Sample records for water buffalo bubalus

  1. Sarcocystis dubeyi (Huong and Uggla, 1999) infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) are intermediate hosts for 4 species of Sarcocystis, i.e., S. fusiformis and S. buffalonis with cats as definitive hosts, S. levinei with dogs as definitive hosts, and S. dubeyi with an unknown definitive host, but thought to be zoonotic. Currently, the latter speci...

  2. Redescription of Sarcocystis fusiformis sarcocysts from the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five species of Sarcocystis have been reported from the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): Sarcocystis fusiformis and Sarcocystis buffalonis have macrocysts and cats act as definitive hosts; Sarcocystis levinei has microcysts and dogs act as definitive host; Sarcocystis dubeyi and S. sinensis have mic...

  3. FATAL INTESTINAL COCCIDIOSIS IN A THREE-WEEK OLD BUFFALO CALF (BUBALUS BUBALUS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalus) is important to the economy of several countries, especially in Asia and Brazil. Little is known regarding the impact of coccidiosis in buffaloes. Cattle and buffaloes are considered to have common species of Eimeria, but critical cross transmissions have not been...

  4. Isolation of new pregnancy-associated glycoproteins from water buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis) placenta by Vicia villosa affinity chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Barbato; N. M. Sousa; K. Klisch; E. Clerget; A. Debenedetti; V. L. Barile; A. Malfatti; J. F. Beckers

    2008-01-01

    The present study describes the isolation and characterization of new pregnancy-associated glycoprotein molecules (PAG) from midpregnancy and late-pregnancy placentas in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). After extraction, the homogenates are subjected to acid and ammonium sulfate precipitations followed by DEAE chromatography. Subsequently, the water buffalo PAG (wbPAG) from these solutions are enriched by Vicia villosa agarose (VVA) affinity chromatography. As

  5. Effects of smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus biomass on water transparency, nutrients, and productivity in shallow experimental ponds.

    PubMed

    Goetz, D; Kröger, R; Miranda, L E

    2014-05-01

    The smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus is a native benthivore to floodplain lakes in the Yazoo River Basin, USA. Based on evidence from other benthivorous fish studies we hypothesized high biomasses of I. bubalus contribute to poor water quality conditions. We tested this hypothesis in shallow (<1.5 m) 0.05 ha earthen ponds at three stocking biomasses over a 10-week period during the summer of 2012. The most notable results from the permutational multivariate analysis of variance suggest I. bubalus at high and moderate biomasses significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced turbidity and suspended solid levels while decreasing Secchi depth. Our results suggest that effects of I. bubalus on water clarity may have considerable ecological implications in natural habitats such as shallow floodplain lakes. PMID:24526283

  6. Effects of smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus biomass on water transparency, nutrients, and productivity in shallow experimental ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goetz, D.; Kroger, R.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2014-01-01

    The smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus is a native benthivore to floodplain lakes in the Yazoo River Basin, USA. Based on evidence from other benthivorous fish studies we hypothesized high biomasses of I. bubalus contribute to poor water quality conditions. We tested this hypothesis in shallow (< 1.5 m) 0.05 ha earthen ponds at three stocking biomasses over a 10-week period during the summer of 2012. The most notable results from the permutational multivariate analysis of variance suggest I. bubalus at high and moderate biomasses significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced turbidity and suspended solid levels while decreasing Secchi depth. Our results suggest that effects of I. bubalus on water clarity may have considerable ecological implications in natural habitats such as shallow floodplain lakes.

  7. The Effects of Benthivorous Smallmouth Buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) on Water Quality and Nutrient Cycling in a Shallow Floodplain Lake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Shormann; James B. Cotner

    1997-01-01

    Experimental mesocosm studies revealed that the presence of benthivorous smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) significantly enhanced turbidity, phytoplankton biomass, ammonium (NH4 ), and total nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations in a shallow, aerobic, hypereutrophic oxbow lake. The effects of Ictiobuson water quality are similar to the results of experiments performed on other benthivorous fish species. Prior studies have suggested that

  8. Binucleate trophoblast giant cells in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) placenta.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, A F; Klisch, K; Miglino, M A; Pereira, F T V; Bevilacqua, E

    2006-01-01

    The binucleate trophoblast giant cells (BNC) of the water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis, placenta were studied, with emphasis on the synthesis of BNC-specific proteins. Placentomal tissues of 27 water buffalos (2-10 months of pregnancy) were processed for light and electron microscopy. The frequency of BNCs was 20% of the trophoblastic cells in 2-3-month placentas and increased to 27% in the later stages. Ultrastructurally, binucleate cells displayed a prominent granular endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, typical of cells involved with protein synthesis and exportation. The buffalo BNCs contained periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive granules and reacted with antisera against bovine placental lactogen, prolactin-related protein-I, and pregnancy-associated glycoproteins. Lectin histochemistry with Dolichos biflorus agglutinin, Vicia villosa agglutinin, and Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin showed specific staining of BNCs. Different stages of BNC migration and fusion with uterine epithelial cells were observed. Trinucleate feto-maternal hybrid cells were the typical outcome of cell fusions. These cells underwent degeneration, with typical morphological features of apoptosis. The results revealed a strong homology between water buffalo and cattle BNCs concerning cell morphology, protein expression, glycosylation pattern, and characteristics of cell migration and fusion. PMID:16240388

  9. Immunodetection of coproantigens for the diagnosis of amphistomosis in naturally infected Indian Water Buffalo, Bubalus bubalis.

    PubMed

    Saifullah, Mohammad K; Ahmad, Gul; Abidi, Syed M A

    2013-01-16

    The infection of gastrointestinal helminths in livestock is routinely diagnosed by microscopical examination of faecal samples for the presence of ova/eggs but this approach becomes ineffective for the seasonally egg producing trematodes. Therefore, an alternative approach to detect the coproantigens of liver and rumen amphistomes, Gigantocotyle explanatum and Gastrothylax crumenifer respectively, infecting Indian water buffalo Bubalus bubalis, was undertaken using ELISA, immunodot and countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis (CCIEP). The hyperimmune polyclonal antisera were separately raised in rabbits against excretory/secretory (ES) antigens of both the flukes under study. An overall 70% buffalo faecal samples were tested positive for G. crumenifer and 75% for G. explanatum in Aligarh region. The ELISA results reflected higher infection intensity among individual buffaloes that was also observed at necropsy. Using the respective homologous hyperimmune antiserum, 55% buffaloes tested positive for G. crumenifer and 65% positive for G. explanatum in immunodot assay. Further, the faecal samples with high absorbance values in ELISA and strong immunodot reaction tested positive in CCIEP. The analysis of CCIEP result revealed two and one precipitin bands in G. crumenifer and G. explanatum respectively, indicating prominent antigenic differences in the coproantigens of these two parasites. Taken together, it is suggested that polyclonal antibodies could be conveniently used for the detection of coproantigens by ELISA and immunodot methods, particularly during the non-egg producing phase of the seasonally regulated reproductive cycle of the rumen amphistome G. crumenifer. It is concluded that the coproantigen detection is a good alternative over conventional method for the diagnosis of amphistomosis in livestock; however, further studies are required on a larger sample size of field buffaloes to augment the reproducibility of the present results. PMID:23036808

  10. Natural Babesia bovis Infection in Water Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and Crossbred Cattle under Field Conditions in Egypt: a Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Mahmmod, Yasser

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a little or no data available on the natural Babesia bovis (B. bovis) infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) comparing to the available one for cattle. This study was conducted to investigate the natural B. bovis infection in water buffaloes in comparison to crossbred cattle under field conditions in Egypt. Methods: A total of 35 buffaloes and cattle were clinically and laboratory investigated from March to June 2008. Twenty-nine buffaloes and cattle out of 35 were naturally infected with B. bovis and showed signs of bovine babesiosis. Three cows and three buffaloes showed no clinical signs and were free from external, internal, and blood parasites served as control group. Results: Babesia bovis-infected cattle showed typical signs of bovine babesiosis while B. bovis-infected buffaloes showed a milder form (less severe) of the clinical signs. Advanced cases of cattle showed dark brown to dark red (coffee-color) urine, hemoglobinuria and nervous manifestations while these manifestations were not detected in the infected buffaloes. Hematological changes in both species however, these changes were less significant in buffaloes than those reported in cattle. Conclusion: This paper documents the first description of natural B. bovis infection in water buffaloes which were found to be more likely to be tolerant than cattle to the natural clinical infection with B. bovis and its subsequent haematological changes. Our finding may lead to a better understanding of the disease pattern of B. bovis infection under field conditions in buffaloes. PMID:25629060

  11. Characterization of immune cell infiltration in the placentome of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) infected with neospora caninum during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Cantón, G J; Konrad, J L; Moore, D P; Caspe, S G; Palarea-Albaladejo, J; Campero, C M; Chianini, F

    2014-05-01

    Neospora caninum infection in cattle stimulates host immune responses, which may be responsible for placental damage leading to abortion. Susceptibility of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) to neosporosis is not well understood, although vertical transmission and fetal death have been documented. The aim of this study was to characterize the immune response in the placentome of water buffalo following experimental infection in early gestation with the Nc-1 strain of N. caninum. Placentomes were examined by immunohistochemistry using antibodies specific for T-cell subsets, natural killer cells and CD79(?cy) cells. Placental inflammation was characterized by the infiltration of CD3(+) and CD4(+) T cells and T cells expressing the ?? T-cell receptor. The distribution of these cellular subsets in buffalo placentomes was similar to that previously described in cattle infected with N. caninum in early gestation, but the lesions were milder, which may explain the lower number of abortions observed in this species after infection. PMID:24529512

  12. Transcriptional Dynamics of Homeobox C11 Gene in Water Buffalo Bubalus bubalis.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Leena; Pathak, Deepali; Sehgal, Neeta; Ali, Sher

    2015-06-01

    The Hox complex contains 39 genes clustered into four groups involved in cell differentiation and development. We cloned full-length sequence of Hoxc11 gene from water buffalo Bubalus bubalis, assessed its copy number, localized the same onto the chromosome 5, and studied its evolutionary conservation across the species. Northern hybridization of Hoxc11 showed a 2.2?kb band in the tissues analyzed. Real-Time PCR showed highest expression of Hoxc11 gene in lung followed by spleen, spermatozoa, and testis. Six interacting partners of this gene showed higher expression in spleen, lung, testis, and spermatozoa. During the early stages of development, Hoxc11 and its interacting partners both showed lower expression, which then became prominent during the age of 1-3 years, regressed drastically thereafter, and remained so until the animal's life time (?20 years). The high expression of Hoxc11 and its interacting partners in spermatozoa and testis during the onset of puberty suggests its likely role in the differentiation of gonads and subsequent reproductive activities. Additional work on Hoxc11 especially, in the context of respiratory, immunological, and in/fertility in other species, including humans would be useful for establishing its broader biological significance towards the enrichment of functional and comparative genomics. PMID:25760398

  13. Identity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus) and the suppression of Sarcocystis sinensis as a nomen nudum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are uncertainties concerning the identity and host species specificity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus). Currently, in cattle three species are recognized with known endogenous stages, viz.: S. cruzi (with canine definitive host), S. hirsuta...

  14. Characterization of Sarcocystis fusiformis based on sequencing and PCR-RFLP in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Oryan, Ahmad; Sharifiyazdi, Hassan; Khordadmehr, Monire; Larki, Sara

    2011-12-01

    Four Sarcocystis species, i.e., Sarcocystis fusiformis and Sarcocystis buffalonis with cats as definitive hosts, Sarcocystis levinei with dogs as definitive host, and Sarcocystis dubeyi with unknown definitive host, have previously been described from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). The aim of the present study was genetic characterization of the causative agent(s) of water buffalo sarcocystosis in Khuzestan Province, western Iran. RFLP-PCR and partial sequence analysis of 18S rDNA gene were used for the genetic characterization of the specimens directly obtained from water buffalo. In RFLP-PCR, four restriction enzymes (Dra1, Ssp1, Fok1 and Bsl1) were used for species discrimination of Sarcocystis spp. in this host. Comparison of the molecular sequencing results and RFLP-PCR pattern of the samples obtained in the present study with those previously reported for different Sarcocystis spp. revealed that all positive Sarcocystis samples represented S. fusiformis. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the existence of S. fusiformis in the Iranian water buffalo population by a genetic approach. In addition, comparison between the alignments between the Iranian 18S rDNA sequences (HQ703791), made in this study, and those previously reported for S. fusiformis in different geographical location (accession nos. AF176927, AF176926, and U03071) showed the occurrence of local genetic polymorphisms and heterogeneity in this ribosomal locus. Despite the occurrence of some genetic variations in the hypervariable regions of the 18S rDNA in S. fusiformis, Dra I restriction site was conserved among all sequences available. According to the present study, it seems that cats have a more significant epidemiological role than dogs in transmission of sarcocystosis agent to water buffalo in Iran. PMID:21526403

  15. Isolation of new pregnancy-associated glycoproteins from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) placenta by Vicia villosa affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Barbato, O; Sousa, N M; Klisch, K; Clerget, E; Debenedetti, A; Barile, V L; Malfatti, A; Beckers, J F

    2008-12-01

    The present study describes the isolation and characterization of new pregnancy-associated glycoprotein molecules (PAG) from midpregnancy and late-pregnancy placentas in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). After extraction, the homogenates are subjected to acid and ammonium sulfate precipitations followed by DEAE chromatography. Subsequently, the water buffalo PAG (wbPAG) from these solutions are enriched by Vicia villosa agarose (VVA) affinity chromatography. As determined by western blotting with anti-PAG sera, the apparent molecular masses of the immunoreactive bands from the VVA peaks range from 59.5 to 75.8kDa and from 57.8 to 73.3kDa in the midpregnancy and late-pregnancy placentas, respectively. Amino-terminal microsequencing of the immunoreactive proteins has allowed the identification of three distinct wbPAG sequences, which have been deposited in the SwissProt database: RGSXLTIHPLRNIRDFFYVG (acc. no. P85048), RGSXLTILPLRNIID (acc. no. P85049), and RGSXLTHLPLRNI (acc. no. P85050). Their comparison to previously identified proteins has shown that two of them are new because they have not been described before. Our results confirm the suitability of VVA chromatography for the enrichment of the multiple PAG molecules expressed in buffalo placenta. PMID:18308351

  16. Fatal intestinal coccidiosis in a three week old buffalo calf (Bubalus bubalus).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Wouda, W; Muskens, J

    2008-12-01

    The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalus) is important to the economy of several countries, especially in Asia and Brazil. Little is known of the impact of coccidiosis in buffaloes. Cattle and buffaloes are considered to have common species of Eimeria but critical cross transmissions have not been made because it is difficult to raise these hosts coccidian free. Clinical coccidiosis was confirmed post mortem in a 22-day old buffalo calf that died after a 3-4 day illness. Oocysts morphologically identical to Eimeria bareillyi were found in the feces and in sections of small intestine. Oocysts were often pyriform, sometimes with asymmetrical sides. The shorter end was flattened and approximately 5-6 microm wide. Unsporulated oocysts in feces were 23.2-29.5 x 16.5-22 microm in size with an average of 27.2 x 19.3 microm . Schizonts, gamonts, and oocysts were identified in sections of small intestine and they were located in entrocytes of jejunum and ileum. No coccidian stages were seen in sections of colon. This is one of the first confirmed cases of clinical coccidiosis in water buffalo. PMID:18576888

  17. Ear-tag retention and identification methods for extensively managed water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Fosgate, G T; Adesiyun, A A; Hird, D W

    2006-03-16

    Thirty-two young domestic water buffalo were studied to evaluate ear-tag retention during an epidemiologic field trial. Plastic ear-tags were placed in both ears before the start of the trial, which was implemented in an extensively managed domestic water buffalo herd of approximately 1000 animals in Trinidad from 1999-2001. The presence or absence of ear-tags was recorded at the times of animal handling. The rate of ear-tag loss was modeled using a parametric survival analysis assuming an exponential rate of loss. A gamma distribution was used to estimate the amount of time that each animal would be positively identified based only on the presence or absence of one or more ear-tags. The overall median ear-tag retention was 272 days. The estimated rate of ear-tag loss was 0.0024 ear-tags lost per day. The use of ear-tags alone might not be sufficient for long-term identification of extensively managed animal populations. PMID:16242197

  18. Clinical, haematological and therapeutic studies on tropical theileriosis in water buffaloes ( Bubalus bubalis) in Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salama A. Osman; Magdy H. Al-Gaabary

    2007-01-01

    Thirty buffaloes naturally infected with Theileria annulata and 10 parasitologically free controls were used to determine the potential clinical, haematological and therapeutic impact of tropical theileriosis in Egypt. The clinical signs in the infected buffaloes were pyrexia (40.5–41.5°C), enlargement of superficial lymph nodes, slight nasal and ocular discharges, salivation, anaemia and respiratory distress. Eye lesions also were recorded. There was

  19. Characterization of Arcobacter suis isolated from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) milk.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, Federica; Salas-Massó, Nuria; Serraino, Andrea; Figueras, Maria José

    2015-10-01

    During a survey in a dairy plant in Italy, the second strain (strain FG 206) of Arcobacter suis described in the literature was isolated from raw water buffalo milk. The objective of this study was to confirm the species identification, better define the species by comparing its characteristics with those of the reference strain (F41(T) = CECT 7833(T) = LMG 26152(T)) and to investigate its potential clinical relevance by detecting the virulence gene pattern of the new strain. Phenotypical characterization and 16S rRNA-RFLP gave a complete overlap of results for the two strains. As expected, an RFLP pattern common to A. suis and Arcobacter defluvii was obtained by MseI endonuclease digestion, and a pattern specific for A. suis was obtained by BfaI endonuclease digestion. 16S rRNA sequencing and multilocus phylogenetic analysis (MLPA) showed a robust relatedness of strain FG 206 to the A. suis type strain F41(T). The recovery of strain FG 206 from a dairy plant shows that this species of Arcobacter is present in the food chain. Like the type strain recovered from pig meat, the species A. suis may not be confined to a single type of food. PMID:26187844

  20. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with exposure of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) to Neospora caninum in northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kengradomkij, Chanya; Inpankaew, Tawin; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Wongpanit, Kannika; Wongnakphet, Sirichai; Mitchell, Thomas J; Xuan, Xuenan; Igarashi, Ikuo; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Stich, Roger W

    2015-01-15

    Water buffalo are important draft animals for agriculture in resource-restricted areas worldwide. Water buffalo were shown to be experimentally susceptible to infection with Neospora caninum, potentially affected by neosporosis, and naturally exposed to the parasite in Asia. Although enzootic to Thailand, the distribution of N. caninum among Thai water buffalo is unclear. The objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum among water buffalo of northeast Thailand and to identify risk factors associated with their exposure to N. caninum. Sera from 628 water buffalo from 288 farms were tested with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). A total of 57 samples from 48 herds contained antibodies to N. caninum, indicating overall seroprevalence of 9.1% and 16.7% among individual animals and herds, respectively. The overall seroprevalence was highest in provinces located in the Khorat Basin in the southern part of the region tested. Host age was also associated with seroprevalence, with the greatest seroprevalence (16.1%) among buffalo over 10 years of age, followed by 5-10 years of age (13.4%), 3-5 years (9.2%), and less than 3 years (1.2%). These results collectively suggested that horizontal transmission from canine definitive hosts was an important route of water buffalo exposure to N. caninum. These results also verified the importance of risk factor analysis for effective bovine neosporosis control strategies at the local level. PMID:25499824

  1. Evidence for bovine besnoitiosis in Egypt-first serosurvey of Besnoitia besnoiti in cattle and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ashmawy, Karam Imam; Abu-Akkada, Somaia Saif

    2014-03-01

    The present study evaluated the presence of specific antibodies against Besnoitia besnoiti in cattle and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Egypt. Sera from cattle (n?=?216) and water buffaloes (n?=?133) collected from five different provinces of Egypt (Behera, Alexandria, Assuit, Gharbia, and Matrouh) were analyzed. Testing for B. besnoiti antibodies by PrioCHECK® Besnoitia Ab 2.0 ELISA initially identified 13.75 % (48 out of 349) of individual sera as positive at the manufacturer's suggested cutoff threshold, 15 percent positivity (PP). Statistically significant associations between B. besnoiti prevalence, species, sex, age, and geographical distribution were observed. Seropositive animals were distributed in all of the provinces from which animals were sampled except Gharbia province. Assuit province showed the highest percentage of infection (30.76 %) followed by Matrouh, Alexandria, and Behera provinces (25, 16.29, and 9.6 %, respectively). The highest infection rate of B. besnoiti was significantly higher in cattle (17.13 %) than in water buffaloes (9.02 %). Positive cases were observed in all age categories. While the highest infection rate (17.13 %) was recorded in the age group 5-10 years followed by the age group 1-5 years (15.38 %), and only one positive case (1.58 %) was recorded in the age group less than 1 year. The highest infection rate of B. besnoiti infection was recorded in the female animals (14.95 %) followed by the male animals (8.33). This is the first report on the detection of B. besnoiti in cattle and water buffaloes in Egypt. PMID:24375275

  2. Quantitative studies on spermatogenesis in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    sexually mature buffalo bulls (Bubalus 6ubalis) during the spring by excision of the whole testis or by biopsy of both testes. To excise the testis, 500 mg of chlorpromazine hydrochloride (Largactil. For biopsy, a 2.5 to 5 cm incision was made and a small triangular piece of testis was removed using a No. 12

  3. Molecular cloning, sequence characterization, and gene expression profiling of a novel water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) gene, AGPAT6.

    PubMed

    Song, S; Huo, J L; Li, D L; Yuan, Y Y; Yuan, F; Miao, Y W

    2013-01-01

    Several 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate-O-acyltransferases (AGPATs) can acylate lysophosphatidic acid to produce phosphatidic acid. Of the eight AGPAT isoforms, AGPAT6 is a crucial enzyme for glycerolipids and triacylglycerol biosynthesis in some mammalian tissues. We amplified and identified the complete coding sequence (CDS) of the water buffalo AGPAT6 gene by using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, based on the conversed sequence information of the cattle or expressed sequence tags of other Bovidae species. This novel gene was deposited in the NCBI database (accession No. JX518941). Sequence analysis revealed that the CDS of this AGPAT6 encodes a 456-amino acid enzyme (molecular mass = 52 kDa; pI = 9.34). Water buffalo AGPAT6 contains three hydrophobic transmembrane regions and a signal 37-amino acid peptide, localized in the cytoplasm. The deduced amino acid sequences share 99, 98, 98, 97, 98, 98, 97 and 95% identity with their homologous sequences from cattle, horse, human, mouse, orangutan, pig, rat, and chicken, respectively. The phylogenetic tree analysis based on the AGPAT6 CDS showed that water buffalo has a closer genetic relationship with cattle than with other species. Tissue expression profile analysis shows that this gene is highly expressed in the mammary gland, moderately expressed in the heart, muscle, liver, and brain; weakly expressed in the pituitary gland, spleen, and lung; and almost silently expressed in the small intestine, skin, kidney, and adipose tissues. Four predicted microRNA target sites are found in the water buffalo AGPAT6 CDS. These results will establish a foundation for further insights into this novel water buffalo gene. PMID:24114207

  4. Water Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) Identified as an Important Reservoir of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Brazil?

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Murilo G.; Feitosa Brito, José R.; Carvalho, Roberta R.; Guth, Beatriz E. C.; Gomes, Tânia A. T.; Vieira, Mônica A. M.; Kato, Maria A. M. F.; Ramos, Isabel I.; Vaz, Tânia M. I.; Irino, Kinue

    2007-01-01

    The presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in water buffaloes is reported for the first time in South America. The prevalence of STEC ranged from 0 to 64% depending on the farm. STEC isolates exhibiting the genetic profiles stx1stx2ehxA iha saa and stx2ehxA iha saa predominated. Of the 20 distinct serotypes identified, more than 50% corresponded to serotypes associated with human diseases. PMID:17644639

  5. Effects of in vitro copper sulphate supplementation on the ejaculated sperm characteristics in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Tabassomi, Mehdi; Alavi-Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate effects of copper sulphate (CuSO4) additive to semen extenders on sperm parameters: progressive motility, viability, membrane integrity and DNA damage, after semen dilution and cryopreservation. Semen samples of 5 buffalo bulls of 3-5 years old were collected at 5 different occasions during the autumn 2011. A total number of 25 samples were used in each examination. Sperm progressive motility and viability were measured at 0 (T0), 60 (T1) and 120 (T2) min after diluting semen in tris-citric acid extender containing 0 (control), 0.004, 0.008, 0.016, 0.032 and 0.064 mg L-1 CuSO4. Later, semen was diluted in a tris-citric acid-egg yolk-glycerol extender containing the same amounts of CuSO4, cooled to 4 ?C and kept refrigerated for 4 hr to equilibrate, sperm progressive motility, viability, membrane integrity and DNA damage were estimated. Then, semen was packed in 0.5 mL French straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Later, the frozen semen was thawed in 37 ?C water bath for 30 sec, and the same parameters as well as total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the frozen-thawed semen were estimated. The results showed that copper additive at the rate of 0.032 mg L-1 gives a better protection of sperms through the process of dilution, equilibration and freeze-thawing than that in control and other Cu concentrations, while 0.064 mg L-1 CuSO4 had deleterious effect on the sperm. PMID:25593683

  6. Detailed description of RBA-banded chromosomes of river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis L.)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    proved to be the most suitable for routine analysis and identification of metaphase chromosomesDetailed description of RBA-banded chromosomes of river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis L.) D. DI Portici, Naples, Italy Summary The RBA banding pattern of river buffalo chromosomes and its diagrammatic

  7. Spermatogonial Stem Cells (SSCs) in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ranjeet Singh Mahla; Niranjan Reddy; Sandeep Goel

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundWater buffalo is an economically important livestock species and about half of its total world population exists in India. Development of stem cell technology in buffalo can find application in targeted genetic modification of this species. Testis has emerged as a source of pluripotent stem cells in mice and human; however, not much information is available in buffalo.Objectives and MethodsPou5f1

  8. Mitochondrial DNA Variability of Domestic River Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Populations: Genetic Evidence for Domestication of River Buffalo in Indian Subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Muniyandi; Nimisha, Koodali; Kumar, Satish

    2015-01-01

    River buffalo, Bubalus bubalis is a large bovine species frequently used livestock in southern Asia. It is believed that the river buffalo was domesticated from Bubalus arnee, the wild buffalo of mainland Asia, a few thousand years ago, probably during the period of Indus Valley civilization. However, the domestication history of the river buffalo has been the subject of debate for many decades mainly due to the lack of clear archeological evidence and the divisive conclusions of the genetic studies. Therefore, in order to understand the domestication history and genetic relationship among the various river buffalo populations, we analyzed 492-bp region of mitochondrial DNA control region sequences of 414 river buffalo sampled from India, Pakistan, Egypt, and Iran along with the available 403 swamp buffalo sequences. The phylogenetic analyses of our study along with the archaeological evidence suggest that the river buffalo was domesticated in an atypical manner involving continuous introgression of wild animals to the domestic stocks in Indian subcontinent prior to mature phase of Indus Valley civilization (2600–1900 BC). Specifically, our data exclude Mesopotamian region as the place of domestication of the river buffalo. PMID:25900921

  9. Purification of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins from late-pregnancy Bubalus bubalis placentas and development of a radioimmunoassay for pregnancy diagnosis in water buffalo females

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) were first described as placental antigens present in the blood serum of the mother soon after implantation. Here, we describe the purification of several pregnancy-associated glycoproteins from water buffalo placenta (wbPAGs). A specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed for early pregnancy diagnosis in buffalo species. Results Amino-terminal microsequencing of immunoreactive placental proteins allowed the identification of eleven wbPAGs sequences [Swiss-Prot accession numbers: P86369 to P86379]. Three polyclonal antisera (AS#858, AS#859 and AS#860) were raised in rabbits against distinct wbPAG fractions. A new RIA (RIA-860) was developed and used to distinguish between pregnant (n?=?33) and non-pregnant (n?=?26) water buffalo females. Conclusions Our results confirmed the multiplicity of PAG expression in buffalo placenta. In addition, the RIA-860 system was shown to be sensitive, linear, reproducible, accurate and specific in measuring PAG concentrations in buffalo plasma samples from Day 37 of gestation onwards. PMID:23634647

  10. Effect of cold shock on enzyme release in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of cold shock on enzyme release in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa K. S. SIDHU S. S, Ludhiana, Punjab, India Summary. We have studied the effect of cold shock on the percentage of enzyme dehydrogenase and GPT were not affected by cold shock. Introduction. Relatively little work has been carried out

  11. Cholesterol and fatty acid composition of longissimus thoracis from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and Brahman-influenced cattle raised under savannah conditions.

    PubMed

    Giuffrida-Mendoza, Maria; de Moreno, Lilia Arenas; Huerta-Leidenz, Nelson; Uzcátegui-Bracho, Sojan; Valero-Leal, Kutchynskaya; Romero, Sonia; Rodas-González, Argenis

    2015-08-01

    Male (n=66) water buffalo (Buffalo) and Brahman-influenced cattle (Brahman) were born, raised, weaned, fattened on grazing savannah and harvested at two different ages (19 and 24months) to compare lipid composition of the longissimus thoracis muscle. Half of the animals were castrated at seven months of age (MOA) to examine the castration effects. At 24 MOA Brahman steers showed the highest content of total lipids (P<0.05). No significant variation was detected in cholesterol content for either the main or interaction effects in the age groups. Some individual fatty acids varied with the species (P<0.05), however, interspecific similarities were found in fatty acid ratios. For health-related indices, only atherogenic index (AI) showed lower values in favor of Buffalo meat (P<0.05) at both harvesting ages. Although, meat derived from both bovid groups was leaner and showed lower cholesterol level, AI indicates that Buffalo meat might be beneficial from a human health standpoint. PMID:25879797

  12. Sedative, analgesic, cardiopulmonary and haemodynamic effects of medetomidine-butorphanol and midazolam-butorphanol on thiopental-propofol anaesthesia in water Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Malik; P. Kinjavdekar; Amarpal H. P. Aithal; A. M. Pawde; Surbhi

    2011-01-01

    The sedative, dose sparing, cardiopulmonary and haemodynamic effects of medetomidine-butorphanol and midazolam-butorphanol, on thiopental-propofol anaesthesia were evaluated in six healthy male water buffaloes (2 to 3 years; 290 to 325 kg). Group P1 received medetomidine (2.5 µg\\/ kg) + butorphanol (0.05 mg\\/kg) intravenously, while in group P2 midazolam (0.25 mg\\/kg) + butorphanol (0.05 mg\\/kg) were used intravenously at 7 days

  13. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of fat metabolism genes in mammary tissue of lactating and non-lactating water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Yadav, Poonam; Mukesh, Manishi; Kataria, Ranjit Singh; Yadav, Anita; Mohanty, Ashok Kumar; Mishra, Bishnu Prasad

    2012-04-01

    Understanding the mechanism of milk fat synthesis and secretion is important for dairy industry, as the nature of the cream fraction influences the manufacturing properties and organoleptic qualities of milk and dairy products. So, there is a need to understand the mechanism of milk fat synthesis and to elucidate the key genes regulating milk fat synthesis by studying the expression of genes involved in milk fat synthesis. Present manuscript reports the expression of genes involved in milk fat synthesis and metabolism in buffalo mammary tissue. The expression of lipogenic genes was studied in lactating and non-lactating mammary tissue of water buffalo by semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR expression analysis. The genes studied were acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), 3 hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH), LIPIN, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBF). The expression of ACACA, BDH, LIPIN, PPARG, LPL, and SREBF was higher in lactating as compared to non-lactating buffalo whereas no difference was found in the expression of SCD between both the stages. PMID:21965031

  14. Congenital ocular dermoid cyst in a river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calf.

    PubMed

    Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei, F; Farshid, A A; Saifzadeh, S

    2007-02-01

    Clinical and histopathological findings of a congenital ocular dermoid cyst, located at the lower eyelid of a river female buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calf were presented. A soft, fluctuant, non-tender, hyperaemic cystic mass was detected overlaying the left eye. Fine needle aspirate revealed filamentous debris with no malignant cells. The cyst was treated surgically by orbital exenteration and subsequently subjected to histopathological examination. The histopathological study disclosed a conjunctival dermoid cyst. This report is novel, in that; such ocular cyst has not previously been described in river buffalo calves. PMID:17359456

  15. Optimization of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryonic Stem Cell Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Zandi, Mohammad; Muzaffar, Musharifa; Shah, Syed Mohmad; Kumar Singh, Manoj; Palta, Prabhat; Kumar Singla, Suresh; Manik, Radheysham; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Objective In order to retain an undifferentiated pluripotent state, embryonic stem (ES) cells have to be cultured on feeder cell layers. However, use of feeder layers limits stem cell research, since experimental data may result from a combined ES cell and feeder cell response to various stimuli. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, a buffalo ES cell line was established from in vitro derived blastocysts and characterized by the Alkaline phosphatase (AP) and immunoflourescence staining of various pluripotency markers. We examined the effect of various factors like fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and Y-27632 to support the growth and maintenance of bubaline ES cells on gelatin coated dishes, in order to establish feeder free culture systems. We also analyzed the effect of feeder-conditioned media on stem cell growth in gelatin based cultures both in the presence as well as in the absence of the growth factors. Results The results showed that Y-27632, in the presence of FGF-2 and LIF, resulted in higher colony growth and increased expression of Nanog gene. Feeder-Conditioned Medium resulted in a significant increase in growth of buffalo ES cells on gelatin coated plates, however, feeder layer based cultures produced better results than gelatin based cultures. Feeder layers from buffalo fetal fibroblast cells can support buffalo ES cells for more than two years. Conclusion We developed a feeder free culture system that can maintain buffalo ES cells in the short term, as well as feeder layer based culture that can support the long term maintenance of buffalo ES cells. PMID:26199905

  16. H19 gene methylation study in Indian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Ajai K; Solanki, Jitendra V; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2013-03-01

    The methylation of DNA at cytosine residues within CpG dinucleotides is associated with transcriptional repression and is implicated in maintaining genomic stability and also the silencing of repetitive elements. These imprinted genes are unique as they are expressed exclusively from one parental allele. The present study was carried out to detect methylation status in H19 gene promoter CTCF III region in three Indian buffalo breeds (Jaffarabadi, Surti and Mehsani) by bisulfite sequencing. Methylation percent in Jaffarabadi, Surti and Mehsani buffaloes were found to be 50.19, 70.85 and 52.24, respectively, with mean incidence of methylation percent in H19 in all three breeds as 57.36. Apart from CpG methylation, unexpected nucleotide conversion (T>C, A>G, G>A) and deletion (A and G) after bisulfite sequencing were also observed. We observed no significant relationships in milk yield and milk fat per cent with methylation pattern in H19 gene in any of the three breeds. PMID:23054415

  17. Effects of Smallmouth Buffalo and Potassium Permanganate Treatment on Plankton and Pond Water Quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles C. Mischke; David J. Wise; James A. Steeby; Paul V. Zimba

    2006-01-01

    There is recent interest in using smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus and treatment with potassium permanganate (KMnO4) to control Dero digitata, the aquatic oligochaete host involved in the life cycle of proliferative gill disease. To complement those investigations, we determined the changes in water quality, phytoplankton, and zooplankton resulting from KMnO4 treatment and stocking of smallmouth buffalo into nursery ponds for

  18. Evaluation of antifreeze protein III for cryopreservation of Nili-Ravi (Bubalus bubalis) buffalo bull sperm.

    PubMed

    Qadeer, S; Khan, M A; Ansari, M S; Rakha, B A; Ejaz, R; Husna, A U; Ashiq, M; Iqbal, R; Ullah, N; Akhter, S

    2014-07-01

    Lower fertility in buffaloes with frozen-thawed semen is attributed to sperm damage that is believed to be due to formation of ice crystals during freeze/thaw process. It was hypothesized that antifreeze proteins in the extender may improve the post thaw quality of buffalo bull sperm. For this purpose, two separate experiments were conducted to evaluate antifreeze proteins III (AFP III) at 0 (control), 0.1, 1 and 10 ?g/mL (Experiment I) and 0 (control), 0.01, 0.1 and 1 ?g/mL (Experiment II) for its effect on post thaw quality of buffalo bull semen. Semen was collected from three Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls with artificial vagina (42 °C) for three weeks (replicate) per experiment. For each experiment, qualifying ejaculates (6 ejaculates/bull) were divided into four aliquots and diluted (at 37 °C having 50 × 10(6) sperm/mL) in tris-citric acid extender containing above mentioned concentrations of AFP III. Diluted semen was cooled to 4 °C in 2 h, equilibrated for 4 h, filled in 0.5 mL straws, kept over liquid nitrogen vapors for 10 min and plunged in the liquid nitrogen. After 24 h of storage, semen straws were thawed at 37 °C for 30 s to assess sperm progressive motility (SM), plasma membrane integrity (PMI), viability (live sperm with intact acrosome) and normal epical ridge (NAR). In experiment I, improvement (P<0.05) in percentage SM and sperm PMI was recorded in extender containing 0.1 ?g/mL AFP III compared to control, the higher concentrations (1 ?g/mL and 10 ?g/mL) being inefficient. While evaluating the lower concentration (experiment II), 0.01 ?g/mL of AFP III in the extender it was found to be ineffective to improve semen quality parameters, while 0.1 ?g/mL AFP III in extender was found better in terms of progressive motility and plasma membrane integrity of buffalo bull semen compared to control. Sperm viability and NAR remained similar (P>0.05) in extenders containing different concentrations of AFP III and control in both of experiments. In conclusion addition of AFP III in the extender at 0.1 ?g/mL improved the progressive motility and plasma membrane integrity of cryopreserved buffalo bull semen. PMID:24925471

  19. Production of a Cloned Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Calf from Somatic Cells Isolated from Urine.

    PubMed

    Madheshiya, Pankaj K; Sahare, Amol A; Jyotsana, Basanti; Singh, Karn P; Saini, Monika; Raja, Anuj K; Kaith, Sakshi; Singla, Suresh K; Chauhan, Manmohan S; Manik, Radhey S; Palta, Prabhat

    2015-06-01

    This study was aimed at isolation of cells from urine and skin on the ventral part of the tails of healthy adult female buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), an area rarely exposed to solar radiation, establishment of the cells in culture, and their use as donor cells for production of buffalo embryos by handmade cloning (HMC). The blastocyst rate and total cell number of urine- and tail skin-derived embryos were similar to those of control embryos derived from ear skin cells; however, their apoptotic index was lower (p<0.05) than that of control blastocysts. The global level of histone H3 acetylated at lysine 9 (H3K9ac) was similar in the three types of donor cells and in urine- and tail skin-derived HMC blastocysts and in vitro-fertilized (IVF) blastocysts (controls). The global level of histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) in the cells was in the order (p<0.05) urine?tail skin>ear skin-derived cells, whereas in blastocysts, it was higher (p<0.05) in urine- and tail skin-derived HMC blastocysts than that in IVF blastocysts. The expression level of CASPASE3, CASPASE9, P53, DNMT1, DNMT3a, OCT4, and NANOG, which was similar in HMC blastocysts of three the groups, was lower (p<0.05) than that in IVF blastocysts, whereas that of HDAC1 was similar among the four groups. Following transfer of urine-derived embryos (n=10) to five recipients (two embryos/recipient), one of the recipients delivered a normal calf that is now 5 weeks old. PMID:26053516

  20. Immune Response and Viral Persistence in Indian Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) Infected with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype Asia 1 ?

    PubMed Central

    Maddur, Mohan S.; Kishore, Subodh; Gopalakrishna, S.; Singh, Nem; Suryanarayana, V. V.; Gajendragad, Mukund R.

    2009-01-01

    Despite their potential role in the spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), the immune response and viral persistence in FMD virus (FMDV)-infected Indian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) have been unexplored. We found similar kinetics of neutralizing antibody responses in the sera and secretory fluids of buffaloes following experimental FMDV Asia 1 infection, but the lymphocyte-proliferative response in infected buffaloes was of low magnitude. Despite inducing a significant systemic and secretory immune response, viral persistence seems to be a common outcome in buffaloes following FMDV Asia 1 infection, which is associated with a weak cellular immune response. PMID:19828770

  1. Immune response and viral persistence in Indian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype Asia 1.

    PubMed

    Maddur, Mohan S; Kishore, Subodh; Gopalakrishna, S; Singh, Nem; Suryanarayana, V V; Gajendragad, Mukund R

    2009-12-01

    Despite their potential role in the spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), the immune response and viral persistence in FMD virus (FMDV)-infected Indian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) have been unexplored. We found similar kinetics of neutralizing antibody responses in the sera and secretory fluids of buffaloes following experimental FMDV Asia 1 infection, but the lymphocyte-proliferative response in infected buffaloes was of low magnitude. Despite inducing a significant systemic and secretory immune response, viral persistence seems to be a common outcome in buffaloes following FMDV Asia 1 infection, which is associated with a weak cellular immune response. PMID:19828770

  2. Nutrient utilization by Murrah buffaloes ( Bubalus bubalis) as influenced by varying levels of urea molasses mineral block on wheat straw based diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K Verma; U. R Mehra; R. S Dass

    1998-01-01

    To ascertain the optimum intake of urea molasses mineral block (UMMB) as a supplement on wheat straw based diets, twelve adult male Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) (390±9.0kg; 4y) were assigned to three equal groups in a completely randomized design. To minimize individual diurnal variation, the animals on Diets 1, 2 and 3 were fed fixed quantity of UMMB at the

  3. Comparative efficacy of immunological, molecular and culture assays for detection of group A rotavirus from faecal samples of buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis ) calves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Balvinder Kumar Manuja; Minakshi Prasad; Baldev R. Gulati; Anju Manuja; Gaya Prasad

    2010-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses play an important role in causing gastroenteritis and mortality in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves. A number of assays like RNA-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (RNA-PAGE), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA),\\u000a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and virus isolation have been employed for rotavirus diagnosis. We\\u000a evaluated the comparative efficacy of different assays for detection of group A rotavirus in

  4. Comparison of ?1-Antitrypsin, ?1-Acid Glycoprotein, Fibrinogen and NOx as Indicator of Subclinical Mastitis in Riverine Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Guha, Anirban; Guha, Ruby; Gera, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Mastitis set apart as clinical and sub clinical is a disease complex of dairy cattle, with sub clinical being the most important economically. Of late, laboratories showed interest in developing biochemical markers to diagnose sub clinical mastitis (SCM) in herds. Many workers reported noteworthy alternation of acute phase proteins (APPs) and nitric oxide, (measured as nitrate+nitrite = NOx) in milk due to intra-mammary inflammation. But, the literature on validation of these parameters as indicators of SCM, particularly in riverine milch buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) milk is inadequate. Hence, the present study focused on comparing several APPs viz. ?1- anti trypsin, ?1- acid glycoprotein, fibrinogen and NOx as indicators of SCM in buffalo milk. These components in milk were estimated using standardized analytical protocols. Somatic cell count (SCC) was done microscopically. Microbial culture was done on 5% ovine blood agar. Of the 776 buffaloes (3,096 quarters) sampled, only 347 buffaloes comprising 496 quarters were found positive for SCM i.e. milk culture showed growth in blood agar with SCC?2×105 cells/ml of milk. The cultural examination revealed Gram positive bacteria as the most prevalent etiological agent. It was observed that ?1- anti trypsin and NOx had a highly significant (p<0.01) increase in SCM milk, whereas, the increase of ?1- acid glycoprotein in infected milk was significant (p<0.05). Fibrinogen was below detection level in both healthy and SCM milk. The percent sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated taking bacterial culture examination and SCC?2×105 cells/ml of milk as the benchmark. Udder profile correlation coefficient was also used. Allowing for statistical and epidemiological analysis, it was concluded that ?1- anti trypsin indicates SCM irrespective of etiology, whereas ?1- acid glycoprotein better diagnosed SCM caused by gram positive bacteria. NOx did not prove to be a good indicator of SCM. It is recommended measuring both ?1- anti trypsin and ?1- acid glycoprotein in milk to diagnose SCM in buffalo irrespective of etiology. PMID:25049851

  5. Comparative therapeutic effect of moxidectin, doramectin and ivermectin on psoroptes mites infestation in buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabry A. El-Khodery; Mitsu Ishii; Salama A. Osman; Magdy H. Al-Gaabary

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to carry out comparative therapeutic effect of moxidectin pour on, doramectin and ivermectin\\u000a on psoroptes infestation in buffalo. A total of 318 buffalo in 77 small scale herds suspected to have mange mites were examined\\u000a clinically and parasitologically. Fifty-three (16.66%) buffalo in 25 herds were recorded to be infested; 51 (16.35%) with\\u000a psoroptic

  6. Blood Biochemical and Ruminal Liquor Profile in Buffaloes ( Bubalus bubalis ) Showing Omasal Impaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Turkar; S. K. Uppal

    2007-01-01

    The blood biochemical and ruminal fluid parameters of 5 buffaloes showing omasal impaction were studied, together with 10\\u000a healthy buffaloes as control. The diseased buffaloes had significantly higher serum aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin,\\u000a glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, total protein, globulin and fibrinogen levels and significantly lower plasma calcium,\\u000a potassium and chloride concentrations than the controls. The ruminal liquor of the

  7. Blood biochemical and ruminal liquor profile in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) showing omasal impaction.

    PubMed

    Turkar, S; Uppal, S K

    2007-11-01

    The blood biochemical and ruminal fluid parameters of 5 buffaloes showing omasal impaction were studied, together with 10 healthy buffaloes as control. The diseased buffaloes had significantly higher serum aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, total protein, globulin and fibrinogen levels and significantly lower plasma calcium, potassium and chloride concentrations than the controls. The ruminal liquor of the diseased buffaloes revealed characteristic physical, chemical and microbial changes and had significantly higher methylene blue reduction time and ammonia-nitrogen level. PMID:17294261

  8. Macro-microscopical aspects of the buffalo (Bubalus bubalis Linnaeus, 1758) pineal gland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Flávia de Carvalho; Carlos Eduardo Ambrósio; Maria Angélica Miglino; Francisco Javier Hernandez Blazquez

    Gross and microscopical aspects of the buffalo pineal gland were described in seasonal parturition animals, since this gland is responsible for melatonin secretion which acts upon the hypothalamus-hypophysis reproductive axis feedback system. (Hafez, 1995). For the present study, 11 cross-bred buffaloes, predominantly of the Mediterranean breed, from the Pirassununga Campus - USP (University of São Paulo), were killed in different

  9. Myxosporeans infecting the gills of bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) in Illinois, USA.

    PubMed

    Lom, J; Cone, D

    1996-01-01

    Four myxosporean species were found on the gills of Ictiobus bubalus from Illinois (USA). Myxobolus endovasus (Davis, 1947) Grinham et Cone, 1990 is revised. Three new species are recorded. Myxobolus enoblei sp. n. has spores ovoid in frontal view, 14.3 x 13 microns in size. Myxobolus morrisonae sp. n. has spores subcircular in frontal view, 10 x 9.5 microns in size; the surface of shell valves appears hairy when studied by SEM. Triangula illinoisensis sp. n. has spores rounded semicircular in frontal view, 10.2 x 12.8 microns in size. Triangula illinoisensis is the fourth species of its genus to be described from fishes. PMID:8682408

  10. Progesterone supplementation during multiple ovulation treatment in buffalo species ( Bubalus bubalis )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gianluca Neglia; Bianca Gasparrini; Domenico Vecchio; Marcello Rubessa; Rossella Di Palo; Luigi Zicarelli; Giuseppe Campanile

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of exogenous progesterone supplementation on superovulatory response in buffaloes\\u000a that has undergone a multiple ovulation program. Fourteen Mediterranean buffaloes were divided into two groups and received\\u000a a 4-day decreasing dosage of an equal mixture of 500 IU of FSH and LH starting on day 8 of the cycle. In group A (n?=?7)

  11. Effect of Spermine-NONOate on acrosome reaction and associated protein tyrosine phosphorylation in Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Siddique, R A; Atreja, S K

    2012-03-01

    The present study was conducted to know the role of Nitric Oxide (NO) on the acrosome reaction (AR) in Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa. Ejaculated buffalo spermatozoa were washed, suspended in sp-TALP media containing 6 mg BSA/mL and cell concentration was adjusted to 50×10(6) cells/mL. The cells were incubated for 6h in the absence or presence of heparin (10 ?g/mL) to induce capacitation. Fully capacitated spermatozoa were incubated in presence of 100 ?g/mL Lysophosphatidyl choline (LPC, T1) or 100 ?M Spermine-NONOate (T2) or 100 mM L-NAME (T3) or 100 ?M Spermine-NONOate+100 mM L-NAME (T4) or 1 mM db-cAMP + 0.1 mM IBMX (T5) or 100?M H-89 (T6) or 100 ?M Spermine-NONOate+100 ?M H-89 (T7) in combination to induce acrosome reaction. The extent of AR was assessed by dual-staining of spermatozoa with trypan blue/Giemsa stain. AR-associated tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins were detected by SDS-PAGE followed by immunoblotting using monoclonal anti-phosphotyrosine antibody. Significant (P<0.05) number of spermatozoa were acrosome reacted in Spermine-NONOate (T2) treated cells but it was significantly (P<0.05) lower than LPC (T1) induced AR. Addition of Spermine-NONOate + L-NAME (T4) resulted in non significant (P>0.05) decrease in acrosome reaction. On addition of H-89 + Spermine-NONOate (T7) to sperm culture medium, resulted in significant (P<0.05) decrease in the percent acrosome reaction. Conversely, addition of db-cAMP+IBMX (T5, cAMP analogue) resulted in the significantly (P<0.05) higher number of acrosome reacted spermatozoa. Pattern of sperm protein tyrosine phosphorylation was also different in NO induced acrosome reaction compared to that of LPC. The present study concluded that nitric oxide is involved in acrosome reaction of buffalo spermatozoa by causing the tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins mainly p17 and p20 and through activation of cAMP/PKA pathway. PMID:22445612

  12. Laboratory-based measurements of swimming performance and related metabolic rates of field-sampled smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus): a study of seasonal changes.

    PubMed

    Adams, S R; Parsons, G R

    1998-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated how the performance physiology of fish may change when they are acclimated to designated laboratory temperatures, but few researchers have examined naturally occurring seasonal effects on several physiological parameters associated with swimming performance. Using field-acclimatized smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) collected each season, we report significant seasonal effects in the following variables: critical swimming speed (modified), metabolic rate (standard, active, and scope for activity), and swimming efficiency (total and net cost of transport). Underlying seasonal changes in performance was the reproductive cycle of buffalo, particularly the period of fall gonadal recrudescence. Compared with spring, fall buffalo had a significantly lower mean critical swimming speed (72%) and lower active metabolic rate (53%), even when tested at similar temperatures. During spring, buffalo had a high mean critical swimming speed and low net cost of transport in comparison with other seasons. Buffalo are known to participate in a spring migration and spawning that may require the increased performance and efficiency observed during that season. In addition, significant sex effects were detected in winter measurements of standard metabolic rate and net cost of transport, with females the more efficient swimmers. PMID:9678496

  13. Collagen-IV supported embryoid bodies formation and differentiation from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Taru Sharma, G., E-mail: gts553@gmail.com [Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Division of Physiology and Climatology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Bareilly, U.P. (India); Dubey, Pawan K.; Verma, Om Prakash; Pratheesh, M.D.; Nath, Amar; Sai Kumar, G. [Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Division of Physiology and Climatology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Bareilly, U.P. (India)] [Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Division of Physiology and Climatology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Bareilly, U.P. (India)

    2012-08-03

    Graphical abstract: EBs formation, characterization and expression of germinal layers marker genes of in vivo developed teratoma using four different types of extracellular matrices. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV matrix is found cytocompatible for EBs formation and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Established 3D microenvironment for ES cells development and differentiation into three germ layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV may be useful as promising candidate for ES cells based therapeutic applications. -- Abstract: Embryoid bodies (EBs) are used as in vitro model to study early extraembryonic tissue formation and differentiation. In this study, a novel method using three dimensional extracellular matrices for in vitro generation of EBs from buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cells and its differentiation potential by teratoma formation was successfully established. In vitro derived inner cell masses (ICMs) of hatched buffalo blastocyst were cultured on buffalo fetal fibroblast feeder layer for primary cell colony formation. For generation of EBs, pluripotent ES cells were seeded onto four different types of extracellular matrices viz; collagen-IV, laminin, fibronectin and matrigel using undifferentiating ES cell culture medium. After 5 days of culture, ESCs gradually grew into aggregates and formed simple EBs having circular structures. Twenty-six days later, they formed cystic EBs over collagen matrix with higher EBs formation and greater proliferation rate as compared to other extracellular matrices. Studies involving histological observations, fluorescence microscopy and RT-PCR analysis of the in vivo developed teratoma revealed that presence of all the three germ layer derivatives viz. ectoderm (NCAM), mesoderm (Flk-1) and endoderm (AFP). In conclusion, the method described here demonstrates a simple and cost-effective way of generating EBs from buffalo ES cells. Collagen-IV matrix was found cytocompatible as it supported buffalo EBs formation, their subsequent differentiation could prove to be useful as promising candidate for ES cells based therapeutic applications.

