Sample records for water buffalo bubalus

  1. COMMUNAL SUCKLING IN WATER BUFFALO (Bubalus bubalis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. MURPHEY; SOUZA LIMA; MOURA DUARTE; Mateus J. R. Paranhos da Costa

    Murphey, R. M.; Paranhos da Costa, M. J. R.; Lima, L. O. S. and Duarte, F. A. M., 1991. Communal suckling in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci., 28: 341-352 Communal nursing (an adult female allowing the offspring of another conspecific female to suckle) is a relatively frequent behavior in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Fourteen lactating water buffalo

  2. Genetic Resistance to Brucella abortus in the Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giorgia Borriello; Rosanna Capparelli; Michele Bianco; Domenico Fenizia; Flora Alfano; Federico Capuano; Danilo Ercolini; Antonio Parisi; Sante Roperto; Domenico Iannelli

    2006-01-01

    Brucellosis is a costly disease of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Latent infections and prolonged incuba- tion of the pathogen limit the efficacy of programs based on the eradication of infected animals. We exploited genetic selection for disease resistance as an approach to the control of water buffalo brucellosis. We tested 231 water buffalo cows for the presence of anti-Brucella abortus

  3. The C-banding pattern of the Egyptian Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Note The C-banding pattern of the Egyptian Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) E. P. CRIBIU A. OBEIDAH GIZA Egypt Summary The diploid chromosome number of the Egyptian Water Buffalo is 50 of which 10 heterochromatin. The karyotype of the Egyptian Water Buffalo (Bifbalus bubalis) has been reported by DE HONDT

  4. Analysis of mitochondrial D-loop region casts new light on domestic water buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis) phylogeny

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerold Kierstein; Marcelo Vallinoto; Artur Silva; Maria Paula Schneider; Leopoldo Iannuzzi; Bertram Brenig

    2004-01-01

    The phylogeny of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) is still a matter of discussion, especially if the two types of domestic water buffalo (swamp and river) derived from different domestication events or if they are products of human selection. To obtain more insight, we analyzed the entire mitochondrial D-loop region of 80 water buffaloes of four different breeds, i.e., 19 swamp

  5. Characterisation of bubaline coronavirus strains associated with gastroenteritis in water buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis) calves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola Decaro; Francesco Cirone; Viviana Mari; Donatella Nava; Antonella Tinelli; Gabriella Elia; Alessandra Di Sarno; Vito Martella; Maria Loredana Colaianni; Giuseppe Aprea; Maria Tempesta; Canio Buonavoglia

    2010-01-01

    Recently, a coronavirus strain (179\\/07-11) was isolated from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and the virus which displayed a strict genetic and biological relatedness with bovine coronavirus (BCoV) was referred to as bubaline coronavirus (BuCoV). Here, we report the characterisation of four BuCoVs strains identified in the faeces or intestinal contents of water buffalo calves with acute gastroenteritis. Single BuCoV infections

  6. Sarcocystis dubeyi (Huong and Uggla, 1999) infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) are intermediate hosts for 4 species of Sarcocystis, i.e., S. fusiformis and S. buffalonis with cats as definitive hosts, S. levinei with dogs as definitive hosts, and S. dubeyi with an unknown definitive host, but thought to be zoonotic. Currently, the latter speci...

  7. Redescription of Sarcocystis fusiformis sarcocysts from the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five species of Sarcocystis have been reported from the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): Sarcocystis fusiformis and Sarcocystis buffalonis have macrocysts and cats act as definitive hosts; Sarcocystis levinei has microcysts and dogs act as definitive host; Sarcocystis dubeyi and S. sinensis have mic...

  8. Shedding of Neospora caninum oocysts by dogs fed tissues from naturally infected water buffaloes ( Bubalus bubalis) from Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. R. Rodrigues; S. M. Gennari; D. M Aguiar; C. Sreekumar; D. E. Hill; K. B. Miska; M. C. B. Vianna; J. P. Dubey

    2004-01-01

    Attempts were made to isolate Neospora caninum from naturally infected water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Brazil. Brains from six buffaloes with indirect fluorescent antibodies (>1:100) to N. caninum were used to isolate the parasite by bioassay in dogs and gerbils followed by in vitro culture. Shedding of Neospora-like oocysts was noticed in dogs fed brains from three buffaloes (isolate designation

  9. Abortion and foetal lesions induced by Neospora caninum in experimentally infected water buffalos (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Chryssafidis, Andreas L; Cantón, Germán; Chianini, Francesca; Innes, Elisabeth A; Madureira, Ed H; Soares, Rodrigo M; Gennari, Solange M

    2015-01-01

    The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is an important species in several countries for its milk and meat production, as well as for transport and other agricultural activities. It is, in general, considered more resistant than cattle to different parasitic diseases, also less demanding for forage quality. It has been postulated that buffalo may be resistant to abortion caused by neosporosis, because of high serological prevalences found in buffalo herds from different localities, with no description of Neospora caninum-related abortion. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential impact of neosporosis in pregnant water buffalo cows. In this work, three pregnant buffalo cows were experimentally infected with Nc-1 strain of N. caninum, and abortion was detected 35 days post-infection. Molecular and histopathological results found in post-mortem tissues are described and discussed, confirming the susceptibility of water buffalos to abortion caused by N. caninum. PMID:25324135

  10. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Sarcocystis species in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalus) in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ashmawy, Karam I; Abu-Akkada, Somaia S; Ghashir, Mohamed Bn

    2014-12-01

    The present study was planned to investigate the prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. among slaughtered water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) at Alexandria province, Egypt. Three hundred blood samples were collected from slaughtered buffaloes (5-7 years old). Two techniques were used to evaluate the seroprevalence of Sarcocystis spp., enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA). It was revealed that 203 (67.6 %) and 191 (63.6 %) of the tested serum samples were seropositive to Sarcocystis spp. by ELISA and IHA, respectively. The results of sensitivity and specificity of IHA relative to ELISA were 94 and 100 %, respectively. For molecular characterization of inter- and intra-species genetic polymorphism within Egyptian isolates of Sarcocystis spp. of water buffaloes, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLPs) were performed on four macroscopic isolates. The isolates represented two different geographical regions of Egypt, Alexandria and Assuit provinces. Alexandria isolates (large and small-sized cyst of the same host) and Assuit isolates (large and small-sized cyst of the same host) were used. The 18S rDNA of the macroscopic cysts were characterized, in tandem, by four restriction endonucleases, RsaI, MboI, SspI and DraI. RsaI and MboI enzymes did not show any restriction sites for all isolates, leaving the amplified fragments without cutting. SspI showed two fragments in Alexandria and Assuit small-sized isolates cut by the enzyme at 600-700-bp fragments, while Alexandria and Assuit large-sized cysts amplicons were not digested by this enzyme. The fourth enzyme, DraI, cut the PCR product of Alexandria large-sized cysts into two fragments (420-780 bp), while Assuit large-sized amplicon was not cut. It could be concluded that there was a far distance between the two local isolates (small and large sized), but there were no differences between the large-sized isolates. PMID:24619513

  11. Neosporosis in water buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis) in southern Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Guarino; G Fusco; G Savini; G Di Francesco; G Cringoli

    2000-01-01

    A study was carried on 1377 water buffalo serum samples from 50 farms in southern Italy to test the presence of Neospora caninum antibodies by indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Rabbit anti-buffalo immunoglobulins conjugated to fluorescein were used in the test. Fluorescence in sera dilutions above 1:200 was considered as indicative of the presence of N. caninum antibodies. The overall

  12. FATAL INTESTINAL COCCIDIOSIS IN A THREE-WEEK OLD BUFFALO CALF (BUBALUS BUBALUS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalus) is important to the economy of several countries, especially in Asia and Brazil. Little is known regarding the impact of coccidiosis in buffaloes. Cattle and buffaloes are considered to have common species of Eimeria, but critical cross transmissions have not been...

  13. Biological and genetic analysis of a bovine-like coronavirus isolated from water buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis) calves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola Decaro; Vito Martella; Gabriella Elia; Marco Campolo; Viviana Mari; Costantina Desario; Maria Stella Lucente; Alessio Lorusso; Grazia Greco; Marialaura Corrente; Maria Tempesta; Canio Buonavoglia

    2008-01-01

    We describe the isolation, biological and genetic characterization of a host-range variant of bovine coronavirus (BCoV) detected in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). By conventional and real-time RT-PCR assays, the virus was demonstrated in the intestinal contents of two 20-day-old buffalo calves dead of a severe form of enteritis and in the feces of additional 17 buffalo calves with diarrhea. Virus

  14. Effects of smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus biomass on water transparency, nutrients, and productivity in shallow experimental ponds.

    PubMed

    Goetz, D; Kröger, R; Miranda, L E

    2014-05-01

    The smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus is a native benthivore to floodplain lakes in the Yazoo River Basin, USA. Based on evidence from other benthivorous fish studies we hypothesized high biomasses of I. bubalus contribute to poor water quality conditions. We tested this hypothesis in shallow (<1.5 m) 0.05 ha earthen ponds at three stocking biomasses over a 10-week period during the summer of 2012. The most notable results from the permutational multivariate analysis of variance suggest I. bubalus at high and moderate biomasses significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced turbidity and suspended solid levels while decreasing Secchi depth. Our results suggest that effects of I. bubalus on water clarity may have considerable ecological implications in natural habitats such as shallow floodplain lakes. PMID:24526283

  15. The Effects of Benthivorous Smallmouth Buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) on Water Quality and Nutrient Cycling in a Shallow Floodplain Lake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Shormann; James B. Cotner

    1997-01-01

    Experimental mesocosm studies revealed that the presence of benthivorous smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) significantly enhanced turbidity, phytoplankton biomass, ammonium (NH4 ), and total nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations in a shallow, aerobic, hypereutrophic oxbow lake. The effects of Ictiobuson water quality are similar to the results of experiments performed on other benthivorous fish species. Prior studies have suggested that

  16. Effect of Pen Size on Behavioral, Endocrine, and Immune Responses of Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Calves1,2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Grasso; Fabio Napolitano; Giuseppe De Rosa; Teresa Quarantelli; Luigi Serpe; Aldo Bordi

    Female water buffalo ( Bubalus buba- lis) calves (n = 28) aged 7 to 10 d were divided into four groups of seven animals each to examine the effects of space allowance (Group A: 2.6 indoor m2 + 2.0 outdoor m2\\/calf; Group B: 2.6 indoor m2\\/calf; Group C: 1.5 indoor m2\\/calf; Group D: 1.0 indoor m2\\/calf) on behavioral, endocrine, and

  17. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in female water buffaloes ( Bubalus bubalis) from the southeastern region of Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. U Fujii; N Kasai; S. M Nishi; J. P Dubey; S. M Gennari

    2001-01-01

    Antibodies to Neospora caninum were assayed in sera of 222 female water buffaloes from Ribeira Valley of São Paulo State, Brazil, using an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and Neospora agglutination test (NAT). IFAT antibodies were found in 64% of buffaloes with titers of 1:25 (42 buffaloes), 1:50 (53 buffaloes), 1:100 (31 buffaloes), 1:200 (10 buffaloes), 1:400 (3 buffaloes), or

  18. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Neospora caniuum and Toxoplasma gondii in water buffaloes ( Bubalus bubalis) from Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Dubey; S. Romand; M. Hilali; O. C. H. Kwok; P. Thulliez

    1998-01-01

    Sera from 75 water buffaloes from Egypt were examined using a direct agglutination test incorporating mercaptoethanol for antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 51 (68%) of 75 buffaloes in titres of 1:20 (six buffaloes), 1:40 (15 buffaloes), 1:160 (one buffalo), 1:320 (one buffalo) and ?1:640 (28 buffaloes), using N. caninum formalin-preserved whole

  19. Redescription of Sarcocystis fusiformis sarcocysts from the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Hilali, M; Van Wilpe, E; Verma, S K; Calero-Bernal, R; Abdel-Wahab, A

    2015-02-01

    Four valid species of Sarcocystis have been reported from the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): Sarcocystis fusiformis, Sarcocystis buffalonis, Sarcocystis levinei and Sarcocystis dubeyi. Here, we redescribe structure of S. fusiformis sarcocysts by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM). Twenty-one macroscopic sarcocysts from oesophagus of the water buffalo in Egypt were examined by light microscopy, SEM and TEM. The sarcocyst wall was up to 9 ?m thick, depending on the section and the technique. In 5 ?m paraffin-embedded sections, the sarcocyst wall was indistinct, 2-5 ?m thick and appeared smooth. In 1 ?m plastic-embedded sections stained with toluidine blue, the sarcocyst wall was 2.5-5.2 ?m thick and had branched villar protrusions (vp)-like branches of a dead tree. By SEM, the sarcocyst wall had a mesh-like structure with irregularly shaped vp that were folded over the sarcocyst wall. On each vp there were uniform papillomatous structures that were 100 nm wide. By TEM, vp were up to 6 ?m long and contained filamentous tubular structures, most of which were parallel to the long axis of the projections; granules were absent from these tubules. By TEM, bradyzoites within the same cyst varied from 11.2 to 16.8 ?m in length. By TEM, bradyzoites had a very long (10 ?m) convoluted mitochondrion, up to 12 dense granules, but only 2 rhoptries. This redescription should help to differentiate the sarcocysts of S. fusiformis from similar sarcocysts in domestic and wild ruminants. PMID:25111676

  20. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression studies of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) somatotropin.

    PubMed

    Sadaf, S; Khan, M A; Wilson, D B; Akhtar, M W

    2007-02-01

    Cloning, high-level expression, and characterization of the somatotropin (ST) gene of an indigenous Nili-Ravi breed of water buffalo Bubalus bubalis (BbST) are described. Coding, non-coding, and promoter regions of BbST were amplified and sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed several silent and two interesting point mutations on comparison with STs of other vertebrate species. One interesting variation in the BbST sequence was the replacement of a conserved glutamine residue by arginine. A plasmid was also constructed for the production of BbST in Escherichia coli BL21 (RIPL) CodonPlus, under the control of IPTG-inducible T7-lac promoter. High-level expression could be obtained by synthesizing a codon-optimized ST gene and expressing it in the form of inclusion bodies. The inclusion bodies represented over 20% of the E. coli cellular proteins. The biologically active conformation of purified BbST was confirmed by its efficient growth promoting activity in Nb2 cell proliferation assay. The expression system and purification strategy employed promise to be a useful approach to produce BbST for further use in structure-function studies and livestock industry. PMID:17367293

  1. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in intestinal and lymph node tissues of water buffaloes ( Bubalus bubalis) by PCR and bacterial culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Sivakumar; B. N. Tripathi; Nem Singh

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of bacterial culture and IS900-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was compared for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) from the intestinal and mesenteric lymph node tissues of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) showing lesions of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). Out of 20 (4.9%) animals showing histological lesions suggestive of paratuberculosis, 14 (70%) and 6 (30%) were positive in

  2. Identity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus) and the suppression of Sarcocystis sinensis as a nomen nudum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are uncertainties concerning the identity and host species specificity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus). Currently, in cattle three species are recognized with known endogenous stages, viz.: S. cruzi (with canine definitive host), S. hirsuta...

  3. Quantitative studies on spermatogenesis in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Quantitative studies on spermatogenesis in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) G. S. BILASPURI S. S. GURAYA. The qualitative behaviour of spermatogenetic cells and Sertoli cells in the buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) was studied epithelium cycle of the buffalo (Guraya and Bilaspuri, 1976a, b, c). The quanti- tative aspects

  4. Local Immune Responses of the Chinese Water Buffalo, Bubalus bubalis, against Schistosoma japonicum Larvae: Crucial Insights for Vaccine Design

    PubMed Central

    McWilliam, Hamish E. G.; Piedrafita, David; Li, Yuesheng; Zheng, Mao; He, Yongkang; Yu, Xinling; McManus, Donald P.; Meeusen, Els N. T.

    2013-01-01

    Asian schistosomiasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease infecting up to a million people and threatening tens of millions more. Control of this disease is hindered by the animal reservoirs of the parasite, in particular the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), which is responsible for significant levels of human transmission. A transmission-blocking vaccine administered to buffaloes is a realistic option which would aid in the control of schistosomiasis. This will however require a better understanding of the immunobiology of schistosomiasis in naturally exposed buffaloes, particularly the immune response to migrating schistosome larvae, which are the likely targets of an anti-schistosome vaccine. To address this need we investigated the immune response at the major sites of larval migration, the skin and the lungs, in previously exposed and re-challenged water buffaloes. In the skin, a strong allergic-type inflammatory response occurred, characterised by leukocyte and eosinophil infiltration including the formation of granulocytic abscesses. Additionally at the local skin site, interleukin-5 transcript levels were elevated, while interleukin-10 levels decreased. In the skin-draining lymph node (LN) a predominant type-2 profile was seen in stimulated cells, while in contrast a type-1 profile was detected in the lung draining LN, and these responses occurred consecutively, reflecting the timing of parasite migration. The intense type-2 immune response at the site of cercarial penetration is significantly different to that seen in naive and permissive animal models such as mice, and suggests a possible mechanism for immunity. Preliminary data also suggest a reduced and delayed immune response occurred in buffaloes given high cercarial challenge doses compared with moderate infections, particularly in the skin. This study offers a deeper understanding into the immunobiology of schistosomiasis in a natural host, which may aid in the future design of more effective vaccines. PMID:24086786

  5. Mosaicism of 50,XX/51,XX in a Murrah buffalo Bubalus bubalis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . The authors are not aware of any report of autosomal trisomy in water buffalo; however, in cattle variousNote Mosaicism of 50,XX/51,XX in a Murrah buffalo Bubalus bubalis BR Yadav S Kumar1 OS Tomer CR buffalo with irregular breeding history. The animal had mosaicism of two cell lines (51,XX in 22

  6. Rapid sexing of water buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis) embryos using loop-mediated isothermal amplification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroki Hirayama; Soichi Kageyama; Yoshiyuki Takahashi; Satoru Moriyasu; Ken Sawai; Sadao Onoe; Keiko Watanabe; Shinichi Kojiya; Tsugunori Notomi; Akira Minamihashi

    2006-01-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel DNA amplification method that amplifies a target sequence specifically under isothermal conditions. The objective of this study was to identify a Y chromosome-specific sequence in water buffalo and to establish an efficient procedure for embryo sexing by LAMP. The homologues of a Y chromosome-specific sequence, bovine repeat Y-associated.2, in swamp and river buffalo

  7. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the STAT1 gene in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Deng, Tingxian; Pang, Chunying; Zhu, Peng; Liao, Biyun; Zhang, Ming; Yang, Bingzhuang; Liang, Xianwei

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) is a critical component of the transcription factor complex in the interferon (IFN) signaling pathways. Of the seven STAT isoforms, STAT1 is a key mediator of type I and type III IFN signaling, but limited information is available for the STAT genes in the water buffalo. Here, we amplified and identified the complete coding sequence (CDS) of the buffalo STAT1 gene by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Sequence analysis indicated that the buffalo STAT1 gene length size was 3437 bp, containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 2244 bp that encoded 747 amino acids for the first time. The buffalo STAT1 CDS showed 99, 98, 89, 93, 86, 85, and 87% identity with that of Bos taurus, Ovis aries, Homo sapiens, Sus scrofa, Rattus norvegicus, Mus musculus, and Capra hircus. The phylogenetic analyses revealed that the nearest relationship existed between the water buffalo and B. taurus. The STAT1 gene was ubiquitously expressed in 11 buffalo tissues by real-time PCR, whereas STAT1 was expressed at higher levels in the lymph. The STAT1 gene contained five targeted microRNA sequences compared with the B. taurus by the miRBase software that provide a fundamental for identifying the STAT1 gene function. PMID:25336386

  8. Microvascular architecture of the near-term uterine caruncles in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Abd-Elnaeim, M M M; Miglino, M A; Leiser, R

    2007-06-01

    The present investigation was carried out on five near-term pregnant water buffaloes for studying the microvascular architecture of the uterine caruncles. The vascular casts were obtained by injection of 4:1 mixture of mercox and methylmethacrylate through the branches of the uterine arteries. After complete polymerization of the plastic, corrosion was conducted in 20% potassium hydroxide, then the vessel casts were immersed in distilled water, cut into small pieces, sputter coated with gold, and examined by using a scanning electron microscope. The buffalo uterine caruncle is highly vascularized through two slightly convoluted arteries and a single less tortuous vein. The arteries branch into several stem arteries at the base of the uterine caruncle, which follow nearly straight course in the primary septa towards the fetal side. During the courses of these stem arteries arterioles of variable diameters arise. The arterioles run in the secondary and tertiary septae and at this location arterioles and venules are connected through a voluminous capillary complex. The latter consists of capillaries of greatly variable diameters with vigorous coiling and sinusoidally dilated zones. From the capillary complexes the blood is driven through postcapillary venules back to the tertiary, secondary and primary septa, respectively, and then converge into stem veins which leave the caruncles through the branches of the uterine vein. PMID:17535357

  9. Identity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus) and the suppression of Sarcocystis sinensis as a nomen nudum.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Fayer, R; Rosenthal, B M; Calero-Bernal, R; Uggla, A

    2014-09-15

    There are uncertainties concerning the identity and host species specificity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus). Currently, in cattle three species are recognized with known endogenous stages, viz.: S. cruzi (with canine definitive host), S. hirsuta (feline definitive host), and S. hominis (primate definitive host). Recently, a fourth Sarcocystis species with an unknown life cycle has been reported from cattle. In the water buffalo, four species of Sarcocystis have been described: S. fusiformis (feline definitive host), S. buffalonis (feline definitive host), S. levinei (canine definitive host), and S. dubeyi (definitive host unknown but not cat or dog). Besides, there are studies of Sarcocystis infections in buffalo and cattle from China with results that are difficult to interpret and validate. For example, some of the studies report transmission of Sarcocystis species between cattle and buffalo, but steps to preclude exogenous exposures were not reported. A species of the water buffalo, 'S. sinensis', was proposed at a Chinese national conference in 1990, and published as an abstract without figures and with no archived type specimens for verification. The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature Articles 9 and 10 state that "abstracts of articles, papers, posters, text of lectures, and similar material when issued primarily to participants at meetings, symposia, colloquia or congress does not constitute published work"; therefore, S. sinensis is a nomen nudum. PMID:25034134

  10. Molecular characterization of oxytocin receptor gene in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Arunmozhi, N; Singh, S K; Sarath, T; Agarwal, S K; Doiphode, A; Shankar, U

    2014-10-01

    Buffaloes are known for their productivity as compared to average yielding cows due to higher fat percentage, better feed conversion ability and disease resistance. On the other hand, the reproductive performances of buffaloes are often considered as poor owing to late sexual maturity, weak/silent oestrus, repeat breeder and prolonged intercalving interval. The study of cascade of events during oestrus and oestrous cycle can be useful for the improvement of reproductive efficiency of buffaloes. More precisely, the hormonal changes initiated at the molecular level within the animal determine the reproductive nature of the species. Nucleotide/protein sequence analysis serves as a vital tool in analysing the binding of the hormones for their effect or functions. In this study, we have reported cloning and characterization of the complete coding (cDNA) sequence of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) in buffaloes. Buffalo OXTR gene contains an uninterrupted ORF of 1176 nucleotides corresponding to an inferred polypeptide length of 391 amino acids (aa). The molecular weight of the deduced aa sequence was found to be 43 kDa with an isoelectric point of 9.253 and 16.328 charge at pH 7.0. The deduced protein sequence consists of 38 strongly basic (+) (K,R), 22 strongly acidic (-) (D,E), 186 hydrophobic (A, I, L, F, W, V) and 95 Polar (N, C, Q, S, T, Y) aa. Results indicated that aspartate (D) at aa position 85 and D, R and C at aa positions 136, 137 and 138, respectively, are conserved in buffaloes. The buffalo OXTR gene shared a per cent similarity ranging from 84.7 to 98.1 and 88.5 to 97.7 at nucleotide and deduced aa sequence levels, respectively, with that of other species. Phylogram constructed on the basis of either nucleotide or deduced aa sequences of buffalo OXTR gene showed that buffalo, cattle and sheep have diverged from human and swine and formed a separate clad. The buffalo sequence has shown maximum similarity and closeness with cattle followed by sheep both at nucleotide and at aa level. PMID:25132183

  11. The Sertoli cell of the water buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis ) during the spermatogenic cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harcharan Singh Pawar; Karl-Heinz Wrobel

    1991-01-01

    Ultrastructural features and morphometric evaluations of buffalo Sertoli cells are reported for the six phases of the spermatogenic cycle. The phases of the tubular seminiferous epithelium are identified according to characteristic cellular associations with completed spermiation as demarcation between two cycles. Average tubular diameter (245 µm) and epithelial height (61 µm) do not vary significantly during the cycle. The relative

  12. Identification of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins by peptide mass fingerprinting in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Saxena, Abhishake; Singh, S K; Sharma, R K; Singh, I; Agarwal, S K

    2014-08-01

    Ruminant placentas synthesize pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) during pregnancy, which serve as biomarkers of pregnancy. The present study was conducted to verify, whether PAGs are expressed in buffalo placenta by using lectin-based affinity chromatography and peptide mass finger printing (PMF). Fetal cotyledonary tissues were collected from gravid uteri procured from slaughtered house. Proteins were extracted and subjected to wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) lectin affinity chromatography to isolate the PAGs. The isolated glycoproteins were separated by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE. PMF results of the 75 kDa protein revealed presence of two PAGs (PAG-7 and -11). The PAG-7 consisted of about 170 mass signals, of which 16 were assigned to corresponding/translated cDNA sequences of buffalo PAG-7, leading to sequence coverage of 40%. PMF result of PAG-11 showed 170 mass signals, of which 15 were assigned to buffalo PAG-11, leading to sequence coverage of 34%. In conclusion, the glycoprotein isolated from placental extract corresponding to 75 kDa band on SDS PAGE gel was a mixture of PAG-7 and -11, which may help in development of suitable diagnostics for pregnancy in buffalo. PMID:25296505

  13. Seroepidemiology of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in cattle and water buffaloes ( Bubalus bubalis) in the People's Republic of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinhai Yu; Zhaofei Xia; Qun Liu; Jing Liu; Jun Ding; Wei Zhang

    2007-01-01

    A seroepidemiological survey of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in cattle and water buffaloes was carried out in the People's Republic of China. Serum samples were obtained from dairy (n=262, 9 herds in 9 provinces) and beef cattle (n=10, 1 herd) and water buffaloes (n=40) in China. All sera were tested for antibodies to N. caninum and T. gondii by

  14. Pheno- and genotyping of Brucella abortus biovar 5 isolated from a water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) fetus: First case reported in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Diana; Thompson, Carolina; Draghi, Graciela; Canavesio, Vilma; Jacobo, Roberto; Zimmer, Patricia; Elena, Sebastián; Nicola, Ana M; de Echaide, Susana Torioni

    2014-09-17

    An isolate of Brucella spp. from an aborted water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) fetus was characterized based on its pheno- and genotype. The phenotype was defined by carbon dioxide requirement, hydrogen sulfide production, sensitivity to thionin and basic fuchsin and agglutination with Brucella A and M monospecific antisera. The genotype was based on the amplification of the following genes: bcsp31, omp2ab, and eri and the species-specific localization of the insertion sequence IS711 in the Brucella chromosome via B. abortus-B. melitensis-B. ovis-B. suis (AMOS)-PCR. Unexpectedly, the isolate showed a phenotype different from B. abortus bv 1, the most prevalent strain in cattle in Argentina, and from vaccine strain 19, currently used in bovines and water buffaloes. Genotyping supported the phenotypic results, as the analysis of the omp2ab gene sequence showed an identical pattern to either B. abortus bv 5 or B. melitensis. Finally, the AMOS PCR generated a 1700-bp fragment from the isolate, different than those amplified from B. abortus bv 1 (498bp) and B. melitensis (731bp), confirming the presence of B. abortus bv 5. The OIE/FAO Reference Laboratory for Brucellosis confirmed this typing. This is the first report of B. abortus bv 5 from a water buffalo in the Americas. PMID:25113673

  15. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with exposure of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) to Neospora caninum in northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kengradomkij, Chanya; Inpankaew, Tawin; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Wongpanit, Kannika; Wongnakphet, Sirichai; Mitchell, Thomas J; Xuan, Xuenan; Igarashi, Ikuo; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Stich, Roger W

    2015-01-15

    Water buffalo are important draft animals for agriculture in resource-restricted areas worldwide. Water buffalo were shown to be experimentally susceptible to infection with Neospora caninum, potentially affected by neosporosis, and naturally exposed to the parasite in Asia. Although enzootic to Thailand, the distribution of N. caninum among Thai water buffalo is unclear. The objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum among water buffalo of northeast Thailand and to identify risk factors associated with their exposure to N. caninum. Sera from 628 water buffalo from 288 farms were tested with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). A total of 57 samples from 48 herds contained antibodies to N. caninum, indicating overall seroprevalence of 9.1% and 16.7% among individual animals and herds, respectively. The overall seroprevalence was highest in provinces located in the Khorat Basin in the southern part of the region tested. Host age was also associated with seroprevalence, with the greatest seroprevalence (16.1%) among buffalo over 10 years of age, followed by 5-10 years of age (13.4%), 3-5 years (9.2%), and less than 3 years (1.2%). These results collectively suggested that horizontal transmission from canine definitive hosts was an important route of water buffalo exposure to N. caninum. These results also verified the importance of risk factor analysis for effective bovine neosporosis control strategies at the local level. PMID:25499824

  16. Effect of supplemental light on growth, prolactin, progesterone and luteinizing hormone in water buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, K. S.; Gwazdauskas, F. C.; Akers, R. M.; McGilliard, M. L.

    1989-06-01

    Fifty non-pregnant Surti buffalo heifers aged between 17 and 42 months ( n=24, <24 months; n=26, >24 months) were randomly assigned to groups subject to either natural daylight +4h supplemental light ( n=25) or natural day light ( n=25), to study changes in growth, serum prolactin (Prl), progesterone (P4) and luteinizing hormone (LH) to supplemental lighting. Ambient temperatures (T) and relative humidity (RH) generally were >27° C and <70% during the day-time, respectively. Light-supplemented heifers had 16.2 kg net body weight (BW) gain at 9 weeks compared to 20.8 kg for controls, but higher mean Prl after 6.5 weeks ( P<0.01), and higher P4 (0.41 vs 0.19 ng/ml; P<0.06) than control heifers. Older heifers had 39.7% greater BW ( P<0.01), but a net 4.3% BW gain compared to a 10.1% gain for younger heifers at 10 weeks. Older, light-supplemented heifers had higher mean P4 (0.63 vs 0.19 ng/ml; P<0.07) than the other groups. These weight and hormonal changes suggest that 4 h supplemental light can alter growth and endocrine function in buffaloes under similar planes of nutrition. While light supplementation did not have a positive effect on body wieght during the 10 week study, body weight and endocrine changes due to supplemental light may be important factors for initiation of reproductive cyclicity.

  17. The in vitro effect of leptin on semen quality of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls

    PubMed Central

    Khaki, Amir; Batavani, Rooz Ali; Najafi, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the probable effects of leptin addition in different levels to the semen extender on sperm quality (motility and motility parameters, viability, sperm membrane integrity, and DNA damage). Semen specimens were evaluated immediately after leptin addition, equilibration time and after thawing the frozen semen. Five healthy buffalo bulls (5 ejaculates from each bull) were used. Each ejaculate was diluted at 37 ?C with tris-based extender containing 0 (control), 10, 20, 50, 100, and 200 ng mL-1 leptin. The diluted semen was kept 4 hr in refrigerator to reach to the equilibration time and then packed in 0.5 mL French straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Our results showed that, in the fresh semen, no significant difference was observed in all sperm quality parameters evaluated among all of the examined leptin concentrations. Addition of 10 ng mL-1 leptin into semen extender significantly preserved sperm motility, all of the motility parameters, and viability in equilibrated semen compared to that of control group. However, in vitro addition of 200 ng mL-1 leptin, significantly decreased theses parameters. In the frozen thawed semen, all leptin concentrations decreased sperm motility and viability, but significant decrease was observed in concentrations of 100 and 200 ng mL-1. Adding leptin to semen extender did not have any significant influence on sperm DNA damage and sperm membrane integrity in all examined groups. These findings suggest that in vitro addition of 10 ng mL-1 leptin could preserve sperm motility and viability in cooled semen of buffaloes. PMID:25593679

  18. Molecular cloning, sequence characterization, and gene expression profiling of a novel water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) gene, AGPAT6.

    PubMed

    Song, S; Huo, J L; Li, D L; Yuan, Y Y; Yuan, F; Miao, Y W

    2013-01-01

    Several 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate-O-acyltransferases (AGPATs) can acylate lysophosphatidic acid to produce phosphatidic acid. Of the eight AGPAT isoforms, AGPAT6 is a crucial enzyme for glycerolipids and triacylglycerol biosynthesis in some mammalian tissues. We amplified and identified the complete coding sequence (CDS) of the water buffalo AGPAT6 gene by using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, based on the conversed sequence information of the cattle or expressed sequence tags of other Bovidae species. This novel gene was deposited in the NCBI database (accession No. JX518941). Sequence analysis revealed that the CDS of this AGPAT6 encodes a 456-amino acid enzyme (molecular mass = 52 kDa; pI = 9.34). Water buffalo AGPAT6 contains three hydrophobic transmembrane regions and a signal 37-amino acid peptide, localized in the cytoplasm. The deduced amino acid sequences share 99, 98, 98, 97, 98, 98, 97 and 95% identity with their homologous sequences from cattle, horse, human, mouse, orangutan, pig, rat, and chicken, respectively. The phylogenetic tree analysis based on the AGPAT6 CDS showed that water buffalo has a closer genetic relationship with cattle than with other species. Tissue expression profile analysis shows that this gene is highly expressed in the mammary gland, moderately expressed in the heart, muscle, liver, and brain; weakly expressed in the pituitary gland, spleen, and lung; and almost silently expressed in the small intestine, skin, kidney, and adipose tissues. Four predicted microRNA target sites are found in the water buffalo AGPAT6 CDS. These results will establish a foundation for further insights into this novel water buffalo gene. PMID:24114207

  19. A possible case of caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever in a domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal herpesvirus infection, affecting various wild and domestic ruminants all over the world. Water buffaloes were reported to be particularly susceptible for the ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) causing the sheep-associated form of MCF (SA-MCF). This report describes the first case of possibly caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever symptoms in a domestic water buffalo in Switzerland. Case presentation The buffalo cow presented with persistent fever, dyspnoea, nasal bleeding and haematuria. Despite symptomatic therapy, the buffalo died and was submitted to post mortem examination. Major findings were an abomasal ulceration, a mild haemorrhagic cystitis and multifocal haemorrhages on the epicardium and on serosal and mucosal surfaces. Eyes and oral cavity were not affected. Histopathology revealed a mild to moderate lymphohistiocytic vasculitis limited to the brain and the urinary bladder. Although these findings are typical for MCF, OvHV-2 DNA was not detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes or in paraffin-embedded brain, using an OvHV-2 specific real time PCR. With the aid of a panherpesvirus PCR, a caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2) sequence could be amplified from both samples. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of malignant catarrhal fever in the subfamily Bovinae, where the presence of CpHV-2 could be demonstrated. The etiological context has yet to be evaluated. PMID:22132808

  20. Impact of livestock hygiene education programs on mastitis in smallholder water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Chitwan, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Ng, Linda; Jost, Christine; Robyn, Misha; Dhakal, I P; Bett, Bernard; Dhakal, Pramod; Khadka, Rupak

    2010-09-01

    A project implemented from 2003 to 2005 trained women in Chitwan District, Nepal, in hygienic dairy production using a process of social mobilization. The aim of this research was to assess if the prevalence of mastitis in water buffalo in the households of women who were trained was lower one year after training than in untrained households, if the training influenced knowledge and practices for the prevention or control of mastitis, and if these practices and knowledge were associated with a lower prevalence of mastitis. A total of 202 households from Eastern and Western Chitwan District were included in the study. Of these, 60 households had participated in the project and 142 had not. Milk samples were collected from 129 households (33 project households and 96 non-project households). Clinical mastitis was determined using visual inspection of udders and detection of macroscopic clots and flakes in milk. The California Mastitis Test was used to diagnose sub-clinical mastitis from milk samples, and the IDEXX SNAP test to identify the presence of tetracycline residues. The prevalence of mastitis in trained households (39.4%) was 43.78% of that in untrained households (60.4%), lower but not significantly so (p=0.08, 95% CI 0.17-1.12). Thirteen indicators of knowledge or practice for the control or prevention of mastitis were more likely to occur in trained households, four significantly so (not consuming milk from sick buffalo (p=0.001), using soap to wash hands before milking (p=0.001), discarding milk after antibiotic usage (p=0.01), and choosing appropriate flooring for their livestock (p=0.03)). Trained households that discarded milk from sick buffalo were 2.96 times more likely to have at least one animal with mastitis in the household (p=0.03, 95% CI 1.15-7.65). Trained households that knew to wash buffalos' teats after milking were less likely (OR 0.25) to have mastitis in their herd (p=0.02, 95% CI 0.08-0.80). Of the 138 buffalos tested, only one tested positive for tetracycline residues. PMID:20655119

  1. Protective Effect of the Nramp1 BB Genotype against Brucella abortus in the Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)?

    PubMed Central

    Capparelli, Rosanna; Alfano, Flora; Amoroso, Maria Grazia; Borriello, Giorgia; Fenizia, Domenico; Bianco, Antonio; Roperto, Sante; Roperto, Franco; Iannelli, Domenico

    2007-01-01

    We tested 413 water buffalo cows (142 cases and 271 controls) for the presence of anti-Brucella abortus antibodies (by the skin test, the agglutination test, and the complement fixation test) and the Nramp1 genotype (by capillary electrophoresis). Four alleles (Nramp1A, -B, -C, and -D) were detected in the 3? untranslated region of the Nramp1 gene. The BB genotype was represented among only controls, providing evidence that this genotype confers resistance to Brucella abortus. The monocytes from the BB (resistant) subjects displayed a higher basal level of Nramp1 mRNA and a lower number of viable intracellular bacteria than did the monocytes from AA (susceptible) subjects. The higher basal level of the antibacterial protein Nramp1 most probably provides the BB animals with the possibility of controlling bacteria immediately after their entry inside the cell. PMID:17145946

  2. Morphological, biochemical and physiological studies on the preservation of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Morphological, biochemical and physiological studies on the preservation of buffalo (Bubalus of the effects of chloroquine-diphosphate (a membrane stabilizer) on the preservation of buffalo spermatozoa). Introduction. Buffalo plays an important role in the dairy economy of Asia. Although in India itself

  3. Detailed description of RBA-banded chromosomes of river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis L.)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Detailed description of RBA-banded chromosomes of river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis L.) D. DI Portici, Naples, Italy Summary The RBA banding pattern of river buffalo chromosomes and its diagrammatic comparative studies among the members of the family. Key words : River buffalo, RBA banding, chromosomes

  4. Anomalous mRNA levels of chromatin remodeling genes in swamp buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis) cloned embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Suteevun; S. L. Smith; S. Muenthaisong; X. Yang; R. Parnpai; X. C. Tian

    2006-01-01

    The swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is a multi-purpose animal in agriculture that is challenged by extinction due to low reproductive efficiency. Nuclear transfer (NT) has been used to preserve special breeds of buffalo, as well as to increase the number of animals. However, cloned buffalo embryos have impaired development, as in other species. To understand the chromatin remodeling activities in

  5. Reticulo-ruminal motility in cattle (Bos indicus) and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) fed a low quality roughage diet.

    PubMed

    McSweeney, C S; Kennedy, P M; John, A

    1989-01-01

    1. The effect of A and B sequence contractions of the reticulo-rumen on passage rate of digesta was compared in buffaloes and cattle fed low quality rhodes grass. 2. Both species ate the same amount per unit body weight but buffaloes spent 53% more time ruminating than cattle. 3. Buffaloes had fewer A and B sequence contractions each day and the rate of these contractions during eating, ruminating and at rest were slower. 4. A larger pool of fine feed particles in the rumen of buffaloes, generated by extra ruminating activity was associated with the 30% shorter mean residence time of particulate matter in the forestomach compared with cattle. 5. It is concluded that the difference in the number and frequency of contractions between the species was insufficient to affect passage rate of digesta from the stomach. PMID:2575949

  6. Effects of in vitro copper sulphate supplementation on the ejaculated sperm characteristics in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Tabassomi, Mehdi; Alavi-Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate effects of copper sulphate (CuSO4) additive to semen extenders on sperm parameters: progressive motility, viability, membrane integrity and DNA damage, after semen dilution and cryopreservation. Semen samples of 5 buffalo bulls of 3-5 years old were collected at 5 different occasions during the autumn 2011. A total number of 25 samples were used in each examination. Sperm progressive motility and viability were measured at 0 (T0), 60 (T1) and 120 (T2) min after diluting semen in tris-citric acid extender containing 0 (control), 0.004, 0.008, 0.016, 0.032 and 0.064 mg L-1 CuSO4. Later, semen was diluted in a tris-citric acid-egg yolk-glycerol extender containing the same amounts of CuSO4, cooled to 4 ?C and kept refrigerated for 4 hr to equilibrate, sperm progressive motility, viability, membrane integrity and DNA damage were estimated. Then, semen was packed in 0.5 mL French straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Later, the frozen semen was thawed in 37 ?C water bath for 30 sec, and the same parameters as well as total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the frozen-thawed semen were estimated. The results showed that copper additive at the rate of 0.032 mg L-1 gives a better protection of sperms through the process of dilution, equilibration and freeze-thawing than that in control and other Cu concentrations, while 0.064 mg L-1 CuSO4 had deleterious effect on the sperm. PMID:25593683

  7. Mitochondrial genome of Babesia orientalis, apicomplexan parasite of water buffalo (Bubalus babalis, Linnaeus, 1758) endemic in China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Apicomplexan parasites of the genus Babesia, Theileria and Plasmodium are very closely related organisms. Interestingly, their mitochondrial (mt) genomes are highly divergent. Among Babesia, Babesia orientalis is a new species recently identified and specifically epidemic to the southern part of China, causing severe disease to water buffalo. However, no information on the mt genome of B. orientalis was available. Methods Four pairs of primers were designed based on the full genome sequence of B. orientalis (unpublished data) and by aligning reported mt genomes of B. bovis, B. bigemina, and T. parva. The entire mt genome was amplified by four sets of PCR. The obtained mt genome was annotated by aligning with published apicomplexan mt genomes and Artemis software v11. Phylogenetic analysis was performed by using cox1 and cob amino acid sequences. Results The complete mt genome of B. orientalis (Wuhan strain) was sequenced and characterized. The entire mt genome is 5996 bp in length with a linear form, containing three protein-coding genes including cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1), cytochrome b (cob) and cytochrome c oxidase III (cox3) and six rRNA large subunit gene fragments. The gene arrangement in B. orientalis mt genome is similar to those of B. bovis, B. gibsoni and Theileria parva, but different from those of T. orientalis, T. equi and Plasmodium falciparum. Comparative analysis indicated that cox1 and cob genes were more conserved than cox3. Phylogenetic analysis based on amino acid sequences of cox1, cob and cox1 + cob, respectively, revealed that B. orientalis fell into Babesia clade with the closest relationship to B. bovis. Conclusions The availability of the entire mt genome sequences of B. orientalis provides valuable information for future phylogenetic, population genetics and molecular epidemiological studies of apicomplexan parasites. PMID:24580772

  8. Verification of buffalo ( Bubalus bubalisi) oocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Dhali; R. S. Manik; S. K. Das; S. K. Singla; P. Palta

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a method for the cryopreservation of buffalo oocytes by vitrification. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were obtained from slaughterhouse ovaries. Prior to vitrification of COCs in the vitrification solution (VS) consisting of 4.5 M ethylene glycol, 3.4 M dimethyl sulfoxide, 5.56 mM glucose, 0.33 mM sodium pyruvate and 0.4% w\\/v bovine serum albumin

  9. Production of wild buffalo (Bubalus arnee) embryos by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer using domestic buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes.

