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1

What Determines Absorptive Capacity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyses the effect of R&D activities, human resource and knowl- edge management, and the organisation of knowledge sharing within a firm on absorptive capacity of innovative firms empirically. Using data from the German innovation survey we investigate firms' ability to exploit knowledge from exter- nal partners for successful innovation activities. We distinguish between three types of absorptive capacity

Tobias Schmidt

2

Determination of water absorption and water holding capacities of different soil mixtures with MINIDRAIN system to enhance the plant growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil water holding capacity is the amount of water that a given soil can hold against the force of gravity. Soil texture and organic matter are the key components that determine soil water holding capacity. Soils with smaller particle sizes, such as silt and clay have larger surface area can hold more water compared to sand which has large particle sizes which results in smaller surface area. A study report showed that 1% increase in soil humus will result in a 4% increase in stored soil water (Morris, 2004) and 1 part humus holds 4 parts of water (Wheeler and Ward, 1998). Therefore, the more humus that can be added to the soil, the greater the water holding capacity of the soil. As the level of organic matter increases in a soil, the water holding capacity also increases due to the affinity of organic matter for water. The water holding capacity of the soil is determined by the amount of water held in the soil sample vs. the dry weight of the sample. MINIDRAIN is a patented system made of geo-fabric (fleece) or combination of geosynthetics and humus. MINIDRAIN and vegetation nets developed by the company ÖKO-TEX (Linz, Austria) will improve the distribution of water and air in the soils, increase the growth of vegetation and reduce the soil erosion. Depending on the physical configuration, there are four different combinations of MINIDRAIN systems developed by ÖKO-TEX. a) Geotextile (fleece) strips of different sizes (e.g. 5x10x250 mm) b) Net formed strips (drainage nets) of different sizes c) Multilayer geotextile mats with humus, seeds or compost of different sizes (e.g. 10x30x200 mm) d) Multilayer geotextile net formed mats with humus, seeds or compost This paper describes the experimental results of the water absorption and water holding capacity of different forms of MINIDRAIN under different soil mixes. In this experiment, potting soil, coarse sand and LECA (Light weight clay aggregates) balls are mixed with different proportion of MINIDRAIN systems and the water absorption and water holding capacities are measured. A comparison of the results for an optimal combination of soil and MINIDRAIN system has also been made. The results show that, the soil mix with MINIDRAIN system with multilayer mats (with humus) have highest water absorption and water holding capacity among the tested soil mix combinations.

Sudan Acharya, Madhu; Rauchecker, Markus; Wu, Wei

2014-05-01

3

Capacity for Absorption of Water-Soluble Secondary Metabolites Greater in Birds than in Rodents  

PubMed Central

Plant secondary metabolites (SMs) are pervasive in animal foods and potentially influence feeding behavior, interspecies interactions, and the distribution and abundance of animals. Some of the major classes of naturally occurring SMs in plants include many water-soluble compounds in the molecular size range that could cross the intestinal epithelium via the paracellular space by diffusion or solvent drag. There are differences among species in paracellular permeability. Using Middle Eastern rodent and avian consumers of fruits containing SMs, we tested the hypothesis that avian species would have significantly higher paracellular permeability than rodent species. Permeability in intact animals was assessed using standard pharmacological methodology to measure absorption of two radiolabeled, inert, neutral water-soluble probes that do not interact with intestinal nutrient transporters, L-arabinose (Mr?=?150.1 Da) and lactulose (Mr?=?342.3 Da). We also measured absorption of labeled 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3OMD-glucose; Mr?=?194.2 Da), which is a nonmetabolized analogue of D-glucose that is passively absorbed through the paracellular space but also transported across the enterocyte membranes. Most glucose was absorbed by all species, but arabinose fractional absorption (f) was nearly three times higher in birds (1.03±0.17, n?=?15 in two species) compared to rodents (0.37±0.06, n?=?10 in two species) (P<0.001). Surprisingly, the apparent rates of absorption in birds of arabinose exceeded those of 3OMD-glucose. Our findings are in agreement with previous work showing that the paracellular pathway is more prominent in birds relative to nonflying mammals, and suggests that birds may be challenged by greater absorption of water-soluble, dietary SMs. The increased expression of the paracellular pathway in birds hints at a tradeoff: the free energy birds gain by absorbing water-soluble nutrients passively may be offset by the metabolic demands placed on them to eliminate concomitantly absorbed SMs. PMID:22389702

Karasov, William H.; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Bakken, Bradley Hartman; Izhaki, Ido; Samuni-Blank, Michal; Arad, Zeev

2012-01-01

4

Absorptive capacity of the transplanted small bowel.  

PubMed Central

Small bowel transplantation (SBT) has been carried out in man in several cases without success, because immunologic problems were unsolved. In experimental SBT a 'two step' model was developed, which enables long term observation of immunologic phenomena. In this model the graft is in a heterotopic position to the recipient's own small bowel. After 35 days the recipient's own bowel is removed and replaced by the graft, now in orthotopic position and again in contact with luminal chymus. To investigate functional and morphological changes, which result from the procedure, the resorption of glucose and water was measured in syngeneic transplanted rats by an in vivo recirculation system and the mucosa was evaluated three dimensionally. The graft mucosa showed a significant reduction in villus height, crypt length and villus surface and a corresponding decrease in glucose and water absorption during heterotopic position. If the graft came into the orthotopic position, the mucosa did regenerate which was expressed by the significant longer crypts of the graft compared with those of the controls, although the graft's villus height and surface are still smaller. Glucose and water absorption increased and were higher in orthotopic transplanted animals, when absorption was expressed per unit intestinal length. The results indicate that in the 'two step' model of SBT the absorption of water and glucose is influenced to such an extent, that recovery is possible after three weeks, thus enabling orthotopic SBT. This almost complete recovery of the mucosa is further evidence of the regeneratory capacity of the small bowel, which enables clinical small bowel transplantation. PMID:3500897

Schroeder, P; Deltz, E; Seifert, J; Sandforth, F; Thiede, A

1987-01-01

5

Modification of water absorption capacity of a plastic based on bean protein using gamma irradiated starches as additives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some properties of a bean protein-starch plastic were modified by irradiation of the starch. Two kinds of starch from bean and cassava were irradiated with doses until 50 kGy before their inclusion in the composite. Water absorption of the resultant product was reduced by 36% and 60% in materials containing bean and cassava starch, respectively. A large decline in the elongation is observed till 10 kGy in both materials, while tensile strength diminished by 11% in the cassava composite.

Köber, E.; Gonzalez, M. E.; Gavioli, N.; Salmoral, E. M.

2007-01-01

6

Firms' absorptive capacity and technology compatibility in transferred technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absorptive capacity and technological compatibility are among the many elements that facilitate the transference of technology. However, studies that discussed absorptive capacity overlooked most elements that have been suggested to comprise the construct. In addition, studies on technology transfer have also not integrated both the firm's capacity to absorb the technology and the appropriateness of the technology, even though both

Sarina Muhamad Noor; Rushami Zien Yusoff; Fariza Hashim

2010-01-01

7

Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

2002-01-01

8

Absorptive capacity-one size fits all? A firm-level analysis of absorptive capacity for different kinds of knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper empirically analyzes the effect of R&D activities, human resource and knowledge management, and the organization of knowledge sharing within a firm on the absorptive capacity of innovative firms for three different types of knowledge, namely absorptive capacity to use knowledge from a firm's own industry, knowledge from other industries and knowledge from research institutions. Using data from the

Tobias Schmidt

2010-01-01

9

Absorptive Capacity – One Size Fits All? A Firm-level Analysis of Absorptive Capacity for Different Kinds of Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper empirically analyses the effect of R&D activities, human resource and knowledge management, and the organisation of knowledge sharing within a firm on the absorptive capacity of innovative firms for three different types of knowledge, namely absorptive capacity to use knowledge from a firm’s own industry, knowledge from other industries and knowledge from research institutions. Using data from the

Tobias Schmidt

2005-01-01

10

Absorptive Capacity: One Size Fits All? Firm-level Analysis of Absorptive Capacity for Different Kinds of Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper empirically analyses the effect of R&D activities, human resource and knowledge management, and the organisation of knowledge sharing within a firm on the absorptive capacity of innovative firms for three different types of knowledge, namely absorptive capacity to use knowledge from a firm?s own industry, knowledge from other industries and knowledge from research institutions. Using data from the

Tobias Schmidt

2005-01-01

11

A study of lactose absorption capacity in twins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactose absorption capacity was determined by lactose tolerance tests with breath hydrogen determination in 102 healthy, adult, Hungarian pairs of twins in order to test monogenic Mendelian inheritance of the absorptive lactase phenotypes, lactose absorber and lactose malabsorber. Of the total, 52 pairs were monozygous (MZ) and 50 dizygous (DZ) twins of indentical sex. All MZ twins were concordant with

Julia Métneki; A. Czeizel; Sibylle D. Flatz; G. Flatz

1984-01-01

12

Potential and realized absorptive capacities: Their effect on firms' competitive advantage and the role of communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the resource-based view of the firm, this paper investigates the effect of potential absorptive capacity and realized absorptive capacity on the firm's competitive advantage with a sample of 286 corporations in China. Results indicate that both potential and realized absorptive capacities of Chinese corporations contribute to the firms' competitive advantage, yet realized absorptive capacity accounts for most of

Xu Er-ming; Chen Yin; Kwon Sundong; Fang Hua-long

2009-01-01

13

Modelling of the heat exchangers of a small capacity, hot water driven, air-cooled H 2O–LiBr absorption cooling machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

General models for the design of the heat exchangers (absorber, generator, condenser and evaporator) of a prototype of an air-cooled absorption chiller of 2kW for air-conditioning using the pair H2O–LiBr have been developed. An absorption machine of such characteristics has been constructed to be used as a test facility for validating the results obtained from the mathematical models developed. The

J. Castro; A. Oliva; C. D. Perez-Segarra; C. Oliet

2008-01-01

14

A REFERENCE FRAMEWORK TO SUPPORT ABSORPTIVE CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this paper is to present a reference framework to support absorptive capacity development. This research is performed in a context in which innovations are of increasing importance to competitive success and in which environment dynamics compel organizations to frequently reconfigure their resource base in order to achieve competitive advantage, a concept known as dynamic capability. In

RAFAEL CLEMENTE; HEITOR CAULLIRAUX; LUIZ ANTONIO MEIRELLES; ADRIANO PROENÇA

15

R&D Intensity, Technology Transfer and Absorptive Capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the line of Schumpeterian fully endogenous growth theory, this study attempts to investigate whether differences in research intensity as well as absorptive capacity help to explain cross-country differences in productivity growth in a panel of 55 sample countries including 23 OECD and 32 developing economies over the period 1970 to 2004. Using several indicators of innovative activity and product

Rabiul Islam

16

Evaluation of an Absorption Heat Pump to Mitigate Plant Capacity Reduction Due to Ambient Temperature Rise for an Air-Cooled Ammonia and Water Cycle: Preprint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air-cooled geothermal plants suffer substantial decreases in generating capacity at increased ambient temperatures. As the ambient temperature rises by 50 F above a design value of 50 F, at low brine-resource temperatures, the decrease in generating capacity can be more than 50%. This decrease is caused primarily by increased condenser pressure. Using mixed-working fluids has recently drawn considerable attention for

D. Bharathan; G. Nix

2001-01-01

17

Cognitive Distance, Absorptive Capacity and Group Rationality: A Simulation Study  

PubMed Central

We report the results of a simulation study in which we explore the joint effect of group absorptive capacity (as the average individual rationality of the group members) and cognitive distance (as the distance between the most rational group member and the rest of the group) on the emergence of collective rationality in groups. We start from empirical results reported in the literature on group rationality as collective group level competence and use data on real-life groups of four and five to validate a mathematical model. We then use this mathematical model to predict group level scores from a variety of possible group configurations (varying both in cognitive distance and average individual rationality). Our results show that both group competence and cognitive distance are necessary conditions for emergent group rationality. Group configurations, in which the groups become more rational than the most rational group member, are groups scoring low on cognitive distance and scoring high on absorptive capacity. PMID:25314132

Curseu, Petru Lucian; Krehel, Oleh; Evers, Joep H. M.; Muntean, Adrian

2014-01-01

18

Absorptive capacity and post-acquisition inventor productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inventors often experience a low productivity after their company has been subject to a merger or acquisition (M&As). It is\\u000a of central managerial interest to identify factors facilitating the integration of new inventive staff and thereby counteracting\\u000a innovation declines after M&As. This paper provides empirical evidence into the role of acquiring firms’ absorptive capacity\\u000a for the post-merger patent productivity of

Katrin Hussinger

2010-01-01

19

Absorption Capacities and Limits of Stability for Hybrid CES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Naturally developed in the process of evolution mechanisms for biomass degradation are too slow for application inside intensive Closed Eco-Systems CES for Life Support in space So it is suggested different methods of catalytic degradation for plant biomass to accelerate CES material turnover The work is an attempt to analyze the process of inedible plant biomass catalytic incineration as a source of CO 2 for new plant generation photosynthesis and growth It is a common knowledge now that incineration of phyto-mass supplies into the atmosphere of CES not only CO 2 but also gaseous toxic agents such as SO 2 NO x etc inhibiting photosynthetic processes Mathematical modeling has demonstrated that when the limit value of intensity of production processes and matter turnover specific for every closed system is exceeded the gaseous toxic agents destroy the system This value is directly proportional to system specific material turnover rate CES buffer absorption capacity and non-linearly dependant on the tolerance of the plant component to the impact of flue gases Ratios have been derived by assigned intensity of matter turnover to evaluate buffer absorption capacities required for designing stable CES functioning

Rygalov, V.; Carras, G.

20

Investigation of the absorption and polymerization capacity of coal wash oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption and polymerization capacity of coal gas wash oils is important when they are used as an absorber to recover benzol from coke-oven gas. The absorption capacity characterizes the property of the oil for dissolving benzol at normal temperature and a high benzol concentration in the coke-oven gas and for easily separating the benzol on heating. The polymerization capacity

T. Ya. Gogoleva; E. T. Kovalev; L. I. Butsinskaya; G. G. Golovina

1981-01-01

21

Multinational Enterprises, Technology Diffusion, and Host Country Absorptive Capacity: A Note  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous empirical studies show mixed support for the hypothesis that the impact of technology diffusion from multinational enterprises (MNEs) on host country productivity growth depends on host country absorptive capacity. One explanation is that the results of these empirical studies are sensitive to the measures of absorptive capacity used. This paper contributes to the empirical literature by investigating average years

Khaled Elmawazini; Pran Manga; Samir Saadi

2008-01-01

22

Water-related absorption in fibrous diamonds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cubic and coated diamonds from several localities (Brasil, Canada, Yakutia) were investigated using spectroscopic techniques. Special emphasis was put on investigation of water-related features of transmission Infra-red and Raman spectra. Presence of molecular water is inferred from broad absorption bands in IR at 3420 and 1640 cm-1. These bands were observed in many of the investigated samples. It is likely that molecular water is present in microinclusions in liquid state, since no clear indications of solid H_2O (ice VI-VII, Kagi et al., 2000) were found. Comparison of absorption by HOH and OH vibrations shows that diamonds can be separated into two principal groups: those containing liquid water (direct proportionality of OH and HOH absorption) and those with stronger absorption by OH group. Fraction of diamonds in every group depends on their provenance. There might be positive correlation between internal pressure in microinclusions (determined using quartz barometer, Navon et al., 1988) and affiliation with diamonds containing liquid water. In many cases absorption by HOH vibration is considerably lower than absorption by hydroxyl (OH) group. This may be explained if OH groups are partially present in mineral and/or melt inclusions. This hypothesis is supported by following fact: in diamonds with strong absorption by silicates and other minerals shape and position of the OH band differs from that in diamonds with low absorption by minerals. Moreover, in Raman spectra of individual inclusions sometimes the broad band at 3100 cm-1 is observed. This band is OH-related. In some samples water distribution is not homogeneous. Central part of the diamond usually contains more water than outer parts, but this is not a general rule for all the samples. Water absorption usually correlated with absorption of other components (carbonates, silicates and others). At that fibrous diamonds with relatively high content of silicates are characterized by molecular water. OH-enriched diamonds contain more carbonatitic material. This was supported by JSPS and grant of University of Russia (No. 09.01.054).

Zedgenizov, D. A.; Shiryaev, A. A.; Kagi, H.; Navon, O.

2003-04-01

23

Measuring Water Vapor with Differential Absorption Lidar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the need for global measurements of water vapor profiles with low bias and high vertical resolution there is currently no operational remote sensing system that would deliver such data. A possible solution to this problem is offered by the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) approach. The basic principle of operation will be described and some background on atmospheric light absorption by water vapor will be given. DLR's airborne water vapor DIAL system WALES represents the currently most advanced system worldwide using a multiwavelength technique to cover the troposphere and lower stratosphere simultaneously. A few examples of measurements made with this system will illustrate the power of this active remote sensing method.

Wirth, Martin

24

High temperature measurement of water vapor absorption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was undertaken to measure the absorption coefficient, at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, for mixtures of water vapor and a diluent gas at high temperature and pressure. The experimental concept was to create the desired conditions of temperature and pressure in a laser absorption wave, similar to that which would be created in a laser propulsion system. A simplified numerical model was developed to predict the characteristics of the absorption wave and to estimate the laser intensity threshold for initiation. A non-intrusive method for temperature measurement utilizing optical laser-beam deflection (OLD) and optical spark breakdown produced by an excimer laser, was thoroughly investigated and found suitable for the non-equilibrium conditions expected in the wave. Experiments were performed to verify the temperature measurement technique, to screen possible materials for surface initiation of the laser absorption wave and to attempt to initiate an absorption wave using the 1.5 kW carbon dioxide laser. The OLD technique was proven for air and for argon, but spark breakdown could not be produced in helium. It was not possible to initiate a laser absorption wave in mixtures of water and helium or water and argon using the 1.5 kW laser, a result which was consistent with the model prediction.

Keefer, Dennis; Lewis, J. W. L.; Eskridge, Richard

1985-01-01

25

Atmospheric Water Absorption and the Water Budget of Terrestrial Isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Iso- poda, Oniscidea) have revealed a capacity for active water vapor absorption (WVA) in the taxonomic sections Cri- nocheta and Diplocheta but not in Synocheta. Uptake thresholds in Crinocheta are modest by comparison with other vapor absorbers, but standardized uptake fluxes are among the highest recorded and are probably an adaptive requirement to counter the

JONATHAN C. WRIGHT; JOHN MACHIN

1993-01-01

26

d-Xylose absorption test: A tool for the assessment of the effect of anticoccidials on the intestinal absorptive capacity of broilers during experimental coccidiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coccidiosis in chickens causes intestinal mucosal lesions and disrupts its integrity leading to a disturbance in absorption of dietary components. The d-xylose absorption test is a sensitive tool of measuring the absorption capacity of the intestine in diseased chickens. In an experiment on broilers, the influence of different anticoccidials on the intestinal absorption capacity of the birds challenged with experimental

B. Mansoori; H. Nodeh; M. Modirsanei; S. Rahbari; P. Aparnak

2009-01-01

27

Vitamin B12 absorption capacity in healthy children  

SciTech Connect

B12 absorption was investigated in 47 healthy children aged 7 months to 15.8 years (median 4.9 years). The patients had either recovered from giardiasis, the post-gastroenteritis syndrome, or had celiac disease in remission (treated with a gluten-free diet). The B12 absorption was measured by a double-isotope technique using /sup 57/CoB12 and /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/, the latter being the inabsorbable marker. The radiation dose was minimal. The results were presented as fractional absorption of B12 (FAB12). Within the different age groups, the absorption test was performed by means of the following oral amounts of B12: 0- less than 1 year, 0.5 microgram; 1-3 years: 1.7 micrograms, 4-6 years, 2.5 micrograms; 7-10 years; 3.3 micrograms; and 11-15 years, 4.5 micrograms. When using these oral amounts of B12, the medians (and ranges) of FAB12 were found to be: 1-3 years (n = 18), 37% (16-80%); 4-6 years (n = 10), 27% (19-40%); 7-10 years (n = 9), 32% (21-44%); and 11-15 years (n = 8), 27% (19-59%). The FAB12 in two children aged 7 and 11 months was 31% and 32%, respectively. These results may be interpretated as reference values for B12 absorption in children. Further absorption tests were performed in seven children representing the four age groups from 1 to 15 years. When a high oral amount of B12 was given (i.e., three times the saturation dose), the FAB12 ranged from 0 to 20% (median 9%), whereas a low amount (i.e., one-ninth of the saturation dose) produced fractional absorptions from 65 to 82% (median 74%).

Hjelt, K.; Krasilnikoff, P.A.

1986-03-01

28

WATER VAPOUR ABSORPTION IN TERRESTRIAL ISOPODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Continuous and intermittent gravimetric measurements have identified active water vapour absorption (WVA) in three species of terrestrial Isopoda. Water activity thresholds for uptake lie in the range 0.92-0.95. Above the threshold, WVA shows non-saturated kinetics; the rectum apparently serves as a supplemen- tary avenue for fluid resorption during rapid uptake. Standardized uptake fluxes, corrected for vapour pressure deficit, can

JONATHAN C. WRIGHT; JOHN MACHIN

1990-01-01

29

Energy absorption capacity of carbon nanotubes under ballistic impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon nanotubes have great potential applications in making ballistic-resistance materials. This letter analyzes the impact of a bullet on nanotubes of different radii in two extreme cases. For a nanotube with one end fixed, the maximum nanotube enduring bullet speed increases and the energy absorption efficiency decreases with the increase in relative heights at which the bullet strikes; these values are independent of the nanotube radii when the bullet hits at a particular relative height. For a nanotube with both ends fixed, the energy absorption efficiency reaches minimum when the bullet strikes around a relative height of 0.5.

Mylvaganam, Kausala; Zhang, L. C.

2006-09-01

30

Absorption Capacities as a Basis of Stability for Closed Ecological Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growing plants in highly closed ecological systems (CES) will ultimately require conservation and recycling of plant essential elements to reduce system costs. One method for rapid recycling of elements would be incineration of residual, inedible biomass. The paper attempts to analyze the impact of biomass incineration for mineral recycling in a CES. Depending on system constraints, each CES will have its own range of steady-state operation, and this range becomes narrower as recycling rates increase. The paper presents a metric for CES stability, with the numerical estimates linked to carbon cycling rates. Along w th retrieving somei plant-essential elements, incineration of waste biomass would also release carbon dioxide, water, and other volatile compounds, depending on flue gas handling. Toxic products such as SO2 could damage or disrupt CES stability at high recycling rates. If such toxic species are not neutralized, the system tolerance would then be proportional to CES buffering or absorption capacity, and would be a non-linear function of the tolerance of the biota. We developed formulas to evaluate absorption capacities required for a stable CES by assessing different rates of material turnover. Numerical estimates of system stabilities in relation to carbon cycling rates were calculated for several examples of CES, including the Earth's Biosphere, the BIOS-3 project in Krasnoyarsk, Russia, and the Biosphere-2 project in Tucson, Arizona, USA.

Rygalov, V.; Pechurkin, N.; Wheeler, R.; Fowler, P.

31

Molar absorptivities and reducing capacity of pyranoanthocyanins and other anthocyanins.  

PubMed

To improve accuracy in the determination of anthocyanin purity and succeeding antioxidant capacity, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been combined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a diode array detector and UV-vis spectroscopy in the analysis of anthocyanidin 3-glycosides and 5-carboxypyranoanthocyanidin 3-glycosides. The molar absoptivity (epsilon) values were found to be relatively similar, in contrast to previously reported literature values, and the average epsilon values for both anthocyanidin 3-monoglycosides and 5-carboxypyranoanthocyanidin 3-glycosides were proposed to be 22,000 and 23,000 in acidified aqueous and methanolic solutions, respectively. To assess the influence of structure on the potential antioxidant capacity of anthocyanins, the 3-glucosides of pelargonidin (1), cyanidin (2), peonidin (3), delphinidin (4), petunidin (5), malvidin (6), 5-carboxypyranopelargonidin (8), 5-carboxypyranocyanidin (9), 5-carboxypyranodelphinidin (11), 5-carboxypyranopetunidin (12), and 5-carboxypyranomalvidin (13) and the 3-galactosides of cyanidin (7) and 5-carboxypyranocyanidin (14) were examined by a ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The reducing capacities of the individual anthocyanins were in the range of 0.9-5.2 micromol of Trolox equivalents/micromol. The two 5-carboxypyranoanthocyanins 11 and 9 and the four common anthocyanins 2, 4, 7, and 14, all possessing pyrogallol or catechol type of B rings, showed the highest antioxidant capacity measured by FRAP. However, the inclusion of the 5-hydroxyl in the D ring and just one oxygen substituent on the B ring in 8 diminished the reducing capacity considerably. Correspondingly, electrochemical behavior of 5-carboxypyranoanthocyanidin 3-glucosides and anthocyanidin 3-glucosides was derived using HPLC coupled to a coulometric array detector set from 100 to 800 mV in increments of 100 mV. The relative order of the reducing capacity of the various 5-carboxypyranoanthocyanidin 3-glucosides and anthocyanidin 3-glucosides were nearly alike, whether determined by coulometric array detection or FRAP. PMID:18047275

Jordheim, Monica; Aaby, Kjersti; Fossen, Torgils; Skrede, Grete; Andersen, Øyvind M

2007-12-26

32

Water- Lithium Bromide-?- Butyrolactone Absorption Refrigerating Machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This investigation was carried out in order to find corrosion inhibitors which would be effective in controlling the corrosion for the water-lithium bromide-?-butyrolactone (20 moles water/1 mole ?-butyrolactone) absorption refrigerating machine. The experiments were carried out on continuous boiling test, intermittent boiling test and galvanic corrosion test with the use of organic inhibitors and inorganic inhibitors in ?-butyrolactone aqueous solution of lithium bromide. The metals used in these corrosion tests were mainly SS 41 and copper. From these experimental results, the most suitable corrosion inhibitors for SS 41 and copper in ?-butyrolactone aqueous solution of lithium bromide Were recognized to be benzotriazole, tolyltriazole and lithium molybdate.

Iyoki, Shigeki; Uemura, Tadashi

33

Absorption  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The process of absorption is a cellular process (microscopic). Absorption cells line the stomach and intestine walls and allow small nutrients (broken down from the food we eat) to pass through and into our blood. The process of absorption is much like a leaking balloon filled with water. The balloon is the stomach or intestine, the tiny holes are the absorption cells, and the water is nutrients leaving.

Katie Hale (CSUF;)

2002-09-26

34

Water absorption, retention and the swelling characteristics of cassava starch grafted with polyacrylic acid.  

PubMed

An important application of starch grafted with copolymers from unsaturated organic acids is the use as water absorbent. Although much research has been published in recent years, the kinetics of water absorption and the swelling behavior of starch based superabsorbents are relatively unexplored. Also, water retention under mechanical strain is usually not reported. Cassava starch was used since it has considerable economic potential in Asia. The gelatinized starch was grafted with acrylic acid and Fenton's initiator and crosslinked with N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBAM). Besides a good initial absorption capacity, the product could retain up to 63 g H2O/g under severe suction. The material thus combines a good absorption capacity with sufficient gel strength. The mathematical analysis of the absorption kinetics shows that at conditions of practical interest, the rate of water penetration into the gel is determined by polymer chain relaxations and not by osmotic driven diffusion. PMID:24528736

Witono, J R; Noordergraaf, I W; Heeres, H J; Janssen, L P B M

2014-03-15

35

The Effect of Knowledge Management Systems on Absorptive Capacity: The Case of a German Law Firm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research in progress is engaged in examining the effects of knowledge management systems (KMS) on absorptive capacity (ACAP). Often regarded as the major source of firm competitive advantage, ACAP raises questions of how to value, assimilate and apply new knowledge. Based on a qualitative research design we specifically investigate ACAP and knowledge management processes. We chose one professional service

Heinz-Theo Wagner; Thorsten Dum; Andre Schafferling; Martin Schulz

2011-01-01

36

ABSORPTIVE CAPACITY AND INNOVATION IN THE KNOWLEDGE INTENSIVE BUSINESS SERVICE SECTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innovative activity is performed to a considerable extent in the service sector, namely within the so-called knowledge intensive business services (KIBS). Particularly emphasizing the role of absorptive capacity, we analyze possible determinants of incremental and radical firm innovation using firm micro data from the KIBS Foundation Survey. The results show that access to knowledge through networking and cooperation is of

Andreas Koch; Harald Strotmann

2008-01-01

37

UNDER THE TIP OF THE ICEBERG: ABSORPTIVE CAPACITY, ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY, AND COMPETITIVE  

E-print Network

1 UNDER THE TIP OF THE ICEBERG: ABSORPTIVE CAPACITY, ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY, AND COMPETITIVE. If this is true, are environmental strategies just the tip of the organizational iceberg? By focusing solely that we need to look beneath the surface, under the tip of the organizational iceberg, in order to get

Delmas, Magali

38

Absorptive capacity of iron-based magnetic carriers for blood detoxification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absorptive capacity of different magnetic carriers was investigated. Restored-iron, iron-carbon and iron-silica do not cause changes in erythrocytes' osmotic resistance and possess high sorption efficiency for substances of different molecular mass. These magnetic carriers can be recommended for extracorporeal blood detoxification of low (barbiturates), middle (bilirubin) and high (heme proteins) molecular weight substances.

Komissarova, Lubov Kh; Kuznetsov, Anatoly A.; Gluchoedov, Nikolas P.; Kutushov, Michael V.; Pluzan, Maria A.

2001-01-01

39

30 CFR 75.1107-7 - Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and...Equipment § 75.1107-7 Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum...

2012-07-01

40

30 CFR 75.1107-7 - Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and...Equipment § 75.1107-7 Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum...

2011-07-01

41

30 CFR 75.1107-7 - Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and...Equipment § 75.1107-7 Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum...

2013-07-01

42

Application of GIS in Water Pollutant Capacity Total Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity total control, in the field of water pollution prevent, is more effective than the traditional mandatory total control. In this article, GIS was applied into the capacity total control of water pollutant. Using the ArcSDE technology, a spatial geodatabase that included many kinds of spatial information and attribute data was built. Based on it, a spatial model system

Liang Wang; Xiutao Zhang

2009-01-01

43

The positive effects of relationship learning and absorptive capacity on innovation performance and competitive advantage in industrial markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study utilized structural equations modeling (SEM) to explore the positive effects of relationship learning and absorptive capacity on competitive advantages of companies through their innovation performances in Taiwanese manufacturing industry. The results of this study showed that relationship learning and absorptive capacity positively influence upon innovation performances of companies, and further have positive effects on competitive advantages of companies.

Yu-Shan Chen; Ming-Ji James Lin; Ching-Hsun Chang

2009-01-01

44

Economic performance of water storage capacity expansion for food security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryContinued climate variability, population growth, and rising food prices present ongoing challenges for achieving food and water security in poor countries that lack adequate water infrastructure. Undeveloped storage infrastructure presents a special challenge in northern Afghanistan, where food security is undermined by highly variable water supplies, inefficient water allocation rules, and a damaged irrigation system due three decades of war and conflict. Little peer-reviewed research to date has analyzed the economic benefits of water storage capacity expansions as a mechanism to sustain food security over long periods of variable climate and growing food demands needed to feed growing populations. This paper develops and applies an integrated water resources management framework that analyzes impacts of storage capacity expansions for sustaining farm income and food security in the face of highly fluctuating water supplies. Findings illustrate that in Afghanistan's Balkh Basin, total farm income and food security from crop irrigation increase, but at a declining rate as water storage capacity increases from zero to an amount equal to six times the basin's long term water supply. Total farm income increases by 21%, 41%, and 42% for small, medium, and large reservoir capacity, respectively, compared to the existing irrigation system unassisted by reservoir storage capacity. Results provide a framework to target water infrastructure investments that improve food security for river basins in the world's dry regions with low existing storage capacity that face ongoing climate variability and increased demands for food security for growing populations.

Gohar, Abdelaziz A.; Ward, Frank A.; Amer, Saud A.

2013-03-01

45

New constraints in absorptive capacity and the optimum rate of petroleum output  

SciTech Connect

Economic policy in four oil-producing countries is analyzed within a framework that combines a qualitative assessment of the policy-making process with an empirical formulation based on historical and current trends in these countries. The concept of absorptive capacity is used to analyze the optimum rates of petroleum production in Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait. A control solution with an econometric model is developed which is then modified for alternative development strategies based on analysis of factors influencing production decisions. The study shows the consistencies and inconsistencies between the goals of economic growth, oil production, and exports, and the constraints on economic development. Simulation experiments incorporated a number of the constraints on absorptive capacity. Impact of other constraints such as income distribution and political stability is considered qualitatively. (DLC)

El Mallakh, R

1980-01-01

46

Absorptive capacity and a failed cross-border M&A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Chinese companies are increasingly using cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&A) to source knowledge or strategic assets. For many, global acquisitions have proven to be highly problematic and value-destroying. The purpose of this paper is to address this critical acquisition failure issue from an absorptive capacity perspective. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Guided by the framework that focuses on how acquiring a

Ping Deng

2010-01-01

47

GASTROINTESTINAL ABSORPTION OF SOLUBLE URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The manuscript describes results of an experiment to determine the gastrointestinal absorption of uranium from drinking water in 12 health adults. Most of the uranium ingested was excreted in feces in the first 2 days following ingestion of the water. The absorption was the same ...

48

Water holding capacities of fly ashes: Effect of size fractionation  

SciTech Connect

Water holding capacities of fly ashes from different thermal power plants in Eastern India have been compared. Moreover, the effect of size fractionation (sieving) on the water holding capacities has also been determined. The desorption rate of water held by the fly ash fractions at ambient temperature (25-30{sup o}C) has been investigated. The effect of mixing various size fractions of fly ash in increasing the water holding capacities of fly ash has been studied. It is observed that the fly ash obtained from a thermal power plant working on stoker-fired combustor has the highest water holding capacity, followed by the one that works on pulverized fuel combustor. Fly ash collected from super thermal power plant has the least water holding capacity (40.7%). The coarser size fractions of fly ashes in general have higher water holding capacities than the finer ones. An attempt has been made to correlate the results obtained, with the potential use in agriculture.

Sarkar, A.; Rano, R. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

2007-07-01

49

Infrared and millimeter-wavelength absorption by atmospheric water vapor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An account is given of the current understanding of the atmospheric water vapor window regions from 10 to 1000 GHz, 8-12 microns, and 2-2.5 microns, with attention to the continuum absorption observable in each window region. The observed frequency-dependence in each window is consistent with the concept of far wings that emanate from the bordering water vapor absorption bands; this connection is considered the most prominent basis for the modeling of continuum absorption. It is judged that absorption behavior beyond experimentally measured conditions can be predicted with reasonable confidence.

Thomas, Michael E.

1987-12-01

50

The available-water capacities of North Auckland soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Available-water capacities of the principal groups of soils of high clay content in North Auckland have been determined. Within each main soil group they are markedly uniform.Among the soils on sedimentary parent rocks podzolisation is accompanied by larger available-water capacities in the A horizons and smaller ones in some B horizons than are found for unpodzolised soils. Of the soils

M. W. Gradwell

1971-01-01

51

Computer simulation of a lithium bromide-water absorption heat pump for temperature boosting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer-simulation model has been developed to predict the performance of an absorption heat pump for temperature boosting of low-grade heat. The model simulated a single-stage, lithium bromide-water system currently being constructed. Te effects of waste-heat temperature, cooling-water temperature, and solution circulation rate were investigated. The temperature boost and delivered capacity increased almost linearly with an increase in the waste-heat

G. Grossman; K. W. Childs

1983-01-01

52

Heat capacity of water: A signature of nuclear quantum effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this note we present results for the heat capacity at constant pressure for the TIP4PQ/2005 model, as obtained from path-integral simulations. The model does a rather good job of describing both the heat capacity of ice Ih and of liquid water. Classical simulations using the TIP4P/2005, TIP3P, TIP4P, TIP4P-Ew, simple point charge/extended, and TIP5P models are unable to reproduce the heat capacity of water. Given that classical simulations do not satisfy the third law of thermodynamics, one would expect such a failure at low temperatures. However, it seems that for water, nuclear quantum effects influence the heat capacities all the way up to room temperature. The failure of classical simulations to reproduce Cp points to the necessity of incorporating nuclear quantum effects to describe this property accurately.

Vega, C.; Conde, M. M.; McBride, C.; Abascal, J. L. F.; Noya, E. G.; Ramirez, R.; Sesé, L. M.

2010-01-01

53

Atmospheric water vapor absorption at 1.3 microm.  

PubMed

Absolute absorption cross sections for water vapor and water vapor/air mixtures were measured in a frequency range encompassing that of the chemically pumped atomic iodine laser. Measurements were made with a temperature-controlled multipass absorption cell and a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer. The measurements covered a broad range of water vapor and air pressures. Several techniques of data analysis were used, and the absorption cross section of 2 kPa of water vapor in an atmosphere of air was determined to be 1.1 +/- 0.2 x 10(-24) cm(2) . In this paper, an expression is derived which allows estimation of the absorption cross section for any pressure of water vapor and air. PMID:20454163

Bragg, S L; Kelley, J D

1987-02-01

54

Measured performance of a 3-ton LiBr absorption water chiller and its effect on cooling system operation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 3-ton lithium bromide absorption water chiller was tested for a number of conditions involving hot-water input, chilled water, and the cooling water. The primary influences on chiller capacity were the hot water inlet temperature and the cooling water inlet temperature. One combination of these two parameters extended the output to as much as 125% of design capacity, but no combination could lower the capacity to below 60% of design. A cooling system was conceptually designed so that it could provide several modes of operation. Such flexibility is needed for any solar cooling system to be able to accommodate the varying solar energy collection and the varying building demand. It is concluded that a 3-ton absorption water chiller with the kind of performance that was measured can be incorporated into a cooling system such as that proposed, to provide efficient cooling over the specified ranges of operating conditions.

Namkoong, D.

1976-01-01

55

Measured performance of a 3 ton LiBr absorption water chiller and its effect on cooling system operation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three ton lithium bromide absorption water chiller was tested for a number of conditions involving hot water input, chilled water, and the cooling water. The primary influences on chiller capacity were the hot water inlet temperature and the cooling water inlet temperature. One combination of these two parameters extended the output to as much as 125% of design capacity, but no combination could lower the capacity to below 60% of design. A cooling system was conceptually designed so that it could provide several modes of operation. Such flexibility is needed for any solar cooling system to be able to accommodate the varying solar energy collection and the varying building demand. It was concluded that a three-ton absorption water chiller with the kind of performance that was measured can be incorporated into a cooling system such as that proposed, to provide efficient cooling over the specified ranges of operating conditions.

Namkoong, D.

1976-01-01

56

Global distribution of plant-extractable water capacity of soil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Plant-extractable water capacity of soil is the amount of water that can be extracted from the soil to fulfill evapotranspiration demands. It is often assumed to be spatially invariant in large-scale computations of the soil-water balance. Empirical evidence, however, suggests that this assumption is incorrect. In this paper, we estimate the global distribution of the plant-extractable water capacity of soil. A representative soil profile, characterized by horizon (layer) particle size data and thickness, was created for each soil unit mapped by FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)/Unesco. Soil organic matter was estimated empirically from climate data. Plant rooting depths and ground coverages were obtained from a vegetation characteristic data set. At each 0.5?? ?? 0.5?? grid cell where vegetation is present, unit available water capacity (cm water per cm soil) was estimated from the sand, clay, and organic content of each profile horizon, and integrated over horizon thickness. Summation of the integrated values over the lesser of profile depth and root depth produced an estimate of the plant-extractable water capacity of soil. The global average of the estimated plant-extractable water capacities of soil is 8??6 cm (Greenland, Antarctica and bare soil areas excluded). Estimates are less than 5, 10 and 15 cm - over approximately 30, 60, and 89 per cent of the area, respectively. Estimates reflect the combined effects of soil texture, soil organic content, and plant root depth or profile depth. The most influential and uncertain parameter is the depth over which the plant-extractable water capacity of soil is computed, which is usually limited by root depth. Soil texture exerts a lesser, but still substantial, influence. Organic content, except where concentrations are very high, has relatively little effect.

Dunne, K.A.; Willmott, C.J.

1996-01-01

57

The environmental actions of firms: Examining the role of spillovers, networks and absorptive capacity.  

PubMed

In the light of climate uncertainty and growing concern for the natural environment, an increasingly important aspect of global business is the environmental behaviour of firms. In this paper we consider the factors that influence firms' environmental actions (EAs). Our study of Argentinean firms concentrates on measures of environmental spillovers, informal and formal networks and absorptive capacity by testing four related hypotheses. We find that foreign-owned firms, large firms and those with a greater capacity to assimilate new environmental technologies are more likely to adopt EAs. We also show that formal and informal networks aid the adoption of EAs in the presence of traditional firm-level spillovers. Finally, we show that foreign-owned firms have different motives to domestic firms for undertaking EAs. PMID:25242544

Albornoz, Facundo; Cole, Matthew A; Elliott, Robert J R; Ercolani, Marco G

2014-12-15

58

21 CFR 130.12 - General methods for water capacity and fill of containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... General methods for water capacity and fill of...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD STANDARDS: GENERAL... General methods for water capacity and fill of...term general method for water capacity of...

2012-04-01

59

21 CFR 130.12 - General methods for water capacity and fill of containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... General methods for water capacity and fill of...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD STANDARDS: GENERAL... General methods for water capacity and fill of...term general method for water capacity of...

2013-04-01

60

Cycle Simulation of HotWater Fired Absorption Chiller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design limits were examined to determine the lowest temperature for hot water that can be used as a heat source to drive a hot water fired absorption chiller. Advantage was taken of the fact that the cycle calculation method using the minimum temperature difference is quite effective. This minimum temperature difference was the lower of the two temperature differences used to get the logarithmic mean temperature difference that need to design the evaporator, absorber, condenser and generator in an absorption refrigerator. This report proposes a new solution algorithm employing this minimum temperature difference to make a cycle simulation of the hot water fired absorption chiller. It shows the lowest usable temperature for hot water and makes clear the chilled water and cooling water temperature conditions that can provide the lowest temperature.

Esaki, Shuji; Iramina, Kazuyasu; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Ohnou, Masayuki; Kaneko, Toshiyuki; Soga, Takashi

61

Field demonstration of the combined effects of absorption and evapotranspiration on septic system drainfield capacity.  

PubMed

Drainfields for disposal of septic tank effluents are typically designed by considering the loss of water by either upward evapotranspiration into the atmosphere or lateral and downward absorption into the adjacent soil. While this approach is appropriate for evapotranspiration systems, absorption systems allow water loss by both mechanisms. It was proposed that, in areas where high evapotranspiration rates coincide with permeable soils, drainfield sizes could be substantially reduced by accounting for both mechanisms. A two-year field demonstration was conducted to determine appropriate design criteria for areas typical of the Texas High Plains. The study consisted of evaluating the long-term acceptance rates for three different drainfield configurations: evapotranspiration only, absorption only, and combined conditions. A second field demonstration repeated the experiments for additional observation of the combined evapotranspiration and absorption and achieved similar results as the first study. The field tests indicated that the current design loading criteria may be increased by at least a factor of two for the Texas High Plains region and other Texas areas with similar soil composition and evapotranspiration rates, while still retaining a factor of safety of two. PMID:15816679

Rainwater, Ken; Jackson, Andrew; Ingram, Wesley; Lee, Chang Yong; Thompson, David; Mollhagen, Tony; Ramsey, Heyward; Urban, Lloyd

2005-01-01

62

Characteristics of Nasal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT) and Nasal Absorption Capacity in Chicken  

PubMed Central

As the main mucosal immune inductive site of nasal cavity, nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) plays an important role in both antigen recognition and immune activation after intranasal immunization. However, the efficiency of intranasal vaccines is commonly restricted by the insufficient intake of antigen by the nasal mucosa, resulting from the nasal mucosal barrier and the nasal mucociliary clearance. The distribution of NALT and the characteristic of nasal cavity have already been described in humans and many laboratory rodents, while data about poultry are scarce. For this purpose, histological sections of the chicken nasal cavities were used to examine the anatomical structure and histological characteristics of nasal cavity. Besides, the absorptive capacity of chicken nasal mucosa was also studied using the materials with different particle size. Results showed that the NALT of chicken was located on the bottom of nasal septum and both sides of choanal cleft, which mainly consisted of second lymphoid follicle. A large number of lymphocytes were distributed under the mucosal epithelium of inferior nasal meatus. In addition, there were also diffuse lymphoid tissues located under the epithelium of the concha nasalis media and the walls of nasal cavity. The results of absorption experiment showed that the chicken nasal mucosa was capable to absorb trypan blue, OVA, and fluorescent latex particles. Inactivated avian influenza virus (IAIV) could be taken up by chicken nasal mucosa except for the stratified squamous epithelium sites located on the forepart of nasal cavity. The intake of IAIV by NALT was greater than that of the nasal mucosa covering on non-lymphoid tissue, which could be further enhanced after intranasal inoculation combined with sodium cholate or CpG DNA. The study on NALT and nasal absorptive capacity will be benefit for further understanding of immune mechanisms after nasal vaccination and development of nasal vaccines for poultry. PMID:24391892

Kang, Haihong; Yan, Mengfei; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

2013-01-01

63

A Model for Constrained Optimum Water Pricing and Capacity Expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies of optimum water pricing and capacity expansion have ignored the political and administrative factors which limit the range of feasible decisions. A general model is presented for identifying the water price horizon so as to maximize the present value of net benefits. Constraints on the range of water price, the rate of price change, and financial cost recovery are included in the model. The model is applied to a hypothetical case study of an urban water supply system. The results indicate that optimum water pricing and capacity expansion policies are likely to achieve some increase in economic benefits when compared with average cost pricing. Administrative and political constraints tend to reduce these benefits but result in more acceptable pricing policies.

Dandy, G. C.; McBean, E. A.; Hutchinson, B. G.

1984-05-01

64

Measuring optical absorption coefficient of pure water in UV using the integrating cavity absorption meter.  

E-print Network

to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Chair of Committee, Edward S. Fry Committee Members, Robert A. Kenefick Alexei Sokolov Goong... Chen Head of Department, Edward S. Fry May 2008 Major Subject: Physics iii ABSTRACT Measuring Optical Absorption Coefficient of Pure Water in UV Using the Integrating Cavity Absorption Meter. (May 2008) Ling Wang, B.S., Peking...

Wang, Ling

2008-10-10

65

Measurement of atmospheric precipitable water using a solar radiometer. [water vapor absorption effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique is described and tested that allows the determination of atmospheric precipitable water from two measurements of solar intensity: one in a water-vapor absorption band and another in a nearby spectral region unaffected by water vapor.

Pitts, D. E.; Dillinger, A. E.; Mcallum, W. E.

1974-01-01

66

30 CFR 75.1107-7 - Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-7 Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum...

2010-07-01

67

Atmospheric Precorrected Differential Absorption technique to retrieve columnar water vapor  

SciTech Connect

Differential absorption techniques are suitable to retrieve the total column water vapor contents from imaging spectroscopy data. A technique called Atmospheric Precorrected Differential Absorption (APDA) is derived directly from simplified radiative transfer equations. It combines a partial atmospheric correction with a differential absorption technique. The atmospheric path radiance term is iteratively corrected during the retrieval of water vapor. This improves the results especially over low background albedos. The error of the method for various ground reflectance spectra is below 7% for most of the spectra. The channel combinations for two test cases are then defined, using a quantitative procedure, which is based on MODTRAN simulations and the image itself. An error analysis indicates that the influence of aerosols and channel calibration is minimal. The APDA technique is then applied to two AVIRIS images acquired in 1991 and 1995. The accuracy of the measured water vapor columns is within a range of {+-}5% compared to ground truth radiosonde data.

Schlaepfer, D.; Itten, K.I. [Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland). Dept. of Geography] [Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland). Dept. of Geography; Borel, C.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Keller, J. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)] [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)

1998-09-01

68

Enhancing Water Supply Reliability Through Improved Predictive Capacity and Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project is a multi-pronged approach to enhancing water supply reliability from the Colorado River and encouraging dissemination of new scientific information into the water management process. The science of linking paleoclimatology and climate modeling to stream flow predictions and river system operational models is advancing rapidly. However, there is a time lag between scientific advances and their use by water managers in supply planning and reservoir operations. We have assessed current Bureau of Reclamation use of climate information in river modeling and management and are identifying strategies to better utilize paleoclimatology, climate forecasts and climate change predictions to improve water supply predictive capacity for the lower Colorado River and the Central Arizona Project. Our research questions, which were initially based on an assessment of stakeholder needs, include extending the paleoclimatic record and doing statistical reanalysis of existing tree ring data to expand our understanding of past water supply variability and drought; evaluating the potential to input new types of information, such as precipitation data downscaled from global climate models, into the CRSS model; identifying state and federal management tools to translate improved predictive capacity into enhanced supply reliability for water users; and developing practical supply reliability strategies for use by water users and managers at various scales. Project staffare participating in Bureau of Reclamation shortage sharing activities and distributing a quarterly newsletter on drought status for key stakeholders as part of this project.

