal absorption capacity of healthy adults, who were consuming their usual (Western European) food and beverage diet, in a standard ambulatory setting. METHODS: Twenty-three healthy subjects (aged 22-60 years) were included in the analyses. Nutritional intake (energy and macronutrients) was determined with a 4-day nutritional diary. Subsequently, mean faecal losses of energy (by bomb calorimetry), fat, protein and carbohydrate were determined following a 3-day faecal collection. Finally, intestinal absorption capacity was calculated from the differences between intake and losses. RESULTS: Mean (SD) daily faeces production was 141 (49) g (29% dry weight), containing 891 (276) kJ [10.7 (1.3) kJ g(-1) wet faeces; 22.6 (2.5) kJ g(-1) dry faeces], 5.2 (2.2) g fat, 10.0 (3.8) g protein and 29.7 (11.7) g carbohydrates. Mean (SD) intestinal absorption capacity of healthy subjects was 89.4% (3.8%) for energy, 92.5% (3.7%) for fat, 86.9% (6.4%) for protein and 87.3% (6.6%) for carbohydrates. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides normative values for both stool nutrient composition and intestinal energy and macronutrient absorption in healthy adults on a regular Dutch diet in an ambulatory setting. Intestinal energy absorption was found to be approximately 90%. PMID:23647171

Wierdsma, N J; Peters, J H C; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M A E; Mulder, C J J; Metgod, I; van Bodegraven, A A

2013-05-01

101

Compressional Viscosity and Sound Absorption in Water at Different Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperature dependence of the coefficient of absorption (2alphanu-2) of ultrasonic waves in water was measured from 0°C to 33°C. Values range from 137×10-17 at 0°C to 40×10-17 at 33°C. In particular at 4°C where the sound propagation is isothermal the value 101×10-17 is found, and is to be compared with a shear viscosity contribution of 30×10-17. Therefore the excess

Francis E. Fox; George D. Rock

1946-01-01

102

Physical and Water Absorption Characteristics of Some Improved Rice Varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical and water absorption characteristics of paddy and brown rice from some early maturing Oryza sativa varieties and newly developed interspecific (O. sativa × Oryza glaberrima) rice varieties were studied. The physical dimensions (length, breadth and width, length\\/width ratio, equivalent diameter),\\u000a grain surface area and volume, sphericity, 1,000-kernel weight, bulk and true densities as well as porosity were determined.

Taofik Akinyemi Shittu; M. B. Olaniyi; A. A. Oyekanmi; K. A. Okeleye

103

Influence of microcracking on water absorption and sorptivity of ECC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the water absorption and sorptivity properties of mechanically\\u000a loaded Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC). ECC is a newly developed high performance fiber reinforced cementitious composite\\u000a with substantial benefit in both high ductility and improved durability due to tight crack width. By employing micromechanics-based\\u000a material design, ductility in excess of 3% under

Mustafa ?ahmaran; Victor C. Li

2009-01-01

104

Analysis of microscopic pore structures of rocks before and after water absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrophilic characteristics of rocks are affected by their microscopic pore structures, which clearly change after water absorption. Water absorption tests and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) experiments on rock samples, located at a site in Tibet, China, were carried out. Changes of rock pore structures before and after water absorption were studied with the distribution of pore sizes and fractal characteristics

Li Dejian; Wang Guilian; Han Liqiang; Liu Peiyu; He Manchao; Yang Guoxing; Tai Qimin; Chen Cheng

2011-01-01

105

Absorption coefficients for water vapor at 193 nm from 300 to 1073 K  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the water absorption coefficient at 193 nm from 300 to 1073 K are reported. The measurements were made using broadband VUV radiation and a monochromator-based detection system. The water vapor was generated by a saturator and metered into a flowing, 99 cm absorption cell via a water vapor mass flow meter. The 193 nm absorption coefficient measurements are

W. J. Kessler; K. L. Carleton; W. J. Marinelli

1993-01-01

106

Transporters involved in glucose and water absorption in the Dysdercus peruvianus (Hemiptera: Pyrrhocoridae) anterior midgut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about insect intestinal sugar absorption, in spite of the recent findings, and even less has been published regarding water absorption. The aim of this study was to shed light on putative transporters of water and glucose in the insect midgut. Glucose and water absorptions by the anterior ventriculus of Dysdercus peruvianus midgut were determined by feeding the

Thaís D. Bifano; Thiago G. P. Alegria; Walter R. Terra

2010-01-01

107

Human skin binding and absorption of contaminants from ground and surface water during swimming and bathing  

SciTech Connect

Contaminants exist in ground and surface water. Human skin has the capacity to bind and then absorb these contaminants into the body during swimming and bathing. Powdered human stratum corneum will bind both lipid-soluble (alachlor, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), benzene) and water-soluble (nitroaniline) chemicals. In vitro (Human skin) and in vivo (Rhesus monkey) studies show that these chemicals readily distribute into skin, and then some of the chemical is absorbed into the body. Linearity in binding and absorption exists for nitroaniline over a 10-fold concentration range. Multiple exposure to benzene is at least cumulative. Binding and adsorption can be significant for exposures as short as 30 minutes, and will increase with time. Adsorption with water dilution increased for alachlor, but not for dinoseb. Soap reversed the partitioning of alachlor between human stratum corneum and water. The PCBs could be removed from skin by soap and water for up to 3 hours and the decontamination potential decreased, due to continuing skin absorption. The model that in vitro and in vivo systems used should permit easy estimation of this area of extensive human exposure effect on risk assessment. 5 refs., 9 tabs.

Wester, R.C.; Maibach, H.I. (California Univ., San Francisco (USA))

1989-10-01

108

SWBCM: a soil water balance capacity model for environmental applications in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a daily-time step, multi-horizon capacity model of soil-water balance (SWBCM—Soil Water Balance Capacity Model) suitable for ecological and environmental applications investigating the spatial and temporal variability of soil water content determined by changes in soil hydraulic conductivity, soil water storage capacity and the pathways of water movement through the soil and across soil types. SWBCM simulates soil

Samuel P. Evans; Thomas R. Mayr; John M. Hollis; Colin D. Brown

1999-01-01

109

Deformation behavior and energy absorption capacity of multi-cell aluminum profiles during quasi-static axial compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deformation behavior and energy absorption capacity of aluminum profiles under quasi-static axial compression were studied by quasi-static axial compression. The aluminum profiles were aged at temperature of 180 degrees from 30 min to 540 min before compression. The results indicated that the deformation mode of the aluminum extrusions was gradually changed from Diamond mode to Concertina mode and the energy absorption of the extrusions increased with increasing of aging time. The deformation mode of the aluminum sample aged for 540 min is completely concertina mode. Compared with the unaged sample, its energy absorption increased about 99%. Numerical simulation was used for accurately evaluating the load during compression deformation. The deformation behaviors were ideal and symmetrical, and the results were stable and repeatable in the simulation.

Wang, Guan; Liu, Zhiwen; Xiang, Dong; Li, Luoxing

2013-05-01

110

Absorptive Capacity for R&D: The Identification of Different Firm Profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Being competitive requires continuously performing product and process innovations nowadays. Because of this reason, the absorption of externally generated R&D is increasingly important for companies. It is well known that companies differ regarding their aptitude for knowledge absorption. This paper aims at the identification of different firm profiles by means of the identification and valuation of drivers that support the

Arturo Rodríguez-Castellanos; Markus Hagemeister; Stanislav Ranguelov

2010-01-01

111

Effects of nucleotide supplementation in milk replacer on small intestinal absorptive capacity in dairy calves.  

PubMed

Milk replacer was supplemented with nucleotides and fed to dairy calves from birth through weaning to examine the potential for enhancing recovery of small intestinal function after enteric infection. Three treatments of 23 calves each were fed milk replacer (10% body weight/d) supplemented with no nucleotides (C), purified nucleotides (N), or nucleotides from an extract of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S). Average daily gain, health scores, fecal dry matter, and fecal bacteria were monitored, and blood was analyzed for packed cell volume, glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine. Calves were monitored twice daily for fecal score, and 48 h after increased fecal fluidity was recorded, intestinal function was evaluated by measuring absorption of orally administered xylose (0.5 g/kg of body weight). Packed cell volume of blood was greater for treatment N for wk 2 and 5 compared with other treatment groups. Four calves per treatment were killed, and intestinal tissue was evaluated for morphology, enzyme activities, and nucleoside transporter mRNA expression. Treatment S calves had increased abundance of nucleoside transporter mRNA, numerically longer villi, and lower alkaline phosphatase than other groups. Growth measurements and plasma concentrations of glucose, BUN, creatinine, and IgG were not different between treatments; however, BUN-to-creatinine ratio was higher for treatment N, possibly indicating decreased kidney function. There were also no treatment effects on fecal dry matter and fecal bacteria population. However, N-treated calves had the highest detrimental and lowest beneficial bacteria overall, indicating an unfavorable intestinal environment. Supplementation of purified nucleotides did not improve intestinal morphology or function and resulted in higher fecal water loss and calf dehydration. Supplementation of nucleotides derived from yeast tended to increase calf intestinal function, provide a more beneficial intestinal environment, and improve intestinal morphology. PMID:18565934

Kehoe, S I; Heinrichs, A J; Baumrucker, C R; Greger, D L

2008-07-01

112

In-situ liquid storage capacity measurement of subsurface wastewater absorption system products.  

PubMed

A method is presented for measuring the in-situ liquid storage capacity of subsurface wastewater infiltration system (SWIS) products. While these products vary in composition, geometry, and porosity, they all have the same function: to provide a conduit for the flow of effluent from a septic tank to and through a trench so that infiltration into the soil can occur. A functional SWIS must also provide temporary liquid storage. Storage is necessary for periods when discharge from the septic tank exceeds the infiltration rate of the soil. Storage is also important during times when the soil in and around the trench is saturated. Many states now have regulatory requirements pertaining to storage volume, and these requirements commonly establish the traditional gravel-pipe system as the standard for minimally acceptable volume. Raliable comparisons between various alternative products and gravel have been difficult or impossible, because there has been no standard method for measuring storage volume. Some products have been evaluated under realistic field conditions; others have been evaluated under theoretical or ideal conditions. The protocol developed by the study reported here can serve as a common, accurate basis for comparisons. A 3-foot-deep trench was excavated, and the bottom was leveled. Markers (nails or rods) were attached to the products to indicate the invert and full-volume heights. The products were then enclosed in plastic, placed in a trench, and covered with soil. A 4-inch-diameter pipe extended from the product to the surface to allow metered additions of water into the products and precise determinations when the systems had been filled to capacity. Four plastic chambers, three expanded polystyrene (ESP) products, two multipipe arrangements, and a standard gravel-pipe system were evaluated. The standard gravel-pipe system held 10.2 gal/ft Three of the four plastic chambers stored from 100 to 130 percent of what the standard system held. The multipipe systems held 80 and 90 percent of the standard. The ESP bundles held less than 75 percent of the standard, with the most commonly used configuration storing about 60 percent. The rigid products were found to store amounts that agreed with their companies' reported values. The ESP products retained less than company reported values. These differences illustrate the need for a standard protocol for measuring storage volume. PMID:17091738

Quisenberry, Virgil; Brown, Philip; Smith, Bill; Hallahan, Dennis F

2006-11-01

113

Effect of passive water absorption on transepithelial movement of extracellular solutes in rat intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of passive water absorption on transepithelial movement of extracellular solutes in rat intestine. It was shown previously that intravenous infusion of saline solution decreases net absorption of sodium and water by rat small intestine and that there is an associated increased movement of inulin from blood into intestinal lumen. It was proposed that decreased absorption may be due to

Meyer D Lifschitz; Jorge A Garcia; Laurence E Earley

1973-01-01

114

Sensitivity of the global water cycle to the water-holding capacity of land  

SciTech Connect

The sensitivity of the global water cycle to the water-holding capacity of the plant-root zone of continental soils is estimated by simulations using a mathematical model of the general circulation of the atmosphere, with prescribed ocean surface temperatures and prescribed cloud. With an increase of the globally constant storage capacity, evaporation from the continents rises and runoff falls, because a high storage capacity enhances the ability of the soil to store water from periods of excess for later evaporation during periods of shortage. In addition, atmospheric feedbacks associated with higher precipitation and lower potential evaporation drive further changes in evaporation and runoff. Most changes in evaporation and runoff occur in the tropics and the northern middle-latitude rain belts. Global evaporation from land increases by 7 cm for each doubling of storage capacity. Sensitivity is negligible for capacity above 60 cm. In the tropics and in the extratropics,increased continental evaporation is split between increased continental precipitation and decreased convergence of atmospheric water vapor from ocean to land. In the tropics, this partitioning is strongly affected by induced circulation changes, which are themselves forced by changes in latent heating. In the northern middle and high latitudes, the increased continental evaporation moistens the atmosphere. This change in humidity of the atmosphere is greater above the continents than above the oceans, and the resulting reduction in the sea-land humidity gradient causes a decreased onshore transport of water vapor by transient eddies. Results here may have implications for problems in global hydrology and climate dynamics, including effects of water resource development on global precipitation, climatic control of plant rooting characteristics, climatic effects of tropical deforestation, and climate-model errors. 21 refs., 13 figs., 21 tabs.

Milly, P.C.D.; Dunne, K.A. (Geological Survey, Princeton, NJ (United States))

1994-04-01

115

Antioxidant capacity of bioactives extracted from canola meal by subcritical water, ethanolic and hot water extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant compounds were extracted from canola meal by subcritical water extraction (SWE) at 110 and 160°C, hot water extraction (80°C) and ethanolic (95%, v\\/v) extraction. The highest extract yields were obtained with SWE at 160°C. The total phenolics contents and antioxidant capacities of extracts were assessed by the total phenolics assay (using Folin–Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent), the 2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging

Majid Hassas-Roudsari; Peter R. Chang; Ronald B. Pegg; Robert T. Tyler

2009-01-01

116

Experimental determination of energy absorption capacity for prestressed concrete sleepers under impact loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extreme loading conditions on railway tracks may include dynamic impact loads with very high magnitude but short duration. These loading conditions are caused by wheel or rail abnormalities such as flat wheels, dipped rails, etc. A high-capacity drop weight impact testing machine was constructed at the University of Wollongong, in order to evaluate the ultimate capacity of prestressed concrete sleepers

A. M. Remennikov; S. Kaewunruen

2007-01-01

117

Using spectral information from the NIR water absorption features for the retrieval of canopy water content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Canopy water content (CWC) is important for mapping and monitoring the condition of the terrestrial ecosystem. Spectral information related to the water absorption features at 970 nm and 1200 nm offers possibilities for deriving information on CWC. In this study, we compare the use of derivative spectra, spectral indices and continuum removal techniques for these regions. Hyperspectral reflectance data representing a range of canopies were simulated using the combined PROSPECT + SAILH model. Best results in estimating CWC were obtained by using spectral derivatives at the slopes of the 970 nm and 1200 nm water absorption features. Real data from two different test sites were analysed. Spectral information at both test sites was obtained with an ASD FieldSpec spectrometer, whereas at the second site HyMap airborne imaging spectrometer data were also acquired. Best results were obtained for the derivative spectra. In order to avoid the potential influence of atmospheric water vapour absorption bands the derivative of the reflectance on the right slope of the canopy water absorption feature at 970 nm can best be used for estimating CWC.

Clevers, J. G. P. W.; Kooistra, L.; Schaepman, M. E.

2008-09-01

118

Water storage capacity, stemflow and water funneling in Mediterranean shrubs: biotic and abiotic factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many lands of the Mediterranean basin of European Union have been abandoned in the last decades and consequently vegetation type changes too. This modifies hydrologic processes, changing the volume and the way in which the rainfall reaches the soil. To predict water losses and other hydrological and ecological features of vegetation, its water storage capacity and stemflow need to be accurately determined. Vast areas of the Mediterranean region are occupied by shrublands yet there is scarce data available on their rainwater interception capacity. Only 11% of publications have addressed this issue in shrubs. A technique for measuring in countryside interception loss, throughfall and stemflow in shrubs is reported. It allows expressing the results in relation to rainfall characteristics and environmental conditions for low intensity events. Simulated rainfall tests were also conducted in controlled conditions on 9 Mediterranean shrubs in order to assess the influence of varying anatomic and morphological features. Mean water storage capacity was 1.02 mm (0.35 mm to 3.24 mm), stemflow was 16% (3.8 % to 26.4%) and the funneling ratio was 104 (30 to 260). Despite their small size, shrubs may generate high water losses when they form dense communities and this can have a significant impact in regions where water is scarce. In this report, we discuss the ecological and hydrological significance of stemflow and the funneling ratio.

Garcia-Estringana, Pablo; Alegre, Jesús

2010-05-01

119

Heat capacity for the water + lithium chloride + lithium nitrate system at temperatures from 283. 15 to 433. 15 K  

SciTech Connect

The heat capacity data for working fluids are one of the most important basic properties for the research and the design of absorption refrigeration and heat pump systems. Heat capacities of the water + lithium chloride + lithium nitrate (salt mole ratio 2.8:1) system were measured in the range of temperatures from 283.15 to 433.15 K and in the range of absorbent concentrations from 9.1 to 63.5 mass %. The measurements of heat capacity were made with two separate experimental apparatus for individual temperatures below 343.15 K and above 353.15 K. An empirical formula for this ternary system was obtained as a function of absolute temperature by a least-squares method from these experimental data. Maximum and average absolute deviations between these experimental data measured with two apparatus and the calculated values from this empirical formula were 0.97% and 0.35%, respectively.

Iyoki, Shigeki; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Kuriyama, Yutaka; Uemura, Tadashi (Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1994-10-01

120

Enhancement of the grafting performance and of the water absorption of cassava starch graft copolymer by gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enhancement of the gamma radiation grafting of acrylonitrile onto gelatinized cassava starch was investigated. Infrared spectrometry was used to follow the chemical changes in the grafting reaction and from saponification. The saponified starch-g-PAN (HSPAN) was then characterized in terms of grafting parameters to provide a guide for the optimum total dose (kGy) and the appropriate ratio of starch/acrylonitrile for a fixed dose rate of 2.5 × 10-1 kGy/min. Other dose rates were also carried out to obtain the appropriate result of grafting copolymerization and of water absorption. A thin aluminium foil, covering the inner wall of the reaction vessel, was found to be far more effective than any other metal films in the enhancement of the grafting reaction and the water absorption as well. Nitric acid in the medium increases the grafting yield and the water absorption. Methyl ether hydroquinone inhibitor was evaluated for its ability to increase homopolymerization and decrease graft reaction. When styrene was used as a comonomer, it hampered the grafting of acrylonitrile onto starch backbone. The water absorption capacity was improved by freeze-drying the HSPAN. The treatment of the HSPAN with aluminium trichloride hexahydrate was found to enhance the degree of wicking, but to decrease the water absorbency.

Kiatkamjornwong, Suda; Meechai, Nispa

1997-06-01

121

An upper limit for water dimer absorption in the 750 nm spectral region and a revised water line list  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absorption of solar radiation by water dimer molecules in the Earth's atmosphere has the potential to act as a positive feedback effect for climate change. There seems little doubt from the results of previous laboratory and theoretical studies that significant concentrations of the water dimer should be present in the atmosphere, yet attempts to detect water dimer absorption signatures in

A. J. L. Shillings; S. M. Ball; M. J. Barber; J. Tennyson; R. L. Jones

2011-01-01

122

A upper limit for water dimer absorption in the 750 nm spectral region and a revised water line list  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption of solar radiation by water dimer molecules in the Earth's atmosphere can potentially act as a positive feedback effect for climate change. There seems little doubt from the results of previous laboratory and theoretical studies that significant concentrations of the water dimer should be present in the atmosphere, yet attempts to detect water dimer absorption signatures in atmospheric

A. J. L. Shillings; S. M. Ball; M. J. Barber; J. Tennyson; R. L. Jones

2010-01-01

123

Water absorption length measurement with the ANTARES optical beacon system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ANTARES is a neutrino telescope located in the Mediterranean Sea with the aim of detecting high energy neutrinos of extra-terrestrial origin. It consists of a three dimensional array on 12 detection lines of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) able to detect the Cherenkov light induced by muons produced in the interaction of neutrinos with the surrounding water and seabed. To reach the best angular resolution, good time and positioning calibrations are required. The propagation of Cherenkov photons strongly depends on the optical properties of the sea water, which has an impact on the reconstruction efficiency. The determination of the optical parameters, as the absorption and scattering lengths, is crucial to calculate properly the effective area and the angular resolution of the detector. The ANTARES optical beacon system consists of pulsed and fast, well controlled light sources distributed throughout the detector to carry out in situ the relative time calibration of the detector components. In this contribution we show some results on the sea water optical properties and their stability measured with the optical beacon system.

Yepes-Ramirez, Harold; ANTARES Collaboration

2011-01-01

124

High capacity hydrogen absorption in transition-metal ethylene complexes: consequences of nanoclustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently shown that organo-metallic complexes formed by laser ablating transition metals in ethylene are high hydrogen absorbers at room temperature (Phillips and Shivaram 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 105505). Here we show that the absorption percentage depends strongly on the ethylene pressure. High ethylene pressures (>100 mTorr) result in a lowered hydrogen uptake. Transmission electron microscopy measurements reveal

A. B. Phillips; B. S. Shivaram

2009-01-01

125

Effect of triggering on the energy absorption capacity of axially compressed aluminum tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy absorption performance of extruded aluminum tubing for space frames was evaluated using computer-simulated compressive tests and quasi-static compressive deformation tests. An experimental deformation test and its simulation were conducted for seven extruded tube specimens on which various types of triggering dents were introduced, and the test data were investigated via observation of deformation mode, maximum repulsive force, and

Sunghak Lee; Changsu Hahn; Meungho Rhee; Jae-Eung Oh

1999-01-01

126

VOC absorption in a countercurrent packed-bed column using water\\/silicone oil mixtures: Influence of silicone oil volume fraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A calculation procedure to determine the influence of the silicone volume fraction on the physical absorption of VOCs in water\\/silicone oil mixtures is presented (?silicone oil=5mPas). It is based on the “equivalent absorption capacity” concept previously developed by Dumont et al. (2010) [1] and applied to a countercurrent gas–liquid absorber. The calculation procedure is first applied to three VOCs: dimethylsulphide

Eric Dumont; Guillaume Darracq; Annabelle Couvert; Catherine Couriol; Abdeltif Amrane; Diane Thomas; Yves Andrès; Pierre Le Cloirec

2011-01-01

127

The Effect of Broiler Breast Meat Color on pH, Moisture, Water-Holding Capacity, and Emulsification Capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between broiler breast meat color and pH, moisture content, water-holding ca- pacity (WHC), and emulsification capacity (EC) was in- vestigated. In each of three replicate trials, fillets were collected from three different commercial processing plants according to breast meat lightness (L*) values as follows: lighter than normal (light, L* > 53), normal (48 < L* < 53), and

M. Qiao; D. L. Fletcher; D. P. Smith; J. K. Northcutt

128

Self-absorption correction for beta radioactivity measurements in water samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methods were used to apply self-absorption corrections for the determination of beta radioactivity in water samples (either for an identified radionuclide or for monitoring trends). One method was performed by estimating the absorption coefficient by assuming an exponential behaviour of absorption using external absorbers, while the other method was performed by preparing empirical curves using standards of different mass.

Ll Pujol; J. A Suarez-Navarro

2004-01-01

129

The absorption and reradiation of radio waves by oxygen and water vapor in the atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pertinent data concerning the influence of atmospheric gases on the absorption of microwaves are reviewed. The restrictions placed on transmission at extremely high frequencies (above 15 GHz) through the atmosphere by absorption and reradiation by oxygen and water vapor, and absorption and scattering by raindrops are pointed out. The characteristics of the regions of lesser attenuation (windows) at 35, 90,

A. W. Straiton

1975-01-01

130

III. Volume thermal radiation and absorption of water. Theoretical calculations of water`s specific heat capcity dependence on temperature within the interval of 0{degrees} to 75{degrees}C  

SciTech Connect

The present article, which is the third one in the series, is as if a summary one. The preliminary calculations made in the previous two articles are to be used here for final calculations and conclusions. Remember that the detailed calculation of the temperature dependence of refraction index n and absorption index-ae of water carried out within a wide spectral range of near and far IR wavelengths (from 2 to 80 {mu}m) allowed to calculate theoretically a surface thermal radiation and absorption of a black body and a grey body, i.e. water, for a large set of temperatures from 0{degrees} to 75{degrees}C with a step of 5{degrees}C. The present article applies the above mentioned results to derive formulae and to calculate a volume integral density of radiation and absorption of a black body and water within the mentioned temperature range. The particular formulae and calculations are given for a normal incidence of radiation onto a water layer in the upper hemisphere. This problem results immediately in calculation of a quantity of integral radiation absorbed by water within entire infrared wavelength range where this absorption for water is significant. This allows to calculate theoretically a specific heat capacity dependence on temperature within the temperature range of 0{degrees} to 75{degrees}C, which is the most important one for water. As it is known, in this temperature range a behaviour of water specific heat capacity is unusual. Change in water heat capacity with temperature increase is anomalous: it drops in the interval from 0{degrees} to 37{degrees}C, and then only gradually increase in the interval from 37{degrees} to 100{degrees}C. The calculations made in this article are called for, in the first place, to unveil the mentioned phenomenon of water property.

Ajvazyan, H.M. [Institute of Radiophysics and Electronics, Ashtarak (Armenia)

1996-03-01

131

Amount of leachant and water absorption levels of wood treated with borates and water repellents.  

PubMed

Wood protection efficacy of borates against biological agents, flame retardancy, and suitability to the environment is well known. Since borates can be applied to timber as water based solutions, they are preferred economically as well. Even though they are highly mobile in wood, boron compounds are widely used in timber preservation. Borates migrate in liquid and increase the hygroscopicity of wood in damp conditions. This study deals with the physical restriction of water access in wood by impregnating water repellent agents into wood to limit amount of leachant and water absorption levels of wood after boron treatment. Borates were incorporated with polyethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400) their bulking effect in wood was considered. Results indicated that the amount of leachates from wood treated with borates in PEG-400 was remarkably higher compared to those of wood treated with the aqueous solutions of borates. Water absorption (WA) levels of wood treated with aqueous solutions of borates were higher than those of their treated samples with the solutions in PEG-400. Secondary treatments of wood with the water repellent (WR) chemicals following borate impregnation reduced the leaching of chemicals from wood in water and also WA of the specimens were less than those of the wood treated with only borates from aqueous and PEG solutions. Styrene (St) was the most effective monomer among the other agents used in terms of immobility effect on borates and WA. PMID:16359861

Baysal, Ergun; Sonmez, Abdullah; Colak, Mehmet; Toker, Hilmi

2005-12-15

132

A New Method for Serum Iron and Total Iron-Binding Capacity by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, atomic absorptionspectrophotometricmethod for serum iron and iron-binding capacity is described,which utilizes 20% (w\\/v) TCA plus heating at 90#{176} for 15 mm. This procedureliberates the ferric iron; precipitates the protein, facilitating removal by centrifugation; and avoids significant interferences by contaminating hemoglobin iron. The method is highly specific, accurate, and has the additional feature of requiring less time than most

Arthur D. Olson; W. B. Hamlin

133

The nuclear option for US electrical generating capacity additions utilizing boiling water reactor technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technology status of the advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) and the simplified boiling water reactors (SBWR) is presented along with an analysis of the economic potential of advanced nuclear power generation systems based on BWR technology to meet the projected domestic electrical generating capacity need through 2005. The forecasted capacity needs are determined for each domestic North American Electric

Thomas F. Garrity; Daniel R. Wilkins

1993-01-01

134

Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by water and heavy water in the 400-750 nm spectral range  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by liquid water (H2O) and heavy water (D2O) were determined using a hyperspectral absorption and attenuation meter (WET Labs, AC-S). Sodium chloride (NaCl) was used as a proxy for seawater salts. There was no significant temperature (PsiT) or salt (PsiS) dependency of absorption at wavelengths 550 nm, PsiT exhibited peaks at ˜604, 662,

James M. Sullivan; Michael S. Twardowski; J. Ronald V. Zaneveld; Casey M. Moore; Andrew H. Barnard; Percy L. Donaghay; Bruce Rhoades

2006-01-01

135

Impact of a lowered water table on water holding capacity of high elevation meadow soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meadow degradation, as a product of overgrazing or disruption of hydrologic regime, is a critical problem facing a variety of environments, including high elevation ecosystems of the Sierra Nevada, California and has become a focus of major research and restoration efforts. Within the historic range of water level in a meadow, it is hypothesized that a meadow will retain its water holding capacity and resiliency. However, if the water table drops below a historic level, due to climate change and/or management practices, the process of soil consolidation will influence the resiliency of the meadow through the irreversible plastic deformation of the soil pores. The subsequent change in soil structure results in decreased porosity, increased bulk density, and a reduction in permeability of the meadow. Such changes can adversely impact the overall water holding capacity of the meadow. This study utilizes a modified triaxial system combined with a multiphysics modeling approach to quantify the historic limit of dryness experienced in a high elevation meadow and degree of consolidation the meadow would experience if that limit was exceeded.

Arnold, C. L.

2011-12-01

136

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE ABSORPTION IN DISTILLED WATER, ARTIFICIAL SEA WATER, AND HEAVY WATER IN THE VISIBLE REGION OF THE SPECTRUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption of light in distilled water, artificial sea water, and ; heavy water was measured in the visible region. A Nielsen spectrometer with ; glass optics was used with a tungsten source and photomultiplier detector. Path ; lengths were 60.0 and 132.0 cm. The absorption in distilled and artificiai sea ; water differs little; maxima below 745 m mu

SERAPHIN A. SULLIVAN

1963-01-01

137

The Influence of Laminated Leather Structure on the Water Vapour Absorption and Desorption Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the experimental and theoretical investigations of moisture transfer through microporous film laminated leather are presented. The water vapour absorption and desorption processes of laminated leather are described. Water vapour absorption in the laminated leather and its separate layers may be classified as non-Fickian: sigmoidal - for microporous film and two-stage - for the leather of different structures.

Virginijus URBELIS

138

Water absorption by secondary organic aerosol and its effect on inorganic aerosol behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hygroscopic nature of atmospheric aerosol has generally been associated with its inorganic fraction. In this study, a group contribution method is used to predict the water absorption of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Compared against growth measurements of mixed inorganic-organic particles, this method appears to provide a first-order approximation in predicting SOA water absorption. The growth of common SOA species

Asif S. Ansari; Spyros N. Pandis

2000-01-01

139

Modeling, simulation and optimization of a solar collector driven water heating and absorption cooling plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cogeneration system consisting of a solar collector, a gas burner, a thermal storage reservoir, a hot water heat exchanger, and an absorption refrigerator is devised to simultaneously produce heating (hot water heat exchanger) and cooling (absorption refrigerator system). A simplified mathematical model, which combines fundamental and empirical correlations, and principles of classical thermodynamics, mass and heat transfer, is developed.

J. V. C. Vargas; J. C. Ordonez; E. Dilay; J. A. R. Parise

2009-01-01

140

Dynamics of Water Absorption and Evaporation During Methanol Droplet Combustion in Microgravity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The combustion of methanol droplets is profoundly influenced by the absorption and evaporation of water, generated in the gas phase as a part of the combustion products. Initially there is a water-absorption period of combustion during which the latent he...

D. L. Dietrich F. A. Williams M. C. Hicks V. Nayagam

2012-01-01

141

Effect of water absorption on the mechanical properties of hemp fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemp fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester composites (HFRUPE) were subjected to water immersion tests in order to study the effects of water absorption on the mechanical properties. HFRUPE composites specimens containing 0, 0.10, 0.15, 0.21 and 0.26 fibre volume fraction were prepared. Water absorption tests were conducted by immersing specimens in a de-ionised water bath at 25°C and 100°C for different

H. N. Dhakal; Z. Y. Zhang; M. O. W. Richardson

2007-01-01

142

Research on the Risk of Water Shortages and the Carrying Capacity of Water Resources in Yiwu, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carrying capacity of water resources is defined as the maximum volume of water suitable for supporting human activity in certain stages of social development that can be borne by water resources under favorable ecological conditions. The results of other studies that have been performed in Yiwu City, China, indicate that water shortages in this city are not related to

Lihua H. Feng; Xingcai Zhang; Gaoyuan Luo

2009-01-01

143

Water governance: trends and needs for new capacity development  

Microsoft Academic Search

New forms of governance focusing on process-oriented societal co-steering through, for example, formal and informal networks, partnerships and dialogue, have emerged within the water sector. The governance transformation is intrinsically linked to the increasing focus on the complexity of water management and the multifunctional character of water and the search for alternative forms of organisation. The emergence of concepts like

Hakan Tropp

2007-01-01

144

Experimentally determined water storage capacity in the Earth's upper mantle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace amounts of hydrogen dissolved as defects in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) in the mantle are believed to play a key role in physical and chemical processes in the Earth's upper mantle. Hence, the estimation of water storage in mantle phases and solubility mechanisms are important in order to better understand the effect of water. Experimental data on water solubility

A. Ferot; N. Bolfan-Casanova

2010-01-01

145

Optical absorption of pure water in the blue and ultraviolet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key feature of the Integrating Cavity Absorption Meter (ICAM) is that it produces an isotropic illumination of the liquid sample and thereby dramatically minimizes scattering effects. The ICAM can produce an effective optical path length up to several meters. As a consequence, it is capable of measuring absorption coefficients as low as 0.001 m-1. The early version of the

Zheng Lu

2006-01-01

146

Water in coal pores: low-temperature heat capacity behavior of the moisture in Wyodak coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low-temperature heat capacity behavior of naturally occurring water in Wyodak coal indicates that there are two types of water present. More than two-thirds is nonfreezable, displaying no evidence of a phase transition in the neighborhood of 273°K where normal bulk water melts. The remainder is freezable, displaying a somewhat distorted heat capacity peak, which is indicative of a phase

S. C. Mraw; D. F. Naas-ORourke

1979-01-01

147

EVALUATING CAPACITIES OF GAC PRELOADED WITH A NATURAL WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The effect of preloading a natural groundwater on the adsorption characteristics of cis-1,2-dichloroethene is evaluated. mphasis is placed on the quantification of the reductions in capacity and external mass transfer rates. reviously developed scale-up procedure is also evaluate...

148

EVALUATING CAPACITIES OF GAC PRELOADED WITH NATURAL WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Adsorption studies are conducted to determine how preloading a natural groundwater onto GAC affects the adsorption of cis-1,2-dichloroexthene in small-scale and pilot-scale columns. Capacities are determined from batch-isotherm tests, microcolumns, and pilot columns, which are p...

149

Influence of Soil Water Stress on Evaporation, Root Absorption, and Internal Water Status of Cotton 1  

PubMed Central

Diurnal variations in leaf water potential, diffusion resistance, relative water content, stem diameter, leaf temperature, and energy balance components were measured in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. var. Lankart 57) during drought stress under field conditions. A plot of leaf water potential against either relative water content or stem diameter during the 24-hour period yielded a closed hysteresis loop. The relation between cell hydration and evaporation is discussed. Despite low soil water potential in the main root zone, significant plant evaporation rates were maintained. Root absorption rates as a function of soil depth were calculated from water content profiles measured with a neutron probe. The maximal root absorption rate of 3.5 × 10?3 day?1 occurred at the 75-centimeter depth, well below the main root zone. Stomatal resistance of individual leaves during the daylight hours remained nearly constant at 2.5 seconds centimeter?1 even though leaf water potentials approached ?30 bars. A growth chamber study indicated stomatal closure occurred at potentials near ?16 bars. Possible implications of high soil water stress in relation to stomatal function and growth are discussed. Based on an energy balance method, the actual to potential plant evapotranspiration ratio was 0.43 for the 24-hour period, indicating partial stomatal closure. A surface resistance, rs, of 4.0 seconds centimeter?1 was calculated for the incomplete canopy with the use of the energy balance data. Alternatively, a canopy resistance of 1.3 seconds centimeter?1 was attained from a relationship between leaf area and stomatal resistance of individual leaves. If the soil resistance was assumed to be very large and the canopy resistance was weighted for the fractional ground cover of the crop, the calculated surface resistance was 4.3 seconds centimeter?1. Under these conditions, the two independent estimates of rs were in essential agreement.