    PubMed

    Priya, D; Selokar, N L; Raja, A K; Saini, M; Sahare, A A; Nala, N; Palta, P; Chauhan, M S; Manik, R S; Singla, S K

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the possibility of producing wild buffalo embryos by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) through handmade cloning using wild buffalo somatic cells and domestic buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes. Somatic cells derived from the ear skin of wild buffalo were found to express vimentin but not keratin and cytokeratin-18, indicating that they were of fibroblast origin. The population doubling time of skin fibroblasts from wild buffalo was significantly (p < 0.05) higher, and the cell proliferation rate was significantly (p < 0.05) lower compared with that of skin fibroblasts from domestic buffalo. Neither the cleavage (92.6 ± 2.0% vs 92.8 ± 2.0%) nor the blastocyst rate (42.4 ± 2.4% vs 38.7 ± 2.8%) was significantly different between the intraspecies cloned embryos produced using skin fibroblasts from domestic buffalo and interspecies cloned embryos produced using skin fibroblasts from wild buffalo. However, the total cell number (TCN) was significantly (p < 0.05) lower (192.0 ± 25.6 vs 345.7 ± 42.2), and the apoptotic index was significantly (p < 0.05) higher (15.1 ± 3.1 vs 8.0 ± 1.4) for interspecies than that for intraspecies cloned embryos. Following vitrification in open-pulled straws (OPS) and warming, although the cryosurvival rate of both types of cloned embryos, as indicated by their re-expansion rate, was not significantly different (34.8 ± 1.5% vs 47.8 ± 7.8), the apoptotic index was significantly (p < 0.05) higher for vitrified-warmed interspecies than that for corresponding intraspecies cloned embryos (48.9 ± 7.2 vs 23.9 ± 2.8). The global level of H3K18ac was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in interspecies cloned embryos than that in intraspecies cloned embryos. The expression level of HDAC1, DNMT3a and CASPASE3 was significantly (p < 0.05) higher, that of P53 was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in interspecies than in intraspecies embryos, whereas that of DNMT1 was similar between the two types of embryos. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that wild buffalo embryos can be produced by iSCNT. PMID:24494649

  10. Cystic echinococcosis in water buffaloes: Epidemiological survey and molecular evidence of ovine (G1) and buffalo (G3) strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Capuano; L. Rinaldi; M. P. Maurelli; A. G. Perugini; V. Veneziano; G. Garippa; C. Genchi; V. Musella; G. Cringoli

    2006-01-01

    A survey of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) of the Italian Mediterranean breed was carried out in Campania, a region of southern Italy. In addition, a molecular study was performed on 48 hydatid cysts coming from 48 water buffaloes in order to determine the Echinococcus granulosus strain(s) present in this host. Out of a total of

  11. Nucleotide diversity of mitochondrial DNAs between the swamp and the river types of domestic water buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis , based on restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuaki Tanaka; Takahiro Yamagata; Joseph S. Masangkay; Muhammad O. Faruque; Dang Vu-Binh; Salundik; Sri Supraptini Mansjoer; Yoshi Kawamoto; Takao Namikawa

    1995-01-01

    Cleavage patterns of mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) by 15 restriction endonucleases were analyzed for 10 swamp and 13 river types of domestic water buffaloes. Digestions with nine enzymes exhibited polymorphisms giving two or three kinds of cleavage patterns. Five mtDNA types were identified, three types in the swamp buffaloes of the Philippines, Vietnam, and Indonesia (S-types) and two types in the

  12. Identification, molecular characterization, and tissue expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein gene (PTHrP) from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Qian, L D; Huo, J L; Bi, B L; Li, D L; Wang, S F; Chen, T; Li, L J; Mao, H M; Miao, Y W

    2015-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is involved in the deposition of milk calcium in mammal lactation, but its role in buffalo is unclear. In this study, the full-length coding sequence of the water buffalo PTHrP gene was first isolated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The protein was then subjected to molecular characterization using bioinformatic methods, and the tissue expression pattern was further assayed by semi-quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The water buffalo PTHrP gene contains an open reading frame of 534 base pairs encoding a polypeptide of 177 amino acid residues, a theoretical molecular weight of 20.32 kDa, and an isoelectric point of 10.00. In addition, water buffalo PTHrP was predicted to contain a signal peptide, a typical hydrophobic region with no hydrophobic transmembrane regions, and to exert its function in the cell nucleus. A conserved domain of parathyroid superfamily from amino acids 34-114 was observed in the polypeptide. Sequence comparison and the phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequence of the water buffalo PTHrP protein shared high homology with that of other mammals, particularly cattle and goat. Among the 16 tissues examined, the PTHrP gene was only expressed in adipose tissue, placenta, uterine wall, hypophysis, and mammary gland tissue, but gene expression levels were higher in the uterus wall and adipose tissue. The results of this study suggest that the PTHrP gene plays an important role in the deposition of milk calcium of water buffalo. PMID:25867375

  13. Purification of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins from late-pregnancy Bubalus bubalis placentas and development of a radioimmunoassay for pregnancy diagnosis in water buffalo females

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) were first described as placental antigens present in the blood serum of the mother soon after implantation. Here, we describe the purification of several pregnancy-associated glycoproteins from water buffalo placenta (wbPAGs). A specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed for early pregnancy diagnosis in buffalo species. Results Amino-terminal microsequencing of immunoreactive placental proteins allowed the identification of eleven wbPAGs sequences [Swiss-Prot accession numbers: P86369 to P86379]. Three polyclonal antisera (AS#858, AS#859 and AS#860) were raised in rabbits against distinct wbPAG fractions. A new RIA (RIA-860) was developed and used to distinguish between pregnant (n?=?33) and non-pregnant (n?=?26) water buffalo females. Conclusions Our results confirmed the multiplicity of PAG expression in buffalo placenta. In addition, the RIA-860 system was shown to be sensitive, linear, reproducible, accurate and specific in measuring PAG concentrations in buffalo plasma samples from Day 37 of gestation onwards. PMID:23634647

  14. In silico mining of putative microsatellite markers from whole genome sequence of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and development of first BuffSatDB

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Though India has sequenced water buffalo genome but its draft assembly is based on cattle genome BTau 4.0, thus de novo chromosome wise assembly is a major pending issue for global community. The existing radiation hybrid of buffalo and these reported STR can be used further in final gap plugging and “finishing” expected in de novo genome assembly. QTL and gene mapping needs mining of putative STR from buffalo genome at equal interval on each and every chromosome. Such markers have potential role in improvement of desirable characteristics, such as high milk yields, resistance to diseases, high growth rate. The STR mining from whole genome and development of user friendly database is yet to be done to reap the benefit of whole genome sequence. Description By in silico microsatellite mining of whole genome, we have developed first STR database of water buffalo, BuffSatDb (Buffalo MicroSatellite Database (http://cabindb.iasri.res.in/buffsatdb/) which is a web based relational database of 910529 microsatellite markers, developed using PHP and MySQL database. Microsatellite markers have been generated using MIcroSAtellite tool. It is simple and systematic web based search for customised retrieval of chromosome wise and genome-wide microsatellites. Search has been enabled based on chromosomes, motif type (mono-hexa), repeat motif and repeat kind (simple and composite). The search may be customised by limiting location of STR on chromosome as well as number of markers in that range. This is a novel approach and not been implemented in any of the existing marker database. This database has been further appended with Primer3 for primer designing of the selected markers enabling researcher to select markers of choice at desired interval over the chromosome. The unique add-on of degenerate bases further helps in resolving presence of degenerate bases in current buffalo assembly. Conclusion Being first buffalo STR database in the world , this would not only pave the way in resolving current assembly problem but shall be of immense use for global community in QTL/gene mapping critically required to increase knowledge in the endeavour to increase buffalo productivity, especially for third world country where rural economy is significantly dependent on buffalo productivity. PMID:23336431

  15. A rapid improved method for sexing embryo of water buffalo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. A. Zoheir; A. A. Allam

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the experiment of this paper is to develop and improve in the sexing method for preimplantation embryos of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) reaction. Embryo sexing has been recognized to control effectively the sex of offspring in the embryo transfer industry. A rapid and simple detection system was established by adding ethidium bromide

  16. Efficacy of PGF 2? to synchronize estrus in water buffalo cows ( Bubalus bubalis) is dependent upon plasma progesterone concentration, corpus luteum size and ovarian follicular status before treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. F. C Brito; R Satrapa; E. P Marson; J. P Kastelic

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify factors affecting PGF2? efficacy to synchronize estrus in water buffalo cows. After detection of a corpus luteum (CL) by rectal palpation, cows were treated (im) with dinoprost (12.5, 25 or 50mg) or d(+) cloprostenol (75, 150 or 300?g) in a total of 66 treatments. Blood samples were collected 0, 24 and 48h after treatment

  17. Sequence analysis of UTR and coding region of kappa-casein gene of Indian riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Mukesh, Manishi; Mishra, Bishnu P; Kataria, Ranjit S; Sobti, Ranbir C; Ahlawat, Shiv Pal S

    2006-04-01

    In this study, complete nucleotide as well as derived amino acid sequence characterization of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) kappa-casein gene has been presented. Kappa-casein cDNA clones were identified and isolated from a buffalo lactating mammary gland cDNA library. Sequence analysis of kappa-casein cDNA revealed 850 nucleotides with an open reading frame (ORF) of 573 nucleotides, encoding mature peptide of 169 amino acids. The 5' untranslated region (UTR) comprised 71 nucleotides, while 3' UTR was of 206 nucleotides. A total of 11 nucleotide and seven amino acid changes were observed in, buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) as compared to cattle (Bos taurus), sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra hircus). Among these nucleotide changes, eight were unique in buffalo as they were fully conserved in cattle, sheep and goat. Majority of the nucleotide changes and all the amino acid changes; 14 (Asp-Glu), 19(Asp/Ser-Asn), 96(Ala-Thr), 126(Ala-Val), 128(Ala/Gly-Val), 156(Ala/Pro-Val) and 168(Ala/Glu-Val) were limited to exon IV. Three glycosylation sites, Thr 131, Thr 133 and Thr 142 reported in cattle and goat kappa-casein gene were also conserved in buffalo, however, in sheep Thr 142 was replaced by Ala. Chymosin hydrolysis site, between amino acids Phe 105 and Met 106, important for rennet coagulation process, were found to be conserved across four bovid species. Buffalo kappa-casein with the presence of amino acids Thr 136 and Ala 148 seems to be an intermediate of "A" and "B" variants of cattle. Comparison with other livestock species revealed buffalo kappa-casein sharing maximum nucleotide (95.5%) and amino acid (92.6%) similarity with cattle, whereas with pig it showed least sequence similarity of 76.0% and 53.2%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on both nucleotide and amino acid sequence indicated buffalo kappa-casein grouping with cattle, while sheep and goat forming a separate cluster close to them. The non-ruminant species viz. camel, horse and pig were distantly placed, in separate lineages. PMID:17076250

  18. Congenital ocular dermoid cyst in a river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calf.

    PubMed

    Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei, F; Farshid, A A; Saifzadeh, S

    2007-02-01

    Clinical and histopathological findings of a congenital ocular dermoid cyst, located at the lower eyelid of a river female buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calf were presented. A soft, fluctuant, non-tender, hyperaemic cystic mass was detected overlaying the left eye. Fine needle aspirate revealed filamentous debris with no malignant cells. The cyst was treated surgically by orbital exenteration and subsequently subjected to histopathological examination. The histopathological study disclosed a conjunctival dermoid cyst. This report is novel, in that; such ocular cyst has not previously been described in river buffalo calves. PMID:17359456

  19. Post-warming hatching and birth of live calves following transfer of in vitro-derived vitrified water buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis) embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danilda Hufana-Duran; Prudencio B Pedro; Hernando V Venturina; Rogelio D Hufana; Apolinario L Salazar; Peregrino G Duran; Libertado C Cruz

    2004-01-01

    Viability of in vitro-derived vitrified-warmed preimplantation stage buffalo embryos were assessed in vitro and in vivo. Oocytes were collected from ovaries of slaughtered riverine buffaloes, matured and fertilized in vitro with frozen semen from riverine buffalo bull and cultured on cumulus cell monolayers. Resultant preimplantation stage embryos were cryopreserved by vitrification with ethylene glycol, ficoll and sucrose. Seventy-one frozen embryos

  20. Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Swamp Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) Fattened at Different Feeding Intensities

    PubMed Central

    Lambertz, C.; Panprasert, P.; Holtz, W.; Moors, E.; Jaturasitha, S.; Wicke, M.; Gauly, M.

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-four male 1-year old swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were randomly allocated to 4 groups. One group grazed on guinea grass (GG) and another on guinea grass and the legume Stylosanthes guianensis (GL). The other two groups were kept in pens and fed freshly cut guinea grass and concentrate at an amount of 1.5% (GC1.5) and 2.0% (GC2.0) of body weight, respectively. The effect of the different feeding intensities on carcass characteristics and meat quality were assessed. The mean body weight at slaughter was 398 (±16) kg. Average daily gain was higher in concentrate-supplemented groups (570 and 540 g/d in GC1.5 and GC2.0, respectively) when compared to GG (316 g/d) and GL (354 g/d) (p<0.01). Likewise, the warm carcass weight was higher in GC1.5 and GC2.0 compared to GG and GL. Dressing percentage was 48.1% and 49.5% in GC1.5 and GC2.0 in comparison to 42.9% and 44.8% observed in GG and GL, respectively. Meat of Longissimus throracis from GC1.5 and GC2.0 was redder in color (p<0.01), while water holding capacity (drip and thawing loss) was improved in pasture-fed groups (p<0.05). Protein and fat content of Longissimus thoracis was higher in animals supplemented with concentrate (p<0.01), as was cholesterol content (p<0.05), whereas PUFA:SFA ratio was higher and n-6/n-3 ratio lower (p<0.01) in pasture-fed buffaloes. Results of the present study showed that the supplementation of pasture with concentrate enhances the growth and carcass characteristics of swamp buffaloes expressed in superior dressing percentage, better muscling, and redder meat with a higher content of protein and fat, whereas animals grazing only on pasture had a more favorable fatty acid profile and water holding capacity. In conclusion, the supplementation of concentrate at a rate of about 1.5% of body weight is recommended to improve the performance and carcass quality of buffaloes. PMID:25049987

  1. Development of water buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis) embryos from in vitro matured oocytes reconstructed with fetal skin fibroblast cells as donor nuclei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Meena; S. K. Das

    2006-01-01

    The present study was carried out to explore the feasibility of using buffalo fetal skin fibroblasts as donor nuclei and to find out the developmental competence of embryos following transfer of these nuclei to in vitro matured enucleated buffalo oocytes. Skin cells were isolated from 1 to 2-month-old fetuses obtained from slaughterhouse, by enzymatic digestion (0.5% w\\/v trypsin +0.05% w\\/v

  2. Reproductive biotechniques in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis): status, prospects and challenges.

    PubMed

    Singh, B; Chauhan, M S; Singla, S K; Gautam, S K; Verma, V; Manik, R S; Singh, A K; Sodhi, M; Mukesh, M

    2009-01-01

    The swamp buffalo holds tremendous potential in the livestock sector in Asian and Mediterranean countries. Current needs are the faster multiplication of superior genotypes and the conservation of endangered buffalo breeds. Recent advances in assisted reproductive technologies, including in vitro embryo production methodologies, offer enormous opportunities to not only improve productivity, but also to use buffaloes to produce novel products for applications to human health and nutrition. The use of molecular genomics will undoubtedly advance these technologies for their large-scale application and resolve the key problems currently associated with advanced reproductive techniques, such as animal cloning, stem cell technology and transgenesis. Preliminary success in the application of modern reproductive technologies warrants further research at the cellular and molecular levels before their commercial exploitation in buffalo breeding programmes. PMID:19383257

  3. Effects of Smallmouth Buffalo and Potassium Permanganate Treatment on Plankton and Pond Water Quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles C. Mischke; David J. Wise; James A. Steeby; Paul V. Zimba

    2006-01-01

    There is recent interest in using smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus and treatment with potassium permanganate (KMnO4) to control Dero digitata, the aquatic oligochaete host involved in the life cycle of proliferative gill disease. To complement those investigations, we determined the changes in water quality, phytoplankton, and zooplankton resulting from KMnO4 treatment and stocking of smallmouth buffalo into nursery ponds for

  4. Testicular lesions and epididymal sperm parameters in the Iranian river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Moosa-Ali, S; Barati, F; Esmaeilzadeh, S; Gharibi, D; Khaksary Mahabady, M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the testicular lesions and their effects on the epididymal sperm parameters in the Iranian river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Total numbers of 117 scrota from the pubertal buffalo were provided from the local slaughterhouse. The samples were evaluated for morphological parameters and any macro- or microscopic lesions. The sterile swabs from the testis parenchyma were subjected to microbiology culture. The epididymal spermatozoon was analysed for concentration, progressive motility and abnormalities. The results showed 34.2% fibrotic adhesions between parietal and visceral layers of tunica vaginalis that was significantly different among seasons (P < 0.05). The cases of unilateral cryptorchidism and bilateral Sertoli cell tumour were detected, with no spermatozoa in the respected epididymides. Microscopic examination showed 13.25% (31/234) lesions including general (51.61%; 16/31) and multifocal (29.03%; 9/31) degenerations as well as interstitial orchitis (9.68%; 3/31) and the Sertoli cell tumour (6.45%; 2/31). No relationship between the lesions and the bacterial isolation (n = 6) was detected. The sperm parameters and morphological parameters of the testis were under influence of microscopic lesions (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the testicular macro- and microscopic lesions may have a noticeable contribution in the Iranian buffalo fertility. PMID:24661073

  5. Cytochrome b gene haplotypes characterize chromosomal lineages of anoa, the Sulawesi dwarf buffalo (Bovidae: Bubalus sp.).

    PubMed

    Schreiber, A; Seibold, I; Nötzold, G; Wink, M

    1999-01-01

    Partial mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences reveal two deeply differentiated mtDNA lineages in anoa dwarf buffaloes (Bubalus depressicornis) from the studbook herd in European zoos. Three matrilinear lineages of lowland anoas (depressicornis type) contributed three rather similar sequence haplotypes, but one remarkably distinct haplotype was observed exclusively in mountain anoas (quarlesi type) descended from one founder female. The carriers of the distinctive mtDNA haplotype were also distinguished by several chromosomal and phenotypic peculiarities too. The differentiation between the mtDNA lineages of anoa approached or even surpassed the genetic divergence between some uncontested species of wild cattle. The depth of this haplotype divergence in anoas is discussed against the background of the phylogenetic age of these paleoendemic inhabitants of a predator-free island refugium, Sulawesi, who are among the most plesiomorphic living bovines. The studbook breeding of captive anoas as a safeguard against extinction might profit from such population genetic markers. These cytochrome b gene sequences were unable to resolve the phylogeny of nine bovine taxa robustly, except the divergence of Bubalus, Synceros, Bison, and Bos (sensu lato) genera. PMID:9987926

  6. Morphogenesis of Mammary Glands in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Challana, Amit; Gupta, Anuradha; Bansal, Neelam; Uppal, Varinder

    2014-01-01

    The present research was elucidated on the morphogenesis of mammary gland of buffalo during prenatal development. Total of 16 foetuses ranging from 1.2?cm (34 days) to 108?cm CVRL (curved crown rump length) (317 days) were used for study. The study revealed that mammary line was first observed at 1.2?cm CVRL (34 days), mammary hillock at 1.7?cm (37 days), and mammary bud at 2.6 cm CVRL (41 days) foetuses. Epidermal cone was found at 6.7?cm CVRL (58 days) whereas primary and secondary ducts were observed at 7.4?cm CVRL (62 days) and 15?cm CVRL (96 days), respectively. Connective tissue whorls were reported at 18.2 cm CVRL (110 days) and internal elastic lamina and muscle layers at 24.1?cm CVRL (129 days). Lobules were observed at 29.3 cm CVRL (140 days), rosette of furstenberg at 39.5 cm CVRL (163 days), and keratin plug at 45.5?cm CVRL (176 days) foetus. Primordia of sweat and sebaceous glands around hair follicle were seen at 21.2?cm CVRL (122 days) of foetal life. Differentiation of all the skin layers along with cornification was observed at 69?cm (229 days) in group III foetuses. PMID:24876967

  7. Phylogeography and domestication of Indian river buffalo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satish Kumar; Muniyandi Nagarajan; Jasmeet S Sandhu; Niraj Kumar; Vandana Behl

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The water buffalo- Bubalus bubalis holds tremendous potential in livestock sector in many Asian countries, particularly India. The origin, domestication and genetic structure of the Indian river buffalo are poorly understood. Therefore, to understand the relationship among the maternal lineages of Indian river buffalo breeds and their domestication process, we analysed mitochondrial D-loop region of 217 animals representing eight

  8. Evaluation of antifreeze protein III for cryopreservation of Nili-Ravi (Bubalus bubalis) buffalo bull sperm.

    PubMed

    Qadeer, S; Khan, M A; Ansari, M S; Rakha, B A; Ejaz, R; Husna, A U; Ashiq, M; Iqbal, R; Ullah, N; Akhter, S

    2014-07-01

    Lower fertility in buffaloes with frozen-thawed semen is attributed to sperm damage that is believed to be due to formation of ice crystals during freeze/thaw process. It was hypothesized that antifreeze proteins in the extender may improve the post thaw quality of buffalo bull sperm. For this purpose, two separate experiments were conducted to evaluate antifreeze proteins III (AFP III) at 0 (control), 0.1, 1 and 10 ?g/mL (Experiment I) and 0 (control), 0.01, 0.1 and 1 ?g/mL (Experiment II) for its effect on post thaw quality of buffalo bull semen. Semen was collected from three Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls with artificial vagina (42 °C) for three weeks (replicate) per experiment. For each experiment, qualifying ejaculates (6 ejaculates/bull) were divided into four aliquots and diluted (at 37 °C having 50 × 10(6) sperm/mL) in tris-citric acid extender containing above mentioned concentrations of AFP III. Diluted semen was cooled to 4 °C in 2 h, equilibrated for 4 h, filled in 0.5 mL straws, kept over liquid nitrogen vapors for 10 min and plunged in the liquid nitrogen. After 24 h of storage, semen straws were thawed at 37 °C for 30 s to assess sperm progressive motility (SM), plasma membrane integrity (PMI), viability (live sperm with intact acrosome) and normal epical ridge (NAR). In experiment I, improvement (P<0.05) in percentage SM and sperm PMI was recorded in extender containing 0.1 ?g/mL AFP III compared to control, the higher concentrations (1 ?g/mL and 10 ?g/mL) being inefficient. While evaluating the lower concentration (experiment II), 0.01 ?g/mL of AFP III in the extender it was found to be ineffective to improve semen quality parameters, while 0.1 ?g/mL AFP III in extender was found better in terms of progressive motility and plasma membrane integrity of buffalo bull semen compared to control. Sperm viability and NAR remained similar (P>0.05) in extenders containing different concentrations of AFP III and control in both of experiments. In conclusion addition of AFP III in the extender at 0.1 ?g/mL improved the progressive motility and plasma membrane integrity of cryopreserved buffalo bull semen. PMID:24925471

  9. Effect of Leptin on In Vitro Nuclear Maturation and Apoptosis of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Oocyte

    PubMed Central

    Khaki1, Amir; Batavani, Rouzali; Najafi, Gholamreza; Tahmasbian, Hamid; Belbasi, Abolfazl; Mokarizadeh, Aram

    2014-01-01

    Background: Leptin, as a 16 kDa adipokine, is a pleiotropic cytokine-like hormone that primarily secreted from adipose tissue. It also involves in the regulation of energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, immunity, lipid and glucose homeostasis, fatty acid oxidation, angiogenesis, puberty and reproduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of in vitro addition of leptin to in vitro maturation (IVM) medium on buffalo oocyte maturation and apoptosis. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, Ovaries from apparently normal reproductive organs of slaughtered adult buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with unknown breeding history were collected from Urmia Abattoir, Urmia, Iran, and were transported immediately to the laboratory in a thermos flask containing sterile normal saline with added antibiotics. Oocytes were aspirated from 2-8 mm visible follicles of the ovaries using an 18-G needle attached to a 10 ml syringe. IVM medium included tissue culture medium-199 (TCM-199), 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 22 µg/ml sodium pyruvate, 0.5 IU/ml ovine follicle-stimulating hormone (oFSH), 0.5 IU/ml ovine luteinizing hormone (oLH), 1 ?g/ml oestradiol, 50 ?g/ml gentamycin, and leptin [0 (control), 10, 50, and 100 ng/ml]. The good quality buffalo oocytes (batches of 10 oocytes) were placed in a culture plate containing six 50 ?l droplets of maturation medium, covered with sterilized mineral oil, and then incubated at 38.5?C with 5% CO2 in air for 24 hours. The maturation of oocytes was evaluated under a stereomicroscope by detecting the first polar body extrusion of oocytes. FITC-Annexin V propidium iodide (PI) staining method was used to detect oocyte apoptosis. Results: From a total of 115 collected ovaries, 1100 oocytes were recovered among which 283 oocyte were suitable for IVM. In the groups of leptin treated with 0 (control), 10, 50 and 100 ng/ml, the percentage of oocytes maturation was 74.65, 83.81, 77.85, and 75.40%, while the percentage of oocytes apoptosis was 9.83, 9.54, 9.93, and 10.42%, respectively. Our results showed that addition of 10 ng/ml leptin to buffalo IVM medium increased oocyte maturation, significantly, as compared with that in control group. However, addition of leptin to IVM medium had no significant influence on buffalo oocyte apoptosis. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that addition of 10 ng/ml leptin to IVM medium of buffalo oocyte can improve oocyte nuclear maturation. Furthermore, we showed that there is no relation between in vitro addition of leptin to buffalo oocyte IVM medium and oocyte apoptos Conclusion: Our findings suggested that addition of 10 ng/ml leptin to IVM medium of buffalo oocyte can improve oocyte nuclear maturation. Furthermore, we showed that there is no relation between in vitro addition of leptin to buffalo oocyte IVM medium and oocyte apoptosis. PMID:24696768

  10. A rapid improved method for sexing embryo of water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Zoheir, K M A; Allam, A A

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the experiment of this paper is to develop and improve in the sexing method for preimplantation embryos of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) reaction. Embryo sexing has been recognized to control effectively the sex of offspring in the embryo transfer industry. A rapid and simple detection system was established by adding ethidium bromide (EB) or 5 ?l of CuSO4 (3M) to the product of LAMP reaction. The result of these additions after 2 min was a color change and a precipitate. It could be employed as an alternative method in the detection of the reaction products in place of the time consuming electrophoresis or the turbidity meter. The in vitro produced buffalo embryos were divided into one to eight pieces using a microblade attached to a micromanipulator. The cell number in each piece was counted before sexing. Sexing of DNA samples extracted from one to five biopsies cells was performed by LAMP. After biopsy, the remaining part of the embryos was used to confirm the sex by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fifty buffalo embryos were used and the accuracy of sex prediction was 100% when the blastomeres dissociated from a morula exceeds three. In conclusion, the present procedure without turbidity meter and electrophoresis was reliable and applicable for sexing the water buffalo embryos. PMID:21396688

  11. Genome-wide search of the genes tagged with the consensus of 33.6 repeat loci in buffalo Bubalus bubalis employing minisatellite-associated sequence amplification.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Deepali; Srivastava, Jyoti; Samad, Rana; Parwez, Iqbal; Kumar, Sudhir; Ali, Sher

    2010-06-01

    Minisatellites have been implicated with chromatin organization and gene regulation, but mRNA transcripts tagged with these elements have not been systematically characterized. The aim of the present study was to gain an insight into the transcribing genes associated with consensus of 33.6 repeat loci across the tissues in water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis. Using cDNA from spermatozoa and eight different somatic tissues and an oligo primer based on two units of consensus of 33.6 repeat loci (5' CCTCCAGCCCTCCTCCAGCCCT 3'), we conducted minisatellite-associated sequence amplification (MASA) and identified 29 mRNA transcripts. These transcripts were cloned and sequenced. Blast search of the individual mRNA transcript revealed sequence homologies with various transcribing genes and contigs in the database. Using real-time PCR, we detected the highest expression of nine mRNA transcripts in spermatozoa and one each in liver and lung. Further, 21 transcripts were found to be conserved across the species; seven were specific to bovid whereas one was exclusive to the buffalo genome. The present work demonstrates innate potentials of MASA in accessing several functional genes simultaneously without screening the cDNA library. This approach may be exploited for the development of tissue-specific mRNA fingerprints in the context of genome analysis and functional and comparative genomics. PMID:20480223

  12. Sarcocystis sinensis is an ultrastructurally distinct parasite of water buffalo that can cause foodborne illness but cannot complete its life-cycle in human beings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinwen Chen; Yangxian Zuo; Benjamin M. Rosenthal; Yongshu He; Liwang Cui; Zhaoqing Yang

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we compared the morphology of Sarcocystis sinensis and Sarcocystis hominis, and assessed the infectiousness of S. sinensis for human volunteers. The cysts of S. sinensis were from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and those of S. hominis were from cattle (Bos taurus). Transmission electron microscopy of S. sinensis cysts revealed that the cyst wall had leaning, finger-like protrusions

  13. Isolation and functional characterization of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) ?-casein promoter for driving mammary epithelial cell-specific gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ganguli, Nirmalya; Ganguli, Nilanjana; Usmani, Abul; Majumdar, Subeer S

    2015-03-20

    Therapeutic proteins are produced in microbes, mammalian cell lines, and body fluids by applying recombinant DNA technology. They are required for compensating the deficiency of essential proteins in patients. Animal bioreactors producing such valuable bio-pharmaceuticals in body fluids have lately emerged as efficient and cost-effective expression systems. Promoters, along with other regulatory elements of genes coding for milk proteins, have been cloned from few species for directing the expression of desired proteins in the milk of farm animals. However, buffaloes, which are the second largest source of milk production in the world, have remained unexplored for such use. Since mammary epithelial cell-specific ?-casein is the most abundantly expressed protein found in buffalo milk, we have isolated the promoter region and the transcriptional regulatory element along with exon 1, Intron 1 and partial exon 2 of the ?-casein gene from the genome of the Indian river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and have characterized the same (GenBank accession no. KF612339). Mammary epithelial cells of buffalo and human (MCF7) expressed Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) upon transfection with the construct where egfp was cloned under the ?-casein promoter. Transfected HEK-293 cells failed to express EGFP. Transgenic female mice generated using this construct expressed EGFP in the milk gland during lactation, without leaky expression in any other organs. This promoter also drove expression of recombinant human Interferon? suggesting its use for expressing recombinant bio-pharmaceuticals in the milk of buffalo or other farm animals. Additionally, this may also allow breast gland-specific gene expression for remediation of breast gland-associated diseases. PMID:25678138

  14. Somatotropin-mediated gene expression profiling of differentially displayed ESTs during lactation in Indian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Ramani, Umed V; Tripathi, Ajai K; Vaze, Makrand N; Nandasana, Kamlesh N; Koringa, Prakash G; Rank, Dharamsi N; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2011-08-01

    The study of bovine mammary gland functional genomics requires appropriate cDNA library collections to access gene expression patterns from different developmental and physiological stages. The present study was undertaken with the objective to identify candidate genes involved in the process of increased milk synthesis following 0, 48 and 96 h of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) treatment to Surti buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) through differential display reverse transcriptase PCR (DDRT-PCR). Of a total 50 sequenced DD bands, 64% of ESTs were differentially expressed (appeared only in post-treatment samples, i.e. 48 h and 96 h) and 36% were up-regulated after rbST treatment. Of the ESTs 32%were found to be located on Bos taurus chromosome 24 (equivalent to buffalo chromosome 22), whereas 16% of ESTs could not be mapped, indicating that they are specific to buffalo. Quantitative real time PCR assay of 15 ESTs revealed transcript level surge in 13 ESTs, and decline in one EST, while one showed up-regulation in expression level at 48 h while down-regulation at 96 h. This study indicates more than 30 novel transcripts, with unknown function, involved in increased milk synthesis and also the involvement of many more genes in the physiology of milk production than once thought. PMID:21774858

  15. Effect of cryopreservation on apoptotic-like events and its relationship with cryocapacitation of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) sperm.

    PubMed

    Kadirvel, G; Periasamy, S; Kumar, S

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated the apoptosis-like events associated with cryopreservation process and their relationship with cryocapacitation in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) sperm. A total of 49 semen ejaculates from seven bulls were studied for structural changes in sperm following cryopreservation. Apoptotic changes were detected by assays specific for translocation of phosphatidylserine (PS) to the cell surface, alterations in membrane permeability and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and DNA integrity. A significant (p < 0.01) percentage of cryopreserved sperm showed externalization of PS and early apoptotic changes and lowered MMP when compared with the fresh sperm. Freezing and thawing of sperm increased permeability to YOPRO-1, an impermeant fluorescent dye. However, on TUNEL staining, cryopreserved sperm showed no breach in DNA integrity. The sperm capacitation status was evaluated by chlortetracycline (CTC) fluorescence pattern, in which a significant (p < 0.01) percentage of cryopreserved sperm were found to be capacitated. The capacitated sperm (Pattern B) was positively correlated with the aforementioned apoptotic events. In conclusion, cryopreservation process induced early apoptosis-like changes in buffalo sperm, and a close link exists between cryocapacitation and apoptosis during cryopreservation of sperm. PMID:21676035

  16. Interferon stimulated gene 15 (ISG15): molecular characterization and expression profile in endometrium of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Jain, Asit; Baviskar, Pradyumna S; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Kumar, Rohit; Singh, Rajendra; Kumar, Subodh; Agarwal, Sudhir K; Joshi, Paritosh; Mitra, Abhijit

    2012-08-01

    Interferon stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), one of the several proteins induced by conceptus derived Type I and/or a Type II interferon (IFN), is implicated as an important factor in determining the uterine receptivity and conceptus development. However, presence as well as specific role of the ISG15 in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) reproduction is yet to be elucidated. In the present study, both genomic and cDNA sequences of bubaline (bu) ISG15 were cloned and investigated for its expression in different tissues of female reproductive tract of buffalo. Sequence analysis revealed 100% identity among the genomic sequences (1014 bp) of buISG15 from three different breeds of buffalo (viz., Murrah: Acc. No. DQ118137, Mehsana: Acc. No. DQ118138, and Nagpuri: Acc. No. DQ118136) and cDNAs (Acc. Nos. HM543268-HM543270). As in cattle, the buISG15 was comprised of two exons of 57 bp and 520 bp encoding a peptide of 154 amino acids. Moreover, the buISG15 cDNA sequence exhibited 98.3% and 98.5% identity with that of taurine and indicine cattle, respectively. Subsequent reverse transcription PCR analysis revealed expression of the buISG15 in the uterine endometrium, corpus luteum (CL), corpus hemorrhagicum and oviduct. Quantitative Real Time PCR (RTqPCR) analysis also confirmed the constitutive expression of the buISG15 in the uterine endometrium during different stages (i.e. estrus, diestrus and proestrus) of estrous cycle and also during early (?d 30-40) pregnancy. Western blot analysis of the endometrial extract from both estrous cyclic as well as pregnant buffalo demonstrated the presence of only conjugated ISG15 which was >40 kDa. ISG15 mRNA and immune-reactive proteins were localized in the stromal as well as glandular epithelial cells of the uterine endometrium of estrous cyclic as well as pregnant buffalo. However, there was no significant difference in amount of ISG15 mRNA across the different reproductive phases. To conclude, this study will be helpful for the further understanding of the roles of the ISG15 in pregnancy of buffalo cows. PMID:22871329

  17. Effect of spray and evaporative cooling on certain galactopoietic responses in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Sharma, A K; Gangwar, P C

    1981-01-01

    Nine normal lactating Murrah buffaloes from Punjab Agricultural University Dairy herd were used to assess the effect of spray and evaporative cooling on certain galactopoietic responses in buffaloes in three equal groups of control (Group I), showers (Group II) and evaporative cooling (Group III). At 10.30, 12.30, 14.30 and 16.30 h daily the animals in Group II were given showers for fifteen minutes while the animals of Group III were kept on evaporative cooling system from 07.00 to 21.00 h daily. All the animals of Groups I, II and III were given showers by splashing water on their bodies with buckets once a day as a general routine being practised in the farm. Physical parameters included were dry bulb temperature, wet bulb temperature, maximum and minimum temperature, light intensity, % R. H., total day length and cooling power of air. The various galactopoietic responses recorded were the let down time, the milking time, the milk yield, the average flow rate, the fat and lactose percentages. The results of this study revealed that the showers amd the evaporative cooling were responsible for increasing the galactopoietic responses, i. e. the milk yield, the milking time, the the average flow rate and decreasing the let down time in both the periods. This may be attributed to the added comfort to such animals. PMID:7345888

  18. Comparison of ?1-Antitrypsin, ?1-Acid Glycoprotein, Fibrinogen and NOx as Indicator of Subclinical Mastitis in Riverine Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Guha, Anirban; Guha, Ruby; Gera, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Mastitis set apart as clinical and sub clinical is a disease complex of dairy cattle, with sub clinical being the most important economically. Of late, laboratories showed interest in developing biochemical markers to diagnose sub clinical mastitis (SCM) in herds. Many workers reported noteworthy alternation of acute phase proteins (APPs) and nitric oxide, (measured as nitrate+nitrite = NOx) in milk due to intra-mammary inflammation. But, the literature on validation of these parameters as indicators of SCM, particularly in riverine milch buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) milk is inadequate. Hence, the present study focused on comparing several APPs viz. ?1- anti trypsin, ?1- acid glycoprotein, fibrinogen and NOx as indicators of SCM in buffalo milk. These components in milk were estimated using standardized analytical protocols. Somatic cell count (SCC) was done microscopically. Microbial culture was done on 5% ovine blood agar. Of the 776 buffaloes (3,096 quarters) sampled, only 347 buffaloes comprising 496 quarters were found positive for SCM i.e. milk culture showed growth in blood agar with SCC?2×105 cells/ml of milk. The cultural examination revealed Gram positive bacteria as the most prevalent etiological agent. It was observed that ?1- anti trypsin and NOx had a highly significant (p<0.01) increase in SCM milk, whereas, the increase of ?1- acid glycoprotein in infected milk was significant (p<0.05). Fibrinogen was below detection level in both healthy and SCM milk. The percent sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated taking bacterial culture examination and SCC?2×105 cells/ml of milk as the benchmark. Udder profile correlation coefficient was also used. Allowing for statistical and epidemiological analysis, it was concluded that ?1- anti trypsin indicates SCM irrespective of etiology, whereas ?1- acid glycoprotein better diagnosed SCM caused by gram positive bacteria. NOx did not prove to be a good indicator of SCM. It is recommended measuring both ?1- anti trypsin and ?1- acid glycoprotein in milk to diagnose SCM in buffalo irrespective of etiology. PMID:25049851

  19. Comparison of ?1-Antitrypsin, ?1-Acid Glycoprotein, Fibrinogen and NOx as Indicator of Subclinical Mastitis in Riverine Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Guha, Anirban; Guha, Ruby; Gera, Sandeep

    2013-06-01

    Mastitis set apart as clinical and sub clinical is a disease complex of dairy cattle, with sub clinical being the most important economically. Of late, laboratories showed interest in developing biochemical markers to diagnose sub clinical mastitis (SCM) in herds. Many workers reported noteworthy alternation of acute phase proteins (APPs) and nitric oxide, (measured as nitrate+nitrite = NOx) in milk due to intra-mammary inflammation. But, the literature on validation of these parameters as indicators of SCM, particularly in riverine milch buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) milk is inadequate. Hence, the present study focused on comparing several APPs viz. ?1- anti trypsin, ?1- acid glycoprotein, fibrinogen and NOx as indicators of SCM in buffalo milk. These components in milk were estimated using standardized analytical protocols. Somatic cell count (SCC) was done microscopically. Microbial culture was done on 5% ovine blood agar. Of the 776 buffaloes (3,096 quarters) sampled, only 347 buffaloes comprising 496 quarters were found positive for SCM i.e. milk culture showed growth in blood agar with SCC?2×10(5) cells/ml of milk. The cultural examination revealed Gram positive bacteria as the most prevalent etiological agent. It was observed that ?1- anti trypsin and NOx had a highly significant (p<0.01) increase in SCM milk, whereas, the increase of ?1- acid glycoprotein in infected milk was significant (p<0.05). Fibrinogen was below detection level in both healthy and SCM milk. The percent sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated taking bacterial culture examination and SCC?2×10(5) cells/ml of milk as the benchmark. Udder profile correlation coefficient was also used. Allowing for statistical and epidemiological analysis, it was concluded that ?1- anti trypsin indicates SCM irrespective of etiology, whereas ?1- acid glycoprotein better diagnosed SCM caused by gram positive bacteria. NOx did not prove to be a good indicator of SCM. It is recommended measuring both ?1- anti trypsin and ?1- acid glycoprotein in milk to diagnose SCM in buffalo irrespective of etiology. PMID:25049851

  20. Pregnancy rates following AI with sexed semen in Mediterranean Italian buffalo heifers ( Bubalus bubalis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Campanile; B. Gasparrini; D. Vecchio; G. Neglia; E. M. Senatore; A. Bella; G. A. Presicce; L. Zicarelli

    2011-01-01

    The use of sexed semen in farm animal production and genetic improvement has been shown to be feasible with variable degree of efficiency in a number of species, and proved to be economically viable in cattle. In the last two decades, various newly developed reproductive technologies applicable in buffaloes have mushroomed. Recently, following the birth of the first buffalo calves

  1. Myxosporeans infecting the gills of bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) in Illinois, USA.

    PubMed

    Lom, J; Cone, D

    1996-01-01

    Four myxosporean species were found on the gills of Ictiobus bubalus from Illinois (USA). Myxobolus endovasus (Davis, 1947) Grinham et Cone, 1990 is revised. Three new species are recorded. Myxobolus enoblei sp. n. has spores ovoid in frontal view, 14.3 x 13 microns in size. Myxobolus morrisonae sp. n. has spores subcircular in frontal view, 10 x 9.5 microns in size; the surface of shell valves appears hairy when studied by SEM. Triangula illinoisensis sp. n. has spores rounded semicircular in frontal view, 10.2 x 12.8 microns in size. Triangula illinoisensis is the fourth species of its genus to be described from fishes. PMID:8682408

  2. Glutathione-supplemented tris-citric acid extender improves the post-thaw quality and in vivo fertility of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Muhammad S; Rakha, Bushra A; Andrabi, Syed M H; Ullah, Nemat; Iqbal, Razia; Holt, William V; Akhter, Shamim

    2012-11-01

    In this study we evaluated the effects of semen extender supplementation with different concentrations of glutathione (GSH) on buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, viability and DNA integrity as well as in vivo fertility. Semen from three Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls was collected, and qualified semen ejaculates (n=18) were split into five aliquots for dilution (37°C; 50×10(6)spermatozoaml(-1)) with experimental tris-citric acid extender containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 mM GSH. Extended semen was cooled to 4°C, equilibrated and filled in French straws. The straws were kept on liquid nitrogen vapors (5 cm above the LN(2) level) for 10 min and plunged in liquid nitrogen for storage. Sperm motility (%), plasma membrane integrity (%), viability (%) and DNA integrity (%) were assessed at 0, 2 and 4h post-thawing (37°C). Extender supplementation with GSH (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mM) increased sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability in a dose dependent manner. Sperm DNA integrity was higher (p<0.05) in all experimental extenders containing GSH when compared to the control extender (0 mM GSH). The in vivo fertility rate of cryopreserved buffalo bull (n=2) spermatozoa was higher (p<0.05) in extender containing 2.0 mM GSH compared to that of control. In summary, tris-citric acid extender supplemented with glutathione improved the freezability of buffalo bull spermatozoa in a dose dependant manner. Moreover, the addition of 2.0 mM GSH to the extender enhanced the in vivo fertility of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa. PMID:23153697

  3. Somatic cell cloning in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): effects of interspecies cytoplasmic recipients and activation procedures.

    PubMed

    Kitiyanant, Y; Saikhun, J; Chaisalee, B; White, K L; Pavasuthipaisit, K

    2001-01-01

    Successful nuclear transfer (NT) of somatic cell nuclei from various mammalian species to enucleated bovine oocytes provides a universal cytoplast for NT in endangered or extinct species. Buffalo fetal fibroblasts were isolated from a day 40 fetus and were synchronized in presumptive G(0) by serum deprivation. Buffalo and bovine oocytes from abattoir ovaries were matured in vitro and enucleated at 22 h. In the first experiment, we compared the ability of buffalo and bovine oocyte cytoplasm to support in vitro development of NT embryos produced by buffalo fetal fibroblasts as donor nuclei. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the NT embryos derived from buffalo and bovine oocytes, in fusion (74% versus 71%) and cleavage (77% versus 75%) rates, respectively. No significant differences were also observed in blastocyst development (39% versus 33%) and the mean cell numbers of day 7 cloned blastocysts (88.5 +/- 25.7 versus 51.7 +/- 5.4). In the second experiment, we evaluated the effects of activation with calcium ionophore A23187 on development of NT embryos after electrical fusion. A significantly higher (p < 0.05) percentage of blastocyst development was observed in the NT embryos activated by calcium ionophore and 6-DMAP when compared with 6-DMAP alone (33% versus 17%). The results indicate that the somatic nuclei from buffalo can be reprogrammed after transfer to enucleated bovine oocytes, resulting in the production of cloned buffalo blastocysts similar to those transferred into buffalo oocytes. Calcium ionophore used in conjunction with 6-DMAP effectively induces NT embryo development. PMID:11945219

  4. Microscopical and serological studies on Sarcocystis infection with first report of S. cruzi in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Assiut, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Metwally, Asmaa M; Abd Ellah, Mahmoud R; Al-Hosary, Amira A; Omar, Mosaab A

    2014-12-01

    This study was performed for the purpose of investigating the prevalence and the species composition of Sarcocystis spp. in buffaloes in Assiut province, Egypt. Macroscopically we reported the infection of buffaloes with Sarcocystis fusiformis, while microscopically three Sarcocystis species (Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis levinei and Sarcocystis hominis) cysts were recognized, and were differentiated by their morphological features using both histopathological sections and electron microscope scanning. Regarding the prevalence of Sarcocystis species among buffaloes in Assiut province, we reported that, using gross examination of 90 buffaloes' esophagus, only 23 samples out of 90 (25.5 %) were found to be infected; on the other hand, by using microscopical examination, the prevalence was 27.7 % (25 samples out of 90 samples were found to be infected). Using ELISA, 85 samples out of 90 (94.4 %) were found positive, an overall prevalence of 94.4 %. In this work we concluded that customary meat inspection methods in abattoirs in Egypt are insufficient for detecting Sarcocystis infection. Due to the presence of hidden or microscopic cysts, we strongly recommend the use of combined microscopical examination and ELISA for Sarcocystis diagnosis, to avoid human infection of such zoonotic parasite and to control the consequent disease. In addition, this study introduced the first report of S. cruzi in buffaloes in Egypt, and proved the hypothesis that S. cruzi is able to use animals such as water buffalo as intermediate hosts. PMID:25320487

  5. Establishment and Characterization of a Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Mammary Epithelial Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Vijay; Dogra, Nilambra; Singh, Surender; Kumar, Sudarshan N.; Jena, Manoj K.; Malakar, Dhruba; Dang, Ajay K.; Mishra, Bishnu P.; Mukhopadhyay, Tapas K.; Kaushik, Jai K.; Mohanty, Ashok K.

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to establish the buffalo mammary epithelial cell line (BuMEC) and characterize its mammary specific functions. Methodology Buffalo mammary tissue collected from the slaughter house was processed enzymatically to obtain a heterogenous population of cells containing both epithelial and fibroblasts cells. Epithelial cells were purified by selective trypsinization and were grown in a plastic substratum. The purified mammary epithelial cells (MECs) after several passages were characterized for mammary specific functions by immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and western blot. Principal Findings The established buffalo mammary epithelial cell line (BuMEC) exhibited epithelial cell characteristics by immunostaining positively with cytokeratin 18 and negatively with vimentin. The BuMEC maintained the characteristics of its functional differentiation by expression of ?-casein, ?-casein, butyrophilin and lactoferrin. BuMEC had normal growth properties and maintained diploid chromosome number (2n?=?50) before and after cryopreservation. A spontaneously immortalized buffalo mammary epithelial cell line was established after 20 passages and was continuously subcultured for more than 60 passages without senescence. Conclusions We have established a buffalo mammary epithelial cell line that can be used as a model system for studying mammary gland functions. PMID:22792341

  6. Laboratory-based measurements of swimming performance and related metabolic rates of field-sampled smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus): a study of seasonal changes.

    PubMed

    Adams, S R; Parsons, G R

    1998-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated how the performance physiology of fish may change when they are acclimated to designated laboratory temperatures, but few researchers have examined naturally occurring seasonal effects on several physiological parameters associated with swimming performance. Using field-acclimatized smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) collected each season, we report significant seasonal effects in the following variables: critical swimming speed (modified), metabolic rate (standard, active, and scope for activity), and swimming efficiency (total and net cost of transport). Underlying seasonal changes in performance was the reproductive cycle of buffalo, particularly the period of fall gonadal recrudescence. Compared with spring, fall buffalo had a significantly lower mean critical swimming speed (72%) and lower active metabolic rate (53%), even when tested at similar temperatures. During spring, buffalo had a high mean critical swimming speed and low net cost of transport in comparison with other seasons. Buffalo are known to participate in a spring migration and spawning that may require the increased performance and efficiency observed during that season. In addition, significant sex effects were detected in winter measurements of standard metabolic rate and net cost of transport, with females the more efficient swimmers. PMID:9678496

  7. Bovine herpesvirus 6 in buffaloes (Bubalus bulalis) from the Amazon region, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Cairo Henrique Sousa; de Oliveira, Fernanda Gonçalves; Gasparini, Marcela Ribeiro; Galinari, Grazielle Cossenzo Florentino; Lima, Graciela Kunrath; Fonseca, Antônio Augusto; Barbosa, José Diomedes; Barbosa-Stancioli, Edel Figueiredo; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira; Dos Reis, Jenner Karlisson Pimenta

    2015-02-01

    This study presents the first description of Bovine herpesvirus 6 (BoHV-6) that was isolated from buffaloes of Amazon region in Brazil. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the BoHV-6 Brazilian strains clustered with the sequence of BoHV-6 from elsewhere available at the GenBank. It was observed in some buffaloes with lymphoproliferative disease in one herd, thus the animals were also tested for Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), which has been associated to lymphoma in bovines. All animals were negative to BLV. These results indicate that BoHV-6 is present in buffaloes in Brazil, but the importance and impact of this infection and its association with any illness is still undefined. PMID:25427628

  8. Effect of cold shock on enzyme release in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    release in buffalo spermatozoa, i.e. alcohol, malic, glucose-6-phosphate, isocitric, lactate, sorbital, arylsulphatase A and arylsulphatase B. Significant amounts of alcohol, malic and sorbital dehydrogenases, GOT-phosphate, isocitric, lactate and sorbital dehydrogenases are shown as an increase in density of 0.01 per

  9. Isolation and enrichment of type A spermatogonia from pre-pubertal buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis) testis.