Jacobs, K.; Meko, D.; Nijssen, B.; Colby, B.

2005-12-01

69

Method to estimate water storage capacity of capillary barriers - Discussion  

SciTech Connect

This is a brief comment on a previously published paper. The paper by Stormont and Morris[JGGE 124 (4):297-302] provides an interesting approach to computing water storage capacity of capillary barriers used as landfill covers. They correctly show that available water storage capacity can be increased up to a factor of two for a silt loam soil, when it is used in a capillary barrier as compared to existing as a deep soil profile. For this very reason such a capillary barrier, utilizing silt loam soil, was constructed and successfully tested at the U. S. Department of Energy?s Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Silt loam soil provides optimal water storage for capillary barriers and ensures minimal drainage. Less benefits are obtained when capillary barriers utilize more sandy soils. We would endorse a limited application of the method of Stormont and Morris. We suggest that there will be large uncertainties in field capacity, wilting point and water retention characteristics and only when these uncertainties are accounted for can such a method be used to provide sound engineering judgement for cover design. A recommended procedure for using this method would include actual field measurements of the soil hydraulic properties of the cover materials.

Gee, Glendon W. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Ward, Anderson L. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Meyer, Philip D. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

1998-11-01

70

Water vapor continuum: Whether collision-induced absorption is involved?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a series of recent publications, the idea is pursued to shed a new light on the theory of the water vapor continuum absorption invoking the mechanism of collision-induced absorption. In the opinion of the present author, a portion of theoretical suggestions on this subject is biased and may thus lead to untenable conclusions about the nature of the continuum. The most typical drawback consists of improper consideration of statistics in the ensemble of interacting monomers that lead to embedding incorrect statistical weights to various types of molecular pairs which can form. The current note aims at clarifying the term “collision-induced absorption” in order to avoid incongruity in understanding the nature of the water vapor continuum.

Vigasin, A. A.

2014-11-01

71

Optical absorption of pure water in the blue and ultraviolet  

E-print Network

..............................................................................................................61 4.7 Spectralon Absorption and Degradation..........................................................61 V ICAM VERSION-II..................................................................................................63 5.1 Quartz Powder... ocean waters. The resulting information can be used to investigate biological productivity, marine optical properties, interaction of winds and currents with ocean biology, and how human activities influence the oceanic enviroment. The spectral...

Lu, Zheng

2007-09-17

72

A Novel Absorption Cycle for Combined Water Heating, Dehumidification, and Evaporative Cooling  

SciTech Connect

In this study, development of a novel system for combined water heating, dehumidification, and space evaporative cooling is discussed. Ambient water vapor is used as a working fluid in an open system. First, water vapor is absorbed from an air stream into an absorbent solution. The latent heat of absorption is transferred into the process water that cools the absorber. The solution is then regenerated in the desorber, where it is heated by a heating fluid. The water vapor generated in the desorber is condensed and its heat of phase change is transferred to the process water in the condenser. The condensed water can then be used in an evaporative cooling process to cool the dehumidified air exiting the absorber, or it can be drained if primarily dehumidification is desired. Essentially, this open absorption cycle collects space heat and transfers it to process water. This technology is enabled by a membrane-based absorption/desorption process in which the absorbent is constrained by hydrophobic vapor-permeable membranes. Constraining the absorbent film has enabled fabrication of the absorber and desorber in a plate-and-frame configuration. An air stream can flow against the membrane at high speed without entraining the absorbent, which is a challenge in conventional dehumidifiers. Furthermore, the absorption and desorption rates of an absorbent constrained by a membrane are greatly enhanced. Isfahani and Moghaddam (Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 2013) demonstrated absorption rates of up to 0.008 kg/m2s in a membrane-based absorber and Isfahani et al. (Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 2013) have reported a desorption rate of 0.01 kg/m2s in a membrane-based desorber. The membrane-based architecture also enables economical small-scale systems, novel cycle configurations, and high efficiencies. The absorber, solution heat exchanger, and desorber are fabricated on a single metal sheet. In addition to the open arrangement and membrane-based architecture, another novel feature of the cycle is recovery of the solution heat energy exiting the desorber by process water (a process-solution heat exchanger ) rather than the absorber exiting solution (the conventional solution heat exchanger ). This approach has enabled heating the process water from an inlet temperature of 15 C to 57 C (conforming to the DOE water heater test standard) and interfacing the process water with absorbent on the opposite side of a single metal sheet encompassing the absorber, process-solution heat exchanger, and desorber. The system under development has a 3.2 kW water heating capacity and a target thermal coefficient of performance (COP) of 1.6.

CHUGH, Devesh [University of Florida, Gainesville; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Moghaddam, Saeed [University of Florida, Gainesville

2014-01-01

73

Dynamics of absorption properties along a latitudinal gradient: sources of absorption in Australian inland waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Australian inland waters are optically complex and vary spatially and temporally. Inversion of optical remote sensing data for the retrieval of optically active water quality constituents (chlorophyll, colored dissolved organic matter and total suspended solids) is impeded by the scarcity of inherent optical property (IOP) data sets. In 2012 a major measurement program commenced to improve understanding of IOPs in Australia. Seven large lakes were sampled along a latitudinal gradient in Eastern Australia; in situ observations were made of the absorption properties of the water quality during two epochs (wet and dry season). This study documents the seasonal, inter & intra lake variability of the absorption budget of Australian lakes. These data reveal the sources of biogeochemical constituents determining the light climate of lakes. Optically active water quality constituents (total suspended solids, chlorophyll-a, and colored dissolved organic matter) varied significantly between wet and dry season and between lakes. The primary contribution to the absorption budget was from non-algal particulate matter (NAP; 10-60%), followed by colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM; 20-80%). Absorption from phytoplankton contributed only 0-30% of the total budget. This indicates that these lakes are primarily light limited, though the limitation comes from multiple sources. The contribution of NAP to the total absorption budget showed the greatest amount of variance between wet and dry seasons. Examination of the organic matter and estimated phytoplankton biomass contributions to TSS reveal that chlorophyll is not the primary source of organic matter in Australian lakes: allochthonous inputs are the primary trophic driver. Finally, there is strong regional and seasonal variation in the IOPs of the lakes, with the exception of the slope of CDOM. The slope of CDOM was not significantly different between seasons (p=0.94). Non-parametric stepwise multiple comparisons showed the slope of CDOM was significantly different for only one lake, a mid-latitude, shallow, highly turbid diversion dam. The remaining IOP variability casts doubt on the suitability of a single parameterization for inland water remote sensing algorithms, with the possible exception of CDOM. IOP datasets representing the optical complexity and variability of geophysical and trophic conditions are needed for successful remote sensing application.

Hestir, E. L.; Campbell, G.; Malthus, T. J.; Dekker, A.; Botha, E.

2013-12-01

74

Water balance in Tenebrio molitor , L. Larvae; the effect of atmospheric water absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fasting mealworms gain weight in 98 and 92, but not in 85% R.H. at rates which increase with humidity and animal size above a threshold of 88.2%. Weight gains are associated with substantial increases in body water content and considerable haemolymph dilution. Blocking the anus eliminates weight gains confirming the rectum as the probable site of atmospheric absorption. No absorption

John Machin

1975-01-01

75

Feasibility study of ammonia-water vapor absorption heat transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many industrial sectors reject heat to the atmosphere in the form of hot water with a temperature between 40° and 70°C. This low grade heat can be upgraded by using a vapor absorption heat transformer (AHT). The present study considers a single stage AHT with binary mixture of NHâ-HâO as the working fluid. The performance characteristics of the system have

A. Ertas; P. Gandhidasan; J. J. Luthan

1987-01-01

76

Physical and Water Absorption Characteristics of Some Improved Rice Varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical and water absorption characteristics of paddy and brown rice from some early maturing Oryza sativa varieties and newly developed interspecific (O. sativa × Oryza glaberrima) rice varieties were studied. The physical dimensions (length, breadth and width, length\\/width ratio, equivalent diameter),\\u000a grain surface area and volume, sphericity, 1,000-kernel weight, bulk and true densities as well as porosity were determined.

Taofik Akinyemi Shittu; M. B. Olaniyi; A. A. Oyekanmi; K. A. Okeleye

77

Airborne differential absorption lidar system for water vapor investigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Range-resolved water vapor measurements using the differential-absorption lidar (DIAL) technique is described in detail. The system uses two independently tunable optically pumped lasers operating in the near infrared with laser pulses of less than 100 microseconds separation, to minimize concentration errors caused by atmospheric scattering. Water vapor concentration profiles are calculated for each measurement by a minicomputer, in real time. The work is needed in the study of atmospheric motion and thermodynamics as well as in forestry and agriculture problems.

Browell, E. V.; Carter, A. F.; Wilkerson, T. D.

1981-01-01

78

21 CFR 130.12 - General methods for water capacity and fill of containers.  

...2014-04-01 false General methods for water capacity and fill of containers. 130...Provisions § 130.12 General methods for water capacity and fill of containers. For...act: (a) The term general method for water capacity of containers means the...

2014-04-01

79

Infrared Water Vapor Continuum Absorption: New Atmospheric Electrical Measurements and Theory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The infrared (IR) continuum absorption, and probably similar absorption at longer wavelengths, can be attributed to populations of electrically-neutral water clusters that are present in near-Gaussian size distributions in water vapor and moist air. These...

H. R. Carlon

1989-01-01

80

Experimental Investigations on the Characteristics of the Ammonia-Water Absorption Refrigerator for Low Temperature Solution Cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report refers to some static characteristics of the ammonia-water absorption refrigerator for low temperature refrigerating process which needs the temperature below the freezing point. Especially, the influence of evaporating temperature and cooling water temperature is clarified by the experimental investigation. In addition to this, the validity of constructed simulation model of this absorption refrigerator is mentioned. The validity of simulation model is verified by the comparison of experimental results and calculation. To examine the characteristics, we conducted the performance test using the trial product of which the standard cooling capacity is 175kW. The performance is estimated according to cooling capacity and COP. As a result, the effects of the evaporating temperature and cooling water temperature on the cooling performance are clarified by the experimental research. Furthermore, the calculation of the static characteristics predicted by the simulation model is in good agreements with the experimental results.

Takei, Toshitaka; Kimijima, Shinji; Saito, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Sunao

81

Absorption capacity of major urban afforestation species in northeastern China to heavy metal pollutants in the atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Totally 24 arbor tree species and 6 shrub species were measured on their absorption capacities to heavy metal Pb, Cd, Cr,\\u000a and Hg by collecting and analyzing the leaves of trees along different streets in Harbin city in Sept. to Oct. of 2003. The\\u000a results showed that all the measured species had certain absorbency to the pollutants (Pb, Cd, Cr

Mu Li-qiang; Sun Hai-yan; Zhu Ning

2004-01-01

82

Human skin binding and absorption of contaminants from ground and surface water during swimming and bathing  

SciTech Connect

Contaminants exist in ground and surface water. Human skin has the capacity to bind and then absorb these contaminants into the body during swimming and bathing. Powdered human stratum corneum will bind both lipid-soluble (alachlor, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), benzene) and water-soluble (nitroaniline) chemicals. In vitro (Human skin) and in vivo (Rhesus monkey) studies show that these chemicals readily distribute into skin, and then some of the chemical is absorbed into the body. Linearity in binding and absorption exists for nitroaniline over a 10-fold concentration range. Multiple exposure to benzene is at least cumulative. Binding and adsorption can be significant for exposures as short as 30 minutes, and will increase with time. Adsorption with water dilution increased for alachlor, but not for dinoseb. Soap reversed the partitioning of alachlor between human stratum corneum and water. The PCBs could be removed from skin by soap and water for up to 3 hours and the decontamination potential decreased, due to continuing skin absorption. The model that in vitro and in vivo systems used should permit easy estimation of this area of extensive human exposure effect on risk assessment. 5 refs., 9 tabs.

Wester, R.C.; Maibach, H.I. (California Univ., San Francisco (USA))

1989-10-01

83

A Water Vapor Differential Absorption LIDAR Design for Unpiloted Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This system study proposes the deployment of a water vapor Differential Absorption LIDAR (DIAL) system on an Altair unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platform. The Altair offers improved payload weight and volume performance, and longer total flight time as compared to other commercial UAV's. This study has generated a preliminary design for an Altair based water vapor DIAL system. The design includes a proposed DIAL schematic, a review of mechanical challenges such as temperature and humidity stresses on UAV deployed DIAL systems, an assessment of the available capacity for additional instrumentation (based on the proposed design), and an overview of possible weight and volume improvements associated with the use of customized electronic and computer hardware, and through the integration of advanced fiber-optic and laser products. The results of the study show that less than 17% of the available weight, less than 19% of the volume capacity, and approximately 11% of the electrical capacity is utilized by the proposed water vapor DIAL system on the Altair UAV.

DeYoung, Russell J.; Mead, Patricia F.

2004-01-01

84

Using spectral information from the NIR water absorption features for the retrieval of canopy water content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canopy water content (CWC) is important for mapping and monitoring the condition of the terrestrial ecosystem. Spectral information related to the water absorption features at 970nm and 1200nm offers possibilities for deriving information on CWC. In this study, we compare the use of derivative spectra, spectral indices and continuum removal techniques for these regions. Hyperspectral reflectance data representing a range

J. G. P. W. Clevers; L. Kooistra; M. E. Schaepman

2008-01-01

85

Evaluation of interchain heat capacity ratio and ultrasonic absorption in polymers from the lattice Gruneisen parameter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relationship between the lattice and thermodynamic Gruneisen parameters for a polymer has been examined and analysed in the case of several polymers. An expression for the lattice Gruneisen parameter and the interchain heat capacity ratio in terms of the cubical thermal expansion coefficient has been obtained. Calculated data on the Gruneisen parameter, interchain heat capacity ratio and interchain isobaric

B. K. Sharma

1982-01-01

86

Community Capacity for Adaptation to Climate-Induced Water Shortages: Linking Institutional Complexity and Local Actors  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing concern for the capacity of urban and rural communities to manage current water shortages and to prepare for shortages that may accompany predicted changes in climate. In this paper, concepts relating to the notion of climate adaptation and particularly “capacity building” are used to elucidate several determinants of community-level capacity for water management. These concepts and criteria

Janet L. Ivey; John Smithers; Rob C. de Loë; Reid D. Kreutzwiser

2004-01-01

87

Sensitivity of the global water cycle to the water-holding capacity of land  

SciTech Connect

The sensitivity of the global water cycle to the water-holding capacity of the plant-root zone of continental soils is estimated by simulations using a mathematical model of the general circulation of the atmosphere, with prescribed ocean surface temperatures and prescribed cloud. With an increase of the globally constant storage capacity, evaporation from the continents rises and runoff falls, because a high storage capacity enhances the ability of the soil to store water from periods of excess for later evaporation during periods of shortage. In addition, atmospheric feedbacks associated with higher precipitation and lower potential evaporation drive further changes in evaporation and runoff. Most changes in evaporation and runoff occur in the tropics and the northern middle-latitude rain belts. Global evaporation from land increases by 7 cm for each doubling of storage capacity. Sensitivity is negligible for capacity above 60 cm. In the tropics and in the extratropics,increased continental evaporation is split between increased continental precipitation and decreased convergence of atmospheric water vapor from ocean to land. In the tropics, this partitioning is strongly affected by induced circulation changes, which are themselves forced by changes in latent heating. In the northern middle and high latitudes, the increased continental evaporation moistens the atmosphere. This change in humidity of the atmosphere is greater above the continents than above the oceans, and the resulting reduction in the sea-land humidity gradient causes a decreased onshore transport of water vapor by transient eddies. Results here may have implications for problems in global hydrology and climate dynamics, including effects of water resource development on global precipitation, climatic control of plant rooting characteristics, climatic effects of tropical deforestation, and climate-model errors. 21 refs., 13 figs., 21 tabs.

Milly, P.C.D.; Dunne, K.A. (Geological Survey, Princeton, NJ (United States))

1994-04-01

88

Antioxidant capacity of bioactives extracted from canola meal by subcritical water, ethanolic and hot water extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant compounds were extracted from canola meal by subcritical water extraction (SWE) at 110 and 160°C, hot water extraction (80°C) and ethanolic (95%, v\\/v) extraction. The highest extract yields were obtained with SWE at 160°C. The total phenolics contents and antioxidant capacities of extracts were assessed by the total phenolics assay (using Folin–Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent), the 2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging

Majid Hassas-Roudsari; Peter R. Chang; Ronald B. Pegg; Robert T. Tyler

2009-01-01

89

Stepwise chilling: tender pork without compromising water-holding capacity.  

PubMed

The current pork slaughter process is primarily optimized to reduce cooler shrink and the incidence of PSE pork. Elimination of the halothane gene and improved preslaughter handling have decreased the incidence of PSE pork and improved the water-holding capacity of the muscle; however, the chilling process has not been optimized to accommodate these changes. The hypothesis that stepwise chilling could improve tenderness without compromising water-holding capacity was tested in this study. The stepwise chilling treatments were composed of a rapid chilling to 10 or 15 degrees C (in a chilling tunnel) and a 6-h holding period at 10 or 15 degrees C, followed by rapid chilling to 4 degrees C. Both treatments were compared directly with a chilling treatment that simulated conventional tunnel chilling; one carcass half from each pig was allocated to a stepwise chilling treatment, whereas the other carcass half was allocated to the control treatment. A total of 42 pigs were slaughtered on 6 slaughter days. Biopsies were collected for analysis of glycogen degradation and glycogen debranching enzyme activity from slaughter until 72 h postmortem, and samples for color, sarcomere length, drip loss, Warner-Bratzler shear force, and sensory analysis were removed from the carcass 24 h postmortem. Substantial temperature differences were obtained during the holding period between the stepwise and conventionally chilled carcass halves. These had almost, but not completely, disappeared by 22 h postmortem, and although the differences were small, pH was significantly (P < 0.01) less in the stepwise-chilled carcasses compared with the control carcasses. The stepwise chilling treatments led to significantly improved (P < 0.01) tenderness in LM without compromising quality indicators or attributes such as pH, drip loss, or ham processing yield, although color of the stepwise-chilled pork was affected. Neither the tenderness of processed semimembranosus muscle nor the shear force of biceps femoris muscle was affected (P > 0.05) because of the smaller temperature differences in these muscles. The improvements in tenderness could be solely attributed to the increased proteolysis postmortem in the stepwise-chilled carcasses, with the greater temperatures favoring proteolytic enzymes involved in muscle protein degradation. Furthermore, the results for glycogen metabolism successfully revealed that both pro- and macroglycogen contributed to the energy generation in postmortem muscles, with degradation of both forms early postmortem. PMID:20118418

Rosenvold, K; Borup, U; Therkildsen, M

2010-05-01

90

Understanding the Hydrologic Characteristics and Absorption Capacity of Bioretention Areas Kathryn Shepard  

E-print Network

storm events. REFERENCES Atlanta Regional Commission. 2001. Georgia storm water management manual of storm water best management practices. Available at http://cfpub.epa.gov/npdes of both water quantity and quality issues. From a water quantity stand point, bioretention areas

Arnold, Jonathan

91

Breath hydrogen test for lactose absorption capacity: importance of timing of hydrogen excretion and of high fasting hydrogen concentration.  

PubMed

The breath hydrogen (H2) test for lactose absorption capacity is a simple, noninvasive method for the determination of the adult lactase phenotypes, lactose absorber and malabsorber, in healthy subjects. Two breath H2 tests with a load of 50 g lactose monohydrate were performed on 25 healthy adult lactose malabsorbers in order to determine the validity of simplified versions of the test for field studies. A high variability of peak H2 excretion times, rapid changes in breath H2 concentrations and a significant correlation of intraindividual peak H2 excretion times were observed. High fasting excretion of H2 in breath was a frequent cause of misclassification of probands. It is recommended that at least three breath samples per proband should be collected in field studies of lactose absorption and that special diagnostic criteria be applied in classifying subjects with high initial H2 excretion. PMID:6711477

Flatz, G; Kühnau, W; Naftali, D

1984-05-01

92

Using spectral information from the NIR water absorption features for the retrieval of canopy water content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Canopy water content (CWC) is important for mapping and monitoring the condition of the terrestrial ecosystem. Spectral information related to the water absorption features at 970 nm and 1200 nm offers possibilities for deriving information on CWC. In this study, we compare the use of derivative spectra, spectral indices and continuum removal techniques for these regions. Hyperspectral reflectance data representing a range of canopies were simulated using the combined PROSPECT + SAILH model. Best results in estimating CWC were obtained by using spectral derivatives at the slopes of the 970 nm and 1200 nm water absorption features. Real data from two different test sites were analysed. Spectral information at both test sites was obtained with an ASD FieldSpec spectrometer, whereas at the second site HyMap airborne imaging spectrometer data were also acquired. Best results were obtained for the derivative spectra. In order to avoid the potential influence of atmospheric water vapour absorption bands the derivative of the reflectance on the right slope of the canopy water absorption feature at 970 nm can best be used for estimating CWC.

Clevers, J. G. P. W.; Kooistra, L.; Schaepman, M. E.

2008-09-01

93

The Impacts of Different Expansion Modes on Performance of Small Solar Energy Firms: Perspectives of Absorptive Capacity  

PubMed Central

The characteristics of firm's expansion by differentiated products and diversified products are quite different. However, the study employing absorptive capacity to examine the impacts of different modes of expansion on performance of small solar energy firms has never been discussed before. Then, a conceptual model to analyze the tension between strategies and corporate performance is proposed to filling the vacancy. After practical investigation, the results show that stronger organizational institutions help small solar energy firms expanded by differentiated products increase consistency between strategies and corporate performance; oppositely, stronger working attitudes with weak management controls help small solar energy firms expanded by diversified products reduce variance between strategies and corporate performance. PMID:24453837

Chen, Hsing Hung; Shen, Tao; Xu, Xin-long; Ma, Chao

2013-01-01

94

The impacts of different expansion modes on performance of small solar energy firms: perspectives of absorptive capacity.  

PubMed

The characteristics of firm's expansion by differentiated products and diversified products are quite different. However, the study employing absorptive capacity to examine the impacts of different modes of expansion on performance of small solar energy firms has never been discussed before. Then, a conceptual model to analyze the tension between strategies and corporate performance is proposed to filling the vacancy. After practical investigation, the results show that stronger organizational institutions help small solar energy firms expanded by differentiated products increase consistency between strategies and corporate performance; oppositely, stronger working attitudes with weak management controls help small solar energy firms expanded by diversified products reduce variance between strategies and corporate performance. PMID:24453837

Chen, Hsing Hung; Shen, Tao; Xu, Xin-Long; Ma, Chao

2013-01-01

95

Enhancement of the grafting performance and of the water absorption of cassava starch graft copolymer by gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enhancement of the gamma radiation grafting of acrylonitrile onto gelatinized cassava starch was investigated. Infrared spectrometry was used to follow the chemical changes in the grafting reaction and from saponification. The saponified starch- g-PAN (HSPAN) was then characterized in terms of grafting parameters to provide a guide for the optimum total dose (kGy) and the appropriate ratio of starch/acrylonitrile for a fixed dose rate of 2.5 × 10 -1 kGy/min. Other dose rates were also carried out to obtain the appropriate result of grafting copolymerization and of water absorption. A thin aluminium foil, covering the inner wall of the reaction vessel, was found to be far more effective than any other metal films in the enhancement of the grafting reaction and the water absorption as well. Nitric acid in the medium increases the grafting yield and the water absorption. Methyl ether hydroquinone inhibitor was evaluated for its ability to increase homopolymerization and decrease graft reaction. When styrene was used as a comonomer, it hampered the grafting of acrylonitrile onto starch backbone. The water absorption capacity was improved by freeze-drying the HSPAN. The treatment of the HSPAN with aluminium trichloride hexahydrate was found to enhance the degree of wicking, but to decrease the water absorbency.

Kiatkamjornwong, Suda; Meechai, Nispa

1997-06-01

96

The correlation between molecular motions and heat capacity in normal ice and water  

E-print Network

The heat capacities of ice and water at ambient pressure are reexamined to build an intrinsic correlation between H2O molecular motions and the heat capacity. Based on the evolution of H2O molecular motions, a satisfactory description of the heat capacity of ice and water is provided. The heat capacity of ice is related not only to H2O molecular vibrations, but also to the molecular rotations. In water, all H2O molecular vibrations, rotations and translations contribute to the heat capacity. The molecular translational motions are found to be the main contribution to the large heat capacity of water. The results provide a deep insight into the nature of water and ice at ambient pressure.

Ke, Hai Bo; Wang, Wei Hua

2011-01-01

97

Studies on the Water Absorption of Bamboo-Epoxy Composites: The Effect of Silane Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of silane treatments on the water absorption properties of bamboo matting reinforced epoxy composites were investigated. Treatments using ?-Aminopropyltriethoxy silane, 3-trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate, Vinyltris(2-methoxyethoxy)silane, Bis[3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl] tetrasulfide, 3-aminopropyltrimethoxy silane and n-Octyltrimethoxy silane were carried out to study the water absorption property of the bamboo composites. Water absorption in the composites was studied by long-term immersion and 2 h boiling in distilled

Pradeep K. Kushwaha; Rakesh Kumar

2010-01-01

98

An institutional perspective on local capacity for source water protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provision of safe drinking water is one of the global challenges of the 21st century. Effective water treatment is a key aspect of drinking water safety. However, just as important is ensuring that sources of drinking water such as rivers and aquifers are protected from contamination. In that context, source water protection is recognized as the first barrier in a

J. L. Ivey; R. de Loë; R. Kreutzwiser; C. Ferreyra

2006-01-01

99

Micropulse water vapor differential absorption lidar: transmitter design and performance.  

PubMed

An all diode-laser-based micropulse differential absorption lidar (DIAL) laser transmitter for tropospheric water vapor and aerosol profiling is presented. The micropulse DIAL (MPD) transmitter utilizes two continuous wave (cw) external cavity diode lasers (ECDL) to seed an actively pulsed, overdriven tapered semiconductor optical amplifier (TSOA). The MPD laser produces up to 7 watts of peak power over a 1 µs pulse duration (7 µJ) and a 10 kHz pulse repetition frequency. Spectral switching between the online and offline seed lasers is achieved on a 1Hz basis using a fiber optic switch to allow for more accurate sampling of the atmospheric volume between the online and offline laser shots. The high laser spectral purity of greater than 0.9996 coupled with the broad tunability of the laser transmitter will allow for accurate measurements of tropospheric water vapor in a wide range of geographic locations under varying atmospheric conditions. This paper describes the design and performance characteristics of a third generation MPD laser transmitter with enhanced laser performance over the previous generation DIAL system. PMID:23187280

Nehrir, Amin R; Repasky, Kevin S; Carlsten, John L

2012-10-22

100

Factors Affecting the Water Holding Capacity of Red Meat Products: A Review of Recent Research Advances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water holding capacity of meat products is a very important quality attribute which has an influence on product yield, which in turn has economic implications, but is also important in terms of eating quality. A number of pre-and post-mortem factors influence the water holding capacity (WHC) of meat. During the growth and development of meat animals, genotype and animal

Qiaofen Cheng; Da-Wen Sun

2008-01-01

101

Contribution of H-bond vibrations to heat capacity of water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of the anomalously large value of the heat capacity of liquid water is discussed. Comparing the temperature dependence of the heat capacities for water with those for argon and hydrogen sulfide, we separate contributions of the translational and rotational degrees of freedom. The residual part is considered as being caused by the specific contributions of the transversal vibrations

Sergey V. Lishchuk; Nikolay P. Malomuzh; Pavel V. Makhlaichuk

2011-01-01

102

Seasonal variability in the light absorption properties of western Arctic waters: Parameterization of the individual components of absorption for ocean color applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The light absorption properties of particulate and dissolved materials strongly influence the propagation of visible light in oceanic waters and therefore the accuracy of ocean color algorithms. While the general absorption properties of these materials have been reported for Arctic waters, their seasonal variability remains unknown. We investigated the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton [a$\\\\varphi$(?)], nonalgal particles [aNAP(?)], and colored

Atsushi Matsuoka; Victoria Hill; Yannick Huot; Marcel Babin; Annick Bricaud

2011-01-01

103

Comparison of reflectance with backscatter and absorption parameters for turbid waters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relation of reflectance to backscatter and absorption parameters is investigated for waters more turbid than those of previous investigations. Experimental data are examined for river waters in which beam attenuation values range from 8.9 to 18.9 per m at 550 nm. Attenuation, absorption, backscatter, and irradiance reflectance spectral properties are presented for wavelengths between 450 and 800 nm. Comparisons of reflectance with backscatter to absorption ratio and backscatter with absorption plus backscatter ratio indicate that data for turbid waters do not fit linear or polynomial models which are presently available in the literature.

Whitlock, C. H.; Poole, L. R.; Usry, J. W.; Houghton, W. M.; Witte, W. G.; Morris, W. D.; Gurganus, E. A.

1981-01-01

104

LEO-LEO OCCULTATIONS MEASURING WATER VAPOR AND TEMPERATURE VIA ABSORPTION  

E-print Network

of water vapor at these altitudes. Utilizing the 22 GHz and the 183 GHz water vapor ab- sorption linesLEO-LEO OCCULTATIONS MEASURING WATER VAPOR AND TEMPERATURE VIA ABSORPTION S. Syndergaard, B. M of water vapor. Water vapor as well as dry air affects the refractivity of the atmosphere

105

Research on the Risk of Water Shortages and the Carrying Capacity of Water Resources in Yiwu, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carrying capacity of water resources is defined as the maximum volume of water suitable for supporting human activity in certain stages of social development that can be borne by water resources under favorable ecological conditions. The results of other studies that have been performed in Yiwu City, China, indicate that water shortages in this city are not related to

Lihua H. Feng; Xingcai Zhang; Gaoyuan Luo

2009-01-01

106

Hydrogen capacity and absorption rate of the SAES St707 non-evaporable getter at various temperatures.  

SciTech Connect

A prototype of a tritium thermoelectric generator (TTG) is currently being developed at Sandia. In the TTG, a vacuum jacket reduces the amount of heat lost from the high temperature source via convection. However, outgassing presents challenges to maintaining a vacuum for many years. Getters are chemically active substances that scavenge residual gases in a vacuum system. In order to maintain the vacuum jacket at approximately 1.0 x 10{sup -4} torr for decades, nonevaporable getters that can operate from -55 C to 60 C are going to be used. This paper focuses on the hydrogen capacity and absorption rate of the St707{trademark} non-evaporable getter by SAES. Using a getter testing manifold, we have carried out experiments to test these characteristics of the getter over the temperature range of -77 C to 60 C. The results from this study can be used to size the getter appropriately.

Hsu, Irving; Mills, Bernice E.

2010-08-01

107

Water resources carrying capacity analysis in Strategic Environmental Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resources is the essential and basic natural resources for human living, it is one of the most important factors for restricting natural environment, human survival and development. China is facing serious water pollution and water shortages. In this paper, based on \\

Jie Ding; Jianfu Zhao; Zengsheng Zhang

2011-01-01

108

Water governance: trends and needs for new capacity development  

Microsoft Academic Search

New forms of governance focusing on process-oriented societal co-steering through, for example, formal and informal networks, partnerships and dialogue, have emerged within the water sector. The governance transformation is intrinsically linked to the increasing focus on the complexity of water management and the multifunctional character of water and the search for alternative forms of organisation. The emergence of concepts like

Hakan Tropp

2007-01-01

109

Determination of the water vapor continuum absorption by THz-TDS and Molecular  

E-print Network

Determination of the water vapor continuum absorption by THz-TDS and Molecular Response Theory: Determination of the water vapor continuum absorption from 0.35 to 1 THz is reported. The THz pulses propagate though a 137 m long humidity-controlled chamber and are measured by THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz

Oklahoma State University

110

Stratum Corneum Damage and ex vivo Porcine Skin Water Absorption – A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple ex vivo screening technique would be of interest for mass screening of substances for potential barrier disruptive qualities. Ex vivo water absorption as a marker of skin barrier integrity was studied on pig ear skin. Skin water absorption was quantified by weighing and weight changes were found to reflect prehydration barrier damage. It is suggested that this simple

C. Duch Lynggaard; D. Bang Knudsen; G. B. E. Jemec

2009-01-01

111

Effect of water absorption on the mechanical properties of hemp fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemp fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester composites (HFRUPE) were subjected to water immersion tests in order to study the effects of water absorption on the mechanical properties. HFRUPE composites specimens containing 0, 0.10, 0.15, 0.21 and 0.26 fibre volume fraction were prepared. Water absorption tests were conducted by immersing specimens in a de-ionised water bath at 25°C and 100°C for different

H. N. Dhakal; Z. Y. Zhang; M. O. W. Richardson

2007-01-01

112

Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model for water resources carrying capacity in Tarim River Basin, Xinjiang, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the method of comprehensive evaluation of water resources carrying capacity and sets up an evaluation\\u000a model applying the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. Based on the data of nature, society, economics and water resources\\u000a of the Tarim River Basin in 2002, we evaluated the water resources carrying capacity of the basin by means of the model. The\\u000a results

Lihong Meng; Yaning Chen; Weihong Li; Ruifeng Zhao

2009-01-01

113

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE ABSORPTION IN DISTILLED WATER, ARTIFICIAL SEA WATER, AND HEAVY WATER IN THE VISIBLE REGION OF THE SPECTRUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption of light in distilled water, artificial sea water, and ; heavy water was measured in the visible region. A Nielsen spectrometer with ; glass optics was used with a tungsten source and photomultiplier detector. Path ; lengths were 60.0 and 132.0 cm. The absorption in distilled and artificiai sea ; water differs little; maxima below 745 m mu

SERAPHIN A. SULLIVAN

1963-01-01

114

IR Absorption Coefficients for the Quantification of Water in Hydrous Ringwoodite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectroscopy, combined with the 'Comparator technique' has been developed to determine water contents ranging from a few wt ppm to wt% in glasses and nominally anhydrous minerals including garnets, olivine, and SiO2 polymorphs (Thomas et al. 2009). The routine is one promising example of quantification tools to determine mineral specific molar absorption coefficients (?) for IR spectroscopy. Mineral specific absorption coefficients are required because general IR calibrations do not necessarily apply to minerals with water incorporated as hydroxyl point defects. Here we utilize the 'Comparator technique' to provide ?-values for a set of synthetic Fe-free (Fo100) and Fe-bearing (Fo90, Fo87, Fo83, Fo60) ringwoodites, as well as for ?-Mg2GeO4. Ringwoodite is considered one of the major phases of the Earth's lower transition zone (520-660 km depth) and the knowledge of its absolute water storage capacity is essential for modeling the Earth's deep water cycle. Samples were synthesized at variable P-T conditions in a multi-anvil press and cover a range of OH contents. Single-crystals were characterized using X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. Mineral specific IR absorption coefficients were calculated from independently determined water contents from Raman spectroscopy. Unpolarized IR spectra of Mg-ringwoodite show broad absorption features in the OH region with band maxima at ~2350, 2538, 3130, 3172, 3598 and 3688 cm-1. In the spectra of Fe-bearing ringwoodite and ?-Mg2GeO4 the maxima of the main OH band are shifted to 3244 cm-1 (Fo60) and 3207 cm-1, respectively. For Mg-ringwoodite with the mean wavenumber (area-weighted average of the peak position) of 3170 cm-1 an ?-value of 191500 ± 38300 L cm-2/ molH2O was determined. For the ringwoodites with Fo90, Fo87 and Fo83 composition and the mean wavenumbers of 3229 cm-1, 3252 cm-1 and 3163 cm-1 values of 123600 ± 24700 L cm-2/ molH2O, 176300 ± 52900 L cm-2/ molH2O and 155000 ± 46500 L cm-2/ molH2O were computed. Our value for pure Mg-ringwoodite is in very good agreement with the value according to Libowitzky & Rossman (1997) and the absorption coefficient proposed by Balan et al. (2008), but is higher than the extrapolated value from Koch-Müller & Rhede (2010). However, in case of the sample with Fo60 composition water content and ?-value determined here are in excellent agreement with those calculated by Koch-Müller & Rhede (2010). Here, we will further discuss general IR calibrations and the dependence of ? on structure, composition and frequency for the (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 polymorphs in the mantle. We agree with the findings of Koch-Müller & Rhede (2010), which report that using the calibrations according to Paterson (1982) and Libowitzky & Rossman (1997) leads to a water content underestimation in case of Fe-rich (Fay-Fo60) samples. At this point this cannot be generalized for Mg-rich ringwoodite. References Thomas et al. (2009), Phys. Chem. Mineral., 36, 489-509. Libowitzky & Rossman (1997), Am. Mineral., 82, 1111-1115. Koch-Müller & Rhede (2010), Am. Mineral., in press. Paterson (1982), Bull. Mineral. (Paris), 105, 20-29.

Thomas, Sylvia-Monique; Jacobsen, Steven D.; Bina, Craig R.; Smyth, Joseph R.; Frost, Daniel J.

2010-05-01

115

Experimentally determined water storage capacity in the Earth's upper mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trace amounts of hydrogen dissolved as defects in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) in the mantle are believed to play a key role in physical and chemical processes in the Earth’s upper mantle. Hence, the estimation of water storage in mantle phases and solubility mechanisms are important in order to better understand the effect of water. Experimental data on water solubility in NAMs are available for upper mantle minerals such as olivine, pyroxenes and garnet. However, the majority of studies are based on the study of single phases, and at temperatures or pressures that are too low for the Earth’s upper mantle. The aim of this study is to constrain the combined effects of pressure, temperature and composition on water solubility in olivine and orthopyroxene under upper mantle conditions. The solubility of water in coexisting orthopyroxene and olivine was investigated by simultaneously synthesizing the two phases at high pressure and high temperature in a multi-anvil press. Experiments were performed under water-saturated conditions in the MSH systems with Fe and Al at 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 9 GPa and temperatures between 1175 and 1400°C. Integrated OH absorbances were determined using polarized infrared spectroscopy on doubly polished thin sections of randomly oriented crystals. Water solubility in olivine increases with pressure and decreases with temperature as has been described previously (Bali et al., 2008). The aluminum content strongly decreases in olivine with pressure from 0.09 wt% at 2.5 GPa and 1250°C to 0.04 wt% at 9 GPa and 1175°C. The incorporation of this trivalent cation in the system enhances water solubility in olivine even if present in trace amounts, however this behavior appears to reverse at high pressure. The effect of temperature on water solubility follows a bell-shaped curve with a maximum solubility in olivine and orthopyroxene at 1250°C. Aluminum is incorporated in orthopyroxene following the Tschermak substitution and strongly decreases as pressure increases. Water partitioning between orthopyroxene and olivine is always lower than 1 except at low pressure. However, it increases with the incorporation of aluminum wich results in water contents in olivine 5 times greater that in orthopyroxene at 7.5 GPa, despite aluminum preferentially entering into orthopyroxene. Finally, water partitioning between orthopyroxene and olivine decreases with pressure in the Al-free and -bearing system. The effect of temperature is more variable with pressure. The present data allows constructing a model of water solubility in olivine at all pressures and temperatures in the MFASH system. Combining this model with the presently measured partitioning of water between olivine and orthopyroxene, as well as previous data on solubility in clinopyroxene and garnet we are able to build a model of water saturation curve in the upper mantle. References Bali, E., Bolfan-Casanova, N., Koga, K.T., 2008. Pressure and temperature dependence of H solubility in forsterite : an implication to water activity in the Earth interior. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 268, 354-363.

Ferot, A.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.

2010-12-01

116

Investigation of Heat capacity and Specific Heat: Using Different Temperatures of Water and Solids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a chemistry lab-based investigation where students apply observational skills and critical thinking skills to finding specific heat and heat capacity using different temperatures of water and solids. A final activity will assess students understanding of specific heat and heat capacity and promote data analysis skills, using real-life situations.

117

Optical absorption and fluorescence properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in natural waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complete optical absorption and fluorescence spectra were collected for a diverse suite of 0.2-pm- filtered marine, riverine, and estuarine waters, as well as for colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) isolated from several of thcsc waters by solid-phase C,, extraction. Absorption and fluorescence parameters for these samples arc reported. For surface waters, variations in the fluorescence quantum yields obtained with 355-

SARAH A. GREEN; NEIL V. BLOUGH

1994-01-01

118

Studies on Water Absorption of Bamboo-Polyester Composites: Effect of Silane Treatment of Mercerized Bamboo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of silane treatments on the water absorption properties of mercerized bamboo matting reinforced polyester composites were investigated. Treatments using ?-Aminopropyltriethoxy silane, 3-trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate, Vinyltris(2-methoxyethoxy)silane, Bis[3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl] tetrasulfide, 3-aminopropyltrimethoxy silane and n-Octyltrimethoxy silane were carried out to improve the water resistant property of the bamboo fibers. Water absorption in the composites was studied by long-term immersion and 2 h boiling in

Pradeep K. Kushwaha; Rakesh Kumar

2009-01-01

119

Performance analysis of ammonia absorption GAX cycle for combined cooling and hot water supply modes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ammonia Generator–Absorber heat eXchange (GAX) absorption cycle with combined cooling and hot water supply modes is developed in this study. This paper proposes new multi-modes GAX cycles which function in three different modes (case 1, case 2 and case 3) of cooling and hot water supply with one hardware (ammonia\\/water GAX absorption heat pump), and finds the best cycle

Chan Woo Park; Junemo Koo; Yong Tae Kang

2008-01-01

120

The influence of water mixtures on the dermal absorption of glycol ethers  

SciTech Connect

Glycol ethers are solvents widely used alone and as mixtures in industrial and household products. Some glycol ethers have been shown to have a range of toxic effects in humans following absorption and metabolism to their aldehyde and acid metabolites. This study assessed the influence of water mixtures on the dermal absorption of butoxyethanol and ethoxyethanol in vitro through human skin. Butoxyethanol penetrated human skin up to sixfold more rapidly from aqueous solution (50%, 450 mg/ml) than from the neat solvent. Similarly penetration of ethoxyethanol was increased threefold in the presence of water (50%, 697 mg/ml). There was a corresponding increase in apparent permeability coefficient as the glycol ether concentration in water decreased. The maximum penetration rate of water also increased in the presence of both glycol ethers. Absorption through a synthetic membrane obeyed Fick's Law and absorption through rat skin showed a similar profile to human skin but with a lesser effect. The mechanisms for this phenomenon involves disruption of the stratum corneum lipid bilayer by desiccation by neat glycol ether micelles, hydration with water mixtures and the physicochemical properties of the glycol ether-water mixtures. Full elucidation of the profile of absorption of glycol ethers from mixtures is required for risk assessment of dermal exposure. This work supports the view that risk assessments for dermal contact scenarios should ideally be based on absorption data obtained for the relevant formulation or mixture and exposure scenario and that absorption derived from permeability coefficients may be inappropriate for water-miscible solvents.

Traynor, Matthew J. [Toxicology Unit, Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability and Medical School, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Simon C. [Toxicology Unit, Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability and Medical School, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Williams, Faith M. [Toxicology Unit, Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability and Medical School, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: F.M.Williams@ncl.ac.uk

2007-01-15

121

An upper limit for water dimer absorption in the 750 nm spectral region and a revised water line list  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absorption of solar radiation by water dimer molecules in the Earth's atmosphere has the potential to act as a positive feedback effect for climate change. There seems little doubt from the results of previous laboratory and theoretical studies that significant concentrations of the water dimer should be present in the atmosphere, yet attempts to detect water dimer absorption signatures in atmospheric field studies have so far yielded inconclusive results. Here we report spectral measurements in the near-infrared around 750 nm in the expected region of the | 0⟨f | 4⟩b|0 ⟩ overtone of the water dimer's hydrogen-bonded OH stretching vibration. The results were obtained using broadband cavity ringdown spectroscopy (BBCRDS), a methodology that allows absorption measurements to be made under controlled laboratory conditions but over absorption path lengths representative of atmospheric conditions. In order to account correctly and completely for the overlapping absorption of monomer molecules in the same spectral region, we have also constructed a new list of spectral data (UCL08) for the water monomer in the 750-20 000 cm-1 (13 ?m-500 nm) range. Our results show that the additional lines included in the UCL08 spectral database provide an improved representation of the measured water monomer absorption in the 750 nm region. No absorption features other than those attributable to the water monomer were detected in BBCRDS experiments performed on water vapour samples containing dimer concentrations up to an order of magnitude greater than expected in the ambient atmosphere. The absence of detectable water dimer features leads us to conclude that, in the absence of significant errors in calculated dimer oscillator strengths or monomer/dimer equilibrium constants, the widths of any water dimer absorption features present around 750 nm are of the order of 100 cm-1 HWHM, and certainly greater than the 25-30 cm-1 HWHM reported in the literature for lower energy water dimer transitions up to 8000 cm-1.

Shillings, A. J. L.; Ball, S. M.; Barber, M. J.; Tennyson, J.; Jones, R. L.

2011-05-01

122

Strengthening Sustainable Water Resources Adaptive Capacity To Climate Change, A Case Study in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change refers to the long-term variation, which may exacerbate short-term climate variability and more extreme events, and then may impact on human society and natural environment. Socioeconomic development is dependent on adequate water resources, but climate change may impact on such supply system, including available streamflow, groundwater, irrigation requirement and also impact on the sustainability for regional water alimentation. The purposes of this study are to assess the climate change impacts on regional water supply systems and to propose response strategies strengthening adaptive capacity to achieve sustainable water uses. To simulate the processes of surface water, a physical model, Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning (HBV) model, is used. A system dynamics approach using a specialized software tool, Vensim, is used to simulate a water supply system of the Danshuei river watershed in Taiwan to analyze the climate impacts on sustainable water resource utilization. In order to understand the improvement of adaptive capacity for all response strategies, adjusting parameters on a system dynamics model and a definition of a sustainable index is necessary to recognize the benefits of every response strategy. To make the adaptive strategies practical, the selection of adaptive strategies according to the governmental plan such as re-allocation of regional water resources and increase of water supply capacity will be discussed in the end. Hopefully, the adaptive capacity will be enhanced to mitigate climate change impacts on water supply system to achieve sustainable water uses.

Tung, C.; Chen, S.; Liu, T.; Yu, P.

2008-12-01

123

Adsorption of HCl on the water ice surface studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The adsorption state of HCl at 20 and 90 K on crystalline water ice films deposited under ultrahigh vacuum at 150 K has been studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the O1s K-edge and Cl2p L-edge. We show that HCl dissociates at temperatures as low as 20 K, in agreement with the prediction of a spontaneous ionization of HCl on ice. Comparison between the rate of saturation of the "dangling" hydrogen bonds and the chlorine uptake indicates that hydrogen bonding of HCl with the surface native water "dangling" groups only accounts for a small part of the ionization events (20% at 90 K). A further mechanism drives the rest of the dissociation/solvation process. We suggest that the weakening of the ice surface hydrogen-bond network after the initial HCl adsorption phase facilitates the generation of new dissociation/solvation sites, which increases the uptake capacity of ice. These results also emphasize the necessity to take into account not only a single dissociation event but its catalyzing effect on the subsequent events when modeling the uptake of hydrogen-bonding molecules on the ice surface. PMID:16851126

Parent, Ph; Laffon, C

2005-02-01

124

Water and solute absorption from carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions in the human proximal small intestine: a review and statistical analysis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to summarize water, carbohydrate (CHO), and electrolyte absorption from carbohydrate-electrolyte (CHO-E) solutions based on all of the triple-lumen-perfusion studies in humans since the early 1960s. The current statistical analysis included 30 reports from which were obtained information on water absorption, CHO absorption, total solute absorption, CHO concentration, CHO type, osmolality, sodium concentration, and sodium absorption in the different gut segments during exercise and at rest. Mean differences were assessed using independent-samples t tests. Exploratory multiple-regression analyses were conducted to create prediction models for intestinal water absorption. The factors influencing water and solute absorption are carefully evaluated and extensively discussed. The authors suggest that in the human proximal small intestine, water absorption is related to both total solute and CHO absorption; osmolality exerts various impacts on water absorption in the different segments; the multiple types of CHO in the ingested CHO-E solutions play a critical role in stimulating CHO, sodium, total solute, and water absorption; CHO concentration is negatively related to water absorption; and exercise may result in greater water absorption than rest. A potential regression model for predicting water absorption is also proposed for future research and practical application. In conclusion, water absorption in the human small intestine is influenced by osmolality, solute absorption, and the anatomical structures of gut segments. Multiple types of CHO in a CHO-E solution facilitate water absorption by stimulating CHO and solute absorption and lowering osmolality in the intestinal lumen. PMID:20975111

Shi, Xiaocai; Passe, Dennis H

2010-10-01

125

Water absorption and desorption in shuttle ablator and insulation materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shuttle systems ablator and insulation materials underwent water soak with subsequent water desorption in vacuum. Water accumulation in these materials after a soak for 24 hours ranged from +1.1% for orbiter tile to +161% for solid rocket booster MSA-1. After 1 minute in vacuum, water retention ranged from none in the orbiter tile to +70% for solid rocket booster cork.