Jordan, Wayne R.; Ritchie, Joe T.

1971-01-01

150

Hydrogen capacity and absorption rate of the SAES St707 non-evaporable getter at various temperatures.  

SciTech Connect

A prototype of a tritium thermoelectric generator (TTG) is currently being developed at Sandia. In the TTG, a vacuum jacket reduces the amount of heat lost from the high temperature source via convection. However, outgassing presents challenges to maintaining a vacuum for many years. Getters are chemically active substances that scavenge residual gases in a vacuum system. In order to maintain the vacuum jacket at approximately 1.0 x 10{sup -4} torr for decades, nonevaporable getters that can operate from -55 C to 60 C are going to be used. This paper focuses on the hydrogen capacity and absorption rate of the St707{trademark} non-evaporable getter by SAES. Using a getter testing manifold, we have carried out experiments to test these characteristics of the getter over the temperature range of -77 C to 60 C. The results from this study can be used to size the getter appropriately.

Hsu, Irving; Mills, Bernice E.

2010-08-01

151

Near-IR absorption of water vapor: Pressure dependence of line strengths and an upper limit for continuum absorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water vapor absorption cross-sections in the near-infrared region (10 500-10 800 cm-1) were measured using cavity ringdown spectroscopy. Linestrengths were measured for several absorption lines around 10 604 cm-1 (943 nm) between 500 and 850 Torr of N2 and found to be independent of pressure. Our measured linestrengths of these individual lines agree well with values from databases such as HITRAN and the ESA-WVR, which are currently used for atmospheric calculations, but the integrated strength over the entire measured spectral region is slightly larger than that contained in these databases. Water vapor pressure-broadening coefficients due to nitrogen were also estimated from these measurements. The absorption due to water vapor continuum was determined to be less than (9.2 ± 0.2) × 10-27 cm2 molecule-1 at 11 500 cm-1. This measured upper limit, though larger than the estimated values from continuum models, would not contribute significantly to the calculated radiation absorption in this wavelength region.

Aldener, M.; Brown, S. S.; Stark, H.; Daniel, J. S.; Ravishankara, A. R.

2005-08-01

152

Evaluation of capillary water absorption in rendering mortars made with powdered waterproofing additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several additives, such as powdered stearates, oleates, silanes and silicone films, are used to avoid water absorption in renders. This paper looks at the effectiveness of six powdered waterproofing additives after 28days of curing at: 0.00%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 1.00% and 2.00% w\\/w on the whole composition. The waterproofing efficiency is analyzed by capillary water absorption tests, while water immersion tests

Marcos Lanzón; P. A. García-Ruiz

2009-01-01

153

MEASUREMENT OF THE ABSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF SUPERSATURATED WATER VAPOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

the atmosphere by as much as 40 Wm-2. This enhanced absorption, which was recognised by comparing model calculations with satellite-borne radiometric measurements, remains to be explained. Controversial explanations of this newly discovered fact have been offered and debated. A school of thought suggests that the enhanced absorption of the incoming short-wave solar radiation is due to erroneous depiction of the

Prasad Varanasi; B. Ranganayakamma; S. Mathur; T. Refaat; C. R. Prasad

154

SPESIFIC HEAT CAPACITY,DENSITY OF SYSTEM TRANSFORMER OIL AND WATER OF DEPENDENCE TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on specific heat capacity,density of liquid solution is essential for designing heat exchangers ,modedeling natural hidrothermal processes. The results of the experimental research on the thermodynamics properties (specific heat capacity, energy free, general energy Gibbs, energy Helm gols,enthalpy,entropy etc. ) systems transformer+water in the temperature range 293-413K, and pressure range P = 0,101 MPa, are presented. The heat capacity

M. M. Safarov; U. U. Kosimov

155

Calculation of heat capacities of light and heavy water by path-integral molecular dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an application of atomistic simulation methods to heat capacities, path-integral molecular dynamics has been used to calculate the constant-volume heat capacities of light and heavy water in the gas, liquid, and solid phases. While the classical simulation based on conventional molecular dynamics has estimated the heat capacities too high, the quantum simulation based on path-integral molecular dynamics has given

Motoyuki Shiga; Wataru Shinoda

2005-01-01

156

GEOGRAPHIC PATTERNS OF SOIL WATER-HOLDING CAPACITY IN THE CONTIGUOUS UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The geographic patterns of soil water-holding capacity are important for studying the response of vegetation and water supply to climate change. his study was conducted to evaluate which dataset to use for national-scale water balance modeling. patial databases of soil properties...

157

Acid neutralizing capacity, alkalinity, and acid-base status of natural waters containing organic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terms acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and alkalinity (Alk) are extensively employed in the characterization of natural waters, including soft circumneutral or acidic waters. However, in the presence of organic acids, ANC measurements are inconsistent with many conceptual definitions of ANC or Alk and do not provide an adequate characterization of the acid-base chemistry of water. Knowledge of Gran ANC

Harold F. Hemond

1990-01-01

158

Absorption  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity can be used to allow students to explore the concept of absorption using a variety of materials. Extensions include exploring how Native Americans used absorbtion in a number of ways. This inquiry activity was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÃÂs 1998 Frontiers in Physiology Program. The NSES Standards addressed by this activity are current as of the year of development. For more information on the Frontiers in Physiology Program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

Katherine M Knudson (Polson Middle School)

1998-04-01

159

Investigation of Heat capacity and Specific Heat: Using Different Temperatures of Water and Solids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a chemistry lab-based investigation where students apply observational skills and critical thinking skills to finding specific heat and heat capacity using different temperatures of water and solids. A final activity will assess students understanding of specific heat and heat capacity and promote data analysis skills, using real-life situations.

160

Information for States on Implementing the Capacity Development Provisions of the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document provides detailed information for States on implementing the capacity development provisions of the SDWA 1996 Amendments. Individual sections discuss what water system capacity is, how new drinking water systems can meet these requirements, ...

1998-01-01

161

Water and solute absorption from carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions in the human proximal small intestine: a review and statistical analysis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to summarize water, carbohydrate (CHO), and electrolyte absorption from carbohydrate-electrolyte (CHO-E) solutions based on all of the triple-lumen-perfusion studies in humans since the early 1960s. The current statistical analysis included 30 reports from which were obtained information on water absorption, CHO absorption, total solute absorption, CHO concentration, CHO type, osmolality, sodium concentration, and sodium absorption in the different gut segments during exercise and at rest. Mean differences were assessed using independent-samples t tests. Exploratory multiple-regression analyses were conducted to create prediction models for intestinal water absorption. The factors influencing water and solute absorption are carefully evaluated and extensively discussed. The authors suggest that in the human proximal small intestine, water absorption is related to both total solute and CHO absorption; osmolality exerts various impacts on water absorption in the different segments; the multiple types of CHO in the ingested CHO-E solutions play a critical role in stimulating CHO, sodium, total solute, and water absorption; CHO concentration is negatively related to water absorption; and exercise may result in greater water absorption than rest. A potential regression model for predicting water absorption is also proposed for future research and practical application. In conclusion, water absorption in the human small intestine is influenced by osmolality, solute absorption, and the anatomical structures of gut segments. Multiple types of CHO in a CHO-E solution facilitate water absorption by stimulating CHO and solute absorption and lowering osmolality in the intestinal lumen. PMID:20975111

Shi, Xiaocai; Passe, Dennis H

2010-10-01

162

Research on improving unit thermal efficiency based on absorption heat pump by reducing the circulating water temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The system of regenerator cycle based on absorption heat pump, through heating up the feed water by the heat from the circulating cooling water by the absorption of the steam driving absorption heat pump, can reduce the temperature of the circulating water and exhaust steam pressure, thus to improve the thermal efficiency of the unit eventually. In this paper, based

He Yongbing; Wu Shijing; Wang Jixuan

2011-01-01

163

The possibility of using the thermal equation of absorption from the theory of volume filling of micropores for calculation of holding capacity of busofit in thermal vacuum desorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study was carried out to investigate thermal desorption of organic solvents from activated carbon fiber materials (ACFM) of the busofit type in the temperature range of 29 423 K. Comparison of experimental and calculated holding capacities of ACFM has shown that the thermal equation of absorption from the theory of volume filling of micropores can be used for estimation of the holding capacity.

Dolidovich, A. F.; Akhremkova, G. S.; Tumysheva, T. V.

1997-01-01

164

Water vapor absorption coefficients in the 8-13-micron spectral region - A critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of water vapor absorption coefficients in the thermal IR atmospheric window (8-13 microns) during the past 20 years obtained by a variety of techniques are reviewed for consistency and compared with computed values based on the AFGL spectral data tapes. The methods of data collection considered were atmospheric long path absorption with a CO2 laser or a broadband source

William B. Grant

1990-01-01

165

Absorption spectrum (380 -700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Definitive data on the absorption spectrum of pure water from 380 to 700 nm have been obtained with an integrating cavity technique. The results are in good agreement with those recently obtained by our group with a completely independent photothermal technique. As before, we find that the absorption in the blue is significantly lower than had previously been generally believed

Robin M. Pope; Edward S. Fry

1997-01-01

166

Natural variability of phytoplanktonic absorption in oceanic waters: Influence of the size structure of algal populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in oceanic waters were previously shown to vary with chlorophyll a concentration according to nonlinear relationships with a great deal of noise. We analyzed this biological noise on a data set of 596 simultaneous absorption and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) pigment measurements acquired within the surface layer (first optical depth) from various regions of

Annick Bricaud; Hervé Claustre; Joséphine Ras; Kadija Oubelkheir

2004-01-01

167

Variations in the mass-specific absorption coefficient of mineral particles suspended in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the light-absorption properties of various samples of mineral particles suspended in water, which included pure mineral species (quartz, calcite, illite, kaolinite, and montmorillonite) and natural particulate assem- blages such as desert dust originating from different locations in the Sahara. The absorption coefficient was measured in the spectral region from ultraviolet (UV) to near-infrared on particle suspensions, using a

Marcel Babin; Dariusz Stramski

2004-01-01

168

Absorption cold and warm water system utilizing solar heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

An absorbtion cold and warm water system utilizing solar heat is disclosed. Heat source water is obtained by heating water by the solar heat and a main heating source. The system is selectively made to function as a warm water system, a first heat pump and a second heat pump in accordance with temperature conditions associated with the heat source

Y. Hibino; K. Kamejima; Y. Nara

1985-01-01

169

Operation device for absorption cold and warm water system utilizing solar heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

An absorption cold and warm water system utilizing solar heat includes a low temperature heat generator using as a heating source low temperature warm water obtained by heating water by the solar heat, a high temperature generator using an ancillary heat source as a heating source when the system runs short of the solar heat, and a low temperature generator.

Y. Hibino; K. Kamejima; Y. Nara

1985-01-01

170

Preliminary Listing of Municipal Waste Water Treatment Capacities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication is a current listing of available data on waste water treatment facilities of all U.S. communities with a served population of over 2,000. The data are presented alphabetically by state and alphabetically by community name within each sta...

1976-01-01

171

Hydro gel Polymer effects on available water capacity and percolation of sandy soils at Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Al-Hassa agricultural soils are coarse textured and calcareous sandy soils, characterized by having low water holding capacity and high percolation to irrigation water. That resulted in excessive drainage water, more than the designed amount, in the drainage main canals of Al- Hassa irrigation project and led excess irrigation water consumption. To improve water holding capacity and reduce percolation of Al-Hassa

Faisal I. Zeineldin; Yousef Y. Aldakheel

172

Test of Etafoam Bouyancy Material for Life Jackets Regarding Water Absorption.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The buoyancy material ETAFOAM was tested in 1987 with regards to water absorption. The test was performed according to the test protocol described by IMO Res. A. 521 (13). The results have been reevaluated against with the acceptance requirements specifie...

A. Pasche

1994-01-01

173

Terahertz absorption spectrum of water vapor at different humidity at room temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured the absorption spectrum of water vapor in 0.2-2.4THz range at different humidity from 17% to 98% at room temperature using Er: doped fiber laser (IMRA America Inc.) based terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The experiments were performed in a nitrogen-purged cage at atmosphere environment to obtain the reference and water absorption information. The seventeen absorption lines were observed due to water molecular rotations in the ground vibration state. The first three absorption lines at low frequencies increase with humidity, following the Beer-Lambert Law, while some of high frequency lines were found to decrease with humidity. These effects will be discussed. The observed line broadening is due to collisions occurring among water and nitrogen molecules.

Xin, Xuying; Altan, Hakan; Matten, David; Saint, Angelamaria; Alfano, Robert

2006-03-01

174

Effective parametrization of overlapping water vapor and carbon dioxide absorption bands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a new effective method which can be used to compute both the transmittance and the atmospheric radiation fluxes in the overlapping water vapor and carbon dioxide absorption bands.

K. M. Firsov; A. A. Mitsel

1997-01-01

175

Water-storage capacity of Thuja, Tsuga and Acer stems measured by dehydration isotherms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-storage capacity was measured inThuja occidentalis L.,Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr., andAcer saccharum Marsh. during the dehydration of stem segments 1.5–2.5 cm in diameter. Stem water potential was measured with a temperature-corrected\\u000a stem hygrometer and cavitations were detected acoustically. Water loss was measured by weight change. Dehydration isotherms\\u000a consistently displayed three phases. The first phase, from water potential (?) 0 to

Melvin T. Tyree; Shudong Yang

1990-01-01

176

Carbon nanotube membranes with ultrahigh specific adsorption capacity for water desalination and purification.  

PubMed

Development of technologies for water desalination and purification is critical to meet the global challenges of insufficient water supply and inadequate sanitation, especially for point-of-use applications. Conventional desalination methods are energy and operationally intensive, whereas adsorption-based techniques are simple and easy to use for point-of-use water purification, yet their capacity to remove salts is limited. Here we report that plasma-modified ultralong carbon nanotubes exhibit ultrahigh specific adsorption capacity for salt (exceeding 400% by weight) that is two orders of magnitude higher than that found in the current state-of-the-art activated carbon-based water treatment systems. We exploit this adsorption capacity in ultralong carbon nanotube-based membranes that can remove salt, as well as organic and metal contaminants. These ultralong carbon nanotube-based membranes may lead to next-generation rechargeable, point-of-use potable water purification appliances with superior desalination, disinfection and filtration properties. PMID:23941894

Yang, Hui Ying; Han, Zhao Jun; Yu, Siu Fung; Pey, Kin Leong; Ostrikov, Kostya; Karnik, Rohit

2013-01-01

177

Absorption refrigeration method with alternative water-ammonia solution circulation system for microelectronics cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study develops an analytical model of an optimized small scale absorption ammonia\\/water refrigeration system, designed to fit smaller scale power electronics, using a pump to circulate the binary ammonia-water solution cooling agent in the proposed miniaturized system. This continues the authors' previous study of a refrigeration absorption system, by replacing the thermo-siphon and gravitational based circulation of the compensatory

Victor Chiriac; Florea Chiriac

2010-01-01

178

Static Characteristics of Absorption Chiller-Heater Supplying Cold and Hot Water Simultaneously  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absorption chiller-heaters which can supply both chilled water and hot water at the same time, are used for cooling and heating air conditioning systems. In this paper, we classified absorption cold and hot water generating cycles and control methods, studied these absorption cycles by cycle simulation. In economizer cycle, condensed refrigerant which heats hot water is transported to cooling cycle and used effectively for cooling chilled water, Concerning with transported condensed refrigerant, there are two methods, all condensed refrigerant or required refrigerant for cooling are transported to cooling cycle, and required refrigerant method is better for energy saving. Adding improvement of solution control to this economizer cycle, simultaneous cold and hot water supplying chiller-heaters have good characteristics of energy saving in the all region.

Inoue, Naoyuki; Irie, Tomoyoshi

179

Optical absorption properties of water components in Xixi wetland of Hangzhou  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water optical properties are important factors that affect phytoplankton biomass, carbon formation and carbon output of the upper body. Water spectral absorption properties are among the most important inherent optical properties. This paper was a preliminary analysis on spectral absorption properties of water suspended particle, de-pigmented particle, pigment particle and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in main channel of Hangzhou Xixi Wetland National Park phase I. The results indicate that the absorption spectrum of suspended particle is similar to the de-pigmented particle, while the absorption spectrum of pigment particle is almost submerged in the de-pigmented particle; The absorption spectrum of de-pigmented particle and CDOM follows the exponential decay law, the former slope Sd average value of the exponential function in the range of 400-700nm is 9.56+/-0.86?m-1, the latter slope Sgaverage value of the exponential function in the range of 400-500nm is 14.28+/-1.23?m-1. The absorption peak of chlorophyll a of pigment particle near 440nm is virtually not existent and also very weak at 675nm. According to the absorption contribution rate of each component to the total absorption, de-pigmented particle is the greater contributor than pigment particle and CDOM in this field campaign. In addition, according to water mass classification based on the contribution rate of absorption coefficient at 440nm, vast majority of the water body in study area could be classified into the most optical complex water mass type.

Zhou, Fangfang; Zhou, Bin; Zhu, Weiping; Dou, Wenjie; Ling, Zaiying

2010-09-01

180

Conformational Contribution to the Heat Capacity of Starch and Starch-Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heat capacities of starch and starch-water have been measured using adiabatic calorimetry, and standard differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and are reported from 5 K to 510 K. The amorphous starch containing 10 wt water shows a glass transition around 350 K. The heat capacities of the solid of amorphous, dry starch is linked to an approximate group vibrational spectrum, and the Tarasov equation is used to estimate the heat capacity contribution due to skeletal vibrations ( theta1 = 830 K and theta2 = 85 K theta3 = 85 K, Nskeletal = 17). The calculated and experimental heat capacities agree to better than ±3between 5 and 250 K. The experimental heat capacities of starch-water and dry starch are compared over the whole range of temperatures. Above the glass transition the differences are interpreted as contributions of different conformational heat capacities from interacting chain of carbohydrate with water. The conformational part is evaluated from a fit of the experimental Cp of starch-water, decreased by the vibrational and the external Cp to a one-dimensional Ising model with two discrete states and stiffness, cooperativity, and degeneracy parameters. NSF, Polymers Program, DMR-9703692, and the Div. of Mat. Sci., BES, DOE at ORNL, managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp., DE-AC05-96OR22464.

Pyda, Marek; Wunderlich, Bernhard

2000-03-01

181

Transporters involved in glucose and water absorption in the Dysdercus peruvianus (Hemiptera: Pyrrhocoridae) anterior midgut.  

PubMed

Little is known about insect intestinal sugar absorption, in spite of the recent findings, and even less has been published regarding water absorption. The aim of this study was to shed light on putative transporters of water and glucose in the insect midgut. Glucose and water absorptions by the anterior ventriculus of Dysdercus peruvianus midgut were determined by feeding the insects with a glucose and a non-absorbable dye solution, followed by periodical dissection of insects and analysis of ventricular contents. Glucose absorption decreases glucose/dye ratios and water absorption increases dye concentrations. Water and glucose transports are activated (water 50%, glucose 33%) by 50 mM K(2)SO(4) and are inhibited (water 46%, glucose 82%) by 0.2 mM phloretin, the inhibitor of the facilitative hexose transporter (GLUT) or are inhibited (water 45%, glucose 35%) by 0.1 mM phlorizin, the inhibitor of the Na(+)-glucose cotransporter (SGLT). The results also showed that the putative SGLT transports about two times more water relative to glucose than the putative GLUT. These results mean that D. peruvianus uses a GLUT-like transporter and an SGLT-like transporter (with K(+) instead of Na(+)) to absorb dietary glucose and water. A cDNA library from D. peruvianus midgut was screened and we found one sequence homologous to GLUT1, named DpGLUT, and another to a sodium/solute symporter, named DpSGLT. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR studies revealed that DpGLUT and DpSGLTs mRNA were expressed in the anterior midgut, where glucose and water are absorbed, but not in fat body, salivary gland and Malpighian tubules. This is the first report showing the involvement of putative GLUT and SGLT in both water and glucose midgut absorption in insects. PMID:20570749

Bifano, Thaís D; Alegria, Thiago G P; Terra, Walter R

2010-06-04

182

Water vapor absorption into amorphous sucrose-poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) and trehalose-poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) mixtures.  

PubMed

Previous studies from this laboratory suggested that a solution model (Flory-Huggins equation) modified by a free volume model (Vrentas equation) could satisfactorily describe water absorption into an amorphous solid composed of a sugar or a polymer. This paper has extended the studies of single solutes to binary mixtures of trehalose-and sucrose-poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (trehalose-PVP and sucrose-PVP, respectively) either co-lyophilized or individually lyophilized and then physically mixed. Water vapor absorption isotherms of the binary mixtures were determined at 30 degrees C. Co-lyophilized PVP-sugar mixtures take up essentially the same amount of water as predicted by the weight average of individual isotherms, whereas sugar crystallization is significant retarded in the molecular dispersions. The sugar-PVP interaction, as reflected in the Flory-Huggins chi interaction parameter, was estimated by fitting the high relative pressure (p/p(0)) region of the isotherm, at which the system is in a liquid state, with a three-component Flory-Huggins-type model. The estimated sugar-water PVP-water, and sugar-PVP interaction parameters suggest that the solute-water interactions are not significantly affected by the sugar-PVP interaction; that is, the solute-water interaction parameters in a binary solute system are similar to those in the corresponding single solute systems. Based on these interaction parameters, the sucrose-PVP interaction appears to be stronger than that of trehalose-PVP. Manipulation of the interaction parameters suggest that the water vapor absorption isotherm is not a sensitive indicator of possible sugar-PVP interactions. Density, glass transition temperature, T(g), and the heat capacity change, DeltaC(p), at T(g) were determined to estimate the excess water absorption energy due to the plasticizing effect of water using the structural relaxation model, as described by Vrentas. Results suggest that PVP is a better antiplasticizer for sucrose than for trehalose. Consequently, the excess free energy arising from structural relaxation was disproportionally reduced by the presence of PVP in these molecular dispersions. Finally, the entire isotherms of co-lyophilized sugar-PVP mixtures are reasonably described with an extended three-component Flory-Huggins model and Vrentas glass structural relaxation model. PMID:11745790

Zhang, J; Zografi, G

2001-09-01

183

Water absorption by secondary organic aerosol and its effect on inorganic aerosol behavior  

SciTech Connect

The hygroscopic nature of atmospheric aerosol has generally been associated with its inorganic fraction. In this study, a group contribution method is used to predict the water absorption of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Compared against growth measurements of mixed inorganic-organic particles, this method appears to provide a first-order approximation in predicting SOA water absorption. The growth of common SOA species is predicted to be significantly less than common atmospheric inorganic salts such as (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaCl. Using this group contribution method as a tool in predicting SOA water absorption, an integrated modeling approach is developed combining available SOA and inorganic aerosol models to predict overall aerosol behavior. The effect of SOA on water absorption and nitrate partitioning between the gas and aerosol phases is determined. On average, it appears that SOA accounts for approximately 7% of total aerosol water and increases aerosol nitrate concentrations by approximately 10%. At high relative humidity and low SOA mass fractions, the role of SOA in nitrate partitioning and its contribution to total aerosol water is negligible. However, the water absorption of SOA appears to be less sensitive to changes in relative humidity than that of inorganic species, and thus at low relative humidity and high SOA mass fraction concentrations, SOA is predicted to account for approximately 20% of total aerosol water and a 50% increase in aerosol nitrate concentrations. These findings could improve the results of modeling studies where aerosol nitrate has often been underpredicted.

Ansari, A.S.; Pandis, S.N.

2000-01-01

184

The possibility of using the thermal equation of absorption from the theory of volume filling of micropores for calculation of holding capacity of busofit in thermal vacuum desorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study was carried out to investigate thermal desorption of organic solvents from activated carbon fiber materials (ACFM) of the busofit type in the temperature range of 29 423 K. Comparison of experimental and calculated holding capacities of ACFM has shown that the thermal equation of absorption from the theory of volume filling of micropores can be used for

A. F. Dolidovich; G. S. Akhremkova; T. V. Tumysheva

1997-01-01

185

Beyond R&D activities: the determinants of firms’ absorptive capacity explaining the access to scientific institutes in low–medium-tech contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A firm's search strategy is to use innovation inputs from external sources such as suppliers, clients, competitors, universities and research transfer offices (RTOs) to complement their in-house knowledge. Thus, a firm needs to be capable of identifying and valuing the potential value of certain external knowledge, i.e. absorptive capacity. Most of the studies regarding search patterns are reduced mostly to

Jose-Luis Hervas-Oliver; José Albors-Garrigos; Juan-Jose Baixauli

2011-01-01

186

Beyond R&D activities: the determinants of firms’ absorptive capacity explaining the access to scientific institutes in low–medium-tech contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A firm's search strategy is to use innovation inputs from external sources such as suppliers, clients, competitors, universities and research transfer offices (RTOs) to complement their in-house knowledge. Thus, a firm needs to be capable of identifying and valuing the potential value of certain external knowledge, i.e. absorptive capacity. Most of the studies regarding search patterns are reduced mostly to

Jose-Luis Hervas-Oliver; José Albors-Garrigos; Juan-Jose Baixauli

2012-01-01

187

Water and solute absorption from hypotonic glucose-electrolyte solutions in human jejunum.  

PubMed Central

While oral rehydration therapy with glucose-electrolyte solutions is highly effective, the optimal formulation has not yet been defined. Recent clinical studies suggest that stool volume, and thus water losses, may be reduced if glucose is replaced by a polymeric substrate which reduces osmolality. It is possible that the efficacy of glucose monomer based oral rehydration solutions (ORS) will also improve if osmolality is decreased. Using jejunal triple lumen perfusion in healthy adult volunteers net water and solute absorption were studied from three hypotonic solutions with different sodium concentrations (46, 60, 75 mmol/l) but identical glucose concentrations (90 mmol/l), thus allowing osmolality to rise (210, 240, and 270 mOsm/kg, respectively). Results from these solutions (ORS 45:210, ORS 60:240, and ORS 75:270) were compared with the World Health Organisation oral rehydration solution (WHO-ORS). Greatest water absorption was seen with ORS 60:240 (p less than 0.01). Sodium absorption from ORS 60:240 and WHO-ORS was similar and greater than sodium absorption from ORS 45:210 (p less than 0.05). Potassium and glucose absorption were greater from ORS 60:240 than from any of the other hypotonic solutions (p less than 0.05) and were equal to absorption from WHO-ORS). These results in a short segment of healthy human jejunum suggest that hypotonic ORS containing monomeric glucose may increase water absorption.

Hunt, J B; Elliott, E J; Fairclough, P D; Clark, M L; Farthing, M J

1992-01-01

188

A WATER VAPOR MONITOR USING DIFFERENTIAL INFRARED ABSORPTION  

EPA Science Inventory

A water vapor monitor has been developed with adequate sensitivity and versatility for a variety of applications. Two applications for which the instrument has been designed are the continuous monitoring of water in ambient air and the measuring of the mass of water desorbed from...

189

Absorption capacity of renal proximal tubular cells studied by combined injections of YFP and GFP in Rana temporaria L.  

PubMed

The capacity for protein reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule (PT) was studied in Rana temporaria frogs by separate, simultaneous and sequential introduction of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and green fluorescent protein (GFP). The uptake patterns of YFP and GFP in PT epithelial cells were investigated 15-120min after their bolus intravenous and intraperitoneal injection. As shown by confocal microscopy, the tubular uptake of YFP and GFP was time- and dose-dependent. These proteins are absorbed in similar way and can be accumulated in the same endocytic vesicles after their combined injections. When GFP was injected 30 and 90min before YFP, and vice versa, the number of vesicles with pre-injected protein increased and the percentage of vesicles with colocalized GFP and YFP reduced. At the same time, the uptake rate of a protein injected later progressively and significantly decreased. Subcellular localization of endocytic receptors, megalin and cubilin, in renal PT cells after intravenous YFP introduction were revealed by immunofluorescent microscopy. Colocalization of internalized YFP with megalin or cubilin in the endocytic vesicles was demonstrated. The data suggest the possibility of protein uptake by receptor-mediated endocytosis and the existence of a mechanism limiting the protein absorption rate in wintering frogs. PMID:23719184

Prutskova, N P; Seliverstova, E V

2013-05-26

190

YARD WASTE COMPOST TO ENHANCE SOIL WATER HOLDING CAPACITY IN THE URBAN-RURAL INTERFACE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Yard waste compost (YWC) is a perceived waste product but may be beneficial as a soil amendment to improve soil quality, reduce plant stress under dry conditions, and increase water holding capacity of the soil root zone. Therefore, we quantified the water retention of topsoil-only and YWC-amended ...

191

A procedure to determine the water-binding capacity of meat trimmings for cooked sausage formulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt was made to determine the water-binding capacity of each individual trimming in a multicomponent system. Three types of experimental cooked sausages (finely chopped luncheon sausage, coarsely chopped sausage and ring sausage with potato starch) were made of five different meat trimmings: two pork trimmings and two beef trimmings, and one beef trimming used as a replacer. The water-binding

Petri Pouttu; Eero Puolanne

2004-01-01

192

Equilibrium structural model of liquid water: Evidence from heat capacity, spectra, density, and other properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen bond strength depends on both temperature and pressure. The gradient for hydrogen bond strength with temperature, or pressure, depends upon the hydrogen bonded structure. These features create an intimate connection between quantum mechanics and thermodynamics in the structure of liquid water. The equilibrium structural model of liquid water developed from analysis of the heat capacity at constant pressure is

Ralph C. Dougherty; Louis N. Howard

1998-01-01

193

INFLUENCE OF AQUEOUS ALUMINUM AND ORGANIC ACIDS ON MEASUREMENT OF ACID NEUTRALIZING CAPACITY IN SURFACE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) is used to quantify the acid-base status of surface waters. Acidic waters have bean defined as having ANC values less than zero, and acidification is often quantified by decreases in ANC. Measured and calculated values of ANC generally agree, exce...

194

Influence of Aqueous Aluminum and Organic Acids on Measurement of Acid Neutralizing Capacity in Surface Waters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) is used to quantify the acid-base status of surface waters. Acidic waters have been defined as having ANC values less than zero, and acidification is often quantified by decreases in ANC. Measured and calculated values of ...

T. J. Sullivan C. T. Driscoll S. A. Gherini R. K. Munson R. B. Cook

1989-01-01

195

Water vapor absorption spectrum measurements and its application in concentration measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wavelength tunable distributed feedback laser diode (DFB-LD) were utilized to measure line 1368.597nm and line 1367.862 nm absorption character of water vapor, based on it, water vapor concentration can be measured by peak absorption rate according to Beer-Lambert law. Besides, we observe that the overlap between the line 1368.597nm and line 1367.862 nm appears and become serious with the increase of gas pressure, this agrees well with the theoretical prediction, and the overlap cause difficulty to determine the absorption peak value, a scheme is presented to cope with the difficulty, it takes advantage of the peak absorption difference between 1368.597nm and 1367.862 nm, and the difference value is used to calculate the water-vapor concentration.

Chang, Jun; Chen, Kun; Zhou, Guoqing; Lv, Guangping; Zhu, Cunguang; Wang, Zhongliang; Song, Fujun; Song, Haiyong; Tian, Junqiang; Hou, Wenjia; Huang, Jiaqing

2012-01-01

196

Determination of RW3-to-water mass-energy absorption coefficient ratio for absolute dosimetry.  

PubMed

The measurement of absorbed dose to water in a solid-phantom may require a conversion factor because it may not be radiologically equivalent to water. One phantom developed for the use of dosimetry is a solid water, RW3 white-polystyrene material by IBA. This has a lower mass-energy absorption coefficient than water due to high bremsstrahlung yield, which affects the accuracy of absolute dosimetry measurements. In this paper, we demonstrate the calculation of mass-energy absorption coefficient ratios, relative to water, from measurements in plastic water and RW3 with an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator (6 and 10 MV photon beams) as well as Monte Carlo modeling in BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc. From this, the solid-phantom-to-water correction factor was determined for plastic water and RW3. PMID:21960410

Seet, Katrina Y T; Hanlon, Peta M; Charles, Paul H

2011-09-30

197

Absorption cross sections for water vapor from 183 to 193 nm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absorption cross sections for water vapor at 184.9 nm were measured using a standard low-pressure mercury lamp light source, optically filtered to isolate the spectral region near the emission line. The light from the source was detected using a solar-blind phototube. Experiments were performed over a wide range of water column amounts, using neat water vapor and water vapor\\/nitrogen mixtures,

Christopher A. Cantrell; Audrey Zimmer; Geoffrey S. Tyndall

1997-01-01

198

Seasonal variability of light absorption properties and water optical constituents in Hudson Bay, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have shown that the properties of optically significant water constituents (phytoplankton, suspended matter, and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM)) in Hudson Bay are different from other Arctic regions. A new bio-optical data set collected in summer 2010 shows that this region also presents seasonal variability of the light absorption coefficients by the different constituents, with a higher relative proportion of CDOM absorption in summer than in the fall as a result of decreased phytoplankton absorption in summer. The slope of the exponential function describing nonalgal particles and CDOM spectral absorption shows little variability between fall and summer. Seasonal variability of light absorption coefficients and water optical constituents is more pronounced near the coast, while less variability is observed in the central part of the bay. Very low summertime chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients by phytoplankton, among the lowest reported in the literature, are attributed to the high proportion of large size phytoplankton (microphytoplankton) and important packaging effect. There is also a smaller contribution of accessory pigments to total pigments in the summer than in the fall, resulting in a lower blue-to-red phytoplankton absorption ratio. These results emphasize that it is necessary to take into account the seasonal variability of light absorption properties in bio-optical models for further remote sensing applications in Hudson Bay.

Xi, Hongyan; Larouche, Pierre; Tang, Shilin; Michel, Christine

2013-06-01

199

Photonic crystal slot waveguide for high sensitivity on-chip near-infrared optical absorption spectroscopy of xylene in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally demonstrate a 300?m long silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide for on-chip near-infrared absorption spectroscopy. Based on the Beer-Lambert absorption law, our device combines slow light in photonic crystal waveguide with high electric field intensity in low-index 75nm wide slot, which effectively increases the optical absorption path length of the analyte. We demonstrate near-infrared absorption spectroscopy of xylene in water, independent of near-infrared absorption signatures of water, with a hydrophobic PDMS sensing phase that extracts xylene from water. Xylene concentrations up to 100ppb (parts per billion) (86?g/L) in water were measured.

Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Lai, Wei-Cheng; Wang, Xiaolong; Lin, Che-Yun; Chen, Ray T.