  14. Molecular characterization and expression profile of ghrelin gene during different reproductive phases in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, S; Jain, A; Baviskar, P; Kumar, R; Joshi, P; Agarwal, S K; Mitra, A

    2013-08-01

    Ghrelin, a novel motilin-related endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagouge receptor, is implicated in various biological functions, including regulation of female reproduction. But the presence of ghrelin and its role in reproductive functions in buffalo, a species with poor reproductive efficiency, is not known. In the present study full-length ghrelin cDNA was isolated from bubaline abomasum, which encodes the entire prepropeptide of 116 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of ghrelin of buffalo showed >95% and 31% identity with that of ruminants (cattle, sheep, and goat) and humans, respectively. Analysis of synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions in the coding region of ghrelin indicated that these sequences of different species have been under purifying selection. The 3995-bp amplicon of ghrelin gene consisting of 4 exons and 3 introns was cloned with genomic DNA from buffalo. Further, ghrelin expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry in bubaline endometrial tissues at different stages of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Our results indicated the persistent expression of ghrelin mRNA and protein in the endometrium during stage I (day 3-5), stage II (day 6-15), and stage III (day 16-21) of the estrous cycle and also during early (~day 30-40) pregnancy. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR experiments indicated the relatively higher expression of ghrelin in the endometrium during stage II (day 6-15) of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy than during stage I (day 3-5) and stage III (day 16-21) of the estrous cycle, but no statistically significant difference in ghrelin expression was observed among stages. To conclude, the results of the present study indicate the persistent expression of ghrelin in the uterine endometrium throughout the estrous cycle and in early pregnancy which might be helpful in determining its role in buffalo reproduction. PMID:23796362

  15. Reproductive characteristics and thyroidal function in relation with season in Khuzestan buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls

    PubMed Central

    Mayahi, Sadegh; Mamouei, Morteza; Tabatabaei, Saleh; Mirzadeh, Khalil

    2014-01-01

    High ambient temperature is the major constraint on Buffalo productivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance and thyroid gland function in winter and summer seasons in Khuzestan buffalo bulls. Six male indigenous buffaloes of Khuzestan with nearly the same age (2-3 years old) and weight were used. Semen and blood samples through jugular vein were collected, every two weeks throughout the summer and winter seasons. The thyroid hormones and thyrotropin stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration in blood serum were measured by radioimmunoassay method. Semen quality was determined, using computer assisted sperm analyzer (CASA) and routine methods. The concentration of thyroxin (T4) was lower in winter than summer (p ? 0.05). The level of T3 uptake was higher in cold season than that of in hot season (p ? 0.05). The differences of tri-iodotyronine (T3) and TSH concentrations, as well as free thyroxin index were not significant between seasons. The semen volume and spermatozoa parameters including concentration, progressive motility, linear velocity, mean velocity, beat cross frequency, linear coefficient and straightness coefficient were higher in winter than summer (p ? 0.05). Semen pH and amplitude of lateral head displacement of spermatozoa were higher in summer than winter (p ? 0.05). In winter, there was positive correlation between spermatozoa concentration and T3 value of blood serum (p ? 0.05). There were positive correlations between values of semen volume and T4, progressive spermatozoa motility percent and TSH, as well as, total motility of spermatozoa and TSH in summer (p ? 0.05). In general, thyroid function and semen quality of Khuzestan buffaloes may be affected by seasons. PMID:25568719

  16. Molecular Identification of Methanogenic Archaea From Surti Buffaloes (Bubalus Bubalis), Reveals More Hydrogenotrophic Methanogens Phylotypes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, K.M.; Pandya, P.R.; Parnerkar, S.; Tripathi, A.K.; Rank, D.N.; Kothari, R.K.; Joshi, C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock are considered to be one of the more potent forms of greenhouses gases contributing to global warming. Many strategies to reduce emissions are targeting the methanogens that inhabit the rumen, but such an approach can only be successful if it targets all the major groups of ruminant methanogens. Therefore, a thorough knowledge of the diversity of these microbes in breeds of buffaloes, as well as in response to geographical location and different diets, is required. Therefore, molecular diversity of rumen methanogens in Surti buffaloes was investigated using 16S rRNA gene libraries prepared from pooled rumen contents from three Surti buffaloes. A total of 171 clones were identified revealing 23 different sequences (phylotypes). Of these 23 sequences, twelve sequences (12 OTUs, 83 clones) and 10 sequences (10 OTUs, 83 clones) were similar to methanogens belonging to the orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanobacteriales, and the remaining 1 phylotype (5 clones) were similar to Methanosarcina barkeri. These unique sequences clustered within a distinct and strongly supported phylogenetic group. Further studies and effective strategies can be made to inhibit the growth of Methanomicrobiales and Methanobacteriales phylotypes to reduce the methane emission from rumen and thus help in preventing global warming. PMID:24031614

  17. Preliminary Crystallographic Study of Hemoglobin from Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): A Low Oxygen Affinity Species.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Moovarkumudalvan; Moorthy, Ponnuraj Sathya; Neelagandan, Kamariah; Ponnuswamy, Mondikalipudur Nanjappa Gounder

    2009-01-01

    Hemoglobin is a tetrameric, iron-containing metalloprotein, which plays a vital role in the transportation of oxygen from lungs to tissues and carbon dioxide back to lungs. Though good amount of work has already been done on hemoglobins, the scarcity of data on three dimensional structures pertaining to low oxygen affinity hemoglobins from mammalian species, motivated our group to work on this problem specifically. Herein, we report the preliminary crystallographic analysis of buffalo hemoglobin, which belongs to low oxygen affinity species. The buffalo blood was collected, purified by anion exchange chromatography and crystallized with PEG 3350 using 50mM phosphate buffer at pH 6.7 as a precipitant by hanging drop vapor diffusion method. Data collection was carried out using mar345dtb image plate detector system. Buffalo hemoglobin crystallizes in orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with one whole biological molecule (alpha2beta2) in the asymmetric unit with cell dimensions a=63.064A, b=74.677A, c=110.224A. PMID:19200047

  18. Glutathione-S-transferase: role in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) sperm capacitation and cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raj; Singh, V K; Atreja, S K

    2014-03-01

    In this study, glutathione-S-transferase Mu3 (GST) has been reported to play an important role in sperm capacitation, acrosome reaction, and fertilization. The freshly ejaculated buffalo spermatozoa were in vitro capacitated using heparin (10 ?g/mL) or cryopreserved in egg yolk citrate extender. Glutathione-S-transferase was identified and characterized in terms of their isozymic forms, tyrosine phosphorylation, and immunolocalization patterns in cryopreserved buffalo spermatozoa in comparison with freshly ejaculated and in vitro capacitated spermatozoa. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, immunoblot, immunocytochemistry, and enzyme activity analyses were done to characterize GST in this study. Five and eight isozymic forms of GST were detected in cryopreserved and capacitated spermatozoa, respectively. Differential tyrosine phosphorylation of these enzymes was observed in cryopreserved and capacitated spermatozoa. The tyrosine phosphorylation of this enzyme involved cAMP protein kinase-A dependent and extracellular signal-regulated kinase independent pathways during in vitro capacitation of the spermatozoa. Differential immunolocalization patterns of GST were observed in freshly ejaculated, capacitated, and cryopreserved spermatozoa. Glutathione-S-transferase Mu3 enzyme activity was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) different in freshly ejaculated, capacitated, and cryopreserved spermatozoa. Activity of GST was significantly (P < 0.05) increased with the progression of capacitation. The cryopreserved spermatozoa showed significantly (P < 0.05) greater enzyme activity compared with fresh spermatozoa and was equal to 2-hour capacitated spermatozoa. The cryopreserved spermatozoa showed significant (P < 0.05) loss of GST enzyme protein. Tyrosine phosphorylated GST showed significantly (P < 0.05) greater activity compared with their dephosphorylated forms. The information generated in this study can be used to understand the molecular mechanism of the effects of GST on capacitation. Regulation of GST during sperm cryopreservation could be a good target to improve fertility of cryopreserved spermatozoa for their use in assisted reproductive technologies. PMID:24388131

  19. Cross Talk between KGF and KITLG Proteins Implicated with Ovarian Folliculogenesis in Buffalo Bubalus bubalis

    PubMed Central

    Panwar, Deepak; Rawal, Leena; Sehgal, Neeta; Ali, Sher

    2015-01-01

    Molecular interactions between mesenchymal-derived Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and Kit ligand (KITLG) are essential for follicular development. These factors are expressed by theca and granulosa cells. We determined full length coding sequence of buffalo KGF and KITLG proteins having 194 and 274 amino acids, respectively. The recombinant KGF and KITLG proteins were solubilized in 10 mM Tris, pH 7.5 and 50 mM Tris, pH 7.4 and purified using Ni-NTA column and GST affinity chromatography, respectively. The purity and molecular weight of His-KGF (~23 kDa) and GST-KITLG (~57 kDa) proteins were confirmed by SDS-PAGE and western blotting. The co-immunoprecipitation assay accompanied with computational analysis demonstrated the interaction between KGF and KITLG proteins. We deduced 3D structures of the candidate proteins and assessed their binding based on protein docking. In the process, KGF specific residues, Lys123, Glu135, Lys140, Lys155 and Trp156 and KITLG specific ones, Ser226, Phe233, Gly234, Ala235, Phe236, Trp238 and Lys239 involved in the formation of KGF-KITLG complex were detected. The hydrophobic interactions surrounding KGF-KITLG complex affirmed their binding affinity and stability to the interacting interface. Additionally, in-silico site directed mutagenesis enabled the assessment of changes that occurred in the binding energies of mutated KGF-KITLG protein complex. Our results demonstrate that in the presence of KITLG, KGF mimics its native binding mode suggesting all the KGF residues are specific to their binding complex. This study provides an insight on the critical amino acid residues participating in buffalo ovarian folliculogenesis. PMID:26083339

  20. Development of a sequential multicolor-FISH approach with 13 chromosome-specific painting probes for the rapid identification of river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, 2n?=?50) chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Pauciullo, Alfredo; Perucatti, Angela; Iannuzzi, Alessandra; Incarnato, Domenico; Genualdo, Viviana; Di Berardino, Dino; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo

    2014-08-01

    The development of new molecular techniques (array CGH, M-FISH, SKY-FISH, etc.) has led to great advancements in the entire field of molecular cytogenetics. However, the application of these methods is still very limited in farm animals. In the present study, we report, for the first time, the production of 13 river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, 2n?=?50) chromosome-specific painting probes, generated via chromosome microdissection and the DOP-PCR procedure. A sequential multicolor-FISH approach is also proposed on the same slide for the rapid identification of river buffalo chromosome/arms, namely, 1p-1q, 2p-2q, 3p-3q, 4p-4q, 5p-5q, 18, X, and Y, using both conventional and late-replicating banded chromosome preparations counterstained by DAPI. The provided 'bank' of chromosome-specific painting probes is useful for any further cytogenetic investigation not only for the buffalo breeds, but also for other species of the family Bovidae, such as cattle, sheep, and goats, for chromosome abnormality diagnosis, and, more generally, for evolutionary studies. PMID:24664789

  1. Phylogenetic relationship among all living species of the genus Bubalus based on DNA sequences of the cytochrome b gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuaki Tanaka; Chester D. Solis; Joseph S. Masangkay; Kei-ichiro Maeda; Yoshi Kawamoto; Takao Namikawa I

    1996-01-01

    The cytochromeb genes of all living species ofBubalus, including the river type and the swamp type of domestic buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), were sequenced to clarify their phylogenetic relationships. These sequences were compared together with the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and banteng (Bos javanicus) sequences as an outgroup. Phylogenetic trees ofBubalus species based on the DNA sequences of the cytochromeb gene

  2. Bovine papillomavirus type 1 DNA and E5 oncoprotein expression in water buffalo fibropapillomas.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, O; Borzacchiello, G; Nava, D; Iovane, G; Russo, V; Vecchio, D; D'Ausilio, F; Gault, E A; Campo, M S; Paciello, O

    2009-07-01

    Papillomas and fibropapillomas may occur in the skin and in different organs in animals. Ten different genotypes of bovine papillomavirus (BPV) have been identified. BPV-1 through BPV-10 are all strictly species-specific, but BPV-1/2 may also infect other species such as equids, inducing fibroblastic tumors. BPV-1 and BPV-2 are associated with fibropapillomas in cattle; these tumors are formed by excessive proliferation of virus-infected dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes. Nine water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) were examined for the presence of multiple cutaneous and perivulvar tumors. Cutaneous and perivulvar fibropapillomatosis were confirmed histologically. Negative-stain transmission electron microscopic examination revealed papillomavirus-like particles in the fibropapillomas, and papillomaviral DNA was also detected by the polymerase chain reaction. The amplified long control region (LCR) DNA sequence was identical to that of BPV-1. The BPV-1 E5 oncoprotein was strongly expressed in the tumor cells thus confirming a causal role of the virus. This article represents the first report of cutaneous, perivulvar, and vulvar fibropapilloma associated with BPV-1 infection in the water buffalo and describes another example of cross-species infection by BPV-1. PMID:19276046

  3. Genetic and Phylogenetic Studies of Toll-Like Receptor 5 (TLR5) in River Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) 

    E-print Network

    Jones, Brittany

    2012-08-21

    River buffalo are economically important to many countries and only recently has their genome been explored for the purpose of mapping genetic variation in traits of economic and biologic interest. The purpose of this ...

  4. Effects of Exposure to Heavy Metals on Viability, Maturation, Fertilization, and Embryonic Development of Buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis ) Oocytes In Vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Nandi; P. S. P. Gupta; S. Selvaraju; S. C. Roy; J. P. Ravindra

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of heavy metals, cadmium and lead, on buffalo oocyte viability and\\u000a in vitro development. Oocytes were aspirated from ovaries of slaughtered buffaloes. Only viable and metabolically active oocytes\\u000a with more than three layers of cumulus cell layers and homogeneous ooplasm were selected. Effects of nine concentrations (0,\\u000a 0.005, 0.05,

  5. Effect of low density lipoproteins in extender on freezability and fertility of buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis) bull semen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Akhter; M. S. Ansari; B. A. Rakha; S. M. H. Andrabi; M. Khalid; N. Ullah

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether low-density lipoporoteins (LDLs) extracted from egg yolk in extender improve the freezability and fertility of buffalo bull semen. Semen from three Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls was diluted at 37 °C with tris-citric acid extender (50 × 106 motile spermatozoa mL?1) containing LDLs 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 15% extracted from egg yolk and extender containing

  6. Comparative study of experimental Foot-and-Mouth Disease in cattle (Bos indicus) and buffaloes (Bubalis bubalus).

    PubMed

    Maddur, Mohan S; Mohan, M S; Gajendragad, M R; Gopalakrishna, S; Singh, Nem

    2008-08-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious diseases affecting wide range of host species with variable severity and decreased productivity. The present study was undertaken to compare the clinical and leucocytic changes in indigenous Indian cattle and buffaloes experimentally infected with FMD virus (FMDV) Asia 1. A mild type of disease was observed in the cattle, more so in buffaloes infected with FMDV. Difference in terms of type, site and healing of lesion was observed between cattle and buffaloes. Foot lesions were more common than tongue in buffaloes, which were mainly evident in bulb of the heel in contrast to interdigital foot lesions in cattle. Further, FMDV infection induced a transient moderate leucopenia with lymphopenia in both cattle and buffaloes, but monocyte levels diverged. Relationship between the raised body temperature, leucocytic changes and lesion development was observed. Microscopic changes were observed in the keratinized epithelium of tongue and foot. The findings of the present study indicated the need to investigate the early leucocytic changes in cattle and buffaloes in depth for better understanding of the disease process. PMID:18491212

  7. Effectiveness of poll stunning water buffalo with captive bolt guns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. G. Gregory; J. Y. Spence; C. W. Mason; A. Tinarwo; L. Heasman

    2009-01-01

    Practical experience has indicated that shooting water buffalo with a captive bolt gun in the front of the head does not always produce an effective stun. Slaughtermen have been claiming that the poll position is more reliable, but under present EU regulations this shooting position is not allowed for domesticated bovines. This study examined the effectiveness of shooting water buffalo

  8. Anatomic reference for computed tomography of paranasal sinuses and their communication in the Egyptian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Alsafy, M A M; El-Gendy, S A A; El Sharaby, A A

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to present an anatomic reference for computed tomography (CT) for the paranasal sinuses of adult buffalo fit the use of anatomists, radiologists, clinicians and veterinary students. CT images with the most closely corresponding cross sections of the head were selected and studied serially in a rostral to caudal progression from the level of the interdental space to the level of the nuchal line. The anatomical features were compared with the dissected heads and skulls. The paranasal sinuses of buffalo comprise dorsal conchal, middle conchal, maxillary, frontal, palatine, sphenoidal (inconstant, small and shallow when present), lacrimal and ethmoidal that were identified and labelled according to the premolar and molar teeth as landmarks. The topographic description of all the compartments, diverticula, septa and communication of the paranasal sinuses in buffalo has been presented. The relationship between the various air cavities and paranasal sinuses was easily visualized. PMID:22994483

  9. Clinical outcomes and molecular genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk samples of dairy primiparous Mediterranean buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Guccione, J; Cosandey, A; Pesce, A; Di Loria, A; Pascale, M; Piantedosi, D; Steiner, A; Graber, H U; Ciaramella, P

    2014-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogens causing mastitis in dairy cows and in Mediterranean buffaloes. Genotype B (GTB) is contagious in dairy cows and may occur in up to 87% of cows of a dairy herd. It was the aim of this study to evaluate genotypes present, clinical outcomes, and prevalence of Staph. aureus in milk samples of primiparous Mediterranean dairy buffaloes. Two hundred composite milk samples originating from 40 primiparous buffaloes were collected from May to June 2012, at d 10, 30, 60, 90, and 150 d in milk (DIM) to perform somatic cell counts and bacteriological cultures. Daily milk yields were recorded. Before parturition until 40 to 50 DIM, all primiparous animals were housed separated from the pluriparous animals. Milking was performed in the same milking parlor, but the primiparous animals were milked first. After 50 DIM, the primiparous were mixed with the pluriparous animals, including the milking procedure. Individual quarter samples were collected from each animal, and aliquots of 1 mL were mixed and used for molecular identification and genotyping of Staph. aureus. The identification of Staph. aureus was performed verifying the presence of nuc gene by nuc gene PCR. All the nuc-positive isolates were subjected to genotype analysis by means of PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region and analyzed by a miniaturized electrophoresis system. Of all 200 composite samples, 41 (20.5%) were positive for Staph. aureus, and no genotype other than GTB was identified. The prevalence of samples positive for Staph. aureus was 0% at 10 DIM and increased to a maximum of 22/40 (55%) at 90 DIM. During the period of interest, 14 buffaloes tested positive for Staph. aureus once, 6 were positive twice, and 5 were positive 3 times, whereas 15 animals were negative at every sampling. At 90 and 150 DIM, 7 (17.5%) and 3 buffaloes (7.5%), respectively, showed clinical mastitis (CM), and only 1 (2.5%) showed CM at both samplings. At 60, 90, and 150 DIM, 1 buffalo was found with subclinical mastitis at each sampling. At 30, 60, 90, and 150 DIM, 2.5 (1/40), 22.5 (9/40), 35 (14/40), and 10% (4/40) were considered affected by intramammary infection, respectively. Buffaloes with CM caused by Staph. aureus had statistically significantly higher mean somatic cell count values (6.06 ± 0.29, Log10 cells/mL ± standard deviation) and statistically significantly lower mean daily milk yields (7.15 ± 1.49, liters/animal per day) than healthy animals (4.69 ± 0.23 and 13.87 ± 2.64, respectively), buffaloes with IMI (4.82 ± 0.23 and 11.16 ± 1.80, respectively), or with subclinical mastitis (5.47 ± 0.10 and 10.33 ± 0.68, respectively). Based on our knowledge, this is the first time that Staph. aureus GTB has been identified in milk samples of dairy Mediterranean buffaloes. PMID:25459906

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of beta-defensin cDNA expressed in distal ileum of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Das, Dhanjit Kumar; Sharma, Bhaskar; Mitra, Abhijit; Kumar, Ashok

    2005-02-01

    Defensins play a prominent role in protection of various epithelial surfaces. In this study, we have cloned and characterized the mRNA from the distal ileum of Bubalus bubalis. Total RNA after isolation from ileal epithelium was reverse transcribed to synthesize cDNA using primers designed by taking conserved region of cattle enteric beta-defensin (EBD) mRNA, goat beta-defensin 2 (BD 2) and cattle lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP) mRNA sequences. The PCR amplified cDNA of 254 bp was ligated to pDrive cloning vector and transformed into XL-blue strain of E coli. The sequence analysis indicated 29 nucleotide substitutions with reported cattle EBD mRNA sequence sharing 86.2% homology, 92.1% with cattle LAP, 81.6% with cattle tracheal antimicrobial peptide and 84.6% with goat BD 2. The deduced amino acid sequence encodes for a 64 amino acid precursor peptide. Both nucleotide and amino acid sequence homology shows that the cloned sequence is closer to cattle LAP. PMID:16040342

  11. Phenotypic Characterization and Multivariate Analysis to Explain Body Conformation in Lesser Known Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from North India

    PubMed Central

    Vohra, V.; Niranjan, S. K.; Mishra, A. K.; Jamuna, V.; Chopra, A.; Sharma, Neelesh; Jeong, Dong Kee

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic characterization and body biometric in 13 traits (height at withers, body length, chest girth, paunch girth, ear length, tail length, length of tail up to switch, face length, face width, horn length, circumference of horn at base, distances between pin bone and hip bone) were recorded in 233 adult Gojri buffaloes from Punjab and Himachal Pradesh states of India. Traits were analysed by using varimax rotated principal component analysis (PCA) with Kaiser Normalization to explain body conformation. PCA revealed four components which explained about 70.9% of the total variation. First component described the general body conformation and explained 31.5% of total variation. It was represented by significant positive high loading of height at wither, body length, heart girth, face length and face width. The communality ranged from 0.83 (hip bone distance) to 0.45 (horn length) and unique factors ranged from 0.16 to 0.55 for all these 13 different biometric traits. Present study suggests that first principal component can be used in the evaluation and comparison of body conformation in buffaloes and thus provides an opportunity to distinguish between early and late maturing to adult, based on a small group of biometric traits to explain body conformation in adult buffaloes. PMID:25656215

  12. Generation of bovine (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) adipose tissue derived stem cells: isolation, characterization, and multipotentiality.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, R V; Chiaratti, M R; Santos, D C N; Bressan, F F; Sangalli, J R; Sá, A L A; Silva, T V G; Costa, N N; Cordeiro, M S; Santos, S S D; Ambrosio, C E; Adona, P R; Meirelles, F V; Miranda, M S; Ohashi, O M

    2015-01-01

    Adult stem cells are known for their plasticity and their potential to differentiate into several different cell types; these characteristics have implications for cell therapy and reproductive biotechnologies. In this study, we report on the isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) derived from bovine and buffalo adipose tissue. Cells isolated using enzymatic digestion of bovine and buffalo adipose-tissue biopsy samples were grown in vitro for at least 15 passages, verifying their capacity to proliferate. These cells were also subjected to immunophenotypic characterization for the presence of CD90, CD105, and CD79, and the absence of CD45, CD34, and CD73, which are positive and negative markers of MSC, respectively. To prove their multipotency, the cells were induced to differentiate into three different cell types, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes, which were stained with tissue-specific dyes (Chondrogenic-Alcian Blue, Osteogenic-Alizarin Red, and Adipogenic-Oil-Red O, respectively) to confirm differentiation. Gene expression analysis of pluripotency-related genes was also conducted. Our results suggest that adipose tissue from bovines and buffalos can be used as a source of MSC, making adipose tissue-derived cells an interesting option for cell therapy and regenerative medicine. Additionally, these findings have implications for reproductive biotechnology because the use of MSC as nuclear donors has been linked to an increase in the efficiency of nuclear transfer. PMID:25729935

  13. Effect of Extender and Equilibration Time on Post Thaw Motility and Chromatin Structure of Buffalo Bull (Bubalus Bubalis) Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Shahverdi, Abdolhossain; Rastegarnia, Abdolreza; Rezaei Topraggaleh, Tohid

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of four equilibration times (2, 4, 8 and 16 hours) and two extenders (tris or Bioxcell®) on cryopreservation of buffalo semen. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, split pooled ejaculates (n=4), possessing more than 70% visual sperm motility were divided in two aliquots and diluted in Bioxcell® and tris-citric egg yolk (TCE) extenders. Semen was cooled to 4°C within 2 hours, equilibrated at 4°C for 2, 4, 8 and 16 hours, then transferred into 0.5 ml French straws, and frozen in a programmable cell freezer before being plunged into liquid nitrogen. Postthaw motility characteristics, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome morphology and DNA integrity of the buffalo sperm were studied after thawing. Results There were significant interactions between equilibration times and extenders for sperm motility and membrane integrity. Post thaw sperm motility (PMOT), progressive motile spermatozoa (PROG), plasma membrane integrity (PMI) and normal apical ridge (NAR) measures were lower for sperm equilibrated for 2 hours in both TCE and Bioxcell® extender compared to others equilibration times. PMOT, PMI and NAR for sperm equilibrated for 4, 8 and 16 hours showed no significant differences in either extender, although PROG measures were superior in Bioxcell®compared to TCE at all equilibration times (p<0.05). Kinematic parameters such as average path velocity, curvilinear velocity and linearity in the Bioxcell®extender were superior to those in the TCE extender studied. In contrast to motility and viability, the DNA integrity of post thaw spermatozoa remained unaffected by different equilibration times. Conclusion Equilibration time is necessary for preservation of the motility and integrity of buffalo sperm membranes. Equilibration times of over than 2 hours resulted in the greatest preservation of total semen parameters during cryopreservation. There were no significant interactions between equilibration times over 4 hours and type of extender which lead to greater post thaw sperm survival. PMID:24611139

  14. Effect of low density lipoproteins in extender on freezability and fertility of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull semen.

    PubMed

    Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Rakha, B A; Andrabi, S M H; Khalid, M; Ullah, N

    2011-09-01

    This study was designed to determine whether low-density lipoporoteins (LDLs) extracted from egg yolk in extender improve the freezability and fertility of buffalo bull semen. Semen from three Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls was diluted at 37 °C with tris-citric acid extender (50 × 10(6) motile spermatozoa mL(-1)) containing LDLs 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 15% extracted from egg yolk and extender containing 20% egg yolk was kept as control. Diluted semen was cooled to 4 °C in 2 h, equilibrated at 4 °C for 4 h, filled in 0.5 mL French straws, and kept on liquid nitrogen vapors for 10 min. Straws were then plunged and stored in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C). Sperm motility (visually; %), plasma membrane integrity (%; with supravital hypo-osmotic swelling test), and viability (%; with dual staining test using Trypan-blue Giemsa) were assessed at post-dilution, pre-freezing and post-thawing. At post-dilution and pre-freezing, sperm progressive motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability was similar (P > 0.05) in extender containing 10% LDLs or the control. However, at post-thaw the aforementioned parameters were higher (P < 0.05) in extender containing 10% LDLs compared with the control and other experimental extenders. The fertility rate of inseminations performed were higher (P < 0.05) with extender containing 10% LDLs than the control. It was concluded that LDLs (10%) in extender improved the freezability and fertility of buffalo bull spermatozoa. PMID:21601914

  15. Maturation rates of vitrified-thawed immature buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes: effect of different types of cryoprotectants.

    PubMed

    Wani, N A; Misra, A K; Maurya, S N

    2004-09-01

    Cryopreservation of oocytes collected from slaughtered animals of high genetic value, their subsequent utilisation for production of embryos for transfer may provide an opportunity to replenish the valuable germplasm lost. Experiments were conducted to study the effect of cryoprotectants, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol (EG), 1,2-propanediol (PROH) and glycerol at different concentrations (3.5, 4, 5, 6 and 7 M each with 0.5M sucrose and 0.4% BSA in DPBS) on morphological survival and in vitro maturation of vitrified-thawed immature buffalo oocytes. The cumulus oocyte complexes were harvested from the ovaries obtained from a local slaughterhouse by aspirating the visible follicles. Less number of oocytes reached metaphase-II stage from the oocytes cryopreserved in any of the concentrations of DMSO, EG, PROH and glycerol compared to fresh oocytes. Among the vitrified groups, highest maturation (40.3, 42.5, 40.4 and 23.5%) was obtained in 7 M DMSO, EG, PROH and glycerol, respectively. Oocytes reaching to M-II stage from the oocytes cryopreserved in 7 M glycerol were significantly lower than that of the oocytes vitrified in 7 M DMSO, EG and PROH. It can be concluded that 7 M solutions of DMSO, EG and PROH can be used for vitrification of immature buffalo oocytes for subsequent utilisation of these oocytes in IVM/IVF and embryo production for transfer. PMID:15302375

  16. Microbial population in the rumen of swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) as influenced by coconut oil and mangosteen peel supplementation.

    PubMed

    Pilajun, R; Wanapat, M

    2013-06-01

    Four, rumen fistulated swamp buffalo bulls were used to study microbial populations in the rumen when supplemented with coconut oil and mangosteen peel. Animals were randomly assigned to a 4?×?4 Latin square design. Four treatments were un-supplemented (Control), supplementation with coconut oil at 50?g/kg (CO5), supplementation with mangosteen peel at 30?g/kg (MP3) and supplementation with CO5 and MP3 (COM), of total DM intake. Animals received concentrate at 10?g/kg of BW, and rice straw was given ad libitum. Abundance of total bacteria was increased by CO5 supplementation, whereas populations of protozoa and Fibrobacter succinogenes were reduced by CO5 and COM supplementation. Dietary supplementation did not affect methanogen, Ruminococcus flavefaciens or Ruminococcus albus abundances. Dietary treatments changed denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) band patterns of methanogens and protozoa when compared with the control group, especially when supplemented with MP3. Supplementation of COM resulted in the greatest difference in pattern of DGGE bands for total bacteria compared with the control. Coconut oil and mangosteen peel supplementation resulted in changing of rumen microbial abundances and communities; however, combination of them could be more benefit to improve rumen fermentation of swamp buffalo fed on rice straw. PMID:22356106

  17. Effects of exposure to heavy metals on viability, maturation, fertilization, and embryonic development of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nandi, S; Gupta, P S P; Selvaraju, S; Roy, S C; Ravindra, J P

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of heavy metals, cadmium and lead, on buffalo oocyte viability and in vitro development. Oocytes were aspirated from ovaries of slaughtered buffaloes. Only viable and metabolically active oocytes with more than three layers of cumulus cell layers and homogeneous ooplasm were selected. Effects of nine concentrations (0, 0.005, 0.05, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.5, 5, and 10 microg/mL) of cadmium or lead on buffalo oocyte viability, morphological abnormities, maturation, and embryonic development in vitro were studied. Oocytes were cultured for 24 h and then checked for viability (0.05% trypan blue staining for 2 min), morphological abnormalities, and reduction assay by MTT test in experiment 1. The doses of cadmium and lead causing 100% oocyte death (1-day culture) were determined (experiment 2). In experiment 3, viable oocytes were matured in vitro in media containing different levels of cadmium or lead and then inseminated in vitro with frozen-thawed spermatozoa, and the resultant cleaved embryos were cultured in a control embryo culture medium for 8 days. In experiment 4, oocytes were cultured in control oocyte maturation medium, then fertilized, and the resultant embryos were cultured in media containing different levels of cadmium or lead for 8 days. The number of cells in the trophectoderm and inner cell mass (ICM) and the total cell counts (TCN) of blastocysts derived by in vitro culture of two- to four-cell-stage embryos (produced in control medium) in media containing 0, 0.005, 0.05, 0.5, and 1.0 microg/mL of cadmium or lead were analyzed by differential staining technique (experiment 5). Cadmium and lead were found to have a dose-dependent effect on viability, morphological abnormities, maturation, cleavage and morula/blastocyst yield, and blastocyst hatching. A significant decline in viability of oocytes was observed at 1.0 mg/mL cadmium or lead compared to the control group. The doses of cadmium and lead causing 100% oocyte death (1-day culture) were 18 and 32 microg/mL, respectively. Cadmium and lead at 1.0 and 2.5 microg/mL, respectively, caused a significant reduction of maturation of oocytes compared to the lower concentrations. No cleavage or morulae/blastocysts were produced when the oocytes/embryos were cultured in media containing 2.5 and 5.0 mg/mL of either cadmium or lead, respectively. Similarly, no morulae/blastocysts were produced from cleaved embryos cultured in media containing 2.5 and 5.0 microg/mL cadmium and lead, respectively. The developmental block, degeneration, and asynchronous divisions were higher in embryos exposed to cadmium than in those exposed to lead. TCN and number of cells in ICM were significantly lower in blastocysts derived from two- to four-cell-stage embryos cultured in media containing heavy metals. In conclusion, cadmium and lead lowered the viability and development of buffalo oocytes but at a concentration higher than that estimated in the body fluids and environment. Cadmium was found to be more ovotoxic than lead. PMID:19475365

  18. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure growth hormone level in serum and milk of buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Mishra, A; Goswami, T K; Shukla, D C

    2007-07-01

    An indirect Sandwich ELISA to measure growth hormone level in serum and milk of buffaloes was developed. The assay was based on purified anti rbST IgG raised in rabbits and chicken and rabbit anti chicken IgG horseradish peroxidase. The assay was validated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, precision and recovery. Parallelism was demonstrated between the standard curve and serially diluted serum, milk and pituitary derived growth hormone. Sensitivity of the assay was 0.1 ng/ml. Recovery of exogenous bovine somatotropin from serum and milk ranged from 90 to 102% and 96 to 108% respectively. The intra and inter assay variations to measure growth hormone in serum and milk were 3.36 to 8.81% and 6.01 to 12.31% respectively. Statistical analysis for parallelism and cross-reactivity of rbST with serum of other species confirmed the reproducibility of the assay. PMID:17821853

  19. Effect of cryoprotectants and their concentration on in vitro development of vitrified-warmed immature oocytes in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Wani, N A; Maurya, S N; Misra, A K; Saxena, V B; Lakhchaura, B D

    2004-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the effect of cryoprotectants, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol (EG), 1,2-propanediol (PROH), and glycerol at different concentrations (3.5, 4, 5, 6, and 7 M each with 0.5 M sucrose and 0.4% BSA in DPBS) on survival, in vitro maturation, in vitro fertilization, and post-fertilization development of vitrified-thawed immature buffalo oocytes. The COCs were harvested from the ovaries by aspirating the visible follicles. The recovery of post-thaw morphologically normal oocytes was lower in 3.5 and 4 M DMSO, EG, and PROH compared to 5, 6, and 7 M. In all the concentrations of glycerol, an overall lower numbers of oocytes recovered were normal compared to other cryoprotectants. Less number of oocytes reached metaphase-II (M-II) stage from the oocytes cryopreserved in any of the concentrations of DMSO, EG, PROH, and glycerol compared to fresh oocytes. Among the vitrified groups, highest maturation was obtained in 7 M solutions of all the cryoprotectants. The cleavage rates of oocytes vitrified in different concentrations of DMSO, EG, PROH, and glycerol were lower than that of the fresh oocytes. The cleavage rates were higher in oocytes cryopreserved in 6 and 7 M DMSO, EG, PROH, and glycerol compared with oocytes cryopreserved in other concentrations. However, the percentage of morula and blastocyst formation from the cleaved embryos did not vary in fresh oocytes and vitrified oocytes. In conclusion, this report describes the first successful production of buffalo blastocysts from immature oocytes cryopreserved by vitrification. PMID:14757469

  20. Early cleavage of handmade cloned buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos is an indicator of their developmental competence and quality.

    PubMed

    Kaith, S; Saini, M; Raja, A K; Sahare, A A; Jyotsana, B; Madheshiya, P; Palta, P; Chauhan, M S; Manik, R S; Singla, S K

    2015-04-01

    Following IVF, embryos which cleave early have been shown to have higher developmental competence and quality than those that cleave relatively later across many species. We investigated the effect of time of cleavage on the developmental competence, quality, epigenetic status and gene expression in buffalo embryos produced by handmade cloning (HMC). Following classification of embryos as early cleaving (EC) or late cleaving (LC) based on whether they had cleaved or not at 24 h post in vitro culture, 54% (164/303) were found to be EC and the rest to be LC. The blastocyst rate (58.1 ± 3.4 vs 36.9 ± 1.6%, p < 0.01) and the total cell number (285.5 ± 41.9 vs 141.4 ± 36.1, p < 0.05) were higher, whereas the apoptotic index (3.6 ± 0.6 vs 12.2 ± 1.7, p < 0.01) and the global level of H3K9ac and H3K27me3 were lower (p < 0.05) in the blastocysts produced from EC than in those produced from LC embryos. The relative transcript level of CASPASE3, CASPASE7, DNMT1, DNMT3a and CDX2 was higher (p < 0.05) and that of SOX2 was lower (p < 0.05) in blastocysts produced from LC than in those produced from EC embryos, whereas the expression level of CASPASE6, P53, P21, HDAC1, OCT4 and NANOG was not significantly different between the two groups. These results show that (i) following HMC, blastocysts produced from embryos that cleave early differ from those produced from late cleaving embryos in terms of epigenetic status and expression level of many important apoptosis-, pluripotency-, trophectoderm- and epigenetics-related genes, and (ii) EC embryos are superior to LC embryos in view of their higher developmental competence and quality. PMID:25604613

  1. Faecal chemical cues in water buffalo that facilitate estrus detection.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Kandasamy; Muniasamy, Samuthirapandi; SankarGanesh, Devaraj; Achiraman, Shanmugam; Ramesh Saravanakumar, Veluchamy; Archunan, Govindaraju

    2013-05-01

    Chemo-signals are among the reliable non-invasive methods for estrus detection in mammals. Water buffalo is a silent heat animal and, hence, there is search for chemo-signals which would be effective non-invasive indicators of estrus state. We analyzed the faecal chemical cues during the estrous cycle in buffalo and to find the estrus-specific faecal volatile compounds adopting bull behavior assay. The faecal samples were collected at three phases of the estrous cycle (i.e., proestrus, estrus and postestrus) and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. We found 27 volatile compounds in the faeces of buffaloes, of which 4-methyl phenol (4mp) and trans-verbenol (tv) were found only in estrus faeces. The faecal samples of estrus buffaloes and the estrus-specific compound(s) (4mp+tv) at three different concentrations were tested for behavioral responses (flehmen and mounting behavior) in the bull. The bulls exhibited repeated flehmen when exposed to a combination of the two compounds (i.e., 4mp+tv) as compared to the individual compounds or raw faecal sample collected from buffalo when in estrus (P<0.05). However, higher number of mounting behavior was recorded when bulls were exposed to 4mp followed by a combination of the two compounds (4mp+tv) and trans-verbenol (P<0.05), in that order. By contrast, less number of mounting behavior was exhibited by bulls when exposed to the control sample (i.e., Hexadecanoic acid) (P<0.05). As inferred from the bull behavior assay, the present study suggests that the two compounds, 4 methyl phenol and trans-verbenol would be reliable indicators of estrus in buffaloes. PMID:23570909

  2. Effect of administration of an anaerobic gut fungus isolated from wild blue bull ( Boselaphus tragocamelus) to buffaloes ( Bubalus bubalis) on in vivo ruminal fermentation and digestion of nutrients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S Paul; D. N Kamra; V. R. B Sastry; N. P Sahu; N Agarwal

    2004-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of administration of an elite strain of anaerobic fungi (Piromyces strain FNG5; isolated from the faeces of wild herbivore, blue bull) on nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, microbial populations, enzyme profile and N retention in buffaloes. In experiment 1, eight growing buffaloes with body weight range of 237–271kg receiving wheat straw and concentrate

  3. Reproductive cycles of buffalo.

    PubMed

    Perera, B M A O

    2011-04-01

    The domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) has an important role in the agricultural economy of many developing countries in Asia, providing milk, meat and draught power. It is also used in some Mediterranean and Latin American countries as a source of milk and meat for specialized markets. Although the buffalo can adapt to harsh environments and live on poor quality forage, reproductive efficiency is often compromised by such conditions, resulting in late sexual maturity, long postpartum anoestrus, poor expression of oestrus, poor conception rates and long calving intervals. The age at puberty is influenced by genotype, nutrition, management and climate, and under favourable conditions occurs at 15-18 months in river buffalo and 21-24 months in swamp buffalo. The ovaries are smaller than in cattle and contain fewer primordial follicles. Buffalo are capable of breeding throughout the year, but in many countries a seasonal pattern of ovarian activity occurs. This is attributed in tropical regions to changes in rainfall resulting in feed availability or to temperature stress resulting in elevated prolactin secretion, and in temperate regions to changes in photoperiod and melatonin secretion. The mean length of the oestrous cycle is 21 days, with greater variation than observed in cattle. The signs of oestrus in buffalo are less overt than in cattle and homosexual behaviour between females is rare. The duration of oestrus is 5-27 h, with ovulation occurring 24-48 h (mean 34 h) after the onset of oestrus. The hormonal changes occurring in peripheral circulation are similar to those observed in cattle, but the peak concentrations of progesterone and oestradiol-17? are less. The number of follicular waves during an oestrous cycle varies from one to three and influences the length of the luteal phase as well as the inter-ovulatory interval. Under optimal conditions, dairy types managed with limited or no suckling resume oestrus cyclicity by 30-60 days after calving, while swamp types with free suckling do so at 60-90 days. However, in many farming systems prolonged postpartum anoestrus is a major problem, and the causes include poor nutrition and body condition, and stress due to harsh climates and improper management. Synchronization of time or induction of oestrus can be done using the same regimens as applied in cattle, using various combinations of prostaglandins, progesterone releasing devices, GnRH and eCG, but success rate is poor when treatment is done during the periods of marginal breeding activity or seasonal anoestrus. PMID:20869822

  4. Effect of different planes of nutrition on urea molasses mineral block intake, nutrient utilization, rumen fermentation pattern and blood profile in Murrah buffaloes ( Bubalus bubalis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Hosamani; U. R. Mehra; R. S. Dass

    1998-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of plane of nutrition on intake and nutrient utilization from urea molasses mineral block (UMMB), rumen fermentation pattern and blood biochemical constituents, 20 intact and 12 rumen fistulated male Murrah buffaloes aged about 3 years and weighing 320.3±13.11kg were randomly distributed into four groups of eight animals in each, thus each group having five

  5. Effect of Boron as an Antidote on Dry Matter Intake, Nutrient Utilization and Fluorine Balance in Buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis ) Exposed to High Fluoride Ration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay K. Bharti; Meenakshi Gupta; D. Lall

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that excessive accumulation of fluorides can exert toxic effects on various tissues and organs so as to severely\\u000a damage the health and production of animals. The aim of this study was to determine beneficial effect of boron on nutrient\\u000a utilization in buffalo calves exposed to high fluoride (F) ration. For this purpose, we used three groups

  6. Identification of suitable housekeeping genes for normalization of quantitative real-time PCR data during different physiological stages of mammary gland in riverine buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, J; Sharma, A; Kishore, A; Mishra, B P; Yadav, A; Mohanty, A; Sodhi, M; Kataria, R S; Malakar, D; Mukesh, M

    2013-12-01

    Gene expression analysis unravels the complex changes or relations at transcriptomic level. To nullify all type of errors that can be incorporated during any stage of RNA extraction into cDNA synthesis and for reliable results, the data obtained from qPCR have to be normalized using the appropriate/suitable housekeeping genes (HKGs). Unfortunately, till date, no such HKG has been reported for bubaline mammary gland. The objective of the present study was thus to identify and validate the potential HKGs for the gene expression studies in buffalo mammary gland. Mammary tissues from twelve buffaloes during different physiological stages: pre-pubertal (heifer), lactation and involution were obtained for the present study. A total of 16 potential HKGs (GAPDH, ?-actin, UXT, ?2M, A2M, RPl4, RPS9, RPS15A, RPS18, RPS23, HMBS, HPRT1, GTP, EEF1A1, UB1 and RPL22) from different functional classes were evaluated. The analysis revealed that the expression of EEF1A1, RPl4, ?2M and RPS15A was most consistent across different physiological stages of buffalo mammary gland. On the other hand, ?-actin, A2M, RPL22 and GAPDH were the least stable genes making them unsuitable as HKGs. Based on our analysis, we recommend the use of EEF1A1, RPl4, ?2M and RPS15A genes as suitable HKGs for accurate normalization of gene expression data in bubaline mammary gland. PMID:23363300

  7. Water buffalo and cattle ranching in the Lower Amazon Basin: Comparisons and conflicts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pervaze A. Sheikh; Frank D. Merry; David G. McGrath

    2006-01-01

    From 1975 to 2000, the water buffalo population in the Brazilian Amazon increased at nearly 13% per year, making it one of the fastest growing herds in the world. On the floodplains of the Amazon River buffalo are managed in a similar manner to cattle, but often earn superior production figures. This production advantage, however, is tempered by the role

  8. Effects of plane of nutrition on growth, feed intake, digestibility and nitrogen balance in Murrah graded male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Hajime; Baral, Bodh R; Shiino, Tatsu; Devkota, Naba R; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kolachhapati, Mana R; Tiwari, Ishwor C P

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted using 17 male buffalo calves to assess the effects of plane of nutrition on dry matter intake (DMI), daily gain (DG), body size measurement, apparent digestibility and nitrogen (N) balance. To attain 250kg BW, the calves were allocated into three groups: H, L-H and L, receiving the concentrate at 1.50% of BW, 0.75% of BW until 190kg BW and 1.50% thereafter and 0.75% of BW, respectively. The animals had ad libitum access to urea-treated rice straw (UTRS). The DMI of UTRS through the experiment was higher in L and L-H than H, showing 3.52, 2.90 and 2.62kg/day, respectively (P<0.01), but the total DMI did not differ among the treatment groups. The DG throughout the experiment was high in the order of H, L-H and L, showing 0.72, 0.57 and 0.45kg, respectively (P<0.01). The digestibility of DM, organic matter, crude protein, neutral and acid detergent fiber and N retention were higher in H than in L (P<0.05). The findings of this study thus revealed the greater DG has an advantage of shortening the growing period around 3months, and consequently increasing benefit in fattening of buffalo calves in Nepal. PMID:22250739

  9. Comparison of endocrine changes, timing of ovulations, ovarian follicular growth, and efficacy associated with Estradoublesynch and Heatsynch protocols in Murrah buffalo cows (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Mirmahmoudi, R; Souri, M; Prakash, B S

    2014-10-15

    Poor estrus expression and the difficulty encountered in predicting the time of ovulation compromise the reproductive efficiency of Murrah buffalo cows. Synchronization of ovulation and timed artificial insemination are able to precisely control the time of ovulation and thus avoid the need for estrus detection. Recently, the Estradoublesynch protocol (administration of a PGF2? injection 2 days before Heatsynch protocol; GnRH 0, PGF2? 7, estradiol benzoate [EB] 8) was developed that precisely synchronized ovulation twice, i.e., after GnRH and EB injections and resulted in satisfactory pregnancy rates in Murrah buffaloes. The present study was conducted on 104 cycling and 31 anestrus buffaloes to compare (1) the endocrine changes, timing of ovulations, ovarian follicular growth, and efficacy of Estradoublesynch and Heatsynch protocols in cycling and (2) the efficacy of Estradoublesynch and Heatsynch protocols for the improvement of fertility in cycling and anestrus Murrah buffalo cows. Ovulation was confirmed after all GnRH and EB treatments by ultrasonographic examination at 2-hour intervals. Plasma progesterone and total estrogen concentrations were determined in blood samples collected at daily intervals, beginning 2 days before the onset of protocols until the day of second ovulation detection. Ovulatory follicle size was measured by ultrasonography at six time points (first PGF2? administration of Estradoublesynch protocol every 2 days before the onset of Heatsynch protocol, GnRH administration of both protocols, 2 hours before ovulation detection after GnRH administration of both protocols, second PGF2? injection of Estradoublesynch protocol, PGF2? injection of Heatsynch protocol, EB injection of both protocols and, 2 hours before ovulation detection after EB administration of both protocols). Plasma LH, total estrogen, and progesterone concentrations were determined in blood samples collected at 30-minute intervals for 8 hours, beginning GnRH and EB injections, and thereafter at 2-hour intervals until 2 hours after the detection of ovulation. The first ovulatory rate was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the Estradoublesynch protocol (84.6%) than that in the Heatsynch protocol (36.4%). The first LH peak concentration (74.6±10.4 ng/mL) in the Estradoublesynch protocol was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of the Heatsynch protocol (55.3±7.4 ng/mL). In Estradoublesynch protocol, the total estrogen concentration gradually increased from the day of GnRH administration coinciding with LH peak, and then gradually declined to the basal level until the time of ovulation detection. However, in Heatsynch protocol, the gradual increase in total estrogen concentration after GnRH administration was observed only in those buffalo cows, which responded to treatment with ovulation. In both Estradoublesynch and Heatsynch protocols, ovulatory follicle size increased by treatment with GnRH and EB until the detection of ovulation. The pregnancy rate after the Estradoublesynch protocol (60.0%) was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that achieved after the Heatsynch protocol (32.5%). Satisfactory success rate using the Estradoublesynch protocol was attributed to the higher release of LH after treatment with GnRH, leading to ovulation in most of the animals and hence creating the optimum follicular size at EB injection for ovulation and pregnancy to occur. PMID:25145622

  10. Effect of different seasons on concentration of plasma luteinizing hormone and seminal quality vis-à-vis freezability of buffalo bulls ( Bubalus bubalis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahga, C. S.; Khokar, B. S.

    1991-12-01

    Seasonal variations in semen quality, freezability and plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were studied between summer and spring. Semen volume, density and initial sperm motility did not differ significantly between different seasons. Plasma LH decreased between summer and spring but the differences were, however, not significant. Pre-freezing motility did not differ significantly but post-freezing motility varied significantly ( P<0.01) between seasons. Post-freezing motility was lowest during summer and highest during winter. It can be concluded that summer spermatozoa may be fragile and cannot withstand freezing stress. To increase reproductive efficiency in buffalo during summer, semen should be frozen during winter and spring and used during hot weather conditions. Seasonal variations in plasma LH levels were insignificant.

  11. Comparative moleculo-immunological analysis of swamp and riverine-type water buffaloes responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claro N. Mingala; Satoru Konnai; Libertado C. Cruz; Misao Onuma; Kazuhiko Ohashi

    2009-01-01

    This moleculo-epidemiological and immunological study through cytokine response assessment was done to know the dynamics of cytokines in the initiation, persistence and association to physiological changes of a particular pathogen in water buffaloes. This is important to understand the magnitude and behavior of disease progression. Water buffalo blood samples gathered from different places in the Philippines revealed a 9.4%, 27.6%,

  12. Amino acid sequence differences in pancreatic ribonucleases from water buffalo breeds from Indonesia and Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abubakar Sidik; Bert Martena; Jaap J. Beintema

    1979-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of the pancreatic ribonucleases from river-breed water buffaloes from Italy and swamp-breed water buffaloes from Indonesia differ at three positions. One of the differences involves a replacement of asparagine-34, with covalently attached carbohydrate on all molecules, in the river-breed enzyme by serine in the swamp-breed enzyme. The ribonuclease content of the pancreas differs considerably between breeds

  13. Genetic characterization of Babesia and Theileria parasites in water buffaloes in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Fukushi, Shintaro; Hayashida, Kyoko; Kothalawala, Hemal; Silva, Seekkuge Susil Priyantha; Vimalakumar, Singarayar Caniciyas; Kanagaratnam, Ratnam; Meewewa, Asela Sanjeewa; Suthaharan, Kalpana; Puvirajan, Thamotharampillai; de Silva, Weligodage Kumarawansa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2014-02-24

    Water buffaloes are thought to be the reservoir hosts for several hemoprotozoan parasites that infect cattle. In the present study, we surveyed Sri Lankan bred water buffaloes for infections with Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis using parasite-specific PCR assays. When 320 blood-derived DNA samples from water buffaloes reared in three different districts (Polonnaruwa, Mannar, and Mullaitivu) of Sri Lanka were PCR screened, B. bovis, B. bigemina, and T. orientalis were detected. While T. orientalis was the predominant parasite (82.5%), low PCR-positive rates were observed for B. bovis (1.9%) and B. bigemina (1.6%). Amplicons of the gene sequences of the Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 (RAP-1) of B. bovis, the Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA-1) of B. bigemina, and the Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) of T. orientalis were compared with those characterized previously in Sri Lankan cattle. While the B. bigemina AMA-1 sequences from water buffaloes shared high identity values with those from cattle, B. bovis RAP-1 sequences from water buffaloes diverged genetically from those of cattle. For T. orientalis, none of the MPSP sequence types reported previously in Sri Lankan cattle (types 1, 3, 5, and 7) were detected in the water buffaloes, and the MPSP sequences analyzed in the present study belonged to types N1 or N2. In summary, in addition to reporting the first PCR-based survey of Babesia and Theileria parasites in water buffaloes in Sri Lanka, the present study found that the predominant variants of water buffalo-derived B. bovis RAP-1 and T. orientalis MPSP sequences were different from those previously described from cattle in this country. PMID:24365246

  14. Effects of plane of nutrition on slaughtering traits and meat characteristics in Murrah graded male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Hajime; Baral, Bodh R; Shiino, Tatsu; Devkota, Naba R; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki

    2012-05-01

    An experiment was conducted using 17 male buffalo calves to assess the effects of plane of nutrition on slaughtering traits and meat characteristics. To attain 250 kg body weight (BW), the calves were allocated into three groups: high (H), low-high (L-H) and low (L) corresponding to concentrate levels receiving the concentrate at 1.50% of BW, 0.75% of BW until 190 kg BW and 1.50% thereafter, and 0.75% of BW, respectively. The animals had ad libitum access to urea-treated rice straw. No significant differences of hot carcass weight, dressing percentage and lean fat-bone yields were observed among the treatment groups. The L group had heavier brisket weight and lower percentage of round weight in the hot carcass than the H and L-H groups (P<0.05). The H group had heavier hearts than the L group, and the H and L-H groups had heavier livers and kidneys than the L group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference of rib eye area, pH and the contents of moisture, crude protein and fat in loin meat among the groups. The findings indicated that the effects of plane of nutrition affected the weight or percentages of some cut yields in the hot carcasses and internal organs. PMID:22574796

  15. Lacking expression of paternally-expressed gene confirms the failure of syngamy after intracytoplasmic sperm injection in swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Chankitisakul, V; Tharasanit, T; Phutikanit, N; Tasripoo, K; Nagai, T; Techakumphu, M

    2012-04-15

    The objectives were to: (1) examine the efficiency of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) technique, with or without chemical activation of in vitro matured buffalo oocytes, on sperm head decondensation; and (2) compare the subsequent development of embryos after activation of ICSI (ICSI (+) activation group) and sham injection (Sham (+) activation group) oocytes (embryos obtained by in vitro fertilization of IVM oocytes served as a control group). Pronuclear formation rates in ICSI (+) activation and Sham (+) activation groups were higher than that of ICSI without activation (P < 0.05). However, because 90.9% of presumptive zygotes in ICSI (+) activation group demonstrated pronuclear formation with an intact sperm head, we inferred that most were parthenotes. Neither developmental competence (morula and blastocyst formation rates) nor mean total cell number of blastocysts was significantly different among ICSI (+) activation, Sham (+) activation, and IVF groups. To clarify whether blastocysts were derived from syngamy or parthenogenesis, expression of Nnat, a paternally expressed gene in blastocysts derived from IVF, ICSI and oocyte activation without sperm or sham injection was additionally examined using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Expression of Nnat mRNA was not detected in ICSI (+) activation blastocysts, indicating failure of male genome activation. Although blastocyst development after ICSI combined with chemical activation was similar to IVF oocytes, these blastocysts were generated by parthenogenesis, due to failure of male pronucleus formation. PMID:22225682

  16. Effect of dietary protein on intake, nutrients utilization, nitrogen balance, blood metabolites, growth and puberty in growing Bhadawari buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) heifers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sultan; Kushwaha, Badri Prasad; Maity, Subendu Bikas; Singh, Krishan Kunwar; Das, Nityanand

    2015-01-01

    Fifteen Bhadawari buffalo heifers of 207?±?9.78 kg mean body weight were randomly distributed into three dietary groups to evaluate the effect of protein level on nutrient utilization, nitrogen (N) balance, growth rate, blood metabolites, and puberty. All animals were offered wheat straw-berseem diets supplemented with concentrate mixtures of similar energy (2.7 Mcal/kg) and different protein levels (14.3-22%). Animals of standard-protein group (SPG) were offered protein and energy as per requirement, while animals of low-protein group (LPG) and high-protein group (HPG) were fed 20% less and 20% more protein, respectively, than SPG. Feed dry matter (DM) and metabolizable energy (ME) intake (% body wt. and g/kg w(0.75)) were similar for all three diets; however, the crude protein (CP) and digestible crude protein (DCP) intake on percent body weight and per kilogram metabolic weight was higher (P??0.05) in SPG (330.8 g/day) than in LPG (296.7 g/day), while the animals gained more weight in January to March months and the lowest weight in May to July months. Protein level had no effect on conception rate of heifers. Results revealed that 20% higher or less protein than the ICAR requirement had no significant (P?>?0.05) on feed intake, nutrient conversion efficiency for weight gain, heifer growth, and puberty; however, 20% more protein increased urinary N loss. PMID:25407740

  17. High prevalence of muscular sarcocystosis in cattle and water buffaloes from Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Latif, B; Vellayan, S; Heo, C C; Kannan Kutty, M; Omar, E; Abdullah, S; Tappe, D

    2013-12-01

    The prevalence of sarcocystosis in cattle and water buffaloes from peninsular Malaysia was investigated in abattoirs in Selangor state, February, 2011, to March, 2012. Fresh muscle samples were collected from the tongue, heart, oesophagus, diaphragm and skeletal muscles of 102 cattle and 18 water buffaloes. Each sample was initially screened by light microscopy and then fixed for further histopathological analysis. Out of 120 animals examined, 49 (40.8%) harboured the microscopic type of Sarcocystis spp. The positivity rate for cattle was 36.2% and for water buffaloes 66.7%. In cattle, the organs highly infected were the skeletal muscles and diaphragm (27% each), followed by tongue and esophagus (24.3% each), and the heart (8%). In water buffaloes, the heart was most often infected (66.7%), followed by the oesophagus (50%) and skeletal muscle (33.3%); no sarcocysts were detected in the tongue and diaphragm. The shape of the sarcocyst was fusiform to oval with a mean cyst size of 151.66 x 75.83 ?m and wall thickness of 2.47 ?m in cattle, and 114 x 50.81 ?m cyst size and the wall thickness of 1.11 ?m in water buffaloes, consistent with Sarcocystis cruzi and Sarcocystis levinei, respectively. Remaining tissue from cattle was subjected to parasite specific 18S rRNA gene PCR and Sarcocystis cruzi was confirmed, at least exemplarily. The peripheral metrocytes and the banana-shaped bradyzoites (15.23 x 2.2 ?m in cattle and 11.49 x 2.45 ?m in water buffalo hosts) were easily recognized. In conclusion, a high positivity rate was found in Malaysian meat-producing animals with possible implications for meat consumption and human health. PMID:24522140

  18. Reproduction in water buffalo: comparative aspects and implications for management.

    PubMed

    Oswin Perera, B M

    1999-01-01

    The domestic buffalo occupies an important niche in many ecologically disadvantaged agricultural systems, providing milk, meat and draught power. Although buffalo can adapt to harsh environments and live on low quality forage, their reproductive efficiency is often compromised by such conditions. Climatic stress depresses ovarian cyclicity, oestrous expression and conception rates. Poor nutrition, usually related to seasonal fluctuations in availability and quality of feed, delays puberty and increases the duration of postpartum anoestrus. Management factors such as the system of grazing (free, tethered or none) and sucking by calves (restricted or ad libitum) also modulate reproductive functions. Finally, the skills and capabilities of farmers as well as the quality of support services such as artificial insemination and disease control also influence fertility. The relative importance of these factors vary greatly depending on ecological conditions and production systems. Improvement of reproductive efficiency therefore requires the identification of specific limiting factors under a given situation and the development and field testing of strategies for improvements and interventions that are sustainable with available local resources. The application of modern reproductive technologies in buffaloes requires an appreciation of their biology and reproductive physiology as well as the potentials and limitations under each specific production system. PMID:10692852

  19. Concentration of Fluoride in Cow’s and Buffalo’s Milk in Relation to Varying Levels of Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water of Mathura City in India– A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nidhi; Meena, Komal; Moon, Ninad Joshirao; Kumar, Puneet; Kaur, Ravneet

    2015-01-01

    Aim To estimate fluoride concentration in drinking water, cow’s milk and buffalo’s milk and to correlate the concentration of fluoride in cow’s milk and buffalo’s milk with varying levels of fluoride concentration in drinking water. Materials and Methods Ten households having both cows and buffalo's were selected by convenience in each of the 3 zones (below optimum fluoride <0.7 ppm (parts per million), optimum fluoride 0.7-1.2 ppm and above optimum fluoride areas > 1.2 ppm). From these selected households, 200 ml of fresh milk of both cows and buffaloes was collected along with 200 ml of drinking water for estimation of fluoride concentration by using a fluoride ion selective electrode method. The data was analysed using SPSS, version 11.5 for windows. Results The mean fluoride concentration of drinking water, cow’s milk and buffalo’s milk in three different fluoride zones was 0.89±0.39, 0.09±0.07, 0.09±0.08 respectively. Pearson’s correlation found a statistically significant correlation between fluoride concentrations in cow’s and buffalo’s milk with varying levels of fluoride concentration in drinking water in zone B and zone C. However, this correlation was not statistically significant in zone A. Conclusion With an increase in fluoride concentration in drinking water there was an increase in concentration of fluoride in cow’s and buffalo’s milk. We conclude that this association is seen in conjunction to not only a single factor but rather due to culmination of several other aspects. So, there is a need to elucidate the other factors that might be contributing to this increase and dental fluorosis. PMID:26155499

  20. Toll-Like Receptor Responses to Peste des petits ruminants Virus in Goats and Water Buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Dhanasekaran, Sakthivel; Biswas, Moanaro; Vignesh, Ambothi R.; Ramya, R.; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar; Tirumurugaan, Krishnaswamy G.; Raja, Angamuthu; Kataria, Ranjit S.; Parida, Satya; Subbiah, Elankumaran

    2014-01-01

    Ovine rinderpest or goat plague is an economically important and contagious viral disease of sheep and goats, caused by the Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Differences in susceptibility to goat plague among different breeds and water buffalo exist. The host innate immune system discriminates between pathogen associated molecular patterns and self antigens through surveillance receptors known as Toll like receptors (TLR). We investigated the role of TLR and cytokines in differential susceptibility of goat breeds and water buffalo to PPRV. We examined the replication of PPRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of Indian domestic goats and water buffalo and demonstrated that the levels of TLR3 and TLR7 and downstream signalling molecules correlation with susceptibility vs resistance. Naturally susceptible goat breeds, Barbari and Tellichery, had dampened innate immune responses to PPRV and increased viral loads with lower basal expression levels of TLR 3/7. Upon stimulation of PBMC with synthetic TLR3 and TLR7 agonists or PPRV, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were found to be significantly higher while immunosuppressive interleukin (IL) 10 levels were lower in PPRV resistant Kanni and Salem Black breeds and water buffalo at transcriptional level, correlating with reduced viralloads in infected PBMC. Water buffalo produced higher levels of interferon (IFN) ? in comparison with goats at transcriptional and translational levels. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with human IFN? resulted in reduction of PPRV replication, confirming the role of IFN? in limiting PPRV replication. Treatment with IRS66, a TLR7 antagonist, resulted in the reduction of IFN? levels, with increased PPRV replication confirming the role of TLR7. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of TLR7 of these goat breeds did not show any marked nucleotide differences that might account for susceptibility vs resistance to PPRV. Analyzing other host genetic factors might provide further insights on susceptibility to PPRV and genetic polymorphisms in the host. PMID:25369126

  1. Toll-like receptor responses to Peste des petits ruminants virus in goats and water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Dhanasekaran, Sakthivel; Biswas, Moanaro; Vignesh, Ambothi R; Ramya, R; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar; Tirumurugaan, Krishnaswamy G; Raja, Angamuthu; Kataria, Ranjit S; Parida, Satya; Elankumaran, Subbiah; Subbiah, Elankumaran

    2014-01-01

    Ovine rinderpest or goat plague is an economically important and contagious viral disease of sheep and goats, caused by the Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Differences in susceptibility to goat plague among different breeds and water buffalo exist. The host innate immune system discriminates between pathogen associated molecular patterns and self antigens through surveillance receptors known as Toll like receptors (TLR). We investigated the role of TLR and cytokines in differential susceptibility of goat breeds and water buffalo to PPRV. We examined the replication of PPRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of Indian domestic goats and water buffalo and demonstrated that the levels of TLR3 and TLR7 and downstream signalling molecules correlation with susceptibility vs resistance. Naturally susceptible goat breeds, Barbari and Tellichery, had dampened innate immune responses to PPRV and increased viral loads with lower basal expression levels of TLR 3/7. Upon stimulation of PBMC with synthetic TLR3 and TLR7 agonists or PPRV, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were found to be significantly higher while immunosuppressive interleukin (IL) 10 levels were lower in PPRV resistant Kanni and Salem Black breeds and water buffalo at transcriptional level, correlating with reduced viralloads in infected PBMC. Water buffalo produced higher levels of interferon (IFN) ? in comparison with goats at transcriptional and translational levels. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with human IFN? resulted in reduction of PPRV replication, confirming the role of IFN? in limiting PPRV replication. Treatment with IRS66, a TLR7 antagonist, resulted in the reduction of IFN? levels, with increased PPRV replication confirming the role of TLR7. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of TLR7 of these goat breeds did not show any marked nucleotide differences that might account for susceptibility vs resistance to PPRV. Analyzing other host genetic factors might provide further insights on susceptibility to PPRV and genetic polymorphisms in the host. PMID:25369126

  2. Molecular characterization and expression profile of uterine serpin (SERPINA14) during different reproductive phases in water buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sukumar Kandasamy; Asit Jain; Rohit Kumar; Sudhir K. Agarwal; Paritosh Joshi; Abhijit Mitra

    2010-01-01

    Uterine serpins (SERPINA14) play important roles during pregnancy in the farm animals. In this study, we have cloned and characterized cDNA sequence encoding the bubaline SERPINA14. We also studied its spatio-temporal expression in the uterine endometrium. The bubaline SERPINA14 has an open reading frame of 1299bp. Itshares ?90% identity with the SERPINA14 of other ruminant livestock species. Phylogenetically, bubaline SERPINA14

  3. In vitro production of cattle × buffalo hybrid embryos using cattle oocytes and African buffalo ( Syncerus caffer caffer) epididymal sperm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. D. Owiny; D. M. Barry; M. Agaba; R. A. Godke

    2009-01-01

    Interspecies hybridization of bovids occurs between domestic cattle and at least three other species; American bison (Bison bison), yak (Bos grunniens) and banteng (Bos banteng). Birth of a cattle×buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) hybrid has reportedly occurred in Russia and in China, but these reports were not authenticated. Such hybrids could be important in improving livestock production and management of diseases that

  4. Milk of Cow (Bos taurus), Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), and Goat (Capra hircus): a Better Alternative than Fetal Bovine Serum in Media for Primary Isolation, In Vitro Cultivation, and Maintenance of Leishmania donovani Promastigotes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Muniaraj; C. S. Lal; S. Kumar; P. K. Sinha; P. Das

    2007-01-01

    Tyndalized milk of goat, cow, and buffalo was found to be a potential substitute for fetal bovine serum (FBS) in the medium for the cultivation of Leishmania donovani promastigotes. The numbers (means) of promasti- gotes reached 2.6 107, 2.3 107, and 2.1 107\\/ml, respectively, in the medium supplemented with 10% milk of goat, cow, and buffalo, in comparison to 1.9

  5. Investigation of transferability of BovineSNP50 BeadChip from cattle to water buffalo for genome wide association study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun Jing; Song, Li Jun; Wu, Fang Jie; Liang, Xian Wei; Yang, Bing Zhuang; Wathes, D Claire; Pollott, Geoff E; Cheng, Zhangrui; Shi, De Shun; Liu, Qing You; Yang, Li Guo; Zhang, Shu Jun

    2013-02-01

    Cattle and water buffalo belong to the same subfamily Bovinae and share chromosome banding and gene order homology. In this study, we used genome-wide Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip to analyze 91 DNA samples from three breeds of water buffalo (Nili-Ravi, Murrah and their crossbred with local GuangXi buffalos in China), to demonstrate the genetic divergence between cattle and water buffalo through a large single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) transferability study at the whole genome level, and performed association analysis of functional traits in water buffalo as well. A total of 40,766 (75.5 %) bovine SNPs were found in the water buffalo genome, but 49,936 (92.5 %) were with only one allele, and finally 935 were identified to be polymorphic and useful for association analysis in water buffalo. Therefore, the genome sequences of water buffalo and cattle shared a high level of homology but the polymorphic status of the bovine SNPs varied between these two species. The different patterns of mutations between species may associate with their phenotypic divergence due to genome evolution. Among 935 bovine SNPs, we identified a total of 9 and 7 SNPs significantly associated to fertility and milk production traits in water buffalo, respectively. However, more works in larger sample size are needed in future to verify these candidate SNPs for water buffalo. PMID:23232712

  6. Assessment of chromium content of feedstuffs, their estimated requirement, and effects of dietary chromium supplementation on nutrient utilization, growth performance, and mineral balance in summer-exposed buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Muneendra; Kaur, Harjit; Tyagi, Amrish; Mani, Veena; Deka, Rijusmita Sarma; Chandra, Gulab; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2013-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the chromium content of different feedstuffs, their estimated requirement, and effect of dietary Cr supplementation on nutrient intake, nutrient utilization, growth performance, and mineral balance in buffalo calves during summer season. Levels of Cr was higher in cultivated fodder, moderate in cakes and cereal grains, while straw, grasses, and non-conventional feeds were poor in Cr content. To test the effect of Cr supplementation in buffalo calves, 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ppm of inorganic Cr were fed to 24 buffalo calves. Buffalo calves were randomly assigned to four treatments (n = 6) and raised for 120 days. A metabolic trial for a period of 7 days was conducted after 3 months of dietary treatments. Blood samples were collected at fortnight interval for plasma mineral estimation. The results suggested that dietary Cr supplementation in summer did not have any affects (P > 0.05) on feed consumption, growth performance, nitrogen balance, and physiological variables. However, dietary Cr supplementation had significant effect (P < 0.05) on balance and plasma Cr (ppb) levels without affecting (P > 0.05) balance and plasma levels of other trace minerals. The estimated Cr requirement of buffalo calves during summer season was calculated to be 0.044 mg/kg body mass and 10.37 ppm per day. In conclusion, dietary Cr supplementation has regardless effect on feed consumption, mass gain, and nutrient utilization in buffalo calves reared under heat stress conditions. However, supplementation of Cr had positive effect on its balance and plasma concentration without interacting with other trace minerals. PMID:23963742

  7. Schistosoma japonicum: An ultraviolet-attenuated cercarial vaccine applicable in the field for water buffaloes

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Y.E.; Jiang, C.F.; Han, J.J.; Li, Y.L.; Ruppel, A. (Tongii Medical Univ., Wuhan, Hubei Province (China))

    1990-07-01

    Water buffaloes were vaccinated three times with 10,000 Schistosoma japonicum cercariae irradiated with ultraviolet (uv) light at a dose of 400 microW x min/cm2. The irradiation was performed with cheap, simple, and portable equipment in a rural area of Hubei Province (People's Republic of China). A challenge infection of 1000 untreated cercariae was given to six vaccinated and six naive control buffaloes, while two vaccinated animals were not challenged. The experiment was terminated 6 weeks after the challenge. Control animals had lost body weight and harbored a mean of 110 worms and 37 eggs per gram of liver. The vaccinated animals gained weight after the challenge and developed 89% resistance to infection with S. japonicum. Since schistosomiasis japonica is nowadays transmitted in China predominantly by domestic livestock, a uv-attenuated cercarial vaccine for bovines may contribute to the control of this disease.