Whitaker, A. F.; Smith, C. F.; Wooden, V. A.; Cothren, B. E.; Gregory, H.

1982-01-01

126

Impact of climate change to carrying capacity of water supply system in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The carrying capacity of water supply in the water resources system is neither just the quantity of the river discharge nor the summation of storage of the reservoirs. To estimate it reasonably, it must be considered with both demand side and supply side which includes the systematic combination of hydrology, climate, reservoirs, weirs, water treatment plants… etc. To analyze and approach the carrying capacity of water supply system, this study used system dynamics model to establish the water resources system in Gaoping river basin which is located in southern area of Taiwan. The impact of climatic change to water supply system was estimated with the output of 5 GCMS running with SRES scenarios and integrated with several models such as weather generation, HBV hydrological process model and system dynamics model - VENSIM. The drought index, deficit percent day (%-day), was adopted to analyze the risk of water shortage of the water resources system in Gaoping river basin under present condition and climatic change condition. The water supply system in Gaoping river basin is under two threats in the future. One is the expanded water demand, and another is climatic change. Climatic change would cause more stream flow in wet season and less stream flow in dry season. Most results from the simulation of different scenarios indicated that the carrying capacity will decrease down and the water shortage will rise up under expanding water demand and changing stream flow caused by climatic change.

Liu, Tzu-Ming; Tung, Ching-Pin; Yu, Pao-Shan; Li, Ming-Hsu

2010-05-01

127

Optoacoustic measurements of water vapor absorption at selected CO laser wavelengths in the 5-micron region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of water vapor absorption were taken with a resonant optoacoustical detector (cylindrical pyrex detector, two BaF2 windows fitted into end plates at slight tilt to suppress Fabry-Perot resonances), for lack of confidence in existing spectral tabular data for the 5-7 micron region, as line shapes in the wing regions of water vapor lines are difficult to characterize. The measurements are required for air pollution studies using a CO laser, to find the differential absorption at the wavelengths in question due to atmospheric constituents other than water vapor. The design and performance of the optoacoustical detector are presented. Effects of absorption by ambient NO are considered, and the fixed-frequency discretely tunable CO laser is found suitable for monitoring urban NO concentrations in a fairly dry climate, using the water vapor absorption data obtained in the study.

Menzies, R. T.; Shumate, M. S.

1976-01-01

128

Water vapor continuum: absorption measurements at 350GHz and model calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absolute absorption rates of pure water vapor and mixtures of water vapor and nitrogen have been measured in the laboratory at 350 GHz. The dependence on pressure and temperature has been obtained. Additionally, a water vapor continuum parameter estimation, taking even the previous laboratory measurements from 150 to 350 GHz into account, is performed.

Kuhn, T.; Bauer, A.; Godon, M.; Buhler, S.; Kunzi, K.

2002-09-01

129

Using the right slope of the 970 nm absorption feature for estimating canopy water content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canopy water content (CWC) is important for understanding the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Biogeochemical processes like photosynthesis, transpiration and net primary production are related to foliar water. The first derivative of the reflectance spectrum at wavelengths corresponding to the left slope of the minor water absorption band at 970 nm was found to be highly correlated with CWC and PROSAIL

J. G. P. W. Clevers; L. Kooistra; M. E. Schaepman

2009-01-01

130

Effects of sodium polyacrylate on water retention and infiltration capacity of a sandy soil.  

PubMed

Based on the laboratory study, the effects of sodium polyacrylate (SP) was investigated at 5 rates of 0, 0.08, 0.2, 0.5, and 1%, on water retention, saturated hydraulic conductivity(Ks), infiltration characteristic and water distribution profiles of a sandy soil. The results showed that water retention and available water capacity effectively increased with increasing SP rate. The Ks and the rate of wetting front advance and infiltration under certain pond infiltration was significantly reduced by increasing SP rate, which effectively reduced water in a sandy soil leaking to a deeper layer under the plough layer. The effect of SP on water distribution was obviously to the up layer and very little to the following deeper layers. Considering both the effects on water retention and infiltration capacity, it is suggested that SP be used to the sandy soil at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 0.5%. PMID:24701379

Zhuang, Wenhua; Li, Longguo; Liu, Chao

2013-01-01

131

Static Characteristics of Absorption Chiller-Heater Supplying Cold and Hot Water Simultaneously  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absorption chiller-heaters which can supply both chilled water and hot water at the same time, are used for cooling and heating air conditioning systems. In this paper, we classified absorption cold and hot water generating cycles and control methods, studied these absorption cycles by cycle simulation. In economizer cycle, condensed refrigerant which heats hot water is transported to cooling cycle and used effectively for cooling chilled water, Concerning with transported condensed refrigerant, there are two methods, all condensed refrigerant or required refrigerant for cooling are transported to cooling cycle, and required refrigerant method is better for energy saving. Adding improvement of solution control to this economizer cycle, simultaneous cold and hot water supplying chiller-heaters have good characteristics of energy saving in the all region.

Inoue, Naoyuki; Irie, Tomoyoshi

132

GEOSTATISTICAL APPROACH FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE WATER RESERVOIR CAPACITY IN ARID REGIONS: A CASE STUDY  

E-print Network

,version1-10Nov2010 #12;3 1. Introduction 1.1. Sedimentation in water reservoirs Dam on a water course reservoir; sedimentation; bathymetric survey; geostatistics; volume estimation; Central Asia insu-00524538 geomorphologic process, human inference by dam construction accelerates the filling up of the reservoir capacity

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

133

INFLUENCE OF AQUEOUS ALUMINUM AND ORGANIC ACIDS ON MEASUREMENT OF ACID NEUTRALIZING CAPACITY IN SURFACE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) is used to quantify the acid-base status of surface waters. Acidic waters have bean defined as having ANC values less than zero, and acidification is often quantified by decreases in ANC. Measured and calculated values of ANC generally agree, exce...

134

Oil sorbents with high sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity and reusability for oil spill cleanup.  

PubMed

A sorbent for oil spill cleanup was prepared through a novel strategy by treating polyurethane sponges with silica sol and gasoline successively. The oil sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity, reusability and sorption mechanism of prepared sorbent were studied. The results showed that the prepared sorbent exhibited high sorption capacity and excellent oil/water selectivity. 1g of the prepared sorbent could adsorb more than 100 g of motor oil, while it only picks up less than 0.1 g of water from an oil-water interface under both static and dynamic conditions. More than 70% of the sorption capacity remained after 15 successive sorption-squeezing cycles, which suggests an extraordinary high reusability. The prepared sorbent is a better alternative of the commercial polypropylene sorbent which are being used nowadays. PMID:24856092

Wu, Daxiong; Fang, Linlin; Qin, Yanmin; Wu, Wenjuan; Mao, Changming; Zhu, Haitao

2014-07-15

135

Absorption of Sunlight by Water Vapor in Cloudy Conditions: A Partial Explanation for the Cloud Absorption Anomaly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The atmospheric radiative transfer algorithms used in most global general circulation models underestimate the globally-averaged solar energy absorbed by cloudy atmospheres by up to 25 W/sq m. The origin of this anomalous absorption is not yet known, but it has been attributed to a variety of sources including oversimplified or missing physical processes in these models, uncertainties in the input data, and even measurement errors. Here, a sophisticated atmospheric radiative transfer model was used to provide a more comprehensive description of the physical processes that contribute to the absorption of solar radiation by the Earth's atmosphere. We found that the amount of sunlight absorbed by a cloudy atmosphere is inversely proportional to the solar zenith angle and the cloud top height, and directly proportional to the cloud optical depth and the water vapor concentration within the clouds. Atmospheres with saturated, optically-thick, low clouds absorbed about 12 W/sq m more than clear atmospheres. This accounts for about 1/2 to 1/3 of the anomalous ab- sorption. Atmospheres with optically thick middle and high clouds usually absorb less than clear atmospheres. Because water vapor is concentrated within and below the cloud tops, this absorber is most effective at small solar zenith angles. An additional absorber that is distributed at or above the cloud tops is needed to produce the amplitude and zenith angle dependence of the observed anomalous absorption.

Crisp, D.

1997-01-01

136

Potential Water Retention Capacity as a Factor in Silage Effluent Control: Experiments with High Moisture By-product Feedstuffs.  

PubMed

The role of moisture absorptive capacity of pre-silage material and its relationship with silage effluent in high moisture by-product feedstuffs (HMBF) is assessed. The term water retention capacity which is sometimes used in explaining the rate of effluent control in ensilage may be inadequate, since it accounts exclusively for the capacity of an absorbent incorporated into a pre-silage material prior to ensiling, without consideration to how much the pre-silage material can release. A new terminology, 'potential water retention capacity' (PWRC), which attempts to address this shortcoming, is proposed. Data were pooled from a series of experiments conducted separately over a period of five years using laboratory silos with four categories of agro by-products (n = 27) with differing moisture contents (highest 96.9%, lowest 78.1% in fresh matter, respectively), and their silages (n = 81). These were from a vegetable source (Daikon, Raphanus sativus), a root tuber source (potato pulp), a fruit source (apple pomace) and a cereal source (brewer's grain), respectively. The pre-silage materials were adjusted with dry in-silo absorbents consisting wheat straw, wheat or rice bran, beet pulp and bean stalks. The pooled mean for the moisture contents of all pre-silage materials was 78.3% (±10.3). Silage effluent decreased (p<0.01), with increase in PWRC of pre-silage material. The theoretical moisture content and PWRC of pre-silage material necessary to stem effluent flow completely in HMBF silage was 69.1% and 82.9 g/100 g in fresh matter, respectively. The high correlation (r = 0.76) between PWRC of ensiled material and silage effluent indicated that the latter is an important factor in silage-effluent relationship. PMID:25049587

Razak, Okine Abdul; Masaaki, Hanada; Yimamu, Aibibula; Meiji, Okamoto

2012-04-01

137

Water vapor absorption spectrum measurements and its application in concentration measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wavelength tunable distributed feedback laser diode (DFB-LD) were utilized to measure line 1368.597nm and line 1367.862 nm absorption character of water vapor, based on it, water vapor concentration can be measured by peak absorption rate according to Beer-Lambert law. Besides, we observe that the overlap between the line 1368.597nm and line 1367.862 nm appears and become serious with the increase of gas pressure, this agrees well with the theoretical prediction, and the overlap cause difficulty to determine the absorption peak value, a scheme is presented to cope with the difficulty, it takes advantage of the peak absorption difference between 1368.597nm and 1367.862 nm, and the difference value is used to calculate the water-vapor concentration.

Chang, Jun; Chen, Kun; Zhou, Guoqing; Lv, Guangping; Zhu, Cunguang; Wang, Zhongliang; Song, Fujun; Song, Haiyong; Tian, Junqiang; Hou, Wenjia; Huang, Jiaqing

2012-02-01

138

Determination of RW3-to-water mass-energy absorption coefficient ratio for absolute dosimetry.  

PubMed

The measurement of absorbed dose to water in a solid-phantom may require a conversion factor because it may not be radiologically equivalent to water. One phantom developed for the use of dosimetry is a solid water, RW3 white-polystyrene material by IBA. This has a lower mass-energy absorption coefficient than water due to high bremsstrahlung yield, which affects the accuracy of absolute dosimetry measurements. In this paper, we demonstrate the calculation of mass-energy absorption coefficient ratios, relative to water, from measurements in plastic water and RW3 with an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator (6 and 10 MV photon beams) as well as Monte Carlo modeling in BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc. From this, the solid-phantom-to-water correction factor was determined for plastic water and RW3. PMID:21960410

Seet, Katrina Y T; Hanlon, Peta M; Charles, Paul H

2011-12-01

139

Photonic crystal slot waveguide for high sensitivity on-chip near-infrared optical absorption spectroscopy of xylene in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally demonstrate a 300?m long silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide for on-chip near-infrared absorption spectroscopy. Based on the Beer-Lambert absorption law, our device combines slow light in photonic crystal waveguide with high electric field intensity in low-index 75nm wide slot, which effectively increases the optical absorption path length of the analyte. We demonstrate near-infrared absorption spectroscopy of xylene in water, independent of near-infrared absorption signatures of water, with a hydrophobic PDMS sensing phase that extracts xylene from water. Xylene concentrations up to 100ppb (parts per billion) (86?g/L) in water were measured.

Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Lai, Wei-Cheng; Wang, Xiaolong; Lin, Che-Yun; Chen, Ray T.

2011-06-01

140

Solvation thermodynamics and heat capacity of polar and charged solutes in water  

SciTech Connect

The solvation thermodynamics and in particular the solvation heat capacity of polar and charged solutes in water is studied using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. As ionic solutes we consider a F{sup -} and a Na{sup +} ion, as an example for a polar molecule with vanishing net charge we take a SPC/E water molecule. The partial charges of all three solutes are varied in a wide range by a scaling factor. Using a recently introduced method for the accurate determination of the solvation free energy of polar solutes, we determine the free energy, entropy, enthalpy, and heat capacity of the three different solutes as a function of temperature and partial solute charge. We find that the sum of the solvation heat capacities of the Na{sup +} and F{sup -} ions is negative, in agreement with experimental observations, but our results uncover a pronounced difference in the heat capacity between positively and negatively charged groups. While the solvation heat capacity {Delta}C{sub p} stays positive and even increases slightly upon charging the Na{sup +} ion, it decreases upon charging the F{sup -} ion and becomes negative beyond an ion charge of q=-0.3e. On the other hand, the heat capacity of the overall charge-neutral polar solute derived from a SPC/E water molecule is positive for all charge scaling factors considered by us. This means that the heat capacity of a wide class of polar solutes with vanishing net charge is positive. The common ascription of negative heat capacities to polar chemical groups might arise from the neglect of non-additive interaction effects between polar and apolar groups. The reason behind this non-additivity is suggested to be related to the second solvation shell that significantly affects the solvation thermodynamics and due to its large spatial extent induces quite long-ranged interactions between solvated molecular parts and groups.

Sedlmeier, Felix; Netz, Roland R. [Fachbereich Physik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

2013-03-21

141

Methods for analysis of selected metals in water by atomic absorption  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This manual describes atomic-absorption-spectroscopy methods for determining calcium, copper, lithium, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium, strontium and zinc in atmospheric precipitation, fresh waters, and brines. The procedures are intended to be used by water quality laboratories of the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey. Detailed procedures, calculations, and methods for the preparation of reagents are given for each element along with data on accuracy, precision, and sensitivity. Other topics discussed briefly are the principle of atomic absorption, instrumentation used, and special analytical techniques.

Fishman, Marvin J.; Downs, Sanford C.

1966-01-01

142

Water Vapour Absorption in the Clear Atmosphere of an exo-Neptune  

E-print Network

Transmission spectroscopy to date has detected atomic and molecular absorption in Jupiter-sized exoplanets, but intense efforts to measure molecular absorption in the atmospheres of smaller (Neptune-sized) planets during transits have revealed only featureless spectra. From this it was concluded that the majority of small, warm planets evolve to sustain high mean molecular weights, opaque clouds, or scattering hazes in their atmospheres, obscuring our ability to observe the composition of these atmospheres. Here we report observations of the transmission spectrum of HAT-P-11b (~4 Earth radii) from the optical to the infrared. We detected water vapour absorption at 1.4 micrometre wavelength. The amplitude of the water absorption (approximately 250 parts-per- million) indicates that the planetary atmosphere is predominantly clear down to ~1 mbar, and sufficiently hydrogen-rich to exhibit a large scale height. The spectrum is indicative of a planetary atmosphere with an upper limit of ~700 times the abundance of...

Fraine, Jonathan; Benneke, Björn; Knutson, Heather; Jordán, Andrés; Espinoza, Néstor; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Wilkins, Ashlee; Todorov, Kamen

2014-01-01

143

Water vapor spectroscopy in the 815-nm wavelength region for Differential Absorption Lidar measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique was first applied to the remote measurement of atmospheric water vapor profiles from airborne platforms in 1981. The successful interpretation of the lidar profiles relies strongly on an accurate knowledge of specific water vapor absorption line parameters: line strength, pressure broadening coefficient, pressure-induced shift coefficient and the respective temperature-dependence factors. NASA Langley Research Center has developed and is currently testing an autonomous airborne water vapor lidar system: LASE (Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment). This DIAL system uses a Nd:YAG-pumped Ti:Sapphire laser seeded by a diode laser as a lidar transmitter. The tunable diode has been selected to operate in the 813-818 nm wavelength region. This 5-nm spectral interval offers a large distribution of strengths for temperature-insensitive water vapor absorption lines. In support of the LASE project, a series of spectroscopic measurements were conducted for the 16 absorption lines that have been identified for use in the LASE measurements. Prior to this work, the experimental data for this water vapor absorption band were limited - to our knowledge - to the line strengths and to the line positions.

Ponsardin, Patrick; Browell, Edward V.

1995-01-01

144

Temperature and density dependence of the light and heavy water ultraviolet absorption edge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of the ultraviolet absorption band edge of high-pressure light and heavy water are reported over the temperature range of 25-400 °C, extending into the supercritical regime. A gradual redshift in the absorption band edge of ?0.6 eV is observed with increasing temperature. This shift cannot be explained by vibrational hot band growth or changes in the degree of Rayleigh

Timothy W. Marin; Kenji Takahashi; David M. Bartels

2006-01-01

145

Temperature and density dependence of the light and heavy water ultraviolet absorption edge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of the ultraviolet absorption band edge of high-pressure light and heavy water are reported over the temperature range of 25-400 °C, extending into the supercritical regime. A gradual redshift in the absorption band edge of ~0.6 eV is observed with increasing temperature. This shift cannot be explained by vibrational hot band growth or changes in the degree of Rayleigh

Timothy W. Marin; Kenji Takahashi; David M. Bartels

2006-01-01

146

Absorption efficiencies and biochemical fractionation of assimilated compounds in the cold water appendicularian Oikopleura vanhoeffeni  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using 68 Ge : 14 C dual-labeling, we investigated the absorption efficiency of diatom carbon for the cold water appendicularian Oikopleura vanhoeffeni.The absorption efficiency of bulk carbon (mean5 67%) was not influenced by body size or ingestion rate. For the first time for a pelagic tunicate, food and feces were fractionated into their major biochemical constituents (i.e., low-molecular-weight compounds, lipid,

Alexander B. Bochdansky; Don Deibel; Richard B. Rivkin

1999-01-01

147

Impact of MIE-Resonances on the Atmospheric Absorption of Water Clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clouds strongly modulate radiative transfer processes in the Earth's atmosphere. Studies, which simulate bulk properties of clouds, such as absorption, require methods that accurately account for multiple scattering among individual cloud particles. Multiple scattering processes are well described by MIE-theory, if interacting particles have a spherical shape. This is a good assumption for water droplets. Thus, simulations for water clouds (especially for interactions with solar radiation) usually apply readily available MIE-codes. The presence of different drop-sizes, however, necessitates repetitive calculations for many sizes. The usual representation by a few sizes is likely to miss contributions from densely distributed, sharp resonances. Despite their usually narrow width, integrated over the entire size-spectrum of a cloud droplet distribution, the impact of missed resonances could add up. The consideration of these resonances tends to increase cloud extinction and cloud absorption. This mechanism for a larger (than by MIE-methods predicted) solar absorption has the potential to explain observational evidence of larger than predicted cloud absorption at solar wavelengths. The presentation will address the absorption impact of added resonances for typical properties of water clouds (e.g. drop size distributions, drop concentrations and cloud geometry). Special attention will be given to scenarios with observational evidence of law than simulated solar absorption; particularly if simultaneous measurements of cloud micro- and macrophysical properties are available.

Wiscombe, W.; Kinne, S.; Nussenzveig, H.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

148

ABSORPTION OF LEAD FROM DRINKING WATER WITH VARYING MINERAL CONTENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Lead (Pb) (200 ppm) was administered via drinking water to rats for nine weeks. In addition, the rats were grouped so that they received 75, 100, 150 and 250% of the minimum daily requirements (MDR) of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), and magnesium (Mg) as required for normal growth. The...

149

The Relationship Between the Glass Transition Temperature and Water Vapor Absorption by Poly(vinylpyrrolidone)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water associated with amorphous solids is known to affect significantly the physical and chemical properties of dosage form ingredients. An analysis of water vapor absorption isotherms of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) measured in this and other laboratories, over the range -40 to 60°C, along with the measurement of the glass transition temperature of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) as a function of water content is reported. It

Cynthia A. Oksanen; George Zografi

1990-01-01

150

Low-Dimensional Water on Ru(0001)Model System for X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Studies of Liquid Water  

SciTech Connect

We present an x-ray absorption spectroscopy results for fully broken to a complete H-bond network of water molecules on Ru(0001) by varying the morphology from isolated water molecules via two-dimensional clusters to a fully covered monolayer as probed by scanning tunneling microscopy. The sensitivity of x-ray absorption to the symmetry of H-bonding is further elucidated for the amino (-NH{sub 2}) group in glycine adsorbed on Cu(110) where the E-vector is parallel either to the NH donating an H-bond or to the non-H-bonded NH. The results give further evidence for the interpretation of the various spectral features of liquid water and for the general applicability of x-ray absorption spectroscopy to analyze H-bonded systems.

Nordlund, D

2012-02-14

151

Mapping soil water holding capacity over large areas to predict the potential production of forest stands  

E-print Network

at the soil pit scale (SWHC') and both the stone content at the soil pit scale and rock outcrop at the plot predictions being recorded for soils developed on marl, clay, and hollow silicate rocks, and in flat areas1 Mapping soil water holding capacity over large areas to predict the potential production

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

152

Mechanisms of water-holding capacity of meat: The role of postmortem biochemical and structural changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unacceptable water-holding capacity costs the meat industry millions of dollars annually. However, limited progress has been made toward understanding the mechanisms that underlie the development of drip or purge. It is clear that early postmortem events including rate and extent of pH decline, proteolysis and even protein oxidation are key in influencing the ability of meat to retain moisture. Much

Elisabeth Huff-Lonergan; Steven M. Lonergan

2005-01-01

153

Leaf photosynthetic rate of tropical ferns is evolutionarily linked to water transport capacity.  

PubMed

Ferns usually have relatively lower photosynthetic potential than angiosperms. However, it is unclear whether low photosynthetic potential of ferns is linked to leaf water supply. We hypothesized that there is an evolutionary association of leaf water transport capacity with photosynthesis and stomatal density in ferns. In the present study, a series of functional traits relating to leaf anatomy, hydraulics and physiology were assessed in 19 terrestrial and 11 epiphytic ferns in a common garden, and analyzed by a comparative phylogenetics method. Compared with epiphytic ferns, terrestrial ferns had higher vein density (Dvein), stomatal density (SD), stomatal conductance (gs), and photosynthetic capacity (Amax), but lower values for lower epidermal thickness (LET) and leaf thickness (LT). Across species, all traits varied significantly, but only stomatal length (SL) showed strong phylogenetic conservatism. Amax was positively correlated with Dvein and gs with and without phylogenetic corrections. SD correlated positively with Amax, Dvein and gs, with the correlation between SD and Dvein being significant after phylogenetic correction. Leaf water content showed significant correlations with LET, LT, and mesophyll thickness. Our results provide evidence that Amax of the studied ferns is linked to leaf water transport capacity, and there was an evolutionary association between water supply and demand in ferns. These findings add new insights into the evolutionary correlations among traits involving carbon and water economy in ferns. PMID:24416265

Zhang, Shi-Bao; Sun, Mei; Cao, Kun-Fang; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Jiao-Lin

2014-01-01

154

Leaf Photosynthetic Rate of Tropical Ferns Is Evolutionarily Linked to Water Transport Capacity  

PubMed Central

Ferns usually have relatively lower photosynthetic potential than angiosperms. However, it is unclear whether low photosynthetic potential of ferns is linked to leaf water supply. We hypothesized that there is an evolutionary association of leaf water transport capacity with photosynthesis and stomatal density in ferns. In the present study, a series of functional traits relating to leaf anatomy, hydraulics and physiology were assessed in 19 terrestrial and 11 epiphytic ferns in a common garden, and analyzed by a comparative phylogenetics method. Compared with epiphytic ferns, terrestrial ferns had higher vein density (Dvein), stomatal density (SD), stomatal conductance (gs), and photosynthetic capacity (Amax), but lower values for lower epidermal thickness (LET) and leaf thickness (LT). Across species, all traits varied significantly, but only stomatal length (SL) showed strong phylogenetic conservatism. Amax was positively correlated with Dvein and gs with and without phylogenetic corrections. SD correlated positively with Amax, Dvein and gs, with the correlation between SD and Dvein being significant after phylogenetic correction. Leaf water content showed significant correlations with LET, LT, and mesophyll thickness. Our results provide evidence that Amax of the studied ferns is linked to leaf water transport capacity, and there was an evolutionary association between water supply and demand in ferns. These findings add new insights into the evolutionary correlations among traits involving carbon and water economy in ferns. PMID:24416265

Cao, Kun-Fang; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Jiao-Lin

2014-01-01

155

An Accurate Method for Computing the Absorption of Solar Radiation by Water Vapor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The method is based upon molecular line parameters and makes use of a far wing scaling approximation and k distribution approach previously applied to the computation of the infrared cooling rate due to water vapor. Taking into account the wave number dependence of the incident solar flux, the solar heating rate is computed for the entire water vapor spectrum and for individual absorption bands. The accuracy of the method is tested against line by line calculations. The method introduces a maximum error of 0.06 C/day. The method has the additional advantage over previous methods in that it can be applied to any portion of the spectral region containing the water vapor bands. The integrated absorptances and line intensities computed from the molecular line parameters were compared with laboratory measurements. The comparison reveals that, among the three different sources, absorptance is the largest for the laboratory measurements.

Chou, M. D.

1980-01-01

156

The Effect of Heat on Structural Characteristics and Water Absorption Behavior of Agave Fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural characteristics and water absorptions behavior agave fibers were investigated over a range of temperature by using XRD, IR, TG and gravimetric methods. Three distinct thermal processes were observed during heating the fiber in the temperature range 310-760 K in air, oxygen and nitrogen invariably. The cellulose structures of the fibers were unaffected on heating up to 450 K. The samples showed thermal decomposition processes beyond 500 K. Fibers displayed a two-stage diffusion behavior. The structural parameters and kinetic of water absorption of the fibers at specific temperatures were analyzed.

Saikia, Dip

2008-04-01

157

Climate Change and Water Infrastructure in Central Asia: adaptation capacities and institutional challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper discusses vulnerability areas of water sector in arid Central Asia due to climate change projections with particular focus on adaptation to sustainable operation of physical infrastructure capacities (from legal, institutional and technical aspects). Two types of technical installations are the main focus of this paper, i.e., electrical lift irrigation systems and water reservoirs. The first set of electrical lift infrastructure is strategic for delivering water to water users via pumps, diversion structures, vertical drainage facilities and groundwater boreholes; on the other hand, the primarily task of second set of structures is to accumulate the water resources for sectors of economy. In Central Asia, approximately, 20-50% of irrigation water is lifted, yet major of lift structures are in very poor technical conditions coupled with ever increasing of electricity tariffs. Furthermore, useful volumes capacities of water reservoirs are being severely diminished due to bio-physical geomorphologic processes, improper operational regimes and chronic financing for special in-house sedimentation surveys. Most importantly, the key argument is that irrigation sector should internalize its adaptation efforts, i.e., integrate renewable energy technologies, energy audit programs and lastly design comprehensive investment prioritization processes and programs. Otherwise, water sector will be at great risk for continued provision of fundamental services to the public, food security and industry

Abdullaev, Iskandar; Rakhmatullaev, Shavkat

2014-05-01

158

Water governance: learning by developing adaptive capacity to incorporate climate variability and change.  

PubMed

There is increasing evidence that global climate variability and change is affecting the quality and availability of water supplies. Integrated water resources development, use, and management strategies, represent an effective approach to achieve sustainable development of water resources in a changing environment with competing demands. It is also a key to achieving the Millennium Development Goals. It is critical that integrated water management strategies must incorporate the impacts of climate variability and change to reduce vulnerability of the poor, strengthen sustainable livelihoods and support national sustainable development. UNDP's strategy focuses on developing adaptation in the water governance sector as an entry point within the framework of poverty reduction and national sustainable development. This strategy aims to strengthen the capacity of governments and civil society organizations to have access to early warning systems, ability to assess the impact of climate variability and change on integrated water resources management, and developing adaptation intervention through hands-on learning by undertaking pilot activities. PMID:15195430

Kashyap, A

2004-01-01

159

Ab initio calculation of the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water was investigated by coupling a one-body energy decomposition scheme to configurations generated by classical and Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics (BOMD). A Frenkel exciton Hamiltonian formalism was adopted and the excitation energies in the liquid phase were calculated with the equation of motion coupled cluster with single and double excitations method. Molecular dynamics configurations were generated by different approaches. Classical MD were carried out with the TIP4P-Ew and AMOEBA force fields. The BLYP and BLYP-D3 exchange-correlation functionals were used in BOMD. Theoretical and experimental results for the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water are in good agreement. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between the structure of liquid water predicted by the different models and the electronic absorption spectrum. The theoretical gas to liquid phase blue-shift of the peak positions of the electronic absorption spectrum is in good agreement with experiment. The overall shift is determined by a competition between the O-H stretching of the water monomer in liquid water that leads to a red-shift and polarization effects that induce a blue-shift. The results illustrate the importance of coupling many-body energy decomposition schemes to molecular dynamics configurations to carry out ab initio calculations of the electronic properties in liquid phase.

Martiniano, Hugo F. M. C.; Galamba, Nuno; Cabral, Benedito J. Costa

2014-04-01

160

Ab initio calculation of the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water.  

PubMed

The electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water was investigated by coupling a one-body energy decomposition scheme to configurations generated by classical and Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics (BOMD). A Frenkel exciton Hamiltonian formalism was adopted and the excitation energies in the liquid phase were calculated with the equation of motion coupled cluster with single and double excitations method. Molecular dynamics configurations were generated by different approaches. Classical MD were carried out with the TIP4P-Ew and AMOEBA force fields. The BLYP and BLYP-D3 exchange-correlation functionals were used in BOMD. Theoretical and experimental results for the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water are in good agreement. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between the structure of liquid water predicted by the different models and the electronic absorption spectrum. The theoretical gas to liquid phase blue-shift of the peak positions of the electronic absorption spectrum is in good agreement with experiment. The overall shift is determined by a competition between the O-H stretching of the water monomer in liquid water that leads to a red-shift and polarization effects that induce a blue-shift. The results illustrate the importance of coupling many-body energy decomposition schemes to molecular dynamics configurations to carry out ab initio calculations of the electronic properties in liquid phase. PMID:24784291

Martiniano, Hugo F M C; Galamba, Nuno; Cabral, Benedito J Costa

2014-04-28

161

Spectral control of an alexandrite laser for an airborne water-vapor differential absorption lidar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A narrow-linewidth pulsed alexandrite laser has been greatly modified for improved spectral stability in an aircraft environment, and its operation has been evaluated in the laboratory for making water-vapor differential absorption lidar measurements. An alignment technique is described to achieve the optimum free spectral range ratio for the two etalons inserted in the alexandrite laser cavity, and the sensitivity of this ratio is analyzed. This technique drastically decreases the occurrence of mode hopping, which is commonly observed in a tunable, two-intracavity-etalon laser system. High spectral purity (greater than 99.85%) at 730 nm is demonstrated by the use of a water-vapor absorption line as a notch filter. The effective cross sections of 760-nm oxygen and 730-nm water-vapor absorption lines are measured at different pressures by using this laser, which has a finite linewidth of 0.02 cm(exp -1) (FWHM). It is found that for water-vapor absorption linewidths greater than 0.04 cm(exp -1) (HWHM), or for altitudes below 10 km, the laser line can be considered monochromatic because the measured effective absorption cross section is within 1% of the calculated monochromatic cross section. An analysis of the environmental sensitivity of the two intracavity etalons is presented, and a closed-loop computer control for active stabilization of the two intracavity etalons in the alexandrite laser is described. Using a water-vapor absorption line as a wavelength reference, we measure a long-term frequency drift (approximately 1.5 h) of less than 0.7 pm in the laboratory.

Ponsardin, Patrick; Grossmann, Benoist E.; Browell, Edward V.

1994-01-01

162

Water storage capacity of natural wetland depressions in the Devils Lake basin of North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Photogrammetric mapping techniques were used to derive the water storage capacities of natural wetland depressions other than lakes in the Devils Lake Basin of North Dakota. Results from sample quarter-section areas were expanded to the entire basin. Depressions in the Devils Lake Basin have a maximum storage capacity of nearly 811,000 cubic dekameters (657,000 acre-feet). The depressions store about 72 percent of the total runoff volume from a 2-year-frequency runoff and about 41 percent of the total runoff volume from a 100-year-frequency runoff.

Ludden, A. P.; Frink, D. L.; Johnson, D. H.

1983-01-01

163

Effect of water on the physical properties and carbon dioxide capture capacities of liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials and their corresponding polymers.  

PubMed

Binary systems composed of liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials (NOHMs) and the secondary fluid (i.e., water) were prepared, and their thermal stabilities, densities, viscosities, and CO2 absorption capacities were investigated. Recent work has suggested NOHMs as an alternative CO2 capture media with interesting chemical and physical tunability. Anhydrous CO2 capture solvents often degrade when they are exposed to water, while flue gas generally contains about 8-16% water. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of water on the NOHMs' properties relevant to CO2 capture as well as the chemical and thermal stabilities of H2O-loaded NOHMs. It was found that water acted as an antisolvent of NOHMs, and therefore, caused a decreased CO2 capture capacity. On the other hand, the results indicated that while water did not affect the NOHMs' thermal stability, it significantly helped lowering their density and viscosity. In order to investigate the effect of intermolecular interactions among two fluids on the density and viscosity, the excess volumes and viscosity deviations were calculated and correlated with Redlich-Kister equations. The trends revealed the existence of strong intermolecular interactions between water molecules and the poly(ethlyne glycol) component of NOHMs, which may have caused the drastic decrease in the NOHMs' viscosity with the addition of water. PMID:23842199

Petit, Camille; Bhatnagar, Sonali; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa

2013-10-01

164

Near-infrared diode laser absorption diagnostic for temperature and water vapor in a scramjet combustor  

SciTech Connect

Tunable diode laser absorption measurements of gas temperature and water concentration were made at the exit of a model scramjet combustor fueled on JP-7. Multiplexed, fiber-coupled, near-infrared distributed feedback lasers were used to probe three water vapor absorption features in the 1.34-1.47 {mu}m spectral region (2v1and v1+ v3overtone bands). Ratio thermometry was performed using direct-absorption wavelength scans of isolated features at a 4-kHz repetition rate, as well as 2f wavelength modulation scans at a 2-kHz scan rate. Large signal-to-noise ratios demonstrate the ability of the optimally engineered optical hardware to reject beam steering and vibration noise. Successful measurements were made at full combustion conditions for a variety of fuel/air equivalence ratios and at eight vertical positions in the duct to investigate spatial uniformity. The use of three water vapor absorption features allowed for preliminary estimates of temperature distributions along the line of sight. The improved signal quality afforded by 2f measurements, in the case of weak absorption, demonstrates the utility of a scanned wavelength modulation strategy in such situations.

Liu, Jonathan T.C.; Rieker, Gregory B.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Gruber, Mark R.; Carter, Campbell D.; Mathur, Tarun; Hanson, Ronald K

2005-11-01

165

Near-infrared studies of glucose and sucrose in aqueous solutions: water displacement effect and red shift in water absorption from water-solute interaction  

E-print Network

We use near infrared spectroscopy to obtain concentration dependent glucose absorption spectra in their aqueous solutions in the near-infrared range (3800 - 7500 cm^{-1}). We introduce a new method to obtain reliable glucose absorption bands from aqueous glucose solutions without measuring the water displacement coefficients of glucose separately. Additionally, we are able to extract the water displacement coefficients of glucose, and this may give a new general method using spectroscopy techniques applicable to other water soluble materials. We also observe red shifts in the absorption bands of water in the hydration shell around solute molecules, which comes from contribution of the interacting water molecules around the glucose molecules in solutions. The intensity of the red shift get larger as the concentration increases, which indicates that as the concentration increases more water molecules are involved in the interaction. However, the red shift in frequency does not seem to depend significantly on th...

Jung, Youngeui

2013-01-01

166

Modeling the current and future capacity of water resources to meet water demands in the Ebro basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Worldwide studies have shown that the Mediterranean region is one of the most vulnerable areas to water crisis. The region is characterized by limited and unequally distributed water resources and increasing water demands. The Ebro catchment (85,000 km2, Spain) is representative of this context. Since the late 1970s, a negative trend in river discharge has been observed, attributed to a decrease in mean precipitation, and a rise in mean temperature and in water consumption. Finally, over 230 storage dams regulate river discharge. In this context, an integrated water resources modeling framework was developed to evaluate the current and future capacity of water resources to meet domestic and agricultural water demands as well as environmental flow requirements. The approach was driven by a conceptual rainfall-runoff model generating water supplies and by a demand driven storage dam model. The approach defines current pressures on water resources and evaluates future changes in water allocation in the medium term under climatic and water use scenarios, considering changes in population and in irrigated areas. Currently, water demands in the Ebro catchment are satisfied. In 2050, water resources are projected to decrease by 15-35% during spring and summer, leading to growing competition among users and severe water shortages for irrigated agriculture. This study provides an original approach to identify the most vulnerable regions to water use conflicts. It also highlights the interest of integrated modeling for complete analysis of the ability of water resources to meet water demands in complex change scenarios as a support for decision making.

Milano, Marianne; Ruelland, Denis; Dezetter, Alain; Fabre, Julie; Ardoin-Bardin, Sandra; Servat, Eric

2013-09-01

167

Studies of Water Absorption Behavior of Plant Fibers at Different Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Moisture absorption of natural fiber plastic composites is one major concern in their outdoor applications. The absorbed moisture has many detrimental effects on the mechanical performance of these composites. A knowledge of the moisture diffusivity, permeability, and solubility is very much essential for the application of natural fibers as an excellent reinforcement in polymers. An effort has been made to study the water absorption behavior of some natural fibers such as bowstring hemp, okra, and betel nut at different temperatures to improve the long-term performance of composites reinforced with these fibers. The gain in moisture content in the fibers due to water absorption was measured as a function of exposure time at temperatures ranging from 300 K to 340 K. The thermodynamic parameters of the sorption process, such as diffusion coefficients and corresponding activation energies, were estimated.

Saikia, Dip

2010-05-01

168

Water-controlled wealth of nations: Using Water Footprints to Estimate Nations Carrying Capacities and Demographic Sustainability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Population growth is in general constrained by food production, which in turn depends on the access to water resources. At a country level, some populations use more water than they control because of their ability to import food and the virtual water required for its production. Here, we investigate the dependence of demographic growth on available water resources for exporting and importing nations. By quantifying the carrying capacity of nations based on calculations of the virtual water available through the food trade network, we point to the existence of a global water unbalance. We suggest that current export rates will not be maintained and consequently we question the long-run sustainability of the food trade system as a whole. Water rich regions are likely to soon reduce the amount of virtual water they export, thus leaving import-dependent regions without enough water to sustain their populations. We also investigate the potential impact of possible scenarios that might mitigate these effects through (1) cooperative interactions among nations whereby water rich countries maintain a tiny fraction of their food production available for export; (2) changes in consumption patterns; and (3) a positive feedback between demographic growth and technological innovations. We find that these strategies may indeed reduce the vulnerability of water-controlled societies.

Suweis, Samir; Rinaldo, Andrea; Maritan, Amos; D'Odorico, Paolo

2014-05-01

169

State-of-the-Art Review on Crystallization Control Technologies for water/LiBr Absorption Heat Pumps  

SciTech Connect

The key technical barrier to using water/lithium bromide (LiBr) as the working fluid in aircooled absorption chillers and absorption heat-pump systems is the risk of crystallization when the absorber temperature rises at fixed evaporating pressure. This article reviews various crystallization control technologies available to resolve this problem: chemical inhibitors, heat and mass transfer enhancement methods, thermodynamic cycle modifications, and absorption system-control strategies. Other approaches, such as boosting absorber pressure and J-tube technology, are reviewed as well. This review can help guide future efforts to develop water/LiBr air-cooled absorption chillers and absorption heatpump systems.

Wang, Kai [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Kisari, Padmaja [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

2011-01-01

170

NASA's Contribution to Water Research, Applications and Capacity Building in the America's  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's water research, applications and capacity building activities use satellites and models to contribute to regional water information and solutions for the Americas. Free and open exchange of Earth data observations and products helps engage and improve integrated observation networks and enables national and multi-national regional water cycle research and applications. NASA satellite and modeling products provide a huge volume of valuable data extending back over 50 years across a broad range of spatial (local to global) and temporal (hourly to decadal) scales and include many products that are available in near real time (see earthdata.nasa.gov). In addition, NASA's work in hydrologic predictions are valuable for: 1) short-term and hourly data that is critical for flood and landslide warnings; 2) mid-term predictions of days to weeks useful for reservoir planning and water allocation, and 3) long term seasonal to decadal forecasts helpful for agricultural and irrigation planning, land use planning, and water infrastructure development and planning. To further accomplish these objectives NASA works to actively partner with public and private groups (e.g. federal agencies, universities, NGO's, and industry) in the U.S. and internationally to ensure the broadest use of its satellites and related information and products and to collaborate with regional end users who know the regions and their needs best. Through these data, policy and partnering activities, NASA addresses numerous water issues including water scarcity, the extreme events of drought and floods, and water quality so critical to the Americas. This presentation will outline and describe NASA's water related research, applications and capacity building programs' efforts to address the Americas' critical water challenges. This will specifically include water activities in NASA's programs in Terrestrial Hydrology (e.g., land-atmosphere feedbacks and improved stream flow estimation), Water Resources (e.g., drought, snow-pack and agriculture projects), and Disasters (e.g., flooding and landslides), and Capacity Building (e.g., 'SERVIR' science visualizations and environmental monitoring). The presentation will also demonstrate how NASA is a major contributor to water tasks and activities in GEOSS (Global Earth Observing System of Systems) in the Americas as well as USGEO and the international GEO (Group on Earth Observations) activities and to global environmental change research.

Toll, D. L.; Searby, N. D.; Doorn, B.; Lawford, R. G.; Entin, J. K.; Mohr, K. I.; Lee, C.; NASA International Water Team

2013-05-01

171

Radiation modification of water absorption of cassava starch by acrylic acid/acrylamide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graft copolymerizations of acrylamide and/or acrylic acid onto cassava starch by a simultaneous irradiation technique using gamma-rays as the initiator were studied with regard to various parameters of importance: the monomer-to-cassava starch ratio, total dose (kGy), dose rate (kGy h -1), acrylamide-to-acrylic acid ratio, and the addition of nitric acid and maleic acid as the additives. Grafting parameters were determined in relation to the water absorption of the saponified graft copolymer. The water absorption of the saponified graft copolymer in salt and buffer solutions of different ionic strengths was also measured, from which the superabsorbent properties are found to be pH sensitive. The starch graft copolymers of acrylamide and acrylic acid give higher water absorption than the starch graft copolymers of either acrylamide or acrylic acid alone. The porosity of the saponified starch graft copolymers prepared by the acrylamide/acrylic acid ratios of 70:30 and 50:50 was much higher than the porosity of copolymers in terms of fine networks. Ionic strength and multi-oxidation states of the saline and buffer solutions markedly decreased the water absorption of the saponified cassava starch grafted superabsorbent polymers.

Kiatkamjornwong, Suda; Chomsaksakul, Wararuk; Sonsuk, Manit

2000-10-01

172

DETERMINING BERYLLIUM IN DRINKING WATER BY GRAPHITE FURNACE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY  

EPA Science Inventory

A direct graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy method for the analysis of beryllium in drinking water has been derived from a method for determining beryllium in urine. Ammonium phosphomolybdate and ascorbic acid were employed as matrix modifiers. The matrix modifiers s...

173

Time-resolved refractive index and absorption mapping of light-plasma filaments in water  

E-print Network

By means of a quantitative shadowgraphic method, we performed a space-time characterization of the refractive index variation and transient absorption induced by a light-plasma filament generated by a 100 fs laser pulse in water. The formation and evolution of the plasma channel in the proximity of the nonlinear focus were observed with a 23 fs time resolution.

Minardi, Stefano; Tatarakis, Michael; Tamosauskas, Arnaud Couairon Gintaras; Piskarskas, Rimtautas; Dubietis, Audrius; Di Trapani, Paolo

2007-01-01

174

Water Channel of Horseradish Peroxidase Studied by the Charge-Transfer Absorption Band of Ferric Heme  

E-print Network

connects the aqueous solution to the heme site. Ferric horseradish peroxidase has an absorption band at 640, the protein was incorporated into trehalose/sucrose glasses and the hydration of the sugar glasses was varied are narrower for the protein in glycerol/water (glass transition at 150 K) than in trehalose/sucrose (glass

Sharp, Kim

175

Estimation of Concentration and Bonding Environment of Water Dissolved in Common Solvents Using Near Infrared Absorptivity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Integrated near infrared (NIR) absorbance has been used to determine the absorptivity of the v2+v3 combination band of the asymmetric stretch (v2) and the bending vibration (v3) for water in several organic solvents. Absorptivitiy measured in this way is ...

B. Dickens, S. H. Dickens

1999-01-01

176

Preliminary observations of water movement in cement pastes during curing using X-ray absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray absorption and concurrent mass measurements are used in quantifying water movement in 4 to 5 mm thick cement paste specimens with their top surface exposed to drying. Experimental variables examined in this preliminary study include water-to-cement (w\\/c) ratio and open vs. capped samples. Layered specimens (e.g., 0.3 w\\/c ratio paste over 0.45 w\\/c ratio paste) are also examined to

D. P Bentz; K. K Hansen

2000-01-01

177

Effects of thinning intensities on soil infiltration and water storage capacity in a Chinese pine-oak mixed forest.  

PubMed

Thinning is a crucial practice in the forest ecosystem management. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest under three different thinning intensity treatments (15%, 30%, and 60%) were studied in Qinling Mountains of China. The thinning operations had a significant influence on soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity in different thinning treatments followed the order of control (nonthinning): <60%, <15%, and <30%. It demonstrated that thinning operation with 30% intensity can substantially improve soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity of pine-oak mixed forest in Qinling Mountains. The soil initial infiltration rate, stable infiltration rate, and average infiltration rate in thinning 30% treatment were significantly increased by 21.1%, 104.6%, and 60.9%, compared with the control. The soil maximal water storage capacity and noncapillary water storage capacity in thinning 30% treatment were significantly improved by 20.1% and 34.3% in contrast to the control. The soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity were significantly higher in the surface layer (0~20 cm) than in the deep layers (20~40 cm and 40~60 cm). We found that the soil property was closely related to soil infiltration rate and water storage capacity. PMID:24883372

Chen, Lili; Yuan, Zhiyou; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Dexiang; Mu, Xingmin

2014-01-01

178

Improvement of the Performance for an Absorption Refrigeration System with Lithium bromide-water as Refrigerant by Increasing Absorption Pressure  

E-print Network

, the low COP of the absorption machine was limited seriously to compete with the refrigeration machine that is drove by electricity. Therefore, most researchers focus their attention on the improvement of performance of the absorption system through many...

Xie, G.; Sheng, G.; Li, G.; Pan, S.

2006-01-01

179

30 CFR 75.1107-7 - Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements.  

(a) Where water spray devices are used on unattended underground equipment the rate of flow shall be at least 0.25 gallon per minute per square foot over the top surface area of the equipment and the supply of water shall be adequate to provide the required flow of water for 10...

2014-07-01

180

Wide absorption spectrum measuring methods by DFB-LDs in water vapor detection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two measuring methods of the wide absorption spectrum by distributed feedback laser diodes (DFB-LDs) are presented in detecting the water vapor absorption line. One is the subsection scanning method, and it takes advantage of the wide spectrum tuning range by the temperature modulation and fast spectrum tuning speed by current modulation. Specifically, this method is realized by dividing a target spectral region into several sections which correspond to the specific temperature of DFB-LD, scanning every section by current modulation for hundreds times, and averaging the data to raise the signal to noise ratio (SNR), then combining all sections to get the whole spectrum. An accuracy of 10 ppmv had been obtained in the measurement of water vapor with a 10-cm path length by this method. Another is data fitting method, based on the absorption line-shape function; the absorption line can be described by fitting with partial measured data. The fitting absorption line was fitted well with the measured data, and the square of correlation coefficient (R-square) was no less than 0.99.

Liu, Y. N.; Chang, J.; Lian, J.; Wang, Q.; Lv, G. P.; Wang, W. J.; Liu, Z.; Liu, X. Z.; Zhang, S. S.; Wang, Z. L.; Jiang, S.; Zhu, C. G.; Wei, W.; Sun, B. N.

