Sample records for water absorption capacity

  1. Determination of water absorption and water holding capacities of different soil mixtures with MINIDRAIN system to enhance the plant growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudan Acharya, Madhu; Rauchecker, Markus; Wu, Wei

    2014-05-01

    Soil water holding capacity is the amount of water that a given soil can hold against the force of gravity. Soil texture and organic matter are the key components that determine soil water holding capacity. Soils with smaller particle sizes, such as silt and clay have larger surface area can hold more water compared to sand which has large particle sizes which results in smaller surface area. A study report showed that 1% increase in soil humus will result in a 4% increase in stored soil water (Morris, 2004) and 1 part humus holds 4 parts of water (Wheeler and Ward, 1998). Therefore, the more humus that can be added to the soil, the greater the water holding capacity of the soil. As the level of organic matter increases in a soil, the water holding capacity also increases due to the affinity of organic matter for water. The water holding capacity of the soil is determined by the amount of water held in the soil sample vs. the dry weight of the sample. MINIDRAIN is a patented system made of geo-fabric (fleece) or combination of geosynthetics and humus. MINIDRAIN and vegetation nets developed by the company ÖKO-TEX (Linz, Austria) will improve the distribution of water and air in the soils, increase the growth of vegetation and reduce the soil erosion. Depending on the physical configuration, there are four different combinations of MINIDRAIN systems developed by ÖKO-TEX. a) Geotextile (fleece) strips of different sizes (e.g. 5x10x250 mm) b) Net formed strips (drainage nets) of different sizes c) Multilayer geotextile mats with humus, seeds or compost of different sizes (e.g. 10x30x200 mm) d) Multilayer geotextile net formed mats with humus, seeds or compost This paper describes the experimental results of the water absorption and water holding capacity of different forms of MINIDRAIN under different soil mixes. In this experiment, potting soil, coarse sand and LECA (Light weight clay aggregates) balls are mixed with different proportion of MINIDRAIN systems and the water absorption and water holding capacities are measured. A comparison of the results for an optimal combination of soil and MINIDRAIN system has also been made. The results show that, the soil mix with MINIDRAIN system with multilayer mats (with humus) have highest water absorption and water holding capacity among the tested soil mix combinations.

  2. Capacity for Absorption of Water-Soluble Secondary Metabolites Greater in Birds than in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Karasov, William H.; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Bakken, Bradley Hartman; Izhaki, Ido; Samuni-Blank, Michal; Arad, Zeev

    2012-01-01

    Plant secondary metabolites (SMs) are pervasive in animal foods and potentially influence feeding behavior, interspecies interactions, and the distribution and abundance of animals. Some of the major classes of naturally occurring SMs in plants include many water-soluble compounds in the molecular size range that could cross the intestinal epithelium via the paracellular space by diffusion or solvent drag. There are differences among species in paracellular permeability. Using Middle Eastern rodent and avian consumers of fruits containing SMs, we tested the hypothesis that avian species would have significantly higher paracellular permeability than rodent species. Permeability in intact animals was assessed using standard pharmacological methodology to measure absorption of two radiolabeled, inert, neutral water-soluble probes that do not interact with intestinal nutrient transporters, L-arabinose (Mr?=?150.1 Da) and lactulose (Mr?=?342.3 Da). We also measured absorption of labeled 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3OMD-glucose; Mr?=?194.2 Da), which is a nonmetabolized analogue of D-glucose that is passively absorbed through the paracellular space but also transported across the enterocyte membranes. Most glucose was absorbed by all species, but arabinose fractional absorption (f) was nearly three times higher in birds (1.03±0.17, n?=?15 in two species) compared to rodents (0.37±0.06, n?=?10 in two species) (P<0.001). Surprisingly, the apparent rates of absorption in birds of arabinose exceeded those of 3OMD-glucose. Our findings are in agreement with previous work showing that the paracellular pathway is more prominent in birds relative to nonflying mammals, and suggests that birds may be challenged by greater absorption of water-soluble, dietary SMs. The increased expression of the paracellular pathway in birds hints at a tradeoff: the free energy birds gain by absorbing water-soluble nutrients passively may be offset by the metabolic demands placed on them to eliminate concomitantly absorbed SMs. PMID:22389702

  3. Absorptive capacity and new product development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory N Stock; Noel P Greis; William A Fischer

    2001-01-01

    New product development, specifically the ability of a company to develop products that outperform their competitors in the marketplace has been shown to benefit from the acquisition and use of external information. In this paper, we examine the relationship between absorptive capacity and new product development performance. Absorptive capacity is defined as the ability to acquire external information, assimilate it,

  4. Modification of water absorption capacity of a plastic based on bean protein using gamma irradiated starches as additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köber, E.; Gonzalez, M. E.; Gavioli, N.; Salmoral, E. M.

    2007-01-01

    Some properties of a bean protein-starch plastic were modified by irradiation of the starch. Two kinds of starch from bean and cassava were irradiated with doses until 50 kGy before their inclusion in the composite. Water absorption of the resultant product was reduced by 36% and 60% in materials containing bean and cassava starch, respectively. A large decline in the elongation is observed till 10 kGy in both materials, while tensile strength diminished by 11% in the cassava composite.

  5. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  6. MNC knowledge transfer, subsidiary absorptive capacity, and HRM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana Minbaeva; Torben Pedersen; Ingmar Björkman; Carl F. Fey; H J Park

    2003-01-01

    Based on a sample of 169 subsidiaries of multinational corporations (MNCs) operating in the USA, Russia, and Finland, this paper investigates the relationship between MNC subsidiary human resource management (HRM) practices, absorptive capacity, and knowledge transfer. First, we examine the relationship between the application of specific HRM practices and the level of the absorptive capacity. Second, we suggest that absorptive

  7. Street Storm Water Conveyance Capacity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James C. Y. Guo

    2000-01-01

    The street hydraulic capacity to convey storm water is dictated by the street gutter geometry and hydraulic characteristics. With the consideration of traffic safety, the street hydraulic conveyance capacity is also subject to a reduction defined by the water velocity and flow depth in the street gutter. In this study, the street hydraulic equa- tion is re-arranged to demonstrate that

  8. The Zone of Inertia: Absorptive Capacity and Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godkin, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe how interruptions in organizational learning effect institutional absorptive capacity and contribute to organizational inertia. Design/methodology/approach: An exploratory model is presented as a heuristic to describe how interruptions in organizational learning affect absorptive capacity

  9. Achieving high energy absorption capacity in cellular bulk metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S. H.; Chan, K. C.; Wu, F. F.; Xia, L.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have exhibited excellent energy-absorption performance by inheriting superior strength from the parent BMGs. However, how to achieve high energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs is vital but mysterious. In this work, using step-by-step observations of the deformation evolution of a series of cellular BMGs, the underlying mechanisms for the remarkable energy absorption capacity have been investigated by studying two influencing key factors: the peak stress and the decay of the peak stress during the plastic-flow plateau stages. An analytical model of the peak stress has been proposed, and the predicted results agree well with the experimental data. The decay of the peak stress has been attributed to the geometry change of the macroscopic cells, the formation of shear bands in the middle of the struts, and the “work-softening” nature of BMGs. The influencing factors such as the effect of the strut thickness and the number of unit cells have also been investigated and discussed. Strategies for achieving higher energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs have been proposed. PMID:25973781

  10. Cognitive Distance, Absorptive Capacity and Group Rationality: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Cur?eu, Petru Lucian; Krehel, Oleh; Evers, Joep H. M.; Muntean, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of a simulation study in which we explore the joint effect of group absorptive capacity (as the average individual rationality of the group members) and cognitive distance (as the distance between the most rational group member and the rest of the group) on the emergence of collective rationality in groups. We start from empirical results reported in the literature on group rationality as collective group level competence and use data on real-life groups of four and five to validate a mathematical model. We then use this mathematical model to predict group level scores from a variety of possible group configurations (varying both in cognitive distance and average individual rationality). Our results show that both group competence and cognitive distance are necessary conditions for emergent group rationality. Group configurations, in which the groups become more rational than the most rational group member, are groups scoring low on cognitive distance and scoring high on absorptive capacity. PMID:25314132

  11. Investigation of the absorption capacity of working solar oil

    SciTech Connect

    Kulyasova, S.V.; Koptev, G.P.; Mikhno, S.I.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a petroleum distillate, commonly referred to as solar wash oil, with a boiling range of 265-350/sup 0/C for the recovery of benzol hydrocarbons from coke oven gas was investigated. Chromatography was used for the chemical analysis in all experiments. The absorption capacity of the solar oil for various aromatics (toluene, xylenes, indene, styrene, etc.) was investigated with respect to temperature dependence. Six tables of data were included in the work.

  12. Ultra-violet Absorption of Sea Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. J. ARMSTRONG; G. T. BOALCH

    1961-01-01

    The intensity of submarine daylight is of such importance to the growth of marine plants that much attention has been given to measurements of the absorption of solar radiation by sea water. It has long been known that absorption is least in the blue green in the visible spectrum, and Tsukamoto (1927) showed that the absorption of ultra-violet radiation increased

  13. Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Vliet, G.C.; Lawson, M.B.; Lithgow, R.A.

    1980-12-01

    A numerical model was developed for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine, and the use of the model to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The sensitivity analysis was performed by selecting a nominal condition and determining performance sensitivity for each variable with others held constant. The variables considered in the study include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicated in particular that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very-important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy.

  14. Water retention capacity of tissue cultured plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klerk de G. J. M; F. Wijnhoven

    2005-01-01

    Leaves rapidly close their stomata after detachment resulting in a strong reduction of water loss. It has been reported that detached leaves of in vitro produced plants show continuous water loss indicating that they are unable to close the stomata properly and\\/or that their cuticle is malfunctioning. We examined the water retention capacity (WRC) of detached primary leaves of in

  15. Protective Capacity and Absorptive Capacity: Managing the Balance between Retention and Creation of Knowledge-Based Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In order to understand the pros and cons of an open organization regarding the flow of knowledge between firms, this paper introduces the concept of "protective capacity". The purpose of the paper is to elaborate the concept of "protective capacity" especially in relation to absorptive capacity, by presenting a number of propositions.…

  16. Effect of water absorption on the mechanical properties of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/vegetable fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinho, Vithória A. D.; Carvalho, Laura H.; Canedo, Eduardo L.

    2015-05-01

    The present work studies the effect of water absorption on the performance of composites of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) - a fully biodegradable semi-crystalline thermoplastic obtained from renewable resources through low-impact biotechnological process, biocompatible and non-toxic - and vegetable fiber from the fruit (coconut) of babassu palm tree.Water resistance is an important characteristic of structural composites, that may exposed to rain and humid environments. Both water absorption capacity (water solubility in the material) and the rate of water absorption (controlled by the diffusivity of water in the material) are important parameters. However, water absorption per se may not be the most important characteristic, insofar as the performance and applications of the compounds. It is the effect of the water content on the ultimate properties that determine the suitability of the material for applications that involve prolonged exposure to water.PHB/babassu composites with 0-20% load were prepared in an internal mixer. Two different types of babassu fibers having two different article size ranges were compounded with PHB and test specimens molded by compression. The water absorption capacity and the kinetic constant of water absorption were measured in triplicate. Mechanical properties under tension were measured for dry and moist specimens with different amounts of absorbed water.Results indicate that the performance of the composites is comparable to that of the pure matrix. Water absorption capacity increases from 0.7% (pure PHB) to 4% (PHB/20% babassu), but the water diffusivity (4.10?8 cm2/s) was found to be virtually independent of the water absorption level. Water absorption results in moderate drop in elastic modulus (10-30% at saturation, according to fiber content) but has little effect on tensile strength and elongation at break. Fiber type and initial particle size do not have a significant effect on water absorption or mechanical properties.

  17. Cross-border R&D alliances, absorptive capacity and technology learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang-Su Kim; Andrew C. Inkpen

    2005-01-01

    Drawing from research on alliance learning, we develop a model of technology learning by integrating technological capabilities and alliance knowledge in a framework of absorptive capacity. We also differentiate between absolute and relative components of absorptive capacity. Our study of the chemical–pharmaceutical industry found that technology learning was higher when firms were quick to adopt new technologies and when they

  18. Scaling-Up Aid to Education: Is Absorptive Capacity a Constraint?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Pauline

    2009-01-01

    "Absorptive capacity" is a frequently used term amongst development practitioners in education. It is adopted by some as a reason for caution over scaling up aid. Others are of the view that absorptive capacity is an excuse by some donors for not delivering on their Education for All financing commitments. Drawing on interviews with…

  19. High temperature measurement of water vapor absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefer, Dennis; Lewis, J. W. L.; Eskridge, Richard

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to measure the absorption coefficient, at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, for mixtures of water vapor and a diluent gas at high temperature and pressure. The experimental concept was to create the desired conditions of temperature and pressure in a laser absorption wave, similar to that which would be created in a laser propulsion system. A simplified numerical model was developed to predict the characteristics of the absorption wave and to estimate the laser intensity threshold for initiation. A non-intrusive method for temperature measurement utilizing optical laser-beam deflection (OLD) and optical spark breakdown produced by an excimer laser, was thoroughly investigated and found suitable for the non-equilibrium conditions expected in the wave. Experiments were performed to verify the temperature measurement technique, to screen possible materials for surface initiation of the laser absorption wave and to attempt to initiate an absorption wave using the 1.5 kW carbon dioxide laser. The OLD technique was proven for air and for argon, but spark breakdown could not be produced in helium. It was not possible to initiate a laser absorption wave in mixtures of water and helium or water and argon using the 1.5 kW laser, a result which was consistent with the model prediction.

  20. Absorption Capacities as a Basis of Stability for Closed Ecological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rygalov, V.; Pechurkin, N.; Wheeler, R.; Fowler, P.

    Growing plants in highly closed ecological systems (CES) will ultimately require conservation and recycling of plant essential elements to reduce system costs. One method for rapid recycling of elements would be incineration of residual, inedible biomass. The paper attempts to analyze the impact of biomass incineration for mineral recycling in a CES. Depending on system constraints, each CES will have its own range of steady-state operation, and this range becomes narrower as recycling rates increase. The paper presents a metric for CES stability, with the numerical estimates linked to carbon cycling rates. Along w th retrieving somei plant-essential elements, incineration of waste biomass would also release carbon dioxide, water, and other volatile compounds, depending on flue gas handling. Toxic products such as SO2 could damage or disrupt CES stability at high recycling rates. If such toxic species are not neutralized, the system tolerance would then be proportional to CES buffering or absorption capacity, and would be a non-linear function of the tolerance of the biota. We developed formulas to evaluate absorption capacities required for a stable CES by assessing different rates of material turnover. Numerical estimates of system stabilities in relation to carbon cycling rates were calculated for several examples of CES, including the Earth's Biosphere, the BIOS-3 project in Krasnoyarsk, Russia, and the Biosphere-2 project in Tucson, Arizona, USA.

  1. Absorption of water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Halsted, Charles H

    2003-03-01

    Water-soluble vitamins are required as enzyme cofactors in a wide variety of metabolic reactions. Riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin C are essential in redox reactions; thiamine and biotin are involved in macronutrient metabolism; and folate, vitamin B12, pyridoxine, and riboflavin play important roles in the regulation of S-adenosylmethionine production and DNA synthesis. Each of the water-soluble vitamins appears to require its own membrane transport process for absorption across the enterocyte. The absorption of vitamin B12, or cobalamin (Cbl), is unique in requiring multiple processes from the stomach to the ileum that involve at least four different binding proteins. Whereas all water-soluble vitamins are absorbed from the small intestine, folate, biotin, and riboflavin can be transported across colonic epithelial cells, with uncertain clinical significance. This article reviews recent studies on the requirement, metabolism, and deficiency state of each water-soluble vitamin, followed by a discussion of current knowledge on the regulation of its intestinal absorption. PMID:15703550

  2. Atmospheric absorption of terahertz radiation and water vapor continuum effects

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    Atmospheric absorption of terahertz radiation and water vapor continuum effects David M. Slocum a vapor Absorption Continuum Terahertz Spectroscopy a b s t r a c t The water vapor continuum absorption. The absorption coefficient as a function of frequency was determined and compared with theoretical predictions

  3. Absorption coefficient instrument for turbid natural waters.

    PubMed

    Friedman, E; Poole, L; Cherdak, A; Houghton, W

    1980-05-15

    An instrument has been developed that directly measures the multispectral absorption coefficient of turbid natural water. The design incorporates methods for compensation of variation in the internal light source intensity, correction of the spectrally dependent nature of the optical elements, and correction for variation in background light level. When used in conjunction with a spectrally matched total attenuation instrument, the spectrally dependent scattering coefficient can also be derived. Systematic errors associated with multiple scattering have been estimated using Monte Carlo techniques. PMID:20221099

  4. Water- Lithium Bromide-?- Butyrolactone Absorption Refrigerating Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyoki, Shigeki; Uemura, Tadashi

    This investigation was carried out in order to find corrosion inhibitors which would be effective in controlling the corrosion for the water-lithium bromide-?-butyrolactone (20 moles water/1 mole ?-butyrolactone) absorption refrigerating machine. The experiments were carried out on continuous boiling test, intermittent boiling test and galvanic corrosion test with the use of organic inhibitors and inorganic inhibitors in ?-butyrolactone aqueous solution of lithium bromide. The metals used in these corrosion tests were mainly SS 41 and copper. From these experimental results, the most suitable corrosion inhibitors for SS 41 and copper in ?-butyrolactone aqueous solution of lithium bromide Were recognized to be benzotriazole, tolyltriazole and lithium molybdate.

  5. Atmospheric absorption of terahertz radiation and water vapor continuum effects

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    Atmospheric absorption of terahertz radiation and water vapor continuum effects David M. Slocum a April 2013 Keywords: Water vapor Absorption Continuum Terahertz Spectroscopy a b s t r a c t The water vapor continuum absorption spectrum was investigated using Fourier Trans- form Spectroscopy

  6. Absorption coefficient instrument for turbid natural waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, E.; Cherdak, A.; Poole, L.; Houghton, W.

    1980-05-01

    The paper presents an instrument that directly measures multispectral absorption coefficient of turbid natural water. Attention is given to the design, which is shown to incorporate methods for the compensation of variation in the internal light source intensity, correction of the spectrally dependent nature of the optical elements, and correction for variation in the background light level. In addition, when used in conjunction with a spectrally matched total attenuation instrument, the spectrally dependent scattering coefficient can also be derived. Finally, it is reported that systematic errors associated with multiple scattering have been estimated using Monte Carlo techniques.

  7. Absorption coefficient instrument for turbid natural waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, E.; Cherdak, A.; Poole, L.; Houghton, W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents an instrument that directly measures multispectral absorption coefficient of turbid natural water. Attention is given to the design, which is shown to incorporate methods for the compensation of variation in the internal light source intensity, correction of the spectrally dependent nature of the optical elements, and correction for variation in the background light level. In addition, when used in conjunction with a spectrally matched total attenuation instrument, the spectrally dependent scattering coefficient can also be derived. Finally, it is reported that systematic errors associated with multiple scattering have been estimated using Monte Carlo techniques.

  8. Absorptive removal of biomass tar using water and oily materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thana Phuphuakrat; Tomoaki Namioka; Kunio Yoshikawa

    2011-01-01

    Water is the most common choice of absorption medium selected in many gasification systems. Because of poor solubility of tar in water, hydrophobic absorbents (diesel fuel, biodiesel fuel, vegetable oil, and engine oil) were studied on their absorption efficiency of biomass tar and compared with water. The results showed that only 31.8% of gravimetric tar was removed by the water

  9. SOIL MOISTURE AND ABSORPTION OF WATER BY TREE ROOTS1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. T. Kozlowski

    1987-01-01

    Shade trees undergo periodic dehydration because the rate of absorption of soil water lags behind the rate of transpirational water loss from tree crowns. The rate of absorption of water from wet, warm, and well-aerated soil is controlled largely by the rate of transpiration . However, ab- sorption of water often is impeded by low soil moisture con- tent, a

  10. Investigation of the absorption and polymerization capacity of coal wash oils

    SciTech Connect

    Gogoleva, T.Ya.; Kovalev, E.T.; Butsinskaya, L.I.; Golovina, G.G.

    1981-01-01

    The absorption and polymerization capacity of coal gas wash oils is important when they are used as an absorber to recover benzol from coke-oven gas. The absorption capacity characterizes the property of the oil for dissolving benzol at normal temperature and a high benzol concentration in the coke-oven gas and for easily separating the benzol on heating. The polymerization capacity of the oil characterizes its property of forming polymer products, usually dissolving in the oil and intensifying its color, under the influence of temperature. The acceleration of polymerization processing of individual components of the oil is affected by its repeated heating to 130 to 140/sup 0/C during distillation of the benzol. The accumulation of polymer products in the oil impairs its quality: for example, the density increases (to 1.1 g/cm/sup 3/), the molecular weight and viscosity increase and the absorption capacity decreases. Investigations permitted more precise determination of the most characteristic temperature interval for determination and evaluation of the absorption capacity of the oils, determination of the components which largely determine the formation of polymer products in the oil and determination of certain functions for the absorption and polymerization properties of various wash oils. The principal specifications were determined for oil with sufficient absorption capacity and low polymerization capacity: density at 20/sup 0/C of not over 1.047 g/cm/sup 3/, not less than 95% distillation in the 230 to 280/sup 0/C range, concentration, wt %: naphthalene not over 10%, monomethylnaphthalenes not less than 25%, high-boiling compounds (acenaphthene, diphenylene oxide and fluorene) not over 25%; no precipitation at 5/sup 0/C. Oil of this quality may be obtained by additional purification of the standard industrial coal wash oil.

  11. Absorption of water by thin, ionic films of gelatin.

    PubMed

    Fialkowski, M; Campbell, C J; Bensemann, I T; Grzybowski, B A

    2004-04-27

    This paper discusses absorption of water by thin, dry films of gelatin. Experiments using a wet-stamping technique were performed to characterize water uptake in terms of (i) equilibrium profiles of the water density inside the gel and (ii) the kinetics of water absorption. It was found that, in contrast to pure gelatin films, which absorb water approximately uniformly, films of gelatin doped with ionic additives have exponentially decaying equilibrium water profiles. The process of water absorption by both doped and undoped gels was described by a theoretical model based on the minimization of grand potential functional. The results of this model are in agreement with the experiment. PMID:15875375

  12. Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vliet, G.C.; Lawson, M.B.; Lithgow, R.A.

    1980-12-01

    This investigation involved the development of a numerical model for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine, and the use of the model to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The sensitivity analysis was performed by selecting a nominal condition and determining performance sensitivity for each variable with others held constant. The variables considered in the study include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicated in particular that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy. The dynamic model should be valuable as a design tool for developing new absorption machines or modifying current machines to make them optimal based on current and future energy costs.

  13. The heat capacity of water near solid surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu?eli?, V.; Vu?eli?, D.

    1983-11-01

    Anomalous heat capacities of water at solid/water interfaces have been obtained. The solids vary from inorganic (zeolites, porous class, silica gel, activated carbon) to biological (protein lysozyme and adrenal gland). Water heat capacities at all interfaces exhibit the same pattern. At room temperature the small values are close to ice and increase with temperature, reaching the value of free water between 380 and 440 K.

  14. Capital-absorptive capacity of non-oil sectors in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Hamed, A.K.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the capital absorptive capacity of non-oil sectors in Saudi Arabia and to identify the various constraints on that capacity. As defined in this study, capital absorptive capacity was measured by the increments in capital that can be made productively by the private and public sectors during a particular time interval. An extensive review of the literature was conducted. Furthermore, an attempt was made to test the relevance of the existing methods of measuring absorptive capacity to Saudi Arabia. It is concluded that the present methods of measurement are not applicable to Saudi Arabia in its present stage of development. As a consequence, an alternative approach is proposed. This approach utilizes the relationship between capital absorptive capacity and the law of diminishing returns to factors. A theoretical analysis of this relation is conducted and, based on that relation and on the evolution of real gross national saving and real gross domestic investment, several conclusions are drawn: capital absorptive capacity of the Saudi economy had been limited during the 1965-1981 period; (2) non-oil private sector had been decreasing during the 1971-1980 period; (3) non-oil public sector had been increasing during the 1971-1975 period and decreasing during the 1976-1980 period; (4) total non-oil economy had been increasing during the 1971-1973 period and decreasing during the 1974-1980 period; and (5) Saudi non-oil sectors are constrained by several factors. Of special importance are the shortage of labor and the inadequate supply of infrastructural facilities.

  15. Developing and Validating Field Measurement Scales for Absorptive Capacity and Experienced Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadiz, David; Sawyer, John E.; Griffith, Terri L.

    2009-01-01

    Research on knowledge transfer in organizations has been hampered by the lack of tools yielding valid scores for studying critical constructs in concert. The authors developed survey measures of absorptive capacity (the ability to transform new knowledge into usable knowledge) and experienced community of practice (the extent to which a person is…

  16. Social Networks, Social Media and Absorptive Capacity in Regional Small and Medium Enterprises (SMES) in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosua, Rachelle; Evans, Nina; Sawyer, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are major sources of prosperity and employment and are viewed as critical to regional development in Australia. A key factor to foster productivity and growth in SMEs is their ability to identify, acquire, transform and exploit external knowledge. This ability, referred to as the "absorptive capacity…

  17. An empirical study of the relationship between absorptive capacity and technology transfer effectiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naruemon Whangthomkum; Barbara Igel; Mark Speece

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship of Absorptive Capacity (AC) and its elements to Technology Transfer Effectiveness (TTE) in the flexible packaging industry in Thailand. The relationship of each AC element to each dimension of TTE is assessed. Findings are that TTE is related to all AC elements, but not all to the same degree. While all AC elements were found

  18. A method to measure the adsorption of bile salts to vegetable fiber of differing water holding capacity.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, M A; Anderson, R; Mitchell, W D; Robertson, J; Pocock, S

    1976-10-01

    Dietary vegetable fibers have physico-chemical properties which may influence their role in nutrition. A method is described which measures bile acid adsorption to fibers of differing water holding capacity. Such absorption studies are complicated by the water held in the fiber matrix which includes bile acid in solution. The entrapped solution gives some apparent adsorption but this can be removed by washing the fibers with water. This method differentiates between strong adsorption and reversible adsorption. This enables dietary vegetable fibers to be classified according to their bile acid absorption capacity which may be useful in selecting fibers for clinical trials. PMID:966069

  19. Concentration-dependent absorption of aluminum in rats exposed to labile aluminum in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Glynn, A W; Sparén, A; Danielsson, L G; Sundström, B; Jorhem, L

    1999-04-01

    The hypothesis was tested that the absorption of labile Al in rats will increase when the Al-binding capacity of food components in the stomach is saturated. Male rats were exposed to 0, 10, 50, or 500 mg labile Al/L in acidic drinking water (pH 3) for 9 wk. The results show that labile Al in drinking water is complexed by feed constituents in the stomach of the rat in vivo, thus causing a nondetectable absorption of Al at 10 mg Al/L. An increased absorption of Al at 50 and 500 mg Al/L was associated with a saturation of the Al-binding capacity of feed components in the lumen of the stomach, causing the appearance of labile Al. Thus, the presence of labile Al in drinking water does not necessarily result in a high Al absorption when the water is ingested, since the bioavailability of labile Al is dependent both on the amount and composition of Al-binding components present in the gastrointestinal tract at the time of ingestion of the water. It is thus not possible to predict the body burden of Al in humans just by measuring the Al concentrations in drinking water. Even a further refining of the exposure measurement to include speciation of Al in the water may not markedly improve the prediction of the Al body burden. Future epidemiological studies must therefore be based on actual measurements of Al concentration in tissues or fluids from the study subjects. PMID:10201636

  20. GASTROINTESTINAL ABSORPTION OF SOLUBLE URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manuscript describes results of an experiment to determine the gastrointestinal absorption of uranium from drinking water in 12 health adults. Most of the uranium ingested was excreted in feces in the first 2 days following ingestion of the water. The absorption was the same ...

  1. Effect of water absorption on pollen adhesion.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haisheng; Lizarraga, Leonardo; Bottomley, Lawrence A; Carson Meredith, J

    2015-03-15

    Pollens possess a thin liquid coating, pollenkitt, which plays a major role in adhesion by forming capillary menisci at interfaces. Unfortunately, the influence of humidity on pollenkitt properties and capillary adhesion is unknown. Because humidity varies widely in the environment, the answers have important implications for better understanding plant reproduction, allergy and asthma, and pollen as atmospheric condensation nuclei. Here, pollenkitt-mediated adhesion of sunflower pollen to hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces was measured as a function of humidity. The results quantify for the first time the significant water absorption of pollenkitt and the resulting complex dependence of adhesion on humidity. On hydrophilic Si, adhesion increased with increasing RH for pollens with or without pollenkitt, up to 200nN at 70% RH. In contrast, on hydrophobic PS, adhesion of pollenkitt-free pollen is independent of RH. Surprisingly, when pollenkitt was present adhesion forces on hydrophobic PS first increased with RH up to a maximum value at 35% RH (?160nN), and then decreased with further increases in RH. Independent measurement of pollenkitt properties is used with models of capillary adhesion to show that humidity-dependent changes in pollenkitt wetting and viscosity are responsible for this complex adhesion behavior. PMID:25524008

  2. The implementation of a global fund grant in Lesotho: applying a framework on knowledge absorptive capacity.

    PubMed

    Biesma, Regien; Makoa, Elsie; Mpemi, Regina; Tsekoa, Lineo; Odonkor, Philip; Brugha, Ruairi

    2012-02-01

    One of the biggest challenges in scaling up health interventions in sub-Saharan Africa for government recipients is to effectively manage the rapid influx of aid from different donors, each with its own requirements and conditions. However, there is little empirical evidence on how governments absorb knowledge from new donors in order to satisfy their requirements. This case study applies Cuellar and Gallivan's (2006) framework on knowledge absorptive capacity (AC) to illustrate how recipient government organisations in Lesotho identified, assimilated and utilised knowledge on how to meet the disbursement and reporting requirements of Lesotho's Round 5 grant from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria (Global Fund). In-depth topic guided interviews with 22 respondents and document reviews were conducted between July 2008 and February 2009. Analysis focused on six organisational determinants that affect an organisation's absorptive capacity: prior-related knowledge, combinative capabilities, motivation, organisational structure, cultural match, and communication channels. Absorptive capacity was mostly evident at the level of the Principal Recipient, the Ministry of Finance, who established a new organisational unit to meet the requirements of Global Fund Grants, while the level of AC was less advanced among the Ministry of Health (Sub-Recipient) and district level implementers. Recipient organisations can increase their absorptive capacity, not only through prior knowledge of donor requirements, but also by deliberately changing their organisational form and through combinative capabilities. The study also revealed how vulnerable African governments are to loss of staff capacity. The application of organisational theory to analyse the interactions of donor agencies with public and non-public country stakeholders illustrates the complexity of the environment that aid recipient governments have to manage. PMID:21907474

  3. Capacity of MIMO Systems in Shallow Water Acoustic Channels

    E-print Network

    Stojanovic, Milica

    Capacity of MIMO Systems in Shallow Water Acoustic Channels Andreja Radosevic, Dario Fertonani with the number of transmit or receive elements, whichever is smaller. The ergodic capacity of UWA MIMO channel on the information rate achievable through multiple-input multiple- output (MIMO) communications over UWA channels

  4. Measuring optical absorption coefficient of pure water in UV using the integrating cavity absorption meter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ling Wang

    2008-01-01

    The integrating cavity absorption meter (ICAM) has been used successfully to measure the low absorption coefficient of pure water. The ICAM produces an effective total path length of several meters or even longer, although the physical size of the instrument is only several centimeters. The long effective total path length ensures a high sensitivity that enables the ICAM to measure

  5. Plasma Citrulline Concentration: A Reliable Marker of Small Bowel Absorptive Capacity Independent of Intestinal Inflammation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cinzia Papadia; Roy A. Sherwood; Chrysostomos Kalantzis; Katharina Wallis; Umberto Volta; Erica Fiorini; Alastair Forbes

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:Postabsorptive plasma citrulline concentration has been proposed as a reliable marker of small bowel absorptive capacity in short bowel patients. The aim of this study was to address the potentially confounding impact of intestinal inflammation.METHODS:Fifty-five patients were selected according to diagnosis, small bowel length, and degree of bowel inflammation. (a) Crohn's disease (CD) with massive small bowel resection leaving ?50

  6. Intestinal absorptive capacity, intestinal permeability and jejunal histology in HIV and their relation to diarrhoea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Keating; I Bjarnason; S Somasundaram; A Macpherson; N Francis; A B Price; D Sharpstone; J Smithson; I S Menzies; B G Gazzard

    1995-01-01

    Intestinal function is poorly defined in patients with HIV infection. Absorptive capacity and intestinal permeability were assessed using 3-O-methyl-D-glucose, D-xylose, L-rhamnose, and lactulose in 88 HIV infected patients and the findings were correlated with the degree of immunosuppression (CD4 counts), diarrhoea, wasting, intestinal pathogen status, and histomorphometric analysis of jejunal biopsy samples. Malabsorption of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose and D-xylose was prevalent in

  7. Heat capacity of water: A signature of nuclear quantum effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, C.; Conde, M. M.; McBride, C.; Abascal, J. L. F.; Noya, E. G.; Ramirez, R.; Sesé, L. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this note we present results for the heat capacity at constant pressure for the TIP4PQ/2005 model, as obtained from path-integral simulations. The model does a rather good job of describing both the heat capacity of ice Ih and of liquid water. Classical simulations using the TIP4P/2005, TIP3P, TIP4P, TIP4P-Ew, simple point charge/extended, and TIP5P models are unable to reproduce the heat capacity of water. Given that classical simulations do not satisfy the third law of thermodynamics, one would expect such a failure at low temperatures. However, it seems that for water, nuclear quantum effects influence the heat capacities all the way up to room temperature. The failure of classical simulations to reproduce Cp points to the necessity of incorporating nuclear quantum effects to describe this property accurately.

  8. Global distribution of plant-extractable water capacity of soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunne, K.A.; Willmott, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Plant-extractable water capacity of soil is the amount of water that can be extracted from the soil to fulfill evapotranspiration demands. It is often assumed to be spatially invariant in large-scale computations of the soil-water balance. Empirical evidence, however, suggests that this assumption is incorrect. In this paper, we estimate the global distribution of the plant-extractable water capacity of soil. A representative soil profile, characterized by horizon (layer) particle size data and thickness, was created for each soil unit mapped by FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)/Unesco. Soil organic matter was estimated empirically from climate data. Plant rooting depths and ground coverages were obtained from a vegetation characteristic data set. At each 0.5?? ?? 0.5?? grid cell where vegetation is present, unit available water capacity (cm water per cm soil) was estimated from the sand, clay, and organic content of each profile horizon, and integrated over horizon thickness. Summation of the integrated values over the lesser of profile depth and root depth produced an estimate of the plant-extractable water capacity of soil. The global average of the estimated plant-extractable water capacities of soil is 8??6 cm (Greenland, Antarctica and bare soil areas excluded). Estimates are less than 5, 10 and 15 cm - over approximately 30, 60, and 89 per cent of the area, respectively. Estimates reflect the combined effects of soil texture, soil organic content, and plant root depth or profile depth. The most influential and uncertain parameter is the depth over which the plant-extractable water capacity of soil is computed, which is usually limited by root depth. Soil texture exerts a lesser, but still substantial, influence. Organic content, except where concentrations are very high, has relatively little effect.

  9. Simulated X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy on the Water Dimer

    SciTech Connect

    Wung, A

    2004-02-05

    The ability of an individual H{sub 2}O molecule to form multiple hydrogen bonds with neighboring molecules makes it an ideal substance for the study of hydrogen bonding. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can be used to study what intermolecular structures the hydrogen-bonded water molecules form. XAS excites core electrons from the oxygen 1 s atomic orbital to an unoccupied orbital. The resulting absorption spectrum shows the energy levels of the unoccupied orbitals, which in turn is dependent on the intermolecular structure of the H{sub 2}O system. Previous studies using molecular dynamics computer simulations have concluded that the intermolecular structure of liquid water is a distorted tetrahedron. Yet x-ray absorption spectra show discrepancies between liquid water and ice Ih, which is already known to have a rigid tetrahedral structure. The research group, which is based in the University of Sweden in Stockholm and the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, has studied the possible presence of broken hydrogen bonds in the liquid water intermolecular structure to explain these deviations. Computer simulations are used to construct theoretical absorption spectra for models of liquid water including broken hydrogen bonds. Creating such models requires controlling variables. The simplest method of isolating individual variables, such as hydrogen bond length and angles, is to study the water dimer. Here, the water dimer is used to study how the absorption spectra change with the way the water molecules are positioned and oriented relative to each other.

  10. Efficiency of the small capacity hot water boilers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Bat-Erdene; J. Tseyen-Oidov

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we considered some experimental results of old hot water boiler BZUI-100 and new boiler type DTX-0.7. As a experimental results efficiency of these hot water boiler type DTX-0.7 is 24.1 % more than boiler type BZVJ-100 and heat loss is lower. Incomplete combustion is high in the operation of the small capacity hot-water boiler type BZUI-100, whish

  11. Inhibition of water absorption by ricinoleic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas R. Gadacz; Timothy S. Gaginella; Sidney F. Phillips

    1976-01-01

    In three dogs, each with a jejunal and an ileal Thiry-Vella loop, the isolated segments were perfused with isotonic electrolyte solutions (control) for 90 min. One loop was then perfused with 5 mM ricinoleic acid for an additional 90 min, while the other loop was perfused with the control solution. Loops perfused with ricinoleci acid all showed reduced fluid absorption.

  12. Physicochemical properties of macrogol ointment and emulsion ointment blend developed for regulation of water absorption.

    PubMed

    Noda, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Kazuya; Sanagawa, Akimasa; Sobajima, Yu; Fujii, Satoshi

    2011-10-31

    Pressure ulcers can form with excess pressure and shearing stress on skin tissue. Because pressure ulcer is often accompanies by exudates, selection of appropriate topical emulsion ointment is difficult. Blended ointments consisting of emulsion base and water-soluble base are clinically used for adjustment of wound moist environment. Because regulating the amount of wound exudates can enhance treatment efficacy, two new blended ointments were developed. LY-SL blended ointment consisted of lysozyme hydrochloride water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion (LY-cream) and sulfadiazine macrogol (polyethylene glycol) ointment (SL-pasta). TR-SL blended ointment consisted of tretinoin tocoferil oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion (TR-cream) and SL-pasta (TR-SL). LY-SL and TR-SL were applied to Franz diffusion cell with cellulose membranes for the evaluation of water absorption characteristics at 32 °C. Water absorption rate constants (mg/cm(2)/min(0.5)) were 12.5, 16.3 and 34.6 for LY-cream, TR-cream and SL-pasta, respectively. Water absorption rate constants for LY-SL and TR-SL (SL-pasta 70%) exhibited intermediate values of 21.2 and 27.2, as compared to each ointment alone, respectively. Because amount of water absorbed was linearly related to square root of time, it was suggested that water-absorbable macrogol was surrounded by oily ingredients forming matrix structure. This diffusion-limited structure may regulate water absorption capacity. This is the first report of physicochemical properties of macrogol ointment and emulsion ointment blend developed for regulation of water absorption. The blended ointment can properly regulate amount of exudates in wounds and may be useful for treatment of pressure ulcers. PMID:21820500

  13. A Model for Constrained Optimum Water Pricing and Capacity Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandy, G. C.; McBean, E. A.; Hutchinson, B. G.

    1984-05-01

    Previous studies of optimum water pricing and capacity expansion have ignored the political and administrative factors which limit the range of feasible decisions. A general model is presented for identifying the water price horizon so as to maximize the present value of net benefits. Constraints on the range of water price, the rate of price change, and financial cost recovery are included in the model. The model is applied to a hypothetical case study of an urban water supply system. The results indicate that optimum water pricing and capacity expansion policies are likely to achieve some increase in economic benefits when compared with average cost pricing. Administrative and political constraints tend to reduce these benefits but result in more acceptable pricing policies.

  14. Isochoric heat capacity of an n-hexane + water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezgomonova, E. I.; Saidov, S. M.; Stepanov, G. V.

    2015-01-01

    The isochoric heat capacity of an n-hexane + water system at water contents of 0.121, 0.166, 0.2, 0.234, 0.256, and 0.3 mole fraction is studied along different isochors at different temperatures in the 140 to 550 kg/m3 range of densities using a high-temperature adiabatic calorimeter designed at the Amirkhanov Institute of Physics. The tabulated values of isochoric heat capacity C v, x are presented for an H2O concentration of 0.3 mole fraction. The curves of liquid-liquid and liquid-gas phase equilibria are constructed.

  15. Optical absorption of pure water in the blue and ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zheng

    The key feature of the Integrating Cavity Absorption Meter (ICAM) is that it produces an isotropic illumination of the liquid sample and thereby dramatically minimizes scattering effects. The ICAM can produce an effective optical path length up to several meters. As a consequence, it is capable of measuring absorption coefficients as low as 0.001 m-1. The early version of the ICAM was used previously to measure the absorption spectrum of pure water over the 380-700 nm range. To extend its range into the ultraviolet, several modifications have been completed. The preliminary tests showed that the modified ICAM was able to measure the absorption of pure water for the wavelength down to 300 nm. After extensive experimental investigation and analysis, we found that the absorption of SpectralonRTM (the highly diffusive and reflective material used to build the ICAM) has a higher impact on measurements of absorption in the UV range than we had expected. Observations of high values for pure water absorption in the UV, specifically between 300 and 360 nm, are a consequence of absorption by the Spectralon RTM. These results indicated that even more serious modifications were required (e.g. SpectralonRTM can not be used for a cavity in the UV). Consequently, we developed a new diffuse reflecting material and used fused silica powder (sub-micron level) sealed inside a quartz cell to replace the inner SpectralonRTM cavity of the ICAM. The new data is in excellent agreement with the Pope and Fry data (380-600 nm) and fills the gap between the 320 nm data of Quickenden and Irvin and 380 nm data of Pope and Fry. We present definitive results for the absorption spectrum of pure water between 300 and 600 nm.

  16. Space charge in polyimide film after water absorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yutaka Kamei; M. Baba; S. Fujita

    2000-01-01

    A polyimide film exhibits high water absorption because of its imide bonds, which presents problems in practical applications. The PEA method was used to examine the effect of moisture content on space charge formation by measuring the space charge density in polyimide films that had been immersed in distilled water and changes in the space charge distribution over time. A

  17. 30 CFR 75.1107-7 - Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-7 Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum...

  18. Endotoxin Temporarily Impairs Canine Colonic Absorption of Water and Sodium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph J. Cullen; Stephen T. Spates; Kimberly S. Ephgrave; Marilyn M. Hinkhouse

    1998-01-01

    Diarrhea is a common manifestation of sepsis. We hypothesized that endotoxin may impair colonic absorption of water and electrolytes, an effect which may be related to altered liquid transit in the colon. Five dogs underwent construction of 50-cm colonic Thiry–Vella fistulas (TVF). Following recovery, absorption studies were performed by perfusing the TVF with an isotonic solution at 2.9 ml\\/min containing

  19. Characteristics of Nasal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT) and Nasal Absorption Capacity in Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Haihong; Yan, Mengfei; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2013-01-01

    As the main mucosal immune inductive site of nasal cavity, nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) plays an important role in both antigen recognition and immune activation after intranasal immunization. However, the efficiency of intranasal vaccines is commonly restricted by the insufficient intake of antigen by the nasal mucosa, resulting from the nasal mucosal barrier and the nasal mucociliary clearance. The distribution of NALT and the characteristic of nasal cavity have already been described in humans and many laboratory rodents, while data about poultry are scarce. For this purpose, histological sections of the chicken nasal cavities were used to examine the anatomical structure and histological characteristics of nasal cavity. Besides, the absorptive capacity of chicken nasal mucosa was also studied using the materials with different particle size. Results showed that the NALT of chicken was located on the bottom of nasal septum and both sides of choanal cleft, which mainly consisted of second lymphoid follicle. A large number of lymphocytes were distributed under the mucosal epithelium of inferior nasal meatus. In addition, there were also diffuse lymphoid tissues located under the epithelium of the concha nasalis media and the walls of nasal cavity. The results of absorption experiment showed that the chicken nasal mucosa was capable to absorb trypan blue, OVA, and fluorescent latex particles. Inactivated avian influenza virus (IAIV) could be taken up by chicken nasal mucosa except for the stratified squamous epithelium sites located on the forepart of nasal cavity. The intake of IAIV by NALT was greater than that of the nasal mucosa covering on non-lymphoid tissue, which could be further enhanced after intranasal inoculation combined with sodium cholate or CpG DNA. The study on NALT and nasal absorptive capacity will be benefit for further understanding of immune mechanisms after nasal vaccination and development of nasal vaccines for poultry. PMID:24391892

  20. Atmospheric Precorrected Differential Absorption technique to retrieve columnar water vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Schlaepfer, D.; Itten, K.I. [Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland). Dept. of Geography] [Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland). Dept. of Geography; Borel, C.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Keller, J. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)] [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)

    1998-09-01

    Differential absorption techniques are suitable to retrieve the total column water vapor contents from imaging spectroscopy data. A technique called Atmospheric Precorrected Differential Absorption (APDA) is derived directly from simplified radiative transfer equations. It combines a partial atmospheric correction with a differential absorption technique. The atmospheric path radiance term is iteratively corrected during the retrieval of water vapor. This improves the results especially over low background albedos. The error of the method for various ground reflectance spectra is below 7% for most of the spectra. The channel combinations for two test cases are then defined, using a quantitative procedure, which is based on MODTRAN simulations and the image itself. An error analysis indicates that the influence of aerosols and channel calibration is minimal. The APDA technique is then applied to two AVIRIS images acquired in 1991 and 1995. The accuracy of the measured water vapor columns is within a range of {+-}5% compared to ground truth radiosonde data.

  1. Determination of fixed water in rocks by infrared absorption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breger, I.A.; Chandler, J.C.

    1969-01-01

    An infrared absorption technique has been developed for the quantitative determination of "fixed water" (H2O+) in rocks. Potassium bromide disks containing 2-mg samples are scanned in the 3-??m spectral region and absorption at 2.96 ??m is determined. Although the exact nature of this peak is not known, other than that it is caused by an interaction between the potassium bromide and hydroxyl groups and water, it can be used for quantitative analysis. Rock samples, other than those containing significant percentages of clay minerals, can be analyzed with a standard deviation of 0.26%.

  2. Scramjet Performance Assessment Using Water Absorption Diagnostics (U)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavolowsky, John A.; Loomis, Mark P.; Deiwert, George

    1995-01-01

    Simultaneous multiple path measurements of temperature and H2O concentration will be presented for the AIMHYE test entries in the NASA Ames 16-Inch Shock Tunnel. Monitoring the progress of high temperature chemical reactions that define scramjet combustor efficiencies is a task uniquely suited to nonintrusive optical diagnostics. One application strategy to overcome the many challenges and limitations of nonintrusive measurements is to use laser absorption spectroscopy coupled with optical fibers. Absorption spectroscopic techniques with rapidly tunable lasers are capable of making simultaneous measurements of mole fraction, temperature, pressure, and velocity. The scramjet water absorption diagnostic was used to measure combustor efficiency and was compared to thrust measurements using a nozzle force balance and integrated nozzle pressures to develop a direct technique for evaluating integrated scramjet performance. Tests were initially performed with a diode laser tuning over a water absorption feature at 1391.7 nm. A second diode laser later became available at a wavelength near 1343.3 nm covering an additional water absorption feature and was incorporated in the system for a two-wavelength technique. Both temperature and mole fraction can be inferred from the lineshape analysis using this approach. Additional high temperature spectroscopy research was conducted to reduce uncertainties in the scramjet application. The lasers are optical fiber coupled to ports at the combustor exit and in the nozzle region. The output from the two diode lasers were combined in a single fiber, and the resultant two-wavelength beam was subsequently split into four legs. Each leg was directed through 60 meters of optical fiber to four combustor exit locations for measurement of beam intensity after absorption by the water within the flow. Absorption results will be compared to 1D combustor analysis using RJPA and nozzle CFD computations as well as to data from a nozzle metric balance measuring thrust and integrated pressure measurements along the length of the nozzle. Assessment of its value as a combustor performance evaluation tool will be conducted.

  3. Measuring optical absorption coefficient of pure water in UV using the integrating cavity absorption meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling

    2008-10-01

    The integrating cavity absorption meter (ICAM) has been used successfully to measure the low absorption coefficient of pure water. The ICAM produces an effective total path length of several meters or even longer, although the physical size of the instrument is only several centimeters. The long effective total path length ensures a high sensitivity that enables the ICAM to measure liquid mediums with low absorption. Compared to the conventional transmission type of instruments that were used to measure the same medium with the same path length, the ICAM eliminates the effect of scattering by introducing isotropic illumination in the medium, and consequently measures the true absorption coefficient of the medium in stead of the attenuation coefficient. The original ICAM was constructed with Spectralon and used in the wavelength range from 380 nm to 700 nm. Later studies showed that Spectralon is not suitable for measurements in the UV region because of its relatively lower reflectivity in this region and, even worse, the continuously decaying reflectivity under the exposure to UV radiation. Thus, we have developed a new way to construct the ICAM utilizing the material fumed silica. The resulting ICAM has a high sensitivity even in the UV region and doesn't have the deterioration problem. The measurement results from the new ICAM are in good agreement with the existing results. The absorption coefficients of pure water at wavelengths between 250 nm and 400 nm are presented here.

  4. Method to estimate water storage capacity of capillary barriers - Discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Ward, Anderson L. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Meyer, Philip D. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    1998-11-01

    This is a brief comment on a previously published paper. The paper by Stormont and Morris[JGGE 124 (4):297-302] provides an interesting approach to computing water storage capacity of capillary barriers used as landfill covers. They correctly show that available water storage capacity can be increased up to a factor of two for a silt loam soil, when it is used in a capillary barrier as compared to existing as a deep soil profile. For this very reason such a capillary barrier, utilizing silt loam soil, was constructed and successfully tested at the U. S. Department of Energy?s Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Silt loam soil provides optimal water storage for capillary barriers and ensures minimal drainage. Less benefits are obtained when capillary barriers utilize more sandy soils. We would endorse a limited application of the method of Stormont and Morris. We suggest that there will be large uncertainties in field capacity, wilting point and water retention characteristics and only when these uncertainties are accounted for can such a method be used to provide sound engineering judgement for cover design. A recommended procedure for using this method would include actual field measurements of the soil hydraulic properties of the cover materials.

  5. Absorption of Water Vapor into Aqueous Solutions of Lithium Bromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahara, Tsutomu; Hayashida, Atsushi; Yabase, Hajime; Hihara, Eiji; Saito, Takamoto

    Heat and mass transfer processes are experimentally investigated for the case of water absorption into aqueous solutions of lithium bromide flowing over a flat plate. Variables considered are inlet solution flow rate,concentration of an additive,and inclination angle of the plate. The use of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol as an additive results in about a four to five fold improvement in absorption rate. The occurrence of surface distrbances dose not has a direct connection with the solubility limit of the additive. The cause of the surface disturbances in the presence of additives is investigated through experiments for pool absorption By regulating the flow of water vapor,the form of the Marangoni convection can be controlled. A qualitative discussion of addictives in the role of inducing surface disturbances is presented.

  6. Causal Relationships among Technology Acquisition, Absorptive Capacity, and Innovation Performance: Evidence from the Pharmaceutical Industry

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jieun; Hong, Suckchul; Ohm, Jay; Yang, Taeyong

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of absorptive capacity in improving a firm’s innovation performance. Specifically, we examine firm interaction with the knowledge and capabilities of outside organizations and the effect on the firm’s bottom line. We use the impulse-response function of the vector auto-regressive model to gain insight into this relationship by estimating the time required for the effect of each activity level to reach outputs, the spillover effects. We apply this methodology to pharmaceutical firms, which we classify into two sub-groups – large firms and medium and small firms – based on sales. Our results show that the impact of an activity on any other activity is delayed by three years for large firms and by one to two years for small and medium firms. PMID:26181440

  7. Absorption of ammonia from atmospheric plumes by natural water surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth L. Calder

    1972-01-01

    A simple model is presented that incorporates the major features of atmospheric transport and diffusion of a NH3 plume together with aqueous absorption as the plume traverses a water surface. The model is based on the well-known concept of the deposition velocity, although empirical data concerning the latter is quite meager. A specific application is considered to the gas release

  8. Absorptivity of water vapor for 10.6 micron radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pugh, E. R.; Krech, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    Attention is called to recent measurements of the absorptivity of water vapor to 10.6-micron laser radiation made using shock-heated H2O/H2 and H2O/Ar mixtures and a probe CO2 laser. It is noted that these measurements give values about a factor of 2 lower than Ludwig's (1971) low resolution values. It is also argued that Fowler's (1981) high values are not likely to be caused by excited water molecules. It is shown that very intense laser radiation would be required to obtain any appreciable vibrational nonequilibrium. Within the narrow spectral range of 944-948/cm, no significant variation in absorption coefficient (suitably normalized) is observed as a function of laser line, water vapor concentration, total pressure, or diluent gas.

  9. Energy absorption probes control oily-water discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Agar, G.; Clewis, P. (Agar Corp., Houston, TX (United States)); Spencer, C. (Litwin Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-08-01

    Energy absorption instrumentation is rapidly emerging as the preferred method of interface control for separation processes. This high-frequency electromagnetic measurement technique accurately senses volume percentages (not level) in phase separations such as water and oil. Instead of searching for or assuming a clean interface, the instruments monitor percentages of water at points in the system, and can measure either water in oil or oil in water mixtures. This sensitivity gives the operator vision inside the system and consequently, more reliable control. Now unit operations can effectively monitor and reduce their oily-water releases. Reducing the work load on existing wastewater treatment systems lessens oil-grease levels in effluent water. Tighter hydrocarbon-release monitoring can bring discharges into compliance and diminish overall emission levels.

  10. Polite Water-filling for the Boundary of the Capacity/Achievable Regions of MIMO

    E-print Network

    Liu, Youjian "Eugene"

    Polite Water-filling for the Boundary of the Capacity/Achievable Regions of MIMO MAC of water-filling that is optimal for all boundary points of the capac- ity regions of MIMO multiaccess polite water-filling, that is optimal for all boundary points of the capacity regions of MAC and BC

  11. A decrease in moisture absorption-retention capacity of N-deacetylation of hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wuxia; Mu, Haibo; Zhang, Amin; Cui, Guoting; Chen, Hua; Duan, Jinyou; Wang, Shunchun

    2013-08-01

    The linear non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan, hyaluronic acid (HA), is widely distributed throughout connective, epithelial and neural tissues etc., and is of great importance in tissue hydration, lubrication and cellular function. Along with the age growth, HA will lose its acetyl groups under action of HA N-deacetylase in vivo. However, the biological consequence of this physiological process remains largely unknown. Herein two highly N-deacetylated HAs, dHA-6 and dHA-10 were generated via the NH2NH2-HIO3 procedure. Their molecular weights were estimated to be 24 and 16 kDa by high performance gel-permeation chromatography (HPGPC), and the N-deacetylation degrees were 79.4 % and 93 % respectively, as determined by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The study on moisture-absorption (Ra) and -retention (Rh) abilities demonstrated that the Ra values of dHAs under conditions of 81 % or 43 % relative humidity, as well as the Rh values of dHAs under dry condition or 43 % relative humidity, were significantly smaller than that of their respective re-N-acetylated products. The decline of moisture-absorption and -retention capacity after HA N-deacetylation were consistent with the appearance of unsolvated amides remained in the N-deacetylated products, as indicated by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Our findings implied that HA N-deacetylation, in addition to the decrease of HA contents in the elderly persons, might account for manifestations of naturally aged skin, such as laxity, sagging, and wrinkling. PMID:23224991

  12. Investigation of the Emission and Absorption Spectra of Water Vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskalenko, N. I.; Il'in, Yu. A.; Sadykov, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Emission and absorption spectra of water vapor are measured and analyzed for temperatures 350-2500 K in the spectral range 0.57-25 ?m. Based on the developed mathematical model of radiative transfer, the parameters of spectral transmission functions of N2O vapors are obtained at different temperatures. Practical application of the obtained radiative characteristics is considered for solving problems of radiative heat exchange in high-temperature media and designing optoelectronic systems intended for monitoring of aero carriers.

  13. Reducing water absorption in compostable starch-based plastics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gáspár; Zs. Benk?; G. Dogossy; K. Réczey; T. Czigány

    2005-01-01

    To improve the mechanical and physical properties of corn starch-based bioplastics the addition of natural polymers was investigated. Thermoplastic starch (TPS) was made of 70g corn starch and 30g glycerol. To this mixture 10–10g of cellulose, hemicellulose and zein (protein) were added. Mechanical strength, water absorption and enzymatic degradation of composite materials were measured. Unfilled TPS and 10w\\/w% polycaprolactone filled

  14. Optical absorption of pure water in the blue and ultraviolet

    E-print Network

    Lu, Zheng

    2007-09-17

    OPTICAL ABSORPTION OF PURE WATER IN THE BLUE AND ULTRAVIOLET A Dissertation by ZHENG LU Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2006... Major Subject: Physics OPTICALABSORPTION OF PURE WATER IN THE BLUE AND ULTRAVIOLET A Dissertation by ZHENG LU Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR...

  15. Airborne differential absorption lidar system for water vapor investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, E. V.; Carter, A. F.; Wilkerson, T. D.

    1981-01-01

    Range-resolved water vapor measurements using the differential-absorption lidar (DIAL) technique is described in detail. The system uses two independently tunable optically pumped lasers operating in the near infrared with laser pulses of less than 100 microseconds separation, to minimize concentration errors caused by atmospheric scattering. Water vapor concentration profiles are calculated for each measurement by a minicomputer, in real time. The work is needed in the study of atmospheric motion and thermodynamics as well as in forestry and agriculture problems.