  8. Milk of Cow (Bos taurus), Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), and Goat (Capra hircus): a Better Alternative than Fetal Bovine Serum in Media for Primary Isolation, In Vitro Cultivation, and Maintenance of Leishmania donovani Promastigotes?

    PubMed Central

    Muniaraj, M.; Lal, C. S.; Kumar, S.; Sinha, P. K.; Das, P.

    2007-01-01

    Tyndalized milk of goat, cow, and buffalo was found to be a potential substitute for fetal bovine serum (FBS) in the medium for the cultivation of Leishmania donovani promastigotes. The numbers (means) of promastigotes reached 2.6 × 107, 2.3 × 107, and 2.1 × 107/ml, respectively, in the medium supplemented with 10% milk of goat, cow, and buffalo, in comparison to 1.9 × 107/ml in the control with 10% FBS. In primary isolation, the milk-supplemented medium showed that 22 out of 26 samples were positive for promastigotes (84.6%) and the cells were maintained successfully during the observed period of 6 months. PMID:17287321

  9. Risks factors associated with subclinical mastitis in water buffaloes in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Riaz; Javed, Muhammad Tariq; Khan, Ahrar; Muhammad, Ghulam

    2013-11-01

    The present study was carried to ascertain the association of various risk factors of mastitis in water buffaloes. The milk samples from buffaloes were collected and screened through California Mastitis Test for the presence of mastitis. In the present study, 15.2 % prevalence of subclinical mastitis was recorded both at the government (13.4 %) and private farms (15.5 %). The chi-square analysis showed significantly higher involvement of the right rear and front quarters. The analysis of variance technique showed significant difference in live body weight, milk yield, teat end to floor distance (P?buffaloes. The frequency analysis also revealed significant difference between various groups including lactation stage, teat and/or udder pathology, teat shape, and udder shape (P?

  10. A signature protein-based method to distinguish Mediterranean water buffalo and foreign breed milk.

    PubMed

    Caira, Simonetta; Pinto, Gabriella; Balteanu, Valentin A; Chianese, Lina; Addeo, Francesco

    2013-11-01

    A novel genetic variant at the ?s1-casein locus of water buffalo (WB), 8-residue shorter than its wild-type has been found and sequenced. The internal deletion of the peptide E(35)KVNELsT(42) was confirmed by the isolation of the junction peptide. The 8-residue deletion mutant has a molecular weight that is 919 Da less than that of the wild-type. The novel isoform with a unique f35-42 deletion could be the result of the skipping of exon 6, generating an exon 6-deleted variant of ?s1-casein. The wild-type and its shortened ?s1-casein forms were found to co-exist in many individual milk samples. In contrast, the 8-residue, internally deleted ?s1-casein variant did not occur in water buffaloes of the Mediterranean breed reared in Italy. Wild-type ?s1-casein has 6 to 8 phosphate groups (P) while the internally deleted form 6 and 7P per molecule. PMID:23768399

  11. Turning Pests into Profits: Introduced Buffalo Provide Multiple Benefits to Indigenous People of Northern Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil Collier; Beau J. Austin; Corey J. A. Bradshaw; Clive R. McMahon

    2011-01-01

    Introduced species are a major driver of negative ecological change, but some introduced species can potentially offer positive\\u000a benefits to society. Asian swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) were introduced to the northern Australian mainland in 1827 and have since become a serious pest. However, buffalo have\\u000a also supported various profitable industries, including harvesting for hides, meat, and live export. We investigate

  12. Survival of Arcobacter butzleri during production and storage of artisan water buffalo mozzarella cheese.

    PubMed

    Serraino, Andrea; Giacometti, Federica; Daminelli, Paolo; Losio, Marina N; Finazzi, Guido; Marchetti, Giacomo; Zambrini, Angelo V; Rosmini, Roberto

    2013-09-01

    Water buffalo mozzarella cheese (WBMC) is a fresh stretched cheese produced from whole chilled buffalo milk. Although pasteurization of milk and the use of defined starter cultures are recommended, traditional technology involving unpasteurized milk and natural whey cultures is still employed for WBMC production in Italy. The purpose of this study was to assess the behavior of Arcobacter butzleri during WBMC production and storage under different temperature conditions (5, 10, and 20 °C). Raw milk was experimentally inoculated with one reference strain and two isolates of A. butzleri, and the count was monitored during WBMC production and storage. The bacterial count of A. butzleri decreased during curd ripening (from 7.83 log colony-forming units (CFU)/g to 4.14 log CFU/g in about 4 h) and a further decrease (>4 log CFU/g) was observed at the end of curd stretching. During storage testing, A. butzleri was never detected by direct plating, whereas it was recovered from 12 of the total 162 WBMC until the end of storage testing by enrichment. The results revealed that A. butzleri is able to survive during WBMC production and storage at different temperature conditions. Consequently, traditional WBMC produced from raw milk could represent a potential source of Arcobacter infection for humans. PMID:23806147

  13. Downregulation of DNA methyltransferase 1 in zona-free cloned buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos by small interefering RNA improves in vitro development but does not alter DNA methylation level.

    PubMed

    Selokar, Naresh L; Saini, Monika; Agrawal, Himanshu; Palta, Prabhat; Chauhan, Manmohan S; Manik, Radheysham; Singla, Suresh K

    2015-04-01

    Aberrant epigenetic reprogramming, especially genomic hypermethylation, is implicated as the primary reason behind the failure of the cloning process during somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). We transfected one-cell-stage zona-free buffalo embryos produced by handmade cloning with 50?nM DNMT1 small interfering RNA (siRNA), using lipofectamine, to knockdown the DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) gene. siRNA treatment decreased (p<0.001) the expression level of DNMT1 mRNA and DNMT1 protein in the one-cell-stage embryos and increased (p<0.05) the blastocyst rate (52.3 ± 1.3% vs. 45.3 ± 2.5%) compared to that in the controls, but did not reduce the DNA methylation level similar to the in vitro-fertilized (IVF) embryos. It also increased (p<0.05) the relative mRNA abundance of P53 and CASPASE 3, but not that of HDAC1, DNMT1, and DNMT3a, in the blastocysts of the siRNA group compared to the controls. The global level of H3K18ac was higher (p<0.05) in the blastocysts of the siRNA group than in the controls, whereas that of H3K9ac and H3K27me3 was not significantly different between the two groups. In conclusion, lipofection can be successfully used for transfection of DNMT1 siRNA into one-cell-stage zona-free cloned buffalo embryos. It results in a concomitant decrease in the DNMT1 mRNA and protein levels in the one-cell-stage embryos. siRNA-mediated knockdown increases the blastocyst rate but does not alter the DNA methylation level. PMID:25826721

  14. Molecular epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of diverse bovine astroviruses associated with diarrhea in cattle and water buffalo calves in China

    PubMed Central

    ALFRED, Niyokwishimira; LIU, Huan; LI, Mu Lan; HONG, Shao Feng; TANG, Hai Bo; WEI, Zu Zhang; CHEN, Ying; LI, Fa Kai; ZHONG, Yi Zhi; HUANG, Wei Jian

    2015-01-01

    Astroviruses are the principal causative agents of gastroenteritis in humans and have been associated with diarrhea in other mammals as well as birds. However, astroviral infection of animals had been poorly studied. In the present study, 211 rectal swabs collected from cattle and water buffalo calves with mild to severe diarrhea were tested for bovine astrovirus (BAstV) by RT-PCR. Results: 92/211 (43.6%) samples were positive for BAstV, at a rate of 46.10% (71/154) in cattle and 36.84% (21/57) in water buffalo. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial and full-length of 25 ORF2 amino acid sequences obtained in this study classified the Guangxi BAstVs isolates into five subgroups under the genus of Mamastrovirus, genotype MAstV33, which suggested that the water buffalo was a new host of this genogroup that previously included only cattle and roe deer. Despite the origin of the host, the Guangxi BAstV isolates were closely related to the BAstV Hong Kong isolates (B18/HK and B76-2/HK), but highly divergent from the BAstV NeuroS1 isolate previously associated with neurologic disease in cattle in the U.S.A. Nucleotide sequence-based characterization of the ORF1b/ORF2 junction and corresponding overlapping regions showed distinctive properties, which may be common to BAstVs. Our results suggested that cattle and water buffalo are prone to infection of closely related astroviruses, which probably evolved from the same ancestor. The current study described astroviruses in water buffalo for the first time and is thus far among the largest epidemiological investigations of BAstV infection in cattle conducted in China. PMID:25716289

  15. Establishment of Trophectoderm Cell Lines from Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryos of Different Sources and Examination of In Vitro Developmental Competence, Quality, Epigenetic Status and Gene Expression in Cloned Embryos Derived from Them

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Sushil Kumar; Sandhu, Anjit; Singh, Karn Pratap; Singla, Suresh Kumar; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh; Manik, Radheysham; Palta, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Despite being successfully used to produce live offspring in many species, somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) has had a limited applicability due to very low (>1%) live birth rate because of a high incidence of pregnancy failure, which is mainly due to placental dysfunction. Since this may be due to abnormalities in the trophectoderm (TE) cell lineage, TE cells can be a model to understand the placental growth disorders seen after NT. We isolated and characterized buffalo TE cells from blastocysts produced by in vitro fertilization (TE-IVF) and Hand-made cloning (TE-HMC), and compared their growth characteristics and gene expression, and developed a feeder-free culture system for their long-term culture. The TE-IVF cells were then used as donor cells to produce HMC embryos following which their developmental competence, quality, epigenetic status and gene expression were compared with those of HMC embryos produced using fetal or adult fibroblasts as donor cells. We found that although TE-HMC and TE-IVF cells have a similar capability to grow in culture, significant differences exist in gene expression levels between them and between IVF and HMC embryos from which they are derived, which may have a role in the placental abnormalities associated with NT pregnancies. Although TE cells can be used as donor cells for producing HMC blastocysts, their developmental competence and quality is lower than that of blastocysts produced from fetal or adult fibroblasts. The epigenetic status and expression level of many important genes is different in HMC blastocysts produced using TE cells or fetal or adult fibroblasts or those produced by IVF. PMID:26053554

  16. Mitochondrial DNA diversity patterns in Pakistani buffalo.

    PubMed

    Babar, M E; Hussain, T; Imran, M; Nagarajan, M; Kumar, S

    2012-06-01

    The Indian subcontinent is considered to be the likely centre of river buffalo domestication, based on population dynamics, archaeological evidence and genetic diversity. Recent studies on mitochondrial DNA diversity have drawn useful conclusions about the domestication history of Bubalus bubalis. The conclusions of these studies are, however, incomplete, unless samples can also be analysed from Pakistan, which contains the second largest buffalo population of the world. Here, we report the results of the first study on mitochondrial D-loop sequence diversity in five breeds of Pakistani buffalo. Analysis of sequence variations in 503-bp of the D-loop region of 123 animals revealed 52 haplotypes, including 40 singletons. Multidimensional display of breed pairwise F(ST) values revealed no strong clustering of breeds. Bayesian, maximum parsimony, neighbour joining and UPGMA trees revealed a topology consistent with domestication as well as subsequent introgression of multiple maternal lineages from the wild stocks. Reduced median network analysis provided evidence of population expansion from more than one set of haplotypes. The study also confirmed that Pakistani buffalo are of the river type. The observed mitochondrial D-loop sequence diversity suggests that Pakistani areas bordering India might have contributed to the initiation of domestication of the present-day river buffalo. PMID:22486503

  17. Preovulatory follicular and subsequent luteal size influence pregnancy success in water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Saidur; Shohag, Abu Said; Kamal, Md Mostofa; Bari, Farida Yeasmin; Shamsuddin, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    The diameter of the preovulatory follicle (POF) and its effects on subsequent corpus luteum (CL) size and conception were studied in 38 lactating indigenous cycling buffaloes in the Mymensingh district of Bangladesh. Body condition score (BCS) at estrus was estimated for the buffaloes. The buffaloes were synchronized with two injections of a synthetic analogue of PGF2? administered 11 days apart. Transrectal ultrasonography was carried out at estrus and on days 5, 9, 12 and 16 post ovulation to determine the POF and successive CL size. Pregnancy was confirmed by ultrasound examination on day 40-45 post ovulation. Twenty one (55.3%) buffaloes were diagnosed as pregnant. The conception rates of thin (BCS ?2.0), good (BCS 2.5-3.5) and fat (BCS glt;3.5) buffaloes were 7.7, 88.2 and 62.5% (?² = 19.54; P<0.05), respectively. The mean diameter of the POF at estrus was larger (P<0.01) in buffaloes that ultimately were diagnosed as pregnant compared with their nonpregnant counterparts (13.7 ± 0.3 vs. 11.2 ± 0.5 mm, respectively). The conception rates of buffaloes having small (9 to ? 12 mm), medium (>12 to ?14 mm) and large (>14 to 16 mm) POFs at estrus were 9.1, 70.0 and 85.7% (?² = 13.87, P<0.01), respectively. On day 5 post ovulation, CL size was positively correlated (CL: r=.74, P<0.01) with POF diameter. Retrospective analysis revealed that on day 5 post ovulation, the pregnant buffaloes had higher (P<0.01) post ovulation CL sizes than their nonpregnant counterparts (15.6 vs. 11.8 mm). Similarly, on day 9 post ovulation, the difference in CL size (14.3 vs. 13.6 mm) between pregnant and nonpregnant buffaloes was significant (P<0.05). In conclusion, the diameter of the POF in buffaloes has a positive impact on the size of the post ovulation CL and conception. PMID:22156378

  18. Structure-activity relationship of buffalo antibacterial hepcidin analogs.

    PubMed

    Chanu, Khangembam Victoria; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Satish

    2011-10-01

    Hepcidin is an anti-microbial peptide expressed predominantly in the liver of many species. Based on the amino acid sequence deduced from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) hepcidin cDNA (Accession no. EU399814), six peptides Hepc(1-25), Hepc(6-25), Hepc(7-25), Hepc(9-25), Hepc(11-25) and Hepc(15-25) were synthesized using solid-phase fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) chemistry. CD spectroscopy revealed different spectra of the peptides in different solvents and in all the cases beta-structure was found to be dominant with less alpha-helix as predicted. Quantitation of secondary structure indicated the highest beta-structure for all the six peptides in SDS solution, when used as mimetic for membrane-like environment. The CD spectra of all the peptides taken in water showed that degree of randomness decreased with increase in chain length of the peptide. Out of the six peptides, only Hepc(1-25), Hepc(6-25) and Hepc(7-25) showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacteria). The peptides did not show any sensitivity toward E. coli (Gram-negative bacteria). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) showed the lowest value for Hepc(7-25) as an antibacterial agent, followed by Hepc(6-25) and Hepc(1-25). The peptides Hepc(9-25), Hepc(11-25) and Hepc(15-25) with more random structure did not show any antimicrobial activity The study demonstrated that 5 amino acids at N-terminal in buffalo hepcidin can be truncated without loss of antimicrobial activity and further reduction of length of the analog from 20 to 19 amino acids resulted increase in the activity because of increase in beta-structure of the peptide shown by CD spectroscopy. PMID:22165290

  19. The Differential Expression of Immune Genes between Water Buffalo and Yellow Cattle Determines Species-Specific Susceptibility to Schistosoma japonicum Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianmei; Fu, Zhiqiang; Hong, Yang; Wu, Haiwei; Jin, Yamei; Zhu, Chuangang; Li, Hao; Lu, Ke; Shi, Yaojun; Yuan, Chunxiu; Cheng, Guofeng; Feng, Xingang; Liu, Jinming; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2015-01-01

    Water buffalo are less susceptible to Schistosoma japonicum infection than yellow cattle. The factors that affect such differences in susceptibility remain unknown. A Bos taurus genome-wide gene chip was used to analyze gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood of water buffalo and yellow cattle pre- and post-infection with S. japonicum. This study showed that most of the identified differentially expressed genes(DEGs) between water buffalo and yellow cattle pre- and post-infection were involved in immune-related processes, and the expression level of immune genes was lower in water buffalo. The unique DEGs (390) in yellow cattle were mainly associated with inflammation pathways, while the unique DEGs (2,114) in water buffalo were mainly associated with immune-related factors. The 83 common DEGs may be the essential response genes during S. japonicum infection, the highest two gene ontology (GO) functions were associated with the regulation of fibrinolysis. The pathway enrichment analysis showed that the DEGs constituted similar immune-related pathways pre- and post-infection between the two hosts. This first analysis of the transcriptional profiles of natural hosts has enabled us to gain new insights into the mechanisms that govern their susceptibility or resistance to S. japonicum infections. PMID:26125181

  20. Localization of IGF proteins in various stages of ovarian follicular development and modulatory role of IGF-I on granulosa cell steroid production in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Singh, Jai; Paul, A; Thakur, N; Yadav, V P; Panda, R P; Bhure, S K; Sarkar, M

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine the expression of insulin like growth factor (IGF) genes in the bubaline ovarian follicles and modulatory role of IGF-I on progesterone production from granulosa cells (GC) of pre-ovulatory follicle in vitro. According to size, follicles were classified into four groups: GI (small), GII (medium), GIII (large) and GIV (preovulatory). All IGF genes were expressed in both GC and theca interna (TI) cells. The relative expression of IGF-I and IGF receptor I (IGFR-I) genes increased with follicle size and was greatest in the pre-ovulatory follicle (P<0.05). Expression of IGF-II and IGFR-II genes was minimal in GC but was readily detected in TI cells. In TI cells, the gene expression was greater in medium and large as compared to small and pre-ovulatory follicles. The expression of all binding protein (IGFBP) genes was detected in both GC and TI cells. Expression of IGFBP-3 gene increased with follicle size and was greatest in pre-ovulatory follicles (P<0.05). The expression of IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-4 was less in pre-ovulatory follicles but expression of IGFBP-5 and IGFBP-6 genes were greater at this stage. The GC culture was conducted for three time durations and with three doses of IGF-I. Expression of steroidogenic genes (StAR, CYP11A1, HSD3B) and progesterone concentration were increased in a dose and time dependent fashion. The present study, therefore, provided evidence of an autocrine/paracrine role of IGFs in follicular development and a stimulatory role of IGF1 in steroid production in GC of preovulatory follicles in the bubaline species. PMID:25951771

  1. Bioconcentration of some macrominerals in soil, forage and buffalo hair continuum: A case study on pasture irrigated with sewage water

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zafar Iqbal; Ahmad, Kafeel; Ashraf, Iqra; Gondal, Sumaira; Sher, Muhammad; Hayat, Zafar; Laudadio, Vito; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the bioaccumulation of some macrominerals in grazing buffaloes fed forage irrigated with sewage water or canal water. In particular, the transfer of sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) from soil to plant and in turn to animals was evaluated under sub-tropical environmental conditions. Samples of soil, forage and buffalo hair were collected and digested by wet method. Sodium and K concentrations were significantly higher in the soil but lower in the forages; however, Mg and Ca concentrations in both soil and forages were higher. The correlation between soil, forage and hair showed an imbalanced flow of Na, Mg and K and a balanced flow of Ca from soil to forage and then to animals. Based on the findings, the highest rates of transfer of minerals were found for sewage water treatment, whereas lowest rates were found for canal water treatment, except for Na. As the transfer of minerals depends on their bioavailability, the highest values may be due to the high rates of mineral uptake by plants. Thus, the high transfer rate of some elements by plants could become toxic in future causing detrimental effect to grazing livestock. PMID:25972745

  2. A nonsense mutation in the tyrosinase gene causes albinism in water buffalo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is an autosomal recessive hereditary pigmentation disorder affecting humans and several other animal species. Oculocutaneous albinism was studied in a herd of Murrah buffalo to determine the clinical presentation and genetic basis of albinism in this species. Results Clinical examinations and pedigree analysis were performed in an affected herd, and wild-type and OCA tyrosinase mRNA sequences were obtained. The main clinical findings were photophobia and a lack of pigmentation of the hair, skin, horns, hooves, mucosa, and iris. The results of segregation analysis suggest that this disease is acquired through recessive inheritance. In the OCA buffalo, a single-base substitution was detected at nucleotide 1,431 (G to A), which leads to the conversion of tryptophan into a stop codon at residue 477. Conclusion This premature stop codon produces an inactive protein, which is responsible for the OCA buffalo phenotype. These findings will be useful for future studies of albinism in buffalo and as a possible model to study diseases caused by a premature stop codon. PMID:22817390

  3. Effect of parity, days in milk, and milk yield on detailed milk protein composition in Mediterranean water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, V; Gervaso, M; Coletta, A; Carnier, P

    2012-08-01

    The effects of some nongenetic factors on milk protein fraction contents and relative proportions were estimated in 606 individual milk samples of Mediterranean water buffalo. Content of ?(S1)-casein (CN), ?(S2)-CN, ?-CN, ?-CN, ??-CN, glycosylated ?-CN (glyco-?-CN), ?-lactalbumin, and ?-lactoglobulin was measured by reversed-phase HPLC. Relative contents of ?(S1)-CN%, ?(S2)-CN%, ?-CN%, and ?-CN% were, respectively, 32.1, 17.1, 34.5, and 15.7%, whereas ?-CN% accounted for 0.6% of total casein content. Increasing total casein content in milk would result in a greater proportion of ?-CN% at the expense of all of the other major casein fractions, especially of ?-CN%. Values of ?(S2)-CN%, ?-CN%, and ?-CN% tended to decrease with parity, although their variations were not significant, whereas ?(S1)-CN% and glyco-?-CN% showed the opposite trend. Contents of most protein fractions showed the typical trends observed for milk components as lactation progressed, with high contents in early lactation, a minimum in midlactation, followed by a gradual increase toward the latter part of lactation. Values of ?(S1)-CN% increased during lactation, whereas ?(S2)-CN% decreased. The proportion of ?-CN% had its maximum value between 60 and 160 d of lactation, followed by a decrease, whereas ?-CN% had its minimum value in early lactation (<60 d) and remained relatively constant in the period of mid and late lactation. Glyco-?-CN% and ?-lactoglobulin% decreased in the first part of lactation, to reach their minimum values in midlactation, followed by an increase. Milk of top-producing buffaloes, compared with that of low-producing ones, had a significantly greater value of ?-CN% and glyco-?-CN%, and lower proportion of ?(S1)-CN%. The possible effect exerted by protein genetic variants in affecting variation of milk protein fraction contents and relative proportions should be further considered to better get insight into buffalo milk protein composition. PMID:22818435

  4. Microarray Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles of Schistosoma japonicum Derived from Less-Susceptible Host Water Buffalo and Susceptible Host Goat

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianmei; Hong, Yang; Yuan, Chunxiu; Fu, Zhiqiang; Shi, Yaojun; Zhang, Min; Shen, Liuhong; Han, Yanhui; Zhu, Chuangang; Li, Hao; Lu, Ke; Liu, Jinming; Feng, Xingang; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2013-01-01

    Background Water buffalo and goats are natural hosts for S. japonicum in endemic areas of China. The susceptibility of these two hosts to schistosome infection is different, as water buffalo are less conducive to S. japonicum growth and development. To identify genes that may affect schistosome development and survival, we compared gene expression profiles of schistosomes derived from these two natural hosts using high-throughput microarray technology. Results The worm recovery rate was lower and the length and width of worms from water buffalo were smaller compared to those from goats following S. japonicum infection for 7 weeks. Besides obvious morphological difference between the schistosomes derived from the two hosts, differences were also observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Microarray analysis showed differentially expressed gene patterns for parasites from the two hosts, which revealed that genes related to lipid and nucleotide metabolism, as well as protein folding, sorting, and degradation were upregulated, while others associated with signal transduction, endocrine function, development, immune function, endocytosis, and amino acid/carbohydrate/glycan metabolism were downregulated in schistosomes from water buffalo. KEGG pathway analysis deduced that the differentially expressed genes mainly involved lipid metabolism, the MAPK and ErbB signaling pathways, progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, dorso-ventral axis formation, reproduction, and endocytosis, etc. Conclusion The microarray gene analysis in schistosomes derived from water buffalo and goats provide a useful platform to disclose differences determining S. japonicum host compatibility to better understand the interplay between natural hosts and parasites, and identify schistosome target genes associated with susceptibility to screen vaccine candidates. PMID:23940568

  5. About Buffalo

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    For people attending our fall conference or summer workshop, we've prepared a list of some of the many things to see and do in and around Buffalo (and just across the border in Canada - Please Note: Travel across the border now requires a passport, for everyone).

  6. Postnatal development of intestinal endocrine cell populations in the water buffalo

    PubMed Central

    LUCINI, CARLA; DE GIROLAMO, PAOLO; COPPOLA, LUIGI; PAINO, GIUSEPPE; CASTALDO, LUCIANA

    1999-01-01

    The frequency and distribution of 11 endocrine cell populations were studied in the intestine of differently aged buffalo, grouped on the basis of diet: 2-d-olds (suckling), 5-mo-olds (weaning) and 5-y-olds (ruminant adult diet). The endocrine cell populations were identified immunocytochemically using antisera against 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), somatostatin, gastrin, cholecystokinin (CCK), COOH-terminal octapeptide of gastrin/CCK, neurotensin, motilin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), secretin, glucagon/glicentin (GLU/GLI) and polypeptide YY (PYY). In adult buffalos the regional distribution of endocrine cells is similar to that of other adult ruminants. During postnatal development, these cell types showed the following changes in their frequency and distribution: (1) 5-HT, neurotensin and gastrin/CCK immunoreactive cells (i.c.) showed a decrease in frequency with age; (2) somatostatin i.c. frequency remained stable with age; (3) motilin, GIP, secretin and CCK i.c. showed a slight increase in frequency with age; (4) GLU/GLI and PYY i.c. decreased in frequency with age in the small intestine, caecum and proximal colon and an increase in frequency in the rectum. It was hypothesised that the endocrine cell types, whose presence and localisation is substantially stable in all examined ages, probably contain substances that are strictly necessary for intestinal function. In contrast the hormones contained in the cell populations that decreased with age, are probably involved in physiological needs during the milk and weaning diet or play a role in intestinal growth. PMID:10580859

  7. Infection rates of Linguatula serrata nymphs in mesenteric lymph nodes from water buffaloes in North India.

    PubMed

    Sudan, Vikrant; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Shanker, Daya

    2014-09-15

    The literature pertaining to prevalence of Linguatula serrata in large ruminants is limited. In abattoir survey, the infection rate of L. serrata in 1440 mesenteric lymph nodes collected from 480 buffaloes from North India was investigated. Results revealed 88 (18.3%) buffaloes and 288 (20.0%) mesenteric lymph nodes having parasite's nymphs. Nonsignificant difference (P>0.05), between 1 and 3 years age (51.5%) and above three years of age (48.5%) groups was observed. Nonsignificant difference (P>0.05) between the infection rate of male (51.5%) and female (48.5%) was also observed. Infection in haemorrhagic (57.2%) and black-coloured (67.5%) nymph nodes were significantly (P<0.05) higher than normal-coloured nodes (8.8%). When compared based on consistency, the results showed soft lymph nodes (61.3%) were significantly (P<0.05) more infected than normal (12.8%) and hard (30.0%) lymph nodes. The intensity of infection in normal, haemorrhagic and black lymph nodes were 1.81 ± 0.21, 4.23 ± 0.0.62 and 5.12 ± 0.73, nymphs respectively. The mean numbers of parasites in haemorrhagic and black-coloured lymph nodes were significantly (P<0.0005) more than mean number of parasites in normal-coloured nodes. Again intensity of infection in normal, soft and hard lymph nodes was 2.31 ± 0.18, 5.84 ± 0.74 and 3.21 ± 0.68, respectively. When compared based on lymph nodes consistency, the soft lymph nodes were significantly (P<0.0005) more severely infected than normal and hard ones. The study has generated some vital data about the prevalence of this underreported disease amongst the bubaline intermediate hosts along with important gross changes in the affected lymph nodes. PMID:25112688

  8. 33 CFR 110.84b - Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84b Section 110.84b Navigation and Navigable Waters...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.84b Buffalo, N.Y. The area within the Port of Buffalo known as Port of...

  9. 33 CFR 110.84b - Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84b Section 110.84b Navigation and Navigable Waters...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.84b Buffalo, N.Y. The area within the Port of Buffalo known as Port of...

  10. 33 CFR 110.84b - Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84b Section 110.84b Navigation and Navigable Waters...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.84b Buffalo, N.Y. The area within the Port of Buffalo known as Port of...

  11. 33 CFR 110.84b - Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84b Section 110.84b Navigation and Navigable Waters...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.84b Buffalo, N.Y. The area within the Port of Buffalo known as Port of...

  12. 33 CFR 110.84b - Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84b Section 110.84b Navigation and Navigable Waters...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.84b Buffalo, N.Y. The area within the Port of Buffalo known as Port of...

  13. Clinical and molecular study of a new form of hereditary myotonia in Murrah water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Borges, Alexandre S; Barbosa, José D; Resende, Luiz Antônio L; Mota, Lígia S L S; Amorim, Rogério M; Carvalho, Thaís L; Garcia, José F; Oliveira-Filho, José P; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Souza, Jorge Estefano S; Winand, Nena J

    2013-03-01

    Hereditary myotonia caused by mutations in CLCN1 has been previously described in humans, goats, dogs, mice and horses. The goal of this study was to characterize the clinical, morphological and genetic features of hereditary myotonia in Murrah buffalo. Clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed on affected and normal animals. CLCN1 cDNA and the relevant genomic region from normal and affected animals were sequenced. The affected animals exhibited muscle hypertrophy and stiffness. Myotonic discharges were observed during EMG, and dystrophic changes were not present in skeletal muscle biopsies; the last 43 nucleotides of exon-3 of the CLCN1 mRNA were deleted. Cloning of the genomic fragment revealed that the exclusion of this exonic sequence was caused by aberrant splicing, which was associated with the presence of a synonymous SNP in exon-3 (c.396C>T). The mutant allele triggered the efficient use of an ectopic 5' splice donor site located at nucleotides 90-91 of exon-3. The predicted impact of this aberrant splicing event is the alteration of the CLCN1 translational reading frame, which results in the incorporation of 24 unrelated amino acids followed by a premature stop codon. PMID:23339992

  14. Studies on the bacteriological qualities of the Buffalo River and three source water dams along its course in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chigor, Vincent N; Sibanda, Timothy; Okoh, Anthony I

    2013-06-01

    The Buffalo River and its dams are major surface water sources used for fresh produce irrigation, raw water abstraction and recreation in parts of the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa. Over a 12-month period (August 2010 to July 2011), we assessed the bacteriological qualities of water from the river and 3 source water dams along its course. Faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), including total coliform (TC), faecal coliform (FC) and enterococci (ENT) counts, were high and ranged as follows: 1.9 × 10(2)-3.8 × 10(7), 0-3.0 × 10(5) and 0-5.3 × 10(5) cfu/100 ml for TC, FC and ENT, respectively. Significantly (P<0.05) higher concentrations of FC and ENT were observed at the sampling sites located at the lower reaches of the river compared to the upper reaches, and at Bridle Drift Dam compared to the other two dams. FIB counts mostly exceeded the recommended maximum values suggested by national and international guidelines for safe fresh produce irrigation, domestic applications, full-contact recreation and livestock watering. These results show that the bacteriological qualities of the Buffalo River and dams were poor, and suggest that sewage was dumped into the Buffalo River during the study period. Urban runoffs and effluents of wastewater treatment plants appear to be important sources of faecal contamination in the river. We conclude that these water bodies represent significant public health hazards. Provision of adequate sanitary infrastructure will help prevent source water contamination, and public health education aimed at improving personal, household and community hygiene is imperative. PMID:23238595

  15. Assessment of the risks for human health of adenoviruses, hepatitis A virus, rotaviruses and enteroviruses in the Buffalo River and three source water dams in the Eastern Cape.

    PubMed

    Chigor, Vincent N; Sibanda, Timothy; Okoh, Anthony I

    2014-06-01

    Buffalo River is an important water resource in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The potential risks of infection constituted by exposure to human enteric viruses in the Buffalo River and three source water dams along its course were assessed using mean values and static quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). The daily risks of infection determined by the exponential model [for human adenovirus (HAdV) and enterovirus (EnV)] and the beta-Poisson model (for hepatitis A virus (HAV) and rotavirus (RoV)) varied with sites and exposure scenario. The estimated daily risks of infection values at the sites where the respective viruses were detected, ranged from 7.31 × 10(-3) to 1 (for HAdV), 4.23 × 10(-2) to 6.54 × 10(-1) (RoV), 2.32 × 10(-4) to 1.73 × 10(-1) (HAV) and 1.32 × 10(-4) to 5.70 × 10(-2) (EnV). The yearly risks of infection in individuals exposed to the river/dam water via drinking, recreational, domestic or irrigational activities were unacceptably high, exceeding the acceptable risk of 0.01% (10(-4) infection/person/year), and the guideline value used as by several nations for drinking water. The risks of illness and death from infection ranged from 6.58 × 10(-5) to 5.0 × 10(-1) and 6.58 × 10(-9) to 5.0 × 10(-5), respectively. The threats here are heightened by the high mortality rates for HAV, and its endemicity in South Africa. Therefore, we conclude that the Buffalo River and its source water dams are a public health hazard. The QMRA presented here is the first of its kinds in the Eastern Cape Province and provides the building block for a quantitatively oriented local guideline for water quality management in the Province. PMID:24676673

  16. The buffalo wars

    E-print Network

    Nasr, Susan L

    2006-01-01

    The wandering buffalo of Yellowstone National Park are the subject of a heated debate in the western United States. The animals carry a disease called brucellosis, which infects both buffalo and cattle and has economic ...

  17. A Buffalo Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reville, Eugene T.

    The Buffalo Public Schools have developed magnet schools to aid desegregation plans and to provide for different student needs and learning styles. The Academic Challenge Center is designed to meet concerns about declining reading and math scores. The Buffalo Traditional School emphasizes traditional learning styles and puts a high priority on…

  18. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters...REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage grounds —(1) Explosives...

  19. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters...REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage grounds —(1) Explosives...

  20. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters...REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage grounds —(1) Explosives...

  1. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters...REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage grounds —(1) Explosives...

  2. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters...REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage grounds —(1) Explosives...

  3. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 20:570574, 2000 Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2000

    E-print Network

    Moxostoma macrolepidotum, smallmouth buffalo I. bubalus, white sucker Catostomus com- mersoni, black, shorthead redhorse Moxostoma ma- crolepidotum, smallmouth buffalo I. bubalus, white sucker Catostomus

  4. Morphological, biochemical and physiological studies on the preservation of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    bubalis) spermatozoa in different modified dilutors : Effects of chloroquine-diphosphate K. S. SIDHU S. S in five modified dilutors designated here as Al' A2' A3, A4 and CAW. In almost all the five dilutors sperms, with the increasing time of storage. Supplementation of these dilutors with 10-5M chloroquine

  5. Pharmacokinetics and dosage regimen of 2-pyridine aldoxime in Bubalus bubalis intoxicated with fenitrothion.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, A K; Malik, J K

    2001-02-01

    In the present study, the pharmacokinetics of 2-pyridine aldoxime (2-PAM, 30 mg/kg, i.v.) alone and in conjunction with atropine (0.3 mg/kg; 1/4 i.v., 3/4 i.m.) was investigated in 10 Bubalus bubalis intoxicated with a single oral lethal dose of fenitrothion (435 mg/kg). Based on the kinetic parameters, an appropriate dosage regimen of 2-PAM in B. bubalis was calculated. There was no significant difference between plasma levels and pharmacokinetic parameters of 2-PAM in the two groups of animals, given 2-PAM alone and in conjunction with atropine. The peak plasma concentration of 2-PAM at 1 min was in the range of 189.5-196.6 microg/mL which declined to 9.22-9.98 microg/mL at 4 h. The values of elimination half-life, Vd(area) and total body clearance were 2.41-2.67 h, 0.77-0.95 L/kg and 227.5-245.7 mL/kg/h, respectively. The binding capacity of 2-PAM to plasma proteins of fenitrothion-intoxicated buffalo calves and dissociation rate constant of protein drug complex were 0.015 x 10(-6) mol/g and 2.367 x 10(-6) mol, respectively. Approximately 63% of 2-PAM was bound with plasma proteins. In the treatment of organophosphate insecticide (OPI) toxicity in B. bubalis, an appropriate i.v. dosage regimen of 2-PAM in conjunction with atropine would be 18 mg/kg followed by 15 mg/kg at 4 h interval. PMID:11348483

  6. Detection of antibody to Toxocara vitulorum perieneteric fluid antigens (Pe) in the colostrum and serum of buffalo calves and cows by Western blotting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabiano P. Ferreira; Wilma A. Starke-Buzetti

    2005-01-01

    Toxocara vitulorum, a nematode parasite in the small intestine of cattle and water buffaloes, causes high morbidity and mortality of 1–3 months old buffalo calves. This research evaluated the specific perieneteric antigens (Pe) reactivity of anti-T. vitulorum-Pe antibody (Tv-Pe-Ab) in both immune sera and colostrum from buffalo cows immediately post-partum from buffalo cows. The presence of Tv-Pe-Ab in sera of

  7. Where the Buffalo Roam

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-05-28

    In this activity, learners explore the Great Plains. They use a large outline map (see related activity "If I Lived in a Forest") to trace the location of the Plains region and examine the types of natural resources available. They play "Name of the Game" as they learn about the importance of the buffalo and other animals to Native Americans of the Plains. This activity is featured on p.21-23 of the "One With the Earth: Native Americans and the Natural World" multidisciplinary unit of study for kindergarten through third grade.

  8. Anthelmintic Effect of Biocompatible Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on Gigantocotyle explanatum, a Neglected Parasite of Indian Water Buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Yasir Akhtar; Singh, Braj Raj; Ullah, Rizwan; Shoeb, Mohd; Naqvi, Alim H.; Abidi, Syed M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Helminth parasites of veterinary importance cause huge revenue losses to agrarian economy worldwide. With the emergence of drug resistance against the current formulations, there is a need to focus on the alternative approaches in order to control this menace. In the present study, biocompatible zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were used to see their in vitro effect on the biliary amphistomes, Gigantocotyle explanatum, infecting Bubalus bubalis because these nanoparticles are involved in generation of free radicals that induce oxidative stress, resulting in disruption of cellular machinery. The ZnO NPs were synthesized by using egg albumin as a biotemplate and subsequently characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Diffraction and Spectrophotometrical, which showed that ZnO NPs were highly purified wurtzite type polycrystals, with a mean size of 16.7 nm. When the parasites were treated with lower concentrations (0.004% and 0.008%) of the ZnO NPs, the worms mounted a protective response by stimulating the antioxidant system but the treatment of G. explanatum with 0.012% ZnO NPs produced significant inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p< 0.05) and glutathione S- transferase (GST) (p<0.01), while the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation marker, was significantly (p< 0.01) elevated. SEM and histopathology revealed pronounced tegumental damage showing the disruption of surface papillae and the annulations, particularly in the posterior region near acetabulum. The under expression of a number of polypeptides, loss of worm motility in a time dependent manner, further reflect strong anthelmintic potential of ZnO NPs. It can be concluded that the anthelmintic effect might be due to the production of reactive oxygen species that target a variety of macromolecules such as nucleic acid, protein and lipids which are involved in different cellular processes. PMID:26177503

  9. Presence of Campylobacter and Arcobacter species in in-line milk filters of farms authorized to produce and sell raw milk and of a water buffalo dairy farm in Italy.

    PubMed

    Serraino, A; Florio, D; Giacometti, F; Piva, S; Mion, D; Zanoni, R G

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the presence of Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter spp. in dairy herds authorized for the production and sale of raw milk and in a water buffalo dairy farm, and to test the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates. A total of 196 in-line milk filters were collected from 14 dairy farms (13 bovine and 1 water buffalo) for detection of Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter spp. by microbiological culture. For each farm investigated, 1 isolate for each Campylobacter and Arcobacter species isolated was tested using the Etest method (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) to evaluate the susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, erythromycin, and gentamicin. A total of 52 isolates were detected in 49 milk filters in 12 farms (85.7%) out of 14 and the isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni (6), Campylobacter hyointestinalis ssp. hyointestinalis (8), Campylobacter concisus (1), Campylobacter fetus ssp. fetus (1), Arcobacter butzleri (22), and Arcobacter cryaerophilus (14). The small number of isolates tested for antimicrobial susceptibility precludes any epidemiological consideration but highlights that all Campylobacter isolates were susceptible to macrolides, which are the first-choice drugs for the treatment of campylobacteriosis, and that resistance to fluoroquinolones and tetracycline was detected; for Arcobacter isolates, resistance to ampicillin and chloramphenicol was detected. The sale of raw milk for human consumption by self-service automatic vending machines has been allowed in Italy since 2004 and the presence of C. jejuni in in-line milk filters confirms that raw milk consumption is a significant risk factor for human infection. The high occurrence of emerging Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter spp. discovered in dairy farms authorized for production and sale of raw milk represents an emerging hazard for human health. PMID:23453517

  10. Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University at Buffalo

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University at Buffalo S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f N e w Y o r k MAE Seminar Series Rotation and Vorticity in Mechanics and Physics Alireza Hadjesfandiari Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University at Buffalo ah@buffalo.edu Abstract: Rotation

  11. Development of Standard Weight (Ws) Equations and Standard Length Categories

    E-print Network

    Odes carpio. shorthead redhorse Moxostoma macrolepidotum. smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus, white sucker buffalo Ictiobus cyprinellus, river carpsucker Carplodes carpIO, shorthead redhorse Moxostoma macrolepidotum, smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus, white sucker Catostomus commersoni, black bullhead Ameiurus

  12. Presented at the Eighteenth USCOLD Annual Meeting and Lecture, Buffalo, New York, August 8-14, 1998

    E-print Network

    Bowles, David S.

    Presented at the Eighteenth USCOLD Annual Meeting and Lecture, Buffalo, New York, August 8-14, 1998 and Environmental Engineering, Utah Water Research Laboratory, College of Engineering, Utah State University, Logan

  13. PHYLOGEOGRAPHIC PATTERNS IN LARGE RIVER ECOSYSTEMS: GENETIC STRUCTURE OF SMALLMOUTH BUFFALO (ICTIOBUS BUBALUS) IN THE OHIO RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genetic studies on populations of large river fishes provide a potentially useful but underutilized research and assessment tool. Population genetic research on freshwater systems has provided meaningful insight into stock structure, hybridization issues, and gene flow/migration...

  14. Genetic and Phylogenetic Studies of Toll-Like Receptor 5 (TLR5) in River Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis)

    E-print Network

    Jones, Brittany

    2012-08-21

    , such as Crohn?s disease (Gewirtz et al., 2006). However, there are conflicting data as to the nature of the role TLR5 plays in mediating response in the disease. Crohn?s is a disease of the gastrointestinal tract. Some data suggest a link between Crohn?s...-Kumar et al., 2007; Vijay-Kumar et al., 2008). Discussion of Crohn?s disease is important because of a similar disease in livestock called Johne?s disease, which causes a chronic inflammation of the intestines. Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP...

  15. Isolation, characterization and functional analysis of full length p53 cDNA from Bubalus bubalis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Minu; Aggarwal, Suruchi; Mohanty, Ashok K; Mukhopadhyay, Tapas

    2015-09-01

    p53 plays a pivotal role in maintaining the genomic integrity of the cell and has an important role in cellular transformation. We isolated and cloned a full length p53 cDNA (Bp53) from water buffalo in expression vectors designed to generate tagged proteins with FLAG or GFP. Bp53 was found to be 1161 nucleotide long and codes for 386 amino acid residues with 79% homology with human p53 containing 393 amino acids. Although Bp53 has some inherent differences in amino acid composition in different functional domains as compared to human p53 but the total electrostatic charge of amino acids has been maintained. Bp53 cDNA was transiently transfected in a p53 null human NSCLC cell line and as expected, it was predominantly localized in the nucleus. Besides, Bp53 effectively transactivates a number of target genes similar to human p53 and exerts most of its anti-tumorigenic potential in culture as observed in clonogenic and cell viability assays. Like human p53 mutants, core domain mutant version of Bp53 was found to be mis-localized to cytoplasm with diminished tumor suppressor activity. However, Bp53 appeared to be more sensitive to mdm2 mediated degradation and as a result, this protein was less stable as compared to human p53. For the first time we have characterized a functionally efficient wild-type p53 from buffalo having lower stability than human p53 and thus, buffalo p53 could be used as a model system for further insight to the molecular basis of wild-type p53 instability. PMID:26003295

  16. Influence of weaning regimen on intake, growth characteristics and plasma blood metabolites in male buffalo calves.

    PubMed

    Rashid, M A; Pasha, T N; Jabbar, M A; Ijaz, A; Rehman, H; Yousaf, M S

    2013-09-01

    Experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of weaning age on growth performance, feed intake, feed efficiency (FE) and blood metabolites in Nili-Ravi male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves. Twenty-four male buffalo calves were assigned to one of the three treatment groups: continuous milk feeding (CMF), limited milk feeding (LMF) and early weaning (EW), and weaned off milk at 12, 10 and 8 weeks of age, respectively. For the first 3 days after birth, calves in all three treatments were fed colostrum, and were then moved to individual milk feeding at 10% of BW for the next 6 weeks. Thereafter, the provision of milk to the CMF group was gradually tapered to zero through week 12, using week 6 intakes as a base. The LMF calves were fed milk at 7.5%, 5.0%, 3.5%, and 1.5% of BW during weeks 7 to 10, respectively. Lastly, calves in the EW group were fed milk at 5.0% and 2.5% of BW at weeks 7 and 8, respectively. Calf starter (CS) feed was also provided ad libitum from weeks 2 to 12 and individual intakes were recorded on a daily basis. Blood samples were taken from weeks 6 to 12, on a weekly basis; whereas, the BW, heart girth, withers height and hip width were measured at the start of experiment and later on a weekly basis. Weight gain, average daily gain, and body measurements were the same across all three groups. Milk intake was lower (P < 0.05), whereas CS intake was greater (P < 0.05) in the EW calves compared with the other treatment groups. Dry matter intake was greater (P < 0.05) in the EW and LMF calves compared with the CMF calves. The FE was greater (P < 0.05) in the CMF calves compared with the LMF and EW treatment groups. Blood glucose concentration was similar among the treatments; however, blood urea nitrogen was greater (P < 0.05) in the EW calves compared with the CMF and LMF groups. Plasma concentration of non-esterified fatty acids was higher (P < 0.05) in the EW calves compared with the CMF calves. In light of these results, it is evident that buffalo calves can be successfully weaned as early as 8 weeks of age without negatively affecting their growth performance. PMID:23688620

  17. Characterization and biological activity of gangliosides in buffalo milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ladislas Colarow; Marco Turini; Susann Teneberg; Alvin Berger

    2003-01-01

    Gangliosides (GS) were evaluated in Swiss cow's milk (SCM), Italian buffalo milk (IBM) and its serum, Pakistan buffalo colostrum (PBC), Pakistan buffalo mature milk (PBM), and Pakistan buffalo milk from rice-growing areas (PBR). Dairy GS were obtained from the Folch's upper (hydrophilic) and lower (lipophilic) extraction phases, respectively, and determined as lipid-bound sialic acid (LBSA) by colorimetry. Molar ratios of

  18. Bioaccumulation of PAHs in the Zebra Mussel at Times Beach, Buffalo, New York

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeannie M. Roper; Donald S. Cherry; John W. Simmers; Henry E. Tatem

    1997-01-01

    The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, was utilized in an in situ study in the Times Beach Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) located in Buffalo, New York, Mussels, placed both in the water column (upper position) and at the sediment surface (lower position), survived a 34-day exposure to the CDF. At the CDF, total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in the water

  19. Synteny mapping in river buffalo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. El Nahas; H. A. Oraby; H. A. de Hondt; A. M. Medhat; M. M. Zahran; E. R. Mahfouz; A. M. Karim

    1996-01-01

    The cosegregation of ten coding loci has been investigated, in a panel of 37 somatic cell hybrids resulting from the fusion\\u000a of a hamster cell line and river buffalo lymphocytes, by use of Southern hybridization technique. Five syntenic groups, TCRB-PGY3,\\u000a ASS-ABL, FUCA1P-CRYG, MBP-YES1, and CGN1-ACTA1, previously assigned to cattle as U13, U16, U17, U28, and U29 respectively,\\u000a were also found

  20. Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University at Buffalo

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    Discovery in Energy, Environmental, and Materials Science through Advanced Modeling and SimulationMechanical and Aerospace Engineering University at Buffalo Faculty Candidate Seminar Enabling Techniques Zhijie Xu Idaho National Laboratory ABSTRACT Advanced scientific computing emerges as an important

  1. Sequential Cross-Species Chromosome Painting among River Buffalo, Cattle, Sheep and Goat: A Useful Tool for Chromosome Abnormalities Diagnosis within the Family Bovidae

    PubMed Central

    Pauciullo, Alfredo; Perucatti, Angela; Cosenza, Gianfranco; Iannuzzi, Alessandra; Incarnato, Domenico; Genualdo, Viviana; Di Berardino, Dino; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to develop a comparative multi-colour Zoo-FISH on domestic ruminants metaphases using a combination of whole chromosome and sub-chromosomal painting probes obtained from the river buffalo species (Bubalus bubalis, 2n?=?50,XY). A total of 13 DNA probes were obtained through chromosome microdissection and DOP-PCR amplification, labelled with two fluorochromes and sequentially hybridized on river buffalo, cattle (Bos taurus, 2n?=?60,XY), sheep (Ovis aries, 2n?=?54,XY) and goat (Capra hircus, 2n?=?60,XY) metaphases. The same set of paintings were then hybridized on bovine secondary oocytes to test their potential use for aneuploidy detection during in vitro maturation. FISH showed excellent specificity on metaphases and interphase nuclei of all the investigated species. Eight pairs of chromosomes were simultaneously identified in buffalo, whereas the same set of probes covered 13 out 30 chromosome pairs in the bovine and goat karyotypes and 40% of the sheep karyotype (11 out of 27 chromosome pairs). This result allowed development of the first comparative M-FISH karyotype within the domestic ruminants. The molecular resolution of complex karyotypes by FISH is particularly useful for the small chromosomes, whose similarity in the banding patterns makes their identification very difficult. The M-FISH karyotype also represents a practical tool for structural and numerical chromosome abnormalities diagnosis. In this regard, the successful hybridization on bovine secondary oocytes confirmed the potential use of this set of probes for the simultaneous identification on the same germ cell of 12 chromosome aneuploidies. This is a fundamental result for monitoring the reproductive health of the domestic animals in relation to management errors and/or environmental hazards. PMID:25330006

  2. Thermal comfort indices of female Murrah buffaloes reared in the Eastern Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Jamile Andréa Rodrigues; de Araújo, Airton Alencar; Lourenço Júnior, José de Brito; dos Santos, Núbia de Fátima Alves; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto; de Oliveira, Raimundo Parente

    2015-06-01

    The study aimed to develop new and more specific thermal comfort indices for buffaloes reared in the Amazon region. Twenty female Murrah buffaloes were studied for a year. The animals were fed in pasture with drinking water and mineral supplementation ad libitum. The following parameters were measured twice a week in the morning (7 AM) and afternoon (1 PM): air temperature (AT), relative air humidity (RH), dew point temperature (DPT), wet bulb temperature (WBT), black globe temperature (BGT), rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR), and body surface temperature (BST). The temperature and humidity index (THI), globe temperature and humidity index (GTHI), Benezra's comfort index (BTCI), and Ibéria's heat tolerance index (IHTI) were calculated so they could be compared to the new indices. Multivariate regression analyses were carried out using the canonical correlation model, and all indices were correlated with the physiological and climatic variables. Three pairs of indices (general, effective, and practical) were determined comprising the buffalo comfort climatic condition index (BCCCI) and the buffalo environmental comfort index (BECI). The indices were validated and a great agreement was found among the BCCCIs (general, effective, and practical), with 98.3 % between general and effective a.nd 92.6 % between general and practical. A significant correlation (P < 0.01) was found between the new indices and the physiological and climatic variables, which indicated that these may be used in pairs to diagnose thermal stress in buffaloes reared in the Amazon.