2014-09-01

181

Foliar Nitrogen Uptake from Wet Deposition and the Relation with Leaf Wettability and Water Storage Capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the foliar uptake of 15N-labelled nitrogen (N) originating from wet deposition along with leaf surface conditions, measured by wettability and water\\u000a storage capacity. Foliar 15N uptake was measured on saplings of silver birch, European beech, pedunculate oak and Scots pine and the effect of nitrogen\\u000a form (NH4+ or NO3?), NH4+ to NO3? ratio and leaf phenology on

Sandy Adriaenssens; Jeroen Staelens; Karen Wuyts; An de Schrijver; Shari Van Wittenberghe; Tatiana Wuytack; Fatemeh Kardel; Kris Verheyen; Roeland Samson; Pascal Boeckx

2011-01-01

182

Differential pressure, bypass chilled water systems: Capacity ratios between on-off and modulating units  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis is presented concerning the relative proportion betwen the sums of rated capacities of on-off controlled and modulating controlled terminal units in differential-pressure-bypass type chilled water distribution systems. In these systems, there is the chance that differential temperature across the supply and return mains at system part-load conditions could be lower than the system design value. The ratio of

K. K. Lau

1996-01-01

183

The impact of water flow configuration on crystallisation in LiBr/H2O absorption water heater  

SciTech Connect

Lithium Bromide (LiBr) strong solution entering the absorber tends to crystallise when the absorber temperature is increased for a fixed evaporating pressure. This is considered the key technical barrier for the development of a LiBr absorption heat pump water heater. There are several approaches to avoid the crystallisation problem, such as chemical crystallisation inhibitors, heat and mass transfer enhancement and thermodynamic cycle modification. This paper investigates and compares two flow configurations of LiBr absorption heat pump water heater to evaluate the allowable operating conditions for each. The simulation results indicated that introducing the process water through the absorber first results in lower absorber temperature and hence less tendency for crystallisation.

Wang, Kai [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

2011-03-01

184

Application of multiobjective optimization to scheduling capacity expansion of urban water resource systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

population increase in urban areas is likely to result in a deterioration of drought security and level of service provided by urban water resource systems. One way to cope with this is to optimally schedule the expansion of system resources. However, the high capital costs and environmental impacts associated with expanding or building major water infrastructure warrant the investigation of scheduling system operational options such as reservoir operating rules, demand reduction policies, and drought contingency plans, as a way of delaying or avoiding the expansion of water supply infrastructure. Traditionally, minimizing cost has been considered the primary objective in scheduling capacity expansion problems. In this paper, we consider some of the drawbacks of this approach. It is shown that there is no guarantee that the social burden of coping with drought emergencies is shared equitably across planning stages. In addition, it is shown that previous approaches do not adequately exploit the benefits of joint optimization of operational and infrastructure options and do not adequately address the need for the high level of drought security expected for urban systems. To address these shortcomings, a new multiobjective optimization approach to scheduling capacity expansion in an urban water resource system is presented and illustrated in a case study involving the bulk water supply system for Canberra. The results show that the multiobjective approach can address the temporal equity issue of sharing the burden of drought emergencies and that joint optimization of operational and infrastructure options can provide solutions superior to those just involving infrastructure options.

Mortazavi-Naeini, Mohammad; Kuczera, George; Cui, Lijie

2014-06-01

185

Capacity attributes of future urban water management regimes: projections from Australian sustainability practitioners.  

PubMed

Transitioning to more sustainable urban water management is widely accepted as an essential societal objective. While there has been significant progress in developing technical solutions to the challenges faced, numerous barriers remain at the regime level, indicating that further investigation into the regime is required. This paper reports on a social research project aimed at identifying capacity attributes of a more sustainable urban water management regime. Attributes were identified for the administrative and regulatory framework, inter- and intra-organisational and individual regime spheres. Over 125 urban water practitioners specialising in sustainability in Sydney and Melbourne were interviewed to identify the attributes of a more sustainable regime. The attributes reveal that a sustainable urban water management regime emphasises learning, diverse policy tools and institutional arrangements, together with interaction among stakeholders and professional disciplines. The interaction is characterised by respect, trust and mutual understanding. The sustainable regime attributes are compared to the traditional regime and reveal that while progress has been made towards a sustainable regime, additional improvement is required. Attributes identified across multiple regime spheres indicate potential focus areas for capacity building programs or reform efforts to more effectively enable regime change towards sustainable urban water management. PMID:20418620

van de Meene, S J; Brown, R R; Farrelly, M A

2010-01-01

186

Bathymetric surveys and area/capacity tables of water-supply reservoirs for the city of Cameron, Missouri, July 2013  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Years of sediment accumulation and dry conditions in recent years have led to the decline of water levels and capacities for many water-supply reservoirs in Missouri, and have caused renewed interest in modernizing outdated area/capacity tables for these reservoirs. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, surveyed the bathymetry of the four water-supply reservoirs used by the city of Cameron, Missouri, in July 2013. The data were used to provide water managers with area/capacity tables and bathymetric maps of the reservoirs at the time of the surveys.

Huizinga, Richard J.

2014-01-01

187

Finite element analysis and modeling of water absorption by date pits during a soaking process  

PubMed Central

Date pits for feed preparation or oil extraction are soaked in water to soften before milling or extrusion. Knowledge of water absorption by the date pits helps in better managing the soaking duration. In this research, the process of water absorption by date pits was modeled and analyzed using Fick’s second law of diffusion, finite element approach, and Peleg model. The moisture content of the pits reached to its saturation level of 41.5% (wet basis) after 10 d. The estimated coefficient of diffusion was 9.89×10?12 m2/s. The finite element model with a proposed ellipsoid geometry for a single date pit and the analytical model fitted better to the experimental data with R 2 of 0.98. The former model slightly overestimated the moisture content of the pits during the initial stages of the soaking and the latter model generally underestimated this variable through the entire stages of soaking process. PMID:20593512

Waezi-Zadeh, Motahareh; Ghazanfari, Ahmad; Noorbakhsh, Shahin

2010-01-01

188

Role of iron and organic carbon in mass-specific light absorption by particulate matter from Louisiana coastal waters  

E-print Network

Role of iron and organic carbon in mass-specific light absorption by particulate matter from Louisiana coastal waters Margaret L. Estapa,a,b,1,* Emmanuel Boss,a Lawrence M. Mayer,b and Collin S absorption measurements could be designed to monitor water-column iron mineral transport and transformation

Boss, Emmanuel S.

189

Determination of traces of silver in waters by anion exchange and atomic absorption spectrophotometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method has been developed for the accurate determination of 0.1-1 ??g of silver per liter of water. The method permits stabilization of silver in water without loss to container walls. Optimum conditions have been established for the complete recovery of silver from water with an anion-exchange column, for quantitative elution of silver from the resin, and for measurement of silver by atomic absorption spectrophotometry after chelation with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and extraction of the chelate with MIBK. Silver in the 1-10 ??g 1 range can be determined by extraction without pre-concentration on an ion-exchange resin. ?? 1969.

Chao, T. T.; Fishman, M. J.; Ball, J. W.

1969-01-01

190

Environmental Impacts on Surface Water and Groundwater for Expanding Urban Water Supply Capacity Using Stone Quarries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change and its related impacts on water supply are universally recognized. In the past few years, drought impacts affecting big metropolitan water supplies alone have plagued Maryland and the Chesapeake Bay in 2001 through 2002, Lake Mead in Las Vegas in 2000 through 2004, the Peace River and Lake Okeechobee in South Florida in 2006, and Lake Lanier

Xing Fang; Ni-Bin Chang; Ming-Kuo Lee; Lorraine Wolf

191

Accelerated Capacity Development in Water Resources Education: the experiences of the Ethiopian Institute of Water Resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ethiopia recently recognises that the water resources development is the major entry point in poverty alleviation and sustainable development. Water in Ethiopia plays a key role in the Water-Energy-Food-nexus. Over 98% of the electricity in the country is generated using hydropower and yet about 2000 MW has been developed. Out of the 3.5 Mha potentially irrigable land, only 0.25 Mha has been developed to date. Access to drinking water supply coverage is among the lowest in the world. One of the limiting factors in harnessing the resource base is the absence of water professionals to face the fast growing demand in education, research, development in the water sector. Recognising this, in collaboration with University of Connecticut of the United States, Addis Ababa University launched the Ethiopian Institute of Water Resources (EIWR) by enrolling 18 PhD and 24 MSc students. The program is unique in that much of the course instructors are coming from US and European Universities, but deliver courses together with Ethiopian collaborators. This is supposed to facilitate knowledge and experience transfer from the US/EU scientist to Ethiopian counterparts. The theses/dissertations are designed to focus on Ethiopia's immediate hydrological problems on selected basins, and will be coordinated by three advisors for each PhD - one from US/EU, one from Ethiopian Universities, and one water professional from the sector. We report here the lessons learned in setting up the EIWR institute and the education program.

Alamirew, T.; Mekonnen, G.; Viglione, A.

2012-04-01

192

Water vapor absorption coefficients in the 8-13-micron spectral region - A critical review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of water vapor absorption coefficients in the thermal IR atmospheric window (8-13 microns) during the past 20 years obtained by a variety of techniques are reviewed for consistency and compared with computed values based on the AFGL spectral data tapes. The methods of data collection considered were atmospheric long path absorption with a CO2 laser or a broadband source and filters, a White cell and a CO2 laser or a broadband source and a spectrometer, and a spectrophone with a CO2 laser. Advantages and disadvantages of each measurement approach are given as a guide to further research. Continuum absorption has apparently been measured accurately to about the 5-10 percent level in five of the measurements reported.

Grant, William B.

1990-01-01

193

Effects of rainfall seasonality and soil moisture capacity on mean annual water balance for Australian catchments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An important factor controlling catchment-scale water balance is the seasonal variation of climate. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the seasonal distributions of water and energy, and their interactions with the soil moisture store, on mean annual water balance in Australia at catchment scales using a stochastic model of soil moisture balance with seasonally varying forcing. The rainfall regime at 262 catchments around Australia was modeled as a Poisson process with the mean storm arrival rate and the mean storm depth varying throughout the year as cosine curves with annual periods. The soil moisture dynamics were represented by use of a single, finite water store having infinite infiltration capacity, and the potential evapotranspiration rate was modeled as an annual cosine curve. The mean annual water budget was calculated numerically using a Monte Carlo simulation. The model predicted that for a given level of climatic aridity the ratio of mean annual evapotranspiration to rainfall was larger where the potential evapotranspiration and rainfall were in phase, that is, in summer-dominant rainfall catchments, than where they were out of phase. The observed mean annual evapotranspiration ratios have opposite results. As a result, estimates of mean annual evapotranspiration from the model compared poorly with observational data. Because the inclusion of seasonally varying forcing alone was not sufficient to explain variability in the mean annual water balance, other catchment properties may play a role. Further analysis showed that the water balance was highly sensitive to the catchment-scale soil moisture capacity. Calibrations of this parameter indicated that infiltration-excess runoff might be an important process, especially for the summer-dominant rainfall catchments; most similar studies have shown that modeling of infiltration-excess runoff is not required at the mean annual timescale. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

Potter, N.J.; Zhang, L.; Milly, P.C.D.; McMahon, T.A.; Jakeman, A.J.

2005-01-01

194

Building leadership capacity to drive sustainable water management: the evaluation of a customised program.  

PubMed

This paper describes a customised, six-month, leadership development program (LDP) that was designed for emerging leaders in the Australian water industry who were promoting sustainable urban water management (SUWM). It also presents results from an evaluation of the program's benefits, costs and overall 'return on investment' (ROI). The program was designed to help build emergent leadership capacity in the water industry, given strong evidence that this form of leadership plays an important role in advancing SUWM. It involved '360-degree feedback' processes, training, individual leadership development plans, and coaching sessions. Its design was informed by a review of the literature, and its content was informed by local empirical research involving effective SUWM leaders. The evaluation used a seven-tier assessment framework that examined different dimensions of the program's performance using source and methodological triangulation. The results indicate that such LDPs can produce a range of positive outcomes, such as promoting desired leadership behaviours and generating a positive ROI estimate. Specifically, the program's estimated ROI was approximately 190% after only one year. The primary conclusion is that evidence-based LDPs which are highly customised for specific types of leaders in the water industry represent a promising type of intervention to build forms of leadership capacity which are needed to successfully promote SUWM. PMID:20489252

Taylor, A C

2010-01-01

195

Polder effects on sediment-to-soil conversion: water table, residual available water capacity, and salt stress interdependence.  

PubMed

The French Atlantic marshlands, reclaimed since the Middle Age, have been successively used for extensive grazing and more recently for cereal cultivation from 1970. The soils have acquired specific properties which have been induced by the successive reclaiming and drainage works and by the response of the clay dominant primary sediments, that is, structure, moisture, and salinity profiles. Based on the whole survey of the Marais Poitevin and Marais de Rochefort and in order to explain the mechanisms of marsh soil behavior, the work focuses on two typical spots: an undrained grassland since at least 1964 and a drained cereal cultivated field. The structure-hydromechanical profiles relationships have been established thanks to the clay matrix shrinkage curve. They are confronted to the hydraulic functioning including the fresh-to-salt water transfers and to the recording of tensiometer profiles. The CE1/5 profiles supply the water geochemical and geophysical data by their better accuracy. Associated to the available water capacity calculation they allow the representation of the parallel evolution of the residual available water capacity profiles and salinity profiles according to the plant growing and rooting from the mesophile systems of grassland to the hygrophile systems of drained fields. PMID:23990758

Radimy, Raymond Tojo; Dudoignon, Patrick; Hillaireau, Jean Michel; Deboute, Elise

2013-01-01

196

Water vapour absorption in the clear atmosphere of a Neptune-sized exoplanet.  

PubMed

Transmission spectroscopy has so far detected atomic and molecular absorption in Jupiter-sized exoplanets, but intense efforts to measure molecular absorption in the atmospheres of smaller (Neptune-sized) planets during transits have revealed only featureless spectra. From this it was concluded that the majority of small, warm planets evolve to sustain atmospheres with high mean molecular weights (little hydrogen), opaque clouds or scattering hazes, reducing our ability to observe the composition of these atmospheres. Here we report observations of the transmission spectrum of the exoplanet HAT-P-11b (which has a radius about four times that of Earth) from the optical wavelength range to the infrared. We detected water vapour absorption at a wavelength of 1.4 micrometres. The amplitude of the water absorption (approximately 250 parts per million) indicates that the planetary atmosphere is predominantly clear down to an altitude corresponding to about 1 millibar, and sufficiently rich in hydrogen to have a large scale height (over which the atmospheric pressure varies by a factor of e). The spectrum is indicative of a planetary atmosphere in which the abundance of heavy elements is no greater than about 700 times the solar value. This is in good agreement with the core-accretion theory of planet formation, in which a gas giant planet acquires its atmosphere by accreting hydrogen-rich gas directly from the protoplanetary nebula onto a large rocky or icy core. PMID:25254473

Fraine, Jonathan; Deming, Drake; Benneke, Bjorn; Knutson, Heather; Jordán, Andrés; Espinoza, Néstor; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Wilkins, Ashlee; Todorov, Kamen

2014-09-25

197

Water vapour absorption in the clear atmosphere of a Neptune-sized exoplanet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transmission spectroscopy has so far detected atomic and molecular absorption in Jupiter-sized exoplanets, but intense efforts to measure molecular absorption in the atmospheres of smaller (Neptune-sized) planets during transits have revealed only featureless spectra. From this it was concluded that the majority of small, warm planets evolve to sustain atmospheres with high mean molecular weights (little hydrogen), opaque clouds or scattering hazes, reducing our ability to observe the composition of these atmospheres. Here we report observations of the transmission spectrum of the exoplanet HAT-P-11b (which has a radius about four times that of Earth) from the optical wavelength range to the infrared. We detected water vapour absorption at a wavelength of 1.4 micrometres. The amplitude of the water absorption (approximately 250 parts per million) indicates that the planetary atmosphere is predominantly clear down to an altitude corresponding to about 1 millibar, and sufficiently rich in hydrogen to have a large scale height (over which the atmospheric pressure varies by a factor of e). The spectrum is indicative of a planetary atmosphere in which the abundance of heavy elements is no greater than about 700 times the solar value. This is in good agreement with the core-accretion theory of planet formation, in which a gas giant planet acquires its atmosphere by accreting hydrogen-rich gas directly from the protoplanetary nebula onto a large rocky or icy core.

Fraine, Jonathan; Deming, Drake; Benneke, Bjorn; Knutson, Heather; Jordán, Andrés; Espinoza, Néstor; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Wilkins, Ashlee; Todorov, Kamen

2014-09-01

198

Ammonia and ammonium hydroxide sensors for ammonia/water absorption machines: Literature review and data compilation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes an evaluation of various sensing techniques for determining the ammonia concentration in the working fluid of ammonia/water absorption cycle systems. The purpose was to determine if any existing sensor technology or instrumentation could provide an accurate, reliable, and cost-effective continuous measure of ammonia concentration in water. The resulting information will be used for design optimization and cycle control in an ammonia-absorption heat pump. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) researchers evaluated each sensing technology against a set of general requirements characterizing the potential operating conditions within the absorption cycle. The criteria included the physical constraints for in situ operation, sensor characteristics, and sensor application. PNL performed an extensive literature search, which uncovered several promising sensing technologies that might be applicable to this problem. Sixty-two references were investigated, and 33 commercial vendors were identified as having ammonia sensors. The technologies for ammonia sensing are acoustic wave, refractive index, electrode, thermal, ion-selective field-effect transistor (ISFET), electrical conductivity, pH/colormetric, and optical absorption. Based on information acquired in the literature search, PNL recommends that follow-on activities focus on ISFET devices and a fiber optic evanescent sensor with a colormetric indicator. The ISFET and fiber optic evanescent sensor are inherently microminiature and capable of in situ measurements. Further, both techniques have been demonstrated selective to the ammonium ion (NH4(+)). The primary issue remaining is how to make the sensors sufficiently corrosion-resistant to be useful in practice.

Anheier, N. C., Jr.; McDonald, C. E.; Cuta, J. M.; Cuta, F. M.; Olsen, K. B.

1995-05-01

199

Ammonia and ammonium hydroxide sensors for ammonia/water absorption machines: Literature review and data compilation  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an evaluation of various sensing techniques for determining the ammonia concentration in the working fluid of ammonia/water absorption cycle systems. The purpose of this work was to determine if any existing sensor technology or instrumentation could provide an accurate, reliable, and cost-effective continuous measure of ammonia concentration in water. The resulting information will be used for design optimization and cycle control in an ammonia-absorption heat pump. PNL researchers evaluated each sensing technology against a set of general requirements characterizing the potential operating conditions within the absorption cycle. The criteria included the physical constraints for in situ operation, sensor characteristics, and sensor application. PNL performed an extensive literature search, which uncovered several promising sensing technologies that might be applicable to this problem. Sixty-two references were investigated, and 33 commercial vendors were identified as having ammonia sensors. The technologies for ammonia sensing are acoustic wave, refractive index, electrode, thermal, ion-selective field-effect transistor (ISFET), electrical conductivity, pH/colormetric, and optical absorption. Based on information acquired in the literature search, PNL recommends that follow-on activities focus on ISFET devices and a fiber optic evanescent sensor with a colormetric indicator. The ISFET and fiber optic evanescent sensor are inherently microminiature and capable of in situ measurements. Further, both techniques have been demonstrated selective to the ammonium ion (NH{sub 4}{sup +}). The primary issue remaining is how to make the sensors sufficiently corrosion-resistant to be useful in practice.

Anheier, N.C. Jr.; McDonald, C.E.; Cuta, J.M.; Cuta, F.M.; Olsen, K.B.

1995-05-01

200

Effect of water and temperature on absorption of CO2 by amine-functionalized anion-tethered ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Amine-functionalized anion-tethered ionic liquids (ILs) trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium asparaginate [P(66614)][Asn], glutaminate [P(66614)][Gln], lysinate [P(66614)][Lys], methioninate [P(66614)][Met], prolinate [P(66614)][Pro], taurinate [P(66614)][Tau], and threoninate [P(66614)][Thr] were synthesized and investigated as potential absorbents for CO(2) capture from postcombustion flue gas. Their physical properties, including density, viscosity, glass transition temperature, and thermal decomposition temperature were determined. Furthermore, the CO(2) absorption isotherms of [P(66614)][Lys], [P(66614)][Tau], [P(66614)][Pro], and [P(66614)][Met] were measured using a volumetric method, and the results were modeled with two different Langmuir-type absorption models. The most important result of this study is that the viscosity of [P(66614)][Pro] only increased by a factor of 2 when fully complexed with 1 bar of CO(2) at room temperature. This is in stark contrast to the other chemically reacted ILs investigated here and all other amino acid-based ILs reported in the literature, which dramatically increase in viscosity, typically by 2 orders of magnitude, when complexed with CO(2). The unique behavior of [P(66614)][Pro] is likely due to its ring structure, which limits the number and availability of hydrogen atoms that can participate in a hydrogen bonding network. We found that water can be used to further reduce the viscosity of the CO(2)-complexed IL, while only slightly decreasing the CO(2) capacity. Finally, from temperature-dependent isotherms, we estimate a heat of absorption of -63 kJ/mol of CO(2) for the 1:1 reaction of CO(2) with [P(66614)][Pro], when we use the two-reaction model. PMID:21650466

Goodrich, Brett F; de la Fuente, Juan C; Gurkan, Burcu E; Lopez, Zulema K; Price, Erica A; Huang, Yong; Brennecke, Joan F

2011-07-28

201

Water vapor heterogeneity related to tropopause folds over the North Atlantic revealed by airborne water vapor differential absorption lidar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements of tropospheric water vapor and aerosol\\/clouds are presented from transfers across the North Atlantic on 13–15 May and 16–18 June 2002. The intense dynamical activity over the Atlantic is reflected in complex structures like deep tropopause folds, extended dry layers, and tilted aerosol filaments. Intrusions with H2O mixing ratios below 0.03 g kg?1 regularly

H. Flentje; A. Dörnbrack; G. Ehret; A. Fix; C. Kiemle; G. Poberaj; M. Wirth

2005-01-01

202

The phase behavior and absorption spectra of the ternary system cobaltous chloride-water-acetonitrile  

E-print Network

. HE PHASZ BEHAVIOR ARD ABSORPTION SPECTRA. OF THE TER1MRY SYSTEN COBALTOUS CHLORIDE-WATER-AGZTOIJITRILE A Thesis by JEFFREY LOVZTT BOBBIT'1 Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&N University in Partial fulfillment... CONCIUSION Interpretation of Zxoerimental Results Summary and Suggestions for Further Study APP 'NDICES ~ 1 3 8 11 12 14 15 15 24 36 36 39 41 Cobaltous Chloride-Nater Solutions Prepared for Phase Diagram Determination . Cobaltous Chloride...

Bobbitt, Jeffrey Lovett

2012-06-07

203

Power absorption coefficient constants for water, acetonitrile, and methylene chloride at far infrared wavelengths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of multiple internal reflections within the windows of an optical cell is analysed using Abele's matrix method. The Beer-Lambert power law is modified by the standing waves formed in between the cell and the detector. Power absorption coefficient of a material is calculated by a fit to the modified version of the equation. Precise ? values for water, acetonitrile and methylene chloride are calculated at far infrared wavelengths using a molecular laser source.

Vij, J. K.

1989-07-01

204

Relationship of Kernel Size to Flour Water Absorption for Canada Western Red Spring Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 77(3):286-292 Canada Western Red Spring (CWRS) wheat exhibits consistent posi- tive relationships between kernel weight and farinograph and baking water absorption. These relationships are sufficiently robust to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) for historical Canadian Grain Commission harvest survey data generated one year apart for 17 years, and for historical data on individual cultivars in advanced Canadian

B. C. Morgan; J. E. Dexter; K. R. Preston

2000-01-01

205

Airborne remote sensing of tropospheric water vapor with a near-infrared differential absorption lidar system.  

PubMed

A near-infrared airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has become operational. Horizontal and vertical water vapor profiles of the troposphere during summer (nighttime) conditions extending from the top of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) up to near the tropopause are investigated. These measurements have been performed in Southern Bavaria, Germany. The system design, the frequency control units, and an estimation of the laser line profile of the narrow-band dye laser are discussed. Effective absorption cross sections in terms of altitude are calculated. Statistical and systematic errors of the water vapor measurements are evaluated as a function of altitude. The effect of a systematic range-dependent error caused by molecular absorption is investigated by comparing the DIAL data with in situ measurements. Typical horizontal resolutions range from 4 km in the lower troposphere to 11 km in the upper troposphere, with vertical resolutions varying from 0.3 to 1 km, respectively. The lower limit of the sensitivity of the water vapor mixing ratio is calculated to be 0.01 g/kg. The total errors of these measurements range between 8% and 25%. A sine-shaped wave structure with a wavelength of 14 km and an amplitude of 20% of its mean value, detected in the lower troposphere, indicates an atmospheric gravity wave field. PMID:20830116

Ehret, G; Kiemle, C; Renger, W; Simmet, G

1993-08-20

206

Moisture absorption characteristics of the Orbiter thermal protection system and methods used to prevent water ingestion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Orbiter's silica tile Thermal Protection System (TPS) is beset by the moisture absorption problems inherently associated with low density, highly porous insulation systems. Attention is presently given to the comparative success of methods for the minimization and/or prevention of water ingestion by the TPS tiles, covering the development of water-repellent agents and their tile application techniques, flight test program results, and materials improvements. The use of external films for rewaterproofing of the TPS tiles after each mission have demonstrated marginal to unacceptable performance. By contrast, a tile interior waterproofing agent has shown promise.

Schomburg, C.; Dotts, R. L.; Tillian, D. J.

1983-01-01

207

Aging of Toughened Polylactic Acid Nanocomposites: Water Absorption, Hygrothermal Degradation and Soil Burial Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental aging behaviour of montmorillonite (MMT) filled polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposites (PLA\\/MMT) and linear\\u000a low density polyethylene (LLDPE)-toughened PLA (PLA\\/LLDPE ratio = 90\\/10) nanocomposites (PLA\\/LLDPE\\/MMT) were investigated\\u000a in this study. The nanocomposites were subjected to water absorption, hygrothermal degradation and soil burial analysis. Both\\u000a PLA\\/MMT and PLA\\/LLDPE\\/MMT nanocomposites were immersed in distilled water at three different temperatures (room temperature,\\u000a 60, and

Harintharavimal Balakrishnan; Azman Hassan; Muhammad Imran; Mat Uzir Wahit

208

Automated atomic absorption spectrometric determination of total arsenic in water and streambed materials  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An automated method to determine both inorganic and organic forms of arsenic In water, water-suspended mixtures, and streambed materials Is described. Organic arsenic-containing compounds are decomposed by either ultraviolet radiation or by suHurlc acid-potassium persulfate digestion. The arsenic liberated, with Inorganic arsenic originally present, is reduced to arsine with sodium borohydrlde. The arable Is stripped from the solution with the aid of nitrogen and Is then decomposed In a tube furnace heated to 800 ??C which Is placed in the optical path of an atomic absorption spectrometer. Thirty samples per hour can be analyzed to levels of 1 ??g arsenic per liter.

Fishman, M.

1977-01-01

209

We analyze Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) water surface elevation data to assess the capacity of interferometric  

E-print Network

the capacity of interferometric radar for future surface water missions. Elevations from three Ohio reservoirs are attributed to increased averaging in C-band compared to X-band, greater sensitivity to surface water motion. Changes in water volumes stored ( S) in wetlands, lakes, and reservoirs serve to regulate the delivery

Howat, Ian M.

210

Quantitative effects of a water exercise program on functional and physiological capacity in subjects with knee osteoarthritis: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common and debilitating disease that often affects the knees. Patients suffer from pain and disability and have associated reductions in muscle and cardiopulmonary function. We quantitatively evaluated the effects of an 8-week water exercise program (WEP) on muscle, cardiovascular, and functional capacity on patients with knee OA. Functional capacity (walking time, Jette functional status index, habitual

N. M. Fisher; D. M. Dolan; C. Brenner; D. R. Pendergast

2004-01-01

211

In-Line Capacitance Sensor for Real-Time Water Absorption Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A capacitance/dielectric sensor was designed, constructed, and used to measure in real time the in-situ water concentration in a desiccant water bed. Measurements were carried out with two experimental setups: (1) passing nitrogen through a humidity generator and allowing the gas stream to become saturated at a measured temperature and pressure, and (2) injecting water via a syringe pump into a nitrogen stream. Both water vapor generating devices were attached to a downstream vertically-mounted water capture bed filled with 19.5 g of Moisture Gone desiccant. The sensor consisted of two electrodes: (1) a 1/8" dia stainless steel rod placed in the middle of the bed and (2) the outer shell of the stainless steel bed concentric with the rod. All phases of the water capture process (background, heating, absorption, desorption, and cooling) were monitored with capacitance. The measured capacitance was found to vary linearly with the water content in the bed at frequencies above 100 kHz indicating dipolar motion dominated the signal; below this frequency, ionic motion caused nonlinearities in the water concentration/capacitance relationship. The desiccant exhibited a dielectric relaxation whose activation energy was lowered upon addition of water indicating either a less hindered rotational motion or crystal reorientation.

Nurge, Mark A.; Perusich, Stephen A.

2010-01-01

212

Exploring the capacity of radar remote sensing to estimate wetland marshes water storage.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on the use of radar remote sensing for water storage estimation in wetland marshes of the Paraná River Delta in Argentina. The approach followed is based on the analysis of a temporal set of ENVISAT ASAR data which includes images acquired under different polarizations and incidence angles as well as different environmental conditions (water level, precipitation, and vegetation condition). Two marsh species, named junco and cortadera, were monitored. This overall data set gave us the possibility of studying and understanding the basic interactions between the radar, the soil under different flood conditions, and the vegetation structure. The comprehension of the observed features was addressed through electromagnetic models developed for these ecosystems. The procedure used in this work to estimate water level within marshes combines a direct electromagnetic model, field work data specifically obtained to feed the model, the actual ASAR measurements and a well known retrieval scheme based on a cost function. Results are validated with water level evaluations at specific points. A map showing an estimation of the water storage capacity and its error in junco and cortadera areas for the date where the investigation was done is also presented. PMID:18367312

Grings, F; Salvia, M; Karszenbaum, H; Ferrazzoli, P; Kandus, P; Perna, P

2009-05-01

213

Water vapor profiling using a widely tunable amplified diode laser Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water vapor is one of the most significant constituents of the atmosphere because of its role in cloud formation, precipitation, and interactions with electromagnetic radiation, especially its absorption of longwave infrared radiation. Some details of the role of water vapor and related feedback mechanisms in the Earth system need to be characterized better if local weather, global climate, and the water cycle are to be understood. Water vapor profiles are currently obtained with several remote sensing techniques, such as microwave radiometers, passive instruments like the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), and Raman lidar. Each of these instruments has some disadvantage, such as only producing column-integrated water vapor amounts or being large, overly customized, and costly, making them difficult to use for deployment in networks or onboard satellites to measure water vapor profiles. This thesis work involved the design, construction, and testing of a highly-tunable Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) instrument utilizing an all-semiconductor transmitter. It was an attempt to take advantage of semiconductor laser technology to obtain range-resolved water vapor profiles with an instrument that is cheaper, smaller, and more robust than existing field instruments. The eventual goal of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility of this DIAL instrument as a candidate for deployment in multi-point networks or satellite arrays to study water vapor flux profiles. This new DIAL instrument transmitter has, for the first time in any known DIAL instrument, a highly-tunable External Cavity Diode Laser (ECDL) as a seed laser source for two cascaded commercial tapered amplifiers. The transmitter has the capability of tuning over a range of ˜17 nm to selectively probe several available water vapor absorption lines, depending on current environmental conditions. This capability has been called for in other recent DIAL experiments. Tests of the DIAL instrument to prove the validity of its measurements are presented. Initial water vapor profiles, taken in the Bozeman, MT, area, were taken, analyzed, and compared with co-located radiosonde measurements. Future improvements and directions for the next generation of this DIAL instrument are discussed.

Obland, Michael Drew

214

Airborne differential absorption lidar system for measurements of atmospheric water vapor and aerosols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center for remote measurements of atmospheric water vapor (H2O) and aerosols. A solid-state alexandrite laser with a 1-pm linewidth and greater than 99.85% spectral purity was used as the on-line transmitter. Solid-state avalanche photodiode detector technology has replaced photomultiplier tubes in the receiver system, providing an average increase by a factor of 1.5-2.5 in the signal-to-noise ratio of the H2O measurement. By incorporating advanced diagnostic and data-acquisition instrumentation into other subsystems, we achieved additional improvements in system operational reliability and measurement accuracy. Laboratory spectroscopic measurements of H2O absorption-line parameters were performed to reduce the uncertainties in our knowledge of the absorption cross sections. Line-center H2O absorption cross sections were determined, with errors of 3-6%, for more than 120 lines in the 720-nm region. Flight tests of the system were conducted during 1989-1991 on the NASA Wallops Flight Facility Electra aircraft, and extensive intercomparison measurements were performed with dew-point hygrometers and H2O radiosondes. The H2O distributions measured with the DIAL system differed by less than 10% from the profiles determined with the in situ probes in a variety of atmospheric conditions.

Carter, Arlen F.; Allen, Robert J.; Mayo, M. Neale; Butler, Carolyn F.; Grossman, Benoist E.; Ismail, Syed; Grant, William B.; Browell, Edward V.; Higdon, Noah S.; Mayor, Shane D.; Ponsardin, Patrick; Hueser, Alene W.

1994-01-01

215

A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the spring of 1992 an optical closure experiment was conducted at Lake Pend Orielle, Idaho. A primary objective of the experiment was to compare techniques for the measurement of the spectral absorption coefficent and other inherent optical properties of natural waters. Daily averages of absorption coefficents measured using six methods are compared at wavelengths of 456, 488, and 532 nm. Overall agreement was within 40% at 456 nm and improved with increasing wavelength to 25% at 532 nm. These absorption measurements were distributed over the final 9 days of the experiement, when bio-optical conditions in Lake Pend Oreille (as indexed by the beam attenuation coefficent c(sub p)(660) and chlorophyll a fluorescence profiles) were representative of those observed throughout the experiment. However, profiles of stimulated chlorophyll a fluorescence and beam transmission showed that bio-optical properties in the lake varied strongly on all time and space scales. Therefore environmental variabilty contributed significantly to deviations between daily mean absorption coefficients measured using the different techniques.

Pegau, W. Scott; Cleveland, Joan S.; Doss, W.; Kennedy, C. Dan; Maffione, Robert A.; Mueller, James L.; Stone, R.; Trees, Charles C.; Weidemann, Alan D.; Wells, Willard H.

1995-01-01

216

Absorption of water and solute from glucose-electrolyte solutions in the human jejunum: effect of citrate or betaine.  

PubMed

The inclusion in oral rehydration solutions of solutes that are actively co-transported with sodium has been suggested as a means of increasing the effect of glucose on water absorption by the small intestine. Using a modified perfusion system we have examined water and solute absorption in the normal human intestine from two effervescent glucose-electrolyte solutions, containing either citrate or betaine hydrochloride, and compared the absorption rates with those from a commonly used bicarbonate-containing oral rehydration solution. Absorption of citrate (355 +/- 87 mumol/cm/h) and betaine (313 +/- 125 mumol/cm/h) occurred from the respective solutions. The inclusion of 46 mmol/l citrate or 36 mmol/l betaine in effervescent oral rehydration solutions had no effect on water or solute absorption. PMID:2595270

Leiper, J B; Maughan, R J

1989-11-01

217

Relation between 183 GHz Water Vapor Line and Water Continuum Absorption Measured with FTS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ve carried out Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) measurements of the millimeter and submillimeter-wave (100-1500 GHz or 3 mm - 200 micron) atmospheric opacity at Pampa la Bola, 4800 m above sea level in northern Chile on September 1997 and June 1998. Correlations between 220 GHz opacities and those of the center of submillimeter-wave windows were obtained using the entire data set, and good correlations were obtained except for the periods affected by the liquid water opacity component. We succeeded to separate the total opacity to water vapor and liquid water opacity components. The separated water vapor opacity component shows good correlation with the 183 GHz pure water vapor line opacity, which is also covered in the measured spectra, but the liquid water opacity component shows no correlation. Since the submillimeter-wave opacity is merely affected by the liquid water component, it may be better to use the submillimeter-wave opacity for the phase correction.

Matsushita, S.; Matsuo, H.

218

The development of an integrating cavity absorption meter to measure optical absorption of pure waters and suspended particulates  

E-print Network

, (Cambridge U. P. , New York, 1983). J. Stone, "Measurements of the Absorption of Light in Low-Loss Liquids, " Journal of the Optical Society of America 62, 327-333 (1972). Marvin Hass, James W, Davidson, Herbert B. Rosenstock, and Julius Babiskin... of Visible Radiation by Aerosol Particles, " Beitr5ge zur Physik der Atmosphare, 43, 244-254 (1970). Antony D. Clarke, "Integrating sandwich: a new method of measurement of the light absorption coefficient for atmospheric particles, " Appl. Opt. , 21...

Pope, Robin Merl

2012-06-07

219

Surface Arsenic Speciation of a Drinking-Water Treatment Residual Using X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Drinking-water treatment residuals (WTRs) present a low-cost geosorbent for As-contaminated waters and soils. Previous work has demonstrated the high affinity of WTRs for As, but data pertaining to the stability of sorbed As is missing. Sorption/desorption and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), both XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) and EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) studies, were combined to determine the stability of As sorbed by an Fe-based WTR. Arsenic(V) and As(III) sorption kinetics were biphasic in nature, sorbing <90% of the initial added As (15,000 mg kg{sup -1}) after 48 h of reaction. Subsequent desorption experiments with a high P load (7500 mg kg{sup -1}) showed negligible As desorption for both As species, approximately <3.5% of sorbed As; the small amount of desorbed As was attributed to the abundance of sorption sites. XANES data showed that sorption kinetics for either As(III) or As(V) initially added to solution had no effect on the sorbed As oxidation state. EXAFS spectroscopy suggested that As added either as As(III) or as As(V) formed inner-sphere mononuclear, bidentate complexes, suggesting the stability of the sorbed As, which was further corroborated by the minimum As desorption from the Fe-WTR.

Makris, K.C.; Sarkar, D.; Parsons, J.G.; Datta, R.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.

2009-06-03

220

Lipid nanoparticles with no surfactant improve oral absorption rate of poorly water-soluble drug.  

PubMed

A pharmacokinetic study was performed in rats to evaluate the oral absorption ratios of nanoparticle suspensions containing the poorly water-soluble compound nifedipine (NI) and two different types of lipids, including hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol. NI-lipid nanoparticle (LN) suspensions with a mean particle size of 48.0 nm and a zeta potential of -57.2 mV were prepared by co-grinding combined with a high-pressure homogenization process. The oral administration of NI-LN suspensions to rats led to a significant increase in the NI plasma concentration, and the area under the curve (AUC) value was found to be 108 min ?g mL?¹, indicating a 4-fold increase relative to the NI suspensions. A comparison of the pharmacokinetic parameters of the NI-LN suspensions with those of the NI solution prepared using only the surfactant polysorbate 80 revealed that although the AUC and bioavailability (59%) values were almost identical, a rapid absorption rate was still observed in the NI-LN suspensions. These results therefore indicated that lipid nanoparticles prepared using only two types of phospholipid with a mean particle size of less than 50 nm could improve the absorption of the poorly water-soluble drug. PMID:23624178

Funakoshi, Yuka; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

2013-07-15

221

WATER ABSORPTION FROM GAS VERY NEAR THE MASSIVE PROTOSTAR AFGL 2136 IRS 1  

SciTech Connect

We present ground-based observations of the ?{sub 1} and ?{sub 3} fundamental bands of H{sub 2}O toward the massive protostar AFGL 2136 IRS 1, identifying absorption features due to 47 different ro-vibrational transitions between 2.468 ?m and 2.561 ?m. Analysis of these features indicates the absorption arises in warm (T = 506 ± 25 K), very dense (n(H{sub 2}) > 5 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup –3}) gas, suggesting an origin close to the central protostar. The total column density of warm water is estimated to be N(H{sub 2}O) = (1.02 ± 0.02) × 10{sup 19} cm{sup –2}, giving a relative abundance of N(H{sub 2}O)/N(H{sub 2}) ? 10{sup –4}. Our study represents the first extensive use of water vapor absorption lines in the near infrared, and demonstrates the utility of such observations in deriving physical parameters.

Indriolo, Nick; Neufeld, D. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Seifahrt, A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Richter, M. J. [Department of Physics, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

2013-10-10

222

Changes on image texture features of breakfast flakes cereals during water absorption.  

PubMed

Normally breakfast cereal flakes are consumed by pouring them into a bowl and covering them with fresh or cold milk. During this process the liquid uptake causes changes in the surface and internal matrix of breakfast cereals that influence texture and integrity. Some breakfast cereal as flakes have a translucent structure that could provide information about the solid matrix and air cells and how they change during liquid absorption. The objective of the study was to assess the image texture changes of corn flakes and frosted flakes during water absorption at 5, 15 and 25?°C, employing 11 image feature textures extracted from grey-level co-occurrence matrix and grey-level run length matrix (at three directions) and to relate the fractal dimension (FD) of images with rupture force (RF) reduction during soaking of both flakes at 5?°C. The most relevant result from principal component analysis calculated with a matrix of 54 (soaking times)?×?22 (texture features), shows that it was possible to distinguish an isolated group consisting of different soaking times at the same water temperature in each breakfast cereal flakes evaluated, corroborating that superficial liquid imbibition is important during the liquid absorption process when flakes are soaked. Furthermore, standardized FD could be related to RF in the period when samples tend to search for an equilibrium state. PMID:23345324

Medina, Wenceslao T; Quevedo, Roberto A; Aguilera, José M

2013-02-01

223

Temperature sensitivity of differential absorption lidar measurements of water vapor in the 720-nm region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently measured properties of water vapor (H2O) absorption lines have been used in calculations to evalute the temperature sensitivity of differential absorption lidar (Dial) H2O measurements. This paper estimates the temperature sensitivity of H2O lines in the 717-733-nm region for both H2O mixing ratio and number density measurements, and discusses the influence of the H2O line ground state energies E-double-prime, the H2O absorption linewidths, the linewidth temperature dependence parameter, and the atmospheric temperature and pressure variations with altitude and location on the temperature sensitivity calculations. Line parameters and temperature sensitivity calculations for 67 H2O lines in the 720-nm band are given which can be directly used in field experiments. Water vapor lines with E-double-prime values in the 100-300/cm range were found to be optimum for Dial measurements of H2O number densities, while E-double-prime values in the 250-500/cm range were found to be optimum for H2O mixing ratio measurements.

Browell, Edward V.; Ismail, Syed; Grossmann, Benoist E.

1991-01-01

224

Atmospheric Pre-Corrected Differential Absorption Techniques to Retrieve Columnar Water Vapor: Theory and Simulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two different approaches exist to retrieve columnar water vapor from imaging spectrometer data: (1) Differential absorption techniques based on: (a) Narrow-Wide (N/W) ratio between overlapping spectrally wide and narrow channels; (b) Continuum Interpolated Band Ratio (CIBR) between a measurement channel and the weighted sum of two reference channels. (2) Non-linear fitting techniques which are based on spectral radiative transfer calculations. The advantage of the first approach is computational speed and of the second, improved retrieval accuracy. Our goal was to improve the accuracy of the first technique using physics based on radiative transfer. Using a modified version of the Duntley equation, we derived an "Atmospheric Pre-corrected Differential Absorption" (APDA) technique and described an iterative scheme to retrieve water vapor on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Next we compared both, the CIBR and the APDA using the Duntley equation for MODTRAN3 computed irradiances, transmissions and path radiance (using the DISORT option). This simulation showed that the CIBR is very sensitive to reflectance effects and that the APDA performs much better. An extensive data set was created with the radiative transfer code 6S over 379 different ground reflectance spectra. The calculated relative water vapor error was reduced significantly for the APDA. The APDA technique had about 8% (vs. over 35% for the CIBR) of the 379 spectra with a relative water vapor error of greater than +5%. The APDA has been applied to 1991 and 1995 AVIRIS scenes which visually demonstrate the improvement over the CIBR technique.

Borel, Christoph C.; Schlaepfer, Daniel

1996-01-01

225

Body centered cubic magnesium niobium hydride with facile room temperature absorption and four weight percent reversible capacity.  

PubMed

We have synthesized a new metastable metal hydride with promising hydrogen storage properties. Body centered cubic (bcc) magnesium niobium hydride (Mg(0.75)Nb(0.25))H(2) possesses 4.5 wt% hydrogen gravimetric density, with 4 wt% being reversible. Volumetric hydrogen absorption measurements yield an enthalpy of hydride formation of -53 kJ mol(-1) H(2), which indicates a significant thermodynamic destabilization relative to the baseline -77 kJ mol(-1) H(2) for rutile MgH(2). The hydrogenation cycling kinetics are remarkable. At room temperature and 1 bar hydrogen it takes 30 minutes to absorb a 1.5 ?m thick film at sorption cycle 1, and 1 minute at cycle 5. Reversible desorption is achieved in about 60 minutes at 175 °C. Using ab initio calculations we have examined the thermodynamic stability of metallic alloys with hexagonal close packed (hcp) versus bcc crystal structure. Moreover we have analyzed the formation energies of the alloy hydrides that are bcc, rutile or fluorite. PMID:22782120

Tan, XueHai; Wang, Liya; Holt, Chris M B; Zahiri, Beniamin; Eikerling, Michael H; Mitlin, David

2012-08-21

226

Enhanced reverse saturable absorption and optical limiting properties in a protonated water-soluble porphyrin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinear optical properties of water-soluble porphyrin 5,10,15,20-Tetrakis (1-methyl-4-pyridinio) porphyrin tetra (p-toluenesulfonate) (TMPyP), protonated TMPyP ({{TMPyPH}}_{2}^{2+}), TMPyP film with the gelatin matrix (TMPyP/Gelatin) were investigated by the open-aperture Z-scan technique in the nanosecond regime. Results show that {{TMPyPH}}_{2}^{2+} exhibits a larger ratio of excited state absorption cross-section to that of the ground state and enhanced reverse saturable absorption properties compared with TMPyP and TMPyP/Gelatin. {{TMPyPH}}_{2}^{2+} also shows the superior optical limiting performance, even better than the benchmark material C60 and the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) dispersion.

Zhang, Xiao-Liang; Chen, Xu-Dong; Li, Xiao-Chun; Ying, Cui-Feng; Liu, Zhi-Bo; Tian, Jian-Guo

2013-05-01

227

Theoretical analysis of ammonia-water absorption cycles for refrigeration and space conditioning systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical model for the performance of an ammonia-water absorption cycle in solar air conditioning, refrigeration, and heat pump systems are presented. The configurations comprise a solar driven generator, a rectifier, condenser, evaporator, absorber, preheater, and a subcooler. Cooling modes involve supplying heat to the evaporator from the space to be cooled and transferring the heat to the ambient environment by way of the rectifier, absorber, and condenser. In a heat pump, the same equipment is used with the heat being dispersed into the space to be heated. Block diagrams are provided of the basic absorption cycle and a model is constructed from heat and mass balance equations and the equations of state for a NH3-H2O cycle system. System simulation then consists of the simultaneous solution of a set of algebraic nonlinear equations and using the Newton-Raphson method to iterate for implicit solutions in each operational mode.

Kaushik, S. C.; Bhardwaj, S. C.

1982-09-01

228

Parameterization of water component absorption in an inland eutrophic lake and its seasonal variability: a case study in Lake Taihu  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water spectral absorption characteristics of eutrophic lakes are largely different from those of ocean and coastal waters. We therefore studied them with the aim of establishing an analytical model for inland water colour, to be used in remote sensing. Field measurements were carried out on 16 and 17 August 2006 (summer), 5 and 6 November 2006 (winter), and 29 and

Deyong Sun; Yunmei Li; Qiao Wang; Chengfeng Le; Changchun Huang; Lizhen Wang

2009-01-01

229

Mineral Specific IR Molar Absorption Coefficients for Routine Water Determination in Olivine, SiO2 polymorphs and Garnet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventionally applied Infrared (IR) calibrations [1, 2] for quantitative water analyses in solids are established on hydrous minerals and glasses with several wt% water. These calibrations are based on a negative correlation between the IR molar absorption coefficient (?) for water and the mean wavenumber of the corresponding OH pattern. The correlation reflects the dependence of the OH band position

S. Thomas; M. Koch-Mueller; P. Reichart; D. Rhede; R. Thomas

2007-01-01

230

Heat capacity and density of potassium iodide solutions in mixed N-methylpyrrolidone-water solvent at 298.15 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heat capacity and density of potassium iodide solutions in a mixed N-methylpyrrolidone (MP)-water solvent with a low content of the organic component are measured via calorimetry and densimetry at 298.15 K. Standard partial molal heat capacities and volumes of potassium iodide in MP-water mixtures are calculated. Standard heat capacities and volumes of potassium and iodide ions are determined. The character of the changes in heat capacity and volume are discussed on the basis of calculating additivity coefficients ? c and ? v upon the mixing of isomolal binary solutions KI-MP and KI-water, depending on the composition of the MP-H2O mixture and the concentration of the electrolyte.