  16. Study of some factors affecting water absorption by faba beans during soaking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zakia M. Abdel Kader

    1995-01-01

    Water absorption by faba beans (Vicia faba) was determined by recording the weight increase in beans with respect to time. Temperature affected the rate of water absorption since the rates increased with increasing temperatures. The effects of soaking in the different concentrations of sodium bicarbonate have been studied. The rate of water absorption decreased with increasing concentrations of sodium bicarbonate

  17. Theoretical Calculation and Validation of the Water Vapor Continuum Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Qiancheng; Tipping, Richard H.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is the development of an improved parameterization of the water vapor continuum absorption through the refinement and validation of our existing theoretical formalism. The chief advantage of our approach is the self-consistent, first principles, basis of the formalism which allows us to predict the frequency, temperature and pressure dependence of the continuum absorption as well as provide insights into the physical mechanisms responsible for the continuum absorption. Moreover, our approach is such that the calculated continuum absorption can be easily incorporated into satellite retrieval algorithms and climate models. Accurate determination of the water vapor continuum is essential for the next generation of retrieval algorithms which propose to use the combined constraints of multi-spectral measurements such as those under development for EOS data analysis (e.g., retrieval algorithms based on MODIS and AIRS measurements); current Pathfinder activities which seek to use the combined constraints of infrared and microwave (e.g., HIRS and MSU) measurements to improve temperature and water profile retrievals, and field campaigns which seek to reconcile spectrally-resolved and broad-band measurements such as those obtained as part of FIRE. Current widely used continuum treatments have been shown to produce spectrally dependent errors, with the magnitude of the error dependent on temperature and abundance which produces errors with a seasonal and latitude dependence. Translated into flux, current water vapor continuum parameterizations produce flux errors of order 10 W/ml, which compared to the 4 W/m' magnitude of the greenhouse gas forcing and the 1-2 W/m' estimated aerosol forcing is certainly climatologically significant and unacceptably large. While it is possible to tune the empirical formalisms, the paucity of laboratory measurements, especially at temperatures of interest for atmospheric applications, preclude tuning the empirical continuum models over the full spectral range of interest for remote sensing and climate applications. Thus, we propose to further develop and refine our existing far-wing formalism to provide an improved treatment applicable from the near-infrared through the microwave. Based on the results of this investigation, we will provide to the remote sensing/climate modeling community a practical and accurate tabulation of the continuum absorption covering the near-infrared through the microwave region of the spectrum for the range of temperatures and pressures of interest for atmospheric applications.

  18. Theoretical Calculation and Validation of the Water Vapor Continuum Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Qiancheng; Tipping, Richard H.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is the development of an improved parameterization of the water vapor continuum absorption through the refinement and validation of our existing theoretical formalism. The chief advantage of our approach is the self-consistent, first principles, basis of the formalism which allows us to predict the frequency, temperature and pressure dependence of the continuum absorption as well as provide insights into the physical mechanisms responsible for the continuum absorption. Moreover, our approach is such that the calculated continuum absorption can be easily incorporated into satellite retrieval algorithms and climate models. Accurate determination of the water vapor continuum is essential for the next generation of retrieval algorithms which propose to use the combined constraints of multispectral measurements such as those under development for EOS data analysis (e.g., retrieval algorithms based on MODIS and AIRS measurements); current Pathfinder activities which seek to use the combined constraints of infrared and microwave (e.g., HIRS and MSU) measurements to improve temperature and water profile retrievals, and field campaigns which seek to reconcile spectrally-resolved and broad-band measurements such as those obtained as part of FIRE. Current widely used continuum treatments have been shown to produce spectrally dependent errors, with the magnitude of the error dependent on temperature and abundance which produces errors with a seasonal and latitude dependence. Translated into flux, current water vapor continuum parameterizations produce flux errors of order 10 W/sq m, which compared to the 4 W/sq m magnitude of the greenhouse gas forcing and the 1-2 W/sq m estimated aerosol forcing is certainly climatologically significant and unacceptably large. While it is possible to tune the empirical formalisms, the paucity of laboratory measurements, especially at temperatures of interest for atmospheric applications, preclude tuning, the empirical continuum models over the full spectral range of interest for remote sensing and climate applications. Thus, we propose to further develop and refine our existing, far-wing formalism to provide an improved treatment applicable from the near-infrared through the microwave. Based on the results of this investigation, we will provide to the remote sensing/climate modeling community a practical and accurate tabulation of the continuum absorption covering the near-infrared through the microwave region of the spectrum for the range of temperatures and pressures of interest for atmospheric applications.

  19. Theoretical modeling and experimental research on load capacity of supporting legs of water strider robot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lan Wang; Tiehong Gao; Feng Gao; Jianling Zhao; Junnan Wu

    2010-01-01

    Water strider can stay and move quickly on water surface by surface tension. Water strider robot inspired by such small aquatic insect would have a wide variety of applications in military reconnaissance, environmental monitoring, and pipeline inspection. However load capacity of the robot is a big challenge for its practicality. Under this situation research on load capacity of water strider

  20. Water vapor-nitrogen absorption at CO2 laser frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, J. C.; Thomas, M. E.; Nordstrom, R. J.; Damon, E. K.; Long, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper reports the results of a series of pressure-broadened water vapor absorption measurements at 27 CO2 laser frequencies between 935 and 1082 kaysers. Both multiple traversal cell and optoacoustic (spectrophone) techniques were utilized together with an electronically stabilized CW CO2 laser. Comparison of the results obtained by these two methods shows remarkable agreement, indicating a precision which has not been previously achieved in pressure-broadened studies of water vapor. The data of 10.59 microns substantiate the existence of the large (greater than 200) self-broadening coefficients determined in an earlier study by McCoy. In this work, the case of water vapor in N2 at a total pressure of 1 atm has been treated.

  1. Public water supplies of North Carolina : a summary of water sources, use, treatment, and capacity of water-supply systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, L.T., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Data were collected during 1970-76 on 224 public water supply systems in North Carolina with 500 or more customers. This report summarizes these data that were previously published in five separate regional reports. The data are presented in order to Council of Government region, county, and water system name and include population served, average and maximum daily use, industrial use, water source, allowable draft of surface-water supplies, raw water pumping capacity, raw and finished water storage, type of water treatment, treatment plant capacity, and a summary of the chemical quality of finished water. Tables and maps provide cross references for system names, counties, Council of Government regions and water source.

  2. Effect of effluent addition to a freshwater reservoir on the filter clogging capacity of irrigation water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcelo Juanico; Yossi Azov; Beny Teltsch; Gedaliah Shelef

    1995-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of the addition of effluents to a shallow freshwater reservoir used for irrigation, on the clogging capacity of the water. The clogging capacity was estimated with an instrument that measures the increasing differential pressure needed to maintain a constant flow of water through a 30 ?m screen filter. The dependence of the clogging capacity

  3. PURE WATER ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT AROUND 400NM: LAB MEASURED VERSUS FIELD OBSERVED

    E-print Network

    Lee, Zhongping

    PURE WATER ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT AROUND 400NM: LAB MEASURED VERSUS FIELD OBSERVED Zhongping Lee of the ratio of the backscattering coefficient to the absorption coefficient (or the sum of absorption]. In general, it has been found that reflectance can be well explained (or modeled) using known absorption

  4. Mechanical- and oil-durable superhydrophobic polyester materials for selective oil absorption and oil/water separation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Zhang, Junping; Li, Bucheng; Wang, Aiqin

    2014-01-01

    The low stability and complicated fabrication procedures seriously hindered practical applications of superhydrophobic materials. Here we present a facile approach for preparing durable superhydrophobic polyester materials by dip-coating in a nanocomposite solution of polymerized tetraethoxysilane and n-hexadecyltriethoxysilane. The coated samples exhibit excellent superhydrophobicity, superoleophilicity, mechanical and chemical stabilities. This is attributed to the tight binding of the nanocomposite on the polyester fibers and the inherent stability of silicone. The coated samples can quickly absorb petrol, diesel and crude oil, and show very high selectivity in oil/water separation. In addition, the coated samples could maintain their superhydrophobicity, oil absorption capacity and oil/water selectivity after harsh mechanical damage, 90 days of immersion in oils and ten cycles of absorption-desorption. Moreover, this approach is simple and can be easily scaled up for producing samples on a large size, which makes it very promising for practical oil absorption. PMID:24183438

  5. Improvement of the Performance for an Absorption Refrigeration System with Lithium bromide-water as Refrigerant by Increasing Absorption Pressure 

    E-print Network

    Xie, G.; Sheng, G.; Li, G.; Pan, S.

    2006-01-01

    Because the absorption refrigeration system uses the Lithium bromide- water solution as refrigerant, it is profitable for the environment that human beings are living since the values of ODP and GWP of the refrigerant almost are zero. However...

  6. Water vapour and greenhouse trapping: The role of far infrared absorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashok Sinha; John E. Harries

    1995-01-01

    Few observations have been made of atmospheric absorption across the far infrared. Yet water vapour absorption in this spectral region may significantly effect climate. The impact of far infrared absorption is assessed by calculating the spectral variation of the total and water vapour greenhouse effects, for the sub-arctic winter (SAW) and tropical (TRP) standard atmospheres. Although the calculated efficiency of

  7. The x-ray absorption spectra of water and ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Lingzhu; Wu, Xifan; Car, Roberto

    2012-02-01

    We calculate the x-ray absorption spectra of liquid water at STP, hexagonal ice and amorphous low- and high-density ice at T=269K, using the static Coulomb-hole and screened exchange self energy approach ootnotetextW. Chen, X. Wu and R. Car, PRL 105, 017802 (2008) . We take the nuclear quantum effects into account by averaging over the Feynman path-integral replicas. We find that quantum disorder is particularly important in liquid water where it substantially improves the structure ootnotetextJ. Morrone and R. Car, PRL 101, 017801 (2008) Compared to Ref. 2, we use an improved screening model that includes the approximate local field correction ootnotetextM. Hybertsen and S. G. Louie, PRB 37, 2733 (1988). The resulting spectra are in significantly better agreement with experiments than in previous calculations.

  8. Microclimate in ski boots--temperature, relative humidity, and water absorption.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Patrick; Hasler, Michael; Fauland, Gulnara; Bechtold, Thomas; Nachbauer, Werner

    2014-05-01

    Ski boot quality is determined by mechanical properties and comfort. Comfort is strongly affected by cold feet. The purpose of this study was to determine the microclimate in ski boots. Climate chamber tests with five male subjects and field tests with two male subjects were conducted. Temperature and relative humidity were measured using four sensors placed on the foot and one on the liner. Absorbed water in liners and socks was measured with a precision balance. The subjects gave subjective ratings for comfort. The toe sensor temperature dropped below 20 °C at an ambient temperature of 0 °C, -10 °C, and -20 °C. Relative humidity values at the foot were as high as 78% in the climate chamber and 93% in the field. Water absorption in socks and liners ranged from 4 to 10 g in the climate chamber and 19 to 45.5 g in the field. The results reveal the importance of keeping the feet and in particular the toes warm during skiing. One possible improvement may be to construct the liner so that sweat and melted snow are kept as far away as possible from the foot. Liner material with high water absorption capacity and hydrophobic socks were suggested to prevent wet feet. PMID:23932378

  9. Starch-based hydrogel loading with carbendazim for controlled-release and water absorption.

    PubMed

    Bai, Chan; Zhang, Sufen; Huang, Lei; Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Wei; Ye, Qingfu

    2015-07-10

    Starch, with properties of eco-friendliness and abundance, is one of the most important natural polymers. Starch-based hydrogels were investigated as carriers of carbendazim to combine controlled-release and water absorption (WA). Three carbendazim-loaded hydrogels (CLHs) with different WA capacities were prepared by solution polymerization. The CLHs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and liquid-chromatography mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Release kinetics of CLHs was investigated using (14)C-labeling method. The diffusion parameters of CLHs were 0.47, 0.57 and 0.81 in deionized H2O (ddH2O). WA affected release profile significantly, the release longevity reaching 240 h when WA was 800 g/g in ddH2O. Solution pH influenced release profiles and the lowest release rate occurred in the lowest pH. Addition of CLH (1.3g/kg soil) markedly increased water-holding capacity (WHC) of soil by 8.2%. The study indicated that starch-based CLH was a good controlled-release agent for carbendazim and water absorbent for soil. PMID:25857995

  10. Enhancement of the grafting performance and of the water absorption of cassava starch graft copolymer by gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiatkamjornwong, Suda; Meechai, Nispa

    1997-06-01

    Enhancement of the gamma radiation grafting of acrylonitrile onto gelatinized cassava starch was investigated. Infrared spectrometry was used to follow the chemical changes in the grafting reaction and from saponification. The saponified starch- g-PAN (HSPAN) was then characterized in terms of grafting parameters to provide a guide for the optimum total dose (kGy) and the appropriate ratio of starch/acrylonitrile for a fixed dose rate of 2.5 × 10 -1 kGy/min. Other dose rates were also carried out to obtain the appropriate result of grafting copolymerization and of water absorption. A thin aluminium foil, covering the inner wall of the reaction vessel, was found to be far more effective than any other metal films in the enhancement of the grafting reaction and the water absorption as well. Nitric acid in the medium increases the grafting yield and the water absorption. Methyl ether hydroquinone inhibitor was evaluated for its ability to increase homopolymerization and decrease graft reaction. When styrene was used as a comonomer, it hampered the grafting of acrylonitrile onto starch backbone. The water absorption capacity was improved by freeze-drying the HSPAN. The treatment of the HSPAN with aluminium trichloride hexahydrate was found to enhance the degree of wicking, but to decrease the water absorbency.

  11. Water absorption in a refractive index model for bacterial spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegrist, K. M.; Thrush, E.; Airola, M.; Carr, A. K.; Limsui, D. M.; Boggs, N. T.; Thomas, M. E.; Carter, C. C.

    2009-05-01

    The complexity of biological agents can make it difficult to identify the important factors impacting scattering characteristics among variables such as size, shape, internal structure and biochemical composition, particle aggregation, and sample additives. This difficulty is exacerbated by the environmentally interactive nature of biological organisms. In particular, bacterial spores equilibrate with environmental humidity by absorption/desorption of water which can affect both the complex refractive index and the size/shape distributions of particles - two factors upon which scattering characteristics depend critically. Therefore accurate analysis of experimental data for determination of refractive index must take account of particle water content. First, spectral transmission measurements to determine visible refractive index done on suspensions of bacterial spores must account for water (or other solvent) uptake. Second, realistic calculations of aerosol scattering cross sections should consider effects of atmospheric humidity on particle water content, size and shape. In this work we demonstrate a method for determining refractive index of bacterial spores bacillus atropheus (BG), bacillus thuringiensis (BT) and bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAs) which accounts for these effects. Visible index is found from transmission measurements on aqueous and DMSO suspensions of particles, using an anomalous diffraction approximation. A simplified version of the anomalous diffraction theory is used to eliminate the need for knowledge of particle size. Results using this approach indicate the technique can be useful in determining the visible refractive index of particles when size and shape distributions are not well known but fall within the region of validity of anomalous dispersion theory.

  12. In-situ liquid storage capacity measurement of subsurface wastewater absorption system products.

    PubMed

    Quisenberry, Virgil; Brown, Philip; Smith, Bill; Hallahan, Dennis F

    2006-11-01

    A method is presented for measuring the in-situ liquid storage capacity of subsurface wastewater infiltration system (SWIS) products. While these products vary in composition, geometry, and porosity, they all have the same function: to provide a conduit for the flow of effluent from a septic tank to and through a trench so that infiltration into the soil can occur. A functional SWIS must also provide temporary liquid storage. Storage is necessary for periods when discharge from the septic tank exceeds the infiltration rate of the soil. Storage is also important during times when the soil in and around the trench is saturated. Many states now have regulatory requirements pertaining to storage volume, and these requirements commonly establish the traditional gravel-pipe system as the standard for minimally acceptable volume. Raliable comparisons between various alternative products and gravel have been difficult or impossible, because there has been no standard method for measuring storage volume. Some products have been evaluated under realistic field conditions; others have been evaluated under theoretical or ideal conditions. The protocol developed by the study reported here can serve as a common, accurate basis for comparisons. A 3-foot-deep trench was excavated, and the bottom was leveled. Markers (nails or rods) were attached to the products to indicate the invert and full-volume heights. The products were then enclosed in plastic, placed in a trench, and covered with soil. A 4-inch-diameter pipe extended from the product to the surface to allow metered additions of water into the products and precise determinations when the systems had been filled to capacity. Four plastic chambers, three expanded polystyrene (ESP) products, two multipipe arrangements, and a standard gravel-pipe system were evaluated. The standard gravel-pipe system held 10.2 gal/ft Three of the four plastic chambers stored from 100 to 130 percent of what the standard system held. The multipipe systems held 80 and 90 percent of the standard. The ESP bundles held less than 75 percent of the standard, with the most commonly used configuration storing about 60 percent. The rigid products were found to store amounts that agreed with their companies' reported values. The ESP products retained less than company reported values. These differences illustrate the need for a standard protocol for measuring storage volume. PMID:17091738

  13. The correlation between molecular motions and heat capacity in normal ice and water

    E-print Network

    Ke, Hai Bo; Wang, Wei Hua

    2011-01-01

    The heat capacities of ice and water at ambient pressure are reexamined to build an intrinsic correlation between H2O molecular motions and the heat capacity. Based on the evolution of H2O molecular motions, a satisfactory description of the heat capacity of ice and water is provided. The heat capacity of ice is related not only to H2O molecular vibrations, but also to the molecular rotations. In water, all H2O molecular vibrations, rotations and translations contribute to the heat capacity. The molecular translational motions are found to be the main contribution to the large heat capacity of water. The results provide a deep insight into the nature of water and ice at ambient pressure.

  14. Development and analytical validation of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the assessment of gastrointestinal permeability and intestinal absorptive capacity in dogs 

    E-print Network

    Rodriguez Frausto, Heriberto

    2009-05-15

    , xylose (X) and 3-O-methylglucose (M) for the evaluation of intestinal absorptive capacity, and sucrose (S) for the assessment of gastric permeability. Traditionally, various methods have been used to quantify these markers in the urine after orogastric...

  15. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Yuanyuan; Xiang, Feng; Wang, Hong, E-mail: hwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: suo@seas.harvard.edu [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Chen, Baohong; Zhou, Jinxiong [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, International Center for Applied Mechanics and School of Aerospace, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Suo, Zhigang, E-mail: hwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: suo@seas.harvard.edu [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Kavli Institute of Bionano Science and Technology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2014-10-13

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have been used as highly stretchable transparent electrodes in flexible electronics, but those hydrogels are easy to dry out due to water evaporation. Targeted, we try to enhance water retention capacity of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced water retention capacity in different level. Specially, polyacrylamide hydrogel containing high content of lithium chloride can retain over 70% of its initial water even in environment with relative humidity of only 10% RH. The excellent water retention capacities of these hydrogels will make more applications of hydrogels become possible.

  16. Tree invasion effects on peat water storage capacity (La Guette peatland, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binet, Stephane; Viel, Emelie; Gogo, Sebastien; Le Moing, Franck; Laggoun-Defarge, Fatima

    2015-04-01

    In peatlands, carbon fluxes are mainly controlled by peat water saturation state, and this saturation state is an equilibrium between recharge/drainage fluxes and the peat storage capacity. The invasion of Sphagnum peatlands by vascular plants is a current problem in many peat-accumulating systems, raising the question of the relationships between vegetation changes and water storage capacity of peat horizons. To investigate this question, the water storage capacity of the "La Guette" peatland (France), invaded by Betula spp was monitored at the watershed scale since 2008 using a water balance approach and was estimated during the 20th century using historical photographs showing the drainage network and the land cover change. During this period, the site clearly experienced a vegetation change as the site was treeless in 1944. Two main results arise from this experimental device: (1) In this disturbed peatland, tree consumption amplifies the summer drought and the resulting water table drawdown allows an increase of air entrapment in the peat. Even if runoff flows occurred after this drought, the water storage capacity is affected, with about 30% of air that remains trapped in the peat porosity 6 months after the drought period. The effects of a single drought on peat water storage capacity are observed over more than a single hydrological cycle, suggesting a possible cumulative effect of droughts decreasing the peat water storage capacity. (2) Tree invasion is found to drive the drainage network morphology. Hydrological model calibrated for the study site suggested that the development of drainage network had reduced the water storage capacity of the peatland. These observations evidenced a positive feedback between vegetation dynamics and water storage capacity: tree invasion changes the drainage network geometry that decreases the peat water storage capacity, which in return may favor tree development. These two results highlight that the peat water storage capacity is indirectly reduced by tree invasion.

  17. Contribution of H-bond vibrations to heat capacity of water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergey V. Lishchuk; Nikolay P. Malomuzh; Pavel V. Makhlaichuk

    2011-01-01

    The origin of the anomalously large value of the heat capacity of liquid water is discussed. Comparing the temperature dependence of the heat capacities for water with those for argon and hydrogen sulfide, we separate contributions of the translational and rotational degrees of freedom. The residual part is considered as being caused by the specific contributions of the transversal vibrations

  18. In-situ Field Capacity and Soil Water Retention Measurements in Two Contrasting Soil Textures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of the in-situ field capacity and soil-water retention curve for soils is important for effective irrigation management and scheduling. The primary objective of this study was to estimate in-situ field capacity and soil water retention curves in the field using continually monitoring soil ...

  19. In-situ field capacity and soil water retention measurements in two contrasting soil textures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of the in-situ field capacity and soil-water retention curve for soils is important for effective irrigation management and scheduling. The primary objective of this study was to estimate in-situ field capacity and soil water retention curves in the field using continually monitoring soil ...

  20. The nuclear option for US electrical generating capacity additions utilizing boiling water reactor technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas F. Garrity; Daniel R. Wilkins

    1993-01-01

    The technology status of the advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) and the simplified boiling water reactors (SBWR) is presented along with an analysis of the economic potential of advanced nuclear power generation systems based on BWR technology to meet the projected domestic electrical generating capacity need through 2005. The forecasted capacity needs are determined for each domestic North American Electric

  1. Optical absorption of pure water in the blue and ultraviolet 

    E-print Network

    Lu, Zheng

    2007-09-17

    experimental investigation and analysis, we found that the absorption of Spectralon�® (the highly diffusive and reflective material used to build the ICAM) has a higher impact on measurements of absorption in the UV range than...

  2. Seasonal variability in the light absorption properties of western Arctic waters: Parameterization of the individual components of absorption for ocean color applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atsushi Matsuoka; Victoria Hill; Yannick Huot; Marcel Babin; Annick Bricaud

    2011-01-01

    The light absorption properties of particulate and dissolved materials strongly influence the propagation of visible light in oceanic waters and therefore the accuracy of ocean color algorithms. While the general absorption properties of these materials have been reported for Arctic waters, their seasonal variability remains unknown. We investigated the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton [a$\\\\varphi$(?)], nonalgal particles [aNAP(?)], and colored

  3. Pore-size dependent THz absorption of nano-confined water.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chi-Kuang; You, Borwen; Huang, Yu-Ru; Liu, Kao-Hsiang; Sato, Shusaku; Irisawa, Akiyoshi; Imamura, Motoki; Mou, Chung-Yuan

    2015-06-15

    We performed a THz absorption spectroscopy study on liquid water confined in mesoporous silica materials, MCM-41-S-18 and MCM-41-S-21, of two different pore sizes at room temperatures. We found that stronger confinement with a smaller pore size causes reduced THz absorption, indicating reduced water mobility due to confinement. Combined with recent theoretical studies showing that the microscopic structure of water inside the nanopores can be separated into a core water region and an interfacial water region, our spectroscopy analysis further reveals a bulk-water-like THz absorption behavior in the core water region and a solid-like THz absorption behavior in the interfacial water region. PMID:26076248

  4. Absorption coefficients for water vapor at 193 nm from 300 to 1073 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, W. J.; Carleton, K. L.; Marinelli, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the water absorption coefficient at 193 nm from 300 to 1073 K are reported. The measurements were made using broadband VUV radiation and a monochromator-based detection system. The water vapor was generated by a saturator and metered into a flowing, 99 cm absorption cell via a water vapor mass flow meter. The 193 nm absorption coefficient measurements are compared to room temperature and high temperature shock tube measurements with good agreement. The absorption can be parameterized by a nu3 vibrational mode reaction coordinate and the thermal population of the nu3 mode.

  5. Surface arsenic speciation of a drinking-water treatment residual using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konstantinos C. Makris; Dibyendu Sarkar; Jason G. Parsons; Rupali Datta; Jorge L. Gardea-Torresdey

    2007-01-01

    Drinking-water treatment residuals (WTRs) present a low-cost geosorbent for As-contaminated waters and soils. Previous work has demonstrated the high affinity of WTRs for As, but data pertaining to the stability of sorbed As is missing. Sorption\\/desorption and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), both XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) and EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) studies, were combined to determine

  6. Surface Arsenic Speciation of a Drinking-Water Treatment Residual Using X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. C. Makris; D. Sarkar; J. G. Parsons; R. Datta; J. L. Gardea-Torresdey

    2009-01-01

    Drinking-water treatment residuals (WTRs) present a low-cost geosorbent for As-contaminated waters and soils. Previous work has demonstrated the high affinity of WTRs for As, but data pertaining to the stability of sorbed As is missing. Sorption\\/desorption and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), both XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) and EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) studies, were combined to determine

  7. Near-infrared diode laser absorption diagnostic for temperature and water vapor in a scramjet combustor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarun Mathur

    2005-01-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption measurements of gas temperature and water concentration were made at the exit of a model scramjet combustor fueled on JP-7. Multiplexed, fiber-coupled, near-infrared distributed feedback lasers were used to probe three water vapor absorption features in the 1.34-1.47 μm spectral region (2v1and v1+ v3overtone bands). Ratio thermometry was performed using direct-absorption wavelength scans of isolated features

  8. Evaluating Some Empirical Models for Predicting Water Absorption in African Breadfruit (Treculia Africana) Seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Shittu; S. O. Awonorin; A. O. Raji

    2004-01-01

    Water absorption process during soaking of African breadfruit (ABF) seeds was studied at five typical soaking temperatures, ranging between 30 and 70°C. The progress of water absorption by the seeds followed an exponential increase with increase in temperature. The experimental data were fitted to three empirical equations. All the equations were able to explain over 90% of the experimental data.

  9. Understanding the Hydrologic Characteristics and Absorption Capacity of Bioretention Areas Kathryn Shepard

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    been shown effective in retaining large volumes of runoff pollutants and consistently reducing, Escherichia coli, and total suspended solids. Long term pollutant accumulation will be estimated based on soil will be collected at three different depths and analyzed for pH, cation exchange capacity, organic matter percentage

  10. In-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis of capacity fade in nanoscale-LiCoO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Patridge, Christopher J. [NRC/NRL Cooperative Research Associate, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Love, Corey T., E-mail: corey.love@nrl.navy.mil [Chemistry Division, Code 6113, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Swider-Lyons, Karen E. [Chemistry Division, Code 6113, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Twigg, Mark E. [Electronics Science and Technology Division, Code 6812, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Ramaker, David E. [Chemistry Division, Code 6189, U.S. Naval Research laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    The local structure of nanoscale (?10–40 nm) LiCoO{sub 2} is monitored during electrochemical cycling utilizing in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The high surface area of the LiCoO{sub 2} nanoparticles not only enhances capacity fade, but also provides a large signal from the particle surface relative to the bulk. Changes in the nanoscale LiCoO{sub 2} metal-oxide bond lengths, structural disorder, and chemical state are tracked during cycling by adapting the delta mu (??) technique in complement with comprehensive extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) modeling. For the first time, we use a ?? EXAFS method, and by comparison of the difference EXAFS spectra, extrapolate significant coordination changes and reduction of cobalt species with cycling. This combined approach suggests Li–Co site exchange at the surface of the nanoscale LiCoO{sub 2} as a likely factor in the capacity fade and irreversible losses in practical, microscale LiCoO{sub 2}. - Graphical abstract: Electrochemical cycling of Li-ion batteries has strong impact on the structure and integrity of the cathode active material particularly near the surface/electrolyte interface. In developing a new method, we have used in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy during electrochemical cycling of nanoscale LiCoO{sub 2} to track changes during charge and discharge and between subsequent cycles. Using difference spectra, several small changes in Co-O bond length, Co-O and Co-Co coordination, and site exchange between Co and Li sites can be tracked. These methods show promise as a new technique to better understand processes which lead to capacity fade and loss in Li-ion batteries. - Highlights: • A new method is developed to understand capacity fade in Li-ion battery cathodes. • Structural changes are tracked during Li intercalation/deintercalation of LiCoO{sub 2}. • Surface structural changes are emphasized using nanoscale-LiCoO{sub 2} and difference spectra. • Full multiple scattering calculations are used to support ?? analysis.

  11. Water for Texas: Applicant Capacity Assessment Tool for the Economically Distressed Areas Program 

    E-print Network

    Bennett, Jason; Dascaliuc, Svetlana; Grossman, Nick; Hunt, Michael; Kenesson, Laura; Madden, Tara; McWilliams, Austin; Scott, Whitney; Stubbs, Megan

    2005-01-01

    WATER FOR TEXAS APPLICANT CAPACITY ASSESSMENT TOOL FOR THE ECONOMICALLY DISTRESSED AREAS PROGRAM Researchers: Jason Bennett Svetlana Dascaliuc Nick Grossman Michael Hunt Laura Kenesson Tara Madden Austin Mc...Williams Whitney Scott Megan Stubbs Dr. Deborah Kerr, Advisor Project Mission Statement To develop an evaluation tool to assist the Texas Water Development Board in assessing the capacity of applicants to complete proposed water projects in economically...

  12. Evaluation of the absorption capacity of various absorbers by reversed-phase chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Mariich, L.I.; Ambrozevich, F.N.; Platonova, L.L.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of the separation of alkanes, alkenes, and cycloalkanes from benzene in coke oven gas was presented. The absorption index was determined for benzene and n-octane as a function of temperature in methylnaphthalene, coal oil, solar oil, polyalkylbenzenes, tetraline, and 1,7-dimethylnaphthalene by gas chromatography. It was concluded that the best absorbers for the recovery of benzene were tetraline and coal oil. The most efficient absorber present in wash oil was methylnaphthalene. (JMT)

  13. [Spectral absorption properties of the water constituents in the estuary of Zhujiang River].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan-shan; Wang, Yong-bo; Fu, Qing-hua; Yin, Bin; Li, Yun-mei

    2014-12-01

    Spectral absorption properties of the water constituents is the main factor affecting the light field under the surface of the water and the spectrum above the surface of the water. Thus, the study is useful for understanding of the water spectral property and the remote reversing of water quality parameters. Absorption properties of total suspended particles, non-algal particles, phytoplankton and CDOM were analyzed using the 30 samples collected in July 2013 in the estuary of Zhujiang River. The results indicated that: (1) the non-algal particles absorption dominated the absorption of the total suspended particles; (2) the absorption coefficient of the non-algal particles, which mainly came from the terrigenous deposits, decreased exponentially from short to long wavelength. In addition, the average value and spatial variation of the slope S(d) were higher than those in inland case- II waters; (3) the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton in 440 nm showed a better polynomial relationship with chlorophyll a concentration, while the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton in 675 nm linearly related with the chlorophyll a concentration. Moreover, the influence of accessory pigments on phytoplankton absorption coefficient mainly existed in the range of short wavelength, and Chlorophyll a was the main influencing factor for phytoplankton absorption in long wavelength. The specific absorption coefficient of phytoplankton decreased the power exponentially with the increase of the chlorophyll a concentration; (4) CDOM mainly came from the terrigenous sources and its spectral curve had an absorption shoulder between 250-290 nm. Thus, a piecewise S(g) fitting function could effectively express CDOM absorption properties, i.e., M value and S(g) value in period A (240-260 nm) showed a strong positive correlation. The M value was low, and the humic acid had a high proportion in CDOM; (5) the non-algal particles absorption dominated the total absorption in the estuary of Zhujiang River, and the contribution of the phytoplankton absorption to the total absorption was far lower than that of the non-algal particles. While the contribution of the CDOM was the lowest. The contribution of the CDOM absorption to the total absorption was relatively larger when the content of humic acid was higher. PMID:25826920

  14. High capacity hydrogen absorption in transition-metal ethylene complexes: consequences of nanoclustering.

    PubMed

    Phillips, A B; Shivaram, B S

    2009-05-20

    We have recently shown that organo-metallic complexes formed by laser ablating transition metals in ethylene are high hydrogen absorbers at room temperature (Phillips and Shivaram 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 105505). Here we show that the absorption percentage depends strongly on the ethylene pressure. High ethylene pressures (>100 mTorr) result in a lowered hydrogen uptake. Transmission electron microscopy measurements reveal that while low pressure ablations result in metal atoms dispersed uniformly on a near atomic scale, high pressure ones yield distinct nanoparticles with electron energy-loss spectroscopy demonstrating that the metal atoms are confined solely to the nanoparticles. PMID:19420668

  15. Optical absorption of pure water in the blue and ultraviolet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zheng Lu

    2006-01-01

    The key feature of the Integrating Cavity Absorption Meter (ICAM) is that it produces an isotropic illumination of the liquid sample and thereby dramatically minimizes scattering effects. The ICAM can produce an effective optical path length up to several meters. As a consequence, it is capable of measuring absorption coefficients as low as 0.001 m-1. The early version of the

  16. Calculation of heat capacities of light and heavy water by path-integral molecular dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Motoyuki Shiga; Wataru Shinoda

    2005-01-01

    As an application of atomistic simulation methods to heat capacities, path-integral molecular dynamics has been used to calculate the constant-volume heat capacities of light and heavy water in the gas, liquid, and solid phases. While the classical simulation based on conventional molecular dynamics has estimated the heat capacities too high, the quantum simulation based on path-integral molecular dynamics has given

  17. Development of a UAV-based differential absorption lidar for measuring atmospheric water vapor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian William Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) is a remote sensing technique useful for making range resolved measurements of chemical species. A water vapor DIAL system was developed for use on a high altitude unmanned air vehicle (UAV), in order to study water vapor distribution in hurricanes. The system uses a diode-pumped Cr:LiSAF laser to probe water vapor absorption lines at or near

  18. Estimating In-situ Soil-Water Retention and Field Water Capacity in Two Contrasting Soil Textures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A priori knowledge of the in-situ soil field water capacity (FWC) and the soil-water retention curve for soils is important for the effective irrigation management and scheduling of many crops. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the in-situ FWC using the soil-water retention curve d...

  19. AN INEXPENSIVE AND SIMPLE METHOD TO DEMONSTRATE WATER INFILTRATION AND WATER-HOLDING CAPACITY IN THE FIELD AND CLASSROOM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In semiarid regions, such as the Northern Great Plains, water is usually the limiting resource in plant production, but demonstrating the link between soil quality and water infiltration and water-holding capacity is challenging. The Soil Quality Test Kit provides for measurement of seven soil qual...

  20. EVALUATING CAPACITIES OF GAC PRELOADED WITH NATURAL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adsorption studies are conducted to determine how preloading a natural groundwater onto GAC affects the adsorption of cis-1,2-dichloroexthene in small-scale and pilot-scale columns. Capacities are determined from batch-isotherm tests, microcolumns, and pilot columns, which are p...

  1. EVALUATING CAPACITIES OF GAC PRELOADED WITH A NATURAL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of preloading a natural groundwater on the adsorption characteristics of cis-1,2-dichloroethene is evaluated. mphasis is placed on the quantification of the reductions in capacity and external mass transfer rates. reviously developed scale-up procedure is also evaluate...

  2. GEOGRAPHIC PATTERNS OF SOIL WATER-HOLDING CAPACITY IN THE CONTIGUOUS UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The geographic patterns of soil water-holding capacity are important for studying the response of vegetation and water supply to climate change. his study was conducted to evaluate which dataset to use for national-scale water balance modeling. patial databases of soil properties...

  3. Acid neutralizing capacity, alkalinity, and acid-base status of natural waters containing organic acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold F. Hemond

    1990-01-01

    The terms acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and alkalinity (Alk) are extensively employed in the characterization of natural waters, including soft circumneutral or acidic waters. However, in the presence of organic acids, ANC measurements are inconsistent with many conceptual definitions of ANC or Alk and do not provide an adequate characterization of the acid-base chemistry of water. Knowledge of Gran ANC

  4. The influence of water mixtures on the dermal absorption of glycol ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Traynor, Matthew J. [Toxicology Unit, Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability and Medical School, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Simon C. [Toxicology Unit, Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability and Medical School, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Williams, Faith M. [Toxicology Unit, Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability and Medical School, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: F.M.Williams@ncl.ac.uk

    2007-01-15

    Glycol ethers are solvents widely used alone and as mixtures in industrial and household products. Some glycol ethers have been shown to have a range of toxic effects in humans following absorption and metabolism to their aldehyde and acid metabolites. This study assessed the influence of water mixtures on the dermal absorption of butoxyethanol and ethoxyethanol in vitro through human skin. Butoxyethanol penetrated human skin up to sixfold more rapidly from aqueous solution (50%, 450 mg/ml) than from the neat solvent. Similarly penetration of ethoxyethanol was increased threefold in the presence of water (50%, 697 mg/ml). There was a corresponding increase in apparent permeability coefficient as the glycol ether concentration in water decreased. The maximum penetration rate of water also increased in the presence of both glycol ethers. Absorption through a synthetic membrane obeyed Fick's Law and absorption through rat skin showed a similar profile to human skin but with a lesser effect. The mechanisms for this phenomenon involves disruption of the stratum corneum lipid bilayer by desiccation by neat glycol ether micelles, hydration with water mixtures and the physicochemical properties of the glycol ether-water mixtures. Full elucidation of the profile of absorption of glycol ethers from mixtures is required for risk assessment of dermal exposure. This work supports the view that risk assessments for dermal contact scenarios should ideally be based on absorption data obtained for the relevant formulation or mixture and exposure scenario and that absorption derived from permeability coefficients may be inappropriate for water-miscible solvents.

  5. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    E-print Network

    Suo, Zhigang

    Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt 2014; published online 14 October 2014) Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced

  6. Hydrogen capacity and absorption rate of the SAES St707 non-evaporable getter at various temperatures.

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Irving; Mills, Bernice E.

    2010-08-01

    A prototype of a tritium thermoelectric generator (TTG) is currently being developed at Sandia. In the TTG, a vacuum jacket reduces the amount of heat lost from the high temperature source via convection. However, outgassing presents challenges to maintaining a vacuum for many years. Getters are chemically active substances that scavenge residual gases in a vacuum system. In order to maintain the vacuum jacket at approximately 1.0 x 10{sup -4} torr for decades, nonevaporable getters that can operate from -55 C to 60 C are going to be used. This paper focuses on the hydrogen capacity and absorption rate of the St707{trademark} non-evaporable getter by SAES. Using a getter testing manifold, we have carried out experiments to test these characteristics of the getter over the temperature range of -77 C to 60 C. The results from this study can be used to size the getter appropriately.

  7. Conformational Heat Capacity of Liquid Biodegradable Polymers in the Absence and Presence Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marek Pyda; Elzbieta Nowak-Pyda

    2007-01-01

    The conformational heat capacity of biodegradable polymers such as amorphous poly(lactic acid) PLA and starch with and without water have been evaluated from a fit of experimental data to a one-dimensional Ising-like model for two discrete states, characterized by parameters linked to stiffness, cooperativity, and degeneracy. For the starch-water system the additional changes in the conformational heat capacity arise from

  8. Passive cooling effect of RC roof covered with the ceramics having high water retention and evaporation capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, M.; Kanaya, M.; Shimazu, T.; Ohashi, T.; Kato, N.; Horikoshi, T.

    2011-10-01

    Hot days in metropolitan cities have increased remarkably by the heat island phenomenon these days. Thus the authors tried to develop the porous ceramics with high water retention and evaporation capacity as a maintenance-free material to improve thermal environment. The developed ceramic pellets have high water retention of more than 60 % of water absorption and high water evaporation which is similar to water surface. In this study, three types of 5 meter squared large flat-roofed structural specimen simulated reinforced concrete (RC) slab were constructed on the outside. The variation of water content and temperature of the specimens and atmosphere temperature around the specimens were measured from summer in 2009. In the case of the ceramic pellets, the temperature under RC slab was around 15 degree C lower than that of the control. The results were probably contributed by passive cooling effect of evaporated rain water, and the effect was similar to in the case of the grasses. From the viewpoint of thermal environment improvement, substitution of a rooftop gardening by the porous ceramics could be a promising method.

  9. STORM WATER BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES: CAPACITIES, CAPABILITIES, AND SOME LIMITATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will cover the basics of what a storm water best management practices and focus on infiltration-type practices using the example of rain gardens. I will demonstrate how water moves through rain gardens with a simple hydrologic model and discuss ancillary benefit...

  10. Strong enhancement in light absorption by black carbon due to aerosol water uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierce, Laura; Mena, Francisco; Riemer, Nicole; Bond, Tami C.; Bauer, Susanne E.

    2015-04-01

    Black carbon exerts a strong, yet highly uncertain, warming effect on the climate. One source of uncertainty in predicting black carbon's radiative effects is the absorption per black carbon mass. Although models suggest that light absorption is strongly enhanced if black carbon is coated with non-absorbing aerosol material, recent ambient observations find only weak absorption enhancement from aerosol coatings. In this study, we use a particle-resolved aerosol model to evaluate how oversimplified representations of particle composition impact modeled light absorption by black carbon. We show that oversimplifying the representation of particle composition leads to overestimation of modeled absorption enhancement. In order to improve global model representations of BC absorption, we performed a nonparametric regression on particle-reolved model data from a series of simulations. Through this nonparametric analysis we derived a relationship for absorption enhancement as a function of variables that global models already track, the population-averaged composition and the environmental relative humidity. Finally, we show how this nonparametric relationship can be exploited for use in global models to improve predictions of absorption by black carbon. In order to quantify the global-scale impact of water uptake on light absorption by black carbon, we applied the relationship for absorption enhancement to output of the climate model GISS-MATRIX. We find weak absorption enhancement in locations with low relative humidity, but light absorption is strongly enhanced in humid regions. This enhancement in light absorption by particles taking up water strongly impacts black carbon's radiative effects at the global scale, enhancing light absorption by black carbon by 20% relative to dry conditions.

  11. Absorption of short-chain fatty acids, sodium and water from the forestomach of camels.

    PubMed

    von Engelhardt, W; Dycker, Ch; Lechner-Doll, M

    2007-08-01

    In camelids the ventral parts of compartments 1 and 2 (C1/C2) and the total surface of compartment 3 of the forestomach are lined with tubular glands, whereas in ruminants the surface of the forestomach is composed entirely of stratified, squamous epithelium. Thus, differences in absorption rates between these foregut fermenters can be expected. In five camels C1/C2 was temporarily isolated, washed and filled with buffer solutions. Absorption of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and net absorption of sodium and water were estimated relative to Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as a fluid marker. SCFA were extensively absorbed in the forestomach; clearance rates of SCFA with different chain lengths were equal. After lowering the pH of solutions SCFA absorption rates increased, but much less than the increase of the non-ionized fraction. Absorption of propionate was lower when acetate had been added. Findings suggest that most of the SCFA in camels are transported in the ionized form, most likely via an anion exchange mechanism. Net water absorption is closely related to net sodium absorption. Apparently water absorption results from an iso-osmotic process. Differences between absorption mechanisms of SCFA from the forestomach of camelids and ruminants are discussed. PMID:17429653

  12. Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin M. Pope; Edward S. Fry

    1997-01-01

    Definitive data on the absorption spectrum of pure water from 380 to 700 nm have been obtained with an integrating cavity technique. The results are in good agreement with those recently obtained by our group with a completely independent photothermal technique. As before, we find that the absorption in the blue is significantly lower than had previously been generally believed

  13. Measurement of Water Vapor Concentration using Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy 

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Alexander B.

    2010-07-14

    Tunable diode laser spectroscopy and the Beer-Lambert relation has been used to measure the absorption of water vapor both in an absorption cell and in a shock tube. The purpose of this thesis is to develop a laser diagnostic capable of determining...

  14. Measurement of Water Vapor Concentration using Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Alexander B.

    2010-07-14

    Tunable diode laser spectroscopy and the Beer-Lambert relation has been used to measure the absorption of water vapor both in an absorption cell and in a shock tube. The purpose of this thesis is to develop a laser diagnostic capable of determining...

  15. Carbon nanotube membranes with ultrahigh specific adsorption capacity for water desalination and purification.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui Ying; Han, Zhao Jun; Yu, Siu Fung; Pey, Kin Leong; Ostrikov, Kostya; Karnik, Rohit

    2013-01-01

    Development of technologies for water desalination and purification is critical to meet the global challenges of insufficient water supply and inadequate sanitation, especially for point-of-use applications. Conventional desalination methods are energy and operationally intensive, whereas adsorption-based techniques are simple and easy to use for point-of-use water purification, yet their capacity to remove salts is limited. Here we report that plasma-modified ultralong carbon nanotubes exhibit ultrahigh specific adsorption capacity for salt (exceeding 400% by weight) that is two orders of magnitude higher than that found in the current state-of-the-art activated carbon-based water treatment systems. We exploit this adsorption capacity in ultralong carbon nanotube-based membranes that can remove salt, as well as organic and metal contaminants. These ultralong carbon nanotube-based membranes may lead to next-generation rechargeable, point-of-use potable water purification appliances with superior desalination, disinfection and filtration properties. PMID:23941894

  16. Water vapor microwave continuum absorption: A comparison of measurements and models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip W. Rosenkranz

    1998-01-01

    Measurements, made in different laboratories, of absorption by water vapor in microwave windows are compared with models for the water vapor continuum. A reanalysis of some of these measurements leads to the conclusion that the laboratory data are best represented by a combination of Liebe's (1987) millimeter-wave propagation model (MPM) for the foreign-broadened component of the water continuum and the

  17. Absorption refrigeration method with alternative water-ammonia solution circulation system for microelectronics cooling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Chiriac; Florea Chiriac

    2010-01-01

    The study develops an analytical model of an optimized small scale absorption ammonia\\/water refrigeration system, designed to fit smaller scale power electronics, using a pump to circulate the binary ammonia-water solution cooling agent in the proposed miniaturized system. This continues the authors' previous study of a refrigeration absorption system, by replacing the thermo-siphon and gravitational based circulation of the compensatory

  18. The effect of amino acids and dipeptides on sodium and water absorption in man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Hellier; C. Thirumalai; C. D. Holdsworth

    1973-01-01

    A perfusion technique has been used to quantitate the effect of the amino acids glycine and alanine and the dipeptides glycyl-glycine and glycyl-L-alanine on sodium and water absorption from the human jejunum. Although no net absorption of sodium and water was seen in the absence of non-electrolytes, a significant stimulation occurred in the presence of both free amino acids and

  19. Water absorption and desorption in shuttle ablator and insulation materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F.; Smith, C. F.; Wooden, V. A.; Cothren, B. E.; Gregory, H.

    1982-01-01

    Shuttle systems ablator and insulation materials underwent water soak with subsequent water desorption in vacuum. Water accumulation in these materials after a soak for 24 hours ranged from +1.1% for orbiter tile to +161% for solid rocket booster MSA-1. After 1 minute in vacuum, water retention ranged from none in the orbiter tile to +70% for solid rocket booster cork.

  20. Derivation of water vapour absorption cross-sections in the red region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lal, M.; Chakrabarty, D. K.

    1994-01-01

    Absorption spectrum in 436 to 448 nm wavelength region gives NO2 and O3 column densities. This spectrum can also give H2O column density. The spectrum in the range of 655 to 667 nm contains absorption due to NO3 and H2O. Combining the absorption spectra in the wavelength ranges of 436 to 448 and 655 to 667 nm, water vapor absorption cross-sections in this range comes out to be of the order of 2.0 x 10(exp -24) cm(exp -2).

  1. Absorption

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katherine M Knudson (Polson Middle School)

    1998-04-01

    This activity can be used to allow students to explore the concept of absorption using a variety of materials. Extensions include exploring how Native Americans used absorbtion in a number of ways. This inquiry activity was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÂ?s 1998 Frontiers in Physiology Program. The NSES Standards addressed by this activity are current as of the year of development. For more information on the Frontiers in Physiology Program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

  2. Effect of Water Vapor Absorption on Measurements of Atmospheric Nitrate Radical by LP-DOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Su-wen; Liu, Wen-qing; Xie, Pin-hua; Yang, Yi-jun; Chen, De-bao; Li, Zheng

    2008-10-01

    During the measurement of atmospheric nitrate radical by long-path differential optical absorption spec-troscopy, water vapor strong absorption could affect the measurement of nitrate radical and detection limits of system. Under the tropospheric condition, the optical density of water vapor absorption is non-linearly dependent on column density. An effective method was developed to eliminate the effect of water vapor absorption. Reference spectra of water vapor based on the daytime atmospheric absorption spectra, when fitted together with change of cross section with water vapor column densities, gave a more accurate fitting of water vapor absorptions, thus its effect on the measurements of nitrate radical could be restricted to a minimum and detection limits of system reached 3.6 ppt. The modified method was applied during an intensive field campaign in the Pearl River Delta, China. The NO3 concentration in polluted air masses varied from 3.6 ppt to 82.5 ppt with an average level of 23.6±1.8 ppt.

  3. Marination effects on water states and water-holding capacity of broiler pectoralis major muscle with different color lightness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of four experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of marination on water states and water-holding capacity (WHC) of broiler pectoralis (p.) major muscle selected based on raw muscle color lightness. Boneless, skinless p. major were collected at 6-8 h postmortem from deboning li...

  4. Marination effects on water states and water-holding capacity of broiler pectoralis major muscle with different color lightness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of marination on water states and water-holding capacity (WHC) of broiler pectoralis (p.) major muscle. Boneless, skinless p. major were collected 6-8 h postmortem from deboning lines at a commercial processing plant, and separated into light, ...

  5. Total alkalinity versus buffer value (capacity) as a sensitivity indicator for fresh waters receiving acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, S.D.

    1983-09-01

    The frequently stated idea that total alkalinity is a measure of the buffer capacity of a natural water is refuted. Total alkalinity is a measure of the acid neutralizing capacity, equivalents/liter, of a water. In natural waters, the carbonate system provides most of this neutralizing capacity. In as much as the pH values of natural fresh waters lie below 8.3, the total alkalinity is, for all intents and purposes, the total bicarbonate content. Any contributions of carbonate and hydroxide to total alkalinity are nil. The buffer capacity or buffer value is the relation between the increment of a strong base, or strong acid, that causes a one unit change in the pH value. The values of total alkalinity and pH, considered individually cannot give an accurate assessment of the impact of acid deposition on a natural water. Rather it is necessary to combine the pH and alkalinity values into the beta concept in order to assess accurately and to calculate the capacity of a natural water to resist the impact of acid deposition. An analytical determination of total alkalinity is given with an application of the beta value. 17 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  6. Water absorption and interface reactivity of yttrium oxide gate dielectrics on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, D.; Ashcraft, R. W.; Parsons, G. N.

    2002-05-01

    High dielectric constant insulators deposited at low temperatures rapidly absorb water during exposure to the atmosphere, and the resulting OH leads to detrimental interface reactions. We report the effect of atmospheric exposure on ultrathin yttrium oxide, and details of silicon substrate reactions during postdeposition anneals. Infrared absorption analysis indicates significant absorption of water vapor during atmospheric exposure, even for very short times (<15 min). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates that after OH absorption, a thermally activated interface reaction proceeds with an activation energy of 0.33 eV, consistent with substrate reaction with OH present in the film. The OH absorption rate is reduced for annealed films or when capping layers are deposited in situ. Similar oxidation processes are expected to occur in other high-k materials of interest, where the rate of OH absorption will depend on the deposition process and material thermal history.

  7. Potential Water Retention Capacity as a Factor in Silage Effluent Control: Experiments with High Moisture By-product Feedstuffs

    PubMed Central

    Razak, Okine Abdul; Masaaki, Hanada; Yimamu, Aibibula; Meiji, Okamoto

    2012-01-01

    The role of moisture absorptive capacity of pre-silage material and its relationship with silage effluent in high moisture by-product feedstuffs (HMBF) is assessed. The term water retention capacity which is sometimes used in explaining the rate of effluent control in ensilage may be inadequate, since it accounts exclusively for the capacity of an absorbent incorporated into a pre-silage material prior to ensiling, without consideration to how much the pre-silage material can release. A new terminology, ‘potential water retention capacity’ (PWRC), which attempts to address this shortcoming, is proposed. Data were pooled from a series of experiments conducted separately over a period of five years using laboratory silos with four categories of agro by-products (n = 27) with differing moisture contents (highest 96.9%, lowest 78.1% in fresh matter, respectively), and their silages (n = 81). These were from a vegetable source (Daikon, Raphanus sativus), a root tuber source (potato pulp), a fruit source (apple pomace) and a cereal source (brewer’s grain), respectively. The pre-silage materials were adjusted with dry in-silo absorbents consisting wheat straw, wheat or rice bran, beet pulp and bean stalks. The pooled mean for the moisture contents of all pre-silage materials was 78.3% (±10.3). Silage effluent decreased (p<0.01), with increase in PWRC of pre-silage material. The theoretical moisture content and PWRC of pre-silage material necessary to stem effluent flow completely in HMBF silage was 69.1% and 82.9 g/100 g in fresh matter, respectively. The high correlation (r = 0.76) between PWRC of ensiled material and silage effluent indicated that the latter is an important factor in silage-effluent relationship. PMID:25049587

  8. Performance Evaluation of a 4.5 kW (1.3 Refrigeration Tons) Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide/Water Solar Powered (Hot-Water-Fired) Absorption Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL; Petrov, Andrei Y [ORNL; Linkous, Randall Lee [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    During the summer months, air-conditioning (cooling) is the single largest use of electricity in both residential and commercial buildings with the major impact on peak electric demand. Improved air-conditioning technology has by far the greatest potential impact on the electric industry compared to any other technology that uses electricity. Thermally activated absorption air-conditioning (absorption chillers) can provide overall peak load reduction and electric grid relief for summer peak demand. This innovative absorption technology is based on integrated rotating heat exchangers to enhance heat and mass transfer resulting in a potential reduction of size, cost, and weight of the "next generation" absorption units. Rotartica Absorption Chiller (RAC) is a 4.5 kW (1.3 refrigeration tons or RT) air-cooled lithium bromide (LiBr)/water unit powered by hot water generated using the solar energy and/or waste heat. Typically LiBr/water absorption chillers are water-cooled units which use a cooling tower to reject heat. Cooling towers require a large amount of space, increase start-up and maintenance costs. However, RAC is an air-cooled absorption chiller (no cooling tower). The purpose of this evaluation is to verify RAC performance by comparing the Coefficient of Performance (COP or ratio of cooling capacity to energy input) and the cooling capacity results with those of the manufacturer. The performance of the RAC was tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in a controlled environment at various hot and chilled water flow rates, air handler flow rates, and ambient temperatures. Temperature probes, mass flow meters, rotational speed measuring device, pressure transducers, and a web camera mounted inside the unit were used to monitor the RAC via a web control-based data acquisition system using Automated Logic Controller (ALC). Results showed a COP and cooling capacity of approximately 0.58 and 3.7 kW respectively at 35 C (95 F) design condition for ambient temperature with 40 C (104 F) cooling water temperature. This is in close agreement with the manufacturer data of 0.60 for COP and 3.9 kW for cooling capacity. This study resulted in a complete performance map of RAC which will be used to evaluate the potential benefits of rotating heat exchangers in making the "next-generation" absorption chillers more compact and cost effective without any significant degradation in the performance. In addition, the feasibility of using rotating heat exchangers in other applications will be evaluated.

  9. Water vapor absorption spectrum measurements and its application in concentration measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jun; Chen, Kun; Zhou, Guoqing; Lv, Guangping; Zhu, Cunguang; Wang, Zhongliang; Song, Fujun; Song, Haiyong; Tian, Junqiang; Hou, Wenjia; Huang, Jiaqing

    2012-02-01

    Wavelength tunable distributed feedback laser diode (DFB-LD) were utilized to measure line 1368.597nm and line 1367.862 nm absorption character of water vapor, based on it, water vapor concentration can be measured by peak absorption rate according to Beer-Lambert law. Besides, we observe that the overlap between the line 1368.597nm and line 1367.862 nm appears and become serious with the increase of gas pressure, this agrees well with the theoretical prediction, and the overlap cause difficulty to determine the absorption peak value, a scheme is presented to cope with the difficulty, it takes advantage of the peak absorption difference between 1368.597nm and 1367.862 nm, and the difference value is used to calculate the water-vapor concentration.

  10. Absorption of Sunlight by Water Vapor in Cloudy Conditions: A Partial Explanation for the Cloud Absorption Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, D.

    1997-01-01

    The atmospheric radiative transfer algorithms used in most global general circulation models underestimate the globally-averaged solar energy absorbed by cloudy atmospheres by up to 25 W/sq m. The origin of this anomalous absorption is not yet known, but it has been attributed to a variety of sources including oversimplified or missing physical processes in these models, uncertainties in the input data, and even measurement errors. Here, a sophisticated atmospheric radiative transfer model was used to provide a more comprehensive description of the physical processes that contribute to the absorption of solar radiation by the Earth's atmosphere. We found that the amount of sunlight absorbed by a cloudy atmosphere is inversely proportional to the solar zenith angle and the cloud top height, and directly proportional to the cloud optical depth and the water vapor concentration within the clouds. Atmospheres with saturated, optically-thick, low clouds absorbed about 12 W/sq m more than clear atmospheres. This accounts for about 1/2 to 1/3 of the anomalous ab- sorption. Atmospheres with optically thick middle and high clouds usually absorb less than clear atmospheres. Because water vapor is concentrated within and below the cloud tops, this absorber is most effective at small solar zenith angles. An additional absorber that is distributed at or above the cloud tops is needed to produce the amplitude and zenith angle dependence of the observed anomalous absorption.

  11. Photonic crystal slot waveguide for high sensitivity on-chip near-infrared optical absorption spectroscopy of xylene in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Lai, Wei-Cheng; Wang, Xiaolong; Lin, Che-Yun; Chen, Ray T.

    2011-06-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a 300?m long silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide for on-chip near-infrared absorption spectroscopy. Based on the Beer-Lambert absorption law, our device combines slow light in photonic crystal waveguide with high electric field intensity in low-index 75nm wide slot, which effectively increases the optical absorption path length of the analyte. We demonstrate near-infrared absorption spectroscopy of xylene in water, independent of near-infrared absorption signatures of water, with a hydrophobic PDMS sensing phase that extracts xylene from water. Xylene concentrations up to 100ppb (parts per billion) (86?g/L) in water were measured.