2011-05-01

200

Ozone absorption in water: Mass transfer and solubility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass Transfer of ozone absorbed by water in a semi-continuous stirred reactor is studied at the lab scale. Experimental investigation using a complete factorial scheme shows a predominant effect of agitation speed and gas flow and results in a correlation for the mass transfer coefficient, kâa. Solubility of ozone in water is estimated by evaluation of an apparent Henry's law

A. Ouederni; J. C. Mora; R. S. Bes

2009-01-01

201

Ozone Absorption in Water: Mass Transfer and Solubility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass Transfer of ozone absorbed by water in a semi-comtinuous stirred reactor is studied at the lab scale. Experimental investigation using a complete factorial scheme shows a predominant effect of agitation speed and gas flow and results in a correlation for the mass transfer coefficient, k1a. Solubility of ozone in water is estimated by evaluation of an apparent Henry's law

A. Ouederni; J. C. Mora; R. S. Bes

1987-01-01

202

Water Absorption Behavior and Its Influence on Properties of GRP Pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid development of glass-fiber reinforced plastic (GRP) pipes in civil infrastructure under different environments, it is essential to understand the fundamental mechanisms responsible for the pipe failure. However, research reports on water absorption behavior and its influence on the performance of GRP pipe are few in the literatures. This study provides test results of water diffusion in a

J. Yao; G. Ziegmann

2007-01-01

203

Solar operated water-ammonia absorption heat pump for air-conditioning - Modelling and simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is devoted to the mathematical modelling of an ammonia---water absorption heat pump adapted to solar air-conditioning and including refrigerant and solution storages. Mathematical simulation permits the prediction of the performance of the system during a 24-h period and allows one to estimate its energetic performance, which is compared with those of systems using water-lithium bromide.

E. Brousse; B. Claudel; J. P. Martine

1983-01-01

204

Nitrogen oxide, water vapor, noctilucent clouds, and radio wave emission and absorption near the mesopause  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with new methods of detecting nitrogen oxide and water vapor near the mesopause from its emissions. It is shown that changes in water vapor concentration are primarily responsible for ionospheric absorption variations in the D region that are not associated with chromospheric flares and entries of ionizing particles.

V. I. Krasovskii; Z. Ts. Rapoport; A. I. Semenov; V. G. Sobolev; N. N. Shefov

1980-01-01

205

Spectral absorption by marine particles of coastal waters of Baja California  

Microsoft Academic Search

During March 1979 spectral absorptance for the suspended particles of the coastal waters of Baja California was determined by measuring the diffuse transmittance of filters containing the particles with a simply designed spectrophotometer. The absorptancc for the upper water of 20 stations varied by over an order of magnitude, but the spectra were generally similar in shape and indicated that

DALE A. KIEFER; JANICE BEELER SOOHOO

1982-01-01

206

Absorption of airborne molecular iodine by water sprays. [I2WASH  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer model, I2WASH, which accounts for the effect of hydrolysis reactions between molecular iodine and water, has been developed to predict the rate of removal of gaseous molecular iodine by water sprays. It has been shown that the hydrolysis reactions can affect the concentration driving force of mass transfer for molecular iodine absorption. Thus, factors that affect the hydrolysis

M. F. Albert; R. P. Wichner; P. K. Baumgarten

1986-01-01

207

Determination of Metallic Elements in Water by the Combined Preconcentration Techniques of Ion Exchange and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Having as an aim the utilization of atomic absorption method with flame's excitement, the limits of detection in water of six metals (Ag, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn) were determined in synthetic samples through atomic absorption spectroscopy. Techniques to optimi...

M. H. Paula

1981-01-01

208

The enthalpy and heat capacity characteristics of the water-N,N-dimethylpropyleneurea system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variable-temperature isothermic-shell calorimeter was used to measure the heat effects of dissolution of N,N-dimethylpropyleneurea (DMPU) in the water-N,N-dimethylpropyleneurea system at 298 and 313 K over the interval of compositions x 2 = 0-0.1 mole fractions. The partial molar enthalpies of mixture components and the enthalpies and heat capacities of mixing were calculated. The results were compared with the data on water-amide systems. The exothermic effect of mixing of nonelectrolytes with water was found to increase in the series dimethylformamide < dimethylacetamide ˜ DMPU < hexamethylphosphorotriamide (HMPT). The McMillan-Mayer formalism was used to determine the enthalpy and heat capacity parameters of pair and three-particle interactions between DMPU molecules in water. The behavior of DMPU in water was to a substantial extent determined by hydrophobic interactions between nonpolar molecule moieties. This interaction was, however, noticeably weaker than in solutions of HMPT.

Kustov, A. V.; Smirnova, N. L.

2011-01-01

209

Effect of alpha-glucosidehydrolase inhibition and intestinal absorption of sucrose, water, and sodium in man.  

PubMed Central

The effect of a new complex oligosaccharide exhibiting potent inhibitory action on alpha-glucoside hydrolases on intestinal absorption of sucrose in man was tested by constant in vivo perfusion of the jejunum. At concentrations of 4.65 or 15.5 X 10(-6)M the alpha-glucosidehydrolase inhibitor (alpha-GHI) markedly inhibited absorption of glucose from sucrose and absorption of sodium and water. Oral administration of the alpha-GHI resulted as well in depression of solute, sodium, and water absorption. This new compound can serve as an interesting tool to induce carbohydrate malabsorption by inhibition of final digestion and may possibly be of beneficial therapeutic effect in dietary control of diabetes or obesity.

Caspary, W F; Kalisch, H

1979-01-01

210

Water Absorption into Construction Materials: Comparison of Neutron Radiography Data with Network Absorption Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different porous building materials have been previously measured and analysed (El-Abd and Milczarek, 2004, IEEE Trans. Nuclear Sci.; El-Abd et al., 2004, J. Phys. D) using neutron radiography to measure the water front position over time. The results from this experimental approach show\\u000a a similar behaviour to the predictions from idealised model structures, in that there is a cross

Cathy J. Ridgway; Patrick A. C. Gane; Abd El-Ghany El Abd; Andrzej Czachor

2006-01-01

211

Measurements and modeling of solar spectral absorption by liquid water clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cloud absorption of solar radiation has been a controversial topic from the earliest attempts at reconciling aircraft measurements with theoretical calculations of cloud absorption. The measurement of cloud absorption from aircraft above and below a cloud layer (flux divergence) is made difficult by issues of cloud heterogeneity, aircraft coordination, and the radiometric accuracy of the instrumentation. Additionally, nearly all previous measurements of cloud absorption have been made with broadband radiometers. Broadband measurements are fundamentally incapable of distinguishing between the various absorbing constituents, namely, cloud liquid water, gases (most importantly, water vapor), and aerosol particles. Thus, the interpretation of the broadband measurements is problematic. Here we report on spectrally resolved (400-2100 nm, 416 channels) cloud absorption measurements from the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) from two extensive Pacific marine stratus cloud systems encountered during the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling Experiment (TC4). Measurements of cloud spectral absorptance are compared with detailed plane-parallel radiative transfer calculations. For a high optical thickness and spatially uniform cloud case, the agreement between measurement and model absorptance across the spectrum is better than 0.05, and better than 0.01 in the visible. A lower optical thickness case shows slightly larger residuals between measurement and model. Measurements and modeling are used to illustrate and quantify the various mechanisms of cloud layer absorption including the role of aerosols. A novel technique for single aircraft flux divergence measurements based on conditional sampling (Marshak, 1999) is also presented. The technique uses randomized pairs of above- and below-cloud net irradiances matched at a single non-absorbing wavelength to account for cloud net horizontal divergence. Statistics are calculated from these pairs for the complete spectral range, giving an estimate of the entire cloud scene spectral absorptance. Spectral absorptance measurements of the same cloud scene made from two aircraft with large vertical separation are shown to give less robust results.

Kindel, B. C.; Pilewskie, P.; Schmidt, S.; Coddington, O.

2010-12-01

212

Absorption efficiencies and biochemical fractionation of assimilated compounds in the cold water appendicularian Oikopleura vanhoeffeni  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using 68 Ge : 14 C dual-labeling, we investigated the absorption efficiency of diatom carbon for the cold water appendicularian Oikopleura vanhoeffeni.The absorption efficiency of bulk carbon (mean5 67%) was not influenced by body size or ingestion rate. For the first time for a pelagic tunicate, food and feces were fractionated into their major biochemical constituents (i.e., low-molecular-weight compounds, lipid,

Alexander B. Bochdansky; Don Deibel; Richard B. Rivkin

1999-01-01

213

A numerical model for ammonia–water absorption into a constrained microscale film  

Microsoft Academic Search

A one-dimensional, steady state model for absorption of ammonia vapor into a constrained microscale film is presented. A weak solution of ammonia–water flows in a microchannel into which ammonia vapor bubbles are injected in cross flow from a porous wall. A counter flowing coolant solution removes the heat generated due to absorption from the opposite wall. The 1-D, steady state

Ruander Cardenas; Vinod Narayanan

2010-01-01

214

Solvation thermodynamics and heat capacity of polar and charged solutes in water.  

PubMed

The solvation thermodynamics and in particular the solvation heat capacity of polar and charged solutes in water is studied using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. As ionic solutes we consider a F(-) and a Na(+) ion, as an example for a polar molecule with vanishing net charge we take a SPC/E water molecule. The partial charges of all three solutes are varied in a wide range by a scaling factor. Using a recently introduced method for the accurate determination of the solvation free energy of polar solutes, we determine the free energy, entropy, enthalpy, and heat capacity of the three different solutes as a function of temperature and partial solute charge. We find that the sum of the solvation heat capacities of the Na(+) and F(-) ions is negative, in agreement with experimental observations, but our results uncover a pronounced difference in the heat capacity between positively and negatively charged groups. While the solvation heat capacity ?C(p) stays positive and even increases slightly upon charging the Na(+) ion, it decreases upon charging the F(-) ion and becomes negative beyond an ion charge of q = -0.3e. On the other hand, the heat capacity of the overall charge-neutral polar solute derived from a SPC/E water molecule is positive for all charge scaling factors considered by us. This means that the heat capacity of a wide class of polar solutes with vanishing net charge is positive. The common ascription of negative heat capacities to polar chemical groups might arise from the neglect of non-additive interaction effects between polar and apolar groups. The reason behind this non-additivity is suggested to be related to the second solvation shell that significantly affects the solvation thermodynamics and due to its large spatial extent induces quite long-ranged interactions between solvated molecular parts and groups. PMID:23534665

Sedlmeier, Felix; Netz, Roland R

2013-03-21

215

Solvation thermodynamics and heat capacity of polar and charged solutes in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solvation thermodynamics and in particular the solvation heat capacity of polar and charged solutes in water is studied using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. As ionic solutes we consider a F- and a Na+ ion, as an example for a polar molecule with vanishing net charge we take a SPC/E water molecule. The partial charges of all three solutes are varied in a wide range by a scaling factor. Using a recently introduced method for the accurate determination of the solvation free energy of polar solutes, we determine the free energy, entropy, enthalpy, and heat capacity of the three different solutes as a function of temperature and partial solute charge. We find that the sum of the solvation heat capacities of the Na+ and F- ions is negative, in agreement with experimental observations, but our results uncover a pronounced difference in the heat capacity between positively and negatively charged groups. While the solvation heat capacity ?Cp stays positive and even increases slightly upon charging the Na+ ion, it decreases upon charging the F- ion and becomes negative beyond an ion charge of q = -0.3e. On the other hand, the heat capacity of the overall charge-neutral polar solute derived from a SPC/E water molecule is positive for all charge scaling factors considered by us. This means that the heat capacity of a wide class of polar solutes with vanishing net charge is positive. The common ascription of negative heat capacities to polar chemical groups might arise from the neglect of non-additive interaction effects between polar and apolar groups. The reason behind this non-additivity is suggested to be related to the second solvation shell that significantly affects the solvation thermodynamics and due to its large spatial extent induces quite long-ranged interactions between solvated molecular parts and groups.

Sedlmeier, Felix; Netz, Roland R.

2013-03-01

216

Absorption spectrum (380 -700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Definitive data on the absorption spectrum of pure water from 380 to 700 nm have been obtained with an integrating cavity technique. The results are in good agreement with those recently obtained by our group with a completely independent photothermal technique. As before, we find that the absorption in the blue is significantly lower than had previously been generally believed and that the absorption minimum is at a significantly shorter wavelength, i.e., 0.0044 -/+ 0.0006 m-1 at 418 nm. Several spectroscopic features have been identified in the visible spectrum to our knowledge for the first time.

Pope, Robin M.; Fry, Edward S.

1997-11-01

217

Absorption spectrum (380-700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements.  

PubMed

Definitive data on the absorption spectrum of pure water from 380 to 700 nm have been obtained with an integrating cavity technique. The results are in good agreement with those recently obtained by our group with a completely independent photothermal technique. As before, we find that the absorption in the blue is significantly lower than had previously been generally believed and that the absorption minimum is at a significantly shorter wavelength, i.e., 0.0044 ? 0.0006 m(-1) at 418 nm. Several spectroscopic features have been identified in the visible spectrum to our knowledge for the first time. PMID:18264420

Pope, R M; Fry, E S

1997-11-20

218

Monitoring of Water Content And Frozen State by using Millimeter Wave Absorption Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, we built an experimental setup for measuring the water content in plants and food, and for determining the water/ice state of a sample. The setup consists of a 35 GHz Gunn oscillator producing about 10 mW of output power, two horn antennas and a power meter. We have checked that the absorption of a leaf is directly proportional to its water content, and we could show how changes of the water content depend on photosynthesis, by intermittent illumination with a white fluorescent lamp. In another direction of research, we verified that the difference in the absorption coefficients for water and ice is significant, and we could discriminate and monitor the frozen state of water and food material. All these experiments demonstrate the possibility of applying millimeter waves to fields such as botany, agriculture, and food industry.

Mizuno, Maya; Shindo, Kenji; Ogawa, Yuichi; Otani, Chiko; Kawase, Kodo

219

Development of an Integrating Cavity Absorption Meter to Measure Optical Absorption of Pure Waters and Suspended Particulates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Integrating Cavity Absorption Meter (ICAM) provides an instrument capable of measuring optical absorption independent of scattering effects. The measurement of optical absorption has always been complicated by scattering effects. The most common and p...

R. M. Pope

1990-01-01

220

Conformational Contribution to the Heat Capacity of Interacting System of Carbohydrate Polymer - Water.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the measured heat capacities of amorphous, dry starch and starch with low concentration of water above the partial glass transition of starch, the calculated Cp has been estimated from its vibrational, external, and conformational contributions. The conformational part is evaluated from a fit of the experimental Cp of starch and starch-water, decreased by the vibrational and the external Cp to a one-dimensional Ising-type model for two discrete states, and stiffness, cooperativity, and degeneracy parameters. These differences above the glass transition are interpreted as contributions of different conformational heat capacities from interacting chains of carbohydrate with water. The vibrational contribution was calculated as the heat capacity contributions from group and skeletal vibrations. The external contribution was computed based on thermal expansivity and compressibility as a function of temperature from experimental data of the partial liquid state of both dry starch and starch-water. The calculated and experimental heat capacities of starch-water and dry starch are compared over the whole range of temperatures measurements from 8 to 490 K. NSF, Polymers Program, DMR-9703692, and the Div. of Mat. Sci., BES, DOE at ORNL, managed UT-Batelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy, under contract number DOE- AC05-00OR22725.

Pyda, Marek; Wunderlich, Bernhard

2001-03-01

221

Conformational Heat Capacity of Liquid Biodegradable Polymers in the Absence and Presence Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conformational heat capacity of biodegradable polymers such as amorphous poly(lactic acid) PLA and starch with and without water have been evaluated from a fit of experimental data to a one-dimensional Ising-like model for two discrete states, characterized by parameters linked to stiffness, cooperativity, and degeneracy. For the starch-water system the additional changes in the conformational heat capacity arise from the interaction of the carbohydrate chains with water. The liquid heat capacities at constant pressure Cp, of amorphous PLA and partially liquid state of starch, starch-water have been computed as the sum of vibrational, external, and conformational contributions. The vibrational contribution was calculated as the heat capacity arising from group and skeletal vibrations. The external contribution was estimated from experimental data of the thermal expansivity and compressibility in the liquid state. The experimental liquid Cp agrees with these calculations to better than ±3%. The calculated liquid Cp with the solid Cp was employed in the quantitative thermal analysis of the experimental Cp of biodegradable polymer PLA, starch, and starch-water. Supported by European Union, grant (MIRG-CT-2006-036558), Cargill Dow LLC

Pyda, Marek; Nowak-Pyda, Elzbieta

2007-03-01

222

Low-Dimensional Water on Ru(0001); Model System for X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Studies of Liquid Water  

SciTech Connect

We present an x-ray absorption spectroscopy results for fully broken to a complete H-bond network of water molecules on Ru(0001) by varying the morphology from isolated water molecules via two-dimensional clusters to a fully covered monolayer as probed by scanning tunneling microscopy. The sensitivity of x-ray absorption to the symmetry of H-bonding is further elucidated for the amino (-NH{sub 2}) group in glycine adsorbed on Cu(110) where the E-vector is parallel either to the NH donating an H-bond or to the non-H-bonded NH. The results give further evidence for the interpretation of the various spectral features of liquid water and for the general applicability of x-ray absorption spectroscopy to analyze H-bonded systems.

Nordlund, D.; Ogasawara, H.; Andersson, K.J.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Salmeron, M.; Pettersson, L. G. M.; Nilsson, A.

2009-05-11

223

Photonic crystal slot waveguide absorption spectrometer for on-chip near-infrared spectroscopy of xylene in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally demonstrate a 300 ?m long silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide near-infrared absorption spectrometer. Based on Beer-Lambert absorption law, our on-chip absorption spectrometer combines slow light in a photonic crystal waveguide with a high electric field intensity in a low-index 75 nm wide slot, which effectively increases the optical absorption path length of the analyte. We demonstrate near-infrared absorption spectroscopy of xylene in water, with a polydimethyl siloxane sensing phase for xylene extraction from water. Xylene concentrations up to 100 ppb (parts per billion) (86 ?g/l) in water were measured.

Lai, Wei-Cheng; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Wang, Xiaolong; Lin, Cheyun; Chen, Ray T.

2011-01-01

224

Origin of the Low Frequency Sound Absorption in Sea Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Temperature-jump measurements in sea water over the time domain 0.00001 to 0.01 sec reveal a single relaxation of 0.00015 sec at 9.7C, which appears to correspond to the approximately 1 kHz relaxation found from long range sound propagation. Laboratory me...

E. Yeager F. Fisher J. Miceli R. Bressel

1973-01-01

225

Origin of the Low Frequency Sound Absorption in Sea Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Temperature-jump measurements in sea water over the time domain 1/10,000 to 1/100 sec reveal a single relaxation of 150 micro at 9.7C, which appears to correspond to the approximately 1 kHz relaxation found from long range sound propagation. Laboratory me...

E. Yeager F. H. Fisher J. Miceli R. Bressel

1972-01-01

226

ABSORPTION OF LEAD FROM DRINKING WATER WITH VARYING MINERAL CONTENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Lead (Pb) (200 ppm) was administered via drinking water to rats for nine weeks. In addition, the rats were grouped so that they received 75, 100, 150 and 250% of the minimum daily requirements (MDR) of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), and magnesium (Mg) as required for normal growth. The...

227

Evaluation of suitable spectral intervals for near-IR laboratory detection of water vapour continuum absorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water vapour continuum absorption is an important component of molecular absorption of radiation in atmosphere. However, uncertainty in knowledge of the value of the continuum absorption at present can achieve 100% in different spectral regions leading to an error in flux calculation up to 3 5 W/m2 global mean. This work uses line-by-line calculations to reveal the best spectral intervals for experimental verification of the CKD water vapour continuum models in the currently least-studied near-infrared spectral region. Possible sources of errors in continuum retrieval taken into account in the simulation include the sensitivity of laboratory spectrometers and uncertainties in the spectral line parameters in HITRAN-2004 and Schwenke Partridge database. It is shown that a number of micro-windows in near-IR can be used at present for laboratory detection of the water vapour continuum with estimated accuracy from 30% to 5%.

Ptashnik, Igor V.

2007-11-01

228

Parameterization of the Mie Extinction and Absorption Coefficients for Water Clouds.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was found that the anomalous diffraction approximation (ADA) could be made to approximate Mie theory for absorption and extinction in water clouds by parameterizing the missing physics: 1) internal reflection/refraction, 2) photon tunneling, and 3) edge diffraction. Tunneling here refers to processes by which tangential or grazing photons beyond the physical cross section of a spherical particle may be absorbed. Contributions of the above processes to extinction and/or absorption were approximated in terms of particle size, index of refraction, and wavelength. It was found that tunneling can explain most of the difference between ADA and Mie theory for water clouds in the thermal IR.The modified ADA yielded analytical expressions for the absorption and extinction efficiencies, Qabs and Qext, which were integrated over a gamma size distribution to yield expressions for the absorption and extinction coefficients, abs and ext. These coefficients were expressed in terms of the three gamma distribution parameters, which were related to measured properties of the size distribution: liquid water content, mean, and mass-median diameter. Errors relative to Mie theory for abs and ext were generally 10% for the effective radius range in water clouds of 5-30 m, for any wavelength in the solar or terrestrial spectrum. For broadband emissivities and absorptivities regarding terrestrial and solar radiation, the errors were less than 1.2% and 4%, respectively. The modified ADA dramatically reduces computation times relative to Mie theory while yielding reasonably accurate results.

Mitchell, David L.

2000-05-01

229

An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Empirical algorithms for the total absorption coefficient and absorption coefficient by pigments for surface waters at 440 nm were developed by applying a quadratic formula that combines two spectral ratios of remote-sensing reflectance. For total absorption coefficients ranging from 0.02 to 2.0 m-1, a goodness of fit was achieved between the measured and modeled data with a root-mean-square difference between the measured and modeled values for logl0 scale (RMSDlog10) of 0.062 (15.3% for linear scale, number of samples N = 63), while RMSDlog10 is 0.111 (29.1% for linear scale, N = 126) for pigment absorption (ranging from 0.01 to 1.0 m-1). As alternatives to pigment concentration algorithms, the absorption algorithms developed can be applied to the coastal zone color scanner and sea-viewing wide-field-of-view sensor data to derive inherent optical properties of the ocean. For the same data sets, we also directly related the chlorophyll a concentrations to the spectral ratios and obtained an RMSDlog10 value of 0.218 (65.2% for linear scale, N = 120) for concentrations ranging from 0.06 to 50.0 mg m-3. These results indicate that it is more accurate to estimate the absorption coefficients than the pigment concentrations from remotely sensed data. This is likely due to the fact that for the broad range of waters studied the pigment-specific absorption coefficient at 440 nm ranged from 0.02 to 0.2 m2 (mg chl)-1. As an indirect test of the algorithms developed, the chlorophyll a concentration algorithm is applied to an independent global data set and an RMSDlog10 of 0.191 (55.2% for linear scale, N = 919) is obtained. There is no independent global absorption data set available as yet to test the absorption algorithms.

Lee, Z. P.; Carder, K. L.; Steward, R. G.; Peacock, T. G.; Davis, C. O.; Patch, J. S.

1998-11-01

230

Investigation of the Capacity of Underground Water Pumping Using Wind Energy in Dhahran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity of pumping ground water with wind energy conversion systems in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia was statistically analyzed.\\u000a Experimental data of half-hourly wind energy measurements made for a period of 5 years (1995–2000) were used in the analysis.\\u000a Seven horizontal-axis wind turbines with different power ratings were considered in the study. Eight water pumps with different\\u000a power ratings to be powered

Ahmet Z. Sahin; Ahmet Bolat; Abdulrahman Al-Ahmari

231

The possibility of using the thermal equation of absorption from the theory of volume filling of micropores for calculation of holding capacity of busofit in thermal vacuum desorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study was carried out to investigate thermal desorption of organic solvents from activated carbon fiber materials\\u000a (ACFM) of the busofit type in the temperature range of 29–423 K. Comparison of experimental and calculated holding capacities\\u000a of ACFM has shown that the thermal equation of absorption from the theory of volume filling of micropores can be used for\\u000a estimation

A. F. Dolidovich; G. S. Akhremkova; T. V. Tumysheva

1997-01-01

232

The Effect of Heat on Structural Characteristics and Water Absorption Behavior of Agave Fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural characteristics and water absorptions behavior agave fibers were investigated over a range of temperature by using XRD, IR, TG and gravimetric methods. Three distinct thermal processes were observed during heating the fiber in the temperature range 310-760 K in air, oxygen and nitrogen invariably. The cellulose structures of the fibers were unaffected on heating up to 450 K. The samples showed thermal decomposition processes beyond 500 K. Fibers displayed a two-stage diffusion behavior. The structural parameters and kinetic of water absorption of the fibers at specific temperatures were analyzed.

Saikia, Dip

2008-04-01

233

Investigation of alpha and beta self-absorption factors in the calibration of water sample measurements.  

PubMed

Detector efficiencies and self-absorption factors for a variety of sample preparation methods and naturally occurring dissolved ions have been studied for the gross alpha and gross beta measurement of water samples. The most consistent results are obtained for samples prepared by evaporation of small volumes of water under an infrared lamp. Due to its uniform and homogeneous deposition in the cupped stainless steel planchet, CaCO? was found to best serve as the dry residue radionuclide carrier in this study. Detector efficiencies and self-absorption factors for gross alpha and gross beta measurements closely follow the expected exponential and logarithmic dependence, respectively. PMID:22739965

Valentin, C P; Kratky, J; Brandl, A

2012-08-01

234

Landscape influences on soil nitrogen supply and water holding capacity for irrigated corn  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water and nitrogen (N) supply to a crop can interact throughout the growing season to influence yield potential. The increasing availability of variable rate irrigation systems to growers in irrigated regions, along with existing capacity for variable rate fertilization, provides the opportunity for...

235

Role of protein solubility in water-holding capacity of broiler breast meat.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The role muscle protein denaturation plays in determining water-holding capacity (WHC) in broiler breast meat is not well understood. Alterations in muscle protein solubility due to postmortem pH and temperature decline can be used as indicators of protein denaturation. In order to determine the i...

236

Derivation of soil water capacity parameters from standard soil texture information for Bulgarian soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prediction of total porosity and volumetric water content at field capacity, and permanent wilting point have been evaluated for their possible applicability to supply important missing soil information. The results were compared to the experimental data from Bulgaria. Also the possibility is explored to convert soil particle size distribution data as determined according to the soil standards in Bulgaria to

Boyko Kolev; Svetla Rousseva; Dimitar Dimitrov

1996-01-01

237

Comparison of available soil water capacity estimated from topography and soil series information  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simple and generalized method to predict Available Soil Water Capacity (ASWC-TOP) for a given area using a topographic index, defined as ln(?\\/tan?), where ? is the upslope area draining past a certain point per unit width of slope, and ? is the local surface slope angle. The estimated results (ASWC-TOP) were then compared with the available soil

Daolan Zheng; E. R. Hunt; Steven W. Running

1996-01-01

238

Mechanisms of water-holding capacity of meat: The role of postmortem biochemical and structural changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unacceptable water-holding capacity costs the meat industry millions of dollars annually. However, limited progress has been made toward understanding the mechanisms that underlie the development of drip or purge. It is clear that early postmortem events including rate and extent of pH decline, proteolysis and even protein oxidation are key in influencing the ability of meat to retain moisture. Much

Elisabeth Huff-Lonergan; Steven M. Lonergan

2005-01-01

239

Effect of water content on specific heat capacity of porcine septum cartilage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of water content on specific heat capacity was examined using temperature modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TMDSC). This research was motivated in part by the development laser cartilage reshaping operations, which use photothermal heating to accelerate stress relaxation and shape change. Deposition of thermal energy leads to mechanical stress relaxation and redistribution of cartilage internal stresses, which may lead

Yongseok Chae; Enrique J. Lavernia; Brian J. Wong

2002-01-01

240

Improvement in Water-Holding Capacity and Structural Stability of a Sandy Soil in Northeast Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light textured sandy soils in northeast Thailand are often highly weathered and degraded resulting in low nutrient and water holding capacities. The latter is further complicated by the structural instability of these soils. Field based soil amelioration studies were undertaken in order to evaluate local traditional practices currently adopted by farmers and innovative approaches to improve the productivity of these

Shinji Suzuki; Andrew D. Noble; Sawaeng Ruaysoongnern; Narong Chinabut

2007-01-01

241

Specific absorption and backscatter coefficient signatures in southeastern Atlantic coastal waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of natural water samples in the field and laboratory of hyperspectral signatures of total absorption and reflectance were obtained using long pathlength absorption systems (50 cm pathlength). Water was sampled in Indian River Lagoon, Banana River and Port Canaveral, Florida. Stations were also occupied in near coastal waters out to the edge of the Gulf Stream in the vicinity of Kennedy Space Center, Florida and estuarine waters along Port Royal Sound and along the Beaufort River tidal area in South Carolina. The measurements were utilized to calculate natural water specific absorption, total backscatter and specific backscatter optical signatures. The resulting optical cross section signatures suggest different models are needed for the different water types and that the common linear model may only appropriate for coastal and oceanic water types. Mean particle size estimates based on the optical cross section, suggest as expected, that particle size of oceanic particles are smaller than more turbid water types. The data discussed and presented are necessary for remote sensing applications of sensors as well as for development and inversion of remote sensing algorithms.

Bostater, Charles R.

1998-12-01

242

Influence of the Realistic Description of Soil Water-Holding Capacity on the Global Water Cycle in a GCM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of the hydrological cycle to soil water-holding capacity (WHC) is investigated using the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique General Circulation Model (LMD GCM) coupled to a land surface model (LSM). A reference simulation (REF), with WHCs equal to 150 mm globally (except in deserts where it is set to 30 mm), is compared to two perturbation simulations using datasets

Agnès Ducharne; Katia Laval

2000-01-01

243

Water vapor self-continuum absorption in near-infrared windows derived from laboratory measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most near-infrared atmospheric windows, absorption of solar radiation is dominated by the water vapor self-continuum, and yet there is a paucity of measurements in these windows. We report new laboratory measurements of the self-continuum absorption at temperatures between 293 and 472 K and pressures from 0.015 to 5 atm in four near-infrared windows between 1 and 4 ?m (10000-2500 cm-1); the measurements are made over a wider range of wavenumbers, temperatures, and pressures than any previous measurements. They show that the self-continuum in these windows is typically one order of magnitude stronger than given in representations of the continuum widely used in climate and weather prediction models. These results are also not consistent with current theories attributing the self-continuum within windows to the far wings of strong spectral lines in the nearby water vapor absorption bands; we suggest that they are more consistent with water dimers being the major contributor to the continuum. The calculated global average clear-sky atmospheric absorption of solar radiation is increased by ˜0.75 W/m2 (which is about 1% of the total clear-sky absorption) by using these new measurements as compared to calculations with the MT_CKD-2.5 self-continuum model.

Ptashnik, Igor V.; McPheat, Robert A.; Shine, Keith P.; Smith, Kevin M.; Williams, R. Gary

2011-08-01

244

THE SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY Cv OF WATER AND WATER VAPOR AT HIGH TEMPERATURES AND PRESSURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the heat capacity C are given as a function of temperature at ; constant volumes of V⁠= 1.012, Vâ = 1.043, V3 = 1.091 and Vâ = ; 1.156 cm³\\/g. The isochores of the specific volumes V⁠and Vâ ; include data on the specific heat capacity C\\/sub v\\/ over a range of pressures of ; 1

Kh. I. Amirkhanov; A. M. Kerimov

1961-01-01

245

Using a non-invasive stable isotope tracer to measure the absorption of water in humans.  

PubMed

The development of solutions that prevent dehydration or promote adequate re-hydration play a vital role in preventing fatigue during exercise, however, the methods commonly used to assess the hydration ability of such solutions are invasive and often assess the components of absorption separately. This paper describes using a non-invasive deuterium tracer technique that assesses gastric emptying and intestinal absorption simultaneously to evaluate the uptake of water during rest and exercise. The kinetics of absorption are further examined by mathematical modelling of the data generated. For the rest group, 0.05 g/kg of body weight of deuterium, contained in gelatine capsules, was ingested with ordinary tap water and saliva samples were collected every 5 min for one hour while the subject remained seated. The deuterium was administered as above for the exercise group but sample collection was during one hour of exercise on a treadmill at 55% of the subject's maximum heart rate. The enrichment data for each subject were mathematically modelled and the parameters obtained were compared across groups using an independent samples t-test. Compared with the rest condition, the exercise group showed delayed absorption of water as indicated by significant differences for the modelling parameters t2, t1/2, maximum absorption rate and solution absorption amount at t1. Labelling with a deuterium tracer is a good measure of the relative rate ingested fluids are absorbed by the body. Mathematical modelling of the data generates rates of maximum absorption and allows calculation of the percentage of the solution that is absorbed at any given time during the testing period. PMID:15052581

Hill, Rebecca J; Bluck, Leslie J C; Davies, Peter S W

2004-01-01

246

Effects of increased near-infrared absorption by water vapor on the climate system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent improvements in the spectroscopic data for water vapor have significantly increased the near-infrared absorption in models of the Earth's atmosphere. The climatic effects of increased near-infrared absorption have been simulated with the latest Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3). The shortwave parameterization in CAM3 has been updated to minimize differences between CAM3 and line-by-line (LBL) calculations based upon the High Resolution Transmission (HITRAN) spectroscopic database issued in 2001. The new model reproduces LBL calculations of the near-infrared absorption to within 0.9% ± 1.4% and the near-infrared heating rates to within 0.02 ± 0.02 K d-1. Estimates of the global annual mean shortwave absorption by water vapor have been calculated from the editions of the AFGL and HITRAN databases issued in 1982 and 2001, respectively. The main changes in water vapor spectroscopy during this period are the addition of many missing weak lines and increased estimates of line strength in near infrared wavelengths. The clear-sky and all-sky shortwave absorption increase by 4.0 W m-2 and 3.1 W m-2, respectively, in calculations replacing the old with the new spectroscopic parameters. The atmosphere becomes warmer, moister, and more stable with the increased absorption in simulations with sea surface temperatures either prescribed from observations or predicted using a slab-ocean model. The latent heat flux and precipitation both decrease by approximately 2%. Hence the additional absorption has the effect of weakening the hydrological cycle in the atmospheric model.

Collins, William D.; Lee-Taylor, Julia M.; Edwards, David P.; Francis, Gene L.

2006-09-01

247

Studies of Water Absorption Behavior of Plant Fibers at Different Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Moisture absorption of natural fiber plastic composites is one major concern in their outdoor applications. The absorbed moisture has many detrimental effects on the mechanical performance of these composites. A knowledge of the moisture diffusivity, permeability, and solubility is very much essential for the application of natural fibers as an excellent reinforcement in polymers. An effort has been made to study the water absorption behavior of some natural fibers such as bowstring hemp, okra, and betel nut at different temperatures to improve the long-term performance of composites reinforced with these fibers. The gain in moisture content in the fibers due to water absorption was measured as a function of exposure time at temperatures ranging from 300 K to 340 K. The thermodynamic parameters of the sorption process, such as diffusion coefficients and corresponding activation energies, were estimated.

Saikia, Dip

2010-05-01

248

Baking loss of bread with special emphasis on increasing water holding capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato flour (PF), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and honey were used as baking agents and their effects on baking loss\\u000a and sensory quality were studied. PF at 1, 2 and 4% levels decreased baking loss followed by HPMC and honey. Water absorption\\u000a was substantially high with the HPMC (70.8–80.8%) and PF (61.7–71.7%) compared to honey and normal standard bread. PF incorporation

D. Kotoki; S. C. Deka

2010-01-01

249

Water storage capacity of natural wetland depressions in the Devils Lake basin of North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Photogrammetric mapping techniques were used to derive the water storage capacities of natural wetland depressions other than lakes in the Devils Lake Basin of North Dakota. Results from sample quarter-section areas were expanded to the entire basin. Depressions in the Devils Lake Basin have a maximum storage capacity of nearly 811,000 cubic dekameters (657,000 acre-feet). The depressions store about 72 percent of the total runoff volume from a 2-year-frequency runoff and about 41 percent of the total runoff volume from a 100-year-frequency runoff.

Ludden, A. P.; Frink, D. L.; Johnson, D. H.

1983-01-01

250

Ultraviolet-visible absorptive features of water extractable and humic fractions of animal manure and compost  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

UV-vis spectroscopy is a useful tool for characterizing water extractable or humic fractions of natural organic matter (WEOM). Whereas the whole UV-visible spectra of these fractions are more or less featureless, the specific UV absorptivity at 254 and 280 nm as well as spectral E2/E3 and E4/E6 rat...