    PubMed

    Rafeeqi, T; Kaul, G

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate and subsequently enrich type A spermatogonia from pre-pubertal buffalo testis. Two-step enzymatic digestion was used to isolate spermatogonia from 10 to 14 months pre-pubertal buffalo calves, resulting in maximal release of spermatogonia from the seminiferous tubules. After enzymatic digestion, the type A spermatogonia were subsequently enriched by differential plating and Percoll gradient centrifugation. The identity of type A spermatogonia was determined by light microscopy and further characterised by Dolichos biflorus agglutinin, a specific marker for bovine type A spermatogonia by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. After enzymatic isolation, the cell suspension contained about 27% of type A spermatogonia, which was enriched up to 71% with >70% cell viability. Further flow cytometric analysis showed the presence of THY1+ cells (cells expressing thymocyte differentiation antigen 1), suggesting that THY1 is a conserved marker of the undifferentiated spermatogonial cells in buffalo. The isolation of the enriched type A spermatogonia from buffalo testis opens ways to study the further biochemical characteristics of this important class of germ cells in this species. PMID:22742713

  10. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of chemical volatiles in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) urine.

    PubMed

    Barman, Purabi; Yadav, M C; Kumar, H; Meur, S K; Ghosh, S K

    2013-10-01

    Isolation of active fraction and characterization of chemosignals from urine have been attempted in several mammalian species in the recent years. The objective of this study was to identify the urinary volatiles across various reproductive stages of buffalo cow, namely, estrus, diestrus, and pregnancy, and in bull, by chemical extraction followed by gas chromatography-linked mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Urine samples were collected from six buffalo cows at two different phases of estrous cycle, namely, estrus and diestrus. Besides, urinary samples were collected from five pregnant buffalo cows (60-75 days after artificial insemination (AI)) and six adult bulls. Thin-layer chromatography was performed as a preliminary test for qualitative comparison of different compounds extracted by organic solvents. Identification of the urinary compounds was carried out in a gas chromatograph (Perkin Elmer, Autosystem XL) linked to a mass spectrometer (Turbomass). The results of GC-MS analysis indicated the presence of 21 compounds with varying molecular weights and retention time, which were further categorized as diestrus-specific, pregnancy-specific, and bull-specific urinary compounds. No compound, however, could be identified as estrus-specific. We concluded that qualitative differences do exist in estrus, diestrus, and pregnant buffalo cow urine and in bull urine, as evidenced by GC-MS. PMID:23876684

  11. Collagen-IV supported embryoid bodies formation and differentiation from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Taru Sharma, G., E-mail: gts553@gmail.com [Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Division of Physiology and Climatology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Bareilly, U.P. (India); Dubey, Pawan K.; Verma, Om Prakash; Pratheesh, M.D.; Nath, Amar; Sai Kumar, G. [Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Division of Physiology and Climatology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Bareilly, U.P. (India)] [Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Division of Physiology and Climatology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Bareilly, U.P. (India)

    2012-08-03

    Graphical abstract: EBs formation, characterization and expression of germinal layers marker genes of in vivo developed teratoma using four different types of extracellular matrices. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV matrix is found cytocompatible for EBs formation and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Established 3D microenvironment for ES cells development and differentiation into three germ layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV may be useful as promising candidate for ES cells based therapeutic applications. -- Abstract: Embryoid bodies (EBs) are used as in vitro model to study early extraembryonic tissue formation and differentiation. In this study, a novel method using three dimensional extracellular matrices for in vitro generation of EBs from buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cells and its differentiation potential by teratoma formation was successfully established. In vitro derived inner cell masses (ICMs) of hatched buffalo blastocyst were cultured on buffalo fetal fibroblast feeder layer for primary cell colony formation. For generation of EBs, pluripotent ES cells were seeded onto four different types of extracellular matrices viz; collagen-IV, laminin, fibronectin and matrigel using undifferentiating ES cell culture medium. After 5 days of culture, ESCs gradually grew into aggregates and formed simple EBs having circular structures. Twenty-six days later, they formed cystic EBs over collagen matrix with higher EBs formation and greater proliferation rate as compared to other extracellular matrices. Studies involving histological observations, fluorescence microscopy and RT-PCR analysis of the in vivo developed teratoma revealed that presence of all the three germ layer derivatives viz. ectoderm (NCAM), mesoderm (Flk-1) and endoderm (AFP). In conclusion, the method described here demonstrates a simple and cost-effective way of generating EBs from buffalo ES cells. Collagen-IV matrix was found cytocompatible as it supported buffalo EBs formation, their subsequent differentiation could prove to be useful as promising candidate for ES cells based therapeutic applications.

  12. Molecular characterization and expression profile of ghrelin gene during different reproductive phases in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, S; Jain, A; Baviskar, P; Kumar, R; Joshi, P; Agarwal, S K; Mitra, A

    2013-08-01

    Ghrelin, a novel motilin-related endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagouge receptor, is implicated in various biological functions, including regulation of female reproduction. But the presence of ghrelin and its role in reproductive functions in buffalo, a species with poor reproductive efficiency, is not known. In the present study full-length ghrelin cDNA was isolated from bubaline abomasum, which encodes the entire prepropeptide of 116 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of ghrelin of buffalo showed >95% and 31% identity with that of ruminants (cattle, sheep, and goat) and humans, respectively. Analysis of synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions in the coding region of ghrelin indicated that these sequences of different species have been under purifying selection. The 3995-bp amplicon of ghrelin gene consisting of 4 exons and 3 introns was cloned with genomic DNA from buffalo. Further, ghrelin expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry in bubaline endometrial tissues at different stages of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Our results indicated the persistent expression of ghrelin mRNA and protein in the endometrium during stage I (day 3-5), stage II (day 6-15), and stage III (day 16-21) of the estrous cycle and also during early (~day 30-40) pregnancy. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR experiments indicated the relatively higher expression of ghrelin in the endometrium during stage II (day 6-15) of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy than during stage I (day 3-5) and stage III (day 16-21) of the estrous cycle, but no statistically significant difference in ghrelin expression was observed among stages. To conclude, the results of the present study indicate the persistent expression of ghrelin in the uterine endometrium throughout the estrous cycle and in early pregnancy which might be helpful in determining its role in buffalo reproduction. PMID:23796362

  13. Reproductive characteristics and thyroidal function in relation with season in Khuzestan buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls.

    PubMed

    Mayahi, Sadegh; Mamouei, Morteza; Tabatabaei, Saleh; Mirzadeh, Khalil

    2014-01-01

    High ambient temperature is the major constraint on Buffalo productivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance and thyroid gland function in winter and summer seasons in Khuzestan buffalo bulls. Six male indigenous buffaloes of Khuzestan with nearly the same age (2-3 years old) and weight were used. Semen and blood samples through jugular vein were collected, every two weeks throughout the summer and winter seasons. The thyroid hormones and thyrotropin stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration in blood serum were measured by radioimmunoassay method. Semen quality was determined, using computer assisted sperm analyzer (CASA) and routine methods. The concentration of thyroxin (T4) was lower in winter than summer (p ? 0.05). The level of T3 uptake was higher in cold season than that of in hot season (p ? 0.05). The differences of tri-iodotyronine (T3) and TSH concentrations, as well as free thyroxin index were not significant between seasons. The semen volume and spermatozoa parameters including concentration, progressive motility, linear velocity, mean velocity, beat cross frequency, linear coefficient and straightness coefficient were higher in winter than summer (p ? 0.05). Semen pH and amplitude of lateral head displacement of spermatozoa were higher in summer than winter (p ? 0.05). In winter, there was positive correlation between spermatozoa concentration and T3 value of blood serum (p ? 0.05). There were positive correlations between values of semen volume and T4, progressive spermatozoa motility percent and TSH, as well as, total motility of spermatozoa and TSH in summer (p ? 0.05). In general, thyroid function and semen quality of Khuzestan buffaloes may be affected by seasons. PMID:25568719

  14. Molecular Identification of Methanogenic Archaea From Surti Buffaloes (Bubalus Bubalis), Reveals More Hydrogenotrophic Methanogens Phylotypes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, K.M.; Pandya, P.R.; Parnerkar, S.; Tripathi, A.K.; Rank, D.N.; Kothari, R.K.; Joshi, C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock are considered to be one of the more potent forms of greenhouses gases contributing to global warming. Many strategies to reduce emissions are targeting the methanogens that inhabit the rumen, but such an approach can only be successful if it targets all the major groups of ruminant methanogens. Therefore, a thorough knowledge of the diversity of these microbes in breeds of buffaloes, as well as in response to geographical location and different diets, is required. Therefore, molecular diversity of rumen methanogens in Surti buffaloes was investigated using 16S rRNA gene libraries prepared from pooled rumen contents from three Surti buffaloes. A total of 171 clones were identified revealing 23 different sequences (phylotypes). Of these 23 sequences, twelve sequences (12 OTUs, 83 clones) and 10 sequences (10 OTUs, 83 clones) were similar to methanogens belonging to the orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanobacteriales, and the remaining 1 phylotype (5 clones) were similar to Methanosarcina barkeri. These unique sequences clustered within a distinct and strongly supported phylogenetic group. Further studies and effective strategies can be made to inhibit the growth of Methanomicrobiales and Methanobacteriales phylotypes to reduce the methane emission from rumen and thus help in preventing global warming. PMID:24031614

  15. Experimental inoculation of Neospora caninum in pregnant water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Konrad, J L; Moore, D P; Crudeli, G; Caspe, S G; Cano, D B; Leunda, M R; Lischinsky, L; Regidor-Cerrillo, J; Odeón, A C; Ortega-Mora, L M; Echaide, I; Campero, C M

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the pathogenesis of Neospora caninum in experimentally inoculated pregnant water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Twelve Mediterranean female water buffaloes ranging in age from 4 to 14 years old and seronegative to N. caninum by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) were involved. Ten females were intravenously inoculated with 10(8) tachyzoites of NC-1 strain at 70 (n=3) or 90 (n=7) days of pregnancy (dp). Two control animals were inoculated with placebo at 70 and 90 dp, respectively. Serum samples were obtained weekly following inoculation to the end of the experiment. Three animals inoculated at 70 dp were slaughtered at 28 days post inoculation (dpi), three animals inoculated at 90 dp were slaughtered at 28 dpi and the remaining four animals inoculated at 90 dp were slaughtered at 42 dpi. Fetal fluids from cavities and tissue samples were recovered for IFAT and histopathology, immunohistochemistry and PCR, respectively. Genomic DNA from fetal tissues was used for parasite DNA detection and microsatellite genotyping in order to confirm the NC-1 specific-infection. Dams developed specific antibodies one week after the inoculation and serological titers did not decrease significantly to the end of the experiment. No abortions were recorded during the experimental time; however, one fetus from a dam inoculated at 70 dp was not viable at necropsy. Specific antibodies were detected in only two fetuses from dams inoculated at 90 dp that were slaughtered at 42 dpi. No macroscopic changes in the placentas and organs of viable fetuses were observed. Nonsuppurative placentitis was a common microscopic observation in Neospora-inoculated specimens. Microscopic fetal lesions included nonsuppurative peribronchiolar interstitial pneumonia, epicarditis and myocarditis, interstitial nephritis, myositis and periportal hepatitis. Positive IHC results were obtained in two fetuses from dams inoculated at 70 dp and slaughtered at 28 dpi. N. caninum DNA was detected in placentas and fetuses from all inoculated animals. The pattern of amplified microsatellites from placental and fetal tissues resembled the NC-1 strain. Water buffaloes, like cattle, are susceptible to experimental inoculation with N. caninum at early pregnancy. PMID:22244534

  16. Nutritional evaluation of organically grown fodders in lactating Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Singh, Sultan; Nag, Subir Kumar; Maity, Subhendu Bikash; Kushwaha, Badri Prasad

    2013-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional response of organically grown diets in buffaloes on nutrients utilization and nutrient efficiency for milk production. For this, ten milch Murrah buffaloes of average body weight (490.72 ± 6.65 kg), milk yield (8.13 ± 0.33 kg), and lactation stage (85 ± 5.28 days) were distributed in inorganic (InDg()) and organic dietary groups (OrDg) with five animals in each. Buffaloes of InDg and OgDg were fed sorghum hay-berseem fodder-concentrate mixture-based diets grown inorganically and organically, respectively. After 60 days of feeding, a digestion cum metabolism trial was conducted to assess feed intake, nutrient utilization, and N balance, while milk yield and composition were recorded fortnightly. DM, CP, digestible crude protein (DCP), and metabolizable energy (ME) intake (g/Kg w(0.75)) were similar in animals of InDg and OrDg. NDF, ADF, and hemicellulose digestibility were (P < 0.05) higher in animals on OrDg (59.20, 51.55, and 62.67) than InDg diet (54.57, 43.72, and 56.61 %), respectively. Urinary n loss (g/day) was (P < 0.05) lower in OrDg (67.23) than in InDg (83.55); however, milk N was comparable in animals of both dietary groups (47.36 vs 45.82 g/day). Nitrogen balance was higher in animals of OrDg (39.72) than in InDg (28.08). DCP, TDN, and ME values of both diets were similar. No effect of diet was observed on milk yield and its composition; however, increased lactation length decreased milk yield. Buffaloes on both diets had similar efficiency and conversion ratio of nutrients for milk production. Results revealed that diets (organically vs. inorganically grown) have no effect on milk yield and its composition; however, buffaloes on organic diet have higher fiber digestibility and low urinary N loss which did not affect the dietary nutrients efficiency and conversion ratio for milk production. PMID:22733348

  17. In vivo differentiation potential of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cell.

    PubMed

    Verma, Om Prakash; Kumar, Rajesh; Nath, Amar; Sharma, Manjinder; Dubey, Pawan Kumar; Kumar, G Sai; Sharma, G Taru

    2012-06-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) derived from inner cell mass (ICM) of mammalian blastocyst are having indefinite proliferation and differentiation capability for any type of cell lineages. In the present study, ICMs of in vitro-derived buffalo blastocysts were cultured into two different culture systems using buffalo fetal fibroblast as somatic cell support and Matrigel as synthetic support to obtain pluripotent buffalo embryonic stem cell (buESC) colonies. Pluripotency of the ESCs were characterised through pluripotency markers whereas, their differentiation capability was assessed by teratoma assay using immuno-compromised mice. Cumulus ooccyte complexes from slaughter house-derived ovaries were subjected to in vitro maturation, in vitro fertilization and in vitro culture to generate blastocysts. Total 262 blastocysts were derived through IVEP with 11.83 % (31/262) hatching rate. To generate buESCs, 15 ICMs from hatched blastocysts were cultured on mitomycin-C-treated homologous fetal fibroblast feeder layer, whereas the leftover 16 ICMs were cultured on extra-cellular matrix (Matrigel). No significant differences were observed for primary ESCs colony formation between two culture systems. Primary colonies as well as passaged ESCs were characterised by alkaline phosphatase staining, karyotyping and expression of transcription-based stem cell markers, OCT-4 and cell surface antigens SSEA-4 and TRA-1-60. Batch of ESCs found positive for pluripotency markers and showing normal karyotype after fifteenth passage were inoculated into eight immuno-compromised mice through subcutaneous and intramuscular route. Subcutaneous route of inoculation was found to be better than intramuscular route. Developed teratomas were excised surgically and subjected to histological analysis. Histological findings revealed presence of all the three germinal layer derivatives in teratoma sections. Presence of germinal layer derivatives were further confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for the presence of differentiation markers like nerve cell adhesion molecule, fetal liver kinase-1 and alpha-feto protein for ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm, respectively. PMID:22678753

  18. The effects of high temperature and roof modification on physiological responses of swamp buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis) in the tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khongdee, Titaporn; Sripoon, S.; Vajrabukka, C.

    2013-05-01

    The objective of the experiments reported here was to measure the effects of cooling techniques (Modified roof vs Normal roof) on the performance and physiology of 12 young male buffaloes with a similar live weight of 160 kg. The study was conducted at Chainat Agriculture and Technology College, Chainat Province, Thailand. The animals were divided randomly into two groups, each group comprising six buffaloes, and the two groups were studied to evaluate the effects of modified roofing (normal roof fitted with woven polypropylene shade cloth) on the subjects' physiological responses to heat stress under hot humid conditions. The modified roof resulted in lowered heat stress in buffaloes compared to those under a standard roof. The difference was shown by the buffaloes having a significantly lower mean rectal temperature (39.14 ± 0.07 vs 40.00 ± 0.10°C) and plasma cortisol (2.14 ± 0.24 vs 3.38 ± 0.37 ng/ml). The average daily water consumption was significantly lower in the MR group (MR, 29.71 ± 0.86 vs NR, 34.14 ± 1.06 L head -1 day-1), while there was a tendency for the roughage intake to be higher in the MR group compared to that of the NR group (MR, 5.88 ± 0.18 vs NR, 6.44 ± 0.19 kg head-1 -1 day-1; P = 0.0508). It was concluded that roof modification facilitated a reduction in heat load from roof re-radiation, and was an effective means of alleviating thermal stress in young buffaloes.

  19. Genetic parameters for milk, fat and protein yields in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis Artiodactyla, Bovidae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate genetic parameters for test-day milk, fat and protein yields and 305-day-yields in Murrah buffaloes. 4,757 complete lactations of Murrah buffaloes were analyzed. Co-variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method. The models included additive direct genetic and permanent environmental effects as random effects, and the fixed effects of contemporary group, milking number and age of the cow at calving as linear and quadratic covariables. Contemporary groups were defined by herd-year-month of test for test-day yields and by herd-year-season of calving for 305-day yields. The heritability estimates obtained by two-trait analysis ranged from 0.15 to 0.24 for milk, 0.16 to 0.23 for protein and 0.13 to 0.22 for fat, yields. Genetic and phenotypic correlations were all positive. The observed population additive genetic variation indicated that selection might be an effective tool in changing population means in milk, fat and protein yields. PMID:21637608

  20. Cellular and functional characterization of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) corpus luteum during the estrous cycle and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Baithalu, Rubina Kumari; Singh, S K; Gupta, Chhavi; Raja, Anuj K; Saxena, Abhishake; Kumar, Yogendra; Singh, R; Agarwal, S K

    2013-08-01

    In the present paper, cellular composition of buffalo corpus luteum (CL) with its functional characterization based on 3?-HSD and progesterone secretory ability at different stages of estrous cycle and pregnancy was studied. Buffalo uteri along with ovaries bearing CL were collected from the local slaughter house. These were classified into different stages of estrous cycle (Stage I, II, III and IV) and pregnancy (Stage I, II and III) based on morphological appearance of CL, surface follicles on the ovary and crown rump length of conceptus. Luteal cell population, progesterone content and steroidogenic properties were studied by dispersion of luteal cells using collagenase type I enzyme, RIA and 3?-HSD activity, respectively. Large luteal cells (LLC) appeared as polyhedral or spherical in shape with a centrally placed large round nucleus and an abundance of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. However, small luteal cells (SLC) appeared to be spindle shaped with an eccentrically placed irregular nucleus and there was paucity of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. The size of SLC (range 12-23?m) and LLC (range 25-55?m) increased (P<0.01) with the advancement of stage of estrous cycle and pregnancy. The mean progesterone concentration per gram and per CL increased (P<0.01) from Stage I to III of estrous cycle with maximum concentration at Stage III of estrous cycle and pregnancy. The progesterone concentration decreased at Stage IV (day 17-20) of estrous cycle coinciding with CL regression. Total luteal cell number (LLC and SLC) also increased (P<0.01) from Stage I to III of estrous cycle and decreased (P<0.05), thereafter, at Stage IV indicating degeneration of luteal cells and regression of the CL. Total luteal cell population during pregnancy also increased (P<0.01) from Stage I to II and thereafter decreased (P>0.05) indicating cessation of mitosis. Increased (P<0.05) large luteal cell numbers from Stage I to III of estrous cycle and pregnancy coincided with the increased progesterone secretion and 3?-HSD activity of CL. Thus, proportionate increases of large compared with small luteal cells were primarily responsible for increased progesterone secretion during the advanced stages of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Total luteal cells and progesterone content per CL during the mid-luteal stage in buffalo as observed in the present study seem to be less than with cattle suggesting inherent luteal deficiency. PMID:23896394

  1. Ovarian follicular dynamics in water buffalo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Taneja; A. Ali; G. Singh

    1996-01-01

    The pattern of growth and regression of ovarian follicles was characterized during 7 complete estrous cycles in 5 water buffalo by daily ultrasonographic examinations of the ovaries. Follicles ? 4 mm were measured and their relative locations within the ovary were determined to follow the sequential development of each individual follicle. Results indicated the presence of either one (n =

  2. Freeze-thaw induced genotoxicity in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa in relation to total antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raj; Jagan Mohanarao, G; Arvind; Atreja, S K

    2011-03-01

    Use of cryopreserved semen has become an important tool in assisted reproduction but freezing and thawing cause sub-lethal damage to spermatozoa. This is detrimental to sperm because of the membrane damage including permeability and integrity. An excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) creates oxidative stress due to reduced antioxidant status of the cryopreserved spermatozoa. In the present study fresh buffalo semen was collected and divided into two aliquots. One aliquot was used for fresh semen analysis and the other was cryopreserved in Tris-egg yolk-citrate extender. The semen samples were used to study different sperm quality parameters like motility, viability, membrane integrity and total antioxidant status. The DNA integrity in fresh and cryopreserved spermatozoa was also studied using comet assay. The sperm quality parameters like post-thaw sperm motility, viability, membrane integrity and total antioxidant status of cryopreserved spermatozoa were significantly lowered (P < 0.05) compared to fresh spermatozoa. The DNA fragmentation in cryopreserved spermatozoa was significantly higher (P < 0.01) as compared to fresh spermatozoa. The results show that the irreversible DNA damage occurs in spermatozoa during cryopreservation. PMID:20853151

  3. IGF-1 attenuates LPS induced pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Onnureddy, K; Ravinder; Onteru, Suneel Kumar; Singh, Dheer

    2015-03-01

    Interaction between immune and endocrine system is a diverse process influencing cellular function and homeostasis in animals. Negative energy balance (NEB) during postpartum period in dairy animals usually suppresses these systems resulting in reproductive tract infection and infertility. These negative effects could be due to competition among endocrine and immune signaling pathways for common signaling molecules. The present work studied the effect of IGF-1 (50 ng/ml) on LPS (1 ?g/ml) mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-6) and aromatase (CYP19A1) genes' expressions as well as proliferation of buffalo granulosa cells. The crosstalk between LPS and IGF-1 was also demonstrated through studying the activities of downstream signaling molecules (ERK1/2, Akt, NF-?B) by western blot and immunostaining. Gene expression analysis showed that IGF-1 significantly reduced the LPS induced expression of IL-1?, TNF-? and IL-6. LPS alone inhibited the CYP19A1 expression. However, co-treatment with IGF-1 reversed the inhibitory effect of LPS on CYP19A1 expression. LPS alone did not affect granulosa cell proliferation, but co-treatment with IGF-1, and IGF-1 alone enhanced the proliferation. Western blot results demonstrated that LPS caused the nuclear translocation of the NF-?B and increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt maximum at 15 min and 60 min, respectively. Nonetheless, co-treatment with IGF-1 delayed LPS induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (peak at 120 min), while promoting early Akt phosphorylation (peak at 5 min) with no effect on NF-?B translocation. Overall, IGF-1 delayed and reversed the effects of LPS, suggesting that high IGF-1 levels may combat infection during critical periods like NEB in postpartum dairy animals. PMID:25433435

  4. Effect of Different Thawing Rates on Post-Thaw Viability, Kinematic Parameters and Chromatin Structure of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Rastegarnia, Abdolreza; Shahverdi, Abdolhossein; Rezaei Topraggaleh, Tohid; Ebrahimi, Bita; Shafipour, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate three thawing rates on the post thaw motility, viability and chromatin structure of buffalo semen frozen in 0.5-ml straws. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study semen was collected with artificial vagina (42?) from four buffalo bulls.Split pooled ejaculates (n=4) were extended at 37? with a Bioxcell® extender. Semen was cooled to 4? within 2 hours, equilibrated at 4? for 4 hours, then filled in 0.5 ml French straws, and frozen in programmable cell freezer before plunging into liquid nitrogen. Straws were thawed at water bath temperatures of 37, 50 or 70? for 30, 15 and 6 seconds, respectively. Semen was incubated at 37? for 2 hours and evaluated for post thaw motility, viability, acrosomal and DNA integrity of spermatozoa. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for comparisons of means. When the ANOVA test showed statistical differences, the mean of the treatments were compared using Duncan’s multiple range tests. Results: The initial postthaw motility (0 hour) averaged 62.7 ± 7.2%, 73.1 ± 9.77%, and 74.9 ± 8.58% for the three thaw rates, respectively. Kinematic parameters such as average path velocity, linearity and beat/cross frequency in the thaw rate of 70? for 6 seconds were superior to other rates studied (p<0.05). After 2 hours of incubation, proportions of progressive motility and Kinematic parameters decreased in all groups (p>0.05). A positive correlation was detected between sperm motility and thawing rate after two hours incubation times. The percentage of viable spermatozoa and spermatozoa with an intact acrosome and plasma membrane integrity were not different between the groups of samples thawed at different temperatures (p>0.05). The percentage of spermatozoa with chromatin dispersion forthe thaw rate of 70? for 6 seconds was significantly higher than for the to other rates studied (p< 0.05). In contrast with motility and viability, the DNA integrity of post thaw spermatozoa remained unaffected during 2 hours incubation. Conclusion: The post thaw motility and kinematic parameters of buffalo spermatozoa were significantly improved immediately after thawing by increasing the thawing rate from 37? in 30 seconds to70? in 6 seconds. However, this relative advantage had disappeared after incubation in a water bath at 37? for two hours.A thaw rate of 70? for 6 seconds was associated with higher chromatin dispersion than the other thaw rates studied. Sperm thawing over at 50 degrees could be safely used to improve motility recovery after sperm cryopreservation in buffalo bulls. PMID:23577311

  5. Neospora caninum serostatus is affected by age and species variables in cohabiting water buffaloes and beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Moore, D P; Konrad, J L; San Martino, S; Reichel, M P; Cano, D B; Méndez, S; Späth, E J L; Odeón, A C; Crudeli, G; Campero, C M

    2014-07-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate how Neospora caninum serostatus may be affected by variables such as host species (water buffaloes or cattle) and age in animals cohabiting in the same ranch. A convenience cross-sectional study was performed on four ranches in the Northeast of Argentina, where water buffalo are cohabitating with beef cattle. Blood samples were collected from 1350 female water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and 880 female beef cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus crossbreeds) from four ranches. Calving and weaning percentages at herd level for each ranch were also recorded. N. caninum antibody levels were measured by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) (reciprocal antibody titers ? 100). Serological results were classified into 2 categories (0: negative; 1: positive). A logistic regression model was used to describe the relationship between N. caninum serostatus and specie (water buffalo or cattle), age or ranch and their interactions. Likelihood ratio tests were used to assess the significance of the model and their terms. Odds ratios were estimated and 95% profile likelihood (LR) and Wald confidence intervals (CI) obtained. Overall, specific antibody titers were found in 43.3% (584/1350) of water buffaloes and 28.6% (252/880) of cattle. Seropositive water buffaloes and cattle were observed on all ranches. Age was statistically significant (p=0.01) with an overall estimate of logit (log odds) of age of 0.03 for both species. This indicates that for every one year increase in age, the expected change in log odds of being seropositive increased by 0.03. On three of four ranches a water buffalo was 4.48, 1.54 and 2.25 times more likely to be seropositive than cattle for animals of the same age. The N. caninum serostatus was affected by age in the first place, but also by species on at least three of the four ranches. Calving and weaning percentages were higher in water buffaloes than in beef cattle (p<0.05). Even though the low pathogenicity that N. caninum seems to have in water buffaloes, this study reinforces the importance of this specie as maintenance of the disease. PMID:24792747

  6. Bacterial diversity in the rumen of Gayals (Bos frontalis), Swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and Holstein cow as revealed by cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuli; Ma, Songcheng; Chen, Jing; Mao, Huaming; He, Yiduo; Xi, Dongmei; Yang, Liangyu; He, Tianbao; Deng, Weidong

    2010-04-01

    Libraries of rumen bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences of Gayals (Bos frontalis) and Swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were cloned and sequenced in the present work to compare the bacterial diversity with the third published library of Holstein cow. Sequence similarity of 97% was used as the definition of operational taxonomic unit (OTU). The majority of the 470 sequences retrieved fell into the phyla of low G + C subdivision (329 sequences) and Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides (CFB, 123 sequences) with the percentages of 70 and 26.2, respectively. The remaining clones belonged to the phyla of Proteobacter, high G + C gram positive bacteria (HGCGPB) and Spirochaetes, accounting for 3.8% totally. Only 73 clones (25 OTUs, 15.5%) could be closely related to cultured representatives. However, a larger fraction was related to uncultured representatives. Holstein cow may have more representatives of cultural bacteria and there were more uncultured clones for Gayals. The percentage of cultural representatives was 24, 13.3 and 9.5 for Holstein cow, Swamp buffaloes and Gayals, respectively. Twenty-three OTUs of the 236 ones appeared in more than one library, five of which were cultural. Selenomonas ruminantium, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens were found in two different libraries, while Succiniclasticum ruminis and Pseudobutyrivibrio ruminis were found in all three libraries. Some of the animal-specific bacteria that had not been described previously in the ruminal ecosystem, e.g. Allisonella histaminiformans for Gayals and Staphylococcus sciuri for Swamp buffaloes were also recovered. PMID:19662514

  7. Assessment of genetic variability and structuring of riverine buffalo population (Bubalus bubalis) of Indo-Gangetic basin.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Jyoti; Salar, R K; Banerjee, Priyanka; Sharma, Upasna; Tantia, M S; Vijh, R K

    2015-01-01

    The buffalo population of Uttar Pradesh (UP) constitutes 26.1% of the total buffalo population of India, yet this population has not been classified into distinct breeds or subpopulations due to lack of systematic study. Genetic variation at 30 microsatellite loci was examined and statistical analysis was carried out to reveal genetic diversity, demographic parameters of these buffaloes and to investigate the existence of population substructures underlying geographical distribution. The mean number of alleles per locus was 13.26 and mean effective number of alleles was 3.74, whereas mean observed and expected heterozygosities were found to be 0.57 and 0.67 in UP buffaloes. Principal component analysis (PCA) based on allele frequency data revealed subclustering of UP buffalo population. Bayesian analysis result also revealed clear membership of individuals into five clusters indicating a genetic subdivision within the UP buffalo population. The buffaloes of Western and Central regions of UP were subtly separated while buffaloes of Tarai area and Bhadawari buffaloes revealed distinctive population structure. The buffaloes of Mau, Ballia and Ghazipur districts of Eastern region also had a distinctive genetic structure. The analysis of data on buffaloes of Indo-Gangetic plains revealed that population was in mutation drift equilibrium. The observed mean M ratio in the population was above the critical significance value (Mc) suggesting that it has not suffered any severe reduction in effective population size. The statistical tests revealed a historical constancy of size of buffalo in this geographical area. The high level of genetic variability indicates UP buffalo population is a vast reservoir of genetic diversity and this shall help in taking informed conservation decisions and sustainable utilization. PMID:25380468

  8. Transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus from experimentally infected Indian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) to in-contact naïve and vaccinated Indian buffalo and cattle.

    PubMed

    Madhanmohan, M; Yuvaraj, S; Nagendrakumar, S B; Srinivasan, V A; Gubbins, Simon; Paton, David James; Parida, Satya

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from experimentally infected Indian buffalo to in-contact naïve and vaccinated cattle and buffalo. In each of six rooms, two donor buffalo that had been inoculated with FMDV were housed for five days with four recipient animals, comprising one vaccinated buffalo, one vaccinated calf, one unvaccinated buffalo and one unvaccinated calf. Vaccination was carried out with current Indian vaccine strain (O/IND/R2/75) and challenged on 28 days post-vaccination with an antigenically similar strain (O/HAS/34/05). All 12 donor buffalo and the six unvaccinated cattle and six unvaccinated calves developed clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). In contrast, all six vaccinated cattle (100%) and four out of six vaccinated buffalo (66.6%) were protected from disease but all became infected with FMDV. This confirms that buffalo have the potential to spread FMD by direct contact and that vaccination can block this spread. The numbers of animals in the study were too small to determine if the differences in clinical protection afforded by vaccination of cattle and buffalo are significant and warrant a different dose regime. PMID:24837776

  9. Effectiveness of poll stunning water buffalo with captive bolt guns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. G. Gregory; J. Y. Spence; C. W. Mason; A. Tinarwo; L. Heasman

    2009-01-01

    Practical experience has indicated that shooting water buffalo with a captive bolt gun in the front of the head does not always produce an effective stun. Slaughtermen have been claiming that the poll position is more reliable, but under present EU regulations this shooting position is not allowed for domesticated bovines. This study examined the effectiveness of shooting water buffalo

  10. Sarcocystis cafferi, n. sp. (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) from the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four species of Sarcocystis are currently recognized in the Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): Sarcocystis fusiformis with macrocysts and cats as definitive hosts, S. buffalonis also with macrocysts and cats as definitive hosts, S. levinei with microcysts and dogs as definitive hosts, and S. dub...

  11. Bovine herpesvirus type 1 marker vaccine induces cross-protection against bubaline herpesvirus type 1 in water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Montagnaro, Serena; De Martinis, Claudio; Iovane, Valentina; Ciarcia, Roberto; Damiano, Sara; Nizza, Sandra; De Martino, Luisa; Iovane, Giuseppe; Pagnini, Ugo

    2014-09-01

    Water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) are susceptible to bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) and a species-specific herpesvirus, bubaline herpesvirus type 1 (BuHV-1). In this study, an attenuated marker BoHV-1 based vaccine against BuHV-1 challenge was evaluated to determine whether it induces protection from viral replication. One group of water buffalo calves was immunized with an attenuated BoHV-1 marker vaccine. A second group was not vaccinated and used as the control. During the post-vaccination period, we monitored the humoral immune response. The efficacy of the vaccine was tested after intranasal challenge of the calves with a BuHV-1 strain. The experiment showed that after vaccination, BuHV-1 replication was significantly reduced by approximately three titer points compared to the controls. The control animals showed high levels of viral shedding and mild signs associated with BuHV-1 infection. Therefore, our study provides evidence for the existence of cross-protection between BoHV-1 and BuHV-1 in buffalo calves. PMID:24985155

  12. [Polymorphisms of inhibin ? gene exon 1 in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), gayal (Bos frontalis) and yak (Bos grunniens)].

    PubMed

    Miao, Yong-Wang; Ha, Fu; Gao, Hua-Shan; Yuan, Feng; Li, Da-Lin; Yuan, Yue-Yun

    2012-08-01

    To elucidate the genetic characteristics of the bovine Inhibin ? subunit (INHA) gene, the polymorphisms in exon 1 of INHA and its bilateral sequences were assayed using PCR with direct sequencing in buffalo, gayal and yak. A comparative analysis was conducted by pooled the results in this study with the published data of INHA on some mammals including some bovine species together. A synonymous substitution c.73C>A was identified in exon 1 of INHA for buffalo, which results in identical encoding product in river and swamp buffalo. In gayal, two non-synonymous but same property substitutions in exon 1 of INHA, viz. c.62 C>T and c.187 G>A, were detected, which lead to p. P21L, p. V63M changes in INHA, respectively. In yak, nucleotide substitution c.62C> T, c.129A>G were found in exon 1 of INHA, the former still causes p. P21L substitution and the latter is synonymous. For the sequence of the 5'-flanking region of INHA examined, no SNPs were found within the species, but a substitution, c. -6T>G, was found. The nucleotide in this site in gayal, yak and cattle was c. -6G, whereas in buffalo it was c. -6T. Meanwhile, a 6-bp deletion, namely c. 262+31_262+36delTCTGAC, was found in the intron of buffalo INHA gene. For this deletion, wild types (+/+) account for main part in river buffalo while mutant types (-/-) are predominant in swamp buffalo. This deletion was not found in gayal, yak and cattle, though these all have another deletion in the intron of INHA, c. 262+78_262+79delTG. The results of sequence alignment showed that the substitutions c. 43A and c. 67G in exon 1 of INHA are specific to buffalo, whereas the substitutions c. 173A and c. 255G are exclusive to gayal, yak and cattle, and c. 24C, c. 47G, c. 174T and c. 206T are specific to goat. Furthermore, there are few differences among gayal, yak and cattle, but there relatively great differences between buffalo, goat and other bovine species regarding the sequences of INHA exon 1. PMID:22855448

  13. Characterisation and In Silico Analysis of Interleukin-4 cDNA of Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus) and Indian Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Saini, M.; Palai, T. K.; Das, D. K.; Hatle, K. M.; Gupta, P. K.

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4) produced from Th2 cells modulates both innate and adaptive immune responses. It is a common belief that wild animals possess better immunity against diseases than domestic and laboratory animals; however, the immune system of wild animals is not fully explored yet. Therefore, a comparative study was designed to explore the wildlife immunity through characterisation of IL-4 cDNA of nilgai, a wild ruminant, and Indian buffalo, a domestic ruminant. Total RNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of nilgai and Indian buffalo and reverse transcribed into cDNA. Respective cDNA was further cloned and sequenced. Sequences were analysed in silico and compared with their homologues available at GenBank. The deduced 135 amino acid protein of nilgai IL-4 is 95.6% similar to that of Indian buffalo. N-linked glycosylation sequence, leader sequence, Cysteine residues in the signal peptide region, and 3? UTR of IL-4 were found to be conserved across species. Six nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions were found in Indian buffalo compared to nilgai amino acid sequence. Tertiary structure of this protein in both species was modeled, and it was found that this protein falls under 4-helical cytokines superfamily and short chain cytokine family. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a single cluster of ruminants including both nilgai and Indian buffalo that was placed distinct from other nonruminant mammals. PMID:24348167

  14. Hepatic hemosiderosis in buffalo fish ( Ictiobus spp.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Thiyagarajah; W. R. Hartley; A. Abdelghani

    1998-01-01

    Hepatocellular hemosiderosis was observed in several species of fish associated with mixed chemical pollution in a Mississippi River Basin ecosystem. Three species of buffalo fish—smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus), bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus), and black buffalo (Ictiobus niger)—were collected from a contaminated site, Devil's Swamp, and a control site, Tunica Swamp, both near Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Liver, kidney and spleen were

  15. The endocrine changes, the timing of ovulation and the efficacy of the Doublesynch protocol in the Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Mirmahmoudi, R; Prakash, B S

    2012-05-15

    Experiments were conducted to investigate (a) the timing of ovulation and the associated endocrine changes (progesterone, estrogen and LH) during estrous cycle and (b) the efficacy, with respect to the pregnancy rate, in cycling and anestrus in Murrah buffaloes subjected to the Doublesynch protocol during the low breeding season. In experiment 1, 10 cycling buffaloes were administered PGF(2?) on day 0 (without regard to the estrous cycle stage), GnRH on day 2, a second PGF(2?) injection on day 9, and a second GnRH injection on day 11. Transrectal palpation was performed at 2-h intervals after the first and second GnRH treatments until ovulation was detected or for upto 96 h. The plasma progesterone and total estrogen concentrations were determined in blood samples collected at daily intervals starting 2 days before the onset of the protocol and continued until the day of the second detected ovulation. The plasma LH and total estrogen concentrations were measured in blood samples collected at 30-min intervals for 8h following the first and second GnRH injections and thereafter at 2-h intervals until 2h after the detection of ovulation. Ovulation occurred in 9/10 buffaloes (90%) at 22.2 ± 1.2 h (mean ± S.E.M.; range 18.0-26.0 h) and 10/10 buffaloes (100%) at 23.2 ± 1.0 h (mean ± S.E.M.; range 20.0-28.0 h) after the first and second GnRH treatments, respectively. The peak LH concentrations of 99.8 ± 28.5 ng/ml (range 37.8-320.0 ng/ml) and 62.3 ± 11.9 ng/ml (range 20.9-143.9 ng/ml) occurred 2.1 ± 0.3 h (range 1.0-3.5 h) and 2.3 ± 0.3 h (range 0.5-3.0 h) after the first and second GnRH treatments, respectively. The total estrogen concentration gradually increased from the day of both the first and second PGF(2?) administrations until the LH peak (with great variability) and then gradually declined to the basal level, which was reached at the time ovulation was detected. In experiment 2, 10 cycling and 11 non-lactating anestrus buffaloes were subjected to the Doublesynch protocol with timed artificial insemination (TAI) 16 and 24 h after the second GnRH treatment, and 55 cycling buffaloes were inseminated after spontaneous estrus was detected (control group). The pregnancy rates were 60% using TAI on cycling buffaloes (experiments 1 and 2), 55% for anestrus buffaloes (experiment 2), and 27.3% for cycling buffaloes inseminated following spontaneous estrus. The overall pregnancy success rates after the Doublesynch protocol in both cycling and anestrus buffaloes increased by 30.8% compared to spontaneous estrus (58.1% vs. 27.3%). In conclusion, the Doublesynch protocol effectively synchronized ovulation twice (after the first and second GnRH treatments) irrespective of the stage of estrous cycle in Murrah buffaloes. The study also demonstrated that the Doublesynch protocol followed by TAI significantly (P<0.005) enhanced the pregnancy rate in cycling and anestrus buffaloes in comparison to untreated controls during the low breeding season. PMID:22433942

  16. Pathogenic ‘Bison-type’ Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis genotype characterized from riverine buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis) in North India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Yadav; S. V. Singh; A. V. Singh; I. Sevilla; R. A. Juste; P. K. Singh; J. S. Sohal

    2008-01-01

    Despite low per-animal productivity of ruminants in developing countries, Johne's disease has not been investigated in buffaloes, which are primarily found in these countries. This is due to lack of expertise, diagnostic kits and priority to production diseases like Johne's disease. Presence of pathogenic Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) was investigated by screening of target tissues (mesenteric lymph nodes and

  17. Effect of antibiotics in extender on bacterial and spermatozoal quality of cooled buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull semen.

    PubMed

    Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Andrabi, S M H; Ullah, N; Qayyum, M

    2008-06-01

    The present study was designed to study the effect of traditional antibiotic combination (streptomycin and penicillin; SP) and relatively modern combination of antibiotics (gentamycin, tylosin, lincomycin and spectinomycin; GTLS) in extender on bacterial control and spermatozoal quality of liquid buffalo bull semen stored at 5 degrees C. Semen collected from Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls (n = 10) was diluted with skim milk extender containing either SP (streptomycin 1000 microg/ml and penicillin 1000 IU/ml), GTLS (gentamycin 500 microg/ml, tylosin 100 microg/ml, lincomycin 300 microg/ml and spectinomycin 600 microg/ml) or negative control with no antibiotics (NA). Liquid semen was stored at 5 degrees C for 5 days. Aerobic bacteria isolated from buffalo semen were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The only facultative anaerobic bacterium isolated was Klebsiella pneumoniae. In vitro antibiotic sensitivity test revealed that Ps. aeruginosa and Staph. aureus were susceptible to gentamycin. Staphylococcus aureus and K. pneumoniae were susceptible to tylosin and linco-spectinomycin. Total aerobic bacterial count was significantly lower in semen samples treated with GTLS than those of SP on third and fifth day of storage at 5 degrees C. There was no difference (p > 0.05) in sperm motility, longevity and plasma membrane integrity (PMI) in extender containing SP or GTLS combination until the third day of storage at 5 degrees C. On fifth day of storage sperm motility, longevity and PMI was significantly better in extender containing SP compared with GTLS and NA. Intact acrosomes, and sperm head, mid piece and tail abnormalities remained similar (p > 0.05) because of antibiotics up to 5 days of storage. In conclusion, GTLS is more capable than SP for bacterial control of buffalo bull semen. Moreover, GTLS and SP are equally efficient in preserving spermatozoal quality of extended buffalo bull semen for 3 days at 5 degrees C. PMID:18042206

  18. In-Vitro Indicators of Natural Resistance and Milk-Producing Ability in Dairy Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Miarelli, Maria; Signorelli, Federica

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of detecting novel phenotypes of natural resistance at the molecular level through the in-vitro stimulation of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). This study was conducted with 16 healthy buffaloes who were reared for milk production and for whom data on milk-producing ability were available for several lactations. MDMs from circulating monocytes were activated with interferon-gamma and lipopolysaccharide. The response was evaluated using Western blotting to detect the presence of 2 types of proteins separated by electrophoresis: tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins, which are indicators of the dynamic control of biochemical pathways, and IkB-alpha (Kappa light polipeptide gene enhancer in B-cells Inhibitor, alpha) protein, which controls the activity of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells—a transcription factor that is responsible for the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. The results showed that the buffaloes who were positive for IkB-alpha proteins had a significantly higher milk-producing ability than the buffaloes who did not express IkB-alpha. On the contrary, no significant difference was detected between the high and low milk-producing buffaloes with regard to the presence of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. This preliminary study indicated that it may be possible to identify the more disease-resistant nonhuman animals on a molecular level. The results, therefore, indicate that an intense selection toward the increase of milk yield could impair natural disease resistance in future dairy buffalo generations. PMID:25111879

  19. Molecular cloning, sequence characterization and heterologous expression of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oviduct-specific glycoprotein in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Janjanam, Jagadeesh; Singh, Surender; Choudhary, Suman; Pradeep, Mangottil A; Kumar, Sudarshan; Kumaresan, A; Das, Subrata K; Kaushik, Jai K; Mohanty, Ashok K

    2012-12-01

    Oviductin is a high molecular weight oviduct-specific glycoprotein secreted by the non-ciliated epithelial cells of oviduct during estrous cycle and early pregnancy. It plays an important role during fertilization and early embryonic development. The oviductin gene from oviductal tissues of buffalo was successfully cloned and sequenced. The sequence analysis revealed that buffalo and cattle oviductin share very high homology between their cDNA sequences. The predicted amino acid sequences of the buffalo oviductin exhibited the highest percent of identity of 97 % with bovine followed by 94 % with goat, 93 % with sheep, 78 % with porcine, 72 % with human, 67 % with hamster and rabbit and 65 % with mouse. Oviductin was also observed to share high similarity with the mammalian chitinase, however oviductins do not show chitinase activity due to Glu?Ile mutation in the active site responsible for chitinase activity. The phylogenetic tree based on amino acid sequences of oviductin indicated that buffalo oviductin was closely related to its cattle counterpart, and this clustering is in accordance with the classic taxonomic relationship. Tissue specific expression of the transcripts for buffalo oviductin revealed a high level expression in oviduct and ovary followed by testis, mammary gland, kidney, while in mammary epithelial cells and liver its expression was very low. The full length matured oviductin and its domains constituting chitinase-like domain and mucin-like domain were cloned into pET and pGEX series of expression vectors and over expressed in E. coli. The soluble recombinant oviductin was successfully purified to homogeneity. Full length recombinant oviductin was expressed partially in soluble form, where as the chitinase-like and mucin-like domains of oviductin were expressed in insoluble form and aggregating to form inclusion bodies at both 37 and 16 °C induction temperatures. PMID:22782592

  20. Clinical outcomes and molecular genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk samples of dairy primiparous Mediterranean buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Guccione, J; Cosandey, A; Pesce, A; Di Loria, A; Pascale, M; Piantedosi, D; Steiner, A; Graber, H U; Ciaramella, P

    2014-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogens causing mastitis in dairy cows and in Mediterranean buffaloes. Genotype B (GTB) is contagious in dairy cows and may occur in up to 87% of cows of a dairy herd. It was the aim of this study to evaluate genotypes present, clinical outcomes, and prevalence of Staph. aureus in milk samples of primiparous Mediterranean dairy buffaloes. Two hundred composite milk samples originating from 40 primiparous buffaloes were collected from May to June 2012, at d 10, 30, 60, 90, and 150 d in milk (DIM) to perform somatic cell counts and bacteriological cultures. Daily milk yields were recorded. Before parturition until 40 to 50 DIM, all primiparous animals were housed separated from the pluriparous animals. Milking was performed in the same milking parlor, but the primiparous animals were milked first. After 50 DIM, the primiparous were mixed with the pluriparous animals, including the milking procedure. Individual quarter samples were collected from each animal, and aliquots of 1 mL were mixed and used for molecular identification and genotyping of Staph. aureus. The identification of Staph. aureus was performed verifying the presence of nuc gene by nuc gene PCR. All the nuc-positive isolates were subjected to genotype analysis by means of PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region and analyzed by a miniaturized electrophoresis system. Of all 200 composite samples, 41 (20.5%) were positive for Staph. aureus, and no genotype other than GTB was identified. The prevalence of samples positive for Staph. aureus was 0% at 10 DIM and increased to a maximum of 22/40 (55%) at 90 DIM. During the period of interest, 14 buffaloes tested positive for Staph. aureus once, 6 were positive twice, and 5 were positive 3 times, whereas 15 animals were negative at every sampling. At 90 and 150 DIM, 7 (17.5%) and 3 buffaloes (7.5%), respectively, showed clinical mastitis (CM), and only 1 (2.5%) showed CM at both samplings. At 60, 90, and 150 DIM, 1 buffalo was found with subclinical mastitis at each sampling. At 30, 60, 90, and 150 DIM, 2.5 (1/40), 22.5 (9/40), 35 (14/40), and 10% (4/40) were considered affected by intramammary infection, respectively. Buffaloes with CM caused by Staph. aureus had statistically significantly higher mean somatic cell count values (6.06 ± 0.29, Log10 cells/mL ± standard deviation) and statistically significantly lower mean daily milk yields (7.15 ± 1.49, liters/animal per day) than healthy animals (4.69 ± 0.23 and 13.87 ± 2.64, respectively), buffaloes with IMI (4.82 ± 0.23 and 11.16 ± 1.80, respectively), or with subclinical mastitis (5.47 ± 0.10 and 10.33 ± 0.68, respectively). Based on our knowledge, this is the first time that Staph. aureus GTB has been identified in milk samples of dairy Mediterranean buffaloes. PMID:25459906

  1. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure growth hormone level in serum and milk of buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Mishra; T K Goswami; D C Shukla

    An indirect Sandwich ELISA to measure growth hormone level in serum and milk of buffaloes was developed. The assay was based on purified anti rbST IgG raised in rabbits and chicken and rabbit anti chicken IgG horseradish peroxidase. The assay was validated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, precision and recovery. Parallelism was demonstrated between the standard curve and serially diluted

  2. Hormone variations in serum and milk of buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) as potential indicators of treatment with recombinant bovine somatotropin.