  12. Grapevine water absorption in different soils. A spatio-temporal analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brillante, Luca; Bois, Benjamin; Lévêque, Jean; Mathieu, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Hillslope vineyards show complex water dynamics between soil and plants. To gain further insight of this relationship, 8 grapevine plots were monitored during two vintages (2011-2013), on Corton Hill, Burgundy, France. Grapevine water status was monitored weekly by surveying water potential, and at harvest, using ?13C analysis of grape juice. Soil volumetric humidity was also measured weekly, using TDR probes. A pedotransfer function was developed to transform Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) into Soil Volume Water and therefore to spatialise and describe variations in space and time in the Fraction of Transpirable Soil Water (FTSW). During the two years of monitoring, grapevines experienced great variation in water status, which ranged from low to substantial water deficit. With this freshly developed method, it was possible to observe differences in water absorption pattern by roots, in different soils, and at different depth. Great heterogeneity was observed, both laterally and vertically in grapevine water absorption. The contribution of each soil region to plant water status varies according to grapevine water status. It is different between day and night and depends from soil characteristics. It is to our knowledge the first time that water absorption by grapevine is revealed in space (2D) and time, and has therefore allowed a deeper comprehension of plant and soil dynamics in grapevine.

  13. Enhanced load-carrying capacity of hairy surfaces floating on water

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yahui; Yuan, Huijing; Su, Weidong; Shi, Yipeng; Duan, Huiling

    2014-01-01

    Water repellency of hairy surfaces depends on the geometric arrangement of these hairs and enables different applications in both nature and engineering. We investigate the mechanism and optimization of a hairy surface floating on water to obtain its maximum load-carrying capacity by the free energy and force analyses. It is demonstrated that there is an optimum cylinder spacing, as a result of the compromise between the vertical capillary force and the gravity, so that the hairy surface has both high load-carrying capacity and mechanical stability. Our analysis makes it clear that the setae on water striders' legs or some insects' wings are in such an optimized geometry. Moreover, it is shown that surface hydrophobicity can further increase the capacity of a hairy surface with thick cylinders, while the influence is negligible when the cylinders are thin. PMID:24808757

  14. Dynamics of Water Absorption and Evaporation During Methanol Droplet Combustion in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Michael C.; Dietrich, Daniel L.; Nayagam, Vedha; Williams, Forman A.

    2012-01-01

    The combustion of methanol droplets is profoundly influenced by the absorption and evaporation of water, generated in the gas phase as a part of the combustion products. Initially there is a water-absorption period of combustion during which the latent heat of condensation of water vapor, released into the droplet, enhances its burning rate, whereas later there is a water-evaporation period, during which the water vapor reduces the flame temperature suffciently to extinguish the flame. Recent methanol droplet-combustion experiments in ambient environments diluted with carbon dioxide, conducted in the Combustion Integrated Rack on the International Space Station (ISS), as a part of the FLEX project, provided a method to delineate the water-absorption period from the water-evaporation period using video images of flame intensity. These were obtained using an ultra-violet camera that captures the OH* radical emission at 310 nm wavelength and a color camera that captures visible flame emission. These results are compared with results of ground-based tests in the Zero Gravity Facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center which employed smaller droplets in argon-diluted environments. A simplified theoretical model developed earlier correlates the transition time at which water absorption ends and evaporation starts. The model results are shown to agree reasonably well with experiment.

  15. Temperature dependence of water-vapor absorption in the wing of the 183 GHz line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bauer; B. Duterage; M. Godon

    1986-01-01

    Absolute absorption rates of water vapor have been measured in the laboratory in the high-frequency wing of the 183 GHz line. Measurements have been carried out for pure water vapor and mixtures with N2 at atmospheric pressure. Pressure- and temperature-dependences are compared with models involving several types of lineshapes.

  16. Ammonia and ammonium hydroxide sensors for ammonia\\/water absorption machines: Literature review and data compilation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. C. Anheier Jr.; C. E. McDonald; J. M. Cuta; F. M. Cuta; K. B. Olsen

    1995-01-01

    This report describes an evaluation of various sensing techniques for determining the ammonia concentration in the working fluid of ammonia\\/water absorption cycle systems. The purpose was to determine if any existing sensor technology or instrumentation could provide an accurate, reliable, and cost-effective continuous measure of ammonia concentration in water. The resulting information will be used for design optimization and cycle

  17. In vivo absorption comparison of nanotechnology-based silybin tablets with its water-soluble derivative.

    PubMed

    Xu, Di; Ni, Rui; Sun, Wei; Li, Luk Chiu; Mao, Shirui

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the in vivo oral absorption of a nanocrystal tablet formulation of a BCS II poorly water-soluble drug was compared with that of its water-soluble salt form. Silybin is used as the model drug, and its nanosuspension was prepared by high-pressure homogenization. Effect of process and formulation parameters on properties of the nansuspensions was investigated. Dried powder of the nanosuspension was prepared by spray drying and used for preparing tablets. A pharmacokinetic study was performed in Beagle dogs to compare the absorption for tablets of silybin nanocrystals and silybin meglumine. In vivo absorption of nanocrystal silybin tablet in Beagle dogs was determined. X-ray powder diffraction results indicated that silybin existed in a crystalline state after homogenization. In vivo absorption study in rats showed that the peroral absorption of silybin was enhanced remarkably by decreasing particle size. In vivo absorption of nanocrystal silybin tablet in Beagle dogs was comparable with that of the commercially available tablet of the water-soluble salt form of silybin. In conclusion, it is possible to increase the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs by preparing its water-soluble derivative. PMID:24495272

  18. On the relative absorption strengths of water vapour in the blue wavelength range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampel, J.; Pöhler, D.; Tschritter, J.; Frieß, U.; Platt, U.

    2015-06-01

    In recent updates of the HITRAN water vapour H2O spectroscopic compilation covering the blue spectral region (here: 394-480 nm) significant changes for the absorption bands at 416 and 426 nm were reported. In order to investigate the consistency of the different cross-sections calculated from these compilations, H2O vapour column density ratios for different spectral intervals were retrieved from Long-path and Multi-Axis - Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements. We observed a significant improvement of the DOAS evaluation when using the updated HITRAN water vapour absorption cross-sections for the calculation of the reference spectra. In particular the magnitudes of the residual spectra as well as the fit errors were reduced. However we also found that the best match between measurement and model is reached when the absorption cross-section of groups of lines are scaled by factors ranging from 0.5 and 1.9, suggesting that the HITRAN water vapour absorption compilation still needs significant corrections. For this spectral region we present correction factors for HITRAN 2009, HITRAN 2012, HITEMP and BT2 derived from field measurements. Additionally, upper limits for water vapour absorption in the UV-A range from 330-390 nm are given.

  19. Modeling water resources as a constraint in electricity capacity expansion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newmark, R. L.; Macknick, J.; Cohen, S.; Tidwell, V. C.; Woldeyesus, T.; Martinez, A.

    2013-12-01

    In the United States, the electric power sector is the largest withdrawer of freshwater in the nation. The primary demand for water from the electricity sector is for thermoelectric power plant cooling. Areas likely to see the largest near-term growth in population and energy usage, the Southwest and the Southeast, are also facing freshwater scarcity and have experienced water-related power reliability issues in the past decade. Lack of water may become a barrier for new conventionally-cooled power plants, and alternative cooling systems will impact technology cost and performance. Although water is integral to electricity generation, it has long been neglected as a constraint in future electricity system projections. Assessing the impact of water resource scarcity on energy infrastructure development is critical, both for conventional and renewable energy technologies. Efficiently utilizing all water types, including wastewater and brackish sources, or utilizing dry-cooling technologies, will be essential for transitioning to a low-carbon electricity system. This work provides the first demonstration of a national electric system capacity expansion model that incorporates water resources as a constraint on the current and future U.S. electricity system. The Regional Electricity Deployment System (ReEDS) model was enhanced to represent multiple cooling technology types and limited water resource availability in its optimization of electricity sector capacity expansion to 2050. The ReEDS model has high geographic and temporal resolution, making it a suitable model for incorporating water resources, which are inherently seasonal and watershed-specific. Cooling system technologies were assigned varying costs (capital, operations and maintenance), and performance parameters, reflecting inherent tradeoffs in water impacts and operating characteristics. Water rights supply curves were developed for each of the power balancing regions in ReEDS. Supply curves include costs and availability of freshwater (surface and groundwater) and alternative water resources (municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater). In each region, a new power plant must secure sufficient water rights for operation before being built. Water rights constraints thus influence the type of power plant, cooling system, or location of new generating capacity. Results indicate that the aggregate national generating capacity by fuel type and associated carbon dioxide emissions change marginally with the inclusion of water rights. Water resource withdrawals and consumption, however, can vary considerably. Regional water resource dynamics indicate substantial differences in the location where power plant-cooling system technology combinations are built. These localized impacts highlight the importance of considering water resources as a constraint in the electricity sector when evaluating costs, transmission infrastructure needs, and externalities. Further scenario evaluations include assessments of how climate change could affect the availability of water resources, and thus the development of the electricity sector.

  20. Methods for analysis of selected metals in water by atomic absorption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishman, Marvin J.; Downs, Sanford C.

    1966-01-01

    This manual describes atomic-absorption-spectroscopy methods for determining calcium, copper, lithium, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium, strontium and zinc in atmospheric precipitation, fresh waters, and brines. The procedures are intended to be used by water quality laboratories of the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey. Detailed procedures, calculations, and methods for the preparation of reagents are given for each element along with data on accuracy, precision, and sensitivity. Other topics discussed briefly are the principle of atomic absorption, instrumentation used, and special analytical techniques.

  1. Solvation thermodynamics and heat capacity of polar and charged solutes in water

    SciTech Connect

    Sedlmeier, Felix; Netz, Roland R. [Fachbereich Physik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-03-21

    The solvation thermodynamics and in particular the solvation heat capacity of polar and charged solutes in water is studied using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. As ionic solutes we consider a F{sup -} and a Na{sup +} ion, as an example for a polar molecule with vanishing net charge we take a SPC/E water molecule. The partial charges of all three solutes are varied in a wide range by a scaling factor. Using a recently introduced method for the accurate determination of the solvation free energy of polar solutes, we determine the free energy, entropy, enthalpy, and heat capacity of the three different solutes as a function of temperature and partial solute charge. We find that the sum of the solvation heat capacities of the Na{sup +} and F{sup -} ions is negative, in agreement with experimental observations, but our results uncover a pronounced difference in the heat capacity between positively and negatively charged groups. While the solvation heat capacity {Delta}C{sub p} stays positive and even increases slightly upon charging the Na{sup +} ion, it decreases upon charging the F{sup -} ion and becomes negative beyond an ion charge of q=-0.3e. On the other hand, the heat capacity of the overall charge-neutral polar solute derived from a SPC/E water molecule is positive for all charge scaling factors considered by us. This means that the heat capacity of a wide class of polar solutes with vanishing net charge is positive. The common ascription of negative heat capacities to polar chemical groups might arise from the neglect of non-additive interaction effects between polar and apolar groups. The reason behind this non-additivity is suggested to be related to the second solvation shell that significantly affects the solvation thermodynamics and due to its large spatial extent induces quite long-ranged interactions between solvated molecular parts and groups.

  2. Intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Said, Hamid M.

    2014-01-01

    Our knowledge of the mechanisms and regulation of intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins under normal physiological conditions, and of the factors/conditions that affect and interfere with theses processes has been significantly expanded in recent years as a result of the availability of a host of valuable molecular/cellular tools. Although structurally and functionally unrelated, the water-soluble vitamins share the feature of being essential for normal cellular functions, growth and development, and that their deficiency leads to a variety of clinical abnormalities that range from anaemia to growth retardation and neurological disorders. Humans cannot synthesize water-soluble vitamins (with the exception of some endogenous synthesis of niacin) and must obtain these micronutrients from exogenous sources. Thus body homoeostasis of these micronutrients depends on their normal absorption in the intestine. Interference with absorption, which occurs in a variety of conditions (e.g. congenital defects in the digestive or absorptive system, intestinal disease/resection, drug interaction and chronic alcohol use), leads to the development of deficiency (and sub-optimal status) and results in clinical abnormalities. It is well established now that intestinal absorption of the water-soluble vitamins ascorbate, biotin, folate, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, riboflavin and thiamin is via specific carrier-mediated processes. These processes are regulated by a variety of factors and conditions, and the regulation involves transcriptional and/or post-transcriptional mechanisms. Also well recognized now is the fact that the large intestine possesses specific and efficient uptake systems to absorb a number of water-soluble vitamins that are synthesized by the normal microflora. This source may contribute to total body vitamin nutrition, and especially towards the cellular nutrition and health of the local colonocytes. The present review aims to outline our current understanding of the mechanisms involved in intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins, their regulation, the cell biology of the carriers involved and the factors that negatively affect these absorptive events. PMID:21749321

  3. Intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Said, Hamid M

    2011-08-01

    Our knowledge of the mechanisms and regulation of intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins under normal physiological conditions, and of the factors/conditions that affect and interfere with theses processes has been significantly expanded in recent years as a result of the availability of a host of valuable molecular/cellular tools. Although structurally and functionally unrelated, the water-soluble vitamins share the feature of being essential for normal cellular functions, growth and development, and that their deficiency leads to a variety of clinical abnormalities that range from anaemia to growth retardation and neurological disorders. Humans cannot synthesize water-soluble vitamins (with the exception of some endogenous synthesis of niacin) and must obtain these micronutrients from exogenous sources. Thus body homoeostasis of these micronutrients depends on their normal absorption in the intestine. Interference with absorption, which occurs in a variety of conditions (e.g. congenital defects in the digestive or absorptive system, intestinal disease/resection, drug interaction and chronic alcohol use), leads to the development of deficiency (and sub-optimal status) and results in clinical abnormalities. It is well established now that intestinal absorption of the water-soluble vitamins ascorbate, biotin, folate, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, riboflavin and thiamin is via specific carrier-mediated processes. These processes are regulated by a variety of factors and conditions, and the regulation involves transcriptional and/or post-transcriptional mechanisms. Also well recognized now is the fact that the large intestine possesses specific and efficient uptake systems to absorb a number of water-soluble vitamins that are synthesized by the normal microflora. This source may contribute to total body vitamin nutrition, and especially towards the cellular nutrition and health of the local colonocytes. The present review aims to outline our current understanding of the mechanisms involved in intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins, their regulation, the cell biology of the carriers involved and the factors that negatively affect these absorptive events. PMID:21749321

  4. Effect of alpha-glucosidehydrolase inhibition and intestinal absorption of sucrose, water, and sodium in man.

    PubMed Central

    Caspary, W F; Kalisch, H

    1979-01-01

    The effect of a new complex oligosaccharide exhibiting potent inhibitory action on alpha-glucoside hydrolases on intestinal absorption of sucrose in man was tested by constant in vivo perfusion of the jejunum. At concentrations of 4.65 or 15.5 X 10(-6)M the alpha-glucosidehydrolase inhibitor (alpha-GHI) markedly inhibited absorption of glucose from sucrose and absorption of sodium and water. Oral administration of the alpha-GHI resulted as well in depression of solute, sodium, and water absorption. This new compound can serve as an interesting tool to induce carbohydrate malabsorption by inhibition of final digestion and may possibly be of beneficial therapeutic effect in dietary control of diabetes or obesity. PMID:387540

  5. Water Vapour Absorption in the Clear Atmosphere of an exo-Neptune

    E-print Network

    Fraine, Jonathan; Benneke, Björn; Knutson, Heather; Jordán, Andrés; Espinoza, Néstor; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Wilkins, Ashlee; Todorov, Kamen

    2014-01-01

    Transmission spectroscopy to date has detected atomic and molecular absorption in Jupiter-sized exoplanets, but intense efforts to measure molecular absorption in the atmospheres of smaller (Neptune-sized) planets during transits have revealed only featureless spectra. From this it was concluded that the majority of small, warm planets evolve to sustain high mean molecular weights, opaque clouds, or scattering hazes in their atmospheres, obscuring our ability to observe the composition of these atmospheres. Here we report observations of the transmission spectrum of HAT-P-11b (~4 Earth radii) from the optical to the infrared. We detected water vapour absorption at 1.4 micrometre wavelength. The amplitude of the water absorption (approximately 250 parts-per- million) indicates that the planetary atmosphere is predominantly clear down to ~1 mbar, and sufficiently hydrogen-rich to exhibit a large scale height. The spectrum is indicative of a planetary atmosphere with an upper limit of ~700 times the abundance of...

  6. Foliar absorption of intercepted rainfall improves woody plant water status most during drought.

    PubMed

    Breshears, David D; McDowell, Nathan G; Goddard, Kelly L; Dayem, Katherine E; Martens, Scott N; Meyer, Clifton W; Brown, Karen M

    2008-01-01

    A large proportion of rainfall in dryland ecosystems is intercepted by plant foliage and is generally assumed to evaporate to the atmosphere or drip onto the soil surface without being absorbed. We demonstrate foliar absorption of intercepted rainfall in a widely distributed, continental dryland, woody-plant genus: Juniperus. We observed substantial improvement in plant water status, exceeding 1.0 MPa water potential for drought-stressed plants, following precipitation on an experimental plot that excluded soil water infiltration. Experiments that wetted shoots with unlabeled and with isotopically labeled water confirmed that water potential responded substantially to foliar wetting, that these responses were not attributable to re-equilibration with other portions of the xylem, and that magnitude of response increased with water stress. Foliar absorption is not included in most ecological, hydrological, and atmospheric models; has implications for interpreting plant isotopic signatures; and not only supplements water acquisition associated with increases in soil moisture that follow large or repeated precipitation events, but also enables plants to bypass soil water uptake and benefit from the majority of precipitation events, which wet foliage but do not increase soil moisture substantially. Foliar absorption of intercepted water could be more important than previously appreciated, especially during drought when water stress is greatest. PMID:18376545

  7. Water vapor spectroscopy in the 815-nm wavelength region for Differential Absorption Lidar measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponsardin, Patrick; Browell, Edward V.

    1995-01-01

    The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique was first applied to the remote measurement of atmospheric water vapor profiles from airborne platforms in 1981. The successful interpretation of the lidar profiles relies strongly on an accurate knowledge of specific water vapor absorption line parameters: line strength, pressure broadening coefficient, pressure-induced shift coefficient and the respective temperature-dependence factors. NASA Langley Research Center has developed and is currently testing an autonomous airborne water vapor lidar system: LASE (Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment). This DIAL system uses a Nd:YAG-pumped Ti:Sapphire laser seeded by a diode laser as a lidar transmitter. The tunable diode has been selected to operate in the 813-818 nm wavelength region. This 5-nm spectral interval offers a large distribution of strengths for temperature-insensitive water vapor absorption lines. In support of the LASE project, a series of spectroscopic measurements were conducted for the 16 absorption lines that have been identified for use in the LASE measurements. Prior to this work, the experimental data for this water vapor absorption band were limited - to our knowledge - to the line strengths and to the line positions.

  8. Local effects in the X-ray absorption spectrum of salt water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Schwegler; Heather Kulik; Nicola Marzari; Alfredo Correa; David Prendergast; Giulia Galli

    2011-01-01

    We have used first principles molecular dynamics and theoretical X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to investigate the aqueous solvation of cations in MgCl2, CaCl2, and NaCl solutions. We focus our discussion on the species-specific effects that Mg^2+, Ca^2+, and Na^+ have on the X-ray absorption spectrum of the respective solutions. For the divalent cations, we find that the water molecules that

  9. Transpiration, Water Absorption, and Internal Water Balance of Cotton Plants as Affected by Light and Changes in Saturation Deficit 1

    PubMed Central

    Ehrler, W. L.; van Bavel, C. H. M.; Nakayama, F. S.

    1966-01-01

    In controlled environment studies of cotton plants (Gossypium barbadense L.) a light-induced acceleration of transpiration upset the water balance established in the dark because of a lag in water absorption. A plant-water deficit could be generated either by sudden illumination at a given saturation deficit (sd) of the air, or by raising the sd in conjunction with illumination, without different effects. Direct water balance measurements were confirmed in every experiment by beta ray gauge detection of changes in leaf-water content resulting from unequal gain and loss of water by the whole plant. Recovery from the initial loss of turgidity always was faster and more complete at the higher than at the lower values of sd. Recovery occurred even in the light at the higher values of sd, but was enhanced by return to darkness and a lower sd, which at times resulted in superhydration. Rehydration in the light could be attributed to at least 2 processes: A) a diminished transpiration rate if earlier water loss was sufficient to induce stomatal closure, and B) an increased rate of water absorption. The data suggest that a water deficit, temporary or persisting, does not cause a significantly lowered transpiration rate; thus, recovery must depend on increased absorption. The communicative link between the 2 processes appears weak, transmitting strong signals only. PMID:16656235

  10. Photonic crystal slot waveguide absorption spectrometer for on-chip near-infrared spectroscopy of xylene in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Wei-Cheng; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Wang, Xiaolong; Lin, Cheyun; Chen, Ray T.

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a 300 ?m long silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide near-infrared absorption spectrometer. Based on Beer-Lambert absorption law, our on-chip absorption spectrometer combines slow light in a photonic crystal waveguide with a high electric field intensity in a low-index 75 nm wide slot, which effectively increases the optical absorption path length of the analyte. We demonstrate near-infrared absorption spectroscopy of xylene in water, with a polydimethyl siloxane sensing phase for xylene extraction from water. Xylene concentrations up to 100 ppb (parts per billion) (86 ?g/l) in water were measured.

  11. Low-Dimensional Water on Ru(0001)Model System for X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Studies of Liquid Water

    SciTech Connect

    Nordlund, D

    2012-02-14

    We present an x-ray absorption spectroscopy results for fully broken to a complete H-bond network of water molecules on Ru(0001) by varying the morphology from isolated water molecules via two-dimensional clusters to a fully covered monolayer as probed by scanning tunneling microscopy. The sensitivity of x-ray absorption to the symmetry of H-bonding is further elucidated for the amino (-NH{sub 2}) group in glycine adsorbed on Cu(110) where the E-vector is parallel either to the NH donating an H-bond or to the non-H-bonded NH. The results give further evidence for the interpretation of the various spectral features of liquid water and for the general applicability of x-ray absorption spectroscopy to analyze H-bonded systems.

  12. Impact of MIE-Resonances on the Atmospheric Absorption of Water Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiscombe, W.; Kinne, S.; Nussenzveig, H.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Clouds strongly modulate radiative transfer processes in the Earth's atmosphere. Studies, which simulate bulk properties of clouds, such as absorption, require methods that accurately account for multiple scattering among individual cloud particles. Multiple scattering processes are well described by MIE-theory, if interacting particles have a spherical shape. This is a good assumption for water droplets. Thus, simulations for water clouds (especially for interactions with solar radiation) usually apply readily available MIE-codes. The presence of different drop-sizes, however, necessitates repetitive calculations for many sizes. The usual representation by a few sizes is likely to miss contributions from densely distributed, sharp resonances. Despite their usually narrow width, integrated over the entire size-spectrum of a cloud droplet distribution, the impact of missed resonances could add up. The consideration of these resonances tends to increase cloud extinction and cloud absorption. This mechanism for a larger (than by MIE-methods predicted) solar absorption has the potential to explain observational evidence of larger than predicted cloud absorption at solar wavelengths. The presentation will address the absorption impact of added resonances for typical properties of water clouds (e.g. drop size distributions, drop concentrations and cloud geometry). Special attention will be given to scenarios with observational evidence of law than simulated solar absorption; particularly if simultaneous measurements of cloud micro- and macrophysical properties are available.

  13. Simulation of Water Environmental Capacity and Pollution Load Reduction Using QUAL2K for Water Environmental Management

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Yuan, Xingcheng; Ye, Rui; Xia, Bisheng; Wang, Yulei

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of CODCr NH3-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH3-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. PMID:23222206

  14. Evaluation of suitable spectral intervals for near-IR laboratory detection of water vapour continuum absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptashnik, Igor V.

    2007-11-01

    The water vapour continuum absorption is an important component of molecular absorption of radiation in atmosphere. However, uncertainty in knowledge of the value of the continuum absorption at present can achieve 100% in different spectral regions leading to an error in flux calculation up to 3 5 W/m2 global mean. This work uses line-by-line calculations to reveal the best spectral intervals for experimental verification of the CKD water vapour continuum models in the currently least-studied near-infrared spectral region. Possible sources of errors in continuum retrieval taken into account in the simulation include the sensitivity of laboratory spectrometers and uncertainties in the spectral line parameters in HITRAN-2004 and Schwenke Partridge database. It is shown that a number of micro-windows in near-IR can be used at present for laboratory detection of the water vapour continuum with estimated accuracy from 30% to 5%.

  15. Investigation of the Capacity of Underground Water Pumping Using Wind Energy in Dhahran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmet Z. Sahin; Ahmet Bolat; Abdulrahman Al-Ahmari

    The capacity of pumping ground water with wind energy conversion systems in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia was statistically analyzed.\\u000a Experimental data of half-hourly wind energy measurements made for a period of 5 years (1995–2000) were used in the analysis.\\u000a Seven horizontal-axis wind turbines with different power ratings were considered in the study. Eight water pumps with different\\u000a power ratings to be powered

  16. Water-storage capacity controls energy partitioning and water use in karst ecosystems on the Edwards Plateau, Texas

    E-print Network

    Schwinning, Susan - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    capacity underlain by substrates that impede water retention and root growth (Milly, 1994). Uncertainties H. Kamps1 and Susanne Schwinning4 1 Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A&M University Department of Biology, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666, USA ABSTRACT Woody plants

  17. Water-holding capacity and protein denatunation in broiler breast meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of protein denaturation on water-holding capacity (WHC) in broiler breast meat. Breast fillets were collected at 2 h postmortem and segregated into two groups (low-WHC and high-WHC) based on pH and color. Protein solubility was measured at 6 and 24...

  18. ESTIMATING PLANT-AVAILABLE WATER CAPACITY FOR CLAYPAN LANDSCAPES USING APPARENT ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Within-field variability of plant available water (PAW) capacity is useful information for site-specific management, but is expensive to assess using traditional measurements. For Missouri claypan soils, relationships between soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) and topsoil thickness have bee...

  19. [Actinobacteria and their odor-producing capacities in a surface water in Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiao; Bai, Xiao-hui; Lu, Ning; Wang, Xian-yun; Zhang, Yong-hui; Wu, Pan-cheng; Guo, Xin-chi

    2014-10-01

    The odor in raw water is one of the main sources of odor in drinking water. The occurrence of actinobacteria and their odor producing capacities in a reservoir in.Shanghai were investigated. Gauze's medium and membrane filtration were used for actinobacteria isolation. Through combined methods of 16S rRNA sequencing, colony and hyphae morphology, carbon source utilization, physiological and biochemical characteristics, 40 strains of actinobacteria were identified from the reservoir. Results showed that there were 38 Streptomyces, an Aeromicrobium and a Pseudonocardia. Liquid culture medium and the real reservoir water were used to test the odor producing capacity of these 40 strains of actinobacteria, and headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and high resolution gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) were used to analyze the odor compounds 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) and geosmin (GSM) in the fermentation liquor. The test results showed that, the odor-producing capacities of these actinobacteria in different fermentation media showed different variation trends, even within the genera Streptomyces. The odor-producing capacity of actinobacteria in the liquid culture medium could not represent their states in the reservoir water or their actual odor contribution to the aquatic environment. PMID:25693381

  20. Visible/near-infrared spectroscopy to predict water holding capacity in broiler breast meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Visible/Near-infrared spectroscopy (Vis/NIRS) was examined as a tool for rapidly determining water holding capacity (WHC) in broiler breast meat. Both partial least squares (PLS) and principal component analysis (PCA) models were developed to relate Vis/NIRS spectra of 85 broiler breast meat sample...

  1. Landscape influences on soil nitrogen supply and water holding capacity for irrigated corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water and nitrogen (N) supply to a crop can interact throughout the growing season to influence yield potential. The increasing availability of variable rate irrigation systems to growers in irrigated regions, along with existing capacity for variable rate fertilization, provides the opportunity for...

  2. Effect of deboning time and cold storage on water-holding capacity of chicken breast meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water-holding capacity (WHC) is a very important qualitative characteristic of meat and directly affects the yield of further processed meat and consumer acceptance of bagged pre-packaged fresh meat. Boneless skinless chicken breast meat for further processing and consumer usage is commonly deboned...

  3. Mechanisms of guanylin action on water and ion absorption at different regions of seawater eel intestine.

    PubMed

    Ando, Masaaki; Wong, Marty K S; Takei, Yoshio

    2014-09-15

    Guanylin (GN) inhibited water absorption and short-circuit current (Isc) in seawater eel intestine. Similar inhibition was observed after bumetanide, and the effect of bumetanide was abolished by GN or vice versa, suggesting that both act on the same target, Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC), which is a key player for the Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) transport system responsible for water absorption in marine teleost intestine. However, effect of GN was always greater than that of bumetanide: 10% greater in middle intestine (MI) and 40% in posterior intestine (PI) for Isc, and 25% greater in MI and 34% in PI for water absorption. After treatment with GN, Isc decreased to zero, but 20-30% water absorption still remained. The remainder may be due to the Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger and Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC), since inhibitors for these transporters almost nullified the remaining water absorption. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed the presence of major proteins involved in water absorption; the NKCC2? and AQP1 genes whose expression was markedly upregulated after seawater acclimation. The SLC26A6 (anion exchanger) and NCC? genes were also expressed in small amounts. Consistent with the inhibitors' effect, expression of NKCC2? was MI > PI, and that of NCC? was MI < PI. The present study showed that GN not only inhibits the bumetanide-sensitive Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) transport system governed by NKCC2?, but also regulates unknown ion transporters different from GN-insensitive SLC26A6 and NCC. A candidate is cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl(-) channel, as demonstrated in mammals, but its expression is low in eel intestine, and its role may be minor, as indicated by the small effect of its inhibitors. PMID:24990857

  4. Leaf Photosynthetic Rate of Tropical Ferns Is Evolutionarily Linked to Water Transport Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Kun-Fang; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Jiao-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Ferns usually have relatively lower photosynthetic potential than angiosperms. However, it is unclear whether low photosynthetic potential of ferns is linked to leaf water supply. We hypothesized that there is an evolutionary association of leaf water transport capacity with photosynthesis and stomatal density in ferns. In the present study, a series of functional traits relating to leaf anatomy, hydraulics and physiology were assessed in 19 terrestrial and 11 epiphytic ferns in a common garden, and analyzed by a comparative phylogenetics method. Compared with epiphytic ferns, terrestrial ferns had higher vein density (Dvein), stomatal density (SD), stomatal conductance (gs), and photosynthetic capacity (Amax), but lower values for lower epidermal thickness (LET) and leaf thickness (LT). Across species, all traits varied significantly, but only stomatal length (SL) showed strong phylogenetic conservatism. Amax was positively correlated with Dvein and gs with and without phylogenetic corrections. SD correlated positively with Amax, Dvein and gs, with the correlation between SD and Dvein being significant after phylogenetic correction. Leaf water content showed significant correlations with LET, LT, and mesophyll thickness. Our results provide evidence that Amax of the studied ferns is linked to leaf water transport capacity, and there was an evolutionary association between water supply and demand in ferns. These findings add new insights into the evolutionary correlations among traits involving carbon and water economy in ferns. PMID:24416265

  5. Leaf photosynthetic rate of tropical ferns is evolutionarily linked to water transport capacity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shi-Bao; Sun, Mei; Cao, Kun-Fang; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Jiao-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Ferns usually have relatively lower photosynthetic potential than angiosperms. However, it is unclear whether low photosynthetic potential of ferns is linked to leaf water supply. We hypothesized that there is an evolutionary association of leaf water transport capacity with photosynthesis and stomatal density in ferns. In the present study, a series of functional traits relating to leaf anatomy, hydraulics and physiology were assessed in 19 terrestrial and 11 epiphytic ferns in a common garden, and analyzed by a comparative phylogenetics method. Compared with epiphytic ferns, terrestrial ferns had higher vein density (Dvein), stomatal density (SD), stomatal conductance (gs), and photosynthetic capacity (Amax), but lower values for lower epidermal thickness (LET) and leaf thickness (LT). Across species, all traits varied significantly, but only stomatal length (SL) showed strong phylogenetic conservatism. Amax was positively correlated with Dvein and gs with and without phylogenetic corrections. SD correlated positively with Amax, Dvein and gs, with the correlation between SD and Dvein being significant after phylogenetic correction. Leaf water content showed significant correlations with LET, LT, and mesophyll thickness. Our results provide evidence that Amax of the studied ferns is linked to leaf water transport capacity, and there was an evolutionary association between water supply and demand in ferns. These findings add new insights into the evolutionary correlations among traits involving carbon and water economy in ferns. PMID:24416265

  6. Diode laser absorption spectroscopy of water vapor in a scramjet combustor.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Alan D; Houwing, A Frank P

    2005-11-01

    A sensor based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy was constructed for time-resolved temperature and water vapor concentration measurements in a scramjet combustor. The sensor probed two absorption lines near 1390 nm with two time-multiplexed lasers used to measure temperature and water vapor concentration at up to 20 kHz. A demonstration experiment was performed in the supersonic, expanding exhaust region of the combustor, showing the measurement to be repeatable, able to resolve temporal trends during tunnel operation, and sensitive to changes in combustor operating conditions. PMID:16270554

  7. The Effect of Heat on Structural Characteristics and Water Absorption Behavior of Agave Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, Dip

    2008-04-01

    The structural characteristics and water absorptions behavior agave fibers were investigated over a range of temperature by using XRD, IR, TG and gravimetric methods. Three distinct thermal processes were observed during heating the fiber in the temperature range 310-760 K in air, oxygen and nitrogen invariably. The cellulose structures of the fibers were unaffected on heating up to 450 K. The samples showed thermal decomposition processes beyond 500 K. Fibers displayed a two-stage diffusion behavior. The structural parameters and kinetic of water absorption of the fibers at specific temperatures were analyzed.

  8. ABSORPTION OF LEAD FROM DRINKING WATER WITH VARYING MINERAL CONTENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lead (Pb) (200 ppm) was administered via drinking water to rats for nine weeks. In addition, the rats were grouped so that they received 75, 100, 150 and 250% of the minimum daily requirements (MDR) of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), and magnesium (Mg) as required for normal growth. The...

  9. Near-infrared studies of glucose and sucrose in aqueous solutions: water displacement effect and red shift in water absorption from water-solute interaction

    E-print Network

    Jung, Youngeui

    2013-01-01

    We use near infrared spectroscopy to obtain concentration dependent glucose absorption spectra in their aqueous solutions in the near-infrared range (3800 - 7500 cm^{-1}). We introduce a new method to obtain reliable glucose absorption bands from aqueous glucose solutions without measuring the water displacement coefficients of glucose separately. Additionally, we are able to extract the water displacement coefficients of glucose, and this may give a new general method using spectroscopy techniques applicable to other water soluble materials. We also observe red shifts in the absorption bands of water in the hydration shell around solute molecules, which comes from contribution of the interacting water molecules around the glucose molecules in solutions. The intensity of the red shift get larger as the concentration increases, which indicates that as the concentration increases more water molecules are involved in the interaction. However, the red shift in frequency does not seem to depend significantly on th...

  10. Thermodynamic optimization of a solar system for cogeneration of water heating/purification and absorption cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovsapian, Zohrob O.

    This dissertation presents a contribution to understanding the behavior of solar powered air conditioning and refrigeration systems with a view to determining the manner in which refrigeration rate; mass flows, heat transfer areas, and internal architecture are related. A cogeneration system consisting of a solar concentrator, a cavity-type receiver, a gas burner, and a thermal storage reservoir is devised to simultaneously produce water heating/purification and cooling (absorption refrigerator system). A simplified mathematical model, which combines fundamental and empirical correlations, and principles of classical thermodynamics, mass and heat transfer, is developed. An experimental setup was built to adjust and validate the numerical results obtained with the mathematical model. The proposed model is then utilized to simulate numerically the system transient and steady state response under different operating and design conditions. A system global optimization for maximum performance (or minimum exergy destruction) in the search for minimum pull-down and pull-up times, and maximum system second law efficiency is performed with low computational time. Appropriate dimensionless groups are identified and the results presented in normalized charts for general application. The numerical results show that the three way maximized system second law efficiency, etaII,max,max,max, occurs when three system characteristic mass flow rates are optimally selected in general terms as dimensionless heat capacity rates, i.e., (Psisps , Psiwxwx, PsiHs)opt ? (1.43, 0.17, 0.19). The minimum pull-down and pull-up times, and maximum second law efficiencies found with respect to the optimized operating parameters are sharp and, therefore important to be considered in actual design. As a result, the model is expected to be a useful tool for simulation, design, and optimization of solar energy systems in the context of distributed power generation.

  11. Storage Capacity and Water Quality of Lake Ngardok, Babeldaob Island, Republic of Palau, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yeung, Chiu Wang; Wong, Michael F.

    1999-01-01

    A bathymetric survey conducted during March and April, 1996, determined the total storage capacity Lake Ngardok to be between 90 and 168 acre-feet. Elevation-surface area and elevation-capacity curves summarizing the current relations among elevation, surface area, and storage capacity were created from the bathymetric map. Rainfall and lake-elevation data collected from April 1996 to March 1998 indicated that lake levels correlated to rainfall values with lake elevation rising rapidly in response to heavy rainfall and then returning to normal levels within a few days. Mean lake elevation for the 22 month period of data was 59.5 feet which gives a mean storage capacity of 107 acre-feet and a mean surface area of 24.1 acre. A floating mat of reeds, which covered 58 percent of the lake surface area at the time of the bathymetric survey, makes true storage capacity difficult to estimate. Water-quality sampling during April 1996 and November 1997 indicated that no U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water standards were violated for analyzed organic and inorganic compounds and radionuclides. With suitable biological treatment, the lake water could be used for drinking-water purposes. Temperature and dissolved oxygen measurements indicated that Lake Ngardok is stratified. Given that air temperature on Palau exhibits little seasonal variation, it is likely that this pattern of stratification is persistent. As a result, complete mixing of the lake is probably rare. Near anaerobic conditions exist at the lake bottom. Low dissolved oxygen (3.2 milligrams per liter) measured at the outflow indicated that water flowing past the outflow was from the deep oxygen-depleted depths of the lake.

  12. Ab initio calculation of the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water

    SciTech Connect

    Martiniano, Hugo F. M. C.; Galamba, Nuno [Grupo de Física Matemática da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Professor Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)] [Grupo de Física Matemática da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Professor Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Cabral, Benedito J. Costa, E-mail: ben@cii.fc.ul.pt [Grupo de Física Matemática da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Professor Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal) [Grupo de Física Matemática da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Professor Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, 05314-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-04-28

    The electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water was investigated by coupling a one-body energy decomposition scheme to configurations generated by classical and Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics (BOMD). A Frenkel exciton Hamiltonian formalism was adopted and the excitation energies in the liquid phase were calculated with the equation of motion coupled cluster with single and double excitations method. Molecular dynamics configurations were generated by different approaches. Classical MD were carried out with the TIP4P-Ew and AMOEBA force fields. The BLYP and BLYP-D3 exchange-correlation functionals were used in BOMD. Theoretical and experimental results for the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water are in good agreement. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between the structure of liquid water predicted by the different models and the electronic absorption spectrum. The theoretical gas to liquid phase blue-shift of the peak positions of the electronic absorption spectrum is in good agreement with experiment. The overall shift is determined by a competition between the O–H stretching of the water monomer in liquid water that leads to a red-shift and polarization effects that induce a blue-shift. The results illustrate the importance of coupling many-body energy decomposition schemes to molecular dynamics configurations to carry out ab initio calculations of the electronic properties in liquid phase.

  13. Spectral control of an alexandrite laser for an airborne water-vapor differential absorption lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponsardin, Patrick; Grossmann, Benoist E.; Browell, Edward V.

    1994-01-01

    A narrow-linewidth pulsed alexandrite laser has been greatly modified for improved spectral stability in an aircraft environment, and its operation has been evaluated in the laboratory for making water-vapor differential absorption lidar measurements. An alignment technique is described to achieve the optimum free spectral range ratio for the two etalons inserted in the alexandrite laser cavity, and the sensitivity of this ratio is analyzed. This technique drastically decreases the occurrence of mode hopping, which is commonly observed in a tunable, two-intracavity-etalon laser system. High spectral purity (greater than 99.85%) at 730 nm is demonstrated by the use of a water-vapor absorption line as a notch filter. The effective cross sections of 760-nm oxygen and 730-nm water-vapor absorption lines are measured at different pressures by using this laser, which has a finite linewidth of 0.02 cm(exp -1) (FWHM). It is found that for water-vapor absorption linewidths greater than 0.04 cm(exp -1) (HWHM), or for altitudes below 10 km, the laser line can be considered monochromatic because the measured effective absorption cross section is within 1% of the calculated monochromatic cross section. An analysis of the environmental sensitivity of the two intracavity etalons is presented, and a closed-loop computer control for active stabilization of the two intracavity etalons in the alexandrite laser is described. Using a water-vapor absorption line as a wavelength reference, we measure a long-term frequency drift (approximately 1.5 h) of less than 0.7 pm in the laboratory.

  14. Calculation of heat capacities of light and heavy water by path-integral molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Motoyuki; Shinoda, Wataru

    2005-10-01

    As an application of atomistic simulation methods to heat capacities, path-integral molecular dynamics has been used to calculate the constant-volume heat capacities of light and heavy water in the gas, liquid, and solid phases. While the classical simulation based on conventional molecular dynamics has estimated the heat capacities too high, the quantum simulation based on path-integral molecular dynamics has given reasonable results based on the simple point-charge/flexible potential model. The calculated heat capacities (divided by the Boltzmann constant) in the quantum simulation are 3.1 in the vapor H2O at 300 K, 6.9 in the liquid H2O at 300 K, and 4.1 in the ice Ih H2O at 250 K, respectively, which are comparable to the experimental data of 3.04, 8.9, and 4.1, respectively. The quantum simulation also reproduces the isotope effect. The heat capacity in the liquid D2O has been calculated to be 10% higher than that of H2O, while it is 13% higher in the experiment. The results demonstrate that the path-integral simulation is a promising approach to quantitatively evaluate the heat capacities for molecular systems, taking account of quantum-mechanical vibrations as well as strongly anharmonic motions. PMID:16223309

  15. Near-infrared diode laser absorption diagnostic for temperature and water vapor in a scramjet combustor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jonathan T C; Rieker, Gregory B; Jeffries, Jay B; Gruber, Mark R; Carter, Campbell D; Mathur, Tarun; Hanson, Ronald K

    2005-11-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption measurements of gas temperature and water concentration were made at the exit of a model scramjet combustor fueled on JP-7. Multiplexed, fiber-coupled, near-infrared distributed feedback lasers were used to probe three water vapor absorption features in the 1.34-1.47 microm spectral region (2v1 and vl + v3 overtone bands). Ratio thermometry was performed using direct-absorption wavelength scans of isolated features at a 4-kHz repetition rate, as well as 2f wavelength modulation scans at a 2-kHz scan rate. Large signal-to-noise ratios demonstrate the ability of the optimally engineered optical hardware to reject beam steering and vibration noise. Successful measurements were made at full combustion conditions for a variety of fuel/air equivalence ratios and at eight vertical positions in the duct to investigate spatial uniformity. The use of three water vapor absorption features allowed for preliminary estimates of temperature distributions along the line of sight. The improved signal quality afforded by 2f measurements, in the case of weak absorption, demonstrates the utility of a scanned wavelength modulation strategy in such situations. PMID:16270559

  16. Near-infrared diode laser absorption diagnostic for temperature and water vapor in a scramjet combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jonathan T.C.; Rieker, Gregory B.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Gruber, Mark R.; Carter, Campbell D.; Mathur, Tarun; Hanson, Ronald K

    2005-11-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption measurements of gas temperature and water concentration were made at the exit of a model scramjet combustor fueled on JP-7. Multiplexed, fiber-coupled, near-infrared distributed feedback lasers were used to probe three water vapor absorption features in the 1.34-1.47 {mu}m spectral region (2v1and v1+ v3overtone bands). Ratio thermometry was performed using direct-absorption wavelength scans of isolated features at a 4-kHz repetition rate, as well as 2f wavelength modulation scans at a 2-kHz scan rate. Large signal-to-noise ratios demonstrate the ability of the optimally engineered optical hardware to reject beam steering and vibration noise. Successful measurements were made at full combustion conditions for a variety of fuel/air equivalence ratios and at eight vertical positions in the duct to investigate spatial uniformity. The use of three water vapor absorption features allowed for preliminary estimates of temperature distributions along the line of sight. The improved signal quality afforded by 2f measurements, in the case of weak absorption, demonstrates the utility of a scanned wavelength modulation strategy in such situations.

  17. Water vapor self-continuum absorption in near-infrared windows derived from laboratory measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptashnik, Igor V.; McPheat, Robert A.; Shine, Keith P.; Smith, Kevin M.; Williams, R. Gary

    2011-08-01

    In most near-infrared atmospheric windows, absorption of solar radiation is dominated by the water vapor self-continuum, and yet there is a paucity of measurements in these windows. We report new laboratory measurements of the self-continuum absorption at temperatures between 293 and 472 K and pressures from 0.015 to 5 atm in four near-infrared windows between 1 and 4 ?m (10000-2500 cm-1); the measurements are made over a wider range of wavenumbers, temperatures, and pressures than any previous measurements. They show that the self-continuum in these windows is typically one order of magnitude stronger than given in representations of the continuum widely used in climate and weather prediction models. These results are also not consistent with current theories attributing the self-continuum within windows to the far wings of strong spectral lines in the nearby water vapor absorption bands; we suggest that they are more consistent with water dimers being the major contributor to the continuum. The calculated global average clear-sky atmospheric absorption of solar radiation is increased by ˜0.75 W/m2 (which is about 1% of the total clear-sky absorption) by using these new measurements as compared to calculations with the MT_CKD-2.5 self-continuum model.

  18. Water storage capacity of natural wetland depressions in the Devils Lake basin of North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludden, A.P.; Frink, D.L.; Johnson, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    Photogrammetric mapping techniques were used to derive the water storage capacities of natural wetland depressions other than lakes in the Devils Lake Basin of North Dakota. Results from sample quarter-section areas were expanded to the entire basin. Depressions in the Devils Lake Basin have a maximum storage capacity of nearly 811,000 cubic dekameters (657,000 acre-feet). The depressions store about 72 percent of the total runoff volume from a 2-year-frequency runoff and about 41 percent of the total runoff volume from a 100-year-frequency runoff.

  19. State-of-the-Art Review on Crystallization Control Technologies for water/LiBr Absorption Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Kai [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Kisari, Padmaja [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The key technical barrier to using water/lithium bromide (LiBr) as the working fluid in aircooled absorption chillers and absorption heat-pump systems is the risk of crystallization when the absorber temperature rises at fixed evaporating pressure. This article reviews various crystallization control technologies available to resolve this problem: chemical inhibitors, heat and mass transfer enhancement methods, thermodynamic cycle modifications, and absorption system-control strategies. Other approaches, such as boosting absorber pressure and J-tube technology, are reviewed as well. This review can help guide future efforts to develop water/LiBr air-cooled absorption chillers and absorption heatpump systems.

  20. Studies of Water Absorption Behavior of Plant Fibers at Different Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, Dip

    2010-05-01

    Moisture absorption of natural fiber plastic composites is one major concern in their outdoor applications. The absorbed moisture has many detrimental effects on the mechanical performance of these composites. A knowledge of the moisture diffusivity, permeability, and solubility is very much essential for the application of natural fibers as an excellent reinforcement in polymers. An effort has been made to study the water absorption behavior of some natural fibers such as bowstring hemp, okra, and betel nut at different temperatures to improve the long-term performance of composites reinforced with these fibers. The gain in moisture content in the fibers due to water absorption was measured as a function of exposure time at temperatures ranging from 300 K to 340 K. The thermodynamic parameters of the sorption process, such as diffusion coefficients and corresponding activation energies, were estimated.

  1. Effects of Thinning Intensities on Soil Infiltration and Water Storage Capacity in a Chinese Pine-Oak Mixed Forest

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lili; Yuan, Zhiyou; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Dexiang; Mu, Xingmin

    2014-01-01

    Thinning is a crucial practice in the forest ecosystem management. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest under three different thinning intensity treatments (15%, 30%, and 60%) were studied in Qinling Mountains of China. The thinning operations had a significant influence on soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity in different thinning treatments followed the order of control (nonthinning): <60%, <15%, and <30%. It demonstrated that thinning operation with 30% intensity can substantially improve soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest in Qinling Mountains. The soil initial infiltration rate, stable infiltration rate, and average infiltration rate in thinning 30% treatment were significantly increased by 21.1%, 104.6%, and 60.9%, compared with the control. The soil maximal water storage capacity and noncapillary water storage capacity in thinning 30% treatment were significantly improved by 20.1% and 34.3% in contrast to the control. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity were significantly higher in the surface layer (0~20?cm) than in the deep layers (20~40?cm and 40~60?cm). We found that the soil property was closely related to soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity. PMID:24883372

  2. Options to Protect Small Capacity Wells Lorrie Benson, J.D., Assistant Director, Nebraska Water Center, University of Nebraska

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Options to Protect Small Capacity Wells Lorrie Benson, J.D., Assistant Director, Nebraska Water Center, University of Nebraska Issue: Small capacity well (primarily used to supply water to homes: · Well needs maintenance. · Inadequate groundwater available. May be caused by: o Competition from other

  3. Temperature dependence of partial molar heat capacities of binary critical mixtures: Study of the system isobutyric acid\\/water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Pelger; H. Klein; D. Woermann

    1981-01-01

    Data of the temperature dependence of partial molar heat capacities of isobutyric acid and water near the critical point are reported. It is found that the singular part of the partial molar heat capacity of isobutyric acid in a critical mixture has a positive sign whereas that of water has a negative sign. A relationship between the critical amplitudes of

  4. Effect of crop sequence, soil sample location and depth on soil water holding capacity under center pivot irrigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yousef A. Al-Rumikhani

    2002-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the changes that may occur to the soil water holding capacity under center pivot irrigation systems when grown with different crop patterns over a long period of time. The changes of water holding capacity were checked as affected by crop location and depth. The study was carried out in a dominantly sandy loam

  5. Water-controlled wealth of nations: Using Water Footprints to Estimate Nations Carrying Capacities and Demographic Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suweis, Samir; Rinaldo, Andrea; Maritan, Amos; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    Population growth is in general constrained by food production, which in turn depends on the access to water resources. At a country level, some populations use more water than they control because of their ability to import food and the virtual water required for its production. Here, we investigate the dependence of demographic growth on available water resources for exporting and importing nations. By quantifying the carrying capacity of nations based on calculations of the virtual water available through the food trade network, we point to the existence of a global water unbalance. We suggest that current export rates will not be maintained and consequently we question the long-run sustainability of the food trade system as a whole. Water rich regions are likely to soon reduce the amount of virtual water they export, thus leaving import-dependent regions without enough water to sustain their populations. We also investigate the potential impact of possible scenarios that might mitigate these effects through (1) cooperative interactions among nations whereby water rich countries maintain a tiny fraction of their food production available for export; (2) changes in consumption patterns; and (3) a positive feedback between demographic growth and technological innovations. We find that these strategies may indeed reduce the vulnerability of water-controlled societies.

  6. Measurement of lead in drinking water by atomic absorption spectrometry with Dithizone extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guo Dong Mao; Craig C. Foreback

    1997-01-01

    A rapid and reproducible procedure is described for pre?concentrating lead in drinking water. 10 ml of water sample is adjusted to alkaline pH and extracted with 5 ml of 0.01% dithizone in chloroform. Chloroform phase is then washed and evaporated to dryness. Dithizone chelated lead is re?extracted into 2 ml of 5% HNO3 and analyzed by Perkin?Elmer atomic absorption spectrometer

  7. EFFECT OF WATER ABSORPTION, POROSITY AND SORPTIVITY ON DURABILITY OF GEOPOLYMER MORTARS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suresh Thokchom; Partha Ghosh; Somnath Ghosh

    An experimental program was carried out to study the effect of water absorption, apparent porosity and sorptivity on durability of fly ash based geopolymer mortar specimens in sulphuric acid solution. Low calcium Class F fly ash was activated by a mixture of NaOH and Na2SiO3 containing 5% to 8% Na2O with water to fly ash ratio of 0.33.The durability of

  8. Preliminary observations of water movement in cement pastes during curing using X-ray absorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. P Bentz; K. K Hansen

    2000-01-01

    X-ray absorption and concurrent mass measurements are used in quantifying water movement in 4 to 5 mm thick cement paste specimens with their top surface exposed to drying. Experimental variables examined in this preliminary study include water-to-cement (w\\/c) ratio and open vs. capped samples. Layered specimens (e.g., 0.3 w\\/c ratio paste over 0.45 w\\/c ratio paste) are also examined to

  9. Electronic structure of liquid water from polarization-dependent two-photon absorption spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Elles, Christopher G.; Rivera, Christopher A.; Zhang, Yuyuan; Pieniazek, Piotr A.; Bradforth, Stephen E.

    2009-02-26

    Two-photon absorption (2PA) spectroscopy in the range from 7 to 10 eV provides new insight on the electronic structure of liquid water. Continuous 2PA spectra are obtained via the pump-probe technique, using broadband probe pulses to record...

  10. Water absorption and porosity of repair mortars used in loss compensation in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Török, Ákos; Szemerey-Kiss, Balázs

    2015-04-01

    The water absorption properties and porosity of repair mortars were studied under laboratory conditions. Commercially available repair mortars and laboratory made mixtures containing different binder aggregate ratio were prepared. The main aim of this study was to compare the hygric properties of repair mortars and porous Hungarian limestone in order to assess their compatibility. 50% of limestone aggregate of 1-2 mm in size, was added to both the commercially available repair mortars and to the laboratory mixtures. Water absorption properties of the pure repair mortars were compared to the ones with aggregate and to the ones of the porous limestone. Porosity of the pure porous limestone was in the order of 33-36 wt%, while that of the pure repair mortars were in between 25-30%. Experiments aimed to increase the porosity of the repair mortars by adding aggregate. Studied repair mortars with 50% of porous limestone aggregate had still much lower water absorption than that of the porous limestone with one exception. With adding aggregates the porosity of repair mortars increased but the pore-size distribution was not shifted to the macro-pore range that is a typical feature of the porous limestone. Thus the water absorption properties of the repair mortars did not show appropriate change even after adding porous limestone as an aggregate.

  11. Alpha and beta adrenergic agonists stimulate water absorption in the rat proximal tubule

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward J. Weinman; Steven C. Sansom; Thomas F. Knight; Harry O. Senekjian

    1982-01-01

    Summary Simultaneous capillary and luminal microperfusion studies were performed in the rat proximal tubule to determine the effects of the beta agonist isoproterenol and the alpha agonist phenylephrine on water absorption. Capillary and luminal perfusion solutions were composed such that organic solutes were not present, no bicarbonate was present in the lumen, and no chloride gradient was imposed. Under such

  12. Ultraviolet-visible absorptive features of water extractable and humic fractions of animal manure and compost

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    UV-vis spectroscopy is a useful tool for characterizing water extractable or humic fractions of natural organic matter (WEOM). Whereas the whole UV-visible spectra of these fractions are more or less featureless, the specific UV absorptivity at 254 and 280 nm as well as spectral E2/E3 and E4/E6 rat...

  13. Radiation modification of water absorption of cassava starch by acrylic acid/acrylamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiatkamjornwong, Suda; Chomsaksakul, Wararuk; Sonsuk, Manit

    2000-10-01

    Graft copolymerizations of acrylamide and/or acrylic acid onto cassava starch by a simultaneous irradiation technique using gamma-rays as the initiator were studied with regard to various parameters of importance: the monomer-to-cassava starch ratio, total dose (kGy), dose rate (kGy h -1), acrylamide-to-acrylic acid ratio, and the addition of nitric acid and maleic acid as the additives. Grafting parameters were determined in relation to the water absorption of the saponified graft copolymer. The water absorption of the saponified graft copolymer in salt and buffer solutions of different ionic strengths was also measured, from which the superabsorbent properties are found to be pH sensitive. The starch graft copolymers of acrylamide and acrylic acid give higher water absorption than the starch graft copolymers of either acrylamide or acrylic acid alone. The porosity of the saponified starch graft copolymers prepared by the acrylamide/acrylic acid ratios of 70:30 and 50:50 was much higher than the porosity of copolymers in terms of fine networks. Ionic strength and multi-oxidation states of the saline and buffer solutions markedly decreased the water absorption of the saponified cassava starch grafted superabsorbent polymers.

  14. TPS/PCL composite reinforced with treated sisal fibers: property, biodegradation and water-absorption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sisal fibers bleached with sodium-hydroxide followed by hydrogen peroxide treatment were incorporated in a thermoplastic starch;-polycaprolactone (TPS/PCL) blend via extrusion processing and examined for their property, biodegradability and water-absorption. Scanning electron microscopy revealed wel...

  15. Atmospheric water vapor estimate by a differential absorption technique with the POLDER instrument

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bouffies; D. Tanre; F. M. Breon; P. Dubuisson

    1995-01-01

    The POLDER (polarization and directionality of the earth reflectances) instrument, to be launched in 1996 on the Japanese ADEOS platform, includes a channel which covers the 910 nm water-vapor absorption band (near IR), as well as a channel at 865 nm. It is expected that the ratio of the two reflectance measurements can yield an estimate of the total atmospheric

  16. IR Absorption Coefficients for the Quantification of Water in Hydrous Ringwoodite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Thomas; S. D. Jacobsen; C. R. Bina; J. R. Smyth; D. J. Frost

    2009-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy, combined with the `Comparator technique' has been developed to determine water contents ranging from a few wt ppm to wt% in glasses and nominally anhydrous minerals including garnets, olivine, and SiO2 polymorphs (Thomas et al. 2009). The routine is one promising example of quantification tools to determine mineral specific molar absorption coefficients (?) for IR spectroscopy. Mineral specific

  17. IR Absorption Coefficients for the Quantification of Water in Hydrous Ringwoodite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvia-Monique Thomas; Steven D. Jacobsen; Craig R. Bina; Joseph R. Smyth; Daniel J. Frost

    2010-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy, combined with the 'Comparator technique' has been developed to determine water contents ranging from a few wt ppm to wt% in glasses and nominally anhydrous minerals including garnets, olivine, and SiO2 polymorphs (Thomas et al. 2009). The routine is one promising example of quantification tools to determine mineral specific molar absorption coefficients (?) for IR spectroscopy. Mineral specific

  18. DETERMINING BERYLLIUM IN DRINKING WATER BY GRAPHITE FURNACE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A direct graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy method for the analysis of beryllium in drinking water has been derived from a method for determining beryllium in urine. Ammonium phosphomolybdate and ascorbic acid were employed as matrix modifiers. The matrix modifiers s...