251

Simultaneous optimization of linear firing shrinkage and water absorption of triaxial ceramic bodies using experiments design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the development and manufacture stages of floor and wall ceramic tiles, firing shrinkage and water absorption are basically determined by the combination of raw materials and frequently used as quality control parameters. This configures the ideal scenario to apply the techniques of experiments design, often used in various other areas, to model those properties of such ceramics bodies. In

S. L Correia; D Hotza; A. M Segadães

2004-01-01

252

Neutron radiography study of water absorption in porous building materials: anomalous diffusion analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic neutron radiography was applied to obtain the experimental data concerning the kinetics of the wetting process in two different types (fired-clay and siliceous brick) of porous construction materials. The technique provides accurate experimental data concerning the first instants as well as the advanced stages of the imbibing process. A significant difference in water absorption parameters, contrasting the materials studied,

Abd El-Ghany El Abd; Jacek J. Milczarek

2004-01-01

253

Determination of osmium in waste water by graphite furnance atomic absorption spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of osmium in waste water by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) with a graphite furnace atomiser has been investigated. The atomisation characteristics of osmium on the atomiser were found to result in optimal ashing and atomisation temperatures of 300–500 and 3180 °C, respectively.

Tohru Suzuki; Mamoru Miyada; Kiyohisa Ohta; Satoshi Kaneco; Takayuki Mizuno

1998-01-01

254

DETERMINING BERYLLIUM IN DRINKING WATER BY GRAPHITE FURNACE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY  

EPA Science Inventory

A direct graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy method for the analysis of beryllium in drinking water has been derived from a method for determining beryllium in urine. Ammonium phosphomolybdate and ascorbic acid were employed as matrix modifiers. The matrix modifiers s...

255

Revisiting the total ion yield x-ray absorption spectra of liquid water microjets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the total ion yield (TIY) x-ray absorption spectrum (XAS) of liquid water by Wilson et al (2002 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter14 L221 and 2001 J. Phys. Chem. B 105 3346) have been revisited in light of new experimental and theoretical efforts by our group. Previously, the TIY spectrum was interpreted as a distinct measure of the electronic structure

Christopher D Cappa; Jared D Smith; Kevin R Wilson; Richard J Saykally

2008-01-01

256

Determination of Barium in Bottled Drinking Water by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In relation to the wide environmental spread of barium and to its cardiovascular effects, barium levels were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry in 60 different brands of bottled water marketed in Italy.Matrix interferences were investigated in order to evaluate the use of an analytical calibration function rather than the much more time consuming addition technique.The barium content ranged

F. Fagioli; C. Locatelli; E. Lanciotti; G. Vallone; D. Mazzotta; A. Mugelli

1988-01-01

257

Performance of water-cooled lithium bromide absorption units for solar energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article includes a comprehensive review of the variables that can influence the proper choice of all the solar energy system components for the cooling of buildings. Optimization of absorption unit COPs and the required temperature levels of the heat source directly affect the choice of systems external to the unit. Improved COPs influence the effectiveness of hot water storage

1976-01-01

258

Radiation modification of water absorption of cassava starch by acrylic acid/acrylamide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graft copolymerizations of acrylamide and/or acrylic acid onto cassava starch by a simultaneous irradiation technique using gamma-rays as the initiator were studied with regard to various parameters of importance: the monomer-to-cassava starch ratio, total dose (kGy), dose rate (kGy h-1), acrylamide-to-acrylic acid ratio, and the addition of nitric acid and maleic acid as the additives. Grafting parameters were determined in relation to the water absorption of the saponified graft copolymer. The water absorption of the saponified graft copolymer in salt and buffer solutions of different ionic strengths was also measured, from which the superabsorbent properties are found to be pH sensitive. The starch graft copolymers of acrylamide and acrylic acid give higher water absorption than the starch graft copolymers of either acrylamide or acrylic acid alone. The porosity of the saponified starch graft copolymers prepared by the acrylamide/acrylic acid ratios of 70:30 and 50:50 was much higher than the porosity of copolymers in terms of fine networks. Ionic strength and multi-oxidation states of the saline and buffer solutions markedly decreased the water absorption of the saponified cassava starch grafted superabsorbent polymers.

Kiatkamjornwong, S.; Chomsaksakul, W.; Sonsuk, M.

2000-10-01

259

Theoretical analysis of ammonia-water absorption cycles for refrigeration and space conditioning systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical model for the performance of an ammonia-water absorption cycle in solar air conditioning, refrigeration, and heat pump systems are presented. The configurations comprise a solar driven generator, a rectifier, condenser, evaporator, absorber, preheater, and a subcooler. Cooling modes involve supplying heat to the evaporator from the space to be cooled and transferring the heat to the ambient environment

S. C. Kaushik; S. C. Bhardwaj

1982-01-01

260

Effect of Internal Heat Recovery in Ammonia-Water Absorption Cooling Cycles: Exergy and Structural Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

First and second law analysis have been conducted for three low temperature driven ammonia-water absorption cooling cycles with increasing internal heat recovery. Based on the results of exergy analysis the structural analysis has been achieved. The obtained Coefficients of Structural Bonds (CSB) consider how the irreversibility of the whole cycle is affected by a change in the irreversibility related to

Dieter Boer; Berhane Hagos Gebreslassie; Marc Medrano; Miquel Nogués

261

Absorption of radio waves by water vapor in the atmospheres of Venus and Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we shall consider the quantitative relationships between the absorption coefficients of monomeric and dimeric molecules of water vapor in the atmospheres of Venus and Mars. This problem is of interest in the analysis of the conditions for the propagation of electromagnetic waves with wavelengths X ~ 0.7 mm [5] in the atmospheres of these planets and for

A. A. Viktorova; A. P. Naumov

1969-01-01

262

A Numerical Study of Ammonia-Water Absorption Into a Constrained Microscale Film  

Microsoft Academic Search

A one-dimensional, steady state, semi-empirical model of an ammonia-water microscale bubble absorber is presented. The geometry consists of a microchannel through which a solution of ammonia-water flows. Ammonia vapor is injected through one of the walls of the channel. A counter flowing coolant solution removes the heat generated due to absorption from the opposite wall. The 1-D, steady state species

Vinod Narayanan

2008-01-01

263

Microchannel component technology for system-wide application in ammonia\\/water absorption heat pumps  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel miniaturization technology for binary-fluid heat and mass exchange was developed and numerous components were fabricated for demonstration as different parts of an ammonia\\/water absorption heat pump. Short lengths of microchannel tubes are placed in an array, with several such arrays stacked vertically. The ammonia\\/water solution flows in falling film\\/droplet mode on the outside of the tubes while coupling

Srinivas Garimella; Matthew D. Determan; J. Mark Meacham; Sangsoo Lee; Timothy C. Ernst

2011-01-01

264

Absorption heat pump for a potable water supply in a solar house  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar houses usually have good potential in arid areas. These areas often suffer from not only a shortage of conventional energy sources, but also of potable water supplies. In this study, a solar air-conditioning system including an absorption heat pump, already in production since the early 1980s, is described for potable water production while performing its air-conditioning duty in a

S. Elshamarka

1991-01-01

265

In vitro percutaneous absorption of cadmium from water and soil into human skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to determine percutaneous absorption of cadmium as the chloride salt from water and soil into and through human skin. Soil (Yolo County 65-California-57-8) was passed through 10-, 20-, and 48-mesh sieves. Soil retained by 80 mesh was mixed with radioactive cadmium-109 at 13 ppb. Water solutions of cadmium-109 at 116 ppb were prepared for comparative analysis. Human

R. C. Wester; H. I. Maibach; L. Sedik; J. Melendres; S. DiZio; M. Wade

1992-01-01

266

Predicting inhomogeneous water absorption in an ionic diblock polymer membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fuel cells convert fuel directly into electrical power. Their performance depends on a permeable (yet strong) membrane to allow ion conduction (while preventing combustion). Anion-exchange membrane fuel-cells are especially economical to produce, but technological hurdles currently limit durability and OH^- conductivity of the membrane. One solution to these problems is a diblock morphology. Layers of stiff hydrophobic polymer provide structure, while interspersed layers of polyelectrolyte provide avenues for conduction. Previously, little was known about the structure within the conducting layer. We adapted Scheutjens-Fleer polymer-brush theory to a lamellar geometry. The calculation tells where the polyelectrolytes congregate within a lamella, and hence how conduction occurs. This talk focuses on a new diblock material, PMB-PVBTMA. We show how the features of the material determine the intra-lamellar structure. We conclude that at low humidity, the bulkiness of PVBTMA causes it to adopt a near-uniform distribution within the conducting block. At high humidity, however, a phase separation may induce abrupt water channels. Understanding the architecture within the conducting layer will help guide research into better anion-exchange membranes materials.

Herbst, Daniel; Witten, Thomas

2013-03-01

267

Heat and Mass Diffusions in the Absorption of Water Vapor by Aqueous Solution of Lithium Bromide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent development of absorption-type heat pump is highly essential from the viewpoint of extracting the effective energy from waste heat or solar energy. To increase the efficiency of energy conversion, it is important to improve the performance of absorbers. The objective of this paper is to obtain an increased understanding of the fine mechanisms of vapor absorption. A system combining holographic interferometry wity thermometry is adopted to observe the progress of one-dimensional water vapor absorption by aqueous solution of lithium bromide (LiBr) and also to measure the unsteady temperature and concentration distributions in the absorption process. The experiments are carried out under the condition that the solution surface is exposed to the saturated water vapor at reduced pressure, and the effects of LiBr mass concentration on absorption mechanism are examined in the concentration range 20-60 mass%. The interference fringes are analyzed to distinguish between the layers of heat conduction and mass diffusion. The temperature and concentration distributions thus determined experimentally are compared with numerical solutions obtained by the equations for unsteady heat conduction and mass diffusion taking into consideration the effect of heat by dilution, to give reasonable values of mass diffusivity hitherto remaining unknown. Especially in the range of 40-60 mass%, the mass diffusivity decreases extremely with the increase of mass concentration of LiBr and it falls down to 0.7-0.8×10-9 m2/s in case of 60 mass% solution.

Kashiwagi, Takao; Kurosaki, Yasuo; Nikai, Isao

268

Waste Feed Delivery Raw Water and Potable Water and Compressed Air Capacity Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluated the ability of the Raw Water, Potable Water, and Compressed Air systems to support safe storage as well as the first phase of the Waste Feed Delivery. Several recommendations are made to improve the system.

MAY, T.H.

2000-02-08

269

Waste Feed Delivery Raw Water and Potable Water and Compressed Air Capacity Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the ability of the Raw Water, Potable Water, and Compressed Air systems to support safe storage as well as the first phase of the Waste Feed Delivery. Several recommendations are made to improve the system.

2000-01-01

270

Water vapor absorption into amorphous hydrophobic drug/poly(vinylpyrrolidone) dispersions.  

PubMed

Water vapor absorption isotherms were measured for three amorphous hydrophobic drug/poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) dispersions in the concentration range 10-90% w/w PVP. Experimental isotherms were compared to predicted isotherms calculated using each individual component isotherm multiplied by its weight fraction. Indomethacin (IMC)/PVP, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA)/PVP and indapamide (IDP)/PVP amorphous dispersions all exhibited experimental isotherms reduced relative to predicted isotherms indicating that dispersion formation altered the water vapor absorption properties of the individual components. For all three drug/PVP systems, deviation from predicted water uptake was greatest close to the 1:1 drug:PVP monomer composition, indicating that intermolecular interaction in amorphous dispersions affects the water uptake properties of the individual components. Using dry glass transition temperature (T(g)) data, the extent of drug/PVP interaction was shown to be greatest in the IDP/PVP system, which could explain why the largest reduction in water vapor absorption was found in this system. The plasticizing effect of absorbed water varied according to dry dispersion PVP content in all systems and the resulting nonideal changes in free volume, calculated using the Vrentas model, were greatest close to the 1:1 drug:PVP monomer composition. A three-component Flory-Huggins model successfully predicted isotherms for IMC/PVP compositions from 60 to 90% w/w PVP and identified an IMC-PVP interaction parameter chi in the range 1.27-1.49, values that suggest poor homogeneity of mixing in the dry system. These data indicate that amorphous dispersion formation causes both chemical and physical changes in the individual amorphous components that can have a significant effect on their water vapor absorption properties. PMID:12226842

Crowley, Kieran J; Zografi, George

2002-10-01

271

Effect of crop sequence, soil sample location and depth on soil water holding capacity under center pivot irrigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to investigate the changes that may occur to the soil water holding capacity under center pivot irrigation systems when grown with different crop patterns over a long period of time. The changes of water holding capacity were checked as affected by crop location and depth. The study was carried out in a dominantly sandy loam

Yousef A. Al-Rumikhani

2002-01-01

272

The impact of water flow configuration on crystallisation in LiBr/H2O absorption water heater  

SciTech Connect

Lithium Bromide (LiBr) strong solution entering the absorber tends to crystallise when the absorber temperature is increased for a fixed evaporating pressure. This is considered the key technical barrier for the development of a LiBr absorption heat pump water heater. There are several approaches to avoid the crystallisation problem, such as chemical crystallisation inhibitors, heat and mass transfer enhancement and thermodynamic cycle modification. This paper investigates and compares two flow configurations of LiBr absorption heat pump water heater to evaluate the allowable operating conditions for each. The simulation results indicated that introducing the process water through the absorber first results in lower absorber temperature and hence less tendency for crystallisation.

Wang, Kai [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

2011-03-01

273

Iron deficiency in cyanobacteria causes monomerization of photosystem I trimers and reduces the capacity for state transitions and the effective absorption cross section of photosystem I in vivo.  

PubMed

The induction of the isiA (CP43') protein in iron-stressed cyanobacteria is accompanied by the formation of a ring of 18 CP43' proteins around the photosystem I (PSI) trimer and is thought to increase the absorption cross section of PSI within the CP43'-PSI supercomplex. In contrast to these in vitro studies, our in vivo measurements failed to demonstrate any increase of the PSI absorption cross section in two strains (Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803) of iron-stressed cells. We report that iron-stressed cells exhibited a reduced capacity for state transitions and limited dark reduction of the plastoquinone pool, which accounts for the increase in PSII-related 685 nm chlorophyll fluorescence under iron deficiency. This was accompanied by lower abundance of the NADP-dehydrogenase complex and the PSI-associated subunit PsaL, as well as a reduced amount of phosphatidylglycerol. Nondenaturating polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis separation of the chlorophyll-protein complexes indicated that the monomeric form of PSI is favored over the trimeric form of PSI under iron stress. Thus, we demonstrate that the induction of CP43' does not increase the PSI functional absorption cross section of whole cells in vivo, but rather, induces monomerization of PSI trimers and reduces the capacity for state transitions. We discuss the role of CP43' as an effective energy quencher to photoprotect PSII and PSI under unfavorable environmental conditions in cyanobacteria in vivo. PMID:16798943

Ivanov, Alexander G; Krol, Marianna; Sveshnikov, Dmitry; Selstam, Eva; Sandström, Stefan; Koochek, Maryam; Park, Youn-Il; Vasil'ev, Sergej; Bruce, Doug; Oquist, Gunnar; Huner, Norman P A

2006-06-23

274

A Study of Water Aerosol Absorption and Emission Effects (Including Fogs) in the 8- to 13-Micron Infrared Window.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water aerosols theoretically are capable of very strong absorption and emission in the 8 micrometers to 13 micrometers infrared atmospheric window, owing to the 10,000 increase in the absorptivity of water in this spectral region for the liquid phase as c...

H. R. Carlon

1969-01-01

275

An experimental integrated absorption heat pump effluent purification system. Part I: operating on water\\/lithium bromide solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The merits of single stage absorption heat pumps coupled to simple distillation for effluent treatment are discussed. An experimental integrated absorption heat pump effluent purification system (IAHPEPS) was built and operated with water–lithium bromide as a working mixture. This unit has been used to raise the temperature and hence, the vapour pressure of the impure water contained in one vessel,

S. Santoyo-Gutiérrez; J. Siqueiros; C. L. Heard; E. Santoyo; F. A. Holland

1999-01-01

276

Absorption of radio waves by water vapor in the earth atmosphere at wavelengths of 0.8-20 mm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper calculates the water-vapor absorption of millimeter and submillimeter waves propagating vertically in the atmosphere at geographical latitudes of 75, 60, 45, and 30 deg N for winter and summer and at a geographical latitude of 15 deg N for the average yearly model. Water-vapor absorption is studied as a function of wavelength, season, latitude, and height at which

A. Iu. Zrazhevskii; I. A. Iskhakov

1978-01-01

277

Frequency stabilization of a diode laser to absorption lines of water vapor in the 944-nm wavelength region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency of an external-cavity diode laser has been stabilized to absorption lines of water vapor at wavelengths around 944 nm. The primary application of this stabilized laser is to provide a frequency reference for differential absorption lidar measurements of atmospheric water vapor. A wavelength modulation technique is used to provide derivative-like error signals for a control loop to continuously

Grady J. Koch; Anthony L. Cook; Colleen M. Fitzgerald; Amin N. Dharamsi

2001-01-01

278

Water, electrolyte, glucose, and glycine absorption in rat small intestinal transplants.  

PubMed

Water, electrolyte, glucose, and glycine absorption were studied in vivo in successful rat small intestinal transplants. Isolated bowel loops were transplanted from F1 hybrids into parental strain Lewis rats. A 7-day course of cyclosporin A was given for immunosuppression. Absorption was studied using a steady-state perfusion technique at either 9 or 21 days after transplantation. Histologic examination showed there was villus shortening with time but no evidence of rejection. When perfused with isotonic saline, both allografts and controls secreted water. However, allografts and denervated controls secreted chloride, whereas innervated controls absorbed chloride (p less than 0.05). There was a marked reduction in water and sodium absorption from 30 mM glucose-saline in transplanted loops and denervated controls, whereas glucose absorption was relatively preserved in these groups at 9 days (p less than 0.01). These changes could not be accounted for by rejection or ischemia. These studies demonstrate that denervation may be a major limiting factor in intestinal transplantation. PMID:3257933

Watson, A J; Lear, P A; Montgomery, A; Elliott, E; Dacre, J; Farthing, M J; Wood, R F

1988-04-01

279

Water Absorption and Thickness Swelling Behavior of Polypropylene Reinforced with Hybrid Recycled Newspaper and Glass Fiber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to investigate the moisture absorption of recycled newspaper fiber and recycled newspaper-glass fiber hybrid reinforced polypropylene composites to study their suitability in outdoor applications. In this work composite materials were made from E-glass fiber (G), recycled newspaper (NP) and polypropylene (PP), by using internal mixing and hot-pressing molding. Long-term water absorption (WA) and thickness swelling (TS) kinetics of the composites was investigated with water immersion. It was found that the WA and TS increase with NP content in composite and water immersion time before an equilibrium condition was reached. Composites made from the NP show comparable results as those made of the hybrid fiber. The results suggest that the water absorption and thickness swelling composite decrease with increasing glass fiber contents in hybrid fiber composite. It is interesting to find that the WA and TS can be reduced significantly with incorporation of a coupling agent (maleated polypropylene) in the composite formulation. Further studies were conducted to model the water diffusion and thickness swelling of the composites. Diffusion coefficients and swelling rate parameters in the models were obtained by fitting the model predictions with the experimental data.

Shakeri, Alireza; Ghasemian, Ali

2010-04-01

280

Liquid densities, heat capacities, refractive index and excess quantities for {protic ionic liquids + water} binary system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Densities, ?, of aqueous solutions of the room temperature protic ionic liquid (PIL), pyrrolidinium nitrate are determined at the atmospheric pressure over the temperature range from (283.15 to 323.15)K and within the whole composition range. The molar isobaric heat capacities, Cp, and refractive index, nD, of {PIL+water} binary system are measured at 298.15K. The excess molar volumes VE, excess molar

Mérièm Anouti; Magaly Caillon-Caravanier; Yosra Dridi; Johan Jacquemin; Christopher Hardacre; Daniel Lemordant

2009-01-01

281

Stepwise chilling adapted to commercial conditions – Improving tenderness of pork without compromising water-holding capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of commercially implementing a stepwise chilling process to improve tenderness without compromising the water-holding capacity (WHC) of pork was investigated in this study. A stepwise chilling process, Step10; tunnel chilling at ?23°C\\/3 ms to reach 10°C carcass temperature, a 6-h holding period at 10°C followed chilling at 4°C; n=28, was compared with conventional tunnel chilling (n=28). Substantial temperature

K. Rosenvold; U. Borup

2011-01-01

282

Prediction of water-holding capacity and composition of porcine meat by comparative spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four spectroscopic instruments, a fibre optical probe (FOP), a visual (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectrophotometer, a reflectance spectrofluorometer and a low-field 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) instrument were used to perform measurements on two muscles (longissimus dorsi and semitendinosous) from 39 pigs, 18 of which were carriers of the Halothane gene. Water-holding capacity (drip loss and filter paper

Jesper Brøndum; Lars Munck; Poul Henckel; Anders Karlsson; Eva Tornberg; Søren B Engelsen

2000-01-01

283

Foliar Nitrogen Uptake from Wet Deposition and the Relation with Leaf Wettability and Water Storage Capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the foliar uptake of 15N-labelled nitrogen (N) originating from wet deposition along with leaf surface conditions, measured by wettability and water\\u000a storage capacity. Foliar 15N uptake was measured on saplings of silver birch, European beech, pedunculate oak and Scots pine and the effect of nitrogen\\u000a form (NH4+ or NO3?), NH4+ to NO3? ratio and leaf phenology on

Sandy Adriaenssens; Jeroen Staelens; Karen Wuyts; An de Schrijver; Shari Van Wittenberghe; Tatiana Wuytack; Fatemeh Kardel; Kris Verheyen; Roeland Samson; Pascal Boeckx

2011-01-01

284

Low temperature heat capacity of the system “silica gel–calcium chloride–water”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat capacity was measured for two composite systems based on silica gel KSK and calcium chloride confined to its pores. One\\u000a corresponds to an anhydrous state, while another contains water bound with the salt to give the composition of CaCl2·2.04H2O. The measurements were performed in the temperature range of 6–300 K with a vacuum adiabatic calorimeter. The smoothed experimental\\u000a curves C

Yuri I. AristovYulia; Yulia A. Kovalevskaya; Michael M. Tokarev; Igor E. Paukov

2011-01-01

285

Parameterization of the Mie extinction and absorption coefficients for water clouds  

SciTech Connect

It was found that the anomalous diffraction approximation (ADA) could be made to approximate Mie theory for absorption and extinction in water clouds by parameterizing the missing physics: (1) internal reflection/refraction, (2) photon tunneling, and (3) edge diffraction. Tunneling here refers to processes by which tangential or grazing photons beyond the physical cross section of a spherical particle may be absorbed. Contributions of the above processes to extinction and/or absorption were approximated in terms of particle size, index of refraction, and wavelength. It was found that tunneling can explain most of the difference between ADA and Mie theory for water clouds in the thermal IR. The modified ADA yielded analytical expressions for the absorption and extinction efficiencies, Q{sub abs} and Q{sub ext}, which were integrated over a gamma size distribution to yield expressions for the absorption and extinction coefficients, {beta}{sub abs} and {beta}{sub ext}. These coefficients were expressed in terms of the three gamma distribution parameters, which were related to measured properties of the size distribution: liquid water content, mean, and mass-median diameter. Errors relative to Mie theory for {beta}{sub abs} and {beta}{sub ext} were generally {le}10% for the effective radius range in water clouds of 5--30 {micro}m, for any wavelength in the solar or terrestrial spectrum. For broadband emissivities and absorptivities regarding terrestrial and solar radiation, the errors were less than 1.2% and 4%, respectively. The modified ADA dramatically reduces computation times relative to Mie theory while yielding reasonably accurate results.

Mitchell, D.L.

2000-05-01

286

The water vapour self- and water-nitrogen continuum absorption in the 1000 and 2500 cm(-1) atmospheric windows.  

PubMed

The pure water vapour and water-nitrogen continuum absorption in the 1000 and 2500?cm(-1) atmospheric windows has been studied using a 2?m base-length White-type multi-pass cell coupled with a BOMEM DA3-002 Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The measurements were carried out at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, Gaithersburg, MD) over the course of several years (2004, 2006-2007, 2009). New data on the H(2)O:N(2) continuum in the 1000?cm(-1) window are presented and summarized along with the other experimental results and the continuum model. The experimental data reported on the water vapour continuum in these atmospheric windows basically agree with the most reliable laboratory data from the other sources. The MT_CKD (Mlawer-Tobin-Clough-Kneizys-Davies) continuum model significantly departs from the experimental data in both windows. The deviation observed includes the continuum magnitude, spectral behaviour and temperature dependence. In the 2500?cm(-1) region, the model does not allow for the nitrogen fundamental collision-induced absorption (CIA) band intensity enhancement caused by H(2)O:N(2) collisions and underestimates the actual absorption by over two orders of magnitude. The water vapour continuum interpretation as a typical CIA spectrum is reviewed and discussed. PMID:22547233

Baranov, Yu I; Lafferty, W J

2012-06-13

287

Ammonia and ammonium hydroxide sensors for ammonia/water absorption machines: Literature review and data compilation  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an evaluation of various sensing techniques for determining the ammonia concentration in the working fluid of ammonia/water absorption cycle systems. The purpose of this work was to determine if any existing sensor technology or instrumentation could provide an accurate, reliable, and cost-effective continuous measure of ammonia concentration in water. The resulting information will be used for design optimization and cycle control in an ammonia-absorption heat pump. PNL researchers evaluated each sensing technology against a set of general requirements characterizing the potential operating conditions within the absorption cycle. The criteria included the physical constraints for in situ operation, sensor characteristics, and sensor application. PNL performed an extensive literature search, which uncovered several promising sensing technologies that might be applicable to this problem. Sixty-two references were investigated, and 33 commercial vendors were identified as having ammonia sensors. The technologies for ammonia sensing are acoustic wave, refractive index, electrode, thermal, ion-selective field-effect transistor (ISFET), electrical conductivity, pH/colormetric, and optical absorption. Based on information acquired in the literature search, PNL recommends that follow-on activities focus on ISFET devices and a fiber optic evanescent sensor with a colormetric indicator. The ISFET and fiber optic evanescent sensor are inherently microminiature and capable of in situ measurements. Further, both techniques have been demonstrated selective to the ammonium ion (NH{sub 4}{sup +}). The primary issue remaining is how to make the sensors sufficiently corrosion-resistant to be useful in practice.

Anheier, N.C. Jr.; McDonald, C.E.; Cuta, J.M.; Cuta, F.M.; Olsen, K.B.

1995-05-01

288

The Colon: Absorptive, Secretory and Metabolic Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role which the human colon fulfils in digestion and metabolism remains largely undocumented. Its capacity to conserve water and electrolytes is well known although how this is controlled is uncertain. In the animal kingdom, calcium and magnesium absorption from the colon are important as are absorption and synthesis of vitamins. The abundant microflora of the human colon gives it

J. H. Cummings

1975-01-01

289

Water effect on CO2 absorption for hydroxylammonium based ionic liquids: A molecular dynamics study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of water content on CO2 absorption in 2-hydroxyethyl-trimethylammonium L-(+)-lactate and tris(2-hydroxyethyl)methylammonium methylsulfate ionic liquids was studied using classical molecular dynamics simulations. The analysis of structural and dynamic properties, together with the energy contributions, showed that molecular-level structuring of CO2-ionic liquids is not affected by the presence of water molecules. Ion-water interactions are developed while maintaining the previous fluids' structuring. The predicted dynamic properties show decreasing molecular mobility, that should lead to increasing viscosity upon water addition for the studied concentration range. Nevertheless, water has a moderate effect on CO2 transport within the studied hydroxylammonium fluids.

Aparicio, Santiago; Atilhan, Mert

2012-05-01

290

Water vapor heterogeneity related to tropopause folds over the North Atlantic revealed by airborne water vapor differential absorption lidar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements of tropospheric water vapor and aerosol\\/clouds are presented from transfers across the North Atlantic on 13–15 May and 16–18 June 2002. The intense dynamical activity over the Atlantic is reflected in complex structures like deep tropopause folds, extended dry layers, and tilted aerosol filaments. Intrusions with H2O mixing ratios below 0.03 g kg?1 regularly

H. Flentje; A. Dörnbrack; G. Ehret; A. Fix; C. Kiemle; G. Poberaj; M. Wirth

2005-01-01

291

Polder Effects on Sediment-to-Soil Conversion: Water Table, Residual Available Water Capacity, and Salt Stress Interdependence  

PubMed Central

The French Atlantic marshlands, reclaimed since the Middle Age, have been successively used for extensive grazing and more recently for cereal cultivation from 1970. The soils have acquired specific properties which have been induced by the successive reclaiming and drainage works and by the response of the clay dominant primary sediments, that is, structure, moisture, and salinity profiles. Based on the whole survey of the Marais Poitevin and Marais de Rochefort and in order to explain the mechanisms of marsh soil behavior, the work focuses on two typical spots: an undrained grassland since at least 1964 and a drained cereal cultivated field. The structure-hydromechanical profiles relationships have been established thanks to the clay matrix shrinkage curve. They are confronted to the hydraulic functioning including the fresh-to-salt water transfers and to the recording of tensiometer profiles. The CE1/5 profiles supply the water geochemical and geophysical data by their better accuracy. Associated to the available water capacity calculation they allow the representation of the parallel evolution of the residual available water capacity profiles and salinity profiles according to the plant growing and rooting from the mesophile systems of grassland to the hygrophile systems of drained fields.

Radimy, Raymond Tojo; Dudoignon, Patrick; Hillaireau, Jean Michel; Deboute, Elise

2013-01-01

292

Temperature imaging of water in a microchannel using thermal sensitivity of near-infrared absorption.  

PubMed

This paper presents a remote and preparation-free method of temperature imaging of aqueous solutions in microchannels of microfluidic chips. The principle of this method is based on the temperature dependency of the near-infrared (NIR) absorption band (?(2) + ?(3) band) of water. Temperature images were constructed from absorbances in a narrow wavelength range including 1908 nm, the most sensitive to temperature in the band, measured by using an NIR camera and an optical narrow-bandpass filter. Calculation and calibration results demonstrated a linear relationship between the absorption coefficient and temperature with a temperature coefficient of 1.5 × 10(-2) K(-1) mm(-1). Temperature images of 50 ?m thick water in a Y-shaped PDMS microchannel locally heated by a neighboring hot wire were obtained, in which thermal diffusion processes in the microchip were visualized. Temperature resolution was estimated to be approximately 0.2 K according to the temperature coefficient and noise level. PMID:21869986

Kakuta, Naoto; Fukuhara, Yuko; Kondo, Katsuya; Arimoto, Hidenobu; Yamada, Yukio

2011-08-25

293

Water-absorptivity and mechanical behaviors of PTFE\\/PA6 and PTFE\\/PA66 blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) content on water-absorptivity, tensile strength, fiexural strength, and notched impact strength of polytctrafiuoroethylene\\/polyamide 6 (PTFE\\/PA6) and polytetrafluoroethylene\\/polyamide 66 (PTFE\\/PA66) blends were investigated by water immersion test, uniaxial tensile test, three-point test, and Charpy impact fracture test. The water-absorptivity in the blend decreases with increasing PTFE content, which indicates that the PTFE phase restrains the polyamide

Rong-guo ZHAO; Wen-bo LUO; Hua-ming XIAO; Guo-zhong WU

2006-01-01

294

Core Knowledge Employee Creativity and Firm Performance: The Moderating Role of Riskiness Orientation, Firm Size, and Realized Absorptive Capacity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, we examine when creativity is positively or negatively related to firm performance. Building on the creation-implementation tension theorized in the literature and the attention capacity perspective, we argue that the relationship between creativity and firm performance is contingent on riskiness orientation, firm size, and…

Gong, Yaping; Zhou, Jing; Chang, Song

2013-01-01

295

Water Absorption Characteristics and Volume Changes of Milled and Brown Rice During Soaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 83(6):624-631 The water absorption characteristics and volume changes of rice with various degrees of milling during soaking were measured at five temper- atures (5-40°C). The measured data were fitted to the exact solution for the infinite plane sheet diffusion model, which is an exact solution for the diffusion equation. The measured results agreed well with the model. The

Y. Muramatsu; A. Tagawa; E. Sakaguchi; T. Kasai

2006-01-01

296

Power absorption coefficient constants for water, acetonitrile, and methylene chloride at far infrared wavelengths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of multiple internal reflections within the windows of an optical cell is analysed using Abele's matrix method. The Beer-Lambert power law is modified by the standing waves formed in between the cell and the detector. Power absorption coefficient of a material is calculated by a fit to the modified version of the equation. Precise ? values for water, acetonitrile and methylene chloride are calculated at far infrared wavelengths using a molecular laser source.

Vij, J. K.

1989-07-01

297

Aluminium Determination in Bottled Mineral Waters by Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over one hundred samples of natural mineral waters corresponding to 43 domestic and foreign brands were analyzed for the aluminium content by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Good reproducibility, sensitivity, and rapidity make the method convenient for routine aluminium determination. The calibration curve was linear from 1.9 to 80 ng\\/ml and the detection limit was 1.9 ng\\/ml (characteristic mass 38 pg

Maria Plessi; Agar Monzani

1995-01-01

298

Second law based thermodynamic analysis of ammonia?water absorption systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The second law of thermodynamics is used to study the performance of single-stage and two-stage ammonia-water absorption refrigeration systems (ARSs) when some input design parameters are varied. The entropy generation of each component and the total entropy generation ð _ StotÞ of all the system components as well as the coefficient of performance (COP) of the ARSs are calculated from

S. A. Adewusi; Syed M. Zubair

2004-01-01

299

Further Study of the Absorption of Infrared Radiation by Water Vapor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Making use of a spectrometer with a salt prism and echelette gratings, and a Moll thermal relay, the authors have reexamined with increased resolution the four absorption bands of water vapor whose centers lie near 1.87mu, 2.66mu, 3.15mu and 6.26mu. The new study has greatly increased the number of measured lines. Near 6.26mu and 3.17mu the number has been more

E. K. Plyler; W. W. Sleator

1931-01-01

300

Comparative simulation and investigation of ammonia-water: absorption cycles for heat pump applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several recent programs in absorption research have focused on technology for domestic heating and cooling utilizing natural gas. In residential and small commercial size applications, ammonia-water cycles offer the possibility of a gas-fired heat pump for both winter heating and summer cooling, at better year-round COPS than currently available by various alternatives. Several cycles have been considered for this purpose,

M Engler; G Grossman; H.-M Hellmann

1997-01-01

301

Influence of pre-blanching on the water absorption kinetics of soybeans  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000aThe influence of a pre-blanching step on water absorption kinetics of soybeans was investigated. Three models, commonly used to describe the soaking kinetics of legumes, were fitted to the data and compared in terms of their resultant pooled Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). A first-order asymptotic model resulted in the lowest AIC, and was therefore selected to investigate the effect of

A. Gowen; N. Abu-Ghannam; J. Frias; J. Oliveira

2007-01-01

302

Sensitivities of the absorptive partitioning model of secondary organic aerosol formation to the inclusion of water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Depending on the assumptions about the participation of water in absorptive partitioning, the prediction of the distribution of semi-volatile organic component between the gaseous and condensed phases is shown to be highly sensitive to the ambient relative humidity and the formulation of the partitioning model used. Further sensitivities to the assumed pre-existing particulate loading and to parameterised organic component non-ideality are explored and shown to contribute significantly to the variation in predicted secondary organic particulate loading.

Barley, M.; Topping, D. O.; McFiggans, G.; Jenkin, M. E.