    PubMed

    Castigliego, Lorenzo; Li, Xiao Ning; Armani, Andrea; Grifoni, Goffredo; Boselli, Carlo; Rosati, Remo; Gianfaldoni, Daniela; Guidi, Alessandra

    2011-11-01

    Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) is used to increase milk yield in cows, but it has been forbidden in some countries and in the EU. However, rbST misuse represents a concern in both bovine and buffalo dairy production. A number of studies on rbST treatment have been performed on bovines, but there are few data on buffaloes. In this study, we treated eight lactating buffaloes with biweekly injections of a slow-release formulation of rbST, for five cycles of administration, and analysed total ST and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) variations in serum and IGF-1 in milk. The aim was to assess their power as potential indicators of rbST-treatment. Blood was collected on days 2, 5, 9 and 14 of each cycle, and milk on days 2, 9 and 14 of cycles 2 and 5. Results showed an extraordinary increase in ST levels on day 2 in treated animals, followed by a rapid decrease over the following days, while a significant increase in IGF-1 was observed both in serum and in milk throughout most of each cycle. These results suggest that serum ST levels are a good indicator of treatment. However, the rapid decrease after the peak limits the useful period of sample collection. PMID:21843393

  3. Phenotypic Characterization and Multivariate Analysis to Explain Body Conformation in Lesser Known Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from North India.

    PubMed

    Vohra, V; Niranjan, S K; Mishra, A K; Jamuna, V; Chopra, A; Sharma, Neelesh; Jeong, Dong Kee

    2015-03-01

    Phenotypic characterization and body biometric in 13 traits (height at withers, body length, chest girth, paunch girth, ear length, tail length, length of tail up to switch, face length, face width, horn length, circumference of horn at base, distances between pin bone and hip bone) were recorded in 233 adult Gojri buffaloes from Punjab and Himachal Pradesh states of India. Traits were analysed by using varimax rotated principal component analysis (PCA) with Kaiser Normalization to explain body conformation. PCA revealed four components which explained about 70.9% of the total variation. First component described the general body conformation and explained 31.5% of total variation. It was represented by significant positive high loading of height at wither, body length, heart girth, face length and face width. The communality ranged from 0.83 (hip bone distance) to 0.45 (horn length) and unique factors ranged from 0.16 to 0.55 for all these 13 different biometric traits. Present study suggests that first principal component can be used in the evaluation and comparison of body conformation in buffaloes and thus provides an opportunity to distinguish between early and late maturing to adult, based on a small group of biometric traits to explain body conformation in adult buffaloes. PMID:25656215

  4. Phenotypic Characterization and Multivariate Analysis to Explain Body Conformation in Lesser Known Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from North India

    PubMed Central

    Vohra, V.; Niranjan, S. K.; Mishra, A. K.; Jamuna, V.; Chopra, A.; Sharma, Neelesh; Jeong, Dong Kee

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic characterization and body biometric in 13 traits (height at withers, body length, chest girth, paunch girth, ear length, tail length, length of tail up to switch, face length, face width, horn length, circumference of horn at base, distances between pin bone and hip bone) were recorded in 233 adult Gojri buffaloes from Punjab and Himachal Pradesh states of India. Traits were analysed by using varimax rotated principal component analysis (PCA) with Kaiser Normalization to explain body conformation. PCA revealed four components which explained about 70.9% of the total variation. First component described the general body conformation and explained 31.5% of total variation. It was represented by significant positive high loading of height at wither, body length, heart girth, face length and face width. The communality ranged from 0.83 (hip bone distance) to 0.45 (horn length) and unique factors ranged from 0.16 to 0.55 for all these 13 different biometric traits. Present study suggests that first principal component can be used in the evaluation and comparison of body conformation in buffaloes and thus provides an opportunity to distinguish between early and late maturing to adult, based on a small group of biometric traits to explain body conformation in adult buffaloes. PMID:25656215

  5. Generation of bovine (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) adipose tissue derived stem cells: isolation, characterization, and multipotentiality.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, R V; Chiaratti, M R; Santos, D C N; Bressan, F F; Sangalli, J R; Sá, A L A; Silva, T V G; Costa, N N; Cordeiro, M S; Santos, S S D; Ambrosio, C E; Adona, P R; Meirelles, F V; Miranda, M S; Ohashi, O M

    2015-01-01

    Adult stem cells are known for their plasticity and their potential to differentiate into several different cell types; these characteristics have implications for cell therapy and reproductive biotechnologies. In this study, we report on the isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) derived from bovine and buffalo adipose tissue. Cells isolated using enzymatic digestion of bovine and buffalo adipose-tissue biopsy samples were grown in vitro for at least 15 passages, verifying their capacity to proliferate. These cells were also subjected to immunophenotypic characterization for the presence of CD90, CD105, and CD79, and the absence of CD45, CD34, and CD73, which are positive and negative markers of MSC, respectively. To prove their multipotency, the cells were induced to differentiate into three different cell types, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes, which were stained with tissue-specific dyes (Chondrogenic-Alcian Blue, Osteogenic-Alizarin Red, and Adipogenic-Oil-Red O, respectively) to confirm differentiation. Gene expression analysis of pluripotency-related genes was also conducted. Our results suggest that adipose tissue from bovines and buffalos can be used as a source of MSC, making adipose tissue-derived cells an interesting option for cell therapy and regenerative medicine. Additionally, these findings have implications for reproductive biotechnology because the use of MSC as nuclear donors has been linked to an increase in the efficiency of nuclear transfer. PMID:25729935

  6. Phylogeography and domestication of Indian river buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Satish; Nagarajan, Muniyandi; Sandhu, Jasmeet S; Kumar, Niraj; Behl, Vandana

    2007-01-01

    Background The water buffalo- Bubalus bubalis holds tremendous potential in livestock sector in many Asian countries, particularly India. The origin, domestication and genetic structure of the Indian river buffalo are poorly understood. Therefore, to understand the relationship among the maternal lineages of Indian river buffalo breeds and their domestication process, we analysed mitochondrial D-loop region of 217 animals representing eight breeds from eight different locations in India along with published sequences of Mediterranean buffalo. Results The maximum parsimony tree showed one major clade with six internal branches. Reduced median network revealed expansion from more than one set of haplotypes indicating complex domestication events for this species. In addition, we found several singleton haplotypes. Using rho statistics, we obtained a time estimate of 6300 years BP for the expansion of one set of hapltoypes of the Indian domestic buffalo. A few breed specific branches in the network indicated an ancient time depth of differentiation of some of the maternal lineages of river buffalo breeds. The multidimensional display of breed pairwise FST values showed significant breed differentiation. Conclusion Present day river buffalo is the result of complex domestication processes involving more than one maternal lineage and a significant maternal gene flow from the wild populations after the initial domestication events. Our data are consistent with the available archaeological information in supporting the proposition that the river buffalo was likely to be domesticated in the Western region of the Indian subcontinent, specifically the present day breeding tracts of the Mehsana, Surati and Pandharpuri breeds. PMID:17915036

  7. Effect of treatment with recombinant bovine somatotropin on responses to superovulatory treatment in swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Songsasen, N; Yiengvisavakul, V; Buntaracha, B; Pharee, S; Apimeteetumrong, M; Sukwongs, Y

    1999-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of treatment with recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST) on the response to superovulatory treatment in swamp buffalo. Estrous cycles of 16 buffalo cows were synchronized by intravaginal administration of progesterone and estradiol benzoate, and the cows were then randomly divided into 2 groups. The rBST-treated group received 250 mg of a sustained-release formula of rBST on Day 4 after progesterone implantation, whereas the control group did not receive rBST. Both groups were then given a superovulatory regimen of twice daily injections of FSH for 3.5 d (total dose of 260 mg, i.m.), between Days 9 and 11 after administration of progesterone. The cows were bred naturally 1 d after the last FSH injection, then 6 d after breeding they were slaughtered, and their reproductive tracts were removed. The numbers of corpora lutea (CL) and follicles were recorded, and embryos were flushed out of the uterine horns. There were no significant differences between the rBST-treated and control cows for the mean numbers (+/- SEM) of CL (6.0 +/- 2.2 vs 4.3 +/- 1.1), follicles (15.9 +/- 4.1 vs 19.8 +/- 2.9), or total embryos recovered per collection (4.5 +/- 1.6 vs 2.3 +/- 1.0). However, there were significant differences between rBST-treated and control cows for the numbers of transferable embryos per collection (3.0 +/- 1.0 vs 0.8 +/- 0.3; P < or = 0.05) and the overall proportion of transferable embryos (75 vs 33%; P < or = 0.01). The results of this study show that pretreatment of swamp buffalo with rBST significantly increases the production of transferable embryos in response to superovulation. PMID:10734373

  8. Effect of Extender and Equilibration Time on Post Thaw Motility and Chromatin Structure of Buffalo Bull (Bubalus Bubalis) Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Shahverdi, Abdolhossain; Rastegarnia, Abdolreza; Rezaei Topraggaleh, Tohid

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of four equilibration times (2, 4, 8 and 16 hours) and two extenders (tris or Bioxcell®) on cryopreservation of buffalo semen. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, split pooled ejaculates (n=4), possessing more than 70% visual sperm motility were divided in two aliquots and diluted in Bioxcell® and tris-citric egg yolk (TCE) extenders. Semen was cooled to 4°C within 2 hours, equilibrated at 4°C for 2, 4, 8 and 16 hours, then transferred into 0.5 ml French straws, and frozen in a programmable cell freezer before being plunged into liquid nitrogen. Postthaw motility characteristics, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome morphology and DNA integrity of the buffalo sperm were studied after thawing. Results There were significant interactions between equilibration times and extenders for sperm motility and membrane integrity. Post thaw sperm motility (PMOT), progressive motile spermatozoa (PROG), plasma membrane integrity (PMI) and normal apical ridge (NAR) measures were lower for sperm equilibrated for 2 hours in both TCE and Bioxcell® extender compared to others equilibration times. PMOT, PMI and NAR for sperm equilibrated for 4, 8 and 16 hours showed no significant differences in either extender, although PROG measures were superior in Bioxcell®compared to TCE at all equilibration times (p<0.05). Kinematic parameters such as average path velocity, curvilinear velocity and linearity in the Bioxcell®extender were superior to those in the TCE extender studied. In contrast to motility and viability, the DNA integrity of post thaw spermatozoa remained unaffected by different equilibration times. Conclusion Equilibration time is necessary for preservation of the motility and integrity of buffalo sperm membranes. Equilibration times of over than 2 hours resulted in the greatest preservation of total semen parameters during cryopreservation. There were no significant interactions between equilibration times over 4 hours and type of extender which lead to greater post thaw sperm survival. PMID:24611139

  9. Chronological Reorganization of Microtubules, Actin Microfilaments, and Chromatin during the First Cell Cycle in Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Chankitisakul, Vibuntita; Tharasanit, Theerawat; Tasripoo, Kriengsak; Techakumphu, Mongkol

    2010-01-01

    This paper aimed to study the dynamics of early embryonic development, in terms of redistribution of cytoskeleton (microtubules, actin microfilaments) and chromatin configurations during the first cell cycle in swamp buffalo embryos. Oocytes were matured and fertilized in vitro, and they were fixed at various time points after IVF. At 6 h after IVF, 44.4% matured oocytes were penetrated by spermatozoa. Partial ZP digestion, however, did not improve fertilization rate compared to control (P > .05). At 12?h after IVF, the fertilized oocytes progressed to the second meiotic division and formed the female pronucleus simultaneously with the paternal chromatin continued to decondense. A sperm aster was observed radiating from the base of the decondensing sperm head. At 18?h after IVF, most presumptive zygotes had reached the pronuclear stage. The sperm aster was concurrently enlarged to assist the migration and apposition of pronuclei. Cell cleavage was facilitated by microfilaments and firstly observed by 30?h after IVF. In conclusion, the cytoskeleton actively involves with the process of fertilization and cleavage in swamp buffalo oocytes. The centrosomal material is paternally inherited. Fertilization failure is predominantly caused by poor sperm penetration. However, partial digestion of ZP did not improve fertilization rate. PMID:21234419

  10. Equivalency of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cells derived from fertilized, parthenogenetic, and hand-made cloned embryos.

    PubMed

    Muzaffar, Musharifa; Selokar, Naresh L; Singh, Karn P; Zandi, Mohammad; Singh, Manoj K; Shah, Riaz A; Chauhan, Manmohan S; Singla, Suresh K; Palta, Prabhat; Manik, Radheysham

    2012-06-01

    This study was aimed at establishing buffalo embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from in vitro fertilized (IVF), parthenogenetic, and hand-made cloned (HMC) embryos and to check their equivalency in terms of stem cell marker expression, longevity, proliferation, and differentiation pattern. ESCs derived from all three sources were found by immunofluorescence to express the pluripotency markers SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, OCT4, and SOX2 and were able to form embryoid bodies containing cells expressing genes specific to endoderm (AFP, HNF4, and GATA4), mesoderm (MSX1, BMP4, and ASA), and ectoderm (cytokeratin 8 and NF68). Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) showed cells from all sources to be positive for pluripotency markers OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, STAT3, REX1, FOXD3, NUCLEOSTEMIN, and TELOMERASE. Pluripotency markers OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, and c-MYC were also analyzed by real-time PCR. No significant differences were observed among ESCs from all three sources for all these genes except NANOG, whose expression was higher (p<0.05) in HMC-derived ESCs (6.897±2.3) compared to that in parthenogenesis- and IVF-derived cells (1.603±0.315 and 1±0, respectively). Pluripotent, stable buffalo ESC lines derived from IVF, parthenogenesis, and HMC embryos may be genetically manipulated to provide a powerful tool for studies involving embryonic development, genomic imprinting, gene targeting, cloning, chimera formation, and transgenic animal production. PMID:22582863

  11. Occurrence of beta-casein fragments in cold-stored and curdled river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis L.) milk.

    PubMed

    Di Luccia, A; Picariello, G; Trani, A; Alviti, G; Loizzo, P; Faccia, M; Addeo, F

    2009-04-01

    The safeguard of river buffalo Mozzarella cheese, a Protected Designation of Origin dairy product, has prompted an analytical study to trace the milk and curd used as raw material in cheesemaking. This is to prevent the illegal use of milk or curd from different geographical areas outside of those indicated in the official production protocol. For this purpose, we studied primary proteolysis occurring in fresh and frozen milk and curd to identify a molecular marker that could indicate the raw material used. Whole casein from frozen river buffalo milk was separated using cation-exchange chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE, and a protein component with an estimated molecular weight of 15.3 kDa was detected. This protein component was revealed in fresh river buffalo milk as a faint electrophoresis band, which drastically increased in intensity in refrigerated and frozen milk as well as in curd and was found to be associated with beta-CN through hydrophobic interaction. By using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight peptide mass mapping, this component was identified as the C-terminal fragment f(69-209) of beta-CN (expected molecular weight of 15,748.8 Da). beta-Casein f(69-209), originating from the early hydrolysis of Lys(68)-Ser(69) by plasmin, has no counterpart in bovine milk. The increased rate of hydrolysis by plasmin toward the cleavage site Lys(68)-Ser(69) has to be ascribed to the elevated proline content of the peptide 61-73. The favored production of beta-CN f(69-209) has also drawn attention to the complementary proteose peptone beta-CN f(1-68) that is presumed to play a physiological role in inducing milk secretion similar to that of beta-CN f(1-29). The higher in vivo and in vitro production rate, compared with gamma(1)-CN formation, indicates that beta-CN f(69-209) and its complementary fragment are candidate molecular markers to evaluate milk and curd freshness. We suggested [corrected] indirect ELISA analysis based on the determination of remaining nonhydrolyzed beta-CN to perform a quantitative evaluation of proteolysis. PMID:19307613

  12. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure growth hormone level in serum and milk of buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Mishra, A; Goswami, T K; Shukla, D C

    2007-07-01

    An indirect Sandwich ELISA to measure growth hormone level in serum and milk of buffaloes was developed. The assay was based on purified anti rbST IgG raised in rabbits and chicken and rabbit anti chicken IgG horseradish peroxidase. The assay was validated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, precision and recovery. Parallelism was demonstrated between the standard curve and serially diluted serum, milk and pituitary derived growth hormone. Sensitivity of the assay was 0.1 ng/ml. Recovery of exogenous bovine somatotropin from serum and milk ranged from 90 to 102% and 96 to 108% respectively. The intra and inter assay variations to measure growth hormone in serum and milk were 3.36 to 8.81% and 6.01 to 12.31% respectively. Statistical analysis for parallelism and cross-reactivity of rbST with serum of other species confirmed the reproducibility of the assay. PMID:17821853

  13. Multilocus phylogeographical analysis of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) genotypes from sympatric cattle and water buffalo populations supports

    E-print Network

    Tyler, Charles

    and water buffalo populations supports evolutionary host constraint and close phylogenetic relationships in Brazil found at least four genotypes infecting cattle (Bos taurus), but only one in water buffalo from water buffalo and 28 from cattle from four separate loca- tions in Brazil and Venezuela. Multigene

  14. HAEMODYNAMIC ALTERATIONS DURING ELECTROANAESTHESIA IN YOUNG BUFFALOES.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    HAEMODYNAMIC ALTERATIONS DURING ELECTROANAESTHESIA IN YOUNG BUFFALOES. COMPARATIVE STUDY in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) to determine which wave form of current will produce the most effective anaes buffalo calves, one to two years of age, were the subjects of the present inves- tigation. All the calves

  15. Prognostic value of various spermatological attributes as predictors of zona binding and zona penetration of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen.

    PubMed

    Selvaraju, S; Ghosh, J; Ravindra, J P

    2009-02-01

    Twenty-four ejaculates from six (four ejaculates each) Surti buffalo bulls aged 4-8 years were used to assess various attributes of spermatozoa influencing the zona-binding and zona-penetration tests. Ejaculates from each bulls were subjected to in vitro sperm--zona binding and sperm--zona penetration tests (four replicates per bull) using immature buffalo oocytes. The average number of spermatozoa bound per oocyte was 27.79 +/- 5.90. The average number of spermatozoa penetrated per oocyte was 3.35 +/- 0.64. The average number of zona-bound and -penetrated spermatozoa differed significantly between animals. Significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed between the plasmalemma integrity as assessed by eosin--nigrosin stain and hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test. Furthermore, the percentage of cells positive for the HOS test, i.e. functional membrane integrity (51.25 +/- 2.32) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than hypo-osmotic swelling-Giemsa (HOS-G) test, i.e. the subpopulation of spermatozoa positive for functional membrane and acrosomal integrities (42.87 +/- 4.56). The HOS test had significant correlations with plasmalemma integrity as measured by the vital stain, eosin--nigrosin (r = 0.85, p < 0.05). The HOS-G test also had significant correlation with plasmalemma integrity measured by vital stains such as eosin--nigrosin (r = 0.90, p < 0.05) and fluorogenic stains [carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) and propidium iodide (PI); r = 0.92, p < 0.01] and HOS test (r = 0.93), acrosomal integrity (r = 0.86, p < 0.05) and mitochondrial membrane potential (r = 0.99, p < 0.01). The plasmalemma integrity (fluorogenic stain), functional membrane integrity (HOS test), subpopulation of spermatozoa positive for functional membrane and acrosomal integrities (HOS-G test) and mitochondrial membrane potential had significant (p < 0.05) correlation with sperm zona binding and penetration. The present study indicates that these parameters could represent important determinants of sperm quality influencing zona binding and penetration. PMID:18673329

  16. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) NOD1 and NOD2 Receptors and Their Functional Role in In-Vitro Cellular Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Brahma, Biswajit; Kumar, Sushil; De, Bidhan Chandra; Mishra, Purusottam; Patra, Mahesh Chandra; Gaur, Deepak; Chopra, Meenu; Gautam, Devika; Mahanty, Sourav; Malik, Hrudananda; Malakar, Dhruba; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; De, Sachinandan

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are innate immune receptors that recognize bacterial cell wall components and initiate host immune response. Structure and function of NLRs have been well studied in human and mice, but little information exists on genetic composition and role of these receptors in innate immune system of water buffalo—a species known for its exceptional disease resistance. Here, a comparative study on the functional domains of NOD1 and NOD2 was performed across different species. The NOD mediated in-vitro cellular responses were studied in buffalo peripheral blood mononuclear cells, resident macrophages, mammary epithelial, and fibroblast cells. Buffalo NOD1 (buNOD1) and buNOD2 showed conserved domain architectures as found in other mammals. The domains of buNOD1 and buNOD2 showed analogy in secondary and tertiary conformations. Constitutive expressions of NODs were ubiquitous in different tissues. Following treatment with NOD agonists, peripheral lymphocytes showed an IFN-? response along-with production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Alveolar macrophages and mammary epithelial cells showed NOD mediated in-vitro immune response through NF-?B dependent pathway. Fibroblasts showed pro-inflammatory cytokine response following agonist treatment. Our study demonstrates that both immune and non-immune cells could generate NOD-mediated responses to pathogens though the type and magnitude of response depend on the cell types. The structural basis of ligand recognition by buffalo NODs and knowledge of immune response by different cell types could be useful for development of non-infective innate immune modulators and next generation anti-inflammatory compounds. PMID:25786158

  17. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) NOD1 and NOD2 Receptors and Their Functional Role in In-Vitro Cellular Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Brahma, Biswajit; Kumar, Sushil; De, Bidhan Chandra; Mishra, Purusottam; Patra, Mahesh Chandra; Gaur, Deepak; Chopra, Meenu; Gautam, Devika; Mahanty, Sourav; Malik, Hrudananda; Malakar, Dhruba; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; De, Sachinandan

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are innate immune receptors that recognize bacterial cell wall components and initiate host immune response. Structure and function of NLRs have been well studied in human and mice, but little information exists on genetic composition and role of these receptors in innate immune system of water buffalo-a species known for its exceptional disease resistance. Here, a comparative study on the functional domains of NOD1 and NOD2 was performed across different species. The NOD mediated in-vitro cellular responses were studied in buffalo peripheral blood mononuclear cells, resident macrophages, mammary epithelial, and fibroblast cells. Buffalo NOD1 (buNOD1) and buNOD2 showed conserved domain architectures as found in other mammals. The domains of buNOD1 and buNOD2 showed analogy in secondary and tertiary conformations. Constitutive expressions of NODs were ubiquitous in different tissues. Following treatment with NOD agonists, peripheral lymphocytes showed an IFN-? response along-with production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Alveolar macrophages and mammary epithelial cells showed NOD mediated in-vitro immune response through NF-?B dependent pathway. Fibroblasts showed pro-inflammatory cytokine response following agonist treatment. Our study demonstrates that both immune and non-immune cells could generate NOD-mediated responses to pathogens though the type and magnitude of response depend on the cell types. The structural basis of ligand recognition by buffalo NODs and knowledge of immune response by different cell types could be useful for development of non-infective innate immune modulators and next generation anti-inflammatory compounds. PMID:25786158

  18. First report of isolation and molecular characterization of bubaline herpesvirus 1 (BuHV1) from Argentinean water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Maidana, Silvina S; Konrad, José L; Craig, María I; Zabal, Osvaldo; Mauroy, Axel; Thiry, Etienne; Crudeli, Gustavo; Romera, Sonia A

    2014-11-01

    Herpesviruses have mainly co-evolved with their hosts for millions of years. However, bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV1) and related ruminant alphaherpesviruses have been reported to cross the species barrier. Bubaline herpesvirus 1 (BuHV1) is an alphaherpesvirus closely related to BoHV1 and BoHV5. According to the serological cross-relationships between ruminant alphaherpesviruses, several surveys have studied the occurrence of BoHV1-related virus infection in wild and domestic ruminant species. Recent studies in Argentina showed an increase in serological prevalence against BoHV1 related viruses in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) population. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of related ruminant alphaherpesvirus in the Argentinean water buffalo population. BuHV1 was successfully isolated from 5 out of 225 buffaloes analyzed. One isolate was obtained from nasal secretions, and the others were from vaginal swabs. The buffaloes belonged to four different farms located in northeastern Argentina. The isolates were characterized as alphaherpesvirus by direct immunofluorescence using FITC-anti-BoHV1 IgG. Restriction analysis performed with BamHI and BstEII on the complete genome showed differences between the isolates and those from BoHV1 and BoHV5 subtypes. Phylogenetic analysis on both UL27 and US6 showed similarity in tree topology. While three of the isolates grouped together with sequences of BoHV5, two other isolates clustered separately. Genetic analysis of eight concatenated sequences from all isolates and references strains showed high nucleotide sequence identity between BuHV1 and BoHV5. While three of the isolates clustered together with the BoHV5 reference strain, the last two isolates were closely related to an Australian BuHV1 strain. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation and molecular characterization of BuHV1 in South America. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that two different BuHV1 lineages circulate in the Argentinean water buffalo population. PMID:24938487

  19. Early Cleavage of Handmade Cloned Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryos is an Indicator of Their Developmental Competence and Quality.

    PubMed

    Kaith, S; Saini, M; Raja, A K; Sahare, A A; Jyotsana, B; Madheshiya, P; Palta, P; Chauhan, M S; Manik, R S; Singla, S K

    2015-04-01

    Following IVF, embryos which cleave early have been shown to have higher developmental competence and quality than those that cleave relatively later across many species. We investigated the effect of time of cleavage on the developmental competence, quality, epigenetic status and gene expression in buffalo embryos produced by handmade cloning (HMC). Following classification of embryos as early cleaving (EC) or late cleaving (LC) based on whether they had cleaved or not at 24 h post in vitro culture, 54% (164/303) were found to be EC and the rest to be LC. The blastocyst rate (58.1 ± 3.4 vs 36.9 ± 1.6%, p < 0.01) and the total cell number (285.5 ± 41.9 vs 141.4 ± 36.1, p < 0.05) were higher, whereas the apoptotic index (3.6 ± 0.6 vs 12.2 ± 1.7, p < 0.01) and the global level of H3K9ac and H3K27me3 were lower (p < 0.05) in the blastocysts produced from EC than in those produced from LC embryos. The relative transcript level of CASPASE3, CASPASE7, DNMT1, DNMT3a and CDX2 was higher (p < 0.05) and that of SOX2 was lower (p < 0.05) in blastocysts produced from LC than in those produced from EC embryos, whereas the expression level of CASPASE6, P53, P21, HDAC1, OCT4 and NANOG was not significantly different between the two groups. These results show that (i) following HMC, blastocysts produced from embryos that cleave early differ from those produced from late cleaving embryos in terms of epigenetic status and expression level of many important apoptosis-, pluripotency-, trophectoderm- and epigenetics-related genes, and (ii) EC embryos are superior to LC embryos in view of their higher developmental competence and quality. PMID:25604613

  20. Assessment of intracellular Ca2+, cAMP and 1,2-diacylglycerol in cryopreserved buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa on supplementation of taurine and trehalose in the extender.

    PubMed

    Singh, V K; Atreja, S K; Kumar, R; Chhillar, S; Singh, A K

    2012-08-01

    In mammalian spermatozoa, intracellular calcium plays a major role in sperm functions like motility and capacitation. Cryopreservation-induced modifications to sperm membrane result in an influx of intracellular calcium affecting calcium-dependent intracellular signalling pathways. Intracellular calcium activates adenyl cyclase to produce cAMP that activates phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2) ) and phospholipase C (PLC) generating lysophosphatidyl choline, 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) and IP(3) , acting as intracellular secondary messengers required for sperm capacitation. Present study was designed to determine levels of intracellular calcium, cAMP and DAG in fresh and frozen-thawed buffalo spermatozoa cryopreserved in the presence and absence of taurine or trehalose. A total number of nine ejaculates from three randomly chosen buffalo bulls were cryopreserved in Tris-based egg yolk extender and thawed in warm water at 37°C. The cAMP was measured by enzyme immuno assay, and intracellular calcium was quantified using fluorescent dye FURA 2-AM. Total lipid was extracted from spermatozoa, and DAG was estimated using thin layer chromatography followed by spectrophotometric analysis. Intracellular calcium, cAMP and DAG levels in spermatozoa were significantly (p < 0.01) increased following cryopreservation as compared to fresh ejaculate. Addition of taurine or trehalose to the freezing medium significantly decreased (p < 0.01) the levels of intracellular calcium and cAMP in frozen-thawed spermatozoa. 1,2-diacylglycerol content was also decreased significantly (p < 0.01) in spermatozoa cryopreserved in presence of additives. Moreover, significant (p < 0.01) improvement in post-thaw motility, viability and membrane integrity of spermatozoa on addition of taurine or trehalose clearly indicated the reduced level of capacitation-like changes in buffalo spermatozoa. PMID:21988572

  1. Expression and localization of insulin-like growth factor system in corpus luteum during different stages of estrous cycle in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and the effect of insulin-like growth factor I on production of vascular endothelial growth factor and progesterone in luteal cells cultured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Uniyal, S; Panda, R P; Chouhan, V S; Yadav, V P; Hyder, I; Dangi, S S; Gupta, M; Khan, F A; Sharma, G T; Bag, S; Sarkar, M

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the expression and localization of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system at different stages of buffalo CL and the role of IGF-I in stimulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and progesterone (P4) production in cultured luteal cells. The mRNA expression of IGF system, VEGF, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, P450scc, and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) was investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Protein expression of IGF was demonstrated by Western blot and localization by immunohistochemistry. Progesterone and VEGF production was assayed using RIA and ELISA. A relatively high mRNA expression of IGF-I and IGF-II in early, mid- and late luteal phases with immunoreactivity mostly restricted to cytoplasm of large luteal cells indicates their autocrine role, whereas very weak immunoreactivity in endothelial cells during the mid-luteal phase indicates their paracrine role. Insulin-like growth factor receptors, IGF-IR and IGF-IIR, were restricted to large luteal cells with high mRNA and protein expressions in the mid-luteal phase. The significantly higher expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-1, -3, -5, and -6 in the early or mid-luteal phase suggested their stimulatory role, whereas that of IGFBP-2 and -4 in mid-, late, and regressive luteal stages implied their inhibitory role. The mRNA expressions of key steroidogenic factors and VEGF were significantly higher (P < 0.05) when the culture medium was supplemented with 100 ng/mL of IGF-I for 72 hours. Moreover, IGF-I at a dose of 100 ng/mL increased P4 and VEGF production (P < 0.05). It can be concluded that IGF family members via their autocrine and paracrine effect play significant roles in promoting angiogenesis through the production of VEGF in luteal cells and steroid synthesis through the production of key steroidogenic factors. PMID:25304995

  2. Polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in cattle and buffaloes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. P. Bhat; B. P. Mishra; P. N. Bhat

    1990-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from two breeds of cattle, viz., [Hariana (Bos indicus), Holstein (Bos taurus)] and Indian water buffalo (Bubalis bubalus), was analyzed using 13 restriction endonucleases which recognized an average of about 40 six-base sites. Polymorphism among\\u000a cattle was detected with six of these enzymes. The two Holstein differed at six sites, whereas the Hariana breed (Bos indicus) did

  3. Malignant Catarrhal Fever: An Emerging Disease in the African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Pfitzer, S; Last, R; Espie, I; van Vuuren, M

    2013-08-20

    Within the tribe Bovini in the subfamily Bovinae, the water buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis), American bison (Bison bison), European bison (Bubalus bonasus) and yak (Bos grunniens) are recognized as species highly susceptible to malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). In contrast, the lack of reports describing clinical MCF in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) whether free ranging or captive has led to a perception that African buffaloes are resistant to MCF. During the last decade, several cases of MCF in African buffaloes were confirmed in South Africa and experience with seven of these cases is described in this report. Detection of viral nucleic acid in blood or tissues was successful in six African buffaloes that suffered from clinical signs compatible with MCF. Four were positive for infection with ovine herpesvirus type 2 (the causative virus of sheep-associated MCF), and two were positive for alcelaphine herpesvirus type 1 (causative virus of wildebeest-associated MCF). Histopathological examination of tissue samples from all the animals yielded typical lesions that were consistent with those described for MCF in domestic cattle. Developments in the management of African buffaloes translocated from their traditional habitats have likely contributed to the identification of another susceptible host in the subfamily Bovinae. PMID:23957274

  4. Comparative feed ingestibility and digestibility in cattle and buffaloes

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Comparative feed ingestibility and digestibility in cattle and buffaloes I Voicu, G Burlacu, M stage) and wheat straw, were investigated comparatively in growing cattle and buffaloes. The investigations used 4 Simmenthal steers aged 18 months and 4 young buffaloes (Bubalus indicus) aged 24 months

  5. Gill histopathology of two species of buffalo fish from a contaminated Swamp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arunthavarani Thiyagarajah; William R. Hartley; Sharee E. Major; Michael W. Broxson

    1996-01-01

    Two species of buffalo fish, smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) and bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus), were collected from a contaminated (multiple metals and organic chemicals) Mississippi River Basin ecosystem, Devil's Swamp and a control site, Tunica Swamp, both near Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA. The buffalo fish were examined for general health and histopathological effects. This research consists of an analysis of

  6. Genetic diversity in Trypanosoma theileri from Sri Lankan cattle and water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Naoaki; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Fukushi, Shintaro; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Tuvshintulga, Bumduuren; Kothalawala, Hemal; Silva, Seekkuge Susil Priyantha; Igarashi, Ikuo; Inoue, Noboru

    2015-01-30

    Trypanosoma theileri is a hemoprotozoan parasite that infects various ruminant species. We investigated the epidemiology of this parasite among cattle and water buffalo populations bred in Sri Lanka, using a diagnostic PCR assay based on the cathepsin L-like protein (CATL) gene. Blood DNA samples sourced from cattle (n=316) and water buffaloes (n=320) bred in different geographical areas of Sri Lanka were PCR screened for T. theileri. Parasite DNA was detected in cattle and water buffaloes alike in all the sampling locations. The overall T. theileri-positive rate was higher in water buffaloes (15.9%) than in cattle (7.6%). Subsequently, PCR amplicons were sequenced and the partial CATL sequences were phylogenetically analyzed. The identity values for the CATL gene were 89.6-99.7% among the cattle-derived sequences, compared with values of 90.7-100% for the buffalo-derived sequences. However, the cattle-derived sequences shared 88.2-100% identity values with those from buffaloes. In the phylogenetic tree, the Sri Lankan CATL gene sequences fell into two major clades (TthI and TthII), both of which contain CATL sequences from several other countries. Although most of the CATL sequences from Sri Lankan cattle and buffaloes clustered independently, two buffalo-derived sequences were observed to be closely related to those of the Sri Lankan cattle. Furthermore, a Sri Lankan buffalo sequence clustered with CATL gene sequences from Brazilian buffalo and Thai cattle. In addition to reporting the first PCR-based survey of T. theileri among Sri Lankan-bred cattle and water buffaloes, the present study found that some of the CATL gene fragments sourced from water buffaloes shared similarity with those determined from cattle in this country. PMID:25554063

  7. Relationship between peripheral plasma inhibin and FSH concentrations in Sahiwal cows ( Bos indicus ) and Murrah buffaloes ( Bubalus bubalis ) during estrous cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Mondal; B. S. Prakash; P. Palta

    2008-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the relationship between circulating inhibin and FSH concentrations during\\u000a the estrous cycle in buffaloes and Sahiwal cattle. The pattern of inhibin concentrations was similar, with peak concentrations\\u000a on Day -2 (Day 0?=?day of estrus) and minimum concentrations on Days 12 and 11 in buffaloes and cattle, respectively. Circulating\\u000a FSH concentrations were the highest

  8. PCR detection of cows’ milk in water buffalo milk and mozzarella cheese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. López-Calleja; I. González Alonso; V. Fajardo; M. A. Rodríguez; P. E. Hernández; T. García; R. Martín

    2005-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been applied for the specific detection of cows’ DNA in water buffalo milk and mozzarella cheese by using primers targeting the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene. The use of specific primers for cow yielded a 346bp fragment from cows’ milk DNA, whereas no amplification signal was obtained in sheep's, goats’ and water buffalo's milk DNA.

  9. DNA-based vaccines protect against zoonotic schistosomiasis in water buffalo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akram A. Da’Dara; Yuesheng S. Li; Tie Xiong; Jie Zhou; Gail M. Williams; Donald P. McManus; Zheng Feng; Xin L. Yu; Darren J. Gray; Donald A. Harn

    2008-01-01

    Schistosomiasis japonica is an endemic, zoonotic disease of major public health importance in China where water buffaloes account for approximately 75% of disease transmission. Interventions that reduce schistosome infection in water buffaloes will enhance their health simultaneously reducing disease transmission to humans. While chemotherapy has proved successful, it requires continued time consuming and expensive mass treatments. A more sustainable option

  10. B-cell epitopes recognized by Chinese water buffaloes (Bos buffelus) on the 22 kDa tegumental

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Short Note B-cell epitopes recognized by Chinese water buffaloes (Bos buffelus) on the 22 k / 13-cell epitope / Bos buffelus / Chinese water buffaloes * Correspondence and reprints Tcl.: (61 ) 7 of Schistosol/1a japonicul/1. Ten buffaloes (Bos buffelns) were vaccinated with a recombinant form (reSj-22

  11. Improvement of liquid and frozen-thawed semen quality of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls ( Bubalus bubalis) through supplementation of fat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Adeel; A. Ijaz; M. Aleem; H. Rehman; M. S. Yousaf; M. A. Jabbar

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of dietary fat on quality of liquid and frozen-thawed semen of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls. Adult bulls (n=21) were fed a balanced ration (Con; n=7) or the same ration either containing sunflower oil (SF-O; n=7) or whole sunflower seeds (SF-S; n=7) for 63 days. Body weight and body condition score of

  12. Comparative moleculo-immunological analysis of swamp and riverine-type water buffaloes responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claro N. Mingala; Satoru Konnai; Libertado C. Cruz; Misao Onuma; Kazuhiko Ohashi

    2009-01-01

    This moleculo-epidemiological and immunological study through cytokine response assessment was done to know the dynamics of cytokines in the initiation, persistence and association to physiological changes of a particular pathogen in water buffaloes. This is important to understand the magnitude and behavior of disease progression. Water buffalo blood samples gathered from different places in the Philippines revealed a 9.4%, 27.6%,

  13. Comparison digestibility and protozoa population of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow.

    PubMed

    Jabari, Safora; Eslami, Moosa; Chaji, Morteza; Mohammadabadi, Tahereh; Bojarpour, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to compare the morphology and activity of rumen protozoa of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow using in vitro digestibility and gas production parameters of steam treated sugarcane pith. Rumen fluid obtained from two buffalo and cow steers fed the same diet, 30:70 concentrate: forage. To separate rumen protozoa, antibiotic solution and fungicides were added to rumen fluid. The results of present experiment indicated that the neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 7.8 vs. 1.69%) and acid detergent fiber (ADF; 6.24 vs. 3.24%) digestibility of steam treated sugarcane pith by rumen protozoal population of Khuzestan buffalo was higher than those of cow (p < 0.05). Also, digestibility of dry matter, NDF and ADF by whole buffalo micro-organisms was more than those in cow (p < 0.05). The results indicated that the potential of gas production of sugarcane pith by rumen protozoa in water buffalo was more than that of cow (p < 0.05). Total rumen ciliate protozoa numbers in water buffalo were significantly higher than those of cow (3.68 × 10(5) vs. 2.18 × 10(5) mL(-1) of rumen content) (p < 0.05). The number of Diplodinium in buffalo was more than that of cow (41.27 vs. 35.7% of total rumen protozoa, respectively). Percentage of Entodinium, Epidinium, Ophryoscolex and Isotricha in cow was more than those of buffalo. Therefore, in the same diet, protozoa and total rumen micro-organisms of Khuzestan water buffalo have higher digestion activity compared to Holstein cow. PMID:25610581

  14. Comparison digestibility and protozoa population of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow

    PubMed Central

    Jabari, Safora; Eslami, Moosa; Chaji, Morteza; Mohammadabadi, Tahereh; Bojarpour, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to compare the morphology and activity of rumen protozoa of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow using in vitro digestibility and gas production parameters of steam treated sugarcane pith. Rumen fluid obtained from two buffalo and cow steers fed the same diet, 30:70 concentrate: forage. To separate rumen protozoa, antibiotic solution and fungicides were added to rumen fluid. The results of present experiment indicated that the neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 7.8 vs. 1.69%) and acid detergent fiber (ADF; 6.24 vs. 3.24%) digestibility of steam treated sugarcane pith by rumen protozoal population of Khuzestan buffalo was higher than those of cow (p < 0.05). Also, digestibility of dry matter, NDF and ADF by whole buffalo micro-organisms was more than those in cow (p < 0.05). The results indicated that the potential of gas production of sugarcane pith by rumen protozoa in water buffalo was more than that of cow (p < 0.05). Total rumen ciliate protozoa numbers in water buffalo were significantly higher than those of cow (3.68 × 105 vs. 2.18 × 105 mL-1 of rumen content) (p < 0.05). The number of Diplodinium in buffalo was more than that of cow (41.27 vs. 35.7% of total rumen protozoa, respectively). Percentage of Entodinium, Epidinium, Ophryoscolex and Isotricha in cow was more than those of buffalo. Therefore, in the same diet, protozoa and total rumen micro-organisms of Khuzestan water buffalo have higher digestion activity compared to Holstein cow. PMID:25610581

  15. Evaluation of Milk Trace Elements, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Alkaline Phosphatase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity of Subclinical Mastitis as and Indicator of Subclinical Mastitis in Riverine Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Guha, Anirban; Gera, Sandeep; Sharma, Anshu

    2012-03-01

    Mastitis is a highly morbid disease that requires detection at the subclinical stage. Tropical countries like India mainly depend on milch buffaloes for milk. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the trace minerals viz. copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn) and enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in riverine buffalo milk can be used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis (SCM) with the aim of developing suitable diagnostic kit for SCM. Trace elements and enzyme activity in milk were estimated with Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer, GBC 932 plus and biochemical methods, respectively. Somatic cell count (SCC) was done microscopically. The cultural examination revealed Gram positive bacteria as the most prevalent etiological agent. A statistically significant (p<0.01) increase in SCC, Fe, Zn, Co and LDH occurred in SCM milk containing gram positive bacterial agents only. ALP was found to be elevated in milk infected by both gram positive and negative bacteria. The percent sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated taking bacterial culture examination and SCC?2×10(5) cells/ml of milk as the benchmark. Only ALP and Zn, the former being superior, were found to be suitable for diagnosis of SCM irrespective of etiological agents. LDH, Co and Fe can be introduced in the screening programs where Gram positive bacteria are omnipresent. It is recommended that both ALP and Zn be measured together in milk to diagnose buffalo SCM, irrespective of etiology. PMID:25049573

  16. Analysis of genetic variations across regulatory and coding regions of kappa-casein gene of Indian native cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Amit; Mukesh, M.; Sobti, R.C.; Kataria, R.S.; Mishra, B.P.; Sodhi, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The promoter region of kappa-casein (?-CN) gene in Indian native cattle and buffalo breeds was sequenced and analyzed for nucleotide variations. Sequence comparison across breeds of Indian cattle revealed a total of 7 variations in the promoter region, of which ? 515 G/T, ? 427 C/T, ? 385 C/T, ? 283 A/G and ? 251 C/T were located within consensus binding sites for octamer-binding protein (OCT1)/pregnancy specific mammary nuclear factor (PMF), activator protein-2 (AP2), hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF-1) and GAL4 transcription factors (TFs), respectively. These variations might be involved in gain or loss of potential transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). Unlike the other 4 variants, the ? 283 (A/G) variant located within HNF-1 TFBS was specific to Indian cattle as this change has not been observed in the Bos taurus sequence. Other TFBSs viz., MGF, TBP, NF-1, milk box and C/EBP were conserved across species. For the Indian native buffalo breeds, only 3 changes were identified in the promoter region; ? 305 (A/C), ? 160 (T/C) and ? 141 (A/G) and most of the TFBSs were found to be conserved. However, deletion of two adjacent nucleotides located in and around binding site for C/EBP TF was identified in buffalo when compared with promoter sequence of bovine ?-CN. For ?-CN of Indian native cattle, a strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed for variations 515 G/T, ? 427 C/T and ? 385 C/T in the promoter region; and for variations at codons 136 and 148 of exon-IV. Further, among intragenic haplotypes, variation ? 427 C/T was found to be in LD with variations at codons 136 and 148. The information generated in the present work provides comprehensive characterization of ?-CN gene promoter and coding regions in Indian cattle and buffaloes and reported variations could become important candidates for carrying out further research in dairy traits. PMID:25606460

  17. Effects of plane of nutrition on growth, feed intake, digestibility and nitrogen balance in Murrah graded male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Hajime; Baral, Bodh R; Shiino, Tatsu; Devkota, Naba R; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kolachhapati, Mana R; Tiwari, Ishwor C P

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted using 17 male buffalo calves to assess the effects of plane of nutrition on dry matter intake (DMI), daily gain (DG), body size measurement, apparent digestibility and nitrogen (N) balance. To attain 250kg BW, the calves were allocated into three groups: H, L-H and L, receiving the concentrate at 1.50% of BW, 0.75% of BW until 190kg BW and 1.50% thereafter and 0.75% of BW, respectively. The animals had ad libitum access to urea-treated rice straw (UTRS). The DMI of UTRS through the experiment was higher in L and L-H than H, showing 3.52, 2.90 and 2.62kg/day, respectively (P<0.01), but the total DMI did not differ among the treatment groups. The DG throughout the experiment was high in the order of H, L-H and L, showing 0.72, 0.57 and 0.45kg, respectively (P<0.01). The digestibility of DM, organic matter, crude protein, neutral and acid detergent fiber and N retention were higher in H than in L (P<0.05). The findings of this study thus revealed the greater DG has an advantage of shortening the growing period around 3months, and consequently increasing benefit in fattening of buffalo calves in Nepal. PMID:22250739

  18. Improvement of liquid and frozen-thawed semen quality of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls (Bubalus bubalis) through supplementation of fat.