  19. Simulation of solar lithium bromide–water absorption cooling system with parabolic trough collector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mazloumi; M. Naghashzadegan; K. Javaherdeh

    2008-01-01

    Ahwaz is one of the sweltering cities in Iran where an enormous amount of energy is being consumed to cool residential places in a year. The aim of this research is to simulate a solar single effect lithium bromide–water absorption cooling system in Ahwaz. The solar energy is absorbed by a horizontal N–S parabolic trough collector and stored in an

  20. Baking loss of bread with special emphasis on increasing water holding capacity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Kotoki; S. C. Deka

    2010-01-01

    Potato flour (PF), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and honey were used as baking agents and their effects on baking loss\\u000a and sensory quality were studied. PF at 1, 2 and 4% levels decreased baking loss followed by HPMC and honey. Water absorption\\u000a was substantially high with the HPMC (70.8–80.8%) and PF (61.7–71.7%) compared to honey and normal standard bread. PF incorporation

  1. Changes in Terrestrial Water Storage Capacity and Flood Potential Using GRACE and GLDAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reager, J. T.; Famiglietti, J.

    2008-12-01

    A comparison of GRACE-based terrestrial water storage estimates with time-integrated precipitation observations at a basin scale demonstrates the water retention in a basin relative to the water input. What we see over the GRACE record length are maxima in water storage that fall short of maxima in cumulative precipitation. This suggests some saturation point for a given basin at which additional precipitation must be met by marked increases in runoff or evaporation. Like a bucket that has reached its full volume, these annual saturation periods mark the possible transition to a flood-prone situation. In some basins, these observed storage maxima under precipitation excess vary interannually, making floods more likely in certain years. In order to understand this changing storage capacity, available observations and model outputs of terrestrial water storage, precipitation and temperature are considered over interannual periods.

  2. Predicting inhomogeneous water absorption in an ionic diblock polymer membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Daniel; Witten, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Fuel cells convert fuel directly into electrical power. Their performance depends on a permeable (yet strong) membrane to allow ion conduction (while preventing combustion). Anion-exchange membrane fuel-cells are especially economical to produce, but technological hurdles currently limit durability and OH- conductivity of the membrane. One solution to these problems is a diblock morphology. Layers of stiff hydrophobic polymer provide structure, while interspersed layers of polyelectrolyte provide avenues for conduction. Previously, little was known about the structure within the conducting layer. We adapted Scheutjens-Fleer polymer-brush theory to a lamellar geometry. The calculation tells where the polyelectrolytes congregate within a lamella, and hence how conduction occurs. This talk focuses on a new diblock material, PMB-PVBTMA. We show how the features of the material determine the intra-lamellar structure. We conclude that at low humidity, the bulkiness of PVBTMA causes it to adopt a near-uniform distribution within the conducting block. At high humidity, however, a phase separation may induce abrupt water channels. Understanding the architecture within the conducting layer will help guide research into better anion-exchange membranes materials. Fuel cells convert fuel directly into electrical power. Their performance depends on a permeable (yet strong) membrane to allow ion conduction (while preventing combustion). Anion-exchange membrane fuel-cells are especially economical to produce, but technological hurdles currently limit durability and OH- conductivity of the membrane. One solution to these problems is a diblock morphology. Layers of stiff hydrophobic polymer provide structure, while interspersed layers of polyelectrolyte provide avenues for conduction. Previously, little was known about the structure within the conducting layer. We adapted Scheutjens-Fleer polymer-brush theory to a lamellar geometry. The calculation tells where the polyelectrolytes congregate within a lamella, and hence how conduction occurs. This talk focuses on a new diblock material, PMB-PVBTMA. We show how the features of the material determine the intra-lamellar structure. We conclude that at low humidity, the bulkiness of PVBTMA causes it to adopt a near-uniform distribution within the conducting block. At high humidity, however, a phase separation may induce abrupt water channels. Understanding the architecture within the conducting layer will help guide research into better anion-exchange membranes materials. The authors would like to thank the Army Research Office for support of this research under the MURI #W911NF-10-1-0520.

  3. The impact of water flow configuration on crystallisation in LiBr/H2O absorption water heater

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Kai [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

    2011-03-01

    Lithium Bromide (LiBr) strong solution entering the absorber tends to crystallise when the absorber temperature is increased for a fixed evaporating pressure. This is considered the key technical barrier for the development of a LiBr absorption heat pump water heater. There are several approaches to avoid the crystallisation problem, such as chemical crystallisation inhibitors, heat and mass transfer enhancement and thermodynamic cycle modification. This paper investigates and compares two flow configurations of LiBr absorption heat pump water heater to evaluate the allowable operating conditions for each. The simulation results indicated that introducing the process water through the absorber first results in lower absorber temperature and hence less tendency for crystallisation.

  4. Control of water absorption and its effect on interlaminar shear strength of CFRC with Al 2O 3 dispersion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manwar Hussain; Koichi Niihara

    1999-01-01

    In this study the effect of water absorption on interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites (CFRC) and micro or nano sized Al2O3 particle dispersed carbon fiber hybrid reinforced composites (CFHRC) was investigated. Different weight change profiles were observed depending on experimental temperature and water absorption time. A clear drop of interlaminar shear strength was confirmed due

  5. An experimental integrated absorption heat pump effluent purification system. Part I: operating on water\\/lithium bromide solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Santoyo-Gutiérrez; J. Siqueiros; C. L. Heard; E. Santoyo; F. A. Holland

    1999-01-01

    The merits of single stage absorption heat pumps coupled to simple distillation for effluent treatment are discussed. An experimental integrated absorption heat pump effluent purification system (IAHPEPS) was built and operated with water–lithium bromide as a working mixture. This unit has been used to raise the temperature and hence, the vapour pressure of the impure water contained in one vessel,

  6. Effect of curing agent polarity on water absorption and free volume in epoxy resin studied by PALS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junjun Wang; Jing Gong; Zhenli Gong; Xiaoli Yan; Bo Wang; Qili Wu; Shanjun Li

    2010-01-01

    Microstructure and water absorption were systematically studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS), gravimetric measurements and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) for epoxy resins DER331 (E51) cured with three different kinds of amine curing agents DDS, DDM and MOCA. Experimental results indicated that the water absorption as a function of immersed time could be well fitted to Fick’s second law. Based

  7. Bathymetric surveys and area/capacity tables of water-supply reservoirs for the city of Cameron, Missouri, July 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Years of sediment accumulation and dry conditions in recent years have led to the decline of water levels and capacities for many water-supply reservoirs in Missouri, and have caused renewed interest in modernizing outdated area/capacity tables for these reservoirs. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, surveyed the bathymetry of the four water-supply reservoirs used by the city of Cameron, Missouri, in July 2013. The data were used to provide water managers with area/capacity tables and bathymetric maps of the reservoirs at the time of the surveys.

  8. Finite element analysis and modeling of water absorption by date pits during a soaking process

    PubMed Central

    Waezi-Zadeh, Motahareh; Ghazanfari, Ahmad; Noorbakhsh, Shahin

    2010-01-01

    Date pits for feed preparation or oil extraction are soaked in water to soften before milling or extrusion. Knowledge of water absorption by the date pits helps in better managing the soaking duration. In this research, the process of water absorption by date pits was modeled and analyzed using Fick’s second law of diffusion, finite element approach, and Peleg model. The moisture content of the pits reached to its saturation level of 41.5% (wet basis) after 10 d. The estimated coefficient of diffusion was 9.89×10?12 m2/s. The finite element model with a proposed ellipsoid geometry for a single date pit and the analytical model fitted better to the experimental data with R 2 of 0.98. The former model slightly overestimated the moisture content of the pits during the initial stages of the soaking and the latter model generally underestimated this variable through the entire stages of soaking process. PMID:20593512

  9. Measurement methods in trace water vapor concentration detection system based on direct absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, G. P.; Chang, J.; Zhang, S. S.; Wang, Q. P.; Liu, Y. N.; Liu, Z.; Wang, Q.; Wang, W. J.; Wang, Z. L.; Jiang, S.; Zhu, C. G.; Wei, W.

    2013-09-01

    In trace water vapor direct absorption spectroscopy, the absorption signal is buried in noise and up and downs of the light intensity, an effective signal extraction method is vital. In the basis of double-beam differential absorption, division method in voltage and an approach based on balanced ratiometer detection (BRD) were studied. Voltage division has an excellent stability to temperature variation, mechanical extrusion and fiber bend loss. As to the BRD method, it has an outstanding self-adjusting capability and it can also avoid an excess phase difference caused by current-to-voltage converting circuit, thus this method has a high sensitivity. Furthermore, a so called dual-peak method based on the differential value of two adjacent absorption lines is introduced, the differential value proved has a linear relation with water vapor concentration, and this method provides a way to measure the concentration at high pressure. In addition, the influence of water vapor inside the optical components has been discussed.

  10. Water quality and holding capacity of intensive and semi-intensive milkfish (Chanos chanos) ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neila S. Sumagaysay-Chavosoa

    This study determined the holding capacity of semi-intensive and intensive milkfish ponds and water quality in relation to fish biomass and feed input. Six units of 1000 m2 brackishwater ponds were used, three ponds for intensive system (20,000 fish ha? 1) and three for semi-intensive system (8000 fish ha? 1). Average production was significantly higher in intensive pond (3652 kg

  11. 30 CFR 75.1107-7 - Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    (a) Where water spray devices are used on unattended underground equipment the rate of flow shall be at least 0.25 gallon per minute per square foot over the top surface area of the equipment and the supply of water shall be adequate to provide the required flow of water for 10...

  12. Determination of traces of silver in waters by anion exchange and atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, T.T.; Fishman, M.J.; Ball, J.W.

    1969-01-01

    A method has been developed for the accurate determination of 0.1-1 ??g of silver per liter of water. The method permits stabilization of silver in water without loss to container walls. Optimum conditions have been established for the complete recovery of silver from water with an anion-exchange column, for quantitative elution of silver from the resin, and for measurement of silver by atomic absorption spectrophotometry after chelation with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and extraction of the chelate with MIBK. Silver in the 1-10 ??g 1 range can be determined by extraction without pre-concentration on an ion-exchange resin. ?? 1969.

  13. Optimization of industrial structure based on water environmental carrying capacity in Tieling City.

    PubMed

    Yue, Qiang; Hou, Limin; Wang, Tong; Wang, Liusuo; Zhu, Yue; Wang, Xiu; Cheng, Xilei

    2015-01-01

    A system dynamics optimization model of the industrial structure of Tieling City based on water environmental carrying capacity has been established. This system is divided into the following subsystems: water resources, economics, population, contaminants, and agriculture and husbandry. Three schemes were designed to simulate the model from 2011 to 2020, and these schemes were compared to obtain an optimal social and economic development model in Tieling City. Policy recommendations on industrial structure optimization based on the optimal solution provide scientific decision-making advice to develop a strong and sustainable economy in Tieling. PMID:25909738

  14. Water treatment capacity of forward osmosis systems utilizing power plant waste heat

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhou, Xingshi [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Gingerich, Daniel B. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Mauter, Meagan S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-06-11

    Forward osmosis (FO) has the potential to improve the energy efficiency of membrane-based water treatment by leveraging waste heat from steam electric power generation as the primary driving force for separation. In this study, we develop a comprehensive FO process model, consisting of membrane separation, heat recovery, and draw solute regeneration (DSR) models. We quantitatively characterize three alternative processes for DSR: distillation, steam stripping, and air stripping. We then construct a mathematical model of the distillation process for DSR that incorporates hydrodynamics, mass and heat transport resistances, and reaction kinetics, and we integrate this into a model for the full FO process. Finally, we utilize this FO process model to derive a first-order approximation of the water production capacity given the rejected heat quantity and quality available at U.S. electric power facilities. We find that the upper bound of FO water treatment capacity using low-grade heat sources at electric power facilities exceeds process water treatment demand for boiler water make-up and flue gas desulfurization wastewater systems.

  15. Aggregating available soil water holding capacity data for crop yield models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seubert, C. E.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Holt, D. A.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    The total amount of water available to plants that is held against gravity in a soil is usually estimated as the amount present at -0.03 MPa average water potential minus the amount present at -1.5 MPa water potential. This value, designated available water-holding capacity (AWHC), is a very important soil characteristic that is strongly and positively correlated to the inherent productivity of soils. In various applications, including assessing soil moisture status over large areas, it is necessary to group soil types or series as to their productivity. Current methods to classify AWHC of soils consider only total capacity of soil profiles and thus may group together soils which differ greatly in AWHC as a function of depth in the profile. A general approach for evaluating quantitatively the multidimensional nature of AWHC in soils is described. Data for 902 soil profiles, representing 184 soil series, in Indiana were obtained from the Soil Characterization Laboratory at Purdue University. The AWHC for each of ten 150-mm layers in each soil was established, based on soil texture and parent material. A multivariate clustering procedure was used to classify each soil profile into one of 4, 8, or 12 classes based upon ten-dimensional AWHC values. The optimum number of classes depends on the range of AWHC in the population of oil profiles analyzed and on the sensitivity of a crop to differences in distribution of water within the soil profile.

  16. Water treatment capacity of forward osmosis systems utilizing power plant waste heat

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhou, Xingshi; Gingerich, Daniel B.; Mauter, Meagan S.

    2015-06-11

    Forward osmosis (FO) has the potential to improve the energy efficiency of membrane-based water treatment by leveraging waste heat from steam electric power generation as the primary driving force for separation. In this study, we develop a comprehensive FO process model, consisting of membrane separation, heat recovery, and draw solute regeneration (DSR) models. We quantitatively characterize three alternative processes for DSR: distillation, steam stripping, and air stripping. We then construct a mathematical model of the distillation process for DSR that incorporates hydrodynamics, mass and heat transport resistances, and reaction kinetics, and we integrate this into a model for the fullmore »FO process. Finally, we utilize this FO process model to derive a first-order approximation of the water production capacity given the rejected heat quantity and quality available at U.S. electric power facilities. We find that the upper bound of FO water treatment capacity using low-grade heat sources at electric power facilities exceeds process water treatment demand for boiler water make-up and flue gas desulfurization wastewater systems.« less

  17. Structural features and water holding capacities of pressed potato fibre polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Urmila R; Kabel, Mirjam A; Schols, Henk A; Gruppen, Harry

    2013-04-01

    Pressed potato fibre (PPF) has a high water holding capacity (WHC) affecting its processing as an animal feed. The aim of this study was to characterize cell wall polysaccharides (CWPs) in PPF and investigate their WHC. This was done via sequential extractions. Half of all CWPs were recovered in the hot buffer soluble solids extract as pectins (uronic acid and rhamnose) and galactans wherein most pectins (76%) from PPF were water soluble. Most likely, the network of CWPs is loosened during processing of potatoes. PPF showed a WHC of 7.4 expressed as the amount of water held per g of dry matter (mL/g). Reconstituting hot buffer soluble solids with buffer insoluble solids in water gave a WHC comparable to that of PPF. Removal of alkali soluble solids, which mainly comprised xyloglucans, lowered the WHC of the final residue. The results indicated that interactions between CWPs could affect the WHC of PPF. PMID:23499100

  18. Water vapor absorption coefficients in the 8-13-micron spectral region - A critical review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, William B.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of water vapor absorption coefficients in the thermal IR atmospheric window (8-13 microns) during the past 20 years obtained by a variety of techniques are reviewed for consistency and compared with computed values based on the AFGL spectral data tapes. The methods of data collection considered were atmospheric long path absorption with a CO2 laser or a broadband source and filters, a White cell and a CO2 laser or a broadband source and a spectrometer, and a spectrophone with a CO2 laser. Advantages and disadvantages of each measurement approach are given as a guide to further research. Continuum absorption has apparently been measured accurately to about the 5-10 percent level in five of the measurements reported.

  19. Correction of water vapor absorption for aerosol remote sensing with ceilometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegner, M.; Gasteiger, J.

    2015-06-01

    In recent years attention was increasingly paid to backscatter profiles of ceilometers as a new source of aerosol information. Several case studies have shown that - although originally intended for cloud detection only - ceilometers can provide the planetary boundary layer height and even quantitative information such as the aerosol backscatter coefficient ?p, provided that the signals have been calibrated. It is expected that the retrieval of aerosol parameters will become widespread as the number of ceilometers is steadily increasing, and continuous and unattended operation is provided. In this context however one should be aware of the fact that the majority of ceilometers emit wavelengths that are influenced by atmospheric water vapor. As a consequence, profiles of aerosol parameters can only be retrieved if water vapor absorption is taken into account. In this paper we describe the influence of water vapor absorption on ceilometer signals at wavelengths in the range around ? = 910 nm. Spectrally high resolved absorption coefficients are calculated from HITRAN on the basis of realistic emission spectra of ceilometers. These results are used as reference to develop a methodology ("WAPL") for routine and near real time corrections of the water vapor influence. Comparison of WAPL with the reference demonstrates its very high accuracy. Extensive studies with simulations based on measurements reveal that the error when water vapor absorption is ignored in the ?p retrieval can be in the order of 20 % for mid-latitudes and more than 50 % for the tropics. It is concluded that the emission spectrum of the laser source should be provided by the manufacturer to increase the accuracy of WAPL, and that 910 nm is better suited than 905 nm. With WAPL systematic errors can be avoided, that would exceed the inherent random errors of the Klett solutions by far.

  20. Polder Effects on Sediment-to-Soil Conversion: Water Table, Residual Available Water Capacity, and Salt Stress Interdependence

    PubMed Central

    Radimy, Raymond Tojo; Dudoignon, Patrick; Hillaireau, Jean Michel; Deboute, Elise

    2013-01-01

    The French Atlantic marshlands, reclaimed since the Middle Age, have been successively used for extensive grazing and more recently for cereal cultivation from 1970. The soils have acquired specific properties which have been induced by the successive reclaiming and drainage works and by the response of the clay dominant primary sediments, that is, structure, moisture, and salinity profiles. Based on the whole survey of the Marais Poitevin and Marais de Rochefort and in order to explain the mechanisms of marsh soil behavior, the work focuses on two typical spots: an undrained grassland since at least 1964 and a drained cereal cultivated field. The structure-hydromechanical profiles relationships have been established thanks to the clay matrix shrinkage curve. They are confronted to the hydraulic functioning including the fresh-to-salt water transfers and to the recording of tensiometer profiles. The CE1/5 profiles supply the water geochemical and geophysical data by their better accuracy. Associated to the available water capacity calculation they allow the representation of the parallel evolution of the residual available water capacity profiles and salinity profiles according to the plant growing and rooting from the mesophile systems of grassland to the hygrophile systems of drained fields. PMID:23990758

  1. Effects of rainfall seasonality and soil moisture capacity on mean annual water balance for Australian catchments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Potter, N.J.; Zhang, L.; Milly, P.C.D.; McMahon, T.A.; Jakeman, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    An important factor controlling catchment-scale water balance is the seasonal variation of climate. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the seasonal distributions of water and energy, and their interactions with the soil moisture store, on mean annual water balance in Australia at catchment scales using a stochastic model of soil moisture balance with seasonally varying forcing. The rainfall regime at 262 catchments around Australia was modeled as a Poisson process with the mean storm arrival rate and the mean storm depth varying throughout the year as cosine curves with annual periods. The soil moisture dynamics were represented by use of a single, finite water store having infinite infiltration capacity, and the potential evapotranspiration rate was modeled as an annual cosine curve. The mean annual water budget was calculated numerically using a Monte Carlo simulation. The model predicted that for a given level of climatic aridity the ratio of mean annual evapotranspiration to rainfall was larger where the potential evapotranspiration and rainfall were in phase, that is, in summer-dominant rainfall catchments, than where they were out of phase. The observed mean annual evapotranspiration ratios have opposite results. As a result, estimates of mean annual evapotranspiration from the model compared poorly with observational data. Because the inclusion of seasonally varying forcing alone was not sufficient to explain variability in the mean annual water balance, other catchment properties may play a role. Further analysis showed that the water balance was highly sensitive to the catchment-scale soil moisture capacity. Calibrations of this parameter indicated that infiltration-excess runoff might be an important process, especially for the summer-dominant rainfall catchments; most similar studies have shown that modeling of infiltration-excess runoff is not required at the mean annual timescale. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. [Determination of trace cobalt in water samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after cloud point].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Luo, Wen-hong; Li, Hui

    2005-04-01

    In buffer solution of citric acid monohydrate-disodium hydrogen phosphate at pH 5-7.5, cobalt water samples were chelated by 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) to form Co-PAN. After water-bath at 66 degrees C for two hours, Co-PAN is extracted into Triton X-100 nonionic surfactant phase and separated from bulk water. Extracted cobalt content was measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The surfactant phase separated was treated with 0.5% HNO3-0.1% Pd(NO3)2 to remove background interference at 1200 degrees C temperature. The pre-concentration of cobalt in water samples permitted the detection of 0.003 microg x L(-1) (10sigma) with the enhancement factor of 100. The recoveries were 90.5%-106%. The proposed method was applied to the determination of cobalt in water samples and satisfactory results were obtained. PMID:16097690

  3. Water vapour absorption in the clear atmosphere of a Neptune-sized exoplanet.

    PubMed

    Fraine, Jonathan; Deming, Drake; Benneke, Bjorn; Knutson, Heather; Jordán, Andrés; Espinoza, Néstor; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Wilkins, Ashlee; Todorov, Kamen

    2014-09-25

    Transmission spectroscopy has so far detected atomic and molecular absorption in Jupiter-sized exoplanets, but intense efforts to measure molecular absorption in the atmospheres of smaller (Neptune-sized) planets during transits have revealed only featureless spectra. From this it was concluded that the majority of small, warm planets evolve to sustain atmospheres with high mean molecular weights (little hydrogen), opaque clouds or scattering hazes, reducing our ability to observe the composition of these atmospheres. Here we report observations of the transmission spectrum of the exoplanet HAT-P-11b (which has a radius about four times that of Earth) from the optical wavelength range to the infrared. We detected water vapour absorption at a wavelength of 1.4 micrometres. The amplitude of the water absorption (approximately 250 parts per million) indicates that the planetary atmosphere is predominantly clear down to an altitude corresponding to about 1 millibar, and sufficiently rich in hydrogen to have a large scale height (over which the atmospheric pressure varies by a factor of e). The spectrum is indicative of a planetary atmosphere in which the abundance of heavy elements is no greater than about 700 times the solar value. This is in good agreement with the core-accretion theory of planet formation, in which a gas giant planet acquires its atmosphere by accreting hydrogen-rich gas directly from the protoplanetary nebula onto a large rocky or icy core. PMID:25254473

  4. Accelerated Capacity Development in Water Resources Education: the experiences of the Ethiopian Institute of Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alamirew, T.; Mekonnen, G.; Viglione, A.

    2012-04-01

    Ethiopia recently recognises that the water resources development is the major entry point in poverty alleviation and sustainable development. Water in Ethiopia plays a key role in the Water-Energy-Food-nexus. Over 98% of the electricity in the country is generated using hydropower and yet about 2000 MW has been developed. Out of the 3.5 Mha potentially irrigable land, only 0.25 Mha has been developed to date. Access to drinking water supply coverage is among the lowest in the world. One of the limiting factors in harnessing the resource base is the absence of water professionals to face the fast growing demand in education, research, development in the water sector. Recognising this, in collaboration with University of Connecticut of the United States, Addis Ababa University launched the Ethiopian Institute of Water Resources (EIWR) by enrolling 18 PhD and 24 MSc students. The program is unique in that much of the course instructors are coming from US and European Universities, but deliver courses together with Ethiopian collaborators. This is supposed to facilitate knowledge and experience transfer from the US/EU scientist to Ethiopian counterparts. The theses/dissertations are designed to focus on Ethiopia's immediate hydrological problems on selected basins, and will be coordinated by three advisors for each PhD - one from US/EU, one from Ethiopian Universities, and one water professional from the sector. We report here the lessons learned in setting up the EIWR institute and the education program.

  5. Nanosheet-structured boron nitride spheres with a versatile adsorption capacity for water cleaning.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Yu, Jie; Ji, Xixi; Qian, Muqi

    2015-01-28

    Here, we report the synthesis of nanosheet-structured boron nitride spheres (NSBNSs) by a catalyzing thermal evaporation method from solid B powders. The NSBNSs consist of radially oriented ultrathin nanosheets with the sheet edges oriented on the surface. Formation of this unique structure occurs only at a certain reaction temperature. The diameter from 4 ?m to 700 nm and the nanosheet thickness from 9.1 to 3.1 nm of the NSBNSs can be well-controlled by appropriately changing the mass ratio of boron powders and catalyst. The NSBNSs possess versatile adsorption capacity, exhibiting excellent adsorption performance for oil, dyes, and heavy metal ions from water. The oil uptake reaches 7.8 times its own weight. The adsorption capacities for malachite green and methylene blue are 324 and 233 mg/g, while those for Cu(2+), Pb(2+), and Cd(2+) are 678.7, 536.7, and 107.0 mg/g, respectively. The adsorption capacities of the NSBNSs for Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) are higher or much higher than those of the adsorbents reported previously. These results demonstrate the great potential of NSBNSs for water treatment and cleaning. PMID:25552343

  6. A structural approach to understanding the interactions between colour, water-holding capacity and tenderness.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J M; Oiseth, S K; Purslow, P P; Warner, R D

    2014-11-01

    The colour, water-holding capacity (WHC) and tenderness of meat are primary determinants of visual and sensory appeal. Although there are many factors which influence these quality traits, the end-results of their influence is often through key changes to the structure of muscle proteins and their spatial arrangement. Water acts as a plasticiser of muscle proteins and water is lost from the myofibrillar lattice structure as a result of protein denaturation and consequent reductions in the muscle fibre volume with increasing cooking temperature. Changes in the myofilament lattice arrangement also impact the light scattering properties and the perceived paleness of the meat. Causes of variation in the quality traits of raw meat do not generally correspond to variations in cooked meat and the differences observed between the raw muscle and cooked or further processed meat are discussed. The review will also identify the gaps in our knowledge and where further investigation would beneficial. PMID:25034451

  7. Effect of aspirin on intestinal absorption of glucose, sodium, and water in man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Arvanitakis; G H Chen; J Folscroft; N J Greenberger

    1977-01-01

    The effect of aspirin on small intestinal function in six healthy volunteers was examined using a segmental perfusion technique, with a test solution of 40 mM D-glucose, 140 mM NaCl, and 0-5% polyethylene glycol. Jejunal glucose, sodium, and water absorption rates were inhibited by 50% after oral administration of 2-6 g aspirin. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was assayed in jejunal

  8. Trait correlated expression combined with expression QTL analysis reveals biological pathways and candidate genes affecting water holding capacity of muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siriluck Ponsuksili; Elisabeth Jonas; Eduard Murani; Chirawath Phatsara; Tiranun Srikanchai; Christina Walz; Manfred Schwerin; Karl Schellander; Klaus Wimmers

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leakage of water and ions and soluble proteins from muscle cells occurs during prolonged exercise due to ischemia causing muscle damage. Also post mortem anoxia during conversion of muscle to meat is marked by loss of water and soluble components from the muscle cell. There is considerable variation in the water holding capacity of meat affecting economy of meat

  9. Investigation of the impact of water absorption on retinal OCT imaging in the 1060 nm range.

    PubMed

    Marschall, Sebastian; Pedersen, Christian; Andersen, Peter E

    2012-07-01

    Recently, the wavelength range around 1060 nm has become attractive for retinal imaging with optical coherence tomography (OCT), promising deep penetration into the retina and the choroid. The adjacent water absorption bands limit the useful bandwidth of broadband light sources, but until now, the actual limitation has not been quantified in detail. We have numerically investigated the impact of water absorption on the axial resolution and signal amplitude for a wide range of light source bandwidths and center wavelengths. Furthermore, we have calculated the sensitivity penalty for maintaining the optimal resolution by spectral shaping. As our results show, with currently available semiconductor-based light sources with up to 100-120 nm bandwidth centered close to 1060 nm, the resolution degradation caused by the water absorption spectrum is smaller than 10%, and it can be compensated by spectral shaping with negligible sensitivity penalty. With increasing bandwidth, the resolution degradation and signal attenuation become stronger, and the optimal operating point shifts towards shorter wavelengths. These relationships are important to take into account for the development of new broadband light sources for OCT. PMID:22808433

  10. Water vapor absorption spectra of the upper atmosphere /45-185 per cm/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augason, G. C.; Mord, A. J.; Witteborn, F. C.; Erickson, E. F.; Swift, C. D.; Caroff, L. J.; Kunz, L. W.

    1975-01-01

    The far IR nighttime absorption spectrum of the earth's atmosphere above 14 km is determined from observations of the bright moon. The spectra were obtained using a Michelson interferometer attached to a 30-cm telescope aboard a high-altitude jet aircraft. Comparison with a single-layer model atmosphere implies a vertical column of 3.4 plus or minus 0.4 microns of precipitable water on 30 August 1971 and 2.4 plus or minus 0.3 microns of precipitable water on 6 January 1972.-

  11. Water vapor absorption spectra of the upper atmosphere (45-185 cm(-1)).

    PubMed

    Augason, G C; Mord, A J; Witteborn, F C; Erickson, E F; Swift, C D; Caroff, L J; Kunz, L W

    1975-09-01

    The far ir nighttime absorption spectrum of the earth's atmosphere above 14 km is determined from observations of the bright moon. The spectra were obtained using a Michelson interferometer attached to a 30-cm telescope aboard a high-altitude jet aircraft. Comparison with a single-layer model atmosphere implies a vertical column of 3.4 +/- 0.4 mum of percipitable water on 30 August 1971 and 2.4 +/- 0.3 mum of precipitable water on 6 January 1972. PMID:20154976

  12. Determining beryllium in drinking water by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lytle, D.A.; Schock, M.R.; Dues, N.R.; Doerger, J.U.

    1993-01-01

    A direct graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy method for the analysis of beryllium in drinking water has been derived from a method for determining beryllium in urine. Ammonium phosphomolybdate and ascorbic acid were employed as matrix modifiers. The matrix modifiers successfully eliminated common chemical interferences in drinking water samples analyzed for beryllium content, as well as interferences encountered during jar testing of beryllium removal by alum coagulation. The method proved to be a simple, accurate, and precise alternative to the method of standard additions. Method detection limit was 0.09 microgram/l, with a linear calibration range of 0 to 6 microgram/l.

  13. Aging of Toughened Polylactic Acid Nanocomposites: Water Absorption, Hygrothermal Degradation and Soil Burial Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harintharavimal Balakrishnan; Azman Hassan; Muhammad Imran; Mat Uzir Wahit

    The environmental aging behaviour of montmorillonite (MMT) filled polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposites (PLA\\/MMT) and linear\\u000a low density polyethylene (LLDPE)-toughened PLA (PLA\\/LLDPE ratio = 90\\/10) nanocomposites (PLA\\/LLDPE\\/MMT) were investigated\\u000a in this study. The nanocomposites were subjected to water absorption, hygrothermal degradation and soil burial analysis. Both\\u000a PLA\\/MMT and PLA\\/LLDPE\\/MMT nanocomposites were immersed in distilled water at three different temperatures (room temperature,\\u000a 60, and

  14. The phase behavior and absorption spectra of the ternary system cobaltous chloride-water-acetonitrile 

    E-print Network

    Bobbitt, Jeffrey Lovett

    1967-01-01

    of the recuirements tor the d. egrce of PlASTER OF SCIENCE Nay 1967 Najor Subject: GHENISTRY THE PHASE BIEIAVIOR Al'TD ABSORPTION SPZCTR4 OF TIIE TERNARY SYSTZNi COBAI, TOUS C&ILORIDZ-WATZR-ACZTONITRIIR A Thesis by JEFFREY I OVl'TT B013BITT APProved... FIGURE F IGUP~& 4 FIGURZ 5 Zxpansion. of Phase Diagram in Region of High Acetonitrile Concentration . . 22 Expansion of Phase Diagram in Region of High Water Concentration Retangular Diagram of Ternary System Based on Cobaltous Chloride and Water...

  15. Capacity of an alluvial water sources due to climate change -case study of the Pek river catchment area - Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimkic, D.; Stankovic, B.; Pajic, P.; Prohaska, S.

    2012-04-01

    This paper present the results of the Study of Climate Change impacts on capacity of an alluvial water source (ALWS) - case study assumed two sources in the Pek river catchment area (C.A.). The study is done within the scope of the international project "Climate Change and Impacts on Water Supply in South East Europe" (CC Waters). Choosed Climate scenario is A1B. To have comparable results today and in the future, the ALWS setting is the same today and in the future (no new wells, no erosion, no siltation, and no morphological changes in the immediate environment). It is obtained that the ALWSs capacity will decrease in the next 100 years from about 10% to about 50% of the peresent capacity, depending on the large number of factors. After describing the used Methodology, the paper containts the Results of the Study and Conclusion with Discussion about some of the present uncertainities. KEYWORDS: Climate Change, alluvial water source, Pek river, capacity

  16. Local structures of methanol-water binary solutions studied by soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nagasaka, Masanari; Mochizuki, Kenji; Leloup, Valentin; Kosugi, Nobuhiro

    2014-04-24

    Liquid methanol shows one- and two-dimensional (1D/2D) hydrogen bond (HB) networks, and liquid water shows three-dimensional (3D) HB networks. We have clearly found three different local structures around the methyl group of methanol-water binary solutions (CH3OH)X(H2O)1-X at different concentrations in C K-edge soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). With the help of molecular dynamics simulations, we have discussed the concentration dependence of the hydrophobic interaction at the methyl group in the C K-edge XAS spectra. In the methanol-rich region I (1.0 > X > 0.7), a small amount of water molecules exists separately around dominant 1D/2D HB networks of methanol clusters. In the region II (0.7 > X > 0.3), the hydrophobic interaction of the methyl group is dominant due to the increase of mixed methanol-water 3D network structures. In the water-rich region III (0.3 > X > 0.05), methanol molecules are separately embedded in dominant 3D HB networks of water. On the other hand, the pre-edge feature in the O K-edge XAS shows almost linear concentration dependence. It means the HB interaction between methanol and water is almost the same as that of water-water and of methanol-methanol. PMID:24694018

  17. Absorption of water and solute from glucose-electrolyte solutions in the human jejunum: effect of citrate or betaine.

    PubMed

    Leiper, J B; Maughan, R J

    1989-11-01

    The inclusion in oral rehydration solutions of solutes that are actively co-transported with sodium has been suggested as a means of increasing the effect of glucose on water absorption by the small intestine. Using a modified perfusion system we have examined water and solute absorption in the normal human intestine from two effervescent glucose-electrolyte solutions, containing either citrate or betaine hydrochloride, and compared the absorption rates with those from a commonly used bicarbonate-containing oral rehydration solution. Absorption of citrate (355 +/- 87 mumol/cm/h) and betaine (313 +/- 125 mumol/cm/h) occurred from the respective solutions. The inclusion of 46 mmol/l citrate or 36 mmol/l betaine in effervescent oral rehydration solutions had no effect on water or solute absorption. PMID:2595270

  18. Carrying Capacity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-25

    This lesson helps students understand the notion of carrying capacity as it relates to ecosystems by considering an image of a bucket filled with water, and then filled with an "ecosystem." Students are asked to consider the factors on which carrying capacity is determined, and that a ecosystem's carrying capacity can change when certain variables are also changed.

  19. Enhancement of intestinal water absorption and sodium transport by glycerol in rats.

    PubMed

    Wapnir, R A; Sia, M C; Fisher, S E

    1996-12-01

    Glycerol (Gly) is a hydrophilic, absorbable, and energy-rich solute that could make water absorption more efficient. We investigated the use of Gly in a high-energy beverage containing corn syrup (CS) by using a small intestine perfusion procedure in the rat, an approach shown earlier to provide good preclinical information. The effectiveness of several formulations with Gly and CS was compared with commercial products and to experimental formulas where Gly substituted for glucose (Glc). The CS-Gly combination was more effective than preparations on the market containing sucrose and Glc-fructose syrups (G-P and G-L, respectively) in maintaining a net water absorption balance in the test jejunal segment [CS-Gly = 0.21 +/- 0.226, G-L = -1.516 +/- 0.467, and G-P = -0.299 +/- 0.106 (SE) microliter.min-1.cm-1 (P = 0.0113)] and in reducing sodium release into the lumen [CS-Gly = -133.2 +/- 16.2, G-L = -226.7 +/- 25.2, and G-P = -245.6 +/- 23.4 nmol.min-1.cm-1 (P = 0.0022)]. In other preparations, at equal CS concentrations (60 and 80 g/l, respectively), Gly clearly improved net water absorption over a comparable Glc-containing product [CS60-Gly = 0.422 +/- 0.136 and CS80-Gly = 0.666 +/- 0.378 vs. CS60-Glc = -0.282 +/- 0.200 and CS80-Glc = -1.046 +/- 0.480 microliters.min-1.cm-1 (P = 0.0019)]. On the basis of the data of this rat intestine perfusion model, Gly could be a useful ingredient in energy-rich beverages and might enhance fluid absorption in humans. PMID:9018501

  20. A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pegau, W. Scott; Cleveland, Joan S.; Doss, W.; Kennedy, C. Dan; Maffione, Robert A.; Mueller, James L.; Stone, R.; Trees, Charles C.; Weidemann, Alan D.; Wells, Willard H.

    1995-01-01

    In the spring of 1992 an optical closure experiment was conducted at Lake Pend Orielle, Idaho. A primary objective of the experiment was to compare techniques for the measurement of the spectral absorption coefficent and other inherent optical properties of natural waters. Daily averages of absorption coefficents measured using six methods are compared at wavelengths of 456, 488, and 532 nm. Overall agreement was within 40% at 456 nm and improved with increasing wavelength to 25% at 532 nm. These absorption measurements were distributed over the final 9 days of the experiement, when bio-optical conditions in Lake Pend Oreille (as indexed by the beam attenuation coefficent c(sub p)(660) and chlorophyll a fluorescence profiles) were representative of those observed throughout the experiment. However, profiles of stimulated chlorophyll a fluorescence and beam transmission showed that bio-optical properties in the lake varied strongly on all time and space scales. Therefore environmental variabilty contributed significantly to deviations between daily mean absorption coefficients measured using the different techniques.

  1. 30 CFR 75.1107-7 - Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment...internal injection and inundation system on attended equipment the...injection or combination-type system, the amount of water discharged...required to be discharged by the system, however, such quantity...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1107-7 - Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment...internal injection and inundation system on attended equipment the...injection or combination-type system, the amount of water discharged...required to be discharged by the system, however, such quantity...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1107-7 - Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment...internal injection and inundation system on attended equipment the...injection or combination-type system, the amount of water discharged...required to be discharged by the system, however, such quantity...

  4. Fluctuation of the Water Environmental Carrying Capacity in a Huge River-Connected Lake

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Zhou, Yiyi; Tang, Yang; Wu, Mengan; Deng, Yanqing

    2015-01-01

    A new method, with the non-fully mixed coefficient (NFMC) considered, was put forward to calculate the water environmental carrying capacity (WECC) for huge river-connected lakes, of which the hydrological conditions always vary widely during a year. Poyang Lake, the most typical river-connected lake and the largest freshwater lake in China, was selected as the research area. Based on field investigations and numerical simulation, the monthly pollutant degradation coefficients and non-fully mixed coefficients of different lake regions were determined to explore the WECCs of COD, TN and TP of Poyang Lake in a common water year. It was found that under the hydrological conditions of a common water year the total WECCs of COD, TN and TP in the lake were respectively 181.9 × 104 t, 33.3 × 104 t and 1.86 × 104 t. Due to the varied lake water volume and self-purification ability, an evident temporal fluctuation of WECCs in Poyang Lake was observed. The dry seasons were characterized by a higher NFMCs but lower WECCs owing to the lower water level and degradation ability. Variation coefficients of COD and TN WECC were close to each other, of which the average level was about 58.5%, a little higher than that of TP. PMID:25830284

  5. Exploring the capacity of radar remote sensing to estimate wetland marshes water storage.

    PubMed

    Grings, F; Salvia, M; Karszenbaum, H; Ferrazzoli, P; Kandus, P; Perna, P

    2009-05-01

    This paper focuses on the use of radar remote sensing for water storage estimation in wetland marshes of the Paraná River Delta in Argentina. The approach followed is based on the analysis of a temporal set of ENVISAT ASAR data which includes images acquired under different polarizations and incidence angles as well as different environmental conditions (water level, precipitation, and vegetation condition). Two marsh species, named junco and cortadera, were monitored. This overall data set gave us the possibility of studying and understanding the basic interactions between the radar, the soil under different flood conditions, and the vegetation structure. The comprehension of the observed features was addressed through electromagnetic models developed for these ecosystems. The procedure used in this work to estimate water level within marshes combines a direct electromagnetic model, field work data specifically obtained to feed the model, the actual ASAR measurements and a well known retrieval scheme based on a cost function. Results are validated with water level evaluations at specific points. A map showing an estimation of the water storage capacity and its error in junco and cortadera areas for the date where the investigation was done is also presented. PMID:18367312

  6. Fluctuation of the water environmental carrying capacity in a huge river-connected lake.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Zhou, Yiyi; Tang, Yang; Wu, Mengan; Deng, Yanqing

    2015-04-01

    A new method, with the non-fully mixed coefficient (NFMC) considered, was put forward to calculate the water environmental carrying capacity (WECC) for huge river-connected lakes, of which the hydrological conditions always vary widely during a year. Poyang Lake, the most typical river-connected lake and the largest freshwater lake in China, was selected as the research area. Based on field investigations and numerical simulation, the monthly pollutant degradation coefficients and non-fully mixed coefficients of different lake regions were determined to explore the WECCs of COD, TN and TP of Poyang Lake in a common water year. It was found that under the hydrological conditions of a common water year the total WECCs of COD, TN and TP in the lake were respectively 181.9 × 104 t, 33.3 × 104 t and 1.86 × 104 t. Due to the varied lake water volume and self-purification ability, an evident temporal fluctuation of WECCs in Poyang Lake was observed. The dry seasons were characterized by a higher NFMCs but lower WECCs owing to the lower water level and degradation ability. Variation coefficients of COD and TN WECC were close to each other, of which the average level was about 58.5%, a little higher than that of TP. PMID:25830284

  7. Temperature sensitivity of differential absorption lidar measurements of water vapor in the 720-nm region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.; Ismail, Syed; Grossmann, Benoist E.

    1991-01-01

    Recently measured properties of water vapor (H2O) absorption lines have been used in calculations to evalute the temperature sensitivity of differential absorption lidar (Dial) H2O measurements. This paper estimates the temperature sensitivity of H2O lines in the 717-733-nm region for both H2O mixing ratio and number density measurements, and discusses the influence of the H2O line ground state energies E-double-prime, the H2O absorption linewidths, the linewidth temperature dependence parameter, and the atmospheric temperature and pressure variations with altitude and location on the temperature sensitivity calculations. Line parameters and temperature sensitivity calculations for 67 H2O lines in the 720-nm band are given which can be directly used in field experiments. Water vapor lines with E-double-prime values in the 100-300/cm range were found to be optimum for Dial measurements of H2O number densities, while E-double-prime values in the 250-500/cm range were found to be optimum for H2O mixing ratio measurements.

  8. Heat capacity and density of potassium iodide solutions in mixed N-methylpyrrolidone-water solvent at 298.15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, A. N.

    2014-10-01

    The heat capacity and density of potassium iodide solutions in a mixed N-methylpyrrolidone (MP)-water solvent with a low content of the organic component are measured via calorimetry and densimetry at 298.15 K. Standard partial molal heat capacities and volumes of potassium iodide in MP-water mixtures are calculated. Standard heat capacities and volumes of potassium and iodide ions are determined. The character of the changes in heat capacity and volume are discussed on the basis of calculating additivity coefficients ? c and ? v upon the mixing of isomolal binary solutions KI-MP and KI-water, depending on the composition of the MP-H2O mixture and the concentration of the electrolyte.

  9. Folic acid absorption determined by a single stool sample test--a double-isotope technique. The folic acid absorption capacity in children

    SciTech Connect

    Hjelt, K. (Univ. of Copenhagen, Hellerup (Denmark))

    1989-10-01

    The fractional folic acid absorption (FAFol) was determined in 66 patients with various gastrointestinal diseases by a double-isotope technique, employing a single stool sample test (SSST) as well as a complete stool collection. The age of the patients ranged from 2.5 months to 16.8 years (mean 6.3 years). The test dose was administered orally and consisted of 50 micrograms of (3H)folic acid (monoglutamate) (approximately 20 muCi), carmine powder, and 2 mg 51CrCl3 (approximately 1.25 muCi) as the unabsorbable tracer. The whole-body radiation given to a 1-year-old child averaged 4.8 mrad only. The stool and napkin contents were collected and homogenized by the addition of 300 ml chromium sulfuric acid. A 300-ml sample of the homogenized stool and napkin contents, as well as 300 ml chromium sulfuric acid (75% vol/vol) containing the standards, were counted for the content of 51Cr in a broad-based well counter. The quantity of (3H)folic acid was determined by liquid scintillation, after duplicate distillation. Estimated by SSST, the FAFol, which employs the stool with the highest content of 51Cr corresponding to the most carmine-colored stool, correlated closely with the FAFol based on complete stool collection (r = 0.96, n = 39, p less than 0.0001). The reproducibility of FAFol determined by SSST was assessed from repeated tests in 18 patients. For a mean of 81%, the SD was 4.6%, which corresponded to a coefficient of variation of 5.7%.

  10. Optimizing available water capacity using microwave satellite data for improving irrigation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Manika; Bolten, John; Lakshmi, Venkat

    2015-04-01

    This work addresses the improvement of available water capacity by developing a technique for estimating soil hydraulic parameters through the utilization of satellite-retrieved near surface soil moisture. The prototype involves the usage of Monte Carlo analysis to assimilate historical remote sensing soil moisture data available from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) within the hydrological model. The main hypothesis used in this study is that near-surface soil moisture data contain useful information that can describe the effective hydrological conditions of the basin such that when appropriately In the method followed in this study the hydraulic parameters are derived directly from information on the soil moisture state at the AMSR-E footprint scale and the available water capacity is derived for the root zone by coupling of AMSR-E soil moisture with the physically-based hydrological model. The available capacity water, which refers to difference between the field capacity and wilting point of the soil and represent the soil moisture content at 0.33 bar and 15 bar respectively is estimated from the soil hydraulic parameters using the van Genuchten equation. The initial ranges of soil hydraulic parameters are taken in correspondence with the values available from the literature based on Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database within the particular AMSR-E footprint. Using the Monte Carlo simulation, the ranges are narrowed in the region where simulation shows a good match between predicted and near-surface soil moisture from AMSR-E. In this study, the uncertainties in accurately determining the parameters of the nonlinear soil water retention function for large-scale hydrological modeling is the focus of the development of the Bayesian framework. Thus, the model forecasting has been combined with the observational information to optimize the model state and the soil hydraulic parameters simultaneously. The optimization process is divided into two steps during one time interval: the state variable is optimized through the state filter and the optimal parameter values are then transferred for retrieving soil moisture. However, soil moisture from sensors such as AMSR-E can only be retrieved for the top few centimeters of soil. So, for the present study, a homogeneous soil system has been considered. By assimilating this information into the model, the accuracy of model structure in relating surface moisture dynamics to deeper soil profiles can be ascertained. To evaluate the performance of the system in helping improve simulation accuracy and whether they can be used to obtain soil moisture profiles at poorly gauged catchments alongwith the available water capacity, the root mean square error (RMSE) and Mean Bias error (MBE) are used to measure the performance of the soil moisture simulations. The optimized parameters as compared to the pedo-transfer based parameters were found to reduce the RMSE from 0.14 to 0.04 and 0.15 to 0.07 in surface layer and root zone respectively.

  11. Heat capacities of the water + lithium bromide + ethanolamine and water + lithium bromide + 1,3-propanediol systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.S.; Park, Y.; Lee, H. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Yu, S.I. [Rinnai Korea Corp., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] [Rinnai Korea Corp., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-01

    Heat capacities of the water + lithium bromide + ethanolamine (LiBr/H{sub 2}N(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}OH mass ratio = 3.5) and water + lithium bromide + 1,3-propanediol (LiBr/HO(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}OH mass ratio = 3.5) systems were measured by using an isoperibol solution calorimeter at four temperatures (283.15, 298.15, 313.15, and 333.15 K) and absorbent (LiBr + H{sub 2}N(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}OH and LiBr + HO(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}OH) concentration ranges of (29.2 to 70.7)% and (30.7 to 68.3)%, respectively. The measured values were fitted with a simple equation by a least-squares method and the average absolute deviations between experimental and calculated values were 0.21% for the water + lithium bromide + ethanolamine system and 0.15% for the water + lithium bromide + 1,3-propanediol system, respectively.

  12. Laboratory measurements of water vapour continuum absorption in spectral region 5000-5600 cm-1: Evidence for water dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptashnik, Igor V.; Smith, Kevin M.; Shine, Keith P.; Newnham, David A.

    2004-10-01

    In spite of decades of extensive studies, the role of water dimers (WD) in the atmospheric radiation budget is still controversial. In order to search for evidence of the dimer in the solar near infrared, high spectral resolution pure water vapour absorption spectra were obtained in laboratory conditions for two different pressures and temperatures in the spectral region 5000-5600 cm-1 (1.785 to 2 m). The residual was derived as a difference between the measured optical depth and the calculated one for water monomer, using the modified HITRAN database and two different representations of the water vapour continuum: CKD-2.4 (Clough-Kneizys-Davies) and the Ma and Tipping continuum. In both cases the residuals obtained are very similar to those expected from a recent theoretical calculation of the WD absorption. However, the WD band half-width at half maximum (HWHM) and dimerization equilibrium constant, Keq, required to provide a best fit to the residual, differ for each case. To be in best agreement with the residual calculated by using the Ma and Tipping continuum, the WD bands HWHM should be ~28 cm-1, and Keq = 0.02 ± 0.0035 atm-1 and 0.043 ± 0.0055 atm-1 for temperatures 342 and 299 K respectively. For the residual calculated using the CKD-2.4 continuum the fitted value of the HWHM is ~18 cm-1, and Keq = 0.011 ± 0.0025 atm-1 (342 K) and 0.018 ± 0.003 atm-1 (299 K). It is concluded that a substantial part of the WD absorption is already implicitly included within the CKD-2.4 continuum model. The increase in estimated clear-sky global mean absorption of solar radiation due to WD varies from 0.5% to 2.0%, depending on the set of WD parameters used. On the basis of a comparison of the derived Keq values with others in the literature, the higher estimate is favoured.

  13. Integrated modelling to assess long-term water supply capacity of a meso-scale Mediterranean catchment.

    PubMed

    Collet, Lila; Ruelland, Denis; Borrell-Estupina, Valérie; Dezetter, Alain; Servat, Eric

    2013-09-01

    Assessing water supply capacity is crucial to meet stakeholders' needs, notably in the Mediterranean region. This region has been identified as a climate change hot spot, and as a region where water demand is continuously increasing due to population growth and the expansion of irrigated areas. The Hérault River catchment (2500 km(2), France) is a typical example and a negative trend in discharge has been observed since the 1960s. In this context, local stakeholders need first to understand the processes controlling the evolution of water resources and demands in the past to latter evaluate future water supply capacity and anticipate the tensions users could be confronted to in the future. A modelling framework is proposed at a 10-day time step to assess whether water resources have been able to meet water demands over the last 50 years. Water supply was evaluated using hydrological modelling and a dam management model. Water demand dynamics were estimated for the domestic and agricultural sectors. A water supply capacity index is computed to assess the extent and the frequency to which water demand has been satisfied at the sub-basin scale. Simulated runoff dynamics were in good agreement with observations over the calibration and validation periods. Domestic water demand has increased considerably since the 1980s and is characterized by a seasonal peak in summer. Agricultural demand has increased in the downstream sub-basins and decreased upstream where irrigated areas have decreased. As a result, although most water demands were satisfied between 1961 and 1980, irrigation requirements in summer have sometimes not been satisfied since the 1980s. This work is the first step toward evaluating possible future changes in water allocation capacity in the catchment, using future climate change, dam management and water use scenarios. PMID:23756213

  14. Propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in water: linear absorption and onset of nonlinear spectral transformation.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, Alexei V; Naveira, Lucas M; Poudel, Milan P; Strohaber, James; Trendafilova, Cynthia S; Buck, William C; Wang, Jieyu; Strycker, Benjamin D; Wang, Chao; Schuessler, Hans; Kolomenskii, Alexandre; Kattawar, George W

    2010-01-20

    We study propagation of short laser pulses through water and use a spectral hole filling technique to essentially perform a sensitive balanced comparison of absorption coefficients for pulses of different duration. This study is motivated by an alleged violation of the Bouguer-Lambert-Beer law at low light intensities, where the pulse propagation is expected to be linear, and by a possible observation of femtosecond optical precursors in water. We find that at low intensities, absorption of laser light is determined solely by its spectrum and does not directly depend on the pulse duration, in agreement with our earlier work and in contradiction to some work of others. However, as the laser fluence is increased, interaction of light with water becomes nonlinear, causing energy exchange among the pulse's spectral components and resulting in peak-intensity dependent (and therefore pulse-duration dependent) transmission. For 30 fs pulses at 800 nm center wavelength, we determine the onset of nonlinear propagation effects to occur at a peak value of about 0.12 mJ/cm(2) of input laser energy fluence. PMID:20090819

  15. Arsenic exposure from drinking water, arsenic methylation capacity, and carotid intima-media thickness in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Wu, Fen; Graziano, Joseph H; Parvez, Faruque; Liu, Mengling; Paul, Rina Rani; Shaheen, Ishrat; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Rundek, Tatjana; Demmer, Ryan T; Desvarieux, Moise; Ahsan, Habibul

    2013-08-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the interrelationships between past arsenic exposure, biomarkers specific for susceptibility to arsenic exposure, and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in 959 subjects from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh. We measured cIMT levels on average 7.2 years after baseline during 2010-2011. Arsenic exposure was measured in well water at baseline and in urine samples collected at baseline and during follow-up. Every 1-standard-deviation increase in urinary arsenic (357.9 µg/g creatinine) and well-water arsenic (102.0 µg/L) concentration was related to a 11.7-µm (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8, 21.6) and 5.1-µm (95% CI: -0.2, 10.3) increase in cIMT, respectively. For every 10% increase in monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) percentage, there was an increase of 12.1 µm (95% CI: 0.4, 23.8) in cIMT. Among participants with a higher urinary MMA percentage, a higher ratio of urinary MMA to inorganic arsenic, and a lower ratio of dimethylarsinic acid to MMA, the association between well-water arsenic and cIMT was stronger. The findings indicate an effect of past long-term arsenic exposure on cIMT, which may be potentiated by suboptimal or incomplete arsenic methylation capacity. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm the association between arsenic methylation capacity and atherosclerosis-related outcomes. PMID:23788675

  16. A new device for acquiring ground truth on the absorption of light by turbid waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (principal investigator); Srna, R.; Treasure, W.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A new device, called a Spectral Attenuation Board, has been designed and tested, which enables ERTS-1 sea truth collection teams to monitor the attenuation depths of three colors continuously, as the board is being towed behind a boat. The device consists of a 1.2 x 1.2 meter flat board held below the surface of the water at a fixed angle to the surface of the water. A camera mounted above the water takes photographs of the board. The resulting film image is analyzed by a micro-densitometer trace along the descending portion of the board. This yields information on the rate of attenuation of light penetrating the water column and the Secchi depth. Red and green stripes were painted on the white board to approximate band 4 and band 5 of the ERTS MSS so that information on the rate of light absorption by the water column of light in these regions of the visible spectrum could be concurrently measured. It was found that information from a red, green, and white stripe may serve to fingerprint the composition of the water mass. A number of these devices, when automated, could also be distributed over a large region to provide a cheap method of obtaining valuable satellite ground truth data at present time intervals.

  17. Evidence for direct water absorption by shallow-rooted desert plants in desert-oasis ecotone, Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jing

    2014-05-01

    Besides the absorption by roots from the soil substrate, it has long been known that plants exhibit alternative water-absorption strategies, particularly in drought-prone environments. For many tropical epiphytic orchids, air moisture can be absorbed directly by aerial roots. Some conifers are also found to utilize air moisture by foliar absorption during the summer fog season. However, few studies have been carried out on the atmospheric water vapor absorption by shallow-rooted desert plants. We conducted experiments in desert-oasis ecotone and investigated the effects of dew absorbed by three kinds of shallow-rooted seedlings on net photosynthesis rate, as well as on other water relations variables. Three kinds of typical shallow-rooted desert species (Bassia dasyphylla, Salsola collina and Corispermum declinatum) have been chosen and potted. Each species were subjected to contrasting watering regimes (normal and deficient) and different air moisture conditions (having dew and having no dew) for 10 weeks. Net photosynthesis rate was measured on six occasions during the study. Other water relations variables (midday shoot water potential, relative water content, stomatal conductance) were also measured. Under the dew conditions, average net photosynthesis rate, shoot water potential, leaf relative water content and stomatal conductance increased, with greater responses observed for plants subjected to a deficient watering regime than for well-watered plants. These results indicated dew occurred in arid region could be utilized through foliar absorption by some shallow-rooted plants, and for the shallow-rooted plants, the presence of dew could significantly relieve the deficit of water in water-stressed regime.

  18. Absorption spectra of liquid water and aqueous buffers between 0.3 and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106

    E-print Network

    Xu, Jing

    Absorption spectra of liquid water and aqueous buffers between 0.3 and 3.72 THz Jing Xua Department-dependent terahertz absorption with attenuation lengths on the order of tens of micrometers. To access this spectral.5 THz, these studies provide a well- documented absorption spectrum for liquid water, at approxi- mately

  19. Phase Transfer-Catalyzed Fast CO2 Absorption by MgO-Based Absorbents with High Cycling Capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Keling; Li, Xiaohong S.; Li, Weizhen; Rohatgi, Aashish; Duan, Yuhua; Singh, Prabhakar; Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2014-06-01

    CO2 capture from pre-combustion syngas in the temperature range of 250-400°C is highly desirable from an energy efficiency perspective. Thermodynamically, MgO is a promising material for CO2 capture, but the gas-solid reaction to produce MgCO3 is kinetically slow due to high lattice energy. We report here fast CO2 absorption over a solid MgO-molten nitrate/nitrite aggregate through phase transfer catalysis, in which the molten phase serves as both a catalyst and reaction medium. Reaction with CO2 at the gas-solid-liquid triple phase boundary results in formation of MgCO3 with significant reaction rate and a high conversion of MgO. This methodology is also applicable to other alkaline earth oxides, inspiring the design of absorbents which require activation of the bulk material.