  3. SEROLOGICAL SURVEY OF ANTIBODIES TO TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN SHEEP, CATTLE, AND BUFFALOES IN PUNJAB, INDIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sera from 186 sheep, 83 cattle, and 103 water buffaloes from Punjab, India were evaluated for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using a commercial ELISA kit. This study was planned using a 2-stage random sampling procedure employing sampling software ‘survey toolbox’. In the first step, villages were...

  4. Citologia do leite de búfalas (Bubalus bubalis) hígidas criadas no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alice Maria Melville Paiva Della Libera; Wanderley Pereira de Araujo; Sandra Satiko Kitamura; Andrea Mello Franco Rosenfeld; Eduardo Harry Birgel

    2004-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative evaluations of cells present on milk are important for understanding many events, physiologic or not, of the mammary gland. Despite that, citations in the literature are conflicting concerning healthy buffaloes. This study evaluated milk cellularity in 108 samples of healthy buffaloes mammary glands. They were analyzed by somatic cell count, automatic and microscopic, and the cellular

  5. 76 FR 60962 - Noise Exposure Map Update for Buffalo Niagara International Airport, Buffalo, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ...Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Update for Buffalo Niagara International...determination that the updated noise exposure maps submitted by the Niagara Frontier Transportation...FAA's determination on the noise exposure maps is September 20, 2011. FOR FURTHER...

  6. Snow From Great Lakes Covers Buffalo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On November 20, 2000, Buffalo, New York was blanketed by a late-autumn storm that left 25 inches of snow on the ground in a 24-hour period, most of it during the afternoon rush hour. Buffalo officials declared a state of emergency and New York National Guardsmen were called in to assist with clearing snow from roads. With the exception of essential vehicles or people retrieving stranded children, all driving was banned in the city. This SeaWiFS pass over the central United States and Canada depicts a source for all of the snow in Buffalo. Cold, dry Canadian air blowing toward the southeast picked up a lot of moisture from the relatively warm Great Lakes -- forming the clouds that lightened their loads over Buffalo. This image was acquired November 21, 2000, by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) flying aboard the Orbview-2 satellite. Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  7. Molecular phylogeny of Pakistani riverine buffalo based on genetic variability of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene.

    PubMed

    Saif, Rashid; Wasim, Muhammad; Babar, Masroor Ellahi

    2012-10-01

    Mitochondrial cytochrome b gene is considered to be one of the best markers for breed characterization as well as studying the ancestry in the vertebrates due to its exclusive maternal inheritance. DNA fingerprinting by single nucleotide polymorphism is most reliable and widely used molecular technique in modern forensics and is being considered in this study. Partial sequencing of 1,061 bp of aforementioned gene from 14580 to 15643 was conducted in two famous Pakistani buffalo breeds named Nili-Ravi and Kundi. In which we explore seven haplotypes within earlier and none in the latter breed. Nili-Ravi is polymorphic at four codons of this gene, and the protein translation is also different from the reference sample while monomorphic at three codons with no amino acid replacement. Haplotypes frequency distribution of these four haplotypes named NR3, NR4, NR5, NR7 revealed that the prevalence of each haplotype is 0.04 % in the Pakistani buffalo population of this Nili-Ravi breed while complete homoplasmy was observed in the Kundi breed population. Nili-Ravi breed of buffalo is genetically more variable than the Kundi breed as far as the gene in subject is concerned. It means later breed has spent more time to propagate its wild type haplotype which make this breed more ancestral as compare to Nili-Ravi. Secondly both breeds share their common ancestors with regional water buffalo rather than the swamp one. PMID:22718511

  8. Evaluation of the effectiveness of using alfalfa and buffalo grass for remediation of trichloroethylene from groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Caravello, V.

    1998-06-03

    Phytoremediation is receiving increasing attention due to the potential for vegetation to play a significant role in bioremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater. The purpose of this research was to conduct a pilot study to determine if buffalo grass would enhance the remediation of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE). A mass-balance experiment was designed and executed to determine the extent of TCE remediation/degradation occurring through buffalo grass. Measurements for TCE in air, water, and soil were completed for three treatments: (1) buffalo grass, (2) alfalfa, and (3) soil following challenge with a water-TCE mixture. In total, 267 air samples, 43 water samples, 85 soil samples, and 40 vegetative samples were collected and analyzed. The analysis identified two important facts. First, there were no significant differences detected between TCE concentrations in soil, water, and air between groups. Second, there is a significant difference in the amount of the TCE-water mixture consumed in chambers with plants versus chambers without plants. The mass balance of the experiment was not achieved due to unaccountable losses of TCE from the chambers. The major loss mechanism for TCE appears to be from the breakthrough of air sampling media during the experiment. Thus, the data are insufficient to determine if remediation occurred via plants or by preferential pathways through the soil. Future experiments should be designed to include daily monitoring of the aquifer, humidity tolerant air sampling protocol, and relief from the build-up of humidity and transpiration inside the chambers.

  9. STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK AT BUFFALO DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND AEROSPACE ENGINEERING

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK AT BUFFALO DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND AEROSPACE ENGINEERING GRADUATE AND AEROSPACE ENGINEERING STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK AT BUFFALO 318 JARVIS HALL BUFFALO, NY 14260-4400 WAIVER

  10. Bubaline versus bovine reproduction.

    PubMed

    Drost, M

    2007-08-01

    Fertility in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is considerably lower than that in cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus). Poor breeding efficiency is attributed to late onset of puberty, seasonality, poor estrus expression, and long calving intervals. Accurate estrus detection is a prerequisite for efficient reproductive management. Established reproductive management techniques in cattle can be successfully applied to water buffalo because of the similarities in the anatomy, physiology, and endocrinology of reproduction between the two genera. PMID:17482253

  11. Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University at Buffalo

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    and Astronautics in May 2008 and a M.S.AAE in December 2009. His research interests include space mission designMechanical and Aerospace Engineering University at Buffalo S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f N e w Trajectories for Missions to Jupiter. Abstract: Satellite-aided capture is a mission design concept used

  12. "Just Following the Buffalo": Origins of a Montana Metis Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Martha Harroun

    2006-01-01

    By 1879 the vast buffalo herds were all but gone from the Great Plains. Many of the remaining animals had moved south from the Milk River of northern Montana and Alberta into the Judith Basin of central Montana. In these rich grasslands, for a few more years, life went on as it had for centuries. Following the buffalo came many Indian bands, as…

  13. Effect of Stream Impoundment in Tennessee on the Fish Populations of Tributary Streams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Ruhr

    1957-01-01

    Data from a statewide survey of warm water streams in Tennessee were used to determine the extent to which gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), carp (Cyprinus carpio), smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus), and drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) inhabit smallmouth bass-rock bass streams. Reproduction of those species in tributary streams was minor or absent. By comparing samples from streams that were accessible from an

  14. Buffalo News -Buffalo seen as possible link with supercomputer network Subscribe Today -2 weeks FREE

    E-print Network

    Miller, Russ

    FREE GO TO BUFFALO.COM Monday, November 8, 2004 Partly cloudy 42°F / 6°C more weather>> Business Today's center in Maryland, but the data to feed the models, collected from weather balloons and other sources-performance computers, Smarr said. "Scientists invented this (network), and then the kids took it over," he said. "Which

  15. University of Buffalo Teaching & Learning Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    For folks studying evolutionary biology, this collection from the University of Buffalo's Teaching and Learning Center is a gem. The site contains materials that cover sixteen different animals in a form that resembles a digital image narrative. Visitors can view multiple, fully labeled external and internal views and details of each animal. These materials were developed by Professor Clyde F. Herreid and a team of librarians, graduate student assistants and other staff. Users can browse around by subject heading (such as grasshoppers) or they can also search the entire collection. Each specimen is very well marked and it's a great way to learn about the world of evolutionary biology.

  16. WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. A BOEING 737-200 HAS BEEN TOWED IN FOR AN OVERNIGHT (BALANCE) CHECK. THE TAIL DOCK STANDS ARE IN POSITION AT THE REAR OF THE AIRCRAFT TO FACILITATE INSPECTION. MAINTENANCE CREWS PERFORM NIGHTLY SERVICE ON UP TO 6 AIRCRAFT. THE NORMAL SEQUENCE OF 12 ROUTINE CHECKS COVERS SEVEN BASIC AREAS: INTERIOR, EXTERIOR, WINGS, LANDING GEAR, TAIL, AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), AND ENGINES. THE WORK FORCE CONSISTS OF 5 INSPECTORS, 3 LEAD MECHANICS, AND 24 MECHANICS; NIGHTLY SCHEDULES ARE COORDINATED BY A PLANNER. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  17. 17. GEAR BOXES, BUFFALO IRONWORKER (PUNCH AND SHEAR ON LEFT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. GEAR BOXES, BUFFALO IRONWORKER (PUNCH AND SHEAR ON LEFT), IN COVERED AREA BETWEEN WAREHOUSES A AND B, LOOKING EAST - Hillman Barge & Construction Company, Paul Thomas Boulevard, Brownsville, Fayette County, PA

  18. 16. BUFFALO IRONWORKER (PUNCH AND SHEAR ON RIGHT), IN COVERED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. BUFFALO IRONWORKER (PUNCH AND SHEAR ON RIGHT), IN COVERED AREA BETWEEN WAREHOUSES A AND B, LOOKING SOUTH - Hillman Barge & Construction Company, Paul Thomas Boulevard, Brownsville, Fayette County, PA

  19. Repeated ovum pick-up in Italian Mediterranean buffalo cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Boni; S. Roviello; L. Zicarelli

    1996-01-01

    The potential of the ovum pick-up technique, used over a long period, was evaluated in 6 Italian Mediterranean buffalo cows that had more than 500 d open. The cows were submitted to ovum pick-up twice weekly for 2 mo. An additional 2-mo cycle of ovum pick-up was performed in 3 of the buffalo. The ovum pick-up sampling did not affect

  20. Fish communities of the Buffalo River Basin and nearby basins of Arkansas and their relation to selected environmental factors, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James C.

    2004-01-01

    The Buffalo River lies in north-central Arkansas and is a tributary of the White River. Most of the length of the Buffalo River lies within the boundaries of Buffalo National River, a unit of the National Park Service; the upper 24 river kilometers lie within the boundary of the Ozark National Forest. Much of the upper and extreme lower parts of the basin on the south side of the Buffalo River is within the Ozark National Forest. During the summers of 2001 and 2002, fish communities were sampled at 52 sites in the study area that included the Buffalo River Basin and selected smaller nearby basins within the White River Basin in north-central Arkansas. Water quality (including nutrient and bacteria concentrations) and several other environmental factors (such as stream size, land use, substrate size, and riparian shading) also were measured. A total of 56 species of fish were collected from sites within the Buffalo River Basin in 2001 and 2002. All 56 species also were collected from within the boundaries of Buffalo National River. Twenty-two species were collected from headwater sites on tributaries of the Buffalo River; 27 species were collected from sites within or immediately adjacent to the Ozark National Forest. The list of species collected from Buffalo National River is similar to the list of species reported by previous investigators. Species richness at sites on the mainstem of the Buffalo River generally increased in a downstream direction. The number of species collected (both years combined) increased from 17 at the most upstream site to 38 near the mouth of the Buffalo River. In 2001 and 2002, a total of 53 species of fish were collected from sites outside the Buffalo River Basin. Several fish community metrics varied among sites in different site categories (mainstem, large tributary, small tributary, headwater, and developed out-of-basin sites). Median relative abundances of stonerollers ranged from about 25 to 55 percent and were highest at headwater and developed out-of-basin sites and lowest at mainstem sites. The relative abundances at the headwater and developed out-of-basin sites were significantly different from the relative abundances at the mainstem sites. Percentages of individuals of algivorous/herbivorous, invertivorous, and piscivorous species at headwater sites were significantly lower than values at mainstem and developed out-of-basin sites. Percentages of individuals of invertivorous species at mainstem sites were significantly higher than values at small tributary, headwater, and developed out-of-basin sites. Percentages of top carnivores at mainstem sites were significantly higher than values at tributary and headwater sites. The numbers of darter, sculpin, plus madtom species at mainstem, large tributary, and developed out-of-basin sites were significantly higher than values at other sites, and the values at small tributary sites and headwater sites were each significantly different from values at the other four types of sites. The number of lithophilic spawning species at large tributary sites was not significantly different from values at mainstem and developed out-of-basin sites, but values for small tributary and headwater sites each were significantly different from values for all other categories. Index of biotic integrity scores varied among the site categories. Scores for mainstem sites were significantly larger than all but large tributary site scores. Scores for headwater sites were significantly smaller than mainstem and large tributary site scores. Several analyses of the data described in this report suggest that drainage area is the most important single factor influencing fish communities of the Buffalo River Basin and nearby basins. Species richness increases with increasing drainage area and some species are restricted to smaller streams while other species are more common in larger streams. Some community metrics also are related to land use and related factors

  1. 33 CFR 207.580 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.580 Section... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.580 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation....

  2. 33 CFR 207.580 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.580 Section... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.580 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation....

  3. 33 CFR 207.580 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.580 Section... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.580 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation....

  4. University at Buffalo CENTER FOR COMPUTATIONAL RESEARCH CCRUB High-Performance Computing + High

    E-print Network

    Pitman, Bruce

    University at Buffalo CENTER FOR COMPUTATIONAL RESEARCH CCRUB High-Performance Computing + High of Mathematics CCR #12;University at Buffalo CENTER FOR COMPUTATIONAL RESEARCH CCRUB Major Initial Focus of CCRGlobal Climate Change #12;University at Buffalo CENTER FOR COMPUTATIONAL RESEARCH CCRUB High Performance

  5. A comprehensive review on the composition and properties of buffalo milk

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A comprehensive review on the composition and properties of buffalo milk Mohamed H. Abd El and properties of buffalo milk (BM). Buffalo milk has higher levels of fat, lactose, protein, ash and Ca not present in cow milk (CM). The fat globules of BM are larger but are less stable and contained less

  6. Important UB Contacts 2013-2014 v. 6/18/13 (please forward changes to UB Student Affairs, teastman@buffalo.edu) Important UB Contacts Student Services

    E-print Network

    Oh, Kwang W.

    -2537 nursing@buffalo.edu Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences pharmacy.buffalo.edu 645-2825, option 1 pharm-careers.buffalo.edu 645-2231 jobs@buffalo.edu BullsEye Jobs Database bullseye.buffalo.edu Career Counseling ub

  7. Little Blaze and the Buffalo Jump. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roop, Peter

    The reader is one in a series of stories of the Blackfeet Indians which take place when the people were at the height of their power, hunting buffalo north to the North Saskatchewan River, south to the Yellowstone River, east to the Montana-North Dakota border, and west to the Rocky Mountains. The story is about Little Blaze, a young Blackfeet…

  8. BUFFALO FILM SEMINARS1 I think it was Joyce who

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    , Notorious 1946 Joseph Mankiewicz, All About Eve 1950 Stanley Kubrick, Paths of Glory 1957 Federico Fellini easiest to me, and that is why I am careful to subordinate it to the story and the performances. --Stanley Kubrick #12;BUFFALO FILM SEMINARS 2 I: Spring 2000 William A. Wellman, The Public Enemy 1931 Lloyd Bacon

  9. Toxicity of Parthenium hysterophorus L. to cattle and buffaloes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R. Narasimhan; M. Ananth; M. Narayana Swamy; M. Rajendra Babu; A. Mangala; P. V. Subba Rao

    1977-01-01

    Summary Parthenium hysterophorus L., when fed to buffalo bull calves and cross bred bull calves resulted in acute toxicity leading to death. The former animals developed severe dermatitis. Autopsy revealed ulceration of alimentary tract. Extensive pathological changes were noticed in liver, kidney and skin.

  10. MASTITIS CONCOMITANT WITH TRAUMATIC RETICULO-PERITONITIS IN BUFFALOES

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    MASTITIS CONCOMITANT WITH TRAUMATIC RETICULO-PERITONITIS IN BUFFALOES M.B. MORCOS Z.S. LOTFI M moindre résistance provoqué par le syndrome du corps étranger. Introduction. Mastitis is a problem be traced on incidence of concur- rent mastitis. (1) Dr. M.B. Morcos present address : Professor of Surgery

  11. No Retreat: Lorna Peterson--University at Buffalo, NY

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    When Clark Atlanta University announced in 2003 it would close its library school, Lorna Peterson, a library educator at the University at Buffalo, NY, mounted a campaign to save the program, which has graduated more black library leaders than any other. "I did not want this to happen without a fight. It cannot be said that librarians, Friends of…

  12. Diversity analysis of methanogens in rumen of Bubalus bubalis by 16S riboprinting and sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Prem Prashant; Sirohi, Sunil Kumar; Saxena, Jyoti

    2012-02-01

    The molecular diversity of rumen methanogens was investigated by 16S rDNA gene library prepared from the rumen contents obtained from Murrah buffaloes in India. Genomic DNA was isolated from adult male fistulated buffaloes and PCR conditions were set up using specific primers. Amplified product was cloned into a suitable vector, and the positive clones were selected assuming based on blue-white screening and sequenced. Positive clones were reamplified and the resulting PCR products were further subjected to Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) by using HaeIII enzyme. A total of 108 clones were examined, and the analysis revealed 16 phylotypes. Out of sixteen phylotypes, nine phylotypes belong to the uncultured group of methanogens, and the rest of seven phylotypes belong to the order Methanomicrobiales, Methanococcales and Methanobacteriales. Out of the 108 rDNA clones, 66 clones which constitute 61.1% of the total clone representing 9 phylotypes, show less than 97% sequence similarity with any of the cultured strain of methanogens. The second largest group of clones (24 clones) represented by four phylotypes show a sequence similarity ranging from 91% to 99% with Methanomicrobium mobile strain of methanogens. The third group of 16S rDNA clones clustered along with M. burtonii strain of methanogens. This group consists of 6 clones and constitutes about 5.5% of the total clones and represented by only single phylotype. Fourth and fifth clusters of 16S rDNA clones consist of 5 and 7 clones respectively, and these were matched with Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii and Methanobrevibacter rumanatium strain of methanogens and constitute about 4.6% and 6.4% of the total clones. PMID:22155312

  13. Identification of cow's milk in "buffalo" cheese by duplex polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Bottero, M T; Civera, T; Anastasio, A; Turi, R M; Rosati, S

    2002-02-01

    A duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to identify the milk of bovine and buffalo species in cheese products, particularly in mozzarella cheese, a typical Italian cheese made from buffalo's milk. Two sets of primers were designed on the basis of the alignment of the sequence codifying mitochondrial cyt b available in the GenBank database. The primers proved to be species-specific, giving rise to 279-bp (bovine) and 192-bp (buffalo) amplified fragments. Since the amplification conditions for bovine and buffalo primers were identical, a duplex PCR was successfully applied to identify the two species in a single reaction step. This technique, when used to test cheese products from the retail trade, allowed the detection of partial or even total substitution of cow's milk for buffalo's milk, in some cases in samples of cheese misleadingly labeled "pure buffalo" mozzarella. PMID:11848568

  14. 77 FR 64126 - Notice of Proposed Withdrawal of Public Land for the Buffalo Bill Dam and Reservoir Modification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ...Withdrawal of Public Land for the Buffalo Bill Dam and Reservoir Modification Project Recreation...constructed in connection with the Buffalo Bill Dam and Reservoir Modification Project near...developed recreation site in the Buffalo Bill Dam and Reservoir Modification Project...

  15. Isolation and characterization of two distinct growth hormone cDNAs from the tetraploid smallmouth buffalofish (Ictiobus bubalus).

    PubMed

    Clements, Mark D; Bart, Henry L; Hurley, David L

    2004-05-01

    The growth hormone (GH) gene has been characterized for a number of fishes and used to establish phylogenetic relationships and population structures. Analysis of tetraploid fishes, such as salmon and some Asian cyprinids, has shown the presence of two GH genes. Fishes in the sucker family (Catostomidae, Cypriniformes) are also tetraploid, and the present study reports the isolation and characterization of two GH cDNAs from a representative species, the smallmouth buffalofish (Ictiobus bubalus). The GH cDNAs of smallmouth buffalofish are 1272 and 1273nt in length, and each codes for a polypeptide of 210 amino acids, predicted to be cleaved to a final product of 188 aa. The GH cDNAs of smallmouth buffalofish are 6% divergent in nt sequence in the coding region, and there are 16 differences in predicted aa sequence. Because the cDNAs have distinct sequences in coding regions and in UTRs, which differed by more than 10%, they were identified as GHI and GHII. The predicted GHI protein contains 4 Cys residues, homologous to other vertebrate GH sequences. On the other hand, GHII has 5 Cys residues, homologous to other ostariophysan sequences. GHI and GHII are most similar to other cypriniform fishes for both nt and protein sequences. Phylogenetically, the sequences of smallmouth buffalofish GH consistently grouped with Asian cyprinids, but not loaches, consistent with morphological evidence suggesting that suckers are most closely related to minnows. PMID:15081842

  16. Distribution of oxidases in the testis of buffalo, goat and ram : an histochemical study

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Distribution of oxidases in the testis of buffalo, goat and ram : an histochemical study G. S in the testis of buffalo, goat and ram. The results in these three species were more or less similar. Peroxidase of monoamine oxidase (MAO) has been reported in the rat testis (Bhagvat et al., 1939 ; Zeller and Joel, 1941

  17. library.buffalo.edu | UB LIBRARIES TODAY | Spring 2014 UB Libraries Today is published by

    E-print Network

    Oh, Kwang W.

    in their education and lives. On a chilly afternoon last week, I decided to make a stop on the first floor Love Talk to Us: Let us know what you think. Email: library@buffalo.edu or US Mail: 433 Capen Hall visit: library.buffalo.edu/support. NANCYJ.PARISI #12;When Ellen Marie Bissert donated her collection

  18. Return of the Buffalo: The Efforts to Restore Bison to Native Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cournoyer, David

    1996-01-01

    Describes the efforts of the InterTribal Bison Cooperative (ITBC), a nonprofit group founded to help tribes return buffalo to Indian reservations. Describes the cultural and economic motives behind the movement. Indicates that the ITBC has grown to 40 member tribes and utilizes a consensus-building approach to rebuilding buffalo herds. (MAB)

  19. Dynamics of Mycobacterium and bovine tuberculosis in a Human-Buffalo Population

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, A. S.; Garba, S. M.; Gumel, A. B.; Lubuma, J. M.-S.

    2014-01-01

    A new model for the transmission dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and bovine tuberculosis in a community, consisting of humans and African buffalos, is presented. The buffalo-only component of the model exhibits the phenomenon of backward bifurcation, which arises due to the reinfection of exposed and recovered buffalos, when the associated reproduction number is less than unity. This model has a unique endemic equilibrium, which is globally asymptotically stable for a special case, when the reproduction number exceeds unity. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses, using data relevant to the dynamics of the two diseases in the Kruger National Park, show that the distribution of the associated reproduction number is less than unity (hence, the diseases would not persist in the community). Crucial parameters that influence the dynamics of the two diseases are also identified. Both the buffalo-only and the buffalo-human model exhibit the same qualitative dynamics with respect to the local and global asymptotic stability of their respective disease-free equilibrium, as well as with respect to the backward bifurcation phenomenon. Numerical simulations of the buffalo-human model show that the cumulative number of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cases in humans (buffalos) decreases with increasing number of bovine tuberculosis infections in humans (buffalo). PMID:25254065

  20. Gene Polymorphisms in African Buffalo Associated with Susceptibility to Bovine Tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    le Roex, Nikki; Koets, Ad P.; van Helden, Paul D.; Hoal, Eileen G.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a chronic, highly infectious disease that affects humans, cattle and numerous species of wildlife. In developing countries such as South Africa, the existence of extensive wildlife-human-livestock interfaces poses a significant risk of Mycobacterium bovis transmission between these groups, and has far-reaching ecological, economic and public health impacts. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), acts as a maintenance host for Mycobacterium bovis, and maintains and transmits the disease within the buffalo and to other species. In this study we aimed to investigate genetic susceptibility of buffalo for Mycobacterium bovis infection. Samples from 868 African buffalo of the Cape buffalo subspecies were used in this study. SNPs (n?=?69), with predicted functional consequences in genes related to the immune system, were genotyped in this buffalo population by competitive allele-specific SNP genotyping. Case-control association testing and statistical analyses identified three SNPs associated with BTB status in buffalo. These SNPs, SNP41, SNP137 and SNP144, are located in the SLC7A13, DMBT1 and IL1? genes, respectively. SNP137 remained significantly associated after permutation testing. The three genetic polymorphisms identified are located in promising candidate genes for further exploration into genetic susceptibility to BTB in buffalo and other bovids, such as the domestic cow. These polymorphisms/genes may also hold potential for marker-assisted breeding programmes, with the aim of breeding more BTB-resistant animals and herds within both the national parks and the private sector. PMID:23691232

  1. Summary statistics and graphical comparisons of specific conductance, temperature, and dissolved oxygen data, Buffalo Bayou, Houston, Texas, April 1986-March 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, D.W.; Paul, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    Buffalo Bayou is the major stream that drains the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area. The U.S. Geological Survey has provided specific conductance, temperature, and dissolved oxygen data to the City of Houston for three sites along a 7.7-mile reach of Buffalo Bayou since 1986. Summary statistics and graphical comparisons of the data show substantial variability in the properties during 1986-91. Specific conductance ranged from about 100 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius at each of the three sites to 17,100 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius at the most downstream site, at the headwaters of the Houston Ship Channel. Water temperatures ranged from 5 to 33 degrees Celsius. Temperatures were very similar at the two upstream sites and slightly warmer at the most downstream site. Dissolved oxygen ranged from zero at the most downstream site to 11.7 milligrams per liter at the most upstream site.

  2. Characterization of Smoc-1 uncovers two transcript variants showing differential tissue and age specific expression in Bubalus bubalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jyoti Srivastava; Sanjay Premi; Sudhir Kumar; Iqbal Parwez; Sher Ali

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Secreted modular calcium binding protein-1 (Smoc-1) belongs to the BM-40 family which has been implicated with tissue remodeling, angiogenesis and bone mineralization. Besides its anticipated role in embryogenesis, Smoc-1 has been characterized only in a few mammalian species. We made use of the consensus sequence (5' CACCTCTCCACCTGCC 3') of 33.15 repeat loci to explore the buffalo transcriptome and uncovered

  3. Economic and Technical Feasibility Study of Utility-Scale Wind Generation for the New York Buffalo River and South Buffalo Brownfield Opportunity Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J. O.; Mosey, G.

    2014-04-01

    Through the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the economic and technical feasibility of utilizing contaminated lands in the Buffalo, New York, area for utility-scale wind development is explored. The study found that there is available land, electrical infrastructure, wind resource, and local interest to support a commercial wind project; however, economies of scale and local electrical markets may need further investigation before significant investment is made into developing a wind project at the Buffalo Reuse Authority site.

  4. Short communication: Factors affecting coagulation properties of Mediterranean buffalo milk.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, A; Penasa, M; Gotet, C Cipolat; De Marchi, M; Bittante, G

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate sources of variation of milk coagulation properties (MCP) of buffalo cows. Individual milk samples were collected from 200 animals in 5 herds located in northern Italy from January to March 2010. Rennet coagulation time (RCT, min) and curd firmness after 30 min from rennet addition (a(30), mm) were measured using the Formagraph instrument (Foss Electric, Hillerød, Denmark). In addition to MCP, information on milk yield, fat, protein, and casein contents, pH, and somatic cell count (SCC) was available. Sources of variation of RCT and a(30) were investigated using a linear model that included fixed effects of herd, days in milk (DIM), parity, fat content, casein content (only for a(30)), and pH. The coefficient of determination was 51% for RCT and 48% for a(30). The most important sources of variation of MCP were the herd and pH effects, followed by DIM and fat content for RCT, and casein content for a(30). The relevance of acidity in explaining the variation of both RCT and a(30), and of casein content in explaining that of a(30), confirmed previous studies on dairy cows. Although future research is needed to investigate the effect of these sources of variation on cheese yield, findings from the present study suggest that casein content and acidity may be used as indicator traits to improve technological properties of buffalo milk. PMID:22459819

  5. Water and Soil Conservation Experiments at Spur, Texas. 

    E-print Network

    Langley, B. C. (Bryon Caldwell); Dickson, R. E.; Fisher, Charles E. (Charles Emil)

    1940-01-01

    Materials 53 ................ Difference in Ability of Plants to Use Water 55 ...................... Some General Observations on Listing 56 ....................................... Buffalo Grass Selections 57 ........................... Sodding... sufficient to allow greater penetration. This conception is substantiated in Table 8 by the run-off and erosion data from 4 control plats with 2 per cent grade, one each cropped continuously to cotton, milo, and buffalo grass and one continuously fallowed...

  6. Geographic distribution of Theileria sp. (buffalo) and Theileria sp. (bougasvlei) in Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in southern Africa: implications for speciation.

    PubMed

    Pienaar, Ronel; Latif, Abdalla A; Thekisoe, Oriel M M; Mans, Ben J

    2014-03-01

    Strict control measures apply to movement of buffalo in South Africa including testing for Theileria parva, the causative agent of Corridor disease in cattle. The official test is a real-time hybridization PCR assay that amplifies the 18S rRNA V4 hyper-variable region of T. parva, T. sp. (buffalo) and T. sp. (bougasvlei). Mixed infections with the latter organisms affect diagnostic sensitivity due to PCR suppression. While the incidence of mixed infections in the Corridor disease endemic region of South Africa is significant, little information is available on the specific distribution and prevalence of T. sp. (buffalo) and T. sp. (bougasvlei). Specific real-time PCR assays were developed and a total of 1211 samples known to harbour these parasites were screened. Both parasites are widely distributed in southern Africa and the incidence of mixed infections with T. parva within the endemic region is similar (?25-50%). However, a significant discrepancy exists in regard to mixed infections of T. sp. (buffalo) and T. sp. (bougasvlei) (?10%). Evidence for speciation between T. sp. (buffalo) and T. sp. (bougasvlei) is supported by phylogenetic analysis of the COI gene, and their designation as different species. This suggests mutual exclusion of parasites and the possibility of hybrid sterility in cases of mixed infections. PMID:24229841

  7. Buffalo's Center for Immunology: A New Answer to an Old Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Noel R.; Bogazzi, Pierluigi E.

    1972-01-01

    The Center for Immunology at the University of Buffalo provides a viable resource for educating medical students in immunology until a department of immunology can be developed within the medical school. (HS)

  8. SERUM CHEMISTRY AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATIONS OF BROWN BULLHEADS (AMEIURUS NEBULOSUS) FROM THE BUFFALO AND NIAGARA RIVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cholangiomas and cholangiocarcinomas were observed in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from the Buffalo and Niagara Rivers (NY) and Old Woman Creek (OH). ignificant increases in serum BUN, uric acid, triglycerides inorganic phosphate, ALT, LDL, calcium and iron and ...

  9. The reconsidered river : strategies for connections in post-industrial Buffalo

    E-print Network

    Schmitz, Laura R. (Laura Renée)

    2015-01-01

    This thesis sets out to connect two isolated neighborhoods within the post-industrial city of Buffalo, NY. The design strategy capitalizes on existing opportunities in Silo City, a neighborhood of abandoned grain elevators ...

  10. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in cow's, buffalo's, and sheep's milk from Afyonkarahisar region, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Sait; Akkaya, Levent; Gök, Veli; Konuk, Muhsin

    2011-10-01

    In this study, it was aimed to determine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in three types of milk (cow's, buffalo's, and sheep's milk) produced in Afyonkarahisar province of Turkey. The results indicated that these milk specimens were found to be contaminated by 21 different pesticides. Sixteen OCP residues were detected in sheep's milk and it was followed with 14 pesticides in buffalo's milk and 11 pesticides in cow's milk. Dominant pesticides in all samples examined were beta-HCH in buffalo's, cow's, and sheep's milk in the concentrations of 63.36, 91.32, and 122.98 ng/ml, respectively. Total OCP levels were found to be 243.81 ng/ml in sheep's milk, 151.02 ng/ml in cow's milk, and 133.38 ng/ml in buffalo's milk. Some of the pesticides detected were found to be in the excess amount of the acceptable level regarding the EU regulations. PMID:21188503

  11. Antigenic diversity in Theileria parva in vaccine stabilate and African buffalo 

    E-print Network

    Hemmink, Johanneke Dinie

    2014-07-05

    Theileria parva is a tick-borne intracellular protozoan parasite which infects cattle and African buffalo in Eastern and Southern Africa. Cattle may be immunised against T. parva by the infection and treatment method ...

  12. 75 FR 57056 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Buffalo Resource Management Plan Amendment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLWYP07000; L16100000.DU0000...Availability of the Draft Buffalo Resource Management Plan Amendment for the Fortification...Assessment, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  13. Bilateral dissemination of malignant pleural mesothelioma via iatrogenic buffalo chest: a rare route of disease progression.

    PubMed

    Ikezoe, Kohei; Tanaka, Eisaku; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Hashimoto, Seishu; Shindo, Toru; Noma, Satoshi; Kobashi, Yoichiro; Taguchi, Yoshio

    2012-09-01

    Buffalo chest refers to the pleuro-pleural communication that results in a single pleural cavity. Iatrogenic buffalo chest can occur following heart or heart-lung transplantation and other major thoracic surgeries. We present the case of malignant pleural mesothelioma in which iatrogenic buffalo chest after extended thymectomy caused bilateral pneumothoraces and contralateral dissemination of the disease. The free communication between bilateral pleural cavities had facilitated the rapid progression of tumor and the consequent bilateral malignant pleural effusions had made the management of disease much more difficult, leading to the early fatal outcome. To our knowledge, this is the first case of buffalo chest that was associated with bilateral malignant pleural effusions. PMID:22580971

  14. The detection of antibody against peste des petits ruminants virus in Sheep, Goats, Cattle and Buffaloes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haider Ali Khan; Muhammad Siddique; Sajjad-ur-Rahman; Muhammad Abubakar; Muhammad Ashraf

    2008-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody-based competitive ELISA (C-ELISA) has been used for the specific measurement of antibodies to peste des\\u000a petits ruminants (PPR) viruses in sheep, goats, cattle and Buffalo. Serum samples from sheep (n?=?232), goats (n?=?428), cattle\\u000a (n?=?43), buffalo (n?=?89) were tested. The animals had not been vaccinated against rinderpest or PPR. Findings suggested\\u000a that the sero-positive cases were significantly higher in

  15. Study of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in the American Buffalo (Bison bison)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Naik; D. E. Anderson

    1970-01-01

    American buffalos have been studied for their hemoglobin and transferrin types, which show no detectable polymorphism (Braend and Stormont, 1963; Stormont, 1964). This report summarizes new data on erythrocytic glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) in this species. Blood samples were collected in ACD vacutainer tubes from 45 male and 41 female buffalos from the Wichita Mountains Wildlife

  16. Effect of oxytocin on serum biochemistry, liver enzymes, and metabolic hormones in lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Zafar; ur Rahman, Zia; Muhammad, Faqir; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Khaliq, Tanweer; Nasir, Amar; Nadeem, Muhammad; Khan, Kinza; Arshad, Hafiz Muhammad; Basit, Muhammad Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Studies reporting the effects of oxytocin on the health of lactating animals are lacking and still no such data is available on Nili Ravi buffalo, the most prominent Asian buffalo breed. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of oxytocin on physiological and metabolic parameters of lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes. Healthy lactating buffaloes (n?=?40) of recent calving were selected from a commercial dairy farm situated in the peri-urban area of district Faisalabad, Pakistan. These buffaloes were randomly allocated to two equal groups viz experimental and control, comprising 20 animals each. Twice-a-day (morning and evening) milking practice was followed. The experimental and control buffaloes were administered subcutaneously with 3 mL of oxytocin (10 IU/mL) and normal saline respectively, prior to each milking. Serum biochemical profile including glucose, total cholesterol (tChol), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), total proteins (TP), C-reactive protein (CRP), liver enzymes aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and metabolic hormones triiodothyronine (T?) and thyroxine (T?) were studied. Results revealed significantly higher (P???0.01) levels of glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides, total proteins, and C-reactive protein in experimental (oxytocin-injected) lactating buffaloes compared to control group. Liver enzymes AST and ALT as well as serum T? concentration was significantly higher (P???0.01) in oxytocin-injected lactating buffaloes as compared to control animals. It was concluded that oxytocin had the key role in increasing the metabolic parameters and hormones, resulting in the optimization of production. But, at the same time, it may pose a threat to the animal health. PMID:25281211

  17. Cross-antigenicity Between Ruminal and Hepatic Paramphistomes and Liver Flukes of Buffalo Origin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. P. Maji; P. Dwivedi; J. R. Rao; S. C. Yadav

    1999-01-01

    Maji, B.P., Dwivedi, P., Rao, J.R. and Yadav, S.C. 1999. Cross-antigenicity between ruminal and hepatic paramphistomes and liver flukes of buffalo origin. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 16: 53–57.The crossantigencity among paramphistomes, Paramphistomum epiclitum, Gastrothylax crumenifer, Gigantocotyle explanatum and the common liver fluke Fasciola gigantica of buffalo was studied by Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion (DID) test. When soluble whole worm antigens of

  18. Water Conservation with Urban Landscape Plants 

    E-print Network

    Hip, B. W.; Giordano, C.; Simpson, B.

    1983-01-01

    levels and two replications of each plant type. There was no difference in water use by St. Augustine grass and buffalo grass during the year of establishment. Daily water use ranged from 0.49 to 0.08 cm per day but was generally 50% class A pan...

  19. [Lipodystrophy and 'buffalo hump' during treatment with HIV protease inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Dieleman, J P; Hillebrand-Haverkort, M E; van der Ende, M E; Sturkenboom, M C; Lange, J M; Stricker, B H

    1998-12-26

    In three patients, a 36-year-old HIV seropositive homosexual man and two women aged 35 and 59 years who had acquired HIV infection through heterosexual contact, signs of lipodystrophy developed after prolonged anti-HIV triple therapy. The observed syndrome is seen after prolonged use of HIV protease inhibitors: it is characterized by peripheral fat wasting, central fat accumulation, hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance. Typically the subcutaneous fatty tissue disappears resulting in prominent zygomata, veins and muscles and thinning of extremities and buttocks. In addition to abdominal fat accumulation, there have been reports on the occurrence of a dorsocervical fat pad, the so-called buffalo hump. Lipodystrophy caused by protease inhibitors is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Recognition of the syndrome is essential for adequate follow-up and possible treatment. PMID:10065260

  20. The prevalence and fertility of hydatid cysts in buffaloes from Iran.

    PubMed

    Pour, A Amin; Hosseini, S H; Shayan, P

    2012-09-01

    Cystic echinococcosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus is considered to be an important parasitic infection in livestock. In the present study, which aimed to determine the epidemiology of hydatidosis in buffalo in Iran, slaughterhouses of West Azerbaijan (Urmia), East Azerbaijan (Tabriz), Ardabil (Ardabil), Gilan (Rasht and Hashtpar) and Khuzestan (Ahvaz) were inspected. Age, sex and infected organs were recorded separately, and the observed cysts were examined for fertility and viability. Our results showed that 344 (9%) of 3832 inspected buffaloes were infected with hydatid cysts. The maximum and minimum infection rates occurred in Khuzestan (9.9%) and Ardabil (8%) provinces, respectively. There was no significant difference in the rate of infection in all provinces. Of 344 infected buffaloes, the rate of fertility was 7.3% and the rate of viability in fertile cysts was 78.75%. Hydatid cysts were more prevalent in female compared with male buffaloes (P < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between the age and number of infected hosts in all provinces except East Azerbaijan. The prevalence of infection in lungs was significantly higher than that in the livers of buffaloes in the provinces studied (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the fertility of hydatid cysts in buffaloes was low, as previously demonstrated in cattle, and this animal may play a minor role in the epidemiology of hydatidosis in Iran. PMID:21923975

  1. Aflatoxin M1 contamination in cow and buffalo milk samples from NWFP and Punjab provinces of Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Z. Iqbal; M. R. Asi; A. Ariño

    2011-01-01

    A total of 178 milk samples (94 of buffalo and 84 of cow) were randomly taken from Punjab and North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan (n?=?89 in each province) and analyzed for the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) by HPLC-FLD. From Punjab about 46% buffalo’s and 49% of cow milks were contaminated with AFM1 as compared with 52% and

  2. The host status of African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus.

    PubMed

    Horak, I G; Golezardy, H; Uys, A C

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the host status of African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, for the one-host tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus. To this end the R. (B.) decoloratus burdens of ten buffaloes examined in three north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal Province (KZN) nature reserves were compared with those of medium-sized to large antelope species in these reserves and in the southern Kruger National Park (KNP), Mpumalanga Province. The R. (B.) decoloratus burdens of the buffaloes were considerably smaller than those of the antelopes in the KNP, but not those in the KZN reserves. The life-stage structure of the R. (B.) decoloratus populations on the buffaloes, in which larvae predominated, was closer to that of this tick on blue wildebeest, Connochaetes taurinus, a tick-resistant animal, than to that on other antelopes. A single buffalo examined in the KNP was not infested with R. (B.) decoloratus, whereas a giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis, examined at the same locality and time, harboured a small number of ticks. In a nature reserve in Mpumalanga Province adjacent to the KNP, two immobilized buffaloes, from which only adult ticks were collected, were not infested with R. (B.) decoloratus, whereas greater kudus, Tragelaphus strepsiceros, examined during the same time of year in the KNP harboured large numbers of adult ticks of this species. African buffaloes would thus appear to be resistant to infestation with R. (B.) decoloratus, and this resistance is expressed as the prevention of the majority of tick larvae from developing to nymphs. PMID:17058441

  3. Comparative Expression Analysis of Gametogenesis-Associated Genes in Foetal and Adult Bubaline (Bubalus bubalis) Ovaries and Testes.

    PubMed

    Shah, S M; Saini, N; Ashraf, S; Zandi, M; Singh, M K; Manik, R S; Singla, S K; Palta, P; Chauhan, M S

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to identify and analyse the expression of gametogenesis-associated genes and proteins in foetal and adult buffalo gonads of both the sexes. Relative quantification of the genes was determined by qPCR and Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry was also performed for various gametogenesis-associated proteins in foetal and adult gonads of both the sexes. We observed significantly (p < 0.05) increased expression of primordial germ cell-specific, meiotic as well as genes associated with oocyte maturation and development in foetal ovaries as compared to the adult ones. However, significantly (p < 0.05) increased expression of proteins associated with oocyte maturation like GDF9 and ZP4 was found in adult ovaries, indicating temporal regulation of mRNA translation during oogenesis. Meiotic genes showed significantly (p < 0.05) increased expression in adult testes as compared to foetal testes and ovaries, indicating onset of meiosis at a later stage in spermatogenesis. In general, the expression of primordial germ cell-associated as well as meiotic genes was higher in adult testes, indicating the increased biological activity in the organ. Immunohistochemistry revealed localized expression of gametogenesis-associated proteins in ovarian follicles and seminiferous tubules of testes, while the surrounding somatic tissues were devoid of these proteins. The study gives an understanding of the sequential and temporal events of gene expression as well as mRNA translation during male and female gametogenesis. It could also be concluded that follicles and seminiferous tubules are the functional units of the female and male gonads, respectively, and their function could be enhanced by appropriate chemical and genetic intervention of the somatic tissue immediately surrounding them. This assumes importance in the context that buffalo attains sexual maturity at an older age of 2-3 years and have smaller ovaries with lesser number of primordial follicles in comparison with cattle, which is suggested to be the main reason of their poor breeding performance. PMID:25703697

  4. Seroprevalence of Peste des petits ruminants in cattle and buffaloes from Southern Peninsular India.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, Vinayagamurthy; Krishnamoorthy, Paramanandham; Veeregowda, Belamaranahalli Muniveerappa; Sen, Arnab; Rajak, Kaushal Kishor; Bhanuprakash, Veerakyathappa; Gajendragad, Mukund Raghavendra; Prabhudas, Krishnamsetty

    2012-02-01

    This study describes seroprevalence of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in cattle and buffaloes carried out during the period 2009-2010 using the randomly collected serum samples from different parts of Southern peninsular India. The report presents the results of PPR virus (PPRV)-specific antibodies in situations where either the subclinical or inapparent or non-lethal infection was there in cattle and buffaloes. A total of 2,548 serum samples [cattle = 1,158, buffaloes = 1,001, sheep = 303 and goat = 86] were collected and screened for PPRV antibodies by using a PPR monoclonal antibody-based competitive ELISA kit. Analysis of 2,159 serum samples indicates an overall 4.58% prevalence of PPRV antibody in cattle and buffaloes. The presence of PPRV-specific antibodies demonstrates that cattle and buffaloes are exposed to PPR infection naturally, and the transmission mode may be direct or indirect. Further, it implies the importance of bovines as subclinical hosts for the virus besides widespread presence of the disease in sheep and goats in the country. PMID:22105906

  5. Characteristics of thrust fault imbrication near the frontal edge of the Blue Ridge thrust sheet, Buffalo Mountain, Tennessee

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Duddy; N. B. Woodward

    1985-01-01

    The Buffalo Mountain thrust sheet, located along the western margin of the Blue Ridge in northeastern Tennessee, provides an excellent opportunity to examine transitional structural styles and deformation mechanisms between the Valley and Ridge and Blue Ridge. Previous interpretation suggests that, because of pre-fault tilting, thrust faults within the Buffalo Mountain complex cut down stratigraphic section. Geometric data from the

  6. Applied Studies on Coccidiosis in Growing Buffalo-Calves with Special Reference to Oxidant\\/Antioxidant Status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. M. Ahmed; Soad E. Hassan

    2 Abstract: Due to the special clinical and economic importance of Eimeria sp infection in livestock and the non availability of enough data in buffaloes, the present study was carried out. Blood and fecal samples were collected from 191 growing buffalo-calves to detect the prevalence of Eimeria sp infection and to investigate the association between infection and changes in general

  7. Developing forage based rations for lactating buffaloes Department of Animal Nutrition, CCS Haryana Agricultural University Hisar, 125 004 Haryana, India

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    but its crude protein content, and its intake by the buffaloes are low which could be overcome by mixingDeveloping forage based rations for lactating buffaloes MA Akbar Department of Animal Nutrition into three groups of four in each, on the basis of their milk yield. In animals of group 1 (control

  8. Solid targetry for radionuclide production at the University at Buffalo

    SciTech Connect

    Bars, E.; Haka, M. S.; Ackerhalt, R. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States)

    1999-06-10

    The Center for Positron Emission Tomography (P.E.T.) at SUNY Buffalo possesses a 30 MeV negative ion cyclotron capable of delivering 550 {mu}A on target. Typically, most P.E.T. facilities have 11-18 MeV accelerators. Due to the higher energy of our cyclotron the center can accommodate a clinical and research P.E.T. program and at the same time, produce a wide variety of radionuclides where higher energy is required. The focus of this talk will be on our recent design/implementation of a beam line which extends from the main vault to the solid target vault. The design of the cyclotron door and the beam shutter allows one to work in the solid target vault while the machine is operating in the main vault. An introduction to the components of our cyclotron (ie. ion source, main coil, R{sub f}) will begin the talk. This will be followed by the discussion concerning the beam line and the necessary components of such a system. A discussion on the steering/quadrupole magnets, neutron shutter, optical viewing station of the faraday will be presented. Presentation of our solid target station and optical port as well as the remote removal of the irradiated target and the corresponding transport system from the vault to radiochemistry will complete the lecture.

  9. Paleoecology of Early eocene strata near Buffalo, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Durkin, T.V.; Rich, F.J.

    1986-08-01

    Palynological investigation has helped illustrate the paleoecology of a vertical section of strata from the Wasatch Formation between the Healy and Walters coal burns near Buffalo, Wyoming. Numerous silicified logs and stumps of cypress and sequoia have been preserved at the site and drew initial attention to it. Flood-basin deposits enclose the trees and include sandstones, siltstones, shale, and coal beds that accumulated as channel, levee, crevasse-splay, and swamp/marsh sediments. Detrital sediments were probably derived from the Bighorn Mountains and accumulated as they were carried into the Powder River basin fluvial system. One hundred five polynomorph taxa have been distinguished, as well as 10 types of fungal spores. Platycarya, Tilia, Sparganium, and Platanus pollen indicate an early Eocene age for the strata. Other pollen, as well as the genera of trees and megafossil remains from a clinker bed several miles from the study area, reinforce the interpretation of a warm-temperature or subtropical climate at the time of deposition. The megafossil assemblage includes pinnae of the aquatic fern Marsilea, never before described from the fossil record. Variations in the species composition of the polynomorph assemblages show that several plant communities existed in succession at the site. These varied from pond or marsh types to mature forests.

  10. Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ... you probably need more water. What about bottled water? top Some people like bottled water for its ...

  11. Storage stability of smoked buffalo rumen meat product treated with ginger extract.

    PubMed

    Anandh, M Anna; Lakshmanan, V

    2014-06-01

    Smoked buffalo rumen meat products were prepared from 3 times blade tenderized buffalo tripe with 5.0% ginger extract and were subjected to various physico-chemical parameters, microbial profile and sensory quality at 25?±?1 °C under aerobic packaging. All physico-chemical parameters, microbial counts and sensory evaluation score of ginger extract treated buffalo rumen meat product were higher compared to control. pH, moisture content, thiobarbituric acid, tyrosine values, total plate, yeast and mould and staphylococcal counts were increased and extract release volume were decreased significantly with increasing storage period. Throughout the storage period, all microbial counts and sensory evaluation score were within the acceptable limits up to storage period of 15 days at 25?±?1 °C in LDPE pouches under aerobic packaging. PMID:24876655

  12. Milk fatty acid characterization and genetic parameter estimates for milk conjugated linoleic acid in buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Tonhati, Humberto; Lima, André L F; Lanna, Dante P D; de Camargo, Gregório M F; Baldi, Fernando; de Albuquerque, Lucia G; Montrezor, Jeanne M C D

    2011-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to analyse buffalo milk fat composition, to verify the activity of Delta(9)-desaturase enzyme in the mammary gland, as well as to estimate additive genetic variances for milk, fat and protein yield, and milk cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid percentage (cis-9,trans-11 CLA%). A total of 3929 lactation milk yields (MY) records from 2130 buffaloes and 1598 lactation fat (FY) and protein (PY) yield records from 914 buffaloes were analysed. For cis-9,trans-11 CLA%percentage, a total of 661 milk samples from 225 buffaloes, daughters of 8 sires, belonging to 4 herds and calving in 2003 and 2004, were used. The genetic parameters and variance components were estimated by Restricted Maximum Likelihood applying an animal model. The fixed effects considered in the model were: contemporary group (herd, year, calving season) and age at calving (linear and quadratic effects) and lactation length (linear and quadratic effects) as covariables. Additive genetic and permanent environment effects were considered as random. The MY, FY, PY and CLA% means were 1482±355 kg, 90.1±24.6 kg, 56.9±15.2 kg and 0.69±0.16%, respectively. Heritability estimates for MY, FY, PY and CLA% were 0.28±0.05, 0.26±0.11, 0.25±0.11 and 0.35±0.14, respectively. There is enough additive genetic variation for buffalo milk, protein and fat yield to improve these traits through selection. The cis-9,trans-11 CLA% can be enhanced by selection in buffaloes and will contribute to improving human health. The activity and efficiency of Delta(9)-desaturase in the mammary was measured and confirmed. PMID:21371360

  13. Pharmacokinetic profile of cefquinome after oral subchronic flubendiamide exposure and in vitro plasma protein binding in buffalo calves.

    PubMed

    Venkatachalam, Dinakaran; Dumka, Vinod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The disposition kinetics study of cefquinome was conducted following single intravenous (IV) administration of 2mg/kg bodyweight in buffalo calves after oral subchronic exposure to flubendiamide and to determine the in vitro plasma protein binding of cefquinome. Plasma concentrations of cefquinome were analyzed using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results were compared with our earlier study on the pharmacokinetics of cefquinome in untreated buffalo calves. Plasma concentration-time data for cefquinome following IV injection were best fit into a two-compartmental open model in flubendiamide-exposed buffalo calves. Following flubendiamide exposure, most of the pharmacokinetic parameters of cefquinome were significantly altered in buffalo calves. Cefquinome was bound to plasma proteins of buffalo calves to the extent of 11.4±0.66%. In flubendiamide-exposed animals an intravenous dose of 2mg/kg body weight would maintain the therapeutic plasma levels required to be effective against the bacterial pathogens with MIC values ?0.39?g/mL for only 12h, whereas in untreated buffalo calves the same dose of 2mg/kg body weight would maintain the plasma levels up to 24h, The study revealed that subchronic flubendiamide exposure significantly alters the disposition of cefquinome in buffalo calves. PMID:25546120

  14. Non-Metallic Mining: An Administrative Program and Natural Resources Analysis for Buffalo County, Wisconsin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Ebert

    Non-metallic mining has become a mandatory issue to be addressed by all counties, townships, and cities in Wisconsin. The initiation of this program began in the year 2000 and was designed to concentrate on pollution that was originating from non-metallic mining sites. The goal of the mandate was to set a series of guidelines, developed by the Regulatory Authority (Buffalo

  15. Sensitivity of ruminal bacteria isolates of sheep, cattle and buffalo to some heavy metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Z. M. Salem; H. Ammar; S. Lopez; Y. M. Gohar; J. S. González

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the toxicity of 12 heavy metals (i.e., HM), namely Hg, Cd, Co, Ni, Cr, Cu, Ag, Mo, Zn, Pb, Li and Na on bacterial isolates from the rumen of sheep, cattle and buffaloes. Rumen samples were collected immediately after slaughter during the dry season. Ruminal bacterial isolates, 59, were obtained from two sheep, five

  16. LACK OF MYOGLOBIN FUNCTION IN THE ISOLATED PERFUSED BUFFALO SCULPIN (ENOPHRYS BISON) HEART

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of myoglobin to cardiac performance and O2 consumption was investigated using an isolated perfused buffalo sculpin (Enophrys bison) heart preparation. ose-response studies at ambient (150 Torr)(l Torr=l33.322 Pa) O2 tensions were conducted as a means of selecting...

  17. Library Skills Workbook. Featuring: BISON--Buffalo Information System ONline. 14th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gex, Jeannie L.

    The workbook is designed to give students the basic information needed to conduct effective library research. It helps familiarize students with the Buffalo Information System ONline (BISON), as well as other sources, in print and online, that can be used to search for information. A worksheet is included for students to mark their answers to the…

  18. Building social capital in non-governmental organizations: buffalo banks and borewells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cornelius Riordan; Jaya Sarkar

    1998-01-01

    Describes Childreach – a US child-focuses development organization which sponsors children and their families in developing countries – and a recent project in development education, “Buffalo banks and borewells: Childreach makes sense of development”, which involved creating and distributing educational newsletters on Third World and development issues. Lists the goals of the project and how they were addressed. Outlines what

  19. Autochthonous infection of buffaloes and cattle by Fasciola hepatica in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dracz, Ruth Massote; Lima, Walter Dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a digenetic trematode that parasitizes the bile ducts of different species of vertebrate hosts. In Brazil, this parasitosis is expanding and occurrences have been reported in the southern, southeastern, central-western and northeastern regions. This study aimed to report the first case of naturally infection of buffaloes by this parasite in the state of Minas Gerais. A total of 250 stool samples, 176 from cattle and 74 from buffaloes, from the districts of São José da Lapa and Pedro Leopoldo, were examined. Also, 402 snails of the genus Lymnaea were collected on the same farms and the viability of the eggs from naturally infected buffaloes and cattle and the susceptibility of the snails to infection were tested. A total of 54 animals were found to be positive, 33 cattle (18.75%) and 21 buffaloes (28.37%), and two molluscs showed immature forms of F. hepatica. In experimental infection of specimens of Lymnaea, cercariae were obtained through spontaneous elimination from the 57th day post-infection onwards. The importance of this first case report can be emphasized because it confirms that this parasite is being dispersed in municipalities in this state that had previously been considered to be unaffected. PMID:25271466

  20. Risk factors for stroke after cardiac surgery: Buffalo Cardiac-Cerebral Study Group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Ricotta; Gian Luca Faggioli; Alice Castilone; James M. Hassett

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for stroke in patients undergoing heart surgery.Methods: A retrospective chart review of patients who underwent cardiac surgery in three hospitals of the State University of New York at Buffalo system over a 36-month period was completed. Demographics and risk factors were recorded, and stroke and death were determined by

  1. 75 FR 16204 - Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ...716) 551-4418. For more information, please visit our Web site at http://www.sba.gov/ny/buffalo. Meghan Burdick, Deputy Chief of Staff/Committee Management Officer. [FR Doc. 2010-6816 Filed 3-30-10; 8:45 am] BILLING...