2008-12-01

303

Measurement of Rn-222 in water by absorption in polycarbonates and liquid scintillation counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents a new technique for measurement of activity concentrations of Rn-222 in water which is based on liquid scintillation counting (LSC) of polycarbonates exposed in the water. The polycarbonate material has high absorption ability to radon and when exposed in a radon-containing environment (air or water), it absorbs and concentrates radon in its volume. This property of the polycarbonate material is used for sampling 222Rn from the water. The main new element in this work is that it proposes the LSC technique for measurement of the radiation, emitted from the polycarbonate material. This radiation is due to the decay of the absorbed 222Rn and its progeny. Experimental results of LSC of polycarbonate granules and thin foils exposed in water with different activity concentrations of Rn-222 are presented. In all cases a very good linear correlation between the LS counting rate and the activity concentration of the water is found. The LSC of polycarbonates shows similar or even higher sensitivity in comparison to that of LSC of water. The estimated radon-in-water minimal detectable activity concentrations of the proposed method are similar or lower than those of the LSC and lower than those obtained by gamma spectrometry. The proposed method is simple, robust, inexpensive and avoids the need of taking water samples for laboratory analysis. It facilitates studies of the spatial distribution of 222Rn in water basins by exposure of polycarbonate specimens at different spots or depths and subsequent liquid scintillation counting.

Mitev, K.; Dimitrova, I.; Zhivkova, V.; Georgiev, S.; Gerganov, G.; Pressyanov, D.; Boshkova, T.

2012-06-01

304

Assessment of underwater irradiance and absorption of solar radiation at water column from satellite data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volume absorption of solar radiation in water body determines important processes in the upper ocean such as primary bioproduction and heat balance. Assessment of penetration of solar radiation into water body can be performed with satellite data and the previous attempts in this direction were promising. This paper presents a package of the algorithms to compute the components of balance of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) at sea level (incident, reflected from the rough sea surface, and water-leaving PAR) and to calculate the volume absorption of PAR in the upper layer from satellite ocean color data. Data measured by the SeaWiFS ocean color sensor and the ancillary data needed (such as ozone amount and wind speed) are used. Computations of the underwater irradiance are performed for the 0-25 m upper layer. The errors are estimated by direct comparison between the values of underwater irradiance and volume absorption derived by the algorithms developed and by the exact method. Monthly means of the components of PAR balance as well as the potential daily heating have been estimated in different regions.

Kopelevich, Oleg V.; Sheberstov, Sergey V.; Burenkov, Vladimir I.; Vazyulya, Svetlana V.; Likhacheva, Maria V.

2007-04-01

305

Responses to water stress of apoplastic water fraction and bulk modulus of elasticity in sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) genotypes of contrasting capacity for osmotic adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responses to water stress of the bulk modulus of elasticity (?) and the apoplastic water fraction were examined using six sunflower cultivars of differing capacity for osmotic adjustment (OA). Water stress did not affect the partitioning of water between apoplastic (ca. 20%) and symplastic fractions in leaves which expanded during the exposure to stress in any genotype. Hence, no

C. A. Chimenti; A. J. Hall

1994-01-01

306

Aging of Toughened Polylactic Acid Nanocomposites: Water Absorption, Hygrothermal Degradation and Soil Burial Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental aging behaviour of montmorillonite (MMT) filled polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposites (PLA\\/MMT) and linear\\u000a low density polyethylene (LLDPE)-toughened PLA (PLA\\/LLDPE ratio = 90\\/10) nanocomposites (PLA\\/LLDPE\\/MMT) were investigated\\u000a in this study. The nanocomposites were subjected to water absorption, hygrothermal degradation and soil burial analysis. Both\\u000a PLA\\/MMT and PLA\\/LLDPE\\/MMT nanocomposites were immersed in distilled water at three different temperatures (room temperature,\\u000a 60, and

Harintharavimal Balakrishnan; Azman Hassan; Muhammad Imran; Mat Uzir Wahit

307

Determining beryllium in drinking water by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

A direct graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy method for the analysis of beryllium in drinking water has been derived from a method for determining beryllium in urine. Ammonium phosphomolybdate and ascorbic acid were employed as matrix modifiers. The matrix modifiers successfully eliminated common chemical interferences in drinking water samples analyzed for beryllium content, as well as interferences encountered during jar testing of beryllium removal by alum coagulation. The method proved to be a simple, accurate, and precise alternative to the method of standard additions. Method detection limit was 0.09 microgram/l, with a linear calibration range of 0 to 6 microgram/l.

Lytle, D.A.; Schock, M.R.; Dues, N.R.; Doerger, J.U.

1993-01-01

308

Strong water absorption in the dayside emission spectrum of the planet HD 189733b.  

PubMed

Recent observations of the extrasolar planet HD 189733b did not reveal the presence of water in the emission spectrum of the planet. Yet models of such 'hot-Jupiter' planets predict an abundance of atmospheric water vapour. Validating and constraining these models is crucial to understanding the physics and chemistry of planetary atmospheres in extreme environments. Indications of the presence of water in the atmosphere of HD 189733b have recently been found in transmission spectra, where the planet's atmosphere selectively absorbs the light of the parent star, and in broadband photometry. Here we report the detection of strong water absorption in a high-signal-to-noise, mid-infrared emission spectrum of the planet itself. We find both a strong downturn in the flux ratio below 10 microm and discrete spectral features that are characteristic of strong absorption by water vapour. The differences between these and previous observations are significant and admit the possibility that predicted planetary-scale dynamical weather structures may alter the emission spectrum over time. Models that match the observed spectrum and the broadband photometry suggest that heat redistribution from the dayside to the nightside is weak. Reconciling this with the high nightside temperature will require a better understanding of atmospheric circulation or possible additional energy sources. PMID:19079054

Grillmair, Carl J; Burrows, Adam; Charbonneau, David; Armus, Lee; Stauffer, John; Meadows, Victoria; van Cleve, Jeffrey; von Braun, Kaspar; Levine, Deborah

2008-12-11

309

How Much Water Will a Sponge Hold?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners compare how much water different sized and shaped sponges can hold. Learners make predictions and then measure each sponge's absorption capacity by soaking the sponge in water for thirty seconds and squeezing the absorbed water from the sponge into a measuring cup. Use this activity as a lesson on capacity and absorption.

Houston, Children'S M.

2013-05-15

310

State-of-the-art review on crystallization control technologies for water\\/LiBr absorption heat pumps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key technical barrier to using water\\/lithium bromide (LiBr) as the working fluid in air-cooled absorption chillers and absorption heat-pump systems is the risk of crystallization when the absorber temperature rises at fixed evaporating pressure. This article reviews various crystallization control technologies available to resolve this problem: chemical inhibitors, heat and mass transfer enhancement methods, thermodynamic cycle modifications, and absorption

Kai Wang; Omar Abdelaziz; Padmaja Kisari; Edward Allan Vineyard

2011-01-01

311

Atmospheric absorption of radio waves in the region of the rotational resonance of water vapor at ??1.35 cm  

Microsoft Academic Search

UDC 621.371.246 An experimental study is reported of the vertical absorption of radio waves with X ~ 1.25 cm by atmospheric water molecules and oxygen, using the intrinsic radio emission of the atmosphere. It is shown that the absorption coefficient of tt20 vapor near the rotational resonance at X -~ 1.35 cm, obtained from measurements of vertical absorption on the

V. M. Plechkov

1969-01-01

312

Ammonium nutrition increases water absorption in rice seedlings ( Oryza sativa L.) under water stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water stress is a primary limitation on plant growth. In previous studies, it has been found that ammonium enhances the tolerance\\u000a of rice plants to water stress, but how water is related to nitrogen form and water stress remains unknown. To study the effects\\u000a of nitrogen form (NH4+, NO3?, and a mixture of NH4+ and NO3?) on the growth and

Yingxu Gao; Yong Li; Xiuxia Yang; Haijun Li; Qirong Shen; Shiwei Guo

2010-01-01

313

In vitro percutaneous absorption of cadmium from water and soil into human skin  

SciTech Connect

The objective was to determine percutaneous absorption of cadmium as the chloride salt from water and soil into and through human skin. Soil (Yolo County 65-California-57-8) was passed through 10-, 20-, and 48-mesh sieves. Soil retained by 80 mesh was mixed with radioactive cadmium-109 at 13 ppb. Water solutions of cadmium-109 at 116 ppb were prepared for comparative analysis. Human cadaver skin was dermatomed to 500-microns, and used in glass diffusion cells with human plasma as the receptor fluid (3 ml/hr flow rate) for a 16-hr skin application time. Cadmium in water (5 microliters/cm2) penetrated skin to concentrations of 8.8 +/- 0.6 and 12.7 +/- 11.7% of the applied dose from two human skin sources. Percentage doses absorbed into plasma were 0.5 +/- 0.2 and 0.6 +/- 0.6%, respectively. Cadmium from soil (0.04 g soil/cm2) penetrated skin at concentrations of 0.06 +/- 0.02 and 0.13 +/- 0.05% for the two human skin sources. Amounts absorbed into plasma were 0.01 +/- 0.01 and 0.07 +/- 0.03%. Most of the nonabsorbed cadmium was recovered in the soap and water skin surface wash. Binding of cadmium from water to soil was greater than binding from water to powdered human stratum corneum, supporting the lower absorption from soil than from water. Short-term exposure of cadmium in water to human skin for 30 min (bath or swim) resulted in skin uptake, which upon further perfusion (48 hr), absorbed into the plasma receptor fluid (systemic). Cadmium in soil was increased from 6.5 to 65 ppb.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Wester, R.C.; Maibach, H.I.; Sedik, L.; Melendres, J.; DiZio, S.; Wade, M. (Department of Dermatology, University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco (United States))

1992-07-01

314

Seasonal variability in the light absorption properties of western Arctic waters: Parameterization of the individual components of absorption for ocean color applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The light absorption properties of particulate and dissolved materials strongly influence the propagation of visible light in oceanic waters and therefore the accuracy of ocean color algorithms. While the general absorption properties of these materials have been reported for Arctic waters, their seasonal variability remains unknown. We investigated the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton [a?(?)], nonalgal particles [aNAP(?)], and colored dissolved organic matter [aCDOM(?)] in both coastal and oceanic waters of the western Arctic Ocean from spring to autumn. Values for the chlorophyll a-specific absorption coefficient of phytoplankton [a*?(440)] declined significantly from the ice melt period in the early spring to the summer. Using high-performance liquid chromatography, we show that the decrease in a*?(440) was due to a strong package effect that overwhelmed the influence of the pigment composition. A decrease in the aNAP(?) values from spring and summer to autumn likely originated from a decrease in the concentration of phytoplanktonic detritus. The aCDOM(?) near the surface decreased by 34% from spring to summer as a result of photobleaching by solar radiation. The colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption values then increased significantly during autumn, resulting from the cumulative injection of Alaskan Coastal Waters into the Arctic as well as CDOM generated in situ. Our results suggest that all of the absorption components are tightly linked to biogeochemical processes, and thus the seasonal variability in a?(?), aNAP(?), and aCDOM(?) should be taken into account in bio-optical models.

Matsuoka, Atsushi; Hill, Victoria; Huot, Yannick; Babin, Marcel; Bricaud, Annick

2011-02-01

315

Capacity of an alluvial water sources due to climate change -case study of the Pek river catchment area - Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper present the results of the Study of Climate Change impacts on capacity of an alluvial water source (ALWS) - case study assumed two sources in the Pek river catchment area (C.A.). The study is done within the scope of the international project "Climate Change and Impacts on Water Supply in South East Europe" (CC Waters). Choosed Climate scenario is A1B. To have comparable results today and in the future, the ALWS setting is the same today and in the future (no new wells, no erosion, no siltation, and no morphological changes in the immediate environment). It is obtained that the ALWSs capacity will decrease in the next 100 years from about 10% to about 50% of the peresent capacity, depending on the large number of factors. After describing the used Methodology, the paper containts the Results of the Study and Conclusion with Discussion about some of the present uncertainities. KEYWORDS: Climate Change, alluvial water source, Pek river, capacity

Dimkic, D.; Stankovic, B.; Pajic, P.; Prohaska, S.

2012-04-01

316

Preliminary Instrumentation and Object Oriented Design for Working Fluid Control in an Absorption Heat Pump Using Water \\/ Carrol  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the control problem in a single stage absorption heat pump is shown, in particular case for the water - Carroltrade absorption pair, and the operating conditions of the system are determined. The dimensionless tendencies of inlet powers are shown as a function of the final temperature of revaluation from waste energy. The used software is described for

Rosenberg J. Romero; Aris Barajas Medoza; Enrique Casillas González

2006-01-01

317

On the anomalies and role of water clusters in atmospheric absorption of millimeter and submillimeter radio waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental data are presented which do not confirm the existence of anomalies observed by many investigators in the atmospheric absorption of millimeter and submillimeter radio waves and make questionable the hypothesis on the importance of large water clusters in absorption that is invoked to explain the anomalies.

V. Yu. Katkov; N. I. Furashov

1996-01-01

318

Water Absorption from Gas Very near the Massive Protostar AFGL 2136 IRS 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present ground-based observations of the ?1 and ?3 fundamental bands of H2O toward the massive protostar AFGL 2136 IRS 1, identifying absorption features due to 47 different ro-vibrational transitions between 2.468 ?m and 2.561 ?m. Analysis of these features indicates the absorption arises in warm (T = 506 ± 25 K), very dense (n(H2) > 5 × 109 cm-3) gas, suggesting an origin close to the central protostar. The total column density of warm water is estimated to be N(H2O) = (1.02 ± 0.02) × 1019 cm-2, giving a relative abundance of N(H2O)/N(H2) ? 10-4. Our study represents the first extensive use of water vapor absorption lines in the near infrared, and demonstrates the utility of such observations in deriving physical parameters. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile as part of program 089.C-0321

Indriolo, Nick; Neufeld, D. A.; Seifahrt, A.; Richter, M. J.

2013-10-01

319

Lipid nanoparticles with no surfactant improve oral absorption rate of poorly water-soluble drug.  

PubMed

A pharmacokinetic study was performed in rats to evaluate the oral absorption ratios of nanoparticle suspensions containing the poorly water-soluble compound nifedipine (NI) and two different types of lipids, including hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol. NI-lipid nanoparticle (LN) suspensions with a mean particle size of 48.0 nm and a zeta potential of -57.2 mV were prepared by co-grinding combined with a high-pressure homogenization process. The oral administration of NI-LN suspensions to rats led to a significant increase in the NI plasma concentration, and the area under the curve (AUC) value was found to be 108 min ?g mL?¹, indicating a 4-fold increase relative to the NI suspensions. A comparison of the pharmacokinetic parameters of the NI-LN suspensions with those of the NI solution prepared using only the surfactant polysorbate 80 revealed that although the AUC and bioavailability (59%) values were almost identical, a rapid absorption rate was still observed in the NI-LN suspensions. These results therefore indicated that lipid nanoparticles prepared using only two types of phospholipid with a mean particle size of less than 50 nm could improve the absorption of the poorly water-soluble drug. PMID:23624178

Funakoshi, Yuka; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

2013-04-24

320

Absorption spectrum of deuterated water vapor enriched by 18O between 6000 and 9200 cm-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absorption spectrum of water vapor enriched by deuterium and oxygen-18 is analyzed in the 6000-9200 cm-1 region. The spectrum has been recorded at room temperature with a Bruker IFS 120 h Fourier transform spectrometer. More than 14,000 absorption lines were measured in the recorded spectrum. The vibration-rotation assignments were performed on the basis of previously published experimental energies and of variational calculations. Nine water species (H216O, HD16O, D216O, H218O, HD18O, D218O, H217O, HD17O and D217O) were found to contribute to the observed absorption. More than 3600 lines of 19 vibrational bands of D218O and about 4700 lines of 16 bands of HD18O with J as high as 19 and Ka as high as 11 were assigned. The main part of the HD18O and D218O lines and all lines of HD17O and D217O were observed in the laboratory for the first time. The obtained vibration-rotation energy levels are compared with previous experimental studies and the results of variational calculations.

Mikhailenko, S. N.; Naumenko, O. V.; Nikitin, A. V.; Vasilenko, I. A.; Liu, A.-W.; Song, K.-F.; Ni, H.-Y.; Hu, S.-M.

2012-06-01

321

Carrying Capacity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson helps students understand the notion of carrying capacity as it relates to ecosystems by considering an image of a bucket filled with water, and then filled with an "ecosystem." Students are asked to consider the factors on which carrying capacity is determined, and that a ecosystem's carrying capacity can change when certain variables are also changed.

322

Heat capacity and turbidity near the critical point of succinonitrile-water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both the heat capacity and the turbidity of the liquid-liquid mixture succinonitrile-water near its upper critical consolute point were measured and two amplitude relations were tested. Using an adiabatic calorimeter to measure the heat capacity and the transmitted light intensity to determine the turbidity, precise and reproducible data determined the critical exponents ?, ?, and ? consistent with theoretical predictions. The correlation length ?0=0.168+/-0.004 nm was determined from the turbidity experiment while the heat capacity amplitudes were A+=0.0543+/-0.0004 J/(cm3 K) in the one- and A-=0.1013+/-0.0004 J/(cm3 K) in the two-phase region. The amplitude ratio A+/A-=0.536+/-0.005 was consistent with other experimental determinations in liquid-liquid mixtures or liquid-vapor systems, and with recent theoretical predictions. The two-scale-factor universality ratio X, now consistent among experiments and theories with a value between 0.017 and 0.020, was determined to be 0.0187+/-0.0013.

Nowicki, A. W.; Ghosh, Madhujit; McClellan, S. M.; Jacobs, D. T.

2001-03-01

323

Effect of water deprivation on absorption (oral, intramuscular) and disposition of ampicillin in sheep.  

PubMed

The effects of a 72 h water deprivation on the absorption--intramuscular (i.m.) and oral and disposition of ampicillin, inulin and para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) were investigated in six sheep. After intravenous (i.v.) administration of ampicillin sodium (10 mg/kg), the water deprivation decreased slightly the initial volume of distribution (0.082 +/- 0.033 vs. 0.055 +/- 0.030 l/kg) but not the steady state volume of distribution. The plasma clearance was significantly decreased (6.21 +/- 1.94 vs. 3.90 +/- 1.92 ml/min/kg) and the mean residence time (MRT) was increased from 22.25 +/- 4.91 to 33.36 +/- 8.16 min. After i.m. administration of ampicillin sodium (20 mg/kg), ampicillin concentrations were systematically higher after a 3-day period of water deprivation than during the control period but the muscular absorption rate was not modified. After oral administration of ampicillin trihydrate (1 g in toto) plasma concentrations were much lower and more persistent than after an i.m. administration and the systemic availability remained low whatever the hydration status. Influences of water deprivation on ampicillin disposition were linked to adaptation of renal function as assessed by inulin and PAH clearances. The therapeutic relevance of the results are discussed for a better definition of dosage regimens for sheep reared in arid environments. PMID:1487841

Oukessou, M; Toutain, P L

1992-12-01

324

Graphical expression of thermodynamic characteristics of absorption process in ammonia-water system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adiabatic sorption is very interesting phenomenon that occurs when vapor of refrigerant is in contact with unsaturated liquid absorbent-refrigerant mixture and exchange of heat is forbid between the system and an environment. This contribution introduces new auxiliary lines that enable correct position determination of the adiabatic sorption process in the p-T-x diagram of ammoniawater system. The presented auxiliary lines were obtained from common functions for fast calculation of water-ammonia system properties. Absorption cycles designers often utilize p-t-x diagrams of working mixtures for first suggestion of new absorption cycles. The p-t-x diagrams enable fast correct determination of saturate states of liquid (and gaseous) mixtures of refrigerants and absorbents. The working mixture isn't only at saturated state during a real working cycle. If we know pressure and temperature of an unsaturated mixture, exact position determination is possible in the p-t-x diagrams too.

Pospíšil, Ji?í; Fortelný, Zden?k

2012-04-01

325

Interspecific variation of bark water storage capacity of three deciduous tree species in relation to stemflow yield and solute flux to forest soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to: (1) test if normative bark water storage capacities differed significantly among three co-occurring deciduous tree species; and (2) examine the extent to which stemflow production and resulting solute inputs in temperate deciduous forests are affected by bark water storage capacity. Normative bark water storage capacities were determined for: Betula lenta L. (sweet birch),

D. F. Levia; S. R. Herwitz

2005-01-01

326

Near-Infrared Studies of Glucose and Sucrose in Aqueous Solutions: Water Displacement Effect and Red Shift in Water Absorption from Water-Solute Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use near infrared spectroscopy to obtain concentration dependent glucose absorption spectra in their aqueous solutions in the near-infrared range (3800 - 7500 cm^{-1}). We introduce a new method to obtain reliable glucose absorption bands from aqueous glucose solutions without measuring the water displacement coefficients of glucose separately. Additionally, we are able to extract the water displacement coefficients of glucose, and this may give a new general method using spectroscopy techniques applicable to other water soluble materials. We also observe red shifts in the absorption bands of water in the hydration shell around solute molecules, which comes from contribution of the interacting water molecules around the glucose molecules in solutions. The intensity of the red shift get larger as the concentration increases, which indicates that as the concentration increases more water molecules are involved in the interaction. However, the red shift in frequency does not seem to depend significantly on the concentration up to our highest concentration. We also performed the same measurements and analysis with sucrose instead of glucose as solute and compare.

Jung, Youngeui; Hwang, Jungseek

2013-02-01

327

[Determination of trace sodium ion in high purity water by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry].  

PubMed

The present paper studied on the determination of trace Na+ in high purity water by graphite furnace atom absorption spectrometry. A method of directly on-line concentrating samples in graphite furnace, multiple charging, ashing, then determining once by directly charging into pools of graphite furnace, was set up. The goal of concentrating samples and avoiding contamination as well as raising sensitivity were finally achieved. To prevent the background of purity water and regent in experiment from covering the ion concentration of the sample, the authors prepared the high purity water and regent to meet the requirement of the experiment by electrodialysis in series with distillation and below-boiling-point quartz distillation at pure worktable. Satisfactory results of linearity and detection limit were obtained. The detection limit with this method was 0. 086 microg x L(-1) for Na+. The recovery was 101%-104%. PMID:17390682

Yuan, Xia; Shen, Shi-gang; Sun, Han-wen

2007-01-01

328

Robust superhydrophobic/superoleophilic sponge for effective continuous absorption and expulsion of oil pollutants from water.  

PubMed

With the growth of oil production and transportation, there is greater potential for accidental oil spills. Here we fabricated a robust superhydrophobic and superoleophilic carbon nanotube/poly(dimethylsiloxane)-coated polyurethane sponge for the continuous absorption and expulsion of oils and organic solvents from water surfaces. When applied in conjunction with a vacuum system, this sponge could separate great amounts of oils-up to 35000 times its own weight-from water in a one-step process and could also separate surfactant-free water-in-oil emulsions with high efficiency (oil purity: >99.97 wt %), making it a promising candidate material for use in oil-spill cleanups. PMID:24032484

Wang, Chih-Feng; Lin, Sheng-Jhih

2013-09-13

329

A high energy diode-pumped Cr:LiSAF laser for water vapor differential absorption lidar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. The near-IR absorption bands in the 810-830 nm and 930-950 nm range are well suited for remote measurements of water vapor with differential absorption lidar. A diode-pumped Cr:LiSAF laser which can be tuned over these bands has a great potential as a compact and efficient, narrow linewidth source for atmospheric water vapor DIAL. We present the

V. Fromzel; C. R. Prasad; C. Johnson; N. P. Barnes; G. H. Kim; R. D. Mead

1999-01-01

330

Structural Analysis for Water Absorption of SiOF Films Prepared by High-Density-Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorine-doped silicon oxide (SiOF) films, prepared by high-density-plasma chemical vapor deposition, are investigated as to the effect of bond structure on water absorption. In this investigation, two kinds of SiOF films, containing 12% and 8% fluorine atoms, were compared with regard to the change in their bond structure before and after accelerated water absorption. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, thermal

Takahiro Tamura; Junro Sakai; Yoichi Inoue; Makoto Satoh; Hikaru Yoshitaka

1998-01-01

331

Laboratory measurements of water vapour continuum absorption in spectral region 5000-5600 cm-1: Evidence for water dimers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In spite of decades of extensive studies, the role of water dimers (WD) in the atmospheric radiation budget is still controversial. In order to search for evidence of the dimer in the solar near infrared, high spectral resolution pure water vapour absorption spectra were obtained in laboratory conditions for two different pressures and temperatures in the spectral region 5000-5600 cm-1 (1.785 to 2 m). The residual was derived as a difference between the measured optical depth and the calculated one for water monomer, using the modified HITRAN database and two different representations of the water vapour continuum: CKD-2.4 (Clough-Kneizys-Davies) and the Ma and Tipping continuum. In both cases the residuals obtained are very similar to those expected from a recent theoretical calculation of the WD absorption. However, the WD band half-width at half maximum (HWHM) and dimerization equilibrium constant, Keq, required to provide a best fit to the residual, differ for each case. To be in best agreement with the residual calculated by using the Ma and Tipping continuum, the WD bands HWHM should be ~28 cm-1, and Keq = 0.02 ± 0.0035 atm-1 and 0.043 ± 0.0055 atm-1 for temperatures 342 and 299 K respectively. For the residual calculated using the CKD-2.4 continuum the fitted value of the HWHM is ~18 cm-1, and Keq = 0.011 ± 0.0025 atm-1 (342 K) and 0.018 ± 0.003 atm-1 (299 K). It is concluded that a substantial part of the WD absorption is already implicitly included within the CKD-2.4 continuum model. The increase in estimated clear-sky global mean absorption of solar radiation due to WD varies from 0.5% to 2.0%, depending on the set of WD parameters used. On the basis of a comparison of the derived Keq values with others in the literature, the higher estimate is favoured.

Ptashnik, Igor V.; Smith, Kevin M.; Shine, Keith P.; Newnham, David A.

2004-10-01

332

Improved energy efficiency in absorption heat pump through process modification. Part II: Thermodynamic potential of liquid-liquid extraction of ammonia-water mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction-system-attached (ESA) ammonia-water absorption heat pumps were derived from the conventional system as a strategy to improve the energy efficiency of the conventional ammonia-water absorption heat pump. The ESA absorption heat pumps were obtained by attaching a liquid-liquid extraction unit in the conventional system. Theoretical thermodynamic simulation of the ESA and conventional ammonia-water absorption heat pumps showed that a higher

A. S. Olawale; S. S. Adefila

1998-01-01

333

Arsenic exposure from drinking water, arsenic methylation capacity, and carotid intima-media thickness in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the interrelationships between past arsenic exposure, biomarkers specific for susceptibility to arsenic exposure, and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in 959 subjects from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh. We measured cIMT levels on average 7.2 years after baseline during 2010-2011. Arsenic exposure was measured in well water at baseline and in urine samples collected at baseline and during follow-up. Every 1-standard-deviation increase in urinary arsenic (357.9 µg/g creatinine) and well-water arsenic (102.0 µg/L) concentration was related to a 11.7-µm (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8, 21.6) and 5.1-µm (95% CI: -0.2, 10.3) increase in cIMT, respectively. For every 10% increase in monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) percentage, there was an increase of 12.1 µm (95% CI: 0.4, 23.8) in cIMT. Among participants with a higher urinary MMA percentage, a higher ratio of urinary MMA to inorganic arsenic, and a lower ratio of dimethylarsinic acid to MMA, the association between well-water arsenic and cIMT was stronger. The findings indicate an effect of past long-term arsenic exposure on cIMT, which may be potentiated by suboptimal or incomplete arsenic methylation capacity. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm the association between arsenic methylation capacity and atherosclerosis-related outcomes. PMID:23788675

Chen, Yu; Wu, Fen; Graziano, Joseph H; Parvez, Faruque; Liu, Mengling; Paul, Rina Rani; Shaheen, Ishrat; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Rundek, Tatjana; Demmer, Ryan T; Desvarieux, Moise; Ahsan, Habibul

2013-06-20

334

Multiplexed detection of xylene and trichloroethylene in water by photonic crystal absorption spectroscopy.  

PubMed

We experimentally demonstrate simultaneous selective detection of xylene and trichloroethylene (TCE) using multiplexed photonic crystal waveguides (PCWs) by near-infrared optical absorption spectroscopy on a chip. Based on the slow light effect of photonic crystal structure, the sensitivity of our device is enhanced to 1 ppb (v/v) for xylene and 10 ppb (v/v) for TCE in water. Multiplexing is enabled by multimode interference power splitters and Y-combiners that integrate multiple PCWs on a silicon chip in a silicon-on-insulator platform. PMID:24081056

Lai, Wei-Cheng; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Zou, Yi; Chen, Ray T

2013-10-01

335

Flame atomic absorption determination of manganese(II) in natural water after cloud point extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility to use 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol (PAR) and 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) for manganese(II) concentrating by the micellar extraction at cloud point (CP) temperature and subsequent atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) determination was investigated. Under the optimum conditions, preconcentration of 100ml of water sample in the presence of 1% non-ionic surfactant (NS) OP-7, 1×10?4M 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol permitted the detection 5?gl?1 manganese. The proposed method has

V. O. Doroschuk; S. O. Lelyushok; V. B. Ishchenko; S. A. Kulichenko

2004-01-01

336

Measured and modeled solar spectral irradiance and absorption for TC4 ice and water cloud scenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TC4 experiment provided extensive coordinated above- and below-cloud measurements of solar spectral irradiance (Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer) onboard the NASA ER-2 and DC-8 aircraft, which also carried various active and passive cloud remote sensing as well as in-situ cloud instrumentation. We present measured spectral irradiance and absorption along coordinated flight legs for water and ice clouds. We derive effective radius from reflected and absorbed irradiance along those legs and relate those to CAPS (Cloud Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer) in-situ measurements onboard the DC-8 and to retrievals from MAS (MODIS Airborne Simulator) and MASTER (MODIS and ASTER Airborne Simulator) onboard the ER-2.

Wind, G.; Schmidt, S.; Pilewskie, P.; King, M.; Bansemer, A.; Kindel, B.; McBride, P.

2007-12-01

337

Comparisons of Three Different Enrichment Techniques in the Determination of Lead in Tap Water and Bottled Water by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead contents of tap water and bottled spring waters have been determined by flame-atomic absorption spectrometry. Because of the low concentration of lead, direct aspiraztion of samples into the flame was not suitable, so a pre-concentration stage was necessary. The lead in water samples was concentrated by various methods: “evaporation”, “extraction” and “extraction after evaporation” of samples were used and

Unel Koklu; Suleyman Akman

1990-01-01

338

Nonlinear absorption dynamics using field-induced surface hopping: zinc porphyrin in water.  

PubMed

We wish to present the application of our field-induced surface-hopping (FISH) method to simulate nonlinear absorption dynamics induced by strong nonresonant laser fields. We provide a systematic comparison of the FISH approach with exact quantum dynamics simulations on a multistate model system and demonstrate that FISH allows for accurate simulations of nonlinear excitation processes including multiphoton electronic transitions. In particular, two different approaches for simulating two-photon transitions are compared. The first approach is essentially exact and involves the solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in an extended manifold of excited states, while in the second one only transiently populated nonessential states are replaced by an effective quadratic coupling term, and dynamics is performed in a considerably smaller manifold of states. We illustrate the applicability of our method to complex molecular systems by simulating the linear and nonlinear laser-driven dynamics in zinc (Zn) porphyrin in the gas phase and in water. For this purpose, the FISH approach is connected with the quantum mechanical-molecular mechanical approach (QM/MM) which is generally applicable to large classes of complex systems. Our findings that multiphoton absorption and dynamics increase the population of higher excited states of Zn porphyrin in the nonlinear regime, in particular in solution, provides a means for manipulating excited-state properties, such as transient absorption dynamics and electronic relaxation. PMID:23589486

Röhr, Merle I S; Petersen, Jens; Wohlgemuth, Matthias; Bona?i?-Koutecký, Vlasta; Mitri?, Roland

2013-04-15

339

Natural variability of phytoplanktonic absorption in oceanic waters: Influence of the size structure of algal populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in oceanic waters were previously shown to vary with chlorophyll a concentration according to nonlinear relationships with a great deal of noise. We analyzed this biological noise on a data set of 596 simultaneous absorption and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) pigment measurements acquired within the surface layer (first optical depth) from various regions of the world's oceans. We observed systematic deviations from the average relationships for some oceanic areas and also seasonally within given areas. Using the detailed HPLC measurements, the influences of pigment composition and package effect (the two main sources of variability in algal absorption for a given chlorophyll a concentration) were explicitly separated for each sample. It was found that while the pigment composition experiences large variations, even within a restricted chlorophyll range, it is often not (at least within the first optical depth) the dominant source of the biological noise. Instead, these deviations mostly result from variability in the pigment packaging effect (for a given chlorophyll a concentration) due to variations in algal community size structure. This conclusion is fully confirmed by an independent approach, which consists of estimating a "size index" of algal populations from the relative concentrations of taxonomic pigments.

Bricaud, Annick; Claustre, Hervé; Ras, JoséPhine; Oubelkheir, Kadija

2004-11-01

340

Static water structure detected by heat capacity measurements on aqueous solutions of a triple-helical polysaccharide schizophyllan.  

PubMed

Heat capacity measurements were made on aqueous solutions of a triple-helical polysaccharide schizophyllan by precision adiabatic calorimetry over a wide range of concentrations 30.45-90.93 wt % at temperatures between 5 and 315 K. The heat capacity curves obtained were divided into four groups depending on the weight fraction of schizophyllan w regions I-IV. In region I, triple-helices with the sheath of bound water, structured water, and loosely structured water forming layers around the helix core are embedded in free water. In region II, there is no free water, and loosely structured water decreases until it vanishes, but structured water stays constant with increasing w. In region III, bound water remains unaffected, but structured water decreases with increasing w by overlapping each other. Finally, in region IV, only schizophyllan and bound water exist, the latter decreasing upon increasing w. The maximum thickness of each layer is 0.18(3) nm for bound water, 0.13(4) nm for structured water, and 0.23(6) nm for loosely structured water, and these layers of water are at the enthalpy levels of 53%, 93.7%, and nearly 100%, respectively, between ice (0%) and free water (100%). PMID:12959605

Yoshiba, Kazuto; Teramoto, Akio; Nakamura, Naotake; Kikuchi, Kyo; Miyazaki, Yuji; Sorai, Michio

341

Integrated modelling to assess long-term water supply capacity of a meso-scale Mediterranean catchment.  

PubMed

Assessing water supply capacity is crucial to meet stakeholders' needs, notably in the Mediterranean region. This region has been identified as a climate change hot spot, and as a region where water demand is continuously increasing due to population growth and the expansion of irrigated areas. The Hérault River catchment (2500 km(2), France) is a typical example and a negative trend in discharge has been observed since the 1960s. In this context, local stakeholders need first to understand the processes controlling the evolution of water resources and demands in the past to latter evaluate future water supply capacity and anticipate the tensions users could be confronted to in the future. A modelling framework is proposed at a 10-day time step to assess whether water resources have been able to meet water demands over the last 50 years. Water supply was evaluated using hydrological modelling and a dam management model. Water demand dynamics were estimated for the domestic and agricultural sectors. A water supply capacity index is computed to assess the extent and the frequency to which water demand has been satisfied at the sub-basin scale. Simulated runoff dynamics were in good agreement with observations over the calibration and validation periods. Domestic water demand has increased considerably since the 1980s and is characterized by a seasonal peak in summer. Agricultural demand has increased in the downstream sub-basins and decreased upstream where irrigated areas have decreased. As a result, although most water demands were satisfied between 1961 and 1980, irrigation requirements in summer have sometimes not been satisfied since the 1980s. This work is the first step toward evaluating possible future changes in water allocation capacity in the catchment, using future climate change, dam management and water use scenarios. PMID:23756213

Collet, Lila; Ruelland, Denis; Borrell-Estupina, Valérie; Dezetter, Alain; Servat, Eric

2013-06-10

342

Absorption and backscattering coefficients and their relations to water constituents of Poyang Lake, China.  