  20. Depth of cinder deposits and water-storage capacity at Cinder Lake, Coconino County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macy, Jamie P.; Amoroso, Lee; Kennedy, Jeff; Unema, Joel

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 Schultz fire northeast of Flagstaff, Arizona, burned more than 15,000 acres on the east side of San Francisco Mountain from June 20 to July 3. As a result, several drainages in the burn area are now more susceptible to increased frequency and volume of runoff, and downstream areas are more susceptible to flooding. Resultant flooding in areas downgradient of the burn has resulted in extensive damage to private lands and residences, municipal water lines, and roads. Coconino County, which encompasses Flagstaff, has responded by deepening and expanding a system of roadside ditches to move flood water away from communities and into an area of open U.S. Forest Service lands, known as Cinder Lake, where rapid infiltration can occur. Water that has been recently channeled into the Cinder Lake area has infiltrated into the volcanic cinders and could eventually migrate to the deep regional groundwater-flow system that underlies the area. How much water can potentially be diverted into Cinder Lake is unknown, and Coconino County is interested in determining how much storage is available. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted geophysical surveys and drilled four boreholes to determine the depth of the cinder beds and their potential for water storage capacity. Results from the geophysical surveys and boreholes indicate that interbedded cinders and alluvial deposits are underlain by basalt at about 30 feet below land surface. An average total porosity for the upper 30 feet of deposits was calculated at 43 percent for an area of 300 acres surrounding the boreholes, which yields a total potential subsurface storage for Cinder Lake of about 4,000 acre-feet. Ongoing monitoring of storage change in the Cinder Lake area was initiated using a network of gravity stations.

  1. Chemical Characterization and Water Holding Capacity of Fibre-rich Feedstuffs Used for Pigs in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Ngoc, T. T. B.; Len, N. T.; Lindberg, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    During two years, four samples per year were collected in Vietnam from rice bran, cassava residue, brewer’s grain, tofu residue, soybean meal, coconut cake, sweet potato vines and water spinach for chemical analysis and assessment of water holding capacity (WHC). The selected feedstuffs represent fibre-rich plant sources and agro-industry co-products commonly used in pig feeding in Vietnam. The content (g/kg DM) of crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE) and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) varied between feedstuffs and ranged from 21 to 506 for CP, from 14 to 118 for EE and from 197 to 572 for NSP. Cassava residue had a high starch content of 563 g/kg DM, while sweet potato vines, water spinach, coconut cake and soybean meal had a high content of sugars (63–71 g/kg DM). The content of individual neutral sugars varied between feed ingredients, with the highest content of arabinose, galactose and glucose in tofu residue, the highest content of xylose in brewer’s grain and the highest content of mannose in coconut cake. The content of uronic acid was high for cassava residue, tofu residue, sweet potato vines and water spinach (57–88 g/kg DM). The content of soluble non-cellulosic polysaccharides (S-NCP) was positively correlated (r2 = 0.82) to the WHC. The content (g/kg DM) of CP, NDF, neutral sugars, total NSP, total NCP, S-NCP and total dietary fibre in tofu residue, water spinach and coconut cake varied (p<0.05) between years. In conclusion, diet formulation to pigs can be improved if the variation in chemical composition of the fibre fraction and in WHC between potential feed ingredients is taken into account. PMID:25049638

  2. The water-holding capacity of three starchy legumes in the raw, cooked and fibre-rich fraction forms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sirelkhatim B. Elhardallou; Ann F. Walker

    1993-01-01

    The role of dietary fibre on the water-holding capacity (WHC), as a functional property of starchy legumes, was investigated. The WHCs of butter beans, broad beans and lentils were found to be in the range 1.35–1.82 g water\\/g in the raw forms, and in the range 1.81–2.63 g water\\/g for the cooked forms, with a contribution of 35.9–56.1% by the

  3. Differential Absorption Measurements of Atmospheric Water Vapor with a Coherent Lidar at 2050.532 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Grady J.; Dharamsi, Amin; Davis, Richard E.; Petros, Mulugeta; McCarthy, John C.

    1999-01-01

    Wind and water vapor are two major factors driving the Earth's atmospheric circulation, and direct measurement of these factors is needed for better understanding of basic atmospheric science, weather forecasting, and climate studies. Coherent lidar has proved to be a valuable tool for Doppler profiling of wind fields, and differential absorption lidar (DIAL) has shown its effectiveness in profiling water vapor. These two lidar techniques are generally considered distinctly different, but this paper explores an experimental combination of the Doppler and DIAL techniques for measuring both wind and water vapor with an eye-safe wavelength based on a solid-state laser material. Researchers have analyzed and demonstrated coherent DIAL water vapor measurements at 10 micrometers wavelength based on CO2 lasers. The hope of the research presented here is that the 2 gm wavelength in a holmium or thulium-based laser may offer smaller packaging and more rugged operation that the CO2-based approach. Researchers have extensively modeled 2 um coherent lasers for water vapor profiling, but no published demonstration is known. Studies have also been made, and results published on the Doppler portion, of a Nd:YAG-based coherent DIAL operating at 1.12 micrometers. Eye-safety of the 1.12 micrometer wavelength may be a concern, whereas the longer 2 micrometer and 10 micrometer systems allow a high level of eyesafety.

  4. X-ray absorption signatures of the molecular environment in water and ice

    E-print Network

    Wei Chen; Xifan Wu; Roberto Car

    2009-09-21

    The x-ray absorption spectra of water and ice are calculated with a many-body approach for electron-hole excitations. The experimental features, including the small effects of temperature change in the liquid, are quantitatively reproduced from molecular configurations generated by ab-initio molecular dynamics. The spectral difference between the solid and the liquid is due to two major short range order effects. One, due to breaking of hydrogen bonds, enhances the pre-edge intensity in the liquid. The other, due to a non-bonded molecular fraction in the first coordination shell, affects the main spectral edge in the conversion of ice to water. This effect may not involve hydrogen bond breaking as shown by experiment in high-density amorphous ice.

  5. First CRDS-measurements of water vapour continuum in the 940 nm absorption band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, L.; Andrés Hernández, M. D.; Burrows, J. P.; Tikhomirov, A. B.; Firsov, K. M.; Ptashnik, I. V.

    2007-06-01

    Measurements of near-infrared water vapour continuum using continuous wave cavity ring down spectroscopy (cw-CRDS) have been performed at around 10611.6 and 10685.2cm. The continuum absorption coefficients for N2-broadening have been determined to be CF296K=(1.0±0.2)×10cmmolatm and CF278K=(1.8±0.4)×10cmmolatm at 10611.6cm, and CF296K=(1.6±0.5)×10cmmolatm and CF278K=(2.1±0.4)×10cmmolatm at 10685.2cm, respectively. These results represent the first near-IR continuum laboratory data determined within the complex spectral environment in the 940 nm water vapour band and are in reasonable agreement with simulations using the semiempirical CKD formulation.

  6. X-Ray Absorption Signatures of the Molecular Environment in Water and Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Wu, Xifan; Car, Roberto

    2010-07-01

    The x-ray absorption spectra of water and ice are calculated with a many-body approach for electron-hole excitations. The experimental features, including the effects of temperature change in the liquid, are reproduced from configurations generated by ab initio molecular dynamics. The spectral difference between the solid and the liquid is due to two major short-range order effects. One, due to breaking of hydrogen bonds, enhances the pre-edge intensity in the liquid. The other, due to a nonbonded molecular fraction in the first coordination shell, affects the main spectral edge in the conversion of ice to water. This effect may not involve hydrogen bond breaking as shown by experiment in high-density amorphous ice.

  7. Atmospheric pre-corrected differential absorption techniques to retrieve columnar water vapor: Theory and simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Borel, C.C.; Schlaepfer, D.

    1996-03-01

    Two different approaches exist to retrieve columnar water vapor from imaging spectrometer data: (1) Differential absorption techniques based on: (a) Narrow-Wide (N/W) ratio between overlapping spectrally wide and narrow channels (b) Continuum Interpolated Band Ratio (CIBR) between a measurement channel and the weighted sum of two reference channels; and (2) Non-linear fitting techniques which are based on spectral radiative transfer calculations. The advantage of the first approach is computational speed and of the second, improved retrieval accuracy. Our goal was to improve the accuracy of the first technique using physics based on radiative transfer. Using a modified version of the Duntley equation, we derived an {open_quote}Atmospheric Pre-corrected Differential Absorption{close_quote} (APDA) technique and described an iterative scheme to retrieve water vapor on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Next we compared both, the CIBR and the APDA using the Duntley equation for MODTRAN3 computed irradiances, transmissions and path radiance (using the DISORT option). This simulation showed that the CIBR is very sensitive to reflectance effects and that the APDA performs much better. An extensive data set was created with the radiative transfer code 6S over 379 different ground reflectance spectra. The calculated relative water vapor error was reduced significantly for the APDA. The APDA technique had about 8% (vs. over 35% for the CIBR) of the 379 spectra with a relative water vapor error of greater than {+-}5%. The APDA has been applied to 1991 and 1995 AVIRIS scenes which visually demonstrate the improvement over the CIBR technique.

  8. Atmospheric water vapor estimate by a differential absorption technique with the polarisation and directionality of the Earth reflectances (POLDER) instrument

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bouffiès; F. M. Bréon; D. Tanré; P. Dubuisson

    1997-01-01

    The polarization and directionality of the Earth reflectances (POLDER) instrument, to be launched in 1996 on the Japanese ADEOS (advanced Earth observing satellite) platform includes a channel which covers the 910 nm water vapor absorption band (near IR), as well as a channel centered at 865 nm. An estimate of the total atmospheric water vapor content can be derived from

  9. Geology, water resources and usable ground-water storage capacity of part of Solano County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomasson, H.G., Jr.; Olmsted, F.H.; LeRoux, E.F.

    1960-01-01

    The area described is confined largely to the valley-floor and foothill lands of Solano County, which lies directly between Sacramento, the State capital, and San Francisco. The area is considered in two subareas: The Putah area, which extends from Putah Creek southward to the Montezuma Hills and from the foothills of the Coast Ranges eastward to the west edge of the Yolo Bypass; and the Suisun-Fairfield area, which is to the southwest in the notch in the Coast Ranges through which the waters of the Great Central Valley of California reach San Francisco Bay. There are no known hydrologic interconnections between the two subareas, through either surface streams or underground aquifers. The climate of the area is characterized by warm, rainless summers and by cool winters in which temperatures seldom drop much below freezing. The rainfall ranges from about 17 inches per year along the east side to perhaps 24 inches in the foothills to the west, and irrigation is necessary for all crops except dry-farmed grains, pastures, and some orchards. PUTAH AREA The Putah area occupies the southwestern corner of the Sacramento Valley, a topographic and structural basin underlain by a thick accumulation of sediments eroded from the surrounding hills and mountains by the Sacramento River and its tributaries. The eastern Coast Ranges and foothills lying west of the Sacramento Valley are a generally northward-trending belt of eastward-dipping sedimentary rocks that range in age from Cretaceous to Pleistocene. Successively younger strata are exposed eastward, and the essentially undeformed deposits of late Pleistocene and Recent age that immediately underlie the valley lap onto the tilted sediments of the foothills. Most of the streams of the Putah area rise east of the high ridge of Cretaceous rocks marking the western boundaries of Solano and Yolo Counties, but Putah Creek, the largest stream in the area, rises far west of that ridge and flows across it in a deep, narrow canyon. Putah Creek and the smaller streams have constructed an alluvial plain, herein designated the Putah plain, which slopes eastward and southeastward from the foothills toward the Sacramento River. A large part of the Putah plain is traversed by a branching set of distributary channel ridges or natural levees formed at times of overflow of Putah Creek. The rocks in the Putah area range in age from Cretaceous to Recent. For the purposes of this investigation they are divided into eight geologic or stratigraphic units, from youngest to oldest: (1) Stream-channel deposits, (2) younger alluvium, (3) older alluvium, (4) Tehama formation and related continental sediments, (5) volcanic sedimentary rocks, (6) basalt, (7) undifferentiated sedimentary rocks of Paleocene(?) and Eocene age, and (8) undifferentiated rocks of Cretaceous age. The stream-channel deposits are predominantly loose sand and gravel along the channel of Putah Creek. In part they are actively moving downstream and shifting. The younger alluvium, of Recent age, consists of flood-plain deposits underlying the Putah plain, Vaca Valley, Pleasants Valley, and the small valleys in the foothills north of Putah Creek and in the English Hills. Exposures of younger alluvium are characterized by soils lacking significant profile development and in many places by channel-ridge topography. The older alluvium occupies the stratigraphic interval between the younger alluvium and the Tehama formation and related continental sediments and is probably of late Pleistocene age. Its contact with the underlying Tehama formation and related continental sediments is unconformable near the foothills, but it may be gradational beneath much of the Putah plain. The base of the older alluvium is not well defined at many places but is inferred to be at the bottom of an irregular and ill-defined zone of coarse deposits, which ranges from about 50 feet to more than 150 feet below the land surface. Exposures of the older

  10. Light absorption and partitioning in Arctic Ocean surface waters: impact of multi year ice melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bélanger, S.; Cizmeli, S. A.; Ehn, J.; Matsuoka, A.; Doxaran, D.; Hooker, S.; Babin, M.

    2013-03-01

    Ice melting in the Arctic Ocean exposes the surface water to more radiative energy with poorly understood effects on photo-biogeochemical processes and heat deposition in the upper ocean. In August 2009, we documented the vertical variability of light absorbing components at 37 stations located in the southeastern Beaufort Sea including both Mackenzie river-influenced waters and polar mixed layer waters. We found that melting multi-year ice released significant amount of non-algal particulates (NAP) near the sea surface relative to sub-surface waters. NAP absorption coefficients at 440 nm (aNAP(440)) immediately below the sea surface (0-) were on average 3-fold (up to 10-fold) higher compared to sub-surface values measured at 2-3 m depth. The impact of this unusual feature on the light transmission and remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) was further examined using a radiative transfer model. A 10-fold particle enrichment homogeneously distributed in the first meter of the water column slightly reduced photosynthetically available and usable radiation (PAR and PUR) by ~6% and ~8%, respectively, relative to a fully homogenous water column with low particles concentration. In terms of Rrs, the particle enrichment significantly flattered the spectrum by reducing the Rrs by up to 20% in the blue-green spectral region (400-550 nm). These results highlight the impact of melt water on the concentration of particles at sea surface, and the need for considering nonuniform vertical distribution of particles in such systems when interpreting remotely sensed ocean color. Spectral slope of aNAP spectra calculated in the UV domain decreased with depth suggesting that this parameter is sensitive to detritus composition and/or diagenesis state (e.g., POM photobleaching).

  11. Machine learning and hurdle models for improving regional predictions of stream water acid neutralizing capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povak, Nicholas A.; Hessburg, Paul F.; Reynolds, Keith M.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; McDonnell, Todd C.; Salter, R. Brion

    2013-06-01

    In many industrialized regions of the world, atmospherically deposited sulfur derived from industrial, nonpoint air pollution sources reduces stream water quality and results in acidic conditions that threaten aquatic resources. Accurate maps of predicted stream water acidity are an essential aid to managers who must identify acid-sensitive streams, potentially affected biota, and create resource protection strategies. In this study, we developed correlative models to predict the acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of streams across the southern Appalachian Mountain region, USA. Models were developed using stream water chemistry data from 933 sampled locations and continuous maps of pertinent environmental and climatic predictors. Environmental predictors were averaged across the upslope contributing area for each sampled stream location and submitted to both statistical and machine-learning regression models. Predictor variables represented key aspects of the contributing geology, soils, climate, topography, and acidic deposition. To reduce model error rates, we employed hurdle modeling to screen out well-buffered sites and predict continuous ANC for the remainder of the stream network. Models predicted acid-sensitive streams in forested watersheds with small contributing areas, siliceous lithologies, cool and moist environments, low clay content soils, and moderate or higher dry sulfur deposition. Our results confirmed findings from other studies and further identified several influential climatic variables and variable interactions. Model predictions indicated that one quarter of the total stream network was sensitive to additional sulfur inputs (i.e., ANC < 100 µeq L-1), while <10% displayed much lower ANC (<50 µeq L-1). These methods may be readily adapted in other regions to assess stream water quality and potential biotic sensitivity to acidic inputs.

  12. Water Absorption from Line-of-Sight Clouds toward W49A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plume, René; Kaufman, Michael J.; Neufeld, David A.; Snell, Ronald L.; Hollenbach, David J.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Howe, John; Bergin, Edwin A.; Melnick, Gary J.; Bensch, Frank

    2004-04-01

    We have observed six clouds along the line of sight toward W49A using the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite and several ground-based observatories. The ortho-H2O 110-->101 and OH (1665 and 1667 MHz) transitions are observed in absorption, whereas the low-J CO, 13CO, and C18O lines, as well as the [C I] 3P1-3P0 transition, are seen in emission. The emission lines allow us to determine the gas density (n~1500-3000 cm-3) and CO column densities [N(CO)~7.9×1015-2.8×1017 cm-2] using a standard large velocity gradient analysis. By using both the o-H218O and o-H2O absorption lines, we are able to constrain the column-averaged o-H2O abundances in each line-of-sight cloud to within about an order of magnitude. Assuming the standard N(H2)/N(CO) ratio of 104, we find N(o-H2O)/N(H2)=8.1×10-8 to 4×10-7 for three clouds with optically thin water lines. In three additional clouds, the H2O lines are saturated, so we have used observations of the H218O ground-state transition to find upper limits to the water abundance of 8.2×10-8 to 1.5×10-6. We measure the OH abundance from the average of the 1665 and 1667 MHz observations and find N(OH)/N(H2)=2.3×10-7 to 1.1×10-6. The o-H2O and OH abundances are similar to those determined for line-of-sight water absorption features toward W51 and Sgr B2 but are higher than those seen from water emission lines in molecular clouds. However, the clouds toward W49 have lower ratios of OH relative to H2O column densities than are predicted by simple models, which assume that dissociative recombination is the primary formation pathway for OH and H2O. Building on the 2002 work of Neufeld and coworkers, we present photochemistry models including additional chemical effects, which can also explain the observed OH and H2O column densities, as well as the observed H2O/CO abundance ratios.

  13. K? absorption by locust gut and inhibition of ileal K? and water transport by FGLamide allatostatins.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Lisa; Donini, Andrew; Lange, Angela B

    2014-09-15

    The scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET) was utilized for the first time in Locusta migratoria to characterize K(+) transport along the digestive tract and to determine the effect of two locust FGLamide allatostatins (FGLa/ASTs) on K(+) transport: a previously sequenced FGLa/AST from Schistocerca gregaria (Scg-AST-6; ARPYSFGL-NH2) and a newly sequenced FGLa/AST from L. migratoria (Locmi-FGLa/AST-2; LPVYNFGL-NH2). Regional differences in K(+) fluxes along the gut were evident, where K(+) efflux in vitro (or absorption into the hemolymph in vivo) was greatest at the anterior ileum, and lowest at the colon. Ileal K(+) efflux was inhibited by both Scg-AST-6 and Locmi-FGLa/AST-2, with maximal inhibition at 10(-10) and 10(-11) mol l(-1), respectively. Both FGLa/ASTs also inhibited cAMP-stimulated K(+) efflux from the ileum. Locmi-FGLa/AST-2 also inhibited efflux of water across the ileum. Locusts are terrestrial insects living in dry climates, risking desiccation and making water conservation a necessity. The results suggest that FGLa/ASTs may be acting as diuretics by increasing K(+) excretion and therefore increasing water excretion. Thus it is likely that FGLa/ASTs are involved in the control of hemolymph water and ion levels during feeding and digestion, to help the locust deal with the excess K(+) load (and subsequently fluid) when the meal is processed. PMID:25013112

  14. THz absorption spectra and stability of Fe water complexes calculated by density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, L.; Lambrakos, S. G.; Shabaev, A.; Massa, L.; Yapijakis, C.

    2013-05-01

    Monitoring of water contaminants implies a need for determining their dielectric response properties with re- spect to electromagnetic wave excitation at various frequencies. Iron is a naturally occurring water contaminant resulting from decaying vegetation, which is at much higher concentrations than any other metal contaminant. The present study uses density functional theory (DFT) for the calculation of ground state resonance struc- ture and molecular stability analysis for Fe water complexes. The calculations presented are for excitation by electromagnetic waves at frequencies within the THz range. Dielectric response functions calculated by DFT can be used for the analysis of water contaminants. These functions provide quantitative initial estimates of spectral response features for subsequent adjustment with respect to additional information such as laboratory measurements and other types of theory based calculations. In addition, with respect to qualitative analysis, DFT calculated absorption spectra provide for molecular level interpretation of response structure. The DFT software GAUSSIAN was used for the calculations of ground state resonance structure presented here.

  15. THz Absorption Spectra of Fe and Mg Water Complexes Calculated by Density Functional Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, L.; Lambrakos, S. G.; Shabaev, A.; Massa, L.; Yapijakis, C.

    2013-05-01

    Monitoring of water contaminants implies a need for determining their dielectric response properties with respect to electromagnetic wave excitation at various frequencies. Iron is a naturally occurring water contaminant, which is the result of decaying vegetation and is at much higher concentrations than any other metal contaminant. The present study uses density functional theory (DFT) for the calculation of ground state resonance structure and stability analysis of Fe water complexes. The calculations presented are for excitation by electromagnetic waves at frequencies within the THz range. Dielectric response functions calculated by DFT can be used for the analysis of water contaminants. These functions provide quantitative initial estimates of spectral response features for subsequent adjustment with respect to additional information such as laboratory measurements and other types of theory-based calculations. In addition, with respect to qualitative analysis, DFT calculated absorption spectra provide for molecular level interpretation of response structure. The DFT software GAUSSIAN was used for the calculations of ground state resonance structure presented here.

  16. Study of Water Absorption in Raffia vinifera Fibres from Bandjoun, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Sikame Tagne, N. R.; Njeugna, E.; Fogue, M.; Drean, J.-Y.; Nzeukou, A.; Fokwa, D.

    2014-01-01

    The study is focused on the water diffusion phenomenon through the Raffia vinifera fibre from the stem. The knowledge on the behavior of those fibres in presence of liquid during the realization of biocomposite, is necessary. The parameters like percentage of water gain at the point of saturation, modelling of the kinetic of water absorption, and the effective diffusion coefficient were the main objectives. Along a stem of raffia, twelve zones of sampling were defined. From Fick's 2nd law of diffusion, a new model was proposed and evaluated compared to four other models at a constant temperature of 23°C. From the proposed model, the effective diffusion coefficient was deduced. The percentage of water gain was in the range of 303–662%. The proposed model fitted better to the experimental data. The estimated diffusion coefficient was evaluated during the initial phase and at the final phase. In any cross section located along the stem of Raffia vinifera, it was found that the effective diffusion coefficient increases from the periphery to the centre during the initial and final phases. PMID:24592199

  17. Three-photon absorption in water-soluble ZnS nanocrystals Jun He, Wei Ji,a

    E-print Network

    Wei, Ji

    Three-photon absorption in water-soluble ZnS nanocrystals Jun He, Wei Ji,a and Jun Mi Department on large three-photon absorption 3PA in glutathione-capped ZnS semiconductor nanocrystals NCs , determined-soluble ZnS NCs are synthesized by a modified protocol with a mean diameter of 2.5 nm. Their 3PA cross

  18. Parameterization of the chlorophyll a -specific in vivo light absorption coefficient covering estuarine, coastal and oceanic waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Stæhr; S. Markager

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated models predicting the spectral chlorophyll-a (Chl a)-specific absorption coefficient (a*ph (?)) from Chl a concentration [Chl a] on the basis of 465 phytoplankton absorption spectra collected in estuarine, coastal and oceanic waters. A power model on ln-transformed data provided the best model fit compared to a power model on non-transformed data previously applied to parameterize the relationship between

  19. Photodissociation of water in the first absorption band: A prototype for dissociation on a repulsive potential energy surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Engel; V. Staemmler; R. L. Vander Wal; F. F. Crim; R. J. Sension; B. Hudson; P. Andresen; S. Hennig; K. Weide; R. Schinke

    1992-01-01

    The photodissociation of water in the first absorption band, HâO(X) + âÏ â HâO(A¹Bâ) â H(²S) + OH(²II), is a prototype of fast and direct bond rupture in an excited electronic state. It has been investigated from several perspectives-absorption spectrum, final state distributions of the products, dissociation of vibrationally excited states, isotope effects, and emission spectroscopy. The availability of a

  20. Impact of modifying the longwave water vapor continuum absorption model on community Earth system model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, D. D.; Merrelli, A.; Vimont, D.; Mlawer, E. J.

    2012-02-01

    The far-infrared (wavelengths longer than 17?m) has been shown to be extremely important for radiative processes in the earth's atmosphere. The strength of the water vapor continuum absorption in this spectral region has largely been predicted using observations at other wavelengths that have been extrapolated using semiempirical approaches such as the Clough-Kneizys-Davies (CKD) family of models. Recent field experiments using new far-infrared instrumentation have supported a factor of 2 decrease in the modeled strength of the foreign continuum at 50?m and a factor of 1.5 increase in the self-continuum at 24?m in the Clough-Kneizys-Davies continuum model (CKD v2.4); these changes are incorporated in the Mlawer-Tobin-CKD continuum model (MT_CKD v2.4). The water vapor continuum in the Community Earth System Model (CESM v1.0) was modified to use the newer model, and the impacts of this change were investigated by comparing output from the original and modified CESM for 20 year integrations with prescribed sea surface temperatures. The change results in an increase in the net upward longwave flux of order 0.5 W m-2between 300 and 400 mb, and a decrease in this flux of about the same magnitude for altitudes below 600 mb. The radiative impact results in a small but statistically significant change in the mean temperature and humidity fields, and also a slight decrease (order 0.5%) of high-cloud amount. The change in the cloud amount modified the longwave cloud radiative forcing, which partially offset the radiative heating caused by the change in the water vapor continuum absorption model.

  1. Prediction of water-holding capacity and composition of porcine meat by comparative spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Brøndum, J; Munck, L; Henckel, P; Karlsson, A; Tornberg, E; Engelsen, S B

    2000-06-01

    Four spectroscopic instruments, a fibre optical probe (FOP), a visual (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectrophotometer, a reflectance spectrofluorometer and a low-field (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) instrument were used to perform measurements on two muscles (longissimus dorsi and semitendinosous) from 39 pigs, 18 of which were carriers of the Halothane gene. Water-holding capacity (drip loss and filter paper wetness) and chemical composition (intramuscular fat and water) of the muscle samples were determined for spectroscopic calibration. Prediction models were established by partial least squares regression to evaluate the potential of using the spectroscopic techniques in an on-line slaughterhouse system. VIS data gave good prediction models, indicating that current industrial colour systems can be advanced into more specific meat evaluation systems by including the entire visible spectral range. The FOP and fluorescence measurements were less successful, and suffered from sampling problems since they measure only a small area. The best regression models were obtained from LF-NMR data for all reference quality measures and yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.75 with drip loss. LF-NMR proved able to distinguish between the two muscles and the results for their longitudinal relaxation times, T(21), were proportional to their average myofibrillar cross-sectional areas reported in the literature. PMID:22061083

  2. A Preliminary Geomorphological Analysis of Water storage capacity: The Providence Watershed, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamorro, A.; Giardino, J. R.; Vitek, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Critical Zone of Earth, as defined by NSF in 2007, is series of systems that extend from the top of the canopy to the bottom of the aquifer. The soil system has been used as the primary connection between the various systems. Knowledge of water storage capacity is essential for predicting water availability in the critical zone. Soil depth is one of the most important parameters used to study water storage capacity. Unfortunately, it is challenging to obtain an accurate representation of the degree of spatial variability of soil depth in a watershed. To obtain this data requires extensive and expensive surveys, which can be compounded in forested regions. We make the assumption that soil depth is a function of surface and subsurface geomorphological processes. The Providence Watershed, which is a Critical Zone Center (CZO) is located in the Southern Sierra Nevada of California. The Providence Watershed is ~ 2.8 km2. The general trend of the watershed is northeast and ranges in elevation from 1,700 m to 2,100 m. The dominant vegetation cover is coniferous. In this area, we compiled indices from LIDAR imagery and compared these to hand-auguring profiles collected along Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) transects. Auguring profiles exist at a spacing of 123 m. The depths of these profiles varied from 0.5 to 7.0 m. We correlated the auguring data with nine indices. None of the correlations, which ranged from -0.50 to 0.21 (Pearson product-moment), were strong. The most significant finding of this study strengthens the important role that GPR can provide to capture the spatial heterogeneity present. GPR lines complimentary to geomorphological mapping can be used as an approach to obtain more accurate results in soil depth and bedrock topography mapping. The appropriate scale of work, however, depends on the understanding of the scale of processes controlling soil formation and erosion. This work is part of the collaborative effort of the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory.

  3. A far wing line shape theory and its application to the water continuum absorption in the infrared region. I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Q.; Tipping, R. H.

    1991-01-01

    The present theory for the continuous absorption that is due to the far-wing contribution of allowed lines is based on the quasistatic approximation for the far wing limit and the binary collision approximation of one absorber molecule and one bath molecule. The validity of the theory is discussed, and numerical results of the water-continuum absorption in the IR region are presented for comparison with experimental data. Good agreement is obtained for both the magnitude and temperature dependence of the absorption coefficients.

  4. Light absorption and partitioning in Arctic Ocean surface waters: impact of multiyear ice melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bélanger, S.; Cizmeli, S. A.; Ehn, J.; Matsuoka, A.; Doxaran, D.; Hooker, S.; Babin, M.

    2013-10-01

    Ice melting in the Arctic Ocean exposes the surface water to more radiative energy with poorly understood effects on photo-biogeochemical processes and heat deposition in the upper ocean. In August 2009, we documented the vertical variability of light absorbing components at 37 stations located in the southeastern Beaufort Sea including both Mackenzie River-influenced waters and polar mixed layer waters. We found that melting multiyear ice released significant amount of non-algal particulates (NAP) near the sea surface relative to subsurface waters. NAP absorption coefficients at 440 nm (aNAP(440)) immediately below the sea surface were on average 3-fold (up to 10-fold) higher compared to subsurface values measured at 2-3 m depth. The impact of this unusual feature on the light transmission and remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) was further examined using a radiative transfer model. A 10-fold particle enrichment homogeneously distributed in the first meter of the water column slightly reduced photosynthetically available and usable radiation (PAR and PUR) by ∼6 and ∼8%, respectively, relative to a fully homogenous water column with low particle concentration. In terms of Rrs, the particle enrichment significantly flattered the spectrum by reducing the Rrs by up to 20% in the blue-green spectral region (400-550 nm). These results highlight the impact of meltwater on the concentration of particles at sea surface, and the need for considering non-uniform vertical distribution of particles in such systems when interpreting remotely sensed ocean color. Spectral slope of aNAP spectra calculated in the UV (ultraviolet) domain decreased with depth suggesting that this parameter is sensitive to detritus composition and/or diagenesis state (e.g., POM (particulate organic matter) photobleaching).

  5. Characterization of the aramid\\/epoxy interfacial properties by means of pull-out test and influence of water absorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuto Tanaka; Kohji Minoshima; Witold Grela; Kenjiro Komai

    2002-01-01

    Single fiber pull-out tests were carried out to investigate the influence of water absorption on the interfacial properties of aramid\\/epoxy composite. The fiber\\/matrix interfacial strength was severely decreased between 4 and 7 week immersion time in deionized water at 80 °C, and thereafter showed a plateau. This change with immersion time did not correspond with that of the water gain of

  6. Intrinsic UV absorption spectrometry observed with a liquid core waveguide as a sensor technique for monitoring ozone in water.

    PubMed

    Le, Trang; Tao, Shiquan

    2011-08-21

    The industrial use of ozone as a sanitizing agent in water treatment and food processing in recent years calls for sensor technologies for monitoring ozone in water for process control. Ozone molecules absorb UV light with a peak absorption wavelength at 254 nm. This property has been used in this work to develop a simple sensor technology for online, real-time continuous monitoring of trace ozone in water. A Teflon AF2400 tube filled with pure water forms a liquid core waveguide (LCW), which is used as a long-path-length optical absorption cell. This pure water filled tube was deployed into a water sample. Ozone molecules dissolved in the water sample permeate through the Teflon AF2400 tube wall and dissolve in water filled in the tube. This prevents interference species from entering the LCW, and eliminates interferences. The optical absorption signal of the long-path-length cell at 254 nm measured by guiding light through the LCW is used as a sensing signal. This simple structured sensor does not involve any chemical reagent, is reversible, and has a response time <4.5 minutes. It can be used to detect ozone in water samples down to 3.6 × 10(-9) mol L(-1). PMID:21743914

  7. Effect of liposomes on the absorption of water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients via oral administration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhijun; Lu, Aiping; Wong, Blenda Chi Kwan; Chen, Xiaoyu; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Huang, Wenhua; Zhang, Ge; Chen, Hubiao; Xu, Min

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of liposomes on the absorption of water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients. Salbutamol sulfate (SBS) has been widely used for treatment of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma. Using SBS as the model drug in this study, we developed SBS-loaded liposomes for oral administration and explored the relationship between their bioavailability and anti-asthmatic efficacy. SBS was entrapped in liposomes with encapsulation efficiency as high as 70%. The in vitro transport profile of SBS across a dialysis membrane for liposome suspension was compared with that for free SBS solution. Oral administration of liposomes labeled with the fluorescent dye 1,1'-dioctadecyltetramethyl indotricarbocyanine iodide (DiR) in a mouse model was assessed by a small animal imaging system. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies on SBS liposome suspension and free SBS solution were performed using animal models via oral administration. The results showed that liposomes could sustain the release of SBS in vitro and decrease the transport rate of SBS across the dialysis membrane. In vivo fluorescence imaging analysis demonstrated DiR liposome distribution in mouse stomach for at least 24 hr. The mean residence time of SBS from liposomes was found to be longer than that of free SBS, suggesting that the relative bioavailability of SBS was higher when liposome delivery was used. The pharmacokinetic data also showed that the drug absorption rate was relatively slower for treatment with liposomal SBS when compared to free SBS. Moreover, SBS liposome suspension was shown to give a prolonged anti-asthmatic effect after oral administration when compared to free SBS solution. Overall, this study demonstrated that use of liposomes as delivery vehicles for sustained drug release and controlled absorption could be a promising approach for improving the therapeutic potency of active pharmaceutical ingredients. PMID:23621538

  8. Measurement of the continuum absorption coefficient of water vapor near 14400 cm-1 (0.694 ?m)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirov, A. B.; Ptashnik, I. V.; Tikhomirov, B. A.

    2006-07-01

    The continuum absorption coefficient (CAC) of water vapor ( k cont) in the visible region is determined for the first time from the data of laboratory measurements. For this purpose, the absorption spectra of water vapor in the region 14395-14402 cm-1 are recorded with the aid of a high-sensitivity photoacoustic spectrometer with a frequency-tunable single-pulse ruby laser, and the absorption measured in this transparency microwindow is compared with that calculated based on the HITRAN 2004 data bank. In the spectral region under study, k cont = (0.53 ± 0.18) × 10-9 cm-1 mbar-1 at a total pressure of a water vapor-nitrogen mixture of 1000 mbar and a temperature of 295 K. This value of the CAC is roughly 23% higher than the CAC value in the IO-CKD model of the continuum.

  9. Differential absorption lidar measurements of atmospheric water vapor using a pseudonoise code modulated AlGaAs laser. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rall, Jonathan A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Lidar measurements using pseudonoise code modulated AlGaAs lasers are reported. Horizontal path lidar measurements were made at night to terrestrial targets at ranges of 5 and 13 km with 35 mW of average power and integration times of one second. Cloud and aerosol lidar measurements were made to thin cirrus clouds at 13 km altitude with Rayleigh (molecular) backscatter evident up to 9 km. Average transmitter power was 35 mW and measurement integration time was 20 minutes. An AlGaAs laser was used to characterize spectral properties of water vapor absorption lines at 811.617, 816.024, and 815.769 nm in a multipass absorption cell using derivative spectroscopy techniques. Frequency locking of an AlGaAs laser to a water vapor absorption line was achieved with a laser center frequency stability measured to better than one-fifth of the water vapor Doppler linewidth over several minutes. Differential absorption lidar measurements of atmospheric water vapor were made in both integrated path and range-resolved modes using an externally modulated AlGaAs laser. Mean water vapor number density was estimated from both integrated path and range-resolved DIAL measurements and agreed with measured humidity values to within 6.5 percent and 20 percent, respectively. Error sources were identified and their effects on estimates of water vapor number density calculated.

  10. Diffusion Coefficients of Water and Leachables in Methacrylate-based Crosslinked Polymers using Absorption Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Misra, Anil; Park, Jonggu; Ye, Qiang; Spencer, Paulette

    2012-01-01

    The diffusion of water into dentin adhesive polymers and leaching of unpolymerized monomer from the adhesive are linked to their mechanical softening and hydrolytic degradation. Therefore, diffusion coefficient data are critical for the mechanical design of these polymeric adhesives. In this study, diffusion coefficients of water and leachables were obtained for sixteen methacrylate-based crosslinked polymers using absorption experiments. The experimental mass change data was interpreted using numerical solution of the two-dimensional diffusion equations. The calculated diffusion coefficients varied from 1.05 × 10?8 cm2/sec (co-monomer TMTMA) to 3.15 × 10?8 cm2/sec (co-monomer T4EGDMA). Correlation of the diffusion coefficients with crosslink density and hydrophilicity showed an inverse trend (R2 = 0.41). The correlation of diffusion coefficient with crosslink density and hydrophilicity are closer for molecules differing by simple repeat units (R2 = 0.95). These differences in the trends reveal mechanisms of interaction of the diffusing water with the polymer structure. PMID:22430592

  11. Revisiting the total ion yield x-ray absorption spectra of liquid water microjets

    SciTech Connect

    Saykally, Richard J; Cappa, Chris D.; Smith, Jared D.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2008-02-16

    Measurements of the total ion yield (TIY) x-ray absorption spectrum (XAS) of liquid water by Wilson et al. (2002 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14 L221 and 2001 J. Phys. Chem. B 105 3346) have been revisited in light of new experimental and theoretical efforts by our group. Previously, the TIY spectrum was interpreted as a distinct measure of the electronic structure of the liquid water surface. However, our new results indicate that the previously obtained spectrum may have suffered from as yet unidentified experimental artifacts. Although computational results indicate that the liquid water surface should exhibit a TIY-XAS that is fundamentally distinguishable from the bulk liquid XAS, the new experimental results suggest that the observable TIY-XAS is actually nearly identical in appearance to the total electron yield (TEY-)XAS, which is a bulk probe. This surprising similarity between the observed TIY-XAS and TEY-XAS likely results from large contributions from x-ray induced electron stimulated desorption of ions, and does not necessarily indicate that the electronic structure of the bulk liquid and liquid surface are identical.

  12. Ionic liquid and water molecules diluted in hydrophobic solvent matrix investigated by infrared absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Doseok; Sung, Woongmo; Lee, Jonggwan

    2015-03-01

    Pure ionic liquids ([BMIM]: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium, X: Cl and I) and their aqueous solutions were loaded on top of non-polar solvent CCl4, and the infrared spectra of CCl4 phase were taken as a function of time for in-situ probing of the transfer of the ionic liquid and water molecules. We observed clear vibrational bands of methyl and methylene groups of the cations similar to that of bulk ionic liquids. On the other hand, normally strong infrared absorption from C(2)-H and C(4,5)-H vibrations was hardly observable. As these bands work as indicators of specific interaction between the imidazolium core and the halide anions, we concluded that ion pairs are fully dissociated and [BMIM] cations exist as monomers in CCl4. For 1 M of [BMIM]Cl and [BMIM]I aqueous solutions, water molecules transferred into CCl4 also exist mostly as monomers, with a possible existence of anion-bound water molecules inferred from the new band at 3421 cm-1 for [BMIM]Cl, and at 3452 cm- 1 for [BMIM]I. Both transfer rate and saturation amount of ionic liquid molecules are larger for [BMIM]I. For this, we propose that this difference in transfer rate originates from excess ionic liquid molecules at the interface between hydrophlic (aqueous solution) and hydrophobic (CCl4) medium.

  13. Predictions of silicon avalanche photodiode detector performance in water vapor differential absorption lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenimer, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    Performance analyses are presented which establish that over most of the range of signals expected for a down-looking differential absorption lidar (DIAL) operated at 16 km the silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) is the preferred detector for DIAL measurements of atmospheric water vapor in the 730 nm spectral region. The higher quantum efficiency of the APD's, (0.8-0.9) compared to a photomultiplier's (0.04-0.18) more than offsets the higher noise of an APD receiver. In addition to offering lower noise and hence lower random error the APD's excellent linearity and impulse recovery minimize DIAL systematic errors attributable to the detector. Estimates of the effect of detector system parameters on overall random and systematic DIAL errors are presented, and performance predictions are supported by laboratory characterization data for an APD receiver system.

  14. Effect of pH, phosphorus, and water-extractable zinc of soil on plant growth and zinc absorption 

    E-print Network

    Karimian, Najafali

    1970-01-01

    EFFECT OF pH~ PHOSPHORilS, AND WATER-EXTRACTABLE ZINC OF SOIL ON PLANT GROWTH AND ZINC ABSORPT1ON A Thesis Najafali Karimian Submitted to the Graduate College cf Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1970 Major Sub ject: Soil Chemistry EFFECT OF pH, PHOSPHORUS, AND WATER-EXTRACTABLE ZINC OF SOIL ON PLANT GROWTH AND ZINC ABSORPTION A Thesis by NajafaIi Karimian Approved as to sty1e and content by: Chairman Committee...

  15. VARIABILITY OF WATER AND OXYGEN ABSORPTION BANDS IN THE DISK-INTEGRATED SPECTRA OF EARTH

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Yuka; Suto, Yasushi [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Turner, Edwin L., E-mail: yuka.fujii@utap.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    We study the variability of major atmospheric absorption features in the disk-integrated spectra of Earth with future application to Earth-analogs in mind, concentrating on the diurnal timescale. We first analyze observations of Earth provided by the EPOXI mission, and find 5%-20% fractional variation of the absorption depths of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} bands, two molecules that have major signatures in the observed range. From a correlation analysis with the cloud map data from the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS), we find that their variation pattern is primarily due to the uneven cloud cover distribution. In order to account for the observed variation quantitatively, we consider a simple opaque cloud model, which assumes that the clouds totally block the spectral influence of the atmosphere below the cloud layer, equivalent to assuming that the incident light is completely scattered at the cloud top level. The model is reasonably successful, and reproduces the EPOXI data from the pixel-level EOS cloud/water vapor data. A difference in the diurnal variability patterns of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} bands is ascribed to the differing vertical and horizontal distribution of those molecular species in the atmosphere. On Earth, the inhomogeneous distribution of atmospheric water vapor is due to the existence of its exchange with liquid and solid phases of H{sub 2}O on the planet's surface on a timescale short compared with atmospheric mixing times. If such differences in variability patterns were detected in spectra of Earth-analogs, it would provide the information on the inhomogeneous composition of their atmospheres.

  16. The influence of water vapor on atmospheric exchange measurements with an ICOS* based Laser absorption analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunk, Rüdiger; Quan, Zhi; Wandel, Matthias; Yi, Zhigang; Bozem, Heiko; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    Carbonyl sulfide and carbon monoxide are both atmospheric trace gases of high interest. Recent advances in the field of spectroscopy have enabled instruments that measure the concentration of the above and other trace gases very fast and with good precision. Increasing the effective path length by reflecting the light between two mirrors in a cavity, these instruments reach impressive sensitivities. Often it is possible to measure the concentration of more than one trace gas at the same time. The OCS/CO2 Analyzer by LGR (Los Gatos Research, Inc.) measures the concentration of water vapor [H2O], carbonyl sulfide [COS], carbon dioxide [CO2] and carbon monoxide [CO] simultaneously. For that the cavity is saturated with light, than the attenuation of light is measured as in standard absorption spectroscopy. The instrument proved to be very fast with good precision and to be able to detect even very low concentrations, especially for COS (as low as 30ppt in the case of COS). However, we observed a rather strong cross sensitivity to water vapor. Altering the water vapor content of the sampled air with two different methods led to a change in the perceived concentration of COS, CO and CO2. This proved especially problematic for enclosure (cuvette) measurements, where the concentrations of one of the above species in an empty cuvette are compared to the concentration of another cuvette containing a plant whose exchange of trace gases with the atmosphere is of interest. There, the plants transpiration leads to a large difference in water vapor content between the cuvettes and that in turn produces artifacts in the concentration differences between the cuvettes for the other above mentioned trace gases. For CO, simultaneous measurement with a UV-Emission Analyzer (AL 5002, Aerolaser) and the COS/CO Analyzer showed good agreement of perceived concentrations as long as the sample gas was dry and an increasing difference in perceived concentration when the sample gas was humidified. The difference in perceived CO concentration showed a clear correlation to the water vapor content in the sample air. For COS we could show that changes in water vapor also impacted on the perceived COS concentrations; the raise of the water vapor concentration would lead to an increasing underestimation of the COS concentration. Drying the air using a Nafion Dryer before entering the COS/CO Analyzer eliminated any water vapor induced artifacts and showed no adverse effects on the quality of the conducted measurements. *Integrated cavity output spectroscopy

  17. Integrated Water Resources Management: Relevant concept or irrelevant buzzword? A capacity building and research agenda for Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Zaag, Pieter

    This article examines the concept ‘Integrated Water Resources Management’ (IWRM) and inquires as to its relevance for the Southern African region. The paper first acknowledges the contributions made to IWRM by three regional initiatives-WaterNet, the Water Research Fund for Southern Africa (WARFSA), and the Southern African chapter of the Global Water Partnership. Then, three important aspects of IWRM are highlighted: that IWRM requires institutional capacity to integrate, which often is a scarce resource; that IWRM is neither solution nor recipe, but rather a perspective or way of looking at problems with a view to solving them through transparent and inclusive decision-making processes; and that IWRM should explicitly deal with the fact that water tends to build asymmetrical relationships between people, communities and nations. An IWRM agenda is subsequently set out, focussing on five critical issues: the dilemma between economic development and sustainability; the unresolved issue of water as an economic good; the place and role of rainfed farmers in IWRM; the importance of training and teaching; and the need for building reflexive capacity in the new and existing water institutions. The paper concludes that IWRM is a relevant, yet elusive and fuzzy concept. Evidence from Southern Africa and around the world shows that IWRM inspires a new generation of water managers and researchers to act creatively; assists in addressing the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs); and instils mutual respect, understanding and co-operation among water professionals in Southern Africa.

  18. Design And Implementation Of A Water-Quality Monitoring Program In Support Of Establishing User Capacities In Yosemite National Park

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Peavler; D. W. Clow; A. K. Panorska

    2008-01-01

    Under the 1968 Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, the managing agency of the designated river is required to develop a comprehensive management plan that protects the characteristics of the river segment meriting special protection and that addresses user capacities. We analyzed water quality in the upper Merced and Tuolumne Rivers of Yosemite National Park, designated as Wild and Scenic, to

  19. Correlation of changes in pigment content with photosynthetic capacity of seaweeds as a function of water depth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ramus; S. I. Beale; D. Mauzerall

    1976-01-01

    We conducted a study of the relationship between changes in photosynthetic pigment content and photosynthetic capacity as a function of water depth in Great Harbor near Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA, on the green algae Ulva lactuca and Codium fragile and the red algae Porphyra umbilicalis and Chondrus crispus. Seaweeds were attached to vertically buoyed lines at 0.5 and 10 m

  20. Development of minimum efficiency standards for large capacity air conditioners, and commercial water heaters, refrigerators, and freezers. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Merrill; R. J. Rettberg; R. C. Erickson; J. S. Toor

    1980-01-01

    The California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission has promulgated appliance energy efficiency standards and energy conservation standards for new construction with the objective of reducing energy consumption in the State of California. The following appliance categories are specifically addressed: large capacity air conditioners; commercial water heaters; and commercial refrigerators and freezers. The tasks that have been performed include: an

  1. The Near Infrared Absorption Spectrum of Water by CRDS Between 1.26-1.70 µm:Complete Empirical Line List and Continuum Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondelain, Didier; Campargue, Alain; Kassi, Samir; Mikhailenko, Semen

    2014-06-01

    Due to the increasing performances of Airborne- and ground-based spectrometers, a more and more accurate characterization of the water vapor absorption is required. This is especially true in the transparency windows, corresponding to low absorption spectral regions widely used for probing the Earth's atmosphere. State-of-the-art experimental developments are required to fulfill the needs in terms of accuracy of the spectroscopic data. For that purpose, we are using high-sensitivity Continuous Wave Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CW-CRDS) allowing reproducing in laboratory conditions comparable to the atmospheric ones in terms of absorption path length (tens of kilometers), temperature and pressure. From extensive analysis of our CRDS spectra, we have constructed an empirical line list for "natural" water vapor at 296 K in the 5850 7920 cm-1 region including 38 318 transitions of four major water isotopologues (H2 16O, H218O, H217O and HD16O) with an intensity cut-off of 1·10-29 cm/molecule. The list is made mostly complete over the whole spectral region by including a large number of unobserved weak lines with positions calculated using experimentally determined energy levels and intensities obtained from variational calculations. In addition, we provide HD18O and HD 17O lists in the same region for transitions with intensities larger than 1·10-29 cm/molecule. The HD18O and HD17O lists (1 972 lines in total) were obtained using empirical energy levels available in the literature and variational intensities. The global list (40 290 transitions) including the contribution of the six major isotopologues has been adopted for the new edition of the GEISA database in the region. The advantages and drawbacks of our list will be discussed in comparison with the list provided for the same region in the 2012 edition of the HITRAN database. Separate experiments were dedicated to the measurement of the water vapor self-continuum crosssections in the 1.6 µm window by CW-CRDS at different temperatures (from room temperature to 340 K). Due to the weakness of the broadband absorption signal to be measured, very few measurements of the water vapor continuum are available in the NIR windows especially for temperature conditions relevant for our atmosphere. This is in particular the case for the 1.6 µm window where the very few available measurements show a large disagreement. The absorption cross-sections, Cs(?, T), were retrieved for different selected wave numbers from a fit of the absorption coefficients measured in real time during pressure ramps, after subtraction of the contributions of the local water monomer lines and of water adsorbed on the CRDS mirrors. The values measured between 5875 and 6665 cm-1 range between 1.5·10-25 and 2·10-24 cm2 molec-1 atm-1 with a minimum around 6300 cm-1. Overall, our measurements are found in strong disagreement with recent FTS measurements and in a good agreement with the values predicted by the MT CKD2.5 model, except for the temperature dependence in the center of the window which is found significantly smaller than predicted.

  2. The room temperature annealing peak in ionomers: Ionic crystallites or water absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, R.J.; Grady, B.P.; Cooper, S.L. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-03-28

    A quaternized diol, 3-(trimethylammonio)-1,2-propanediol neutralized with either bromine or iodine, was used to produce a polyurethane cationomer with a poly(tetramethylene oxide) soft segment and a 4,4[prime]-diphenylmethane diisocyanate hard segment. If those cationomers were annealed at room temperature for a period of approximately 1 month in a desiccator filled with dry CaSO[sub 4], differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies showed an endotherm centered near 70 C which was not present in the unannealed polymer and did not reappear upon subsequent cooling and heating cycles in the DSC. Some authors have suggested that a very similar endotherm found in other ionomers, most notably ethylene-methacrylic acid (E-MAA) copolymer ionomers, was due to an order-disorder transition within the ionic aggregates, i.e. ionic crystallite melting. In order to isolate the origin of this endotherm, the local environment around the anion in compression molded bromine neutralized samples was measured using the extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) technique. By measuring the change in the local environment over the temperature range corresponding to the DSC endotherm, it has been shown that this endotherm corresponds to water leaving the bromine coordination shell, rather than ionic crystallite melting. Other studies which include thoroughly drying the material in a vacuum oven below the transition temperature to remove the water suggest that the endotherm is due to the energetic change associated with water leaving the coordination environment of the anion in combination with water vaporization.

  3. Chemical forces and water holding capacity study of heat-induced myofibrillar protein gel as affected by high pressure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ziye; Yang, Yuling; Tang, Xiaozhi; Chen, Yinji; You, Yuan

    2015-12-01

    The effects of high pressure (100-500MPa) on chemical forces and water holding capacity of heat-induced myofibrillar protein (MP) gel were investigated. As pressure increased, total sulfhydryl (SH) group content decreased and absolute value of zeta potential increased, which suggested the formation of disulfide bonds and increased the strength of electrostatic repulsion. Surface hydrophobicity and normalized intensity of the 760cm(-1) band showed a maximum value at 200MPa, indicating that 200MPa was the optimum pressure for hydrophobic interactions. Hydrogen bonding of MP gel was strengthened at pressures of 300MPa and above. Bound water (T2b) had lower water mobility and was more closely associated with proteins. Free water (T22) had higher water mobility. More free water was attracted by proteins or trapped in gel structure, and transferred to bound or immobilized water as pressure increased. A value of 200MPa was the optimum pressure for the water holding capacity of MP gel. PMID:26041172

  4. Determination of cadmium, lead and copper in water samples by flame atomic-absorption spectrometry with preconcentration by flow-injection on-line sorbent extraction.

    PubMed

    Fang, Z; Guo, T; Welz, B

    1991-06-01

    Cadmium, lead and copper were determined in synthetic sea-water, drinking water and the NBS 1643b Trace Elements in Water standard reference material at mug/l. levels by flame atomic-absorption spectrometry after on-line preconcentration by sorbent extraction with a flow-injection system. Bonded silica with octadecyl functional groups packed in a micro column of 100 mul capacity was used to collect diethylammonium diethyldithiocarbamate complexes of the heavy metals in the aqueous samples. The sample loading time was 20 sec at a flow-rate of 3.3 ml/min. Ethanol or methanol was used to elute the adsorbed analytes into the spectrometer. The sample loading rate, elution rate and pH were optimized. Enrichment factors of 19-25 for Cd, Pb and Cu were achieved at sampling frequencies of 120/hr with precisions of 1.4, 1.0 and 1.3% rsd (n = 11), respectively. The detection limits (3sigma) for Cd, Pb and Cu were 0.3, 3 and 0.2 mug/l., respectively. Determination of Cd, Pb and Cu in NBS SRM 1643b showed good agreement with the certified values. Recoveries of Cd and Pb added to sea-water were 95 and 102%, respectively. PMID:18965193

  5. Ultra reliable infrared absorption water vapor detection through the all-electronic feedback stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, C. G.; Chang, J.; Wang, P. P.; Wang, Q.; Wei, W.; Tian, J. Q.; Chang, H. T.; Liu, X. Z.; Zhang, S. S.

    2014-03-01

    Single-beam balanced radiometric detection (BRD) system with all-electronic feedback stabilization has been proposed for high reliability water vapor detection under rough environmental conditions, which is insensitive to the fluctuation of transmission loss of light. The majority of photocurrent attenuation caused by the optical loss can be effectively compensated by automatically adjusting the splitting ratio of probe photocurrent. Based on the Ebers-Moll model, we present a theoretical analysis which can be suppressed the photocurrent attenuation caused by optical loss from 0.5552 dB to 0.0004 dB by using the all-electronic feedback stabilization. The deviation of the single-beam BRD system is below 0.29% with the bending loss of 0.31 dB in fiber, which is obviously lower than the dual-beam BRD system (5.96%) and subtraction system (11.3%). After averaging and filtering, the absorption sensitivity of water vapor at 1368.597 nm has been demonstrated, which is 7.368×10-6.

  6. Light tracking through ice and water -- Scattering and absorption in heterogeneous media with Photonics

    E-print Network

    J. Lundberg; P. Miocinovic; K. Woschnagg; T. Burgess; J. Adams; S. Hundertmark; P. Desiati; P. Niessen

    2007-08-29

    In the field of neutrino astronomy, large volumes of optically transparent matter like glacial ice, lake water, or deep ocean water are used as detector media. Elementary particle interactions are studied using in situ detectors recording time distributions and fluxes of the faint photon fields of Cherenkov radiation generated by ultra-relativistic charged particles, typically muons or electrons. The Photonics software package was developed to determine photon flux and time distributions throughout a volume containing a light source through Monte Carlo simulation. Photons are propagated and time distributions are recorded throughout a cellular grid constituting the simulation volume, and Mie scattering and absorption are realised using wavelength and position dependent parameterisations. The photon tracking results are stored in binary tables for transparent access through ANSI-C and C++ interfaces. For higher-level physics applications, like simulation or reconstruction of particle events, it is then possible to quickly acquire the light yield and time distributions for a pre-specified set of light source and detector properties and geometries without real-time photon propagation. In this paper the Photonics light propagation routines and methodology are presented and applied to the IceCube and Antares neutrino telescopes. The way in which inhomogeneities of the Antarctic glacial ice distort the signatures of elementary particle interactions, and how Photonics can be used to account for these effects, is described.

  7. Temperature and salinity correction coefficients for light absorption by water in the visible to infrared spectral region.

    PubMed

    Röttgers, Rüdiger; McKee, David; Utschig, Christian

    2014-10-20

    The light absorption coefficient of water is dependent on temperature and concentration of ions, i.e. the salinity in seawater. Accurate knowledge of the water absorption coefficient, a, and/or its temperature and salinity correction coefficients, ?(T) and ?(S), respectively, is essential for a wide range of optical applications. Values are available from published data only at specific narrow wavelength ranges or at single wavelengths in the visible and infrared regions. ?(T) and ?(S) were therefore spectrophotometrically measured throughout the visible, near, and short wavelength infrared spectral region (400 to ~2700 nm). Additionally, they were derived from more precise measurements with a point-source integrating-cavity absorption meter (PSICAM) for 400 to 700 nm. When combined with earlier measurements from the literature in the range of 2600 - 14000 nm (wavenumber: 3800 - 700 cm(-1)), the coefficients are provided for 400 to 14000 nm (wavenumber: 25000 to 700 cm(-1)). PMID:25401542

  8. Atmospheric pre-corrected differential absorption techniques to retrieve columnar water vapor: Application to AVIRIS 91/95 data

    SciTech Connect

    Schlaepfer, D. [Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland). Dept. of Geography; Borel, C.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Keller, J. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    Water vapor is one of the main forces for weather development as well as for mesoscale air transport processes. The monitoring of water vapor is therefore an important aim in remote sensing of the atmosphere. Current operational systems for water vapor detection use primarily the emission in the thermal infrared (AVHRR, GOES, ATSR, Meteosat) or in the microwave radiation bands (DMSP). The disadvantage of current satellite systems is either a coarse spatial (horizontal) resolution ranging from one to tens of kilometers or a limited insight into the lower atmosphere. Imaging spectrometry on the other hand measures total column water vapor contents at a high spatial horizontal resolution and has therefore the potential of filling these gaps. The sensors of the AVIRIS instrument are capable of acquiring hyperspectral data in 224 bands located in the visible and near infrared at 10 run resolution. This data includes information on constituents of the earth`s surface as well as of the atmosphere. The optical measurement of water vapor can be performed using sensor channels located in bands or lines of the absorption spectrum. The AVIRIS sensor has been used to retrieve water vapor and with less accuracy carbon dioxide, oxygen and ozone. To retrieve the water vapor amount, the so called differential absorption technique has been applied. The goal of this technique is to eliminate background factors by taking a ratio between channels within the absorption band and others besides the band. Various rationing methods on the basis of different channels and calculation techniques were developed. The influence of a trace gas of interest on the radiance at the sensor level is usually simulated by using radiative transfer codes. In this study, spectral transmittance and radiance are calculated by MODTRAN3 simulations with the new DISORT option. This work testS the best performing differential absorption techniques for imaging spectrometry of tropospheric water vapor.