    PubMed

    Adeel, M; Ijaz, A; Aleem, M; Rehman, H; Yousaf, M S; Jabbar, M A

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of dietary fat on quality of liquid and frozen-thawed semen of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls. Adult bulls (n=21) were fed a balanced ration (Con; n=7) or the same ration either containing sunflower oil (SF-O; n=7) or whole sunflower seeds (SF-S; n=7) for 63 days. Body weight and body condition score of each bull was recorded on days 0, 30 and 60 of the experiment. Semen was collected on days 39, 46, 53 and 60, frozen by a fast method and stored at -196 degrees C for 24h. Sperm motility was assessed using a bright field microscope. Plasma membrane integrity of fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa was assessed using a hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) assay. The concentration of spermatozoa and volume of semen was not different among groups on various days of collection. Sunflower-enriched diets did not affect the motility and number of HOS-positive spermatozoa in the fresh semen. Motility and HOS of post-thawed spermatozoa were higher (p<0.05) in bulls fed the sunflower-enriched diets. Similarly, diets did not affect the body condition score and body weight of bulls. In conclusion, feeding of sunflower oil or sunflower seed as fat sources can improve the quality of buffalo bull spermatozoa. PMID:19246083

  19. Effect of Natural and Controlled Climates of the Sahara on Virtual Tritium Space in Friesians and Water Buffaloes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. H. Kamal; S. M. Seif

    1969-01-01

    Twenty-eight dry Friesian cows and 33 dry Water Buffalo cows were used in de- termining body water, live body weight, and dry body weight (live body weight -total body water) in winter, spring, and summer. Another four dry Water Buffaloes were exposed to comfortable and hot climates in a climatic laboratory each for one week, when these measure- ments were

  20. Molecular detection of Cryptosporidium spp. infections in water buffaloes from northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Jiyipong, Tawisa; Wongpanit, Kannika; Pinyopanuwat, Nongnuch; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Kengradomkij, Chanya; Xuan, Xuenan; Igarashi, Ikuo; Xiao, Lihua; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the individual and herd-level prevalence and genotype of Cryptosporidium and to identify putative risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium spp. infections in water buffaloes in northeast Thailand. Fecal samples from 600 water buffaloes of 287 farms in six provinces were collected and tested using DMSO-modified acid-fast staining and polymerase chain reaction. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium infections in buffaloes was 5.7 and 8.7% among individual animals and herds, respectively. The provinces with highest infected Cryptosporidium were located in the Sakon Nakhon Basin in the northern part of the region. In addition, higher herd prevalence was observed among farms with more than five buffaloes (30%) than those with five or less animals (16.2%). Thirty (88.2%) of the 34 Cryptosporidium-positive samples were Cryptosporidium parvum and four (11.8%) were Cryptosporidium ryanae. PMID:24233462

  1. Effect of different seasons on concentration of plasma luteinizing hormone and seminal quality vis-à-vis freezability of buffalo bulls ( Bubalus bubalis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahga, C. S.; Khokar, B. S.

    1991-12-01

    Seasonal variations in semen quality, freezability and plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were studied between summer and spring. Semen volume, density and initial sperm motility did not differ significantly between different seasons. Plasma LH decreased between summer and spring but the differences were, however, not significant. Pre-freezing motility did not differ significantly but post-freezing motility varied significantly ( P<0.01) between seasons. Post-freezing motility was lowest during summer and highest during winter. It can be concluded that summer spermatozoa may be fragile and cannot withstand freezing stress. To increase reproductive efficiency in buffalo during summer, semen should be frozen during winter and spring and used during hot weather conditions. Seasonal variations in plasma LH levels were insignificant.

  2. Transcriptional profile of endometrial TLR4 and 5 genes during the estrous cycle and uterine infection in the buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Ajevar, Ganesan; Muthu, Sankar; Sarkar, Mihir; Kumar, Harendra; Das, Goutam Kumar; Krishnaswamy, Narayanan

    2014-06-01

    Endometritis is one of the leading causes of infertility in the cattle and buffalo and innate immune mechanism plays an important role in clearing the infection. In this regard, endometrial expression and function of Toll Like Receptors (TLR) are focus of investigation in the recent years. In this study, we report the transcriptional profiles of TLR4 and 5 in the buffalo endometrium during the follicular, early, mid and late luteal phases of estrous cycle and 'subclinical and clinical endometritis' and also at true anestrus (n?=?10 for each stage) using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR as they are the ligands for the lipopolysaccharide and flagellin components of E.coli, the most common cause of postpartum endometritis. We found a significant positive correlation between TLR4 and 5 in all the groups (r?=?0.696-0.803; P??0.05). Chi-square analysis showed that the qualitative expression of endometrial TLR4 and 5 transcripts was significantly associated with the phase of estrous cycle and also with uterine infection (P?

  3. Effect of physiologically relevant heat shock on development, apoptosis and expression of some genes in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos produced in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yadav, A; Singh, K P; Singh, M K; Saini, N; Palta, P; Manik, R S; Singla, S K; Upadhyay, R C; Chauhan, M S

    2013-10-01

    For investigating the effects of physiologically relevant heat shock, buffalo oocytes/embryos were cultured at 38.5°C (control) or were exposed to 39.5°C (Group II) or 40.5°C (Group III) for 2 h once every day throughout in vitro maturation (IVM), fertilization (IVF) and culture (IVC). Percentage of oocytes that developed to 8-cell, 16-cell or blastocyst stage was lower (p < 0.05) and the number of apoptotic nuclei was higher (p < 0.05) for Group III > Group II > controls. At both 8-16-cell and blastocyst stages, relative mRNA abundance of stress-related genes HSP 70.1 and HSP 70.2 and pro-apoptotic genes CASPASE-3, BID and BAX was higher (p < 0.05) in Groups III and II than that in controls with the exception of stress-related gene HSF1. Expression level of anti-apoptotic genes BCL-XL and MCL-1 was also higher (p < 0.05) in Groups III and II than that in controls at both 8-16-cell and blastocyst stages. Among the genes related to embryonic development, at 8-16-cell stage, the expression level of GDF9 was higher (p < 0.05) in Group III than that in controls, whereas that of GLUT1, ZAR1 and BMP15 was not significantly different among the three groups. At the blastocyst stage, relative mRNA abundance of GLUT1 and GDF9 was higher (p < 0.05) in Group II than that in controls, whereas that of ZAR-1 and BMP15 was not affected. The results of this study demonstrate that exposure of buffalo oocytes and embryos to elevated temperatures for duration of time that is physiologically relevant severely compromises their developmental competence, increases apoptosis and affects stress-, apoptosis- and development-related genes. PMID:23581430

  4. High prevalence of muscular sarcocystosis in cattle and water buffaloes from Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Latif, B; Vellayan, S; Heo, C C; Kannan Kutty, M; Omar, E; Abdullah, S; Tappe, D

    2013-12-01

    The prevalence of sarcocystosis in cattle and water buffaloes from peninsular Malaysia was investigated in abattoirs in Selangor state, February, 2011, to March, 2012. Fresh muscle samples were collected from the tongue, heart, oesophagus, diaphragm and skeletal muscles of 102 cattle and 18 water buffaloes. Each sample was initially screened by light microscopy and then fixed for further histopathological analysis. Out of 120 animals examined, 49 (40.8%) harboured the microscopic type of Sarcocystis spp. The positivity rate for cattle was 36.2% and for water buffaloes 66.7%. In cattle, the organs highly infected were the skeletal muscles and diaphragm (27% each), followed by tongue and esophagus (24.3% each), and the heart (8%). In water buffaloes, the heart was most often infected (66.7%), followed by the oesophagus (50%) and skeletal muscle (33.3%); no sarcocysts were detected in the tongue and diaphragm. The shape of the sarcocyst was fusiform to oval with a mean cyst size of 151.66 x 75.83 ?m and wall thickness of 2.47 ?m in cattle, and 114 x 50.81 ?m cyst size and the wall thickness of 1.11 ?m in water buffaloes, consistent with Sarcocystis cruzi and Sarcocystis levinei, respectively. Remaining tissue from cattle was subjected to parasite specific 18S rRNA gene PCR and Sarcocystis cruzi was confirmed, at least exemplarily. The peripheral metrocytes and the banana-shaped bradyzoites (15.23 x 2.2 ?m in cattle and 11.49 x 2.45 ?m in water buffalo hosts) were easily recognized. In conclusion, a high positivity rate was found in Malaysian meat-producing animals with possible implications for meat consumption and human health. PMID:24522140

  5. Infection of water buffalo in Rio de Janeiro Brazil with Anaplasma marginale strains also reported in cattle.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jenevaldo B; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Barbosa, José D; de la Fuente, José

    2014-10-15

    Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent pathogen of cattle in tropical and subtropical regions of the world and causes the disease bovine anaplasmosis. The importance of water buffalo in the world economy is increasing. In addition, while water buffalo may serve as a reservoir host for A. marginale, the susceptibility of this host for A. marginale cattle strains in Brazil has not been reported. The major surface protein 1 alpha (msp1?) gene has been shown to be a stable genetic marker for identification of A. marginale strains. Herein, we analyzed blood samples from 200 water buffalo and identified the A. marginale strains in an endemic area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where ticks were present and water buffalo and cattle co-mingled. Ticks that were feeding on the study buffalo were collected and identified. The prevalence of A. marginale in water buffalo in this study was low (10%). Sequence analysis of the msp1? gene demonstrated the presence of 8 different A. marginale strains. Two A. marginale strains in the water buffalo, (?-?-?-?-?) and (?-?-?-?), were similar to those reported in cattle from nearby regions. The results of this study suggested that water buffalo in this region are naturally infected with the same strains of A. marginale found in cattle. PMID:25260335

  6. Seasonal variation in follicular dynamics of superovulated Indian water buffalo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Taneja; S. M. Totey; A. Ali

    1995-01-01

    The ovaries of 5 buffalo were examined daily by ultrasound beginning at Day 3 of the estrous cycle, followed by superovulation between Days 11 and 13 of the cycle in both the wet cool and dry hot seasons. Daily ultrasonographic observations of the ovaries were recorded on a videotape and were used to assess the progression of both the large

  7. A comparative study on mimosine, 3,4-dihydroxy pyridone (3,4-DHP) and 2,3-dihydroxy pyridone (2,3-DHP), purine derivatives (PD) excretion in the urine, thyroid hormone and blood metabolites profiles of Thai swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Jetana, Thongsuk; Thongruay, Sirima; Uswang, Sawong; Hengtrakulsin, Runchuan

    2012-04-01

    Four Thai swamp buffaloes (SB) and four Murrah buffaloes (MB) fed a based diet of fresh ruzi grass (Bachiaria ruziziensis) with an increased proportion of fresh leucaena leaves. Intake of nutrients in animals increased when ruzi grass was mixed with leucaena. Digestibility of nutrients were the highest in SB and MB fed diets containing 25% and 50% of leucaena, respectively, and nitrogen (N) balances in both animal breeds were varied among diets. The regression equation coefficient of mimosine + DHP in the urine was twice as high in SB than in MB. Urinary purine derivatives excretion rate in SB was higher than that in MB. Plasma triiodothyronine and thyroxine declined in both animal breeds fed a diet containing >1 g mimosine intake/kg BW(0.75)/day. Plasma urea-N was the lowest in SB, but the highest in MB when fed a diet containing 84% of leucaena. Plasma ?-HBA in SB have declined when diets contained >50% of leucaena but that in MB was not affected by any diet. In conclusion, the effect of leucaena in diet upon buffalo breeds depends on the proportion of leucaena in the diet, mimosine contents and condensed tannins components. PMID:21928129

  8. Effect of dietary protein on intake, nutrients utilization, nitrogen balance, blood metabolites, growth and puberty in growing Bhadawari buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) heifers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sultan; Kushwaha, Badri Prasad; Maity, Subendu Bikas; Singh, Krishan Kunwar; Das, Nityanand

    2015-01-01

    Fifteen Bhadawari buffalo heifers of 207?±?9.78 kg mean body weight were randomly distributed into three dietary groups to evaluate the effect of protein level on nutrient utilization, nitrogen (N) balance, growth rate, blood metabolites, and puberty. All animals were offered wheat straw-berseem diets supplemented with concentrate mixtures of similar energy (2.7 Mcal/kg) and different protein levels (14.3-22%). Animals of standard-protein group (SPG) were offered protein and energy as per requirement, while animals of low-protein group (LPG) and high-protein group (HPG) were fed 20% less and 20% more protein, respectively, than SPG. Feed dry matter (DM) and metabolizable energy (ME) intake (% body wt. and g/kg w(0.75)) were similar for all three diets; however, the crude protein (CP) and digestible crude protein (DCP) intake on percent body weight and per kilogram metabolic weight was higher (P??0.05) in SPG (330.8 g/day) than in LPG (296.7 g/day), while the animals gained more weight in January to March months and the lowest weight in May to July months. Protein level had no effect on conception rate of heifers. Results revealed that 20% higher or less protein than the ICAR requirement had no significant (P?>?0.05) on feed intake, nutrient conversion efficiency for weight gain, heifer growth, and puberty; however, 20% more protein increased urinary N loss. PMID:25407740

  9. Comparative moleculo-immunological analysis of swamp- and riverine-type water buffaloes responses.

    PubMed

    Mingala, Claro N; Konnai, Satoru; Cruz, Libertado C; Onuma, Misao; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2009-05-01

    This moleculo-epidemiological and immunological study through cytokine response assessment was done to know the dynamics of cytokines in the initiation, persistence and association to physiological changes of a particular pathogen in water buffaloes. This is important to understand the magnitude and behavior of disease progression. Water buffalo blood samples gathered from different places in the Philippines revealed a 9.4%, 27.6%, 10.3% and 4.4% prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine leukemia virus (BLV), Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina infection, respectively. This was the first surveillance study of BVDV and BLV in the country. Furthermore, cytokine expression of these naturally infected animals was also quantified. BVDV-infected animals had up-regulated expressions of TNFalpha, IL-2 and IL-4; and down-regulated expressions of IFNgamma and IL-12p40 while BLV positive animals had an up-regulated IL-4 and IL-6, and highly expressed IL-10 and IL-12p40 with unchanged IFNgamma expression. Meanwhile, animals infected with A. marginale had all interleukins and IFNgamma up-regulated with significant expression of IL-10 and IL-12p40 similar to the BLV positive animals. Since it was also observed that swamp-type buffaloes were more disease tolerant than riverine-type buffaloes based on the gathered infection rate of each examined pathogen, further assessment was done focusing on the two vital cytokines, IFNgamma and TNFalpha. We quantified IFNgamma and TNFalpha expressions in ConA-stimulated PBMC from both swamp and riverine buffaloes by real-time PCR. Cytokine expression from ConA-stimulated PBMC revealed that both IFNgamma and TNFalpha were more highly expressed in swamp than in riverine buffalo. To further examine the probable cause of expression differences, the proximal promoter region of these two cytokines were sequenced for the presence of nucleotide polymorphism followed by luciferase assay to analyze the effect of these polymorphisms in gene transcription. A single nucleotide polymorphism was found in the IFNgamma (-299) while eight polymorphisms in the TNFalpha promoter (-541, -553, -562, -596, -609, -655, -659, -688). Luciferase assay showed that both IFNgamma promoter and TNFalpha promoter in swamp-type water buffalo had higher transcription activity compared to riverine-type water buffalo. These findings confirm that IFNgamma and TNFalpha transcriptions in these animals were highly affected by the disparity in the cytokine promoter region. This suggests that disease tolerance or susceptibility of these buffaloes could be due to the differences in their relative cytokine transcription and may relate to pathogen-host specific pathogenesis. PMID:19285880

  10. Bovine tuberculosis in African buffaloes: observations regarding Mycobacterium bovis shedding into water and exposure to environmental mycobacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita L Michel; Lin-Mari de Klerk; Nico C Gey van Pittius; Rob M Warren; Paul D van Helden

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: African buffaloes are the maintenance host for Mycobacterium bovis in the endemically infected Kruger National Park (KNP). The infection is primarily spread between buffaloes via the respiratory route, but it is not known whether shedding of M. bovis in nasal and oral excretions may lead to contamination of ground and surface water and facilitate the transmission to other animal

  11. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum antibodies in cattle and water buffaloes in India.

    PubMed

    Meenakshi; Sandhu, K S; Ball, M S; Kumar, H; Sharma, S; Sidhu, P K; Sreekumar, C; Dubey, J P

    2007-12-01

    Neospora caninum is now recognized as a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide, but there is no report of N. caninum infection in cattle in India. Serum samples from 427 dairy cattle and 32 dairy water buffaloes from 7 organized dairy farms located in Punjab, India, were tested for N. caninum antibodies using a commercial monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 35 of 427 cattle from 6 of the 7 farms; 9.6% of cows, 5.1% of heifers, and 5.0% of calves were seropositive, suggesting postnatal transmission of N. caninum on the farm. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 16 of 32 buffaloes tested from 2 dairy farms. In total, 64 cattle and 16 buffalo sera already tested by ELISA were also evaluated by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) to verify ELISA results. Of the 64 cattle samples, 29 sera were negative by both tests and of the 35 ELISA-positive sera, 12 had IFAT titers of 1:100 or higher (1 had IFAT titer of 100, 2 had IFAT titer of 200, and 9 had IFAT titers of 400 or higher). Of the 16 buffalo sera positive by ELISA, 1 had an IFAT titer of 1:400. Thus, antibodies to N. caninum were demonstrated in cattle sera by 2 serologic methods. To our knowledge this is the first report of N. caninum infection in cattle and buffaloes in India. PMID:18314683

  12. Comparison of serological tests for Trypanosoma evansi natural infections in water buffaloes from north Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Verloo; W Holland; L. N My; N. G Thanh; P. T Tam; B Goddeeris; J Vercruysse; P Büscher

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, a collection of 415 water buffalo serum samples originating from the north of Vietnam was used for evaluation of different diagnostic antibody detection methods available to detect infections with Trypanosoma evansi. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of a direct card agglutination test (CATT\\/T. evansi), an indirect card agglutination test (LATEX\\/T. evansi) and a newly developed antibody

  13. Application of Toxicity Identification Evaluation Techniques to Pore Water from Buffalo River Sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald T. Ankley; Mary K. Schubauer-Berigan; Joseph R. Dierkes

    1996-01-01

    To identify contaminants responsible for toxicity of sediments from the Buffalo River, toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) were conducted with interstitial (pore) water from several sites. Initial toxicity of the samples was determined using fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia, and TIE analyses were conducted with the most sensitive of the two species at a particular site. Fathead

  14. Toll-like receptor responses to Peste des petits ruminants virus in goats and water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Dhanasekaran, Sakthivel; Biswas, Moanaro; Vignesh, Ambothi R; Ramya, R; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar; Tirumurugaan, Krishnaswamy G; Raja, Angamuthu; Kataria, Ranjit S; Parida, Satya; Subbiah, Elankumaran

    2014-01-01

    Ovine rinderpest or goat plague is an economically important and contagious viral disease of sheep and goats, caused by the Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Differences in susceptibility to goat plague among different breeds and water buffalo exist. The host innate immune system discriminates between pathogen associated molecular patterns and self antigens through surveillance receptors known as Toll like receptors (TLR). We investigated the role of TLR and cytokines in differential susceptibility of goat breeds and water buffalo to PPRV. We examined the replication of PPRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of Indian domestic goats and water buffalo and demonstrated that the levels of TLR3 and TLR7 and downstream signalling molecules correlation with susceptibility vs resistance. Naturally susceptible goat breeds, Barbari and Tellichery, had dampened innate immune responses to PPRV and increased viral loads with lower basal expression levels of TLR 3/7. Upon stimulation of PBMC with synthetic TLR3 and TLR7 agonists or PPRV, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were found to be significantly higher while immunosuppressive interleukin (IL) 10 levels were lower in PPRV resistant Kanni and Salem Black breeds and water buffalo at transcriptional level, correlating with reduced viralloads in infected PBMC. Water buffalo produced higher levels of interferon (IFN) ? in comparison with goats at transcriptional and translational levels. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with human IFN? resulted in reduction of PPRV replication, confirming the role of IFN? in limiting PPRV replication. Treatment with IRS66, a TLR7 antagonist, resulted in the reduction of IFN? levels, with increased PPRV replication confirming the role of TLR7. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of TLR7 of these goat breeds did not show any marked nucleotide differences that might account for susceptibility vs resistance to PPRV. Analyzing other host genetic factors might provide further insights on susceptibility to PPRV and genetic polymorphisms in the host. PMID:25369126

  15. Toll-Like Receptor Responses to Peste des petits ruminants Virus in Goats and Water Buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Dhanasekaran, Sakthivel; Biswas, Moanaro; Vignesh, Ambothi R.; Ramya, R.; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar; Tirumurugaan, Krishnaswamy G.; Raja, Angamuthu; Kataria, Ranjit S.; Parida, Satya; Subbiah, Elankumaran

    2014-01-01

    Ovine rinderpest or goat plague is an economically important and contagious viral disease of sheep and goats, caused by the Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Differences in susceptibility to goat plague among different breeds and water buffalo exist. The host innate immune system discriminates between pathogen associated molecular patterns and self antigens through surveillance receptors known as Toll like receptors (TLR). We investigated the role of TLR and cytokines in differential susceptibility of goat breeds and water buffalo to PPRV. We examined the replication of PPRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of Indian domestic goats and water buffalo and demonstrated that the levels of TLR3 and TLR7 and downstream signalling molecules correlation with susceptibility vs resistance. Naturally susceptible goat breeds, Barbari and Tellichery, had dampened innate immune responses to PPRV and increased viral loads with lower basal expression levels of TLR 3/7. Upon stimulation of PBMC with synthetic TLR3 and TLR7 agonists or PPRV, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were found to be significantly higher while immunosuppressive interleukin (IL) 10 levels were lower in PPRV resistant Kanni and Salem Black breeds and water buffalo at transcriptional level, correlating with reduced viralloads in infected PBMC. Water buffalo produced higher levels of interferon (IFN) ? in comparison with goats at transcriptional and translational levels. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with human IFN? resulted in reduction of PPRV replication, confirming the role of IFN? in limiting PPRV replication. Treatment with IRS66, a TLR7 antagonist, resulted in the reduction of IFN? levels, with increased PPRV replication confirming the role of TLR7. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of TLR7 of these goat breeds did not show any marked nucleotide differences that might account for susceptibility vs resistance to PPRV. Analyzing other host genetic factors might provide further insights on susceptibility to PPRV and genetic polymorphisms in the host. PMID:25369126

  16. Serological survey of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in goats, sheep, cattle and water buffaloes in Bahia State, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. F. Pita Gondim; H. V. Barbosa; C. H. A. Ribeiro Filho; H. Saeki

    1999-01-01

    Serum samples from 439 goats, 240 sheep, 194 cattle and 104 water buffaloes were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by a latex agglutination test. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 28.93% of goats, 18.75% of sheep, 1.03% of cattle and 3.85% of water buffaloes, at a dilution of ?1:64. The highest titres observed in goats, sheep, cattle and

  17. Genetic variations in merozoite surface antigen genes of Babesia bovis detected in Vietnamese cattle and water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Naoaki; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Tuvshintulga, Bumduuren; Hayashida, Kyoko; Igarashi, Ikuo; Inoue, Noboru; Long, Phung Thang; Lan, Dinh Thi Bich

    2015-03-01

    The genes that encode merozoite surface antigens (MSAs) in Babesia bovis are genetically diverse. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity of B. bovis MSA-1, MSA-2b, and MSA-2c genes in Vietnamese cattle and water buffaloes. Blood DNA samples from 258 cattle and 49 water buffaloes reared in the Thua Thien Hue province of Vietnam were screened with a B. bovis-specific diagnostic PCR assay. The B. bovis-positive DNA samples (23 cattle and 16 water buffaloes) were then subjected to PCR assays to amplify the MSA-1, MSA-2b, and MSA-2c genes. Sequencing analyses showed that the Vietnamese MSA-1 and MSA-2b sequences are genetically diverse, whereas MSA-2c is relatively conserved. The nucleotide identity values for these MSA gene sequences were similar in the cattle and water buffaloes. Consistent with the sequencing data, the Vietnamese MSA-1 and MSA-2b sequences were dispersed across several clades in the corresponding phylogenetic trees, whereas the MSA-2c sequences occurred in a single clade. Cattle- and water-buffalo-derived sequences also often clustered together on the phylogenetic trees. The Vietnamese MSA-1, MSA-2b, and MSA-2c sequences were then screened for recombination with automated methods. Of the seven recombination events detected, five and two were associated with the MSA-2b and MSA-2c recombinant sequences, respectively, whereas no MSA-1 recombinants were detected among the sequences analyzed. Recombination between the sequences derived from cattle and water buffaloes was very common, and the resultant recombinant sequences were found in both host animals. These data indicate that the genetic diversity of the MSA sequences does not differ between cattle and water buffaloes in Vietnam. They also suggest that recombination between the B. bovis MSA sequences in both cattle and water buffaloes might contribute to the genetic variation in these genes in Vietnam. PMID:25575442

  18. Underway view from port side in the Buffalo River with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Underway view from port side in the Buffalo River with water cannons spraying. City of Buffalo in background. TC - Fireboat EDWARD M. COTTER, Moored on the Buffalo River at 155 Ohio Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  19. Low genetic diversity associated with low prevalence of Anaplasma marginale in water buffaloes in Marajó Island, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jenevaldo B; Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Barbosa, José D; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; de la Fuente, José

    2014-10-01

    The rickettsia Anaplasma marginale is the etiologic agent of bovine anaplasmosis, an important tick-borne disease affecting cattle in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In endemic regions, the genetic diversity of this pathogen is usually related to the high prevalence of the disease in cattle. The major surface protein 1 alpha (MSP1a) has been used as a marker to characterize the genetic diversity and for geographical identification of A. marginale strains. The present study reports the characterization of A. marginale MSP1a diversity in water buffaloes. Blood samples were collected from 200 water buffaloes on Marajó Island, Brazil where the largest buffalo herd is located in the Western hemisphere. Fifteen buffaloes (7.5%) were positive for A. marginale msp1? by PCR. Four different strains of A. marginale with MSP1a tandem repeat structures (4-63-27), (162-63-27), (78-24-24-25-31) and (?-10-10-15) were found, being (4-63-27) the most common. MSP1a tandem repeats composition in buffalos and phylogenetic analysis using msp1? gene showed that the A. marginale strains identified in buffaloes are closely related to A. marginale strains from cattle. The results demonstrated low genetic diversity of A. marginale associated with low bacterial prevalence in buffaloes and suggested that buffaloes may be reservoirs of this pathogen for cattle living in the same area. The results also suggested that mechanical transmission and not biological transmission by ticks might be playing the major role for pathogen circulation among water buffaloes in Marajó Island, Brazil. PMID:25108778

  20. 77 FR 39408 - Safety Zone; Buffalo July 4th Fireworks, Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ...This zone will encompass all waters of Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY within a 1680 foot radius...4th Fireworks, Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY. (a) Location. This zone will encompass all waters of Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY within a 1680 foot...

  1. Differential scanning calorimetry of water buffalo and cow milk fat in mozzarella cheese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael H. Tunick; Edyth L. Malin

    1997-01-01

    The thermal profiles of the fat in mozzarella cheeses made from cow milk (CM) and water buffalo milk (WBM) were obtained by\\u000a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The DSC curves of mozzarella cheese made from WBM were distinguishable from those\\u000a of CM. The curves resembled those of the corresponding milk fats and could be divided into low-, medium-, and high-temperature\\u000a melting

  2. Schistosoma japonicum: An ultraviolet-attenuated cercarial vaccine applicable in the field for water buffaloes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    You-en Shi; Chang-Fu Jiang; Jia-Jun Han; Yong-Long Li; Andreas Ruppel

    1990-01-01

    Water buffaloes were vaccinated three times with 10,000 Schistosoma japonicum cercariae irradiated with ultraviolet (uv) light at a dose of 400 microW x min\\/cm2. The irradiation was performed with cheap, simple, and portable equipment in a rural area of Hubei Province (People's Republic of China). A challenge infection of 1000 untreated cercariae was given to six vaccinated and six naive

  3. Cloning of Taiwan water buffalo male-specific DNA sequence for sexing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan-Ming Horng; Yi-Ting Chen; Chean-Ping Wu; Yu-Shine Jea; Mu-Chiou Huang

    2004-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting was carried out to investigate the sex-specific DNA sequence for sexing in Taiwan water buffalos. One hundred and forty random primers were used for RAPD-PCR (polymerase chain reaction). One of these primers, OPC-16, produced a 321bp fragment found only in tested males. This male-specific fragment was isolated and constructed into plasmids for nucleotide sequencing,

  4. In vitro production of cattle × buffalo hybrid embryos using cattle oocytes and African buffalo ( Syncerus caffer caffer) epididymal sperm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. D. Owiny; D. M. Barry; M. Agaba; R. A. Godke

    2009-01-01

    Interspecies hybridization of bovids occurs between domestic cattle and at least three other species; American bison (Bison bison), yak (Bos grunniens) and banteng (Bos banteng). Birth of a cattle×buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) hybrid has reportedly occurred in Russia and in China, but these reports were not authenticated. Such hybrids could be important in improving livestock production and management of diseases that

  5. Schistosoma japonicum: An ultraviolet-attenuated cercarial vaccine applicable in the field for water buffaloes

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Y.E.; Jiang, C.F.; Han, J.J.; Li, Y.L.; Ruppel, A. (Tongii Medical Univ., Wuhan, Hubei Province (China))

    1990-07-01

    Water buffaloes were vaccinated three times with 10,000 Schistosoma japonicum cercariae irradiated with ultraviolet (uv) light at a dose of 400 microW x min/cm2. The irradiation was performed with cheap, simple, and portable equipment in a rural area of Hubei Province (People's Republic of China). A challenge infection of 1000 untreated cercariae was given to six vaccinated and six naive control buffaloes, while two vaccinated animals were not challenged. The experiment was terminated 6 weeks after the challenge. Control animals had lost body weight and harbored a mean of 110 worms and 37 eggs per gram of liver. The vaccinated animals gained weight after the challenge and developed 89% resistance to infection with S. japonicum. Since schistosomiasis japonica is nowadays transmitted in China predominantly by domestic livestock, a uv-attenuated cercarial vaccine for bovines may contribute to the control of this disease.

  6. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Smallmouth Buffalo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Twomey, Katie

    1982-01-01

    This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the Smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability (HIS) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.

  7. Risks factors associated with subclinical mastitis in water buffaloes in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Riaz; Javed, Muhammad Tariq; Khan, Ahrar; Muhammad, Ghulam

    2013-11-01

    The present study was carried to ascertain the association of various risk factors of mastitis in water buffaloes. The milk samples from buffaloes were collected and screened through California Mastitis Test for the presence of mastitis. In the present study, 15.2 % prevalence of subclinical mastitis was recorded both at the government (13.4 %) and private farms (15.5 %). The chi-square analysis showed significantly higher involvement of the right rear and front quarters. The analysis of variance technique showed significant difference in live body weight, milk yield, teat end to floor distance (P?buffaloes. The frequency analysis also revealed significant difference between various groups including lactation stage, teat and/or udder pathology, teat shape, and udder shape (P?

  8. Two Different Macaviruses, ovine herpesvirus-2 and caprine herpesvirus-2, Behave Differently in Water Buffaloes than in Cattle or in Their Respective Reservoir Species

    PubMed Central

    Stahel, Anina B. J.; Baggenstos, Rhea; Engels, Monika; Friess, Martina; Ackermann, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing global spread of “exotic” farm animals, such as water buffaloes, which carry their native sets of viruses, may bear unknown risks for the animals, into whose ecological niches the former are introduced and vice versa. Here, we report on the occurrence of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) on Swiss farms, where “exotic” water buffaloes were kept together with “native” animals, i.e. cattle, sheep, and goats. In the first farm with 56 water buffaloes, eight cases of MCF due to ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) were noted, whereas additional ten water buffaloes were subclinically infected with either OvHV-2 or caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2). On the second farm, 13 water buffaloes were infected with CpHV-2 and two of those succumbed to MCF. In neither farm, any of the two viruses were detected in cattle, but the Macaviruses were present at high prevalence among their original host species, sheep and goats, respectively. On the third farm, sheep were kept well separated from water buffaloes and OvHV-2 was not transmitted to the buffaloes, despite of high prevalence of the virus among the sheep. Macavirus DNA was frequently detected in the nasal secretions of virus-positive animals and in one instance OvHV-2 was transmitted vertically to an unborn water buffalo calf. Thus, water buffaloes seem to be more susceptible than cattle to infection with either Macavirus; however, MCF did not develop as frequently. Therefore, water buffaloes seem to represent an interesting intermediate-type host for Macaviruses. Consequently, water buffaloes in their native, tropic environments may be vulnerable and endangered to viruses that originate from seemingly healthy, imported sheep and goats. PMID:24386255

  9. Brazilian isolates of Trypanosoma ( Megatrypanum) theileri: diagnosis and differentiation of isolates from cattle and water buffalo based on biological characteristics and randomly amplified DNA sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C Rodrigues; M Campaner; C. S. A Takata; A Dell’ Porto; R. V Milder; G. F Takeda; M. M. G Teixeira

    2003-01-01

    We detected and cultivated isolates of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri from cattle and water buffaloes in São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil, which were characterized by comparing morphological, growth and molecular features. Although isolates from cattle and water buffalo were morphologically indistinguishable, they differed in their growth characteristics. A dendrogram based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns indicated close-genetic relationships among

  10. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Brazilian water buffalo mozzarella cheese.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luana Faria; Casella, Tiago; Gomes, Elisangela Soares; Nogueira, Mara Correa Lelles; De Dea Lindner, Juliano; Penna, Ana Lúcia Barretto

    2015-02-01

    The water buffalo mozzarella cheese is a typical Italian cheese which has been introduced in the thriving Brazilian market in the last 10 y, with good acceptance by its consumers. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play an important role in the technological and sensory quality of mozzarella cheese. In this study, the aim was to evaluate the diversity of the autochthones viable LAB isolated from water buffalo mozzarella cheese under storage. Samples were collected in 3 independent trials in a dairy industry located in the southeast region of Brazil, on the 28th day of storage, at 4 ºC. The LAB were characterized by Gram staining, catalase test, capacity to assimilate citrate, and production of CO2 from glucose. The diversity of LAB was evaluated by RAPD-PCR (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction), 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and by Vitek 2 system. Twenty LAB strains were isolated and clustered into 12 different clusters, and identified as Streptococcus thermophilus, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus durans, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Lactobacillus helveticus. Enterococcus species were dominant and citrate-positive. Only the strains of L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and L. fermentum produced CO2 from glucose and were citrate-positive, while L. casei was only citrate positive. This is the first report which elucidates the LAB diversity involved in Brazilian water buffalo mozzarella cheese. Furthermore, the results show that despite the absence of natural whey cultures as starters in production, the LAB species identified are the ones typically found in mozzarella cheese. PMID:25597646

  11. Combining Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Knowledge to Assess and Manage Feral Water Buffalo Impacts on Perennial Freshwater Springs of the Aboriginal-Owned Arnhem Plateau, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ens, Emilie-Jane; Cooke, Peter; Nadjamerrek, Ray; Namundja, Seraine; Garlngarr, Victor; Yibarbuk, Dean

    2010-04-01

    Aboriginal land managers have observed that feral Asian water buffalo ( Bubalis bubalis Lydekker) are threatening the ecological and cultural integrity of perennial freshwater sources in Arnhem Land, Australia. Here we present collaborative research between the Aboriginal Rangers from Warddeken Land Management Limited and Western scientists which quantified the ground-level impacts of buffalo on seven perennial freshwater springs of the Arnhem Plateau. A secondary aim was to build the capacity of Aboriginal Rangers to self-monitor and evaluate the ecological outcomes of their land management activities. Sites with high buffalo abundance had significantly different ground, ground cover, and water quality attributes compared to sites with low buffalo abundance. The low buffalo abundance sites were characterized by tall herbaceous vegetation and flat ground, whereas wallows, bare ground, and short ungrazed grasses were indicators of sites with high buffalo abundance. Water turbidity was greater when buffalo abundance was high. The newly acquired monitoring skills and derived indicators of buffalo damage will be used by Aboriginal Rangers to assess the ecological outcomes of their future buffalo control efforts on the Arnhem Plateau.

  12. Novel polymorphisms in UTR and coding region of inducible heat shock protein 70.1 gene in tropically adapted Indian zebu cattle (Bos indicus) and riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Sodhi, M; Mukesh, M; Kishore, A; Mishra, B P; Kataria, R S; Joshi, B K

    2013-09-25

    Due to evolutionary divergence, cattle (taurine, and indicine) and buffalo are speculated to have different responses to heat stress condition. Variation in candidate genes associated with a heat-shock response may provide an insight into the dissimilarity and suggest targets for intervention. The present work was undertaken to characterize one of the inducible heat shock protein genes promoter and coding regions in diverse breeds of Indian zebu cattle and buffaloes. The genomic DNA from a panel of 117 unrelated animals representing 14 diversified native cattle breeds and 6 buffalo breeds were utilized to determine the complete sequence and gene diversity of HSP70.1 gene. The coding region of HSP70.1 gene in Indian zebu cattle, Bos taurus and buffalo was similar in length (1,926 bp) encoding a HSP70 protein of 641 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight (Mw) of 70.26 kDa. However buffalo had a longer 5' and 3' untranslated region (UTR) of 204 and 293 nucleotides respectively, in comparison to Indian zebu cattle and Bos taurus wherein length of 5' and 3'-UTR was 172 and 286 nucleotides, respectively. The increased length of buffalo HSP70.1 gene compared to indicine and taurine gene was due to two insertions each in 5' and 3'-UTR. Comparative sequence analysis of cattle (taurine and indicine) and buffalo HSP70.1 gene revealed a total of 54 gene variations (50 SNPs and 4 INDELs) among the three species in the HSP70.1 gene. The minor allele frequencies of these nucleotide variations varied from 0.03 to 0.5 with an average of 0.26. Among the 14 B. indicus cattle breeds studied, a total of 19 polymorphic sites were identified: 4 in the 5'-UTR and 15 in the coding region (of these 2 were non-synonymous). Analysis among buffalo breeds revealed 15 SNPs throughout the gene: 6 at the 5' flanking region and 9 in the coding region. In bubaline 5'-UTR, 2 additional putative transcription factor binding sites (Elk-1 and C-Re1) were identified, other than three common sites (CP2, HSE and Pax-4) observed across all the analyzed animals. No polymorphism was found within the 3'-UTR of Indian cattle or buffalo as it was found to be monomorphic. The promoter sequences generated in 117 individuals showed a rich array of sequence elements known to be involved in transcription regulation. A total of 11 nucleotide changes were observed in the promoter sequence across the analyzed species, 3 of these changes were located within the potential transcription factor binding domains. We also identified 4 microsatellite markers within the buffalo HSP70.1 gene and 3 microsatellites within bovine HSP70.1. The present study identified several distinct changes across indicine, taurine and bubaline HSP70.1 genes that could further be evaluated as molecular markers for thermotolerance. PMID:23792016

  13. Characterization of Smoc-1 uncovers two transcript variants showing differential tissue and age specific expression in Bubalus bubalis

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Jyoti; Premi, Sanjay; Kumar, Sudhir; Parwez, Iqbal; Ali, Sher

    2007-01-01

    Background Secreted modular calcium binding protein-1 (Smoc-1) belongs to the BM-40 family which has been implicated with tissue remodeling, angiogenesis and bone mineralization. Besides its anticipated role in embryogenesis, Smoc-1 has been characterized only in a few mammalian species. We made use of the consensus sequence (5' CACCTCTCCACCTGCC 3') of 33.15 repeat loci to explore the buffalo transcriptome and uncovered the Smoc-1 transcript tagged with this repeat. The main objective of this study was to gain an insight into its structural and functional organization, and expressional status of Smoc-1 in water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis. Results We cloned and characterized the buffalo Smoc-1, including its copy number status, in-vitro protein expression, tissue & age specific transcription/translation, chromosomal mapping and localization to the basement membrane zone. Buffalo Smoc-1 was found to encode a secreted matricellular glycoprotein containing two EF-hand calcium binding motifs homologous to that of BM-40/SPARC family. In buffalo, this single copy gene consisted of 12 exons and was mapped onto the acrocentric chromosome 11. Though this gene was found to be evolutionarily conserved, the buffalo Smoc-1 showed conspicuous nucleotide/amino acid changes altering its secondary structure compared to that in other mammals. In silico analysis of the Smoc-1 proposed its glycoprotein nature with a calcium dependent conformation. Further, we unveiled two transcript variants of this gene, varying in their 3'UTR lengths but both coding for identical protein(s). Smoc-1 evinced highest expression of both the variants in liver and modest to negligible in other tissues. The relative expression of variant-02 was markedly higher compared to that of variant-01 in all the tissues examined. Moreover, expression of Smoc-1, though modest during the early ages, was conspicuously enhanced after 1 year and remained consistently higher during the entire life span of buffalo with gradual increment in expression of variant-02. Immunohistochemically, Smoc-1 was localized in the basement membrane zones and extracellular matrices of various tissues. Conclusion These data added to our understandings about the tissue, age and species specific functions of the Smoc-1. It also enabled us to demonstrate varying expression of the two transcript variants of Smoc-1 amongst different somatic tissues/gonads and ages, in spite of their identical coding frames. Pursuance of these variants for their roles in various disease phenotypes such as hepatocellular carcinoma and angiogenesis is envisaged to establish broader biological significance of this gene. PMID:18042303

  14. Stream habitat and water-quality information for sites in the Buffalo River Basin and nearby basins of Arkansas, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James C.

    2004-01-01

    The Buffalo River lies in north-central Arkansas and is a tributary of the White River. Stream-habitat and water-quality information are presented for 52 sites in the Buffalo River Basin and adjacent areas of the White River Basin. The information was collected during the summers of 2001 and 2002 to supplement fish community sampling during the same time period.

  15. Some hormonal characteristics of high and low yielding Holstein cows and water buffaloes located in temperate and subtropical environments.