Novikov, A. N.

2014-10-01

231

Robust superhydrophobic/superoleophilic sponge for effective continuous absorption and expulsion of oil pollutants from water.  

PubMed

With the growth of oil production and transportation, there is greater potential for accidental oil spills. Here we fabricated a robust superhydrophobic and superoleophilic carbon nanotube/poly(dimethylsiloxane)-coated polyurethane sponge for the continuous absorption and expulsion of oils and organic solvents from water surfaces. When applied in conjunction with a vacuum system, this sponge could separate great amounts of oils-up to 35000 times its own weight-from water in a one-step process and could also separate surfactant-free water-in-oil emulsions with high efficiency (oil purity: >99.97 wt %), making it a promising candidate material for use in oil-spill cleanups. PMID:24032484

Wang, Chih-Feng; Lin, Sheng-Jhih

2013-09-25

232

Standard test method for water absorption of core materials for structural sandwich constructions  

SciTech Connect

This method covers the determination of the relative rate of absorption of water by various types of core materials when immersed. The method is intended to apply to the testing of all types of core materials, including honeycomb structures, wood, cellulated materials, resin-impregnated reinforcing materials, etc. but does not apply to loose mineral fillers. The test specimen shall be in the form of a square 7.62 cm (3 in.) in length by 7.62 cm (3 in.) in width by the thickness of the material. The dimensions shall be measured to an accuracy of +-0.5 percent. Three specimens are weighed individually and conditioned as prescribed before immersion in a container of distilled water maintained at a temperature of 23 +- 3/sup 0/C. At the end of 24 hour, specimens are removed from the water, wiped dry, weighed and calculations are made from data.

Not Available

1980-01-01

233

Investigation of the Influence of Cooling Water Inlet Temperature on Characteristics and Ammonia Charging Quantity of Ammonia-Water Absorption Refrigerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For purposes such as freezing and ice accumulation which require temperatures below 0 degrees, ammonia-water absorption refrigerator is being looked at once again. If used for these purpose, it is usually driven all through the year. In this case, cooling water inlet temperature which greatly influences absorption cycle changes very widely. So in such conditions, it is hoped to be driven high efficiently. And ammonia's charging quantity is required as small as possible on account of poisonous. But when it driven all through the year, ammonia charging quantity influences the efficiency greatly. So this research aims to clarify the ammonia charging quantity with which ammonia-water absorption refrigerator can be driven high efficiently. So static simulation model was made. By using this tool, we investigated the influence of cooling water inlet temperature on COP, solution concentration. As a result, minimum ammonia charging quantity with which ammonia water absorption refrigerator can be driven was obtained.

Takei, Toshitaka; Saito, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Sunao

234

Near-Infrared Studies of Glucose and Sucrose in Aqueous Solutions: Water Displacement Effect and Red Shift in Water Absorption from Water-Solute Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use near infrared spectroscopy to obtain concentration dependent glucose absorption spectra in their aqueous solutions in the near-infrared range (3800 - 7500 cm^{-1}). We introduce a new method to obtain reliable glucose absorption bands from aqueous glucose solutions without measuring the water displacement coefficients of glucose separately. Additionally, we are able to extract the water displacement coefficients of glucose, and this may give a new general method using spectroscopy techniques applicable to other water soluble materials. We also observe red shifts in the absorption bands of water in the hydration shell around solute molecules, which comes from contribution of the interacting water molecules around the glucose molecules in solutions. The intensity of the red shift get larger as the concentration increases, which indicates that as the concentration increases more water molecules are involved in the interaction. However, the red shift in frequency does not seem to depend significantly on the concentration up to our highest concentration. We also performed the same measurements and analysis with sucrose instead of glucose as solute and compare.

Jung, Youngeui; Hwang, Jungseek

2013-02-01

235

Near-infrared studies of glucose and sucrose in aqueous solutions: water displacement effect and red shift in water absorption from water-solute interaction.  

PubMed

We used near infrared spectroscopy to obtain concentration dependent glucose absorption spectra in aqueous solutions in the near-infrared range (3800-7500 cm(-1)). Here we introduce a new method to obtain reliable glucose absorption bands from aqueous glucose solutions without measuring the water displacement coefficients of glucose separately. Additionally, we were able to extract the water displacement coefficients of glucose, and this may offer a new general method using spectroscopy techniques applicable to other water-soluble materials. We also observed red shifts in the absorption bands of water in the hydration shell around solute molecules, which comes from the contribution of the interacting water molecules around the glucose molecules in solutions. The intensity of the red shift gets larger as the concentration increases, which indicates that as the concentration increases more water molecules are involved in the interaction. However, the red shift in frequency does not seem to depend significantly on the concentration. We also performed the same measurements and analysis with sucrose instead of glucose as solute and compared. PMID:23622436

Jung, Youngeui; Hwang, Jungseek

2013-02-01

236

Propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in water: linear absorption and onset of nonlinear spectral transformation.  

PubMed

We study propagation of short laser pulses through water and use a spectral hole filling technique to essentially perform a sensitive balanced comparison of absorption coefficients for pulses of different duration. This study is motivated by an alleged violation of the Bouguer-Lambert-Beer law at low light intensities, where the pulse propagation is expected to be linear, and by a possible observation of femtosecond optical precursors in water. We find that at low intensities, absorption of laser light is determined solely by its spectrum and does not directly depend on the pulse duration, in agreement with our earlier work and in contradiction to some work of others. However, as the laser fluence is increased, interaction of light with water becomes nonlinear, causing energy exchange among the pulse's spectral components and resulting in peak-intensity dependent (and therefore pulse-duration dependent) transmission. For 30 fs pulses at 800 nm center wavelength, we determine the onset of nonlinear propagation effects to occur at a peak value of about 0.12 mJ/cm(2) of input laser energy fluence. PMID:20090819

Sokolov, Alexei V; Naveira, Lucas M; Poudel, Milan P; Strohaber, James; Trendafilova, Cynthia S; Buck, William C; Wang, Jieyu; Strycker, Benjamin D; Wang, Chao; Schuessler, Hans; Kolomenskii, Alexandre; Kattawar, George W

2010-01-20

237

Absorption Heat Pumping- Have You Tried It?  

E-print Network

HEAT PUMP - TYPE I TYPICAL VENDpR STANDARD UNIT, 15 PSIG STEAM 1 EVAP. TONS: HEATING TONS x. cg~p REQUIRED NOMINAL SIZE = EVAP. CAPACITY RATIO X EVAP. TONS EVAPORATOR CAPACITY RATIO 150 140 LEAYINEVAP. TEMP. 0 F. LEAVING EVAP. TEMP. 0 F. Figure 5. At 85 F. leaving evaporator and 150 F. leaving hot To apply a vendor standard absorption unit water, a machine with a capacity ratio of 2.7 is heat pump in this application...

Davis, R. C.

238

Heat Capacity Anomaly Near the Lower Critical Consolute Point of Triethylamine-Water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The heat capacity of the binary liquid mixture triethylamine-water has been measured near its lower critical consolute point using a scanning, adiabatic calorimeter. Two data runs are analyzed to provide heat capacity and enthalpy data that are fitted by equations with background terms and a critical term that includes correction to scaling. The critical exponent a was determined to be 0.107 +/- 0.006, consistent with theoretical predictions. When alpha was fixed at 0.11 to determine various amplitudes consistently, our values of A(+) and A(-) agreed with a previous heat capacity measurement, but the value of A(-) was inconsistent with values determined by density or refractive index measurements. While our value for the amplitude ratio A(+)/ A(-) = 0.56 +/- 0.02 was consistent with other recent experimental determinations in binary liquid mixtures, it was slightly larger than either theoretical predictions or recent experimental values in liquid-vapor systems. The correction to scaling amplitude ratio D(+)/D(-) = 0.5 +/- 0.1 was half of that predicted. As a result of several more precise theoretical calculations and experimental determinations, the two-scale-factor universality ratio X, which we found to be 0.019 +/- 0.003, now is consistent among experiments and theories. A new 'universal' amplitude ratio R(sup +/-)(sub Bcr) involving the amplitudes for the specific heat was tested. Our determination of R(sup +/-)(sub Bcr) = -0.5 +/- 0.1 and R(sup -)(sub Bcr) = 1.1 +/- 0.1 is smaller in magnitude than predicted and is the first such determination in a binary fluid mixture.

Flewelling, Anne C.; DeFonseka, Rohan J.; Khaleeli, Nikfar; Partee, J.; Jacobs, D. T.

1996-01-01

239

Simulation model of a single-stage lithium bromide-water absorption cooling unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer model of a LiBr-H2O single-stage absorption machine was developed. The model, utilizing a given set of design data such as water-flow rates and inlet or outlet temperatures of these flow rates but without knowing the interior characteristics of the machine (heat transfer rates and surface areas), can be used to predict or simulate off-design performance. Results from 130 off-design cases for a given commercial machine agree with the published data within 2 percent.

Miao, D.

1978-01-01

240

Integrated modelling to assess long-term water supply capacity of a meso-scale Mediterranean catchment.  

PubMed

Assessing water supply capacity is crucial to meet stakeholders' needs, notably in the Mediterranean region. This region has been identified as a climate change hot spot, and as a region where water demand is continuously increasing due to population growth and the expansion of irrigated areas. The Hérault River catchment (2500 km(2), France) is a typical example and a negative trend in discharge has been observed since the 1960s. In this context, local stakeholders need first to understand the processes controlling the evolution of water resources and demands in the past to latter evaluate future water supply capacity and anticipate the tensions users could be confronted to in the future. A modelling framework is proposed at a 10-day time step to assess whether water resources have been able to meet water demands over the last 50 years. Water supply was evaluated using hydrological modelling and a dam management model. Water demand dynamics were estimated for the domestic and agricultural sectors. A water supply capacity index is computed to assess the extent and the frequency to which water demand has been satisfied at the sub-basin scale. Simulated runoff dynamics were in good agreement with observations over the calibration and validation periods. Domestic water demand has increased considerably since the 1980s and is characterized by a seasonal peak in summer. Agricultural demand has increased in the downstream sub-basins and decreased upstream where irrigated areas have decreased. As a result, although most water demands were satisfied between 1961 and 1980, irrigation requirements in summer have sometimes not been satisfied since the 1980s. This work is the first step toward evaluating possible future changes in water allocation capacity in the catchment, using future climate change, dam management and water use scenarios. PMID:23756213

Collet, Lila; Ruelland, Denis; Borrell-Estupina, Valérie; Dezetter, Alain; Servat, Eric

2013-09-01

241

Depth of cinder deposits and water-storage capacity at Cinder Lake, Coconino County, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 2010 Schultz fire northeast of Flagstaff, Arizona, burned more than 15,000 acres on the east side of San Francisco Mountain from June 20 to July 3. As a result, several drainages in the burn area are now more susceptible to increased frequency and volume of runoff, and downstream areas are more susceptible to flooding. Resultant flooding in areas downgradient of the burn has resulted in extensive damage to private lands and residences, municipal water lines, and roads. Coconino County, which encompasses Flagstaff, has responded by deepening and expanding a system of roadside ditches to move flood water away from communities and into an area of open U.S. Forest Service lands, known as Cinder Lake, where rapid infiltration can occur. Water that has been recently channeled into the Cinder Lake area has infiltrated into the volcanic cinders and could eventually migrate to the deep regional groundwater-flow system that underlies the area. How much water can potentially be diverted into Cinder Lake is unknown, and Coconino County is interested in determining how much storage is available. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted geophysical surveys and drilled four boreholes to determine the depth of the cinder beds and their potential for water storage capacity. Results from the geophysical surveys and boreholes indicate that interbedded cinders and alluvial deposits are underlain by basalt at about 30 feet below land surface. An average total porosity for the upper 30 feet of deposits was calculated at 43 percent for an area of 300 acres surrounding the boreholes, which yields a total potential subsurface storage for Cinder Lake of about 4,000 acre-feet. Ongoing monitoring of storage change in the Cinder Lake area was initiated using a network of gravity stations.

Macy, Jamie P.; Amoroso, Lee; Kennedy, Jeff; Unema, Joel

2012-01-01

242

A new device for acquiring ground truth on the absorption of light by turbid waters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. A new device, called a Spectral Attenuation Board, has been designed and tested, which enables ERTS-1 sea truth collection teams to monitor the attenuation depths of three colors continuously, as the board is being towed behind a boat. The device consists of a 1.2 x 1.2 meter flat board held below the surface of the water at a fixed angle to the surface of the water. A camera mounted above the water takes photographs of the board. The resulting film image is analyzed by a micro-densitometer trace along the descending portion of the board. This yields information on the rate of attenuation of light penetrating the water column and the Secchi depth. Red and green stripes were painted on the white board to approximate band 4 and band 5 of the ERTS MSS so that information on the rate of light absorption by the water column of light in these regions of the visible spectrum could be concurrently measured. It was found that information from a red, green, and white stripe may serve to fingerprint the composition of the water mass. A number of these devices, when automated, could also be distributed over a large region to provide a cheap method of obtaining valuable satellite ground truth data at present time intervals.

Klemas, V. (principal investigator); Srna, R.; Treasure, W.

1974-01-01

243

Loads carrying capacity map for the surface texture design of SiC thrust bearing sliding in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water lubricated silicon carbide is expected to be widely used for sliding bearings and mechanical seals in hydraulic systems since it is environmentally friendly and saves energy. The purpose of this study is to find the optimum surface texture to improve the load carrying capacity of SiC bearings working in water. Micro-pits, evenly distributed in a square array, were selected

Xiaolei Wang; Koji Kato; Koshi Adachi; Kohj Aizawa

2003-01-01

244

Experimental determination and modelling of the soil water extraction capacities of crops of maize, sunflower, soya bean, sorghum and wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estimation of soil water reserves is essential for irrigation management. The usual way of calculating these reserves, held between the soil moisture content at field capacity and the classical limit of -1.5 MPa considered as the lower limit of available water, over the rooting depth of the crop, does not correspond with the real behaviour of crops as regards

M. Cabelguenne; P. Debaeke

1998-01-01

245

Effect of carboxymethylation conditions on the water-binding capacity of chitosan-based superabsorbents.  

PubMed

A superabsorbent polymer (SAP) from chitosan was provided via carboxymethylation of chitosan, followed by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde and freeze-drying. This work was focused on an investigation of the effects of monochloroacetic acid (MCAA), sodium hydroxide, and reaction time on preparation of carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS). The CMCS products were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, and their degrees of substitution (DS) were measured using conductimetry and FTIR analysis. The highest DS value was obtained when the carboxymethylation reaction was carried out using 1.75g MCAA and 1.75g NaOH per g of chitosan in 4h. The water solubilities of the CMCS products at various pHs were also evaluated, and the results indicated a significant impact of the reaction parameters on the solubility of CMCS. The CMCSs with the highest DS value resulted in SAPs having the highest water-binding capacity (WBC). The WBC of the best SAP measured after 10min exposure in distilled water, 0.9% NaCl solution, synthetic urine, and artificial blood was 104, 33, 30, and 57g/g, respectively. The WBC of this SAP at pH 2-9 passed a maximum at pH 6. PMID:20971451

Bidgoli, Hosein; Zamani, Akram; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

2010-12-10

246

Evidence for direct water absorption by shallow-rooted desert plants in desert-oasis ecotone, Northwest China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Besides the absorption by roots from the soil substrate, it has long been known that plants exhibit alternative water-absorption strategies, particularly in drought-prone environments. For many tropical epiphytic orchids, air moisture can be absorbed directly by aerial roots. Some conifers are also found to utilize air moisture by foliar absorption during the summer fog season. However, few studies have been carried out on the atmospheric water vapor absorption by shallow-rooted desert plants. We conducted experiments in desert-oasis ecotone and investigated the effects of dew absorbed by three kinds of shallow-rooted seedlings on net photosynthesis rate, as well as on other water relations variables. Three kinds of typical shallow-rooted desert species (Bassia dasyphylla, Salsola collina and Corispermum declinatum) have been chosen and potted. Each species were subjected to contrasting watering regimes (normal and deficient) and different air moisture conditions (having dew and having no dew) for 10 weeks. Net photosynthesis rate was measured on six occasions during the study. Other water relations variables (midday shoot water potential, relative water content, stomatal conductance) were also measured. Under the dew conditions, average net photosynthesis rate, shoot water potential, leaf relative water content and stomatal conductance increased, with greater responses observed for plants subjected to a deficient watering regime than for well-watered plants. These results indicated dew occurred in arid region could be utilized through foliar absorption by some shallow-rooted plants, and for the shallow-rooted plants, the presence of dew could significantly relieve the deficit of water in water-stressed regime.

Fang, Jing

2014-05-01

247

X-ray absorption signatures of the molecular environment in water and ice  

E-print Network

The x-ray absorption spectra of water and ice are calculated with a many-body approach for electron-hole excitations. The experimental features, including the small effects of temperature change in the liquid, are quantitatively reproduced from molecular configurations generated by ab-initio molecular dynamics. The spectral difference between the solid and the liquid is due to two major short range order effects. One, due to breaking of hydrogen bonds, enhances the pre-edge intensity in the liquid. The other, due to a non-bonded molecular fraction in the first coordination shell, affects the main spectral edge in the conversion of ice to water. This effect may not involve hydrogen bond breaking as shown by experiment in high-density amorphous ice.

Wei Chen; Xifan Wu; Roberto Car

2009-09-21

248

Differential Absorption Measurements of Atmospheric Water Vapor with a Coherent Lidar at 2050.532 nm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind and water vapor are two major factors driving the Earth's atmospheric circulation, and direct measurement of these factors is needed for better understanding of basic atmospheric science, weather forecasting, and climate studies. Coherent lidar has proved to be a valuable tool for Doppler profiling of wind fields, and differential absorption lidar (DIAL) has shown its effectiveness in profiling water vapor. These two lidar techniques are generally considered distinctly different, but this paper explores an experimental combination of the Doppler and DIAL techniques for measuring both wind and water vapor with an eye-safe wavelength based on a solid-state laser material. Researchers have analyzed and demonstrated coherent DIAL water vapor measurements at 10 micrometers wavelength based on CO2 lasers. The hope of the research presented here is that the 2 gm wavelength in a holmium or thulium-based laser may offer smaller packaging and more rugged operation that the CO2-based approach. Researchers have extensively modeled 2 um coherent lasers for water vapor profiling, but no published demonstration is known. Studies have also been made, and results published on the Doppler portion, of a Nd:YAG-based coherent DIAL operating at 1.12 micrometers. Eye-safety of the 1.12 micrometer wavelength may be a concern, whereas the longer 2 micrometer and 10 micrometer systems allow a high level of eyesafety.

Koch, Grady J.; Dharamsi, Amin; Davis, Richard E.; Petros, Mulugeta; McCarthy, John C.

1999-01-01

249

Changes of color and water-absorption of Hungarian porous limestone due to biomineralization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacteria induced calcium carbonate precipitation nowadays is a widely examined process being a possible alternative for traditional stone conservation methods. While research has been mostly limited to laboratory measurements, application connected, further in situ experiments should be performed in order to evaluate the applicability of the method. In our experiment, several bio-based treating compounds were compared, which have already been analyzed in different laboratories. Method for the treatment was based on the treatment of a French research group, and the compounds were applied on Hungarian porous limestone slabs, in situ. For inoculation bacteria strains Bacillus cereus and Myxococcus xanthus were used, and non-inoculated compounds were also analyzed. After the treatment, specimens were analyzed by means of discoloration effect, water absorption and migration characteristics. Almost all the treating compounds gave favorable or acceptable results for the examined properties, comparing to the properties measured in the non-cured state. Measurements on the chromatic- and on the water absorption aspects gave significant results, while further measurements are running for the more exact evaluation of the migration characteristics, i.e. effective migration depth and wetted volume.

Juhász, P.; Kopecskó, K.

2013-12-01

250

Absorption of crystalline water ice in the far infrared at different temperatures  

E-print Network

The optical properties of ice in the far infrared are important for models of protoplanetary and debris disks. In this report we derive a new set of data for the absorption (represented by the imaginary part of the refractive index $\\kappa$) of crystalline water ice in this spectral range, including a detailed inspection of the temperature dependence, which had not been done in such detail before. We measured the transmission of three ice layers with different thickness at wavelengths $\\lambda=45...1000$ microns at temperatures $\\vartheta = 10...250$ K. We found a change in the spectral dependence of $\\kappa$ at a wavelength of $175 \\pm 6$ microns. At shorter wavelengths, $\\kappa$ exhibits a constant flat slope and no significant temperature dependence. Long-ward of that wavelength, the slope gets steeper and has a clear, approximately linear temperature dependence. This change in the behaviour is probably caused by a characteristic absorption band of water ice. The measured data were fitted by a power-law mo...

Reinert, Caroline; Krivov, Alexander; Löhne, Torsten; Mohr, Pierre

2014-01-01

251

Light absorption and partitioning in Arctic Ocean surface waters: impact of multi year ice melting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice melting in the Arctic Ocean exposes the surface water to more radiative energy with poorly understood effects on photo-biogeochemical processes and heat deposition in the upper ocean. In August 2009, we documented the vertical variability of light absorbing components at 37 stations located in the southeastern Beaufort Sea including both Mackenzie river-influenced waters and polar mixed layer waters. We found that melting multi-year ice released significant amount of non-algal particulates (NAP) near the sea surface relative to sub-surface waters. NAP absorption coefficients at 440 nm (aNAP(440)) immediately below the sea surface (0-) were on average 3-fold (up to 10-fold) higher compared to sub-surface values measured at 2-3 m depth. The impact of this unusual feature on the light transmission and remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) was further examined using a radiative transfer model. A 10-fold particle enrichment homogeneously distributed in the first meter of the water column slightly reduced photosynthetically available and usable radiation (PAR and PUR) by ~6% and ~8%, respectively, relative to a fully homogenous water column with low particles concentration. In terms of Rrs, the particle enrichment significantly flattered the spectrum by reducing the Rrs by up to 20% in the blue-green spectral region (400-550 nm). These results highlight the impact of melt water on the concentration of particles at sea surface, and the need for considering nonuniform vertical distribution of particles in such systems when interpreting remotely sensed ocean color. Spectral slope of aNAP spectra calculated in the UV domain decreased with depth suggesting that this parameter is sensitive to detritus composition and/or diagenesis state (e.g., POM photobleaching).

Bélanger, S.; Cizmeli, S. A.; Ehn, J.; Matsuoka, A.; Doxaran, D.; Hooker, S.; Babin, M.

2013-03-01

252

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ADVANCED PACKAGING, VOL. 30, NO. 3, AUGUST 2007 551 Experimental Analysis of the Water Absorption  

E-print Network

of the Water Absorption Effects on RF/mm-Wave Active/Passive Circuits Packaged in Multilayer Organic Substrates, package, water. I. INTRODUCTION MICROWAVE and millimeter-wave (mm-wave) radio-fre- quency (RF) circuits Member, IEEE Abstract--The feasibility of using near-hermetic organic mate- rials for microwave

Tentzeris, Manos

253

Preconcentration of Heavy Metal Lead in Environmental Water Sample with Chicken Eggshell Membrane Cartridge Prior to Atomic Absorption Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the effects of heavy metals discharged in the environment water, a novel method using a glass column packed with chicken eggshell membrane (ESM) as a new adsorption material was developed for the preconcentration of trace Pb in environmental water sample prior to its determination by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The adsorption behaviors of the analytes on

Hong-mei Chen; Jin Liu; Li-sha Zhang; Yuan Peng; Bin Ren

2011-01-01

254

Metabolic changes associated with active water vapour absorption in the mealworm Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae): A microcalorimetric study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water vapour absorption (WVA) is an important mechanism for water gain in several xeric insects. Theoretical calculations indicate that the energetic cost of WVA should be small (5–10% of standard metabolic rate) assuming realistic efficiencies. In this study we explored the relationship between WVA, metabolic heat flux (HFmet.) and CO2 release in larvae of Tenebrio molitor using microcalorimetry. By comparing

Lars L. Hansen; Peter Westh; Jonathan C. Wright; Hans Ramløv

2006-01-01

255

Influence of hot water dip on fruit quality, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Satsuma mandarin during storage.  

PubMed

The influence of hot water dips (50, 52 and 54? for 3?min) on fruit quality, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Satsuma mandarin during 60 days' storage at 10? was investigated. Hot water dips did not affect fruit quality attributes as well as ascorbic acid content, and 50? treatment significantly reduced fruit weight loss. Significant increases of flavonoids were found in all hot water treated fruit from after treatments till 15 days of storage, whereas phenolic acids were not greatly affected. Hot water dipping at 50? significantly increased total phenolics and antioxidant capacity of Satsuma mandarin immediately after treatment and maintained similar levels with control during storage, while 52 and 54? treatments showed relatively lower levels. The results suggested that hot water dipping at 50? for 3?min can be a promising way to retain functional quality of storing Satsuma mandarin. PMID:23733808

Shen, Yan; Zhong, Liezhou; Sun, Yujing; Chen, Jianchu; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

2013-12-01

256

K? absorption by locust gut and inhibition of ileal K? and water transport by FGLamide allatostatins.  

PubMed

The scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET) was utilized for the first time in Locusta migratoria to characterize K(+) transport along the digestive tract and to determine the effect of two locust FGLamide allatostatins (FGLa/ASTs) on K(+) transport: a previously sequenced FGLa/AST from Schistocerca gregaria (Scg-AST-6; ARPYSFGL-NH2) and a newly sequenced FGLa/AST from L. migratoria (Locmi-FGLa/AST-2; LPVYNFGL-NH2). Regional differences in K(+) fluxes along the gut were evident, where K(+) efflux in vitro (or absorption into the hemolymph in vivo) was greatest at the anterior ileum, and lowest at the colon. Ileal K(+) efflux was inhibited by both Scg-AST-6 and Locmi-FGLa/AST-2, with maximal inhibition at 10(-10) and 10(-11) mol l(-1), respectively. Both FGLa/ASTs also inhibited cAMP-stimulated K(+) efflux from the ileum. Locmi-FGLa/AST-2 also inhibited efflux of water across the ileum. Locusts are terrestrial insects living in dry climates, risking desiccation and making water conservation a necessity. The results suggest that FGLa/ASTs may be acting as diuretics by increasing K(+) excretion and therefore increasing water excretion. Thus it is likely that FGLa/ASTs are involved in the control of hemolymph water and ion levels during feeding and digestion, to help the locust deal with the excess K(+) load (and subsequently fluid) when the meal is processed. PMID:25013112

Robertson, Lisa; Donini, Andrew; Lange, Angela B

2014-09-15

257

Impact of modifying the longwave water vapor continuum absorption model on community Earth system model simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The far-infrared (wavelengths longer than 17?m) has been shown to be extremely important for radiative processes in the earth's atmosphere. The strength of the water vapor continuum absorption in this spectral region has largely been predicted using observations at other wavelengths that have been extrapolated using semiempirical approaches such as the Clough-Kneizys-Davies (CKD) family of models. Recent field experiments using new far-infrared instrumentation have supported a factor of 2 decrease in the modeled strength of the foreign continuum at 50?m and a factor of 1.5 increase in the self-continuum at 24?m in the Clough-Kneizys-Davies continuum model (CKD v2.4); these changes are incorporated in the Mlawer-Tobin-CKD continuum model (MT_CKD v2.4). The water vapor continuum in the Community Earth System Model (CESM v1.0) was modified to use the newer model, and the impacts of this change were investigated by comparing output from the original and modified CESM for 20 year integrations with prescribed sea surface temperatures. The change results in an increase in the net upward longwave flux of order 0.5 W m-2between 300 and 400 mb, and a decrease in this flux of about the same magnitude for altitudes below 600 mb. The radiative impact results in a small but statistically significant change in the mean temperature and humidity fields, and also a slight decrease (order 0.5%) of high-cloud amount. The change in the cloud amount modified the longwave cloud radiative forcing, which partially offset the radiative heating caused by the change in the water vapor continuum absorption model.

Turner, D. D.; Merrelli, A.; Vimont, D.; Mlawer, E. J.

2012-02-01

258

Infrared- and millimeter-wavelength absorption in the atmospheric windows by water vapor and nitrogen - Measurements and models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current knowledge of the water vapor window regions from 10 to 1000 GHz, 8 to 12 microns, 3 to 5 microns, and 2 to 2.5 microns is reviewed with emphasis on the continuum absorption observed in each window region. The observed frequency dependence in each window is consistent with the concept of far wings emanating from the bordering water vapor absorption bands, which provides a promising basis for modeling continuum absorption. Theoretical line-shape models predict the observed frequency and pressure dependence of absorption but thus far not the temperature dependence. A model for the integrated intensity of the nitrogen continuum is developed as a function of density and temperature.

Thomas, Michael E.

1988-01-01

259

Effect of line, soaking and cooking time on water absorption, texture and splitting of red kidney beans.  

PubMed

Dry beans are rich sources of dietary fiber and phytochemicals such as flavonoids and phenolics that exhibit good functional properties. In current study line, cooking and soaking time effects were investigated on water absorption, splitting and texture of different Iranian red kidney beans to determine the best lines and the best soaking time related to them for industrial use. D81083 line had the highest level of water absorption after 24 h soaking followed by Akhtar and KS31164 lines while Azna, Goli and Naz lines had the lowest level of water absorption (p?water absorption accompanied with low splitting level. 24 h soaking and longer cooking time is recommended for Sayyad, while 12 h soaking and longer cooking time is recommended for KS31164 line. 24 h soaking causes higher level of water absorption and lower level of splitting in Derakhshan line. The effects of line, cooking and soaking time on red bean texture were significant (p?

Zamindar, Nafiseh; Baghekhandan, Mohamad Shahedi; Nasirpour, Ali; Sheikhzeinoddin, Mahmoud

2013-02-01

260

Sexually dimorphic basal water absorption at the isolated pelvic patch of Japanese tree frog, Hyla japonica.  

PubMed

Frogs ingest little water orally, but absorb the majority of the water needed for normal physiological performance through a specific region of the ventral skin, the pelvic patch. We observed non-stimulated (basal water absorption, BWA) water flux through the isolated pelvic patch in vitro in Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica). We found that water flux through non-stimulated skin from the pelvic patch was greater in males than females. This water flux was confirmed as BWA by observing no effect following the in vitro administration of propranolol and [adamantaneacetyl(1), O-Et-D-Tyr(2), Val(1), aminobutyryl(6), Arg(8, 9)] vasopressin, which are a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist and a vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist, respectively. We further examined this phenomenon following gonadectomy, treatment with sex hormones (E2, 17beta-estradiol; TP, testosterone propionate), estrogenic chemicals (BPA, bisphenol A; MTX, methoxychlor) or prolactin (PRL, a hormone regulated by sex hormones that has osmoregulatory activity). Ovariectomy increased BWA in females. Injection (in vivo treatment) of E2 or PRL reduced BWA in males, whereas TP injection increased BWA in females. However, the in vitro addition of E2, TP, or PRL to the Ringer's solution on the serosal side of the ventral skin patch did not alter BWA. Subsequently, we injected (in vivo treatment) BPA or MTX, environmental chemical contaminants with known hormonal actions in mammals. Injection of BPA or MTX reduced BWA in males as observed following treatment with E2. These results provide the first evidence of sexual dimorphism in BWA through the isolated pelvic patch. The gonad appears essential for observed sexual dimorphism in BWA, and we hypothesize that sex hormones regulate the release of PRL, that in turn influences BWA indirectly. E2 is known to exert a specific stimulatory effect on PRL secretion. In addition, we have observed that some endocrine disrupting contaminants also eliminate the sexual dimorphism in BWA observed in the Japanese tree frog. PMID:15114650

Kohno, Satomi; Fujime, Makoto; Kamishima, Yoshihisa; Iguchi, Taisen

2004-05-01

261

Water absorption characteristics of novel Cu/LDPE nanocomposite for use in intrauterine devices.  

PubMed

Intrauterine devices (IUDs), especially the copper-containing IUDs (Cu-IUDs), are one of the worldwide used forms for birth control, owing to their advantages of long-lasting and high efficacy, economy, safety, and reversibility. However, it is not perfect for the existing Cu-IUDs; some shortcomings related to its side effects have not been overcome yet. For this reason, a new Cu-IUDs material, the copper/low-density polyethylene (Cu/LDPE) nanocomposite, has been developed in our research team. The structure and water uptake characteristics of this new Cu-IUDs material have been investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and gravimetric analysis in this paper. The results of XRD, SEM, EDS, and FT-IR show three important outcomes associated with the structure of the nanocomposite. First, the nanocomposite is hybrid of the polymer and the copper nanoparticles (nano-Cu). Second, porosities, nano-Cu aggregates, and primary alcohol (R--CH(2)--OH) are existed in the nanocomposite. Third, the nano-Cu aggregates are distributed uniformly in the polymer matrix in general. The results of Gravimetric analysis, which associated with the water uptake characteristics of the nanocomposite, exhibit that the water absorption behavior of the nanocomposite obeys the classical diffusion theory very well, the water uptake of the nanocomposite increases with the increasing of the nano-Cu loading, and that the water uptake ability of the nanocomposite with 15.0 wt % nano-Cu (50 nm in diameter) is about 150 times larger than that of the base resin and about 45 times higher than that of the Cu/LDPE microcomposite with 15.0 wt % copper microparticles (5 microm in diameter). These water uptake characteristics are mainly attributed to the structure of the Cu/LDPE composites and the size effect of the nano-Cu. PMID:16637033

Xia, Xianping; Cai, Shuizhou; Hu, Junhui; Xie, Changsheng

2006-11-01

262

Light absorption and partitioning in Arctic Ocean surface waters: impact of multiyear ice melting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice melting in the Arctic Ocean exposes the surface water to more radiative energy with poorly understood effects on photo-biogeochemical processes and heat deposition in the upper ocean. In August 2009, we documented the vertical variability of light absorbing components at 37 stations located in the southeastern Beaufort Sea including both Mackenzie River-influenced waters and polar mixed layer waters. We found that melting multiyear ice released significant amount of non-algal particulates (NAP) near the sea surface relative to subsurface waters. NAP absorption coefficients at 440 nm (aNAP(440)) immediately below the sea surface were on average 3-fold (up to 10-fold) higher compared to subsurface values measured at 2-3 m depth. The impact of this unusual feature on the light transmission and remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) was further examined using a radiative transfer model. A 10-fold particle enrichment homogeneously distributed in the first meter of the water column slightly reduced photosynthetically available and usable radiation (PAR and PUR) by ∼6 and ∼8%, respectively, relative to a fully homogenous water column with low particle concentration. In terms of Rrs, the particle enrichment significantly flattered the spectrum by reducing the Rrs by up to 20% in the blue-green spectral region (400-550 nm). These results highlight the impact of meltwater on the concentration of particles at sea surface, and the need for considering non-uniform vertical distribution of particles in such systems when interpreting remotely sensed ocean color. Spectral slope of aNAP spectra calculated in the UV (ultraviolet) domain decreased with depth suggesting that this parameter is sensitive to detritus composition and/or diagenesis state (e.g., POM (particulate organic matter) photobleaching).

Bélanger, S.; Cizmeli, S. A.; Ehn, J.; Matsuoka, A.; Doxaran, D.; Hooker, S.; Babin, M.

2013-10-01

263

A far wing line shape theory and its application to the water continuum absorption in the infrared region. I  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present theory for the continuous absorption that is due to the far-wing contribution of allowed lines is based on the quasistatic approximation for the far wing limit and the binary collision approximation of one absorber molecule and one bath molecule. The validity of the theory is discussed, and numerical results of the water-continuum absorption in the IR region are presented for comparison with experimental data. Good agreement is obtained for both the magnitude and temperature dependence of the absorption coefficients.

Ma, Q.; Tipping, R. H.

1991-01-01

264

Gut-brain signaling of water absorption inhibits vasopressin in rats.  

PubMed

The mechanism for inhibition of vasopressin (AVP) by gastric water infusion was examined in 24- or 48-h dehydrated conscious rats (n = 136 rats, 255 experiments; mean AVP baseline = 6.3 pg/ml). Gastric water infusions of 1 (n = 8), 2.5 (n = 19), and 4 ml (n = 10) caused a volume-dependent inhibition of plasma AVP by -0.31, -1.77*, and -3.02* pg/ml, with decreases of systemic osmolality of -1.06, -1.52, and -4.26* mosmol/kgH2O (* = significant vs. isotonic, Duncan's test). Gastric isotonic infusions (1-4 ml) had no effect or slightly increased AVP. Systemic infusions of 1.25 (n = 6), 2.1 (n = 10), and 6.3 ml (n = 8) inhibited AVP by -0.48, -1.07, and -2.51 pg/ml, with decreases in systemic osmolality of -1.61, -2.77*, and -7.21* mosmol/kgH2O. Systemic isotonic infusions (2.1 and 6.3 ml) slightly inhibited AVP by -0.71 and -0.85 pg/ml. Individual changes in AVP by gastric infusion of 2.5 ml of water did not correlate with changes in systemic osmolality, mean arterial pressure, or heart rate but highly correlated with preinfusion AVP (r = 0.74, P < 0.0001, n = 28). Pretreatment with systemic atropine methyl bromate (0.7 mg/rat), which abolishes the AVP secretion to gastric hypertonic saline, did not affect the AVP response to gastric water infusion (n = 9). Combination of 2.5 ml of gastric water and systemic hypertonic saline prevented the decrease in systemic osmolality and still significantly inhibited plasma AVP. Maximal inhibition of AVP by gastric water was reduced by 62.6% after lesion of the common hepatic vagal branch (n = 5) relative to shams with identical abdominal surgery (n = 6) and by 62.7 and 72.5% after right (n = 11) and left (n = 8) cervical vagotomy relative to 12 shams (P < 0.05). The results show that 1) gastric water absorption is signaled mainly by splanchnic osmosensors, 2) water signaling is atropine insensitive, and 3) the major water-signaling pathway projects through the common hepatic vagal branch and cervical vagal nerves. PMID:7840327

Baertschi, A J; Pence, R A

1995-01-01

265

Removal of Heavy Metals from Water: An Environmentally Significant Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory experiment that combines the environmentally significant topic of wastewater treatment with atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) is described. In the first portion of the laboratory project, students perform treatment studies on simulated wastewater samples that contain heavy metal contaminants common to the effluent of the metal finishing industry. Following pretreatment reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), sparingly soluble metal hydroxides are produced by pH adjustment and removed by filtration with the aid of a polyacrylamide flocculant. In the second portion of the experiment, AAS is used to determine metal concentrations in treated and untreated water samples, thus enabling the students to determine the effectiveness of the treatment process. Details of how this experiment integrates topics such as the pH-dependent solubility of metal hydroxides, complex equilibria, matrix interference, and polymers in the context of an environmentally important analysis are presented.

Buffin, Brian P.

1999-12-01

266

Predictions of silicon avalanche photodiode detector performance in water vapor differential absorption lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance analyses are presented which establish that over most of the range of signals expected for a down-looking differential absorption lidar (DIAL) operated at 16 km the silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) is the preferred detector for DIAL measurements of atmospheric water vapor in the 730 nm spectral region. The higher quantum efficiency of the APD's, (0.8-0.9) compared to a photomultiplier's (0.04-0.18) more than offsets the higher noise of an APD receiver. In addition to offering lower noise and hence lower random error the APD's excellent linearity and impulse recovery minimize DIAL systematic errors attributable to the detector. Estimates of the effect of detector system parameters on overall random and systematic DIAL errors are presented, and performance predictions are supported by laboratory characterization data for an APD receiver system.

Kenimer, R. L.

1988-01-01

267

Evaluation of tropospheric water vapor profiling using eye-safe, infrared differential absorption lidar  

SciTech Connect

Continuous, high quality profiles of water vapor, free of systematic bias, and of moderate temporal and spatial resolution are fundamental to the success of the ARM CART program. In addition, these should be acquired over long periods at low operational and maintenance cost. The development and verification of realistic climate model parameterizations for clouds and net radiation balance, and the correction of other CART site sensor observations for interferences due to the presence of water vapor are critically dependent on water vapor profile measurements. To date, application of profiles have been limited by vertical resolution and uniqueness and high operating cost, or diminished daytime performance, lack of eye-safety, and high maintenance cost. Recent developments in infrared laser and detector technology make possible compact IR differential absorption lidar (DIAL) systems at eye-safe wavelengths. In the studies reported here, we develop DIAL system performance models and examine the potential of solving some of the shortcomings of previous methods using parameters representative of current technologies. These simulations are also applied to determine the strengths and weaknesses unique to the DIAL method for this application.

Rye, B.J. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences]|[National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Environmental Technology Lab.; Machol, J.L.; Grund, C.J.; Hardesty, R.M. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Environmental Technology Lab.

1996-05-14

268

Revisiting the total ion yield x-ray absorption spectra of liquid water microjets  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of the total ion yield (TIY) x-ray absorption spectrum (XAS) of liquid water by Wilson et al. (2002 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14 L221 and 2001 J. Phys. Chem. B 105 3346) have been revisited in light of new experimental and theoretical efforts by our group. Previously, the TIY spectrum was interpreted as a distinct measure of the electronic structure of the liquid water surface. However, our new results indicate that the previously obtained spectrum may have suffered from as yet unidentified experimental artifacts. Although computational results indicate that the liquid water surface should exhibit a TIY-XAS that is fundamentally distinguishable from the bulk liquid XAS, the new experimental results suggest that the observable TIY-XAS is actually nearly identical in appearance to the total electron yield (TEY-)XAS, which is a bulk probe. This surprising similarity between the observed TIY-XAS and TEY-XAS likely results from large contributions from x-ray induced electron stimulated desorption of ions, and does not necessarily indicate that the electronic structure of the bulk liquid and liquid surface are identical.

Saykally, Richard J; Cappa, Chris D.; Smith, Jared D.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Saykally, Richard J.

2008-02-16

269

Temperature dependence of infrared absorption by the water vapor continuum near 1200 cm(-1).  

PubMed

Infrared absorption by the water vapor continuum near 1200 cm(-1) has been measured with a lead-tin-telluride diode laser over a 40.5-m optical path. The measurements were made as a function of temperature from 333 K to 473 K; thus, they overlap and extend previous measurements made at temperatures between 293 K and 388 K. Over the entire temperature range studied here, the continuum extinction coefficient increases quadratically with water-vapor partial pressure as expected for the relatively high partial pressures used in these measurements. At temperatures below 398 K. our measured extinction coefficients agree well with previously reported data. At higher temperatures, however, the extinction coefficient is almost independent of temperature and is substantially larger than predicted by empirical formulas. Values of the self-broadening coefficient for water vapor have been extracted from the experimental data, and a possible interpretation of the results involving both dimer and line-broadening effects is presented. PMID:20203777

Montgomery, G P

1978-08-01

270

Ground-based differential absorption lidar for water-vapor and temperature profiling: methodology.  

PubMed

A comprehensive formulation of the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) methodology is presented that explicitly includes details of the spectral distributions of both the transmitted and the backscattered light. The method is important for high-accuracy water-vapor retrievals and in particular for temperature measurements. Probability estimates of the error that is due to Doppler-broadened Rayleigh scattering based on an extended experimental data set are presented, as is an analytical treatment of errors that are due to averaging in the nonlinear retrieval scheme. System performance requirements are derived that show that water-vapor retrievals with an accuracy of better than 5% and temperature retrievals with an accuracy of better than 1 K in the entire troposphere are feasible if the error that results from Rayleigh-Doppler correction can be avoided. A modification of the DIAL technique, high-spectral-resolution DIAL avoids errors that are due to Doppler-broadened Rayleigh backscatter and permits simultaneous water-vapor and wind measurements with the same system. PMID:18273353

Bösenberg, J

1998-06-20

271

Measurements of water vapour in the mesosphere with the spectral absorption line imager (SALI)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water vapour concentration is one of the most important, yet one of the least known quantities of the mesosphere. Knowledge of water vapour concentration is the key to understanding many mesospheric processes, including the one that is primary focus of our investigation, Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMC). The processes of formation and occurrence parameters of PMC constitute an interesting problem in their own right, but recent evidence had been provided which suggests that PMC are a critical indicator of climate change. In this context the feasibility of a low cost method of water vapour measurements using an instrument carried aloft by a sounding rocket has been examined and some of the results discussed. It is proposed to measure the strength of the 936nm water absorption line in a solar occultation configuration employing a CCD detector. This leads to the design of a small, low cost and low-mass instrument, which can be flown on a small rocket, of the type of the Orbital Sciences Corporation Viper 5. Alternatively the instrument can be flown as a "passenger" on larger rocket carrying other experiments. In either case flight costs are relatively low. Some performance simulations are presented showing that the instrument we have designed will be sufficiently sensitive to measure water vapor in concentrations that are expected at the summer mesopause, about 85 km height. Sufficient payload design work was carried out showing that the structural, thermal and electrical requirements for a flight on the Viper 5 rocket can be met and thus making the experiment feasible for a flight.

Shepherd, M. G.; Sargoytchev, S. I.; Brown, S.; Mullins, M.; Petersen, J.

272

Water absorption of poly(methyl methacrylate) measured by vertical interference microscopy.  

PubMed

PMMA (poly(methyl methacrylate)) is widely used to prepare orthopedic cements. They are in direct contact with cells and body fluids. PMMA, despite its hydrophobic nature, can absorb ~2% w/w water. We have evaluated by vertical interference microscopy if water absorption can produce a significant swelling in different types of PMMA blocks: pure, with a plasticizer, with a cross-linker, and in two types of commercial bone cements. Graphite rods which do not swell in water were used as internal standard. Hardness, indentation modulus, plastic, and elastic works were determined by nanoindentation under a 25mN fixed force. Vertical interference microscopy was used to image the polymer in the dry state and hydrated states (after 24 h in distilled water). On the surface of the polished polymers (before and after hydration), we measured roughness by the fractal dimension, the swelling in the vertical and the lateral directions. For each polymer block, four images were obtained and values were averaged. Comparison and standardization of the images in the dry and hydrated states were done with Matlab software. The average value measured on the graphite rod between the two images (dried and hydrated) was used for standardization of the images which were visualized in 3D. After grinding, a small retraction was noticeable between the surface of the rod and the polymers. A retraction ring was also visible around the graphite rod. After hydration, only the pure PMMA and bone cements had a significant swelling in the vertical direction. The presence of polymer beads in the cements limited the swelling in the lateral direction. Swelling parameters correlated with the nanoindentation data. PMMA can swell by absorbing a small amount of water and this induces a swelling that varies with the polymer composition and particle inclusions. PMID:22799564

N'Diaye, Mambaye; Pascaretti-Grizon, Florence; Massin, Philippe; Baslé, Michel Felix; Chappard, Daniel

2012-08-01

273

Use of electrical conductivity to predict water-holding capacity in post-rigor pork.  

PubMed

This study was designed to re-examine the interrelationships among ultimate pH (pH(u)), electrical conductivity (EC) and water-holding capacity (WHC), and to test if EC, using one of two EC instruments, and pH(u) can be used to predict WHC. The % drip (PD) was used as measure of WHC. Forty-seven pork loins were classified either as PSE (pale, soft, exudative), RSE (reddish-pink, soft, exudative), RFN (reddish-pink, firm, non-exudative) or DFD (dark, firm, dry), based on L* values, PD and pH(u.) The measurement of EC, conducted using the instrument developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW-EC) was highly correlated to PD at 24 h post mortem (CD=66%), but the pH (NWK) measure of EC was not as highly related to WHC as UW-EC. The predictive value of pH(u) and EC for WHC were similar. When 47 samples were divided into three different groups, such as low (< 2% drip), medium (2-6% drip) and high (> 6% drip) drip loss, UW-EC alone grouped 80% of the samples correctly. Thus, EC seemed to be an accurate predictor of WHC in pork muscle when measured at 24 h post mortem. It is conceivable that EC can be used independently, or with even better success in combination with pH(u), to classify WHC of pork carcasses. PMID:22061569

Lee, S; Norman, J M; Gunasekaran, S; van Laack, R L; Kim, B C; Kauffman, R G

2000-08-01

274

VARIABILITY OF WATER AND OXYGEN ABSORPTION BANDS IN THE DISK-INTEGRATED SPECTRA OF EARTH  

SciTech Connect

We study the variability of major atmospheric absorption features in the disk-integrated spectra of Earth with future application to Earth-analogs in mind, concentrating on the diurnal timescale. We first analyze observations of Earth provided by the EPOXI mission, and find 5%-20% fractional variation of the absorption depths of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} bands, two molecules that have major signatures in the observed range. From a correlation analysis with the cloud map data from the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS), we find that their variation pattern is primarily due to the uneven cloud cover distribution. In order to account for the observed variation quantitatively, we consider a simple opaque cloud model, which assumes that the clouds totally block the spectral influence of the atmosphere below the cloud layer, equivalent to assuming that the incident light is completely scattered at the cloud top level. The model is reasonably successful, and reproduces the EPOXI data from the pixel-level EOS cloud/water vapor data. A difference in the diurnal variability patterns of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} bands is ascribed to the differing vertical and horizontal distribution of those molecular species in the atmosphere. On Earth, the inhomogeneous distribution of atmospheric water vapor is due to the existence of its exchange with liquid and solid phases of H{sub 2}O on the planet's surface on a timescale short compared with atmospheric mixing times. If such differences in variability patterns were detected in spectra of Earth-analogs, it would provide the information on the inhomogeneous composition of their atmospheres.