  2. Selection of developmentally competent buffalo oocytes by brilliant cresyl blue staining before IVM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Manjunatha; P. S. P. Gupta; M. Devaraj; J. P. Ravindra; S. Nandi

    2007-01-01

    The brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) test determines the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH); the activity of this enzyme is greatest in growing oocytes, but it declines as oocytes mature. The objective was to develop and evaluate this test for assessing development of buffalo oocytes (to select developmentally competent oocytes for increased in vitro embryo production). Oocytes were exposed to BCB

  3. DIVISION OF COMPARATIVE MEDICINE AND LABORATORY ANIMAL FACILITIES OF SUNY AT BUFFALO

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    DIVISION OF COMPARATIVE MEDICINE AND LABORATORY ANIMAL FACILITIES OF SUNY AT BUFFALO STANDARD from the CMLAF. PURPOSE: This procedure outlines the steps for contacting Comparative Medicine animal space. SCOPE: This procedure applies to RIA Plant Utilities staff as well as the CMLAF personnel

  4. DIVISION OF COMPARATIVE MEDICINE AND LABORATORY ANIMAL FACILITIES OF SUNY AT BUFFALO

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    DIVISION OF COMPARATIVE MEDICINE AND LABORATORY ANIMAL FACILITIES OF SUNY AT BUFFALO STANDARD Exercise for Dogs Plan effective date 11/1/03 Addition of 3.4 A and B 1.B.6 #12;COMPARATIVE MEDICINE to current USDA space requirements. 3.2 Exercise: A. Dogs over twelve weeks of age housed individually

  5. Comparative nutritive value of Chinese cabbage and Japan rape in murrah buffaloes

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Comparative nutritive value of Chinese cabbage and Japan rape in murrah buffaloes MA Akbar to compare the animal performance of Chinese cabbage against Japan rape fodder. Chinese cabbage and Japan rape were grown under identical conditions at the experimental area of the University. Ten adult male

  6. Bird mortality associated with wind turbines at the Buffalo Ridge wind resource area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osborn, R.G.; Higgins, K.F.; Usgaard, R.E.; Dieter, C.D.; Neiger, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    Recent technological advances have made wind power a viable source of alternative energy production and the number of windplant facilities has increased in the United States. Construction was completed on a 73 turbine, 25 megawatt windplant on Buffalo Ridge near Lake Benton, Minnesota in Spring 1994. The number of birds killed at existing windplants in California caused concern about the potential impacts of the Buffalo Ridge facility on the avian community. From April 1994 through Dec. 1995 we searched the Buffalo Ridge windplant site for dead birds. Additionally, we evaluated search efficiency, predator scavenging rates and rate of carcass decomposition. During 20 mo of monitoring we found 12 dead birds. Collisions with wind turbines were suspected for 8 of the 12 birds. During observer efficiency trials searchers found 78.8% of carcasses. Scavengers removed 39.5% of carcasses during scavenging trials. All carcasses remained recognizable during 7 d decomposition trials. After correction for biases we estimated that approximately 36 ?? 12 birds (<1 dead bird per turbine) were killed at the Buffalo Ridge windplant in 1 y. Although windplants do not appear to be more detrimental to birds than other man-made structures, proper facility sitting is an important first consideration in order to avoid unnecessary fatalities.

  7. A Case Study in Master Planning the Learning Landscape Hub Concepts for the University at Buffalo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugdale, Shirley; Torino, Roger; Felix, Elliot

    2009-01-01

    This case study describes concepts for three types of learning spaces that grew out of a Learning Landscape planning process. The process was part of a master plan study for the three campuses of the University at Buffalo. It involved research into user needs and aspirations about future pedagogy, development of learning space strategy,…

  8. Managing Conduct: A Comparative Policy Analysis of Safe Schools Policies in Toronto, Canada and Buffalo, USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Public school districts in Buffalo, USA and Toronto, Canada reviewed their safe schools policies in 2008. Revised Codes of Conduct are compared to earlier versions and each other, and a conceptual policy web is used to understand how local, state/provincial, national, and international influences affect local safe school policies. The comparison…

  9. Fertility evaluation in Egyptian buffalo bulls using zona pellucida binding and in vitro fertilization assays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. H. Abdel Dayem; Karima Gh. M. Mahmoud; M. F. Nawito; M. M. Ayoub; T. H. Scholkamy

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a system of in vitro assays based on zona pellucida binding and in vitro fertilization for predicting male fertility in buffalo bulls. Frozen–thawed semen from nine bulls was tested for motility, viability index, acrosomal integrity, zona pellucida binding and in vitro fertilizing ability. Differences in post-thaw sperm motility between bulls were not significant. Differences in

  10. Histomorphometrical study of the cervix during the oestrous cycle in adult Azarbaijan buffalo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Shahrooz; E. Ayan

    2009-01-01

    Summary In this study, genital tracts of 20 healthy non-pregnant buffaloes were collected from Urmia abattoir. These genital tracts were selected based on their ovaries conditions, half of them were in follicular phase and the other half were in luteal phase. The samples were taken from anterior, middle and posterior regions of the cervix and fixed in 10% buffer formalin.

  11. Exposure of vaccinated and naive cattle to natural challenge from buffalo-derived Theileria parva.

    PubMed

    Sitt, Tatjana; Poole, E Jane; Ndambuki, Gideon; Mwaura, Stephen; Njoroge, Thomas; Omondi, George P; Mutinda, Matthew; Mathenge, Joseph; Prettejohn, Giles; Morrison, W Ivan; Toye, Philip

    2015-08-01

    Integrative management of wildlife and livestock requires a clear understanding of the diseases transmitted between the two populations. The tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria parva causes two distinct diseases in cattle, East Coast fever and Corridor disease, following infection with parasites derived from cattle or buffalo, respectively. In this study, cattle were immunized with a live sporozoite vaccine containing three T.?parva isolates (the Muguga cocktail), which has been used extensively and successfully in the field to protect against cattle-derived T.?parva infection. The cattle were exposed in a natural field challenge site containing buffalo but no other cattle. The vaccine had no effect on the survival outcome in vaccinated animals compared to unvaccinated controls: nine out of the 12 cattle in each group succumbed to T.?parva infection. The vaccine also had no effect on the clinical course of the disease. A combination of clinical and post mortem observations and laboratory analyses confirmed that the animals died of Corridor disease. The results clearly indicate that the Muguga cocktail vaccine does not provide protection against buffalo-derived T.?parva at this site and highlight the need to evaluate the impact of the composition of challenge T.?parva populations on vaccine success in areas where buffalo and cattle are present. PMID:26005635

  12. Eta-12 Forecast for Historic Lake Effect Snow in Buffalo, NY

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2002-03-05

    An examination of how the updated Eta-12 model, with its higher resolution, improved topography, and upgraded cloud and precipitation package, performed in forecasting the initiation and evolution of the first portion of the Buffalo, NY historic lake effect snow event (24-26 December 2001).

  13. Confounding the Effects of Delay and Interference on Memory Distortion: Commentary on Schmolck, Buffalo, and Squire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel B. Horn

    2001-01-01

    In a recent article, Schmolck, Buffalo, and Squire (2000) investi- gated memory distortions in college students' recollections of how they heard the verdict in the O.J. Simpson murder trial. Students were questioned either 15 months or 32 months after the verdict was ren- dered. Their responses were compared with their own reports 3 days after the verdict. Responses 15 months

  14. Buffalo Metropolitan Area and Erie County Stroke Study: Rationale, Design, and Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adnan I. Qureshi; Jawad F. Kirmani; Muhammad A. Sayed; Amir M. Siddiqui; Adnan Safdar; Ravi U. Pande; Shafiuddin Ahmed; Richard Ferguson; Linda A. Hershey; Khalid J. Qazi

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to define the incidence, disability, and death associated with stroke in the Buffalo metropolitan area and Erie County. This area has the highest stroke rate in New York State and therefore represents an ideal site to develop a successful model for prevention and management of stroke. Design: A cross-sectional design to study

  15. Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... consuming only bottled water or water from a filtration system that has been certified by an independent ... recommends using bottled water or water from a filtration system that has been certified by an independent ...

  16. Trade-offs of predation and foraging explain sexual segregation in African buffalo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hay, C.T.; Cross, P.C.; Funston, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    1. Many studies have investigated why males and females segregate spatially in sexually dimorphic species. These studies have focused primarily on temperate zone ungulates in areas lacking intact predator communities, and few have directly assessed predation rates in different social environments. 2. Data on the movement, social affiliation, mortality and foraging of radio-collared African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) were collected from 2001-06 in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. 3. The vast majority of mortality events were due to lion (Panthera leo) predation, and the mortality hazard associated with being an adult male buffalo in a male-only 'bachelor' group was almost four times higher than for adult females in mixed herds. The mortality rates of adult males and females within mixed herds were not statistically different. Mortality sites of male and female buffalo were in areas of low visibility similar to those used by bachelor groups, while mixed herds tended to use more open habitats. 4. Males in bachelor groups ate similar or higher quality food (as indexed by percentage faecal nitrogen), and moved almost a third less distance per day compared with mixed herds. As a result, males in bachelor groups gained more body condition than did males in breeding herds. 5. Recent comparative analyses suggest the activity-budget hypothesis as a common underlying cause of social segregation. However, our intensive study, in an area with an intact predator community showed that male and female buffalo segregated by habitat and supported the predation-risk hypothesis. Male African buffalo appear to trade increased predation risk for additional energy gains in bachelor groups, which presumably leads to increased reproductive success. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  17. SERUM CHEMISTRY AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATIONS OF BROWN BULLHEADS (AMEIRUS NEBULOSUS) FROM THE BUFFALO AND NIAGARA RIVERS, NEW YORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cholangiomas and cholangiocarcinomas were observed in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from the Buffalo and Niagara Rivers (NY) and Old Woman Creek (OH), USA. ignificant increases in serum blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, triglycerides, inorganic phosphate, ALT, LDL,...

  18. Tenderization of buffalo meat using plant proteases from Cucumis trigonus Roxb (Kachri) and Zingiber officinale roscoe (Ginger rhizome)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M Naveena; S. K Mendiratta; A. S. R Anjaneyulu

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop a method for improving tenderness and overall qualities of tough buffalo meat using plant proteolytic enzymes from Cucumis trigonus Roxb (Kachri) and Zingiber officinale roscoe (Ginger rhizome). Their tenderizing efficacy was compared with the most popular enzyme papain. 3×3×3 cm chunks from Biceps femoris muscles of spent Murrah buffaloes (4–5 years age) were marinated

  19. Detection of cyclodiene pesticide residues in buffalo meat and effect of cooking on residual level of endosulfan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Muthukumar; K. Sudhakar Reddy; C. Narendra Reddy; K. Kondal Reddy; A. Gopala Reddy; D. Jagdishwar Reddy; N. Kondaiah

    2010-01-01

    Levels of cyclodiene pesticides (aldrin, ?-endosulfan, ?-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate and heptachlor) residues in muscle,\\u000a liver and kidney tissues of buffalo were estimated. The effects of common cooking methods (microwave cooking, boiling, broiling\\u000a and pressure cooking) on the levels of endosulfan were determined. Aldrin and total endosulfan (?-endosulfan, ?-endosulfan,\\u000a endosulfan sulfate) residues were found in 42.86 and 64.29% of buffalo tissue

  20. Effects of Eucalyptus Crude Oils Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation, Microorganism and Nutrient Digestibility in Swamp Buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Thao, N. T.; Wanapat, M.; Cherdthong, A.; Kang, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) crude oils (EuO) supplementation on voluntary feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics in swamp buffaloes. Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes, body weight (BW) of 420±15.0 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were untreated rice straw (RS) without EuO (T1) and with EuO (T2) supplementation, and 3% urea-treated rice straw (UTRS) without EuO (T3) and with EuO (T4) supplementation. The EuO was supplemented at 2 mL/h/d in respective treatment. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate mixture was offered at 3 g/kg BW while roughage was fed ad libitum. Total dry matter and roughage intake, and apparent digestibilites of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber were improved (p<0.01) by UTRS. There was no effect of EuO supplementation on feed intake and nutrient digestibility. Ruminal pH and temperature were not (p>0.05) affected by either roughage sources or EuO supplementation. However, buffaloes fed UTRS had higher ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen as compared with RS. Total volatile fatty acid and butyrate proportion were similar among treatments, whereas acetate was decreased and propionate molar proportion was increased by EuO supplementation. Feeding UTRS resulted in lower acetate and higher propionate concentration compared to RS. Moreover, supplementation of EuO reduced methane production especially in UTRS treatment. Protozoa populations were reduced by EuO supplementation while fungi zoospores remained the same. Total, amylolytic and cellulolytic bacterial populations were increased (p<0.01) by UTRS; However, EuO supplementation did not affect viable bacteria. Nitrogen intake and in feces were found higher in buffaloes fed UTRS. A positive nitrogen balance (absorption and retention) was in buffaloes fed UTRS. Supplementation of EuO did not affect nitrogen utilization. Both allantoin excretion and absorption and microbial nitrogen supply were increased by UTRS whereas efficiency of microbial protein synthesis was similar in all treatments. Findings of present study suggested that EuO could be used as a feed additive to modify the rumen fermentation in reducing methane production both in RS and UTRS. Feeding UTRS could improve feed intake and efficiency of rumen fermentation in swamp buffaloes. However, more research is warranted to determine the effect of EuO supplementation in production animals. PMID:25049925

  1. Use of dried stoned olive pomace in the feeding of lactating buffaloes: effect on the quantity and quality of the milk produced.

    PubMed

    Terramoccia, S; Bartocci, S; Taticchi, A; Di Giovanni, S; Pauselli, M; Mourvaki, E; Urbani, S; Servili, M

    2013-07-01

    Dried stoned olive pomace (DSOP) was administered to dairy water buffaloes, and their productive performance and milk composition were analysed. Sixteen pluriparous lactating buffaloes were divided into two uniform groups (control and experimental), taking into consideration the following parameters: milk production (2,192 and 2,102 kg) and duration of lactation (254 and 252 d) of the previous year, distance from calving (51 and 43 d), milk production (9.71 and 10.18 kg/d), body condition score (BCS) (6.44 and 6.31) and weight (617 and 653 kg) at the beginning of the trial. Both diets had the same formulation: second cut alfalfa hay 20%, corn silage 42%, concentrate 38% but the two concentrates differed in their formulation, the experimental one contained 15.50% of DSOP as fed. The employed DSOP showed high amounts of secoiridoids, such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (3,4-DHPEA) (1.2 g/kg DM), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol-elenolic acid di-aldehyde (3,4-DHPEA-EDA) (12.6 g/kg DM), p-hydroxyphenylethanol-elenolic acid di-aldehyde (p-HPEA-EDA) (5.6 g/kg DM) and lignans, which are known to be powerful bioactive compounds. The control diet had an energy-protein content of 0.86 Milk FU/kg DM and 143.3 g/kg DM of crude protein, whereas the experimental diet of 0.87 Milk FU/kg DM and 146.6 g/kg DM of crude protein. Each animal of the two groups received 17 kg DM/d and each buffalo of the experimental group, by way of the concentrate, ingested 1.05 kg DM/d of DSOP. The trial lasted 40 days. No significant difference was found between the BCS (6.41 and 6.53), live weight (625.93 and 662.50 kg) and milk production (9.69 and 10.08 kg/d) of the two groups, as was the case for fat, protein, lactose, pH and coagulating parameters of the two milks. The milk fat of the experimental group had a significantly higher content of total tocopherols (10.45 vs 8.60 ?g/g, p<0.01) and retinol (3.17 vs 2.54 ?g/g, p<0.01). The content of the reactive substances with tiobarbituric acid (TBARs) was significantly lower in the milk fat of the experimental group (12.09 vs 15.05 ?g MDA/g, p<0.01). The acid content of the milk fat of the experimental group had a significantly higher content (p<0.05) of C18:0 and of C18:3?6. LC-MS/MS analysis showed the presence of 3,4-DHPEA (36.0 ?g/L) in the milk of the DSOP-fed buffaloes, while other phenols were not found. DSOP, in the quantity utilized, can be used in the feeding of the lactating buffalo; the dietetic-nutritional characteristics of the milk are improved due to a greater contribution of tocopherols, retinol and the presence of hydroxytyrosol. PMID:25049875

  2. Use of Dried Stoned Olive Pomace in the Feeding of Lactating Buffaloes: Effect on the Quantity and Quality of the Milk Produced

    PubMed Central

    Terramoccia, S.; Bartocci, S.; Taticchi, A.; Di Giovanni, S.; Pauselli, M.; Mourvaki, E.; Urbani, S.; Servili, M.

    2013-01-01

    Dried stoned olive pomace (DSOP) was administered to dairy water buffaloes, and their productive performance and milk composition were analysed. Sixteen pluriparous lactating buffaloes were divided into two uniform groups (control and experimental), taking into consideration the following parameters: milk production (2,192 and 2,102 kg) and duration of lactation (254 and 252 d) of the previous year, distance from calving (51 and 43 d), milk production (9.71 and 10.18 kg/d), body condition score (BCS) (6.44 and 6.31) and weight (617 and 653 kg) at the beginning of the trial. Both diets had the same formulation: second cut alfalfa hay 20%, corn silage 42%, concentrate 38% but the two concentrates differed in their formulation, the experimental one contained 15.50% of DSOP as fed. The employed DSOP showed high amounts of secoiridoids, such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (3,4-DHPEA) (1.2 g/kg DM), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol-elenolic acid di-aldehyde (3,4-DHPEA-EDA) (12.6 g/kg DM), p-hydroxyphenylethanol-elenolic acid di-aldehyde (p-HPEA-EDA) (5.6 g/kg DM) and lignans, which are known to be powerful bioactive compounds. The control diet had an energy-protein content of 0.86 Milk FU/kg DM and 143.3 g/kg DM of crude protein, whereas the experimental diet of 0.87 Milk FU/kg DM and 146.6 g/kg DM of crude protein. Each animal of the two groups received 17 kg DM/d and each buffalo of the experimental group, by way of the concentrate, ingested 1.05 kg DM/d of DSOP. The trial lasted 40 days. No significant difference was found between the BCS (6.41 and 6.53), live weight (625.93 and 662.50 kg) and milk production (9.69 and 10.08 kg/d) of the two groups, as was the case for fat, protein, lactose, pH and coagulating parameters of the two milks. The milk fat of the experimental group had a significantly higher content of total tocopherols (10.45 vs 8.60 ?g/g, p<0.01) and retinol (3.17 vs 2.54 ?g/g, p<0.01). The content of the reactive substances with tiobarbituric acid (TBARs) was significantly lower in the milk fat of the experimental group (12.09 vs 15.05 ?g MDA/g, p<0.01). The acid content of the milk fat of the experimental group had a significantly higher content (p<0.05) of C18:0 and of C18:3?6. LC-MS/MS analysis showed the presence of 3,4-DHPEA (36.0 ?g/L) in the milk of the DSOP-fed buffaloes, while other phenols were not found. DSOP, in the quantity utilized, can be used in the feeding of the lactating buffalo; the dietetic-nutritional characteristics of the milk are improved due to a greater contribution of tocopherols, retinol and the presence of hydroxytyrosol. PMID:25049875

  3. Replacement of serum and hormone additives with follicular fluid in the IVM medium: Effects on maturation, fertilization and subsequent development of buffalo oocytes in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Chauhan; P. Palta; S. K. Das; P. K. Katiyar; M. L. Madan

    1997-01-01

    Buffalo follicular fluid was used in the IVM medium in place of serum and hormone additives for stimulating nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of buffalo oocytes in vitro. Follicular fluid (buFF) was aspirated from visible surface follicles from buffalo ovaries. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured for 24 to 26 h at 38.5 °C, 5% CO2 in air in the maturation

  4. Comparison of the principal proteins in bovine, caprine, buffalo, equine and camel milk.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Katharina; O'Connor, Paula M; Huppertz, Thom; Ross, R Paul; Kelly, Alan L

    2012-05-01

    Proteomic analysis of bovine, caprine, buffalo, equine and camel milk highlighted significant interspecies differences. Camel milk was found to be devoid of ?-lactoglobulin, whereas ?-lactoglobulin was the major whey protein in bovine, buffalo, caprine, and equine milk. Five different isoforms of ?-casein were found in camel milk, analogous to the micro-heterogeneity observed for bovine ?-casein. Several spots observed in 2D-electrophoretograms of milk of all species could tentatively be identified as polypeptides arising from the enzymatic hydrolysis of caseins. The understanding gained from the proteomic comparison of these milks may be of relevance both in terms of identifying sources of hypoallergenic alternatives to bovine milk and detection of adulteration of milk samples and products. PMID:22365180

  5. Meat quality of buffalo young bulls fed faba bean as protein source.

    PubMed

    Calabrò, S; Cutrignelli, M I; Gonzalez, O J; Chiofalo, B; Grossi, M; Tudisco, R; Panetta, C; Infascelli, F

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen Italian Mediterranean Buffalo young bulls were divided into two groups fed isoprotein and isoenergy diets and only differing for protein source of concentrate: faba bean (FB) vs soybean (SB). Animals were slaughtered at 350 kg BW. Meat from FB group showed significantly lower fat, protein, cholesterol and saturated fatty acids than SB group. Significant differences were also found between the three muscles analysed [Longissimus thoracis (LT), Semitendinosus (ST) and Iliopsoas plus Psoas minor (IP)]. ST showed the most favourable fatty acids profile: lower SFA, higher PUFA, MUFA, ?-3, ?-6, CLA and, consequently, lower values for both atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. Results showed that faba bean can be used as a protein source alternative to soybean in the diet of young buffalo bulls for the production of high quality meat. PMID:24018277

  6. Enhancing milk and fertility performances using selection index developed for Indian Murrah buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Valsalan, Jamuna; Chakravarty, Atish Kumar; Patil, Chandrashekhar Santosh; Dash, Shakti Kant; Mahajan, Atul Chandrashekhar; Kumar, Vijay; Vohra, Vikas

    2014-08-01

    Selection for genetically superior Murrah buffaloes under Network Project on Buffalo Improvement, India, is presently based on milk yield, and it was observed that even in the absence of any direct selection pressure applied on fertility, there has been a downward trend in fertility associated with the selection for milk yield. The aim of the study was to develop selection indices which include fertility besides milk yield in Murrah buffaloes. Data pertaining to 1,224 lactation records spread over a period of 19 years were recorded and analyzed in the study. The negative association of pregnancy rate (fertility) with a 305-day milk yield (-0.08?±?0.04) and wet average (-0.12?±?0.02) indicated the importance of incorporating fertility trait in the construction of selection index. Four types of selection indices were constructed and evaluated. Two indices were developed using expected producing ability 305-days milk yield (EPAMY) with 6.5 and 4% fat in milk along with expected fertilizing ability (EFA). The other two indices developed consist of expected producing ability wet average (EPA WA) and EFA. The index involving (EPA WA and EFA) was found to be a more effective selection criterion in our herd, as the accuracy of index was more (0.61), in comparison to the index involving EPA MY and EFA. The robustness of selection index was assessed by increasing the relative economic values of included traits by 25 and 50%, and accuracy of the index remains almost stable without much change. The developed selection strategy involving EPA WA and EFA should be considered for the genetic evaluation of Murrah buffaloes, as it has a potential for maximizing the lifetime reproduction and production performances of the breed. PMID:24781153

  7. An epidemiological survey of bovine Babesia and Theileria parasites in cattle, buffaloes, and sheep in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elsify, Ahmed; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Nayel, Mohammed; Salama, Akram; Elkhtam, Ahmed; Rizk, Mohamed; Mosaab, Omar; Sultan, Khaled; Elsayed, Shimaa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2015-02-01

    Cattle, buffaloes, and sheep are the main sources of meat and milk in Egypt, but their productivity is thought to be greatly reduced by hemoprotozoan parasitic diseases. In this study, we analyzed the infection rates of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis, using parasite-specific PCR assays in blood-DNA samples sourced from cattle (n=439), buffaloes (n=50), and sheep (n=105) reared in Menoufia, Behera, Giza, and Sohag provinces of Egypt. In cattle, the positive rates of B. bovis, B. bigemina, T. annulata, and T. orientalis were 3.18%, 7.97%, 9.56%, and 0.68%, respectively. On the other hand, B. bovis and T. orientalis were the only parasites detected in buffaloes and each of these parasites was only found in two individual DNA samples (both 2%), while one (0.95%) and two (1.90%) of the sheep samples were positive for B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively. Sequence analysis showed that the B. bovis Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 and the B. bigemina Apical Membrane Antigen-1 genes were highly conserved among the samples, with 99.3-100% and 95.3-100% sequence identity values, respectively. In contrast, the Egyptian T. annulata merozoite surface antigen-1 gene sequences were relatively diverse (87.8-100% identity values), dispersing themselves across several clades in the phylogenetic tree containing sequences from other countries. Additionally, the T. orientalis Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) gene sequences were classified as types 1 and 2. This is the first report of T. orientalis in Egypt, and of type 2 MPSP in buffaloes. Detection of MPSP type 2, which is considered a relatively virulent genotype, suggests that T. orientalis infection may have veterinary and economic significance in Egypt. In conclusion, the present study, which analyzed multiple species of Babesia and Theileria parasites in different livestock animals, may shed an additional light on the epidemiology of hemoprotozoan parasites in Egypt. PMID:25305419

  8. Manipulation of rumen fermentation and ecology of swamp buffalo by coconut oil and garlic powder supplementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Kongmun; M. Wanapat; P. Pakdee; C. Navanukraw; Z. Yu

    2011-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of coconut oil and garlic powder supplementation on digestibility of nutrients, rumen fermentation, rumen ecology, rumen microorganism and methanogen diversity. Four, 3-year old, rumen fistulated swamp buffalo bulls were randomly assigned in a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments; 7% coconut oil, 7% coconut oil with 50g\\/day of garlic

  9. Effect of management practices and animal age on incidence of mastitis in Nili Ravi buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Tariq; Rahman, Abdur; Qureshi, Muhammand Subhan; Hussain, Muhammad Tariq; Khan, Muhammad Shauib; Uddin, Siraj; Iqbal, Muhammad; Han, Bo

    2014-10-01

    Buffalo is an economically important dairy animal in South Asia but mostly ignored in research priorities. In this retrospective study, the effect of management practices and age of animal on the incidence of mastitis in Nili Ravi buffaloes was investigated. A total of 1,560 quarters of buffaloes (n?=?390) were screened by visual examination of the udder and milk (clinical mastitis) and California mastitis test (subclinical mastitis). Household data was collected on a predesigned questionnaire and analyzed. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis, clinical mastitis, and blind quarters was 41.8, 13.6, and 9.7 %, respectively. The highest prevalence was noted in the hind quarters and left side as compared to that in the forequarters and right side. This data significantly (p?buffaloes that ranged 6-10 l/day showed a higher rate of mastitis occurrence (p?

  10. Serum profiles of androstenedione, testosterone and LH from birth through puberty in buffalo bull calves.

    PubMed

    Hemeida, N A; el-Baghdady, Y R; el-Fadaly, M A

    1985-07-01

    Blood samples were taken once per week for 4-7 weeks from 59 buffalo calves in 14 age groups, 1-2 months apart. Hormones were quantified by validated radioimmunoassays. Values of androstenedione and testosterone were low at birth (141.3 +/- 33.5 pg/ml and 18.0 +/- 2.9 pg/ml, respectively; mean +/- s.d.). Serum androstenedione concentrations gradually increased from birth until 8 months of age and declined (P less than 0.05) thereafter, whereas mean testosterone values were low up to 8 months and then significantly (P less than 0.05) increased as age advanced. LH concentrations averaged 2.12 +/- 0.47 ng/ml at birth. Thereafter, a decline in LH values was followed by an increase between 6 and 15 months of age. We conclude that, in buffalo bull calves, the pubertal period occurs from about 8 to 15 months of age. For pubertal buffalo bulls 15-17 months of age, serum concentrations of androstenedione, testosterone and LH were 156.9 +/- 54.6 pg/ml, 208.4 +/- 93.8 pg/ml and 2.10 +/- 0.70 ng/ml, respectively. PMID:4045808

  11. Lead and cadmium in raw buffalo, cow and ewe milk from west Azerbaijan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Najarnezhad, Vahid; Jalilzadeh-Amin, Ghader; Anassori, Ehsan; Zeinali, Vahid

    2015-06-01

    In this study, 300 raw buffalo, cow and ewe milk samples from five townships in west Azerbaijan, Iran, were analysed. Lead and cadmium were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mean concentration of lead and cadmium in buffalo milk samples was 0.018 ± 0.001 and 0.003 ± 0.001 mg/kg, respectively. Mean concentration of lead and cadmium in cow milk samples was 0.007 ± 0.001 and 0.001 ± 0.001 mg/kg, respectively, and in ewe milk, these mean values were 0.010 ± 0.001 and 0.002 ± 0.001 mg/kg, respectively. Statistical analyses showed that lead and cadmium concentrations in buffalo milk were significantly higher than those in cow and ewe milk. Moreover, the concentration of these heavy metals in ewe milk was significantly higher than that in cow milk. It was also found that concentration of these selected toxic metals in milk increased with increasing age of the animals. PMID:25588978

  12. Trypanosoma evansi in Indonesian buffaloes: evaluation of simple models of natural immunity to infection.

    PubMed Central

    Coen, P. G.; Luckins, A. G.; Davison, H. C.; Woolhouse, M. E.

    2001-01-01

    Deterministic models were employed to investigate the biology of Trypanosoma evansi infection in the Indonesian buffalo. Models were fitted to two age-structured data sets of infection. The Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) model was the best supported description of this infection, although the results of the analysis depended on the serological test used; the Tr7 Ag-ELISA was judged the most reliable indicator of infection. Estimated forces of infection increase with age from 1.2 to 2.0 acquisitions per buffalo per year. The buffaloes would clear infection in an estimated mean time period of 16.8 months (95% CIs: 12.5-25.9 months) since acquisition, either by drug treatment by owners or self-cure. A general discussion on the role of immunity in protozoan infections includes consideration that the fitted SIS model would be consistent with strain-specific immunity. The model may become a useful tool for the evaluation of control programmes. PMID:11293670

  13. Enhanced chondrogenesis through specific growth factors in a buffalo embryonic stem cell model.

    PubMed

    Sritanaudomchai, Hathaitip; Kitiyanant, Yindee; Tong-ngam, Pirut; Thonabulsombat, Chareonsri; White, Kenneth L; Kusamran, Thanit

    2013-11-01

    Chondrogenic differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) via embryoid bodies (EBs) is an established model to investigate chondrogenesis signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms in vitro. Our aim has been to improve upon the number of differentiated cells needed for the in vitro development of functional cartilage. Chondrogenic differentiation of buffalo ESCs was modulated by bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF-10), transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-?1 ) individually and their combination. ESCs differentiation into chondrocytes was characterized by the appearance of Alcian blue-stained nodules and the expression of cartilage-associated genes (RT-PCR) and protein (immunocytochemistry). BMP-2 or FGF-10 treatment enhanced chondrogenic differentiation, whereas TGF-?1 treatment inhibited buffalo ESC-derived chondrogenesis. The combination of BMP-2 and FGF-10 was the most effective treatment. This treatment resulted in a higher number of Alcian blue-positive nodules by 15.2-fold, expression of the mesenchymal cell marker scleraxis gene by 3.25-fold, and the cartilage matrix protein collagen II gene and protein 1.9- and 7-fold, respectively, compared to the untreated control group. Chondrogenesis was also recapitulated from mesenchymal and chondrogenic progenitor cells, resulting in the establishment of mature chondrocytes. Thus, buffalo ESCs can be successfully triggered in vitro to differentiate into chondrocyte-like cells by specific growth factors, which may provide a novel in vitro model for further investigation of the regulatory mechanism(s) involved. PMID:23852953

  14. Descriptive sensory profile of cow and buffalo milk Cheddar cheese prepared using indigenous cultures.

    PubMed

    Murtaza, M A; Rehman, S U; Anjum, F M; Huma, N

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the sensory profile of Cheddar cheese prepared from cow and buffalo milk using indigenous and commercial cultures. Commercially available and locally isolated, indigenous starter cultures were used to prepare cow and buffalo milk Cheddar cheese. The cheese was ripened at 4 and 12°C and analyzed for descriptive sensory profile by a panel of 10 assessors after 60 and 120 d of ripening. On evaluation, the mean scores for odor, flavor, and texture attributes obtained for buffalo milk cheese were significantly higher than those obtained for cow milk cheese. For most of the traits, cheese samples prepared from indigenous cultures and ripened at higher temperature received higher descriptive scores compared with those of commercial cultures and ripened at lower degrees. Milk sources highly significantly affected the "creamy" and "sour" traits of odor; the "creamy," "smoky," and "soapy" flavors; and all the texture attributes except "maturity." Starter cultures considerably influenced the production of "acidic," "bitter," "sweet," and "sour" characteristics. The use of elevated ripening temperature showed noticeable effect on all the characteristics except the "creamy" odor and flavor. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis also showed that milk sources, starter cultures, and ripening temperatures significantly influenced the sensory characteristics. PMID:23332853

  15. Home on the Range: Factors Explaining Partial Migration of African Buffalo in a Tropical Environment

    PubMed Central

    Naidoo, Robin; Du Preez, Pierre; Stuart-Hill, Greg; Jago, Mark; Wegmann, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Partial migration (when only some individuals in a population undertake seasonal migrations) is common in many species and geographical contexts. Despite the development of modern statistical methods for analyzing partial migration, there have been no studies on what influences partial migration in tropical environments. We present research on factors affecting partial migration in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in northeastern Namibia. Our dataset is derived from 32 satellite tracking collars, spans 4 years and contains over 35,000 locations. We used remotely sensed data to quantify various factors that buffalo experience in the dry season when making decisions on whether and how far to migrate, including potential man-made and natural barriers, as well as spatial and temporal heterogeneity in environmental conditions. Using an information-theoretic, non-linear regression approach, our analyses showed that buffalo in this area can be divided into 4 migratory classes: migrants, non-migrants, dispersers, and a new class that we call “expanders”. Multimodel inference from least-squares regressions of wet season movements showed that environmental conditions (rainfall, fires, woodland cover, vegetation biomass), distance to the nearest barrier (river, fence, cultivated area) and social factors (age, size of herd at capture) were all important in explaining variation in migratory behaviour. The relative contributions of these variables to partial migration have not previously been assessed for ungulates in the tropics. Understanding the factors driving migratory decisions of wildlife will lead to better-informed conservation and land-use decisions in this area. PMID:22570722

  16. Physical and nutritional properties of buffalo meat finished on hay or maize silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Cifuni, Giulia Francesca; Contò, Michela; Amici, Andrea; Failla, Sebastiana

    2014-04-01

    The current study examines the effect of different finishing diets (hay- vs. maize-silage on meal ration) on carcass quality, physical, chemical and sensory properties, and fatty acid profiles of buffalo meat. Twenty male Italian Mediterranean buffaloes (246?±?9.00?kg live weight) were distributed at random into two groups at the beginning of the finishing period (368?±?20 days). The buffaloes were offered two finishing diets: a maize silage (MS) or an alfalfa hay (AH) diet. No significant differences were found between dietary treatments for live and carcass weight. Meat chemical composition was influenced by dietary treatment. A higher fat content was detected in meat from animals finished with MS than AH (P?

  17. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of Theileria annulata in cattle and buffaloes Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    PubMed

    Kundave, V R; Patel, A K; Patel, P V; Hasnani, J J; Joshi, C G

    2014-12-01

    Bovine tropical theileriosis caused by Theileria annulata is a tick-borne disease associated with high morbidity and mortality in the livestock. The conventional method of diagnosis is by the demonstration of the parasite stages by microscopic examination. This method suffers from low sensitivity, making it even more difficult to detect piroplasms in the carriers. PCR based assays are known to be more sensitive. The present study was undertaken to detect and quantify T. annulata in the blood of clinically infected and carrier animals using a quantitative PCR protocol targeting the gene encoding the major merozoite piroplasm surface antigen Tams 1. A total of 116 samples were collected from infected as well as apparently healthy cattle and buffaloes. Of these, 74 samples (63.79%) were positive for T. annulata by real-time PCR, including the 15 samples that were positive by Giemsa staining. The parasite load ranged from 1.39 x 10(6) to 3.35 x 10(9) and 0.35 x 10(6) to 2.83 x 10(7) ml(-1) of blood in cattle and buffalo samples, respectively by qPCR. Our study suggests that real-time PCR assay can be used to detect and quantify the load of T. annulata in the blood of cattle and buffaloes. It also serves as a support to clinical diagnosis and assessment of carrier status in apparently healthy animals. PMID:25776598

  18. Pharmacokinetics following intravenous administration and pharmacodynamics of cefquinome in buffalo calves.

    PubMed

    Dinakaran, Venkatathalam; Dumka, Vinod Kumar; Ranjan, Bibhuti; Balaje, Ramalingam; Sidhu, Pritam Kaur

    2013-10-01

    Disposition following single intravenous injection (2 mg/kg) and pharmacodynamics of cefquinome were investigated in buffalo calves 6-8 months of age. Drug levels in plasma were estimated by high-performance liquid chromatography. The plasma concentration-time profile following intravenous administration was best described by a two-compartment open model. Rapid distribution of cefquinome was evident from the short distribution half-life (t ½ ? = 0.36 ± 0.01 h), and small apparent volume of distribution (Vd area = 0.31 ± 0.008 L/kg) indicated limited drug distribution in buffalo calves. The values of area under plasma concentration-time curve, elimination half-life (t ½ ? ), total body clearance (ClB), and mean residence time were 32.9 ± 0.56 ?g · h/mL, 3.56 ± 0.05 h, 60.9 ± 1.09 mL/h/kg, and 4.24 ± 0.09 h, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration of cefquinome were 0.035-0.07 and 0.05-0.09 ?g/mL, respectively. A single intravenous injection of 2 mg/kg may be effective to maintain the MIC up to 12 h in buffalo calves against the pathogens for which cefquinome is indicated. PMID:23456794

  19. Seroprevalence of Leptospira Hardjo in Cattle and African Buffalos in Southwestern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Atherstone, Christine; Picozzi, Kim; Kalema-Zikusoka, Gladys

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis, caused by the spirochete bacterium Leptospira spp. is a zoonosis, distributed worldwide and classified as an emerging infectious disease. Fatal outcomes to leptospiral infection do occur and the disease can cause abortion and other reproductive problems in cattle, goats, and pigs. In humans the symptoms range from subclinical infection to acute febrile illness, pulmonary hemorrhage and renal failure. Leptospirosis has never been officially reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) or the World Animal Health Organization in animals or humans in Uganda. However, favorable ecological conditions and suitable animal hosts can be found within the country. A commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) kit was used to screen sera samples from domesticated cattle and African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) at two locations in southwestern Uganda, collected over a 4-year period. Positive samples were found in both cattle and African buffalo samples, from both locations and across the sampling period. Overall seroprevalence was 42.39% in African buffalo and 29.35% in cattle. PMID:24323512

  20. Willingness to pay for cattle and buffalo insurance: an analysis of dairy farmers in central India.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Ameer; Chander, Mahesh; Bardhan, Dwaipayan

    2013-02-01

    In India, insurance market especially in agricultural sector is usually underdeveloped. The idea of livestock insurance emerged in India before three decades, yet, it has not operated in a significant way till date. It is well noted that livestock insurance scheme is the relevant strategy in managing different risks related to livestock farming but very little attention has been paid to address the livestock insurance needs of the dairy farmers. This study, therefore, addresses the basic question that how many people and to what extent they are willing to pay for livestock insurance and determine the main factors which influence insurance participation of dairy farmers. The data was collected from Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh in India with a sample survey of 120 cattle and buffalo farmers. For eliciting willingness to pay, a contingent valuation scenario was presented to dairy animal owners in the group of five to six. A logit discrete binary regression model was used to know the factors influencing adoption of livestock insurance. The results suggest that most of the farmers were willing to participate in cattle and buffalo insurance. The amount of premium varies across different breeds of dairy animals. The low level of education of many dairy farmers have negatively influenced the decision to purchase livestock insurance. Farmers having more experience in rearing dairy animals are more likely to be willing to pay for cattle and buffalo insurance. PMID:22843215

  1. Identification of p-cresol as an estrus-specific volatile in buffalo saliva: comparative docking analysis of buffalo OBP and ?-lactoglobulin with p-cresol.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Kandasamy; Manivannan, Paramasivan; Rajesh, Durairaj; Muthukumar, Subramanian; Muralitharan, Gangatharan; Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkader; Archunan, Govindaraju

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of salivary volatile compounds adopting gas chromatography-linked mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed the presence of a total of 11 compounds in the buffalo saliva irrespective of the stages in the reproductive cycle. p-cresol was identified as an estrus-specific volatile compound in the saliva. In addition, modeling of odorant-binding protein (OBP) and ?-lactoglobulin revealed that OBP is highly stable and has strong binding affinity with p-cresol. Hydrogen bond interactions indicated that OBP is responsible for pheromone release through saliva. In contrast, ?-lactoglobulin, which belongs to the same lipocalin family as OBP, possesses less affinity to p-cresol than OBP, suggesting that it is not involved in p-cresol binding and transport. Phylogenetic characterization revealed that bovine family of OBP is separately clustered. It is suggested that p-cresol has the potential to be developed as a biomarker to detect the reproductive status in the buffalo and for behavioral manipulations. PMID:24410493

  2. Effect of oestradiol benzoate on oestrus intensity and pregnancy rate in CIDR treated anoestrus nulliparous and multiparous buffalo.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Muhammad Rizwan; Martins, J P N; Husnain, Ali; Riaz, Umair; Riaz, Hasan; Sattar, Abdul; Javed, Khalid; Ahmad, Nasim

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine if administration of oestradiol benzoate (OEB) after removal of control internal drug releasing device (CIDR) could enhance oestrous intensity and pregnancy rate in anovular nulliparous and multiparous Nili-Ravi buffalo. For this, a total of 298 nulliparous (n=91) and multiparous (n=207) buffaloes received a CIDR on Day 0, and were administered PGF2? on Day 6 followed by removal of CIDR on Day 7. At Day 8, OEB was administered in approximately half of nulliparous (n=45/91) and multiparous (n=100/207) buffalo. All animals were fixed time inseminated 48 and 60h after CIDR removal, respectively. The results showed that administration of OEB but not the parity, improved oestrous intensity (3.15±0.05 vs 2.99±0.05; P=0.0026) compared to those not received OEB, respectively. However, OEB did not affect (46.2 vs 44.1; P=0.8) pregnancy per AI (P/AI). In addition, P/AI was greater (50.7 vs 39.6; P=0.036) in multiparous compared to nulliparous buffalo, respectively. The oestrous intensity (P=0.025) and response to OEB (P=0.0002) was greater in buffalo having a greater body condition (>3.0). Though, non significant, timing of ovulation was more synchronous (62.9±1.8 vs 72.4±3.6h; P>0.05) and ovulation rate was greater (91% vs 64%; P>0.05) in buffalo after OEB administration. It is concluded that administration of OEB in conjunction with the CIDR improves oestrous intensity without affecting P/AI in nulliparous and multiparous anovular buffalo. PMID:26096857

  3. Prevalence of Clostridium difficile in raw beef, cow, sheep, goat, camel and buffalo meat in Iran

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Clostridium difficile has been shown to be a nosocomial pathogen associated with diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis in hospitalised patients and the infection is believed to be acquired nosocomially. Recent studies have shown the occurrence of C. difficile in food animals which may act as a source of infection to humans.The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of C. difficile in retail raw beef, cow, sheep, goat, camel and buffalo meat in Iran. Method From April to October 2012, a total of 660 raw meat samples from beef, cow, sheep, goat, camel and buffalo were purchased from 49 butcheries in Isfahan and Khuzestan provinces, Iran, and were evaluated for the presence of C. difficile using a method including selective enrichment in C. difficile broth, subsequent alcohol shock-treatment and plating onto C. difficile selective medium. C. difficile isolates were tested for the presence of toxin genes and were typed using PCR ribotyping. Results In this study, 13 of 660 meat samples (2%) were contaminated with C. difficile. The highest prevalence of C. difficile was found in buffalo meat (9%), followed by goat meat (3.3%), beef meat (1.7%), cow (0.94%) and sheep meat (0.9%). Seven of the 13C. difficile strains (53.9%) were positive for tcdA, tcdB and cdtB toxin genes and were classified as ribotype 078. Four strains (30.8%) were positive tcdA, and tcdB, and one strain (7.7%) was possessed only tcdB. The remaining isolate was non-toxigenic. Susceptibilities of 13C. difficile isolates were determined for 11 antimicrobial drugs using the disk diffusion assay. Resistance to clindamycin, gentamycin, and nalidixic acid was the most common finding. Conclusions To our knowledge, the present study is the first report of the isolation of C. difficile from raw buffalo meat. This study indicates the potential importance of food, including buffalo meat, as a source of transmission of C. difficile to humans. PMID:24499381

  4. cDNA microarray analysis of gene expression in parthenotes and in vitro produced buffalo embryos.

    PubMed

    Abdoon, A S; Ghanem, N; Kandil, O M; Gad, A; Schellander, K; Tesfaye, D

    2012-04-01

    The retarded development of parthenote embryo could be due to aberrant epigenetic imprinting, which may disrupt many aspects and lead to conceptus demise. The present work was conducted to: 1) compare the development of in vitro produced (IVP) and parthenogenetically developed (P) buffalo embryos from the 2-cell to blastocyst stage; 2) investigate the global gene expression profile and search for new candidate transcripts differing between IVP and P buffalo blastocyst using cDNA microarray analysis (validated by Real Time PCR); 3) follow the particular expression patterns of PLAC8 and OCT4 genes at five different stages of preimplantation development by Real Time PCR; and 4) study the expression of CDX2 at the blastcocyst stage. Cleavage rate was higher (P < 0.05) in P than IVP buffalo embryos, while, progression to blastocyst and number of cells per blastocyst were lower (P < 0.05) in P than IVP blastocysts. Microarray analysis indicate that 56 differentially expressed genes between the two groups, of which 51 genes (91.07%) were up-regulated, and five genes were downregulated in IVP blastocyst, using 1.4 fold-changes as a cutoff. Differentially expressed genes are related to translation, nucleic acid synthesis, cell adhesion and placentation. Validation of candidate genes revealed that the transcript abundance of PTGS2, RPS27A, TM2D3, PPA1, AlOX15, RPLO and PLAC8 were downregulated (7/8) in parthenote blastocyst compared to the IVP blastocyst. PLAC8 gene expression was higher (P < 0.05) at 2-cell, morula and blastocyst stages in IVP embryos compared with parthenote embryos. The OCT4 gene expression was higher (P < 0.05) in 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell and blastocysts produced in vitro. In conclusion, the retarded development of parthenogenetic buffalo embryos could be due to downregulation of genes related to translation, nucleic acid synthesis, cell adhesion, and placental development. The low expression of PLAC8 and OCT4 during the different stages of development may be responsible, in part, to the failure of development of parthenote buffalo embryos. PMID:22289221

  5. Bioaccumulation of toxicants in the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, at the Times Beach Confined Disposal Facility, Buffalo, New York.

    PubMed

    Roper, J M; Cherry, D S; Simmers, J W; Tatem, H E

    1996-01-01

    This study consisted of a site characterization followed by biomonitoring the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, at the Times Beach Confined Disposal Facility (CDF), located in Buffalo, New York. Concentrations of selected contaminants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and metals -arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), barium (Ba), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), selenium (Se) and silver (Ag)-were at or below detection limits in the water column. Sediment contaminant concentrations, recorded as dry weight, were as high as 549 mg/kg for total PAHs, 9 mg/kg for PCB Aroclor 1248 and 54, 99, 6, 355, 637 and 16 mg/kg for the metals As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb and Hg, respectively. To predict contaminant bioavailability, elutriate and whole sediment toxicity tests were performed utilizing the cladoceran, Daphnia magna. Whole sediment tests indicated significant impact. Control survival was 84%, while sediment treatment had survival ranging from 1 to 7%. Mean control reproduction was 86.8 neonates, whereas treatment reproduction ranged from 1.4 to 9.0. Zebra mussels placed both in the water column (Upper) and at the sediment level (Lower) survived the 34-day exposure. Contaminants that significantly accumulated in zebra mussel tissue (wet wt mg/kg) were total PAHs (6.58), fluoranthene (1.23), pyrene (1.08), chrysene (0.98), benzo(a)anthracene (0.60), PCB Aroclor 1248 (1.64), As (0.97), Cr (2.87) and Ba (7.00). Accumulation of these contaminants in zebra mussel tissue represent a potentially realistic hazard to organisms (i.e. fish and birds) that feed on them. PMID:15093498

  6. Risk factors for asthma prevalence and chronic respiratory illnesses among residents of different neighbourhoods in Buffalo, New York

    PubMed Central

    Lwebuga-Mukasa, J.; Oyana, T.; Wydro, P.

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: The aim of this study is to identify risk factors for asthma prevalence and chronic respiratory illnesses in Buffalo's neighbourhoods after previous studies reported increased levels of asthma among residents on Buffalo's west side. Design: Cross sectional surveys. Setting: Buffalo neighbourhoods along a US-Canada border crossing point. Subjects: A systematic random survey of 82% of the 2000 targeted households was conducted between January and August 2002. Main results: A multivariate logistic regression model shows that the risk of persons with asthma and chronic respiratory illnesses is significantly (p?0.05) high among children and young adults living in Buffalo's west side, newer housing units, and of Latino ethnicity. In a separate analysis of the nine risk factors, it was observed that location, gender, age, and race were significant risk factors even after adjusting for age of housing, pets, moulds, animal trigger, and smoking. Conclusions: These findings confirm the hypothesis that a considerable risk of asthma and chronic respiratory illnesses exists particularly among Buffalo's west side residents. Further evaluation of these risk factors is warranted to determine the severity of asthma and the reasons for such a significant disease burden. PMID:15483313

  7. Prevalence of Peste-des-petits-ruminant virus antibodies in cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats in India.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, V; Krishnamoorthy, P; Raju, D S N; Rajak, K K; Bhanuprakash, V; Pandey, A B; Gajendragad, M R; Prabhudas, K; Rahman, H

    2014-01-01

    The present study describes the prevalence of Peste-des-petits-ruminant virus (PPRV) antibodies in cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats carried out during the period 2011 using the serum samples randomly collected from different villages of five states of India. A total of 1,498 serum samples [n = 605 (cattle); n = 432 (buffaloes); n = 173 (sheep); n = 288 (goats)] were collected from 52 districts in five states (Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Maharashtra and Rajasthan) of India and were screened for PPRV-specific antibodies by using PPR monoclonal antibody-based competitive ELISA kit. Analysis of 1,498 samples indicates that an overall seroprevalence of 21.83 % with 11.07 % in cattle, 16.20 % in buffaloes, 45.66 % in sheep and 38.54 % in goats. This report presents the results of PPRV-specific antibodies in situations where the subclinical, inapparent or nonlethal or recovery of infection was suspected in cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats. The presence of PPRV antibodies demonstrate that bovines are exposed to PPRV infection and it implies the importance of cattle and buffaloes as subclinical hosts for the virus besides widespread presence of the disease in sheep and goats. Further, the study showed that the prevalence of PPRV antibodies in apparently healthy livestock under natural situation, 21.83 % of the animals were protected from PPRV re-infection. This inturn help in the implementation of disease control strategies such as vaccination in that particular geographical area. PMID:24426314

  8. Site investigation report for Tank 2337-U at the Buffalo Mountain Repeater Station, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Eaton; E. M. Ingram

    1991-01-01

    This Site Investigation Report (SIR) pertains to the Underground Storage Tank (UST) 2337-U located at the Buffalo Mountain Repeater Station. This report summarizes and documents the results of investigations of petroleum releases, the release site, and the area surrounding the release site at the Buffalo Mountain Repeater Station. Soil and groundwater media were evaluated in order to ascertain the nature

  9. Effects of a novel SNP of IGF2R gene on growth traits and expression rate of IGF2R and IGF2 genes in gluteus medius muscle of Egyptian buffalo.

    PubMed

    El-Magd, Mohammed Abu; Abo-Al-Ela, Haitham G; El-Nahas, Abeer; Saleh, Ayman A; Mansour, Ali A

    2014-05-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R) is responsible for degradation of the muscle development initiator, IGF2, and thus it can be used as a marker for selection strategies in the farm animals. The aim of this study was to search for polymorphisms in three coding loci of IGF2R, and to analyze their effect on the growth traits and on the expression levels of IGF2R and IGF2 genes in the gluteus medius muscle of Egyptian buffaloes. A novel A266C SNP was detected in the coding sequences of the third IGF2R locus (at nucleotide number 51 of exon 23) among Egyptian water buffaloes. This SNP was non-synonymous mutation and led to replacement of Y (tyrosine) amino acid (aa) by D (aspartic acid) aa. Three different single-strand conformation polymorphism patterns were observed in the third IGF2R locus: AA, AC, and CC with frequencies of 0.555, 0.195, and 0.250, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that the homozygous AA genotype significantly associated with the average daily gain than AC and CC genotypes from birth to 9 mo of age. Expression analysis showed that the A266C SNP was correlated with IGF2, but not with IGF2R, mRNA levels in the gluteus medius muscle of Egyptian buffaloes. The highest IGF2 mRNA level was estimated in the muscle of animals with the AA homozygous genotype as compared to the AC heterozygotes and CC homozygotes. We conclude that A266C SNP at nucleotide number 51 of exon 23 of the IGF2R gene is associated with the ADG during the early stages of life (from birth to 9 mo of age) and this effect is accompanied by, and may be caused by, increased expression levels of the IGF2 gene. PMID:24613755

  10. A Modified Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Model for Flow and Sediment Transport in the Genesee River Basin

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    A Modified Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Model for Flow and Sediment Transport Corps of Engineers Buffalo, NY Abstract A modified version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was employed to simulate the flow and sediments in the Genesee River Basin, New York. SWAT

  11. High Potential Source for Biomass Degradation Enzyme Discovery and Environmental Aspects Revealed through Metagenomics of Indian Buffalo Rumen

    PubMed Central

    Singh, K. M.; Reddy, Bhaskar; Patel, Dishita; Patel, A. K.; Patel, J. B.; Joshi, C. G.

    2014-01-01

    The complex microbiomes of the rumen functions as an effective system for plant cell wall degradation, and biomass utilization provide genetic resource for degrading microbial enzymes that could be used in the production of biofuel. Therefore the buffalo rumen microbiota was surveyed using shot gun sequencing. This metagenomic sequencing generated 3.9?GB of sequences and data were assembled into 137270 contiguous sequences (contigs). We identified potential 2614 contigs encoding biomass degrading enzymes including glycoside hydrolases (GH: 1943 contigs), carbohydrate binding module (CBM: 23 contigs), glycosyl transferase (GT: 373 contigs), carbohydrate esterases (CE: 259 contigs), and polysaccharide lyases (PE: 16 contigs). The hierarchical clustering of buffalo metagenomes demonstrated the similarities and dissimilarity in microbial community structures and functional capacity. This demonstrates that buffalo rumen microbiome was considerably enriched in functional genes involved in polysaccharide degradation with great prospects to obtain new molecules that may be applied in the biofuel industry. PMID:25136572

  12. Rift Valley fever virus infection in African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) herds in rural South Africa: Evidence of interepidemic transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaBeaud, A.D.; Cross, P.C.; Getz, W.M.; Glinka, A.; King, C.H.

    2011-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging biodefense pathogen that poses significant threats to human and livestock health. To date, the interepidemic reservoirs of RVFV are not well defined. In a longitudinal survey of infectious diseases among African buffalo during 2000-2006, 550 buffalo were tested for antibodies against RVFV in 820 capture events in 302 georeferenced locations in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Overall, 115 buffalo (21%) were seropositive. Seroprevalence of RVFV was highest (32%) in the first study year, and decreased progressively in subsequent years, but had no detectable impact on survival. Nine (7%) of 126 resampled, initially seronegative animals seroconverted during periods outside any reported regional RVFV outbreaks. Seroconversions for RVFV were detected in significant temporal clusters during 2001-2003 and in 2004. These findings highlight the potential importance of wildlife as reservoirs for RVFV and interepidemic RVFV transmission in perpetuating regional RVFV transmission risk. Copyright ?? 2011 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  13. Performance evaluation of bulk freeze dried starter cultures of dahi and yoghurt along with probiotic strains in standardized milk of cow and buffalo.

    PubMed

    Vijayendra, S V N; Gupta, R C

    2014-12-01

    Performance of bulk freeze dried (BFD) cultures of dahi (D) and yoghurt (Y) either with or without probiotic cultures (AB -Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum) in standardized milk of cow and buffalo was evaluated. In buffalo milk, significantly (p?buffalo milk than in cow milk (29.2 ml/50 g sample). Whereas, DAB produced very low amount of VA (16 ml/50 g sample) both in cow and buffalo milk. The diacetyl and tyrosine contents produced by either D or DAB in cow or buffalo milk were in the same order. Although Y and YAB produced slightly more VA in buffalo milk than in cow milk, significant change in the performance of yoghurt cultures (Y or YAB) both in cow and buffalo milk was not noticed. However, the VA and acetaldehyde produced by YAB either in cow and buffalo milk was higher than that by combination Y. Addition of probiotic cultures significantly enhanced the production of acetaldehyde content in both types of milk. Difference in tyrosine content in yoghurt made either with cow or buffalo milk was not significant. Overall, the present study indicated that the BFD cultures can be used to prepare dahi or yoghurt either from cow or buffalo milk, without affecting the biochemical profile of these products. PMID:25477690

  14. Water

    MedlinePLUS

    You might not give much thought to water or how it gets to you. You just turn on the faucet and there it is. Do you ever wonder how it flows ... concern that it might make you sick. Your water can come from a lake, a river, a ...