  9. Optical absorption spectra of waters from the Orinoco River outflow: Terrestrial input of colored organic matter to the Caribbean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. V. Blough; O. C. Zafiriou; J. Bonilla

    1993-01-01

    An extensive series of optical absorption spectra were recorded for waters in the eastern Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Paria, and the Orinoco River Estuary during the high-flow period of the Orinoco River in the Fall of 1988. Evidence for high levels of dissolved, colored organic matter (COM) was found throughout the eastern Caribbean, with these levels increasing substantially at

  10. Effects of stress waveform and water absorption on the fatigue strength of angle-ply aramid fiber\\/epoxy composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Komai; K. Minoshima; K. Tanaka; T. Tokura

    2002-01-01

    The influences of stress waveform and water absorption on the tension–tension fatigue fracture behavior were investigated in ±45° angle-ply laminates of aramid fiber reinforced epoxy matrix composite. For dry specimens, the fatigue strength under negative pulse waveform was higher than that under the positive pulse waveform. Rotation of fibers to the longitudinal direction, which resulted from creep deformation caused by

  11. Evaluation of Plasma-Deposited Hydrophobic Coatings on Pigment-Coated Paper for Reduced Dampening Water Absorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Pykönen; K. Johansson; M. Dubreuil; D. Vangeneugden; G. Ström; P. Fardim; M. Toivakka

    2010-01-01

    Hydrophobic plasma coatings were deposited on pigment-coated paper with the purpose of reducing dampening water absorption and create uniform surface chemistry. The influence of plasma coatings on sheet-fed offset printability was also studied. Three plasma chemistries, fluorocarbon, organosilicon and hydrocarbon, were used to adjust the hydrophobicity of paper surface. The plasma coatings reduced, and in some cases prevented, the dampening

  12. ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRIC DETERMINATION OF ARSENITE IN WATER SAMPLES BY GRAPHITE FURNACE AFTER EXTRACTION WITH AMMONIUM SEC-BUTYLDITHIOPHOSPHATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenite - but not arsenate, methylarsonic acid, or dimethylarsinic acid - is extracted from water samples by 5 mL of a 0.01M hexane solution of sec-dibutylthiophosphate. A 10 microliters aliquot of the extract is injected into an atomic absorption spectrometer with a graphic fur...

  13. Feasibility of tropospheric water vapor profiling using infrared heterodyne differential absorption lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Grund, C.J.; Hardesty, R.M. [NOAA Environmental Technology Lab., Boulder, CO (United States); Rye, B.J. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CU/NOAA)

    1995-04-03

    Continuous, high quality profiles of water vapor, free of systematic bias, and of moderate temporal and spatial resolution, acquired over long periods at low operational and maintenance cost, are fundamental to the success of the ARM CART program. The development and verification of realistic climate model parameterizations for clouds and net radiation balance, and the correction of other CART site sensor observations for interferences due to the presence of water vapor are critically dependent on water vapor profile measurements. Application of profiles acquired with current techniques, have, to date, been limited by vertical resolution and uniqueness of solution [e.g. high resolution infrared (IR) Fourier transform radiometry], poor spatial and temporal coverage and high operating cost (e.g. radiosondes), or diminished daytime performance, lack of eye-safety, and high maintenance cost (e.g. Raman lidar). Recent developments in infrared laser and detector technology make possible compact IR differential absorption lidar (DIAL) systems at eye-safe wavelengths. In the study reported here, we develop DIAL system performance models and examine the potential of to solve some of the shortcomings of previous methods using parameterizations representative of current technologies. These models are also applied to diagnose and evaluate other strengths and weaknesses unique to the DIAL method for this application. This work is to continue in the direction of evaluating yet smaller and lower-cost laser diode-based systems for routine monitoring of the lower altitudes using photon counting detection methods. We regard the present report as interim in nature and will update and extend it as a final report at the end of the term of the contract.

  14. Infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy of amphipathic model peptides at the air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Kerth, Andreas; Erbe, Andreas; Dathe, Margitta; Blume, Alfred

    2004-06-01

    The linear sequence KLAL (KLALKLALKALKAALKLA-NH(2)) and its corresponding d,l-isomers k(9)a(10)-KLAL (KLALKLALkaLKAALKLA-NH(2)) and l(11)k(12)-KLAL (KLALKLALKAlkAALKLA-NH(2)) are model compounds for potentially amphipathic alpha-helical peptides which are able to bind to membranes and to increase the membrane permeability in a structure- and target-dependent manner (Dathe and Wieprecht, 1999) We first studied the secondary structure of KLAL and its analogs bound to the air/water using infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy. For the peptide films the shape and position of the amide I and amide II bands indicate that the KLAL adopts at large areas per molecule an alpha-helical secondary structure, whereas at higher surface pressures or smaller areas it converts into a beta-sheet structure. This transition could be observed in the compression isotherm as well as during the adsorption at the air/water interface from the subphase as a function of time. The secondary structures are essentially orientated parallel to the air/water interface. The analogs with d-amino acids in two different positions of the sequence, k(9)a(10)-KLAL and l(11)k(12)-KLAL, form only beta-sheet structures at all surface pressures. The observed results are interpreted using a comparison of hydrophobic moments calculated for alpha-helices and beta-sheets. The differences between the hydrophobic moments calculated using the consensus scale are not large. Using the optimal matching hydrophobicity scale or the whole-residue hydrophobicity scale the beta-sheet even has the larger hydrophobic moment. PMID:15189871

  15. Gaussian multiaccess channels with ISI: Capacity region and multiuser water-filling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger S. Cheng; Sergio Verdú

    1993-01-01

    The capacity region of a two-user Gaussian multiac- cess channel with intersymbol interference (ISI), where the inputs pass through respective linear systems and are then superimposed before being corrupted by an additive Gaussian noise process, is found. A novel geometrical method is given to obtain the optimal input power spectral densities and the capacity region. This method can be viewed

  16. Collaboration with HEIs: A Key Capacity Building Block for the Uganda Water and Sanitation Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayaga, Sam

    2007-01-01

    The capacity of public service staff in developing countries is crucial for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Literature from developed countries shows that, working with higher education institutions (HEIs), industries have improved their human resource capacity through continuing professional development. This paper reports on research…

  17. The effect of ambient temperature on the surface area of components of an air-cooled lithium bromide\\/water absorption unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mostafavi; B. Agnew

    1996-01-01

    The escalating cost of energy during this decade has made co-generation very popular. When cooling is required for either space conditioning or industrial processes, absorption chillers which use waste heat can be utilised. Much of the work is concentrated on the water-cooled absorption chiller. Since countries with hot and dry climates are often short of water, it will also be

  18. Effect of fibre and coupling agent contents on water absorption and flexural modulus of wood fibre polyethylene composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissandier, C.; Zhang, Y.; Rodrigue, D.

    2014-05-01

    In two previous studies, wood fiber-reinforced polymer composites (WPC) were prepared via melt processing. In particular, a response surface strategy of a 20 run optimal design for these three factors was adopted. It was found that for these WPC mixing torque, melt viscosity, Young's modulus and tensile stress at break were related to the type of wood used, as well as wood and coupling agent contents. In addition, thermal properties and strain at break were mainly affected by wood and coupling agent contents. Here, a more complete characterization of these WPC under extreme environmental conditions is performed. In particular, the effect of coupling agent content, wood fibre content and wood fibre type on water absorption and flexural modulus are reported under different water immersion time and temperature. The results show that water absorption is influenced by all the parameters studied, while flexural modulus is mainly influenced by wood content and immersion temperature.

  19. Pathways for building capacity and ensuring effective transboundary water resources management in Africa: Revisiting the key issues, opportunities and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikozho, Claudious

    The performance of most organizations and institutions set up to facilitate transboundary water resources management in Africa remains unsatisfactory and new frameworks are required to address this performance gap. Using the Nile and Senegal River Basins as case studies, this paper applies qualitative research methods to explore the transboundary river basin management terrain in Africa with a view to identifying and articulating some of the major issues, challenges and opportunities faced in building the capacity of the main actors and institutions in the sector. The paper establishes that the creation of basin management institutions as the assumed panacea to challenges evident in this sector has not delivered the desired results. Some of the institutions established for this purpose in Africa have remained functionally weak and ineffective. Thus, demand for capacity-building interventions in this landscape remains high. The paper concludes that comprehensive capacity-building interventions should seek to improve the competencies and skills of key actors in implementing the broad range of activities constituting integrated water resources management in transboundary basins. In-depth analysis of the fundamental capacity constraints and challenges that key players face in relation to key drivers for cooperation is the absolutely necessary ingredient.

  20. A far wing line shape theory and its application to the foreign-broadened water continuum absorption. III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Q.; Tipping, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The far wing line shape theory developed previously and applied to the calculation of the continuum absorption of pure water vapor is extended to foreign-broadened continua. Explicit results are presented for H2O-N2 and H2O-CO2 in the frequency range from 0 to 10,000/cm. For H2O-N2 the positive and negative resonant frequency average line shape functions and absorption coefficients are computed for a number of temperatures between 296 and 430 K for comparison with available laboratory data. In general the agreement is very good.

  1. Recent advances in carrier-mediated intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Said, Hamid M

    2004-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in recent years toward understanding the mechanisms and regulation of intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins from the diet, especially those that are transported by a specialized carrier-mediated mechanism (i.e., ascorbic acid, biotin, folate, riboflavin, thiamin, and pyridoxine). The driving force involved in the uptake events and the molecular identity of the systems involved have been identified for a number of these vitamins. In addition, information about regulation of the uptake process of these micronutrients by intracellular and extracellular factors has been forthcoming. Furthermore, the 5' regulatory region of the genes that encode a number of these transporters has been characterized, thus providing information about transcriptional regulation of the transport events. Also of interest is the identification of existence of carrier-mediated mechanisms in human colonocytes that are capable of absorbing some of the vitamins that are synthesized by normal microflora of the large intestine. Although the contribution of the latter source of vitamins toward overall host nutrition is not clear and requires further investigations, it is highly likely that it does contribute toward the cellular homeostasis of these vitamins in the localized colonocytes. PMID:14977409

  2. Ultra Narrowband Optical Filters for Water Vapor Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenholm, Ingrid; DeYoung, Russell J.

    2001-01-01

    Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) systems are being deployed to make vertical profile measurements of atmospheric water vapor from ground and airborne platforms. One goal of this work is to improve the technology of such DIAL systems that they could be deployed on space-based platforms. Since background radiation reduces system performance, it is important to reduce it. One way to reduce it is to narrow the bandwidth of the optical receiver system. However, since the DIAL technique uses two or more wavelengths, in this case separated by 0.1 nm, a fixed-wavelength narrowband filter that would encompass both wavelengths would be broader than required for each line, approximately 0.02 nm. The approach employed in this project is to use a pair of tunable narrowband reflective fiber Bragg gratings. The Bragg gratings are germanium-doped silica core fiber that is exposed to ultraviolet radiation to produce index-of-refraction changes along the length of the fiber. The gratings can be tuned by stretching. The backscattered laser radiation is transmitted through an optical circulator to the gratings, reflected back to the optical circulator by one of the gratings, and then sent to a photodiode. The filter reflectivities were >90 percent, and the overall system efficiency was 30 percent.

  3. Profiling tropospheric water vapour with a coherent infrared differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, Philippe; Ishii, Shoken; Mizutani, Kohei; Itabe, Toshikazu; Yasui, Motoaki

    2012-11-01

    In the last decade the precision of coherent Doppler differential absorption lidar (DIAL) has been greatly improved in near and middle infra-red domains for measuring greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4 and winds. The National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT, Japan) has developed and is operating a CO2 and wind measuring ground-based coherent DIAL at 2.05 ?m (4878 cm-1). The application of this technology from space is now considered. In this analysis we study the use of the NICT DIAL for profiling tropospheric water vapour from space. We present the methodology to select the spectral lines and summarized the results of the selected lines between 4000 and 7000 cm-1. The choice of the frequency offset, the pulse energy and repetition frequency are discussed. Retrieval simulations from the line at 4580 cm-1 (2.18 ?m) suitable for the boundary layer and the stronger one at 5621 cm-1 (1.78 ?m) for sounding the boundary layer and the middle troposphere, are shown.

  4. The relationship of sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein solubility to colour and water-holding capacity in porcine longissimus muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. T Joo; R. G Kauffman; B. C Kim; G. B Park

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate the relationship of sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein solubility to colour and water-holding capacity (WHC) in pork, 60 loins were selected to represent the quality classes: PSE (pale, soft, exudative), RSE (reddish-pink, soft, exudative), RFN (reddish-pink, firm, non-exudative) and DFD (dark, firm, dry). PSE samples exhibited lower (p<0.05) protein solubility (sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar and total) compared to the

  5. Relationship between water-holding capacity and protein denaturation in broiler breast meat1.

    PubMed

    Bowker, B; Zhuang, H

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between water-holding capacity (WHC) attributes and protein denaturation in broiler breast meat. Boneless skinless breast fillets (n = 72) were collected from a commercial processing plant at 2?h postmortem and segregated into low-WHC and high-WHC groups based on muscle pH and color (L*a*b*). At 6 and 24?h postmortem, brine uptake (%), cooking loss (%), and protein solubility (sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar) were measured and protein fractions were analyzed using SDS-PAGE. Drip loss accumulation (%) was measured after storage for 2 and 7 days postmortem. High-WHC fillets exhibited lower L*-lightness values and greater pH values at 2 and 24?h postmortem than low-WHC fillets. High-WHC fillets had greater brine uptake and less cooking loss at both 6 and 24?h postmortem compared to low-WHC fillets. Aging from 6 to 24?h postmortem increased brine uptake in high-WHC fillets, but did not affect cooking loss in either low-WHC or high-WHC fillets. Drip loss accumulation was greater in low-WHC fillets at both 2 and 7 days postmortem. Myofibrillar protein solubility decreased with postmortem time but was not different between low-WHC and high-WHC fillets. Sarcoplasmic protein solubility increased with postmortem time and was greater in high-WHC fillets. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that low-WHC fillets exhibited more glycogen phosphorylase denaturation than high-WHC fillets as evidenced by a more extensive shift of the protein from the sarcoplasmic to the myofibrillar protein fraction. Correlation analysis revealed that overall protein solubility measurements were not related to WHC attributes but that the degree of glycogen phosphorylase denaturation was significantly correlated (|r| = 0.52 to 0.80) to measures of WHC. Data indicated that WHC differences in broiler breast fillets were not due to differences in myofibrillar protein denaturation and suggested that the denaturation of sarcoplasmic proteins onto myofibrils may influence WHC in breast meat. PMID:26009757

  6. Validation of phenol red versus gravimetric method for water reabsorption correction and study of gender differences in Doluisio's absorption technique.

    PubMed

    Tu?cu-Demiröz, Fatmanur; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Isabel; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Marta; Bermejo, Marival

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a method for water flux reabsorption measurement in Doluisio's Perfusion Technique based on the use of phenol red as a non-absorbable marker and to validate it by comparison with gravimetric procedure. The compounds selected for the study were metoprolol, atenolol, cimetidine and cefadroxil in order to include low, intermediate and high permeability drugs absorbed by passive diffusion and by carrier mediated mechanism. The intestinal permeabilities (Peff) of the drugs were obtained in male and female Wistar rats and calculated using both methods of water flux correction. The absorption rate coefficients of all the assayed compounds did not show statistically significant differences between male and female rats consequently all the individual values were combined to compare between reabsorption methods. The absorption rate coefficients and permeability values did not show statistically significant differences between the two strategies of concentration correction. The apparent zero order water absorption coefficients were also similar in both correction procedures. In conclusion gravimetric and phenol red method for water reabsorption correction are accurate and interchangeable for permeability estimation in closed loop perfusion method. PMID:24887261

  7. The influence of recycled expanded polystyrene (EPS) on concrete properties: Influence on flexural strength, water absorption and shrinkage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsalah, Jamaleddin; Al-Sahli, Yosra; Akish, Ahmed; Saad, Omar; Hakemi, Abdurrahman

    2013-12-01

    Expanded polystyrene waste in a granular form was used as a lightweight aggregate in order to produce lightweight concretë Lightweight EPS concrete composites were produced by replacing the coarse aggregate, either partially or fully with equal volume of EPS aggregates. The coarse aggregate replacements levels used were 25, 50, 75, and 100%, which corresponded to (9.20, 18.40, 27.60, and 36.8%) from total volume. The investigation is directed towards the development and performance evaluation of the concrete composites containing EPS aggregates, without addition of either bonding additives, or super-plasticizers on some concrete properties such as flexure strength, water absorption and change in length (or shrinkage). Experimental results showed that a density reduction of 12% caused flexure strength to decrease by 25.3% at a replacement level of 25% EPS. However, the reduction percentage strongly depends upon the replacement level of EPS granules. Moreover, the lower strength concretes showed a higher water absorption values compared to higher strength concrete, i.e., increasing the volume percentage of EPS increases the water absorption as well as the negative strain (shrinkage). The negative strain was higher at concretes of lower density (containing a high amount of EPS aggregate). The water to cement ratio of EPS aggregate concrete is found to be slightly lower than that of conventional concrete.

  8. Design And Implementation Of A Water-Quality Monitoring Program In Support Of Establishing User Capacities In Yosemite National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peavler, R. S.; Clow, D. W.; Panorska, A. K.

    2008-12-01

    Under the 1968 Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, the managing agency of the designated river is required to develop a comprehensive management plan that protects the characteristics of the river segment meriting special protection and that addresses user capacities. We analyzed water quality in the upper Merced and Tuolumne Rivers of Yosemite National Park, designated as Wild and Scenic, to provide baseline data in support of establishing park-specific water-quality standards as part of an adaptive management framework that addresses user capacities. Samples collected from 2004 to 2007 were analyzed for nitrate, total dissolved nitrogen, total dissolved phosphorus, and total phosphorus at all sites, and for E.coli, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and waste water compounds at a subset of sites. Water quality in the upper Merced and Tuolumne River basins was dilute, with concentrations in most samples falling near or below minimum detection limits for the constituents of concern. Results indicate that spatial and seasonal variability in nutrient concentrations is a function of local basin characteristics, particularly elevation. Generally, nitrate- plus-nitrite increased with elevation, while total dissolved nitrogen decreased with elevation. Anomalous high nitrate-plus-nitrite concentrations occurred during low flow at several sites, such as below Yosemite National Park's primary waste water treatment facility, making those sites good candidates for further investigation. Bootstrapping was used to characterize the distribution of concentrations at each site and to make inferences regarding background reference conditions, which could be used by the National Park Service to select anti- degradation water-quality standards and establish water-quality based user capacities. Results suggest that future monitoring efforts should emphasize storm-event sampling, which is necessary to capture infrequent elevated nutrient concentrations, and sampling in the head-waters of each basin where further data is needed to characterize possible impacts from atmospheric deposition of pollutants. Additional water-quality monitoring in Merced River tributaries throughout Yosemite Valley is needed to identify sources of nutrient inputs and to determine whether visitor use is contributing to the overall water quality.

  9. Role of glucose transporters in the intestinal absorption of gastrodin, a highly water-soluble drug with good oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zheng; Huang, Juan; Luo, Hui; Lei, Xiaolu; Yang, Zhaoxiang; Mai, Yang; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2013-07-01

    Gastrodin, a sedative drug, is a highly water-soluble phenolic glucoside with poor liposolubility but exhibits good oral bioavailability. The current study aims to investigate whether glucose transporters (GLTs) are involved in the intestinal absorption of gastrodin. The intestinal absorption kinetics of gastrodin was determined using the rat everted gut sac model, the Caco-2 cell culture model and the perfused rat intestinal model. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies using diabetic rats with high GLT expression were performed. Saturable intestinal absorption of gastrodin was observed in rat everted gut sacs. The apparent permeability (Papp) of gastrodin from the apical (A) to basolateral (B) side in Caco-2 cells was two-fold higher than that from B to A. Glucose or phlorizin, a sodium-dependent GLT (SGLT) inhibitor, reduced the absorption rates of gastrodin from perfused rat intestines. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies showed that the time of maximum plasma gastrodin concentration (Tmax) was prolonged from 28 to 72 min when orally co-administered with four times higher dose of glucose. However, the Tmax of gastrodin in diabetic rats was significantly lowered to 20 min because of the high intestinal SGLT1 level. In conclusion, our findings indicate that SGLT1 can facilitate the intestinal absorption of gastrodin. PMID:23480725

  10. An Assessment of Microwave Absorption Models and Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water Using Clear-Sky Data

    SciTech Connect

    Marchand, Roger T.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Westwater, Ed R.; Clough, Shepard A.; Cady-Pereira, Karen; Liljegren, James C.

    2003-12-19

    Passive microwave radiometers have a long history in the remote sensing of atmospheric liquid and water vapor. Retrievals of these quantities are sensitive to variations in pressure and temperature of the liquid and water vapor. Rather than use a statistical or climatological approach to account for the natural variability in atmospheric pressure and temperature, additional information on the atmospheric profile at the time of the radiometer measurements can be directly incorporated into the retrieval process. Such an approach has been referred to in the literature as a “physical-iterative” solution. This paper presents an assessment of the accuracy of the column liquid water path that can be expected using such an iterative technique as a result of uncertainties in the microwave emissions from oxygen and water vapor. It is shown that the retrieval accuracy is influenced by the accuracy of the instrument measurements and the quality of the atmospheric profiles of temperature and pressure, as one would expect. But also critical is the uncertainty in the absorption coefficients used in the underlying microwave radiative transfer model. The uncertainty in the absorption coefficients is particularly problematic in that it may well bias the liquid water retrieval. The differences between 3 absorption models examined in this paper are equivalent to a bias of 15 to 30 g/m2, depending on the total column water vapor. An examination of typical liquid water paths from the Southern Great Plains region of the United States shows that errors of this magnitude have significant implications for shortwave radiation and retrievals of cloud effective particle size.

  11. Role of quantum nuclei and local fields in the x-ray absorption spectra of water and ice

    E-print Network

    Kong, Lingzhu; Car, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the x-ray absorption spectra of liquid water at ambient conditions and of hexagonal ice close to melting, using a static GW approach that includes approximately local field effects. Quantum dynamics of the nuclei is taken into account by averaging the absorption cross section over molecular configurations generated by path integral simulations. We find that inclusion of quantum disorder is essential to bring the calculated spectra in close agreement with experiment. In particular, the intensity of the pre-edge feature, a spectral signature of broken and distorted hydrogen bonds, is accurately reproduced, in water and ice, only when quantum nuclei are considered. The effect of the local fields is less important but non negligible, particularly in ice.

  12. Roles of quantum nuclei and inhomogeneous screening in the x-ray absorption spectra of water and ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Lingzhu; Wu, Xifan; Car, Roberto

    2012-10-01

    We calculate the x-ray absorption spectra of liquid water under ambient conditions and of hexagonal ice close to melting, using a static GW approach that includes approximately inhomogeneous screening effects. Quantum dynamics of the nuclei is taken into account by averaging the absorption cross section over molecular configurations generated by path integral simulations. We find that the inclusion of quantum disorder is essential to bring the calculated spectra in close agreement with experiment. In particular, the intensity of the pre-edge feature, a spectral signature of broken and distorted hydrogen bonds, is accurately reproduced, in water and ice, only when quantum nuclei are considered. The effect of the inhomogeneous screening is less important but non-negligible, particularly in ice.

  13. Application of Temperature-Dependent Fluorescent Dyes to the Measurement of Millimeter Wave Absorption in Water Applied to Biomedical Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Popenko, Oleksandr

    2014-01-01

    Temperature sensitivity of the fluorescence intensity of the organic dyes solutions was used for noncontact measurement of the electromagnetic millimeter wave absorption in water. By using two different dyes with opposite temperature effects, local temperature increase in the capillary that is placed inside a rectangular waveguide in which millimeter waves propagate was defined. The application of this noncontact temperature sensing is a simple and novel method to detect temperature change in small biological objects. PMID:25435859

  14. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric detection of vanadium in water and food samples after solid phase extraction on multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Tuzen, Mustafa; Gul Kazi, Tasneem; Soylak, Mustafa

    2013-11-15

    Vanadium(V) ions as 8-hydroxyquinoline chelates were loaded on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in a mini chromatographic column. Vanadium was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Various analytical parameters including pH of the working solutions, amounts of 8-hydroxyquinoline, eluent type, sample volume, and flow rates were investigated. The effects of matrix ions and some transition metals were also studied. The column can be reused 250 times without any loss in its sorption properties. The preconcentration factor was found as 100. Detection limit (3 s) and limit of quantification (10 s) for the vanadium in the optimal conditions were observed to be 0.012 µg L(-1) and 0.040 ?g L(-1), respectively. The capacity of adsorption was 9.6 mg g(-1). Relative standard deviation (RSD) was found to be 5%. The validation of the method was confirmed by using NIST SRM 1515 Apple leaves, NIST SRM 1570a Spinach leaves and GBW 07605 Tea certified reference materials. The procedure was applied to the determination of vanadium in tap water and bottled drinking water samples. The procedure was also successfully applied to microwave digested food samples including black tea, coffee, tomato, cabbage, zucchini, apple and chicken samples. PMID:24148394

  15. Influence of emulsions with and without urea on water-binding capacity of the stratum corneum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. GLOOR; W. GEHRING; W. WOLF

    This study was undertaken to delineate the effects of emulsions with and without urea on the water-binding behavior of the stratum corneum at different relative humidities (RH). The heels of 54 human volunteers were treated with water-in-oil (w\\/o), and oil-in-water (o\\/w) emulsions with and without urea (urea content 10%). After treatment the water content was determined by measuring the weight

  16. Improving estimations of field soil water capacity from laboratory-measured soil properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different recommendations exist world-wide on which, if any, pressure heads should be used in laboratory measurements to approximate the 'field capacity' (FC) of the soil. Literature often deems any such pressure heads to be inadequate to approximate FC for soils of all textures. We used a data coll...

  17. Geophysical imaging of watershed subsurface patterns and prediction of soil texture and water holding capacity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Abdu; D. A. Robinson; M. Seyfried; S. B. Jones

    2008-01-01

    The spatial distribution of subsurface soil textural properties across the landscape is an important control on the hydrological and ecological function of a watershed. Traditional methods of mapping soils involving subjective assignment of soil boundaries are inadequate for studies requiring a quantitative assessment of the landscape and its subsurface connectivity and storage capacity. Geophysical methods such as electromagnetic induction (EMI)

  18. Toward improving estimates of field soil water capacity from laboratory-measured soil properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different recommendations exist world-wide on which – if any - pressure head should be used in laboratory measurements to approximate the ‘field capacity’ (FC) of the soil. Literature often deems any such pressure heads to be inadequate to approximate FC for soils of all textures. We used a data col...

  19. BELINDA: Broadband Emission Lidar with Narrowband Determination of Absorption. A new concept for measuring water vapor and temperature profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theopold, F. A.; Weitkamp, C.; Michaelis, W.

    1992-01-01

    We present a new concept for differential absorption lidar measurements of water vapor and temperature profiles. The idea is to use one broadband emission laser and a narrowband filter system for separation of the 'online' and 'offline' return signals. It is shown that BELINDA offers improvements as to laser emission shape and stability requirements, background suppression, and last and most important a significant reduction of the influence of Rayleigh scattering. A suitably designed system based on this concept is presented, capable of measuring water vapor or temperature profiles throughout the planetary boundary layer.

  20. BELINDA: Broadband Emission Lidar with Narrowband Determination of Absorption. A new concept for measuring water vapor and temperature profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theopold, F. A.; Weitkamp, C.; Michaelis, W.

    1992-07-01

    We present a new concept for differential absorption lidar measurements of water vapor and temperature profiles. The idea is to use one broadband emission laser and a narrowband filter system for separation of the 'online' and 'offline' return signals. It is shown that BELINDA offers improvements as to laser emission shape and stability requirements, background suppression, and last and most important a significant reduction of the influence of Rayleigh scattering. A suitably designed system based on this concept is presented, capable of measuring water vapor or temperature profiles throughout the planetary boundary layer.

  1. Pressurized water extraction of ?-glucan enriched fractions with bile acids-binding capacities obtained from edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Marimuthu; Aldars-García, Laila; Gil-Ramírez, Alicia; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Marín, Francisco R; Reglero, Guillermo; Soler-Rivas, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    A pressurized water extraction (PWE) method was developed in order to extract ?-glucans with bile acids-binding capacities from cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus) to be used as supplements to design novel foods with hypocholesterolemic properties. Extraction yields were higher in individual than sequential extractions being the optimal extraction parameters: 200°C, 5 cycles of 5 min each at 10.3 MPa. The crude polysaccharide (PSC) fractions, isolated from the PWE extracts contained mainly ?-glucans (including chitooligosaccharides deriving from chitin hydrolysis), ?-glucans, and other PSCs (hetero-/proteo-glucans) depending on the extraction temperature and mushroom strain considered. The observed bile acids-binding capacities of some extracts were similar to a ?-glucan enriched fraction obtained from cereals. PMID:24399760

  2. Effects of adsorbed water vapor on the Wheeler kinetic rate constant and kinetic adsorption capacity for activated carbon adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    Activated carbon plays a key role reducing organic vapor emissions to the environment from synthetic chemical manufacturing, pesticide manufacturing, in odor control, for removal of contaminant vapors during remediation of hazardous waste sites, and as an adsorption matrix for collection of organic vapors from ambient air in occupational and environmental settings to assess exposure. The Wheeler dynamic adsorption model has been evaluated under laboratory conditions and has shown potential for predicting activated carbon bed penetration. Water vapor is a normal constituent of ambient air that is present at concentrations 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than the concentrations of potentially toxic air contaminants. Many investigations have shown that adsorbed water vapor can reduce the breakthrough-time of activated charcoal beds. The effect of adsorbed water vapor on the predictive power of the Wheeler model has not been evaluated. The research evaluated the effect of water vapor adsorbed on activated charcoal on the subsequent adsorption of four air contaminants, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethylene, and 1-propanol. The adsorbent used in this research had a large surface area, 1200 m[sup 2]/g and that 95% of the surface area was associated with micropores (pores with diameters less than 2 micrometers). Kinetic adsorption capacities for all four adsorbates were not affected by the presence of water vapor except for some observed enhancement. The kinetic trial data suggest that the primary effect of adsorbed water vapor was to reduce the effective pore radius of the smaller mesopores thus restricting pore diffusion. This results in an increase in the critical bed capacity with shorter breakthrough times for adsorbent beds.

  3. Monitoring water stable isotopic composition in soils using gas-permeable tubing and infrared laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothfuss, Youri; Vereecken, Harry; Brüggemann, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    In soils, the isotopic composition of water (?2H and ?18O) provides qualitative (e.g., location of the evaporation front) and quantitative (e.g., evaporation flux and root water uptake depths) information. However, the main disadvantage of the isotope methodology is that contrary to other soil state variables that can be monitored over long time periods, ?2H and ?18O are typically analyzed following destructive sampling. Here we present a nondestructive method for monitoring soil liquid water ?2H and ?18O over a wide range of water availability conditions and temperatures by sampling water vapor equilibrated with soil water using gas-permeable polypropylene tubing and a cavity ring-down laser absorption spectrometer. By analyzing water vapor ?2H and ?18O sampled with the tubing from a fine sand for temperatures ranging between 8°C and 24°C, we demonstrate that our new method is capable of monitoring ?2H and ?18O in soils online with high precision and after calibration, also with high accuracy. Our sampling protocol enabled detecting changes of ?2H and ?18O following nonfractionating addition and removal of liquid water and water vapor of different isotopic compositions. Finally, the time needed for the tubing to monitor these changes is compatible with the observed variations of ?2H and ?18O in soils under natural conditions.

  4. X-ray absorption spectra of ice and water: a first principles study with the GW method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xifan; Chen, Wei; Car, Roberto

    2009-03-01

    We calculated the X-ray absorption spectra of ice and liquid water by adopting an approach based on the GW method to describe the excited electron in presence of a frozen core hole. We used the static Coulomb-hole and screened exchange approximation for the self-energy and used Maximally Localized Wannier functions to make GW calculations feasible in the large supercell needed to model a disordered system like water. The calculated spectra considerably improve the agreement with experiment, compared with previous DFT calculations. In particular, the three main features observed in experiments are well reproduced in terms of position and intensity for both ice and water. We also find that the difference between the ice and water spectra can be understood in terms of the electronic structures of these systems, manifested by a distorted, tetrahedral hydrogen bond network in the liquid.

  5. Water storage capacity exceedance controls the timing and amount of runoff generated from Arctic hillslopes in Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushlow, C. R.; Godsey, S.

    2014-12-01

    Within the hydrologic community, there is a growing recognition that different runoff generation mechanisms can be unified within a "fill-and-spill" or storage exceedance paradigm. However, testing this unifying paradigm requires observing watersheds at a variety of scales under their full range of storage conditions, which are difficult to observe on typical human timescales in most environments. Polar watersheds underlain by continuous permafrost provide an opportunity to address these issues, because their total capacity for water storage follows a consistent annual cycle of expansion and contraction as a direct consequence of the extreme seasonality of solar energy availability. Cryotic conditions usually limit water storage to the surface snowpack and frozen soils, but summer warming allows the shallow subsurface to progressively thaw, providing a dynamic storage reservoir that is the convolved expression of several factors, including substrate hydrologic properties, watershed structure, and stochastic precipitation. We hypothesize that the amount of remaining water storage capacity in the system directly controls the amount and timing of runoff production for a given input. We test this prediction for six hillslope watersheds in Arctic Alaska over the 2013 and 2014 summer seasons from snowmelt in May through plant senescence in mid-August. We compare water table position to runoff produced from a given storm event or series of storm events. We find that no runoff is produced until a threshold water table position is exceeded; that is, as seasonal storage changes, runoff depends on watershed storage capacity exceedance. Preliminary results suggest that once that threshold is met, hydrologic response is proportional to storage exceedance. Thus, runoff production from Arctic hillslopes can be modeled from the surface energy balance and a reasonable estimate of shallow subsurface material properties. If storage exceedance is the key control on water export from Arctic watersheds, then the state of downstream aquatic ecosystems is strongly tied with upstream changes in surface energy balance and precipitation regimes. Future analyses will relate storage exceedance and water flux to biogeochemical cycling and solute fluxes in these hillslope watersheds.

  6. Endotoxin temporarily impairs canine jejunal absorption of water, electrolytes, and glucose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph J. Cullen; Lynda L. Hemann; Kimberly S. Ephgrave; Marilyn M. Hinkhouse

    1997-01-01

    Enteral feeding during and after episodes of sepsis may be beneficial. The aim of our study was to determine the effects of\\u000a a single sublethal dose of endotoxin on canine jejunal absorption. Following a 240 kcal liquid meal, absorption studies were\\u000a performed in eight dogs with 75 cm jejunal Thiry-Vella fistulas. These fistulas were perfused with an isotonic solution containing

  7. Chloride and water secretion and absorption by the gills of the eel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ancel B. Keys

    1931-01-01

    Perfusion experiments with the heart-gill preparation of the common eel, Anguilla vulgaris, are presented. Various concentrations of perfusion medium were used with eels from both sea water and fresh water. The external medium was sea water in the case of the sea water eels and fresh water in the other case.

  8. Variability in light absorption and scattering of phytoplankton in Patagonian waters: Role of community size structure and pigment composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Amabile; Stramski, Dariusz; Garcia, Carlos A. E.; Garcia, Virginia M. T.; Ciotti, ÁUrea M.; Mendes, Carlos R. B.

    2013-02-01

    Intense phytoplankton blooms were observed along the Patagonian shelf-break with satellite ocean color data, but few in situ optical observations were made in that region. We examine the variability of phytoplankton absorption and particulate scattering coefficients during such blooms on the basis of field data. The chlorophyll-a concentration, [Chla], ranged from 0.1 to 22.3 mg m-3 in surface waters. The size fractionation of [Chla] showed that 80% of samples were dominated by nanophytoplankton (N-group) and 20% by microphytoplankton (M-group). Chlorophyll-specific phytoplankton absorption coefficients at 440 and 676 nm, a*ph(440) and a*ph(676), and particulate scattering coefficient at 660 nm, b*p(660), ranged from 0.018 to 0.173, 0.009 to 0.046, and 0.031 to 2.37 m2 (mg Chla)-1, respectively. Both a*ph(440) and a*ph(676) were statistically higher for the N-group than M-group and also considerably higher than expected from global trends as a function of [Chla]. This result suggests that size of phytoplankton cells in Patagonian waters tends to be smaller than in other regions at similar [Chla]. The phytoplankton cell size parameter, Sf, derived from phytoplankton absorption spectra, proved to be useful for interpreting the variability in the data around the general inverse dependence of a*ph(440), a*ph(676), and b*p(660) on [Chla]. Sf also showed a pattern along the increasing trend of a*ph(440) and a*ph(676) as a function of the ratios of some accessory pigments to [Chla]. Our results suggest that the variability in phytoplankton absorption and scattering coefficients in Patagonian waters is caused primarily by changes in the dominant phytoplankton cell size accompanied by covariation in the concentrations of accessory pigments.

  9. Proteomic analysis and differential expression in protein extracted from chicken with a varying growth rate and water-holding capacity.

    PubMed

    Phongpa-Ngan, Phodchanee; Grider, Arthur; Mulligan, Jake H; Aggrey, Samuel E; Wicker, Louise

    2011-12-28

    Chickens from a randomly bred genetic line were segregated into high and low growth rates and high and low water-holding capacities (WHCs). The objective of this study was to identify protein markers associated with slow and fast growth rates and low and high WHCs from water-soluble protein (WSP) and crude myofibrillar protein (CMP) extracts of chicken breast muscle. Proteins were fractionated using two-dimensional electrophoresis, and a total of 22 protein spots were selected, excised, and analyzed by in-gel tryptic digestion and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Proteins expressed in extracts from slow and fast growth rates and low and high WHCs included metabolic enzymes, such as creatine kinase, pyruvate kinase, triosephosphate isomerase, and ubiqitin; housekeeping proteins, such as heat shock protein; contractile proteins, such as myosin heavy chain; actin; and also MHC isoforms and actin isoforms. The mass spectra of 20 protein spots significantly matched (protein score >83; P < 0.05) an online database. In CMP, there were unique proteins that were present only in the fast-growth population: gi|118099530 , gi|20664362 , gi|71895043 , gi|114794125 , gi|297343122 , and gi|71895043 . This information identified protein markers associated with growth rate and water holding capacity. Some of those protein markers could be added to the chicken database. PMID:22010637

  10. An application of water recreation capacity standards to reservoir development planning 

    E-print Network

    Petersen, Grant Arthur

    1968-01-01

    boating, (3) water skiing, and (4) boat fishing. ~S''?. . t g'*gthtth. g llg activity on the beach than in the water at a swimming beach, Realizing this, recreation administrators and planners have emphasized the establishment of both beach and water... use standards. For purpose. " of this discussion, swimming beaches were considered to be desigrated portions of a shoreline improved for pub]ic use for swimming and related activities. Such an area has been described as one used or activtties rhat...

  11. Spring carbonate chemistry dynamics of surface waters in the northern East China Sea: Water mixing, biological uptake of CO2, and chemical buffering capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Wei-Dong; Chen, Jian-Fang; Jin, Hai-Yan; Li, Hong-Liang; Liu, Jin-Wen; He, Xian-Qiang; Bai, Yan

    2014-09-01

    We investigated sea surface total alkalinity (TAlk), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved oxygen (DO), and satellite-derived chlorophyll-a in the connection between the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea (ECS) during April to early May 2007. In spring, Changjiang dilution water (CDW), ECS offshore water, and together with Yellow Sea water (YSW) occupied the northern ECS. Using 16 day composite satellite-derived chlorophyll-a images, several algal blooms were identified in the CDW and ECS offshore water. Correspondingly, biological DIC drawdown of 73 ± 20 ?mol kg-1, oversaturated DO of 10-110 ?mol O2 kg-1, and low fugacity of CO2 of 181-304 ?atm were revealed in these two waters. YSW also showed CO2 uptake in spring, due to the very low temperature. However, its intrusion virtually counteracted CO2 uptake in the northern ECS. In the CDW and the ECS offshore water, Revelle factor was 9.3-11.7 and 8.9-10.6, respectively, while relatively high Revelle factor values of 11.4-13.0 were revealed in YSW. In the ECS offshore water, the observed relationship between DIC drawdown and oversaturated DO departed from the Redfield ratio, indicating an effect of chemical buffering capacity on the carbonate system during air-sea reequilibration. Given the fact that the chemical buffering capacity slows down the air-sea reequilibration of CO2, the early spring DIC drawdown may have durative effects on the sea surface carbonate system until early summer. Although our study is subject to limited temporal and spatial coverage of sampling, these insights are fundamental to understanding sea surface carbonate chemistry dynamics in this important ocean margin.

  12. LABORATORY CAPACITY NEEDS ASSESSMENT OF DRINKING WATER UTILITIES: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fully-functioning analytical laboratories capable of producing quality data are essential components of well-run drinking water utilities. In Europe and the US, drinking water laboratory performance is closely monitored and regulated; this is not always the case in the less indu...

  13. Comparison of water absorption in natural cellulosic fibres from wood and one-year crops in polypropylene composites and its influence on their mechanical properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Espert; Francisco Vilaplana; Sigbritt Karlsson

    2004-01-01

    Environmentally beneficial composites can be made by replacing glass fibres with various types of cellulose fibres. Fibres from pine or eucalyptus wood and also one-year crops such as coir, sisal, etc. are all good candidates. The poor resistance towards water absorption is one of the drawbacks of natural fibres\\/polypropylene composites. New natural fibres\\/polypropylene composites were made and the water absorption

  14. Absorption and diffusion measurements of water in acrylic paint films by single-sided NMR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konstantin Ulrich; Silvia A. Centeno; Julie Arslanoglu; Eleonora Del Federico

    2011-01-01

    Artists’ acrylic paint surfaces can accumulate surface grime. Aqueous surface cleaning of these paints can be particularly problematic because they swell upon exposure to water and because of the presence of water extractable additives. Research to determine the parameters of water penetration and swelling as well as the role of the water soluble additives in these phenomena is important in

  15. Monitoring water stable isotope composition in soils using gas-permeable tubing and infrared laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothfuss, Youri; Vereecken, Harry; Brüggemann, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    The water stable isotopologues 1H2H16O and 1H218O are powerful tracers of processes occurring in nature. Their slightly different masses as compared to the most abundant water isotopologue (1H216O) affect their thermodynamic (e.g. during chemical equilibrium reactions or physical phase transitions with equilibration) and kinetic (liquid and vapor phases transport processes and chemical reactions without equilibration) properties. This results in measurable differences of the isotopic composition of water within or between the different terrestrial ecosystem compartments (i.e. sub-soil, soil, surface waters, plant, and atmosphere). These differences can help addressing a number of issues, among them water balance closure and flux partitioning from the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum at the field to regional scales. In soils particularly, the isotopic composition of water (?2H and ?18O) provides qualitative information about whether water has only infiltrated or already been re-evaporated since the last rainfall event or about the location of the evaporation front. From water stable isotope composition profiles measured in soils, it is also possible, under certain hypotheses, to derive quantitative information such as soil evaporation flux and the identification of root water uptake depths. In addition, water stable isotopologues have been well implemented into physically based Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer models (e.g. SiSPAT-Isotope; Soil-Litter iso; TOUGHREACT) and have demonstrated their potential. However, the main disadvantage of the isotope methodology is that, contrary to other soil state variables that can be monitored over long time periods, ?2H and ?18O are typically analyzed following destructive sampling. Here, we present a non-destructive method for monitoring soil liquid water ?2H and ?18O over a wide range of water availability conditions and temperatures by sampling and measuring water vapor equilibrated with soil water using gas-permeable polypropylene tubing and a cavity ring-down laser absorption spectrometer. By analyzing water vapor ?2H and ?18O sampled with the tubing from a fine sand for temperatures ranging between 8-24° C, we demonstrate that (i) our new method is capable of monitoring ?2H and ?18O in soils online with high precision and, after calibration, also with high accuracy, (ii) our sampling protocol enabled detecting changes of ?2H and ?18O following non-fractionating addition and removal of liquid water and water vapor of different isotopic compositions, and (iii) the time needed for the tubing to monitor these changes is compatible with the observed variations of ?2H and ?18O in soils under natural conditions.

  16. Morphological correlate of regional partitioning of integumental water absorption in terrestrial slugs.

    PubMed

    Prior, D J; Maugel, T K; Sellers, M

    1994-06-01

    An ultrastructural study of the foot surface of the terrestrial mollusc, Limax maximus, has revealed a correlation of epithelial cell type with the functional partitioning of the surface. The lateral absorptive bands of the foot are comprised exclusively of microvillar epithelial cells, while those of the medial locomotor band are all ciliated. Thus, there is a clear partitioning of epithelial cell types between areas of the foot surface with distinct functional roles. Consistent with the proposed role for paracellular absorption, varying states of hydration are shown to affect the extent of the intercellular spaces, but not the intracellular architecture. PMID:8073419

  17. The feasibility of water vapor sounding of the cloudy boundary layer using a differential absorption radar technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebsock, M. D.; Suzuki, K.; Millan, L. F.; Kalmus, P. M.

    2015-06-01

    The feasibility of Differential Absorption Radar (DAR) for the spaceborne remote profiling of water vapor within the cloudy boundary layer is assessed by applying a radar instrument simulator to Large Eddy Simulations (LES). Frequencies near the 183 GHz water vapor absorption line attenuate too strongly to penetrate the large vapor concentrations that are ubiquitous in the boundary layer. However it is shown that lower frequencies between 140 and 170 GHz in the water vapor absorption continuum and on the wings of the absorption line, which are attenuated less efficiently than those near the line center, still have sufficient spectral variation of gaseous attenuation to perform sounding. The high resolution LES allow for assessment of the potential uncertainty in the method due to natural variability in thermodynamic and dynamic variables on scales smaller than the instrument field of view. The (160, 170) GHz frequency pair is suggested to best maximize signal for vapor profiling while minimizing noise due to undesired spectral variation in the target extinction properties. Precision in the derived water vapor is quantified as a function of the range resolution and the instrument precision. Assuming an observational spatial scale of 500 m vertical and 750 m Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) horizontal, measurement precision better that 1 g m-3 is achievable for stratocumulus scenes and 3 g m-3 for cumulus scenes given precision in radar reflectivity of 0.16 dBZ. Expected precision in the Column Water Vapor (CWV) is achievable between 0.5 and 2 kg m-2 on these same spatial scales. Sampling efficiency is quantified as a function of radar sensitivity. Mean biases in CWV due to natural variability in the target extinction properties do not exceed 0.25 kg m-2. Potential biases due to uncertainty in the temperature and pressure profile are negligible relative to those resulting from natural variability. Assuming a -35 dBZ minimum detectable signal, 40 % (21.9 %) of stratocumulus (cumulus) atmospheric boundary layer range bins would be sampled. Simulated surface reflectivities are always greater than -5 dBZ, which implies the DAR technique could provide near spatially continuous observation of the CWV in subtropical boundary layers at a spatial resolution better than 1 km.

  18. Measurements of mesospheric water vapour, aerosols and temperatures with the Spectral Absorption Line Imager (SALI-AT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, M. G.; Mullins, M.; Brown, S.; Sargoytchev, S. I.

    2001-08-01

    Water vapour concentration is one of the most important, yet one of the least known quantities of the mesosphere. Knowledge of water vapour concentration is the key to understanding many mesospheric processes, including the one that is primary focus of our investigation, mesospheric clouds (MC). The processes of formation and occurrence parameters of MC constitute an interesting problem in their own right, but recently evidence has been provided which suggests that they are a critical indicator of atmospheric change. The aim of the SALI-AT experiment is to make simultaneous (although not strictly collocated) measurements of water vapour, aerosols and temperature in the mesosphere and the mesopause region under twilight condition in the presence of mesospheric clouds. The water vapour will be measured in the regime of solar occultation utilizing a water vapour absorption band at 936 nm wavelength employing the SALI (Spectral Absorption Line Imager) instrument concept. A three-channel zenith photometer, AT-3, with wavelengths of 385 nm, 525 nm, and 1040 nm will measure Mie and Rayleigh scattering giving both mesospheric temperature profiles and the particle size distribution. Both instruments are small, low cost and low mass. It is envisioned that the SALI-AT experiment be flown on a small rocket - the Improved Orion/Hotel payload configuration, from the Andoya Rocket range, Norway. Alternatively the instrument can be flown as a "passenger" on larger rocket carrying other experiments. In either case flight costs are relatively low. Some performance simulations are presented showing that the instrument we have designed will be sufficiently sensitive to measure water vapor in concentrations that are expected at the summer mesopause, about 85 km height.

  19. Water absorption and bicarbonate secretion in the intestine of the sea bream are regulated by transmembrane and soluble adenylyl cyclase stimulation.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Edison S M; Gregório, Sílvia F; Power, Deborah M; Canário, Adelino V M; Fuentes, Juan

    2012-12-01

    In the marine fish intestine luminal, HCO?? can remove divalent ions (calcium and magnesium) by precipitation in the form of carbonate aggregates. The process of epithelial HCO?? secretion is under endocrine control, therefore, in this study we aimed to characterize the involvement of transmembrane (tmACs) and soluble (sACs) adenylyl cyclases on the regulation of bicarbonate secretion (BCS) and water absorption in the intestine of the sea bream (Sparus aurata). We observed that all sections of sea bream intestine are able to secrete bicarbonate as measured by pH-Stat in Ussing chambers. In addition, gut sac preparations reveal net water absorption in all segments of the intestine, with significantly higher absorption rates in the anterior intestine that in the rectum. BCS and water absorption are positively correlated in all regions of the sea bream intestinal tract. Furthermore, stimulation of tmACs (10 ?M FK + 500 ?M IBMX) causes a significant decrease in BCS, bulk water absorption and short circuit current (Isc) in a region dependent manner. In turn, stimulation of sACs with elevated HCO?? results in a significant increase in BCS, and bulk water absorption in the anterior intestine, an action completely reversed by the sAC inhibitor KH7 (200 ?M). Overall, the results reveal a functional relationship between BCS and water absorption in marine fish intestine and modulation by tmACs and sAC. In light of the present observations, it is hypothesized that the endocrine effects on intestinal BCS and water absorption mediated by tmACs are locally and reciprocally modulated by the action of sACs in the fish enterocyte, thus fine-tuning the process of carbonate aggregate production in the intestinal lumen. PMID:22752677

  20. Oxygen and water vapor absorption of radio waves in the atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Bean; R. Abbott

    1957-01-01

    Summary Calculated values of the gaseous atmospheric absorption are presented for the frequency range 100 to 50,000 Mc at elevations above ground up to at least 130,000 feet, for average conditions during February and August at Bismarck, N. D. and Washington, D. C. Total radio path absorptionsare presented for tropospheric forward scatter communication links for distances of 100, 300 and

  1. Anomalous water optical absorption: Large-scale first-principles simulations

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Wolf Gero

    in the first and even the second coordination shell. Naturally occurring hexagonal ice (ice-Ih) is chosen. The spectra of amor- phous, hexagonal as well as cubic ice are dominated by a very pronounced first absorption]. In the case of cubic ice, the first absorp- tion peak was attributed to the calculated density of states [5

  2. Optical Absorption of Water: Coulomb Effects versus Hydrogen Bonding P. H. Hahn and W. G. Schmidt

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Wolf Gero

    in the first and even the second coordination shell. Naturally occurring hexagonal ice (ice-Ih) is chosen decades of effort. The spectra of amorphous, hex- agonal as well as cubic ice are dominated by a very a similar structure [3,4]. In the case of cubic ice, the first absorption peak was attributed

  3. Emission, absorption and group delay of microwaves in the atmosphere in relation to water vapour content over the Indian subcontinent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, A. K.; Gupta, A. K. D.; Karmakar, P. K.; Barman, S. D.; Bhattacharya, A. B.; Purkait, N.; Gupta, M. K. D.; Sehra, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    The advent of satellite communication for global coverage has apparently indicated a renewed interest in the studies of radio wave propagation through the atmosphere, in the VHF, UHF and microwave bands. The extensive measurements of atmosphere constituents, dynamics and radio meterological parameters during the Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) have opened up further the possibilities of studying tropospheric radio wave propagation parameters, relevant to Earth/space link design. The three basic parameters of significance to radio propagation are thermal emission, absorption and group delay of the atmosphere, all of which are controlled largely by the water vapor content in the atmosphere, particular at microwave bands. As good emitters are also good absorbers, the atmospheric emission as well as the absorption attains a maximum at the frequency of 22.235 GHz, which is the peak of the water vapor line. The group delay is practically independent of frequency in the VHF, UHF and microwave bands. However, all three parameters exhibit a similar seasonal dependence originating presumably from the seasonal dependence of the water vapor content. Some of the interesting results obtained from analyses of radiosonde data over the Indian subcontinent collected by the India Meteorological Department is presented.

  4. Assessment of capacity sensors for monitoring soil water content in ecological orchards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrícia Prazeres Marques, Karina; Horcajo, Daniel; Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor

    2014-05-01

    Water is an important element for soil tillage and crop development. Its proper management is essential for the development of plants, by preventing excess or shortage in water application. Soil water content is affected by the soil-water-plant system and its monitoring is a required within a sustainable agriculture framework respectful with the natural environment. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of capacitive sensors in monitoring soil moisture from organic orchards. An experimental text was carried out at the Hydraulics Laboratory of the Agricultural Engineering School in the Polytechnic University of Madrid (Spain). Soil samples were collected within the 0-20 cm depth layers from the university organic orchard. The samples were air dried and subsequently sieved in a 2 mm mesh sieve, removing roots and coarse fractions and keeping the fine soil. The amount of fine soil was calculated from the soil density and the soil samples were compacted to obtain the relative volume that corresponded to their density. The measurements were carried out in dry and in saturated soil and, also in samples where soil was stirring with: 150 cm³, 300 cm³ and 450 cm³ of water. A 1890 ml container was used to hold the fine soil and the soil moisture sensor ECH2O, type 10 HS (Decagon Devices, Inc.) was placed horizontally at 5 cm depth. Soil water readings were recorded on a datalogger Em5b from the same manufacturer. The results showed that the capacitive sensor has a linear response to soil moisture content. Its value was overestimated in comparison to the volumetric values and the largest errors (about 8%) were observed in the soils with high moisture contents. Overall, these results point out that the ECH2O sensor, model 10 HS, could determine with sufficient accuracy the volumetric soil water content from organic orchards although it could be further improved by "in situ" calibration.

  5. Ultratrace determination of arsenic in water samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after pre-concentration with Mg-Al-Fe ternary layered double hydroxide nano-sorbent.

    PubMed

    Abdolmohammad-Zadeh, Hossein; Jouyban, Abolghasem; Amini, Roghayeh

    2013-11-15

    A selective solid phase extraction method, based on nano-structured Mg-Al-Fe(NO3(-)) ternary layered double hydroxide as a sorbent, is developed for the pre-concentration of ultra-trace levels of arsenic (As) prior to determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. It is found that both As(III) and As(V) could be quantitatively retained on the sorbent within a wide pH range of 4-12. Accordingly, the presented method is applied to determination of total inorganic As in aqueous solutions. Maximum analytical signal of As is achieved when the pyrolysis and atomization temperatures are close to 900 °C and 2300 °C, respectively. Several variables affecting the extraction efficiency including pH, sample flow rate, amount of nano-sorbent, elution conditions and sample volume are optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the limit of detection (3Sb/m) and the relative standard deviation are 4.6 pg mL(-1) and 3.9%, respectively. The calibration graph is linear in the range of 15.0-650 pg mL(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9979, sorption capacity and pre-concentration factor are 8.68 mg g(-1) and 300, respectively. The developed method is validated by the analysis of a standard reference material (SRM 1643e) and is successfully applied to the determination of ultra-trace amounts of As in different water samples. PMID:24148451

  6. Mercury(II) and methyl mercury determinations in water and fish samples by using solid phase extraction and cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry combination.

    PubMed

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Karaman, Isa; Citak, Demirhan; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-07-01

    A method has been developed for mercury(II) and methyl mercury speciation on Staphylococcus aureus loaded Dowex Optipore V-493 micro-column in the presented work, by using cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry. Selective and sequential elution with 0.1 molL(-1) HCl for methyl mercury and 2 molL(-1) HCl for mercury(II) were performed at the pH range of 2-6. Optimal analytical conditions including pH, amounts of biosorbent, sample volumes were investigated. The detection limits of the analytes were 2.5 ngL(-1) for Hg(II) and 1.7 ngL(-1) for methyl mercury. The capacity of biosorbent for mercury(II) and methyl mercury was 6.5 and 5.4 mgg(-1), respectively. The validation of the presented procedure is performed by the analysis of standard reference material. The speciation procedure established was successfully applied to the speciation of mercury(II) and methyl mercury in natural water and microwave digested fish samples. PMID:19394391

  7. BREATH MEASUREMENT AND MODELS TO ASSESS VOC DERMAL ABSORPTION IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dermal exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water results from environmental contamination of surface, ground-, and drinking waters. This exposure occurs both in occupational and residential settings. Compartmental models incorporating body burden measurements have ...

  8. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by X-RayAbsorption and Resonant X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, O.; Zharnikov, M.; Weinhardt, L.; Blum, M.; Weigand, M.; Zubavichus, Y.; Bar, M.; Maier, F.; Denlinger, J.D.; Heske, C.; Grunze,M.; Umbach, E.