Fujii, Yuka; Suto, Yasushi [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Turner, Edwin L., E-mail: yuka.fujii@utap.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

2013-03-10

275

Water absorption in the proximal tubule: effect of bicarbonate, chloride gradient, and organic solutes.  

PubMed

Simultaneous in vivo capillary and luminal microperfusion studies were performed in the superficial proximal convoluted tubule of the rat to determine the effect of intraluminal bicarbonate, the imposition of a transepithelial chloride gradient, and the addition of organic solutes to the luminal perfusion solution on the rates of water absorption (Jv). The capillary perfusion solution contained NaCl, NaHCO3, and KCl. Perfusion of both capillary and lumen with the same solution resulted in a Jv of 3.01 +/- 0.24 nl/min/mm. Imposition of a transepithelial chloride gradient (equimolar substitution of NaCl for NaHCO3 in the luminal solution) resulted in a Jv of 3.18 +/- 0.21 nl/min/mm (P = NS). Addition of cyanide to both solutions in the presence of a chloride gradient resulted in a significantly lower Jv of 2.21 +/- 0.19 nl/min/mm. Luminal substitution of Na cyclamate for NaHCO3 resulted in a solution containing no bicarbonate and no chloride gradient. Jv averaged 0.34 +/- 0.08 nl/min/mm. Addition of cyanide to the solution totally inhibited Jv. The addition of D-glucose, L-alanine, or both, to luminal solutions containing bicarbonate or in the presence of a chloride gradient did not significantly affect Jv. Addition of both organic solutes to the NaCl-Na cyclamate luminal solution resulted in a significantly higher Jv of 0.77 +/- 0.14 nl/min/mm. These studies indicate that Jv in the rat superficial proximal tubule is influenced by active sodium transport, by the presence of bicarbonate in the lumen, and/or by the imposition of a transepithelial chloride gradient. The organic solutes D-glucose and L-alanine also influence water absorption, but this effect could only be demonstrated under some experimental conditions. PMID:6828448

Sansom, S C; Senekjian, H O; Knight, T F; Frommer, P; Weinman, E J

1983-01-01

276

Ground-state ammonia and water in absorption towards Sgr B2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Observations of transitions to the ground-state of a molecule are essential to obtain a complete picture of its excitation and chemistry in the interstellar medium, especially in diffuse and/or cold environments. For the important interstellar molecules H2O and NH3, these ground-state transitions are heavily absorbed by the terrestrial atmosphere, hence not observable from the ground. Aims: We attempt to understand the chemistry of nitrogen, oxygen, and their important molecular forms, NH3 and H2O in the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. Methods: We have used the Odin* submillimetre-wave satellite telescope to observe the ground state transitions of ortho-ammonia and ortho-water, including their 15N, 18O, and 17O isotopologues, towards Sgr B2. The extensive simultaneous velocity coverage of the observations, >500 km s-1, ensures that we can probe the conditions of both the warm, dense gas of the molecular cloud Sgr B2 near the Galactic centre, and the more diffuse gas in the Galactic disk clouds along the line-of-sight. Results: We present ground-state NH3 absorption in seven distinct velocity features along the line-of-sight towards Sgr B2. We find a nearly linear correlation between the column densities of NH3 and CS, and a square-root relation to N2H+. The ammonia abundance in these diffuse Galactic disk clouds is estimated to be about 0.5-1 × 10-8, similar to that observed for diffuse clouds in the outer Galaxy. On the basis of the detection of H_218O absorption in the 3 kpc arm, and the absence of such a feature in the H_217O spectrum, we conclude that the water abundance is around 10-7, compared to ~10-8 for NH3. The Sgr B2 molecular cloud itself is seen in absorption in NH3, 15NH3, H2O, H_218O, and H_217O, with emission superimposed on the absorption in the main isotopologues. The non-LTE excitation of NH3 in the environment of Sgr B2 can be explained without invoking an unusually hot (500 K) molecular layer. A hot layer is similarly not required to explain the line profiles of the 11,0?ts10,1 transition from H2O and its isotopologues. The relatively weak 15NH3 absorption in the Sgr B2 molecular cloud indicates a high [ 14N/15N] isotopic ratio >600. The abundance ratio of H_218O and H_217O is found to be relatively low, 2.5-3. These results together indicate that the dominant nucleosynthesis process in the Galactic centre is CNO hydrogen burning. Odin is a Swedish-led satellite project funded jointly by the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB), the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the National Technology Agency of Finland (Tekes), and the centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES, France). The Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) was the industrial prime contractor and is also responsible for the satellite operation.

Wirström, E. S.; Bergman, P.; Black, J. H.; Hjalmarson, Å.; Larsson, B.; Olofsson, A. O. H.; Encrenaz, P. J.; Falgarone, E.; Frisk, U.; Olberg, M.; Sandqvist, Aa.

2010-11-01

277

[Determination of lithium in the oil field water by flame atomic absorption spectrometry].  

PubMed

Flame atomic absorption spectrometry was applied to the determination of micro amount of lithium in the oil field water of certain area. In order to determine which method is more appropriate for the determination of lithium content in the oil field water, standard curve method and standard addition method were compared. The effects of dilution, coexistent ions, and deionizers on the determination were studied. For the determination of lithium content in the same diluted oil field water samples, there exist obvious differences between the results obtained from standard addition method and standard curve method. Standard addition method gives results with a larger error, whereas standard curve method gives more accurate results. It is difficult to eliminate the interferences when the standard addition method is used. The standard curve method is found to be more suitable for the determination of micro amount of lithium in the oil field water for its accuracy, simplicity, and feasibility. When the standard curve method is used, both the determined lithium concentration and the recovery change with the dilution extent of the oil field water. In order to get an accurate result, the oil field water sample should be diluted to 1/200 or less. In this case, the recovery by standard addition method ranges from 94.3% to 96.9%. When sodium phosphate or sodium chloride is used as the deionizer, the recovery by standard addition method ranges from 94.6% to 98.6%, or from 94.2% to 96.3%. In the determination of lithium content in oil field water, there are larger experimental errors without the addition of any deionizer. When the concentration of coexistent ions is within an allowed range, the addition of sodium phosphate as a deionizer can eliminate the interferences of the coexistent ions with the determination of the lithium content. If sodium chloride is used as a deionizer, a more accurate result can be obtained when the sodium content in the samples is near the sodium content in the standard solutions. In general, under suitable experimental conditions, sodium chloride can be used as the deionizer for the determination of lithium content in the oil field water. PMID:19385254

Yang, Hong-Jun; Ye, Xiu-Shen; Li, Bing; Wu, Zhi-Jian; Li, Wu

2009-01-01

278

The influence of water vapor on atmospheric exchange measurements with an ICOS* based Laser absorption analyzer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonyl sulfide and carbon monoxide are both atmospheric trace gases of high interest. Recent advances in the field of spectroscopy have enabled instruments that measure the concentration of the above and other trace gases very fast and with good precision. Increasing the effective path length by reflecting the light between two mirrors in a cavity, these instruments reach impressive sensitivities. Often it is possible to measure the concentration of more than one trace gas at the same time. The OCS/CO2 Analyzer by LGR (Los Gatos Research, Inc.) measures the concentration of water vapor [H2O], carbonyl sulfide [COS], carbon dioxide [CO2] and carbon monoxide [CO] simultaneously. For that the cavity is saturated with light, than the attenuation of light is measured as in standard absorption spectroscopy. The instrument proved to be very fast with good precision and to be able to detect even very low concentrations, especially for COS (as low as 30ppt in the case of COS). However, we observed a rather strong cross sensitivity to water vapor. Altering the water vapor content of the sampled air with two different methods led to a change in the perceived concentration of COS, CO and CO2. This proved especially problematic for enclosure (cuvette) measurements, where the concentrations of one of the above species in an empty cuvette are compared to the concentration of another cuvette containing a plant whose exchange of trace gases with the atmosphere is of interest. There, the plants transpiration leads to a large difference in water vapor content between the cuvettes and that in turn produces artifacts in the concentration differences between the cuvettes for the other above mentioned trace gases. For CO, simultaneous measurement with a UV-Emission Analyzer (AL 5002, Aerolaser) and the COS/CO Analyzer showed good agreement of perceived concentrations as long as the sample gas was dry and an increasing difference in perceived concentration when the sample gas was humidified. The difference in perceived CO concentration showed a clear correlation to the water vapor content in the sample air. For COS we could show that changes in water vapor also impacted on the perceived COS concentrations; the raise of the water vapor concentration would lead to an increasing underestimation of the COS concentration. Drying the air using a Nafion Dryer before entering the COS/CO Analyzer eliminated any water vapor induced artifacts and showed no adverse effects on the quality of the conducted measurements. *Integrated cavity output spectroscopy

Bunk, Rüdiger; Quan, Zhi; Wandel, Matthias; Yi, Zhigang; Bozem, Heiko; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

2014-05-01

279

The Near Infrared Absorption Spectrum of Water by CRDS Between 1.26-1.70 µm:Complete Empirical Line List and Continuum Absorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the increasing performances of Airborne- and ground-based spectrometers, a more and more accurate characterization of the water vapor absorption is required. This is especially true in the transparency windows, corresponding to low absorption spectral regions widely used for probing the Earth's atmosphere. State-of-the-art experimental developments are required to fulfill the needs in terms of accuracy of the spectroscopic data. For that purpose, we are using high-sensitivity Continuous Wave Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CW-CRDS) allowing reproducing in laboratory conditions comparable to the atmospheric ones in terms of absorption path length (tens of kilometers), temperature and pressure. From extensive analysis of our CRDS spectra, we have constructed an empirical line list for "natural" water vapor at 296 K in the 5850 7920 cm-1 region including 38 318 transitions of four major water isotopologues (H2 16O, H218O, H217O and HD16O) with an intensity cut-off of 1·10-29 cm/molecule. The list is made mostly complete over the whole spectral region by including a large number of unobserved weak lines with positions calculated using experimentally determined energy levels and intensities obtained from variational calculations. In addition, we provide HD18O and HD 17O lists in the same region for transitions with intensities larger than 1·10-29 cm/molecule. The HD18O and HD17O lists (1 972 lines in total) were obtained using empirical energy levels available in the literature and variational intensities. The global list (40 290 transitions) including the contribution of the six major isotopologues has been adopted for the new edition of the GEISA database in the region. The advantages and drawbacks of our list will be discussed in comparison with the list provided for the same region in the 2012 edition of the HITRAN database. Separate experiments were dedicated to the measurement of the water vapor self-continuum crosssections in the 1.6 µm window by CW-CRDS at different temperatures (from room temperature to 340 K). Due to the weakness of the broadband absorption signal to be measured, very few measurements of the water vapor continuum are available in the NIR windows especially for temperature conditions relevant for our atmosphere. This is in particular the case for the 1.6 µm window where the very few available measurements show a large disagreement. The absorption cross-sections, Cs(?, T), were retrieved for different selected wave numbers from a fit of the absorption coefficients measured in real time during pressure ramps, after subtraction of the contributions of the local water monomer lines and of water adsorbed on the CRDS mirrors. The values measured between 5875 and 6665 cm-1 range between 1.5·10-25 and 2·10-24 cm2 molec-1 atm-1 with a minimum around 6300 cm-1. Overall, our measurements are found in strong disagreement with recent FTS measurements and in a good agreement with the values predicted by the MT CKD2.5 model, except for the temperature dependence in the center of the window which is found significantly smaller than predicted.

Mondelain, Didier; Campargue, Alain; Kassi, Samir; Mikhailenko, Semen

2014-06-01

280

Correlation of changes in pigment content with photosynthetic capacity of seaweeds as a function of water depth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a study of the relationship between changes in photosynthetic pigment content and photosynthetic capacity as a function of water depth in Great Harbor near Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA, on the green algae Ulva lactuca and Codium fragile and the red algae Porphyra umbilicalis and Chondrus crispus. Seaweeds were attached to vertically buoyed lines at 0.5 and 10 m

J. Ramus; S. I. Beale; D. Mauzerall

1976-01-01

281

Mental preparation for climate adaptation: The role of cognition and culture in enhancing adaptive capacity of water management in Kiribati  

E-print Network

capacity of water management in Kiribati Natasha Kuruppu *, Diana Liverman Environmental Change Institute with the consequences'' (Adger et al., 2003, p. 15). Adaptation is seen as a continuous process of learning, institutional or human, and including access to ecosystems, information, expertise, and social networks

282

In vitro comparison of water-holding capacity of the superficial and deeper layers of the stratum corneum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the electrical conductance at 3.5 MHz of a sheet of normal stratum corneum (SC) mounted with either the upper surface or the lower surface downward in simulated in vivo conditions. In this way, we assessed the water-binding capacity of the upper and lower portions of the horny layer. Measurements were made with the SC model in environments of

K. Hashimoto-Kumasaka; I. Horii; H. Tagami

1991-01-01

283

Improved water and sodium absorption from oral rehydration solutions based on rice syrup in a rat model of osmotic diarrhea.  

PubMed

Rice syrup solids, rice protein, and casein hydrolysate were added to experimental oral rehydration solutions in various combinations and tested in a rat intestinal perfusion system. Chronic osmotic diarrhea was induced in juvenile rats by supplying the cathartic agents, magnesium citrate and phenolphthalein, in their drinking water for 1 week. The experimental oral rehydration solutions were compared with standard oral rehydration solutions containing 20 gm/L or 30 gm/L of glucose and with each other to determine if there were significant differences in net water, sodium, or potassium absorption. An oral rehydration solution containing 30 gm/L of rice syrup solids had a net water absorption rate significantly higher than that of the standard 20 gm/L glucose-based oral rehydration solution (2.1 +/- 0.62 versus 1.5 +/- 0.48 microliters/[min x cm], p less than 0.05). Casein hydrolysate did not significantly affect net water absorption. However, combinations of 30 gm/L rice syrup solids and 5 gm/L casein hydrolysate significantly increased (p less than 0.05) net sodium and potassium absorption compared with the 20 gm/L glucose-based oral rehydration solution but not versus rice syrup solids alone. Oral rehydration solutions containing 30 gm/L rice syrup solids plus 5 gm/L rice protein, and 30 gm/L rice syrup solids plus 5 gm/L casein hydrolysate, had net water absorption rates significantly higher than the rate of a 30 gm/L glucose-based oral rehydration solution (2.5 +/- 0.36 and 2.4 +/- 0.38, respectively, versus 0.87 +/- 0.40 microliters/[min x cm], p less than 0.05). Rice protein and casein hydrolysate, however, did not significantly affect net water, sodium, or potassium absorption when added to rice protein glucose-based oral rehydration solutions. An inverse correlation between osmolality and net water absorption was observed (r = -0.653, p less than 0.02). The data suggest that substitution of rice syrup solids for glucose in oral rehydration solutions will improve water absorption and that rice syrup solids in combination with protein hydrolysates may, in addition, promote better sodium and potassium uptake. PMID:2007957

Wapnir, R A; Litov, R E; Zdanowicz, M M; Lifshitz, F

1991-04-01

284

The room temperature annealing peak in ionomers: Ionic crystallites or water absorption  

SciTech Connect

A quaternized diol, 3-(trimethylammonio)-1,2-propanediol neutralized with either bromine or iodine, was used to produce a polyurethane cationomer with a poly(tetramethylene oxide) soft segment and a 4,4[prime]-diphenylmethane diisocyanate hard segment. If those cationomers were annealed at room temperature for a period of approximately 1 month in a desiccator filled with dry CaSO[sub 4], differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies showed an endotherm centered near 70 C which was not present in the unannealed polymer and did not reappear upon subsequent cooling and heating cycles in the DSC. Some authors have suggested that a very similar endotherm found in other ionomers, most notably ethylene-methacrylic acid (E-MAA) copolymer ionomers, was due to an order-disorder transition within the ionic aggregates, i.e. ionic crystallite melting. In order to isolate the origin of this endotherm, the local environment around the anion in compression molded bromine neutralized samples was measured using the extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) technique. By measuring the change in the local environment over the temperature range corresponding to the DSC endotherm, it has been shown that this endotherm corresponds to water leaving the bromine coordination shell, rather than ionic crystallite melting. Other studies which include thoroughly drying the material in a vacuum oven below the transition temperature to remove the water suggest that the endotherm is due to the energetic change associated with water leaving the coordination environment of the anion in combination with water vaporization.

Goddard, R.J.; Grady, B.P.; Cooper, S.L. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1994-03-28

285

Atmospheric-water absorption features near 2.2 micrometers and their importance in high spectral resolution remote sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Selective absorption of electromagnetic radiation by atmospheric gases and water vapor is an accepted fact in terrestrial remote sensing. Until recently, only a general knowledge of atmospheric effects was required for analysis of remote sensing data; however, with the advent of high spectral resolution imaging devices, detailed knowledge of atmospheric absorption bands has become increasingly important for accurate analysis. Detailed study of high spectral resolution aircraft data at the U.S. Geological Survey has disclosed narrow absorption features centered at approximately 2.17 and 2.20 micrometers not caused by surface mineralogy. Published atmospheric transmission spectra and atmospheric spectra derived using the LOWTRAN-5 computer model indicate that these absorption features are probably water vapor. Spectral modeling indicates that the effects of atmospheric absorption in this region are most pronounced in spectrally flat materials with only weak absorption bands. Without correction and detailed knowledge of the atmospheric effects, accurate mapping of surface mineralogy (particularly at low mineral concentrations) is not possible.

Kruse, F. A.; Clark, R. N.

1986-01-01

286

Collaboration with HEIs: A Key Capacity Building Block for the Uganda Water and Sanitation Public Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The capacity of public service staff in developing countries is crucial for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Literature from developed countries shows that, working with higher education institutions (HEIs), industries have improved their human resource capacity through continuing professional development. This paper reports on research…

Kayaga, Sam

2007-01-01

287

Impact of the hydraulic capacity of plants on water and carbon fluxes in tropical South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiosperms (flowering plants) have higher transpirational capacities than any other plants. Here we use climate model simulation to test the hypothesis that the high transpirational capacity of angiosperms plays a unique role in the maintenance of tropical rainforest. Their elevated transpiration rates are shown to increase recycling of precipitation up to ?300 mm\\/yr (?20% of total precipitation) averaged over the

Jung-Eun Lee; Kevin Boyce

2010-01-01

288

Gaussian multiaccess channels with ISI: Capacity region and multiuser water-filling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity region of a two-user Gaussian multiac- cess channel with intersymbol interference (ISI), where the inputs pass through respective linear systems and are then superimposed before being corrupted by an additive Gaussian noise process, is found. A novel geometrical method is given to obtain the optimal input power spectral densities and the capacity region. This method can be viewed

Roger S. Cheng; Sergio Verdú

1993-01-01

289

A theoretical investigation of gaseous absorption by water droplets from SO2-HNO3-NH3-CO2-HCl mixtures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A physical-chemical model is developed and used to investigate gaseous absorption by water droplets from trace gas mixtures. The model is an extension of that of Carmichael and Peters (1979) and includes the simultaneous absorption of SO2, NH3, HNO3, CO2, and HCl. Gas phase depletion is also considered. Presented results demonstrate that the absorption behavior of raindrops is strongly dependent on drop size, fall distance, trace gas concentrations, and the chemical and physical properties of the constituents of the mixture. In addition, when gas phase depletion is considered, the absorption rates and equilibrium values are also dependent on the precipitation rate itself. Also, the trace constituents liquid phase concentrations may be a factor of six or more lower when gas depletion is considered then when the depletion is ignored. However, the hydrogen ion concentration may be insensitive to the gas phase depletion.

Adewuyi, Y. G.; Carmichael, G. R.

1982-01-01

290

Light tracking through ice and water -- Scattering and absorption in heterogeneous media with Photonics  

E-print Network

In the field of neutrino astronomy, large volumes of optically transparent matter like glacial ice, lake water, or deep ocean water are used as detector media. Elementary particle interactions are studied using in situ detectors recording time distributions and fluxes of the faint photon fields of Cherenkov radiation generated by ultra-relativistic charged particles, typically muons or electrons. The Photonics software package was developed to determine photon flux and time distributions throughout a volume containing a light source through Monte Carlo simulation. Photons are propagated and time distributions are recorded throughout a cellular grid constituting the simulation volume, and Mie scattering and absorption are realised using wavelength and position dependent parameterisations. The photon tracking results are stored in binary tables for transparent access through ANSI-C and C++ interfaces. For higher-level physics applications, like simulation or reconstruction of particle events, it is then possible to quickly acquire the light yield and time distributions for a pre-specified set of light source and detector properties and geometries without real-time photon propagation. In this paper the Photonics light propagation routines and methodology are presented and applied to the IceCube and Antares neutrino telescopes. The way in which inhomogeneities of the Antarctic glacial ice distort the signatures of elementary particle interactions, and how Photonics can be used to account for these effects, is described.

J. Lundberg; P. Miocinovic; K. Woschnagg; T. Burgess; J. Adams; S. Hundertmark; P. Desiati; P. Niessen

2007-02-05

291

Terahertz Absorption of Chemicals in Water: Ideal and Real Solutions and Mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex biomolecules, such as proteins in liquids, show specific terahertz dynamics in reactions or in protein folding as measured by static or kinetic absorption. The complex nature of biomolecules requires investigating their frequency, space, and time characteristics via a multimodal approach that changes external parameters such as temperature, pressure, concentration, and solvents. Terahertz spectroscopy can add a new and deeper understanding to existing techniques in other spectral regions of the biological dynamics in the solvent of life, i.e. water. To understand more deeply complex liquids or macromolecules in water, it is essential to understand the building blocks of solutions, which may contain salts, or are components of larger molecules such as amino acids. Although this research mainly affects basic science, a few applications are in progress, some create interest in industry, and several pathways for new applications relevant to medical science are in view. In this article, we review THz spectroscopy of solutions and concentrate our description to liquids with small solutes such as salts and amino acids, and review the prerequisites for obtaining THz data from aqueous solutions.

Funkner, Stefan; Niehues, Gudrun; Schmidt, Diedrich A.; Bründermann, Erik

2013-08-01

292

Influence of wave and current flow on sediment-carrying capacity and sediment flux at the water-sediment interface.  

PubMed

In nearshore waters, spatial and temporal scales of waves, tidal currents, and circulation patterns vary greatly. It is, therefore, difficult to combine these factors' effects when trying to predict sediment transport processes. This paper proposes the concept of significant wave velocity, which combines the effects of waves, tides, and ocean currents using the horizontal kinetic energy superposition principle. Through a comparison of the relationship between shear stress at the water-sediment interface and sediment-carrying capacity, assuming equilibrium sediment flux, a new formula for sediment-carrying capacity, which incorporates the concept of significant wave velocities, is derived. Sediment-carrying capacity is a function of the critical velocity, which increases with water depth and decreases with increasing relative roughness of the seabed. Finally, data from field observation stations and simulations are used to test the proposed formula. The results show that the new formula is in good agreement with both field and simulation data. This new formula for sediment-carrying capacity can be used to simulate nearshore sediment transport. PMID:25259499

Zheng, Jun; Li, Ruijie; Yu, Yonghai; Suo, Anning

2014-01-01

293

In Situ Intestinal Absorption of a Poorly Water-Soluble Drug From Mixed Micellar Solutions of Bile Salt and Lipolysis Products in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of a bile salt (sodium taurocholate) and lipolysis products (monoglyceride and fatty acid) in the intestinal absorption of a poorly water-soluble drug, diazepam, was investigated. Absorption rates and bioavailabilities were determined with the in situ rat gut technique of Doluisio et al. and analyzing the diazepam concentrations in the luminal solution, intestinal membrane, blood and lymph. The absorption

A. T. M. Serajuddin; M. Rosoff; A. H. Goldberg

1985-01-01

294

Feasibility of tropospheric water vapor profiling using infrared heterodyne differential absorption lidar  

SciTech Connect

Continuous, high quality profiles of water vapor, free of systematic bias, and of moderate temporal and spatial resolution, acquired over long periods at low operational and maintenance cost, are fundamental to the success of the ARM CART program. The development and verification of realistic climate model parameterizations for clouds and net radiation balance, and the correction of other CART site sensor observations for interferences due to the presence of water vapor are critically dependent on water vapor profile measurements. Application of profiles acquired with current techniques, have, to date, been limited by vertical resolution and uniqueness of solution [e.g. high resolution infrared (IR) Fourier transform radiometry], poor spatial and temporal coverage and high operating cost (e.g. radiosondes), or diminished daytime performance, lack of eye-safety, and high maintenance cost (e.g. Raman lidar). Recent developments in infrared laser and detector technology make possible compact IR differential absorption lidar (DIAL) systems at eye-safe wavelengths. In the study reported here, we develop DIAL system performance models and examine the potential of to solve some of the shortcomings of previous methods using parameterizations representative of current technologies. These models are also applied to diagnose and evaluate other strengths and weaknesses unique to the DIAL method for this application. This work is to continue in the direction of evaluating yet smaller and lower-cost laser diode-based systems for routine monitoring of the lower altitudes using photon counting detection methods. We regard the present report as interim in nature and will update and extend it as a final report at the end of the term of the contract.

Grund, C.J.; Hardesty, R.M. [NOAA Environmental Technology Lab., Boulder, CO (United States); Rye, B.J. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CU/NOAA)

1995-04-03

295

Seed ultrastructure and water absorption pathway of the root-parasitic plant Phelipanche aegyptiaca (Orobanchaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Obligate root parasitic plants of the Orobanchaceae do not germinate unless they chemically detect a host plant nearby. Members of this family, like Orobanche, Phelipanche and Striga, are noxious weeds that cause heavy damage to agriculture. In spite of their economic impact, only a few light microscopical studies of their minute seeds have been published, and there is no knowledge of their ultrastructure and of the role each tissue plays during the steps preceding germination. This paper describes the ultrastructure of Phelipanche seeds and contributes to our understanding of seed tissue function. Methods Seeds of P. aegyptiaca were examined under light, scanning electron, transmission electron and fluorescence microscopy following various fixations and staining protocols. The results were interpreted with physiological data regarding mode of water absorption and germination stimulation. Key Results and Conclusions The endothelium, which is the inner layer of the testa, rapidly absorbs water. Its interconnected cells are filled with mucilage and contain labyrinthine walls, facilitating water accumulation for germination that starts after receiving germination stimuli. Swelling of the endothelium leads to opening of the micropyle. The perisperm cells underneath this opening mediate between the rhizosphere and the embryo and are likely to be the location for the receptors of germination stimuli. The other perisperm cells are loaded with lipids and protein bodies, as are the endosperm and parts of the embryo. In the endosperm, the oil bodies fuse with each other while they are intact in the embryo and perisperm. Plasmodesmata connect the perisperm cells to each other, and the cells near the micropyle tightly surround the emerging seedling. These perisperm cells, and also the proximal embryo cells, have dense cytoplasmic contents, and they seem to represent the two seed components that are actively involved in transfer of reserve nutrients to the developing seedling during germination. PMID:22025523

Joel, Daniel M.; Bar, Hilla; Mayer, Alfred M.; Plakhine, Dina; Ziadne, Hammam; Westwood, James H.; Welbaum, Gregory E.

2012-01-01

296

Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy of Amphipathic Model Peptides at the Air/Water Interface  

PubMed Central

The linear sequence KLAL (KLALKLALKALKAALKLA-NH2) and its corresponding d,l-isomers k9a10-KLAL (KLALKLALkaLKAALKLA-NH2) and l11k12-KLAL (KLALKLALKAlkAALKLA-NH2) are model compounds for potentially amphipathic ?-helical peptides which are able to bind to membranes and to increase the membrane permeability in a structure- and target-dependent manner (Dathe and Wieprecht, 1999) We first studied the secondary structure of KLAL and its analogs bound to the air/water using infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy. For the peptide films the shape and position of the amide I and amide II bands indicate that the KLAL adopts at large areas per molecule an ?-helical secondary structure, whereas at higher surface pressures or smaller areas it converts into a ?-sheet structure. This transition could be observed in the compression isotherm as well as during the adsorption at the air/water interface from the subphase as a function of time. The secondary structures are essentially orientated parallel to the air/water interface. The analogs with d-amino acids in two different positions of the sequence, k9a10-KLAL and l11k12-KLAL, form only ?-sheet structures at all surface pressures. The observed results are interpreted using a comparison of hydrophobic moments calculated for ?-helices and ?-sheets. The differences between the hydrophobic moments calculated using the consensus scale are not large. Using the optimal matching hydrophobicity scale or the whole-residue hydrophobicity scale the ?-sheet even has the larger hydrophobic moment. PMID:15189871

Kerth, Andreas; Erbe, Andreas; Dathe, Margitta; Blume, Alfred

2004-01-01

297

Organic esters of plasticizers affecting the water absorption, adhesive property, glass transition temperature and plasticizer permanence of Eudragit acrylic films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The materials used in film coating technology are very important tools for pharmaceutical applications. The effects of four organic esters used as plasticizers (triacetin, diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and tributyl citrate (TBC)) on the water absorption behavior and adhesive property of Eudragit films and on the glass transition temperature (Tg) and plasticizer permanence of Eudragit E film were

Shan-Yang Lin; Ko-Shao Chen; Liang Run-Chu

2000-01-01

298

ICG 2000 Amsterdam Glass in the new Millennium Absorption Spectra of Iron and Water in Silicate Glasses  

E-print Network

ICG 2000 Amsterdam ­ Glass in the new Millennium Absorption Spectra of Iron and Water in Silicate Glasses L. Glebov1 , E. Boulos2 1 Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers (CREOL), University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA 2 Visteon Glass Systems, Dearborn, MI, USA 1. Introduction

Glebov, Leon

299

Sources and light absorption of water-soluble organic carbon aerosols in the outflow from northern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High loadings of anthropogenic carbonaceous aerosols in Chinese air influence the air quality for over one billion people and impact the regional climate. A large fraction (17-80%) of this aerosol carbon is water-soluble, promoting cloud formation and thus climate cooling. Recent findings, however, suggest that water-soluble carbonaceous aerosols also absorb sunlight, bringing additional direct and indirect climate warming effects, yet the extent and nature of light absorption by this water-soluble "brown carbon" and its relation to sources is poorly understood. Here, we combine source estimates constrained by dual carbon isotopes with light-absorption measurements of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) for a March 2011 campaign at the Korea Climate Observatory at Gosan (KCOG), a receptor station in SE Yellow Sea for the outflow from northern China. The mass absorption cross section at 365 nm (MAC365) of WSOC for air masses from N. China were in general higher (0.8-1.1 m2 g-1), than from other source regions (0.3-0.8 m2 g-1). However, this effect corresponds to only 2-10% of the radiative forcing caused by light absorption by elemental carbon. Radiocarbon constraints show that the WSOC in Chinese outflow had significantly higher fraction fossil sources (30-50%) compared to previous findings in S. Asia, N. America and Europe. Stable carbon (?13C) measurements were consistent with aging during long-range air mass transport for this large fraction of carbonaceous aerosols.

Kirillova, E. N.; Andersson, A.; Han, J.; Lee, M.; Gustafsson, Ö.

2014-02-01

300

Atmospheric pre-corrected differential absorption techniques to retrieve columnar water vapor: Application to AVIRIS 91/95 data  

SciTech Connect

Water vapor is one of the main forces for weather development as well as for mesoscale air transport processes. The monitoring of water vapor is therefore an important aim in remote sensing of the atmosphere. Current operational systems for water vapor detection use primarily the emission in the thermal infrared (AVHRR, GOES, ATSR, Meteosat) or in the microwave radiation bands (DMSP). The disadvantage of current satellite systems is either a coarse spatial (horizontal) resolution ranging from one to tens of kilometers or a limited insight into the lower atmosphere. Imaging spectrometry on the other hand measures total column water vapor contents at a high spatial horizontal resolution and has therefore the potential of filling these gaps. The sensors of the AVIRIS instrument are capable of acquiring hyperspectral data in 224 bands located in the visible and near infrared at 10 run resolution. This data includes information on constituents of the earth`s surface as well as of the atmosphere. The optical measurement of water vapor can be performed using sensor channels located in bands or lines of the absorption spectrum. The AVIRIS sensor has been used to retrieve water vapor and with less accuracy carbon dioxide, oxygen and ozone. To retrieve the water vapor amount, the so called differential absorption technique has been applied. The goal of this technique is to eliminate background factors by taking a ratio between channels within the absorption band and others besides the band. Various rationing methods on the basis of different channels and calculation techniques were developed. The influence of a trace gas of interest on the radiance at the sensor level is usually simulated by using radiative transfer codes. In this study, spectral transmittance and radiance are calculated by MODTRAN3 simulations with the new DISORT option. This work testS the best performing differential absorption techniques for imaging spectrometry of tropospheric water vapor.

Schlaepfer, D. [Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland). Dept. of Geography; Borel, C.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Keller, J. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland)] [and others

1996-03-01

301

Atmospheric Pre-Corrected Differential Absorption Techniques to Retrieve Columnar Water Vapor: Application to AVIRIS 91/95 Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water vapor is one of the main forces for weather development as well as for mesoscale air transport processes. The monitoring of water vapor is therefore an important aim in remote sensing of the atmosphere. Current operational systems for water vapor detection use primarily the emission in the thermal infrared (AVHRR, GOES, ATSR, Meteosat) or in the microwave radiation bands (DMSP). The disadvantage of current satellite systems is either a coarse spatial (horizontal) resolution ranging from one to tens of kilometers or a limited insight into the lower atmosphere. Imaging spectrometry on the other hand measures total column water vapor contents at a high spatial horizontal resolution and has therefore the potential of filling these gaps. The sensors of the AVIRIS instrument are capable of acquiring hyperspectral data in 224 bands located in the visible and near infrared at 10 nm resolution. This data includes the information on constituents of the earth's surface as well as of the atmosphere. The optical measurement of water vapor can be performed using sensor channels located in bands or lines of the absorption spectrum. The AVIRIS sensor has been used to retrieve water vapor and with less accuracy carbon dioxide, oxygen and ozone. To retrieve the water vapor amount, the so called differential absorption technique has been applied. The goal of this technique is to eliminate background factors by taking a ratio between channels within the absorption band and others besides the band. Various ratioing methods on the basis of different channels and calculation techniques were developed. The influence of a trace gas of interest on the radiance at the sensor level is usually simulated by using radiative transfer codes. In this study, the spectral transmittance and radiance are calculated by MODTRAN3 simulations with the new DISORT option. The objective of this work is to test the best performing differential absorption techniques for imaging spectrometry of tropospheric water vapor.

Schlaepfer, Daniel; Borel, Christoph C.; Keller, Johannes; Itten, Klaus I.

1996-01-01

302

21 CFR 130.12 - General methods for water capacity and fill of containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the container. Record the temperature of the water, weigh the container thus... (5) Maintaining the water at the temperature recorded in paragraph (b)(4) of this section, draw off water from the container as...

2011-04-01

303

21 CFR 130.12 - General methods for water capacity and fill of containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the container. Record the temperature of the water, weigh the container thus... (5) Maintaining the water at the temperature recorded in paragraph (b)(4) of this section, draw off water from the container as...

2010-04-01

304

Understanding enabling capacities for managing the 'wicked problem' of nonpoint source water pollution in catchments: a conceptual framework.  

PubMed

Nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution in catchments is a 'wicked' problem that threatens water quality, water security, ecosystem health and biodiversity, and thus the provision of ecosystem services that support human livelihoods and wellbeing from local to global scales. However, it is a difficult problem to manage because water catchments are linked human and natural systems that are complex, dynamic, multi-actor, and multi-scalar in nature. This in turn raises questions about understanding and influencing change across multiple levels of planning, decision-making and action. A key challenge in practice is enabling implementation of local management action, which can be influenced by a range of factors across multiple levels. This paper reviews and synthesises important 'enabling' capacities that can influence implementation of local management action, and develops a conceptual framework for understanding and analysing these in practice. Important enabling capacities identified include: history and contingency; institutional arrangements; collaboration; engagement; vision and strategy; knowledge building and brokerage; resourcing; entrepreneurship and leadership; and reflection and adaptation. Furthermore, local action is embedded within multi-scalar contexts and therefore, is highly contextual. The findings highlight the need for: (1) a systemic and integrative perspective for understanding and influencing change for managing the wicked problem of NPS water pollution; and (2) 'enabling' social and institutional arenas that support emergent and adaptive management structures, processes and innovations for addressing NPS water pollution in practice. These findings also have wider relevance to other 'wicked' natural resource management issues facing similar implementation challenges. PMID:23792915

Patterson, James J; Smith, Carl; Bellamy, Jennifer

2013-10-15

305

Ultra Narrowband Optical Filters for Water Vapor Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) Atmospheric Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) systems are being deployed to make vertical profile measurements of atmospheric water vapor from ground and airborne platforms. One goal of this work is to improve the technology of such DIAL systems that they could be deployed on space-based platforms. Since background radiation reduces system performance, it is important to reduce it. One way to reduce it is to narrow the bandwidth of the optical receiver system. However, since the DIAL technique uses two or more wavelengths, in this case separated by 0.1 nm, a fixed-wavelength narrowband filter that would encompass both wavelengths would be broader than required for each line, approximately 0.02 nm. The approach employed in this project is to use a pair of tunable narrowband reflective fiber Bragg gratings. The Bragg gratings are germanium-doped silica core fiber that is exposed to ultraviolet radiation to produce index-of-refraction changes along the length of the fiber. The gratings can be tuned by stretching. The backscattered laser radiation is transmitted through an optical circulator to the gratings, reflected back to the optical circulator by one of the gratings, and then sent to a photodiode. The filter reflectivities were >90 percent, and the overall system efficiency was 30 percent.

Stenholm, Ingrid; DeYoung, Russell J.

2001-01-01

306

Assessing water resources adaptive capacity to climate change impacts in the Pacific Northwest Region of North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change impacts in Pacific Northwest Region of North America (PNW) are projected to include increasing temperatures and changes in the seasonality of precipitation (increasing precipitation in winter, decreasing precipitation in summer). Changes in precipitation are also spatially varying, with the northwestern parts of the region generally experiencing greater increases in cool season precipitation than the southeastern parts. These changes in climate are projected to cause loss of snowpack and associated streamflow timing shifts which will increase cool season (October-March) flows and decrease warm season (April-September) flows and water availability. Hydrologic extremes such as the 100 year flood and extreme low flows are also expected to change, although these impacts are not spatially homogeneous and vary with mid-winter temperatures and other factors. These changes have important implications for natural ecosystems affected by water, and for human systems. The PNW is endowed with extensive water resources infrastructure and well-established and well-funded management agencies responsible for ensuring that water resources objectives (such as water supply, water quality, flood control, hydropower production, environmental services, etc.) are met. Likewise, access to observed hydrological, meteorological, and climatic data and forecasts is in general exceptionally good in the United States and Canada, and access to these products and services is often supported by federally funded programs that ensure that these resources are available to water resources practitioners, policy makers, and the general public. Access to these extensive resources support the argument that at a technical level the PNW has high capacity to deal with the potential impacts of natural climate variability on water resources. To the extent that climate change will manifest itself as moderate changes in variability or extremes, we argue that existing water resources infrastructure and institutional arrangements provide a solid foundation for coping with climate change impacts, and that the mandates of existing water resources policy and water resources management institutions are at least consistent with the fundamental objectives of climate change adaptation. A deeper inquiry into the underlying nature of PNW water resources systems, however, reveals significant and persistent obstacles to climate change adaptation, which will need to be overcome if effective use of the region's extensive water resources management capacity can be brought to bear on this problem. Primary obstacles include assumptions of stationarity as the fundamental basis of water resources system design, entrenched use of historic records as the sole basis for planning, problems related to the relatively short time scale of planning, lack of familiarity with climate science and models, downscaling procedures, and hydrologic models, limited access to climate change scenarios and hydrologic products for specific water systems, and rigid water allocation and water resources operating rules that effectively block adaptive response. Institutional barriers include systematic loss of technical capacity in many water resources agencies following the dam building era, jurisdictional fragmentation affecting response to drought, disconnections between water policy and practice, and entrenched bureaucratic resistance to change in many water management agencies. These factors, combined with a federal agenda to block climate change policy in the US during the Bush administration has (with some exceptions) led to institutional "gridlock" in the PNW over the last decade or so despite a growing awareness of climate change as a significant threat to water management. In the last several years, however, significant progress has been made in surmounting these obstacles, and the region's water resources agencies at all levels of governance are making progress in addressing the fundamental challenges inherent in adapting to climate change.

Hamlet, A. F.

2010-07-01

307

Assessing water resources adaptive capacity to climate change impacts in the Pacific Northwest Region of North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change impacts in Pacific Northwest Region of North America (PNW) are projected to include increasing temperatures and changes in the seasonality of precipitation (increasing precipitation in winter, decreasing precipitation in summer). Changes in precipitation are also spatially varying, with the northwestern parts of the region generally experiencing greater increases in cool season precipitation than the southeastern parts. These changes in climate are projected to cause loss of snowpack and associated streamflow timing shifts which will increase cool season (October-March) flows and decrease warm season (April-September) flows and water availability. Hydrologic extremes such as the 100 yr flood and extreme low flows are also expected to change, although these impacts are not spatially homogeneous and vary with mid-winter temperatures and other factors. These changes have important implications for natural ecosystems affected by water, and for human systems. The PNW is endowed with extensive water resources infrastructure and well-established and well-funded management agencies responsible for ensuring that water resources objectives (such as water supply, water quality, flood control, hydropower production, environmental services, etc.) are met. Likewise, access to observed hydrological, meteorological, and climatic data and forecasts is in general exceptionally good in the United States and Canada, and is often supported by federally funded programs that ensure that these resources are freely available to water resources practitioners, policy makers, and the general public. Access to these extensive resources support the argument that at a technical level the PNW has high capacity to deal with the potential impacts of natural climate variability on water resources. To the extent that climate change will manifest itself as moderate changes in variability or extremes, we argue that existing water resources infrastructure and institutional arrangements provide a reasonably solid foundation for coping with climate change impacts, and that the mandates of existing water resources policy and water resources management institutions are at least consistent with the fundamental objectives of climate change adaptation. A deeper inquiry into the underlying nature of PNW water resources systems, however, reveals significant and persistent obstacles to climate change adaptation, which will need to be overcome if effective use of the region's extensive water resources management capacity can be brought to bear on this problem. Primary obstacles include assumptions of stationarity as the fundamental basis of water resources system design, entrenched use of historical records as the sole basis for planning, problems related to the relatively short time scale of planning, lack of familiarity with climate science and models, downscaling procedures, and hydrologic models, limited access to climate change scenarios and hydrologic products for specific water systems, and rigid water allocation and water resources operating rules that effectively block adaptive response. Institutional barriers include systematic loss of technical capacity in many water resources agencies following the dam building era, jurisdictional fragmentation affecting response to drought, disconnections between water policy and practice, and entrenched bureaucratic resistance to change in many water management agencies. These factors, combined with a federal agenda to block climate change policy in the US during the Bush administration have (with some exceptions) contributed to widespread institutional "gridlock" in the PNW over the last decade or so despite a growing awareness of climate change as a significant threat to water management. In the last several years, however, significant progress has been made in surmounting some of these obstacles, and the region's water resources agencies at all levels of governance are making progress in addressing the fundamental challenges inherent in adapting to climate change.

Hamlet, A. F.

2011-05-01

308

Effect of fibre and coupling agent contents on water absorption and flexural modulus of wood fibre polyethylene composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In two previous studies, wood fiber-reinforced polymer composites (WPC) were prepared via melt processing. In particular, a response surface strategy of a 20 run optimal design for these three factors was adopted. It was found that for these WPC mixing torque, melt viscosity, Young's modulus and tensile stress at break were related to the type of wood used, as well as wood and coupling agent contents. In addition, thermal properties and strain at break were mainly affected by wood and coupling agent contents. Here, a more complete characterization of these WPC under extreme environmental conditions is performed. In particular, the effect of coupling agent content, wood fibre content and wood fibre type on water absorption and flexural modulus are reported under different water immersion time and temperature. The results show that water absorption is influenced by all the parameters studied, while flexural modulus is mainly influenced by wood content and immersion temperature.

Tissandier, C.; Zhang, Y.; Rodrigue, D.

2014-05-01

309

The maximum water storage capacities in nominally anhydrous minerals in the mantle transition zone and lower mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is the most important volatile component in the Earth, and affects the physicochemical properties of mantle minerals, e.g. density, elastic property, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, rheological property, melting temperature, melt composition, element partitioning, etc. So many high pressure experiments have been conducted so far to determine the effect of water on mantle minerals. To clarify the maximum water storage capacity in nominally anhydrous mantle minerals in the mantle transition zone and lower mantle is an important issue to discuss the possibility of the existence of water reservoir in the Earth mantle. So we have been clarifying the maximum water storage capacity in mantle minerals using MA-8 type (KAWAI-type) high pressure apparatus and SIMS (secondary ion mass spectroscopy). Upper mantle mineral, olivine can contain ~0.9 wt% H2O in the condition just above 410 km discontinuity in maximum (e.g. Chen et al., 2002; Smyth et al., 2006). On the other hand, mantle transition zone mineral, wadsleyite and ringwoodite can contain significant amount (about 2-3 wt.%) of H2O (e.g. Inoue et al., 1995, 1998, 2010; Kawamoto et al., 1996; Ohtani et al., 2000). But the lower mantle mineral, perovskite can not contain significant amount of H2O, less than ~0.1 wt% (e.g. Murakami et al., 2002; Inoue et al., 2010). In addition, garnet and stishovite also can not contain significant amount of H2O (e.g. Katayama et al., 2003; Mookherjee and Karato, 2010; Litasov et al., 2007). On the other hand, the water storage capacities of mantle minerals are supposed to be significantly coupled with Al by a substitution with Mg2+, Si4+ or Mg2+ + Si4+, because Al3+ is the trivalent cation, and H+ is the monovalent cation. To clarify the degree of the substitution, the water contents and the chemical compositions of Al-bearing minerals in the mantle transition zone and the lower mantle were also determined in the Al-bearing systems with H2O. We will introduce the recent results on the maximum water storage capacities in nominally anhydrous minerals in the mantle transition zone and lower mantle from the high pressure experimental point of view.

Inoue, T.; Yurimoto, H.

2012-12-01

310

Laser absorption spectroscopy of water vapor confined in nanoporous alumina: wall collision line broadening and gas diffusion dynamics.  

PubMed

We demonstrate high-resolution tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) of water vapor confined in nanoporous alumina. Strong multiple light scattering results in long photon pathlengths (1 m through a 6 mm sample). We report on strong line broadening due to frequent wall collisions (gas-surface interactions). For the water vapor line at 935.685 nm, the HWHM of confined molecules are about 4.3 GHz as compared to 2.9 GHz for free molecules (atmospheric pressure). Gas diffusion is also investigated, and in contrast to molecular oxygen (that moves rapidly in and out of the alumina), the exchange of water vapor is found very slow. PMID:20721033

Svensson, Tomas; Lewander, Märta; Svanberg, Sune

2010-08-01

311

Reliability, validity, and applicability of isolated and combined sport-specific tests of conditioning capacities in top-level junior water polo athletes.  