  15. Spatial and temporal changes in group dynamics and range use enable anti-predator responses in African buffalo.

    PubMed

    Tambling, Craig J; Druce, Dave J; Hayward, Matt W; Castley, J Guy; Adendorff, John; Kerley, Graham I H

    2012-06-01

    The reintroduction of large predators provides a framework to investigate responses by prey species to predators. Considerable research has been directed at the impact that reintroduced wolves (Canis lupus) have on cervids, and to a lesser degree, bovids, in northern temperate regions. Generally, these impacts alter feeding, activity, and ranging behavior, or combinations of these. However, there are few studies on the response of African bovids to reintroduced predators, and thus, there is limited data to compare responses by tropical and temperate ungulates to predator reintroductions. Using the reintroduction of lion (Panthera leo) into the Addo Elephant National Park (AENP) Main Camp Section, South Africa, we show that Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) responses differ from northern temperate ungulates. Following lion reintroduction, buffalo herds amalgamated into larger, more defendable units; this corresponded with an increase in the survival of juvenile buffalo. Current habitat preference of buffalo breeding herds is for open habitats, especially during the night and morning, when lion are active. The increase in group size and habitat preference countered initial high levels of predation on juvenile buffalo, resulting in a return in the proportion of juveniles in breeding herds to pre-lion levels. Our results show that buffalo responses to reintroduced large predators in southern Africa differ to those of northern temperate bovids or cervids in the face of wolf predation. We predict that the nature of the prey response to predator reintroduction is likely to reflect the trade-off between the predator selection and hunting strategy of predators against the life history and foraging strategies of each prey species. PMID:22834371

  16. Ultrasonography as a diagnostic and prognostic approach in cattle and buffaloes with fatty infiltration of the liver.

    PubMed

    Tharwat, M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether ultrasonographic evaluation of the hepatic parenchyma could be used as a diagnostic and prognostic approach in cows and buffaloes with hepatic lipidosis. For this purpose, cows (n=16) and buffaloes (n=10) with fatty infiltration of the liver were examined by ultrasonography. Treated cows and buffaloes were monitored for hepatic changes ultrasonographically, biochemically and histologically. Clinical findings were non-specific and included anorexia, recumbency, muzzle necrosis, and icteric mucosal membranes. Laboratory data revealed neutrophilia, hyper gamma-globulinemia, elevated activities of aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase, and high concentrations of insulin, total bilirubin, non-esterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxyl butyric acid. Laboratory results 7, and 21 days after treatment showed progressive improvement in the chemistry profile. On admission, ultrasonographic examination of the hepatic parenchyma in cows and buffaloes revealed either increased or decreased hepatic echogenicity; histologic examination revealed marked fatty infiltration of the hepatocytes. One week after treatment, the hepatic parenchyma was visualized easily, liver boundaries were clearly imaged, and histologic examination of hepatic specimen showed a moderate degree of fatty infiltration. Three weeks after treatment, the hepatic parenchyma was almost similar to normal, the hepatic and portal blood vessels could be easily imaged, and the histologic picture had greatly improved where the liver resembled the normal organ. Six cows and seven buffaloes made a full recovery while the remaining ten cows and three buffaloes were slaughtered and thoroughly examined postmortem. Ultrasonography showed a good correlation with histologic and laboratory findings. PMID:22708362

  17. Rift valley Fever in Kruger national park: do buffalo play a role in the inter-epidemic circulation of virus?

    PubMed

    Beechler, B R; Bengis, R; Swanepoel, R; Paweska, J T; Kemp, A; van Vuren, P Jansen; Joubert, J; Ezenwa, V O; Jolles, A E

    2015-02-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic mosquito-borne virus disease of livestock and wild ruminants that has been identified as a risk for international spread. Typically, the disease occurs in geographically limited outbreaks associated with high rainfall events and can cause massive losses of livestock. It is unclear how RVF virus persists during inter-epidemic periods but cryptic cycling of the virus in wildlife populations may play a role. We investigated the role that free-living African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) might play in inter-epidemic circulation of the virus and looked for geographic, age and sex patterns of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infection in African buffalo. Buffalo serum samples were collected (n = 1615) in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, during a period of 1996-2007 and tested for antibodies to RVF. We found that older animals were more likely to be seropositive for anti-RVFV antibody than younger animals, but sex was not correlated with the likelihood of being anti-RVFV antibody positive. We also found geographic variation within KNP; herds in the south were more likely to have acquired anti-RVFV antibody than herds farther north - which could be driven by host or vector ecology. In all years of the study between 1996 and 2007, we found young buffalo (under 2 years of age) that were seropositive for anti-RVFV antibody, with prevalence ranging between 0 and 27% each year, indicating probable circulation. In addition, we also conducted a 4-year longitudinal study on 227 initially RVFV seronegative buffalo to look for evidence of seroconversion outside known RVF outbreaks within our study period (2008-2012). In the longitudinal study, we found five individuals that seroconverted from anti-RVFV antibody negative to anti-RVFV antibody positive, outside of any detected outbreak. Overall, our results provide evidence of long-term undetected circulation of RVFV in the buffalo population. PMID:24330522

  18. Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus spp. isolates from cases of mastitis in buffalo in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Medeiros, Elizabeth S; França, Chirles A; Krewer, Carina da C; Peixoto, Renata de M; de Souza, Aldo F; Cavalcante, Marielly B; da Costa, Mateus M; Mota, Rinaldo A

    2011-07-01

    Persistent buffalo mastitis caused by Staphylococcus spp. gives rise to economic losses and may be resistant to antimicrobial therapy. The aim of the present study was to determine resistance patterns and the presence of mecA, blaZ, and efflux pump in Staphylococcus spp. isolated from cases of mastitis in Brazilian buffalo herds. Susceptibility to antimicrobials was determined by the disk diffusion test and detection of the mecA and blaZ genes by polymerase chain reaction. The efflux pump screening test was performed by growing samples in Muller-Hinton agar containing ethidium bromide. The percentages for resistance to the drugs tested were: 71.8% to penicillin, 49.2% to amoxicillin, 65.8% to oxacillin, 62.3% to cefquinome, 44.7% to cephalonium, 45.2% to ciprofloxacin, 32.6% to enrofloxacin, 58.7% to erythromycin, 42.7% to florfenicol, 34.6% to gentamicin, 35.1% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 8.5% to tetracycline + neomycin + bacitracin, 43.2% to cephalothin, 38.1% to streptomycin, 58.7% to tetracycline, 31.6% to norfloxacin, 45.2% to ceftriaxone, 43.2% to nitrofurantoin, 57.7% to doxycycline, and 53.7% to cephalexin. Simultaneous resistance to 4 or more antimicrobial drug groups was observed in 112 isolates, using the mecA (11) and blaZ (79) genes, and efflux pump (47). It is concluded that Staphylococcus spp. isolates from cases of mastitis in Brazilian buffalo show varying levels of resistance to antibiotics, and caution should be exercised in choosing therapeutics in order to minimize the risk to public health. PMID:21908326

  19. Pan-African genetic structure in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer): investigating intraspecific divergence.

    PubMed

    Smitz, Nathalie; Berthouly, Cécile; Cornélis, Daniel; Heller, Rasmus; Van Hooft, Pim; Chardonnet, Philippe; Caron, Alexandre; Prins, Herbert; van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; De Iongh, Hans; Michaux, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) exhibits extreme morphological variability, which has led to controversies about the validity and taxonomic status of the various recognized subspecies. The present study aims to clarify these by inferring the pan-African spatial distribution of genetic diversity, using a comprehensive set of mitochondrial D-loop sequences from across the entire range of the species. All analyses converged on the existence of two distinct lineages, corresponding to a group encompassing West and Central African populations and a group encompassing East and Southern African populations. The former is currently assigned to two to three subspecies (S. c. nanus, S. c. brachyceros, S. c. aequinoctialis) and the latter to a separate subspecies (S. c. caffer). Forty-two per cent of the total amount of genetic diversity is explained by the between-lineage component, with one to seventeen female migrants per generation inferred as consistent with the isolation-with-migration model. The two lineages diverged between 145 000 to 449 000 years ago, with strong indications for a population expansion in both lineages, as revealed by coalescent-based analyses, summary statistics and a star-like topology of the haplotype network for the S. c. caffer lineage. A Bayesian analysis identified the most probable historical migration routes, with the Cape buffalo undertaking successive colonization events from Eastern toward Southern Africa. Furthermore, our analyses indicate that, in the West-Central African lineage, the forest ecophenotype may be a derived form of the savanna ecophenotype and not vice versa, as has previously been proposed. The African buffalo most likely expanded and diverged in the late to middle Pleistocene from an ancestral population located around the current-day Central African Republic, adapting morphologically to colonize new habitats, hence developing the variety of ecophenotypes observed today. PMID:23437100

  20. Factors affecting life cycle assessment of milk produced on 6 Mediterranean buffalo farms.

    PubMed

    Pirlo, G; Carè, S; Fantin, V; Falconi, F; Buttol, P; Terzano, G M; Masoni, P; Pacelli, C

    2014-10-01

    This study quantifies the environmental impact of milk production of Italian Mediterranean buffaloes and points out the farm characteristics that mainly affect their environmental performance. Life cycle assessment was applied in a sample of 6 farms. The functional unit was 1 kg of normalized buffalo milk (LBN), with a reference milk fat and protein content of 8.3 and 4.73%, respectively. The system boundaries included the agricultural phase of the buffalo milk chain from cradle to farm gate. An economic criterion was adopted to allocate the impacts on milk production. Impact categories investigated were global warming (GW), abiotic depletion (AD), photochemical ozone formation (PO), acidification (AC), and eutrophication (EU). The contribution to the total results of the following farm activities were investigated: (1) on-farm energy consumption, (2) manure management, (3) manure application, (4) on-farm feed production (comprising production and application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides), (5) purchased feed production, (6) enteric fermentation, and (7) transport of purchased feeds, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides from producers to farms. Global warming associated with 1 kg of LBN resulted in 5.07 kg of CO? Eq [coefficient of variation (CV)=21.9%], AD was 3.5 × 10(-3) kg of Sb Eq (CV=51.7%), PO was 6.8 × 10(-4) kg of C?H? Eq (CV=28.8%), AC was 6.5 × 10(-2) kg of SO? Eq (CV=30.3%), and EU was 3.3 × 10(-2) kg of PO?(3-) Eq (CV=36.5%). The contribution of enteric fermentation and manure application to GW is 37 and 20%, respectively; on-farm consumption, on-farm feed production, and purchased feed production are the main contributors to AD; about 70% of PO is due to enteric fermentation; manure management and manure application are responsible for 55 and 25% of AC and 25 and 55% of EU, respectively. Methane and N?O are responsible for 44 and 43% of GW, respectively. Crude oil consumption is responsible for about 72% of AD; contribution of CH4 to PO is 77%; NH? is the main contributor to AC (92%); NO?(-) and NH? are responsible for 55 and 41% of EU, respectively; contribution of P to EU is only 3.2%. The main characteristics explaining the significant variability of life cycle assessment are milk productivity and amount of purchased feed per kilogram of LBN. Improvement of LBN production per buffalo cow is the main strategy for reducing GW and PO; improvement of the efficiency of feed use is the strategy proposed for mitigating AD, PO, AC, and EU. PMID:25129494

  1. SUNY Buffalo: The Center for Advanced Photonic and Electronic Materials (CAPEM)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Center for Advanced Photonic and Electronic Materials' (CAPEM) mission is "to foster interactions and collaboration among the diverse research and development activities at the University at Buffalo in the areas of photonic and electronic materials, and to facilitate cooperative multidisciplinary activities and multi-investigator research projects." After reading a summary of its three main research activities, visitors can find out about the facilities at CAPEM including the Materials Research Instrument Facility (MRIF) and the Laboratory for Spintronics Research in Semiconductors. Under the faculty link, users can find information on individual scientists' research and links to their homepages. Researchers and students can discover upcoming conferences and workshops.

  2. Buffalo, Toronto and Niagara Falls at night as seen from STS-60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The city lights of Buffalo and Toronto outline the shores of the east and of Lake Erie and the west end of Lake Ontario in this night scene of western New York and southern Ontario. Between the two major cities are the cities of Niagara Falls, New York and Niagara Falls, Canada, which straddle the Niagara River just north of the actual falls. This photograph was taken with a special ASA 1600 film that is normally used for night-time photography of aurora, noctilucent clouds, biomass burning, and city lights.

  3. Heterodera longicolla, n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from Buffalo-grass (Buchloë dactyloides) in Kansas

    PubMed Central

    Golden, A. M.; Dickerson, O. J.

    1973-01-01

    Heterodera longicolla n. sp., a member of the H. goettingiana group, is described and illustrated from roots of buffalo-grass, Buchloë dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm., in Manhattan, Kansas. This new abullate species, having second-stage larvae with only three lines in the lateral field, is most closely related to H. cyperi Golden, Rau & Cobb, 1962, but differs particularly in having a shorter stylet in larvae, males and females; in possessing only three annules on the head of larvae and males; in having a shorter tail in larvae; and by the presence on cysts of a small anus without a circum-anal pattern. PMID:19319322

  4. Heterodera longicolla, n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from Buffalo-grass (Buchloë dactyloides) in Kansas.

    PubMed

    Golden, A M; Dickerson, O J

    1973-04-01

    Heterodera longicolla n. sp., a member of the H. goettingiana group, is described and illustrated from roots of buffalo-grass, Buchloë dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm., in Manhattan, Kansas. This new abullate species, having second-stage larvae with only three lines in the lateral field, is most closely related to H. cyperi Golden, Rau & Cobb, 1962, but differs particularly in having a shorter stylet in larvae, males and females; in possessing only three annules on the head of larvae and males; in having a shorter tail in larvae; and by the presence on cysts of a small anus without a circum-anal pattern. PMID:19319322

  5. Selecting reference genes in the white blood cells of buffalos treated with recombinant growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Castigliego, Lorenzo; Armani, Andrea; Li, Xiaoning; Grifoni, Goffredo; Gianfaldoni, Daniela; Guidi, Alessandra

    2010-08-01

    In this study, we assessed the expression stability of eight genes (GADPH, ACTB, 18S, YWHAZ, SDHA, HMBS, SF3A1, and EEF1A) in the white blood cells of lactating buffalos and their possible use as reference genes for studies on growth hormone (GH)-treated animals. All of the genes showed acceptable stability according to the threshold values suggested by some of the software that was used to analyze them, although the differences between the most stable (SF3A1 and ACTB) and the least stable (18S) were considerable. GH treatment did not influence their expression levels. PMID:20371358

  6. Blood-typing of Indian Water Buffaloes with Reagents for Antigenic Factors of Cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Datta; W. H. Stone

    1963-01-01

    MORE than eighty heritable antigenic factors have been detected on the erythrocytes (cells) of cattle by their reactions with blood-grouping reagents; the reagent being an antibody population made relatively specific for a particular factor by appropriate absorptions1. Using cattle reagents, it has been shown that at least nine genetic blood-group systems of cattle have their homologues in American bison, Bison

  7. Cultural legacies, fire ecology, and environmental change in the Stone Country of Arnhem Land and Kakadu National Park, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Trauernicht, Clay; Murphy, Brett P; Tangalin, Natalia; Bowman, David M J S

    2013-01-01

    We use the fire ecology and biogeographical patterns of Callitris intratropica, a fire-sensitive conifer, and the Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), an introduced mega-herbivore, to examine the hypothesis that the continuation of Aboriginal burning and cultural integration of buffalo contribute to greater savanna heterogeneity and diversity in central Arnhem Land (CAL) than Kakadu National Park (KNP). The ‘Stone Country’ of the Arnhem Plateau, extending from KNP to CAL, is a globally renowned social–ecological system, managed for millennia by Bininj-Kunwok Aboriginal clans. Regional species declines have been attributed to the cessation of patchy burning by Aborigines. Whereas the KNP Stone Country is a modern wilderness, managed through prescribed burning and buffalo eradication, CAL remains a stronghold for Aboriginal management where buffalo have been culturally integrated. We surveyed the plant community and the presence of buffalo tracks among intact and fire-damaged C. intratropica groves and the savanna matrix in KNP and CAL. Aerial surveys of C. intratropica grove condition were used to examine the composition of savanna vegetation across the Stone Country. The plant community in intact C. intratropica groves had higher stem counts of shrubs and small trees and higher proportions of fire-sensitive plant species than degraded groves and the savanna matrix. A higher proportion of intact C. intratropica groves in CAL therefore indicated greater gamma diversity and habitat heterogeneity than the KNP Stone Country. Interactions among buffalo, fire, and C. intratropica suggested that buffalo also contributed to these patterns. Our results suggest linkages between ecological and cultural integrity at broad spatial scales across a complex landscape. Buffalo may provide a tool for mitigating destructive fires; however, their interactions require further study. Sustainability in the Stone Country depends upon adaptive management that rehabilitates the coupling of indigenous culture, disturbance, and natural resources. PMID:23467505

  8. Studies on interaction of buffalo brain cystatin with donepezil: an Alzheimer's drug.

    PubMed

    Amin, Fakhra; Bano, Bilqees

    2013-01-01

    When drugs bind to a protein, the intramolecular structures can be altered, resulting in conformational change of the protein. Donepezil, an Acetyl Cholinesterase inhibitor (AChE), is commonly prescribed to patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) to enhance cholinergic neurotransmission. It is the "first-line" agents in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease used to improve cognitive function in the disease. In the present study, a cysteine protease inhibitor (cystatin) has been isolated from buffalo brain using alkaline treatment, 40 to 60% ammonium sulphate fractionation and gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-75 with % yield of 64.13 and fold purification of 384.7. The purified inhibitor (Buffalo Brain Cystatin, (BBC)) was eluted as a single papain inhibitory peak which migrated as single band on native PAGE; however, on SDS-PAGE with and without beta mercaptoethanol ( ? ME) BBC gave two bands of M W 31.6 and 12.4?KDa, respectively. The molecular weight determined by gel filtration came out to be 43.6?KDa. The UV spectra of cystatin on interaction with donepezil suggested a conformational change in the protein. The fluorescence spectra of BC-donepezil composite show structural changes indicating 40?nm red shift with significant increase in fluorescence intensity of cystatin in the presence of donepezil representing an unfolding of cystatin on interaction, which is an indication of side effect of donepezil during the use of this drug. PMID:24062965

  9. Changes in profiles of serum sex steroids of male buffaloes from birth to maturity.

    PubMed

    Sharma, I J; Agarwal, S P; Agarwal, V K; Dwaraknath, P K

    1984-08-01

    Age-related changes in testosterone, progesterone and estradiol 17-beta were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in the serum of 155 male buffalo calves of varying ages. The calves were classified into 17 age groups. The mean weight of calves increased from 33.6+/-9.6 kg at one week of age to 531+/-41.4 kg at 42 months. The testosterone levels were less than 100 pg/ml from birth until 15 months of age, followed by peak concentrations of 422+/-79 pg/ml at 24 to 30 months and 793+/-193 pg/ml at 42 to 48 months (corresponding to puberty and maturity, respectively). The progesterone levels were higher in newly born calves and mature bulls. Otherwise, the levels continued to be low throughout the period of growth and development. Estradiol 17-beta was significantly higher in postnatal calves up to two months of age. The testosterone revealed a positive correlation with weight and age while E2 17-beta showed a negative correlation with age. These results do not support a direct role of peripheral progesterone and estradiol 17-beta in the onset of puberty and sexual maturity of buffalo bulls. PMID:16725948

  10. Factors affecting somatic cell counts and their relations with milk and milk constituent yield in buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Cerón-Muñoz, M; Tonhati, H; Duarte, J; Oliveira, J; Muñoz-Berrocal, M; Jurado-Gámez, H

    2002-11-01

    Data concerning daily milk yield (MY), percentage of milk fat (%F), protein (%P), lactose (%LT), and total solids (%TS), and somatic cell counts (SCC) for a herd of 222 Murrah buffalo reared in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, were collected monthly from 1997 to 2000 in order to study the factors affecting SCC and their relation to milk production and constituents during lactation. SCC decreased in the second month of lactation and increased thereafter, up to the ninth month of lactation. The interaction of month of lactation x order of calving was significant. Mean MY observed during the first month of lactation was 6.87 kg, which increased to 7.65 kg during the second month, and then decreased until the ninth month of lactation (3.83 kg). During the different months of lactation, %F, %P, %LT, and %TS ranged from 6.28 to 8.38%, 4.05 to 4.59%, 4.96 to 5.34%, and 16.94 to 18.55%, respectively. Calving year, calving order, and order of month of lactation significantly affected MY, %F, %P, %LT, and %TS. The regression coefficients of transformed SCC on MY and %LT were negative and significant during all months of lactation, showing that milk and lactose yield decreased with increased transformed SCC, causing losses to buffalo milk producers. PMID:12487456

  11. The diagnostic efficacy of Fasciola gigantica coproantigen in naturally infected cattle and buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Aly A; El-Bahy, Mohammad M; Abou-Zinadah, Najlaa Y A; Shalaby, Hatem A

    2008-04-01

    Monoclonal antibody sandwich ELISA was used detect F. gigantica coproantigen in 33 selected animals according to the faecal history to evaluate sensitivity and specificity by using three different rabbit hyper-immune sera; Copro HIS, Egg HIS and ES HIS. The results showed that Copro HIS & ES HIS detected F. gigantica coproantigen in faecal of naturally infected cattle and buffaloes, but egg HIS failed. The 26-28 KDa coproantigen proved sensitivity (81.8%) and specificity (90.9%) in diagnosis of fascioliasis. Also, there was a positive statistical significance between number of F. gigantica egg per gm faeces (EPG) and mean sandwich ELISA OD. values for copro-antigen. For diagnostic value of F. gigantica coproantigen in comparison with ES antigen, EITB was done on field sera of cattle and buffaloes of known faecal history. The F. gigantica coproantigen bands of 27.6 & 72.1 KDa were specific for diagnosis animal fascioliasis, but the 72.1 KDa was less sensitive than the 27.6 KDs. The immunoblotting reaction was more intensive the with fractionated ES antigen than with fractionated coproantigen. PMID:19143125

  12. Metagenomic analysis of buffalo rumen microbiome: Effect of roughage diet on Dormancy and Sporulation genes.

    PubMed

    Singh, K M; Reddy, B; Patel, A K; Panchasara, H; Parmar, N; Patel, A B; Shah, T M; Bhatt, V D; Joshi, C G

    2014-12-01

    Buffalo rumen microbiome experiences a variety of diet stress and represents reservoir of Dormancy and Sporulation genes. However, the information on genomic responses to such conditions is very limited. The Ion Torrent PGM next generation sequencing technology was used to characterize general microbial diversity and the repertoire of microbial genes present, including genes associated with Dormancy and Sporulation in Mehsani buffalo rumen metagenome. The research findings revealed the abundance of bacteria at the domain level and presence of Dormancy and Sporulation genes which were predominantly associated with the Clostridia and Bacilli taxa belonging to the phyla Firmicutes. Genes associated with Sporulation cluster and Sporulation orphans were increased from 50% to 100% roughage treatment, thereby promoting sporulation all along the treatments. The spore germination is observed to be the highest in the 75% roughage treatment both in the liquid and solid rumen fraction samples with respect to the decrease in the values of the genes associated with spore core dehydration, thereby facilitating spore core hydration which is necessary for spore germination. PMID:25606408

  13. The Buffalo Approach to Changing the Basic Science Curriculum, or Toiling and Dreaming in the Vineyards of Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedesco, Lisa A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The State University of New York at Buffalo dental school's reform of basic science curriculum is discussed. The paper first outlines the curriculum review/development process, focusing on incorporation of specific competencies, computer-based curriculum analysis, and the role of a dental schools consortium. The paper then looks at future…

  14. Bioaccumulation of toxicants in the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, at the Times Beach Confined Disposal Facility, Buffalo, New York

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Roper; D. S. Cherry; J. W. Simmers; H. E. Tatem

    1996-01-01

    This study consisted of a site characterization followed by biomonitoring the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, at the Times Beach Confined Disposal Facility (CDF), located in Buffalo, New York. Concentrations of selected contaminants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and metals —arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), barium (Ba), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), selenium (Se) and silver (Ag)—were at or

  15. Haematological and biochemical changes in Fasciola gigantica infected Buffaloes fed on diet containing deoiled mahua (Bassia latifolia) seed cake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Singh; A. K. Verma; Ani Bency Jacob; S. C. Gupta; U. R. Mehra

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of condensed tannins and saponins from deoiled mahua seed cake (DMSC) on the development of fasciolosis. Fifteen male buffaloes were randomly divided into 3 groups of five each and were orally infected with F. gigantica metacercaria @ 800\\/animal. DMSC was included in the concentrate mixture of group 2 (M5) and 3 animals

  16. Daily sperm production and evaluation of morphological reproductive parameters of Murrah buffaloes in an extensive breeding system

    PubMed Central

    da Luz, Patrícia A.C.; Andrighetto, Cristiana; Santos, Paulo R.S.; Jorge, André; Constantino, Maria Vitória P.; Pereira, Flávia T.V.; Mess, Andrea; Neto, Antônio C. Assis

    2012-01-01

    The development of male sexual maturity varies among buffaloes. The Murrah buffalo is considered the most important and efficient milk and fat producer, but aspects of its reproductive biology are still unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate the daily sperm production (DSP) and spermatogenesis in developing Murrah buffalo bulls by evaluation of the seminiferous tubules, testicular morphometry and using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The testes of Murrah buffalo bulls at 18 mo was immature and at 24 mo could still be considered an average-efficiency breed based on their DSP. At 24 mo, the DSP rate was 0.97 billion sperm per testis and 13 million sperm per gram of testis. However, the animals had superior morphometric parameters compared with those of other livestock animals, except for the seminiferous tubule volume and diameter, which were inferior. In conclusion, our data support former views that the testes of the Murrah breed does not reach sexual maturity before 2 y of age and that important developmental steps occur later than Murrah crossbreeds from Brazil. PMID:22670218

  17. Prevalence of Linguatula serrata Nymphs in Mesenteric Lymph Nodes of Cattle and Buffaloes Slaughtered in Ahvaz Abattoir, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Alborzi, AR; Molayan, P Haddad; Akbari, M

    2013-01-01

    Background Linguatula serrata, one of the parasitic zoonoses, inhabits the canine respiratory system (final hosts). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of L. serrata nymphs in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) of cattle and buffaloes (intermediate hosts) that were processed in the Ahvaz, Iran abattoir. Methods During November 2010 to March 2011, 223 animals (119 cattle and 104 buffaloes), in different sex and three age groups (<2, 2–< 3 and 3-> 3 years old) were sampled randomly at Ahvaz abattoir. Up to 35 grams of their mesenteric lymph nodes were examined separately for nymphal stages of L. serrata by digesting the samples with acid- pepsin method, collected the nymphs and counted under stereomicroscope. Results Overall 37(16.6%) of 223 animals were infected with L. serrata nymphs in their mesenteric lymph nodes. Prevalence of the infection in cattle and buffaloes were 16.8% and 16.3% respectively. The number of collected nymphs of MLNs was ranged from 1 to 16. No significant differences were seen in the infection rates between males and females (sexes) and age groups in the cattle and buffaloes (P <0.05). Conclusion Linguatula serrata has an active life cycle in the studied area and a zoonotic potential for transmission between animal and human. Avoiding use of raw MLNs to dogs can help reduce the infection. PMID:23914248

  18. Buffalo alpha S1-casein gene 5'-flanking region and its interspecies comparison.

    PubMed

    Patel, Amrutlal K; Singh, Mahavir; Suryanarayana, V V S

    2014-02-01

    The expression of milk protein genes is tightly regulated in a spatio-temporal manner through the combinatorial interaction of lactogenic hormones and a set of transcription factors mediating developmental and tissue-specific gene expression. The recruitment of a unique set of transcription factors is determined by the cis-regulatory motifs present in the gene promoter region. Here, we report the isolation, sequencing, structural analysis and interspecies comparison of the 5'cis-regulatory region of the buffalo alpha S1 (?S1)-casein gene. The proximal promoter region of the buffalo ?S1-casein gene harbored the insertion of a 72-bp fragment of long interspersed nuclear element of the L1_BT retrotransposon family. Among the core and vertebrate-specific promoter elements, the motifs for the binding of Brn POU domain factors (BRNF), Lim homeodomain factors (LHXF), NK6 homeobox transcription factors (NKX6), nuclear factor kappa B/c-rel (NFKB), AT-rich interactive domain factor (ARID), Brn POU domain factor 5 (BRN5), pancreatic and intestinal homeodomain transcription factor (PDX1), Distal-less homeodomain transcription factors (DLXF), T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer-binding factor-1 (LEFF) and GHF-1 pituitary-specific POU domain transcription factor (PIT1) were over-represented in the ?S1-casein gene regulatory region (Z score >4.0). The Multiple EM for Motif elicitation predicted three motifs which consisted of the sequences known to bind mammary gland factor/signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (MGF/STAT5), estrogen receptor-related alpha (ER?), steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR), indicating their potential role in the mammary gland-specific gene expression. The interspecies comparison of the proximal promoter region revealed conserved sequences for TATA boxes and MGF/STAT5 in all species, whereas activator protein 1 (AP1), pregnancy-specific mammary nuclear factor (PMF), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), double-stranded and single-stranded DNA-binding protein 1 (DS1 and SS), ying and yang factor 1 (YY1), and GR half-sites were among ruminants. The functional significance of the L1_BT retrotransposon insertion on the buffalo ?S1-casein gene expression needs to be experimentally validated. PMID:24142689

  19. Edaphic, Microtopographic, and Light Characteristics Associated with the Endangered Running Buffalo Clover (Trifolium stoloniferm) at the Blue Grass Army Depot, Madison County, Kentucky

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lance Austin Watt

    2011-01-01

    Soil, microtopographic, and light parameters associated with federally endangered running buffalo clover (Trifolium stoloniferum) plants on the Blue Grass Army Depot, Richmond, KY, were examined during the 2004 and 2005 growing season. Study samples or measurements were determined at 27 \\

  20. A survey of brucellosis and tuberculosis in bison in and around Wood Buffalo National Park, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Tessaro, Stacy V.; Forbes, Lorry B.; Turcotte, Claude

    1990-01-01

    Examinations of complete or partial remains of 72 bison found dead in and around Wood Buffalo National Park, Canada, revealed evidence of brucellosis in 18 (25%) and tuberculosis in 15 (21%), with a combined prevalence of 42%. Urease-positive and ureasenegative strains of Brucella abortus biovar 1, and strains of biovar 2, were isolated from tissues of bison, including synovium and exudate from severe arthritic lesions. Mycobacterium bovis was isolated from a range of granulomatous lesions that were similar to those reported in tuberculous cattle. Diseased bison had a broad geographical distribution, and were found outside the park on at least three natural corridors. The diseases have a deleterious effect on this population of bison, and pose a health risk to other bison herds, livestock, and native hunters in the region. ImagesFigure 3.Figure 4. PMID:17423532

  1. Effect of Tylenchorhynchus robustoides on Growth of Buffalo Grass and Western Wheatgrass

    PubMed Central

    Smolik, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    Tylenchorhynchus robustoides reduced (P = 0.05) growth of Agropyron smithii (western wheatgrass) at soil temperatures of 20, 25, 30, and 35 C. Growth reduction increased with increasing soil temperatures. Highest populations of T. robustoides were recovered at 25 and 30 C. Clipping weights of Buchloe dactyloides (buffalo grass) were reduced at 25 and 30 C; however, root/crown weights were reduced at 15, 20, 30, and 35 C in nematode infested vs. noninfested soil. Reproduction of T. robustoides was greater at 25, 30, and 35 C than at 20 C on B. dactyloides. In a greenhouse study, T. robustoides reduced clipping and root/crown weights of both grasses 24-64%. PMID:19295757

  2. Effect of Tylenchorhynchus robustoides on Growth of Buffalo Grass and Western Wheatgrass.

    PubMed

    Smolik, J D

    1982-10-01

    Tylenchorhynchus robustoides reduced (P = 0.05) growth of Agropyron smithii (western wheatgrass) at soil temperatures of 20, 25, 30, and 35 C. Growth reduction increased with increasing soil temperatures. Highest populations of T. robustoides were recovered at 25 and 30 C. Clipping weights of Buchloe dactyloides (buffalo grass) were reduced at 25 and 30 C; however, root/crown weights were reduced at 15, 20, 30, and 35 C in nematode infested vs. noninfested soil. Reproduction of T. robustoides was greater at 25, 30, and 35 C than at 20 C on B. dactyloides. In a greenhouse study, T. robustoides reduced clipping and root/crown weights of both grasses 24-64%. PMID:19295757

  3. Context-dependent survival, fecundity and predicted population-level consequences of brucellosis in African buffalo.

    PubMed

    Gorsich, Erin E; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Cross, Paul C; Bengis, Roy G; Jolles, Anna E

    2015-07-01

    Chronic infections may have negative impacts on wildlife populations, yet their effects are difficult to detect in the absence of long-term population monitoring. Brucella abortus, the bacteria responsible for bovine brucellosis, causes chronic infections and abortions in wild and domestic ungulates, but its impact on population dynamics is not well understood. We report infection patterns and fitness correlates of bovine brucellosis in African buffalo based on (1) 7 years of cross-sectional disease surveys and (2) a 4-year longitudinal study in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. We then used a matrix population model to translate these observed patterns into predicted population-level effects. Annual brucellosis seroprevalence ranged from 8·7% (95% CI = 1·8-15·6) to 47·6% (95% CI = 35·1-60·1) increased with age until adulthood (>6) and varied by location within KNP. Animals were on average in worse condition after testing positive for brucellosis (F = -5·074, P < 0·0001), and infection was associated with a 2·0 (95% CI = 1·1-3·7) fold increase in mortality (?(2)  = 2·039, P = 0·036). Buffalo in low body condition were associated with lower reproductive success (F = 2·683, P = 0·034), but there was no association between brucellosis and pregnancy or being observed with a calf. For the range of body condition scores observed in the population, the model-predicted growth rate was ? = 1·11 (95% CI = 1·02-1·21) in herds without brucellosis and ? = 1·00 (95% CI = 0·85-1·16) when brucellosis seroprevalence was 30%. Our results suggest that brucellosis infection can potentially result in reduced population growth rates, but because these effects varied with demographic and environmental conditions, they may remain unseen without intensive, longitudinal monitoring. PMID:25714466

  4. Influence of Temperature and Humidity on Pregnancy Rate of Murrah Buffaloes under Subtropical Climate.

    PubMed

    Dash, Soumya; Chakravarty, A K; Sah, V; Jamuna, V; Behera, R; Kashyap, N; Deshmukh, B

    2015-07-01

    Heat stress has adverse effects on fertility of dairy animals. Decline in fertility is linearly associated with an increase in combination of both temperature and humidity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between temperature humidity index (THI) and the pregnancy rate of Murrah buffaloes in a subtropical climate. The effects of genetic and non-genetic factors viz., sire, parity, period of calving and age group at first calving were found non-significant on pregnancy rate. The effect of THI was found significant (p<0.001) on pregnancy rate of Murrah buffaloes calved for first time and overall pregnancy rate. The threshold THI affecting the pregnancy rate was identified as THI 75. The months from October to March showed THI<75 and considered as non heat stress zone (NHSZ), while months from April to September were determined as heat stress zone (HSZ) with THI?75. The lowest overall pregnancy rate (0.25) was obtained in July with THI 80.9, while the highest overall pregnancy rate (0.59) was found in November with THI 66.1. May and June were identified as critical heat stress zone (CHSZ) within the HSZ with maximum decline (-7%) in pregnancy rate with per unit increase in THI. The highest overall pregnancy rate was estimated as 0.45 in NHSZ with THI value 56.7 to 73.2. The pregnancy rate was found to have declined to 0.28 in HSZ with THI 73.5 to 83.7. However, the lowest pregnancy rate was estimated as 0.27 in CHSZ with THI value 80.3 to 81.6. PMID:26104398

  5. Influence of Temperature and Humidity on Pregnancy Rate of Murrah Buffaloes under Subtropical Climate

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Soumya; Chakravarty, A. K.; Sah, V.; Jamuna, V.; Behera, R.; Kashyap, N.; Deshmukh, B.

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress has adverse effects on fertility of dairy animals. Decline in fertility is linearly associated with an increase in combination of both temperature and humidity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between temperature humidity index (THI) and the pregnancy rate of Murrah buffaloes in a subtropical climate. The effects of genetic and non-genetic factors viz., sire, parity, period of calving and age group at first calving were found non-significant on pregnancy rate. The effect of THI was found significant (p<0.001) on pregnancy rate of Murrah buffaloes calved for first time and overall pregnancy rate. The threshold THI affecting the pregnancy rate was identified as THI 75. The months from October to March showed THI<75 and considered as non heat stress zone (NHSZ), while months from April to September were determined as heat stress zone (HSZ) with THI?75. The lowest overall pregnancy rate (0.25) was obtained in July with THI 80.9, while the highest overall pregnancy rate (0.59) was found in November with THI 66.1. May and June were identified as critical heat stress zone (CHSZ) within the HSZ with maximum decline (?7%) in pregnancy rate with per unit increase in THI. The highest overall pregnancy rate was estimated as 0.45 in NHSZ with THI value 56.7 to 73.2. The pregnancy rate was found to have declined to 0.28 in HSZ with THI 73.5 to 83.7. However, the lowest pregnancy rate was estimated as 0.27 in CHSZ with THI value 80.3 to 81.6. PMID:26104398

  6. Enemies and turncoats: bovine tuberculosis exposes pathogenic potential of Rift Valley fever virus in a common host, African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Beechler, B R; Manore, C A; Reininghaus, B; O'Neal, D; Gorsich, E E; Ezenwa, V O; Jolles, A E

    2015-04-22

    The ubiquity and importance of parasite co-infections in populations of free-living animals is beginning to be recognized, but few studies have demonstrated differential fitness effects of single infection versus co-infection in free-living populations. We investigated interactions between the emerging bacterial disease bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and the previously existing viral disease Rift Valley fever (RVF) in a competent reservoir host, African buffalo, combining data from a natural outbreak of RVF in captive buffalo at a buffalo breeding facility in 2008 with data collected from a neighbouring free-living herd of African buffalo in Kruger National Park. RVF infection was twice as likely in individual BTB+ buffalo as in BTB- buffalo, which, according to a mathematical model, may increase RVF outbreak size at the population level. In addition, co-infection was associated with a far higher rate of fetal abortion than other infection states. Immune interactions between BTB and RVF may underlie both of these interactions, since animals with BTB had decreased innate immunity and increased pro-inflammatory immune responses. This study is one of the first to demonstrate how the consequences of emerging infections extend beyond direct effects on host health, potentially altering the dynamics and fitness effects of infectious diseases that had previously existed in the ecosystem on free-ranging wildlife populations. PMID:25788592

  7. Evaluation of an Indirect-ELISA Test for Trypanosoma evansi Infection (Surra) in Buffaloes and Its Application to a Serological Survey in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Kocher, Arthur; Desquesnes, Marc; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Yangtara, Sarawut; Leboucher, Emilye; Rodtian, Pranee; Dargantes, Alan; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

    2015-01-01

    Surra, caused by Trypanosoma evansi, is a neglected disease due to frequent subclinical evolution, especially in bovines in Asia. However, acute and chronic signs are regularly observed, with significant sanitary and economic impacts. In this study, we evaluated and applied an indirect-ELISA test for the detection of anti-T. evansi immunoglobulin G in buffaloes using antibovine conjugate. Based on buffalo reference sera from the Philippines, a two-graph receiver operating characteristics analysis (TG-ROC) was conducted to define an optimal cut-off value; sensitivity and specificity were estimated at 92.5% and 94.2%, respectively. A cross-sectional serological survey was carried out in the major buffalo breeding areas of Thailand; 892 buffaloes from 8 provinces were sampled in North, Northeastern, and Southern Thailand. Seropositive buffaloes were found in all 8 provinces, on 20.3% of farms for an overall prevalence of 12.2% (95% CI 10.2–14.5%). Nearly one-third of the sampled population was exposed to infection. Broader sampling would be necessary but is not possible in the southern half-wild breeding systems. According to our results, buffaloes may constitute a large and robust reservoir for T. evansi, which is a permanent threat to other livestock such as cattle and horses as well as wild animals such as elephants in Southest Asia.

  8. Shelf life study of hurdle treated ready-to-eat spiced buffalo meat product stored at 30?±?3 °C for 7 weeks under vacuum and aerobic packaging.

    PubMed

    Malik, Altaf Hussain; Sharma, Brahama Deo

    2014-05-01

    Shelf stable ready to eat spiced pickle type buffalo meat product was prepared after desorbing in infusion solution (glycerol 3.5%, sodium chloride 5.0%, honey2.0%, mango powder 2.2%, spices 1.0%, sodium nitrite 0.015%, phosphate 0.2%, Sorbic acid 0.2%.and acetic acid 1%), pressure cooking of meat in infusion solution for 20 min followed by frying for 2 min in mustard oil and mixing with prefried condiments and spices. The physico-chemical properties i.e. pH, water activity, proximate composition, FFA, Soluble hydroxyproline, TBA values, nitrite content, protein solubility, shear force value, haempigments, microbiological and sensory quality of the product remained good and hygienically safe and almost comparable in aerobic PET jars and multilayered nylon barrier pouches stored at 30?±?3 °C for 7 weeks .It can be suggested that storage of such product may be conveniently done even in food grade PET jars without going for vacuum packaging which is a bit costly. PMID:24803689

  9. Infection of cattle with Brucella abortus biovar 1 isolated from a bison in Wood Buffalo National Park.

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, L B; Tessaro, S V

    1996-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine if cattle could be infected with a strain of Brucella abortus biovar 1 isolated from a bison in Wood Buffalo National Park. Three pregnant cows inoculated conjunctivally with 5.7 x 10(8) cfu of the bacterium, and their subsequent calves, showed seroconversion on standard serological tests for bovine brucellosis, and large numbers of the bacterium were isolated from numerous tissues at necropsy. A 4th cow that was moved into the pen that previously contained the inoculated cows subsequently showed seroconversion, and the same strain of B. abortus biovar 1 was isolated from numerous tissues. Although this strain from bison in Wood Buffalo National Park has existed in isolation from cattle for over 60 years, it remains infectious and contagious for cattle. PMID:8809394

  10. Detection of cyclodiene pesticide residues in buffalo meat and effect of cooking on residual level of endosulfan.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, M; Sudhakar Reddy, K; Narendra Reddy, C; Kondal Reddy, K; Gopala Reddy, A; Jagdishwar Reddy, D; Kondaiah, N

    2010-06-01

    Levels of cyclodiene pesticides (aldrin, ?-endosulfan, ?-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate and heptachlor) residues in muscle, liver and kidney tissues of buffalo were estimated. The effects of common cooking methods (microwave cooking, boiling, broiling and pressure cooking) on the levels of endosulfan were determined. Aldrin and total endosulfan (?-endosulfan, ?-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate) residues were found in 42.86 and 64.29% of buffalo tissue samples, with overall mean residual concentration of 0.013 and 0.055 ppm, respectively. However, the levels of these residues were well below the maximum residue limit (MRL: aldrin 0.2 ppm; endosulfan 0.1 ppm) specified by national and international regulatory bodies. Cooking of endosulfan (Endoin 35 EC) spiked meat resulted in 58.33-64.59% reduction in ?-endosulfan and 55.93-61.60% reduction in ?-endosulfan. Among the cooking methods, pressure cooking was most effective in reducing both ?- and ?-endosulfan. PMID:23572646

  11. A Time-Series Analysis of Acidic Particulate Matter and Daily Mortality and Morbidity in the Buffalo, New York, Region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Charon Gwynn; Richard T. Burnett; George D. Thurston

    2000-01-01

    yet to be shown with daily mortality. We considered a 2.5-year record of daily H+ and sulfate mea- surements (May 1988-October 1990) collected in the Buffalo, New York, region in a time-series analysis of respiratory, circulatory, and total daily mortality and hospital admissions. Other copol- lutants considered included particulate matter ? 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter, coefficient of haze, ozone,

  12. Assessment of probiotic and sensory properties of dahi and yoghurt prepared using bulk freeze-dried cultures in buffalo milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sistla Venkata Naga Vijayendra; Ramesh Chander Gupta

    Fermented milk products are part of the diet in many parts of the world and are consumed on a regular basis. Enhancing the\\u000a nutritional and therapeutic properties of traditional fermented milks can improve the health and physiology of consumers.\\u000a In the present study, dahi and yoghurt were prepared using buffalo milk. Bulk freeze-dried cultures of dahi and yoghurt, either with

  13. Dasytricha Dominance in Surti Buffalo Rumen Revealed by 18S rRNA Sequences and Real-Time PCR Assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. SinghA; A. K. Tripathi; P. R. Pandya; D. N. Rank; R. K. Kothari; C. G. Joshi

    The genetic diversity of protozoa in Surti buffalo rumen was studied by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis, 18S\\u000a rDNA sequence homology and phylogenetic and Real-time PCR analysis methods. Three animals were fed diet comprised green fodder\\u000a Napier bajra 21 (Pennisetum purpureum), mature pasture grass (Dicanthium annulatum) and concentrate mixture (20% crude protein, 65% total digestible nutrients). A protozoa-specific primer (P-SSU-342f)

  14. Influence of Job Accessibility on Housing Market Processes: Study of Spatial Stationarity in the Buffalo and Seattle Metropolitan Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sungsoon Hwang; Jean-Claude Thill

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a The impact of job accessibility on housing prices is examined in the Buffalo and Seattle metropolitan areas using a hedonic\\u000a regression modeling framework. Global hedonic regression results show that job accessibility is positively associated with\\u000a housing prices in the two study areas. Local hedonic regression modeling is also conducted to test whether the response of\\u000a the housing market to job

  15. Recombinant nucleocapsid-based ELISA for detection of IgG antibody to Rift Valley fever virus in African buffalo.

    PubMed

    Paweska, Janusz T; van Vuren, Petrus Jansen; Kemp, Alan; Buss, Peter; Bengis, Roy G; Gakuya, Francis; Breiman, Robert F; Njenga, M Kariuki; Swanepoel, Robert

    2008-02-01

    Wild ruminants are thought to serve as natural hosts for Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) but the role of these animals as reservoirs for RVFV during inter-epidemic periods and as amplifiers during epidemics is not well understood. An indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay (I-ELISA) based on the recombinant nucleocapsid protein (rNp) of RVFV was validated for the detection of specific IgG antibodies in African buffalo. Data sets derived from testing buffalo sera from Kenya (n=405) and South Africa (n=618) were dichotomised according to the results of a virus neutralisation test. The assay characteristic performance was analysed using threshold values optimised by the two-graph receiver operating characteristics (TG-ROC) analysis, and by mean plus two, as well as by mean plus three standard deviations derived from I-ELISA PP values in uninfected animals. Among 1023 buffalo sera tested, 77 (7.5%) had detectable virus neutralising antibodies. The assay had high intra- and inter-plate repeatability in routine runs. At a cut-off optimised by the TG-ROC at 95% accuracy level, the diagnostic sensitivity of the I-ELISA was 98.7% and diagnostic specificity 99.36% while estimates for the Youden's index (J) and efficiency (Ef) were 0.98 and 99.31%. When cut-off values determined by traditional statistical approaches were used, the diagnostic sensitivity was 100% but estimates of J, Ef and other combined measures of diagnostic accuracy were lower compared to those based on cut-off value derived from the TG-ROC. Results of the study indicate that the I-ELISA based on the rNp would be useful for seroepidemiological studies of RVFV infections in African buffalo. PMID:17884306

  16. Assessment of buffalo semen with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction assay.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M; Aleem, M; Ijaz, A; Rehman, H; Yousaf, M S

    2010-03-01

    The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, which measures the reduction of MTT, is commonly used to validate the viability of metabolically active cells. This study was conducted to evaluate and validate the MTT assay to assess the spermatozoal viability of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls and compare the efficiency of the test with the supravital staining technique (eosin and nigrosin) and the hypoosmotic swelling test. Fresh semen samples from breeding Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls (n = 25) were collected using an artificial vagina. After assessing the quality of the semen for routine variables, the MTT assay was carried out in PBS. Results revealed a correlation (r = 0.979; P < 0.001) between the viability of spermatozoa and the rate of reduction of MTT. The other proportions of same semen samples showed a poor relationship between the eosin and nigrosin test (r = -0.25), the hypoosmotic swelling test (r = -0.12), and motility (r = -0.15). However, the MTT assay was found to be superior compared with other tests because it was able to determine those spermatozoa that were more than 90% viable. In conclusion, the MTT assay is a simple, robust test that can be used to select Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls on the basis of spermatozoa quality. PMID:20023142

  17. Seroprevalence of Rift Valley fever and lumpy skin disease in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park and Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Fagbo, Shamsudeen; Coetzer, Jacobus A W; Venter, Estelle H

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever and lumpy skin disease are transboundary viral diseases endemic in Africa and some parts of the Middle East, but with increasing potential for global emergence. Wild ruminants, such as the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), are thought to play a role in the epidemiology of these diseases. This study sought to expand the understanding of the role of buffalo in the maintenance of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) by determining seroprevalence to these viruses during an inter-epidemic period. Buffaloes from the Kruger National Park (n = 138) and Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park (n = 110) in South Africa were sampled and tested for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and neutralising antibodies against LSDV and RVFV using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) and the serum neutralisation test (SNT). The I-ELISA for LSDV and RVFV detected IgG antibodies in 70 of 248 (28.2%) and 15 of 248 (6.1%) buffaloes, respectively. Using the SNT, LSDV and RVFV neutralising antibodies were found in 5 of 66 (7.6%) and 12 of 57 (21.1%), respectively, of samples tested. The RVFV I-ELISA and SNT results correlated well with previously reported results. Of the 12 SNT RVFV-positive sera, three (25.0%) had very high SNT titres of 1:640. Neutralising antibody titres of more than 1:80 were found in 80.0% of the positive sera tested. The LSDV SNT results did not correlate with results obtained by the I-ELISA and neutralising antibody titres detected were low, with the highest (1:20) recorded in only two buffaloes, whilst 11 buffaloes (4.4%) had evidence of co-infection with both viruses. Results obtained in this study complement other reports suggesting a role for buffaloes in the epidemiology of these diseases during inter-epidemic periods. PMID:25686252

  18. Selection of developmentally competent buffalo oocytes by brilliant cresyl blue staining before IVM.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, B M; Gupta, P S P; Devaraj, M; Ravindra, J P; Nandi, S

    2007-12-01

    The brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) test determines the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH); the activity of this enzyme is greatest in growing oocytes, but it declines as oocytes mature. The objective was to develop and evaluate this test for assessing development of buffalo oocytes (to select developmentally competent oocytes for increased in vitro embryo production). Oocytes were exposed to BCB stain diluted in mDPBS (DPBS with 0.4% BSA) for 90 min at 38.5 degrees C in a humidified air atmosphere; those with or without blue coloration of the cytoplasm were designated as BCB+ and BCB-, respectively. In Experiment 1, oocytes were exposed to 13, 26, or 39 microM BCB. There were fewer BCB+ oocytes after exposure to 13 microM BCB (10%) than after exposure to 26 or 39 microM BCB (57.2 and 61.8%; P<0.05), but there was no significant difference among treatments for blastocyst production rate. In Experiment 2, the diameter of BCB+ oocytes (144.4+/-4.2 microm; mean+/-S.E.M.) was higher (P<0.05) than that of BCB- oocytes (136.8+/-4.6 microm). In Experiment 3, oocytes were allocated into three groups: control (immediately cultured); holding-control (kept in mDPBS for 90 min before cultured); and treatment-incubation (incubated with 26 microM BCB). After IVM, oocytes were fertilized in vitro and cultured on an oviductal monolayer. The nuclear maturation rate was higher (P<0.05) in BCB+ (86.2%), control (83.4%) and holding-control (82.6%) oocytes than BCB- (59.2%) oocytes. The BCB+ oocytes yielded more blastocysts than control or holding-control oocytes (33.4, 20.2, and 21.0%, P<0.05); blastocyst development was lowest in BCB- oocytes (5.2%). In conclusion, staining of buffalo oocytes with BCB before IVM may be used to select developmentally competent oocytes for increased in vitro embryo production. PMID:17920672

  19. Identification and characterization of buffalo 7SK and U6 pol III promoters and application for expression of short hairpin RNAs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxi; Liu, Qingyou; Luo, Chan; Deng, Yanfei; Cui, Kuiqing; Shi, Deshun

    2014-01-01

    RNA polymerase III (pol III) type 3 promoters, such as 7SK and U6, are routinely used to induce short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to knockdown gene expression by RNA interference (RNAi). To extend the application of RNAi to studies of buffalo, an shRNAs expressing system using the buffalo pol III promoters was developed. Buffalo 7SK promoter (bu7SK) and U6 promoter (buU6) sequences upstream of the full-length 7SK and U6 small nuclear RNA sequence in the buffalo genome were identified and characterized, respectively. To determine the functionality of these promoters in constructs driving shRNA expression, anti-EGFP shRNAs (shEGFP) cassettes under the direction of bu7SK and buU6 were constructed. We further compared the EGFP knockdown efficiency of constructs using bu7SK and buU6 with that of promoters of human and bovine origins in BFF cells and mouse PT67 cells by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR assays. We found that the bu7SK and buU6 promoters induced the greatest level of suppression in homologous and heterologous cells relative to promoters derived from other species. Taken together, functional bu7SK and buU6 promoters were identified and characterized, thus laying the groundwork for future development of RNAi therapeutics and gene modification in buffalo species. PMID:24534805

  20. Sericin supplementation improves semen freezability of buffalo bulls by minimizing oxidative stress during cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Kumar, Dharmendra; Sikka, P; Singh, P

    2015-01-01

    The variety of mammalian cells has been successfully cryopreserved by use of the silk protein sericin due to its strong free-radical-scavenging and potent antioxidant activity. The present study was conducted to examine the protective role of sericin on buffalo spermatozoa during cryopreservation. Semen of four breeding bulls was collected twice a week using artificial vagina technique. The ejaculates of four bulls were pooled, divided into five equal fractions, diluted with the extender supplemented with different concentrations of sericin (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.5 and 2%) and then cryopreserved. Post-thawed motility was objectively assessed by computer assisted sperm analyzer. Sperm plasma membrane integrity was assessed by hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST). Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined in frozen-thawed extended seminal plasma by spectrophotometry. The extender supplemented with 0.25, 0.5 and 1% sericin resulted in the higher sperm motility and GPx acivity. Furthermore, plasma membrane integrity and SOD activity were found to be higher (P<0.05) in group supplemented with 0.25 and 0.5% sericin (P<0.05). The MDA concentration was found to be significantly lower (P<0.05) in 0.25 and 0.5% sericin treated groups than control and other treated groups. In conclusion, the supplementation of 0.25-0.5% sericin in semen extender improves frozen-thawed semen quality through protecting sperm from oxidative stress. PMID:25497424

  1. Recognition of paleoenvironments in Muddy Sandstone of Buffalo Creek area, Sheridan County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Granitto, M.; Jorgensen, S.D.

    1986-08-01

    In 1983, Hershey Oil Company drilled the 1-10 Buffalo Creek well in the NW 1/4 NE 1/4, Sec. 10, T56N, R78W, Sheridan County, Wyoming. The primary target was a Paleozoic reservoir. The Lower Cretaceous Muddy Sandstone was penetrated, and it tested a minor amount of oil, which prompted a more detailed examination of the Muddy sandstones. Exploration techniques used for the Muddy sandstones included a series of sequential isolith maps based on data from the few widely spaced wells in the area. The top of the subjacent Skull Creek Shale and the bottom of a superjacent bentonite marker were used as boundaries. This method revealed the apparent transgressive nature of the remnant Muddy sandstones. No core was taken over the Muddy interval, so all petrographic and lithologic data were obtained from cuttings and open-hole logs. A paleo-environmental study was done using the High-Resolution Dipmeter tool. The data were processed to obtain detailed Cluster and Geodip plots. The dipmeter information defined a remnant northeast-southwest-trending, transgressive barrier bar overlying a tidal-channel sequence oriented northwest-southeast. The length of the tidal channel would be relatively short but, due to channel migration, could be nearly as wide as the barrier bar is long.

  2. Recognition of paleoenvironments in Muddy Sandstones of Buffalo Creek area, Sheridan County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Granitto, M.; Jorgensen, S.D.

    1986-09-01

    In 1983, Hershey Oil Company drilled the 1-10 Buffalo Creek well in the NW 1/4, NE 1/4, Sec. 10, T56N, R78W, Sheridan County, Wyoming. The primary target was a Paleozoic reservoir. The Lower Cretaceous Muddy Sandstone was penetrated and tested a minor amount of oil, which prompted a more detailed examination of the Muddy Sandstone. Exploration techniques used for the Muddy Sandstone included a series of sequential isolith maps based on data from the few widely spaced wells in the area. The top of the subjacent Skull Creek Shale and the bottom of a superjacent bentonite marker were used as boundaries. This method revealed the apparent transgressive nature of the remnant Muddy Sandstone. No cores were taken over the Muddy interval, so all petrographic and lithologic data were obtained from cuttings and open-hole logs. A paleoenvironmental study was done using the High Resolution Dipmeter Tool. The data were processed to obtain detailed Cluster and Geodip plots. The dipmeter information defined a remnant northeast-southwest-trending, transgressive barrier bar overlying a tidal-channel sequence oriented northwest-southeast. The length of the tidal channel would be relatively short, but due to channel migration, could be nearly as wide as the barrier bar is long.