    PubMed

    el-Nouty, F D; Johnson, H D; Kamal, T H; Hassan, G A; Salem, M H

    1989-01-01

    The present study was carried out on 18 Holstein cows located in Missouri, USA (Holstein-M), 32 Holstein cows located in Egypt (Holstein-E), and 32 Egyptian water buffaloes (Buffaloes-E). Half of each group was high yielders and the other half was low with a mean daily milk yield of 32.2 and 18.6 kg for Holstein-M, 14.6 and 6.7 kg for Holstein-E, and 7.2 and 1.8 kg for Buffaloes-E, respectively. Blood samples were collected after the morning milking. Mean plasma thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentrations were significantly higher in Holstein-M than those in Holstein-E or Buffaloes-E. In all animal groups, the high yielders generally had lower plasma thyroxine and antidiuretic hormone but higher plasma triiodothyronine contents than the low yielders. Buffaloes had lower plasma cortisol and 9-fold higher plasma antidiuretic hormone as compared with the two Holstein groups. PMID:2610676

  16. Dynamic in vivo changes in the activities of gelatinases, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) uterine luminal fluid during estrous cycle and early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sudhir C; Ghosh, Jyotirmoy

    2010-11-01

    In ruminants, the phenomenon of endometrial tissue remodeling during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy is not fully understood. In this report, the occurrence of tissue remodeling, if any, in buffalo endometrium was studied by detecting gelatinases, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs); the key regulators of tissue remodeling, in uterine luminal fluids (ULF) of cycling and early pregnant (approx. 43-65 days) buffaloes. Each stage of the estrous cycle and pregnant ULF demonstrated a unique profile of gelatinase activities compared to serum/follicular fluid, with a major gelatinase band of 60?kDa with highest activity in early-luteal stage. In addition to a 32?kDa uterus-specific gelatinase band detected in both non-pregnant and pregnant ULFs, the pregnant ULF displayed three new gelatinase bands of 86, 78, and 57?kDa. Western blot technique confirmed the presence of MMP-2 (54?kDa), MMP-9 (76/73?kDa), TIMP-1 (32?kDa), TIMP-2(20?kDa), and two molecular weight forms (31 and 22?kDa) of TIMP-3 in buffalo ULF with varying band intensities. Highest MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were observed in follicular and early-luteal stage ULFs, respectively. Highest TIMP-1 activity was observed in early-luteal ULF. Interestingly, TIMP-2 activity was only detected in mid-luteal, late-luteal, and follicular stage ULFs with significantly increasing intensities. Highest activities of 31 and 22?kDa TIMP-3 were associated with late-luteal and early-luteal stage ULFs, respectively. The varied activities of MMPs and TIMPs in buffalo ULF during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy might be a reflection of dynamic structural remodeling of the endometrium and/or developing conceptus. PMID:20886603

  17. Recombinant paramyosin (rec-Sj-97) tested for immunogenicity and vaccine efficacy against Schistosoma japonicum in mice and water buffaloes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald P. McManus; Joanna Y. M. Wong; Jinchun Zhou; Chun Cai; Qingren Zeng; Danielle Smyth; Yuesheng Li; Bernd H. Kalinna; Mary J. Duke; Xinyuan Yi

    2001-01-01

    A primary vaccine candidate antigen against schistosomiasis is paramyosin (pmy), a myofibrillar protein found exclusively in invertebrates. Here we report the results of vaccine trials against the Asian schistosome undertaken on inbred and outbred mice and water buffaloes using a bacterially expressed and purified form of Schistosoma japonicum pmy (rec-Sj-97). Vaccination of the mice resulted in high levels of specific

  18. A comparative evaluation of parasitological tests and a PCR for Trypanosoma evansi diagnosis in experimentally infected water buffaloes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. G Holland; F Claes; L. N My; N. G Thanh; P. T Tam; D Verloo; P Büscher; B Goddeeris; J Vercruysse

    2001-01-01

    In this study five parasitological methods and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were compared for the diagnostic sensitivity for Trypanosoma evansi in experimentally infected water buffaloes over a period of 15 weeks. The combined estimates of sensitivity (CEse) of the PCR proved to be highest at 78.2%, closely followed by the mouse inoculation (MI), the micro-haematocrite centrifugation technique (MHCT) and

  19. Prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in cattle and water buffaloes in southern Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. T. T Huong; B.-L Ljungström; A Uggla; C Björkman

    1998-01-01

    Serum samples from 200 dairy cattle and 200 beef water buffaloes were collected in southern Vietnam during May to September 1995. The sera were analysed for antibodies to Neospora caninum by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the indirect fluorescent antibody test, and for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by the direct agglutination test. Significant levels of N. caninum antibodies were detected

  20. Georeferencing livestock farms as tool for studying cystic echinococcosis epidemiology in cattle and water buffaloes from southern Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Cringoli; Laura Rinaldi; Vincenzo Musella; Vincenzo Veneziano; Maria Paola Maurelli; Francesco Di Pietro; Michele Frisiello; Salvatore Di Pietro

    2007-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE), caused by the larval stages of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, is known to be one of the most important parasitic infection in livestock worldwide and one of the most widespread zoonoses known. In the present study, we used a geographical information system (GIS) to study the spatial structure of livestock (cattle, water buffaloes and sheep) populations to

  1. Survival of Arcobacter butzleri during production and storage of artisan water buffalo mozzarella cheese.

    PubMed

    Serraino, Andrea; Giacometti, Federica; Daminelli, Paolo; Losio, Marina N; Finazzi, Guido; Marchetti, Giacomo; Zambrini, Angelo V; Rosmini, Roberto

    2013-09-01

    Water buffalo mozzarella cheese (WBMC) is a fresh stretched cheese produced from whole chilled buffalo milk. Although pasteurization of milk and the use of defined starter cultures are recommended, traditional technology involving unpasteurized milk and natural whey cultures is still employed for WBMC production in Italy. The purpose of this study was to assess the behavior of Arcobacter butzleri during WBMC production and storage under different temperature conditions (5, 10, and 20 °C). Raw milk was experimentally inoculated with one reference strain and two isolates of A. butzleri, and the count was monitored during WBMC production and storage. The bacterial count of A. butzleri decreased during curd ripening (from 7.83 log colony-forming units (CFU)/g to 4.14 log CFU/g in about 4 h) and a further decrease (>4 log CFU/g) was observed at the end of curd stretching. During storage testing, A. butzleri was never detected by direct plating, whereas it was recovered from 12 of the total 162 WBMC until the end of storage testing by enrichment. The results revealed that A. butzleri is able to survive during WBMC production and storage at different temperature conditions. Consequently, traditional WBMC produced from raw milk could represent a potential source of Arcobacter infection for humans. PMID:23806147

  2. Buffalo Grass as a Means of Water Use Reduction on the UC Davis Campus Call, Siew, Wada, Ware ESM 121 Water Science and Management

    E-print Network

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    121 Water Science and Management Buffalo Grass as a Means of Water Use Reduction on the UC Davis the time value of money, making current market conditions unlikely to favor turf grass replacement alone, Wada, Ware ESM 121 Water Science and Management Introduction Using satellite imagery to quantify

  3. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in dairy cattle, beef cattle and water buffaloes in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingbo; Li, Pei; Zhao, Xiaoping; Xu, Hailing; Wu, Wenxian; Wang, Yuanfei; Guo, Yaqiong; Wang, Lin; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-30

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are important protists in a wide range of vertebrate hosts, causing diarrheal diseases. Cattle are considered potential reservoirs of Cryptosporidium infection in humans, although their role in the transmission of E. bieneusi is not clear. In the present work, 793 fecal specimens from dairy cattle, native beef cattle, and water buffaloes on 11 farms in China were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi using nested PCR targeting the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium spp. and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of E. bieneusi. For Cryptosporidium, 144/446 (32.3%) dairy cattle, 44/166 (26.5%) beef cattle, and 43/181 (23.8%) water buffaloes were PCR-positive. Sequence analysis was successful for 213 of the 231 Cryptosporidium-positive isolates; among them 94 had Cryptosporidium andersoni, 61 had Cryptosporidium bovis, 54 had Cryptosporidium ryanae, 2 had a Cryptosporidium suis-like genotype, and 2 had mixed infections of C. bovis and C. ryanae. In dairy and beef cattle, C. andersoni and C. bovis were the most common species, whereas C. ryanae was the dominant species in water buffaloes. The latter species produced SSU rRNA sequences different between cattle and water buffaloes. For E. bieneusi, the infection rate of E. bieneusi in dairy cattle, beef cattle and water buffaloes was 4.9%, 5.4% and 2.2%, respectively. All 35 E. bieneusi-positive specimens were successfully sequenced, revealing the presence of four genotypes: three Group 2 genotypes previously reported in cattle as well as humans (I, J and BEB4) and one Group 1 genotype recently reported in yaks (CHN11). Genotypes I and J were the most common genotypes in dairy and beef cattle, while genotype CHN11 was the only genotype seen in water buffaloes. Thus, the distribution of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi in water buffaloes might be different from in dairy and beef cattle in China. These findings indicate that some of the Cryptosporidium species and all four E. bieneusi genotypes identified in bovine animals in the study areas may have zoonotic potential. PMID:25541482

  4. Maturation Competence of Swamp Buffalo Oocytes Obtained by Ovum Pick-Up and from Slaughterhouse Ovaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Yindee; M. Techakumphu; C. Lohachit; S. Sirivaidyapong; A. Na-Chiangmai; B. A. J. Roelen; B. Colenbrander

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed with the final goal of improving\\u000ain vitro embryo production in the Thai swamp buffalo (Bubalus\\u000abubalis carabensis). Oocytes were collected by ovum pick-up\\u000a(OPU) from six non-lactating multiparous swamp buffalo\\u000atwice per week for 10 consecutive sessions followed by onceweekly\\u000acollection for 10 consecutive sessions without hormone\\u000astimulation. In addition, oocytes were collected from slaughterhouse

  5. Retention of Anchor and Spaghetti Tags by Paddlefish, Catfishes, and Buffalo Fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom J. Timmons; Mark H. Howell

    1995-01-01

    Tag retention was measured for paddlefish Polyodon spathula, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus, smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus, and bigmouth buffalo Ictiobus cyprinellus. Fish were captured in 1986 and 1987, triple-tagged with spaghetti tags (Floy FT-4 lock-on), anchor tags (Floy FD-6813), and fin or opercular marks, and released into Energy Lake, Kentucky. After testing for homogeneity, we constructed

  6. 33 CFR 117.773 - Buffalo River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buffalo River. 117.773 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...New York § 117.773 Buffalo River. (a) The...

  7. 33 CFR 117.773 - Buffalo River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buffalo River. 117.773 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...New York § 117.773 Buffalo River. (a) The...

  8. 33 CFR 117.773 - Buffalo River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buffalo River. 117.773 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...New York § 117.773 Buffalo River. (a) The...

  9. 33 CFR 117.773 - Buffalo River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buffalo River. 117.773 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...New York § 117.773 Buffalo River. (a) The...

  10. 33 CFR 117.773 - Buffalo River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo River. 117.773 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...New York § 117.773 Buffalo River. (a) The...

  11. Expression of mRNA encoding IGF-I, IGF-II, type-I,and II IGF-receptors and IGF-binding proteins-1-4 during ovarian follicular development in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Dubey, Pawan K; Nath, Amar; Chandra, Vikash; Sarkar, Mihir; Saikumar, G; Sharma, G Taru

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the expression pattern of IGF-I, IGF-II, type-I and II IGF-receptors, and IGFBP-1-4 in different stages of buffalo ovarian preantral follicles (PFs), antral follicles (AFs), ovulatory follicles (OFs), and immature (IM) and in vitro matured (MO) oocytes. Buffalo ovaries were collected from local abattoir, PFs (200-250 µm), AFs (1-3 mm), and OFs (5-8 mm) were isolated by mechanical method. PFs, AFs, OFs, and oocytes were lysed to release mRNA, reverse transcribed, and then subjected to RT-PCR, whereas protein were localized through immunohistochemistry. Relative expression of mRNA transcripts was clearly seen for IGF-II, type-I and II IGF-receptors, and IGFBP-1-4 in all the stages of developing follicles and oocytes. We were unable to detect mRNA and protein expression of IGF-1 in any of the oocytes or follicles at any stage of the development. IGF-II and both IGF receptors mRNA expression were found higher (P < 0.05) in PFs compared to AFs and OFs. Expression of IGFBP-1 and 2 in PFs, as well as IGFBP-3 and 4 in AFs, was found with higher (P < 0.05) levels. The expression results were further confirmed by localization of IGF-II, type-I and II IGF-receptors, and IGFBP-1-4 proteins. In conclusion, IGF-II appears to be the only ligand that is endogenously expressed by all the follicular stages and oocytes, which may act in an autocrine manner through the Type-1 IGF receptor. Expression of IGFBP-1-4 and IGF-II suggests the possible role of these genes in recruitment, growth, proliferation, and steroidogenic responses during developmental phases of buffalo ovarian follicles. PMID:25380459

  12. Follicular dynamics in water buffalo superovulated in presence or absence of a dominant follicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Taneja; G. Singh; S. M. Totey; A. Ali

    1995-01-01

    The ovaries of 12 buffalo were examined daily by ultrasound beginning at Day 3 of the estrous cycle, followed by superovulation between Days 10 and 13 of the cycle. The buffalo were divided into 2 groups on the basis of the presence (dominant, n = 7) or absence (nondominant, n = 5) of a dominant follicle at the start of

  13. Downregulation of DNA Methyltransferase 1 in Zona-Free Cloned Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryos by Small Interefering RNA Improves In Vitro Development But Does Not Alter DNA Methylation Level.

    PubMed

    Selokar, Naresh L; Saini, Monika; Agrawal, Himanshu; Palta, Prabhat; Chauhan, Manmohan S; Manik, Radheysham; Singla, Suresh K

    2015-04-01

    Aberrant epigenetic reprogramming, especially genomic hypermethylation, is implicated as the primary reason behind the failure of the cloning process during somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). We transfected one-cell-stage zona-free buffalo embryos produced by handmade cloning with 50?nM DNMT1 small interfering RNA (siRNA), using lipofectamine, to knockdown the DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) gene. siRNA treatment decreased (p<0.001) the expression level of DNMT1 mRNA and DNMT1 protein in the one-cell-stage embryos and increased (p<0.05) the blastocyst rate (52.3±1.3% vs. 45.3±2.5%) compared to that in the controls, but did not reduce the DNA methylation level similar to the in vitro-fertilized (IVF) embryos. It also increased (p<0.05) the relative mRNA abundance of P53 and CASPASE 3, but not that of HDAC1, DNMT1, and DNMT3a, in the blastocysts of the siRNA group compared to the controls. The global level of H3K18ac was higher (p<0.05) in the blastocysts of the siRNA group than in the controls, whereas that of H3K9ac and H3K27me3 was not significantly different between the two groups. In conclusion, lipofection can be successfully used for transfection of DNMT1 siRNA into one-cell-stage zona-free cloned buffalo embryos. It results in a concomitant decrease in the DNMT1 mRNA and protein levels in the one-cell-stage embryos. siRNA-mediated knockdown increases the blastocyst rate but does not alter the DNA methylation level. PMID:25826721

  14. Incidence of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk using cultural method and the PCR assay

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Momtaz, Hassan; Behzadnia, Asma; Baghbadorani, Zeinab Torki

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence rate of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk in Iran. Methods From September 2010 to December 2011 a total of 260 bulk milk samples including 85 bovine, 37 camel, 34 water buffalo, 56 ovine and 48 caprine bulk milk samples were collected from commercial dairy herds, in Fars and Khuzestan provinces, Iran and were evaluated for the presence of Listeria species using cultural method and the PCR assay. Results Using cultural method, 19 samples (7.3%) were positive for Listeria spp. The highest prevalence of Listeria was found in raw water buffalo milk (11.8%), followed by raw bovine milk (10.6%), raw ovine milk (7.1%), and raw caprine milk (4.2%) samples. All 37 camel milk samples from 20 camel breeding farms were negative for Listeria spp. The overall prevalence of Listeria was 7.3%, in which Listeria innocua was the most recovered species (4.2%); the remaining isolates were Listeria monocytogenes (1.9%), Listeria ivanovii (0.08%) and Listeria seeligari (0.04%). The PCR assay could identify 8 Listeria-contaminated milk samples that were negative using the cultural method. Conclusions The results presented in this study indicate the potential risk of infection with Listeria in people consuming raw and unpasteurized milk.

  15. Detection of antibodies against Brucella abortus, Leptospira spp., and Apicomplexa protozoa in water buffaloes in the Northeast of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Konrad, José L; Campero, Lucía M; Caspe, Gastón S; Brihuega, Bibiana; Draghi, Graciela; Moore, Dadin P; Crudeli, Gustavo A; Venturini, María C; Campero, Carlos M

    2013-11-01

    Water buffalo industry has become a profitable activity worldwide, including the Northeast of Argentina (NEA). However, research on diseases affecting this species is scarce. The aim of the present study was to detect antibodies against Brucella abortus, Leptospira spp., Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, and Sarcocystis spp. in 500 water buffalo cows from five ranches (100 animals each) in the NEA. Serum samples were tested for B. abortus by fluorescence polarization assay, Leptospira spp. by microagglutination test, and N. caninum, T. gondii, and Sarcocystis spp. by indirect fluorescent antibody tests. Overall, the proportion of seropositive animals was 6.4, 22.2, 42.2, 25.4, and 50.8 % for brucellosis, leptospirosis, neosporosis, toxoplasmosis, and sarcocystosis, respectively. The proportion of seropositive animals for all diseases was statistically different among herds (p?water buffaloes in the NEA is reported in this study. PMID:23765549

  16. Hydrologic and water-quality characteristics for Bear Creek near Silver Hill, Arkansas, and selected Buffalo River sites, 1999-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, Joel M.; Green, W. Reed

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe and compare the hydrologic and water-quality characteristics of Bear Creek near Silver Hill, Arkansas, to two sites on the Buffalo River upstream from the confluence of Bear Creek, to a site on Calf Creek, a smaller tributary to the Buffalo River, to selected undeveloped sites across the Nation, and to a developed site in Arkansas. A better understanding of the hydrology and water quality of Bear Creek is of interest to many, including the National Park Service, which administers the Buffalo National River, to evaluate its effects on the hydrology and water quality of the Buffalo River. The streamflow at Bear Creek near Silver Hill varied seasonally and annually from January 1999 to March 2004. The mean annual streamflow at Bear Creek for calendar years 1999 to 2003 was 86.0 cubic feet per second. The highest annual mean streamflow occurred in 2002 (158 cubic feet per second) and the lowest annual mean streamflow occurred in 1999 (56.4 cubic feet per second). The mean annual streamflow for calendar years 1999 to 2003 at the Buffalo River near Boxley and Buffalo River near St. Joe was 102 and 881 cubic feet per second, respectively. Concentrations of nitrogen measured for Bear Creek generally were greater than concentrations measured at the two Buffalo River sites and were similar to concentrations measured at Calf Creek. Concentrations of phosphorus measured at Bear Creek generally were greater than concentrations measured at the two Buffalo River sites and were similar to concentrations measured at Calf Creek. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations generally were greater at Bear Creek than concentrations measured at the Buffalo River and similar to concentrations at Calf Creek. Bear Creek had significantly greater suspended-sediment concentrations than the Buffalo River near Boxley and the Buffalo River near St. Joe and similar concentrations to Calf Creek. Nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, and suspended-sediment loads at Bear Creek and two Buffalo River sites varied because of differences in land use and contributing drainage area for each site. In general, the Buffalo River near St. Joe had the greatest annual loads of nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, and suspended sediment. The Buffalo River near Boxley had the least annual nutrient and suspended-sediment loads amongthe three sites. Buffalo River near Boxley had lesser annual loads than the other two sites probably because of the higher percentage of forested land in the basin and smaller contributing drainage area. Mean annual nutrient, dissolved organic carbon, and suspended- sediment yields computed for Bear Creek were greater than yields computed for both of the Buffalo River sites. Bear Creek had greater median annual nutrient yields than selected undeveloped basins across the Nation and less median annual nutrient yields than the Illinois River south of Siloam Springs, Arkansas, which is representative of a developed basin. Bear Creek had greater median annual flow-weighted nutrient concentrations than the Buffalo River near St. Joe, the Buffalo River near Boxley, and selected undeveloped sites across the Nation. Bear Creek had less median flow-weighted nutrient concentrations than the Illinois River.

  17. The influence of T. evansi infection on the immuno-responsiveness of experimentally infected water buffaloes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. G. Holland; L. N. My; T. V. Dung; N. G. Thanh; P. T. Tam; J. Vercruysse; B. M. Goddeeris

    2001-01-01

    In order to define the immuno-suppressive capacity of Trypanosoma evansi infections in buffaloes on the induction of immune responses against heterologous antigens, infected and non-infected buffaloes were vaccinated against Pasteurella multocida (haemorrhagic septicemia) and were simultaneously immunised with a control antigen, human serum albumin (HSA). Antibody responses against HSA were significantly reduced in T. evansi-infected animals, but no conclusive data

  18. Genetic Diversity in the Prion Protein Gene (PRNP) of Domestic Cattle and Water Buffaloes in Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand

    PubMed Central

    UCHIDA, Leo; HERIYANTO, Agus; THONGCHAI, Chalermchaikit; HANH, Tran Thi; HORIUCHI, Motohiro; ISHIHARA, Kanako; TAMURA, Yutaka; MURAMATSU, Yasukazu

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT There has been an accumulation of information on frequencies of insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms within the bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) and on the number of octapeptide repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding region of bovine PRNP related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility. We investigated the frequencies of 23-bp indel polymorphism in the promoter region (23indel) and 12-bp indel polymorphism in intron 1 region (12indel), octapeptide repeat polymorphisms and SNPs in the bovine PRNP of cattle and water buffaloes in Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand. The frequency of the deletion allele in the 23indel site was significantly low in cattle of Indonesia and Thailand and water buffaloes. The deletion allele frequency in the 12indel site was significantly low in all of the cattle and buffaloes categorized in each subgroup. In both indel sites, the deletion allele has been reported to be associated with susceptibility to classical BSE. In some Indonesian local cattle breeds, the frequency of the allele with 5 octapeptide repeats was significantly high despite the fact that the allele with 6 octapeptide repeats has been reported to be most frequent in many breeds of cattle. Four SNPs observed in Indonesian local cattle have not been reported for domestic cattle. This study provided information on PRNP of livestock in these Southeast Asian countries. PMID:24705506

  19. Base flow, water quality, and streamflow gain and loss of the Buffalo River, Arkansas, and selected tributaries, July and August 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moix, Matthew W.; Galloway, Joel M.

    2005-01-01

    A study of the Buffalo National River in north-central Arkansas was conducted between July 28-30 and August 13-15, 2003, to characterize the base-flow and water-quality characteristics and streamflow gain and loss in the Buffalo River. The study was separated into two time periods because of a precipitation event that occurred on the afternoon of July 30 causing appreciable storm runoff. Streamflow was separated to identify base-flow and surface-runoff components using the Base Flow Index hydrograph separation computer program. Base-flow separation analyses indicated annual variability in streamflow throughout the Buffalo River Basin. Based upon these analyses, total and base flow were below average for the mainstem of the river and Richland Creek during the 2003 water year. Waterquality samples were collected from 25 surface-water sites on the Buffalo River and selected tributaries. Most nutrient concentrations for the mainstem of the Buffalo River were near or below the minimum reporting level and were less than the median flow-weighted concentration for relatively undeveloped stream basins in the United States. Streamflow measurement data were collected at 44 locations along the mainstem of the Buffalo River and at points of inflow (prior to confluence with the mainstem) to identify gaining and losing reaches. Seven gaining and five losing reaches were identified for the Buffalo River. Additionally, surface flow on the mainstem of the Buffalo River was diverted to subsurface flow on the mainstem at two locations (river miles 73.6 and 131.6) where the mainstem was found to be dry. Reaches throughout the length of the river had calculated gains or losses that were less than the sum of measurement errors for the respective reaches of river.

  20. Hydrologic and Water-Quality Characteristics for Calf Creek Near Silber Hill, Arkansas and Selected Buffalo River Sites, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, Joel M.; Green, W. Reed

    2004-01-01

    The Buffalo River and its tributary, Calf Creek, are in the White River Basin in the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province in north-central Arkansas. A better understanding of the hydrology and water quality of Calf Creek is of interest to many, including the National Park Service, which administers the Buffalo National River, to evaluate its effect on the hydrology and water quality of the Buffalo River. The streamflow and water-quality characteristics of Calf Creek near Silver Hill, Arkansas, were compared to two sites on the Buffalo River upstream (near Boxley, Arkansas) and downstream (near St. Joe, Arkansas) from the confluence of Calf Creek for calendar years 2001 and 2002. Annual and seasonal loads were estimated for Calf Creek for nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, and suspended sediment and compared with loads at sites on the Buffalo River. Flow-weighted concentrations and yields were computed from estimated annual loads for comparison with other developed and undeveloped basins. Streamflow varied annually and seasonally at the three sites. The Buffalo River near St. Joe had the largest annual mean streamflow (805 to 1,360 cubic feet per second for 2001 and 2002) compared to the Buffalo River near Boxley (106 and 152 cubic feet per second for 2001 and 2002) and Calf Creek (39 and 80 cubic feet per second for 2001 and 2002). Concentrations of nutrients, suspended sediment, and fecal indicator bacteria generally were greater in samples from Calf Creek than in samples collected from both Buffalo River sites. Bacteria and suspended-sediment concentrations were greater in samples collected during high-flow events at all three sites. The Buffalo River near Boxley had the lowest concentrations for nutrients, suspended sediment, and fecal indicator bacteria. Estimated annual loads of the nutrients, suspended sediment, and organic carbon for 2001 and 2002 demonstrated substantial variability between the three sites and through time. Estimated loads for nutrients at the Buffalo River near St. Joe were 7 to 27 times the median loads estimated for Calf Creek and suspended sediment loads were as much as 120 times greater. Dissolved organic carbon loads were 16 to 20 times greater at the Buffalo River near St. Joe than for Calf Creek. The Buffalo River near Boxley had the smallest annual loads for all constituents except for suspended sediment, which were slightly greater than suspended sediment loads estimated for Calf Creek. Higher loads would be expected at the Buffalo River near St. Joe because of the larger basin area and larger volume of streamflow. Likewise, estimated loads for all three sites were greater during seasons that had greater streamflow than during seasons with more frequent periods of base-flow conditions. The highest daily loads occurred in the fall and winter of 2001 and the winter and spring of 2002.Flow-weighted concentrations generally were higher for Calf Creek than concentrations for the two sites on the Buffalo River and for typical flow-weighted concentrations found in undeveloped basins. However, the flow-weighted concentrations were lower than concentrations in a developed basin. Annual yields calculated for Calf Creek were higher than the two sites on the Buffalo River and sites that are representative of undeveloped basins but lower than a site representative of a developed basin. The Buffalo River near Boxley had yields that were less than the yields typical of undeveloped basins.

  1. Development of an Indirect ELISA Using Different Fragments of Recombinant Ncgra7 for Detection of Neospora caninum Infection in Cattle and Water Buffalo

    PubMed Central

    HAMIDINEJAT, Hossein; SEIFI ABAD SHAPOURI, Massoud Reza; NAMAVARI, Mohammad Mehdi; SHAYAN, Parviz; KEFAYAT, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dense granules are immunodominant proteins for the standardization of immunodiagnostic procedures to detect neosporosis. In the presented study different fragment of a dense-granule protein was evaluated for serodiagnosis of Neospora caninum in cattle and water buffalo. Methods: NcGRA7, from N. caninum tachyzoites was amplified. PCR product and pMAL-c2X plasmid were digested with EcoR1 restriction enzyme and expressed in Escherichia coli to evaluate its competence for detection of anti- N. caninum antibodies with ELISA in comparison with commercial IDEXX ELISA. Furthermore, 230 sera of presumably healthy cattle and water buffaloes (108 cattle and 122 water buffaloes) were analyzed by both tests to determine the agreement of these two procedures. Results: Sensitivities and specificities of NcGRA7-based ELISA were 94.64% and 90.38% respectively using sera of cattle, but were 98.57% and 86.54% in the case of buffaloes respectively. A good correlation between the results of IDEXX ELISA and ELISA based on recombinant NcGRA7 for detecting N. caninum antibodies was appeared. Analyzing by Mc Nemar?s showed that NcGRA7-based ELISA has acceptable capability to differentiate the positive results in comparison with IDEXX ELISA. Conclusion: NcGRA7-based ELISA considering utilized new fragment of genomic DNA is a good tool for serodiagnosis of anti- N. caninum antibodies for screening and epidemiological purposes on cattle herd and water buffaloes as well.

  2. Yeasts and hygienic-sanitary microbial indicators in water buffalo mozzarella produced and commercialized in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Facchin, Susanne; Barbosa, Anne C.; Carmo, Luiz S.; Silva, Maria Crisolita C.; Oliveira, Afonso L.; Morais, Paula B.; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the yeast populations and the main hygienic-sanitary microbial indicators in water buffalo mozzarella produced and commercialized in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Forty-two water buffalo mozzarella samples were purchased from retail outlets in Belo Horizonte. In addition, five samples of consecutive starter cultures, curd before acidification, acidified curd and mozzarella were collected at an industry in the city of Oliveira. Only three of the five water samples analyzed were suitable for consumption according to Brazilian sanitary standards. Four milk samples were highly contaminated with fecal coliforms, and did not meet the minimal hygienic-sanitary standards according to Brazilian regulations. Only one sample of buffalo muzzarela purchased from retail outlets exceeded the limit for coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Eleven samples showed counts of thermotolerant coliforms higher than 5 × 103 CFU.g?1, but still lower than the maximum permitted by the Brazilian laws. Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were not isolated. Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida lusitaniae and C. parapsilosis were the prevalent yeast species isolated from cheese. Among samples from the production stages, the acidified curd presented the highest numbers of yeasts, with C. catenulata being the most frequent species isolated. Some opportunistic yeast species such as C. guilliermondii, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. lusitaniae, C. catenulata, C. rugosa and C. krusei occurred in the mozzarella cheese samples analyzed. The mozzarella cheese presented a low microbial load as compared to other cheese already studied, and the yeast biota included species typical of cheese and also opportunistic pathogens. PMID:24516436

  3. Milk progesterone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as a tool to investigate ovarian cyclicity of water buffaloes in relation to body condition score and milk production

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Application of assisted reproductive technologies in buffaloes is limited to some extent by farmers’ inability to detect oestrus because of its poor expression. The present study aimed at investigating reliability of a milk progesterone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to assess the ovarian cyclicity during post partum, oestrus and post-breeding periods in water buffaloes. Methods Progesterone concentrations were measured by an ELISA in milk of 23 postpartum buffaloes in relation to oestrus, pregnancy, body condition score (BCS) and milk production. Two milk samples were taken at 10?days intervals, every month starting from day 30 and continued to day 150 post partum. BCS and milk production were recorded during sample collection. Milk samples from bred buffaloes were collected at Day 0 (day of breeding), Days 10–12 and Days 22–24. Defatted milk was preserved at ?80°C until analysis. Pregnancy was confirmed by palpation per rectum on Days 70–90. Results Seventeen buffaloes had 47 ovulatory cycles, one to four in each, 13 were detected in oestrus once (28?% oestrus detection rate). Progesterone concentration ?1?ng/ml in one of the two 10-day-interval milk samples reflected ovulation and corpus luteum formation. The intervals between calving to first luteal activity and to first detected oestrus varied from 41 to 123?days (n?=?17) and 83 to 135 (n?=?13) days, respectively. Eight buffaloes were bred in the course of the study and seven were found pregnant. These buffaloes had a progesterone profile of low (<1?ng/ml), high (? 1?ng/ml) and high (? 1?ng/ml) on Day 0, Days 10–12 and Days 22–24, respectively. Buffaloes cycling later in the postpartum period had fewer missed oestruses (P?Buffaloes with a superior BCS had a shorter calving to oestrus interval and produced more milk (P?water buffalo. PMID:22554129

  4. Yeasts from Water Buffalo Mozzarella, a traditional cheese of the Mediterranean area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Romano; A Ricciardi; G Salzano; G Suzzi

    2001-01-01

    Countries of the Mediterranean area are characterized by production of artisanal cheeses, obtained from goat, sheep, cow and buffalo raw milk. The numbers and species of yeasts in the different cheeses are variable, but some species are more frequently detected than others. Kluyveromyces marxianus, K. lactis with their anamorph, Candida kefir, Debaryomyces hansenii and C. famata, C. colliculosa and C.

  5. Effects of Smallmouth Buffalo and Potassium Permanganate Treatment on Plankton ans Pond Water Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Removal of intermediate hosts is one option for control of disease in channel catfish production systems. We evaluated use of predaceous fish (smallmouth buffalo) and chemical treatment (potassium permanganate) to remove snails that serve as hosts protecting Dero worms. Both methods of treatment r...

  6. A nonsense mutation in the tyrosinase gene causes albinism in water buffalo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is an autosomal recessive hereditary pigmentation disorder affecting humans and several other animal species. Oculocutaneous albinism was studied in a herd of Murrah buffalo to determine the clinical presentation and genetic basis of albinism in this species. Results Clinical examinations and pedigree analysis were performed in an affected herd, and wild-type and OCA tyrosinase mRNA sequences were obtained. The main clinical findings were photophobia and a lack of pigmentation of the hair, skin, horns, hooves, mucosa, and iris. The results of segregation analysis suggest that this disease is acquired through recessive inheritance. In the OCA buffalo, a single-base substitution was detected at nucleotide 1,431 (G to A), which leads to the conversion of tryptophan into a stop codon at residue 477. Conclusion This premature stop codon produces an inactive protein, which is responsible for the OCA buffalo phenotype. These findings will be useful for future studies of albinism in buffalo and as a possible model to study diseases caused by a premature stop codon. PMID:22817390

  7. Habitat Selection by African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Response to Landscape-Level Fluctuations in Water Availability on Two Temporal Scales

    PubMed Central

    Bennitt, Emily; Bonyongo, Mpaphi Casper; Harris, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal fluctuations in water availability cause predictable changes in the profitability of habitats in tropical ecosystems, and animals evolve adaptive behavioural and spatial responses to these fluctuations. However, stochastic changes in the distribution and abundance of surface water between years can alter resource availability at a landscape scale, causing shifts in animal behaviour. In the Okavango Delta, Botswana, a flood-pulsed ecosystem, the volume of water entering the system doubled between 2008 and 2009, creating a sudden change in the landscape. We used African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) to test the hypotheses that seasonal habitat selection would be related to water availability, that increased floodwater levels would decrease forage abundance and affect habitat selection, and that this would decrease buffalo resting time, reduce reproductive success and decrease body condition. Buffalo selected contrasting seasonal habitats, using habitats far from permanent water during the rainy season and seasonally-flooded habitats close to permanent water during the early and late flood seasons. The 2009 water increase reduced forage availability in seasonally-flooded habitats, removing a resource buffer used by the buffalo during the late flood season, when resources were most limited. In response, buffalo used drier habitats in 2009, although there was no significant change in the time spent moving or resting, or daily distance moved. While their reproductive success decreased in 2009, body condition increased. A protracted period of high water levels could prove detrimental to herbivores, especially to smaller-bodied species that require high quality forage. Stochastic annual fluctuations in water levels, predicted to increase as a result of anthropogenically-induced climate change, are likely to have substantial impacts on the functioning of water-driven tropical ecosystems, affecting environmental conditions within protected areas. Buffer zones around critical seasonal resources are essential to allow animals to engage in compensatory behavioural and spatial mechanisms in response to changing environmental conditions. PMID:24983377

  8. Habitat selection by African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in response to landscape-level fluctuations in water availability on two temporal scales.

    PubMed

    Bennitt, Emily; Bonyongo, Mpaphi Casper; Harris, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal fluctuations in water availability cause predictable changes in the profitability of habitats in tropical ecosystems, and animals evolve adaptive behavioural and spatial responses to these fluctuations. However, stochastic changes in the distribution and abundance of surface water between years can alter resource availability at a landscape scale, causing shifts in animal behaviour. In the Okavango Delta, Botswana, a flood-pulsed ecosystem, the volume of water entering the system doubled between 2008 and 2009, creating a sudden change in the landscape. We used African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) to test the hypotheses that seasonal habitat selection would be related to water availability, that increased floodwater levels would decrease forage abundance and affect habitat selection, and that this would decrease buffalo resting time, reduce reproductive success and decrease body condition. Buffalo selected contrasting seasonal habitats, using habitats far from permanent water during the rainy season and seasonally-flooded habitats close to permanent water during the early and late flood seasons. The 2009 water increase reduced forage availability in seasonally-flooded habitats, removing a resource buffer used by the buffalo during the late flood season, when resources were most limited. In response, buffalo used drier habitats in 2009, although there was no significant change in the time spent moving or resting, or daily distance moved. While their reproductive success decreased in 2009, body condition increased. A protracted period of high water levels could prove detrimental to herbivores, especially to smaller-bodied species that require high quality forage. Stochastic annual fluctuations in water levels, predicted to increase as a result of anthropogenically-induced climate change, are likely to have substantial impacts on the functioning of water-driven tropical ecosystems, affecting environmental conditions within protected areas. Buffer zones around critical seasonal resources are essential to allow animals to engage in compensatory behavioural and spatial mechanisms in response to changing environmental conditions. PMID:24983377

  9. 75 FR 61099 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ...Marine safety, Navigation (water), Reporting and record keeping...Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. * * * * * (b...contact the Captain of Port Buffalo at telephone number (716...Guard, Captain of the Port Buffalo. [FR Doc. 2010-24774...

  10. VOL. 31, No.4 UNL WATER CENTERIENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMS AUGUST 1999 From Buffalo to Bottled Water,

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    line- up for a taste of Long Pine spring water, the source of Gordon Brook's (left) Seven Springs (photo: Steve Ress). 3 EBRASKA LEGISLATIVE RECAP 4 F ESTIVAL OF COLOR, AUG. 28 INSIDE 5 Two JOIN LAB is the cornerstone of Nebraska's economy." Many of us have heard these, and similar lines, so often they don't really

  11. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activities in water buffaloes with experimental subclinical fasciolosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qian Yang; Wei Hua Mao; I Ferre; J. E Bayón; X. Z Mao; J González-Gallego

    1998-01-01

    The effect of chronic Fasciola hepatica infection on the activity of plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) was investigated in water buffaloes dosed daily with 60 F. hepatica metacercariae over 20 days. Experimental fluke infection caused no clinical signs but provoked an increase in plasma level of IgG directed against F. hepatica from 4 weeks

  12. Relationships Between Flavoring Capabilities, Bacterial Composition, and Geographical Origin of Natural Whey Cultures Used for Traditional Water-Buffalo Mozzarella Cheese Manufacture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Mauriello; L. Moio; A. Genovese; D. Ercolini

    2003-01-01

    Natural whey cultures (NWC) (n = 29) used for tradi- tional water-buffalo Mozzarella cheese manufacture and arising from different geographical areas of production were characterized and grouped on the basis of their capability to develop neutral volatile compounds and according to their microbial diversity as revealed by mo- lecular analysis. The flavoring properties of NWC were studiedindairymicrocosmsresemblingthespecifictech- nological procedure used

  13. Assessment of sperm damages during different stages of cryopreservation in water buffalo by fluorescent probes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dharmendra; Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, Pawan; Yadav, S P; Yadav, P S

    2014-11-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the sperm damages occurring in acrosome, plasma membrane, mitochondrial activity, and DNA of fresh, equilibrated and frozen-thawed buffalo semen by fluorescent probes. The stability of sperm acrosome and plasma membrane stability, mitochondrial activity and DNA status were assessed by fluorescein conjugated lectin Pisum sativum agglutinin, Annexin-V/propidium iodide, JC-1 and TUNEL assay, respectively, under the fluorescent microscope. The damages percentage of acrosome integrity was significantly increased during equilibration and freezing-thawing process. The stability of sperm plasma membrane is dependent on stability of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the inner leaflet of plasma membrane. The frozen-thawed sperm showed externalization of PS leading to significant increase in apoptotic, early necrotic and necrotic changes and lowered high mitochondrial membrane potential as compared with the fresh sperm but all these parameters were not affected during equilibration. However, the DNA integrity was not affected during equilibration and freezing-thawing procedure. In conclusion, the present study revealed that plasma membrane and mitochondria of buffalo sperm are more susceptible to damage during cryopreservation. Furthermore, the use of fluorescent probes to evaluate integrity of plasma and acrosome membranes, as well as mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA status increased the accuracy of semen analyses. PMID:25373338

  14. About Buffalo

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    For people attending our fall conference or summer workshop, we've prepared a list of some of the many things to see and do in and around Buffalo (and just across the border in Canada - Please Note: Travel across the border now requires a passport, for everyone).

  15. Infection rates of Linguatula serrata nymphs in mesenteric lymph nodes from water buffaloes in North India.

    PubMed

    Sudan, Vikrant; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Shanker, Daya

    2014-09-15

    The literature pertaining to prevalence of Linguatula serrata in large ruminants is limited. In abattoir survey, the infection rate of L. serrata in 1440 mesenteric lymph nodes collected from 480 buffaloes from North India was investigated. Results revealed 88 (18.3%) buffaloes and 288 (20.0%) mesenteric lymph nodes having parasite's nymphs. Nonsignificant difference (P>0.05), between 1 and 3 years age (51.5%) and above three years of age (48.5%) groups was observed. Nonsignificant difference (P>0.05) between the infection rate of male (51.5%) and female (48.5%) was also observed. Infection in haemorrhagic (57.2%) and black-coloured (67.5%) nymph nodes were significantly (P<0.05) higher than normal-coloured nodes (8.8%). When compared based on consistency, the results showed soft lymph nodes (61.3%) were significantly (P<0.05) more infected than normal (12.8%) and hard (30.0%) lymph nodes. The intensity of infection in normal, haemorrhagic and black lymph nodes were 1.81 ± 0.21, 4.23 ± 0.0.62 and 5.12 ± 0.73, nymphs respectively. The mean numbers of parasites in haemorrhagic and black-coloured lymph nodes were significantly (P<0.0005) more than mean number of parasites in normal-coloured nodes. Again intensity of infection in normal, soft and hard lymph nodes was 2.31 ± 0.18, 5.84 ± 0.74 and 3.21 ± 0.68, respectively. When compared based on lymph nodes consistency, the soft lymph nodes were significantly (P<0.0005) more severely infected than normal and hard ones. The study has generated some vital data about the prevalence of this underreported disease amongst the bubaline intermediate hosts along with important gross changes in the affected lymph nodes. PMID:25112688

  16. Molecular and seroepidemiological survey of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina infections in cattle and water buffaloes in the central region of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Luo, Yuzi; Cao, Shinuo; Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Lan, Dinh Thi Bich; Long, Phung Thang; Yu, Longzheng; Zhou, Mo; Gong, Haiyan; Zhang, Houshuang; Zhou, Jinlin; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, a total of 137 blood samples were collected from cattle and water buffaloes in central region of Vietnam and tested using nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) to determine the molecular and serological prevalence of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina. In cattle, the prevalence of B. bovis and B. bigemina was 21.3% and 16.0% by nPCR, 73.4% and 42.6% by ELISA and 60.6% and 59.6% by IFAT, respectively, whereas those of water buffalos were 23.3% and 0% by nPCR, 37.2% and 9.3% by ELISA and 27.9% and 18.6% by IFAT, respectively. IFAT and ELISA detected a higher number of infected cattle and water buffaloes than nPCR totally. Statistically significant differences in the prevalence of the two infections were observed on the basis of age. Overall, the current data suggest high incidence of B. bovis and B. bigemina infections in the central region of Vietnam, which is needed to develop comprehensive approach to the modern surveillance, diagnosis and control of bovine babesiosis. PMID:25382466

  17. 33 CFR 117.955 - Buffalo Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buffalo Bayou. 117.955 Section 117.955 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of the Houston Belt and...

  18. 33 CFR 117.955 - Buffalo Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buffalo Bayou. 117.955 Section 117.955 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of the Houston Belt and...

  19. 33 CFR 117.955 - Buffalo Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buffalo Bayou. 117.955 Section 117.955 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of the Houston Belt and...

  20. 33 CFR 117.955 - Buffalo Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Bayou. 117.955 Section 117.955 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of the Houston Belt and...

  1. Clinical and molecular study of a new form of hereditary myotonia in Murrah water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Borges, Alexandre S; Barbosa, José D; Resende, Luiz Antônio L; Mota, Lígia S L S; Amorim, Rogério M; Carvalho, Thaís L; Garcia, José F; Oliveira-Filho, José P; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Souza, Jorge Estefano S; Winand, Nena J

    2013-03-01

    Hereditary myotonia caused by mutations in CLCN1 has been previously described in humans, goats, dogs, mice and horses. The goal of this study was to characterize the clinical, morphological and genetic features of hereditary myotonia in Murrah buffalo. Clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed on affected and normal animals. CLCN1 cDNA and the relevant genomic region from normal and affected animals were sequenced. The affected animals exhibited muscle hypertrophy and stiffness. Myotonic discharges were observed during EMG, and dystrophic changes were not present in skeletal muscle biopsies; the last 43 nucleotides of exon-3 of the CLCN1 mRNA were deleted. Cloning of the genomic fragment revealed that the exclusion of this exonic sequence was caused by aberrant splicing, which was associated with the presence of a synonymous SNP in exon-3 (c.396C>T). The mutant allele triggered the efficient use of an ectopic 5' splice donor site located at nucleotides 90-91 of exon-3. The predicted impact of this aberrant splicing event is the alteration of the CLCN1 translational reading frame, which results in the incorporation of 24 unrelated amino acids followed by a premature stop codon. PMID:23339992

  2. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Arcobacter species in cow milk, water buffalo milk and fresh village cheese.

    PubMed

    Yesilmen, Simten; Vural, Aydin; Erkan, Mehmet Emin; Yildirim, Ibrahim Halil

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the presence of Arcobacter spp. was examined in cow milk (n=50), water buffalo (WB) milk (n=50) and fresh village cheese (n=50) samples. The 16S rDNA-RFLP method was used for the identification of Arcobacter spp. The disc diffusion method was used to investigate the susceptibility of all strains identified to 18 different antimicrobial substances. The most commonly isolated Arcobacter species were found to be Arcobacter butzleri (38.89%), Arcobacter cryaerophilus (22.23%) and Arcobacter skirrowii (11.12%) in cow milk; A. cryaerophilus (33.33%), Arcobacter cibarius (20.83%) and A. butzleri (12.50%) in WB milk; and A. skirrowii (28.57%), A. butzleri (21.43%) and A. cryaerophilus (14.29%) in fresh village cheese. This is the first study to identify the presence of Arcobacter nitrofigilis, Arcobacter cloacae, Arcobacter halophilus, Arcobacter bivalviorum and A. cibarius species in analyzed samples. It was found that all of the A. cryaerophilus (n:16) isolates were resistant to cefoperazone, cloxacillin and penicillin G; all of the A. skirrowii (n:12) and A. butzleri (n:10) isolates were resistant to cefoperazone, tetracycline, ampicillin, erythromycin, cloxacillin and penicillin G. It was concluded that cow milk, WB milk and fresh village cheese samples are an important source of Arcobacter species and pose a risk to public health. PMID:25064812

  3. First molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from bovines (Bos taurus and Bubalus bubalis) in Sri Lanka: unexpected absence of C. parvum from pre-weaned calves

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia has important implications for investigating their epidemiology and underpins their control. We undertook the first molecular epidemiological survey of domestic bovids in selected regions of Sri Lanka to establish whether they excreted Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia with zoonotic potential. Methods Faecal samples were collected from dairy calves (n?=?340; Bos taurus; < 3 months of age; weekly sampling for six weeks) and water buffaloes (n?=?297; Bubalus bubalis; <6 months and ?6 months of age; one sampling) from seven different farms in Sri Lanka. Genomic DNAs were extracted from individual faecal samples and then tested for the presence of parasite DNA using a PCR-based mutation scanning-targeted sequencing-phylogenetic approach, employing genetic markers within the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA and 60 kDa glycoprotein genes (designated pSSU and pgp60, respectively) for Cryptosporidium, and within the triose phosphate isomerise (ptpi) gene for Giardia. Results Based on pSSU sequence data, C. bovis, C. ryanae and six new genotypes that were genetically similar but not identical to C. andersoni (n?=?1), C. bovis (n?=?1), C. ryanae (n?=?3) and C. suis (n?=?1) were recorded in cattle. For pSSU, two other, new genotypes were defined in water buffalo, which were genetically most similar to Cryptosporidium genotypes recorded previously in this host species in other countries including Australia. Consistent with the findings for pSSU, no species or genotypes of Cryptosporidium with zoonotic potential were detected using pgp60. Based on ptpi sequence data, G. duodenalis assemblages A and E were detected in four and 137 samples from cattle, respectively, and assemblage E in two samples from water buffaloes. Conclusions The present study showed that C. parvum, the most commonly reported zoonotic species of Cryptosporidium recognised in bovine calves globally, was not detected in any of the samples from pre-weaned calves tested in the present study. However, eight new genotypes were recorded. Future studies of different host species in various regions are required to investigate the molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis in Sri Lanka and neighbouring countries in South Asia. PMID:24559043

  4. Assessment of the risks for human health of adenoviruses, hepatitis A virus, rotaviruses and enteroviruses in the Buffalo River and three source water dams in the Eastern Cape.