PubMed

The measurement and analysis of inherent optical properties (IOPs) of the main water constituents are necessary for remote-sensing-based water quality estimation and other ecological studies of lakes. This study aimed to measure and analyze the absorption and backscattering coefficients of the main water constituents and, further, to analyze their relations to the water constituent concentrations in Poyang Lake, China. The concentrations and the absorption and backscattering coefficients of the main water constituents at 47 sampling sites were measured and analyzed as follows. (1) The concentrations of chlorophyll a (C(CHL)), dissolved organic carbon (C(DOC)), suspended particulate matter (C(SPM)), including suspended particulate inorganic matter (C(SPIM)) and suspended particulate organic matter (C(SPOM)), and the absorption coefficients of total particulate (a(p)), phytoplankton (a(ph)), nonpigment particulate (a(d)), and colored/chromophoric dissolved organic matter (a(g)) were measured in the laboratory. (2) The total backscattering coefficients, including the contribution of pure water at six wavelengths of 420, 442, 470, 510, 590, and 700 nm, were measured in the field with a HydroScat-6 backscattering sensor. (3) The backscattering coefficients without the contribution of pure water (b(b)) were then derived by subtracting the backscattering coefficients of pure water from the total backscattering coefficients. (4) The C(CHL), C(SPM), C(SPIM), C(SPOM), and C(DOC) of the 41 remaining water samples were statistically described and their correlations were analyzed. (5) The a(ph), a(d), a(p), a(g), and b(b) were visualized and analyzed, and their relations to C(CHL), C(SPM), C(SPIM), C(SPOM), or C(DOC) were studied. Results showed the following. (1) Poyang Lake was a suspended particulate inorganic matter dominant lake with low phytoplankton concentration. (2) One salient a(ph) absorption peak was found at 678 nm, and it explained 72% of the variation of C(CHL). (3) The a(d) and a(p) exponentially decreased with increasing wavelength, and they explained 74% of the variation of C(SPIM) and 71% variation of C(SPM), respectively, at a wavelength of 440 nm. (4) The a(g) also exponentially decreased with increasing wavelength, and it had no significant correlation to C(DOC) at a significance level of 0.05. (5) The b(b) decreased with increasing wavelength, and it had strong and positive correlations to C(SPM), C(SPIM) and C(SPOM), a strong and negative correlation to C(CHL), and no correlation to C(DOC) at a significance level of 0.05. Such results will be helpful for the understanding of the IOPs of Poyang Lake. They, however, only represented the IOPs during the sampling time period, and more measurements and analyses in different seasons need to be carried out in the future to ensure a comprehensive understanding of the IOPs of Poyang Lake. PMID:22192987

Wu, Guofeng; Cui, Lijuan; Duan, Hongtao; Fei, Teng; Liu, Yaolin

2011-12-01

343

Thickness of Soil Solum as a Parameter of PlantAVAILABLE Water Storage Capacity in Soils Underlain by Carbonate Rocks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Available water storage capacities were determined by field measurement in limestone-derived soils with a range in depths to carbonate rock of 15 cm to more than 300 cm. Neutron probe access wells were installed and amounts of water were determined throug...

C. L. Scrivner D. A. Ruppert

1970-01-01

344

A Method for Determining the Phosphorus Sorption Capacity and Amorphous Aluminum of Aluminum-Based Drinking Water Treatment Residuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high amorphous aluminum or iron oxide content in drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) can result in a high phosphorus (P) sorption capacity. Therefore, WTR may be used beneficially to adsorb P and reduce P loss to surface or ground water. The strong relationship betwveen acid ammonium oxalate-extractable aluminum (Al,,) and Langmuir phosphorus adsorption maximum (P,,) in WTR could provide

E. A. Dayton; N. T. Basta

2005-01-01

345

Depth of cinder deposits and water-storage capacity at Cinder Lake, Coconino County, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 2010 Schultz fire northeast of Flagstaff, Arizona, burned more than 15,000 acres on the east side of San Francisco Mountain from June 20 to July 3. As a result, several drainages in the burn area are now more susceptible to increased frequency and volume of runoff, and downstream areas are more susceptible to flooding. Resultant flooding in areas downgradient of the burn has resulted in extensive damage to private lands and residences, municipal water lines, and roads. Coconino County, which encompasses Flagstaff, has responded by deepening and expanding a system of roadside ditches to move flood water away from communities and into an area of open U.S. Forest Service lands, known as Cinder Lake, where rapid infiltration can occur. Water that has been recently channeled into the Cinder Lake area has infiltrated into the volcanic cinders and could eventually migrate to the deep regional groundwater-flow system that underlies the area. How much water can potentially be diverted into Cinder Lake is unknown, and Coconino County is interested in determining how much storage is available. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted geophysical surveys and drilled four boreholes to determine the depth of the cinder beds and their potential for water storage capacity. Results from the geophysical surveys and boreholes indicate that interbedded cinders and alluvial deposits are underlain by basalt at about 30 feet below land surface. An average total porosity for the upper 30 feet of deposits was calculated at 43 percent for an area of 300 acres surrounding the boreholes, which yields a total potential subsurface storage for Cinder Lake of about 4,000 acre-feet. Ongoing monitoring of storage change in the Cinder Lake area was initiated using a network of gravity stations.

Macy, Jamie P.; Amoroso, Lee; Kennedy, Jeff; Unema, Joel

2012-01-01

346

Geology, water resources and usable ground-water storage capacity of part of Solano County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The area described is confined largely to the valley-floor and foothill lands of Solano County, which lies directly between Sacramento, the State capital, and San Francisco. The area is considered in two subareas: The Putah area, which extends from Putah Creek southward to the Montezuma Hills and from the foothills of the Coast Ranges eastward to the west edge of the Yolo Bypass; and the Suisun-Fairfield area, which is to the southwest in the notch in the Coast Ranges through which the waters of the Great Central Valley of California reach San Francisco Bay. There are no known hydrologic interconnections between the two subareas, through either surface streams or underground aquifers. The climate of the area is characterized by warm, rainless summers and by cool winters in which temperatures seldom drop much below freezing. The rainfall ranges from about 17 inches per year along the east side to perhaps 24 inches in the foothills to the west, and irrigation is necessary for all crops except dry-farmed grains, pastures, and some orchards. PUTAH AREA The Putah area occupies the southwestern corner of the Sacramento Valley, a topographic and structural basin underlain by a thick accumulation of sediments eroded from the surrounding hills and mountains by the Sacramento River and its tributaries. The eastern Coast Ranges and foothills lying west of the Sacramento Valley are a generally northward-trending belt of eastward-dipping sedimentary rocks that range in age from Cretaceous to Pleistocene. Successively younger strata are exposed eastward, and the essentially undeformed deposits of late Pleistocene and Recent age that immediately underlie the valley lap onto the tilted sediments of the foothills. Most of the streams of the Putah area rise east of the high ridge of Cretaceous rocks marking the western boundaries of Solano and Yolo Counties, but Putah Creek, the largest stream in the area, rises far west of that ridge and flows across it in a deep, narrow canyon. Putah Creek and the smaller streams have constructed an alluvial plain, herein designated the Putah plain, which slopes eastward and southeastward from the foothills toward the Sacramento River. A large part of the Putah plain is traversed by a branching set of distributary channel ridges or natural levees formed at times of overflow of Putah Creek. The rocks in the Putah area range in age from Cretaceous to Recent. For the purposes of this investigation they are divided into eight geologic or stratigraphic units, from youngest to oldest: (1) Stream-channel deposits, (2) younger alluvium, (3) older alluvium, (4) Tehama formation and related continental sediments, (5) volcanic sedimentary rocks, (6) basalt, (7) undifferentiated sedimentary rocks of Paleocene(?) and Eocene age, and (8) undifferentiated rocks of Cretaceous age. The stream-channel deposits are predominantly loose sand and gravel along the channel of Putah Creek. In part they are actively moving downstream and shifting. The younger alluvium, of Recent age, consists of flood-plain deposits underlying the Putah plain, Vaca Valley, Pleasants Valley, and the small valleys in the foothills north of Putah Creek and in the English Hills. Exposures of younger alluvium are characterized by soils lacking significant profile development and in many places by channel-ridge topography. The older alluvium occupies the stratigraphic interval between the younger alluvium and the Tehama formation and related continental sediments and is probably of late Pleistocene age. Its contact with the underlying Tehama formation and related continental sediments is unconformable near the foothills, but it may be gradational beneath much of the Putah plain. The base of the older alluvium is not well defined at many places but is inferred to be at the bottom of an irregular and ill-defined zone of coarse deposits, which ranges from about 50 feet to more than 150 feet below the land surface. Exposures of the older

Thomasson, H. G., Jr.; Olmsted, F. H.; LeRoux, E. F.

1960-01-01

347

Effect of carboxymethylation conditions on the water-binding capacity of chitosan-based superabsorbents.  

PubMed

A superabsorbent polymer (SAP) from chitosan was provided via carboxymethylation of chitosan, followed by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde and freeze-drying. This work was focused on an investigation of the effects of monochloroacetic acid (MCAA), sodium hydroxide, and reaction time on preparation of carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS). The CMCS products were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, and their degrees of substitution (DS) were measured using conductimetry and FTIR analysis. The highest DS value was obtained when the carboxymethylation reaction was carried out using 1.75g MCAA and 1.75g NaOH per g of chitosan in 4h. The water solubilities of the CMCS products at various pHs were also evaluated, and the results indicated a significant impact of the reaction parameters on the solubility of CMCS. The CMCSs with the highest DS value resulted in SAPs having the highest water-binding capacity (WBC). The WBC of the best SAP measured after 10min exposure in distilled water, 0.9% NaCl solution, synthetic urine, and artificial blood was 104, 33, 30, and 57g/g, respectively. The WBC of this SAP at pH 2-9 passed a maximum at pH 6. PMID:20971451

Bidgoli, Hosein; Zamani, Akram; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

2010-09-25

348

An experimental integrated absorption heat pump effluent purification system. Part II: operating on water\\/Carrol solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental integrated absorption heat pump effluent purification system (IAHPEPS) was built and originally operated with water-lithium bromide as a working mixture. The experimental results of IAHPEPS operated with water-Carrol as a working mixture are presented. Tap water was used as effluent and distilled water was obtained after purification. Pure effluent production rates ranged between 1.2 and 4 kg h?1.

S Santoyo-Gutiérrez; J Siqueiros; C. L Heard; E Santoyo; F. A Holland

2000-01-01

349

First CRDS-measurements of water vapour continuum in the 940 nm absorption band  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of near-infrared water vapour continuum using continuous wave cavity ring down spectroscopy (cw-CRDS) have been performed at around 10611.6 and 10685.2cm. The continuum absorption coefficients for N2-broadening have been determined to be CF296K=(1.0±0.2)×10cmmolatm and CF278K=(1.8±0.4)×10cmmolatm at 10611.6cm, and CF296K=(1.6±0.5)×10cmmolatm and CF278K=(2.1±0.4)×10cmmolatm at 10685.2cm, respectively. These results represent the first near-IR continuum laboratory data determined within the complex spectral environment in the 940 nm water vapour band and are in reasonable agreement with simulations using the semiempirical CKD formulation.

Reichert, L.; Andrés Hernández, M. D.; Burrows, J. P.; Tikhomirov, A. B.; Firsov, K. M.; Ptashnik, I. V.

2007-06-01

350

Transmission losses in infrared anti-reflection coatings due to water absorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared optical systems require a range of exotic materials, many with large indices of refraction. The mismatch in the index between the optical element and the surrounding medium can result in reflection losses that approach 50%. Antireflection (AR) coatings are applied to these elements in order to minimize "ghost" reflections and improve the optical transmission through a system. The coatings are designed to be highly transparent; however, significant infrared absorption has been observed in some AR coatings. Likely candidates for the loss mechanism are water trapped into the optical coatings during deposition and water being incorporated into coating voids or grain boundaries during exposure to ambient humidity. Five different AR coatings have been procured from four manufacturers to study the cause of the observed losses. Upon receipt of the coated samples, infrared transmission measurements were made which showed the presence of incorporated water/hydroxyl, as evidenced by reduced transmission around 2.9 ?m. Four of the five sample types placed in laboratory air for two months continued to absorb water, whereas those placed in flowing dry nitrogen showed no change. Samples placed in a humid environment for one, three and ten days also showed additional water incorporation with the magnitude of the change in transmission on the order of that observed with the two-month air exposure.

Panetta, C. J.; Fuqua, P. D.; Chu, C.-T.; Barrie, J. D.

2011-09-01

351

Amount of leachant and water absorption levels of wood treated with borates and water repellents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood protection efficacy of borates against biological agents, flame retardancy, and suitability to the environment is well known. Since borates can be applied to timber as water based solutions, they are preferred economically as well. Even though they are highly mobile in wood, boron compounds are widely used in timber preservation. Borates migrate in liquid and increase the hygroscopicity of

Ergun Baysal; Abdullah Sonmez; Mehmet Colak; Hilmi Toker

2006-01-01

352

Modeling of simultaneous heat and mass transfer processes in ammonia water absorption systems from general correlations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a general differential mathematical model to analyze the simultaneous heat and mass transfer processes that occur in different components of an ammonia water absorption system: absorber, desorber, rectifier, distillation column, condenser and evaporator. Heat and mass transfer equations are considered, taking into account the heat and mass transfer resistances in the liquid and vapour phases. The model considers the different regions: vapour phase, liquid phase and an external heating or cooling medium. A finite difference numerical method has been considered to solve the resulting set of nonlinear differential equations and an iterative algorithm is proposed for its solution. A map of possible solutions of the mass transferred composition z is presented when varying the interface temperature, which enables to establish a robust implementation code. The analysis is focused on the processes presented in ammonia water absorption systems. The model is applied to analyze the ammonia purification process in an adiabatic packed rectification column and the numerical results show good agreement with experimental data.

Sieres, Jaime; Fernández-Seara, José

2007-11-01

353

Enhancing the intestinal absorption of poorly water-soluble weak-acidic compound by controlling local pH.  

PubMed

Recently, the number of poorly water-soluble drug candidates has increased and has hindered the rapid improvement of new drugs with low intestinal absorption; however, the intestinal absorption of pH-dependent poorly water-soluble compounds is expected to be markedly improved by changing the pH in the vicinity of the absorption site. The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of local pH change in the intestinal tract by magnesium oxide on the intestinal absorption of hydrochlorothiazide, a model poorly water-soluble weak-acid compound. The application of hydrochlorothiazide granule containing magnesium oxide to the rat intestinal loop increased the pH in the vicinity of the dosing site to more than 8.5 for 90?min without any mucosal damage. As a result, absorption of hydrochlorothiazide increased by the addition of magnesium oxide to the granule. Intraintestinal administration of a suspension prepared from hydrochlorothiazide granules with magnesium oxide increased the intestinal absorption and the AUC value was 3-fold higher than that without magnesium oxide. To further increase the intestinal absorption of hydrochlorothiazide, we prepared granules containing magnesium oxide and chitosan as a mucoadhesive and tight junction opening material. Chitosan showed a marked increase of intestinal absorption, and the AUC value after the administration of suspensions of chitosan granules was more than 5-fold higher than that of granules containing hydrochlorothiazide alone, respectively. In summary, it has been clarified that the intestinal absorption of weak-acidic poorly water-soluble compound can be enhanced by increasing local pH, mucoadhesion and opening tight junction. PMID:22443480

Iwanaga, Kazunori; Kato, Shino; Miyazaki, Makoto; Kakemi, Masawo

2012-03-26

354

Do osmoregulators have lower capacity of muscle water regulation than osmoconformers? A study on decapod crustaceans.  

PubMed

Decapod crustaceans occupy various aquatic habitats. In freshwater they are osmoregulators, while marine species are typically osmoconformers. Freshwater crustaceans are derived from marine ancestors. The hypothesis tested here was that osmoregulators, which can rely on salt transport by interface epithelia to prevent extracellular disturbance, would have a lower capacity of tissue water regulation when compared with osmoconformers. Four species of decapod crustaceans (the marine osmoconformer crab Hepatus pudibundus, and three osmoregulators of different habitats) have been exposed in vivo to a salinity challenge, for up to 24 hr. Osmoregulators were: the estuarine shrimp Palaemon pandaliformis, the diadromous freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium acanthurus, and the hololimnetic red crab Dilocarcinus pagei. H. pudibundus displayed hemolymph dilution already after 0.5 hr in 25 per thousand, reaching approximately 30% reduction in osmolality, but its muscle degree of hydration did not increase. To make the different in vivo salinity challenges directly comparable, the ratio between the maximum change in muscle hydration with respect to the control value measured for the species and the maximum change in hemolymph osmolality was calculated (x 1,000): H. pudibundus (25 per thousand, 8.1% kg H(2)O/mOsm x 10(3))>P. pandaliformis (2 per thousand, 9.2)>M. acanthurus (30 per thousand, 12.6)>P. pandaliformis (35 per thousand, 16.7)>D. pagei (7 per thousand, 60.4). Muscle slices submitted in vitro to a 30% osmotic challenge confirmed in vivo results. Thus, the estuarine/freshwater osmoregulators displayed a lower capacity to hold muscle tissue water than the marine osmoconformer, despite undergoing narrower variations in hemolymph osmolality. PMID:19844979

Foster, Clarice; Amado, Enelise M; Souza, Marta M; Freire, Carolina A

2010-02-01

355

Solar cooling with the absorption principle: first and Second Law analysis of an ammonia—water double-generator absorption chiller  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the modelling, thermodynamic simulation and Second Law analysis of an ammonia—water double-effect, double-generator absorption chiller. The analysis of the unit established a simulation thermodynamic model as well as the limits of the operating conditions. Computer simulation was carried out in order to determine its stream properties and the amount of heat and work exchanged with the

N. Ben Ezzine; M. Barhoumi; Kh. Mejbri; S. Chemkhi; A. Bellagi

2004-01-01

356

Effect of Water Absorption Temperature on Space Charge Profiles in Paper/phenol-resin Composites for Printed Circuit Boards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More and more electronics are to be used under various adverse environments at high temperatures with high humidity. Spatial distributions of internal charge carriers mainly due to ionic impurities that appear in hot and humid environments are considered to affect the reliability of bulk insulation. Therefore, the authors examined space charge behavior inside paper/phenol-resin composites for printed circuit boards under dc voltages, focusing on the effect of water absorption temperature. Both the sample weight and thickness are increased monotonically by the immersion in water with an increase in water temperature from 24°C to 85°C, indicating that the water absorption by the sample is temperature dependent. In early periods of water absorption up to 10 hours, the electric field decreases near the two electrodes and increases in the other regions. Furthermore, heterocharge formation is observed near the cathode as the water absorption progresses, which becomes more significant at higher water temperatures. Ion chromatography analyses detected a lot of ions such as Na+, NH4+ and Cl- from the water, in which the sample had been immersed for 100 hours at various temperatures. It is highly possible that these ions are responsible for the heterocharge formation.

Echigo, Yasutsune; Natsui, Masashi; Maeno, Takashi; Ohki, Yoshimichi

357

Light absorption and partitioning in Arctic Ocean surface waters: impact of multi year ice melting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice melting in the Arctic Ocean exposes the surface water to more radiative energy with poorly understood effects on photo-biogeochemical processes and heat deposition in the upper ocean. In August 2009, we documented the vertical variability of light absorbing components at 37 stations located in the southeastern Beaufort Sea including both Mackenzie river-influenced waters and polar mixed layer waters. We found that melting multi-year ice released significant amount of non-algal particulates (NAP) near the sea surface relative to sub-surface waters. NAP absorption coefficients at 440 nm (aNAP(440)) immediately below the sea surface (0-) were on average 3-fold (up to 10-fold) higher compared to sub-surface values measured at 2-3 m depth. The impact of this unusual feature on the light transmission and remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) was further examined using a radiative transfer model. A 10-fold particle enrichment homogeneously distributed in the first meter of the water column slightly reduced photosynthetically available and usable radiation (PAR and PUR) by ~6% and ~8%, respectively, relative to a fully homogenous water column with low particles concentration. In terms of Rrs, the particle enrichment significantly flattered the spectrum by reducing the Rrs by up to 20% in the blue-green spectral region (400-550 nm). These results highlight the impact of melt water on the concentration of particles at sea surface, and the need for considering nonuniform vertical distribution of particles in such systems when interpreting remotely sensed ocean color. Spectral slope of aNAP spectra calculated in the UV domain decreased with depth suggesting that this parameter is sensitive to detritus composition and/or diagenesis state (e.g., POM photobleaching).

Bélanger, S.; Cizmeli, S. A.; Ehn, J.; Matsuoka, A.; Doxaran, D.; Hooker, S.; Babin, M.

2013-03-01

358

Infrared- and millimeter-wavelength absorption in the atmospheric windows by water vapor and nitrogen - Measurements and models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current knowledge of the water vapor window regions from 10 to 1000 GHz, 8 to 12 microns, 3 to 5 microns, and 2 to 2.5 microns is reviewed with emphasis on the continuum absorption observed in each window region. The observed frequency dependence in each window is consistent with the concept of far wings emanating from the bordering water vapor absorption bands, which provides a promising basis for modeling continuum absorption. Theoretical line-shape models predict the observed frequency and pressure dependence of absorption but thus far not the temperature dependence. A model for the integrated intensity of the nitrogen continuum is developed as a function of density and temperature.

Thomas, Michael E.

1988-01-01

359

Photodissociation of water in the first absorption band: A prototype for dissociation on a repulsive potential energy surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photodissociation of water in the first absorption band, HâO(X) + âÏ â HâO(A¹Bâ) â H(²S) + OH(²II), is a prototype of fast and direct bond rupture in an excited electronic state. It has been investigated from several perspectives-absorption spectrum, final state distributions of the products, dissociation of vibrationally excited states, isotope effects, and emission spectroscopy. The availability of a

V. Engel; V. Staemmler; R. L. Vander Wal; F. F. Crim; R. J. Sension; B. Hudson; P. Andresen; S. Hennig; K. Weide; R. Schinke

1992-01-01

360

Selection of heat storage materials for ammonia–water and lithium bromide solar-powered absorption heat pump systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for incorporating phase-change thermal storage materials in ammonia–water and lithium bromide absorption heat pumps systems is explored. Performance evaluation of the systems is presented and results are used as a guide in selecting appropriate phase-change materials (PCMs) for the absorption heat systems. Evaluation of the system indicates that there is a minimum generator temperature for each configuration of

S. N. Mumah

2008-01-01

361

Light absorption and partitioning in Arctic Ocean surface waters: impact of multiyear ice melting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice melting in the Arctic Ocean exposes the surface water to more radiative energy with poorly understood effects on photo-biogeochemical processes and heat deposition in the upper ocean. In August 2009, we documented the vertical variability of light absorbing components at 37 stations located in the southeastern Beaufort Sea including both Mackenzie River-influenced waters and polar mixed layer waters. We found that melting multiyear ice released significant amount of non-algal particulates (NAP) near the sea surface relative to subsurface waters. NAP absorption coefficients at 440 nm (aNAP(440)) immediately below the sea surface were on average 3-fold (up to 10-fold) higher compared to subsurface values measured at 2-3 m depth. The impact of this unusual feature on the light transmission and remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) was further examined using a radiative transfer model. A 10-fold particle enrichment homogeneously distributed in the first meter of the water column slightly reduced photosynthetically available and usable radiation (PAR and PUR) by ∼6 and ∼8%, respectively, relative to a fully homogenous water column with low particle concentration. In terms of Rrs, the particle enrichment significantly flattered the spectrum by reducing the Rrs by up to 20% in the blue-green spectral region (400-550 nm). These results highlight the impact of meltwater on the concentration of particles at sea surface, and the need for considering non-uniform vertical distribution of particles in such systems when interpreting remotely sensed ocean color. Spectral slope of aNAP spectra calculated in the UV (ultraviolet) domain decreased with depth suggesting that this parameter is sensitive to detritus composition and/or diagenesis state (e.g., POM (particulate organic matter) photobleaching).

Bélanger, S.; Cizmeli, S. A.; Ehn, J.; Matsuoka, A.; Doxaran, D.; Hooker, S.; Babin, M.

2013-10-01

362

Effect of aminoalkyl methacrylate copolymer E/ HCl on in vivo absorption of poorly water-soluble drug.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate in vivo absorption of tacrolimus formulated as a solid dispersion using Eudragit E(®)/HCl (E-SD). E-SD is an aminoalkyl methacrylate copolymer that can be dissolved under neutral pH conditions. E-SD was used alone as a solid dispersion carrier and/or was mixed with tacrolimus primarily dispersed with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC). Tacrolimus was formulated with E-SD at several different ratios. Formulations with tacrolimus/E-SD ratio of 1/3 showed higher in vivo absorption, compared to tacrolimus dispersed in the excipients (primarily HPMC) found in commercially available tacrolimus capsules, using a rat in situ closed loop method. Good correlation was observed between in vitro drug solubility and in vivo drug absorption. In vitro solubility tests and rat oral absorption studies of tacrolimus/HPMC solid dispersion formulations were also conducted after mixing the HPMC dispersion with several ratios of E-SD. E-SD/tacrolimus/HPMC formulations yielded high in vitro drug solubility but comparatively low in vivo absorption. Dog oral absorption studies were conducted using capsules containing a formulation of tacrolimus/E-SD at a ratio of 1/5. The E-SD formulation-containing capsule showed higher in vivo drug absorption than tacrolimus dispersed in the standard HPMC capsule. These studies report enhancement of the in vivo absorption of a poorly water-soluble drug following dispersion with E-SD when compared to formulation in HPMC. PMID:23062024

Yoshida, Takatsune; Kurimoto, Ippei; Yoshihara, Keiichi; Umejima, Hiroyuki; Ito, Naoki; Watanabe, Shunsuke; Sako, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Akihiko

2012-10-15

363

Absorption of Different Doses of Fat Soluble and Water Miscible Preparations of Vitamin E in Children with Cystic Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

A comparison of the intestinal absorption of water miscible and fat soluble preparations of ?-tocopheryl acetate in children with cystic fibrosis showed the water miscible preparation to be more efficiently absorbed. In the absence of liver disease, a daily dose of 1 mg/kg body weight of a water miscible preparation can be expected to correct any pre-existing vitamin E deficiency within 2 months of starting treatment, and is adequate for subsequent maintenance.

Harries, J. T.; Muller, D. P. R.

1971-01-01

364

Development of a UAV-based differential absorption lidar for measuring atmospheric water vapor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) is a remote sensing technique useful for making range resolved measurements of chemical species. A water vapor DIAL system was developed for use on a high altitude unmanned air vehicle (UAV), in order to study water vapor distribution in hurricanes. The system uses a diode-pumped Cr:LiSAF laser to probe water vapor absorption lines at or near 815 nm. The receiver is comprised of two detectors, an analog mode avalanche photodiode (APD), and a photon counting APD, which gives the receiver a dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude. Data acquisition is done with a 12-bit digitizer and a separate digital counter for the photon counting APD. The data is stored locally for retrieval at the end of the mission. The system was designed for fully autonomous operation. The DIAL system was tested on the ground in a zenith looking configuration. The system demonstrated measurements of water vapor to a range of 1800 m, with a difference from local balloon sonde data of no more than 30--50% over that range. Tests showed that the system measurement uncertainty was dominated by limitations of the digitizer, which will not be a factor during airborne operation. Estimates of airborne performance suggest that, flying at an altitude of 20 km, the system is currently capable of measuring water vapor between 2 and 7.5 km with an uncertainty of <50%. This can be reduced to <10% uncertainty with a factor of 3 increase in return signal. Refinement of the system is therefore recommended with an emphasis on increasing laser pulse energy. This dissertation describes the development of the DIAL system including motivation for the research, computer modeling of the return signal, selection of system components, and the testing process at the component and system levels. The system design requirements and goals are presented and used as a basis for component selection. The test results are used to extrapolate an estimate of the airborne performance of the system, and recommendations for future development of the system are made based on these estimates.

Thomas, Brian William

365

A bio-optical inversion model to retrieve absorption contributions and phytoplankton size structure from total minus water spectral absorption using genetic algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a bio-optical inversion model that retrieves the absorption contributions of phytoplankton and colored detrital matter (CDM), as well as the phytoplankton size classes (PSCs), from total minus water absorption spectra. The model is based on three-component separation of phytoplankton size structure and a genetic algorithm. The model performance was tested on two independent datasets (the NASA bio-Optical Marine Algorithm Dataset (NOMAD) and the northern South China Sea (NSCS) dataset). The relationships between the estimated and measured values were strongly linear, especially for a CDM (412), and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of the CDM exponential slope ( S CDM) was relatively low. Next, the inversion model was directly applied to in-situ total minus water absorption spectra determined by an underwater meter during a cruise in September 2008, to retrieve the phytoplankton size structure in the seawater. By comparing the measured and retrieved chlorophyll a concentrations, we demonstrated that total and size-specific chlorophyll a concentrations could be retrieved by the model with relatively high accuracy. Finally, we applied the bio-optical inversion model to investigate changes in phytoplankton size structure induced by an anti-cyclonic eddy in the NSCS.

Lin, Junfang; Cao, Wenxi; Zhou, Wen; Hu, Shuibo; Wang, Guifen; Sun, Zhaohua; Xu, Zhantang; Song, Qingjun

2013-09-01

366

Intrinsic UV absorption spectrometry observed with a liquid core waveguide as a sensor technique for monitoring ozone in water.  

PubMed

The industrial use of ozone as a sanitizing agent in water treatment and food processing in recent years calls for sensor technologies for monitoring ozone in water for process control. Ozone molecules absorb UV light with a peak absorption wavelength at 254 nm. This property has been used in this work to develop a simple sensor technology for online, real-time continuous monitoring of trace ozone in water. A Teflon AF2400 tube filled with pure water forms a liquid core waveguide (LCW), which is used as a long-path-length optical absorption cell. This pure water filled tube was deployed into a water sample. Ozone molecules dissolved in the water sample permeate through the Teflon AF2400 tube wall and dissolve in water filled in the tube. This prevents interference species from entering the LCW, and eliminates interferences. The optical absorption signal of the long-path-length cell at 254 nm measured by guiding light through the LCW is used as a sensing signal. This simple structured sensor does not involve any chemical reagent, is reversible, and has a response time <4.5 minutes. It can be used to detect ozone in water samples down to 3.6 × 10(-9) mol L(-1). PMID:21743914

Le, Trang; Tao, Shiquan

2011-07-11

367

High-resolution atmospheric absorption by water vapor in the 830-985 nm region: Evaluation of spectroscopic databases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present high spectral resolution (0.05 cm-1) ground-based measurements of direct solar absorption in the clear-sky atmosphere by water vapor over the 830 to 985 nm (10,150-12,050 cm-1) region. Observations were made from the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory on several days in different seasons during 1999. Using these observations water vapor line data in HITRAN and the ESA-WVR database, derived from new laboratory measurements and theoretical calculations, are evaluated. Examples of inter-comparisons between these databases and high-resolution atmospheric transmittance spectra are given. The ESA-WVR and HITRAN 2000 databases were found to give consistently better representations of clear-sky absorption by water vapor in our measurements than previous editions of HITRAN, confirming that spectroscopic errors in databases account in part for discrepancies between modeled and observed short-wave absorption.

Smith, K. M.; Newnham, D. A.

368

Measurement of the continuum absorption coefficient of water vapor near 14400 cm-1 (0.694 ?m)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continuum absorption coefficient (CAC) of water vapor ( k cont) in the visible region is determined for the first time from the data of laboratory measurements. For this purpose, the absorption spectra of water vapor in the region 14395-14402 cm-1 are recorded with the aid of a high-sensitivity photoacoustic spectrometer with a frequency-tunable single-pulse ruby laser, and the absorption measured in this transparency microwindow is compared with that calculated based on the HITRAN 2004 data bank. In the spectral region under study, k cont = (0.53 ± 0.18) × 10-9 cm-1 mbar-1 at a total pressure of a water vapor-nitrogen mixture of 1000 mbar and a temperature of 295 K. This value of the CAC is roughly 23% higher than the CAC value in the IO-CKD model of the continuum.

Tikhomirov, A. B.; Ptashnik, I. V.; Tikhomirov, B. A.

2006-07-01

369

Improved water management of coal conversion processes by preliminary absorption of halides  

SciTech Connect

For coal conversion processes that employ wet cleaning of gases, such as those supplying cooled gas to storage or to distribution systems, gas condensates are produced that contain various pollutants. Condensates from gases derived from coal may contain gas borne particulates, tars, oils or water solubles such as ammonia, chlorides, cyanides, fluorides, phenols and sulfides. The upgrading of contaminated gas condensates to service water quality by treatment oriented technology can entail a complex sequence of processing including desalination. A modified wet gas cleaning system was proposed by Davy McKee Corporation as offering promise of improving the practicality of reuse of gas condensates from coal gasification. This production oriented technology replaced the conventional single stage quench of the gases with a system incorporating a two-stage quench. The concept advocated the removal of particulates and the absorption of halides and other strong electrolytes in a controlled first stage quench that would condense a small fraction of the water vapor contained in the product gas. This low volume primary condensate would be purged from the system. The major fraction of condensate collected by the second stage quench would be relatively free of strong electrolytes and would be amenable to processing for reuse without resort to desalination technology. The volatile weak electrolytes in the secondary condensate would be removed by steam stripping and organic substances would be removed by biological treatment. The proposal is more advantageous with coals containing more than average amounts of chlorides.

Not Available

1979-12-01

370

Evaluation of tropospheric water vapor profiling using eye-safe, infrared differential absorption lidar  

SciTech Connect

Continuous, high quality profiles of water vapor, free of systematic bias, and of moderate temporal and spatial resolution are fundamental to the success of the ARM CART program. In addition, these should be acquired over long periods at low operational and maintenance cost. The development and verification of realistic climate model parameterizations for clouds and net radiation balance, and the correction of other CART site sensor observations for interferences due to the presence of water vapor are critically dependent on water vapor profile measurements. To date, application of profiles have been limited by vertical resolution and uniqueness and high operating cost, or diminished daytime performance, lack of eye-safety, and high maintenance cost. Recent developments in infrared laser and detector technology make possible compact IR differential absorption lidar (DIAL) systems at eye-safe wavelengths. In the studies reported here, we develop DIAL system performance models and examine the potential of solving some of the shortcomings of previous methods using parameters representative of current technologies. These simulations are also applied to determine the strengths and weaknesses unique to the DIAL method for this application.

Rye, B.J. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences]|[National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Environmental Technology Lab.; Machol, J.L.; Grund, C.J.; Hardesty, R.M. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Environmental Technology Lab.

1996-05-14

371

Determination of barium in bottled drinking water by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

In relation to the wide environmental spread of barium and to its cardiovascular effects, barium levels were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry in 60 different brands of bottled water marketed in Italy. Matrix interferences were investigated in order to evaluate the use of an analytical calibration function rather than the much more time consuming addition technique. The barium content ranged from limit of detection C/sub L/ (7.0 ..mu..g/1) up to 660 ..mu..g/1, the median value being 80 ..mu..g/l, while the recovery tests varied between 90 and 110% and the precision of the method (s/sub yx/) was 2.5%.

Fagioli, F.; Locatelli, C.; Lanciotti, E.; Vallone, G.; Mazzotta, D.; Mugelli, A.