    2007-03-10

    High-resolution x-ray absorption and emission spectra ofliquid water exhibit a strong isotope effect. Further, the emissionspectra show a splitting of the 1b1 emission line, a weak temperatureeffect, and a pronounced excitation-energy dependence. They can bedescribed as a superposition of two independent contributions. Bycomparing with gasphase, ice, and NaOH/NaOD, we propose that the twocomponents are governed by the initial state hydrogen bondingconfiguration and ultrafast dissociation on the time scale of the O 1score hole decay.

  9. Effect of laser radiation absorption in water and blood on the optimal wavelength for endovenous obliteration of varicose veins

    SciTech Connect

    Zhilin, K M; Minaev, V P [IRE-Polyus Research and Technology Association, Fryazino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Sokolov, Aleksandr L [Medical Rehabilitation Centre, Federal Agency for Health Care and Social Development, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-31

    This work examines laser radiation absorption in water and blood at the wavelengths that are used in endovenous laser treatment (EVLT): 0.81-1.06, 1.32, 1.47, 1.5 and 1.56 {mu}m. It is shown that the best EVLT conditions are ensured by 1.56-{mu}m radiation. Analysis of published data suggests that even higher EVLT efficacy may be achieved at wavelengths of 1.68 and 1.7 {mu}m. (laser medicine)

  10. Determination of Organic Matter by UV Absorption in the Ground Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramun? Albrektien?; Mindaugas Rimeika; Elena Zalieckien?; Valentinas Šaulys; Alvydas Zagorskis

    2012-01-01

    Organic matter in drinking water is determined by applying indirect determination methods used for quantitative measurements such as total organic carbon (TOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). These analyses require expensive devices, harmful chemical reagents, and are time consuming. Standard water quality tests are inconvenient during start-up or reconstruction of drinking water treatment plants as samples

  11. Development of a Low Cost Water Contamination Sensor using Absorption Spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela J Mason

    Water contamination in hydraulic fluid and other oi ls can reduce the life of machinery and equipment. Water can cause depletion of some additi ves; while interacting with other additives to form corrosive byproducts. These corrosive bypro ducts can attack metals and cause rust. In addition, water contamination can also cause a redu ction in filterability, hydrogen embrittlement, and increase

  12. Simultaneous ground-based remote sensing of water vapor by differential absorption and Raman lidars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. D. Turner; H. Linne; J. Bosenberg; S. Lehmann; K. Ertel; J. E. M. Goldsmith; T. P. Tooman

    2000-01-01

    Uncertainties in the absolute calibration of the water vapor measurements are currently the limiting factor in the improvement of radiative transfer algorithms for clear skies. While instruments such as the microwave radiometer can provide accurate measurements of total precipitable water vapor in the column, accurate profiles of water vapor are also needed in order to calculate accurate cooling rate profiles.

  13. Profiling of carotenoids and antioxidant capacity of microalgae from subtropical coastal and brackish waters.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Faruq; Fanning, Kent; Netzel, Michael; Turner, Warwick; Li, Yan; Schenk, Peer M

    2014-12-15

    Carotenoids are associated with various health benefits, such as prevention of age-related macular degeneration, cataract, certain cancers, rheumatoid arthritis, muscular dystrophy and cardiovascular problems. As microalgae contain considerable amounts of carotenoids, there is a need to find species with high carotenoid content. Out of hundreds of Australian isolates, 12 microalgal species were screened for carotenoid profiles, carotenoid productivity, and in vitro antioxidant capacity (total phenolic content (TPC) and ORAC). The top four carotenoid producers at 4.68-6.88 mg/g dry weight (DW) were Dunaliella salina, Tetraselmis suecica, Isochrysis galbana, and Pavlova salina. TPC was low, with D. salina possessing the highest TPC (1.54 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents/g DW) and ORAC (577 ?mol Trolox Equivalents/g DW). Results indicate that T. suecica, D. salina, P. salina and I. galbana could be further developed for commercial carotenoid production. PMID:25038679

  14. Influence of water depth on the carbon sequestration capacity of seagrasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, Oscar; Lavery, Paul S.; Rozaimi, Mohammad; Mateo, Miguel Ángel

    2014-09-01

    The actual estimates of carbon stocks beneath seagrass meadows worldwide are derived from few data, resulting in a tendency to generalize global carbon stocks from a very limited number of seagrass habitats. We surveyed Posidonia oceanica and Posidonia sinuosa meadows along depth-induced gradients of light availability to assess the variability in their sedimentary organic carbon (Corg) stocks and accretion rates. This study showed a fourfold decrease in Corg stocks from 2-4 m to 6-8 m depth P. sinuosa meadows (averaging 7.0 and 1.8 kg m-2, respectively; top meter of sediment) and a fourteenfold to sixteenfold decrease from shallow (2 m) to deep (32 m) P. oceanica meadows (200 and 19 kg m-2 average, respectively; top 2.7 m of sediment). The average Corg accretion rates in shallow P. sinuosa meadows were higher (10.5 g m-2 yr-1) than in deeper meadows (2.1 g m-2 yr-1). The reduction of sedimentary Corg stocks and accretion rates along depth-related gradients of light reduction suggests that irradiance, controlling plant productivity, meadow density, and sediment accretion rates, is a key environmental factor affecting Corg storage potential of seagrasses. The results obtained highlighted the exceptional carbon storage capacity of P. oceanica meadows at Balearic Islands (Spain), containing the highest areal Corg stocks of all seagrasses (estimated in up to 691-770 kg m-2 in 8-13 m thick deposits). Seagrass communities are experiencing worldwide decline, and reduced irradiance (following e.g., eutrophication or sediment regime alterations) will lead to photoacclimation responses (i.e., reduced plant productivity and shoot density), which may impact the carbon sequestration capacity of seagrasses.

  15. Atomic-level Pd-Pt alloying and largely enhanced hydrogen-storage capacity in bimetallic nanoparticles reconstructed from core/shell structure by a process of hydrogen absorption/desorption.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Yamauchi, Miho; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Kubota, Yoshiki; Kato, Kenichi; Takata, Masaki

    2010-04-28

    We have achieved the creation of a solid-solution alloy where Pd and Pt are homogeneously mixed at the atomic level, by a process of hydrogen absorption/desorption as a trigger for core (Pd)/shell (Pt) nanoparticles. The structural change from core/shell to solid solution has been confirmed by in situ powder X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectra, solid-state (2)H NMR measurement, and hydrogen pressure-composition isotherms. The successfully obtained Pd-Pt solid-solution nanoparticles with a Pt content of 8-21 atom % had a higher hydrogen-storage capacity than Pd nanoparticles. Moreover, the hydrogen-storage capacity of Pd-Pt solid-solution nanoparticles can be tuned by changing the composition of Pd and Pt. PMID:20361727

  16. Geologic features and ground-water storage capacity of the Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olmsted, F.H.; Davis, G.H.

    1961-01-01

    The Sacramento Valley constitutes the northern and smaller arm of the Central Valley of California. It is about 150 miles long by about 30 miles wide; and its area is about 5,000 square miles. The Sacramento Valley is drained by the Sacramento River, the largest in California, which rises west of Mount Shasta and flows southward to join the San Joaquin River near Suisun Bay and discharges through San Francisco Bay to the Pacific. Most of the valley floor is suitable for growing crops, and under irrigation the land is highly productive. The Sacramento Valley is underlain by sediments transported from the surrounding mountains by the Sacramento River and its tributaries. The floor of the valley slopes southward from about 300 feet above sea level at the north end near Red Bluff to sea level at Suisun Bay. The Sutter Buttes, which are erosional remnants of an old volcano rise to 2,132 feet above sea level near the center of the valley. The valley floor is not a featureless plain but is characterized by various types of topography, which have been assigned to four principal groups: 1, low hills and dissected alluvial uplands; 2, low alluvial plains and fans; 3, flood plains and natural levees; and 4, flood basins; a fifth and relatively minor group consists of the tidal Islands of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, which are south of the principal area of investigation. The rocks that underlie the Sacramento Valley and the bordering mountains range from crystalline rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age to unconsolidated alluvium of Recent age. These rocks have been subdivided into 20 geologic units which may be assigned to 2 broad categories: rocks that yield little water and rocks that yield water freely. The rocks of the first category are chiefly marine sedimentary rocks of Late Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Early Tertiary age and a basement complex of pre-Tertiary crystalline rocks. The rocks of the second category consist predominantly of nonmarine valley-filling sediments of late Tertiary and Quaternary age, which constitute the principal ground-water reservoir in the Sacramento Valley. The rocks that yield little or no water includes the following geologic units: 1, Basement complex of the Sierra Nevada (pre-Tertiary); 2, Shasta series (Lower Cretaceous); 3, Chico formation (Upper Cretaceous); 4, Paleocene series; 5, Eocene series (in part, water yielding); 6, basalt (Tertiary); 7, sedimentary rocks of volcanic origin on the west side of the Sacramento Valley (Tertiary, in part water yielding) ; 8, intrusive rhyolite and andesite and vent tuff of the Sutter Buttes (Pliocene); and 9, tuff-breccia of the Sutter Buttes (Pliocene, in part water yielding). The rocks that yield water freely, comprises the following geologic units: 1, Volcanic rocks from the Sierra Nevada (Eocene to Pliocene; in part yield little or no water); 2, Tuscan formation (Pliocene; in part yield little or no water); 3, Tehama formation (Pliocene); 4, Tehama formation and related continental sediments, undifferentiated (Pliocene and Pleistocene); 5, Laguna formation and related continental sediments (Pliocene and Pleistocene); 6, fanglomerate from the Cascade Range (Pleistocene); 7, Red Bluff formation (Pleistocene); 8, Victor formation and related deposits (Pleistocene); 9, alluvial-fan deposits (Pleistocene and Recent); 10, river deposits (Recent); and 11, flood-basin deposits (Recent). The volcanic rocks from the Sierra Nevada consist chiefly of andesitic and rhyolitic detritus. Most of these volcanic rocks are fragmental and were deposited either as mudflows or by streams. Their permeability is extremely variable, the poorly consolidated sandstone and conglomerate strata locally yield water copiously to wells, but the interbedded fine-grained and cemented strata are virtually impermeable and act as confining layers. The Tuscan formation, which occurs in the northeastern part of the valley, consists of fragmental andesitic and basaltic mate

  17. A new direct absorption measurement for high precision and accurate measurement of water vapor in the UT/LS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, M. R.; Sayres, D. S.; Smith, J. B.; Anderson, J.

    2011-12-01

    Highly accurate and precise water vapor measurements in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere are critical to understanding the climate feedbacks of water vapor and clouds in that region. However, the continued disagreement among water vapor measurements (~1 - 2 ppmv) are too large to constrain the role of different hydration and dehydration mechanisms operating in the UT/LS, with model validation dependent upon which dataset is chosen. In response to these issues, we present a new instrument for measurement of water vapor in the UT/LS that was flown during the April 2011 MACPEX mission out of Houston, TX. The dual axis instrument combines the heritage and validated accuracy of the Harvard Lyman-alpha instrument with a newly designed direct IR absorption instrument, the Harvard Herriott Hygrometer (HHH). The Lyman-alpha detection axis has flown aboard NASA's WB-57 and ER2 aircraft since 1994, and provides a requisite link between the new HHH instrument and the long history of Harvard water vapor measurements. The instrument utilizes the highly sensitive Lyman-alpha photo-fragment fluorescence detection method; its accuracy has been demonstrated though rigorous laboratory calibrations and in situ diagnostic procedures. The Harvard Herriott Hygrometer employs a fiber coupled near-IR laser with state-of-the-art electronics to measure water vapor via direct absorption in a spherical Herriott cell of 10 cm length. The instrument demonstrated in-flight precision of 0.1 ppmv (1-sec, 1-sigma) at mixing ratios as low as 5 ppmv with accuracies of 10% based on careful laboratory calibrations and in-flight performance. We present a description of the measurement technique along with our methodology for calibration and details of the measurement uncertainties. The simultaneous utilization of radically different measurement techniques in a single duct in the new Harvard Water Vapor (HWV) instrument allows for the constraint of systematic errors inherent in each technique both in the laboratory and in flight. The HWV data set, in combination with the intercomparison of numerous water vapor instruments during MACPEX, constitutes a significant step toward resolving the controversy surrounding water vapor measurements in the tropopause region.

  18. INCREASING THE PHOSPHORUS SORPTION CAPACITY OF SOUTHEASTERN COASTAL PLAIN SOILS USING WATER TREATMENT RESIDUALS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Novak; D. W. Watts

    2004-01-01

    Long-term animal manure applications to many sandy Coastal Plain soils has resulted in the accumulation of excess soil phosphorus (P). When soils contain excessive P concentrations, dissolved phosphorus (DP) can be des- orbed with water and transported into streams and rivers via runoff and leaching. The addition of DP into nutrient-sensitive Coastal aquatic ecosys- tems can then stimulate aquatic weed

  19. Geophysical imaging of watershed subsurface patterns and prediction of soil texture and water holding capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extent to which soil resource availability, nutrients or moisture, contro1 the structure, function and diversity of plant communities has aroused considerableinterest in the past decade, and remains topical in light of global change. Numerous plant communities are controlled either by water or s...

  20. Expansion of Myriophyllum spicatum (Eurasian water milfoil) into Lake Nasser, Egypt: Invasive capacity and habitat stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magdi M. Ali; Mohamed A. Soltan

    2006-01-01

    The invasion of Myriophyllum spicatum into Lake Nasser, and its impact on submerged macrophyte communities are quantitatively documented. Samples of macrophytes, water and hydrosoil were collected from 17 sites, in October and November 2002. The average dry weight standing crop of each species per grapnel haul was determined at each depth zone (sampling site). Twenty-one environmental variables were measured (12

  1. Institutional Capacity on Water Pollution Control of the Pearl River in Guangzhou, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan Yu; Dieudonné-Guy Ohandja; J. Nigel B. Bell

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the role of the prevalent formal and informal institutions in Guangzhou in alleviating deteriorating water quality in the Pearl River. In addition to the dominating role of the local government, it examines the influences of other relevant factors such as the role of environmental non-governmental organizations, the media, and the impact of social and cultural norms. It

  2. Mapping soil water holding capacity over large areas to predict potential production of forest stands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Piedallu; Jean-Claude Gégout; Ary Bruand; Ingrid Seynave

    2011-01-01

    Ecological studies require environmental descriptors to establish the response of species or communities to ecological conditions. The soil water resource is an important factor, but it is difficult for plant ecologists to use because of the lack of accessible data. We explored whether collecting a large number of plots with basic soil information within the framework of forest inventories would

  3. WATER ABSORPTION IN GALACTIC TRANSLUCENT CLOUDS: CONDITIONS AND HISTORY OF THE GAS DERIVED FROM HERSCHEL /HIFI PRISMAS OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Flagey, N.; Goldsmith, P. F. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)] [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Lis, D. C.; Monje, R.; Phillips, T. G. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)] [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gerin, M.; De Luca, M.; Godard, B. [LERMA, UMR 8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, Ecole Normale Superieure, UPMC and UCP (France)] [LERMA, UMR 8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, Ecole Normale Superieure, UPMC and UCP (France); Neufeld, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins Univ. 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins Univ. 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sonnentrucker, P. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)] [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Goicoechea, J. R., E-mail: nflagey@jpl.nasa.gov [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-01-01

    We present Herschel/HIFI observations of the three ground state transitions of H{sub 2}O (556, 1669, and 1113 GHz) and H{sub 2}{sup 18}O (547, 1655, and 1101 GHz)-as well as the first few excited transitions of H{sub 2}O (987, 752, and 1661 GHz)-toward six high-mass star-forming regions, obtained as part of the PRISMAS (PRobing InterStellar Molecules with Absorption line Studies) Guaranteed Time Key Program. Water vapor associated with the translucent clouds in Galactic arms is detected in absorption along every line of sight in all the ground state transitions. The continuum sources all exhibit broad water features in emission in the excited and ground state transitions. Strong absorption features associated with the source are also observed at all frequencies except 752 GHz. We model the background continuum and line emission to infer the optical depth of each translucent cloud along the lines of sight. We derive the column density of H{sub 2}O or H{sub 2}{sup 18}O for the lower energy level of each transition observed. The total column density of water in translucent clouds is usually about a few 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}. We find that the abundance of water relative to hydrogen nuclei is 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} in agreement with models for oxygen chemistry in which high cosmic ray ionization rates are assumed. Relative to molecular hydrogen, the abundance of water is remarkably constant through the Galactic plane with X(H{sub 2}O) =5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}, which makes water a good traced of H{sub 2} in translucent clouds. Observations of the excited transitions of H{sub 2}O enable us to constrain the abundance of water in excited levels to be at most 15%, implying that the excitation temperature, T {sub ex}, in the ground state transitions is below 10 K. Further analysis of the column densities derived from the two ortho ground state transitions indicates that T {sub ex} {approx_equal} 5 K and that the density n(H{sub 2}) in the translucent clouds is below 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}. We derive the water ortho-to-para ratio for each absorption feature along the line of sight and find that most of the clouds show ratios consistent with the value of 3 expected in thermodynamic equilibrium in the high-temperature limit. However, two clouds with large column densities exhibit a ratio that is significantly below 3. This may argue that the history of water molecules includes a cold phase, either when the molecules were formed on cold grains in the well-shielded, low-temperature regions of the clouds, or when they later become at least partially thermalized with the cold gas ({approx}25 K) in those regions; evidently, they have not yet fully thermalized with the warmer ({approx}50 K) translucent portions of the clouds.

  4. Crop systems and plant roots can modify the soil water holding capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doussan, Claude; Cousin, Isabelle; Berard, Annette; Chabbi, Abad; Legendre, Laurent; Czarnes, Sonia; Toussaint, Bruce; Ruy, Stéphane

    2015-04-01

    At the interface between atmosphere and deep sub-soil, the root zone plays a major role in regulating the flow of water between major compartments: groundwater / surface / atmosphere (drainage, runoff, evapotranspiration). This role of soil as regulator/control of water fluxes, but also as a supporting medium to plant growth, is strongly dependent on the hydric properties of the soil. In turn, the plant roots growing in the soil can change its structure; both in the plow layer and in the deeper horizons and, therefore, could change the soil properties, particularly hydric properties. Such root-related alteration of soil properties can be linked to direct effect of roots such as soil perforation during growth, aggregation of soil particles or indirect effects such as the release of exudates by roots that could modify the properties of water or of soil particles. On an another hand, the rhizosphere, the zone around roots influenced by the activity of root and associated microorganisms, could have a high influence on hydric properties, particularly the water retention. To test if crops and plant roots rhizosphere may have a significant effect on water retention, we conducted various experiment from laboratory to field scales. In the lab, we tested different soil and species for rhizospheric effect on soil water retention. Variation in available water content (AWC) between bulk and rhizospheric soil varied from non-significant to a significant increase (to about 16% increase) depending on plant species and soil type. In the field, the alteration of water retention by root systems was tested in different pedological settings for a Maize crop inoculated or not with the bacteria Azospirillum spp., known to alter root structure, growth and morphology. Again, a range of variation in AWC was evidenced, with significant increase (~30%) in some soil types, but more linked to innoculated/non-innoculated plants rather than to a difference between rhizospheric and bulk soil. Finally, in field condition, on a larger time scale, we investigated the effect of crop alternations on the Lusignan ACBB SOERE site. That site presents on the same soil type different crop alternation treatments: an old, continuous grassland, a 8-year continuous cereal rotation and an alternation of cereal/grassland (3-years cereals and 3 to 6 years grassland). Measurements of AWC in these different crop systems setting, 8 years after implementation of the SOERE, show that AWC was different in the cereal/grassland alternation compared to the continuous cereal or grassland cropping systems (~15-20% increase). If such alteration of AWC may seem modest, modeling (in the case of ACBB SOERE) shows that this increase in AWC would increase the cereal yield but also decrease the water drainage out of the root zone, and the possible associated loss of nitrate and pesticides. As a conclusion, in line with some other literature data, roots can influence soil hydric properties and this opens a way to use plants as "soil engineers" to modulate the properties of the root zone, and thus the components of water balance, to mitigate effects of drought on crops… However, how and how much plants will modify the hydric properties, a question which mixes physics, biology, microbiology, crop system settings, is still in infancy and needs further research.

  5. [Experiment study of alcohol-water mixtures absorption and fluorescence spectra induced by UV-light].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tuo; Chen, Guo-Qing; Yu, Rui-Peng; Liu, Ying; Ni, Xiao-Wu

    2006-02-01

    By using equipment of UV-240 ultra-violet spectrophotometer and Sp-2558 multifunctional spectrometer system, the UV-light absorption spectra and the fluorescence spectra of propanol and isopropanol, as well as their comparison were studied. According to the results, propanol and isopropanol can be clearly distinguished with absorption spectra and fluorescence spectra. The reasons for difference spectra of the two liquids were also explained. Moreover, the fluorescence spectra of the four kinds of difference alcohol were compared and the results were discussed. The whole research outcomes will provide a new method for effective measurement of different alcohol, and also produce some valuable theoretical references to the calculation of quantum chemistry. PMID:16826909

  6. Cloud Point Preconcentration and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Determination of Cobalt and Nickel in Water Samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamshid L. Manzoori; Ahad Bavili-Tabrizi

    2003-01-01

    .  ?Cloud point methodology was successfully used to preconcentrate trace amounts of Co and Ni as a prior step to their determination\\u000a by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. 1-Nitroso-2-naphthol and polyethylene glycol-p-nonylphenylether (PONPE 7.5) are used\\u000a as hydrophobic ligand and nonionic surfactant, respectively. Optimization was performed of the variables effecting complexation\\u000a and phase separation. Additionally, the influence of viscosity on the analytical

  7. A critical review of measurements of water vapor absorption in the 840 to 1100 cm(-1) spectral region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, William B.

    1987-01-01

    A set of eleven measurements of the water vapor continuum absorption in the 840 to 1100 sq cm spectral region is reviewed and compared with spectral models maintained by the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory. The measurements were made in four different ways: spectrometer with a White cell, CO2 laser with a White cell, CO2 laser with a spectrophone, and broadband radiation source over a long atmospheric path. Where possible, the data were selected at a water vapor partial pressure of ten torr buffered to 760 torr with N2 or synthetic air and a temperature of between 296 and 300 K. The intercomparison of the data leads to several observations and conclusions. First, there are four sets of laboratory data taken with nitrogen as the buffer gas which generally agree well mutually and with AFGL's HITRAN code. Second, there is one set of laboratory data that shows that using air as the buffer gas gives a few percent decrease in the water vapor continuum compared with using nitrogen as the buffer gas. Third, the atmospheric long-path measurements for water vapor partial pressure below about 12 torr are roughly grouped within 20 percent of the HITRAN values. Fourth, there are three sets of spectrophone data for water vapor in synthetic air which are significantly higher than any of the other measurements. This discrepancy is attributed to the effects of impurity gases in the cell.

  8. Heat capacity mapping mission (HCMM) thermal surface water mapping and its correlation to LANDSAT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colvocoresses

    1980-01-01

    Graphics are presented which show HCMM mapped water-surface temperature in Lake Anna, a 13,000 dendrically-shaped lake which provides cooling for a nuclear power plant in Virginia. The HCMM digital data, produced by NASA were processed by NOAA\\/NESS into image and line-printer form. A LANDSAT image of the lake illustrates the relationship between MSS band 7 data and the HCMM data

  9. Modeling water scarcity over south Asia: Incorporating crop growth and irrigation models into the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troy, Tara J.; Ines, Amor V. M.; Lall, Upmanu; Robertson, Andrew W.

    2013-04-01

    Large-scale hydrologic models, such as the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, are used for a variety of studies, from drought monitoring to projecting the potential impact of climate change on the hydrologic cycle decades in advance. The majority of these models simulates the natural hydrological cycle and neglects the effects of human activities such as irrigation, which can result in streamflow withdrawals and increased evapotranspiration. In some parts of the world, these activities do not significantly affect the hydrologic cycle, but this is not the case in south Asia where irrigated agriculture has a large water footprint. To address this gap, we incorporate a crop growth model and irrigation model into the VIC model in order to simulate the impacts of irrigated and rainfed agriculture on the hydrologic cycle over south Asia (Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra basin and peninsular India). The crop growth model responds to climate signals, including temperature and water stress, to simulate the growth of maize, wheat, rice, and millet. For the primarily rainfed maize crop, the crop growth model shows good correlation with observed All-India yields (0.7) with lower correlations for the irrigated wheat and rice crops (0.4). The difference in correlation is because irrigation provides a buffer against climate conditions, so that rainfed crop growth is more tied to climate than irrigated crop growth. The irrigation water demands induce hydrologic water stress in significant parts of the region, particularly in the Indus, with the streamflow unable to meet the irrigation demands. Although rainfall can vary significantly in south Asia, we find that water scarcity is largely chronic due to the irrigation demands rather than being intermittent due to climate variability.

  10. Building Capacity to Integrate NASA Earth Science into Water Resources Management Applications in the Context of a Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prados, A. I.; Mehta, A. V.

    2011-12-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences program provides technical capacity building activities to enable decision-makers to integrate NASA Earth Science into environmental management activities. This includes workshops tailored to end-user needs by working directly with agencies to 1) identify environmental management activities that could benefit from NASA Earth Science and 2) conducting workshops that teach the NASA products and decision-support tools best suited to the identified application area. Building on a successful 3-year effort on air pollution monitoring for environmental applications, the project has expanded into water resources. Climate Change has dramatically increased demand for observational and predictive data in support of decision making activities related to water supply and demand. However, a gap remains between NASA products and applied research and the entities who stand to benefit from their utilization. To fill this gap, the project has developed short courses on 1) impacts of climate change on water resources 2) hands-on exercises on access and interpretation of NASA imagery relevant to water resources management via the use of decision-support web tools and software and 3) case studies on the application of NASA products in the field. The program is currently focused on two areas 1) precipitation products over the central and southern U.S. that help communities and agencies improve flooding forecasts and 2) snow and snow/water equivalent products over the western U.S and Latin America that can provide end-users with improved stream flow prediction in Spring within a framework of decreasing snow availability.

  11. Structural characteristics of water-soluble polysaccharides from Rabdosia serra (MAXIM.) HARA leaf and stem and their antioxidant capacities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lianzhu; Zhuang, Mingzhu; Zou, Linwu; Lei, Fenfen; Yang, Bao; Zhao, Mouming

    2012-11-15

    Water-soluble polysaccharides of Rabdosia serra leaf and stem were fractionated by ultrafiltration and DEAE-Sepharose fast flow chromatogram to obtain water (RSLP-I and RSSP-I), 0.1M NaCl (RSLP-II and RSSP-II) and 0.2M NaCl (RSLP-III and RSSP-III) eluates. Their molecular weights were determined by high performance gel permeation chromatography. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that the water eluates comprised of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose. The ascending percentage of galactose and descending percentage of glucose in the eluates were observed with the increase of NaCl concentration. The branched RSLP-I and RSSP-I were composed mainly of ?6)-Glcp-(1?, ?6)-Galp-(1?, and ?5)-Araf-(1? residues with the ratio of 15.0:4.2:3.8 and 5.5:6.4:3.5, respectively. However, a low level of 1,6-linked glucosyl was observed in RSLP-II, RSSP-II, RSLP-III and RSSP-III. The structural characteristics were further analysed by infrared spectrophotometry. The purified leaf and stem polysaccharides possessed moderate antioxidant capacities. PMID:22868152

  12. Efficient tissue ablation using a laser tunable in the water absorption band at 3 microns with little collateral damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nierlich, Alexandra; Chuchumishev, Danail; Nagel, Elizabeth; Marinova, Kristiana; Philipov, Stanislav; Fiebig, Torsten; Buchvarov, Ivan; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2014-03-01

    Lasers can significantly advance medical diagnostics and treatment. At high power, they are typically used as cutting tools during surgery. For lasers that are used as knifes, radiation wavelengths in the far ultraviolet and in the near infrared spectral regions are favored because tissue has high contents of collagen and water. Collagen has an absorption peak around 190 nm, while water is in the near infrared around 3,000 nm. Changing the wavelength across the absorption peak will result in significant differences in laser tissue interactions. Tunable lasers in the infrared that could optimize the laser tissue interaction for ablation and/or coagulation are not available until now besides the Free Electron Laser (FEL). Here we demonstrate efficient tissue ablation using a table-top mid-IR laser tunable between 3,000 to 3,500 nm. A detailed study of the ablation has been conducted in different tissues. Little collateral thermal damage has been found at a distance above 10-20 microns from the ablated surface. Furthermore, little mechanical damage could be seen in conventional histology and by examination of birefringent activity of the samples using a pair of cross polarizing filters.

  13. Watching Hydrogen Bonds Break: A Transient Absorption Study of Water Tobias Steinel, John B. Asbury, Junrong Zheng, and M. D. Fayer*

    E-print Network

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Watching Hydrogen Bonds Break: A Transient Absorption Study of Water Tobias Steinel, John B. Asbury of picoseconds, observe hydrogen bond breaking and monitor the equilibration of the hydrogen bond network in water. In addition, the vibrational lifetime, the time constant for hydrogen bond breaking, and the rate

  14. Measurement of the specific heat capacity of water-based Al2O3 nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Sheng-Qi; Ni, Rui

    2008-03-01

    In this letter, we have presented an experimental investigation of the specific heat cp of water-based Al2O3 nanofluid with a differential scanning calorimeter. The result indicates that the specific heat cp of nanofluid decreases gradually as the nanoparticle volume fraction ? increases from 0.0% to 21.7%. The relationship between them exhibits good agreement with the prediction from the thermal equilibrium model [Eq. (2)]. The other simple mixing model [Eq. (1)] fails to predict the specific heat cp of nanofluid.

  15. Feasibility of Tropospheric Water Vapor Profiling Using Infrared Heterodyne Differential Absorption Lidar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Grund; R. M. Hardesty; B. J. Rye

    Continuous, high quality profiles of water vapor, free of column lengths can be compared to determine the range- systematic bias and of moderate temporal and spatial resolved concentration. Most DIAL systems used for resolution, acquired over long periods at low operational monitoring water vapor have operated at wavelengths of and maintenance cost, are fundamental to the success of about 700

  16. Mechanical performance and capillary water absorption of sewage sludge ash concrete (SSAC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jamshidi; A. Jamshidi; N. Mehrdadi; F. Pacheco-Torgal

    2012-01-01

    Disposal of sewage sludge from waste water treatment plants is a serious environmental problem of increasing magnitude. Waste water treatment generates as much as 70 g of dry solids per capita per day. Although one of the disposal solutions for this waste is through incineration, still almost 30% of sludge solids remain as ash. This paper presents results related to reuse

  17. Mechanical performance and capillary water absorption of sewage sludge ash concrete (SSAC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jamshidi; A. Jamshidi; N. Mehrdadi; F. Pacheco-Torgal

    2011-01-01

    Disposal of sewage sludge from waste water treatment plants is a serious environmental problem of increasing magnitude. Waste water treatment generates as much as 70 g of dry solids per capita per day. Although one of the disposal solutions for this waste is through incineration, still almost 30% of sludge solids remain as ash. This paper presents results related to reuse

  18. A Two-Line Absorption Instrument for Scramjet Temperature and Water Vapor Concentration Measurement in HYPULSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, C. Y.

    1998-01-01

    A three beam water vapor sensor system has been modified to provide for near simultaneous temperature measurement. The system employs a tunable diode laser to scan spectral line of water vapor. The application to measurements in a scramjet combustor environment of a shock tunnel facility is discussed. This report presents and discusses die initial calibration of the measurement system.

  19. Metal-and hydrogen-bonding competition during water absorption on Pd(111) and Ru(0001)

    SciTech Connect

    Tatarkhanov, Mouslim; Ogletree, D. Frank; Rose, Franck; Mitsui, Toshiyuki; Fomin, Evgeny; Rose, Mark; Cerda, Jorge I.; Salmeron, Miquel

    2009-09-03

    The initial stages of water adsorption on the Pd(111) and Ru(0001) surfaces have been investigated experimentally by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy in the temperature range between 40 K and 130 K, and theoretically with Density Functional Theory (DFT) total energy calculations and STM image simulations. Below 125 K water dissociation does not occur at any appreciable rate and only molecular films are formed. Film growth starts by the formation of flat hexamer clusters where the molecules bind to the metal substrate through the O-lone pair while making H-bonds with neighboring molecules. As coverage increases, larger networks of linked hexagons are formed with a honeycomb structure, which requires a fraction of the water molecules to have their molecular plane perpendicular to the metal surface with reduced water-metal interaction. Energy minimization favors the growth of networks with limited width. As additional water molecules adsorb on the surface they attach to the periphery of existing islands, where they interact only weakly with the metal substrate. These molecules hop along the periphery of the clusters at intermediate temperatures. At higher temperatures they bind to the metal to continue the honeycomb growth. The water-Ru interaction is significantly stronger than the water-Pd interaction, which is consistent with the greater degree of hydrogen-bonded network formation and reduced water-metal bonding observed on Pd relative to Ru.

  20. Effect of Water Absorption on the Mechanical Properties of Sisal and Jute Fiber Composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. H. M. M. Costa; J. R. M. DAlmeida

    1999-01-01

    The variation of the ultimate stress and the elastic modulus of four different natural fiber-resin matrix composites was evaluated as a function of the aging of these composites in distilled water. Their diffusion coefficients and the maximum water content were also determined by fitting the experimental data to the Fickian model for diffusion. The composites analyzed were the common jute-

  1. Assessment of water ecological carrying capacity under the two policies in Tieling City on the basis of the integrated system dynamics model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Xu, Ling; Yang, Fenglin; Wang, He

    2014-02-15

    Considering the limitation of the traditional method to assess the ecological carrying capacity and the complexity of the water ecological system, we used system dynamics, ANN, and CA-Markov to model a water ecological system. The social component was modeled according to Granger causality test by system dynamics. The natural component consists of the water resource and water environmental capacity, which were forecasted through the prediction of precipitation and change in land use cover. The interaction of the social component and the natural component mainly reflected environmental policies, such as the imposition of an environmental fee and environmental tax based on their values. Simulation results showed the different assessments on water ecological carrying capacity under the two policies. The population grew (2.9 million), and less pollution (86,632.37 t COD and 2854.5 t NH4N) was observed with the imposition of environmental tax compared with the imposition of an environmental fee (2.85 million population, 10,8381 t COD and 3543 t NH4N) at the same GDP level of 585 billion CNY in 2030. According to the causality loop, we discussed the different states under the policies and the reasons that caused the differences in water ecological carrying capacity state. According to game theory, we explained the limitation of the environmental fee policy on the basis of marginal benefit and cost. The externality was cleared up by the environmental tax policy. PMID:24361570

  2. Using GPR and Soil EC to Identify Spatial Variability of Water Holding Capacity for Precision Irrigation Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, H. A.; Leib, B.

    2011-12-01

    Applying the appropriate amount of irrigation water is an especially critical part of irrigation management because both under and over irrigation can lead to reduced crop yield and loss of financial profit. Irrigation water soaks into and is stored in the soil moisture profile; the degree to which a soil can hold that moisture in the profile and prevent deep percolation is known as its water holding capacity (WHC). Because crops rely on the use of the water stored within the soil moisture profile, the WHC of the soil greatly influences the amount of applied irrigation water (AIW) required to optimize crop yield and resource management. Soil texture, which is a primary control of WHC, is known to vary spatially in many areas of agricultural production. Optimization of irrigation water use requires areas of different WHC to be irrigated differently; however, areas of differing WHC must be accurately identified for precision irrigation to be effective. Two methods were used on a research site known to contain soil texture variability to generate a geo-referenced map of soil texture differences in order to account for spatial WHC variability and optimize AIW. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) was used in conjunction with GPS and GIS systems to map the water content change found at the soil texture interfaces in the field. The second method was to produce a geo-referenced map of soil electrical conductivity (EC) using a Veris EC implement with similar GPS and GIS systems. The soil EC map is strongly related to soil texture and WHC under the consistent pH conditions that exist on the research site. The GPR and EC maps were then used to guide plot placement to block on soil WHC variation for a deficit irrigation study on upland cotton. The lint yield results from the irrigation study will provide insight into the effectiveness of the irrigation management zones identified by the two mapping methods. Lastly, soil cores will be taken from key areas identified in the GPR and EC results to ground-truth the readings and compare the accuracy of each mapping method.

  3. Novel Fiber Optic Sensor Probe with a Pair of Highly Reflected Connectors and a Vessel of Water Absorption Material for Water Leak Detection

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Tae-Sik; Choi, Ki-Sun; Seo, Dae-Cheol; Kwon, Il-Bum; Lee, Jung-Ryul

    2012-01-01

    The use of a fiber optic quasi-distributed sensing technique for detecting the location and severity of water leakage is suggested. A novel fiber optic sensor probe is devised with a vessel of water absorption material called as water combination soil (WCS) located between two highly reflected connectors: one is a reference connector and the other is a sensing connector. In this study, the sensing output is calculated from the reflected light signals of the two connectors. The first reflected light signal is a reference and the second is a sensing signal which is attenuated by the optical fiber bending loss due to the WCS expansion absorbing water. Also, the bending loss of each sensor probe is determined by referring to the total number of sensor probes and the total power budget of an entire system. We have investigated several probe characteristics to show the design feasibility of the novel fiber sensor probe. The effects of vessel sizes of the probes on the water detection sensitivity are studied. The largest vessel probe provides the highest sensitivity of 0.267 dB/mL, while the smallest shows relatively low sensitivity of 0.067 dB/mL, and unstable response. The sensor probe with a high output value provides a high sensitivity with various detection levels while the number of total installable sensor probes decreases. PMID:23112637

  4. The phase behavior and absorption spectra of the ternary system cobaltous chloride-water-acetonitrile

    E-print Network

    Bobbitt, Jeffrey Lovett

    1967-01-01

    -Acetonitrile Solutions Prepared for Phase Diagram Determination . Density of Acetonitrile as 1'unction of Temperature BIBLIOGRAPHY 44 45 LIST OF TABLES A%3 FIGURZS TABLE 1 Activity Coefficients of Acetonitrile and Water in a Binary Solution 1'age TAB'Z 2 Pnase... to the discovery that only a very small amount oi' cobaltous chloride was required to "salt-out" an acetonitrile- water mixture. The binary solvent system acetonitrile-water has been studied by Othmer and Josefowits who have reported ?8 activity coefficients...

  5. Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: Analysis and implications for bio-optical models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annick Bricaud; André Morel; Marcel Babin; Karima Allali; Hervé Claustre

    1998-01-01

    Spectral absorption coefficients of total particulate matter ap(lambda) were determined using the in vitro filter technique. The present analysis deals with a set of 1166 spectra, determined in various oceanic (case 1) waters, with field chl a concentrations () spanning 3 orders of magnitude (0.02-25 mgm-3). As previously shown [Bricaud et al., 1995] for the absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton

  6. Light absorption properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in adjacent waters of the Changjiang Estuary during a flood season: implication for DOC estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yangyang; Shen, Fang; Li, Xiuzhen

    2014-11-01

    Light absorption properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in adjacent waters of the Changjiang Estuary were investigated during the summer of 2013. CDOM absorption showed a substantial portion of the total absorption and clearly dominant among most investigation stations. It generally decreased from the northwest to the southeast, which controlled by physical mixing of fresh water and seawater as was indicated by a conservative behaviour of CDOM. CDOM absorption sharply increased during phytoplankton blooms. Similarly, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) also peaked during blooms period. However, DOC exhibited a more complex behavior relative to a simple conservative mixing, possibly attributed to multiple origins of DOC. CDOM absorption and DOC co-varied to some degree, implying a potential way of DOC estimation from CDOM absorption. However, more detailed information such as CDOM and DOC composition and more validation data were required to obtain a stable CDOM - DOC pattern. Lastly, empirical algorithms with limited data were developed to retrieve CDOM absorption. Further validation of the algorithms were needed when they were to be commonly applied.

  7. The use of atomic absorption spectroscopy to measure arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, and vanadium in water and soil samples from uranium mill tailings sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenbach, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    The Technical Measurements Center (TMC) was established to support the environmental measurement needs of the various DOE remedial action programs. A laboratory intercomparison study conducted by the TMC, using soil and water samples from sites contaminated by uranium mill tailings, indicated large discrepancies in analytical results reported by participating laboratories for arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, and vanadium. The present study was undertaken to investigate the most commonly used analytical techniques for measuring these four elements, ascertain routine and reliable quantification, and assess problems and successes of analysts. Based on a survey of the technical literature, the analytical technique of atomic absorption spectroscopy was selected for detailed study. The application of flame atomic absorption, graphite furnace atomic absorption, and hydride generation atomic absorption to the analysis of tailings-contaminated samples is discussed. Additionally, laboratory sample preparation methods for atomic absorption spectroscopy are presented. The conclusion of this report is that atomic absorption can be used effectively for the determination of arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, and vanadium in water and soil samples if the analyst understands the measurement process and is aware of potential problems. The problem of accurate quantification of arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, and vanadium in water and soil contaminated by waste products from uranium milling operations affects all DOE remedial action programs (Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP), Formerly Utilized Site Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), and Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program (UMTRAP)), since all include sites where uranium was processed. 96 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Effect of O3 on Hydraulic Architecture in Pima Cotton (Biomass Allocation and Water Transport Capacity of Roots and Shoots)

    PubMed Central

    Grantz, D. A.; Yang, S.

    1996-01-01

    Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense L. cv S-6) exhibits foliar injury and yield reduction at ambient concentrations of O3. We tested the hypotheses that O3 reduces the allocation of biomass to the root system, and that this disrupted carbohydrate allocation impairs root hydraulic capacity relative to transpiring leaf area. Both hypotheses are supported, even though leaf area development is itself reduced by O3. Seedlings were grown in pots in greenhouse fumigation chambers and exposed from planting to sinusoidal O3 profiles with peak concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 [mu]L-1 (12-h averages of 0, 0.037, 0.074, and 0.111 [mu]L L-1). At 8 weeks after planting, stem basal diameter, leaf area, and total plant dry weight decreased by 61, 83, and 88%, whereas root/shoot dry weight ratio declined from 0.16 to 0.09 g/g. Hydraulic conductance decreased per plant by 85%, and per unit leaf area by 35%. Conductance of all organs declined per plant, but only root conductance declined per leaf area by 41%. Root resistance increased from 69 to 82% of whole plant resistance, a functional consequence of reduced carbon allocation to roots. Stomatal conductance declined with root hydraulic conductance, protecting short-term leaf water status. Reduced root hydraulic efficiency may mediate O3 injury to whole plants by reducing shoot gas exchange and biomass productivity through the inhibition of water and nutrient acquisition.

  9. Water Relations of the Pine Exine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GUIDO B OHNE; H OLGER W OEHLECKE; R UDOLF E HWALD

    2005-01-01

    ? Background and Aims Water adhesion forces, water absorption capacity and permeability of the pine exine were investigated to consider a possible function of sporopollenin coatings in the control of water transport. ? Methods The experiments were carried out with sporopollenin capsules obtained from pine pollen consisting of an empty central capsule and two sacci. Changes in the concentration of

  10. X-ray studies of interlayer water absorption and mesoporous water transport in a weakly hydrated clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmen, H.; Méheust, Y.; Alme, L. R.; Fossum, J. O.

    2012-04-01

    The swelling of layered smectite clay particles causes changes in the interlayer repetition distance (d-spacing) as a function of temperature and humidity. For the synthetic clay sodium fluorohectorite, hydrodynamically stable hydration states with zero, one and two intercalated monolayers of water have previously been reported, with discrete jumps in d-spacing at the transitions between the hydration states. Keeping the temperature fixed and varying the relative humidity surrounding a powder sample, we find small reproducible d-spacing changes also within the hydration states. These changes are monotonous as a function of relative humidity, and one order of magnitude smaller than the shift in d-spacing that is typical of the transition between two hydration states. We have used this observation to monitor the humidity content of a clay sample in situ, in a non-invasive manner. Imposing a humidity gradient between the two ends of a quasi-one-dimensional weakly-hydrated sample, we use space- and time-resolved X-ray diffraction to follow the transport of water by monitoring the swelling of clay particles. From the series of diffractograms we are able to extract profiles of the relative humidity along the sample length. The time evolution of these profiles describes the transport of water through the mesoporous space inside the clay: An analysis of the measured humidity profiles based on the Boltzmann transform, under certain simplifying assumptions, yields a diffusive behavior that is either normal or possibly weakly anomalous. The humidity profiles also provide the dependence of the effective diffusion coefficient D of the water vapor in the clay mesoporosity as a function of the local concentration of water molecules. The concentration-dependence of D impacts the transport process significantly. Another effect that potentially alters the process is the removal of water molecules from the mesoporosity by intercalation inside the clay grains. Based on 2D finite element simulations we discuss the mechanisms and consequences of those two effects.

  11. Borehole geophysical methods for analyzing specific capacity of multiaquifer wells : ground-water hydraulics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, Gordon D.; Patten, Eugene P., Jr.

    1960-01-01

    Conventional well-logging techniques, combined with measurements of flow velocity in the borehole, can provide information on the discharge-drawdown characteriBtic8 of the several aquifers penetrated by a well. The information is most conveniently presented in a graph showing aquifer discharges as functions of the water level in the well at a particular time. To determine the discharge-drawdown characteristics, a well is pumped at a steady rate for a certain length of time. While the well is being pumped, measurements are made of drawdown and of the discharge rates of the individual aquifers within the well. Discharge rates and drawdowns ,are usually recorded as functions of time, and their values for any given time during the test are obtained by interpolation. The procedure is repeated for several different rates of total well discharge. The well may be allowed to recover after each step, or discharge may be changed from one rate to another, and changes in discharge and drawdown may be measured by extrapolation. The flow measurements within the well may be made by use of a subsurface flowmeter or by one of several techniques involving the injection of electrolytic or radioactive tracers. The method was tested on a well in Mercer County, Pa., and provided much useful information on aquifer yields, 'thieving,' and hydrostatic heads of the individual zones.

  12. Influence of particles on the loading capacity and the temperature rise of water film in Ultra-high speed hybrid bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Aibin; Li, Pei; Zhang, Yefan; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Xiaoyang

    2015-04-01

    Ultra-high speed machining technology enables high efficiency, high precision and high integrity of machined surface. Previous researches of hybrid bearing rarely consider influences of solid particles in lubricant and ultra-high speed of hybrid bearing, which cannot be ignored under the high speed and micro-space conditions of ultra-high speed water-lubricated hybrid bearing. Considering the impact of solid particles in lubricant, turbulence and temperature viscosity effects of lubricant, the influences of particles on pressure distribution, loading capacity and the temperature rise of the lubricant film with four-step-cavity ultra-high speed water-lubricated hybrid bearing are presented in the paper. The results show that loading capacity of the hybrid bearing can be affected by changing the viscosity of the lubricant, and large particles can improve the bearing loading capacity higher. The impact of water film temperature rise produced by solid particles in lubricant is related with particle diameter and minimum film thickness. Compared with the soft particles, hard particles cause the more increasing of water film temperature rise and loading capacity. When the speed of hybrid bearing increases, the impact of solid particles on hybrid bearing becomes increasingly apparent, especially for ultra-high speed water-lubricated hybrid bearing. This research presents influences of solid particles on the loading capacity and the temperature rise of water film in ultra-high speed hybrid bearings, the research conclusions provide a new method to evaluate the influence of solid particles in lubricant of ultra-high speed water-lubricated hybrid bearing, which is important to performance calculation of ultra-high speed hybrid bearings, design of filtration system, and safe operation of ultra-high speed hybrid bearings.

  13. Ground-water conditions and storage capacity in the San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, G.H.; Green, J.H.; Olmsted, F.H.; Brown, D.W.

    1959-01-01

    The San Joaquin Valley includes roughly the southern two-thirds of the Great Central Valley of California. It is a broad structural trough surrounded by mountains. The northern part of the valley drains through the San Joaquin River northward to San Francisco Bay ; the southern part of the valley normally is a basin of interior drainage tributary to evaporation sumps in the trough of the valley, chiefly Tulare and Buena Vista Lake beds. In years of normal discharge most of the streamflow in the southern part of the valley not diverted for irrigation finds its way to Tulare and Buena Vista Lake beds. In the historic past, however, during years of heavy floods the low divide between Buena Vista and Tulare Lakes and the low divide between Tulare Lake and the San Joaquin River were overtopped and through-flowing drainage occurred over the full length of the valley. Because the Tulare Lake bed is the lowest point and also the largest sump, this whole basin of interior drainage is commonly referred to as the Tulare Lake drainage basin. Average annual precipitation ranges from more than 15 inches in the north- eastern part of the valley to less than 4 inches in the southwestern part. The precipitation decreases from north to south and from east to west across the valley. Streamflow, the critical quantity in the water supply, depends almost wholly on the amount and distribution of precipitation in the Sierra Nevada to the east. Much of this precipitation falls as snow, and the snowpack acts as a natural reservoir retaining much of the annual runoff until late spring and early summer. The mean seasonal runoff to the San Joaquin Valley is nearly 10 million acre- feet, of which about two-thirds is tributary to the San Joaquin River; the remaining third is tributary to Tulare Lake drainage basin. In 1952 about 8.5 million acre-feet of surface water was diverted for irrigation. Withdrawals of ground water for irrigation in 1952 approximated 7.5 million acre-feet. The surface of the San Joaquin Valley is not a featureless plain but is characterized by various types of physiography such as dissected uplands, low alluvial plains and fans, river flood plains and channels, and overflow lands and lake bottoms. The dissected uplands fringe the valley along its mountain borders. They are underlain by unconsolidated to semiconsolidated continental deposits of late Tertiary and early Quaternary age which have been moderately tilted and folded. The topography of these uplands ranges from deeply dissected hill land having a relief of several hundred feet to gently rolling land whose relief Is only a few feet. The low plains and fans border the dissected uplands along their valley- ward margins. They are generally fiat to gently undulating and featureless and are underlain by undeformed to slightly deformed alluvial deposits of Quaternary age. The river flood plains and channels lie along the San Joaquia and Kings Rivers in the axial part of the valley and along the major east-side streams. Where the rivers are incised below the general land surface, the flood plains are well defined; but in the axial trough of the valley, where the rivers are flanked by low-lying overflow lands, the flood-plain and channel deposits are confined to the stream channel and to the natural levees that slope away from the river. Overflow lands and lake bottoms include the historic beds of Tulare, Buena Vista, and Kern Lakes in the southern part of the valley, and the low-lying lands in the axial trough between the low alluvial plains and fans and the natural levees of the San Joaquin River and its major tributaries. They are level and featureless and are underlain by lake and swamp deposits of Recent age. The San Joaquin Valley is a great structural downwarp between the tilted block of the Sierra Nevada on the east and the complexly folded and faulted Coast Ranges on the we

  14. X-ray absorption and infrared spectra of water and ice: A first-principles electronic structure study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei

    Water is of essential importance for chemistry and biology, yet the physics concerning many of its distinctive properties is not well known. In this thesis we present a theoretical study of the x-ray absorption (XA) and infrared (IR) spectra of water in liquid and solid phase. Our theoretical tools are the density functional theory (DFT), Car-Parrinello (CP) molecular dynamics (MD), and the so-called GW method. Since a systematic review of these ab initio methods is not the task of this thesis, we only briefly recall the main concepts of these methods as needed in the course of our exposition. The focus is, instead, an investigation of what is the important physics necessary for a better description of these excitation processes, in particular, core electron excitations (in XA) that reveal the local electronic structure, and vibrational excitations (in IR) associated to the molecular dynamics. The most interesting question we are trying to answer is: as we include better approximations and more complete physical descriptions of these processes, how do the aforementioned spectra reflect the underlying hydrogen-bonding network of water? The first part of this thesis consists of the first four chapters, which focus on the study of core level excitation of water and ice. The x-ray absorption spectra of water and ice are calculated with a many-body approach for electron-hole excitations. The experimental features, even the small effects of a temperature change in the liquid, are reproduced with quantitative detail using molecular configurations generated by ab initio molecular dynamics. We find that the spectral shape is controlled by two major modifications of the short range order that mark the transition from ice to water. One is associated to dynamic breaking of the hydrogen bonds which leads to a strong enhancement of the pre-edge intensity in the liquid. The other is due to densification, which follows the partial collapse of the hydrogen bond network and is responsible for the substantial change of the main spectral edge in the conversion from ice to water. The effect of densification may not involve hydrogen bond breaking as shown by experiment in high-density amorphous ice. Chapter 1 serves as a short summary of the problems at hand, as well as an outline of our theoretical and numerical approaches. In Chapter 2, some necessary background of the subject is provided, including a review of the water XAS controversy in the literature. Chapter 3 describes how we compute XAS theoretically from ground state DFT. In Chapter 4, we go beyond ground state theories and investigate the quasi-particle behavior of the excited states. This is achieved using the many-body Green's function approach known as the GW approximation (GWA). We also present a detailed analysis of the origin of calculated spectral features. The second part of this thesis, Chapter 5, is devoted to a discussion of the infrared spectra of ice and water, in particular, the role of dynamic dipolar correlations. In this chapter, we present a method to decompose the dipolar correlations into intra- and intermolecular contributions. We find that intermolecular contributions play a role as important as the intramolecular counterpart over the entire frequency range. The decomposition technique proposed here is generally applicable to interpret other spectroscopic data and other systems, such as water at interfaces. The conclusions of our studies are summarized in Chapter 6.

  15. Impact of the analytical blank in the uncertainty evaluation of the copper content in waters by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Elcio Cruz; Monteiro, Maria Inês Couto; Pontes, Fernanda Veronesi Marinho; de Almeida, Marcelo Dominguez; Carneiro, Manuel Castro; da Silva, Lílian Irene Dias; Alcover Neto, Arnaldo

    2012-01-01

    Chemical analysts use analytical blanks in their analyses, but seldom is this source of uncertainty evaluated. Generally, there is great confusion. Although the numerical value of the blank, in some situations, can be negligible, its source of uncertainty cannot be. This article discusses the uncertainty contribution of the analytical blank using a numerical example of the copper content in waters by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicate that the uncertainties of the analytical blank can contribute up to 50% when the blank sample is considered in this analysis, confirming its high impact. This effect can be primarily observed where the analyte concentration approaches the lower range of the analytical curve. Even so, the blank is not always computed. Therefore, the relevance of the analytical blank can be confirmed by uncertainty evaluation. PMID:22649945

  16. Growth characteristics and antioxidant metabolism of moongbean genotypes differing in photosynthetic capacity subjected to water deficit stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naser Aziz Anjum; Shahid Umar; Muhammad Iqbal; Nafees Ahmad Khan

    2008-01-01

    Two genotypes (Pusa 9531 and PS 16) of moongbean [Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek], differing in photosynthetic capacity were grown for 30 days in earthen pots at three field capacities (100, 75 and 50%), and the possible role of biochemical alterations and antioxidant metabolism in conferring photosynthetic capacity was determined by measuring Rubisco activity, photosynthetic traits, lipid peroxidation and assaying activities

  17. Self and air-broadened linewidth of the 183 GHz absorption in water vapor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bauer; M. Godon; B. Duterage

    1985-01-01

    The linewidth of the 3(1.3)-2(2.0) rotational transition of water vapor at 183 GHz has been investigated using a video millimeter wave spectrometer equipped with a signal digitizer. Self- and air-broadening parameters have been obtained for four temperatures over the 299-251 K range; the results are compared with previous experimental and theoretical data.

  18. Hybrid absorption heat pump with ammonia\\/water mixture – Some design guidelines and district heating application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Minea; F. Chiriac

    2006-01-01

    An ammonia\\/water mixture can be used as an efficient working fluid in industrial-type heat recovery heat pumps and heat transformers. Several configurations of such systems are possible depending on the availability of the waste (thermal) and primary (thermal or electrical) energy sources. This article presents the configurations, the main thermodynamic and hydraulic parameters, and some design guidelines and operating experiences

  19. PLASTICIZERS FOR ZEIN: THEIR EFFECT ON TENSILE PROPERTIES AND WATER ABSORPTION OF ZEIN FILMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zein will gain or lose moisture to reach equilibrium with ambient air. Cast zein films are brittle at room conditions so plasticizers are added to make them more flexible. The amount of water absorbed or lost in these films is known to be affected by relative humidity of the ambient air. However,...

  20. The Water-Vapor Continuum Absorption in the Mid-Infrared Windows at Temperatures from 311 K to 363 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, Yu. I.; Lafferty, W. J.

    2009-06-01

    The water-vapor continuum absorption in the mid-infrared 10 ?m and 4 ?m atmospheric windows plays an important role in the radiative balance of the Earth. We have derived the continuum absorption coefficients from spectra recorded at NIST with a resolution of 0.1 wn over a wide range of pressures from 2.8 kPa (21 torr) to 15.1 kPa (113 torr) and temperatures from 311 K to 363 K with path lengths ranging from 74 to 116 m. These measurements were performed with a BOMEM DA3-002 FTIR spectrometer with a 2 m base multi-pass cell. The spectral range was from 800 to 3500 wn . We have published the results obtained in the 10 ?m region recently. At the conditions given above, the continuum absorption in the higher frequency atmospheric window is quite detectable reaching as high as 4%. In order to avoid mistakes caused by the non-linear behavior of a MCT detector we later recorded an additional set of spectra with a highly-linear InSb detector. Both sets of spectra provide absorption coefficients coinciding within error bars. Our results around 5 ?m are in good agreement with those obtained from the widely used MT-CKD continuum model. However, at shorter wave lengths, the values diverge dramatically increasing up to one order of magnitude at the center of the window. Despite the comparatively large uncertainties of our data, comparison with all other available results leads us to the conclusion that the MT-CKD model greatly underestimates the self-broadened continuum over the 4 ?m atmospheric window. We have also extended our measurements to lower frequencies with the use of KRS-5 cell windows. The current spectral range is down to 600 wn. Yu. I. Baranov, W. J. Lafferty, Q. Ma, R. H. Tipping, JQSRT 109, 2291, (2008) S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, and R. W. Davies, Atmos. Res. 23, 229, (1989)

  1. Vibrational absorption and vibrational circular dichroism spectra of leucine in water under different pH conditions: Hydrogen-bonding interactions with water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poopari, Mohammad Reza; Zhu, Peiyan; Dezhahang, Zahra; Xu, Yunjie

    2012-11-01

    Vibrational absorption (VA) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy have been used to study leucine, a flexible branched-chain amino acid, in aqueous solution. The VA spectra in the range of 1800-1250 cm-1 of leucine in D2O under three representative pHs from strongly acidic (pH = 1), near neutral (pH = 6), to strongly basic (pH = 13), have been measured. The related VCD spectrum has been obtained under near neutral condition. Searches have been carried out to identify the most stable conformers of the Zwitterionic, protonated, and deprotonated forms of leucine in water. The geometry optimization, harmonic frequency calculations, and VA and VCD intensities have been computed at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level with the implicit polarizable continuum solvation model. While the observed VA spectra under three pHs can be well interpreted with the inclusion of the implicit solvation model, both implicit and explicit solvation models have been found to be crucial for the adequate interpretation of the complex VCD features observed. Molecular dynamics simulations and radial distribution functions have been used to aid the modeling of the leucine-(water)N clusters. It has been recognized that the insertion of a water molecule between the COO- and NH3+ functional groups in the explicit solvated clusters is critical to reproduce the VCD signatures observed. Furthermore, the inclusion of the implicit bulk water environment has been found to be essential to lock water molecules, which are directly hydrogen bonded to leucine, into the positions expected in solution. The application of the explicit and implicit solvation models simultaneously allows new insights into the hydrogen bonding network surrounding leucine in aqueous solution and the role of the surrounding bulk water in stabilizing such hydrogen-bonding network.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and applications of pyrocatechol modified amberlite XAD-2 resin for preconcentration and determination of metal ions in water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS).