  3. Principal Milk Components in Buffalo, Holstein Cross, Indigenous Cattle and Red Chittagong Cattle from Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. A.; Alam, M. K.; Islam, M. N.; Khan, M. A. S.; Ekeberg, D.; Rukke, E. O.; Vegarud, G. E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to get a total physical and chemical characterization and comparison of the principal components in Bangladeshi buffalo (B), Holstein cross (HX), Indigenous cattle (IC) and Red Chittagong Cattle (RCC) milk. Protein and casein (CN) composition and type, casein micellar size (CMS), naturally occurring peptides, free amino acids, fat, milk fat globule size (MFGS), fatty acid composition, carbohydrates, total and individual minerals were analyzed. These components are related to technological and nutritional properties of milk. Consequently, they are important for the dairy industry and in the animal feeding and breeding strategies. Considerable variation in most of the principal components of milk were observed among the animals. The milk of RCC and IC contained higher protein, CN, ?-CN, whey protein, lactose, total mineral and P. They were more or less similar in most of the all other components. The B milk was found higher in CN number, in the content of ?s2-, ?-CN and ?-lactalbumin, free amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, Ca and Ca:P. The B milk was also lower in ?-lactoglobulin content and had the largest CMS and MFGS. Proportion of CN to whey protein was lower in HX milk and this milk was found higher in ?-lactoglobulin and naturally occuring peptides. Considering the results obtained including the ratio of ?s1-, ?s2-, ?- and ?-CN, B and RCC milk showed best data both from nutritional and technological aspects. PMID:25050028

  4. Co-culture of buffalo preantral follicles with different somatic cells.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, H S; Gupta, P S P; Nandi, S; Manjunatha, B M; Kumar, V Girish; Ravindra, J P

    2008-10-01

    The effect of co-culture of buffalo preantral follicles (PFs) with different somatic cells, i.e, cumulus, granulosa, ovarian mesenchymal and oviductal epithelial cells was studied. Large PFs (250-450 microm) were isolated by microdissecting the trypsin (1%) digested ovarian cortical slices. Cumulus cells were isolated by repeated pipetting of oocytes, granulosa cells were isolated by aspirating from punctured PFs and ovarian mesenchymal cells were isolated from ovarian cortex by scraping the cortical slices and passing through 20 microm filter. Preantral follicles were cultured in standard culture medium without somatic cells or co-cultured with cumulus cells, granulosa cells, ovarian mesenchymal cells and oviductal epithelial cells for 80 days. The growth rate (microm/day) of the PFs was monitored by measuring follicular diameter on day 0, 30, 60 and 80 days of culture. The viability of PFs was evaluated by trypan blue staining. The results indicated that PFs co-cultured with cumulus, granulosa and ovarian mesenchymal cells had a better development and survivality compared with control and those co-culture with oviductal epithelial cells. Maximum growth and survivality of PFs were achieved when cultured with cumulus cells. It is concluded that inclusion of somatic cells in PF culture media had beneficial effect on the growth of PFs and cumulus cells supported maximum growth and survivality of PFs in vitro of all somatic cells tested. PMID:18298404

  5. Phospholipase A2 activation by hydrogen peroxide during in vitro capacitation of buffalo spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Shit, Sanjoy; Atreja, S K

    2004-05-01

    Progressively motile, washed buffalo spermatozoa (50 x 10(6) cells in 0.5 ml) were in vitro capacitated in HEPES containing Bovine Gamete Medium 3 (BGM3) in presence of heparin (10 microg/ml), and different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (10 to 100 microM). Spermatozoa (60%) were capacitated in presence of heparin compared to 56% in presence of 25 microM H2O2 (optimally found suitable for capacitation). The extent of capacitation was measured in terms of acrosome reaction (AR) induced by lysophosphatidyl choline (100 microg/ml). The acrosome reacted cells were counted after triple staining. Catalase (100 microg/ml) significantly reduced the sperm capacitation to 16-18% when added with H2O2, or alone in the capacitation medium. Phospholipase A2 activity of spermatozoa increased linearly up to 50 microM H2O2 concentration included in the assay system. Moreover, significant increase in phospholipase A2 activity was observed after capacitation by both, the heparin and 25 microM H2O2. The activity was always higher in acrosome reacted cells. PMID:15233473

  6. The bacteriological prevalence of leptospiral infection in cattle and buffaloes in West Malaysia.

    PubMed Central

    Bahaman, A. R.; Ibrahim, A. L.; Stallman, N. D.; Tinniswood, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    A cross-sectional bacteriological survey of cattle in West Malaysia revealed 14.4% (32/222) had leptospiral infection. Isolates were obtained from all except one herd with prevalence of infection in herds ranging from 0-44.8%. A small number of buffalo urine samples were examined and all of them were found to be negative. A leptospiral isolate obtained from a bovine kidney proved to be a new serovar of Leptospira interrogans and the name unipertama was assigned to it. Six other leptospiral serovars were isolated, namely canicola, australis, javanica, ballum, pomona and hardjo. All six serovars were isolated for the first time in cattle in Malaysia. Cattle in Malaysia appear to be the maintenance host for serovar hardjo. The presence of the other serovars in cattle was probably due to contact with the maintenance hosts, pigs for serovar pomona and rodents for the other three serovars. It appears that the epidemiology of leptospiral infection in cattle in Malaysia is similar to that reported overseas. PMID:3356222

  7. Cuticular hydrocarbons of buffalo fly, Haematobia exigua, and chemotaxonomic differentiation from horn fly, H. irritans.

    PubMed

    Urech, Rudolf; Brown, Geoffrey W; Moore, Christopher J; Green, Peter E

    2005-10-01

    We determined the quantity and chemical composition of cuticular hydrocarbons of different strains, sexes, and ages of buffalo flies, Haematobia exigua. The quantity of cuticular hydrocarbons increased from less than 1 microg/fly for newly emerged flies to over 11 microg/fly in 13-d-old flies. The hydrocarbon chain length varied from C(21) to C(29), with unbranched alkanes and monounsaturated alkenes the major components. Newly emerged flies contained almost exclusively C(27) hydrocarbons. Increasing age was accompanied by the appearance of hydrocarbons with shorter carbon chains and an increase in the proportion of alkenes. 11-Tricosene and 7-tricosene were the most abundant hydrocarbons in mature H. exigua. Cuticular hydrocarbons of H. exigua are distinctly different from those of horn flies, Haematobia irritans. The most noticeable differences were in the C(23) alkenes, with the major isomers 11- and 7-tricosene in H. exigua and (Z)-9- and (Z)-5-tricosene in H. irritans, respectively. Cuticular hydrocarbon analysis provides a reliable method to differentiate the two species, which are morphologically difficult to separate. The differences in cuticular hydrocarbons also support their recognition as separate species, H. exigua and H. irritans, rather than as subspecies. PMID:16195854

  8. Evaluation of a Real-Time PCR Test for the Detection and Discrimination of Theileria Species in the African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer)

    PubMed Central

    Chaisi, Mamohale E.; Janssens, Michiel E.; Vermeiren, Lieve; Oosthuizen, Marinda C.; Collins, Nicola E.; Geysen, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay based on the cox III gene was evaluated for the simultaneous detection and discrimination of Theileria species in buffalo and cattle blood samples from South Africa and Mozambique using melting curve analysis. The results obtained were compared to those of the reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of Theileria spp. in mixed infections, and to the 18S rRNA qPCR assay results for the specific detection of Theileria parva. Theileria parva, Theileria sp. (buffalo), Theileria taurotragi, Theileria buffeli and Theileria mutans were detected by the cox III assay. Theileria velifera was not detected from any of the samples analysed. Seventeen percent of the samples had non-species specific melting peaks and 4.5% of the samples were negative or below the detection limit of the assay. The cox III assay identified more T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo) positive samples than the RLB assay, and also detected more T. parva infections than the 18S assay. However, only a small number of samples were positive for the benign Theileria spp. To our knowledge T. taurotragi has never been identified from the African buffalo, its identification in some samples by the qPCR assay was unexpected. Because of these discrepancies in the results, cox III qPCR products were cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis indicated extensive inter- and intra-species variations in the probe target regions of the cox III gene sequences of the benign Theileria spp. and therefore explains their low detection. The cox III assay is specific for the detection of T. parva infections in cattle and buffalo. Sequence data generated from this study can be used for the development of a more inclusive assay for detection and differentiation of all variants of the mildly pathogenic and benign Theileria spp. of buffalo and cattle. PMID:24146782

  9. The interval between the emergence of pharmacologically synchronized ovarian follicular waves and ovum pickup does not significantly affect in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and Bubalus bubalis.

    PubMed

    Gimenes, Lindsay U; Ferraz, Márcio L; Fantinato-Neto, Paulo; Chiaratti, Marcos R; Mesquita, Lígia G; Sá Filho, Manoel F; Meirelles, Flávio V; Trinca, Luzia A; Rennó, Francisco P; Watanabe, Yeda F; Baruselli, Pietro S

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal phase of the follicular wave to perform ovum pickup (OPU) for in vitro embryo production (IVEP) in various genetic groups. For this purpose, 27 heifers-nine Bos taurus (Holstein), nine Bos indicus (Nelore), and nine Bubalus bubalis (Mediterranean)-were maintained under the same nutritional, management, and environmental conditions. Heifers within each genetic group were submitted to six consecutive OPU trials with 14-day intersession intervals, at three different phases of the pharmacologically synchronized follicular wave (Day 1, 3, or 5 after follicular wave emergence), in a 3 × 3 crossover design. When OPU was performed at different phases of the pharmacologically synchronized follicular wave (Day 1, 3, or 5), no differences were found in the percent of oocytes recovered (70.5 ± 3.1%, 75.0 ± 3.1%, 76.0 ± 3.2%, respectively; P = 0.41) or blastocyst production rates (19.4 ± 2.9%, 16.6 ± 2.9%, 15.9 ± 2.6%, respectively; P = 0.36). Comparing genetic groups, B indicus showed a higher blastocyst rate (28.3(a) ± 2.8%; P < 0.01) than B taurus and B bubalis (14.1(b) ± 2.9% and 10.2(b) ± 2.0%, respectively). However, only B indicus heifers showed a variation in the number of visualized follicles and the total and viable oocytes along consecutive OPU sessions. In conclusion, different phases of the pharmacologically synchronized ovarian follicular wave did not affect OPU-IVEP in B indicus, B taurus, and B bubalis heifers. Additionally, B indicus heifers showed greater OPU-IVEP efficiency than did the other genetic groups, under the same management conditions. PMID:25447149

  10. Nematode–coccidia parasite co-infections in African buffalo: Epidemiology and associations with host condition and pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gorsich, Erin E.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Jolles, Anna E.

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections are common in natural populations and interactions among co-infecting parasites can significantly alter the transmission and host fitness costs of infection. Because both exposure and susceptibility vary over time, predicting the consequences of parasite interactions on host fitness and disease dynamics may require detailed information on their effects across different environmental (season) and host demographic (age, sex) conditions. This study examines five years of seasonal health and co-infection patterns in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). We use data on two groups of gastrointestinal parasites, coccidia and nematodes, to test the hypothesis that co-infection and season interact to influence (1) parasite prevalence and intensity and (2) three proxies for host fitness: host pregnancy, host body condition, and parasite aggregation. Our results suggest that season-dependent interactions between nematodes and coccidia affect the distribution of infections. Coccidia prevalence, coccidia intensity and nematode prevalence were sensitive to factors that influence host immunity and exposure (age, sex, and season) but nematode intensity was most strongly predicted by co-infection with coccidia and its interaction with season. The influence of co-infection on host body condition and parasite aggregation occurred in season-dependent manner. Co-infected buffalo in the early wet season were in worse condition, had a less aggregated distribution of nematode parasites, and lower nematode infection intensity than buffalo infected with nematodes alone. We did not detect an effect of infection or co-infection on host pregnancy. These results suggest that demographic and seasonal variation may mediate the effects of parasites, and their interactions, on the distribution and fitness costs of infection. PMID:25161911

  11. Phenotypic, antimicrobial susceptibility profile and virulence factors of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from buffalo and cow mastitic milk

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Kamelia M; Hassan, Hany M; Orabi, Ahmed; Abdelhafez, Ahmed S T

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the prevalence and virulence genes of Klebsiella mastitis pathogens in a buffalo population are undocumented. Also, the association of rmpA kfu, uge, magA, Aerobactin, K1 and K2 virulent factors with K. pneumoniae buffalo, and cow mastitis is unreported. The virulence of K. pneumoniae was evaluated through both phenotypic and molecular assays. In vivo virulence was assessed by the Vero cell cytotoxicity, suckling mouse assay and mice lethality test. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by disk diffusion method. The 45 K. pneumoniae isolates from buffalo (n?=?10/232) and cow (n?=?35/293) milk were isolated (45/525; 8.6%) and screened via PCR for seven virulence genes encoding uridine diphosphate galactose 4 epimerase encoding gene responsible for capsule and smooth lipopolysaccharide synthesis (uge), siderophores (kfu and aerobactin), protectines or invasins (rmpA and magA), and the capsule and hypermucoviscosity (K1 and K2). The most common virulence genes were rmpA, kfu, uge, and magA (77.8% each). Aerobactin and K1 genes were found at medium rates of 66.7% each and K2 (55.6%). The Vero cell cytotoxicity and LD (50) in mice were found in 100% of isolates. A multidrug resistance pattern was observed for 40% of the antimicrobials. The distribution of virulence profiles indicate a role of rmpA, kfu, uge, magA, Aerobactin, and K1 and K2 in pathogenicity of K. pneumoniae in udder infections and invasiveness, and constitutes a threat for vulnerable animals, even more if they are in combination with antibiotic resistance. PMID:24915048

  12. LH peak and ovulation after two different estrus synchronization treatments in buffalo cows in the daylight-lengthening period.

    PubMed

    Barile, V L; Terzano, G M; Pacelli, C; Todini, L; Malfatti, A; Barbato, O

    2015-07-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the timing of ovulation in relation to the LH peak after synchronization using PRID or Ovsynch protocols, to assess the effects of the period of treatment on these parameters and to provide information concerning how to use the two main protocols for fixed-time artificial insemination in buffalo. Forty-eight lactating Italian Mediterranean buffalo cows were used. The buffaloes were treated in various periods as follows: February to March (n = 12 PRID, n = 12 Ovsynch), end of the breeding season, May to June (n = 12 PRID, n = 12 Ovsynch), beginning of low-breeding season according to Italian environmental conditions. To determine the LH, blood samples were taken at 4-hour intervals, starting 24 hours from PRID removal (PRID group) or 12 hours from (PGF2?) injection (Ovsynch group) up to 108 hours. The ovaries were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography to verify ovulation. The LH-ovulation interval was similar in both groups (30.10 ± 1.05 and 32.77 ± 1.15 hours, respectively, in PRID and Ovsynch group). In the PRID group, the timing of ovulation in relation to device removal was 76.83 ± 3.65 hours with a high level of variability among the animals. In the Ovsynch group, we observed a better synchronization of LH peaks and ovulations, and the timing of ovulation in relation to the last GnRH injection was 35.67 ± 1.15 hours. The percentage of animals reaching the LH peak and ovulation was lower (P ? 0.05) in May to June (respectively 75.0% and 54.1%) compared to February to March (respectively 95.8% and 83.3%), indicating a reduction of hypothalamus-pituitary responsiveness to the synchronization treatments in the daylight-lengthening period. PMID:25958084

  13. Comparative field evaluation of two rapid immunochromatographic tests for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Michel, A L; Simões, M

    2009-01-15

    Panels of sera from African buffalo with confirmed bovine tuberculosis and from known uninfected controls were used to evaluate the performance of two commercial rapid chromatographic immunoassays (A and B) for the detection of antibodies to Mycobacterium bovis. The sensitivity was 33% and 23%, respectively, while the specificity was determined at 90% and 94%, respectively. Overall the performance of both diagnostic tests under field conditions was not found sufficiently high to support their use in bovine tuberculosis management and control strategies in South African game reserves. PMID:19007999

  14. Mutant prevention concentration and PK-PD relationships of enrofloxacin for Pasteurella multocida in buffalo calves.

    PubMed

    Balaje, R M; Sidhu, P K; Kaur, G; Rampal, S

    2013-12-01

    This study validated the use of mutant prevention concentration (MPC) and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modeling approach for optimization of dose regimen of enrofloxacin to contain the emergence of Pasteurella multocida resistance. The PK and PD characteristics of enrofloxacin were investigated in buffalo calves after intramuscular administration at a dose rate of 12 mg/kg. The concentration of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in serum were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The serum peak concentration (Cmax), terminal half-life (t1/2K10), volume of distribution (Vd(area)/F) and mean residence time (MRT) of enrofloxacin were 1.89 ± 0.35 ?g/ml, 5.14 ± 0.66 h, 5.59 ± 0.99 l/kg/h and 8.52 ± 1.29 h, respectively. The percent metabolite conversion ratio of ciprofloxacin to enrofloxacin was 79. The binding of enrofloxacin to plasma proteins was 11%. The MIC, MBC and MPC for enrofloxacin against P. multocida were 0.05, 0.06 ?g/ml and 1.50 ?g/ml.In vitro and ex-vivo bactericidal activity of enrofloxacin was concentration dependent. Modeling of ex-vivo growth inhibition data to the sigmoid Emax equation provided AUC24h/MIC values to produce bacteriostatic (19 h), bactericidal (43 h) and bacterial eradication (64 h). PK-PD data in conjunction with MPC and MIC90 data predicted dosage schedules for enrofloxacin that may achieve optimum efficacy in respect of bacteriological and clinical cure and minimize the risk of emergence of resistance. PMID:23941961

  15. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Toxocara vitulorum Infections in Buffalo and Cattle Calves in Three Provinces of Central Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Dorny, Pierre; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Stoliaroff, Valérie; Sothy, Meas; Chea, Rortana; Chea, Bunthon; Sourloing, Hor; Samuth, Sum; Kong, Seth; Nguong, Koemseang; Sorn, San; Holl, Davun; Vercruysse, Jozef

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence and associated risk factors of Toxocara vitulorum infection in buffalo and cattle calves was studied in 3 provinces in central Cambodia. Fecal samples were collected from 517 calves between the age of 1-15 weeks and processed for nematode egg counts by a modified McMaster method. A total of 64 calves were found to excrete T. vitulorum eggs in their feces (12.4%; 95% exact CI: 9.7-15.5). The mean fecal egg count was 2,798 EPG (SD=16,351; range=0-224,400). A multivariable generalized linear mixed model showed higher odds of T. vitulorum infection for buffalo versus cattle, for animals aged 4-8 weeks versus younger and older ones, and for animals with strongyle infection. There was no association with fecal consistency. Farmers should be aware of the potential impact of T. vitulorum , and treat their calves at the age of 2-3 weeks with anthelmintics such as benzimidazoles or pyrantel. PMID:25925178

  16. Nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation characteristic in swamp buffaloes fed on chemically treated rice straw and urea.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vinh Thi; Wanapat, Metha; Khejornsart, Pichad; Kongmun, Phongthorn

    2012-03-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine effects of urea-lime-treated rice straw and urea levels in concentrate on rumen fermentation, apparent nutrient digestibility, and cellulolytic bacteria population of 4-year-old, rumen-fistulated swamp buffaloes. All animals were randomly assigned according to a 2?×?2 factorial arrangement in a 4?×?4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments: factor A, two sources of roughage (rice straw and 2%urea?+?2%lime-treated rice straw); factor B, two levels of urea in concentrate mixture (0% and 4%). Roughages were given ad libitum together with 0.3% BW of concentrate. It was found that voluntary feed intake, the digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF, acetate, and propionate concentration were significantly increased (P??0.05) as influenced by treated rice straw and urea level. In conclusion, the combined use of urea-lime-treated rice straw and fed with concentrate (4% urea) could improve rumen ecology, rumen fermentation efficiency, and nutrient digestibility in swamp buffaloes. PMID:21805305

  17. Identification of a locus characteristic of male individuals of buffalo grass [Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.] by using an RAPD marker.

    PubMed

    Li, Y X; Wang, X G; Yang, C H; Cong, L L; Wu, F F; Xue, J G; Han, Y H

    2013-01-01

    Buffalo grass [Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.] plants can be either male, female, or hermaphrodite (monoecious). As there is no morphological difference in the early vegetative growth of these three classes of plants, it is worthwhile to use molecular biological methods to attempt to identify the sex of a plant at this early growth period. In this study, we identified 23 plants that had a stable sex for over at least 3 years. Of these, 9 were male plants, 10 were female plants, and 4 were hermaphrodites. Screening of 300 RAPD primers identified a primer, namely S211 (5'-ttccccgcga-3'), which is capable of identifying male plants. The specific fragment was cloned, sequenced, and submitted to the GenBank database (accession No. JN982469). When used to identify the sex of 188 plants during their first growing season, the S211 primer correctly identified 85.8% of all male plants. Our results showed that the S211 primer can identify the male, and in doing so, it facilitates buffalo grass breeding work. PMID:24089096

  18. Iron (II)-chelating activity of buffalo ?S-casein hydrolysed by corolase PP, alcalase and flavourzyme.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Arvind; Bajaj, Rajesh; Mann, Bimlesh; Lata, Kiran

    2015-06-01

    Iron is a vital substance for human health which participates in many biochemical reactions. It also act as initiator for many harmful oxidative process. Buffalo ?S-casein enriched fraction (80 %) was hydrolysed independently by corolase PP (H1), alcalase (H2), flavourzyme (H3) and sequentially by alcalase-flavourzyme (H4). After ultrafiltration (10 and 3 kDa) hydrolysates were analysed for their iron chelation activity using ferrozine. For H1 group of hydrolysates highest iron (II)-chelation activity (265.58 ?M Fe(2+/)mg protein) was found after 8 h of hydrolysis for H2 (267.56 ?M Fe(2+/)mg protein) and H3 group of hydrolysates (380.68 ?M Fe(2+/)mg protein) after 6 h of hydrolysis. Sequential hydrolysis was not effective for iron (II)-chelation activity. 3 kDa fractions show higher iron (II)-chelation activity than 10 kDa fraction. Flavourzyme was more effective for generation of iron (II)-chelating peptides from buffalo ?S-casein. PMID:26028776

  19. From protests to litigation to YouTube: A longitudinal case study of strategic lobby tactic choice for the Buffalo Field Campaign

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. Shanahan; Mark K. McBeth; Linda E. Tigert; Paul L. Hathaway

    2010-01-01

    Interest group scholars have long explored under what circumstances interest groups choose lobby tactics to influence policy. While most studies focus on well-funded national interest groups, this study uses a newly formed interest group, Buffalo Field Campaign (BFC), in order to qualitatively analyze changes in lobby tactic choice from its inception and empirically assess these changes with traditional measures of

  20. Preliminary Paper Toward a Comprehensive Program of Library Orientation/Instruction for the Libraries of the State University of New York at Buffalo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Jay Martin; And Others

    To create a comprehensive program of library orientation and instruction for the libraries of the State University of New York at Buffalo, a committee was appointed to survey several unit libraries as well as all the academic units (104) on the campus. Their object was to determine what, if any, library orientation and instruction programs were in…

  1. Pseudo-affinity chromatographic approach to probe heterogeneity in buffalo pituitary luteinizing hormone: probable pseudolectin-like behavior of immobilized Cibacron Blue 3GA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taruna Arora; Nidhi Vashistha; Rajesh Chaudhary; Kambadur Muralidhar

    2010-01-01

    The alpha (?) and beta (?) subunits of buffalo pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) were chromatographed on Cibacron Blue 3GA agarose and their immunoreactivity was quantitated using anti-? and anti-? anti sera. Subsequent analyses showed ? subunits were relatively more hydrophilic than ? subunits. Further, the naturally occurring free ? and ? subunits were more hydrophobic than their native counterparts which

  2. A Field Investigation on the Correlation Between Reproductive Disorders and Eimeriosis in Female Buffaloes with Emphasis on Use of Partially Purified Oocyst Antigen for Diagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. M. Ahmed; Soad E. Hassan

    2 Abstract: A total number of 1379 female buffaloes reared at Lower Egypt was gynecologically examined by ultrasonography and blood and fecal samples were collected during a period of three years (2004 - 2006). Out of these animals 896 (64.97%) were suffering from reproductive disorders. The recorded reproductive disorders were ovarian inactivity, endometritis, delayed puberty, mastitis, repeat breeding, retained placenta

  3. Parent weight change predicts child weight change in family-based weight control program for pre-school children (Buffalo healthy tots)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Title: PARENT WEIGHT CHANGE PREDICTS CHILD WEIGHT CHANGE IN FAMILY-BASED WEIGHT CONTROL PROGRAM FOR PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN (BUFFALO HEALTHY TOTS), Teresa Quattrin, MOl, James N Roemmich, PhDI, Rocco Paluch, MAl, Jihnhee Yu, PhD2, Leonard H Epstein, PhDI and Michelle A Ecker, RD, CDEI . lpediatrics, Uni...

  4. DownloadedBy:[UniversityatBuffalo(SUNY)]At:18:4825June2007 Supporting evidence from the New York drumlin field that elongate

    E-print Network

    Briner, Jason P.

    DownloadedBy:[UniversityatBuffalo(SUNY)]At:18:4825June2007 Supporting evidence from the New York. 2007 (April): Supporting evidence from the New York drumlin field that elongate subglacial bedforms drumlins from the New York State drumlin field. A subset of 548 drumlins between Oneida Lake and Lake

  5. A highly efficient ?-glucosidase from the buffalo rumen fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum W5

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cellulose, which is the most abundant renewable biomass on earth, is a potential bio-resource of alternative energy. The hydrolysis of plant polysaccharides is catalyzed by microbial cellulases, including endo-?-1,4-glucanases, cellobiohydrolases, cellodextrinases, and ?-glucosidases. Converting cellobiose by ?-glucosidases is the key factor for reducing cellobiose inhibition and enhancing the efficiency of cellulolytic enzymes for cellulosic ethanol production. Results In this study, a cDNA encoding ?-glucosidase was isolated from the buffalo rumen fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum W5 and is named NpaBGS. It has a length of 2,331 bp with an open reading frame coding for a protein of 776 amino acid residues, corresponding to a theoretical molecular mass of 85.1 kDa and isoelectric point of 4.4. Two GH3 catalytic domains were found at the N and C terminals of NpaBGS by sequence analysis. The cDNA was expressed in Pichia pastoris and after protein purification, the enzyme displayed a specific activity of 34.5 U/mg against cellobiose as the substrate. Enzymatic assays showed that NpaBGS was active on short cello-oligosaccharides from various substrates. A weak activity in carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) digestion indicated that the enzyme might also have the function of an endoglucanase. The optimal activity was detected at 40°C and pH 5?~?6, showing that the enzyme prefers a weak acid condition. Moreover, its activity could be enhanced at 50°C by adding Mg2+ or Mn2+ ions. Interestingly, in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) experiments using Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 or Kluyveromyces marxianus KY3 as the fermentation yeast, NpaBGS showed advantages in cell growth, glucose production, and ethanol production over the commercial enzyme Novo 188. Moreover, we showed that the KY3 strain engineered with the NpaNGS gene can utilize 2 % dry napiergrass as the sole carbon source to produce 3.32 mg/ml ethanol when Celluclast 1.5 L was added to the SSF system. Conclusion Our characterizations of the novel ?-glucosidase NpaBGS revealed that it has a preference of weak acidity for optimal yeast fermentation and an optimal temperature of ~40°C. Since NpaBGS performs better than Novo 188 under the living conditions of fermentation yeasts, it has the potential to be a suitable enzyme for SSF. PMID:22515264

  6. In vitro developmental competence of buffalo oocytes collected at various stages of the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, B M; Gupta, P S P; Ravindra, J P; Devaraj, M; Ramesh, H S; Nandi, S

    2007-10-01

    The objective was to determine the in vitro developmental competence of buffalo oocytes collected from abattoir-derived ovaries at various stages of the estrous cycle and follicular status. In Experiment 1, ovaries (n=476 pairs) were collected and divided into the following five groups: (a) ovaries with a corpus hemorragicum and no dominant follicle (CH-NO-DF); (b) ovaries with a mature functional corpus luteum (CL) and a dominant follicle (CL-DF); (c) ovaries with a mature functional CL and no dominant follicle (CL-NO-DF); (d) ovaries with a regressing CL and a dominant follicle (RCL-DF); and (e) ovaries without any luteal structures and only small follicles (ANEST). In Experiment 2, 144 pairs of ovaries with a CL (or regressing CL) and a dominant follicle were collected and follicles were classified as dominant, largest subordinate, and subordinate. In both experiments, the dominant follicle was defined as any follicle >10mm in diameter that exceeded the diameter of all other (subordinate) follicles. Although oocytes were collected from each group of ovaries, only Grades A or B oocytes were used for in vitro embryo production. Cleavage rates were higher (P<0.05) from oocytes collected from ovaries in the CH-NO-DF (59.6%) and CL-NO-DF (59.2%) groups than those collected from CL-DF (52.2%) and ANEST (43.6%) groups. The yield of transferable embryos was higher (P<0.05) from oocytes collected from CH-NO-DF (27.4%) and CL-NO-DF (24.0%) ovaries than from CL-DF (16.2%), RCL-DF (15.4%), and lowest (P<0.05) from ANEST (8.8%). In Experiment 2, oocytes from the dominant follicle had a higher (P<0.05) cleavage rate (65.2 %) and transferable embryo yield (30.2%) than those collected from the largest subordinate and subordinate follicles. In conclusion, oocyte competence depended on the morphofunctional state of ovaries. Oocyte development was maximal in pairs of ovaries with a corpus hemorragicum or CL and no dominant follicle; in paired ovaries with a CL and a dominant follicle, development was maximal in oocytes derived from the dominant follicle. PMID:17706758

  7. Effect of protein level and urea in concentrate mixture on feed intake and rumen fermentation in swamp buffaloes fed rice straw-based diet.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sungchhang; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Norrapoke, Thitima

    2015-04-01

    Four rumen-fistulated Thai native swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned according to a 2?×?2 factorial arrangement in a 4?×?4 Latin square design to assess the effect of protein (CP) level and urea (U) source in concentrate diet on feed utilization and rumen ecology. The treatments were as follows: concentrate containing CP at 120 g/kg (soybean meal, SBM) (T1), 160 g/kg (SBM) (T2), 120 g/kg (U) (T3), and 160 g/kg (U) (T4), respectively. All buffaloes were fed concentrate at 10 g/kg of body weight, and rice straw was offered ad libitum. Feed intake and digestibilities of CP, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber increased (P??0.05), while concentration of ruminal ammonia (N), blood urea (U), volatile fatty acids profile, microorganism populations, and variable bacterial growth increased in buffaloes consumed concentrate containing CP at 160 g/kg (T2 and T4; P?buffaloes consumed concentrate containing higher CP level especially with U source while purine derivatives increased which resulted in a higher N balance as compared to lower CP level and SBM source treatments (P?buffaloes fed on rice straw. PMID:25686554

  8. Effect of Sodium Nitrate and Nitrate Reducing Bacteria on In vitro Methane Production and Fermentation with Buffalo Rumen Liquor.

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, Pillanatham Civalingam; Kamra, Devki Nandan; Agarwal, Neeta; Chaudhary, Lal Chandra

    2012-06-01

    Nitrate can serve as a terminal electron acceptor in place of carbon dioxide and inhibit methane emission in the rumen and nitrate reducing bacteria might help enhance the reduction of nitrate/nitrite, which depends on the type of feed offered to animals. In this study the effects of three levels of sodium nitrate (0, 5, 10 mM) on fermentation of three diets varying in their wheat straw to concentrate ratio (700:300, low concentrate, LC; 500:500, medium concentrate, MC and 300:700, high concentrate, HC diet) were investigated in vitro using buffalo rumen liquor as inoculum. Nitrate reducing bacteria, isolated from the rumen of buffalo were tested as a probiotic to study if it could help in enhancing methane inhibition in vitro. Inclusion of sodium nitrate at 5 or 10 mM reduced (p<0.01) methane production (9.56, 7.93 vs. 21.76 ml/g DM; 12.20, 10.42 vs. 25.76 ml/g DM; 15.49, 12.33 vs. 26.86 ml/g DM) in LC, MC and HC diets, respectively. Inclusion of nitrate at both 5 and 10 mM also reduced (p<0.01) gas production in all the diets, but in vitro true digestibility (IVTD) of feed reduced (p<0.05) only in LC and MC diets. In the medium at 10 mM sodium nitrate level, there was 0.76 to 1.18 mM of residual nitrate and nitrite (p<0.01) also accumulated. In an attempt to eliminate residual nitrate and nitrite in the medium, the nitrate reducing bacteria were isolated from buffalo adapted to nitrate feeding and introduced individually (3 ml containing 1.2 to 2.3×10(6) cfu/ml) into in vitro incubations containing the MC diet with 10 mM sodium nitrate. Addition of live culture of NRBB 57 resulted in complete removal of nitrate and nitrite from the medium with a further reduction in methane and no effect on IVTD compared to the control treatments containing nitrate with autoclaved cultures or nitrate without any culture. The data revealed that nitrate reducing bacteria can be used as probiotic to prevent the accumulation of nitrite when sodium nitrate is used to reduce in vitro methane emissions. PMID:25049631

  9. Chloride in ground water and surface water in the vicinity of selected surface-water sampling sites of the beneficial use monitoring program of Oklahoma, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mashburn, Shana L.; Sughru, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    The Oklahoma Water Resources Board Beneficial Use Monitoring Program reported exceedances of beneficial-use standards for chloride at 11 surface-water sampling sites from January to October 2002. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality, conducted a study to determine the chloride concentrations in ground water in the vicinity of Beneficial Use Monitoring Program surface-water sampling sites not meeting beneficial use standards for chloride and compare chloride concentrations in ground water and surface water. The chloride-impaired Beneficial Use Monitoring Program surface-water sampling sites are located in the western and southern regions of Oklahoma. The ground-water sampling sites were placed in proximity to the 11 surface-water sampling sites designated impaired by chloride by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board. Two surface-water sampling sites were located on the Beaver River (headwaters of the North Canadian River), three sites on the Cimarron River, one site on Sandy Creek, one site on North Fork Red River, and four sites on the Red River. Six ground-water samples were collected, when possible, from two test holes located upstream from each of the 11 Beneficial Use Monitoring Program surface-water sampling sites. One test hole was placed on the left bank and right bank, when possible, of each Beneficial Use Monitoring Program surfacewater sampling site. All test holes were located on alluvial deposits adjacent to the Beneficial Use Monitoring Program surface-water sampling sites within 0.5 mile of the stream. Top, middle, and bottom ground-water samples were collected from the alluvium at each test hole, when possible. Water properties of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen were recorded in the field before sampling for chloride. The ground-water median chloride concentrations at 8 of the 11 Beneficial Use Monitoring Program sites were less than the surface-water median chloride concentrations. The Turpin and Beaver sites had similar ground-water and surface-water median chloride concentrations. The Buffalo site was the only site that had a large difference between the ground-water and surface-water chloride concentrations. The ground-water median chloride concentration was approximately 14,500 mg/L greater than the surface-water median chloride concentration at the Buffalo site.

  10. “Remake” by High-Throughput Sequencing of the Microbiota Involved in the Production of Water Buffalo Mozzarella Cheese

    PubMed Central

    De Filippis, Francesca; La Storia, Antonietta; Iacono, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Intermediates of production of two batches of traditional mozzarella cheese were analyzed by culture-independent pyrosequencing. The quantitative distribution of taxa within the samples suggested that thermophilic lactic acid bacteria from the natural starter were mainly responsible for the fermentation, while microorganisms found in raw milk did not develop during fermentation. PMID:22941080

  11. Food Habits of Young-of-the-Year Walleyes in Okobojo Bay of Lake Oahe, South Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey J. Jackson; David W. Willis; David G. Fielder

    1992-01-01

    Food habits of young-of-the-year walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum) were determined in Okobojo Bay of Lake Oahe, South Dakota from June through September, 1991. Walleyes initially fed on zooplankton but soon became piscivorous. Smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) were initially the most important prey fish, but rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) became important as walleyes moved from the littoral zone of the bay to

  12. The Effects of Flooding on the Growth Rates of Fishes in Lake Texoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Scott Cone; Kelly Barbour; Melinda Russell; Susan K. Simonet

    1986-01-01

    Growth rates of four fishes during 1982, a flood year, were compared to those of previous years by back calculation from scales and, for one species, by comparison with previous mean length measurements. Calculated growth increments in 1982 were significantly larger than in the previous years for blacktail shiner (Notropis venustus), smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus), and tidewater silverside (Menidia beryllina).

  13. Preliminary studies in numerical systematics of the Paramphistomoidea (Digenea) from domestic Artiodactyla of Northern India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Mattison; S. M. A. Abidi; W. A. Nizami; R. E. B. Hanna

    1994-01-01

    The systematic relationships between nine taxa (species) of paramphistomes belonging to the families Cladorchiidae, Gastrodiscidae, Gastrothylacidae and Paramphistomidae from domestic buffaloes Bubalus bubalis and pigs Sus scrofa were examined using SEM revealed two types of papillae occurring commonly on the oral cone and less frequently around the gonopore and acetabulum. Non-pitted papillae occur on the oral cone in Paramphistomum epiclitum,

  14. Fish Catches in Baited and Unbaited Hoop Nets in the Upper Mississippi River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodney B. Pierce; Daniel W. Coble; Scott Corley

    1981-01-01

    Catch rates for all species combined were higher in hoop nets baited with soybean cake than in unbaited hoop nets. However, baited and unbaited nets differed in the fish species for which they were most selective. Significantly more common carp (Cyprinus carpio), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), smallmouth buffaloes (Ictiobus bubalus), and bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) were caught in hoop nets baited

  15. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residue levels in dairy milk and buffalo milk from Jaipur City, Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    John, P J; Bakore, N; Bhatnagar, P

    2001-04-01

    The widespread application of pesticides in agriculture, public health, and industry and in and around the home can result in the accumulation of pesticides in the environment. Therefore, a survey has been conducted during 1993-1996 to investigate the magnitude of contamination of bovine milk with organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues from Jaipur City, Rajasthan, India. Milk samples, i.e., dairy (toned and whole) and buffalo milk, were collected seasonally, and pesticide residues were assessed using a gas chromatograph (GC) with an electron capture detector (ECD). The results indicate that all the milk samples were contaminated with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (DDE and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [DDD]), isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH; alpha, beta, and gamma), heptachlor and its epoxide, and aldrin. Seasonal variations of these pesticide residue levels were also observed in all the milk samples. Samples collected during winter season were found to contain higher residue levels as compared to other seasons. PMID:11341290

  16. Effect of soy protein isolate incorporation on quality characteristics and shelf-life of buffalo meat emulsion sausage.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, S; Rizawi, J A; Srivastava, P K

    2010-06-01

    Incorporation of soy protein isolate (SPI) at 0, 15, and 25% levels in buffalo meat was investigated for production, quality and shelf life evaluation of emulsion sausage (ES). Quality of ES was evaluated by pH, moisture content, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) number, total plate count (TPC), and Yeast and mold count, sensory, characteristics and instrumental colour and texture measurements. It was found that pH and moisture content were slightly affected, TBA number remained unaffected. TPC of ES fresh sample was found in the range 3.7-4.3 log cfu/g. ES was acceptable to the panelists and incorporation of SPI did not affect the acceptability. SPI incorporation increased Hunter L and b values but decreased a value and instrumental hardness. During storage (0°C), L, a, b values fl uctuated irregularly. It was concluded that incorporation of SPI slightly improved texture, juiciness and colour of emulsion sausage. PMID:23572639

  17. Effect of coagulants on the quality of chhana and rasogolla obtained from admixture of buffalo milk and butter milk.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jitendra; Gupta, V K; Kumar, Sanjeev; Kumar, Suryamani

    2015-03-01

    A study was carried out to investigate the effect of different coagulant (lactic acid, citric acid and calcium lactate) on yield, sensory and textural characteristics of chhana and rasogolla made from admixture of buffalo milk and sweet cream butter milk (SCBM). The highest yield of chhana was observed with calcium lactate whereas the minimum yield was found with citric acid. There was no significant difference found with respect to flavour and colour and appearances scores, however, significant (p?

  18. Dasytricha dominance in Surti buffalo rumen revealed by 18S rRNA sequences and real-time PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Singh, K M; Tripathi, A K; Pandya, P R; Rank, D N; Kothari, R K; Joshi, C G

    2011-09-01

    The genetic diversity of protozoa in Surti buffalo rumen was studied by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis, 18S rDNA sequence homology and phylogenetic and Real-time PCR analysis methods. Three animals were fed diet comprised green fodder Napier bajra 21 (Pennisetum purpureum), mature pasture grass (Dicanthium annulatum) and concentrate mixture (20% crude protein, 65% total digestible nutrients). A protozoa-specific primer (P-SSU-342f) and a eukarya-specific primer (Medlin B) were used to amplify a 1,360 bp fragment of DNA encoding protozoal small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA from rumen fluid. A total of 91 clones were examined and identified 14 different 18S RNA sequences based on PCR-RFLP pattern. These 14 phylotypes were distributed into four genera-based 18S rDNA database sequences and identified as Dasytricha (57 clones), Isotricha (14 clones), Ostracodinium (11 clones) and Polyplastron (9 clones). Phylogenetic analyses were also used to infer the makeup of protozoa communities in the rumen of Surti buffalo. Out of 14 sequences, 8 sequences (69 clones) clustered with the Dasytricha ruminantium-like clone and 4 sequences (13 clones) were also phylogenetically placed with the Isotricha prostoma-like clone. Moreover, 2 phylotypes (9 clones) were related to Polyplastron multivesiculatum-like clone. In addition, the number of 18S rDNA gene copies of Dasytricha ruminantium (0.05% to ciliate protozoa) was higher than Entodinium sp. (2.0 × 10(5) vs. 1.3 × 10(4)) in per ml ruminal fluid. PMID:21744288

  19. Profiling of Luteal Transcriptome during Prostaglandin F2-Alpha Treatment in Buffalo Cows: Analysis of Signaling Pathways Associated with Luteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Suganthi, Hepziba; Rudraiah, Medhamurthy

    2014-01-01

    In several species including the buffalo cow, prostaglandin (PG) F2? is the key molecule responsible for regression of corpus luteum (CL). Experiments were carried out to characterize gene expression changes in the CL tissue at various time points after administration of luteolytic dose of PGF2? in buffalo cows. Circulating progesterone levels decreased within 1 h of PGF2? treatment and evidence of apoptosis was demonstrable at 18 h post treatment. Microarray analysis indicated expression changes in several of immediate early genes and transcription factors within 3 h of treatment. Also, changes in expression of genes associated with cell to cell signaling, cytokine signaling, steroidogenesis, PG synthesis and apoptosis were observed. Analysis of various components of LH/CGR signaling in CL tissues indicated decreased LH/CGR protein expression, pCREB levels and PKA activity post PGF2? treatment. The novel finding of this study is the down regulation of CYP19A1 gene expression accompanied by decrease in expression of E2 receptors and circulating and intra luteal E2 post PGF2? treatment. Mining of microarray data revealed several differentially expressed E2 responsive genes. Since CYP19A1 gene expression is low in the bovine CL, mining of microarray data of PGF2?-treated macaques, the species with high luteal CYP19A1 expression, showed good correlation between differentially expressed E2 responsive genes between both the species. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that PGF2? interferes with luteotrophic signaling, impairs intra-luteal E2 levels and regulates various signaling pathways before the effects on structural luteolysis are manifest. PMID:25102061

  20. Multiple-trait random regression models for the estimation of genetic parameters for milk, fat, and protein yield in buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Borquis, Rusbel Raul Aspilcueta; Neto, Francisco Ribeiro de Araujo; Baldi, Fernando; Hurtado-Lugo, Naudin; de Camargo, Gregório M F; Muñoz-Berrocal, Milthon; Tonhati, Humberto

    2013-09-01

    In this study, genetic parameters for test-day milk, fat, and protein yield were estimated for the first lactation. The data analyzed consisted of 1,433 first lactations of Murrah buffaloes, daughters of 113 sires from 12 herds in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, with calvings from 1985 to 2007. Ten-month classes of lactation days were considered for the test-day yields. The (co)variance components for the 3 traits were estimated using the regression analyses by Bayesian inference applying an animal model by Gibbs sampling. The contemporary groups were defined as herd-year-month of the test day. In the model, the random effects were additive genetic, permanent environment, and residual. The fixed effects were contemporary group and number of milkings (1 or 2), the linear and quadratic effects of the covariable age of the buffalo at calving, as well as the mean lactation curve of the population, which was modeled by orthogonal Legendre polynomials of fourth order. The random effects for the traits studied were modeled by Legendre polynomials of third and fourth order for additive genetic and permanent environment, respectively, the residual variances were modeled considering 4 residual classes. The heritability estimates for the traits were moderate (from 0.21-0.38), with higher estimates in the intermediate lactation phase. The genetic correlation estimates within and among the traits varied from 0.05 to 0.99. The results indicate that the selection for any trait test day will result in an indirect genetic gain for milk, fat, and protein yield in all periods of the lactation curve. The accuracy associated with estimated breeding values obtained using multi-trait random regression was slightly higher (around 8%) compared with single-trait random regression. This difference may be because to the greater amount of information available per animal. PMID:23831097

  1. Mineral associations produced by sodic-calcic hydrothermal alteration in the Buffalo Mountain pluton, north-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, D. (Georgia Southern Univ., Statesboro, GA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geography)

    1993-03-01

    Sodic-calcic (Na-Ca) hydrothermal alteration is prevalent throughout Mesozoic-age arc igneous rocks in the western US. The middle Jurassic Buffalo Mountain pluton, located in north-central Nevada, contains particularly well developed Na-Ca metasomatism. The Buffalo Mountain pluton is composed of porphyritic syenite, quartz monzonite, small bordering stocks (which account for less than 1% of the pluton), and an extensive felsic dike swarm. Quartz monzonite intruded syenite and constitutes the majority of the surface area. Unaltered porphyritic syenite is composed of perthite, plagioclase, quartz, augite, hornblende, biotite, olivine, magnetite, and other minerals accounting for less than 1% of the rock. Unaltered quartz monzonite is an aggregate of K-feldspar, plagioclase, quartz, biotite, hornblende, and accessory minerals accounting for less than 1% of the rock. The dikes cut both phases of the total intrusive rock body and are closely related in space to zones of Na-Ca alteration. Alteration variably affects all igneous rock types and exists as both fracture-controlled and pervasive Na-Ca alteration. Sodic-calcic alteration resulted in the following mineral reactions: K-feldspar is replaced by chalky-colored plagioclase, and primary mafic minerals react to form pale green diopside or, less commonly, actinolite. Garnet, scapolite, and epidote are often spatially associated with Na-Ca altered rocks. The fact that Na-Ca alteration occurs most commonly in and around dikes suggests that they might have been the source of channel for fluid entry into the surrounding igneous rocks. Further study will seek to constrain the origins and pathways of Na-Ca fluids.

  2. Estimated Ground-Water Use in Becker, Clay, Douglas, Grant, Otter Tail, and Wilkin Counties, Minnesota, for 2030 and 2050

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winterstein, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, is studying six alternatives for delivering water to the Red River of the North Valley in North Dakota and to the cities of Breckenridge, Moorhead, and East Grand Forks, Minnesota. In order to evaluate these alternatives the Bureau of Reclamation needs estimates of ground-water use for 2030 and 2050 for six counties in Minnesota: Becker, Clay, Douglas, Grant, Otter Tail, and Wilkin Counties. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, conducted a study to estimate ground-water use in these counties for 2030 and 2050. This report (1) describes the methods used to estimate ground-water use for the years 2030 and 2050 for six Minnesota counties: Becker, Clay, Douglas, Grant, Otter Tail, and Wilkin Counties, (2) presents the estimated domestic, commercial, industrial, and irrigation ground-water use for the years 2030 and 2050 for these six counties, and (3) compares the estimated ground-water use with published estimates of recharge to three surficial aquifers: Buffalo, Otter Tail surficial, and Pelican River sand plain. Between 74 and 82 percent of the reported ground-water use in the 6 years from 2000 to 2005 was used for irrigation of major crops. The next major use of ground-water was public water supply for domestic use, between 13 and 19 percent of the reported ground-water use. Together they account for 90 to 95 percent of the appropriated ground water in the 6-year period. The total estimated 2030 ground-water use for the six counties ranges from 27,826-36,177 million gallons per year (Mgal/yr), and the total estimated 2050 ground-water use ranges from 31,313-41,746 Mgal/yr. The estimated recharge to the Buffalo aquifer, Otter Tail surficial aquifer, and Pelican River sand-plain aquifer is 3,707, 51,000, and 4,900-8,900 Mgal/yr, respectively. The range of the estimated 2050 ground-water withdrawals from the Buffalo, Otter Tail surficial, and Pelican River sand-plain aquifers is 1,234-1,776 Mgal/yr from the Buffalo aquifer, 11,728-14,820 Mgal/yr from the Otter Tail surficial aquifer, and 3,385-4,298 Mgal/yr from the Pelican River sand-plain aquifer.

  3. Early detection of Fasciola gigantica infection in buffaloes by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niranjan Kumar; S. Ghosh; S. C. Gupta

    2008-01-01

    In an attempt to develop a suitable serological test for early detection of Fasciola gigantica infection in buffaloes, a group of proteins were isolated from the somatic antigen of the parasite by immunoaffinity chromatography.\\u000a The process of isolation of the proteins has been standardized and significant level of repeatability was achieved. To test\\u000a the diagnostic potentiality of the antigens, two

  4. Effect of administration of anaerobic fungi isolated from cattle and wild blue bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus) on growth rate and fibre utilization in buffalo calves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vimal K. Tripathi; Jatinder P. Sehgal; Anil K. Puniya; Kishan Singh

    2007-01-01

    Fifteen Murrah buffalo calves (age about 10 months, 163 – 176 kg BW) were divided into three groups. Group I (Control) was fed a complete feed mixture consisted of 50% wheat straw and 50% concentrate mixture (contained per kg: maize 330 g, groundnut cake 210 g, mustard cake 120 g, wheat bran 200 g, de-oiled rice bran 110 g, mineral mixture 20 g and common salt 10 g) along with

  5. Paradoxical effects of bovine somatotropin treatment on the ovarian follicular population and in vitro embryo production of lactating buffalo donors submitted to ovum pick-up.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, M L; Sá Filho, M F; Batista, E O S; Watanabe, Y F; Watanabe, M R; Dayan, A; Joaquim, D C; Accorsi, M R; Gimenes, L U; Vieira, L M; Baruselli, P S

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of bovine somatotropin (bST; 500mg) administration on lactating buffalo donors submitted to two different ovum pick-up (OPU) and in vitro embryo production schemes with a 7 or 14d intersession OPU interval. A total of 16 lactating buffalo cows were randomly assigned into one of four experimental groups according to the bST treatment (bST or No-bST) and the OPU intersession interval (7 or 14d) in a 2×2 factorial design (16 weeks of OPU sessions). The females submitted to OPU every 14d had a larger (P<0.001) number of ovarian follicles suitable for puncture (15.6±0.7 vs. 12.8±0.4) and an increased (P=0.004) number of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) recovered (10.0±0.5 vs. 8.5±0.3) compared to the 7d interval group. However, a 7 or 14d interval between OPU sessions had no effect (P=0.34) on the number of blastocysts produced per OPU (1.0±0.1 vs. 1.3±0.2, respectively). In addition, bST treatment increased (P<0.001) the number of ovarian follicles suitable for puncture (15.3±0.5 vs. 12.1±0.4) but reduced the percentage (18.9% vs. 10.9%; P=0.009) and the number (1.4±0.2 vs. 0.8±0.1; P=0.003) of blastocysts produced per OPU session compared with the non-bST-treated buffaloes. In conclusion, the 14d interval between OPU sessions and bST treatment efficiently increased the number of ovarian follicles suitable for puncture. However, the OPU session interval had no effect on embryo production, and bST treatment reduced the in vitro blastocyst outcomes in lactating buffalo donors. PMID:25623138

  6. Nutrient utilization and milk yield response of early lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes fed on urea–molasses treated wheat straw fermented with cattle manure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Aasif Shahzad; M. Nisa; M. Sarwar

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine the influence of urea–molasses treated wheat straw (WS) fermented with cattle manure (CM) with 4% urea and 4% molasses incubated for 40days on its chemical composition and varying substitution levels of fermented wheat straw (FWS) with concentrate on nutrients intake and their digestibilities, milk yield and its composition in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Twenty early lactating

  7. Effects of melatonin and epiphyseal proteins on fluoride-induced adverse changes in antioxidant status of heart, liver, and kidney of rats.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Vijay K; Srivastava, R S; Kumar, H; Bag, S; Majumdar, A C; Singh, G; Pandi-Perumal, S R; Brown, Gregory M

    2014-01-01

    Several experimental and clinical reports indicated the oxidative stress-mediated adverse changes in vital organs of human and animal in fluoride (F) toxicity. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) epiphyseal (pineal) proteins (BEP) and melatonin (MEL) against F-induced oxidative stress in heart, liver, and kidney of experimental adult female rats. To accomplish this experimental objective, twenty-four adult female Wistar rats (123-143 g body weights) were divided into four groups, namely, control, F, F + BEP, and F + MEL and were administered sodium fluoride (NaF, 150?ppm elemental F in drinking water), MEL (10?mg/kg BW, i.p.), and BEP (100?µg/kg BW, i.p.) for 28 days. There were significantly (P < 0.05) high levels of lipid peroxidation and catalase and low levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase in cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues of F-treated rats. Administration of BEP and MEL in F-treated rats, however, significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated these adverse changes in all the target components of antioxidant defense system of cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues. The present data suggest that F can induce oxidative stress in liver, heart, and kidney of female rats which may be a mechanism in F toxicity and these adverse effects can be ameliorated by buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) epiphyseal proteins and melatonin by upregulation of antioxidant defense system of heart, liver, and kidney of rats. PMID:24790596

  8. Effects of Melatonin and Epiphyseal Proteins on Fluoride-Induced Adverse Changes in Antioxidant Status of Heart, Liver, and Kidney of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Vijay K.; Srivastava, R. S.; Kumar, H.; Bag, S.; Majumdar, A. C.; Singh, G.; Pandi-Perumal, S. R.; Brown, Gregory M.

    2014-01-01

    Several experimental and clinical reports indicated the oxidative stress-mediated adverse changes in vital organs of human and animal in fluoride (F) toxicity. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) epiphyseal (pineal) proteins (BEP) and melatonin (MEL) against F-induced oxidative stress in heart, liver, and kidney of experimental adult female rats. To accomplish this experimental objective, twenty-four adult female Wistar rats (123–143 g body weights) were divided into four groups, namely, control, F, F + BEP, and F + MEL and were administered sodium fluoride (NaF, 150?ppm elemental F in drinking water), MEL (10?mg/kg BW, i.p.), and BEP (100?µg/kg BW, i.p.) for 28 days. There were significantly (P < 0.05) high levels of lipid peroxidation and catalase and low levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase in cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues of F-treated rats. Administration of BEP and MEL in F-treated rats, however, significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated these adverse changes in all the target components of antioxidant defense system of cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues. The present data suggest that F can induce oxidative stress in liver, heart, and kidney of female rats which may be a mechanism in F toxicity and these adverse effects can be ameliorated by buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) epiphyseal proteins and melatonin by upregulation of antioxidant defense system of heart, liver, and kidney of rats. PMID:24790596

  9. Effect of pour-on alphacypermethrin on feed intake, body condition score, milk yield, pregnancy rates, and calving-to-conception interval in buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Bifulco, G; Veneziano, V; Cimmino, R; Esposito, L; Auletta, L; Varricchio, E; Balestrieri, A; Claps, S; Campanile, G; Neglia, G

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy of alphacypermethrin (ACYP) on pediculosis due to and to evaluate the influence of the treatment on productive and reproductive performance in buffaloes () reared in an intensive system. The trial was performed on 56 pluriparous buffaloes at 86.8 ± 8.1 d in milk. The animals underwent individual louse count and were divided into 2 homogenous groups according to louse count, age, number of lactations, days in milk, live BW, BCS, pregnancy status, and milk yield. Group A ( = 28) was treated by a pour-on formulation of ACYP, and Group S ( = 28) was treated by pour-on saline solution. Individual louse counts were performed weekly on 10 buffaloes in each group. Feed intake was recorded daily and the total mixed ration, individual ingredients, and orts were analyzed to calculate DM ingestion. Individual milk yield was recorded daily and milk samples were analyzed at the beginning of the trial, after 4 wk, and at the end of the trial to assess milk composition. Individual BCS was also evaluated simultaneously. Finally, the animals underwent synchronization of ovulation starting 4 wk after treatment and the pregnancy rate and the calving-conception interval were evaluated. Data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney test and ANOVA for repeated measures. The infestation was constant in Group S, whereas no lice were present in Group A throughout the study. Daily DMI was similar in the 2 groups (16.7 ± 0.4 vs. 16.3 ± 0.3 kg/d in Group A vs. Group S, respectively), although buffaloes in Group A showed higher ( < 0.05) BCS score at the end of the trial (7.39 ± 0.1 vs. 7.14 ± 0.1 in Group A vs. Group S, respectively). The average milk yield/buffalo was higher ( < 0.05) in Group A compared to Group S (10.58 ± 0.1 vs. 10.39 ± 0.1 kg in Group A vs. Group S, respectively) and this was mainly due to the higher milk production recorded in buffaloes at less than 75 d in milk (11.81 ± 0.1 vs. 11.45 ± 0.1 kg in Group A vs. Group S, respectively). Despite of a similar fertility rate (90.5 vs. 80.9% in Group A vs. Group S, respectively), a lower ( < 0.05) calving-conception interval was recorded in Group A compared to Group S (118 ± 16 vs. 177 ± 16 d in Group A vs. Group S, respectively). In addition to the pour-on treatment against pediculosis, productive and reproductive performance were also improved. This represents a significant improvement in dairy buffalo herd management. PMID:26020206

  10. Random regression test day models to estimate genetic parameters for milk yield and milk components in Philippine dairy buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Flores, E B; van der Werf, J

    2015-08-01

    Heritabilities and genetic correlations for milk production traits were estimated from first-parity test day records on 1022 Philippine dairy buffalo cows. Traits analysed included milk (MY), fat (FY) and protein (PY) yields, and fat (Fat%) and protein (Prot%) concentrations. Varying orders of Legendre polynomials (Legm ) as well as the Wilmink function (Wil) were used in random regression models. These various models were compared based on log likelihood, Akaike's information criterion, Bayesian information criterion and genetic variance estimates. Six residual variance classes were sufficient for MY, FY, PY and Fat%, while seven residual classes for Prot%. Multivariate analysis gave higher estimates of genetic variance and heritability compared with univariate analysis for all traits. Heritability estimates ranged from 0.25 to 0.44, 0.13 to 0.31 and 0.21 to 0.36 for MY, FY and PY, respectively. Wilmink's function was the better fitting function for additive genetic effects for all traits. It was also the preferred function for permanent environment effects for Fat% and Prot%, but for MY, FY and PY, the Legm was the appropriate function. Genetic correlations of MY with FY and PY were high and they were moderately negative with Fat% and Prot%. To prevent deterioration in Fat% and Prot% and improve milk quality, more weight should be applied to milk component traits. PMID:25727642

  11. Water quality Water quantity

    E-print Network

    Boisvert, Jeff

    · Water quality · Water quantity · Remediation strategies MinE 422: Water Resources: Younger, Banwart and Hedin. 2002. Mine Water. Hydrology, Pollution, Remediation. Impacts of mining on water ­ Discharge of untreated waters #12;Impacts of mining on water · Impacts from the mining process

  12. Water quality Water quantity

    E-print Network

    Boisvert, Jeff

    01-1 · Water quality · Water quantity · Remediation strategies MinE 422: Water Resources: Younger, Banwart and Hedin. 2002. Mine Water. Hydrology, Pollution, Remediation. Impacts of mining on water ­ Discharge of untreated waters #12;01-2 Impacts of mining on water · Impacts from the mining process

  13. Sequence characterization, polymorphism, and tissue expression profile of an effector immediate-early gene: activity-regulated cytoskeletal associated protein gene (Arc/Arg3.1) in swamp and river buffalo.