1988-11-01

372

Application of a laser intracavity absorption detector to gas chromatography of trace organic pollutants in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A helium-neon (HeNe) laser operating simultaneously at 3.39 micrometers (infrared) and 0.63 micrometer (visible) were used as a selective detector for hydrocarbons in the effluent of a gas chromatography. The infrared and visible laser transitions originate at the same energy level and are competitive. In practice, the detector's selectivity for hydrocarbons is modified by various substituents. The detector responds to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons with aliphatic side chains, except for those substituted with halogens. The HeNe laser intracavity absorption detector may be used without prior separation in some cases (e.g., methane in coal mines). This detector operates with nitrogen carrier gas without sacrifice of sensitivity and should be useful for monitoring organic pollutants since it does not respond to water or carbon dioxide. Also, it should be possible to manufacture this detector at competitive prices.

Green, R. B.

1982-12-01

373

[Determination of trace Pb and Cd in water treatment reagent by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry].  

PubMed

The optimum conditions for the determination of trace Pb and Cd in water treatment reagent by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry were studied in detail in this paper. The results show that the long and tedious pretreatment process was cut down by calibrating background with D2 lamp and NH4H2PO4 as matrix modifier. The determination limits were 0.65 microgram.L-1 and 0.12 microgram.L-1 for (Pb and Cd) and linear ranges were 0-50 micrograms.L-1, 0-20 micrograms.L-1 for Pb and Cd, respectively. Rate of recovery was 90%-110%. This method is accurate, quick and simple, and can be used successfully to determine actual samples. PMID:12958963

Zheng, E; Yu, H; Xie, H

2000-06-01

374

First CRDS-measurements of water vapour continuum in the 940 nm absorption band  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of near-infrared water vapour continuum using continuous wave cavity ring down spectroscopy (cw-CRDS) have been performed at around 10611.6 and 10685.2cm-1. The continuum absorption coefficients for N2-broadening have been determined to be CF296K=(1.0±0.2)×10-24cm2mol-1atm-1 and CF278K=(1.8±0.4)×10-24cm2mol-1atm-1 at 10611.6cm-1, and CF296K=(1.6±0.5)×10-24cm2mol-1atm-1 and CF278K=(2.1±0.4)×10-24cm2mol-1atm-1 at 10685.2cm-1, respectively.These results represent the first near-IR continuum laboratory data determined within the complex spectral environment in

L. Reichert; M. D. Andrés Hernández; J. P. Burrows; A. B. Tikhomirov; K. M. Firsov; I. V. Ptashnik

2007-01-01

375

First CRDS-measurements of water vapour continuum in the 940 nm absorption band  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of near-infrared water vapour continuum using continuous wave cavity ring down spectroscopy (cw-CRDS) have been performed at around 10611.6 and 10685.2cm. The continuum absorption coefficients for N2-broadening have been determined to be CF296K=(1.0±0.2)×10cmmolatm and CF278K=(1.8±0.4)×10cmmolatm at 10611.6cm, and CF296K=(1.6±0.5)×10cmmolatm and CF278K=(2.1±0.4)×10cmmolatm at 10685.2cm, respectively. These results represent the first near-IR continuum laboratory data determined within the complex spectral environment

L. Reichert; M. D. Andrés Hernández; J. P. Burrows; A. B. Tikhomirov; K. M. Firsov; I. V. Ptashnik

2007-01-01

376

Measurements of water vapour in the mesosphere with the spectral absorption line imager (SALI)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water vapour concentration is one of the most important, yet one of the least known quantities of the mesosphere. Knowledge of water vapour concentration is the key to understanding many mesospheric processes, including the one that is primary focus of our investigation, Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMC). The processes of formation and occurrence parameters of PMC constitute an interesting problem in their own right, but recent evidence had been provided which suggests that PMC are a critical indicator of climate change. In this context the feasibility of a low cost method of water vapour measurements using an instrument carried aloft by a sounding rocket has been examined and some of the results discussed. It is proposed to measure the strength of the 936nm water absorption line in a solar occultation configuration employing a CCD detector. This leads to the design of a small, low cost and low-mass instrument, which can be flown on a small rocket, of the type of the Orbital Sciences Corporation Viper 5. Alternatively the instrument can be flown as a "passenger" on larger rocket carrying other experiments. In either case flight costs are relatively low. Some performance simulations are presented showing that the instrument we have designed will be sufficiently sensitive to measure water vapor in concentrations that are expected at the summer mesopause, about 85 km height. Sufficient payload design work was carried out showing that the structural, thermal and electrical requirements for a flight on the Viper 5 rocket can be met and thus making the experiment feasible for a flight.

Shepherd, M. G.; Sargoytchev, S. I.; Brown, S.; Mullins, M.; Petersen, J.

377

Variability of Water and Oxygen Absorption Bands in the Disk-integrated Spectra of Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the variability of major atmospheric absorption features in the disk-integrated spectra of Earth with future application to Earth-analogs in mind, concentrating on the diurnal timescale. We first analyze observations of Earth provided by the EPOXI mission, and find 5%-20% fractional variation of the absorption depths of H2O and O2 bands, two molecules that have major signatures in the observed range. From a correlation analysis with the cloud map data from the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS), we find that their variation pattern is primarily due to the uneven cloud cover distribution. In order to account for the observed variation quantitatively, we consider a simple opaque cloud model, which assumes that the clouds totally block the spectral influence of the atmosphere below the cloud layer, equivalent to assuming that the incident light is completely scattered at the cloud top level. The model is reasonably successful, and reproduces the EPOXI data from the pixel-level EOS cloud/water vapor data. A difference in the diurnal variability patterns of H2O and O2 bands is ascribed to the differing vertical and horizontal distribution of those molecular species in the atmosphere. On Earth, the inhomogeneous distribution of atmospheric water vapor is due to the existence of its exchange with liquid and solid phases of H2O on the planet's surface on a timescale short compared with atmospheric mixing times. If such differences in variability patterns were detected in spectra of Earth-analogs, it would provide the information on the inhomogeneous composition of their atmospheres.

Fujii, Yuka; Turner, Edwin L.; Suto, Yasushi

2013-03-01

378

A Study of Water Absorption and Mechanical Properties of Glass Fiber\\/Polyester Composite Pipes — Effects of Specimen Geometry and Preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ring-shaped glass fiber\\/polyester composite specimens cut from composite pipes with various lengths and cut edge quality were immersed into deionized water, and their water absorption was noted regularly by registering their mass gain. Monotonic ring compression tests were performed to monitor the stiffness properties during the water absorption process. Effect of specimen length and cut edge sealing with the matrix

G. Czél; T. Czigány

2008-01-01

379

Evaluation of the influence of yellow substance absorption on the remote sensing of water quality in the Gulf of Naples: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yellow substance absorption in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Naples was measured by a method combining beam transmission and induced fluorescence measurements. A water optical model specific to that test area, derived from experimentation carried out in situ has been used to evaluate the impact of the measured yellow substance absorption on the remote sensing of water

G. M. Ferrari; S. Tassan

1992-01-01

380

Ground-state ammonia and water in absorption towards Sgr B2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Observations of transitions to the ground-state of a molecule are essential to obtain a complete picture of its excitation and chemistry in the interstellar medium, especially in diffuse and/or cold environments. For the important interstellar molecules H2O and NH3, these ground-state transitions are heavily absorbed by the terrestrial atmosphere, hence not observable from the ground. Aims: We attempt to understand the chemistry of nitrogen, oxygen, and their important molecular forms, NH3 and H2O in the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. Methods: We have used the Odin* submillimetre-wave satellite telescope to observe the ground state transitions of ortho-ammonia and ortho-water, including their 15N, 18O, and 17O isotopologues, towards Sgr B2. The extensive simultaneous velocity coverage of the observations, >500 km s-1, ensures that we can probe the conditions of both the warm, dense gas of the molecular cloud Sgr B2 near the Galactic centre, and the more diffuse gas in the Galactic disk clouds along the line-of-sight. Results: We present ground-state NH3 absorption in seven distinct velocity features along the line-of-sight towards Sgr B2. We find a nearly linear correlation between the column densities of NH3 and CS, and a square-root relation to N2H+. The ammonia abundance in these diffuse Galactic disk clouds is estimated to be about 0.5-1 × 10-8, similar to that observed for diffuse clouds in the outer Galaxy. On the basis of the detection of H_218O absorption in the 3 kpc arm, and the absence of such a feature in the H_217O spectrum, we conclude that the water abundance is around 10-7, compared to ~10-8 for NH3. The Sgr B2 molecular cloud itself is seen in absorption in NH3, 15NH3, H2O, H_218O, and H_217O, with emission superimposed on the absorption in the main isotopologues. The non-LTE excitation of NH3 in the environment of Sgr B2 can be explained without invoking an unusually hot (500 K) molecular layer. A hot layer is similarly not required to explain the line profiles of the 11,0?ts10,1 transition from H2O and its isotopologues. The relatively weak 15NH3 absorption in the Sgr B2 molecular cloud indicates a high [ 14N/15N] isotopic ratio >600. The abundance ratio of H_218O and H_217O is found to be relatively low, 2.5-3. These results together indicate that the dominant nucleosynthesis process in the Galactic centre is CNO hydrogen burning. Odin is a Swedish-led satellite project funded jointly by the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB), the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the National Technology Agency of Finland (Tekes), and the centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES, France). The Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) was the industrial prime contractor and is also responsible for the satellite operation.

Wirström, E. S.; Bergman, P.; Black, J. H.; Hjalmarson, Å.; Larsson, B.; Olofsson, A. O. H.; Encrenaz, P. J.; Falgarone, E.; Frisk, U.; Olberg, M.; Sandqvist, Aa.

2010-11-01

381

Improved water and sodium absorption from oral rehydration solutions based on rice syrup in a rat model of osmotic diarrhea.  

PubMed

Rice syrup solids, rice protein, and casein hydrolysate were added to experimental oral rehydration solutions in various combinations and tested in a rat intestinal perfusion system. Chronic osmotic diarrhea was induced in juvenile rats by supplying the cathartic agents, magnesium citrate and phenolphthalein, in their drinking water for 1 week. The experimental oral rehydration solutions were compared with standard oral rehydration solutions containing 20 gm/L or 30 gm/L of glucose and with each other to determine if there were significant differences in net water, sodium, or potassium absorption. An oral rehydration solution containing 30 gm/L of rice syrup solids had a net water absorption rate significantly higher than that of the standard 20 gm/L glucose-based oral rehydration solution (2.1 +/- 0.62 versus 1.5 +/- 0.48 microliters/[min x cm], p less than 0.05). Casein hydrolysate did not significantly affect net water absorption. However, combinations of 30 gm/L rice syrup solids and 5 gm/L casein hydrolysate significantly increased (p less than 0.05) net sodium and potassium absorption compared with the 20 gm/L glucose-based oral rehydration solution but not versus rice syrup solids alone. Oral rehydration solutions containing 30 gm/L rice syrup solids plus 5 gm/L rice protein, and 30 gm/L rice syrup solids plus 5 gm/L casein hydrolysate, had net water absorption rates significantly higher than the rate of a 30 gm/L glucose-based oral rehydration solution (2.5 +/- 0.36 and 2.4 +/- 0.38, respectively, versus 0.87 +/- 0.40 microliters/[min x cm], p less than 0.05). Rice protein and casein hydrolysate, however, did not significantly affect net water, sodium, or potassium absorption when added to rice protein glucose-based oral rehydration solutions. An inverse correlation between osmolality and net water absorption was observed (r = -0.653, p less than 0.02). The data suggest that substitution of rice syrup solids for glucose in oral rehydration solutions will improve water absorption and that rice syrup solids in combination with protein hydrolysates may, in addition, promote better sodium and potassium uptake. PMID:2007957

Wapnir, R A; Litov, R E; Zdanowicz, M M; Lifshitz, F

1991-04-01

382

Cattle manure effects on structural stability and water retention capacity of a granitic sandy soil in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation of soil aggregate stability and water retention is important in the assessment of soil management options. A 3-year study was conducted in 1999 to determine the effects of two cattle manure application methods on soil aggregate stability and water retention capacity of a sandy soil (Haplic Lixisol). Manure application increased soil organic C by 10–38% in the 0–10cm

J Nyamangara; J Gotosa; S. E Mpofu

2001-01-01

383

Stability of dense hydrous magnesium silicate phases and water storage capacity in the transition zone and lower mantle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the water storage capacity in the mantle based on the phase relations of silicate systems containing water. We conducted high pressure and temperature synthesis experiments on some silicate systems, such as the superhydrous phase B (=phase C) and phase G (=phase D and F) compositions in the MgO–SiO2–H2O system and the CMAS pyrolite–2wt.% H2O system up to the

E. Ohtani; M. Toma; K. Litasov; T. Kubo; A. Suzuki

2001-01-01

384

Integrated Water Resources Management: Relevant concept or irrelevant buzzword? A capacity building and research agenda for Southern Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article examines the concept ‘Integrated Water Resources Management’ (IWRM) and inquires as to its relevance for the Southern African region. The paper first acknowledges the contributions made to IWRM by three regional initiatives—WaterNet, the Water Research Fund for Southern Africa (WARFSA), and the Southern African chapter of the Global Water Partnership. Then, three important aspects of IWRM are highlighted: that IWRM requires institutional capacity to integrate, which often is a scarce resource; that IWRM is neither solution nor recipe, but rather a perspective or way of looking at problems with a view to solving them through transparent and inclusive decision-making processes; and that IWRM should explicitly deal with the fact that water tends to build asymmetrical relationships between people, communities and nations. An IWRM agenda is subsequently set out, focussing on five critical issues: the dilemma between economic development and sustainability; the unresolved issue of water as an economic good; the place and role of rainfed farmers in IWRM; the importance of training and teaching; and the need for building reflexive capacity in the new and existing water institutions. The paper concludes that IWRM is a relevant, yet elusive and fuzzy concept. Evidence from Southern Africa and around the world shows that IWRM inspires a new generation of water managers and researchers to act creatively; assists in addressing the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs); and instils mutual respect, understanding and co-operation among water professionals in Southern Africa.

van der Zaag, Pieter

385

'Capacity for Change': Testing a Model for the Inclusion of Social Indicators in Australia's National Land and Water Resources Audit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity of relationships between social change and natural resource management has generated interest in the identification of indicators that might provide more streamlined means for monitoring and planning. In the case of Australia's National Land and Water Resources Audit, interest has focused on the capacity of resource managers to implement more sustainable resource-use practices. This paper reports on an

Stewart Lockie; Geoffrey Lawrence; Allan Dale; Bruce Taylor

2002-01-01

386

Correlation of changes in pigment content with photosynthetic capacity of seaweeds as a function of water depth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a study of the relationship between changes in photosynthetic pigment content and photosynthetic capacity as a function of water depth in Great Harbor near Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA, on the green algae Ulva lactuca and Codium fragile and the red algae Porphyra umbilicalis and Chondrus crispus. Seaweeds were attached to vertically buoyed lines at 0.5 and 10 m

J. Ramus; S. I. Beale; D. Mauzerall

1976-01-01

387

Water Holding Capacity, pH, and Lipid Oxidation of Pork Loins from Barrows Supplemented with Conjugated Linoleic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ongoing research project is investigating the feeding of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) to pigs and the subsequent effects of CLA on growth, performance, and pork quality characteristics. Certain measures of pork meat samples, including pH, water holding capacity and lipid oxidation are proven indicators of pork quality. The CLA was fed to market barrows at 0.75% of the diet

B. R. Wiegand; Parrish Frederick C. Jr; K. J. Franey; S. T. Larsen; J. Christopher Sparks

1998-01-01

388

Membrane filtration of process water at elevated temperatures—A way to increase the capacity of a biogas plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste water from a biogas process is often recirculated and mixed with the incoming organic material to produce a feed for the digester. The dry matter (DM) content of the final mixture should be as high as possible to maximise the capacity of the plant without exceeding the capability of the pumps. This means that the DM content of the

J. Lindmark; E. Thorin; J. Kastensson; C. M. Pettersson

2011-01-01

389

Investigation of the spatial distribution of the maximum water retention capacity of soil in a small river basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximum water retention capacity of soils is crucial for runoff generation, flow regime and hence also for the watershed behaviour during rainfall events. High infiltration rates of soils lead to a decreased in peak discharge reducing flood risk in river basins. In catchments where agricultural lands are prevailing, American Soil Conservation Service (SCS) - Runoff Curve Number Method is

Angelantonio Calabrese; Anna Maria de Girolamo; Antonio Lo Porto; Giuseppe Pappagallo; Gerardina Santese

2010-01-01

390

Impact of carbon storage on shallow ground water and pressure-controlled regional capacity for brine aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Injection of large volumes of carbon dioxide into the subsurface could affect shallow ground water by a domino effect, not including leakage through wells and faults. Using analytical and numerical models, we explore conditions under which ground water would be impacted by brine displacement. This work is limited to single- phase flow under the assumption that, far away from the injection site, details of two-phase flow are not as relevant as pressure buildup during injection. We carried out the exercise in the Texas Gulf Coast area where data are relatively abundant and in other generic basins. Preliminary results suggest that, in some circumstances (e.g., springs along fault lines focusing flow), ground water will be impacted relatively early after regional injection. This work ties in with pressure-controlled regional capacity assessments and has bearings on carbon storage policy. Capacity assessments are constrained by the level of acceptable risks, such as avoiding volumes with high well or fault density. Closed systems are pressure-controlled in that they need to stay below seal fracture pressure at all times. Capacity of open systems connected to fresh water aquifers are also interrelated to pressure that may be in some cases the limiting and controlling factor on capacity (e.g., preventing risk of well field contamination). This work is funded by the Gulf Coast Carbon Center, Austin, TX.

Nicot, J.; Hovorka, S.; Lakshminarasimhan, S.

2006-12-01

391

Structural Analysis for Water Absorption of SiOF Films Prepared by High-Density-Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorine-doped silicon oxide (SiOF) films, prepared by high-density-plasma chemical vapor deposition, are investigated as to the effect of bond structure on water absorption. In this investigation, two kinds of SiOF films, containing 12% and 8% fluorine atoms, were compared with regard to the change in their bond structure before and after accelerated water absorption. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, thermal desorption mass spectroscopy (TDS) spectra and Raman spectra studies clarified the following. (1) The SiOF film which contains 12% fluorine atoms has more Si F bonds than that containing 8% fluorine atoms, but it has fewer 3-fold rings. (2) The SiOF film which contains 8% fluorine atoms absorbs little water, and its Si F bond does not change after water absorption. (3) The 3-fold ring of the SiOF film which contains 12% fluorine atoms has an unstable F Si O Si bond structure. (4) The F Si O Si bond structure of the 3-fold ring is easily changed to the F Si OH and Si OH bond structures due to hydration, upon water absorption.

Tamura, Takahiro; Sakai, Junro; Inoue, Yoichi; Satoh, Makoto; Yoshitaka, Hikaru

1998-05-01

392

R&D of Absorption Heat Pump System Using New Working Fluid To Utilize Treated Sewage Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absorption heat pump system has been developed to utilized treated sewage water from the view point of environmental protection and energy conservation. The development has two step. Conventional LiBr solution is used at the first step, the new working fluid with higher solubility and lower viscosity is used to imprve the efficiency of absorption heat pump at the second step. The first report says the search for the new working fluid and the performance of absorption heat pump concerned with the second step. LiBr, LiI, LiCl, LiNO3, solution was selected as the new working fluid. The absorption heat pump using the new working fluid was tested and better results were obtained by comparision with LiBr solution.

Nishiyama, Noriyuki; Fujikura, Kikutaro; Wakimizu, Hiroki; Kaneko, Toshiyuki; Yamazaki, Shiguma; Izu, Masaya

393

Multiplexed selective detection and identification of TCE and xylene in water by on-chip absorption spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a device which can do multiplexed detection of two different chemicals on one chip by using infrared absorption spectroscopy. The signature of Trichloroethylene(TCE) and xylene in water enable multiplexed detection on one chip. We use the slow light effect in the photonic crystal design which enhances the absorption of the analytes by a factor of 30 as demonstrated by our previous works. In order to match the absorption peaks of these two analytes, photonic crystal slow light regions are designed at 1644nm and 1674nm with a SU8 cladding on top. Multiplexed detection is enabled by using a multimode interference (MMI) optical power splitter at the input, which divides optical power into two arms, and Y combiner at the output. Consequently, the absorption of these two chemicals can be enhanced by the slow light effect. The MMI structure and Y combiner also enable the multiplexed detection of two analytes on one chip.

Lai, Wei-Cheng; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Zou, Yi; Chen, Ray T.

2013-03-01

394

Comparison of the absorption of two protein hydrolysates and their effects on water and electrolyte movements in the human jejunum.  

PubMed Central

Because of the generally more rapid amino acid absorption and lower osmotic pressure of small peptides compared with free amino acids, it has been suggested that 'elemental' diets should contain both small peptides and free amino acids as the nitrogen source. While studying protein hydrolysates intended for use in such diets we observed surprising differences in the absorption of amino acids, water, and Na+ during jejunal perfusion of partial enzymic hydrolysates of two proteins (lactalbumin and fish) which contained high and approximately equal amounts of their constituent amino acids in the form of small peptides. Total alpha amino nitrogen (alpha NH2N) absorption from the lactalbumin hydrolysate was greater, and individual amino acid absorption more even, than from equinitrogenous solutions of the fish protein hydrolysate, or from mixture of free amino acids simulating either hydrolysate. Net water and Na+ absorption occurred during perfusion of the lactalbumin hydrolysate, whereas net water and Na+ secretion occurred during perfusion of the fish protein hydrolysate. These differences were significant (P < 0.05 or less). As the differences between the hydrolysates are so marked, we conclude that it is unwise to assume that all protein hydrolysates are equally suitable for use in patients.

Fairclough, P D; Hegarty, J E; Silk, D B; Clark, M L

1980-01-01

395

Comparison of the absorption of two protein hydrolysates and their effects on water and electrolyte movements in the human jejunum.  

PubMed

Because of the generally more rapid amino acid absorption and lower osmotic pressure of small peptides compared with free amino acids, it has been suggested that 'elemental' diets should contain both small peptides and free amino acids as the nitrogen source. While studying protein hydrolysates intended for use in such diets we observed surprising differences in the absorption of amino acids, water, and Na+ during jejunal perfusion of partial enzymic hydrolysates of two proteins (lactalbumin and fish) which contained high and approximately equal amounts of their constituent amino acids in the form of small peptides. Total alpha amino nitrogen (alpha NH2N) absorption from the lactalbumin hydrolysate was greater, and individual amino acid absorption more even, than from equinitrogenous solutions of the fish protein hydrolysate, or from mixture of free amino acids simulating either hydrolysate. Net water and Na+ absorption occurred during perfusion of the lactalbumin hydrolysate, whereas net water and Na+ secretion occurred during perfusion of the fish protein hydrolysate. These differences were significant (P < 0.05 or less). As the differences between the hydrolysates are so marked, we conclude that it is unwise to assume that all protein hydrolysates are equally suitable for use in patients. PMID:7192244

Fairclough, P D; Hegarty, J E; Silk, D B; Clark, M L

1980-10-01

396

Terahertz Absorption of Chemicals in Water: Ideal and Real Solutions and Mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex biomolecules, such as proteins in liquids, show specific terahertz dynamics in reactions or in protein folding as measured by static or kinetic absorption. The complex nature of biomolecules requires investigating their frequency, space, and time characteristics via a multimodal approach that changes external parameters such as temperature, pressure, concentration, and solvents. Terahertz spectroscopy can add a new and deeper understanding to existing techniques in other spectral regions of the biological dynamics in the solvent of life, i.e. water. To understand more deeply complex liquids or macromolecules in water, it is essential to understand the building blocks of solutions, which may contain salts, or are components of larger molecules such as amino acids. Although this research mainly affects basic science, a few applications are in progress, some create interest in industry, and several pathways for new applications relevant to medical science are in view. In this article, we review THz spectroscopy of solutions and concentrate our description to liquids with small solutes such as salts and amino acids, and review the prerequisites for obtaining THz data from aqueous solutions.

Funkner, Stefan; Niehues, Gudrun; Schmidt, Diedrich A.; Bründermann, Erik

2013-08-01

397

Solvent effect on the absorption spectra of coumarin 120 in water: A combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solvent effect on the absorption spectra of coumarin 120 (C120) in water was studied utilizing the combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) method. In molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, a new sampling scheme was introduced to provide enough samples for both solute and solvent molecules to obtain the average physical properties of the molecules in solution. We sampled the structure of the solute and solvent molecules separately. First, we executed a QM/MM MD simulation, where we sampled the solute molecule in solution. Next, we chose random solute structures from this simulation and performed classical MD simulation for each chosen solute structure with its geometry fixed. This new scheme allowed us to sample the solute molecule quantum mechanically and sample many solvent structures classically. Excitation energy calculations using the selected samples were carried out by the generalized multiconfigurational perturbation theory. We succeeded in constructing the absorption spectra and realizing the red shift of the absorption spectra found in polar solvents. To understand the motion of C120 in water, we carried out principal component analysis and found that the motion of the methyl group made the largest contribution and the motion of the amino group the second largest. The solvent effect on the absorption spectrum was studied by decomposing it in two components: the effect from the distortion of the solute molecule and the field effect from the solvent molecules. The solvent effect from the solvent molecules shows large contribution to the solvent shift of the peak of the absorption spectrum, while the solvent effect from the solute molecule shows no contribution. The solvent effect from the solute molecule mainly contributes to the broadening of the absorption spectrum. In the solvent effect, the variation in C-C bond length has the largest contribution on the absorption spectrum from the solute molecule. For the solvent effect on the absorption spectrum from the solvent molecules, the solvent structure around the amino group of C120 plays the key role.

Sakata, Tetsuya; Kawashima, Yukio; Nakano, Haruyuki

2011-01-01

398

Theoretical study of negative thermal expansion in Y2Mo3O12: effect of water absorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Y2Mo3O12 exhibits negative thermal expansion (NTE) in a large temperature range (473 ˜ 1173 K). However, the material strongly absorb water and form a stable trihydrate structure, where the NTE disappears. Raman spectra revealed that some vibrational modes were missing in the hydrated structure. By DFT calculations, absorption of water in Y2Mo3O12 has been studied. Our results showed that water can strongly absorb in Y2Mo3O12 with O end of the water binding to Y cation, while one hydrogen approaches to the bridge O, which shared by polyhedrons YO6 and MoO4, and forms hydrogen bond. The absorption of water leads the angle of Y-O-Mo reduced, decreasing Y-Mo distance and consequently the volume of the material contracted. Calculated phonon spectra showed that the transverse vibration of Y-O-Mo is restricted due to water absorption. As a result, the NTE, originated from the vibrational mode, is hindered. Our MD simulations also revealed that water can easily diffuse and cross different channels in the material with the aid of Y cations. [4pt] [1] S. Sumithra, A. M. Umarji, Solid State Sci. 8, 1453(2006).[0pt] [2] E. J. Liang, H. L. Huo, J. P. Wang, M. J. Chao, J. Phys. C. 112, 6577(2008).

Sun, Qiang; Wu, Mingyi; Wang, Lei; Jia, Yu

2013-03-01

399

Reliability of liquid core optical waveguides for sensitive optical absorption measurements of trace species in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long path optical waveguides can be used in optical absorption measurements to increase the optical path length and, thus, the overall absorption of a sample. Recently, 1m long coiled Liquid Waveguide Capillary Cells (LWCC) have been used by analytical spectroscopists to measure the absorption strength of weakly absorbing liquids. However, most of these measurements have used conventional light sources such

Avishekh Pal

2005-01-01

400

Phytoplankton light absorption and the package effect in California coastal waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoplankton absorption spectra were determined for communities collected in the upper euphotic zone over a 250 km transect across a highly variable region of the Southern California Bight. The influence of the 'package effect' on phytoplankton absorption spectra was assessed by com- parison of absorption coefficient spectra based on direct measurement with spectral reconstructions calculated from HPLC-determined pigment concentrations. Measurable

Norman B. Nelson; BB Prezelin; Robert R. Bidigare

1993-01-01

401

Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy of Amphipathic Model Peptides at the Air/Water Interface  

PubMed Central

The linear sequence KLAL (KLALKLALKALKAALKLA-NH2) and its corresponding d,l-isomers k9a10-KLAL (KLALKLALkaLKAALKLA-NH2) and l11k12-KLAL (KLALKLALKAlkAALKLA-NH2) are model compounds for potentially amphipathic ?-helical peptides which are able to bind to membranes and to increase the membrane permeability in a structure- and target-dependent manner (Dathe and Wieprecht, 1999) We first studied the secondary structure of KLAL and its analogs bound to the air/water using infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy. For the peptide films the shape and position of the amide I and amide II bands indicate that the KLAL adopts at large areas per molecule an ?-helical secondary structure, whereas at higher surface pressures or smaller areas it converts into a ?-sheet structure. This transition could be observed in the compression isotherm as well as during the adsorption at the air/water interface from the subphase as a function of time. The secondary structures are essentially orientated parallel to the air/water interface. The analogs with d-amino acids in two different positions of the sequence, k9a10-KLAL and l11k12-KLAL, form only ?-sheet structures at all surface pressures. The observed results are interpreted using a comparison of hydrophobic moments calculated for ?-helices and ?-sheets. The differences between the hydrophobic moments calculated using the consensus scale are not large. Using the optimal matching hydrophobicity scale or the whole-residue hydrophobicity scale the ?-sheet even has the larger hydrophobic moment.

Kerth, Andreas; Erbe, Andreas; Dathe, Margitta; Blume, Alfred

2004-01-01

402

Determination of bismuth, indium and lead in spiked sea water by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using tungsten containing chemical modifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of bismuth, indium and lead in spiked synthetic and natural sea water by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) with Zeeman-effect background correction was investigated using tungsten containing chemical modifiers and tartaric acid (TA) as a reducing agent. Maximum pyrolysis and optimum atomization temperatures for the analyte elements were determined in the presence and absence of various modifiers. The

Orhan Acar; Ziya Kiliç

2000-01-01

403

Gum arabic promotes rat jejunal sodium and water absorption from oral rehydration solutions in two models of diarrhea  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: We have shown that addition of gum arabic (GA) to a 90 mmol\\/L sodium-111 mmol\\/L glucose oral rehydration solution (ORS) enhances its effectiveness for water and electrolyte absorption in normal rats. The present study extends these observations on GA in ORS to two rat models of diarrheal disease. METHODS: Juvenile rats were either treated for 1 week

RA Wapnir; MA Wingertzahn; J Moyse; S Teichberg

1997-01-01

404

Evaluation of Plasma-Deposited Hydrophobic Coatings on Pigment-Coated Paper for Reduced Dampening Water Absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrophobic plasma coatings were deposited on pigment-coated paper with the purpose of reducing dampening water absorption and create uniform surface chemistry. The influence of plasma coatings on sheet-fed offset printability was also studied. Three plasma chemistries, fluorocarbon, organosilicon and hydrocarbon, were used to adjust the hydrophobicity of paper surface. The plasma coatings reduced, and in some cases prevented, the dampening

M. Pykönen; K. Johansson; M. Dubreuil; D. Vangeneugden; G. Ström; P. Fardim; M. Toivakka

2010-01-01

405

Water vapor absorption enhancement in LiBr\\/H sub 2 O films falling on horizontal tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that the enhancement or control of heat and mass transfer in an absorber, which is an essential component of an absorption system, is necessary so that low-grade energy, such as solar energy or exhaust cooling water, can be utilized more effectively. So far, several theoretical approaches for analyzing simple systems such as a vertical plane or a

S. K. Lee; T. Nagasaki

1991-01-01

406

Effect of straw extract on water absorption and germination of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. variety RR21) seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Freshly prepared straw extract inhibited wheat seed germination by about 18 per cent but did not affect water absorption by germinating wheat seeds. The maximum germination inhibition (47 per cent) was noticed with extract of straw rotted for 15 days. The germination inhibitory effect of rotting straw was over at 31 days of straw rotting.

P. C. Srivastava; N. G. Totey; Om Prakash

1986-01-01

407

EFFECT OF CENTIMETER BAND RADIO WAVES ON THE ABSORPTION OF AMINO ACIDS, CHLORIDES AND WATER IN THE STOMACH AND INTESTINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption of amino acids, chlorides, and water was studied in the ; normal state and under the effect of high frequency of the centimeter waveband on ; 8 dogs with Pavlov pouches (3) and isolated loop of the small intestine (3 dogs). ; The effect of a 50 watt radio-wave field acting on the organism for 10 minutes on

Feitelberg-Blank

1962-01-01

408

Some problems in the calculation and measurement of the absorption of millimeter and submillimeter waves in atmospheric water vapor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent measurements of the absorption coefficient of water vapor in the transparent windows of the submillimeter wave region (X > 60g) exceed earlier calculated values by a factor of 1.5-2, i.e., there is a discrepancy between theory and experiment similar to that existing in the millimeter wave region (2 ~< <~k~< 8 mm) A short discussion is given of the

S. A. Zhevakin; A. P. Naumov

1965-01-01

409

The role of skin absorption as a route of exposure for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessments of drinking water safety rely on the assumption that ingestion represents the principal route of exposure. A review of the experimental literature revealed that skin penetration rates for solvents are remarkably high, and that the stratum corneum is a less effective barrier to penetration than traditionally assumed. Based on published skin absorption rates, we used Fick's law (Jos .

H. S. Brown; D. R. Bishop; C. A. Rowan

1984-01-01

410

ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRIC DETERMINATION OF ARSENITE IN WATER SAMPLES BY GRAPHITE FURNACE AFTER EXTRACTION WITH AMMONIUM SEC-BUTYLDITHIOPHOSPHATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Arsenite - but not arsenate, methylarsonic acid, or dimethylarsinic acid - is extracted from water samples by 5 mL of a 0.01M hexane solution of sec-dibutylthiophosphate. A 10 microliters aliquot of the extract is injected into an atomic absorption spectrometer with a graphic fur...

411

The Role of Size Exclusion Chromatography-Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry in the Treatment Chemistry of Potable Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The percentage composition of Al13, [AlO4Al12(OH)24(H2O)12]7+, in water treatment coagulants is an important criterion in the development and use of polymeric coagulants. Polymeric coagulants are generally used in cold climates or with highly turbid waters. Size exclusion chromatography–flame atomic absorption spectrometry (SEC-FAAS) can separate Al13 and monomeric Al within 6 min. The percentage composition of Al13 and monomeric Al is

Marina C. Koether

2002-01-01

412

Atmospheric pre-corrected differential absorption techniques to retrieve columnar water vapor: Application to AVIRIS 91/95 data  

SciTech Connect

Water vapor is one of the main forces for weather development as well as for mesoscale air transport processes. The monitoring of water vapor is therefore an important aim in remote sensing of the atmosphere. Current operational systems for water vapor detection use primarily the emission in the thermal infrared (AVHRR, GOES, ATSR, Meteosat) or in the microwave radiation bands (DMSP). The disadvantage of current satellite systems is either a coarse spatial (horizontal) resolution ranging from one to tens of kilometers or a limited insight into the lower atmosphere. Imaging spectrometry on the other hand measures total column water vapor contents at a high spatial horizontal resolution and has therefore the potential of filling these gaps. The sensors of the AVIRIS instrument are capable of acquiring hyperspectral data in 224 bands located in the visible and near infrared at 10 run resolution. This data includes information on constituents of the earth`s surface as well as of the atmosphere. The optical measurement of water vapor can be performed using sensor channels located in bands or lines of the absorption spectrum. The AVIRIS sensor has been used to retrieve water vapor and with less accuracy carbon dioxide, oxygen and ozone. To retrieve the water vapor amount, the so called differential absorption technique has been applied. The goal of this technique is to eliminate background factors by taking a ratio between channels within the absorption band and others besides the band. Various rationing methods on the basis of different channels and calculation techniques were developed. The influence of a trace gas of interest on the radiance at the sensor level is usually simulated by using radiative transfer codes. In this study, spectral transmittance and radiance are calculated by MODTRAN3 simulations with the new DISORT option. This work testS the best performing differential absorption techniques for imaging spectrometry of tropospheric water vapor.