    PubMed

    Chigor, Vincent N; Sibanda, Timothy; Okoh, Anthony I

    2014-06-01

    Buffalo River is an important water resource in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The potential risks of infection constituted by exposure to human enteric viruses in the Buffalo River and three source water dams along its course were assessed using mean values and static quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). The daily risks of infection determined by the exponential model [for human adenovirus (HAdV) and enterovirus (EnV)] and the beta-Poisson model (for hepatitis A virus (HAV) and rotavirus (RoV)) varied with sites and exposure scenario. The estimated daily risks of infection values at the sites where the respective viruses were detected, ranged from 7.31 × 10(-3) to 1 (for HAdV), 4.23 × 10(-2) to 6.54 × 10(-1) (RoV), 2.32 × 10(-4) to 1.73 × 10(-1) (HAV) and 1.32 × 10(-4) to 5.70 × 10(-2) (EnV). The yearly risks of infection in individuals exposed to the river/dam water via drinking, recreational, domestic or irrigational activities were unacceptably high, exceeding the acceptable risk of 0.01% (10(-4) infection/person/year), and the guideline value used as by several nations for drinking water. The risks of illness and death from infection ranged from 6.58 × 10(-5) to 5.0 × 10(-1) and 6.58 × 10(-9) to 5.0 × 10(-5), respectively. The threats here are heightened by the high mortality rates for HAV, and its endemicity in South Africa. Therefore, we conclude that the Buffalo River and its source water dams are a public health hazard. The QMRA presented here is the first of its kinds in the Eastern Cape Province and provides the building block for a quantitatively oriented local guideline for water quality management in the Province. PMID:24676673

  5. Calcium and magnesium content of the uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle and pre-pubertal phase in water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Alavi Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Asri Rezaie, Siamak; Khaki, Amir; Belbasi, Abulfazle; Tahmasebian, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    To investigate uterine fluid and serum calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) variations during the estrus cycle in water buffaloes, 71 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from the abattoir in Urmia. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examining ovarian structures. 18 animals were pro-estrous, 15 estrous, 16 met-estrous and 22 diestrous. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. Blood serum and uterine fluid samples of 71 pre-pubertal buffalo calves were also collected and treated in similar manners. The mean ± SEM total serum and uterine fluid Ca in cyclic buffaloes were 8.68 ± 0.28 mg dL(-1) and 8.10 ± 0.2 mg dL(-1) vs. 6.76 ± 0.65 mg dL(-1) and 7.90 ± 0.15 mg dL(-1) in pre-pubertal calves, respectively. Blood serum Mg was not different in cyclic and pre-pubertal animals but the uterine fluid Mg in cyclic cows was higher than those in pre-pubertal calves. Serum Ca in pro-estrus and estrus were higher than those in other stages and also higher than those in the uterine fluid. The lowest Mg content of serum was recorded in diestrus, while in the uterine fluid it was observed in estrus. In all stages of estrous cycle except for estrus the uterine fluid Mg content was significantly higher than those of the serum. These results suggested that during the estrous cycle in the buffalo cows, Ca was passively secreted in uterine lumen and mostly dependent on blood serum Ca concentrations but Mg was secreted independently. The values (except for serum total Mg) also increased after puberty. PMID:25610582

  6. Calcium and magnesium content of the uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle and pre-pubertal phase in water buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Alavi Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Asri Rezaie, Siamak; Khaki, Amir; Belbasi, Abulfazle; Tahmasebian, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    To investigate uterine fluid and serum calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) variations during the estrus cycle in water buffaloes, 71 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from the abattoir in Urmia. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examining ovarian structures. 18 animals were pro-estrous, 15 estrous, 16 met-estrous and 22 diestrous. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. Blood serum and uterine fluid samples of 71 pre-pubertal buffalo calves were also collected and treated in similar manners. The mean ± SEM total serum and uterine fluid Ca in cyclic buffaloes were 8.68 ± 0.28 mg dL-1 and 8.10 ± 0.2 mg dL-1 vs. 6.76 ± 0.65 mg dL-1 and 7.90 ± 0.15 mg dL-1 in pre-pubertal calves, respectively. Blood serum Mg was not different in cyclic and pre-pubertal animals but the uterine fluid Mg in cyclic cows was higher than those in pre-pubertal calves. Serum Ca in pro-estrus and estrus were higher than those in other stages and also higher than those in the uterine fluid. The lowest Mg content of serum was recorded in diestrus, while in the uterine fluid it was observed in estrus. In all stages of estrous cycle except for estrus the uterine fluid Mg content was significantly higher than those of the serum. These results suggested that during the estrous cycle in the buffalo cows, Ca was passively secreted in uterine lumen and mostly dependent on blood serum Ca concentrations but Mg was secreted independently. The values (except for serum total Mg) also increased after puberty. PMID:25610582

  7. VEGF system expression in different stages of estrous cycle in the corpus luteum of non-treated and superovulated water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Papa, P C; Moura, C E B; Artoni, L P; Fátima, L A; Campos, D B; Marques, J E B; Baruselli, P S; Binelli, M; Pfarrer, C; Leiser, R

    2007-11-01

    Water buffaloes are easily adaptable animals, whose raising and economical exploitation have been growing in the last three decades all over the world. Hyperstimulation of ovarian function in this species is a common technique aiming to improve reproductive performance. Superovulatory treatment affects corpus luteum (CL) function, which is highly correlated to angiogenic process. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the temporal protein and mRNA expression of VEGF and its receptors in the CL of non-treated and superovulated buffaloes. For that purpose blood samples and CL from 36 healthy (30 untreated, groups 1-5, and 6 superovulated, group 6) non-pregnant buffaloes were collected and the samples were divided into 6 groups according to the age of CL. Plasma samples were submitted to RIA to measure progesterone concentration and CL were subjected to immunohistochemistry and real time PCR for VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor 1) and KDR (kinase insert domain containing region). The VEGF system protein and mRNA expression during CL life span of untreated animals showed a specific time-dependent profile, although protein did not always reflect mRNA concentrations. VEGF expression in luteal cells was high correlated to plasma progesterone levels. Superovulated CL showed a significant increase of the VEGF-system protein and a significant decrease of mRNA expression compared to untreated animals in the same stage of the oestrous cycle. We conclude that VEGF, Flt-1 and KDR protein and mRNA expression in buffalo CL is dependent of estrous cycle stage and superovulatory treatment is able to increase the translation rate of this system. PMID:17014980

  8. 33 CFR 162.165 - Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buffalo and Rochester Harbors...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...REGULATIONS § 162.165 Buffalo and Rochester...

  9. 33 CFR 162.165 - Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buffalo and Rochester Harbors...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...REGULATIONS § 162.165 Buffalo and Rochester...

  10. 33 CFR 162.165 - Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo and Rochester Harbors...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...REGULATIONS § 162.165 Buffalo and Rochester...

  11. 33 CFR 162.165 - Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buffalo and Rochester Harbors...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...REGULATIONS § 162.165 Buffalo and Rochester...

  12. 33 CFR 162.165 - Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buffalo and Rochester Harbors...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...REGULATIONS § 162.165 Buffalo and Rochester...

  13. Clinical and pathological insights into Johne's disease in buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Dalto, André Cabrera; Bandarra, Paulo Mota; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti; Boabaid, Fabiana Marques; de Bitencourt, Ana Paula Gobbi; Gomes, Marcos Pereira; Chies, José; Driemeier, David; da Cruz, Cláudio Estêvão Farias

    2012-12-01

    Alternative diagnostic tools and interesting epidemiological assumptions were associated with an outbreak of Johne's disease. In a buffalo herd infected with paratuberculosis, seven clinically affected animals and 21 animals with anti-Mycobacterium avium ELISA reactions were identified. Total herd included 203 buffaloes. Most lesions were comparable to those described in buffaloes and cattle affected by Johne's disease. Water buffalo behaviors such as communal nursing and allosuckling may be additional risk factors for this disease. Detection of positive Ziehl-Neelsen staining and anti-M. avium immunolabeling in rectal biopsies from one buffalo with paratuberculosis are highlighted as auxiliary diagnostic tools for Johne's disease in live animals. PMID:22528538

  14. 33 CFR 117.955 - Buffalo Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of the Houston Belt and Terminal railroad bridge, mile 1.2 at...

  15. Decline of Year-Class Strength of Buffalo Fishes in Lake Sakakawea,

    E-print Network

    , and reproduction of buffalo fishes under reservoir conditions is controlled by fluctuating water levels and quality are not uniformly available each year. Quality of spawning beds also is related to water levels, because buffalo and smallmouth buffalo reproduction i:-. closely related to water levels. The year-classes produced before

  16. 78 FR 23850 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ...U.S. navigable waters under the jurisdiction...Captain of the Port Buffalo (73 FR 28704...impact on navigable waters. Furthermore, the...Captain of the Port Buffalo. 2. Impact on Small...Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Safety...Location. All U.S. waters of the Saint...

  17. 78 FR 11798 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ...U.S. navigable waters under the jurisdiction...Captain of the Port Buffalo (73 FR 28704...impact on navigable waters. Furthermore, the...Captain of the Port Buffalo. 2. Impact on Small...Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Safety...Location. All U.S. waters of the Saint...

  18. Differential histone modification status of spermatozoa in relation to fertility of buffalo bulls.

    PubMed

    Verma, Arpana; Rajput, Sandeep; Kumar, Sandeep; De, Sachinandan; Chakravarty, Atish Kumar; Kumar, Rakesh; Datta, Tirtha Kumar

    2015-05-01

    In this study genome-wide di-methylated H3K4 (H3K4me2) and tri-methylated H3K27 (H3K27me3) modification profiles were analyzed in spermatozoa of buffalo bulls having wide fertility differences. The custom designed 4?×?180?K buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) ChIP-on-chip array was fabricated by employing array-based sequential hybridization using bovine and buffalo genomic DNA for comparative hybridization. The buffalo specific array developed had 177,440 features assembled from Coding sequences, Promoter and CpG regions comprising 2967 unique genes. A total of 84 genes for H3K4me2 and 80 genes for H3K27me3 were found differentially enriched in mature sperm of high and sub-fertile buffalo bulls. Gene Ontology analysis of these genes revealed their association with different cellular functions and biological processes. Genes identified as differentially enriched between high and sub-fertile bulls were found to be involved in the processes of germ cell development, spermatogenesis and embryonic development. This study presents the first genome-wide H3K4me2 and H3K27me3 profiling of buffalo bull sperm. Results provide a list of specific genes which could be made responsible for differential bull fertility. J. Cell. Biochem. 116: 743-753, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25501625

  19. The buffalo wars

    E-print Network

    Nasr, Susan L

    2006-01-01

    The wandering buffalo of Yellowstone National Park are the subject of a heated debate in the western United States. The animals carry a disease called brucellosis, which infects both buffalo and cattle and has economic ...

  20. Effect of cooking and storage on lipid oxidation and development of cholesterol oxidation products in water buffalo meat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Kesava Rao; B. N. Kowale; N. P. Babu; G. S. Bisht

    1996-01-01

    Buffalo meat was subjected to two cooking methods viz. broiling and pressure cooking and two storage procedures viz. refrigerated (4 °C) storage for six days and frozen (?10 °C) storage for 90 days. Changes in lipid oxidation and development of cholesterol oxidation products were studied in raw as well as cooked meat samples. Total lipid, phospholipid, cholesterol, free fatty acid,

  1. 33 CFR 207.580 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.580 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and...

  2. 33 CFR 207.580 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.580 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and...

  3. 33 CFR 207.580 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.580 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and...

  4. 33 CFR 207.580 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.580 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and...

  5. 33 CFR 207.580 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.580 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and...

  6. Searching for copy number variations in the buffalo genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water buffalo are economically important animals in many regions of the world, especially in developing countries. The International Water Buffalo Consortium will sequence an Italian inbred female (33-fold coverage) to build the genome assembly and additional individuals to screen for SNPs. Based on...

  7. Quantitative RT-PCR Detection of Hepatitis A Virus, Rotaviruses and Enteroviruses in the Buffalo River and Source Water Dams in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Chigor, Vincent Nnamdigadi; Okoh, Anthony Ifeanyi

    2012-01-01

    Human enteric viruses (HEntVs) are a major cause of water-related diseases. The prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV), rotaviruses (RoV) and enteroviruses (EnV) in Buffalo River waters was assessed quantitatively over a period of 12 months (August 2010 to July 2011). Seventy-two samples were collected from six sites, including three dams, and concentrated using the adsorption-elution method. Viral RNA was extracted using a commercial kit, and the viruses were quantified by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR). Two or more viruses were detected in 12.5% of the samples. HAV was detected in 43.1% of the samples and in significantly (p < 0.05) varying concentrations of 1.5 × 101–1.9 × 105 genome copies/L compared to RoV and EnV, while RoVs were detected in 13.9% of samples, with concentrations ranging from 2.5 × 101–2.1 × 103 genome copies/L, and EnV were detected in 9.7% of the samples, with concentrations ranging from 1.3 × 101–8.6 × 101 genome copies/L. Only HAV was detected at all the sites, with the Bridle Drift Dam recording significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations. The presence of enteric viruses in Buffalo River may constitute public health risks and the incidence of HAV at all the sites could reflect both the epidemiological status of hepatitis A and HAV persistence in the water environments. PMID:23202829

  8. Quantitative RT-PCR detection of hepatitis A virus, rotaviruses and enteroviruses in the Buffalo River and source water dams in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chigor, Vincent Nnamdigadi; Okoh, Anthony Ifeanyi

    2012-11-01

    Human enteric viruses (HEntVs) are a major cause of water-related diseases. The prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV), rotaviruses (RoV) and enteroviruses (EnV) in Buffalo River waters was assessed quantitatively over a period of 12 months (August 2010 to July 2011). Seventy-two samples were collected from six sites, including three dams, and concentrated using the adsorption-elution method. Viral RNA was extracted using a commercial kit, and the viruses were quantified by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR). Two or more viruses were detected in 12.5% of the samples. HAV was detected in 43.1% of the samples and in significantly (p < 0.05) varying concentrations of 1.5 × 10(1)–1.9 × 10(5) genome copies/L compared to RoV and EnV, while RoVs were detected in 13.9% of samples, with concentrations ranging from 2.5 × 10(1)–2.1 × 10(3) genome copies/L, and EnV were detected in 9.7% of the samples, with concentrations ranging from 1.3 × 10(1)–8.6 × 10(1) genome copies/L. Only HAV was detected at all the sites, with the Bridle Drift Dam recording significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations. The presence of enteric viruses in Buffalo River may constitute public health risks and the incidence of HAV at all the sites could reflect both the epidemiological status of hepatitis A and HAV persistence in the water environments. PMID:23202829

  9. Thermal Band Characterization of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper. [Buffalo, New York and water temperature in Lake Erie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, J. C.; Barker, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    A quick look monitor in the spacecraft control center was used to measure the TM Band 6 shutter background and the 34.7 C internal blackbody signal on over 50 dates. Comparison of relative internal gains between the four channels to prelaunch values showed changes over 9 months of up to 5%, while 512 x 512 subsections of the original 10 daytime scenes showed scene counts that ranged from 135 down to 62. A night scene of the Buffalo area was used to determine channel gain relative to the mean and to discern a systematic along scan pattern in a difference between forward and reverse scan counts of up to 0.5. A corrected digital image was produced and individual gains and offsets were calculated for the four channels. At satellite radiance was determine and noise equivalent temperature difference was calculated. The calibration data and the Buffalo scene, with the corrections and estimates of the atmospheric transmission and radiance, were used to make a temperature estimate for an area of Lake Erie of 21 C to 27 C. Local records of the temperature showed 21 C.

  10. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage grounds —(1)...

  11. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage grounds —(1)...

  12. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage grounds —(1)...

  13. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage grounds —(1)...

  14. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage grounds —(1)...

  15. TEMPERATURE AND CONDUCTIVITY MODELING FOR THE BUFFALO RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A hydrodynamic and water quality transport study of the Buffalo River has been conducted. sing a two-dimensional (laterally averaged) model and incorporating appropriate specification of boundary conditions, we simulated the transport of river water temperature and conductivity f...

  16. Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University at Buffalo

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University at Buffalo S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f N e w Y o r k MAE Seminar Series Nanoengineered Surfaces for Efficiency Enhancements in Energy and Water Energy, Water, Agriculture, Transportation, Electronics Cooling, Buildings, etc. Over the years

  17. 33 CFR 3.45-10 - Sector Buffalo Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01...2014-07-01 false Sector Buffalo Marine Inspection...office is located in Buffalo, NY. The boundaries of Sector Buffalo's Marine Inspection...include all navigable waters of the United States and contiguous...

  18. 33 CFR 3.45-10 - Sector Buffalo Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01...2010-07-01 false Sector Buffalo Marine Inspection...office is located in Buffalo, NY. The boundaries of Sector Buffalo's Marine Inspection...include all navigable waters of the United States and contiguous...

  19. 33 CFR 3.45-10 - Sector Buffalo Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01...2013-07-01 false Sector Buffalo Marine Inspection...office is located in Buffalo, NY. The boundaries of Sector Buffalo's Marine Inspection...include all navigable waters of the United States and contiguous...

  20. 33 CFR 3.45-10 - Sector Buffalo Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01...2011-07-01 false Sector Buffalo Marine Inspection...office is located in Buffalo, NY. The boundaries of Sector Buffalo's Marine Inspection...include all navigable waters of the United States and contiguous...

  1. 33 CFR 3.45-10 - Sector Buffalo Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01...2012-07-01 false Sector Buffalo Marine Inspection...office is located in Buffalo, NY. The boundaries of Sector Buffalo's Marine Inspection...include all navigable waters of the United States and contiguous...

  2. Anti-fecundity immunity to Schistosoma japonicum induced in Chinese water buffaloes ( Bos buffelus) after vaccination with recombinant 26 kDa glutathione- S-transferase (reSjc26GST)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liu Shuxian; He Yongkang; Song Guangchen; Luo Xing-song; Xu Yuxin; Donald P. McManus

    1997-01-01

    We have shown previously that immunisation of mice and pigs with recombinant 26 kDa GST (reSjc26GST) induces a pronounced anti-fecundity effect after experimental infection with Chinese Schistosoma japonicum. We report here that anti-fecundity immunity can also be induced against reSjc26GST in Chinese water buffaloes (Bos buffelus), important reservoir hosts for S. japonicum in China. Anti-Sjc26GST antibodies were produced in immunised

  3. In a buffalo shed

    E-print Network

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2004-08-26

    Sitting in a buffalo shed under a village house, Alan Macfarlane reflects on the origins of settled agriculture and the role of animals and technology. He also considers some of the effects of growing wealth on equality and work....

  4. Student Advising Services University at Buffalo

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    Student Advising Services University at Buffalo 109 Norton Hall Buffalo, NY 14260 Email: vpue-fif@buffalo.edu Phone: 716-645-6013 Website : http://advising.buffalo.edu/fif/ My Checklist for Staying on Track (approximately 30 credit hours) #12;Student Advising Services University at Buffalo 109 Norton Hall Buffalo, NY

  5. Effects of In Vitro Zinc Sulphate Additive to The Semen Extender on Water Buffalo (Bubalusbubalis) Spermatozoa before and after Freezing

    PubMed Central

    Dorostkar, Kamran; Alavi Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Khaki, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of in vitro zinc sulphate additive to semen extender on sperm parameters (progressive motility, viability, membrane integrity and DNA stability) after cryopreservation. Materials and Methods In this Prospective longitudinal laboratory study, semen samples of 5 buffalo bulls of 3-5 years old were collected at 5 different occasions from Iran, Urmia during summer and autumn 2011, 25 samples were used in each treatment. Sperm progressive motility, viability and abnormal morphology were measured before and at 0.5 (T0), 1(T1) and 2(T2) hours after diluting semen(1:10 v/v) in Tris-citric acid based extender (without egg yolk and glycerol) at 37?C containing none (control group), 0.072, 0.144, 0.288, 0.576 and 1.152 mg/L zinc sulphate to investigate dose and time effects. Next, a Tris-citric acid-egg yolk-glycerol extender (20% egg yolk and 7% glycerol) containing the same amount of zinc sulphate was prepared, diluted semen (1:10 v/v) was cooled and kept into a refrigerated chamber (4?C) for 4 hours to equilibrate. Sperm progressive motility, viability, abnormal morphology, membrane integrity and DNA damage were estimated.The equilibrated semen was loaded in 0.5 ml French straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Later, the frozen semen was thawed and the same parameters as well as total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the frozen-thawed semen were determined. Results The results showed that zinc sulphate additive at the rate of 0.288 mg/L gave a higher protection of sperm progressive motility (53.7 ± 1.8% vs. 40.5 ± 1.7%), viability (70.8 ± 1.8% vs. 60.1 ± 1.5%), membrane integrity (67.3 ± 1.6% vs. 56.6 ± 1.7%), DNA stability (10.1 ± 0.47% vs. 11.8 ± 0.33% damaged DNA) through the process of dilution, equilibration and freeze-thawing and caused a higher TAC level (81 ± 3.3% vs. 63 ± 3.2 µmol/L) after freez-thawing compared to the control group. Adding 0.576 and 1.152 mg/L zinc sulphate, however, was deleterious to the sperm and significantly reduced the studied sperm parameters. Conclusion Adding 0.288 mg/L zinc sulphate to the extender, compared to the control group, gives a better sperm preservation upon freezing processes which in turn, may results in higher semen fertility. But, addition of higher zinc sulphate concentrations (0.576 and 1.152 mg/L) are detrimental to buffalo spermatozoa. PMID:25379162

  6. 33 CFR 165.911 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01...Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. 165.911 ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Location...Plants. The navigable waters of Lake Ontario bounded by the...

  7. 33 CFR 165.911 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01...Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. 165.911 ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Location...Plants. The navigable waters of Lake Ontario bounded by the...

  8. 33 CFR 165.911 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01...Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. 165.911 ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Location...Plants. The navigable waters of Lake Ontario bounded by the...

  9. 33 CFR 165.911 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01...Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. 165.911 ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Location...Plants. The navigable waters of Lake Ontario bounded by the...

  10. 33 CFR 165.911 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01...Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. 165.911 ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Location...Plants. The navigable waters of Lake Ontario bounded by the...

  11. BUFFALO-NIAGARA INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT

    E-print Network

    Reineck, James

    BUFFALO-NIAGARA INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT MICHIGANST. GOODELL ST. WINSPEAR AV KENMORE AV CAMPUS CANADA CITY LIMITS OF BUFFALO VILLAGE OF KENMORE TOWN LIMITS OF AMHERST TOWN OF CHEEKTOWAGA TOWN. SWEETHOMERD. MAPLE RD. N FOREST RD. 90 290 33 62 263 5 5 DOWNTOWN CAMPUS DOWNTOWN BUFFALO TO LOCKPORT

  12. In vitro production of cattlexbuffalo hybrid embryos using cattle oocytes and African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) epididymal sperm.

    PubMed

    Owiny, O D; Barry, D M; Agaba, M; Godke, R A

    2009-04-01

    Interspecies hybridization of bovids occurs between domestic cattle and at least three other species; American bison (Bison bison), yak (Bos grunniens) and banteng (Bos banteng). Birth of a cattlexbuffalo (Bubalus bubalis) hybrid has reportedly occurred in Russia and in China, but these reports were not authenticated. Such hybrids could be important in improving livestock production and management of diseases that impede production in tropical Africa. This study investigated hybridization between cattle and its closest African wild bovid relative, the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer). In an attempt to produce cattlexbuffalo hybrid embryos in vitro, matured cattle oocytes were subjected to a standard in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure with either homologous cattle (n=1166 oocytes) or heterologous African buffalo (n=1202 oocytes) frozen-thawed epididymal sperm. After IVF, 67.2% of the oocytes inseminated with the homologous cattle sperm cleaved. In contrast, fertilization with buffalo sperm resulted in only a 4.6% cleavage rate. The cleavage intervals were also slower in hybrid embryos than in the IVF-derived cattle embryos. Of the cleaved homologous cattle embryos 52.2% progressed to the morula stage compared with 12.7% for the buffalo hybrid embryos. No hybrid embryos developed beyond the early morula stage, while 40.1% of the cleaved cattlexcattle embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Transfer of buffalo hybrid IVF embryos to domestic cattle surrogates resulted in no pregnancies at 60 days post-transfer. This study indicates that interspecies fertilization of cattle oocytes with African buffalo epididymal sperm can occur in vitro, and that a barrier to hybridization occurs in the early stages of embryonic development. Chromosomal disparity is likely the cause of the fertilization abnormalities, abnormal development and subsequent arrest impairing the formation of hybrid embryos beyond the early morula stage. Transfer of the buffalo hybrid embryos did not rescue the embryos from development arrest. PMID:19118889

  13. Buffalo Bill Historical Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As a member of the Museums West consortium, the Buffalo Bill Historical Center is itself comprised of five separate museums, including the Buffalo Bill Museum, the Plains Indian Museum, and the Cody Firearms Museum. For those who may not be able to make it to their location in northeastern Wyoming, there are a number of online features that will provide as a suitable substitute for the actual experience of being there. Visitors can feel free to browse the online guide to their research library, and they will most certainly want to look at some of the online exhibits. Some of these online exhibits include features on Buffalo Bill himself, and others (such as those within the Cody Firearms Museum section) feature information on Winchester collectibles and firearms-related sayings.

  14. Buffalo Museum of Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    If you are heading to Buffalo, you might want to pay a visit to the Buffalo Museum of Science. This website is a great way to learn about the physical museum, including ongoing education programs, research facilities, and various digital collections. In the Exhibits area visitors can explore 12 different ongoing and temporary exhibits, including highlighted exhibits on nanotechnology and mummies of the world. Moving on, the Publications section of the site includes three decades of past Museum publications, including academic works and fact sheets. Users can also learn about visiting the museum in person, complete with information about special hours and special member days.

  15. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in dairy buffaloes in Lahore District, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nasir, A; Ashraf, M; Khan, M S; Yaqub, T; Javeed, A; Avais, M; Akhtar, F

    2011-06-01

    Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in dairy buffaloes ( Bubalus bubalis ) was assessed in the Lahore District of Punjab Province, Pakistan. The study revealed an overall prevalence of 54.7% for N. caninum antibodies determined through a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay performed on randomly collected serum samples. The highest prevalence was observed in buffaloes >3-5 yr of age (64.1%), followed by 57.9% for 5 to 6 yr olds, and 55.8% in 1-yr-old neonates, with high probability of infection under intensive dairy farming conditions. The pattern of prevalence was closely associated with the season as reflected by the highest prevalence (70.5%) in summer (May-August) and lowest (39.6%) in winter (November-January). Aborting buffaloes illustrated significantly higher (78.9%) exposure compared with non-aborting dams (59.8%). Prevalence in animals with canine contact was significantly higher (60.3%) than without contact (48.1%). This is the first reported prevalence of N. caninum in Pakistan. PMID:21506867

  16. At 1050 Gallery, Block 12, two centrifugal pumps, Buffalo Pumps, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    At 1050 Gallery, Block 12, two centrifugal pumps, Buffalo Pumps, Buffalo, NY, driven by Allis Chalmers motors (size 3 HSO, head 230, 120 cpm, 1750, rpm, Impulse dia. 15) installed in the 1960s and used for water-cooling system for 230-kv cable; the cables have been removed and the pumps are not currently used. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  17. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01...Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. 162.175 ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the...

  18. 77 FR 65011 - Buffalo Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Randall County, TX; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ...continue the CCP process for the Buffalo Lake NWR. We started this process...33693; June 19, 1998). The Buffalo Lake NWR, which consists of...infrastructure. The Aquifer receding due water source, like the to human activity...filters to insure no Ogallala water is used. Lakebed...

  19. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01...Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. 162.175 ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the...

  20. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01...Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. 162.175 ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the...

  1. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01...Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. 162.175 ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the...

  2. Water quality in Reedy Fork and Buffalo Creek basins in the Greensboro area, North Carolina, 1986-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davenport, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Water and bottom-sediment samples were collected from April 1986 through September 1987 at 19 sites in Guilford County and the City of Greensboro, North Carolina. Sampling locations included 13 stream sites, two lakes that supply the City of Greensboro with drinking water, two City of Greensboro finished drinking-water filtration plants, and effluent from the two municipal wastewater plants prior to outfall into receiving streams. Water sampling consisted of six surveys during various stages of steady ground-water flow at all sites and high-flow-event sampling during two storms at six sites. Bottom-sediment samples were collected at three sites during two routine sampling surveys. A summary of nearly 22, 000 separate chemical or physical analyses of water samples or bottom sediment is presented and discussed as individual values, ranges of values, or median values with respect to the locations of sampling sites, streamflow conditions, or other information bearing on water-quality conditions under discussion. The results include discussions of general water-quality indicators; major ion, nutrient, and trace-element concentrations; acid and base/neutral extractable organic compounds; volatile organic compounds; and organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides detected at each sampling site. Loadings of selected constituents are also estimated on a yearly and daily basis. The quality of the raw and finished water, municipal effluents, and streams in the Greensboro area are characterized by using State and Federal water-quality standards. Inorganic constituents most commonly found in excess of standards were iron, copper, zinc, arsenic, phosphorus, manganese, cyanide, and mercury. Relatively few organic compounds were detected; however, those consistently reported were phthalate, thihalomethane, organophosphorus pesticide, benzol, and phenolic compounds. Selected inorganic, physical, and total organic carbon data are used in a Wilcoxon test for two independent variables to statistically compare water-quality characteristics in selected rural, semideveloped and urban basins. During low-flow sampling, the constituents that differed significantly among all sites were calcium, magnesium, and chloride. During low flows, concentrations of orthophosphate, fluoride, sulfate, and TOC differed at the urban site from the rural and semideveloped and urban sites. There were no significant differences among sites in concentrations of sodium, suspended sediment, nickel, zinc, copper, and mercury during low flows. The Wilcoxon test performed on high-flow data indicated that concentrations of TOC, chloride, sulfate, suspended sediment, and nickel were not significantly different among the sites.

  3. The bungalows of Buffalo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Downing; U Flemming

    1981-01-01

    Measured drawings of seven bungalows that were built between 1914 and 1926 in Buffalo, New York, are presented. The paper concentrates on the conventions which govern the organization of spaces in these bungalows and establish linkages with other house types in the popular tradition. The conventions found are expressed through the schemata of a parametric shape grammar which allow differences

  4. 2. Photocopy of photograph (from Buffalo and Erie County Historical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of photograph (from Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society) Photographer unknown 1928 GENERAL VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST - Buffalo Lighthouse, Buffalo Harbor, Buffalo River & Lake Erie, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  5. 1. Photocopy of photograph (from the Buffalo and Erie County ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of photograph (from the Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society) Photographer unknown 1859 GENERAL VIEW FROM THE SOUTHEAST - Buffalo Lighthouse, Buffalo Harbor, Buffalo River & Lake Erie, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  6. Effect of CSN1S1-CSN3 (?(S1)-?-casein) composite genotype on milk production traits and milk coagulation properties in Mediterranean water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, V; Giantin, M; Gervaso, M; Coletta, A; Dacasto, M; Carnier, P

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate effects of CSN1S1-CSN3 (?(S1)-?-casein) composite genotypes on milk production traits and milk coagulation properties (MCP) in Mediterranean water buffalo. Genotypes at CSN1S1 and CSN3 and coagulation properties [rennet clotting time (RCT), curd firming time (K??), and curd firmness (A??)] were assessed by reversed-phase HPLC and computerized renneting meter analysis, respectively, using single test-day milk samples of 536 animals. Alternative protein variants of ?(S1)-CN and ?-CN were detected by HPLC, and identification of the corresponding genetic variants was carried out by DNA analysis. Two genetic variants were detected at CSN1S1 (A and B variants) and 2 at CSN3 (X1 and X2 variants). Statistical inference was based on a linear model including the CSN1S1-CSN3 composite genotype effect (7 genotypes), the effects of herd-test-day (8 levels), and a combined days in milk (DIM)-parity class. Composite genotype AB-X2X2 was associated with decreased test-day milk yield [-0.21 standard deviation (SD) units of the trait] relative to genotype BB-X2X2. Genotypes did not affect milk protein content, but genotype AB-X1X1 was associated with increased fat content compared with genotype BB-X2X2 (+0.28 SD units of the trait) and AB-X1X1 (+0.43 SD units of the trait). For RCT, the largest difference (+1.91 min; i.e., 0.61 SD units of the trait) was observed between genotype AA-X1X2 and AB-X1X1. Direction of genotype effects on K(20) was consistent with that for RCT. The maximum variation in K?? due to genotype effects (between AA-X1X2 and AB-X1X1 genotypes) was almost 0.9 SD units of the trait. Magnitude of genotype effects was smaller for A?? than for RCT and K??, with a maximum difference of 0.5 SD units of the trait between genotype AA-X1X2 and AA-X1X1. The B allele at CSN1S1 was associated with increased RCT and K?? and with weaker curds compared with allele A. Allele X2 at CSN3 exerted opposite effects on MCP relative to CSN1S1 B. Because of linkage disequilibrium, allele B at CSN1S1 and allele X2 at CSN3 tend to be associated and this likely makes their effects cancel each other. This study indicates a role for casein genes in variation of MCP of buffalo milk. Further studies are necessary to estimate the effects of casein genetic variants on variation of cheese yield. PMID:22612978

  7. The fishes of Buffalo National River, Arkansas, 2001-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James C.; Justus, B.G.

    2005-01-01

    During June through September 2001 and 2002, extensive fish community sampling was conducted at 29 sites within the boundaries of Buffalo National River. Samples were collected using backpack, tote barge, and boat electrofishing equipment. Kick seining also was used at all sites. To supplement these results, samples were collected in 2003 from less typical habitats and during other seasons of the year. Ten supplemental samples were collected from the Buffalo River and five samples were collected from tributaries of the Buffalo River. During the 3 years of sampling, 66 species of fish were collected or observed from the 42 sampling sites. Stonerollers, duskystripe shiners, longear sunfish, and rainbow darters were among the more abundant fish species at most sites. Each of these species is common and abundant throughout much of the Ozark Plateaus in creeks and small rivers. Other species (for example, banded sculpin, southern redbelly dace, orangethroat darter, and Ozark minnow) were among the more abundant species at other sites. These species prefer small- to medium-sized, springfed streams or small creeks. A preliminary list of species expected to occur at Buffalo National River provided by the National Park Service incorrectly listed 47 species because of incorrect species range or habitat requirements. Upon revising this list, the inventory yielded 66 of the 78 species (85 percent). Twelve additional species not collected in 2001-2003 may occur at Buffalo National River for two primary reasons--because the species had been collected previously at the park, or because the park occurs within the known species range and habitats found at the park are suitable for the species. Although no fish species collected from Buffalo National River are federally-listed threatened or endangered species, several species collected at Buffalo National River may be of special interest to National Park Service managers and others. Ten species are endemic to the Ozark Plateaus area and most of these ten are restricted to the White River Basin. For some species the Buffalo River is a population stronghold. The yoke darter and Ozark bass are especially abundant in the Buffalo River. In Arkansas, the Ozark shiner is most abundant in the Buffalo River and, although populations of Ozark shiners are declining in Arkansas, this is not typically the case in the Buffalo River. Data from 2001-2003 indicate that gilt darters currently (2005) are less common in the Buffalo River than during the 1970's. Populations of channel catfish (and any other fish species whose movements are inhibited by the cold water temperatures of the White River) may continue to decline without remedial efforts.

  8. Expression and antigenic characterization of bubaline herpesvirus 1 (BuHV1) glycoprotein E and its potential application in the epidemiology and control of alphaherpesvirus infections in Mediterranean water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Nogarol, C; Bertolotti, L; De Carlo, E; Masoero, L; Caruso, C; Profiti, M; Martucciello, A; Galiero, G; Cordioli, P; Lelli, D; Nardelli, S; Ingravalle, F; Rosati, S

    2014-10-01

    Bubaline herpesvirus 1 (BuHV1) is a member of ruminant alphaherpesviruses antigenically related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV1). The impact of BuHV1 infection in infectious bovine rhinotracheitis control program is difficult to establish, due to the lack of specific diagnostic test. The ectodomain of glycoprotein E of BuHV1 was expressed as recombinant secreted protein and used in indirect ELISA as well as in a discriminatory test using the BoHV1 counterpart. A panel of monoclonal antibodies was produced against BuHV1; 6 out of 7 anti-gE monoclonal antibodies specifically recognized the BuHV1 gE. Results indicated BuHV1 gE as a sensitive marker of infection compared to seroneutralization (SN) test or blocking ELISA. When BoHV1 and BuHV1 gEs were immobilized in different wells of the same ELISA microplate, bovine and water buffalo sera were more reactive against the respective infecting virus. About one third of seropositive buffaloes with no history of contact with cattle and having higher SN titres, reacted in BoHV1 gE blocking ELISA, possibly because of steric hindrance. Since in two occasions BuHV1 was also isolated from water buffalo scoring gB+/gE+ BoHV1 blocking ELISA, we conclude that the combination of the two blocking ELISAs is not suitable to differentiate between BoHV1 and BuHV1. PMID:24992670

  9. 33 CFR 165.939 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01...the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. 165.939 ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Safety...Location. All U.S. waters of the Saint Lawrence...

  10. 33 CFR 165.939 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01...the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. 165.939 ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Safety...i) Location. All waters of the St. Lawrence...

  11. 33 CFR 165.939 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01...the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. 165.939 ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Safety...i) Location. All waters of the St. Lawrence...

  12. 33 CFR 165.939 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01...the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. 165.939 ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Safety...Location. All U.S. waters of the Saint Lawrence...

  13. 33 CFR 165.939 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01...the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. 165.939 ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Safety...i) Location. All waters of the St. Lawrence...

  14. Short communication: Prevalence and risk factors of subclinical mastitis as determined by the California Mastitis Test in water buffaloes (Bubalis bubalis) in Nueva Ecija, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Salvador, R T; Beltran, J M C; Abes, N S; Gutierrez, C A; Mingala, C N

    2012-03-01

    A retrospective analysis using records of lactating Bulgarian Murrah buffaloes subjected to the California Mastitis Test in a herd in Nueva Ecija, Philippines was done to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) and to identify risk factors that may influence its occurrence and recurrence. Results showed that SCM prevalence was 42.76%, whereas its recurrence was 75.03%. Age and lactation length influenced the occurrence of SCM. In contrast to the conclusions for dairy cows, younger buffalo cows were more susceptible compared with those at least 6 yr old. Dams younger than 3 yr have a 76% probability, whereas those age 3 yr have an 82% probability of having SCM. PMID:22365218

  15. PUZZLING POWERS: THE PROBLEM OF FIT NEIL E. WILLIAMS (University at Buffalo)

    E-print Network

    Williams, Neil E.

    PUZZLING POWERS: THE PROBLEM OF FIT NEIL E. WILLIAMS (University at Buffalo) in The Metaphysics' for one another. If the salt is to manifest its solubility in the water, the water must likewise manifest

  16. Evaluation of whole fresh blood and dried blood on filter paper discs in serological tests for Trypanosoma evansi in experimentally infected water buffaloes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. G. Holland; N. G. Thanh; L. N. My; E. Magnus; D. Verloo; P. Büscher; B. Goddeeris; J. Vercruysse

    2002-01-01

    In this study we investigated if whole blood could substitute for serum in the direct card agglutination test (CATT\\/Trypansosoma evansi) and the indirect card agglutination test (LATEX\\/T. evansi) for the sero-diagnosis of T. evansi in buffaloes. Likewise blood spots on filter paper were compared with sera for use in the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay\\/T. evansi (ELISA) and immunotrypanolysis test (T.L.\\/T.

  17. Technical and economical feasibility of buffalo gourd as a novel energy crop: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, B.

    1988-02-01

    The New Mexico Solar Energy Institute at NMSU has conducted a two-year investigation into the technical and economic feasibility of using the buffalo gourd plant as an energy feedstock in eastern New Mexico. The New Mexico buffalo gourd project conducted field planting trials to determine optimum planting density, fertilizer levels, and irrigation regime. Starchy roots produced by the field plantings were evaluated as an ethanol feedstock at both laboratory and pilot scale. These studies indicate that buffalo gourd is well suited for root production in eastern New Mexico. Current cultivars of buffalo gourd can be most efficiently produced under dry land farming conditions with little, if any, supplemental fertilizer. Traditional plant breeding techniques can be profitably employed on the buffalo gourd to breed a size and shape of root more easily harvested by existing farm machinery. Because of its sensitivity to root rot, buffalo gourd must be grown in well drained soils. Finally, buffalo gourd has been shown to be an excellent feedstock for ethanol production provided necessary pre-fermentation processing (chopping of roots) is performed correctly. A model was created to determine the economic feasibility of growing buffalo gourd in eastern New Mexico. It was determined that the net return to a farmer in eastern New Mexico can be higher planting buffalo gourd than many traditionally grown crops because of buffalo gourd's low water and fertilizer requirements. The model further indicates that net return is heavily influenced by root yield. Continued research is needed to optimize buffalo gourd root yield, as well as root size and shape, disease resistance, etc. A clearly defined R and D agenda and commercialization strategy is presented and discussed. Buffalo gourd has been demonstrated to have high potential as an alternative feedstock for ethanol production in eastern New Mexico. 128 refs., 9 figs., 28 tabs.

  18. University at Buffalo Empire Innovation Program Initiative

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    University at Buffalo Empire Innovation Program Initiative The University at Buffalo (UB), as part of the UB2020 process: Bioinformatics and Life Sciences (http://www.bioinformatics.buffalo.edu/) Molecular Recognition in Biological Systems. (http://www.buffalo.edu/ub2020/academic

  19. Comparative expression profiling of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 in milk of Bos indicus and Bubalus bubalis during lactation.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, S K; Singh, S; Kumar, S; Dang, A K; Datta, T K; Das, S K; Mohanty, T K; Kaushik, J K; Mohanty, A K

    2015-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) is a key molecule in mammary gland development, which facilitates the removal of mammary epithelial cells (MECs) by apoptosis that takes place during remodeling of the mammary gland during involution. IGFBP-5 binds with IGFs for their bioavailability. IGFBP-5 has been reported to perform pleiotropic roles such as cellular apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. To understand the role of IGFBP-5 during lactation and clinical mastitis, expression profiling of IGFBP-5 at the protein level was performed in both indigenous cows (Bos indicus) and buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) belonging to two different breeds - Sahiwal cows and Murrah buffaloes. Reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) of IGFBP-5 mRNA confirmed its expression in milk somatic cells and MECs of Sahiwal cows. ELISA was performed for quantitative measurement of IGFBP-5 concentrations in milk during different days (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300) of lactation, during the involution period and in animals exhibiting short lactation and clinical mastitis. The highest concentration of IGFBP-5 in milk was observed during the involution period followed by colostrum, late and early lactation, respectively, in both cattle and buffaloes. No significant difference in the concentration of IGFBP-5 was observed during the first 150 days of lactation between cows and buffaloes. However, higher concentration of IGFBP-5 was observed in cows during late lactation (200 to 300 days) in comparison with buffaloes. To validate the ELISA data, quantitative real-time PCR was performed in MECs of Sahiwal cows. The relative mRNA abundance of IGFBP-5 was found to be significantly (P<0.05) higher on day 15 than between 50 and 150 days of lactation in case of Sahiwal cows. Highest mRNA expression of IGFBP-5 was observed around 300 days of lactation followed by 200 and 250 days (P<0.05), respectively. Murrah buffaloes showed low levels of IGFBP-5 protein in milk as compared with Sahiwal cows during lactation in ELISA. Animals having history of short lactation length (short lactating animals) showed higher levels of IGFBP-5 expression (at protein level) in comparison with normal lactating animals. We propose that higher level IGFBP-5 expression may have functional significance in lactation persistency. As a pro-apoptotic molecule, higher expression of IGFBP-5 was observed to be inversely related to lactation length and milk production. PMID:25491373

  20. Where the Buffalo Roam

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Children's Museum of Indianapolis

    2014-05-28

    In this activity, learners explore the Great Plains. They use a large outline map (see related activity "If I Lived in a Forest") to trace the location of the Plains region and examine the types of natural resources available. They play "Name of the Game" as they learn about the importance of the buffalo and other animals to Native Americans of the Plains. This activity is featured on p.21-23 of the "One With the Earth: Native Americans and the Natural World" multidisciplinary unit of study for kindergarten through third grade.

  1. Ruminal fermentation and microbial ecology of buffaloes and cattle fed the same diet.

    PubMed

    Lwin, Khin-Ohnmar; Kondo, Makoto; Ban-Tokuda, Tomomi; Lapitan, Rosalina M; Del-Barrio, Arnel N; Fujihara, Tsutomu; Matsui, Hiroki

    2012-12-01

    Although buffaloes and cattle are ruminants, their digestive capabilities and rumen microbial compositions are considered to be different. The purpose of this study was to compare the rumen microbial ecology of crossbred water buffaloes and cattle that were fed the same diet. Cattle exhibited a higher fermentation rate than buffaloes. Methane production and methanogen density were lower in buffaloes. Phylogenetic analysis of Fibrobacter succinogenes-specific 16S ribosomal RNA gene clone library showed that the diversity of groups within a species was significantly different (P < 0.05) between buffalo and cattle and most of the clones were affiliated with group 2 of the species. Population densities of F.succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus and R. flavefaciens were higher until 6 h post-feeding in cattle; however, buffaloes exhibited different traits. The population of anaerobic fungi decreased at 3 h in cattle compared to buffaloes and was similar at 0 h and 6 h. The diversity profiles of bacteria and fungi were similar in the two species. The present study showed that the profiles of the fermentation process, microbial population and diversity were similar in crossbred water buffaloes and crossbred cattle. PMID:23216542

  2. Populations of domesticated cattle and buffalo in the Western Forest Complex of Thailand and their possible impacts on the wildlife community.

    PubMed

    Chaiyarat, Rattanawat; Srikosamatara, Sompod

    2009-03-01

    The Western Forest Complex (WEFCOM) of Thailand is comprised of many protected areas and has one of the highest wildlife populations in the country. Populations of wildlife in the WEFCOM have decreased dramatically over recent years. Rapid economic development has resulted in the conversion of forest into agricultural and pastoral land, which has directly and indirectly impacted the wildlife community. This research aimed to evaluate populations of domesticated cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in the WEFCOM and their possible impacts on the wildlife community. Domesticated cattle and buffalo keepers from 1561 (or 3.3%) of houses in and near WEFCOM were interviewed. The average number of animals per household was 15.6 cattle and 8.5 buffalo. Most villagers released domesticated cattle and buffalo to forage in the protected areas. This tended to have a high impact on the wildlife community in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary and Tungyai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary. The least impacted areas were Luam Khlong Ngu National Park, Thong Pha Phum National Park and Chaleam Ratanakosin National Park. With a high risk to the wildlife community, law enforcement should be used in combination with a certain level of co-management with local communities. PMID:19036494

  3. 33 CFR 110.84 - Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01...opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84 Section... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. An area...

  4. 33 CFR 110.84 - Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01...opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84 Section... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. An area...

  5. 33 CFR 110.84 - Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01...opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84 Section... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. An area...

  6. 33 CFR 110.84 - Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01...opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84 Section... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. An area...

  7. Seismic expression of Buffalo deep fault, Buffalo, Wyoming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. N. Hinrichs; J. A. Grow; J. J. Miller; M. W. Lee

    1986-01-01

    A concealed, west-dipping, high-angle reverse fault, one of a pair first reported by N.H. Foster, P.E. Goodwin, and R.E. Fisher in 1969, has been interpreted from seismic profiles in the area south and west of Buffalo, Wyoming. The fault, named the Buffalo deep fault (BDF) by D.L. Blackstone, Jr., in 1981, trends generally north-northwest and dips westward along the deepest

  8. UPPER BUFFALO WILDERNESS AND BUFFALO ADDITION ROADLESS AREA, ARKANSAS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mary H.; Armstrong, Michelle K.

    1984-01-01

    The Upper Buffalo Wilderness and Buffalo Addition Roadless Area covers about 19 sq mi in the Ozark National Forest, Newton County, Arkansas. No metal-bearing minerals were observed during geologic mapping, and analyses for zinc and lead contents in surface rock and sediment samples from the study area are not anomalous. Exploratory drilling into the Boone Formation and (or) the Everton Formation will be necessary to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of zinc and lead in the study area.

  9. Evaluation of neutron exposure conditions for the Buffalo Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lippincott, E.P.; Kellogg, L.S.; McElroy, W.N.; Baldwin, C.A.

    1984-04-01

    The light water test reactor at the Nuclear Science and Technology Facility of the State University of New York at Buffalo is currently being used to irradiate specimens in in-core positions for NRC-sponsored metallurgical tests. It is important that the neutron exposures for these Buffalo tests be consistent with those determined for related irradiations in the BSR and ORR reactor at ORNL. Therefore, HEDL National Reactor Dosimetry Center dosimetry procedures and ORNL calculational procedures were used for an evaluation of typical test conditions.