    PubMed

    Yuan, F; Huo, J L; Li, D L; Yuan, Y Y; Lu, W Z; Song, S; Li, L J; Miao, Y W

    2014-01-01

    The activity-regulated cytoskeletal associated protein (Arc/Arg3.1) has been implicated in experience-dependent synaptic plasticity and memory formation. However, information regarding its coding gene in buffalo remains scarce. In this study, the full-length of Arc/Arg3.1 was isolated and characterized (accession No. JX491649) and genetic variations of six river buffalo and eight swamp buffalo were investigated. A tissue expression profile was obtained using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The coding region sequence of Arc/Arg3.1 contained 1191 nucleotides encoding a putative protein of 396 amino acids with a theoretical isoelectric point (pI) and molecular weight (Mw) of 5.4 and 45.2 kDa, respectively. Four polymorphisms (c.63T>C, c.228T>C, c.558G>A, and c.625G>C) were found in buffalo; however, only substitution c.625G>C was non-synonymous, leading to an amino acid change from Val to Leu at the 209th position of the Arc/Arg3.1 protein sequence. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that this substitution had no significant effect on Arc/Arg3.1 function (subPSEC = -1.4039, Pdeleterious = 0.1685), which indicated that Arc/Arg3.1 was highly conserved and functionally important in buffalo. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the gene is closely related to that of Bos taurus and Bos grunniens. The gene was moderately expressed in the hypophysis and the placenta; it was weakly expressed in the kidney, milk, mammary gland, cerebrum, lung, heart, rumen, fat, and uterus; and it was almost silent in the muscle, liver, and skin. These findings will provide further insights into the structure and function of the immediate-early gene in buffalo. PMID:24737478

  14. Supplementation of tauroursodeoxycholic acid during IVC did not enhance in vitro development and quality of buffalo IVF embryos but combated endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arpna; Agrawal, Himanshu; Mullani, Nowsheen; Sandhu, Anjit; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh; Singla, Suresh Kumar; Palta, Prabhat; Manik, Radhay Sham

    2015-07-15

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, a dysfunction in protein-folding capacity of ER, is involved in many pathologic and physiological responses including embryonic development. This study investigated the effect of supplementation of IVC medium with an ER stress inducer, tunicamycin (TM), and an inhibitor, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), on the developmental competence, apoptosis, and gene expression in buffalo embryos produced by IVF. Treatment of presumed zygotes with TM resulted in a significant (P < 0.01) decrease in the blastocyst rate, whereas TUDCA supplementation did not improve the blastocyst development rate. Further, presence of TUDCA could not ameliorate the adverse effects of TM in terms of the blastocyst rate in combined (TM + TUDCA) treatment. Tunicamycin treatment increased (P < 0.01) the apoptotic index and reduced the total cell number, whereas TUDCA did not affect them significantly. However, TUDCA reduced the extent of TM-mediated apoptosis during combined (TM + TUDCA) treatment. Tunicamycin treatment increased (P < 0.01) and TUDCA treatment decreased (P < 0.01) the expression level of ER chaperones, GRP78 and GRP94. In the combined TM + TUDCA treatment, TUDCA decreased their expression level compared to that in the controls. A similar pattern was observed in the case of proapoptotic gene BAX. We did not find any significant difference in the expression level of BCl-XL, BID, P53, and CASPASE 3 after TM and TUDCA supplementation. In conclusion, our study reported that TM induces ER stress in buffalo embryos produced in vitro resulting in a decrease in the blastocyst rate and an increase in the level of apoptosis and that these actions are mediated by modulating the expression of apoptosis-related genes and ER chaperones. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid did not improve the developmental potential of buffalo embryos; however, it attenuated the TM-induced apoptosis by downregulating BAX and ER chaperones. PMID:25881988

  15. Rainfall-driven sex-ratio genes in African buffalo suggested by correlations between Y-chromosomal haplotype frequencies and foetal sex ratio

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Y-chromosomal diversity in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) population of Kruger National Park (KNP) is characterized by rainfall-driven haplotype frequency shifts between year cohorts. Stable Y-chromosomal polymorphism is difficult to reconcile with haplotype frequency variations without assuming frequency-dependent selection or specific interactions in the population dynamics of X- and Y-chromosomal genes, since otherwise the fittest haplotype would inevitably sweep to fixation. Stable Y-chromosomal polymorphism due one of these factors only seems possible when there are Y-chromosomal distorters of an equal sex ratio, which act by negatively affecting X-gametes, or Y-chromosomal suppressors of a female-biased sex ratio. These sex-ratio (SR) genes modify (suppress) gamete transmission in their own favour at a fitness cost, allowing for stable polymorphism. Results Here we show temporal correlations between Y-chromosomal haplotype frequencies and foetal sex ratios in the KNP buffalo population, suggesting SR genes. Frequencies varied by a factor of five; too high to be alternatively explained by Y-chromosomal effects on pregnancy loss. Sex ratios were male-biased during wet and female-biased during dry periods (male proportion: 0.47-0.53), seasonally and annually. Both wet and dry periods were associated with a specific haplotype indicating a SR distorter and SR suppressor, respectively. Conclusions The distinctive properties suggested for explaining Y-chromosomal polymorphism in African buffalo may not be restricted to this species alone. SR genes may play a broader and largely overlooked role in mammalian sex-ratio variation. PMID:20416038

  16. Residual feed intake as a feed efficiency selection tool and its relationship with feed intake, performance and nutrient utilization in Murrah buffalo calves.

    PubMed

    Subhashchandra Bose, Bisitha Kattiparambil; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Tho, Nguyen Thi Be; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Sontakke, Umesh Balaji

    2014-04-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between the actual and expected feed intake of an animal based on its body weight and growth rate over a specific period. The objective of this study was to determine the RFI of buffalo calves using residuals from appropriate linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body weight. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves of 5-7 months were selected and fed individually. A feeding trial using ad libitum feeding of total mixed ration (TMR, concentrate/roughage = 40:60) was conducted for 52 days in which the daily DMI, weekly body weight (BW) and growth rate of the calves were monitored. RFI of calves ranged from -0.20 to +0.23 kg/day. Mean DMI (in grams per kilogram of BW(0.75)) during the feeding trial period was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in low RFI group (79.66 g/kg BW(0.75)) compared to high RFI (87.74 g/kg BW(0.75)). Average initial BW, final BW and mid-test BW(0.75) did not differ (P > 0.05) between low and high RFI groups. Over the course of a trial period, low RFI group animals consumed 10% less feed compared to high RFI group of animals, yet performed in a comparable manner in terms of growth rate. Metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) lower in low RFI group (13.54 MJ/100 kg BW) as compared to that of high RFI group (15.56 MJ/100 kg BW). The present study indicates that RFI is a promising selection tool for the selection of buffaloes for increased feed efficiency. PMID:24563229

  17. Turbid water Clear water

    E-print Network

    Jaffe, Jules

    Turbid water Clear water pixel position cameraresponsecameraresponse pixel position ABSTRACT: A new underwater laser scanning system, providing microbathymetric information in coastal waters is described the backscatter component resulting in enhanced performance in turbid waters. The system is expected to provide

  18. Effects of Supplementation of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) Leaf Meal on Feed Intake and Rumen Fermentation Efficiency in Swamp Buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Thao, N. T.; Wanapat, M.; Kang, S.; Cherdthong, A.

    2015-01-01

    Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to investigate the effects of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) leaf meal (ELM) supplementation as a rumen enhancer on feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics. The dietary treatments were as follows: T1 = 0 g ELM/hd/d; T2 = 40 g ELM/hd/d; T3 = 80 g ELM/hd/d; T4 = 120 g ELM/hd/d, respectively. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate was offered at 0.3% BW while rice straw was fed ad libitum. The results revealed that voluntary feed intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients were similar among treatments. Ruminal pH, temperature and blood urea nitrogen concentrations were not affected by ELM supplementation; however, ELM supplementation resulted in lower concentration of ruminal ammonia nitrogen. Total volatile fatty acids, propionate concentration increased with the increasing level of EML (p<0.05) while the proportion of acetate was decreased (p<0.05). Methane production was linearly decreased (p<0.05) with the increasing level of ELM supplementation. Protozoa count and proteolytic bacteria population were reduced (p<0.05) while fungal zoospores and total viable bacteria, amylolytic, cellulolytic bacteria were unchanged. In addition, nitrogen utilization and microbial protein synthesis tended to increase by the dietary treatments. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that ELM could modify the rumen fermentation and is potentially used as a rumen enhancer in methane mitigation and rumen fermentation efficiency. PMID:26104399

  19. Estimates of genetic parameters for total milk yield over multiple ages in Brazilian Murrah buffaloes using different models.

    PubMed

    Sesana, R C; Baldi, F; Borquis, R R A; Bignardi, A B; Hurtado-Lugo, N A; El Faro, L; Albuquerque, L G; Tonhati, H

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate variance components and genetic parameters for accumulated 305-day milk yield (MY305) over multiple ages, from 24 to 120 months of age, applying random regression (RRM), repeatability (REP) and multi-trait (MT) models. A total of 4472 lactation records from 1882 buffaloes of the Murrah breed were utilized. The contemporary group (herd-year-calving season) and number of milkings (two levels) were considered as fixed effects in all models. For REP and RRM, additive genetic, permanent environmental and residual effects were included as random effects. MT considered the same random effects as did REP and RRM with the exception of permanent environmental effect. Residual variances were modeled by a step function with 1, 4, and 6 classes. The heritabilities estimated with RRM increased with age, ranging from 0.19 to 0.34, and were slightly higher than that obtained with the REP model. For the MT model, heritability estimates ranged from 0.20 (37 months of age) to 0.32 (94 months of age). The genetic correlation estimates for MY305 obtained by RRM (L23.res4) and MT models were very similar, and varied from 0.77 to 0.99 and from 0.77 to 0.99, respectively. The rank correlation between breeding values for MY305 at different ages predicted by REP, MT, and RRM were high. It seems that a linear and quadratic Legendre polynomial to model the additive genetic and animal permanent environmental effects, respectively, may be sufficient to explain more parsimoniously the changes in MY305 genetic variation with age. PMID:24782092

  20. Effects of Supplementation of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) Leaf Meal on Feed Intake and Rumen Fermentation Efficiency in Swamp Buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Thao, N T; Wanapat, M; Kang, S; Cherdthong, A

    2015-07-01

    Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to investigate the effects of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) leaf meal (ELM) supplementation as a rumen enhancer on feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics. The dietary treatments were as follows: T1 = 0 g ELM/hd/d; T2 = 40 g ELM/hd/d; T3 = 80 g ELM/hd/d; T4 = 120 g ELM/hd/d, respectively. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate was offered at 0.3% BW while rice straw was fed ad libitum. The results revealed that voluntary feed intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients were similar among treatments. Ruminal pH, temperature and blood urea nitrogen concentrations were not affected by ELM supplementation; however, ELM supplementation resulted in lower concentration of ruminal ammonia nitrogen. Total volatile fatty acids, propionate concentration increased with the increasing level of EML (p<0.05) while the proportion of acetate was decreased (p<0.05). Methane production was linearly decreased (p<0.05) with the increasing level of ELM supplementation. Protozoa count and proteolytic bacteria population were reduced (p<0.05) while fungal zoospores and total viable bacteria, amylolytic, cellulolytic bacteria were unchanged. In addition, nitrogen utilization and microbial protein synthesis tended to increase by the dietary treatments. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that ELM could modify the rumen fermentation and is potentially used as a rumen enhancer in methane mitigation and rumen fermentation efficiency. PMID:26104399

  1. Anaplasma infections in wild and domestic ruminants: a review.

    PubMed

    Kuttler, K L

    1984-01-01

    Anaplasma marginale can be transmitted, will grow and can survive in a large number of domestic and wild animals. It is pathogenic in cattle, and usually produces nonapparent or mild infections in other species. Anaplasma marginale has been recovered from cattle, sheep, goats, water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana americana), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnu), blesbuck (Damaliscus albifrons), and duiker (Sylvicapra grimmi grimmi). Unidentified anaplasms have been seen in, and in some instances isolated from, Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer), giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), Cokes hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus cokii), Thompson's gazelle (Gazella thompsonii), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), and sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), with serological evidence of Anaplasma infection in an even wider range of wild ruminant species. Anaplasma ovis, A. centrale, or other as yet unidentified anaplasms may well occur in other ruminants. With the exception of black-tailed deer, the epidemiologic significance of anaplasmosis in wildlife has yet to be determined. The only wild animal in which Anaplasma is reported to produce serious clinical disease is the giraffe. PMID:6716555

  2. Pseudo-affinity chromatographic approach to probe heterogeneity in buffalo pituitary luteinizing hormone: probable pseudolectin-like behavior of immobilized Cibacron Blue 3GA.

    PubMed

    Arora, Taruna; Vashistha, Nidhi; Chaudhary, Rajesh; Muralidhar, Kambadur

    2010-10-15

    The alpha (?) and beta (?) subunits of buffalo pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) were chromatographed on Cibacron Blue 3GA agarose and their immunoreactivity was quantitated using anti-? and anti-? anti sera. Subsequent analyses showed ? subunits were relatively more hydrophilic than ? subunits. Further, the naturally occurring free ? and ? subunits were more hydrophobic than their native counterparts which were dissociated and isolated from heterodimeric LH. The lesser sugar content in freely occurring ? and beta subunits may be attributed for increased hydrophobicity and consequent upon the existence of their uncombined free forms. In order to ascertain putative sugar-dye interaction, crude LH carrying free subunits, pure LH, and non-glycosylated recombinant ? subunit of LH were loaded separately on Cibacron Blue. Methyl mannoside was able to elute 33% of the bound protein in case of crude and pure LH, whereas there was little (3%) elution in case of recombinant LH ? subunit. This study suggests a compositional heterogeneity in free and native subunits of LH from the buffalo pituitary. In addition, our findings reveal the pseudolectin-like behavior of Cibacron Blue. PMID:20846911

  3. In vitro gas production in rumen fluid of buffalo as affected by urea-calcium mixture in high-quality feed block.

    PubMed

    Cherdthong, Anusorn; Wanapat, Metha

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of urea-calcium sulphate mixture (U-cas) levels in high-quality feed block (HQFB) on ruminal digestibility, fermentation and gas kinetics in rumen fluid of swamp buffalo by using in vitro techniques. The treatments were seven levels of U-cas incorporated in HQFB at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18% and the experimental design was a completely randomized design. Gas production rate constants for the insoluble fraction, potential extent of gas and cumulative gas were linearly increased with increasing levels of U-cas in HQFB. The in vitro dry matter digestibility, in vitro organic matter digestibility, true digestibility and microbial mass were altered by treatments and were greatest at 18% U-cas supplementation. Concentrations of propionate were linearly increased with increasing levels of U-cas and was highest with U-cas supplementation at 18%. The NH3 -N concentration was highest when urea was added in the HQFB while NH3 -N concentration tended to be reduced with increasing level of U-cas. The findings suggest supplementation of 18% U-cas in HQFB improves kinetics of gas production, rumen fermentation, digestibility and microbial mass as well as controlling the rate of N degradation in the rumen of swamp buffalo. PMID:24506797

  4. Buffalo News -DARWIN UNDER ATTACK http://www.buffalonews.com/editorial/20060129/1009950.asp?PFVer=Story 1 of 3 1/29/2006 10:03 AM

    E-print Network

    Kristal, Mark B.

    Buffalo News - DARWIN UNDER ATTACK http://www.buffalonews.com/editorial/20060129/1009950.asp Viewpoints DARWIN UNDER ATTACK Why is his big idea so often disparaged as 'just a theory'? By MARK B. KRISTAL Special to The News 1/29/2006 Why does Darwin take such a pounding? Why do Darwin's ideas, in contrast

  5. Water, Water Everywhere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2009-01-01

    Everybody knows that children love water and how great water play is for children. The author discusses ways to add water to one's playscape that fully comply with health and safety regulations and are still fun for children. He stresses the importance of creating water play that provides children with the opportunity to interact with water.

  6. Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump

  7. Water, Water Everywhere

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA

    This is a short NASA video on the water cycle. The video shows the importance of the water cycle to nearly every natural process on Earth and illustrates how tightly coupled the water cycle is to climate.

  8. An experimental trap net fishery, Lake Oahe, South Dakota, 1965

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gabel, James A.

    1974-01-01

    Large trap nets were evaluated as a commercial gear for capturing buffalo fish during July-September 1965. During the 72-day fishing period, 13,171 fish weighing 21,669 kg were taken. Bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus) and smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) dominated the catch (78.2% by weight). Eight sport species accounted for 3.6% of the total catch. Both 7.0-cm and 12.7-cm mesh (extended measure) were used in the back of the bailing crib of the nets to determine the effect of the 12.7-cm mesh in reducing the catch of sport species and nonmarketable size groups of commercial species. The 12.7-cm mesh reduced the catch of nonmarketable bigmouth buffalo 29%, smallmouth buffalo 11%, river carpsucker (Carpiodes carpio) 18%, carp (Cyprinus carpio) 8%, freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) 35%, and sport species 68%.

  9. Water, Water Everywhere

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners estimate how much water they think can be found in various locations on the Earth in all its states (solid, liquid, and gas) to discover the different water ratios in the Earth's total water supply. Learners divide 1000 ml of water (representing the total amount of water on Earth) amongst eight beakers as they predict the various ratios. Then learners measure the amounts of water that reflect the actual ratios and compare their predictions to reality. Learners will be surprised to find out that most of Earth's water is found in the ocean. This resource also includes information about flash floods and flood safety.

  10. Basin-margin depositional environments of the Fort Union and Wasatch Formations (Tertiary) in the Buffalo-Lake De Smet area, Johnson County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Obernyer, Stanley L.

    1979-01-01

    The Paleocene Fort Union and Eocene Wasatch Formations along the east flank of the Bighorn Mountains in the Buffalo-Lake De Smet area, Wyoming, consist of continental alluvial fan, braided stream, and poorly drained alluvial plain deposits. The Fort Union conformably overlies the Cretaceous Lance Formation, which is marine in its lower units and nonmarine in its upper part. The formations dip steeply along the western margin of the study area and are nearly horizontal in the central and eastern portions. This structural configuration permits the reconstruction of depositional environments as an aid to understanding: (1) the evolution of the Bighorn uplift and its effects on the depositional patterns marginal to the uplift during Paleocene and Eocene time and (2) the changing depositional environments basinward from the margin of the uplift during a relatively small period of time in the Eocene.

  11. Water, Water Everywhere! Research the Water Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Regina Bale

    2012-07-17

    Water, Water Everywhere! Research the Water Cycle asks students to conduct their own research on the water cycle (hydrologic cycle). Working collaboratively in small groups, students will research and write about the relationships between stages in the water cycle and the three states of matter relating to water. After completing this lesson, students will be prepared to create a model of the water cycle.

  12. Water, water everywhere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pennisi

    1993-01-01

    The first part of this article describes the current understanding of the dynamic interaction between protein folding and function and water, dependent on the polarity of water. The second part examines the role of water in converting organic matter into oil and coal by summarizing the history and result of experiments done over the last 13 years by Exxon researchers.

  13. Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It ... water supplier must give you annual reports on drinking water. The reports include where your water came from ...

  14. Likelihood ratio estimation without a gold standard: A case study evaluating a brucellosis c-ELISA in cattle and water buffalo of Trinidad

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. T. Fosgate; A. A. Adesiyun; D. W. Hird; S. K. Hietala

    2006-01-01

    The likelihood ratio (LR) is a measure of association that quantifies how many more times likely a particular test result is from an infected animal compared to one that is uninfected. They are ratios of conditional probabilities and cannot be interpreted at the individual animal level without information concerning pretest probabilities. Their usefulness is that they can be used to

  15. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKA'S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH................ Guest Column 10..............Water News Briefs 11..............Calendar 12..............Free Lectures Continue Summer Water/Natural Resources Tour Examines Republican River Issues by Steve Ress This summer

  16. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKA'S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH.....................Meet the Faculty 4.....................GuestColumn 5.....................WaterSupplySecurity 7...................Nebraska Depletions Plan 10 ..................Water News Briefs 11 ..................Calendar 12

  17. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKA'S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH ........SPECIAL BUREAU OF RECLAMATION CENTENNIAL COVERAGE 14..............Water News Briefs 15..............Calendar 16..............Bottled Water or Tap? (continued on page 13) Fall NSIA/NWRA Convention Focuses

  18. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKA'S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH Assessment on Atrazine 10...................Water News Briefs 12...................April Faculty Forum Summer Water and Natural Resources Tour Examines North Platte River Issues by Steve Ress The University

  19. Water, Water, Everywhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selinger, Ben

    1979-01-01

    Water is a major component in many consumer products. Azeotropic distillation of products such as detergents and foodstuffs to form a two-phase distillate is a simple experimental method to determine the percentage of water in the product. (Author/GA)

  20. Water, Water, Everywhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, John A.

    2000-01-01

    The brain needs energy, oxygen, and water to operate. Access to the bathroom pass can become a major conflict between teachers and students and has great potential for disrupting classes. The classroom can be humanized by granting more bathroom passes and allowing water bottles. (MLH)

  1. Effect of plant extracts on in vitro methanogenesis, enzyme activities and fermentation of feed in rumen liquor of buffalo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Patra; D. N. Kamra; Neeta Agarwal

    2006-01-01

    The extracts of pods of Acacia concinna (Shikakai), seed pulp of Terminalia chebula (harad), Terminalia belerica (bahera), Emblica officinalis (amla) and seed kernel of Azadirachta indica (neem seed) in different solvents (ethanol, methanol and water) were evaluated for their effect on methane production, enzymes activities and rumen fermentation in in vitro gas production test. Gas production per gram dry matter

  2. Water Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van De Walle, Carol

    1988-01-01

    Describes a two-day field trip, along with follow-up classroom activities and experiments which relate to water resources and water quality. Discusses how trips to a lake and water treatment facilities can enhance appreciation of water. (TW)

  3. Kinetics of lipogenic genes expression in milk purified mammary epithelial cells (MEC) across lactation and their correlation with milk and fat yield in buffalo.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Poonam; Kumar, Parveen; Mukesh, Manishi; Kataria, R S; Yadav, Anita; Mohanty, A K; Mishra, B P

    2015-04-01

    Expression patterns of lipogenic genes (LPL, ABCG2, ACSS2, ACACA, SCD, BDH, LIPIN1, SREBF1, PPAR? and PPAR?) were studied in milk purified MEC across different stages of lactation (15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 and 240 days relative to parturition) in buffalo. PPAR? was the most abundant gene while ABCG2 and ACSS2 had moderate level of expression; whereas expression of SREBF and PPAR? was very low. The expression patterns of some genes (BDH1, ACSS2, and LIPIN1) across lactation were positively correlated with milk yield while negatively correlated with fat yield. SCD also showed weak correlation with milk yield (p, 0.53) and fat yield (p, -0.47). On the other hand, expression pattern of ACACA was negatively correlated with milk yield (p, -0.88) and positively correlated with fat yield (p, 0.62). Strong correlation was observed between genes involved in de novo milk fat synthesis (BDH1, ACSS2, LIPIN2 and SCD) and milk yield. PMID:25660400

  4. Ground Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    USGS Water Science for Schools explaines the uses of ground water in the United States. The main uses of ground water include "irrigation uses, drinking-water and other public uses, and for supplying domestic water to people who do not receive public-supply water." Check out this site to learn more.

  5. Water, Water Everywhere!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sible, Kathleen P.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how problems with water drainage on the playground, and the resulting puddles, provided a wealth of learning opportunities, children's fun, family-school communication, and challenges for one early childhood program. (KB)

  6. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKAíS WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH the Faculty 4................ Guest Column 5................ Clean Water Act 6................ Water News in Empty Hog Barns by Steve Ress, UNL Water Center Jim Rosowski sees potential for a freshwater farming

  7. water intake Water sampling site

    E-print Network

    x Drinking water intake WWTP discharge WWTP Water sampling site Reference MICROPOLLUTANT PLUME at WWTP discharge · Conductivity may be used to predict concentrations of waste water derived MPs downstream, a drinking water plant pumps lake water (ca. 100'000 m3 /day) for potable water (sand filter

  8. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKA'S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCHGroundwaterRecharge 6-7 ............ NebraskaWaterMarketingPolicyChoices 10 .............Water News Briefs 11 sites visited on July's water and natural resources tour (photo: Kyle Hoagland). (continued on page 9

  9. Earth's Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource provides an overview of the distribution and occurence of water on Earth. Topics include where and how much water there is, the water cycle, and how water is measured. There is also discussion of characteristics and distribution of surface water, groundwater, glaciers, and icecaps.

  10. Water Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A home use water treatment incorporates technology developed to purify water aboard Space Shuttle Orbiters. The General Ionics Model IQ Bacteriostatic Water Softener softens water and inhibits bacteria growth in the filtering unit. Ionics used NASA silver ion technology as a basis for development of a silver carbon dense enough to remain on top of the water softening resin bed.

  11. Drinking Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This tutorial introduces students to the importance of water to living organisms, including humans. The discussion points out that all organisms contain water, and decribes how water is accumulated and stored. There is also an examination of the water supplies of Winnipeg, Ontario, and Vancouver, British Columbia, and a discussion of the importance of purifying driking water supplies to remove harmful bacteria and microbes.

  12. Water, Water Everywhere, But...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Cliff

    Materials for teaching a unit on water pollution are provided in this teaching package. These materials include: (1) a student reading booklet; (2) a reference booklet listing a variety of popular chemical, biological, and physical tests which can be performed on a local waterway and providing information about the environmental effects and toxic…

  13. Effect of administration of anaerobic fungi isolated from cattle and wild blue bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus) on growth rate and fibre utilization in buffalo calves.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Vimal K; Sehgal, Jatinder P; Puniya, Anil K; Singh, Kishan

    2007-10-01

    Fifteen Murrah buffalo calves (age about 10 months, 163-176 kg BW) were divided into three groups. Group I (Control) was fed a complete feed mixture consisted of 50% wheat straw and 50% concentrate mixture (contained per kg: maize 330 g, groundnut cake 210 g, mustard cake 120 g, wheat bran 200 g, de-oiled rice bran 110 g, mineral mixture 20 g and common salt 10 g) along with 2 kg green oats per animal and day to meet the vitamin A requirements. Calves of Groups II and III were fed with the Control diet supplemented with Orpinomyces sp. C-14 and Piromyces sp. WNG-12 cultures, respectively. The digestibility of DM was significantly highest with Piromyces sp. WNG-12 in Group III (62.2%) followed by Orpinomyces sp. C-14 in Group II (60.3%), and Control (53.5%). A similar pattern of increase in digestibility of crude protein and cell-wall contents was observed in treatment groups. The digestible energy in terms of percent total digestible nutrients was also significantly enhanced in Groups II (56.6%) and III (59.9%) when compared to Control (49.2%). The rumen fermentation parameters such as pH and NH3-N were found to be lower, whereas total nitrogen, tricarboxylic acid precipitable-, nitrogen, total volatile fatty acids and zoospore counts per millilitre of rumen liquor were significantly higher in fungal administered groups. After administration of fungal cultures, improvements of animal growth rate (i.e. body weight gain) and feed efficiency were also observed. PMID:18030922

  14. Healthy Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... most precious global resource. Clean and safe drinking water is critical to sustain human life and without it waterborne illness can be a serious problem. Water, which is necessary for recreational water activities like ...

  15. Water Properties

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-11-04

    This simple description of the chemical and physical properties of water was produced by the U.S. Geological Survey. It includes a brief quiz to assess prior knowledge, diagrams of water molecules, and important numerical data about water.

  16. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKA'S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH Researchers Honing Methods to Sample Field Run-off Water by Steve Ress The effectiveness of riparian buffer is important since many fertilizers and pesticides are designed to adhere to soil molecules. So if water

  17. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKA'S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH................ Sidney Area Deals with Drought 6................ Water and Electricity Are Inseparable 10's School of Natural Resource Sciences,Conservation and Survey Division and Water Center into the School

  18. Water Treatment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-12-18

    Water treatment on a large scale enables the supply of clean drinking water to communities. In this activity, learners develop methods to clean a polluted water sample, describe components of a water treatment process, and learn how humans impact Earth's freshwater supply. The activity simulates methods used in real water treatment including aeration, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. This activity would be an excellent adjunct to a guided tour of a local water treatment plant.

  19. The Water Cycle: Water Storage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive, animated graphic helps explain the water cycle to younger students. The animation, with sound, explains the various parts of the water cycle and show how water moves from one part to another.

  20. Water, Water Everywhere

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students learn about floods, discovering that different types of floods occur from different water sources, but primarily from heavy rainfall. While floods occur naturally and have benefits such as creating fertile farmland, students learn that with the increase in human population in flood-prone areas, floods are become increasingly problematic. Both natural and manmade factors contribute to floods. Students learn what makes floods dangerous and what engineers design to predict, control and survive floods.

  1. Water, Water Everywhere

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on data modules and students' understanding of the relationship between population growth and water shortages. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, an audio-enhanced vocabulary list, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

  2. Water Quality

    MedlinePLUS

    What is in that water that you just drank? Is it just hydrogen and oxygen atoms? Is it safe for drinking? All water is of a certain "quality" (and you can't tell by just looking), but what does "water quality" really mean? Water full of dirt and ...

  3. Water Ways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahrling, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In many communities, schools are among the largest facilities and house the highest concentrations of daytime population. They create a huge demand for water. Even in regions with abundant water supplies, an increase in demand stresses local capacity, and water becomes more expensive. However, with the help of innovative products that reduce water

  4. Ground Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This United States Geological Survey (USGS) general interest publication presents a description of ground water in the U.S. This includes what ground water is, how it occurs, aquifers and wells, ground water quality and what affects it, and the state of U.S. ground water resources.

  5. Disappearing Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2005-01-01

    In this outdoor water activity, learners explore evaporation by painting with water and tracing puddles. Learners will discover that wet things become dry as the water evaporates. This activity is part of the curriculum Explore Water, related to Peep and the Big Wide World, a preschool science series on public television. The activity starts on page 36 of the PDF.

  6. WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality is important not only because of its linkage to the availability of water for various uses and its impact on public health, but also because water quality has an intrinsic value. he quality of life is often judged on the availability of pristine water. ontamination ...

  7. Stacking Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson, students become familiar with how ocean water forms density-stratified layers in many places. They design and carry out a series of tests to show how water masses of four different densities interact, using clear straws to stack colored water of different salinities. Temperature is varied to increase the differences in density of each water sample.

  8. Water Conservation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    In this lesson, students study the availability of water on Earth and discuss methods that can be used to purify and conserve this critical resource. Using multimedia interactives, video, and classroom activities, they will identify sources of fresh water available for consumption, understand the need for water conservation, and compare the benefits and drawbacks of different water management techniques. They will also assess how much water they and their families typically use, and think about ways to reduce their water usage. Finally, students explore different techniques being employed for water management around the world, including the use of dams to create reservoirs.

  9. Water Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Water cycle concepts and basics including the distribution of water on the planet in oceans, rivers and lakes, glaciers and atmosphere. Defines basic terms: states of water, evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, melting. Good illustrations, maps and photos. Excellent list itemizes human uses and impacts on water and the water cycle. Links to more detailed references are provided, case studies illustrate current concerns and issues in Ontario, Canada.

  10. Water Phases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Every day, we encounter water in its three phases: liquid water, solid ice, and water vapor, an invisible gas. Most other substances can exist in these three phases as well, but water is unique because it is the only substance that can exist in all three phases at Earth's ordinary temperature conditions. This slide show provides examples of water in each of its three phases.

  11. Fish tissue quality in the lower Mississippi River and health risks from fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Karen H; Desimone, Frank W; Thiyagarajah, Arunthavarani; Hartley, William R; Hindrichs, Albert E

    2003-01-20

    Between 1990 and 1994, samples of three shellfish species (i.e. blue crab, Callinectes sapidus;crayfish, Procambarus acutis; and river shrimp, Macrobrachium ohionii) and 16 fish species and were collected at six sites along the lower Mississippi River by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality, Office of Water Resources in coordination with the US Environmental Protection Agency. The fish species included: bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyanellus); blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus); carp (Cyprinus carpio); channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus); cobia (Rachycentron canadum); flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris); freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens); largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides); long nose gar (Lepisosteus osseus); red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus); red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus); smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus); spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus); striped bass (Morone saxatilis); white bass (Morone chrysops); and white crappie (Pomoxis annularis). Organic compound and heavy metal concentrations were measured in 161 composite fish tissue samples where each composite included three to 10 individual fish. Nineteen chemicals, found at measurable levels in sample tissues, were used in calculations of lifetime excess cancer and non-cancer risks due to fish consumption. We calculated: 574 chemical-specific cancer risks; 41 total cancer risks; and 697 margins of exposure based on a consumption rate of one 8-ounce meal per week (0.032 kg/day), a body weight of 70 kg and reported cancer potency factors and reference doses. We identified nine species of concern (blue catfish, carp, channel catfish, cobia, crayfish, flathead catfish, red drum, spotted gar and striped bass) based on total cancer risk greater than 10(-4) or margin of exposure greater than 1, and whether or not samples collected in subsequent years resulted in lower risks. The compounds primarily responsible for the elevated risks were aldrin, dieldrin, alpha-benzene hexachloride, gamma-benzene hexachloride, heptachlor epoxide, arsenic and mercury. PMID:12526903

  12. NGHIEÂN CÖÙU MOÁI QUAN HEÄ TUYEÁN TÍNH GIÖÕA BA KYÕ THUAÄT IN VIVO, IN VITRO VAØ IN SITU ÑEÅ ÖÔÙC LÖÔÏNG SÖÏ TIEÂU HOAÙ THÖÙC AÊN ÔÛ TRAÂU TA ÑBSCL A STUDY OF RELATIONSHIPS OF IN VIVO, IN VITRO AND IN SITU TECHNIQUES FOR PREDICTING FEED DIGESTIBILITY IN SWAMP BUFFALOES IN THE MEKONG DELTA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nguyeãn Vaên Thu

    SUMMARY A study of relationships of roughage dry matter digestibility (DM) in in vivo, in situ and in vitro techniques of swamp buffaloes was carried out. Eight kinds of roughages used for the trial include grasses, different maize stovers and rice straws. The results showed that there were close relationships in DM digestibility between in vivo and in situ at

  13. A COMPUTATIONAL THEORY OF PERSPECTIVE AND REFERENCE IN NARRATIVE Janyce M. Wlebe and William J. Rapaport

    E-print Network

    Wiebe, Janyce M.

    . Rapaport Department of Computer Science State University of New York at Buffalo Buffalo, NY 14260 wiebe~s.buffalo.edu, rapapurt~s.buffalo.edu ABSTRACT Narrative passages told from a character's perspective convey the character solar systems in all the countless galaxies? [L'Engle, Many Waters, p. 91] (2) ~lBut what [Muhammad] had

  14. Earth's Water:Ground Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This USGS site contains graphs, tables, and charts for the following ground water topics: What is ground water, ground water flow diagrams, importance of groundwater, and trends in ground-water use. Ground water quality, pesticides, aquifers, waterwells, artesian wells, sinkholes, and land subsidence are also covered. There are a variety of links within all of the above topics and a very complete glossary, as well as numerous charts, maps, photographs and illustrations.

  15. Why are simple control options for Toxocara vitulorum not being implemented by cattle and buffalo smallholder farmers in South-East Asia?

    PubMed

    Rast, Luzia; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; Dhand, Navneet K; Khounsy, Syseng; Windsor, Peter A

    2014-02-01

    Toxocara vitulorum infection in large ruminants is endemic in many tropical countries and particularly in South-East Asia. A single treatment of calves with pyrantel at 14-21 days of age effectively controls the parasite. Despite this treatment being readily available, T. vitulorum infection remains common and widespread. To understand drivers of effective control of T. vitulorum infection, we examined treatment practices and knowledge of smallholder farmers of this parasite plus determined annual calf morbidity and mortality and identified potential risk factors for these estimates. Interviews were conducted with 273 smallholder farmers who had calves tested for T. vitulorum 4-6 months earlier. Reproductive rates of 0.6 and 0.4 calf per annum in cattle and buffalo respectively, and annual calf morbidity and mortality of 42.6% (CI 0.38-0.47) and 37.3% (CI 0.33-0.42) respectively, were identified. Interviewed farmers had either none (80.6%) or only minimal (19.4%) knowledge about T. vitulorum and only 2.5% of the farmers treated their calves for T. vitulorum using the recommended control regime. Multivariable logistic regression analyses with random effects showed that the number of adult cattle per household, T. vitulorum infection status of the household herd and farmer knowledge of T. vitulorum were significantly associated with calf morbidity and mortality. Financial analysis using partial budgeting showed a net benefit of USD 3.69, 7.46, 11.09 or 14.86 per calf when treating calves with pyrantel and attributing 25%, 50%, 75% or 100% of morbidity and mortality to T. vitulorum infection. The study identified that poor reproduction, high calf morbidity and mortality combined with very limited farmer knowledge and effective control of endemic Toxocariasis, contribute to suboptimal large ruminant production in mixed smallholder farming systems in South-East Asia. The large net benefit per calf achievable by a single pyrantel treatment should drive implementation of this intervention by smallholder farmers, especially as demand for livestock products continues to increase in this region and forces a change to more production oriented farming. To support this, continued capacity building that ensures knowledge transfer of best practice T. vitulorum control to smallholder farmers is required. PMID:24290495

  16. Water tight.

    PubMed

    Postel, S

    1993-01-01

    Many cities worldwide have gone beyond the limits of their water supply. Growing urban populations increase their demand for water, thereby straining local water supplies and requiring engineers to seek our even more distant water sources. It is costly to build and maintain reservoirs, canals, pumping stations, pipes, sewers, and treatment plants. Water supply activities require much energy and chemicals, thereby contributing to environmental pollution. Many cities are beginning to manage the water supply rather than trying to keep up with demand. Pumping ground water for Mexico City's 18 million residents (500,000 people added/year) surpasses natural replenishment by 50% to 80%, resulting in falling water tables and compressed aquifers. Mexico City now ambitiously promotes replacement of conventional toilets with 1.6 gallon toilets (by late 1991, this had saved almost 7.4 billion gallons of water/year). Continued high rural-urban migration and high birth rates could negate any savings, however. Waterloo, Ontario, has also used conservation efforts to manage water demand. These efforts include retrofit kits to make plumbing fixtures more efficient, efficiency standards for plumbing fixtures, and reduction of water use outdoors. San Jose, California, has distributed water savings devices to about 220,000 households with a 90% cooperation rate. Boston, Massachusetts, not only promoted water saving devices but also repaired leaks and had an information campaign. Increasing water rates to actually reflect true costs also leads to water conservation, but not all cities in developing countries use water meters. All households in Edmonton, Alberta, are metered and its water use is 1/2 of that of Calgary, where only some households are metered. Tucson, Arizona, reduced per capita water use 16% by raising water rates and curbing water use on hot days. Bogor, Indonesia, reduced water use almost 30% by increasing water rates. In the US, more and more states are mandating use of water-efficient plumbing fixtures. Multilateral development agencies have identified some developing country cities as demonstrated sites for urban water conservation. PMID:12286138

  17. Branding water.

    PubMed

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-06-15

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water - specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks - are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. PMID:24742528

  18. Branding water

    PubMed Central

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water – specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks – are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. PMID:24742528

  19. Energy development and water options in the Yellowstone River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, R.; MacIntyre, D.D.; Torpy, M.F.

    1980-08-01

    Using a mixed-integer programming model, the impacts of institutional constraints on the marginal capacity for energy development in the Yellowstone River Basin and consequent hydrologic changes were examined. Under average annual flow conditions, energy outputs in the Yellowstone Basin can increase roughly nine times by 1985 and 12 to 18 times by 2000. In contrast, water availability is limiting energy development in the Tongue and Powder River Basins in Wyoming. Variability in hydrologic regime causes model solutions to change drastically. If flows decrease to 80 and 60% of average annual levels, the energy production is decreased by 17 and 95%, respectively. If development strategies in the basin are followed on the basis of 80% average annual flows, the Buffalo Bill enlargement (271,300 acre-ft), Tongue River Modification (58,000 acre-ft), and the two reservoirs at Sweetgrass Creek (each 27,000 acre-ft) will be necessary, in addition to several small storage facilities, to best meet the instream flow needs in Montana and to deliver the waters apportioned by compact between Wyoming and Montana. Furthermore, the results indicate that relaxing the instream flow requirements from recommended levels by 10% could increase regional energy output by 19% in 1985 and 35% in 2000. This model illustrates that modifications in institutional restrictions to achieve greater water mobility between users in a given state, as well as flexible practices for transferring water between states, can assist economic growth. Thus, the probability for restricted energy development at this juncture appears to be affected to a greater degree by institutional constraints than by water availability constraints.

  20. Water Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... best measure of protection. Back Continue Making Kids Water Wise It's important to teach your kids proper ... the pool is not in use. Back Continue Water Safety Outdoors First, teach kids never to swim ...

  1. Water Filtration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students are asked to design methods to filter water using ordinary materials, while also considering their designs' material and cost efficiencies. They learn about the importance of water and its role in our everyday lives. They come to understand what must occur each day so that they can have clean water.

  2. Surface Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the USGS Water Science for School's page and the topic is surface water. Explained are surface water use, importance, rivers and streams. Also answers the questions of what is runoff, how is the flow of a stream measured, how does stream height relate to flow and much, much more.

  3. Drinking Water and Ground Water: Kids' Stuff

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kids Drinking Water & Ground Water Kids' Stuff Drinking Water & Ground Water Kids' Stuff Kids' Home Games & Activities Other Kids' ... to you. Submit Your Artwork from Thirstin's Wacky Water Adventure Activity Book Here Area Navigation Water Home ...

  4. Special Topics in Water Science (Water Pollution)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Q&A Teachers Contact Back to previous page Water Basics Earth's Water Where is Earth's water? How much water is ... wet is your state? Glaciers and icecaps Watersheds Water Properties Water properties Adhesion and cohesion Capillary action ...

  5. EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION

    E-print Network

    Kane, Andrew S.

    EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION Leadership Team Subcommittee: Joan Bradshaw Michael Dukes Pierce Jones Kati Migliaccio #12;Water Conservation - Situation · Florida water supplies;Water Conservation Initiative 2: Enhancing and protecting water quality, quantity, and supply Priority 1

  6. Regional Water Management: Adapting to Uncertain Water

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    Regional Water Management: Adapting to Uncertain Water Supply and Demand Jim Schneider, Ph · Identify the basin goals and concerns · Assess the water supply and water demands · Develop · How Nebraska manages water · Dealing with uncertain water supplies: adaptive management #12;Regional

  7. Water Treatment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This web site showcases Lenntech's Complete Water treatment and Air filtration solutions. This company designs, manufactures and installs complete air and water treatment system solutions. Lenntech proclaims, "Our wide range of technologies and extended know-how in all water-related sectors will guarantee you a cost-efficient solution meeting your water quality requirements." Whether or not you're looking to purchase one of these fine water treatment systems, the site will still provide beneficial resources about how said systems operate.

  8. Water Conservation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity was developed to get students thinking about the many ways that people use freshwater and how we can conserve this precious and fundamental natural resource. Students will watch a short documentary describing issues related to clean water availability, analyze water-use data and start to think about how they consume and can conserve water. This background knowledge will lead to students collecting data about their own water use and finding areas in their lives to conserve water. This activity uses the 5E instructional model and is part of the "Survivor Earth" series of one-hour lessons.

  9. Water Markets and Water Quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine L. Kling; Marca Weinberg; James E. Wilen

    1993-01-01

    In addition to improving the allocative efficiency of water use, water markets may reduce irrigation-related water quality problems. This potential benefit is examined with a nonlinear programming model developed to simulate agricultural decision-making in a drainage problem area in California's San Joaquin Valley. Results indicate that a 30% drainage goal is achievable through improvements in irrigation practices and changes in

  10. Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water

    E-print Network

    Chen, Tsuhan

    Bear Snow Vegetation RhinoWater Vegetation Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Rhino Water Rhino Water Ground Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Vegetation Rhino Vegetation Ground Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky

  11. Immunization with Theileria parva parasites from buffaloes results in generation of cytotoxic T cells which recognize antigens common among cells infected with stocks of T. parva parva, T. parva bovis, and T. parva lawrencei.

    PubMed Central

    Kariuki, T M; Grootenhuis, J G; Dolan, T T; Bishop, R P; Baldwin, C L

    1990-01-01

    Immunity to infection by the protozoan parasite Theileria parva in cattle is partially attributable to cytotoxic T cells, which kill lymphocytes infected with the schizont stage of the parasite. Here we evaluated five stocks of buffalo-derived T. parva lawrencei parasites and two stocks of cattle-derived T. parva parva parasites for their ability to induce in vivo cytotoxic T cells which can kill lymphocytes infected with a wide variety of strains of T. parva parasites. A group of seven full-sibling cattle, produced by embryo transfer and matched for at least one major histocompatibility complex class I haplotype, were immunized by infection and treatment with the parasite stocks. Target cells used in in vitro cytotoxicity assays were infected with five buffalo-derived parasite stocks and five cattle-derived parasite stocks, including T. parva parva and T. parva bovis. Immunization with any of the seven parasite stocks resulted in the generation of cytotoxic T cells which recognized parasite antigens on most if not all of the target cell lines tested, although the T. parva bovis stock was the least effective at doing so. Further in-depth analyses performed with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from one of the cattle immunized with T. parva lawrencei parasites showed that the pattern of killing of the panel of target cells was altered when either cells infected with different parasite stocks or clones of infected cells were used as stimulator cells in vitro, suggesting the presence of more than one population of parasite-specific cytotoxic effector cells in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However, clones of these cytotoxic effector cells recognized common or cross-reactive antigen epitopes expressed by the entire panel of infected target cells. These T-cell clones will be useful for identifying common T-cell antigen epitopes of T. parva and the parasite genes encoding them. Images PMID:1699896

  12. Water Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Kyrk

    This Flash animation provides a detailed explanation of the chemistry and properties of water. Animated diagrams accompanied by written explanations show the configuration of the water molecule, how water molecules link together, what the crystal structure of ice looks like, and how acids and bases are formed. There is also an animated diagram of the pH scale showing the range in which most cellular processes occur and the approximate pH of some common substances. A French translation is available.

  13. Water Jetting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Hi-Tech Inc., a company which manufactures water jetting equipment, needed a high pressure rotating swivel, but found that available hardware for the system was unsatisfactory. They were assisted by Marshall, which had developed water jetting technology to clean the Space Shuttles. The result was a completely automatic water jetting system which cuts rock and granite and removes concrete. Labor costs have been reduced; dust is suppressed and production has been increased.

  14. Fish Bulletin 178. History And Status of Introduced Fishes In California, 1871 – 1996

    E-print Network

    Dill, William A; Cordone, Almo J

    1997-01-01

    buffalo may, on occasion, find its way into the lower Colorado River and its connected waters.buffalo were collected, and this species was absent from their list of fishes known to be present in waters

  15. Pavlovsky Visits SUNY-Buffalo

    E-print Network

    1985-10-01

    editada Câmara lenta—bueno, Dagomar o Câmara lenta, que se llamó después—la leí justamente en ese encuentro en Nueva York. Vine aquí, y hablé con Laura Yusem. Le cambiaste el nombre. ¿Por qué? Sí, le cambié el nombre. Me gustaba mucho la idea de Câmara...

  16. Buffalo grazing on Wyoming prairies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katie Hale (CSUF; Biological Sciences)

    2007-06-08

    Grasslands are found where rainfall is low and temperatures are extreme. Grasslands experience drought and occasional fires. The soil of grasslands is deep, moist, and nutrient rich from dead grass and other organisms, which is good for agriculture.

  17. Source Water Protection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Drinking Water Source Water Source Water Protection Source Water Protection The drinking water we receive from our ... communities, resource managers and the public. My Source Water Basic Information Frequent Questions Source Water Pocket Guide ( ...

  18. Water Harvesting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Critchley, Will

    This manual has been written with the intention of providing technicians and extension workers with practical guidelines on the implementation of water harvesting schemes. However it will also be of interest to a wider audience, such as rural development specialists and planners. The focus of the manual is on simple, field scale systems for improved production of crops, trees and rangeland species in drought prone areas. Water harvesting systems for water supply such as haffirs, ponds and rooftop tanks are not covered in this manual, nor are large-scale water spreading systems (spate irrigation).

  19. Water underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, Inge

    2015-04-01

    The world's largest assessable source of freshwater is hidden underground, but we do not know what is happening to it yet. In many places of the world groundwater is abstracted at unsustainable rates: more water is used than being recharged, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions of the world unsustainable water use will increase, due to increasing human water use under changing climate. It would not be long before shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to stop this. The world largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water they contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add a third dimension to the aquifer maps, so a thickness, and add geohydrological information we can estimate how much water is stored. Also data on groundwater age and how fast it is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource.

  20. Water Exploration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kathy Kelly Ellins

    2012-01-01

    Water Exploration uses a project-based learning approach, permitting students to conduct research and build an understanding about water science and critical water-related issues. All learning activities and resources are packaged into three modules, or Legacy Cycles, in a way that enhances student learning by making use of the Internet and computer technology to promote inquiry learning. The Earth Science Literacy Principles provide the organizing framework for the lessons and activities in each Water Exploration Legacy Cycle. The curriculum is applicable to high school science courses such as Earth and Space Science, Advanced Placement Environmental Science, Biology, Chemistry, and Aquatic Science.

  1. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Aquaspace H2OME Guardian Water Filter, available through Western Water International, Inc., reduces lead in water supplies. The filter is mounted on the faucet and the filter cartridge is placed in the "dead space" between sink and wall. This filter is one of several new filtration devices using the Aquaspace compound filter media, which combines company developed and NASA technology. Aquaspace filters are used in industrial, commercial, residential, and recreational environments as well as by developing nations where water is highly contaminated.

  2. Computerized Waters 

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    tx H2O | pg. 9 Computerized Waters Story by Kathy Wythe Computerized Waters Model changes management of Texas surface waters In an office on the second floor of a Texas A&MUniversity building, on a desktop computeroperating with the popular... Microsoft Windows,Dr. Ralph Wurbs has designed a computer mod- eling system that has changed the way Texas manages its rivers, streams and reservoirs. The modeling system called Water Rights Availability Package, or WRAP for short, is a set of computer...

  3. Water Pollution

    MedlinePLUS

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  4. Mixing Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Francis Eberle

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this assessment probe is to elicit students' ideas about temperature and energy transfer. The probe is designed to find out whether students recognize that a transfer of energy from the warm water to the cool water occurs until they reach the same temperature. Additionally, students' explanations reveal whether they use an addition, subtraction, or averaging strategy to determine the resulting temperature.

  5. Water Filter

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Boston

    2002-01-01

    In this engineering activity, challenge learners to invent a water filter that cleans dirty water. Learners construct a filter device out of a 2-liter bottle and then experiment with different materials like gravel, sand, and cotton balls to see which is the most effective.
    Safety note: An adult's help is needed for this activity.

  6. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water filter generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in the water flow system. Silver ions serve as effective bactericide/deodorizers. Ray Ward requested and received from NASA a technical information package on the Shuttle filter, and used it as basis for his own initial development, a home use filter.

  7. Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This encyclopedic entry deals with various aspects of microbiology as it relates to drinking water treatment. The use of microbial indicators for assessing fecal contamination is discussed as well as current national drinking water regulations (U.S. EPA) and guidelines proposed ...

  8. Ground water. [Water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Costle

    1980-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the Nation's ground water is contaminated by a variety of sources. These include unprotected industrial, municipal, and radioactive disposal sites, petroleum exploration and mining activities, agricultural operations such as insecticide spraying, high de-icing salts and others. As of March 1980, more than 8000 chemical tests have been performed on well water, with chlorinated organic solvents

  9. Water Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Vision Catalyst Purifier employs the basic technology developed by NASA to purify water aboard the Apollo spacecraft. However, it also uses an "erosion" technique. The purifier kills bacteria, viruses, and algae by "catalytic corrosion." A cartridge contains a silver-impregnated alumina bed with a large surface area. The catalyst bed converts oxygen in a pool of water to its most oxidative state, killing over 99 percent of the bacteria within five seconds. The cartridge also releases into the pool low levels of ionic silver and copper through a controlled process of erosion. Because the water becomes electrochemically active, no electricity is required.

  10. Sinking Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-01

    In this experiment, learners float colored ice cubes in hot and cold water. They compare the behavior of the melting ice cubes to understand how temperature is related to ocean currents and how temperature changes water density. The printable eight-page handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get learners thinking about how and why water temperature changes along with depth. Illustrated experiment directions and a worksheet help learners use the experiment results to gain a deeper understanding of buoyancy and density.

  11. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Seeking to find a more effective method of filtering potable water that was highly contaminated, Mike Pedersen, founder of Western Water International, learned that NASA had conducted extensive research in methods of purifying water on board manned spacecraft. The key is Aquaspace Compound, a proprietary WWI formula that scientifically blends various types of glandular activated charcoal with other active and inert ingredients. Aquaspace systems remove some substances; chlorine, by atomic adsorption, other types of organic chemicals by mechanical filtration and still others by catalytic reaction. Aquaspace filters are finding wide acceptance in industrial, commercial, residential and recreational applications in the U.S. and abroad.

  12. Le Lait, 1988, 68 (3), 295-310 The microflora of natural whey cultures utilized

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    that these activities were widely affected by tempe rature and type of milk (cow or water- buffalo milk). Streptococci in the manufacture of Mozzarella cheese from water-buffalo milk S. COPPOLA, E. PARENTE, S. DUMONTET, Antonella LA naturelles en sérum. Introduction Mozzarella cheese made from water-buffalo milk is one of the most highly

  13. Water Resources Policy & Economics

    E-print Network

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    Water Resources Policy & Economics FOR 4984 Selected Course Topics · Appropriative and riparian water institutions · Incentives for conservation · Water rights for in-stream environmental use · Surface water-groundwater management · Water quality regulations · Water markets · Economic and policy

  14. Water Privatisation 

    E-print Network

    Zölls, Elisa

    2011-08-17

    This dissertation deals with the policy issues of large-scale, urban water privatisation projects in the face of uncertainty and variability. The main objective is to evaluate whether a single policy approach, namely privatisation associated...

  15. Grabbing Water

    E-print Network

    Reis, Pedro Miguel

    We introduce a novel technique for grabbing water with a flexible solid. This new passive pipetting mechanism was inspired by floating flowers and relies purely on the coupling of the elasticity of thin plates and the ...

  16. Sinking Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This experiment uses colored ice cubes to demonstrate how temperature changes water density. Working together in small groups, students can complete the experiment in a single class period. The printable eight-page handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about how and why water temperature changes along with depth, illustrated experiment directions, and a worksheet that helps students use the experiment results to gain a deeper understanding of buoyancy and density.

  17. Water resources

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This section of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report discusses the environmental effects on the water resources of the region. Water quality concerns in the region include: (1) point and non-point sources of pollution, (2) toxic substances found in both sediments and wildlife of some reservoirs, and (3) occurrences of low dissolved oxygen levels downstream of certain dams. Each of these concerns are discussed with respect to the aquatic environments of the region.

  18. Water watch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gruber

    1993-01-01

    This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch[close quotes] focuses on summer streamflow. In addition, a summary of streamflow, soil moisture, and water supply conditions through the end of May is presented. In addition, short-term streamflow forecasts are given. Forecasts are based on the National Weather Service US Climate Analysis Center's 90-day outlook. Temperature and precipitation probability estimates given in the outlook

  19. Water Watch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gruber

    1993-01-01

    This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch,[close quotes] focusing on streamflow, is based on reports and data provided by the National Weather Service Office of hydrology and River Forecast Centers, US Department of Agriculture, the Bureau of Reclamation, Soil Conservation Service, California Department of Water Resources, and the US Geological Survey. Ninety-day outlooks are through August. For purposes of reporting, the

  20. Filtering Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brieske, Joel A.

    2003-01-01

    The first site related to water filtration is from the US Environmental Agency entitled EPA Environmental Education: Water Filtration (1 ). The two-page document explains the need for water filtration and the steps water treatment plants take to purify water. To further understand the process, a demonstration project is provided that illustrates these purification steps, which include coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection. The second site is an interesting Flash animation called Filtration: How Does it Work (2 ) provided by Canada's Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration. Visitors will learn various types of filtration procedures and systems and the materials that are used such as carbon and sand. Next, from the National Science Foundation is a learning activity called Get Out the Gunk (3 ). Using just a few simple items from around the house, kids will be able to answer questions like "Does a filter work better with a lot of water rushing through, or a small trickle?" and "Does it make the water cleaner if you pour it through a filter twice?" The fourth Web site, Rapid Sand Filtration (4 ), is provided by Dottie Schmitt and Christie Shinault of Virginia Tech. The authors describe the process, which involves the flow of water through a bed of granular media, normally following settling basins in conventional water treatment trains to remove any particulate matter left over after flocculation and settling. Along with its thorough description, readers can view illustrations and photographs that further explain the process. The Vegetative Buffer Strips for Improved Surface Water Quality (5) Web site is provided by the Iowa State University Extension office. The document explains what vegetative buffer strips are, how they filter contaminants and sediment from surface water, how effective they are, and more. The sixth offering is a file called Infiltration Basins and Trenches (6) that is offered by the University of Wisconsin Extension. These structures are intended to collect water, have it infiltrate into the ground, and have it purified along the way. This document explains how effective they are at removing pollutants, how to install them, design guidelines, maintenance, and more. Next, from a site called Wilderness Survial.net is the Water Filtration Devices (7) page. Visitors read how to make a filtering system out of cloth, sand, crushed rock, charcoal, or a hollow log, although as is stated, the water still has to be purified. The last site, from the US Geological Survey, is called A Visit to a Wastewater-Treatment Plant: Primary Treatment of Wastewater (8). Although geared towards children, the site does a good job of explaining what happens at each stage of the treatment process and how pollutants are removed to help keep water clean. Everything from screening, pumping, aerating, sludge and scum removal, killing bacteria, and what is done with wastewater residuals is covered.