PubMed

Standard testing procedures are of limited applicability in water sports, such as water polo. The aim of this investigation was to construct and validate methods for determining water polo-specific conditioning capacities. We constructed 4 combined-capacity tests that were designed to mimic real-game water polo performances: sprint swimming performance, shooting performance, jumping performance, and precision performance. In all cases, combined-capacity tests included a period of standardized exhaustion followed by the performance of the targeted quality (swimming, shooting, jumping, and precision). In the first part of the study, single-capacity tests (sprint swim, in-water jump, drive shoot, and precision performance) were tested and later included in the combined-capacity tests. Study subjects consisted of 54 young male water polo players (15-18 years of age, 185.6 ± 6.7 cm, and 83.1 ± 9.9 kg). Most of the tests evaluated were found to be reliable with Cronbach alpha values ranging from 0.83 to 0.96 and coefficients of variation from 21 to 2% (for the single-capacity tests) and 0.75 to 0.93 test-retest correlation (intraclass correlation coefficients) with Bland-Altman tight limits of agreement (for combined-capacity tests). The combined-capacity tests discriminated qualitative groups of junior water polo players (national squad vs. team athletes) more effectively than single-capacity tests. This is most likely because combined-capacity tests more closely represent the complex fitness capacities required in real game situations. Strength and conditioning practitioners and coaches working with water polo athletes should consider incorporating these validated tests into their assessment protocols. PMID:24169473

Uljevic, Ognjen; Esco, Michael R; Sekulic, Damir

2014-06-01

312

Ultrasonic Velocity and Absorption in Binary Solutions of Silicon Dioxide and Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic velocity and absorption coefficient at 21 MHz as well as shear viscosity, were measured in an aqueous solution of silicon dioxide over the temperature range of 5 85°C, and the concentration range of 20 to 40% by weight. The absorption coefficient exhibits maximum values at about 25°C. The velocity exhibits a maximum value at approximately 64, 66, 68°C in

Jong-Rim Bae; Seung Yun

1998-01-01

313

Influence of a surfactant additive on absorption heat pump performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surfactant additives have been known for some time to influence the boiling characteristics of water and water-salt solutions. An enhancement of boiling transfer coefficients can be obtained by a proper choice of additives. When the capacity of an absorption heat pump is limited by its generator capacity and the generator is of the boiling-pool type, it is possible to increase the machine capacity by means of surfactant addition. In this paper, the preliminary experiments leading to the selection of a surfactant for a lithium bromide-water absorption heat pump are described. Minimum foaming was the most important consideration in this selection process. The measured machine performance shows that the generator capacity may be increased by values ranging from 5% to 10% of the original capacity. The actual value depends on the operating conditions as given by solution concentration, flow rate, and temperatures.

Michel, J. W.; Perez-Blanco, H.

1985-06-01

314

Design And Implementation Of A Water-Quality Monitoring Program In Support Of Establishing User Capacities In Yosemite National Park  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under the 1968 Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, the managing agency of the designated river is required to develop a comprehensive management plan that protects the characteristics of the river segment meriting special protection and that addresses user capacities. We analyzed water quality in the upper Merced and Tuolumne Rivers of Yosemite National Park, designated as Wild and Scenic, to provide baseline data in support of establishing park-specific water-quality standards as part of an adaptive management framework that addresses user capacities. Samples collected from 2004 to 2007 were analyzed for nitrate, total dissolved nitrogen, total dissolved phosphorus, and total phosphorus at all sites, and for E.coli, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and waste water compounds at a subset of sites. Water quality in the upper Merced and Tuolumne River basins was dilute, with concentrations in most samples falling near or below minimum detection limits for the constituents of concern. Results indicate that spatial and seasonal variability in nutrient concentrations is a function of local basin characteristics, particularly elevation. Generally, nitrate- plus-nitrite increased with elevation, while total dissolved nitrogen decreased with elevation. Anomalous high nitrate-plus-nitrite concentrations occurred during low flow at several sites, such as below Yosemite National Park's primary waste water treatment facility, making those sites good candidates for further investigation. Bootstrapping was used to characterize the distribution of concentrations at each site and to make inferences regarding background reference conditions, which could be used by the National Park Service to select anti- degradation water-quality standards and establish water-quality based user capacities. Results suggest that future monitoring efforts should emphasize storm-event sampling, which is necessary to capture infrequent elevated nutrient concentrations, and sampling in the head-waters of each basin where further data is needed to characterize possible impacts from atmospheric deposition of pollutants. Additional water-quality monitoring in Merced River tributaries throughout Yosemite Valley is needed to identify sources of nutrient inputs and to determine whether visitor use is contributing to the overall water quality.

Peavler, R. S.; Clow, D. W.; Panorska, A. K.

2008-12-01

315

Geophysical imaging of watershed subsurface patterns and prediction of soil texture and water holding capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial distribution of subsurface soil textural properties across the landscape is an important control on the hydrological and ecological function of a watershed. Traditional methods of mapping soils involving subjective assignment of soil boundaries are inadequate for studies requiring a quantitative assessment of the landscape and its subsurface connectivity and storage capacity. Geophysical methods such as electromagnetic induction (EMI)

H. Abdu; D. A. Robinson; M. Seyfried; S. B. Jones

2008-01-01

316

Impact of the hydraulic capacity of plants on water and carbon fluxes in tropical South America  

E-print Network

transpirational capacity of angiosperms plays a unique role in the maintenance of tropical rainforest the Amazon basin. Transpiration triggers convection by increasing moisture in the boundary layer and thereby climate, and the eastern part of the Amazon basin becomes wet (200 mm/month of precipitation). This double

Boyce, C. Kevin

317

Ponding-test procedure for assessing the infiltration capacity of storm-water basins, Nassau County, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A procedure to obtain field data for assessing performance of storm-water basins having high infiltration rates is described. The basin selected is divided into test plots, and treated municipal water from a fire hydrant is ponded to the desired depth so that infiltration rates and flow patterns in the unsaturated zone can be determined by standard methods. The study was made at a storm-water basin excavated in glacial outwash deposits in Nassau County, Long Island, N.Y. in 1971-72. The types of interpretations and evaluations that can be made from test data are described, and applications of the procedure as well as guidelines for developing a similar testing program are given. Observations of special significance were: (1) Infiltration rate of the basin at low water stage is about 1.5 feet per hour but increases with increased water level; (2) flow through the unsaturated zone is essentially vertical; (3) infiltration rate is controlled by a surface stratum --in this case a gravelly, sandy loam; and (4) the position of the water table has little effect on infiltration rate provided it is below the lower boundary of the controlling zone. These observations can be used in evaluating a storm-water basin's suitability for supplemental recharge with treated wastewater, in comparing procedures for increasing a basin's infiltration capacity, or in the design of new storm-water basin systems.

Prill, Robert C.; Aronson, David A.

1978-01-01

318

URBAN MANAGEMENT MODELCONCERNING THE ATTENDING CAPACITY OF THE WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The worldwide production of potable water represents a without cease enormous challenge. Each year 80 million new persons seek their rights for aqueous resources over the earth surface. Unhappily almost three billion new inhabitants for the next fifty years will be born in lands where scarcity of water is already nowadays present. Brazilians seem not worried with their water reserves

L. H. A. Lopes; C. Loch; H.-P. Bähr; WG VII

319

The influence of recycled expanded polystyrene (EPS) on concrete properties: Influence on flexural strength, water absorption and shrinkage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Expanded polystyrene waste in a granular form was used as a lightweight aggregate in order to produce lightweight concretë Lightweight EPS concrete composites were produced by replacing the coarse aggregate, either partially or fully with equal volume of EPS aggregates. The coarse aggregate replacements levels used were 25, 50, 75, and 100%, which corresponded to (9.20, 18.40, 27.60, and 36.8%) from total volume. The investigation is directed towards the development and performance evaluation of the concrete composites containing EPS aggregates, without addition of either bonding additives, or super-plasticizers on some concrete properties such as flexure strength, water absorption and change in length (or shrinkage). Experimental results showed that a density reduction of 12% caused flexure strength to decrease by 25.3% at a replacement level of 25% EPS. However, the reduction percentage strongly depends upon the replacement level of EPS granules. Moreover, the lower strength concretes showed a higher water absorption values compared to higher strength concrete, i.e., increasing the volume percentage of EPS increases the water absorption as well as the negative strain (shrinkage). The negative strain was higher at concretes of lower density (containing a high amount of EPS aggregate). The water to cement ratio of EPS aggregate concrete is found to be slightly lower than that of conventional concrete.

Elsalah, Jamaleddin; Al-Sahli, Yosra; Akish, Ahmed; Saad, Omar; Hakemi, Abdurrahman

2013-12-01

320

Measurements of the temperature and water vapor concentration in a hot zone by tunable diode laser absorption spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) technique and appropriate instrumentation was developed for the measurement of temperature and water vapor concentrations in heated gases. The technique is based on the detection of the spectra of H2O absorption lines with different energies of low levels. The following absorption lines of H2O were used: 7189.344 cm-1 ( E?=142 cm-1), 7189.541 cm-1 ( E?=1255 cm-1), 7189.715 cm-1 ( E?=2005 cm-1). Spectra were recorded using fast frequency scanning of a single distributed feedback (DFB) laser. A unique differential scheme for the recording of the absorption spectra was developed. An optimal technique for fitting the experimental spectra was developed. The validated TDLAS technique was applied for detection of temperature and H2O concentration in the post-combustion zone of a supersonic ( M=2) air-fuel flow. Hydrogen and ethylene were used as the fuel. The combustion process was ignited and sustained by a pulsed electric discharge. Presentation of the transient absorption spectra as 2D images was used as the first step of data processing. The estimated precision of the temperature measurement was ±40 K. The high signal-to-noise ratio enabled the reconstruction of the temporal behavior of temperature with a resolution of ˜1 ms.

Bolshov, M. A.; Kuritsyn, Y. A.; Liger, V. V.; Mironenko, V. R.; Leonov, S. B.; Yarantsev, D. A.

2010-08-01

321

Role of glucose transporters in the intestinal absorption of gastrodin, a highly water-soluble drug with good oral bioavailability.  

PubMed

Gastrodin, a sedative drug, is a highly water-soluble phenolic glucoside with poor liposolubility but exhibits good oral bioavailability. The current study aims to investigate whether glucose transporters (GLTs) are involved in the intestinal absorption of gastrodin. The intestinal absorption kinetics of gastrodin was determined using the rat everted gut sac model, the Caco-2 cell culture model and the perfused rat intestinal model. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies using diabetic rats with high GLT expression were performed. Saturable intestinal absorption of gastrodin was observed in rat everted gut sacs. The apparent permeability (Papp) of gastrodin from the apical (A) to basolateral (B) side in Caco-2 cells was two-fold higher than that from B to A. Glucose or phlorizin, a sodium-dependent GLT (SGLT) inhibitor, reduced the absorption rates of gastrodin from perfused rat intestines. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies showed that the time of maximum plasma gastrodin concentration (Tmax) was prolonged from 28 to 72 min when orally co-administered with four times higher dose of glucose. However, the Tmax of gastrodin in diabetic rats was significantly lowered to 20 min because of the high intestinal SGLT1 level. In conclusion, our findings indicate that SGLT1 can facilitate the intestinal absorption of gastrodin. PMID:23480725

Cai, Zheng; Huang, Juan; Luo, Hui; Lei, Xiaolu; Yang, Zhaoxiang; Mai, Yang; Liu, Zhongqiu

2013-07-01

322

WVR-GPS comparison measurements and calibration of the 20-32 GHz tropospheric water vapor absorption model.  

SciTech Connect

Collocated measurements of opacity (from water vapor radiometer brightness temperatures) and wet path delay (from ground-based tracking of global positioning satellites) are used to constrain the model of atmospheric water vapor absorption in the 20-32 GHz band. A differential approach is presented in which the slope of opacity-versus-wet delay data is used as the absorption model constraint. This technique minimizes the effects of radiometric calibration errors and oxygen model uncertainties in the derivation of a best-fit vapor absorption model. A total of approximately five months of data was obtained from two experiment sites. At the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site near Lamont, Oklahoma, three independent water vapor radiometers (WVRs) provided near-continuous opacity measurements over the interval July-September 1998. At the NASA/Goldstone tracking station in the California desert two WVRs; obtained opacity data over the September-October 1997 interval. At both sites a Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) receiver and surface barometer obtained the data required for deriving the zenith wet delays over the same time frames. Measured values of the opacity-versus-wet delay slope parameter were obtained at four WVR frequencies (20.7, 22.2, 23.8, and 31.4 GHz) and compared with predictions of four candidate absorption models referenced in the literature. With one exception, all three models provide agreement within 5% of the opacity-versus-wet delay slope measurements at all WVR frequencies at both sites. One model provides agreement for all channels at both sites to the 2-3% level. This absorption model accuracy level represents a significant improvement over that attainable using radiosondes.

Keihm, S. J.; Bar-Server, Y.; Liljegren, J. C.; Environmental Research; NASA

2002-06-01

323

Radiation effects in water ice: a near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure study.  

PubMed

The changes in the structure and composition of vapor-deposited ice films irradiated at 20 K with soft x-ray photons (3-900 eV) and their subsequent evolution with temperatures between 20 and 150 K have been investigated by near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) at the oxygen K edge. We observe the hydroxyl OH, the atomic oxygen O, and the hydroperoxyl HO(2) radicals, as well as the oxygen O(2) and hydrogen peroxide H(2)O(2) molecules in irradiated porous amorphous solid water (p-ASW) and crystalline (I(cryst)) ice films. The evolution of their concentrations with the temperature indicates that HO(2), O(2), and H(2)O(2) result from a simple step reaction fuelled by OH, where O(2) is a product of HO(2) and HO(2) a product of H(2)O(2). The local order of ice is also modified, whatever the initial structure is. The crystalline ice I(cryst) becomes amorphous. The high-density amorphous phase (I(a)h) of ice is observed after irradiation of the p-ASW film, whose initial structure is the normal low-density form of the amorphous ice (I(a)l). The phase I(a)h is thus peculiar to irradiated ice and does not exist in the as-deposited ice films. A new "very high density" amorphous phase-we call I(a)vh-is obtained after warming at 50 K the irradiated p-ASW ice. This phase is stable up to 90 K and partially transforms into crystalline ice at 150 K. PMID:17144730

Laffon, C; Lacombe, S; Bournel, F; Parent, Ph

2006-11-28

324

Intrinsic regulation of functional blood flow and water absorption in canine colon.  

PubMed Central

1. Autoregulation of total and absorptive site blood flow and H2O fluxes were studied in canine colon during arterial pressure decreases and venous pressure elevations. 2. Reductions in arterial pressure caused proportional decreases in total colonic blood flow indicating no autoregulatory ability. In contrast, absorptive site blood flow was constant over an arterial pressure range of 40-140 mmHg but decreased sharply below 40 mmHg. 3. Venous pressure elevation decreased total blood flow and increased resistance but had no effect on absorptive site blood flow over a range of 0-30 mmHg. 4. Net H2O absorption was unchanged by alteration of arterial or venous pressure but the unidirectional H2O fluxes decreased with arterial pressure reduction and were unchanged by venous pressure elevation. 5. Adenosine infusion increased total and absorptive site blood flow and the unidirectional H2O fluxes yet had no effect on net H2O flux. 6. It was concluded that absorptive site blood flow is very well autoregulated in the colon but total blood flow is not. Net H2O absorption is maintained during decreased blood flow by maintenance of blood flow to the mucosa and by decreasing the back flux of H2O across the mucosa. PMID:7205673

Granger, D N; Kvietys, P R; Mailman, D; Richardson, P D

1980-01-01

325

An application of water recreation capacity standards to reservoir development planning  

E-print Network

IV. A Survey of Current Mater Use Capacity Standards 12 Federal U'e of Standards 14 State Use of Standards County Use of Standards Standards Formu]ation Current Standards 16 17 22 V. Survey of the Lake Livingston Reservoir Site 37 General... Development 65 Mater Use Fianagement 72 Recomm ndation Implementation VIII. Summary Literature Cited LIST 01" TABLES Table 1. Summary of Standards Survey Responses 2. Smmaary of Agency Methods of Standards Formulation Page 13 19 3. Summary...

Petersen, Grant Arthur

2012-06-07

326

Application of Temperature-Dependent Fluorescent Dyes to the Measurement of Millimeter Wave Absorption in Water Applied to Biomedical Experiments  

PubMed Central

Temperature sensitivity of the fluorescence intensity of the organic dyes solutions was used for noncontact measurement of the electromagnetic millimeter wave absorption in water. By using two different dyes with opposite temperature effects, local temperature increase in the capillary that is placed inside a rectangular waveguide in which millimeter waves propagate was defined. The application of this noncontact temperature sensing is a simple and novel method to detect temperature change in small biological objects.

Popenko, Oleksandr

2014-01-01

327

Influence of Aniline Addition on the Cure, Mechanical Properties and Water Absorption Characteristics of Amine Cured Epoxy Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curing, dielectric, gravimetric, dynamic mechanical, infrared and density measurements are reported on the effect of the incorporation of mono and bi-functional amines on the water absorption and mechanical properties of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA), MY720 (Ciba Geigy) cured with diaminodiphenylmethane, (DDM), HT972, (Ciba Geigy) and diaminodiphenylsulphone, (DDS), HT976, (Ciba Geigy). Resin samples were prepared with incorporation of mono\\/bi-functional

Richard A. Pethrick; Renaud Dejean; Frank Marie; Elisabeth A. Hollins; Lain McEwan; Sinead McNairney

1998-01-01

328

Mn-Ce oxide as a high-capacity adsorbent for fluoride removal from water.  

PubMed

A novel Mn-Ce oxide adsorbent with high sorption capacity for fluoride was prepared via co-precipitation method in this study, and the granular adsorbent was successfully prepared by calcining the mixture of the Mn-Ce powder and pseudo-boehmite. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image showed that the Mn-Ce adsorbent consisted of about 4.5 nm crystals, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated the formation of solid solution by Mn species entering CeO(2) lattices. The surface hydroxyl group density on the Mn-Ce adsorbent was determined to be as high as 15.3 mmol g(-1), mainly responsible for its high sorption capacity for fluoride. Sorption isotherms showed that the sorption capacities of fluoride on the powdered and granular adsorbent were 79.5 and 45.5 mg g(-1) respectively at the equilibrium fluoride concentration of 1 mg L(-1), much higher than all reported adsorbents. Additionally, the adsorption was fast within the initial 1 h. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed that the hydroxyl groups on the adsorbent surface were involved in the sorption of fluoride. Both anion exchange and electrostatic interaction were involved in the sorption of fluoride on the Mn-Ce oxide adsorbent. PMID:21208743

Deng, Shubo; Liu, Han; Zhou, Wei; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang

2011-02-28

329

Study on arsenic level in public water supply of Delhi using hydride generator accessory coupled with atomic absorption spectrophotometer.  

PubMed

Exposure to arsenic has been associated with several health hazards. Worldwide the main reason for chronic human intoxication with arsenic is intake of contaminated drinking water. Air acetylene type of atomic absorption spectrophotometer in combination with hydride generator accessory was used to analyze arsenic level in 25 water samples collected from 25 booster pumping stations and 313 water samples collected from tap water supply of 62 areas of Delhi. Results were analyzed using SPSS and Barlett's Chi Square Test. Mean arsenic level detected in water samples collected from booster pumping stations was 0.00976 ppm (Range 0.000-0.017 ppm, Standard Deviation 0.006 and Standard error of Mean 0.00118). Maximum arsenic level (0.017 ppm) was found in water samples of booster pumping stations of Mehrauli, Punjabi Bagh and Ramjas Road. Mean arsenic level detected in samples collected from tap water supply was 0.013 ppm (Range 0-0.0430 ppm, Standard Deviation 0.00911 and Standard error of Mean 0.000515). In water samples of 42 areas arsenic level detected was exceeding WHO/EPA permissible limit of 0.01 ppm (10 ppb). The mean arsenic level detected in water samples of booster pumping station was within WHO/EPA permissible limit while mean arsenic level detected in tap water samples was marginally higher. Mixing of ground water and contamination through broken or leaking channel could be the possible reason of higher arsenic level in tap water. Continuous monitoring of quality of drinking water is required particularly in view of water contamination caused by industrial waste and uncontrolled ground water extraction. PMID:23105572

Lalwani, Sanjeev; Dogra, T D; Bhardwaj, D N; Sharma, R K; Murty, O P

2006-03-01

330

BELINDA: Broadband Emission Lidar with Narrowband Determination of Absorption. A new concept for measuring water vapor and temperature profiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a new concept for differential absorption lidar measurements of water vapor and temperature profiles. The idea is to use one broadband emission laser and a narrowband filter system for separation of the 'online' and 'offline' return signals. It is shown that BELINDA offers improvements as to laser emission shape and stability requirements, background suppression, and last and most important a significant reduction of the influence of Rayleigh scattering. A suitably designed system based on this concept is presented, capable of measuring water vapor or temperature profiles throughout the planetary boundary layer.

Theopold, F. A.; Weitkamp, C.; Michaelis, W.

1992-01-01

331

Water vapor absorption in porous media polluted by calcium nitrate studied by time domain nuclear magnetic resonance.  

PubMed

Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation analysis of liquid water (1)H nuclei in real porous media, selected for their similar composition (carbonate rocks) and different pore space architecture, polluted with calcium nitrate, is presented to study the kinetics of water condensation and salt deliquescence inside the pore space. These phenomena are responsible for deterioration of porous materials when exposed to environmental injury by pollution in a humid atmosphere. The theory is well described for simple pore geometries, but it is not yet well understood in real porous media with wide distributions of pore sizes and connections. The experiment is performed by following in time the formation of liquid water inside the pore space by T(1) and T(2) relaxation time distributions. The distributions allow one to see the effects of both the salt concentration and the pore space structure on the amount of water vapor condensed and its kinetics. It is shown that, for a given lithotype, even with different amounts of pollutant, the rate-average relaxation time T(1ra) tends to increase monotonically with NMR signal, proportional to the amount of liquid water. T(1ra) is often inversely associated with surface-to-volume ratio. This suggests a trend toward the filling of larger pores as amounts of liquid water increase, but it does not indicate a strict sequential filling of pores in order of size and starting with the smallest; in fact, relaxation time distributions show clearly that this is not the case. Increased amounts of salt lead to both markedly increased rates and markedly increased amounts of water absorption. NMR measurements of amounts of water, together with relaxation time distributions, give the possibility of information on the effect of pollution in porous materials exposed to humid atmospheres but sheltered from liquid water, even before the absorption of large amounts of moisture and subsequent damage. These phenomena are of importance also in other fields, such as the exploitation of geothermal energy. PMID:19594125

Gombia, Mirko; Bortolotti, Villiam; Brown, Robert J S; Camaiti, Mara; Cavallero, Luisa; Fantazzini, Paola

2009-08-01

332

Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric detection of vanadium in water and food samples after solid phase extraction on multiwalled carbon nanotubes.  

PubMed

Vanadium(V) ions as 8-hydroxyquinoline chelates were loaded on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in a mini chromatographic column. Vanadium was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Various analytical parameters including pH of the working solutions, amounts of 8-hydroxyquinoline, eluent type, sample volume, and flow rates were investigated. The effects of matrix ions and some transition metals were also studied. The column can be reused 250 times without any loss in its sorption properties. The preconcentration factor was found as 100. Detection limit (3 s) and limit of quantification (10 s) for the vanadium in the optimal conditions were observed to be 0.012 µg L(-1) and 0.040 ?g L(-1), respectively. The capacity of adsorption was 9.6 mg g(-1). Relative standard deviation (RSD) was found to be 5%. The validation of the method was confirmed by using NIST SRM 1515 Apple leaves, NIST SRM 1570a Spinach leaves and GBW 07605 Tea certified reference materials. The procedure was applied to the determination of vanadium in tap water and bottled drinking water samples. The procedure was also successfully applied to microwave digested food samples including black tea, coffee, tomato, cabbage, zucchini, apple and chicken samples. PMID:24148394

Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Tuzen, Mustafa; Gul Kazi, Tasneem; Soylak, Mustafa

2013-11-15

333

Sources and light absorption of water-soluble brown carbon aerosols in the outflow from northern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High loadings of anthropogenic carbonaceous aerosols in Chinese air influence the air quality for over 1 billion people and impact the regional climate. A large fraction (17-80%) of this aerosol carbon is water soluble, promoting cloud formation and thus climate cooling. Recent findings, however, suggest that water-soluble carbonaceous aerosols also absorb sunlight, bringing additional direct and indirect climate warming effects, yet the extent and nature of light absorption by this water-soluble brown carbon (WS-BrC) and its relation to sources is poorly understood. Here, we combine source estimates constrained by dual-carbon-isotope with light absorption measurements of WS-BrC for a March 2011 campaign at the Korea Climate Observatory at Gosan (KCOG), a receptor station in SE Yellow Sea for the outflow from N. China. The mass absorption cross-section (MAC) of WS-BrC for air masses from N. China were in general higher (0.8-1.1 m2 g-1), than from other source regions (0.3-0.8 m2 g-1). We estimate that this effect corresponds to 13-49% of the radiative forcing caused by light absorption by black carbon. Radiocarbon constraints show that the WS-BrC in Chinese outflow had significantly higher amounts of fossil sources (30-50%) compared to previous findings in S. Asia, N. America and Europe. Stable carbon (?13C) measurements indicated influence of aging during air mass transport. These results indicate the importance of incorporating WS-BrC in climate models and the need to constrain climate effects by emission source sector.

Kirillova, E. N.; Andersson, A.; Han, J.; Lee, M.; Gustafsson, Ö.

2013-07-01

334

Initial results from a water vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) using a widely tunable amplified diode laser source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely agreed that water vapor is one of the most important gasses in the atmosphere with regards to its role in local weather, global climate, and the water cycle. Especially with the growing concern for understanding and predicting global climate change, detailed data of water vapor distribution and flux and related feedback mechanisms in the lowest 3 km of the troposphere, where most of the atmospheric water vapor resides, are required to aid in climate models. Improved capabilities to monitor range-resolved tropospheric water vapor profiles continuously in time at many locations are needed. One method of obtaining this data in the boundary layer with improved vertical resolution relative to passive remote sensors is with a Differential Absorption LIDAR (DIAL) utilizing a compact laser diode source. Montana State University, with the expertise of its laser source development group, has developed a compact water vapor DIAL system that utilizes a widely tunable amplified external cavity diode laser (ECDL) transmitter. This transmitter has the ability to tune across a 17 nm spectrum near 830 nm, allowing it access to multiple water vapor absorption lines of varying strengths. A novel tuning system tunes and holds the ECDL to within +/- 88 MHz (0.20 pm) of the selected wavelength. The ECDL acts as a seed source for two commercial cascaded tapered amplifiers. The receiver uses commercially available optics and a fiber-coupled Avalanche Photodiode (APD) detector. Initial nighttime measurements of water vapor profiles taken over Bozeman, Montana, with comparisons to radiosonde-derived profiles will be presented.

Obland, Michael D.; Nehrir, Amin R.; Repasky, Kevin S.; Shaw, Joseph A.; Carlsten, John L.

2007-09-01

335

The self-cleaning capacity of surface waters after radioactive fallout. Evidence from European waters after Chernobyl, 1986-1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radionuclide fallout from the burning Chernobyl reactor provided a pulsed input of ¹³⁷Cs to surface waters and watersheds of Europe. Radionuclide analyses of surface waters indicated that initial rates of decrease of ¹³⁷Cs concentrations in contaminated rivers were on the order of 0.125 day⁻¹, which was found to be consistent with the size of the mobile inventory in the watersheds

Peter H. Santschi; S. Bollhalder; S. Zingg; A. Lueck; K. Farrenkothen

1990-01-01

336

Spring carbonate chemistry dynamics of surface waters in the northern East China Sea: Water mixing, biological uptake of CO2, and chemical buffering capacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

investigated sea surface total alkalinity (TAlk), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved oxygen (DO), and satellite-derived chlorophyll-a in the connection between the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea (ECS) during April to early May 2007. In spring, Changjiang dilution water (CDW), ECS offshore water, and together with Yellow Sea water (YSW) occupied the northern ECS. Using 16 day composite satellite-derived chlorophyll-a images, several algal blooms were identified in the CDW and ECS offshore water. Correspondingly, biological DIC drawdown of 73 ± 20 ?mol kg-1, oversaturated DO of 10-110 ?mol O2 kg-1, and low fugacity of CO2 of 181-304 ?atm were revealed in these two waters. YSW also showed CO2 uptake in spring, due to the very low temperature. However, its intrusion virtually counteracted CO2 uptake in the northern ECS. In the CDW and the ECS offshore water, Revelle factor was 9.3-11.7 and 8.9-10.6, respectively, while relatively high Revelle factor values of 11.4-13.0 were revealed in YSW. In the ECS offshore water, the observed relationship between DIC drawdown and oversaturated DO departed from the Redfield ratio, indicating an effect of chemical buffering capacity on the carbonate system during air-sea reequilibration. Given the fact that the chemical buffering capacity slows down the air-sea reequilibration of CO2, the early spring DIC drawdown may have durative effects on the sea surface carbonate system until early summer. Although our study is subject to limited temporal and spatial coverage of sampling, these insights are fundamental to understanding sea surface carbonate chemistry dynamics in this important ocean margin.

Zhai, Wei-Dong; Chen, Jian-Fang; Jin, Hai-Yan; Li, Hong-Liang; Liu, Jin-Wen; He, Xian-Qiang; Bai, Yan

2014-09-01

337

Morphological correlate of regional partitioning of integumental water absorption in terrestrial slugs.  

PubMed

An ultrastructural study of the foot surface of the terrestrial mollusc, Limax maximus, has revealed a correlation of epithelial cell type with the functional partitioning of the surface. The lateral absorptive bands of the foot are comprised exclusively of microvillar epithelial cells, while those of the medial locomotor band are all ciliated. Thus, there is a clear partitioning of epithelial cell types between areas of the foot surface with distinct functional roles. Consistent with the proposed role for paracellular absorption, varying states of hydration are shown to affect the extent of the intercellular spaces, but not the intracellular architecture. PMID:8073419

Prior, D J; Maugel, T K; Sellers, M

1994-06-01

338

Analysis of chickpea soaking by simultaneous water transfer and water–starch reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soaking process of five spring and five winter chickpea genotypes were investigated in water between 20°C and 100°C. Samples did not differ in initial water content (IWC), water absorption capacity (WAC), swelling capacity (SC), and seed coat thickness in terms of the growing season. While WAC decreased with increasing temperature, SC was not affected by temperature. The process was

Sedat Sayar; Mahir Turhan; Sundaram Gunasekaran

2001-01-01

339

Detection and quantification of montmorillonite nanoclay in water-ethanol solutions by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.  

PubMed

Organo-modified montmorillonite (O-MMT) was detected in various water-ethanol solutions by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, based on the simultaneous elemental analysis of silicon (Si) and aluminium (Al). The quantification limits of the method were 0.03 mg L?¹ for Si and 0.01 mg L?¹ for Al, but can be improved to 8 ?g L?¹ for Si and 3 ?g L?¹ by using the concentration function of the instrument. A stability test of O-MMT in suspension was conducted by considering the solvent type (i.e., water and/or ethanol) and a surfactant. A good dispersion of O-MMT was achieved in suspensions with water and ethanol at 1:2 (v/v) or with pure ethanol, while the addition of a surfactant improved the dispersion of O-MMT in water. The Si and Al concentrations in the suspensions were correlated with O-MMT concentrations. The Si and Al contents in the O-MMT were determined by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry to be 22% ± 1.1% and 9.3% ± 0.5% wt/wt, respectively, which was in agreement with values obtained by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry method performed in this study. PMID:24215494

Yining, Xia; Rubino, Maria; Auras, Rafael

2013-01-01

340

Absorption and diffusion measurements of water in acrylic paint films by single-sided NMR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artists’ acrylic paint surfaces can accumulate surface grime. Aqueous surface cleaning of these paints can be particularly problematic because they swell upon exposure to water and because of the presence of water extractable additives. Research to determine the parameters of water penetration and swelling as well as the role of the water soluble additives in these phenomena is important in

Konstantin Ulrich; Silvia A. Centeno; Julie Arslanoglu; Eleonora Del Federico

2011-01-01

341

Influence of water depth on the carbon sequestration capacity of seagrasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

actual estimates of carbon stocks beneath seagrass meadows worldwide are derived from few data, resulting in a tendency to generalize global carbon stocks from a very limited number of seagrass habitats. We surveyed Posidonia oceanica and Posidonia sinuosa meadows along depth-induced gradients of light availability to assess the variability in their sedimentary organic carbon (Corg) stocks and accretion rates. This study showed a fourfold decrease in Corg stocks from 2-4 m to 6-8 m depth P. sinuosa meadows (averaging 7.0 and 1.8 kg m-2, respectively; top meter of sediment) and a fourteenfold to sixteenfold decrease from shallow (2 m) to deep (32 m) P. oceanica meadows (200 and 19 kg m-2 average, respectively; top 2.7 m of sediment). The average Corg accretion rates in shallow P. sinuosa meadows were higher (10.5 g m-2 yr-1) than in deeper meadows (2.1 g m-2 yr-1). The reduction of sedimentary Corg stocks and accretion rates along depth-related gradients of light reduction suggests that irradiance, controlling plant productivity, meadow density, and sediment accretion rates, is a key environmental factor affecting Corg storage potential of seagrasses. The results obtained highlighted the exceptional carbon storage capacity of P. oceanica meadows at Balearic Islands (Spain), containing the highest areal Corg stocks of all seagrasses (estimated in up to 691-770 kg m-2 in 8-13 m thick deposits). Seagrass communities are experiencing worldwide decline, and reduced irradiance (following e.g., eutrophication or sediment regime alterations) will lead to photoacclimation responses (i.e., reduced plant productivity and shoot density), which may impact the carbon sequestration capacity of seagrasses.

Serrano, Oscar; Lavery, Paul S.; Rozaimi, Mohammad; Mateo, Miguel Ángel

2014-09-01

342

Determination of total tin in environmental biological and water samples by atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace.  

PubMed

Analysis of traces of tin using several analytical techniques (X-ray fluorescence, neutron activation, polarographic techniques and atomic absorption) have been tested. Parameters such as simplicity, rapidity, sensitivity and interferences are compared in order to choose the most useful method for practical purpose. Finally, flameless atomic absorption was chosen for the determination of total tin concentration in different natural samples. Digestion of biological samples (plant, plankton, fish, etc.) was achieved by using Lumatom (a trade organic chemical). Thus, the digested sample is directly injected into the graphite furnace. This digestion technique is suitable and rapid with a minimum of error (contamination and losses). For tin analysis in water samples, a preconcentration of tin is carried out by coprecipitation with 1, 10-phenanthroline and tetraphenyl boron. The precipitate is separated and dissolved in alcohol or in Lumatom. The sensitivity of this method is 0.1 ng absolute tin. PMID:7451013

Dogan, S; Haerdi, W

1980-01-01

343

Osmotic regulation in fresh water fishes by active absorption of chloride ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Eingegangen am 4. Juni 1937.) In a recent paper (1937) I described a mechanism, observed in the skin of the frog, by which the salt content or osmotic concentration of the frogs blood and tissues is normally kept up. It consists in the active absorption (presumably through special cells in the skin) of C1- ions which can be taken up

August Krogh

1937-01-01

344

AN AMMONIA-WATER ABSORPTION-HIAT-PUMP CYCLE Donald Kuhlenschmidt, Member ASHRAE  

E-print Network

,000 Btuh) input unit reported. KLY WORDS Absorption Heat-pump Air conditioning heating Ammonia Donald to an air-source heating- only heat-pump cycle which delivers its heat in- doors via circulating liquid is well known for its 50-year use in domestic refrigerators and 20-year record in gas--fired air

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

345

Volumetric mass transfer coefficients characterising VOC absorption in water/silicone oil mixtures  

E-print Network

Engineering Journal 221 (2013) 308-314" DOI : 10.1016/j.cej.2013.01.102 #12;Abstract The physical absorption biotechnologies to treat hydrophobic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs; [1-4]). In such gas- liquid-liquid processes, the mass transfer coefficient KLa is a key parameter in estimating reactor performance [5

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

346

Studies on the Water Absorption Properties of Short Hemp—Glass Fiber Hybrid Polypropylene Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemp fiber is one of the inexpensive and readily available bast natural fibers and hemp-fiber reinforced polymer composite products have gained considerable attraction for automotive interior products. Though extensive research has been made on the performance evaluation of these composite materials, not much data is available on the moisture absorption of the composites, which restricts their use in exterior applications.

Suhara Panthapulakkal; Mohini Sain

2007-01-01

347

Application of system dynamics in analyzing the carrying capacity of water resources in Yiwu City, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A risk assessment model for water shortage is constructed using a risk analysis method based on the information diffusion theory. The application of this model is demonstrated in the city of Yiwu in Zhejiang Province, China. Based on the analytical results from a small sample, this study indicates that the present model is more stable and effective than the traditional

Li-hua Feng; Xing-cai Zhang; Gao-yuan Luo

2008-01-01

348

INCREASING THE PHOSPHORUS SORPTION CAPACITY OF SOUTHEASTERN COASTAL PLAIN SOILS USING WATER TREATMENT RESIDUALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term animal manure applications to many sandy Coastal Plain soils has resulted in the accumulation of excess soil phosphorus (P). When soils contain excessive P concentrations, dissolved phosphorus (DP) can be des- orbed with water and transported into streams and rivers via runoff and leaching. The addition of DP into nutrient-sensitive Coastal aquatic ecosys- tems can then stimulate aquatic weed

J. M. Novak; D. W. Watts

2004-01-01

349

Mapping soil water holding capacity over large areas to predict potential production of forest stands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological studies require environmental descriptors to establish the response of species or communities to ecological conditions. The soil water resource is an important factor, but it is difficult for plant ecologists to use because of the lack of accessible data. We explored whether collecting a large number of plots with basic soil information within the framework of forest inventories would

Christian Piedallu; Jean-Claude Gégout; Ary Bruand; Ingrid Seynave

2011-01-01

350

Expansion of Myriophyllum spicatum (Eurasian water milfoil) into Lake Nasser, Egypt: Invasive capacity and habitat stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invasion of Myriophyllum spicatum into Lake Nasser, and its impact on submerged macrophyte communities are quantitatively documented. Samples of macrophytes, water and hydrosoil were collected from 17 sites, in October and November 2002. The average dry weight standing crop of each species per grapnel haul was determined at each depth zone (sampling site). Twenty-one environmental variables were measured (12

Magdi M. Ali; Mohamed A. Soltan

2006-01-01

351

Osmotic pressure, water kinetics and volatile fatty acid absorption in the rumen of sheep sustained by intragastric infusions.  

PubMed

The effects of changing rumen osmotic pressure (OP) upon water kinetics and volatile fatty acid (VFA) absorption in the rumen of sheep were studied in two 4 x 4 Latin square experiments, each using four lambs with a rumen cannula and an abomasal catheter. In both experiments the lambs were sustained by the intragastric infusion of all nutrients (VFA, Ca, P, Mg and a buffer solution into the rumen, and casein, vitamins and trace elements into the abomasum). On experimental days, which were at least 1 week apart, drinking water and the casein infusion were withdrawn, and the ruminal OP was changed and held constant for 9.5 h, by incorporating NaCl at different concentrations in the buffer solution being infused. In Expt 1 the target OP values were 300, 340, 380 and 420 mosmol/kg, and in Expt 2 were 261 (no saline addition), 350, 420 and 490 mosmol/kg. Using soluble non-absorbable markers (PEG in continuous infusion and Cr-EDTA injected in pulse doses) rumen volume, liquid outflow rates, apparent water absorption through the rumen wall and VFA absorption rates were estimated at six sampling times corresponding to the 1.5 h intervals during the last 7.5 h following the change in rumen OP. Liquid outflow rate (F; ml/h) showed a significant and positive linear relationship with the rumen OP (mosmol/kg), resulting in the equation F = 1.24 OP (SE 0.096)-36.5 (SE 36.6) (r2 0.96). Similarly, water absorption rate (W; ml/h) was significantly affected by rumen OP, and this relationship was given by W = 395 (SE 39.9)-1.16 OP (SE 0.105) (r2 0.95), which means that for an OP of 341 mosmol/kg the net movement of water across the rumen wall would be zero, and either a net efflux or a net influx of water would be observed with lower or higher OP respectively. In Expt 2 there was a significant linear effect of OP on rumen volume (P < 0.01), with higher OP being associated with increases in rumen liquid contents of about 10-20%. As rumen OP was increased there was also a decline in the absorption rate of VFA (from 232 mmol VFA/h for OP 350 to 191 mmol/h for OP 490 mosmol/kg), resulting in the accumulation of VFA (especially acetate) in the rumen and a consequent fall in rumen pH. Rumen OP seems to be important in defining water movement across the rumen wall and, hence, partitioning between absorption and outflow. PMID:8142328

López, S; Hovell, F D; MacLeod, N A

1994-02-01

352

Simultaneous preconcentration of cadmium and lead in water samples with silica gel and determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.  

PubMed

A new method that utilizes pretreated silica gel as an adsorbent has been developed for simultaneous preconcentration of trace Cd(II) and Pb(II) prior to the measurement by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The effects of pH, the shaking time, the elution condition and the coexisting ions on the separation/preconcentration conditions of analytes were investigated. Under optimized conditions, the static adsorption capacity of Cd(II) and Pb(II) were 45.5 and 27.1mg/g, the relative standard deviations were 3.2% and 1.7% (for n = 11), and the limits of detection obtained were 4.25 and 0.60 ng/mL, respectively. The method was validated by analyzing the certified reference materials GBW 07304a (stream sediment) and successfully applied to the analysis of various treated wastewater samples with satisfactory results. PMID:25078838

Xu, Hongbo; Wu, Yun; Wang, Jian; Shang, Xuewei; Jiang, Xiaojun

2013-12-01

353

Determination of Trace Silver in Water Samples by Online Column Preconcentration Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Using Termite Digestion Product  

PubMed Central

A new method for Ag determination in water samples using solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled to a flow injection system and flame atomic absorption spectrometry was developed. The sorbent used for Ag preconcentration and extraction was the termite digestion product. Flow and chemical variables of the system were optimized through a multivariate procedure. The factors selected were adsorbent mass, buffer type and concentration, sample pH, and sample flow rate. The detection limit and precision were 3.4??g?L?1 and 3.8% (n = 6, 15??g?L?1), respectively. The enrichment factor and the linear working range were, respectively, 21 and 10–50??g?L?1. Results for recovery tests using different water samples were between 96 and 107%. The proposed methodology was applied with success for the determination of Ag in water used to wash clothes impregnated with silver nanoparticles, supplied by a factory located in Santa Catarina, Brazil. PMID:21804766

Bianchin, Joyce Nunes; Martendal, Edmar; Carasek, Eduardo

2011-01-01

354

Monitoring water stable isotope composition in soils using gas-permeable tubing and infrared laser absorption spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water stable isotopologues 1H2H16O and 1H218O are powerful tracers of processes occurring in nature. Their slightly different masses as compared to the most abundant water isotopologue (1H216O) affect their thermodynamic (e.g. during chemical equilibrium reactions or physical phase transitions with equilibration) and kinetic (liquid and vapor phases transport processes and chemical reactions without equilibration) properties. This results in measurable differences of the isotopic composition of water within or between the different terrestrial ecosystem compartments (i.e. sub-soil, soil, surface waters, plant, and atmosphere). These differences can help addressing a number of issues, among them water balance closure and flux partitioning from the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum at the field to regional scales. In soils particularly, the isotopic composition of water (?2H and ?18O) provides qualitative information about whether water has only infiltrated or already been re-evaporated since the last rainfall event or about the location of the evaporation front. From water stable isotope composition profiles measured in soils, it is also possible, under certain hypotheses, to derive quantitative information such as soil evaporation flux and the identification of root water uptake depths. In addition, water stable isotopologues have been well implemented into physically based Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer models (e.g. SiSPAT-Isotope; Soil-Litter iso; TOUGHREACT) and have demonstrated their potential. However, the main disadvantage of the isotope methodology is that, contrary to other soil state variables that can be monitored over long time periods, ?2H and ?18O are typically analyzed following destructive sampling. Here, we present a non-destructive method for monitoring soil liquid water ?2H and ?18O over a wide range of water availability conditions and temperatures by sampling and measuring water vapor equilibrated with soil water using gas-permeable polypropylene tubing and a cavity ring-down laser absorption spectrometer. By analyzing water vapor ?2H and ?18O sampled with the tubing from a fine sand for temperatures ranging between 8-24° C, we demonstrate that (i) our new method is capable of monitoring ?2H and ?18O in soils online with high precision and, after calibration, also with high accuracy, (ii) our sampling protocol enabled detecting changes of ?2H and ?18O following non-fractionating addition and removal of liquid water and water vapor of different isotopic compositions, and (iii) the time needed for the tubing to monitor these changes is compatible with the observed variations of ?2H and ?18O in soils under natural conditions.

Rothfuss, Youri; Vereecken, Harry; Brüggemann, Nicolas

2013-04-01

355

Comparison of water absorption in natural cellulosic fibres from wood and one-year crops in polypropylene composites and its influence on their mechanical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmentally beneficial composites can be made by replacing glass fibres with various types of cellulose fibres. Fibres from pine or eucalyptus wood and also one-year crops such as coir, sisal, etc. are all good candidates. The poor resistance towards water absorption is one of the drawbacks of natural fibres\\/polypropylene composites. New natural fibres\\/polypropylene composites were made and the water absorption

Ana Espert; Francisco Vilaplana; Sigbritt Karlsson

2004-01-01

356

Visible Absorption Spectrum of Chlorophyll a, b, and beta-Carotene Molecules mixed in Monolayers at a Water-Air Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN a previous communication1, visible absorption spectra of chlorophyll a or b in monolayers were compared with those taken in several organic solvents. The red and blue absorption peaks of the chlorophylls in monolayers at water-air and water-oil interfaces were found to be shifted towards longer wavelengths as compared with their solution peaks. This shift was postulated to be possibly

Germille Colmano

1962-01-01

357

Water vapour absorption in the penicillate millipede Polyxenus lagurus (Diplopoda: Penicillata: Polyxenida): microcalorimetric analysis of uptake kinetics.  

PubMed

The aberrant millipedes of the order Polyxenida are minute animals that inhabit xeric microclimates of bark and rock faces. The lichens and algae that provide their main food substrates tolerate extensive dehydration, effectively eliminating a liquid water source during periods of drought. In this study, we used microcalorimetry to test whether Polyxenus lagurus (L.) exploits active water vapour absorption (WVA) for water replenishment. Individual animals were pre-desiccated to 10-20% mass-loss and heat fluxes then monitored using a TAM 2277 microcalorimeter. The calorimetric cell was exposed to an air stream increasing progressively in humidity from 84% to 96%. WVA was distinguishable as large exothermic fluxes seen in > or = 86% RH. Owing to very small and opposing heat fluxes from metabolism and passive water loss, the measured flux provided a good measure of water uptake. WVA showed an uptake threshold of 85% RH and linear sorption kinetics until >94% RH, when uptake became asymptotic. Uptake was rapid, and would allow recovery from 20% dehydration (by mass) in little over 5 h. The uptake flux scales proportional, variant mass (0.61), suggesting an area-limited mechanism. Polyxenus possesses a cryptonephric system, analogous to that of tenebrionid beetle larvae. Measurements of water absorption and desorption from faecal pellets voided in different humidities gave an estimated rectal humidity of 85.5%. The close congruence between this value and the WVA threshold provides evidence for a cryptonephric uptake mechanism derived independently from that of tenebrionids. Polyxenus represents the first documented example of WVA in the myriapod classes. PMID:16788032

Wright, Jonathan C; Westh, Peter

2006-07-01

358

Estimation of plant water content by spectral absorption features centered at 1,450 nm and 1,940 nm regions.  

PubMed

Vegetation water content could possibly provide widespread utility in agriculture, forestry and hydrology. In this article, three species leaves were measured radiometrically in order to determine a relationship between leaf water status and the spectral feature centered at 1,450 and 1,940 nm where there are strong water absorptions. The first step of our research is to measure leaf spectra with a FieldSpec-FR. After the spectral analysis using the continuum removal technique, the spectral absorption feature parameters: absorption band depth (D (1450), D (1940)), the normalized band depth of absorption in 1,450 and 1,940 nm (BNA(1450), BNA(1940)), the ratio of the two reflectance of continuum line (R (1450i )/R (1940i )), the ratio of the two band depth (D (1450)/D (1940)) and the ratio of the two absorption areas (A (1450)/A (1940)) in the two wavebands were extracted from each leaf spectrum. The fuel moisture content (FMC), specific leaf weight (SLW), equivalent water thickness (EWT) were measured for each leaf sample. A correlation analysis was conducted between the spectral absorption feature parameters and corresponding FMC, SLW and EWT. In addition, some existing indices for assessing water status such as WI (water index), WI/NDVI (water index/normalized difference vegetation index), MSI (moisture stress index), NDWI (normalized difference water index)were calculated and the correlation between them and water status were analyzed too. The results by comparing the correlations indicated that the spectral absorption feature indices we proposed were better. The indexes BNA(1940), D (1450)/D (1940), and A (1450)/A (1940) were well correlated with FMC, and the correlation between the indexes D (1450,) D (1940), R (1450i )/R (1940i ) and EWT were strong. The index A (1450)/A (1940) was tested to be a good indictor for evaluating plant water content, because there was strongest positive correlation between it and FMC than other indices. PMID:18853268

Wang, Jie; Xu, Ruisong; Yang, Shilun

2009-10-01

359

BREATH MEASUREMENT AND MODELS TO ASSESS VOC DERMAL ABSORPTION IN WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Dermal exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water results from environmental contamination of surface, ground-, and drinking waters. This exposure occurs both in occupational and residential settings. Compartmental models incorporating body burden measurements have ...