Schlaepfer, D. [Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland). Dept. of Geography; Borel, C.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Keller, J. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland)] [and others

1996-03-01

413

Influence of water on the carbon dioxide absorption by 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the addition of water on the absorption of carbon dioxide by the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide was studied experimentally by measuring the low-pressure carbon dioxide solubility and the viscosity of the liquid solvent at temperatures from 303 to 323K. Water is only partially miscible with the ionic liquid up to a mole fraction of 0.302 at 293K,

Pascale Husson; Laure Pison; Johan Jacquemin; Margarida F. Costa Gomes

2010-01-01

414

Diode-pumped tunable narrow-linewidth Cr:LiSAF lasers for water vapor differential absorption lidars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diode-pumped, tunable Cr:LiSAF lasers are well suited for airborne water vapor differential absorption lidar application. Three types of diode-pumped, tunable, narrow- linewidth, injection seeded, Q-switched Cr:LiSAF lasers for high resolution atmosheric water vapor DIAL measurements in the wavelength range of 810-830 nm have been developed and investigated. By using a total internal reflection laser resonator configuration, efficient coupling of pump

Victor A. Fromzel; Valery V. Ter-Mikirtychev; Joseph S. Smucz; Coorg R. Prasad; Christyl C. Johnson; Norman P. Barnes; James C. Barnes; Russell DeYoung

2001-01-01

415

High-resolution atmospheric absorption by water vapor in the 830-985 nm region: Evaluation of spectroscopic databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present high spectral resolution (0.05 cm-1) ground-based measurements of direct solar absorption in the clear-sky atmosphere by water vapor over the 830 to 985 nm (10,150-12,050 cm-1) region. Observations were made from the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory on several days in different seasons during 1999. Using these observations water vapor line data in HITRAN and the ESA-WVR database, derived from

K. M. Smith; D. A. Newnham

2001-01-01

416

High-resolution atmospheric absorption by water vapor in the 830–985 nm region: Evaluation of spectroscopic databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present high spectral resolution (0.05 cm?1) ground-based measurements of direct solar absorption in the clear-sky atmosphere by water vapor over the 830 to 985 nm (10,150–12,050 cm?1) region. Observations were made from the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory on several days in different seasons during 1999. Using these observations water vapor line data in HITRAN and the ESA-WVR database, derived from

K. M. Smith; D. A. Newnham

2001-01-01

417

[Photosynthetic capacity and water use efficiency of tropical montane rainforest seedlings or saplings in Hainan Island].  

PubMed

By using a Li-6400 portable photosynthesis system, this paper measured the maximal photosynthetic capacity (P(max)) and water use efficiency (WUE) of the seedlings or saplings of 150 species of tropical montane rainforest in Hainan Island. The results showed that among the test 150 species, Quercus bambusifolia (Fagaceae) had the highest P(max) (13.27 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)) and Macaranga denticulate (Euphorbiaceae) had the highest WUE (5.99 mmol x mol(-1)), while Decaspermum cambodianum (Myrtaceae) had the lowest P(max) (1.35 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)) and Sapium discolor (Euphorbiaceae) had the lowest WUE (2.4 mmol x mol(-1)). The average P(max) was the highest in Moraceae but the lowest in Myrtaceae, and the average WUE was the highest in Symplocaceae but the lowest in Moraceae. However, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) among the families. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in P(max) and WUE were also observed among arbors and shrubs. The P(max) value increased significantly (P < 0.05) with the widening of families' geographical distribution range, in the order of narrow distribution families < medium distribution families < wide distribution families, while no significant differences were existed among their WUE (P > 0.05). The P(max) value also increased with the widening of species' geographical distribution range, in the order of endemic species in Hainan Island < tropical species < tropical-subtropical species < tropical-subtropical-temperate species, but WUE was opposite to P(max), namely, in the order of endemic species in Hainan Island > tropical-subtropical species > tropical species > tropical-subtropical-temperate species. PMID:18163292

Zhang, Ming; Wang, Wen-Jin; Liu, Fu-De; An, Shu-Qing; Zheng, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Shi-Ting; Wang, Zhong-Sheng; Xu, Hai-Gen

2007-10-01

418

Pharmacokinetic analysis of absorption, distribution and disappearance of ingested water labeled with D?O in humans.  

PubMed

The kinetic parameters of absorption and distribution of ingested water (300 ml labeled with D(2)O; osmolality <20 mOsm kg(-1)) in the body water pool (BWP) and of its disappearance from this pool were estimated in 36 subjects from changes in plasma or urine deuterium to protium ratio (D/H) over 10 days using one- and two-compartment and a non-compartmental pharmacokinetic models (1-CM, 2-CM and N-CM which applied well to 58, 42 and 100% of the subjects, respectively). Compared with the volume and turnover of the BWP computed with the slope-intercept method (60.7 ± 4.1% body mass or 72.7 ± 3.2% lean body mass; turnover 4.58 ± 0.80 l day(-1): i.e., complete renewal in ~50 days; n = 36), the values were accurately estimated with the N-CM and 1-CM and were slightly overestimated and underestimated, respectively, with the 2-CM (~7-8% difference, significant for water clearance only). Ingested water appeared in plasma and blood cells within 5 min and the half-life of absorption (~11-13 min) indicates a complete absorption within ~75-120 min. The 2-CM showed that in 42% of the subjects, ingested water quickly distributed within a central compartment before diffusing with a very short half-life (12.5 ± 4.3 min) to a peripheral compartment (18.5 ± 4.3 and 31.6 ± 6.4 L, respectively), which were in complete equilibrium within ~90 min. Pharmacokinetic analyses of water labeled with D(2)O can help describe water absorption and distribution, for which there is no well defined reference method and value; depending on the characteristics of the subjects and the drinks, and of environmental conditions. PMID:21997675

Péronnet, François; Mignault, Diane; du Souich, Patrick; Vergne, Sébastien; Le Bellego, Laurent; Jimenez, Liliana; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

2011-10-14

419

Modeling the current and future capacity of water resources to meet water demands in the Ebro basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated water management approach coupled to a specific typology is proposed.The ability of water resources to meet water demands is assessed in the Ebro basin.Water tensions could rise by the 2050 horizon if no adaptation strategies are set.Sectors and seasons most vulnerable to water use conflicts are identified.

Milano, Marianne; Ruelland, Denis; Dezetter, Alain; Fabre, Julie; Ardoin-Bardin, Sandra; Servat, Eric

2013-09-01

420

Ex vivo absorption of promestriene from oil-in-water emulsion into infant foreskin.  

PubMed

Hypospadias is a birth defect in which the urinary tract opening is not at the tip of the penis. Hypospadias surgery is frequently complicated by healing deficiencies. Topical treatments with oestrogens were reported to improve healing. In the present study, ex vivo percutaneous absorption of promestriene, a synthetic oestrogen resulting of the double esterification of estradiol was conducted as a pre-requisite for further clinical trial in infants. Penetration of promestriene into infant foreskin treated with commercial oil in water emulsion (10?gmg(-1)) for 24h was characterized showing controlled release properties enabling epidermal concentration more than six times higher than dermal concentration (4.13±2.46mgg(-1) versus 0.62±0.84mgg(-1), respectively). Furthermore, apparent promestriene fluxes into and through the skin (i.e., 1.5?gcm(-2)h(-1) and<0.89?gcm(-2)h(-1), respectively) were calculated from (i) drug amount retained into epidermis and dermis, or (ii) the limit of detection into the receptor fluid. In conclusion, less than 2% of initial dose were absorbed within 24h which compared well with others steroids applied topically in colloidal systems. PMID:23968783

Salmon, D; Kassai, B; Roussel, L; Mouriquand, P; Gérard, C; Gorduza, D B; Serre, C; Falson, F; Pivot, C; Pirot, F

2013-08-19

421

Simulation and performance analysis of a 4-effect lithium bromide-water absorption chiller  

SciTech Connect

Performance simulation has been conducted for a 4-effect lithium bromide-water chiller, capable of substantial performance improvement over state-of-the-art double-effect cycles. The system investigated includes four condensers and four desorbers coupled together, forming an extension of the conventional double-effect cycle; based on prior analytical studies, a parallel flow system was preferred over series flow, and double-condenser coupling was employed, to further improve performance. A modular computer code for simulation of absorption systems (ABSIM) was used to investigate the performances of the cycle. The simulation was carried out to investigate the influence of some major design parameters. A coefficient of performance around 2.0 (cooling) was calculated at the design point, with a heat supply temperature of 600{degrees}F (315{degrees}C) at the solution outlet from the high temperature desorber. With some optimization of the weak (pumped) solution flowrate and of the solution split among the four desorbers, this COP may be raised above 2.2.

Grossman, G. [Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel); Zaltash, A.; DeVault, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-02-01

422

Implications of the Water of Hydration Absorption for Martian Hematite Exposures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES), currently in orbit at Mars, has identified concentrations of bulk, gray hematite (interpreted as an aqueous mineral) at several sites including Sinus Meridiani and Aram Chaos. The hematite sites are associated with regions exhibiting low albedo and are proposed to be aqueous chemical precipitates. Among the terrestrial analogs for this type of precipitation are banded iron formation laid down between 1.9 and 3.1 Ga. Terrestrial banded iron formations stem from the time of the rise of photosynthetic life on Earth, and some deposits are inferred to be biologically controlled precipitates. The occurrence on Mars of similar mineral precipitates suggests a record of the past action of liquid water on that planet. Alternate interpretations for the bulk hematite include compaction metamorphism of the ubiquitous fine- grained red hematite or deposits associated with volcanic ash or tuffs. The interpretation of these areas as aqueous in origin can be confirmed spectrally by the broad absorption at 3?m, which is associated with water of hydration. The infrared spectrometer (IRS) flown on both the Mariner 6 and 7 spacecraft contain wavelength channels that include this spectral region. Previous analysis of the IRS data suggested a small number of spectra had a stronger hydration feature than surrounding terrains. The bulk hematite discovery by TES motivated a more comprehensive study of all IRS spectra in the spatial regions of overlap between the two data sets. Spectra collected over Sinus Meridiani and Aram Chaos show a marked correlation of low albedo and high 3?m band depth that coincides with the locations where hematite has been mapped. This supports the aqueous mode of hematite formation and as hematite itself is not hydrated, suggests the presence of other hydrous mineral phases in these areas. We will present maps of the hematite/hydration correlation and discuss implications for the remote detection of relict habitable zones on Mars.

Baldridge, A. M.; Calvin, W. M.

2002-12-01

423

Modelling the water absorption process in chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.)The effect of blanching pre-treatment on water intake and texture kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000aThe effect of high temperature-short time (HTST) pre-blanching on water absorption and texture kinetics of chickpeas was investigated. Water intake and texture for both non-blanched and blanched chickpeas during soaking were evaluated for soaking within the temperature range 25-60??C. A first order asymptotic model was selected for primary modelling of sorption and texture data. Blanching at 100??C for 1.5?min before

A. Gowen; N. Abu-Ghannam; J. Frias; J. Oliveira

2007-01-01

424

Muscle water control in crustaceans and fishes as a function of habitat, osmoregulatory capacity, and degree of euryhalinity.  

PubMed

This study aimed at detecting possible patterns in the relationship between Anisosmotic Extracellular Regulation (AER) and Isosmotic Intracellular Regulation (IIR) in crustaceans and teleost fish from different habitats and evolutionary histories in fresh water (FW), thus different osmoregulatory capabilities, and degrees of euryhalinity. Crustaceans used were the hololimnetic FW Aegla schmitti, and Macrobrachium potiuna, the diadromous FW Macrobrachium acanthurus, the estuarine Palaemon pandaliformis and the marine Hepatus pudibundus; fishes used were the FW Corydoras ehrhardti, Mimagoniates microlepis, and Geophagus brasiliensis, and the marine-estuarine Diapterus auratus. The capacity for IIR was assessed in vitro following wet weight changes of isolated muscle slices incubated in anisosmotic saline (~50% change). M. potiuna was the crustacean with the highest capacity for IIR; the euryhaline perciforms G. brasiliensis and D. auratus displayed total capacity for IIR. It is proposed that a high capacity for IIR is required for invading a new habitat, but that it is later lost after a long time of evolution in a stable habitat, such as in the FW anomuran crab A. schmitti, and the Ostariophysian fishes C. ehrhardti and M. microlepis. More recent FW invaders such as the palaemonid shrimps (M. potiuna and M. acanthurus) and the cichlid G. brasiliensis are euryhaline and still display a high capacity for IIR. PMID:18325804

Freire, Carolina A; Amado, Enelise M; Souza, Luciana R; Veiga, Marcos P T; Vitule, Jean R S; Souza, Marta M; Prodocimo, Viviane

2008-02-11

425

The roles of texture and structure in the water retention capacity of burnt Mediterranean soils with varying rainfall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in soil texture, structure and water retention capacity between burnt and unburnt soils were studied in an area affected periodically by forest fires in SE Spain. The burnt and unburnt soils were sampled at altitudes ranging from 100 to 1000 m a.s.l., with slight differences in climate between the sampling sites. Comparisons were made at three levels: all-sites, between-sites

Carolina Boix Fayos

1997-01-01

426

Stepwise chilling adapted to commercial conditions–Improving tenderness of pork without compromising water-holding capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of commercially implementing a stepwise chilling process to improve tenderness without compromising the water-holding capacity (WHC) of pork was investigated in this study. A stepwise chilling process, Step10; tunnel chilling at ?23°C\\/3 ms to reach 10°C carcass temperature, a 6-h holding period at 10°C followed chilling at 4°C; n=28, was compared with conventional tunnel chilling (n=28). Substantial temperature

K. Rosenvold; U. Borup

2011-01-01

427

Heat capacity and structure of concentrated solutions of potassium bromide in mixtures of water and isopropyl alcohol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specific heat capacities of solutions of potassium bromide in mixtures of water and isopropyl alcohol at 25~ were measured by means of a differential adiabatic calorimeter [1-2] with an accuracy of , 0.02%. Electrolyte concentrations ranging from pure solvents to saturated solutions and solvent compositions up to 0.23 mole fraction of isopropyl alcohol were investigated. Changes in the heat

V. I. Klopov; A. M. Kolker; G. A. Krestov

1975-01-01

428

The effect of simulated transport of fresh meats on their water-holding capacity as assessed by various methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to establish the effects of transport vibrations on the water-holding capacity of fresh non-stimulated veal and pork and electrically- and non-stimulated beef. Furthermore, drip production was followed during storage by various methods which were compared for their suitability in industrial practice and scientific research.During storage, the amount of drip increased, whilst the rate of drip formation

M. J. A. den Hertog-Meischke; M. Vada-Kovács; F. J. M. Smulders

1997-01-01

429

Effect of graded water immersion on vital capacity and plasma volume in patients with cervical spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:A case–control study was conducted.Objective:The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that the increase in hydrostatic pressure on the abdominal wall may be the major determinant of vital capacity (VC) improvement in tetraplegic subjects during water immersion, despite the blood volume shifts from the legs and abdomen to the thorax.Setting:The study was carried out in the

J C Leal; S R M Mateus; T A Horan; P S S Beraldo; PSS Beraldo

2010-01-01

430

Effect of a Wheat Protein on pH-Dependent Water-Binding Capacity and Viscosity of Wheat Tailings Fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 74(4):384-388 Wheat flour was fractionated with acetic acid using a mortar and pes- tle method or a blender method. Higher pH-dependent water-binding capacity (WBC) and viscosity were obtained only in the tailings fraction. The higher pH-dependent WBC was rather stable at 5-37°C, however it decreased with salt addition. Pepsin or bromelain treatment stopped the pH-dependent changes in WBC

Masaharu Seguchi; Machiko Hayashi; Hiroshi Matsumoto

1997-01-01

431

Continuous distribution analysis of T 2 relaxation in meat—an approach in the determination of water-holding capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous distribution analysis as well as traditional bi-exponential fitting analysis were carried out on NMR T2 relaxation data measured 24 h post-mortem in 74 pork meat samples from M. longissimus dorsi. Areas of relaxation populations found by continuous distribution analysis and corresponding time constants were determined. Comparison of correlations to water holding capacity (WHC), determined by Honikel’s bag method [Honikel,

Hanne Christine Bertram; Sune Dønstrup; Anders Hans Karlsson; Henrik Jørgen Andersen

2002-01-01

432

Cavitation and water storage capacity in bole xylem segments of mature and young Douglas-fir trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydraulic specific conductivity, vulnerability to cavitation and water storage capacity of Douglas-fir sapwood was determined for samples from six young (1.0-1.5 m tall) and six mature trees (41-45 m tall). Measurements on samples from young trees showedthere were no effects of two contrasting sample types (entire stem segments vs sectors chiseled out of entire stems) on any of the calculated

Jean-Christophe Domec; Barbara L. Gartner

2001-01-01

433

Genotypic Variability in Photosynthesis, Water Use, and Light Absorption among Red and Freeman Maple Cultivars in Response to Drought Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivars of red (Acer rubrum L.) and Freeman maple (Acer ×freemanii E. Murray) are popular ornamental plants which are commonly placed in a variety of landscapes. To date, little information quantifi es the capacity to toler- ate and recover from drought among cultivars of red and Freeman maple. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of water

William L. Bauerle; Jerry B. Dudley; Lawrence W. Grimes

2003-01-01

434

Effect of water absorption on the residual stress in fluorinated silicon-oxide thin films fabricated by electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorinated silicon-oxide (SiOF) films were produced by electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition. The effect of water absorption on the film properties was studied by measuring the residual stress as a function of exposure time to room air. The residual stress shows an increase of the compressive component as the film absorbs water. However, the chemical bonding structure does not change after the water absorption. The residual stress returns to the initial value when the film is dried. It is suggested that the water absorption occurs entirely by physical adsorption of H2O molecules to Si-F bonds.

Kim, S. P.; Choi, S. K.; Park, Youngsoo; Chung, Ilsub

2001-07-01

435

High-efficiency NO(x) absorption in water using equipment packed with a glass fiber filter.  

PubMed

NO(X) absorption in water is quite difficult by comparison with other exhausted gas, such as SO(2), CO(2), and NH(3) because of low solubility of NO(X) in water. We have been developed a NO(X) absorption equipment with a glass fiber filter having high porosity and surface area. When feed NO(X) gas concentration was high, high NO(X) removal efficiency was obtained. This was because the surface area per glass fiber filter volume was about 40 to 600 times higher than for common packing materials. For verification test and industrial application, a high concentration of NO(X) gas (206,000 ppm) produced by a metal dissolution process was treated with a series of two absorption experiments. We can attain 97.6% of NO(X) removal efficiency, and HNO(3) concentration in water was concentrated up to 56.3 wt %. Furthermore, ozone addition to gas and usage of ozone saturated water as an absorbent resulted in complete removal of NO(X) in the gas (up to 120 ppm). This result indicated the importance of aqueous phase oxidation of HNO(2), which produces NO in the gas phase. PMID:21314113

Yasuda, Masahiro; Tsugita, Nobuhiro; Ito, Katsuaki; Yamauchi, Shiro; Glomm, Wilhelm R; Tsuji, Izumi; Asano, Hideaki

2011-02-11

436

WVR-GPS comparison measurements and calibration of the 20-32 GHz tropospheric water vapor absorption model.  

SciTech Connect

Collocated measurements of opacity (from water vapor radiometer brightness temperatures) and wet path delay (from ground-based tracking of global positioning satellites) are used to constrain the model of atmospheric water vapor absorption in the 20-32 GHz band. A differential approach is presented in which the slope of opacity-versus-wet delay data is used as the absorption model constraint. This technique minimizes the effects of radiometric calibration errors and oxygen model uncertainties in the derivation of a best-fit vapor absorption model. A total of approximately five months of data was obtained from two experiment sites. At the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site near Lamont, Oklahoma, three independent water vapor radiometers (WVRs) provided near-continuous opacity measurements over the interval July-September 1998. At the NASA/Goldstone tracking station in the California desert two WVRs; obtained opacity data over the September-October 1997 interval. At both sites a Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) receiver and surface barometer obtained the data required for deriving the zenith wet delays over the same time frames. Measured values of the opacity-versus-wet delay slope parameter were obtained at four WVR frequencies (20.7, 22.2, 23.8, and 31.4 GHz) and compared with predictions of four candidate absorption models referenced in the literature. With one exception, all three models provide agreement within 5% of the opacity-versus-wet delay slope measurements at all WVR frequencies at both sites. One model provides agreement for all channels at both sites to the 2-3% level. This absorption model accuracy level represents a significant improvement over that attainable using radiosondes.

Keihm, S. J.; Bar-Server, Y.; Liljegren, J. C.; Environmental Research; NASA

2002-06-01

437

The role of skin absorption as a route of exposure for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in drinking water.  

PubMed Central

Assessments of drinking water safety rely on the assumption that ingestion represents the principal route of exposure. A review of the experimental literature revealed that skin penetration rates for solvents are remarkably high, and that the stratum corneum is a less effective barrier to penetration than traditionally assumed. Based on published skin absorption rates, we used Fick's law (Jos = Kop delta Cos) to determine permeability constants for selected compounds. We then calculated dose per kilogram for nine different exposure situations and compared this to the oral dose per kilogram. We found that skin absorption contributed from 29-91 per cent of the total dose, averaging 64 per cent. Dose per kilogram body weight ranged from .0002 mg/kg-.18 mg/kg, with an average of .03 mg/kg. In weak aqueous solutions, flux of the solute is directly proportional to concentration. Laboratory approaches differ markedly from environmental exposures and can underestimate absorption. We conclude that skin absorption of contaminants in drinking water has been underestimated and that ingestion may not constitute the sole or even primary route of exposure.

Brown, H S; Bishop, D R; Rowan, C A

1984-01-01

438

The effect of water dispersion and absorption on axial resolution in ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the effects of dispersion and absorption in ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT), particularly the necessity to compensate for high dispersion orders in order to narrow the axial point-spread function envelope. We present a numerical expansion in which the impact of the various dispersion orders is quantified; absorption effects are evaluated numerically. Assuming a Gaussian source spectrum (in the optical frequency domain), we focus on imaging through water as a first approximation to biological materials. Both dispersion and absorption are found to be most significant for wavelengths above ~ 1µm, so that optimizing the system effective resolution (ER) requires choosing an operating wavelength below this limit. As an example, for 1-µm source resolution (FWHM), and propagation through a 1-mm water cell, if up to third-order dispersion compensation is applied, then the optimal center wavelength is 0.8µm, which generates an ER of 1.5µm (in air). The incorporation of additional bandwidth yields no ER improvement, due to uncompensated high-order dispersion and long-wavelength absorption.

Hillman, Timothy R.; Sampson, David D.

2005-03-01

439

Radiation effects in water ice: A near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The changes in the structure and composition of vapor-deposited ice films irradiated at 20 K with soft x-ray photons (3-900 eV) and their subsequent evolution with temperatures between 20 and 150 K have been investigated by near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) at the oxygen K edge. We observe the hydroxyl OH, the atomic oxygen O, and the hydroperoxyl HO2 radicals, as well as the oxygen O2 and hydrogen peroxide H2O2 molecules in irradiated porous amorphous solid water (p-ASW) and crystalline (Icryst) ice films. The evolution of their concentrations with the temperature indicates that HO2, O2, and H2O2 result from a simple step reaction fuelled by OH, where O2 is a product of HO2 and HO2 a product of H2O2. The local order of ice is also modified, whatever the initial structure is. The crystalline ice Icryst becomes amorphous. The high-density amorphous phase (Iah) of ice is observed after irradiation of the p-ASW film, whose initial structure is the normal low-density form of the amorphous ice (Ial). The phase Iah is thus peculiar to irradiated ice and does not exist in the as-deposited ice films. A new ``very high density'' amorphous phase-we call Iavh-is obtained after warming at 50 K the irradiated p-ASW ice. This phase is stable up to 90 K and partially transforms into crystalline ice at 150 K.

Laffon, C.; Lacombe, S.; Bournel, F.; Parent, Ph.

2006-11-01

440

The choice of models relating tritiated water absorption to subepithelial blood flow in the rumen of sheep.  

PubMed Central

1. The blood flow to the ruminoreticulum of anaesthetized sheep was varied by changing the proportion of CO2 in the gas stirring solutions confined to this organ. 2. Clearance of tritiated water was thereby varied fourfold, from 10 to 44ml./min.100 g epithelium, with negligible net water movement. 4. Subepithelial blood flow, observed with radioactive microspheres using the reference organ technique, varied tenfold, from 20 to 200 ml./min.100 g epithelium. 4. The relation between tritiated water absorption and blood water flow was approximated by a hyperbolic model, but was appreciably better described using a higher order term in blood flow consistent with a countercurrent exchange of tritiated water between arterioles and venules. 5. The distribution of blood flow between different regions of the organ and between epithelium and muscle is described.

Dobson, A

1979-01-01

441

Quantitative spectroscopic determination of hemoglobin concentration and saturation in a turbid medium: analysis of the effect of water absorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of water to the quantitative determination of hemoglobin concentration and saturation by near-IR spectroscopy in turbid media was investigated. The study consisted of in vitro measurements of an aqueous suspension containing Liposyn, bovine blood, and yeast buffered at pH 7.2. The optical coefficients of the medium were similar to those of biological tissue n the near-infrared, and the hemoglobin concentration was about 23 (mu) M. It was possible to reversibly saturate and desaturate hemoglobin in the full range of 0 to 100 percent by flowing either oxygen or nitrogen through the suspension. In these experimental conditions, water absorption must be taken into account to obtain accurate oxyhemoglobin concentrations and low hemoglobin saturation values. By contrast, the water correction has a small effect on the determination of deoxyhemoglobin concentration and high hemoglobin saturation values. By extrapolating the result to physiological conditions, where water content is lower and hemoglobin content is higher than in the experimental conditions, it was concluded that water absorption should have a smaller effect on the determination of hemoglobin concentrations and saturation in tissues at the wavelengths used in this study. In particular, for hemoglobin concentrations larger than 100 (mu) M, the water correction is less than 5 percent at saturation values higher than 50 percent.

Franceschini, Maria A.; Fantini, Sergio; Cerussi, Albert E.; Barbieri, Beniamino F.; Chance, Britton; Gratton, Enrico

1997-04-01

442

[Generation of reactive oxygen species in water under exposure of visible or infrared irradiation at absorption band of molecular oxygen].  

PubMed

It is found that in bidistilled water saturated with oxygen hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals are formed under the influence of visible and infrared radiation in the absorption bands of molecular oxygen. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs under the influence of both solar and artificial light sourses, including the coherent laser irradiation. The oxygen effect, i.e. the impact of dissolved oxygen concentration on production of hydrogen peroxide induced by light, is detected. It is shown that the visible and infrared radiation in the absorption bands of molecular oxygen leads to the formation of 8-oxoguanine in DNA in vitro. Physicochemical mechanisms of ROS formation in water when exposed to visible and infrared light are studied, and the involvement of singlet oxygen and superoxide anion radicals in this process is shown. PMID:22567905

Gudkov, S V; Karp, O E; Garmash, S A; Ivanov, V E; Chernikov, A V; Manokhin, A A; Astashev, M E; Iaguzhinski?, L S; Bruskov, V I

443

Study on the adsorption capacity of the system claycarbon for water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A granular adsorbent consisting of burned clay as a carrier and soot (carbon black), was used in aqueous solutions as an adsorbent of Ni, Pb, NO 3, HPO 4 and pesticides like Atrazin, Aldrin, Lindane and Bromophosethyl.The tested material showed an interesting adsorption capacity which can be compared with activated carbon.

Alfredo Donati; Manfred Sietz; Luciano Morselli; Sergio Zappoli; Andrea Gheduzzi

1992-01-01

444

Geophysical imaging of watershed subsurface patterns and prediction of soil texture and water holding capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial distribution of subsurface soil textural properties across the landscape is an important control on the hydrological and ecological function of a watershed. Traditional methods of mapping soils involving subjective assignment of soil boundaries are inadequate for studies requiring a quantitative assessment of the landscape and its subsurface connectivity and storage capacity. Geophysical methods such as electromagnetic induction (EMI)

H. Abdu; D. A. Robinson; M. Seyfried; S. B. Jones

2008-01-01

445

Trace Metals In Seawater: Chelation Capacities, Conditional Stability Constants, And Water Sampler Evaluations (copper, Zinc, Lead)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the use of anodic stripping voltammetry and copper titrations for the determination of complexation capacity and conditional stability constants for copper-organic complexes in seawater has been evaluated. Pseudopolarogram studies showed that there were two separate polarographic waves corresponding to the reduction of inorganic copper complexes and to the reduction of organic forms of copper. An equation for

Mary Jo Spencer

1984-01-01

446

Capacity Planning Model for a Multipurpose Water Reservoir with Target-Priority Operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the capacity determination problem of a hydro reservoir. The reservoir is to be used primarily for hydropower generation; however, commitments on release targets for irrigation as well as mitigation of downstream flood hazards are also secondary objectives. This paper is concerned with studying the complex interaction among various system reliabilities (power, flood, irrigation, etc.) and to provide decision

N. C. P. Edirisinghe; E. I. Patterson; N. Saadouli

2000-01-01

447

Sources of error in direct solid sampling Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometry analyses of biological samples with high water content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical errors were quantified in the direct analyses of trace elements in samples with high water content by means of solid sampling atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman effect background correction (direct SS-ZAAS). Time versus mass curves for HNO3 (0.1 mol 1?1), blood, kidney and liver at different temperatures (+20, +4, ?20°C) and mass input (0.07 to 42 mg) were observed.

Ernst Lücker; Oswald Schuierer

1996-01-01

448

Water vapor differential absorption lidar measurements using a diode-pumped all-solid-state laser at 935 nm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diode-pumped, single-frequency laser system emitting at 935 nm has recently been developed to serve as the transmitter for\\u000a water vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements. This laser uses Nd:YGG (Y3Ga5O12) as the active medium and emits radiation directly at 935 nm without the need of additional frequency conversion processes.\\u000a The system was diode-pumped at 806 nm and was built up in

A. Fix; G. Ehret; J. Löhring; D. Hoffmann; M. Alpers

2011-01-01

449

A diode-pumped Cr:LiSAF laser for UAV-based water vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An autonomous, compact, high-energy, injection seeded, diode-pumped, tunable Cr:LiSAF laser for a water vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system deployed on a high-altitude unpiloted airborne vehicle (UAV) has been developed. A unique laser resonator, consisting of a Cr:LiSAF slab pumped by 8 high-power diode bar stacks in a total internal reflection configuration, provides high extraction efficiency and good laser beam

Coorg R. Prasad; Viktor A. Fromzel; Joseph S. Smucz; In H. Hwang; William E. Hasselbrack

2000-01-01

450

Heat transport by material-dependent heating during absorption of radiation in the water absorbed dose calorimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water absorbed dose calorimeters have been developed for the application as PTB standards for the dosimetry in radiation therapy with photon and electron radiation. Different detector types for various applications are available. In this paper, heat conduction effects of “sealed” detectors are investigated, caused by the material-dependent temperature rise during the absorption of 60Co-?-radiation in the detector walls and in

A. Krauss; M. Roos

1999-01-01

451

Ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in waters throughout the Kolyma River basin, East Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kolyma River in East Siberia is among the six largest Arctic rivers and drains a region underlain by vast deposits of Pleistocene loess known as yedoma, most of which are currently stored in ice-rich permafrost throughout the region. These yedoma deposits are important sources of dissolved organic matter to terrestrial waters that in turn play a significant role in the transport and ultimate mineralization of organic carbon to atmospheric CO2 and CH4. In order to determine the concentrations and characteristics of this dissolved organic matter, we measured the ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra (200-800 nm) of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) from a broad collection of waters throughout a ~250 km transect of the northern Kolyma River basin. 124 samples were collected during July 2008 and 2009 and include soil pore waters, lakes, streams, rivers, and the Kolyma River mainstem. Absorbance values are highly positively correlated with dissolved organic carbon concentrations, with the highest values in soil pore waters and lowest values in the Kolyma River mainstem. Spectral slopes (at 275-295 nm and 350-400 nm, calculated within log-transformed absorption spectra) are also used to investigate contrasting water types and are found to be useful indicators of the bioavailability of dissolved organic matter. With ongoing and future permafrost degradation, yedoma deposits throughout the East Siberian region will become more hydrologically active and have the potential to be even greater sources of dissolved organic matter to soil pore waters, lakes, streams, rivers, and ultimately to the Arctic Ocean. As such, the ability to easily and comprehensively monitor the quantity and quality of dissolved organic matter across the landscape through methods such as ultraviolet-visible absorption is becoming critical for understanding the global significance of the Arctic carbon cycle.

Frey, K. E.; Bulygina, E. B.; Bunn, A. G.; Chandra, S.; Davydov, S.; Holmes, R. M.; Schade, J. D.; Sobczak, W. V.; Spektor, V. V.; Zimov, S. A.

2009-12-01

452

Biogeochemical origins of particles obtained from the inversion of the volume scattering function and spectral absorption in coastal waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the aquatic environment, particles can be broadly separated into phytoplankton (PHY), non-algal particle (NAP) and dissolved (or very small particle, VSP) fractions. Typically, absorption spectra are inverted to quantify these fractions, but volume scattering functions (VSFs) can also be used. Both absorption spectra and VSFs were used to estimate particle fractions for an experiment in the Chesapeake Bay. A complete set of water inherent optical properties was measured using a suite of commercial instruments and a prototype Multispectral Volume Scattering Meter (MVSM); the chlorophyll concentration, [Chl] was determined using the HPLC method. The total scattering coefficient measured by an ac-s and the VSF at a few backward angles measured by a HydroScat-6 and an ECO-VSF agreed with the LISST and MVSM data within 5%, thus indicating inter-instrument consistency. The size distribution and scattering parameters for PHY, NAP and VSP were inverted from measured VSFs. For the absorption inversion, the "dissolved" absorption spectra were measured for filtrate passing through a 0.2 ?m filter, whereas [Chl] and NAP absorption spectra were inverted from the particulate fraction. Even though the total scattering coefficient showed no correlation with [Chl], estimates of [Chl] from the VSF-inversion agreed well with the HPLC measurements (r = 0.68, mean relative errors = -20%). The scattering associated with NAP and VSP both correlated well with the NAP and "dissolved" absorption coefficients, respectively. While NAP dominated forward, and hence total, scattering, our results also suggest that the scattering by VSP was far from negligible and dominated backscattering. Since the sizes of VSP range from 0.02 to 0.2 ?m, covering (a portion of) the operationally defined "dissolved" matter, the typical assumption that colored dissolved organic matter (i.e., CDOM) does not scatter may not hold, particularly in a coastal or estuarine environment.

Zhang, X.; Huot, Y.; Gray, D. J.; Weidemann, A.; Rhea, W. J.

2013-09-01

453

The influence of water vapor absorption in the 290-350 nm region on solar radiance: Laboratory studies and model simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

vapor is an important greenhouse gas in the Earth's atmosphere. Absorption of solar radiation by water vapor in the near-UV region may partially account for up to 30% discrepancy between the modeled and the observed solar energy absorbed by the atmosphere. But the magnitude of water vapor absorption in the near-UV region at wavelengths shorter than 384 nm is not known. We have determined absorption cross sections of water vapor at 5 nm intervals in the 290-350 nm region, by using cavity ring-down spectroscopy. Water vapor cross-section values range from 2.94 × 10-24 to 2.13 × 10-25 cm2/molecule in the wavelength region studied. The effect of the water vapor absorption in the 290-350 nm region on the modeled radiation flux at the ground level has been evaluated using radiative transfer model.

Du, Juan; Huang, Li; Min, Qilong; Zhu, Lei

2013-09-01