    PubMed

    Tewari, P K; Singh, A K

    2001-01-01

    A new chelating resin is prepared by coupling Amberlite XAD-2 with pyrocatechol through an azo spacer, characterized (by elemental analysis, IR and TGA) and studied for preconcentrating Cd(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Fe(III), Ni(II) and Zn(II) using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for metal monitoring. The sorption is quantitative in the pH range 3.0-6.5, whereas quantitative desorption occurs instantaneously with 2 M HCl or HNO(3) The sorption capacity has been found to be in the range 0.023-0.092 mmol g(-1) of resin. The loading half time (t(1/2)) is 1.4, 4.8, 1.6, 3.2, 2.3 and 1.8 min, respectively for Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn. The tolerance limits of electrolytes NaCl, NaBr, NaNO(3), Na(2)SO(4) and Na(3)PO(4) in the sorption of all the six metal ions (0.2 mug ml(-1)) are reported. The Mg(II) and Ca(II) are tolerable with each of them (0.2 mug ml(-1)) up to a concentration level of 0.01-1.0 M. The enrichment factor has been found to be 200 except for Fe and Cu for which the values are 80 and 100, respectively. The lowest concentration of metal ion for quantitative recovery is 5, 10, 20, 25, 10 and 10 mug l(-1) for Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn, respectively. The simultaneous determination of all these metal ions is possible and the method has been applied to determine all the six metal ions in tap and river water samples (RSD

  3. Water-holding capacity of a floating peat mat determines the survival and growth of Menyanthes trifoliata L (bog bean) in an oligotrophic lake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miehie Han; Jae Geun Kim

    2006-01-01

    Menyanthes trifoliata is a threatened and endangered species in Korea and USA. To assess the important ecological characteristics for its conservation\\u000a and restoration, we measured the level of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) in the water, total N and C contents in the plants,\\u000a and the water-holding capacity of the surrounding floating peat mat. These factors, which limit the success of

  4. A comparison of simultaneous plasma, atomic absorption, and iron colorimetric determinations of major and trace constituents in acid mine waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, J.W.; Nordstrom, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    Sixty-three water samples collected during June to October 1982 from the Leviathan/Bryant Creek drainage basin were originally analyzed by simultaneous multielement direct-current plasma (DCP) atomic-emission spectrometry, flame atomic-absorption spectrometry, graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) (thallium only), ultraviolet-visible spectrometry, and hydride-generation atomic-absorption spectrometry.Determinations were made for the following metallic and semi-metallic constituents: AI, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe(11), Fe(total), Li, Pb, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, K, Sb, Se, Si, Na, Sr, TI, V, and Zn. These samples were re-analyzed later by simultaneous multielement inductively coupled plasma (ICP) atomic-emission spectrometry and Zeeman-corrected GFAAS to determine the concentrations of many of the same constituents with improved accuracy, precision, and sensitivity. The result of this analysis has been the generation of comparative concentration values for a significant subset of the solute constituents. Many of the more recently determined values replace less-than-detection values for the trace metals; others constitute duplicate analyses for the major constituents. The multiple determinations have yielded a more complete, accurate, and precise set of analytical data. They also have resulted in an opportunity to compare the performance of the plasma-emission instruments operated in their respective simultaneous multielement modes. Flame atomic-absorption spectrometry was judged best for Na and K and hydride-generation atomic-absorption spectrometry was judged best for As because of their lower detection limit and relative freedom from interelement spectral effects. Colorimetric determination using ferrozine as the color agent was judged most accurate, precise, and sensitive for Fe. Cadmium, lead, and vanadium concentrations were too low in this set of samples to enable a determination of whether ICP or DCP is a more suitable technique. Of the remaining elements, Ba, Be, Ca, Cr, Mg, Mn, Sr, and Zn have roughly equivalent accuracy, precision, and detection limit by ICP and DCP. Cobalt and Ni were determined to be better analyzed by ICP, because of lower detection limits; B, Cu, Mo, and Si were determined to be better analyzed by DCP, because of relative freedom from interferences. The determination oral by DCP was far more sensitive, owing to the use of a more sensitive wavelength, compared with the ICP. However, there is a very serious potential interference from a strong Ca emission line near the 396.15 nanometer DCP wavelength. Thus, there is no clear choice between the plasma techniques tested, for the determination oral. The ICP and DCP detection limits are typically between 0.001 and 0.5 milligrams per liter in acid mine waters. For those metals best analyzed by ICP and/or DCP, but below these limits, GFAAS is the method of choice because of its relatively greater sensitivity and specificity. Six of the elements were not determined by DCP, ICP or Zeeman-corrected GFAAS, and are not discussed in this report. These elements are: Bi, Fe(11), Li, Sb, Se, and TI.

  5. Hydroxyl radical self-recombination reaction and absorption spectrum in water up to 350 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Janik, Ireneusz; Bartels, David M; Jonah, Charles D

    2007-03-15

    The rate constant for the self-recombination of hydroxyl radicals (*OH) in aqueous solution giving H2O2 product has been measured from 150 to 350 degrees C by direct measurement of the *OH radical transient optical absorption at 250 nm. The values of the rate constant are smaller than previously predicted by extrapolation to the 200-350 degrees C range and show virtually no change in this range. In combining these measurements with previous results, the non-Arrhenius behavior can be well described in terms of the Noyes equation kobs-1 = kact-1+ kdiff-1, using the diffusion-limited rate constant kdiff estimated from the Smoluchowski equation and an activated barrier rate kact nearly equal to the gas-phase high-pressure limiting rate constant for this reaction. The aqueous *OH radical spectrum between 230 and 320 nm is reported up to 350 degrees C. A weak band at 310 nm grows in at higher temperature, while the stronger band at 230 nm decreases. An isosbestic point appears near 305 nm. We assign the 230 nm band to hydrogen-bonded *OH radical, and the 310 nm band is assigned to "free" *OH. On the basis of the spectrum change relative to room temperature, over half of the *OH radicals are in the latter form at 350 degrees C. PMID:17309240

  6. Measurement of water-holding capacity in raw and freeze-dried broiler breast meat with visible and near-infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The feasibility of using visible/near-infrared spectroscopy (vis/NIR) to segregate broiler breast fillets by water-holding capacity (WHC) was determined. Broiler breast fillets (n = 72) were selected from a commercial deboning line based on visual color assessment. Meat color (L*a*b*), pH (2 and 2...

  7. Optimization of Heat Processing of Farmed Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) Muscle with Respect to Cook Loss, Water Holding Capacity, Color, and Texture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Skipnes; S. O. Johnsen; T. Skåra; M. Sivertsvik; O. Lekang

    2011-01-01

    Convenience products of fish that are heat processed in-pack are often subjected to a compromise between quality and durability within the framework of required safety. The purpose of this study was to provide knowledge for optimizing pasteurization of cod muscle by quantifying changes in water holding capacity (WHC), cook loss, color, and texture within a wide range of processing times

  8. A Bayesian Belief Network Approach to Explore Alternative Decisions for Sediment Control and water Storage Capacity at Lago Lucchetti, Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Bayesian belief network (BBN) was developed to characterize the effects of sediment accumulation on the water storage capacity of Lago Lucchetti (located in southwest Puerto Rico) and to forecast the life expectancy (usefulness) of the reservoir under different management scena...

  9. Postmortem aging can significantly enhance water-holding capacity of broiler pectoralis major muscle measured by the salt-induced swelling/centrifuge method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water-holding capacity (WHC) is one of the most important functional properties of fresh meat and can be significantly affected by postmortem muscle changes. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of postmortem aging on WHC of broiler pectoralis (p.) major muscle indicated with % s...

  10. Assessment of the water self-purification capacity on a river affected by organic pollution: application of chemometrics in spatial and temporal variations.

    PubMed

    González, S Oliva; Almeida, C A; Calderón, M; Mallea, M A; González, P

    2014-09-01

    Water pollution caused by organic matter is a major global problem which requires continuous evaluation. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to assess spatial and temporal changes caused by natural and anthropogenic phenomena along Potrero de los Funes River. Cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were applied to a data set collected throughout a period of 3 years (2010-2012), which monitored 22 physical, chemical and biological parameters. Content of dissolved oxygen in water and biochemical oxygen demand in a watercourse are indicators of pollution caused by organic matter. For this reason, the Streeter-Phelps model was used to evaluate the water self-purification capacity. Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped the sampling sites based on the similarity of water quality characteristics. PCA resulted in two latent factors explaining 75.2 and 17.6 % of the total variance in water quality data sets. Multidimensional ANOVA suggested that organic pollution is mainly due to domestic wastewater run-offs and anthropogenic influence as a consequence of increasing urbanization and tourist influx over the last years. Besides, Streeter-Phelps parameters showed a low reaeration capacity before dam with low concentration of dissolved oxygen. Furthermore, self-purification capacity loss was correlated with the decrease of the Benthic Index. This measurement suggested that biological samplings complement the physical-chemical analysis of water quality. PMID:24888622

  11. Multilayer Cloud Detection with the MODIS Near-Infrared Water Vapor Absorption Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wind, Galina; Platnick, Steven; King, Michael D.; Hubanks, Paul A,; Pavolonis, Michael J.; Heidinger, Andrew K.; Yang, Ping; Baum, Bryan A.

    2009-01-01

    Data Collection 5 processing for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the NASA Earth Observing System EOS Terra and Aqua spacecraft includes an algorithm for detecting multilayered clouds in daytime. The main objective of this algorithm is to detect multilayered cloud scenes, specifically optically thin ice cloud overlying a lower-level water cloud, that presents difficulties for retrieving cloud effective radius using single layer plane-parallel cloud models. The algorithm uses the MODIS 0.94 micron water vapor band along with CO2 bands to obtain two above-cloud precipitable water retrievals, the difference of which, in conjunction with additional tests, provides a map of where multilayered clouds might potentially exist. The presence of a multilayered cloud results in a large difference in retrievals of above-cloud properties between the CO2 and the 0.94 micron methods. In this paper the MODIS multilayered cloud algorithm is described, results of using the algorithm over example scenes are shown, and global statistics for multilayered clouds as observed by MODIS are discussed. A theoretical study of the algorithm behavior for simulated multilayered clouds is also given. Results are compared to two other comparable passive imager methods. A set of standard cloudy atmospheric profiles developed during the course of this investigation is also presented. The results lead to the conclusion that the MODIS multilayer cloud detection algorithm has some skill in identifying multilayered clouds with different thermodynamic phases

  12. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of chromium in water by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLain, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry is a sensitive, precise, and accurate method for the determination of chromium in natural water samples. The detection limit for this analytical method is 0.4 microg/L with a working linear limit of 25.0 microg/L. The precision at the detection limit ranges from 20 to 57 percent relative standard deviation (RSD) with an improvement to 4.6 percent RSD for concentrations more than 3 microg/L. Accuracy of this method was determined for a variety of reference standards that was representative of the analytical range. The results were within the established standard deviations. Samples were spiked with known concentrations of chromium with recoveries ranging from 84 to 122 percent. In addition, a comparison of data between graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry and direct-current plasma atomic emission spectrometry resulted in suitable agreement between the two methods, with an average deviation of +/- 2.0 microg/L throughout the analytical range.

  13. X-ray studies of interlayer water absorption and mesoporous water transport in a weakly hydrated clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmen, H.; Alme, L. R.; Fossum, J. O.; Meheust, Y.

    2010-09-01

    The swelling of layered smectite clay particles consists of a change in the interlayer repetition distance ( d -spacing) as a function of temperature and humidity. For the synthetic clay sodium fluorohectorite, hydrodynamically stable hydration states with zero, one and two intercalated monolayers of water have previously been reported, with discrete jumps in d -spacing at the transitions between the hydration states. Keeping the temperature fixed and varying the ambient relative humidity, we find small reproducible d -spacing changes also within the hydration states. These changes are monotonous as a function of relative humidity, and one order of magnitude smaller than the shift in d -spacing that is typical of the transition between two hydration states. The reproducibility and reliability of this relative humidity controlled d -shift enables us to use the interlayer repetition distance d as a measure of the local humidity surrounding the clay particles. We provide an example of application of this observation: imposing a humidity gradient over a quasi-one-dimensional temperature-controlled sample, and using x-ray diffraction to record the d -spacing, we are able to extract profiles of the relative humidity along the sample length. Their time evolution describes the transport of water through the mesoporous space inside the clay. An analysis of the measured humidity profiles based on the Boltzmann transformation, under certain simplifying assumptions, yields a diffusive behavior that is either normal or possibly weakly anomalous.

  14. The relationship of sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein solubility to colour and water-holding capacity in porcine longissimus muscle.

    PubMed

    Joo, S T; Kauffman, R G; Kim, B C; Park, G B

    1999-07-01

    In order to investigate the relationship of sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein solubility to colour and water-holding capacity (WHC) in pork, 60 loins were selected to represent the quality classes: PSE (pale, soft, exudative), RSE (reddish-pink, soft, exudative), RFN (reddish-pink, firm, non-exudative) and DFD (dark, firm, dry). PSE samples exhibited lower (p<0.05) protein solubility (sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar and total) compared to the other quality classes. RSE samples exhibited lower (p<0.05) sarcoplasmic protein solubility compared to DFD samples. RSE, RFN and DFD samples had similar myofibrillar and total protein solubilities. Sarcoplasmic protein solubility explained 71% of the variation in lightness with a linear decrease in L* value. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels of the sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar samples distinctly showed the association of some sarcoplasmic proteins with the myofibrillar protein fractions in PSE and RSE samples. The sarcoplasmic proteins which precipitated were phosphorylase, creatine kinase, triose phosphate isomerase and myokinase for PSE and phosphorylase for RSE samples. Pork colour is highly correlated with precipitation of sarcoplasmic proteins while WHC is affected by denaturation of myofibrillar proteins (PSE samples) and lower ultimate pH (PSE and RSE samples). PMID:22062578

  15. IMP improves water-holding capacity, physical and sensory properties of heat-induced gels from porcine meat.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yukinobu; Migita, Koshiro; Okitani, Akihiro; Matsuishi, Masanori

    2014-05-01

    Water-holding capacity (WHC) of heat-induced pork gels was examined. The heat-induced gels were obtained from meat homogenates prepared by adding nine volumes of 0.3-0.5 mol/L NaCl solutions containing 9-36 mmol/L disodium inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) or 9 mmol/L tetrapotassium pyrophosphate (KPP) to minced pork. IMP at 36 mmol/L enhanced the WHC to the same level as attained by KPP. Physical and sensory properties of heat-induced gels were also examined. The heat-induced gels were prepared from porcine meat homogenates containing 0.3 mol/L NaCl and 9-36 mmol/L IMP or 9 mmol/L KPP. IMP at 36 mmol/L enhanced the values of hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and springiness, measured with a Tensipresser, and several organoleptic scores to the same level as the score attained by KPP. Thus, it is concluded that IMP is expected to be a practical substitute for pyrophosphates to improve the quality of sausages. PMID:24428177

  16. Line-shape asymmetry of water vapor absorption lines in the 720-nm wavelength region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossmann, Benoist E.; Browell, Edward V.

    1991-01-01

    Spectral line-shape analyses were performed for water vapor lines broadened by argon, oxygen, and xenon in the 720-nm wavelength region. A line-shape asymmetry was observed, which is attributed to statistical dependence or correlation between velocity- and state-changing collisions. The generalized (asymmetric) Galatry profile, which results from the soft-collision profile and includes correlation between velocity- and state-changing collisions, was fitted to the observed line shapes and was found to compare favorably with the observed data. The most prominent asymmetries were observed with xenon as the buffer gas.

  17. Enhanced mobility of organic thin film transistors by water absorption of collagen hydrolysate gate dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Chao-Ying; Hwang, Jenn-Chang; Chang, Ting-Hao; Li, Jiun-Yi; Chen, Shih-Han; Mao, Lung-Kai; Tsai, Li-Shiuan; Chueh, Yu-Lun; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Hsu, Shawn S. H.

    2013-07-01

    Collagen hydrolysate is a nature protein, which works well as the gate dielectric for organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). The pentacene OTFTs exhibit a field-effect mobility (?FE) value of 0.8 cm2V-1s-1 and an on/off ratio of 105 in vacuum. The drain current is greatly enhanced and the ?FE value increases to ca. 15.5 cm2V-1s-1 when OTFTs are exposed to air. The enhancement of ?FE is attributed to the interaction of water and OH-groups in collagen hydrolysate in air ambient.

  18. Accurate calculation of the x-ray absorption spectrum of water via the GW/Bethe-Salpeter equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, Keith; Vinson, John; Kas, Josh; Vila, Fernando; Rehr, John

    2014-03-01

    We calculate x-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of water within the OCEAN code, which combines plane-wave, pseudopotential electronic structure, PAW transition elements, GW self-energy corrections, and the NIST BSE solver. Due to the computational demands of this approach, our initial XAS calculations were limited to 17 molecule super cells. This lead to unphysical, size dependent effects in the calculated spectra. To treat larger systems, we extended the OCEAN interface to support well-parallelized codes such as QuantumESPRESSO. We also implemented an efficient interpolation scheme of Shirley. We applied this large-scale GW/BSE approach to 64 molecule unit cell structures of water obtained from classical DFT/MD and PIMD simulations. In concurrence with previous work, we find the calculated spectrum both qualitatively and quantitatively reproduces the experimental features. The agreement implies that structures based on PIMD, which are similar to the traditional distorted tetrahedral view, are consistent with experimental observations. Supported by the DOE CMCSN through DOE award DE-SC0005180 (Princeton University) and in part by DOE Grant No. DE-FG03-97ER45623 (JJR) with computer support from NERSC.

  19. Propagation of femtosecond laser pulses through water in the linear absorption regime.

    PubMed

    Naveira, Lucas M; Strycker, Benjamin D; Wang, Jieyu; Ariunbold, Gombojav O; Sokolov, Alexei V; Kattawar, George W

    2009-04-01

    We investigate the controversy regarding violations of the Bouguer-Lambert-Beer (BLB) law for ultrashort laser pulses propagating through water. By working at sufficiently low incident laser intensities, we make sure that any nonlinear component in the response of the medium is negligible. We measure the transmitted power and spectrum as functions of water cell length in an effort to confirm or disprove alleged deviations from the BLB law. We perform experiments at two different laser pulse repetition rates and explore the dependence of transmission on pulse duration. Specifically, we vary the laser pulse duration either by cutting its spectrum while keeping the pulse shape near transform-limited or by adjusting the pulses chirp while keeping the spectral intensities fixed. Over a wide range of parameters, we find no deviations from the BLB law and conclude that recent claims of BLB law violations are inconsistent with our experimental data. We present a simple linear theory (based on the BLB law) for propagation of ultrashort laser pulses through an absorbing medium and find our experimental results to be in excellent agreement with this theory. PMID:19340136

  20. Flow Injection Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for Determination of Arsenic in Water and Biological Samples from Arsenic-Affected Districts of West Bengal, India, and Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gautam Samanta; Tarit Roy Chowdhury; Badal K. Mandal; Bhajan K. Biswas; Uttam K. Chowdhury; Gautam K. Basu; Chitta R. Chanda; Dilip Lodh; Dipankar Chakraborti

    1999-01-01

    The increasing concern over human exposure to arsenic in West Bengal and Bangladesh has necessitated the development of a rapid method for determination of trace levels of arsenic in water and biological samples. We have developed a simple indigenous flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS) system for the determination of arsenic in parts-per-billion levels in water and biological

  1. Role of iron and organic carbon in mass-specific light absorption by particulate matter from Louisiana coastal waters

    E-print Network

    Boss, Emmanuel S.

    Role of iron and organic carbon in mass-specific light absorption by particulate matter from iron, and dithionite-extractable iron contents. Compositions and absorption properties were comparable to published values for similar particles. Dithionite-extractable iron was strongly correlated with absorption

  2. Uncertainty analyses on the calculation of water environmental capacity by an innovative holistic method and its application to the Dongjiang River.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiuwen; Wang, Qibin; Li, Zhijie; Li, Ruonan

    2014-09-01

    The estimation and allocation of water environmental capacity (WEC) are essential to water quality management and social-economic interests. However, there is inevitable uncertainty in the capacity estimation due to model conceptualization, data collection and parameter calibration. An innovative holistic approach was developed, which took both independence and relevance between parameters into account to analyze the uncertainties in WEC calculation and estimate the margin of safety. The Dongjiang River was taken as the case to demonstrate the method, focusing on the chemical oxygen demand and NH4(+)-N that were the two major water quality problems in the river. The results showed that the proposed holistic approach is very promising and applicable compared to traditional methods of uncertainty analysis. PMID:25193825

  3. Moisture ingress in rammed earth: Part 2 – The effect of soil particle-size distribution on the absorption of static pressure-driven water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Hall; Youcef Djerbib

    2006-01-01

    A novel adaptation of the initial surface absorption (ISA) test has been presented that is suitable for use with both unstabilised rammed earth (URE) and cement-stabilised rammed earth (SRE). It provides axial symmetry of the imbibed water and has identical test specimen geometry to the proposed initial rate of suction (IRS) ‘wick’ test, which has previously been discussed in this

  4. Rapid coprecipitation-separation and flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of lead and cadmium in water with cobalt (II) and ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaobin Hu

    2011-01-01

    A coprecipitation technique which does not require complete collection of the precipitate was proposed for the determination of trace lead and cadmium in water with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) after preconcentration of lead and cadmium by using cobalt (II) and ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (Co-APDC) as coprecipitant and known amount of cobalt as an internal standard. Since lead, cadmium and

  5. Regional differences in electrolyte, short-chain fatty acid and water absorption in the hindgut of two species of arboreal marsupilas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. D. Hume; W. J. Foley

    1983-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acid, electrolyte and water absorption from the hindgut of two arboreal marsupial species, the greater glider (Petauroides volans) and the brush- tail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) were studied in vivo using a single perfusion technique. 2. Qualitative and quantitative differences in the net movement of sodium, potassium and chloride were found between the different hindgut segments and between the

  6. Development of a molecular-dynamics-based cluster-heat-capacity model for study of homogeneous condensation in supersonic water-vapor expansions.

    PubMed

    Borner, Arnaud; Li, Zheng; Levin, Deborah A

    2013-02-14

    Supersonic expansions to vacuum produce clusters of sufficiently small size that properties such as heat capacities and latent heat of evaporation cannot be described by bulk vapor thermodynamic values. In this work the Monte-Carlo Canonical-Ensemble (MCCE) method was used to provide potential energies and constant-volume heat capacities for small water clusters. The cluster structures obtained using the well-known simple point charge model were found to agree well with earlier simulations using more rigorous potentials. The MCCE results were used as the starting point for molecular dynamics simulations of the evaporation rate as a function of cluster temperature and size which were found to agree with unimolecular dissociation theory and classical nucleation theory. The heat capacities and latent heat obtained from the MCCE simulations were used in direct-simulation Monte-Carlo of two experiments that measured Rayleigh scattering and terminal dimer mole fraction of supersonic water-jet expansions. Water-cluster temperature and size were found to be influenced by the use of kinetic rather than thermodynamic heat-capacity and latent-heat values as well as the nucleation model. PMID:23425466

  7. Identification of intestinal bicarbonate transporters involved in formation of carbonate precipitates to stimulate water absorption in marine teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Yukihiro; Nakada, Tsutomu; Kato, Akira; Doi, Hiroyuki; Mistry, Abinash C; Chang, Min-Hwang; Romero, Michael F; Hirose, Shigehisa

    2008-04-01

    Marine teleost fish precipitate divalent cations as carbonate deposits in the intestine to minimize the potential for excessive Ca2+ entry and to stimulate water absorption by reducing luminal osmotic pressure. This carbonate deposit formation, therefore, helps maintain osmoregulation in the seawater (SW) environment and requires controlled secretion of HCO3(-) to match the amount of Ca2+ entering the intestinal lumen. Despite its physiological importance, the process of HCO3(-) secretion has not been characterized at the molecular level. We analyzed the expression of two families of HCO3(-) transporters, Slc4 and Slc26, in fresh-water- and SW-acclimated euryhaline pufferfish, mefugu (Takifugu obscurus), and obtained the following candidate clones: NBCe1 (an Na+-HCO3(-) cotransporter) and Slc26a6A and Slc26a6B (putative Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchangers). Heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes showed that Slc26a6A and Slc26a6B have potent HCO3(-)-transporting activity as electrogenic Cl(-)/nHCO3(-) exchangers, whereas mefugu NBCe1 functions as an electrogenic Na+-nHCO3(-) cotransporter. Expression of NBCe1 and Slc26a6A was highly induced in the intestine in SW and expression of Slc26a6B was high in the intestine in SW and fresh water, suggesting their involvement in HCO3(-) secretion and carbonate precipitate formation. Immunohistochemistry showed staining on the apical (Slc26a6A and Slc26a6B) and basolateral (NBCe1) membranes of the intestinal epithelial cells in SW. We therefore propose a mechanism for HCO3(-) transport across the intestinal epithelial cells of marine fish that includes basolateral HCO3(-) uptake (NBCe1) and apical HCO3(-) secretion (Slc26a6A and Slc26a6B). PMID:18216137

  8. Improving Atmospheric Correction for Visible/Short Wave Infrared (VSWIR) Imaging Spectrometers with Iterative Fitting of Absorption By Three Phases of Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennington, E. A.; Thompson, D. R.; Green, R. O.; Gao, B. C.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne imaging spectrometers like the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) offer valuable insight into the Earth's terrestrial and ocean ecosystems, mineralogy, and land use. Estimating surface reflectance requires accounting for atmospheric absorption, which is sensitive to the local abundance of water vapor. Analysts typically estimate water vapor concentrations using the depths of absorption features, which can be inaccurate by up to 50% over surface features containing liquid water or ice. This can bias the retrieved water vapor maps and create atmospheric artifacts in reflectance spectra. A new retrieval method offers significant accuracy improvements over plant canopies or ice by estimating the path lengths of all three phases of water simultaneously, adjusting absorptions to best fit the measurement over a broader spectral interval. This paper assesses the remaining sources of error for the three-phase retrieval technique. We analyze retrievals for synthetic data when the 940 and 1140 nm wavelength features are fitted, for initial vapor path estimates ranging from 0 to ±50% accuracy. These tests indicate that most error comes from inaccuracy in the initial path estimate used to obtain vapor absorption coefficients. We evaluate a modified algorithm that uses multiple iterations to refine this estimate. Error is found to approach a constant value, demonstrating improved robustness to initialization conditions. We also assess the new iterative method using corrected AVIRIS data over various environments. The iterative method yields significantly better water vapor maps, reducing spurious correlations between vegetation canopy water and vapor estimates. The new iterative method offers accuracy improvements over traditional Visible/Short Wave Infrared (VSWIR) atmospheric correction methods, at modest computational cost.

  9. Effects of surface texture and measurement geometry on the near infrared water-of-hydration absorption bands. Implications for the Martian regolith water content.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommerol, A.; Schmitt, B.

    Near-IR reflectance spectroscopy is widely used to detect mineral hydration on Solar System surfaces by the observation of absorption bands at 1.9 and 3 µm. Recent studies established empirical relationships between the strength of the 3 µm band and the water content of the studied minerals (Milliken et al., 2005). These results have especially been applied to the OMEGA dataset to derive global maps of the Martian regolith water content (Jouglet et al., 2006 and Milliken et al., 2006). However, parameters such as surface texture and measurement geometry are known to have a strong effect on reflectance spectra but their influence on the hydration bands is poorly documented. The aim of this work is the determination of the quantitative effects of particle size, mixing between materials with different albedo and measurement geometry on the absorption bands at 1.9 and 3 µm. We used both an experimental and a modeling approach to study these effects. Bidirectional reflectance spectra were measured for series of well characterized samples (smectite, volcanic tuff and coals, pure and mixed) and modeled with optical constants of a smectite (Roush, 2005). Criteria commonly used to estimate the strength of the bands were then calculated on these spectra. We show that particle size has a strong effect on the 1.9 and 3 µm bands strength, especially for the finest particles (less than 200 µm). Mixing between a fine smectite powder and anthracite powders with various particle sizes (modeled by a synthetic neutral material) highlights the strong effect of the materials albedo on the hydration band estimation criteria. Measurement geometry has a significant effect on the bands strength for high phase angles. Furthermore, the relative variations of band strength with measurement geometry appear very dependent on the surface texture. We will present in details the relationships between these physical parameters and various criteria chosen to estimate the hydration bands strength. We will then discuss the implications of these results in terms of uncertainties on the quantification of water-of-hydration and in terms of detection limit of mineral hydration through the identification of the 1.9 and 3 µm bands. The discussion will especially focus on the case of Mars and the results of the OMEGA instrument.

  10. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of antimony by automated-hydride atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, G.E.; McLain, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    The analysis of natural-water samples for antimony by automated-hydride atomic absorption spectrophotometry is described. Samples are prepared for analysis by addition of potassium and hydrochloric acid followed by an autoclave digestion. After the digestion, potassium iodide and sodium borohydride are added automatically. Antimony hydride (stibine) gas is generated, then swept into a heated quartz cell for determination of antimony by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Precision and accuracy data are presented. Results obtained on standard reference water samples agree with means established by interlaboratory studies. Spike recoveries for actual samples range from 90 to 114 percent. Replicate analyses of water samples of varying matrices give relative standard deviations from 3 to 10 percent.

  11. Measurement of the absorption line profiles of water vapour isotopomers at 1.39 {mu}m using the methods of diode laser spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kuz'michev, A S; Nadezhdinskii, Aleksandr I; Ponurovskii, Ya Ya

    2011-07-31

    The issues related to high-precision measurement of the absorption line profiles of water vapour and its isotopomers using the methods of diode laser spectroscopy in the near IR range aimed at the analysis and detection of greenhouse gases are considered. The absorption line shape of H{sub 2}{sup 16}O is investigated as a function of pressure of different buffer gases. The influence of the instrument function of the diode laser (DL) on the precision of measuring the line profile is studied. From fitting the profile of Doppler-broadened H{sub 2}{sup 16}O absorption line to a model profile the lasing line width of the DL with a fibre pigtail is determined. The frequencies and intensities of absorption lines of water isotopomers H{sub 2}{sup 16}O, H{sub 2}{sup 17}O, H{sub 2}{sup 18}O, and HDO are measured in the range of DL oscillation. Analytical spectral regions are chosen for distant probing of water vapour using an airborne lab. (laser spectroscopy)

  12. Nighttime water absorption by a bare loess soil in a coastal desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninari, N.; Berliner, P. R.

    2003-04-01

    The role of dew in arid and semi-arid ecosystems is considered to be of great importance. It can serve as a water source for the bacteria of biological crust, for plants and for small insects. The Negev Desert is a semiarid region characterized by winter rainfall with a very large inter-annual variability. Reports on measurements carried out in this area mention that up to 180 nights a year with dew were registered by a conventional Hiltner Dew Balance, with intensities that ranged from 0.1 to 0.2 mm per night (yielding a total of 15 mm per year, which is more than 10% of the total rainfall). The Hiltner dew balance is based on the continuous weighing of an artificial condensation plate that has a completely different energy balance from that of the soil surface above which it is installed. The Hiltner dew balance could, therefore, be considered as a ``potential dew" gauge, whose results are probably mainly correlated to atmospheric conditions. The prime objective of this work was, therefore, to quantify the amounts of dew deposition on the soil surface, and to compare these amounts to those measured by the Hiltner balance. Measurements were carried out at the Wadi Mashash Experimental Farm in the Negev. To estimate deposition and evaporation of dew, a micro-lysimeter (diameter: 20 cm; soil depth: 50 cm) with an undisturbed soil sample was installed flush with the soil surface. The following were continuously monitored: micro-lysimeter weight, incoming and reflected short wave radiation, net radiation, dry and wet bulb temperatures, wind speed, and soil heat flux. A Hiltner Dew Balance was placed close by as a reference to compare with previous measurements. Throughout the ``dew period" (spring, summer and fall), and at random intervals, soil samples were taken hourly during the whole night. The uppermost 10 cm of the soil was divided into 1 cm intervals, and the soil moisture content was measured (oven dry). During the above-mentioned night campaigns, no dew deposition could be visually detected on the soil surface. A mass gain was however registered with the ML and an increase in moisture content was observed. The Hiltner balance clearly underestimated dew deposition amounts. These results indicate that although no visual signs of dew deposition could be detected, moisture did penetrate into the soil.

  13. The roles of paracellular and transcellular pathways and submucosal space in isotonic water absorption by rabbit ileum.

    PubMed Central

    Naftalin, R J; Tripathi, S

    1986-01-01

    Water movements have been studied in sheets of isolated rabbit ileum using a method which measures net volume flows across the mucosal and serosal surfaces of the tissue continuously with high resolution. At 35 degrees C, with the tissues incubated in isotonic Ringer solution containing D-glucose (25 mM) on both sides, there is a steady net inflow of fluid at the rate of 24 +/- 2 microliter cm-2 h-1 across the mucosal surface (Jm) and an outflow of 8 +/- 1 microliter cm-2 h-1 across the serosal surface (Js) (n = 16). The stable transepithelial p.d. across these tissues is 2.7 +/- 0.2 mV, serosa positive. Jm can be reversibly inhibited by anoxia. Ouabain (0.1 mM) added to the serosal solution inhibits inflow across the mucosal and serosal surfaces by 75% (n = 7) within 30 min. If phlorizin (0.1 mM) is added to the mucosal Ringer solution containing glucose (20 mM) within 30 min of the commencement of in vitro absorption, Jm is reduced from 37 +/- 3 to 28 +/- 2 microliter cm-2 h-1 (n = 3). Dilution of the mucosal Ringer solution by 50 mosmol kg-1 (with the serosal solution kept isosmolar) results in a rapid transient increase in mucosal inflow. An increase of 50 mosmol kg-1 in the mucosal Ringer solution with NaCl, sucrose or mannitol causes a transient reversal of mucosal flow, followed by a return of inflow at a reduced level. Rabbit ileum can transport water against gradients of approximately 75 mosmol kg-1 of sucrose, NaCl, or mannitol. Addition of polyethylene glycol (mol. wt. 20000; 3 mosmol kg-1) causes a sustained reversal of mucosal inflow; inflow can be restored only by removing polyethylene glycol from the mucosal Ringer solution. The tissue can absorb water against an osmotic gradient of 200 mM-glycerol. The above data have been incorporated into a new model to explain isotonic flow of fluid by this epithelium. The main features are that the hydraulic conductivity (Lp) of the mucosal boundary of the lateral intercellular space is approximately 1 X 10(-8) cm s-1 cmH2O-1. This Lp is too low to sustain isotonicity of the flow emerging from the lateral intercellular space at the observed rates. Hypertonic fluid emerging from the lateral intercellular space is diluted by transcellular water flow generated by the hypertonicity of the submucosa and back-diffusion of solute via mucosal shunt channels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3958981

  14. On the influence of water on the electronic structure of firefly oxyluciferin anions from absorption spectroscopy of bare and monohydrated ions in vacuo.

    PubMed

    Støchkel, Kristian; Hansen, Christian Nygaard; Houmøller, Jørgen; Nielsen, Lisbeth Munksgaard; Anggara, Kelvin; Linares, Mathieu; Norman, Patrick; Nogueira, Fernando; Maltsev, Oleg V; Hintermann, Lukas; Brøndsted Nielsen, Steen; Naumov, Pan?e; Milne, Bruce F

    2013-05-01

    A complete understanding of the physics underlying the varied colors of firefly bioluminescence remains elusive because it is difficult to disentangle different enzyme-lumophore interactions. Experiments on isolated ions are useful to establish a proper reference when there are no microenvironmental perturbations. Here, we use action spectroscopy to compare the absorption by the firefly oxyluciferin lumophore isolated in vacuo and complexed with a single water molecule. While the process relevant to bioluminescence within the luciferase cavity is light emission, the absorption data presented here provide a unique insight into how the electronic states of oxyluciferin are altered by microenvironmental perturbations. For the bare ion we observe broad absorption with a maximum at 548 ± 10 nm, and addition of a water molecule is found to blue-shift the absorption by approximately 50 nm (0.23 eV). Test calculations at various levels of theory uniformly predict a blue-shift in absorption caused by a single water molecule, but are only qualitatively in agreement with experiment highlighting limitations in what can be expected from methods commonly used in studies on oxyluciferin. Combined molecular dynamics simulations and time-dependent density functional theory calculations closely reproduce the broad experimental peaks and also indicate that the preferred binding site for the water molecule is the phenolate oxygen of the anion. Predicting the effects of microenvironmental interactions on the electronic structure of the oxyluciferin anion with high accuracy is a nontrivial task for theory, and our experimental results therefore serve as important benchmarks for future calculations. PMID:23557511

  15. Cloud point extraction-flame atomic absorption spectrometry method for preconcentration and determination of trace cadmium in water samples.

    PubMed

    Ning, Jinyan; Jiao, Yang; Zhao, Jiao; Meng, Lifen; Yang, Yaling

    2014-01-01

    A method based on cloud point extraction (CPE) separation/preconcentration of trace cadmium (Cd) as a prior step to its determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry has been developed. Cadmium reacted with 8-hydroxyquinoline to form hydrophobic chelates, which were extracted into the micelles of nonionic surfactant oligoethylene glycol monoalkyl ether (Genapol X-080) in an alkaline medium. Octanol was used to depress the cloud point of Genapol X-080 in the extraction process. The chemical variables that affect the CPE, such as pH of complexation reaction, amount of chelating agent, Genapol X-080 and octanol were evaluated and optimized. Under optimized conditions, linearity was obeyed in the range of 10-500 ?g/L, with the correlation coefficient of 0.9993. For 5 mL of sample solution, the enhancement factor was about 20. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of the method were 0.21 and 0.63 ?g/L, respectively. The relative standard deviations (n = 6) was 3.2% for a solution containing 100 ?g/L of Cd. The accuracy of the preconcentration system was evaluated by recovery measurements on spiked water samples. Recoveries of spiked samples varied in the range of 94.1-103.8%. PMID:25116488

  16. Thermal design of lithium bromide-water solution vapor absorption cooling system for indirect evaporative cooling for IT pod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, Digvijay Ramkrishna

    Nowadays with increase use of internet, mobile there is increase in heat which ultimately increases the efficient cooling system of server room or IT POD. Use of traditional ways of cooling system has ultimately increased CO2 emission and depletion of CFC's are serious environmental issues which led scientific people to improve cooling techniques and eliminate use of CFC's. To reduce dependency on fossil fuels and 4environmental friendly system needed to be design. For being utilizing low grade energy source such as solar collector and reducing dependency on fossil fuel vapour absorption cooling system has shown a great driving force in today's refrigeration systems. This LiBr-water aabsorption cooling consists of five heat exchanger namely: Evaporator, Absorber, Solution Heat Exchanger, Generator, Condenser. The thermal design was done for a load of 23 kW and the procedure was described in the thesis. There are 120 servers in the IT POD emitting 196 W of heat each on full load and some of the heat was generated by the computer placed inside the IT POD. A detailed procedure has been discussed. A excel spreadsheet was to prepared with varying tube sizes to see the effect on flows and ultimately overall heat transfer coefficient.

  17. Speciation of selenium in plant water extracts by ion exchange chromatography-hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Frankenberger, W T

    2001-03-26

    Determination of selenium (Se) speciation in plants is important in studying the bioavailability and toxicity of Se in Se-contaminated soil/sediment. In this study, we used an anion exchange resin (Dowex 1-10X) to separate Se into non-amino acid organic Se, Se-amino acids, selenite (Se [IV]) and selenate (Se [VI]) in a plant (Stanleya pinnata) extract. The hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) was used to determine concentrations of these Se compounds in plant extracts. Results showed that Se compounds can be quantitatively separated by the resin column. Recovery of five spiked standard Se compounds (trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe+), dimethylselenoxide (DMSeO), selenomethionine (Semet), Se [IV] and Se [VII]) in the plant extract ranged from 92.9 to 103%. Water extractable Se accounted for 60.4-72.6% of the total Se in the plant. Among the soluble Se compounds in the plant extract, Se-amino acids were 73-85.5%, Se [VI] ranged from 7.5 to 19.5% and non-amino acid organic Se was less than 7%. Se [IV] in most samples was below the detection limit (1 microg/g). This study showed that considerable amounts of the accumulated Se [VI] in the plant was metabolized to Se-amino acids during growth of the plant. PMID:11305342

  18. Pre-Slaughter Stress Affects Ryanodine Receptor Protein Gene Expression and the Water-Holding Capacity in Fillets of the Nile Tilapia.

    PubMed

    Goes, Elenice S R; Lara, Jorge A F; Gasparino, Eliane; Del Vesco, Ana P; Goes, Marcio D; Alexandre Filho, Luiz; Ribeiro, Ricardo P

    2015-01-01

    Current study evaluated the effect of pre-slaughter stress on serum cortisol levels, pH, colorimetry, water-holding capacity (WHC) and gene expression of ryanodine receptors (RyR1 and RyR3) in the Nile tilapia. A 3x4 factorial scheme experiment was conducted comprising three densities (100, 200, 400 kg/m³) with four transportation times (60, 120, 180, and 240 minutes).Transportation times alone reduced cortisol levels up to 180 minutes, followed by increased WHC and mRNA expression, RyR1 and RyR3 (200 kg/m³ density). No effect of density x transportation time interacted on the evaluated parameters. Results provided the first evidence that pre-slaughter stress affected ryanodine gene expression receptors and, consequently, the water-holding capacity in tilapia fillets. PMID:26053858

  19. Pre-Slaughter Stress Affects Ryanodine Receptor Protein Gene Expression and the Water-Holding Capacity in Fillets of the Nile Tilapia

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Jorge A. F.; Gasparino, Eliane; Del Vesco, Ana P.; Goes, Marcio D.; Alexandre Filho, Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Current study evaluated the effect of pre-slaughter stress on serum cortisol levels, pH, colorimetry, water-holding capacity (WHC) and gene expression of ryanodine receptors (RyR1 and RyR3) in the Nile tilapia. A 3x4 factorial scheme experiment was conducted comprising three densities (100, 200, 400 kg/m³) with four transportation times (60, 120, 180, and 240 minutes).Transportation times alone reduced cortisol levels up to 180 minutes, followed by increased WHC and mRNA expression, RyR1 and RyR3 (200 kg/m³ density). No effect of density x transportation time interacted on the evaluated parameters. Results provided the first evidence that pre-slaughter stress affected ryanodine gene expression receptors and, consequently, the water-holding capacity in tilapia fillets. PMID:26053858

  20. Osmoregulative capacity in birdseed millet under conditions of water stress. I. Variation in Setaria italica and Panicum miliaceum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karyudi; R. J. Fletcher

    2002-01-01

    Experiments involving 14 accessions of Panicum miliaceum L. (Proso millet) and 11 accessions of Setaria italicaL. (Foxtail millet) have demonstrated variability in the degree of osmoregulative capacity among these accessions. Birdseed\\u000a millet is generally claimed to be sensitive to drought stress, apparently because of a shallow root system. Accessions with\\u000a high osmoregulative capacity demonstrate at least some drought tolerance. Osmoregulative

  1. The Role of Iron and Dissolved Organic Carbon in the Absorption of Ultraviolet Radiation in Humic Lake Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly O. Maloney; Donald P. Morris; Carl O. Moses; Christopher L. Osburn

    2005-01-01

    Absorption of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in aquatic ecosystems is primarily controlled by dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The role of iron (Fe) has also been suggested to contribute to UVR attenuation either directly or by interactions with DOC. Here we present findings from three laboratory manipulations of Fe and DOC on changes to the dissolved UVR absorption (ad,320) in a

  2. Seasonal variation of the microbially regulated buffering capacity at sediment-water interfaces in a freshwater lake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maja A. Lazzaretti-Ulmer; Kurt W. Hanselmann

    1999-01-01

    :   The consequences of microbial mineralization activities on the water chemistry of the sediment-water interface was studied\\u000a at two sampling sites in the southern basin of the eutrophic Lake Lugano (Lago di Lugano). Water samples were collected with\\u000a the aid of dialysis pore water samplers during three seasonally different time periods: in spring, after complete mixing of\\u000a the water column

  3. On-line simultaneous pre-concentration procedure for the determination of cadmium and lead in drinking water employing sequential multi-element flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter N. L. dos Santos; João V. S. Santos; Laiana O. B. Silva; André S. Araújo; Valfredo A. Lemos; Manuel Miró; Sergio L. C. Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    An on-line pre-concentration system for the sequential determination of cadmium and lead in drinking water by using fast sequential flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FS-FAAS) is proposed in this paper. Two minicolums of polyurethane foam loaded with 2-(6-methyl-2-benzothiazolylazo)-orcinol (Me-BTAO) were used as sorptive pre-concentration media for cadmium and lead. The analytical procedure involves the quantitative uptake of both analyte species by

  4. Simultaneous pre-concentration procedure for the determination of cadmium and lead in drinking water employing sequential multi-element flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lindomar A. Portugal; Hadla S. Ferreira; Walter N. L. dos Santos; Sergio L. C. Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    In this paper is proposed a simultaneous pre-concentration procedure using cloud point extraction for the determination of cadmium and lead in drinking water employing sequential multi-element flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The ligand used is 2-(2-thiazolylazo)-p-cresol (TAC) and the micellar phase is obtained using non-ionic surfactant octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114) and centrifugation.The optimization step was performed using two-level factorial design and Doehlert

  5. Solid phase extraction method for the determination of iron, lead and chromium by atomic absorption spectrometry using Amberite XAD-2000 column in various water samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Latif Elci; Aslihan A. Kartal; Mustafa Soylak

    2008-01-01

    This work describes a procedure for the separation–preconcentration of Fe(III), Pb(II) and Cr(III) from some water samples using a column-filled Amberlite XAD-2000 resin. The analyte ions retained on the column were eluted with 0.5molL?1 HNO3. The analytes in the effluent were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Several parameters governing the efficiency of the method were evaluated including pH, resin amount,

  6. Trace Enrichment and Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Determination of Lead, Copper, Cadmium and Nickel in Drinking Water Samples by Use of an Activated Carbon Column

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mustafa Soylak; Ibrahim Narin; Mehmet Dogan

    1997-01-01

    A simple method for atomic absorption spectrometric determination of lead, copper, cadmium and nickel in drinking water samples after preconcentration by sorbing 1-(2-pyridylazo) 2-naphthol (PAN) complex of these metals on an activated carbon column has been established. The metal\\/PAN complexes were quantitatively retained on the activated carbon in the pH range 6-8. Metals retained on the activated carbon column were

  7. Computer-aided prediction of the Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles’ effects on tensile strength and percentage of water absorption of concrete specimens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Nazari; Shadi Riahi

    In the present paper, two models based on artificial neural networks and genetic programming for predicting split tensile\\u000a strength and percentage of water absorption of concretes containing Al2O3 nanoparticles have been developed at different ages of curing. For purpose of building these models, training and testing\\u000a using experimental results for 144 specimens produced with 16 different mixture proportions were conducted.

  8. Continuum and magnetic dipole absorption of the water vapor--oxygen mixtures from 0.3 to 3.6 THz

    E-print Network

    Continuum and magnetic dipole absorption of the water vapor--oxygen mixtures from 0.3 to 3.6 THz V 2008 In revised form 21 February 2008 Available online 18 March 2008 Keywords: Continuum IR THz Oxygen is reported for the far-IR region from 10 to 120 cmÀ1 (0.3­3.6 THz). The experiments were performed

  9. Determination of antimony content in natural water by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after collection as antimony(III)–pyrogallol complex on activated carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshio Kubota; Akira Kawakami; Toshihiko Sagara; Naoki Ookubo; Tadao Okutani

    2001-01-01

    Antimony(III) was preconcentrated on activated carbon (AC) as the antimony(III)–pyrogallol complex. Prior to the preconcentration, antimony(V) was reduced to antimony(III) with potassium iodide and ascorbic acid. The antimony adsorbed on the AC was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry as an AC suspension. The method was applied to differential determination of trace amounts of antimony in natural water.

  10. The effect of preparation conditions of acrylic denture base materials on the level of residual monomer, mechanical properties and water absorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Do?an; B. Bek; N. N. Çevik; A. Usanmaz

    1995-01-01

    Objectives and methods: The curing of several commercial powder\\/liquid mixtures of acrylic denture base materials was carried out at different temperatures and curing times. The levels of residual mononer, tensile strength, percentage elongation before break and water absorption were measured.Results and Conclusion: It was found that the level of residual monomer determined by gas-liquid chromatography decreased with curing time and

  11. Regional differences in electrolyte, short-chain fatty acid and water absorption in the hindgut of two species of arboreal marsupilas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Riibsamen; I. D. Hume; W. J. Foley; U. Rübsamen

    1983-01-01

    1.Short-chain fatty acid, electrolyte and water absorption from the hindgut of two arboreal marsupial species, the greater glider (Petauroides volans) and the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) were studied in vivo using a single perfusion technique.2.Qualitative and quantitative differences in the net movement of sodium, potassium and chloride were found between the different hindgut segments and between the two species. All

  12. Heat Capacity Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    A. Findikakis

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide heat capacity values for the host and surrounding rock layers for the waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heat capacity representations provided by this analysis are used in unsaturated zone (UZ) flow, transport, and coupled processes numerical modeling activities, and in thermal analyses as part of the design of the repository to support the license application. Among the reports that use the heat capacity values estimated in this report are the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' report, the ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' report, the ''Ventilation Model and Analysis Report, the Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms'' report, the ''Dike/Drift Interactions report, the Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' report, and the ''In-Drift Natural Convection and Condensation'' report. The specific objective of this study is to determine the rock-grain and rock-mass heat capacities for the geologic stratigraphy identified in the ''Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170031], Table 1-1). This report provides estimates of the heat capacity for all stratigraphic layers except the Paleozoic, for which the mineralogic abundance data required to estimate the heat capacity are not available. The temperature range of interest in this analysis is 25 C to 325 C. This interval is broken into three separate temperature sub-intervals: 25 C to 95 C, 95 C to 114 C, and 114 C to 325 C, which correspond to the preboiling, trans-boiling, and postboiling regimes. Heat capacity is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of material by one degree (Nimick and Connolly 1991 [DIRS 100690], p. 5). The rock-grain heat capacity is defined as the heat capacity of the rock solids (minerals), and does not include the effect of water that exists in the rock pores. By comparison, the rock-mass heat capacity considers the heat capacity of both solids and pore water. For temperatures in the trans-boiling regime (95 C to 114 C), the additional energy required to vaporize the pore water is accounted for in the rock-mass heat capacity. The rock-grain heat capacities are intended to be used in models and analyses that explicitly account for the thermodynamic effects of the water within the rock porosity. The rock-mass heat capacities are intended to be used in models and analyses that do not explicitly account for these thermodynamic effects, particularly boiling. The term specific heat is often used synonymously with heat capacity; however, the latter term is used throughout this document.

  13. A computer-controlled system to simulate conditions of the large intestine with peristaltic mixing, water absorption and absorption of fermentation products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Minekus; M. Smeets-Peeters; A. Bernalier; S. Marol-Bonnin; R. Havenaar; P. Marteau; M. Alric; G. Fonty; J. H. J. Huis in't Veld

    1999-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type of system to simulate conditions in the large intestine. This system combines removal of\\u000a metabolites and water with peristaltic mixing to obtain and handle physiological concentrations of microorganisms, dry matter\\u000a and microbial metabolites. The system has been designed to be complementary to the dynamic multi-compartmental system that\\u000a simulates conditions in the stomach and small

  14. Carrying Capacity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-25

    This one-day activity challenges students to understand the ecological concept of carrying capacity through the physically-active process of role playing. Upon completion, students will be able to formulate and test hypotheses related to ecosystems and carrying capacity as well as describe the significance of carrying capacity.

  15. Using OMEGA Data to Determine the Optical Depths of Water Vapor Absorption Bands in the Martian Atmosphere Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Texas at San Antonio, San

    E-print Network

    Texas at San Antonio, University of

    Using OMEGA Data to Determine the Optical Depths of Water Vapor Absorption Bands in the Martian atmosphere. Recently, OMEGA data has also been used to study water vapor abundance [7], in which the water.56, SPICAM-1.38, OMEGA-2.56) have similar pattern from southern hemisphere to northern hemisphere, though

  16. A bottom-up, vulnerability-based framework for identifying the adaptive capacity of water resources systems in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culley, Sam; Noble, Stephanie; Timbs, Michael; Yates, Adam; Giuliani, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea; Maier, Holger; Westra, Seth

    2015-04-01

    Water resource system infrastructure and operating policies are commonly designed on the assumption that the statistics of future rainfall, temperature and other hydrometeorological variables are equal to those of the historical record. There is now substantial evidence demonstrating that this assumption is no longer valid, and that climate change will significantly impact water resources systems worldwide. Under different climatic inputs, the performance of these systems may degrade to a point where they become unable to meet the primary objectives for which they were built. In such a changing context, using existing infrastructure more efficiently - rather than planning additional infrastructure - becomes key to restore the system's performance at acceptable levels and minimize financial investments and associated risk. The traditional top-down approach for assessing climate change impacts relies on the use of a cascade of models from the global to the local scale. However, it is often difficult to utilize this top-down approach in a decision-making procedure, as there is disparity amongst various climate projections, arising from incomplete scientific understanding of the complicated processes and feedbacks within the climate system, and model limitations in reproducing those relationships. In contrast with this top-down approach, this study contributes a framework to identify the adaptive capacity of water resource systems under changing climatic conditions adopting a bottom-up, vulnerability-based approach. The performance of the current system management is first assessed for a comprehensive range of climatic conditions, which are independent of climate model forecasts. The adaptive capacity of the system is then estimated by re-evaluating the performance of a set of adaptive operating policies, which are optimized for each climatic condition under which the system is simulated. The proposed framework reverses the perspective by identifying water system vulnerability drivers and by enhancing the adaptive capacity of the system to respond to unforeseen events, in order to design robust and resilient adaptation measures. The approach is demonstrated on the multipurpose operation of the Lake Como system, located in Northern Italy, accounting for flood protection and irrigation supply. Numerical results show that our framework successfully identified the failure boundary based on current system management policies, which is demonstrated as being particularly sensitive to decreases in both precipitation and temperature. To estimate the likelihood of the climate being in states causing system failures and to provide a time frame for reaching such states, we consider 22 climate model projections; these projections suggest that the current management policies will lead to a high chance of failure over the next 40 years. The adaptive capacity of the re-optimized operating policies exhibits the potential for partially mitigating adverse climate change impacts and for extending the life of the system.

  17. A screening of the capacity of Louisiana freshwater wetlands to process nitrate in diverted Mississippi River water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. DeLaune; A. Jugsujinda; J. L. West; C. B. Johnson; M. Kongchum

    2005-01-01

    Mississippi River water is currently being diverted into Louisiana coastal wetlands for slowing or reversing marsh deterioration attributed to the rapid subsidence and accompanying saltwater intrusion. In this study, nitrate processing and removal was quantified in a 3700ha ponded freshwater wetland through which the diverted Mississippi River water enters Louisiana Barataria Basin estuary. Nitrate removal rates using a mass balance

  18. Variable Infiltration Capacity model (VIC) is a macro-scale energy and water balance model with lake and wetland

    E-print Network

    Cherkauer, Keith

    drainage, and expanding industrial and urban areas. The water table position usually acts as the dominant) and soil heat flux · Water table depth (3 locations, 6-7 ft depth) Kankakee (Indiana, USA) outwash plain and pumps. 1. Averaged Organic matter fraction is calculated for each soil layer 2. Soil thermal

  19. Nanofluid heat capacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starace, Anne K.; Gomez, Judith C.; Wang, Jun; Pradhan, Sulolit; Glatzmaier, Greg C.

    2011-12-01

    Significant increases in the heat capacity of heat transfer fluids are needed not only to reduce the costs of liquid heating and cooling processes, but also to bring clean energy producing technologies like concentrating solar power (CSP) to price parity with conventional energy generation. It has been postulated that nanofluids could have higher heat capacities than conventional fluids. In this work, nano- and micron-sized particles were added to five base fluids (poly-? olefin, mineral oil, ethylene glycol, a mixture of water and ethylene glycol, and calcium nitrate tetrahydrate), and the resulting heat capacities were measured and compared with those of the neat base fluids and the weighted average of the heat capacities of the components. The particles used were inert metals and metal oxides that did not undergo any phase transitions over the temperature range studied. In the nanofluids studied here, we found no increase in heat capacity upon the addition of the particles larger than the experimental error.

  20. Optimum hydrogen generation capacity and current density of the PEM-type water electrolyzer operated only during the off-peak period of electricity demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oi, Tsutomu; Sakaki, Yoshinori

    A requirement for widespread adoption of fuel cell vehicles in the transportation sector will be ready availability of pure hydrogen at prices that result in operating costs comparable to, or less than, that of gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles. The existing electrical power grid could be used as the backbone of the hydrogen infrastructure system in combination with water electrolyzers. A water electrolyzer can contribute to the load leveling by changing operational current density in accordance with the change of electricity demand. The optimum hydrogen generation capacity and current density of the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM)-type water electrolyzer operated only during the off-peak period of electricity demand in respect of both the shortest time required for start and the higher efficiency of water electrolysis are obtained as 500 Nm 3 h -1 and 30 kA m -2, respectively. This PEM-type water electrolyzer could be used in the hydrogen refueling stations and energy storage systems constructed around hydrogen.