360

Emission, absorption and group delay of microwaves in the atmosphere in relation to water vapour content over the Indian subcontinent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advent of satellite communication for global coverage has apparently indicated a renewed interest in the studies of radio wave propagation through the atmosphere, in the VHF, UHF and microwave bands. The extensive measurements of atmosphere constituents, dynamics and radio meterological parameters during the Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) have opened up further the possibilities of studying tropospheric radio wave propagation parameters, relevant to Earth/space link design. The three basic parameters of significance to radio propagation are thermal emission, absorption and group delay of the atmosphere, all of which are controlled largely by the water vapor content in the atmosphere, particular at microwave bands. As good emitters are also good absorbers, the atmospheric emission as well as the absorption attains a maximum at the frequency of 22.235 GHz, which is the peak of the water vapor line. The group delay is practically independent of frequency in the VHF, UHF and microwave bands. However, all three parameters exhibit a similar seasonal dependence originating presumably from the seasonal dependence of the water vapor content. Some of the interesting results obtained from analyses of radiosonde data over the Indian subcontinent collected by the India Meteorological Department is presented.

Sen, A. K.; Gupta, A. K. D.; Karmakar, P. K.; Barman, S. D.; Bhattacharya, A. B.; Purkait, N.; Gupta, M. K. D.; Sehra, J. S.

1985-01-01

361

Soluplus-coated colloidal silica nanomatrix system for enhanced supersaturation and oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs.  

PubMed

In this study, a Soluplus-coated colloidal silica nanomatrix (SCCSN) formulation for the entrapment of poorly water-soluble drugs was devised. The maximum supersaturation of the drug-loaded nanomatrix was higher than that of a physical mixture as indicated by the results of in vitro kinetic solubility studies. For atorvastatin calcium, dutasteride, and sorafenib tosylate, there were 2.8-, 326-, and 46.4-fold increases in solubility, respectively. For dutasteride, a promising 4.7-fold increase for in vivo oral drug absorption in the entrapped nanomatrix was observed as compared to the free physical mixture, supported by statistical significance testing of pharmacokinetic parameters. PMID:23336707

Kim, Min-Soo

2013-12-01

362

Size-resolved measurements of brown carbon and estimates of their contribution to ambient fine particle light absorption based on water and methanol extracts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light absorbing organic carbon, often termed brown carbon, has the potential to significantly contribute to the visible light absorption budget, particularly at shorter wavelengths. Currently, the relative contributions of particulate brown carbon to light absorption, as well as the sources of brown carbon are poorly understood. With this in mind field measurements were made at both urban (Atlanta), and rural (Yorkville) sites in Georgia. Measurements in Atlanta were made at both a central site and a road side site adjacent to a main highway near the city center. Fine particle brown carbon optical absorption is estimated based on Mie calculations using direct size resolved measurements of chromophores in filter extracts. Size-resolved atmospheric aerosol samples were collected using a cascade impactor and analyzed for water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), and solution light absorption spectra of water and methanol extracts. Methanol extracts were more light-absorbing than water extracts for all size ranges and wavelengths. Absorption refractive indices of the organic extracts were calculated from solution measurements for a range of wavelengths and used with Mie theory to predict the light absorption by fine particles comprised of these components, under the assumption that brown carbon and other aerosol components were externally mixed. For all three sites, chromophores were predominately in the accumulation mode with an aerodynamic mean diameter of 0.5 ?m, an optically effective size range resulting in predicted particle light absorption being a factor of 2 higher than bulk solution absorption. Fine particle absorption was also measured with a Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) and seven-wavelength Aethalometer. Scattering-corrected aethalometer and MAAP absorption were in good agreement at 670 nm and Mie-estimated absorption based on size-resolved EC data were within 30% of these optical instruments. When applied to solution measurements, at all sites, Mie-predicted brown carbon absorption at 350 nm contributed a significant fraction (20 to 40%) relative to total light absorption, with highest contributions at the rural site where organic to elemental carbon ratios were highest. Brown carbon absorption, however, was highest by the roadside site due to vehicle emissions. The multi-wavelength aethalometer did not detect brown carbon, having an absorption Ångstrom exponent near one. Although the results are within the estimated Aethalometer uncertainties, the direct measurement of brown carbon in solution definitively shows that it is present and this Mie analysis suggests it is optically important in the near UV range in both a rural and urban environment during summer when biomass burning emissions are low.

Liu, J.; Bergin, M.; Guo, H.; King, L.; Kotra, N.; Edgerton, E.; Weber, R. J.

2013-07-01

363

Vitamin Enhanced Waters and Polyphenol Rich Beverages Analyzed for Antioxidant Capacity and Antioxidants/Calorie  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to analyze polyphenol rich beverages (vitamin enhanced waters (VEWs), fruit juices and berry juices) to determine free polyphenol concentrations and free polyphenols per Calorie based on a serving size. The Folin–Ciocalteu reagent was used in a colorimetric assay based on a catechin standard. Fruit and berry juices contained, on average, more than eight-times the concentration of free polyphenols when compared to VEWs. When Calories per serving were taken into consideration, fruit and berry juices contained more than twice the free polyphenols per Calorie. PMID:22254009

Donnelly, Patrick E.; Churilla, Thomas M.; Coco, Michael G.; Vinson, Joe A.

2010-01-01

364

Water absorption of resins and composites. I. Epoxy homopolymers and copolymers  

SciTech Connect

The uptake of water by EPON 815 and DER 332 resins and by copolymers of DER 332 with di-norbornene spiro orthocarbonate was measured along with the values of the dielectric constants. It was found that the presence of a reactive diluent (butyl glycidyl ether) increased water permeation, while the presence of a monomer that expands on cure decreased permeation. The results obtained by immersion closely paralleled those obtained by exposure to 97 percent humidity. The solubility of water was not determined by Henry's law, but instead was initially determined by relative humidity to the 1.4th power; eventually, a plateau was reached. Dielectric tests indicated that water does not behave as free water. The amount of reduction in the effective dielectric constant of water was only about 55 to 77 percent, indicating that there was some clustering, rather than complete separation, of the water molecules in the polymer. 14 references.

Woo, M.; Piggott, M.R.

1987-01-01

365

“Not with the mind alone” : A critique of “Knowledge transfer between Russian and Western firms: whose absorptive capacity is in question?” by Snejina Michailova and Irina Jormanainen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to provide an invited response to the Michailova\\/Jormanainen paper (CPoIB, Vol. 7 No. 3). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The author adopts a subjective approach to respond to the Michailova\\/Jormanainen paper and challenge\\/develop further some of the authors' findings. Findings – The author: suggests that a striking capacity for improvisation applied to virtually every human activity in the

Nigel J. Holden

2011-01-01

366

WATER ABSORPTION IN GALACTIC TRANSLUCENT CLOUDS: CONDITIONS AND HISTORY OF THE GAS DERIVED FROM HERSCHEL /HIFI PRISMAS OBSERVATIONS  

SciTech Connect

We present Herschel/HIFI observations of the three ground state transitions of H{sub 2}O (556, 1669, and 1113 GHz) and H{sub 2}{sup 18}O (547, 1655, and 1101 GHz)-as well as the first few excited transitions of H{sub 2}O (987, 752, and 1661 GHz)-toward six high-mass star-forming regions, obtained as part of the PRISMAS (PRobing InterStellar Molecules with Absorption line Studies) Guaranteed Time Key Program. Water vapor associated with the translucent clouds in Galactic arms is detected in absorption along every line of sight in all the ground state transitions. The continuum sources all exhibit broad water features in emission in the excited and ground state transitions. Strong absorption features associated with the source are also observed at all frequencies except 752 GHz. We model the background continuum and line emission to infer the optical depth of each translucent cloud along the lines of sight. We derive the column density of H{sub 2}O or H{sub 2}{sup 18}O for the lower energy level of each transition observed. The total column density of water in translucent clouds is usually about a few 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}. We find that the abundance of water relative to hydrogen nuclei is 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} in agreement with models for oxygen chemistry in which high cosmic ray ionization rates are assumed. Relative to molecular hydrogen, the abundance of water is remarkably constant through the Galactic plane with X(H{sub 2}O) =5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}, which makes water a good traced of H{sub 2} in translucent clouds. Observations of the excited transitions of H{sub 2}O enable us to constrain the abundance of water in excited levels to be at most 15%, implying that the excitation temperature, T {sub ex}, in the ground state transitions is below 10 K. Further analysis of the column densities derived from the two ortho ground state transitions indicates that T {sub ex} {approx_equal} 5 K and that the density n(H{sub 2}) in the translucent clouds is below 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}. We derive the water ortho-to-para ratio for each absorption feature along the line of sight and find that most of the clouds show ratios consistent with the value of 3 expected in thermodynamic equilibrium in the high-temperature limit. However, two clouds with large column densities exhibit a ratio that is significantly below 3. This may argue that the history of water molecules includes a cold phase, either when the molecules were formed on cold grains in the well-shielded, low-temperature regions of the clouds, or when they later become at least partially thermalized with the cold gas ({approx}25 K) in those regions; evidently, they have not yet fully thermalized with the warmer ({approx}50 K) translucent portions of the clouds.

Flagey, N.; Goldsmith, P. F. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)] [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Lis, D. C.; Monje, R.; Phillips, T. G. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)] [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gerin, M.; De Luca, M.; Godard, B. [LERMA, UMR 8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, Ecole Normale Superieure, UPMC and UCP (France)] [LERMA, UMR 8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, Ecole Normale Superieure, UPMC and UCP (France); Neufeld, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins Univ. 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins Univ. 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sonnentrucker, P. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)] [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Goicoechea, J. R., E-mail: nflagey@jpl.nasa.gov [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain)

2013-01-01

367

Mercury(II) and methyl mercury determinations in water and fish samples by using solid phase extraction and cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry combination.  

PubMed

A method has been developed for mercury(II) and methyl mercury speciation on Staphylococcus aureus loaded Dowex Optipore V-493 micro-column in the presented work, by using cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry. Selective and sequential elution with 0.1 molL(-1) HCl for methyl mercury and 2 molL(-1) HCl for mercury(II) were performed at the pH range of 2-6. Optimal analytical conditions including pH, amounts of biosorbent, sample volumes were investigated. The detection limits of the analytes were 2.5 ngL(-1) for Hg(II) and 1.7 ngL(-1) for methyl mercury. The capacity of biosorbent for mercury(II) and methyl mercury was 6.5 and 5.4 mgg(-1), respectively. The validation of the presented procedure is performed by the analysis of standard reference material. The speciation procedure established was successfully applied to the speciation of mercury(II) and methyl mercury in natural water and microwave digested fish samples. PMID:19394391

Tuzen, Mustafa; Karaman, Isa; Citak, Demirhan; Soylak, Mustafa

2009-07-01

368

Building Capacity to Integrate NASA Earth Science into Water Resources Management Applications in the Context of a Changing Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Applied Sciences program provides technical capacity building activities to enable decision-makers to integrate NASA Earth Science into environmental management activities. This includes workshops tailored to end-user needs by working directly with agencies to 1) identify environmental management activities that could benefit from NASA Earth Science and 2) conducting workshops that teach the NASA products and decision-support tools best suited to the identified application area. Building on a successful 3-year effort on air pollution monitoring for environmental applications, the project has expanded into water resources. Climate Change has dramatically increased demand for observational and predictive data in support of decision making activities related to water supply and demand. However, a gap remains between NASA products and applied research and the entities who stand to benefit from their utilization. To fill this gap, the project has developed short courses on 1) impacts of climate change on water resources 2) hands-on exercises on access and interpretation of NASA imagery relevant to water resources management via the use of decision-support web tools and software and 3) case studies on the application of NASA products in the field. The program is currently focused on two areas 1) precipitation products over the central and southern U.S. that help communities and agencies improve flooding forecasts and 2) snow and snow/water equivalent products over the western U.S and Latin America that can provide end-users with improved stream flow prediction in Spring within a framework of decreasing snow availability.

Prados, A. I.; Mehta, A. V.

2011-12-01

369

Isolation, identification and antioxidative capacity of water-soluble phenylpropanoid compounds from Rhodiola crenulata.  

PubMed

Six water-soluble phenylpropanoid compounds obtained from Rhodiola crenulata (R. crenulata) were fractionated by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC), and purified by semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (Semi-prep HPLC). The purities of the six compounds were all above 98.0% and their structures were identified by spectroscopic methods. Among them, a new compound, 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-ethyl-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-6-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (1), together with two known phenylpropanoids, p-hydroxyphenacyl-?-D-glucopyranoside (3) and picein (4) were isolated from R. crenulata for the first time. Meanwhile, the contents of six isolated ingredients from the crude extract of R. crenulata had been simultaneously detected, with satisfactory results. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of the six compounds were accessed by measuring the radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH), and four compounds exhibited potent antioxidative activity. PMID:23442665

Chen, Danjun; Fan, Junting; Wang, Peng; Zhu, Lanying; Jin, Yang; Peng, Yan; Du, Shuhu

2012-10-15

370

Pegylated zinc protoporphyrin: a water-soluble heme oxygenase inhibitor with tumor-targeting capacity.  

PubMed

Heme oxygenase (HO) is a key enzyme in heme metabolism; it oxidatively degrades heme to biliverdin, accompanied by formation of free iron and carbon monoxide. Biliverdin is subsequently reduced by cytosolic biliverdin reductase to form bilirubin, a potent antioxidant. We recently found that tumor cells utilize HO to protect themselves from oxidative stress by producing the antioxidant bilirubin. This result suggested an important potential therapeutic strategy: suppression of bilirubin production with the use of HO inhibitors; hence, cancer cells become vulnerable to oxidative stress induced by anticancer drugs or leukocytes of the host. This concept was validated by using the intraarterial administration of an HO inhibitor, zinc protoporphyrin, in nonphysiological solution. In the present study, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) was conjugated with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with molecular weight of 5000, to make ZnPP, a water-soluble compound (PEG-ZnPP), and to improve its tumor-targeting efficiency. PEG was conjugated to ZnPP through newly introduced amino groups, where ethylenediamine residues were added at C6 and C7 of protoporphyrin. The divalent zinc cation was chelated into the protoporphyrin ring to obtain PEG-ZnPP. PEG-ZnPP did become highly water-soluble, and it formed multimolecular associations with molecules larger than 70 kDa in aqueous media. PEG-ZnPP inhibited splenic microsomal HO activity in vitro in a competitive manner in the presence of hemin, with an apparent inhibitory constant of 0.12 microM. Most important, PEG-ZnPP injected intravenously significantly suppressed intratumor HO activity in a murine solid tumor model, which suggests that tumor-targeted inhibition of HO is possible with the use of PEG-ZnPP. PMID:12236785

Sahoo, S K; Sawa, T; Fang, J; Tanaka, S; Miyamoto, Y; Akaike, T; Maeda, H

2002-01-01

371

Method and apparatus for simulating atomospheric absorption of solar energy due to water vapor and CO.sub.2  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for improving the accuracy of the simulation of sunlight reaching the earth's surface includes a relatively small heated chamber having an optical inlet and an optical outlet, the chamber having a cavity that can be filled with a heated stream of CO.sub.2 and water vapor. A simulated beam comprising infrared and near infrared light can be directed through the chamber cavity containing the CO.sub.2 and water vapor, whereby the spectral characteristics of the beam are altered so that the output beam from the chamber contains wavelength bands that accurately replicate atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to atmospheric CO.sub.2 and moisture.

Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

1995-01-01

372

Method and apparatus for simulating atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to water vapor and CO{sub 2}  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for improving the accuracy of the simulation of sunlight reaching the earth`s surface includes a relatively small heated chamber having an optical inlet and an optical outlet, the chamber having a cavity that can be filled with a heated stream of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. A simulated beam comprising infrared and near infrared light can be directed through the chamber cavity containing the CO{sub 2} and water vapor, whereby the spectral characteristics of the beam are altered so that the output beam from the chamber contains wavelength bands that accurately replicate atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to atmospheric CO{sub 2} and moisture. 8 figs.

Sopori, B.L.

1995-06-20

373

Postrigor tumble marination strategies for improving color and water-holding capacity in normal and pale broiler breast fillets.  

PubMed

Pale or pale, soft, and exudative-like meat can be caused by a decline in pH early postmortem while carcass temperatures are still high. This decrease in pH leads to protein denaturation, attributing to the pale color and poor water-holding capacity that is characteristic of this lesser quality meat. Marination with NaCl and phosphates has been shown to improve protein functionality, thereby reducing lost meat yield and improving meat quality. However, there are few studies relating marination with phosphates to improvements in pale meat. Therefore, the purpose of this experiment was to determine if meat quality improvements could be obtained in pale meat via marination with various phosphate and NaCl treatments without altering the quality and stability of normal or pale meat. The treatments used in this study were 1) sodium tripolyphosphate, an industry control; 2) a high pH phosphate (11.9); 3) a sodium tripolyphosphate and high pH mixture; 4) an agglomerated phosphate; and 5) a nonagglomerated phosphate. The marinades used in this study increased the pH, decreased the L* values of the pale fillets, and improved water-holding capacity. There were no significant differences in overall flavor preference for any of the 5 phosphate treatments. There was also no difference in oxidation or shelf-life trends in either the pale or normal fillets marinated with each of the 5 treatments. The results of this study were that marination with phosphates can be used to marinate pale meat without altering flavor, increasing the development of oxidation, or reducing shelf life. PMID:20371853

Gorsuch, V; Alvarado, C Z

2010-05-01

374

Evaluation of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for in-process water vapor mass flux measurements during freeze drying.  

PubMed

The goal of this work was to demonstrate the use of Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) as a noninvasive method to continuously measure the water vapor concentration and the vapor flow velocity in the spool connecting a freeze-dryer chamber and condenser. The instantaneous measurements were used to determine the water vapor mass flow rate (g/s). The mass flow determinations provided a continuous measurement of the total amount of water removed. Full load runs of pure water at different pressure and shelf temperature settings and a 5% (w/w) mannitol product run were performed in both laboratory and pilot scale freeze dryers. The ratio of "gravimetric/TDLAS" measurements of water removed was 1.02 +/- 0.06. A theoretical heat transfer model was used to predict the mass flow rate and the model results were compared to both the gravimetric and TDLAS data. Good agreement was also observed in the "gravimetric/TDLAS" ratio for the 5% mannitol runs dried in both freeze dryers. The endpoints of primary and secondary drying for the product runs were clearly identified. Comparison of the velocity and mass flux profiles between the laboratory and pilot dryers indicated a higher restriction to mass flow for the lab scale freeze dryer. PMID:17221854

Gieseler, Henning; Kessler, William J; Finson, Michael; Davis, Steven J; Mulhall, Phillip A; Bons, Vincent; Debo, David J; Pikal, Michael J

2007-07-01

375

Water Absorption of Jute/Polylactic Acid Composite Intended for an Interior Application and Comparison with Wood-Based Panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jute/polylactic acid (PLA) composite is of special interest because it is entirely from renewable resources with high mechanical properties. Thus, it could be a more eco-friendly alternative to the conventional wood-based panels made of formaldehyde resin which is asserted to be carcinogenic. Yet the water affinity of the natural fibres and susceptibility of polylactic acid towards hydrolysis raise a question about the water resistance of such composites in service condition. In this work, the water absorption behaviour of jute/PLA composites, jute/maleated polypropylene was investigated with regard to interior applications following the standard test method in accordance to ISO 16983:2003 `Wood-based panels—determination of swelling in thickness after immersion in water' and compared to standard of wood-based panels. Untreated and treated jute/PLA composites exhibited a superior water resistance property compared to particleboard, MDF and hardboard and they are by far, below the minimum requirement of the ISO standard 16983.

Zandvliet, C.; Bandyopadhyay, N. R.; Ray, D.

2014-04-01

376

Efficient tissue ablation using a laser tunable in the water absorption band at 3 microns with little collateral damage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lasers can significantly advance medical diagnostics and treatment. At high power, they are typically used as cutting tools during surgery. For lasers that are used as knifes, radiation wavelengths in the far ultraviolet and in the near infrared spectral regions are favored because tissue has high contents of collagen and water. Collagen has an absorption peak around 190 nm, while water is in the near infrared around 3,000 nm. Changing the wavelength across the absorption peak will result in significant differences in laser tissue interactions. Tunable lasers in the infrared that could optimize the laser tissue interaction for ablation and/or coagulation are not available until now besides the Free Electron Laser (FEL). Here we demonstrate efficient tissue ablation using a table-top mid-IR laser tunable between 3,000 to 3,500 nm. A detailed study of the ablation has been conducted in different tissues. Little collateral thermal damage has been found at a distance above 10-20 microns from the ablated surface. Furthermore, little mechanical damage could be seen in conventional histology and by examination of birefringent activity of the samples using a pair of cross polarizing filters.

Nierlich, Alexandra; Chuchumishev, Danail; Nagel, Elizabeth; Marinova, Kristiana; Philipov, Stanislav; Fiebig, Torsten; Buchvarov, Ivan; Richter, Claus-Peter

2014-03-01

377

Metal-and hydrogen-bonding competition during water absorption on Pd(111) and Ru(0001)  

SciTech Connect

The initial stages of water adsorption on the Pd(111) and Ru(0001) surfaces have been investigated experimentally by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy in the temperature range between 40 K and 130 K, and theoretically with Density Functional Theory (DFT) total energy calculations and STM image simulations. Below 125 K water dissociation does not occur at any appreciable rate and only molecular films are formed. Film growth starts by the formation of flat hexamer clusters where the molecules bind to the metal substrate through the O-lone pair while making H-bonds with neighboring molecules. As coverage increases, larger networks of linked hexagons are formed with a honeycomb structure, which requires a fraction of the water molecules to have their molecular plane perpendicular to the metal surface with reduced water-metal interaction. Energy minimization favors the growth of networks with limited width. As additional water molecules adsorb on the surface they attach to the periphery of existing islands, where they interact only weakly with the metal substrate. These molecules hop along the periphery of the clusters at intermediate temperatures. At higher temperatures they bind to the metal to continue the honeycomb growth. The water-Ru interaction is significantly stronger than the water-Pd interaction, which is consistent with the greater degree of hydrogen-bonded network formation and reduced water-metal bonding observed on Pd relative to Ru.

Tatarkhanov, Mouslim; Ogletree, D. Frank; Rose, Franck; Mitsui, Toshiyuki; Fomin, Evgeny; Rose, Mark; Cerda, Jorge I.; Salmeron, Miquel

2009-09-03

378

Water absorption of resins and composites. I. Epoxy homopolymers and copolymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uptake of water by EPON 815 and DER 332 resins and by copolymers of DER 332 with di-norbornene spiro orthocarbonate was measured along with the values of the dielectric constants. It was found that the presence of a reactive diluent (butyl glycidyl ether) increased water permeation, while the presence of a monomer that expands on cure decreased permeation. The

M. Woo; M. R. Piggott; SS Wang; WS Johnson; WW Stinchcomb; NJ Pagano

1987-01-01

379

Borehole geophysical methods for analyzing specific capacity of multiaquifer wells : ground-water hydraulics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conventional well-logging techniques, combined with measurements of flow velocity in the borehole, can provide information on the discharge-drawdown characteriBtic8 of the several aquifers penetrated by a well. The information is most conveniently presented in a graph showing aquifer discharges as functions of the water level in the well at a particular time. To determine the discharge-drawdown characteristics, a well is pumped at a steady rate for a certain length of time. While the well is being pumped, measurements are made of drawdown and of the discharge rates of the individual aquifers within the well. Discharge rates and drawdowns ,are usually recorded as functions of time, and their values for any given time during the test are obtained by interpolation. The procedure is repeated for several different rates of total well discharge. The well may be allowed to recover after each step, or discharge may be changed from one rate to another, and changes in discharge and drawdown may be measured by extrapolation. The flow measurements within the well may be made by use of a subsurface flowmeter or by one of several techniques involving the injection of electrolytic or radioactive tracers. The method was tested on a well in Mercer County, Pa., and provided much useful information on aquifer yields, 'thieving,' and hydrostatic heads of the individual zones.

Bennett, Gordon D.; Patten, Eugene P., Jr.

1960-01-01

380

Development of Absorption Heat Pump Driven by Low Temperature Hot Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed an Adsorption Heat Pump (AHP) system, which applies silica-gel as adsorbent and H2O as refrigerant, and is possibly intended to use low temperature hot water (333K) as a driving force. The growing importance to save energy, leads us to develop energy saving systems such as Co-generation systems, including fuel cell system. It is important to use low temperature hot water in order to achieve high efficiency in total. It is, however, noticed that the lower water temperature is, the more difficult its' heat recovery becomes. We reported experimental results of the AHP system, and estimated the possibility to apply low temperature hot water from fuel cell system to the AHP system. We showed quantitatively that the AHP system is able to be driven by low temperature hot water(333K).

Hoshida, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Naoto; Asai, Hiroshi; Hasatani, Masanobu; Watanabe, Fujio; Fujisawa, Ryou

381

Using GPR and Soil EC to Identify Spatial Variability of Water Holding Capacity for Precision Irrigation Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Applying the appropriate amount of irrigation water is an especially critical part of irrigation management because both under and over irrigation can lead to reduced crop yield and loss of financial profit. Irrigation water soaks into and is stored in the soil moisture profile; the degree to which a soil can hold that moisture in the profile and prevent deep percolation is known as its water holding capacity (WHC). Because crops rely on the use of the water stored within the soil moisture profile, the WHC of the soil greatly influences the amount of applied irrigation water (AIW) required to optimize crop yield and resource management. Soil texture, which is a primary control of WHC, is known to vary spatially in many areas of agricultural production. Optimization of irrigation water use requires areas of different WHC to be irrigated differently; however, areas of differing WHC must be accurately identified for precision irrigation to be effective. Two methods were used on a research site known to contain soil texture variability to generate a geo-referenced map of soil texture differences in order to account for spatial WHC variability and optimize AIW. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) was used in conjunction with GPS and GIS systems to map the water content change found at the soil texture interfaces in the field. The second method was to produce a geo-referenced map of soil electrical conductivity (EC) using a Veris EC implement with similar GPS and GIS systems. The soil EC map is strongly related to soil texture and WHC under the consistent pH conditions that exist on the research site. The GPR and EC maps were then used to guide plot placement to block on soil WHC variation for a deficit irrigation study on upland cotton. The lint yield results from the irrigation study will provide insight into the effectiveness of the irrigation management zones identified by the two mapping methods. Lastly, soil cores will be taken from key areas identified in the GPR and EC results to ground-truth the readings and compare the accuracy of each mapping method.

Duncan, H. A.; Leib, B.

2011-12-01

382

A comparison of growth, photosynthetic capacity and water stress in Eucalyptus globulus coppice regrowth and seedlings during early development.  

PubMed

Eucalyptus globulus Labill., a globally significant plantation species, is grown commercially in a multiple rotation framework. Second and subsequent crops of E. globulus may be established either by allowing the cut stumps to resprout (commonly referred to as coppice) or by replanting a new crop of seedlings. Currently, long-term growth data comparing coppice and seedling productivity in second or later rotations in southern Australia is limited. The capacity to predict productivity using these tools is dependent on an understanding of the physiology of seedlings and coppice in response to light, water and nutrient supply. In this study, we compared the intrinsic (independent of the immediate environment) and native (dependent on the immediate environment) physiology of E. globulus coppice and second-generation seedlings during their early development in the field. Coppice not only grew more rapidly, but also used more water and drew on stored soil water to a depth of at least 4.5 m during the first 2 years of growth, whereas the seedlings only accessed the top 0.9 m of the soil profile. During the same period, there was no significant difference between coppice and seedlings in either their stomatal response to leaf-to-air vapour pressure difference (D) or intrinsic water-use efficiency; CO(2)- and light-saturated rates of photosynthesis were greater in seedlings than that in coppice as were the quantum yield of photosynthesis and total leaf chlorophyll content. Thus, at a leaf scale, seedlings are potentially more productive per unit leaf area than coppice during early development, but this is not realised under ambient conditions. The underlying cause of this inherent difference is discussed in the context of the allocation of resources to above- and below-ground organs during early development. PMID:19324701

Drake, Paul L; Mendham, Daniel S; White, Don A; Ogden, Gary N

2009-05-01

383

Effect of arsenic absorption on the water-refilling speed of Pteris cretica.  

PubMed

Heavy metals are largely responsible for soil and water pollution. Recently, phytoremediation is receiving a large attention as a plant-based technology for removing metals from contaminated soil and water in an environment-friendly and cost-effective way. In such context, some species of ferns such as Pteris cretica were found to be a hyper-accumulator of arsenic (As). In this study, we first explored the validity of measuring the water-refilling process in xylem vessels of Pteris cretica using the synchrotron X-ray microimaging technique. Then we investigated the effects of arsenic concentration on the water-refilling speed inside the xylem vessel. The methodology to measure the water-refilling speed was consistent within five repetitions and 3 hours after the stem sample was cut from the plant. The water-refilling speed in the xylem vessels of the Pteris grown in arsenic solution was faster than that in normal water. Arsenic concentration of 0-1,000 ?M was tested and the maximum speed was obtained at 500 ?M. Conclusively, the experimental methodology developed in this study allowed to obtain some interesting results for understanding how arsenic affect the xylem sap flow transport and the mechanism by which growth is enhanced in the presence of heavy metal. PMID:20936675

Lee, Sang Joon; Lee, Jin Pyung

2011-06-01

384

Size-resolved measurements of brown carbon in water and methanol extracts and estimates of their contribution to ambient fine-particle light absorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light absorbing organic carbon, often called brown carbon, has the potential to significantly contribute to the visible light-absorption budget, particularly at shorter wavelengths. Currently, the relative contributions of particulate brown carbon to light absorption, as well as the sources of brown carbon, are poorly understood. With this in mind size-resolved direct measurements of brown carbon were made at both urban (Atlanta), and rural (Yorkville) sites in Georgia. Measurements in Atlanta were made at both a representative urban site and a road-side site adjacent to a main highway. Fine particle absorption was measured with a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP) and seven-wavelength Aethalometer, and brown carbon absorption was estimated based on Mie calculations using direct size-resolved measurements of chromophores in solvents. Size-resolved samples were collected using a cascade impactor and analyzed for water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), and solution light-absorption spectra of water and methanol extracts. Methanol extracts were more light-absorbing than water extracts for all size ranges and wavelengths. Absorption refractive indices of the organic extracts were calculated from solution measurements for a range of wavelengths and used with Mie theory to predict the light absorption by fine particles comprised of these components, under the assumption that brown carbon and other aerosol components were externally mixed. For all three sites, chromophores were predominately in the accumulation mode with an aerodynamic mean diameter of 0.5 ?m, an optically effective size range resulting in predicted particle light absorption being a factor of 2 higher than bulk solution absorption. Mie-predicted brown carbon absorption at 350 nm contributed a significant fraction (20 to 40%) relative to total light absorption, with the highest contributions at the rural site where organic to elemental carbon ratios were highest. Brown carbon absorption, however, was highest by the roadside site due to vehicle emissions. The direct size-resolved measurement of brown carbon in solution definitively shows that it is present and optically important in the near-UV range in both a rural and urban environment during the summer when biomass burning emissions are low. These results allow estimates of brown carbon aerosol absorption from direct measurements of chromophores in aerosol extracts.

Liu, J.; Bergin, M.; Guo, H.; King, L.; Kotra, N.; Edgerton, E.; Weber, R. J.

2013-12-01

385

Design of Advanced Atmospheric Water Vapor Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) Detection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The measurement of atmospheric water vapor is very important for understanding the Earth's climate and water cycle. The lidar atmospheric sensing experiment (LASE) is an instrument designed and operated by the Langley Research Center for high precision water vapor measurements. The design details of a new water vapor lidar detection system that improves the measurement sensitivity of the LASE instrument by a factor of 10 are discussed. The new system consists of an advanced, very low noise, avalanche photodiode (APD) and a state-of-the-art signal processing circuit. The new low-power system is also compact and lightweight so that it would be suitable for space flight and unpiloted atmospheric vehicles (UAV) applications. The whole system is contained on one small printed circuit board (9 x 15 sq cm). The detection system is mounted at the focal plane of a lidar receiver telescope, and the digital output is read by a personal computer with a digital data acquisition card.

Refaat, Tamer F.; Luck, William S., Jr.; DeYoung, Russell J.

1999-01-01

386

Intestinal Absorption of Water-soluble Vitamins in Rainbow Trout ( Onchorhynchus mykiss)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intestinal uptake of water-soluble vitamins, nicotinamide, riboflavin, biotin and folic acid, was studied in isolated everted intestinal sleeves of the cold-water teleost rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss). The presence of a carrier-mediated transport mechanism was determined by competitive inhibition and by Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The uptake of riboflavin, biotin or folic acid was not only subject to competitive inhibition but also

Donatella M. Casirola; Ronaldo P. Ferraris

1997-01-01

387

Effect of O3 on Hydraulic Architecture in Pima Cotton (Biomass Allocation and Water Transport Capacity of Roots and Shoots)  

PubMed Central

Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense L. cv S-6) exhibits foliar injury and yield reduction at ambient concentrations of O3. We tested the hypotheses that O3 reduces the allocation of biomass to the root system, and that this disrupted carbohydrate allocation impairs root hydraulic capacity relative to transpiring leaf area. Both hypotheses are supported, even though leaf area development is itself reduced by O3. Seedlings were grown in pots in greenhouse fumigation chambers and exposed from planting to sinusoidal O3 profiles with peak concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 [mu]L-1 (12-h averages of 0, 0.037, 0.074, and 0.111 [mu]L L-1). At 8 weeks after planting, stem basal diameter, leaf area, and total plant dry weight decreased by 61, 83, and 88%, whereas root/shoot dry weight ratio declined from 0.16 to 0.09 g/g. Hydraulic conductance decreased per plant by 85%, and per unit leaf area by 35%. Conductance of all organs declined per plant, but only root conductance declined per leaf area by 41%. Root resistance increased from 69 to 82% of whole plant resistance, a functional consequence of reduced carbon allocation to roots. Stomatal conductance declined with root hydraulic conductance, protecting short-term leaf water status. Reduced root hydraulic efficiency may mediate O3 injury to whole plants by reducing shoot gas exchange and biomass productivity through the inhibition of water and nutrient acquisition.

Grantz, D. A.; Yang, S.

1996-01-01

388

Development of High-speed Water Vapor Absorption Thermometry in Harsh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work aimed to improve near IR, direct absorption spectroscopy measurements of H2O vapor for thermometry purposes by focusing on spectroscopic light source systems and post-processing techniques. A survey was conducted of available near IR spectroscopic light source systems, and the 2-VCSEL system was chosen as the focus of this research. The 2-VCSEL system developed and constructed utilizes two, time-division multiplexed, injection-current tuned, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) to measure high-resolution spectra at a rate of 10 kHz. Post-processing techniques were improved by developing a method to simultaneously fit baseline, temperature, and broadening variables when comparing measured spectra to simulated database spectra. This new post-processing also improved the consistency of output temperature data thereby enabling a study of the sources of error in H2O vapor absorption temperature measurements. Two of the largest sources of temperature error discussed are inaccuracies in the H2O line list database (e.g., line positions, linestrengths, and lower state energies), and inaccurate broadening models. A method for minimizing temperature error due to broadening inaccuracies is presented and tested. The 2-VCSEL system was used to take experimental data in a constant volume combustion chamber and in a single-cylinder research engine. The data was analyzed using the post-processing techniques and broadening models developed in this research in order to determine line-of-sight average temperature. The measured spectra were matched to database simulations with low residuals, and good agreement was found between optically measured and theoretically predicted temperatures.

Whitney, Jean M.

389

Development of Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Tomography for Determination of Spatially Resolved Distributions of Water Vapor Temperature and Concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical diagnostic techniques used in high speed, high enthalpy flows, such as in a supersonic ramjet (scramjet) combustor, allow direct measurement of temperature and species concentration. Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) is a common laser based measurement technique for measuring temperature and species concentration in harsh environments such as chemically reacting flows. TDLAS is a one-dimensional, path integrated measurement that provides average values of the measured quantities and can be affected by gradients in the measurement space. By combining TDLAS with tomographic image reconstruction a two-dimensional spatially resolved distribution can be obtained. This technique is called Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Tomography. TDLAT has been developed for the purpose of making temperature and species concentration measurements on the supersonic combustion facility at the Aerospace Research Laboratory. TDLAT has been developed for the purpose of making two-dimensional measurements of water vapor concentration, which when combined with Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry can be used to calculate supersonic combustion efficiency of a scramjet combustor. This measurement system has been used in measurements of a flat flame burner from which two-dimensional distributions of temperature and water vapor concentration have been calculated. The calculated temperatures were then compared to measurements made on the same flat flame burner. Reconstructions of temperature and concentration show the structure of the flat flame burner, resolving regions of ambient room air, nitrogen co-flow, mixing layer and hot burner core. The TDLAT system was then installed on the supersonic combustion facility, where measurements were made for a known mole fraction of steam injected into the free stream. The TDLAT system was then used to measure water vapor concentration and temperature for clean-air combustion for an equivalence ratio of 0.17. The resulting values were then used to calculate supersonic combustion efficiency of the scramjet combustor.

Bryner, Elliott

390

Assessment of water ecological carrying capacity under the two policies in Tieling City on the basis of the integrated system dynamics model.  

PubMed

Considering the limitation of the traditional method to assess the ecological carrying capacity and the complexity of the water ecological system, we used system dynamics, ANN, and CA-Markov to model a water ecological system. The social component was modeled according to Granger causality test by system dynamics. The natural component consists of the water resource and water environmental capacity, which were forecasted through the prediction of precipitation and change in land use cover. The interaction of the social component and the natural component mainly reflected environmental policies, such as the imposition of an environmental fee and environmental tax based on their values. Simulation results showed the different assessments on water ecological carrying capacity under the two policies. The population grew (2.9 million), and less pollution (86,632.37 t COD and 2854.5 t NH4N) was observed with the imposition of environmental tax compared with the imposition of an environmental fee (2.85 million population, 10,8381 t COD and 3543 t NH4N) at the same GDP level of 585 billion CNY in 2030. According to the causality loop, we discussed the different states under the policies and the reasons that caused the differences in water ecological carrying capacity state. According to game theory, we explained the limitation of the environmental fee policy on the basis of marginal benefit and cost. The externality was cleared up by the environmental tax policy. PMID:24361570

Wang, Shuo; Xu, Ling; Yang, Fenglin; Wang, He

2014-02-15

391

Elevated plasma osmotic concentration stimulates water absorption response in a toad.  

PubMed

The water-seeking behavior (WR) of toads (Bufo viridis) was investigated. Fully hydrated toads that are allowed free choice of wet or dry filter paper voluntarily and spontaneously select to sit on water-soaked paper at a regular frequency during trials. Dehydration of bladder-emptied toads by 14% elicits WR in all animals. Injection of aldosterone or angiotensin-I reduced the dehydration threshold to 7% weight loss. WR frequency increased when plasma osmolality was elevated by injection of NaCl or other solutes (both ionic and non-ionic). Only urea, to which cell membranes are highly permeable, was the exception that did not produce this response. The increase in WR frequency induced by elevated plasma osmolality was augmented by injection of aldosterone or angiotensin-I. In vivo water uptake, measured in a water bath, was increased by an NaCl or oxytocin injection, but not by aldosterone. It is concluded that elevated plasma osmolality induces an increase in WR frequency that is separate and prior to the water uptake process. Different hormones are involved in each step. PMID:10404645

Hoffman, J; Katz, U

1999-07-01

392

High-accuracy measurement of low-water-content in liquid using NIR spectral absorption method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water content measurement technologies are very important for quality inspection of food, medicine products, chemical products and many other industry fields. In recent years, requests for accurate low-water-content measurement in liquid are more and more exigent, and great interests have been shown from the research and experimental work. With the development and advancement of modern production and control technologies, more accurate water content technology is needed. In this paper, a novel experimental setup based on near-infrared (NIR) spectral technology and fiber-optic sensor (OFS) is presented. It has a good measurement accuracy about -/+ 0.01%, which is better, to our knowledge, than most other methods published until now. It has a high measurement resolution of 0.001% in the measurement range from zero to 0.05% for water-in-alcohol measurement, and the water-in-oil measurement is carried out as well. In addition, the advantages of this method also include pollution-free to the measured liquid, fast measurement and so on.

Peng, Bao-Jin; Wan, Xu; Jin, Hong-Zhen; Zhao, Yong; Mao, He-Fa

2005-01-01

393

Heavy metal mobility in runoff water and absorption by eggplant fruits from sludge treated soil.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge addition to agricultural lands requires judicious management to avoid environmental risks arising from heavy metal and nitrate contamination of surface water and accumulation in edible plants. A field study was conducted on a silty-loam soil of 10% slope at Kentucky State University Research Farm. Eighteen plots of 22 x 3.7 m each were separated using metal borders and the soil in six plots was mixed with sewage sludge and yard waste compost mix (SS-YW) at 15 t acre(-1), six plots were mixed with sewage sludge (SS) at 15 t acre(-1), and six unamended plots that never received sludge were used for comparison purposes. Plots were planted with eggplant, Solanum melongena L. as the test plant. The objectives of this investigation were to: 1) assess the effect of soil amendments on the transport of NO3, NH4, and heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Mo) into surface water; 2) investigate the effect of soil amendments on heavy metal bioavailability in eggplant fruits at harvest; and 3) assess chemical and physical properties of soil following addition of soil amendments and their impact on the yield and quality of eggplant fruit. SS-YW treatments reduced runoff water by 63% while plots incorporated with sewage sludge alone reduced runoff water by 37% compared to control treatment. The SS-YW treatments transported more mineral nitrogen (NO3-N and NH4-N) in runoff water than SS treatments. Total marketable yield (lbs acre(-1)) and number of eggplant fruits were greatest in SS-YW treatments. This response may be due to improved soil porosity, water, and nutrient retention of the soil amended with SS-YW mixture. Concentrations of heavy metals in soil amended with sludge were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) limits. Chromium, Ni, Zn, and Cu were taken up by eggplant fruits but their concentrations were below the Codex Commission allowable levels. PMID:18665990

Antonious, George F; Turley, Eric T; Sikora, Frank; Snyder, John C

2008-08-01

394

Root functioning in tropical high-elevation forests: Environmental vs. biological control of root water absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lowered temperatures may reduce the root water uptake of tropical trees at high elevations through several mechanisms; however, field studies to test their relevance are lacking. We measured sap flux density (J) in small-diameter tree roots across a 2000-m elevation transect in a tropical mountain forest for quantifying the effects of temperature (Ta), VPD and soil moisture (?) on root

Sophie Graefe; Christoph Leuschner; Heinz Coners; Dietrich Hertel

2011-01-01

395

Hybrid absorption heat pump with ammonia\\/water mixture – Some design guidelines and district heating application  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ammonia\\/water mixture can be used as an efficient working fluid in industrial-type heat recovery heat pumps and heat transformers. Several configurations of such systems are possible depending on the availability of the waste (thermal) and primary (thermal or electrical) energy sources. This article presents the configurations, the main thermodynamic and hydraulic parameters, and some design guidelines and operating experiences

V. Minea; F. Chiriac

2006-01-01

396

Total absorption and photoionization cross sections of water vapor between 100 and 1000 A  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Absolute photoabsorption and photoionization cross sections of water vapor are reported at a large number of discrete wavelengths between 100 and 1000 A with an estimate error of + or - 3 percent in regions free from any discrete structure. The double ionization chamber technique utilized is described. Recent calculations are shown to be in reasonable agreement with the present data.

Haddad, G. N.; Samson, J. A. R.

1986-01-01

397

Surface relaxation in liquid water and methanol studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy  

E-print Network

in surface tension of these liquids. This result is consistent with surface vibrational spectroscopy, which of surface tension, but quanti- tative experimental measurements of liquid surface structure have been not be readily obtained for the surfaces of these liquids. The surface tension of liquid water is large 75 erg

Cohen, Ronald C.

398

Estimation of plant water content by spectral absorption features centered at 1,450 nm and 1,940 nm regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation water content could possibly provide widespread utility in agriculture, forestry and hydrology. In this article,\\u000a three species leaves were measured radiometrically in order to determine a relationship between leaf water status and the\\u000a spectral feature centered at 1,450 and 1,940 nm where there are strong water absorptions. The first step of our research is\\u000a to measure leaf spectra with a

Jie Wang; Ruisong Xu; Shilun Yang

2009-01-01

399

Systematic trend of water vapour absorption in red giant atmospheres revealed by high resolution TEXES 12 micron spectra  

E-print Network

The structures of the outer atmospheres of red giants are very complex. The notion of large optically thick molecular spheres around the stars (MOLspheres) has been invoked in order to explain e.g. spectro-interferometric observations. However, high-resolution spectra in the mid-IR do not easily fit into this picture. They rule out any large sphere of water vapour in LTE surrounding red giants. Our aim here is to investigate high-resolution, mid-infrared spectra for a range of red giants, from early-K to mid M. We have recorded 12 microns spectra of 10 well-studied bright red giants, with TEXES on the IRTF. We find that all giants in our study cooler than 4300 K, spanning a range of effective temperatures, show water absorption lines stronger than expected. The strengths of the lines vary smoothly with spectral type. We identify several spectral features in the wavelength region that undoubtedly are formed in the photosphere. From a study of water-line ratios of the stars, we find that the excitation temperat...

Ryde, N; Farzone, M; Richter, M J; Josselin, E; Harper, G M; Eriksson, K; Greathouse, T K

2014-01-01

400

The Water-Vapor Continuum Absorption in the Mid-Infrared Windows at Temperatures from 311 K to 363 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water-vapor continuum absorption in the mid-infrared 10 ?m and 4 ?m atmospheric windows plays an important role in the radiative balance of the Earth. We have derived the continuum absorption coefficients from spectra recorded at NIST with a resolution of 0.1 wn over a wide range of pressures from 2.8 kPa (21 torr) to 15.1 kPa (113 torr) and temperatures from 311 K to 363 K with path lengths ranging from 74 to 116 m. These measurements were performed with a BOMEM DA3-002 FTIR spectrometer with a 2 m base multi-pass cell. The spectral range was from 800 to 3500 wn . We have published the results obtained in the 10 ?m region recently. At the conditions given above, the continuum absorption in the higher frequency atmospheric window is quite detectable reaching as high as 4%. In order to avoid mistakes caused by the non-linear behavior of a MCT detector we later recorded an additional set of spectra with a highly-linear InSb detector. Both sets of spectra provide absorption coefficients coinciding within error bars. Our results around 5 ?m are in good agreement with those obtained from the widely used MT-CKD continuum model. However, at shorter wave lengths, the values diverge dramatically increasing up to one order of magnitude at the center of the window. Despite the comparatively large uncertainties of our data, comparison with all other available results leads us to the conclusion that the MT-CKD model greatly underestimates the self-broadened continuum over the 4 ?m atmospheric window. We have also extended our measurements to lower frequencies with the use of KRS-5 cell windows. The current spectral range is down to 600 wn. Yu. I. Baranov, W. J. Lafferty, Q. Ma, R. H. Tipping, JQSRT 109, 2291, (2008) S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, and R. W. Davies, Atmos. Res. 23, 229, (1989)

Baranov, Yu. I.; Lafferty, W. J.

2009-06-01

401

Water relations and photosynthetic capacity of two species of Calotropis in a tropical semi-arid ecosystem  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Calotropis procera and Calotropis gigantea, originally from warm parts of Africa and Asia, are now pan-tropical and in ecological terms considered an indicator of overgrazed, disturbed lands; they grow successfully in dry areas. Variations in water relations, morphology and photosynthesis of the two species growing in the same habitat were studied to assess possible mechanisms of tolerance to drought and how these relate to their ecophysiological success. Also the hypothesis that their photosynthetic rate (A) under drought would be affected by stomatal and non-stomatal limitations was tested. Methods Water relations, gas exchange, water use efficiency (WUE), fluorescence parameters, pubescence and specific leaf area (SLA) of Calotropis procera and C. gigantea plants growing in the field were evaluated during the wet (WS) and dry (DS) seasons. Results The xylem water potential (?) was similar in both species during the WS and DS; drought caused a 28 % decrease of ?. In C. procera, A, stomatal conductance (gs) and carboxylation efficiency (CE) were higher in the WS with half the values of those during the DS, this species being more affected by drought than C. gigantea. A high ?13C of C. gigantea (–26·2 ‰) in the WS indicated a higher integrated WUE, in agreement with its lower gs. Leaves of C. gigantea were more pubescent than C. procera. Relative stomatal and non-stomatal limitation of A increased with drought in both species; no changes in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII; Fv/Fm) were observed. The decrease in the relative quantum yield of PSII (?PSII) and in the photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) was more pronounced in C. procera than in C. gigantea. Conclusions The photosynthetic capacity of C. procera was higher than that of C. gigantea. During the DS, A was regulated by stomatal and non-stomatal factors in a coordinated manner and drought did not cause chronic photoinhibition. A higher density of trichomes and leaf angle in C. gigantea may contribute to the maintenance of A and confer more efficient protection of photochemical activity in the DS. Ecophysiological traits such as high photosynthetic rate throughout the year even during the DS, and high WUE, highly pubescent leaves and low SLA observed in both species contribute to the establishment and growth of Calotropis in dry conditions. PMID:21149276

Tezara, Wilmer; Colombo, Rita; Coronel, Ilsa; Marín, Oranys

2011-01-01