  10. Page 2 of 3 STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK AT BUFFALO

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    Page 2 of 3 STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK AT BUFFALO COMPARATIVE MEDICINE AND LABORATORY ANIMAL of animal. b Look for clues in the environment such as blood, diarrhea, vomit, uneaten food or empty water

  11. 78 FR 41846 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ...in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. This action is necessary and intended for the safety of life and property on navigable waters during this event. During each enforcement period, no person or vessel may enter the respective safety...

  12. Comparison of CNVs in Buffalo with other species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a read-depth (RD) and a hybrid read-pair, split-read (RAPTR-SV) CNV detection method, we identified over 1425 unique CNVs in 14 Water Buffalo individual compared to the cattle genome sequence. Total variable sequence of the CNV regions (CNVR) from the RD method approached 59 megabases (~ 2% of...

  13. Comparative studies confirm natural infections of buffaloes by Sarcocystis cruzi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controversy exists concerning whether cattle and water buffalo sustain infections with cysts distinct arrays species in the genus Sarcocystis. In particular, morphologically similar parasites have been alternately ascribed to S. cruzi or to S. levinei, depending on their occurrence in cattle and wa...

  14. Buffalo News -Buffalo seen as possible link with supercomputer network Subscribe Today -2 weeks FREE

    E-print Network

    Miller, Russ

    Buffalo News - Buffalo seen as possible link with supercomputer network Subscribe Today - 2 weeks FREE GO TO BUFFALO.COM Monday, November 8, 2004 Partly cloudy 42°F / 6°C more weather>> Business Today popular stories More by this author Buffalo seen as possible link with supercomputer network By FRED O

  15. Buffalo river dredging demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Averett, D.E.; Zappi, P.A.; Tatem, H.E.; Gibson, A.C.; Tominey, E.A.

    1996-02-01

    The Corps of Engineers Buffalo District conducted a demonstration of equipment for dredging contaminated sediments. Several thousand cubic yards of sediment were removed from outside the Buffalo River Federal navigation channel limits using three dredge types: (1) open bucket, (2) enclosed bucket, and (3) submersible pump. The effectiveness of a silt screen deployed downstream of the dredge to reduce suspended sediment transport was also evaluated. Extensive sediment and water column monitoring and sampling were conducted during the 2-week demonstration as part of the effort to determine sediment resuspension rates and contaminant releases associated with the dredging operations. Water column samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, total organic carbon, PCBs, PAHs, metals, ammonia, and pH. A water column bioassay test using Daphnia magna was also performed to assess toxicity effects of the dredging operation. Results of this study were used to assess and refine techniques and laboratory tests that have been previously developed by the Corps of Engineers to predict sediment resuspension rates and contaminant releases. In another phase of the study, the Bureau of Mines demonstrated the use of polyelectrolytes for rapid removal of suspended solids from a dilute dredged material slurry.

  16. Technical and economical feasibility of buffalo gourd as a novel energy crop. Final report, 14 November 1983-31 December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, B.

    1988-02-01

    The New Mexico Solar Energy Institute has conducted a two-year investigation into the technical and economic feasibility of using the buffalo gourd plant as an energy feedstock in eastern New Mexico. The studies indicate that buffalo gourd is well suited for root production in eastern NM. Buffalo gourd has been shown to be an excellent feedstock for ethanol production provided necessary pre-fermentation processing (chopping of roots) is performed correctly. A model was created to determine the economic feasibility of growing buffalo gourd in eastern NM. It was determined that the net return to a farmer in eastern NM can be higher planting buffalo gourd than many traditionally grown crops because of buffalo gourd's low water and fertilizer requirements. A clearly defined RandD agenda and commercialization strategy is presented and discussed. Buffalo gourd has been demonstrated to have high potential as an alternative feedstock for ethanol production in eastern NM.

  17. Improving smallholder food security through investigations of carcass composition and beef marketing of buffalo and cattle in northern Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Nampanya, Sonevilay; Khounsy, Syseng; Phonvisay, Aloun; Bush, Russell David; Windsor, Peter Andrew

    2015-04-01

    This study determined the carcass composition of Lao indigenous buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos indicus), then examined trends in bovine meat marketing following review of records of beef production and prices in the two major cities of Luang Prabang (LPB) and Xieng Khoung (XK) provinces in northern Laos. Samples from 41 buffalo and 81 cattle (n?=?122) were collected from animals slaughtered in May-June 2014, with live weights, carcass weights and other carcass-related variables collected. The animals were classified into four age cohort groups (<2, 2-<4, 4-6 and >6 years) with quantitative and dichotomous qualitative traits determined. There were significant differences in buffalo and cattle predicted mean carcass weights between age classification categories (p?=?0.003 and 0.001) but not in dressing percentages (p?=?0.1 and 0.1). The carcass weight of buffalo was 104 (±23.1)-176 (±12.0)?kg compared to 65 (±8.7)-84 (±6.5)?kg of cattle, with dressing percentages of 37-40 and 39-42 %, respectively. Despite an average bovine meat price increase of 42-48 % between 2011 and 2013, there was a reduction in the numbers of large ruminants slaughtered in the surveyed cities of LPB (11 %) and XK (7 %), with bovine meat availability per person of 5.2-6.6 kg (LPB) and 3.0-3.8 kg (XK). Improving the sustainability of the bovine meat supply in Laos requires a systems approach involving improvements to animal health and production, livestock marketing, plus the critical development of improved slaughterhouse facilities enabling a meat-processing sector to emerge. This development pathway is of particular importance for building the capacity of Laos to reduce food insecurity and alleviate the poverty of its largely rural smallholder community. PMID:25700673

  18. Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University at Buffalo

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University at Buffalo S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f N e w at Buffalo Abstract: The goal of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery is to restore normal at the State University of New York at Buffalo. He graduated from Syracuse University with a Ph.D. (2008), M

  19. Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University at Buffalo

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University at Buffalo S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f N e w Engineering Nancy Schiller Engineering Librarian UB University Libraries schiller@buffalo.edu Abstract at Buffalo Libraries with a particular emphasis on the availability and use of electronic research databases

  20. UNIVERSITY AT BUFFALO OFFICE OF ADMISSIONS

    E-print Network

    Sachs, Frederick

    1 of 3 UNIVERSITY AT BUFFALO OFFICE OF ADMISSIONS 12 CAPEN HALL RE-ENTRY APPLICATION or University at Buffalo UB person number ___________________________________ Spring 20________ Fall 20 at the University at Buffalo? Y______ N______ Are you currently enrolled? Yes ______ No ______ Were you previously

  1. New method for the simultaneous identification of cow, sheep, goat, and water buffalo in dairy products by analysis of short species-specific mitochondrial DNA targets.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Joana; Pereira, Filipe; Amorim, António; van Asch, Barbara

    2012-10-24

    A novel method is presented here as an analytical tool for food control and authentication of dairy products manufactured from the milk of cow, sheep, goat, and buffalo. The method is based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of species-specific mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) targets followed by fragment size analysis by capillary electrophoresis. The method includes (a) simultaneous detection of four species, (b) internal control for DNA extraction and PCR, (c) mtDNA as a target for PCR, (d) amplicons of <200 bp, and (e) flexibility in the electrophoresis and fragment size detection method. Species identification proved to be straightforward, efficient, sensitive, and robust. The method is sensitive to an at least 1% (v/v) relative proportion of milk in binary mixtures. A survey of commercial products showed that 12.5% failed to conform to the description of the contents, by either the introduction or absence of listed species, thus demonstrating the relevance of this type of testing. PMID:23025240

  2. Return form to: Office of Student Accounts University at Buffalo

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    Return form to: Office of Student Accounts University at Buffalo 232 Capen Hall Buffalo, NY 14260 Phone: 716-645-1800 Fax: 716-645-7760 Email: UBstudentaccounts@buffalo.edu Last Updated: 7/2012 Request of Student Accounts University at Buffalo 232 Capen Hall Buffalo, NY 14260 Phone: 716-645-1800 Fax: 716

  3. http://www.cubs.buffalo.edu Feature Selection

    E-print Network

    Govindaraju, Venu

    http://www.cubs.buffalo.edu Feature Selection Scatter matrices, Fisher's discriminant, Principal Component Analysis. #12;http://www.cubs.buffalo.edu Feature extraction ­ Structural #12;http://www.cubs.buffalo.edu Feature extraction ­ Structural #12;http://www.cubs.buffalo.edu Feature extraction ­ Texture #12;http://www.cubs.buffalo

  4. Relationship between cellular and whey components in buffalo milk.

    PubMed

    Piccinini, Renata; Miarelli, Maria; Ferri, Barbara; Tripaldi, Carmela; Belotti, Michela; Daprà, Valentina; Orlandini, Silvia; Zecconi, Alfonso

    2006-05-01

    High somatic cell count (SCC) affects milk quality and cheesemaking, resulting in a reduction in cheese yield and quality. In dairy cows, quarter milk samples with > 200,000 cells/ml are considered to have subclinical mastitis, while there is much uncertainty on the corresponding levels of SCC in buffalo milk. In this study 30 lactating water buffaloes were selected and SCC, differential somatic cell counts and several whey components were tested in quarter milk samples to assess the relationship between inflammation markers and milk quality. Overall 236 quarter milk samples were considered. To evaluate the relationship between cellular markers (SCC, polymorphonuclear leucocytes, PMN, and N-Acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, NAGase) and other milk components, three classes were defined (low, medium and high). Analysis of milk yield showed a significant reduction in the high class of each of the three markers chosen. Overall, the highest class was characterized by significant changes in milk composition and a lower milk quality. The presence of an inflammatory status of the udder was frequent after the first trimester of lactation and in buffaloes with two or more parturitions. This study showed that significant changes in milk components can be observed when SCC are > 400,000 cells/ml, PMN are > 50% and NAGase is > 100 units. These thresholds could be suggested as levels to define udder health status in buffalo cows. PMID:16476181

  5. Characteristics and Behavior of a Two-Hour Oscillation in the Buffalo River, Buffalo, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, A. S.; Sabato, J. S.; Singer, J.; Manley, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Buffalo River discharges into Lake Erie near the upper end of the Niagara River. The lower 9.2 km of the river has been designated as a Great Lakes Area of Concern due to environmental problems associated with poor water quality, degraded riparian and river habitat, and contaminated sediments. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers maintains a navigational channel at a depth of 6.7 m below mean lake level by periodic dredging. In 2011, extensive dredging took place within the upper portions of the river to remove some of the most contaminated sediments. This dredging resulted in both widening and deepening of the channel. The Buffalo River's gradient is low and current velocities generally are <10 cm/sec. The low flow conditions coupled with the orientation of the river allows Lake Erie waters to enter the Buffalo River reversing its flow. The largest episodic lake-driven flow reversals were found during strong westerly wind events that setup an elevated water level at the eastern (Buffalo) end of the lake. Lower amplitude flow reversals could also be associated with subsequent Lake Erie surface seiches or other phenomena. They also occur during times when no seiche conditions are present. The interaction between river flow and reverse (lake-driven) flow was investigated using Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs), temperature sensors, and water level recorders deployed for the past five years at various locations in the lower 9 km of the river. The collected data record the periodic reversals associated with Lake Erie seiches, but also reveal an oscillation within the river. This 'river seiche' has a period of ~2 hours and occurs continuously, persisting even during high flow events and during times of strong lake-driven flow reversals. To better understand the characteristics and behavior of this 'river oscillation', time-series plots and Fourier power spectra were produced from the ADCP data. These data show that the magnitude of the oscillation is on the order of 5-10 cm s-1. There are three coherent spectral peaks with significant power above the noise. These peaks have periods centered on 1.8, 2.0 and 2.2 hours. Our preliminary conjecture is that the oscillation is similar to a forced resonance in a closed basin.

  6. Hydrogeology of the Buffalo aquifer, Clay and Wilkin Counties, West-Central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Buffalo aquifer is the principal source of ground-water supplies in the Moorhead, Minnesota area. The aquifer is an elongate deposit of sand and gravel, which locally contains water under confined conditions. Although the Buffalo aquifer contains about 270 billion gallons of water in storage, only 120 billion gallons could be withdrawn. Largest well yields occur along the deep trough in the center of the aquifer. Induced streambed infiltration may be possible in certain areas where the stream overlies the aquifer and where the intervening lake sediments are thin or absent. A numerical model constructed for aquifer evaluation has shown that a considerable amount of ground water is discharged through the confining bed to the stream or leaves the area as underflow to the west. Water from the Buffalo aquifer generally is very hard and of the calcium bicarbonate type. The average discharge of the Buffalo River for the base period 1946-78 ranges from 0.229 cubic foot per second per square mile near Hawley to 0.108 cubic foot per second per square mile at Sabin. Surface water in the Buffalo River drainage system is dominantly a calcium bicarbonate type similar to ground water of the area, especially at low flow in the upper reaches of the tributaries. (USGS)

  7. Underway view from starboard side in the Buffalo River with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Underway view from starboard side in the Buffalo River with grain elevators and lift bridge in background. TC - Fireboat EDWARD M. COTTER, Moored on the Buffalo River at 155 Ohio Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  8. University at Buffalo The State University of New York

    E-print Network

    McCombe, Bruce D.

    University at Buffalo The State University of New York Faculty of the University at Buffalo (UB), The State University of New York, invites applications and reference letters must be submitted online at https://www.ubjobs.buffalo

  9. University at Buffalo (SUNY) Department of Industrial Engineering Scheduling Theory

    E-print Network

    Nagi, Rakesh

    University at Buffalo (SUNY) Department of Industrial Engineering IE 661 Scheduling Theory Chapter 1 Rakesh Nagi Department of Industrial Engineering University at Buffalo (SUNY) #12;University at Buffalo (SUNY) Department of Industrial Engineering Chapter 1: Introduction Role of Scheduling Allocation

  10. University at Buffalo (SUNY) Department of Industrial Engineering Scheduling Theory

    E-print Network

    Nagi, Rakesh

    University at Buffalo (SUNY) Department of Industrial Engineering IE 661 Scheduling Theory Chapter 2 Rakesh Nagi Department of Industrial Engineering University at Buffalo (SUNY) #12;University at Buffalo (SUNY) Department of Industrial Engineering Chapter 2: Deterministic Models Preliminaries

  11. Genetic and morphometric characterization of a local Vietnamese swamp buffalo population.

    PubMed

    Berthouly, C; Rognon, X; Nhu Van, T; Berthouly, A; Thanh Hoang, H; Bed'Hom, B; Laloë, D; Vu Chi, C; Verrier, E; Maillard, J-C

    2010-02-01

    The water buffalo plays a key role in the socio-economy of South-East Asia as it is the main draught power for paddy rice cultivation. While in the Indian subcontinent the water buffalo is the riverine type, in South-East Asia the majority of buffaloes are of the swamp type. In the poor remote northern province of Ha Giang in Vietnam, improvement of the swamp buffalo breed may be one of the best ways to increase sustainability of farming systems. Therefore, analysis of the genetic structure of the province buffalo population is a prerequisite to any conservation or improvement project. A total of 1122 animals were described for 11 body and horn measurements for morphometric characterization. From this sample set, 744 animals were genotyped for 17 microsatellite markers. Also 17 animals from southern provinces of Vietnam were genotyped as a comparative sample. The results showed that genetic diversity as well as inbreeding value in the Ha Giang was high. The F(ST) values within the province and across Vietnam were low indicating that most of the population variation is explained by individual variability. Bayesian clustering analysis did not highlight the presence of subdivided populations. These results are useful for the implementation of a conservation and improvement strategy of the swamp buffalo in order to guarantee the householders' needs for sustainability of the farming system in the Ha Giang province. PMID:20074189

  12. DIVISION OF COMPARATIVE MEDICINE AND LABORATORY ANIMAL FACILITIES OF SUNY AT BUFFALO

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    DIVISION OF COMPARATIVE MEDICINE AND LABORATORY ANIMAL FACILITIES OF SUNY AT BUFFALO STANDARD water bottles or automatic watering is provided for mice depending on the room, equipment available on changing day. D. Clean water bottles are changed weekly and refilled when necessary. E. Racks are sanitized

  13. DIVISION OF COMPARATIVE MEDICINE AND LABORATORY ANIMAL FACILITIES OF SUNY AT BUFFALO

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    DIVISION OF COMPARATIVE MEDICINE AND LABORATORY ANIMAL FACILITIES OF SUNY AT BUFFALO STANDARD applies to all animal caretakers working with mice. 3.0 Procedure 3.1 Equipment /Supplies A. Water ­ glass or plastic water bottle fitted with stoppers and stainless sipper tubes filled with tap water and autoclaved

  14. Buffalo Bill Letters to George T. Beck

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    Created as part of the larger Rocky Mountain Online Archive, this collection contains a clutch of letters written by William F. "Buffalo Bill" Cody to one George T. Beck. Beck was a Wyoming sheep rancher, oil land developer, and the last president of the Council of the Territory of Wyoming before it became a state in 1890. He was also trained as a mining engineer and was president of the Shoshone Irrigation Company. Most of the letters here concern Cody's interest in this company and its water project. Visitors can read the letters, look over the collection summary, and view a brief biography of Cody and Beck. It's a very interesting look into a lesser-known side of this American icon, one that reveals his intense interest in this rather involved business venture.

  15. Lake Effect Snow Covers Buffalo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    An average of one foot of snow per day has fallen on Buffalo, New York, since Christmas Eve, resulting in a total of up to 5 feet from December 24-28. The snow fell very heavily, with accumulations of up to 3 inches per hour. Cold winds blowing along the surface of Lake Erie pick up warmth and moisture, which falls as snow as the warm air rises. This image was acquired by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), operated by NOAA, on December 27, 2001, at 12:32 p.m. EST. The scene shows thick bands of clouds extending from the eastern tip of Lake Erie and over Buffalo. The arrows show the wind direction, which is blowing down the length of the lake. Image and animation by Robert Simmon, based on data from the NASA GOES Project Science Office.

  16. An Evaluation of the Impact of the Niagara River Ice Boom on the Air Temperature Regime at Buffalo, New York.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Frank H.; Assel, Raymond A.; Gaskill, Daniel W.

    1982-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the Niagara River ice boom has prolonged the Lake Erie ice cover at Buffalo, New York, resulting in significant changes in the spring warm-up of Lake Erie and longer, colder winters in the area. Statistical analysis of Buffalo air temperatures compared with those for Lockport, NY does not reveal statistically significant cooling in the climate at Buffalo related to the operation of the ice boom. However, because of the distance of the airport (where the temperature gage is located) from the shore zone, the possibility of a localized effect of small magnitude within the vicinity of the ice boom cannot be ruled out. A comparison of the water temperature at the Buffalo intake as recorded in pre- and post-boom years also indicates that the ice boom has not had an impact on the timing of the spring rise in Lake Erie water temperature at Buffalo. Analysis of winter temperature trends since 1898 shows that the winter severity at Buffalo follows a general pattern characteristic not only of the region around the eastern end of Lake Erie but also of the Great Lakes Region as a whole. Winters have become colder since the installation of the ice boom, but these colder winters are part of a general climatic trend toward more severe winters beginning in 1958. Thus, there is no evidence to suggest that the ice boom has increased winter severity or duration at Buffalo relative to other areas around the Great Lakes.

  17. Phylogeography and Domestication of Chinese Swamp Buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wen-Mei; Xu, Ping; Chang, Ti-Cheng; Liu, Li; Cheng, Feng; Zhang, Run-Feng; Lan, Xian-Yong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chu-Zhao

    2013-01-01

    To further probe into whether swamp buffaloes were domesticated once or multiple times in China, this survey examined the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Control Region (D-loop) diversity of 471 individuals representing 22 populations of 455 Chinese swamp buffaloes and 16 river buffaloes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Chinese swamp buffaloes could be divided into two distinct lineages, A and B, which were defined previously. Of the two lineages, lineage A was predominant across all populations. For predominant lineage A, Southwestern buffalo populations possess the highest genetic diversity among the three hypothesized domestication centers (Southeastern, Central, and Southwestern China), suggesting Southwestern China as the most likely location for the domestication of lineage A. However, a complex pattern of diversity is detected for the lineage B, preventing the unambiguous pinpointing of the exact place of domestication center and suggesting the presence of a long-term, strong gene flow among swamp buffalo populations caused by extensive migrations of buffaloes and frequent human movements along the Yangtze River throughout history. Our current study suggests that Southwestern China is the most likely domestication center for lineage A, and may have been a primary center of swamp buffalo domestication. More archaeological and genetic evidence is needed to show the process of domestication. PMID:23437167

  18. In Buffalo, Opening Doors for the Overlooked

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Buffalo Prep program. Housed at University of Buffalo, the program identifies disadvantaged but talented minority children, places them in academic-enrichment classes, and then finds them spots at private schools and a more selective public high school in the area to complete their precollegiate careers. In addition to…

  19. Seismic expression of Buffalo deep fault, Buffalo, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Hinrichs, E.N.; Grow, J.A.; Miller, J.J.; Lee, M.W.

    1986-08-01

    A concealed, west-dipping, high-angle reverse fault, one of a pair first reported by N.H. Foster, P.E. Goodwin, and R.E. Fisher in 1969, has been interpreted from seismic profiles in the area south and west of Buffalo, Wyoming. The fault, named the Buffalo deep fault (BDF) by D.L. Blackstone, Jr., in 1981, trends generally north-northwest and dips westward along the deepest part of the Powder River basin near the western margin. The projected surface trace lies as much as 14 mi east of the nearest outcrop of Precambrian rocks on the eastern flank of the Bighorn Mountains. Offset on the BDF decreases upward through the Paleozoic section into younger rocks that have been folded into the synclinal bend of an east-facing monocline. The monocline, the BDF, and another reverse fault appear clearly on a high-quality seismic profile that trends east-west about 8 mi southwest of Buffalo, Wyoming. This profile is one of many that have been surveyed across the mountain front. Maximum throw across the BDF is about 4500 ft from the base of the Phanerozoic section. This throw, plus the steepened dips on the upthrown western block, account for only part of the large uplift on the Bighorn Mountains. The remainder of the uplift probably is the consequence of movement on younger thrust faults, strike-slip faults, and normal faults, many of which are exposed. The BDF, monocline, thrust faults, and strike-slip faults were formed by horizontal compression, a dominantly eastward component of movement for the Bighorn Mountain block with respect to the Powder River basin.

  20. THE CONFUCIUS INSTITUTE AT THE UNIVERSITY AT BUFFALO

    E-print Network

    McCombe, Bruce D.

    THE CONFUCIUS INSTITUTE AT THE UNIVERSITY AT BUFFALO Annual Report 2012 2012 The Confucius Institute at the University at Buffalo #12;Contents The Confucius Institute at the University at Buffalo ............................................................................................ 24 #12;The Confucius Institute at the University at Buffalo (UBCI) is dedicated to promoting

  1. THE MARKET ARCADE FILM & ARTS CENTER THE BUFFALO FILM SEMINARS

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    THE MARKET ARCADE FILM & ARTS CENTER THE BUFFALO FILM SEMINARS SERIES XXIII/FALL 2011 CONVERSATIONS 1964 THE BUFFALO FILM SEMINARS are presented by University at Buffalo's James Agee Chair in American, and by the Market Arcade Film & Arts Center, 639 Main Street, Buffalo, N.Y. The series has been supported

  2. THE MARKET ARCADE FILM & ARTS CENTER THE BUFFALO FILM SEMINARS

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    THE MARKET ARCADE FILM & ARTS CENTER THE BUFFALO FILM SEMINARS SERIES XX/SPRING 2010 CONVERSATIONS Michael Mann, COLLATERAL 2004 THE BUFFALO FILM SEMINARS are presented by University at Buffalo's James, and Humanities Institute, and by the Market Arcade Film & Arts Center, 639 Main Street, Buffalo, N.Y. The series

  3. Ability of buffalo and cow milks to form cream layer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Ismail; M. S. El-Ganam; I. Sirry

    1972-01-01

    Summary Cow milk is of higher ability for creaming and cream layer formation than buffalo milk. Pasteurization and boiling decrease the cow milk ability, while considerably increase the buffalo milk ability. Therefore, cow milk is more suitable for liquid milk processing, while buffalo milk faces the problem of forming a top thick cream layer. Buffalo milk is superior to produce

  4. Different promoter usage for CYP19 gene expression in buffalo ovary and placenta.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepti; Ghai, Sandeep; Singh, Dheer

    2009-07-01

    Aromatase is the key enzyme for estrogen biosynthesis and is coded by CYP19 gene. The expression of CYP19 gene is regulated in tissue-specific manner by alternate use of different promoters. In this study, we have analyzed tissue-specific expression and their regulation of CYP19 gene in preovulatory and postovulatory stages of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) ovary and placenta. RT-PCR analysis showed that the CYP19 gene expression was significantly (p<0.05) higher in granulosa cells of large follicles as compared to the other tissues. The transcript analysis and transcriptional start site identified by 5'-RLM RACE for CYP19 expression indicated different transcriptional start sites within the different sized follicles during folliculogenesis. Sequence analysis showed that the transcription start site of transcript isolated from buffalo granulosa cells of small follicles was 37 bases upstream of the transcript isolated from granulosa cells of large follicles. However, both the transcripts were found to be derived from proximal promoter II. Difference in the transcriptional start site indicates the different promoter sequence usage in granulosa cells of different sized follicles. Further, in silico analysis of the difference in promoter sequence based on the 5'-UTRs isolated from granulosa cells of small follicles (151 bases) and large follicles (114 bases) showed that consensus sequence for certain important trans-elements (viz., TATA binding protein, E2F and CAAT binding protein) would lie in the promoter sequence isolated from the granulosa cells of large follicles. These transcription factors may be involved in regulation of CYP19 gene expression in ovary, either directly or indirectly. The difference in the size of 5'-UTR among the granulosa cells of ovary reflects the possible mechanism for the differential regulation of CYP19 gene during development. The transcripts isolated from buffalo corpus luteum and placental cotyledons were having same 5'-UTR comprises of 168 bases and found to be derived from PI.1. Estimates of CYP19 gene transcript concentration in the different tissues revealed that the CYP19 gene expression in granulosa cells is predominantly regulated by PII and to a minor extent by PI.1. However, PI.1 is almost exclusively responsible for CYP19 gene expression in placenta and residual expression in corpus luteum. In order to understand the complex CYP19 gene regulation in these tissues, further studies are needed to elucidate the activity of different promoters and define regulatory elements for binding of transcription factors. PMID:19375426

  5. Hydrologic characteristics of Bear Creek near Silver Hill and Buffalo River near St. Joe, Arkansas, 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Jim C.; Haggard, Brian E.; Green, W. Reed

    2002-01-01

    The Buffalo River and its tributary Bear Creek are in the White River Basin in the Ozark Plateaus in north-central Arkansas. Analysis of streamflow measurements and water-quality samples at a site on Bear Creek and a site on the Buffalo River in Searcy County, Arkansas, quantify differences between the two sites during calendar years 1999 and 2000. Streamflow and water quality also vary seasonally at each site. Mean annual streamflow was substantially larger at the Buffalo River site (836 and 719 cubic feet per second in 1999 and 2000) than at the Bear Creek site (56 and 63 cubic feet per second). However, during times of low flow, discharge of Bear Creek comprises a larger proportion of the flow of the Buffalo River. Concentrations of nutrients, fecal-indicator bacteria, dissolved organic carbon, and suspended sediment generally were greater in samples from Bear Creek than in samples from the Buffalo River. Statistically significant differences were detected in concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate, total nitrogen, dissolved phosphorus, orthophosphorus, total phosphorus, fecal coliform bacteria, and suspended sediment. Loads varied between sites, hydrologic conditions, seasons, and years. Loads were substantially higher for the Buffalo River than for Bear Creek (as would be expected because of the Buffalo?s higher streamflow). Loads contributed by surface runoff usually comprised more than 85 percent of the annual load. Constituent yields (loads divided by drainage area) were much more similar between sites than were loads. Flow-weighted concentrations and dissolved constituent yields generally were greater for Bear Creek than yields for the Buffalo River and flowweighted concentrations yields were higher than typical flow-weighted concentrations and yields in undeveloped basins, but lower than flow-weighted concentrations and yields at a site in a more developed basin.

  6. Mensuration of spermatozoa from different levels of the reproductive tract of the buffalo-bull (Bubalus bubalis)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , corpus #12;and cauda). The fluid from each of these parts was mixed separately with buffered eosin by artificial vagina ; a drop from each sample was mixed with buffered eosin nigrosin stain. The stained sperm

  7. PHYLOGEOGRAPHIC PATTERNS IN LARGE RIVER ECOSYSTEMS: GENETIC STRUCTURE OF SMALLMOUTH BUFFALO (ICTIOBUS BUBALUS) IN THE OHIO RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genetic studies on populations of large river fishes provide a potentially useful but underutilized research and assessment tool. Population genetic research on freshwater systems has provided meaningful insight into stock structure, hybridization issues, and gene flow/migration...

  8. Genetic and Phylogenetic Studies of Toll-Like Receptor 5 (TLR5) in River Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis)

    E-print Network

    Jones, Brittany

    2012-08-21

    to state it and so I thank you, Dr. Mills, for what the department allowed me to accomplish. Finally, all this would not have possible if not for the loving support offered by mother, Alice Jones; my brother, Adonis Jones; and my sister, Amber Thompson...

  9. Stimulation of in vitro ovine oocyte maturation with a novel peptide isolated from follicular fluid of the buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. P. Gupta; J. P. Ravindra; V. Girish Kumar; H. M. Raghu; S. Nandi

    2005-01-01

    In vitro oocyte maturation is an important step in the laboratory production of embryos. The technique of in vitro maturation (IVM) has generally been standardized in sheep, but now the efforts are aimed at reducing the cost of the technology by replacing expensive inputs of the IVM medium with less expensive and chemically defined inputs. In this study, a novel

  10. Synteny mapping in river buffalo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. El Nahas; H. A. Oraby; H. A. de Hondt; A. M. Medhat; M. M. Zahran; E. R. Mahfouz; A. M. Karim

    1996-01-01

    The cosegregation of ten coding loci has been investigated, in a panel of 37 somatic cell hybrids resulting from the fusion\\u000a of a hamster cell line and river buffalo lymphocytes, by use of Southern hybridization technique. Five syntenic groups, TCRB-PGY3,\\u000a ASS-ABL, FUCA1P-CRYG, MBP-YES1, and CGN1-ACTA1, previously assigned to cattle as U13, U16, U17, U28, and U29 respectively,\\u000a were also found

  11. Department of Anthropology University at Buffalo, State University of New York

    E-print Network

    McCombe, Bruce D.

    Department of Anthropology University at Buffalo, State University of New by October 15, 2013. Applications must be submitted through www.ubjobs.buffalo Committee, Department of Anthropology, University at Buffalo, SUNY, 380 MFAC, Buffalo

  12. Lake Erie Seiches and Their Impact on Hydrodynamics and Sediment Transport in the Buffalo River, Buffalo, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, J.; Manley, T.; McLaren, P.; Manley, P.; Atkinson, J. F.; Hughes, W.; Klawinski, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Buffalo River discharges into Lake Erie near the upper end of the Niagara River. The lower 9.2 km of the river has been designated as a Great Lakes Area of Concern due to beneficial use impairments associated with poor water quality, degraded riparian and river habitat, and contaminated sediments. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers maintains a navigational channel at a depth of 6.7 m below mean lake level by dredging every 2-3 years. Its low gradient and current velocities that often are <10 cm/sec allow Lake Erie waters to enter the Buffalo River reversing flow. These estuarine-like conditions can occur during low flow periods in the river when water levels at the eastern end of Lake Erie rise in response to seiches when persistent winds transport water from west to east increasing water elevation at the Buffalo (eastern) end of the lake. To better understand the interaction between the downriver and upriver (lake-driven) flow, Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs), temperature sensors, and water level recorders have been deployed in the lower 9 km of the river. To map the river and document changes in bottom morphology side-scan sonar surveys have been conducted. Sediment trend analysis (STA) and numerical modeling complement and augment field observations. Changes in grain size distributions derived from the STA show two distinct flow regimes existing in the river with sediments deposited around the mouth of the river re-entrained and transported upriver. Results from numerical modeling using a particle-tracking component also show a similar pattern. Where the two flow regimes intersect, sedimentary furrows have been mapped using side-scan sonar and confirmed by divers. ADCP findings document periodic high flow events in the river related to heavy rainfalls and snow melt as well as the propagation of Lake Erie seiches upriver as far as 9 km. The water level data agree well with ADCP data obtained in the river. The river also exhibits its own seiche with period of ~ 2.0 hours. The hydrodynamics and sediment transport patterns in the Buffalo River reveal a complex pattern. Studying the river is timely as a large-scale sediment remediation project currently is underway that will modify the channel morphology as a consequence of environmental dredging within and outside the navigational channel.

  13. Co-Designing Agents Albert Goldfain ag33@cse.buffalo.edu

    E-print Network

    Shapiro, Stuart C.

    Co-Designing Agents Albert Goldfain ag33@cse.buffalo.edu Michael W. Kandefer mwk3@cse.buffalo.edu Stuart C. Shapiro shapiro@cse.buffalo.edu Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260 Josephine Anstey jranstey@buffalo.edu Department of Media Studies, University

  14. Evaluation of solidification/stabilization technology for Buffalo River sediment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, E.C.; Averett, D.E.; Channell, M.G.; Perry, B.D.

    1991-05-01

    The Buffalo River drains a 446-square-mile (1,155-sq-km) watershed in western New York State and discharges into Lake Erie at the city of Buffalo. The Buffalo River has been classified by the State of New York as a fishing and fish survival stream, but municipal and industrial discharges have degraded the water quality and resulted in a fish advisory for the river. Under the Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediment Program, the US Environmental Protection Agency asked the US Army Corps of Engineers to evaluate solidification/stabilization (S/S) for potential treatment of the contaminated sediments in the Buffalo River. An evaluation of S/S technology was conducted on the bench-scale level on Buffalo River sediment to determine whether physical and chemical properties of the sediment would be improved. Based on analyses of the untreated sediment, five metals were selected for evaluation: chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc. Initial screening tests (ISTs) were conducted on the sediments to narrow the range of binder-to-soil ratios (BSRs) to be prepared in the detailed evaluation.

  15. Effect of Ground Corn Cob Replacement for Cassava Chip on Feed Intake, Rumen Fermentation and Urinary Derivatives in Swamp Buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Wanapat, M.; Pilajun, R.; Kang, S.; Setyaningsih, K.; Setyawan, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Four Thai - rumen fistulated male swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), about four years old with 400±20 kg liveweight, were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to receive dietary treatments. The treatments were: ground corn cob (GCC) replacement for cassava chip (CC) in concentrate at 0% (T1); GCC replacement at 33% (T2); GCC replacement at 67% (T3); and GCC replacement at 100% (T4), respectively. During the experiment, concentrate was offered at 0.5% BW while 5% urea-treated rice straw was given at ad libitum. The result revealed that there was no effect of GCC replacement on DMI among treatments. In addition, digestibilities of DM, OM and CP were not different while aNDF linearly increased with an increasing level of GCC replacement. However, GCC replacement did not affect rumen fermentation such as ruminal pH, NH3-N and VFA concentration; except C3 proportion which was the highest at 33% replacement while the lowest was at 100% replacement. All replacements of GCC resulted in similar protozoal and bacterial populations and microbial protein synthesis (MPS). Purine derivatives (PD) concentration in urine and PD to creatinine (PDC) index were varied with time of urination and among treatments at 0 to 8 and 8 to 16 h post feeding and higher values were shown among the GCC replacement groups. However at 16 to 24 h-post feeding, it was untraceable. In addition, creatinine concentration was similar among all treatments at every sampling time. Based on the above results, GCC can be used as an energy source for swamp buffalo fed with rice straw. Spot sampling of urine can be used for purine derivatives determination. PMID:25049671

  16. Sequential Cross-Species Chromosome Painting among River Buffalo, Cattle, Sheep and Goat: A Useful Tool for Chromosome Abnormalities Diagnosis within the Family Bovidae

    PubMed Central

    Pauciullo, Alfredo; Perucatti, Angela; Cosenza, Gianfranco; Iannuzzi, Alessandra; Incarnato, Domenico; Genualdo, Viviana; Di Berardino, Dino; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to develop a comparative multi-colour Zoo-FISH on domestic ruminants metaphases using a combination of whole chromosome and sub-chromosomal painting probes obtained from the river buffalo species (Bubalus bubalis, 2n?=?50,XY). A total of 13 DNA probes were obtained through chromosome microdissection and DOP-PCR amplification, labelled with two fluorochromes and sequentially hybridized on river buffalo, cattle (Bos taurus, 2n?=?60,XY), sheep (Ovis aries, 2n?=?54,XY) and goat (Capra hircus, 2n?=?60,XY) metaphases. The same set of paintings were then hybridized on bovine secondary oocytes to test their potential use for aneuploidy detection during in vitro maturation. FISH showed excellent specificity on metaphases and interphase nuclei of all the investigated species. Eight pairs of chromosomes were simultaneously identified in buffalo, whereas the same set of probes covered 13 out 30 chromosome pairs in the bovine and goat karyotypes and 40% of the sheep karyotype (11 out of 27 chromosome pairs). This result allowed development of the first comparative M-FISH karyotype within the domestic ruminants. The molecular resolution of complex karyotypes by FISH is particularly useful for the small chromosomes, whose similarity in the banding patterns makes their identification very difficult. The M-FISH karyotype also represents a practical tool for structural and numerical chromosome abnormalities diagnosis. In this regard, the successful hybridization on bovine secondary oocytes confirmed the potential use of this set of probes for the simultaneous identification on the same germ cell of 12 chromosome aneuploidies. This is a fundamental result for monitoring the reproductive health of the domestic animals in relation to management errors and/or environmental hazards. PMID:25330006

  17. Use of real-time PCR technique in studying rumen cellulolytic bacteria population as affected by level of roughage in swamp buffalo.

    PubMed

    Wanapat, Metha; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2009-04-01

    A real-time polymerase chain reaction approach was used in this study to determine the population of major ruminal bacterial species (Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus, and Ruminococcus flavefaciens) in digesta and rumen fluid of swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Four rumen-fistulated, male swamp buffalo were randomly assigned according to a 4 x 4 Latin square design to evaluate the effect of the urea-treated rice straw (roughage source)-to-concentrate ratio on cellulolytic bacterial distribution. Animals were fed roughage-to-concentrate (R:C) ratios of 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, and 25:75, respectively. At the end of each period, rumen fluid and digesta were collected at 0 h and 4 h post-morning-feeding. It was found that feeding urea-treated rice straw solely increased these three cellulolytic bacteria numbers up to 2.65 x 10(9) and 3.54 x 10(9) copies per milliliter for F. succinogenes, 5.10 x 10(7) and 7.40 x 10(7) copies per milliliter for R. flavefaciens, and 4.00 x 10(6) and 6.00 x 10(6) copies per milliliter for R. albus in rumen fluid and digesta, respectively. The distribution of the three cellulolytic bacteria species in digesta were highest at 3.21 x 10(9), 4.55 x 10(7), and 4.56 x 10(6) copies per milliliter for F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens, and R. albus, respectively. Moreover, at 4 h post-morning-feeding, the populations of the three cellulolytic bacteria were higher than found at 0 h post-morning-feeding. It is most notable that F. succinogenes were the highest in population in the rumen of swamp buffalo and cellulolytic bacteria mostly adhered to feed digesta in the rumen. PMID:19018588

  18. SEROLOGICAL SURVEY OF ANTIBODIES TO TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN SHEEP, CATTLE, AND BUFFALOES IN PUNJAB, INDIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sera from 186 sheep, 83 cattle, and 103 water buffaloes from Punjab, India were evaluated for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using a commercial ELISA kit. This study was planned using a 2-stage random sampling procedure employing sampling software ‘survey toolbox’. In the first step, villages were...

  19. Chromosome constitution of a hybrid between East African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) and Dwarf Forest Buffalo

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    NOTE Chromosome constitution of a hybrid between East African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer-en-Josas (Prance) Summary The chromosome constitution of a male hybrid of first backcross between a female Fi East Buffalo (Syncerus cagey nanus) had a chromosome number of 53: zi acro- centric pairs, 2 unpaired

  20. 7. Concrete Railing along Buffalo River side of tracks emerging ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Concrete Railing along Buffalo River side of tracks emerging from second level of DL&W train shed. Signal Tower/Boiler Room is just out of sight at right of photo. Skyway shows at extreme left. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Lackawanna Terminal, Main Street & Buffalo River, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  1. RAW COPPER SLABS USED IN CASTING OPERATIONS AT BUFFALO PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RAW COPPER SLABS USED IN CASTING OPERATIONS AT BUFFALO PLANT OF AMERICAN BRASS COMPANY. MATERIALS STORAGE FOR THE CAST SHOP NOW OCCUPIES A PORTION OF THE ORIGINAL BRASS MILL BUILT BY THE BUFFALO COPPER AND BRASS ROLLING MILL IN 1906-07 AND EXPANDED IN 1911. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  2. THE MARKET ARCADE FILM & ARTS CENTER THE BUFFALO FILM SEMINARS

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    THE MARKET ARCADE FILM & ARTS CENTER THE BUFFALO FILM SEMINARS SERIES XXII/SPRING 2011 19 Jafar Panahi DAYEREH/THE CIRCLE 2000 Apr 26 Ridley Scott BLADE RUNNER 1982 THE BUFFALO FILM SEMINARS are presented by University at Buffalo's James Agee Chair in American Culture, Center for Studies

  3. http://www.cubs.buffalo.edu Pattern Recognition

    E-print Network

    Govindaraju, Venu

    http://www.cubs.buffalo.edu Pattern Recognition Classification cost Biometric system errors ROC curve #12;http://www.cubs.buffalo.edu Bayesian classification · Bayes classification rule: classify x samples of class 1 2 - the cost of misclassifying samples of class 2 #12;http://www.cubs.buffalo.edu Total

  4. Assignment of PCR markers to river buffalo chromosomes

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Note Assignment of PCR markers to river buffalo chromosomes Hanaa A. Oraby Soheir M. El Nahas H syntenic groups have also been reported in cattle, where they have been assigned to chromosomes BTA 12, BTA to river buffalo chromosomes BBU 13, BBU 16 and BBU 18, respectively. © Inra/Elsevier, Paris buffalo

  5. Buffalo Child Care Means Business: Full Study Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lou Jean Fleron; Lauren Breen; Regina L Grogan; Danielle Dimitrov

    2006-01-01

    [Excerpt] Buffalo Child Care Means Business presents the economic and business case for making Buffalo's children the focus of economic development. The 2006 survey of 117 businesses located in downtown Buffalo, New York, documents the business sector's present and projected reliance upon high quality child care services as a necessary component to optimum workplace recruitment, productivity and stability. This promising

  6. University at Buffalo (SUNY) Department of Industrial Engineering Scheduling Theory

    E-print Network

    Nagi, Rakesh

    1 University at Buffalo (SUNY) Department of Industrial Engineering IE 661 Scheduling Theory Course Introduction Rakesh Nagi Department of Industrial Engineering University at Buffalo (SUNY) #12;2 University at Buffalo (SUNY) Department of Industrial Engineering About the course This graduate level course covers

  7. Casting the Buffalo Commons: A Rhetorical Analysis of Print Media Coverage of the Buffalo Commons Proposal for the Great Plains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umberger, Mary L.

    2002-01-01

    In 1987, Frank and Deborah Popper, a planner/geographer team from Rutgers University, proposed the Buffalo Commons. If implemented, the Buffalo Commons would have preserved a large area of the Great Plains, including land in ten states, in a national park to be used by exiting Native American reservations, and for the reintroduction of buffalo.

  8. Carbohydrate biofuels III: Consumptive-use and root yield of buffalo gourd

    SciTech Connect

    Smeal, D.; Gregory, E.J.; Tomko, J. [New Mexico State Univ., Farmington, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Biofuel provided by the dried roots of the wild buffalo gourd, Cucurbita foetidissima, represents a potential, cleaner-burning alternative to other biofuels (i.e. wood and coal) currently used for cooking and heating on the Navajo Indian Reservation. However, no information is available regarding the plant`s water requirements for growth and viable root production on the Colorado Plateau in northwestern New Mexico where the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project is located. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between buffalo gourd root production and evapotranspiration under variable irrigation as provided by a line-source design. Total dry root yields ranged from 1.6 Mg ha{sup -1} (5.1 tons/acre), and increased linearly within an irrigation treatment range of 371 to 927 nm (14.6 to 36.5 in.), respectively. Peak average daily water-use of buffalo gourd providing maximum root yield was 8.6 mm (0.34 in.) and occurred in late July to early August. Results of this study indicate that buffalo gourd can be successfully grown in northwestern New Mexico when irrigated. Other observations during this study suggest that planting rates for optimum root production need to be established.

  9. Buffalo Architecture Foundation Building Stories Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The University of Buffalo has periodically published some great guides to the architecture of its corner of western New York. The University Libraries have digitized all 21 of these fine pamphlets and placed them online for public consumption. Visitors can search for items of note via the Advanced Search tab, or they can just click on the ones that look interesting. The "A Building Like A Superhero" piece is a great place to start. It profiles the massive modernist Bulger Communication Center structure on the campus of Buffalo State College. Moving on, "Buffalo Underground: An Excursion into the Depths of Scajaquada Creek" takes interested parties into the world of this most unusual culvert and its windy ways.

  10. 76 FR 60962 - Noise Exposure Map Update for Buffalo Niagara International Airport, Buffalo, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ...Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Update for Buffalo Niagara International...determination that the updated noise exposure maps submitted by the Niagara Frontier Transportation...FAA's determination on the noise exposure maps is September 20, 2011. FOR FURTHER...

  11. This article was downloaded by:[University at Buffalo (SUNY)] On: 27 May 2008

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Kemper E.

    This article was downloaded by:[University at Buffalo (SUNY)] On: 27 May 2008 Access Details of Buffalo-SUNY, Buffalo, NY, USA b NYS Center for Engineering Design and Industrial Innovation, University of Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA First Published on: 21 May 2008 To cite this Article: Dolan, Bryan and Lewis

  12. NEIL E. WILLIAMS curriculum vitae jan 1 2010 Department of Philosophy email: new@buffalo.edu

    E-print Network

    Williams, Neil E.

    NEIL E. WILLIAMS curriculum vitae jan 1 2010 Department of Philosophy email: new@buffalo.edu University at Buffalo cell: (716) xxx-xxxx 135 Park Hall work: (716) 645-0161 Buffalo, NY 14260 web: www.acsu.buffalo APPOINTMENTS Assistant Professor ­ University at Buffalo (SUNY) Philosophy 2005 - present PUBLICATIONS ADVISORY

  13. Detection of pig and buffalo body fat in cow and buffalo ghees by differential scanning calorimetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Lambelet; N. C. Ganguli

    1983-01-01

    Adding small amounts of pig or buffalo body fat to cow or buffalo ghee results in the appearance of an extra peak located\\u000a at high temperature in the melting and crystallization curves as determined by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)\\u000a technique. Ghee adulterations with these animal fats at levels down to 5% are clearly seen in the crystallization diagrams.\\u000a Quantitative

  14. Baseline risk assessment for aquatic life for the Buffalo River, New York, Area of Concern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Hickey, James P.

    1995-01-01

    The Great Lakes National Program Office of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated the Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) program to address concerns of environmental degradation at 43 Areas of Concern in the Great Lakes. In our first report (Passino-Reader et al. 1992), we developed a generic approach for baseline hazard evaluation of aquatic life in the Great Lakes Areas of Concern. In this report, we demonstrate the application of the generic approach to the Buffalo River (New York) Area of Concern. Using available historical data on residues in sediments, water, and biota, we evaluated exposure for 41 contaminants from the Buffalo River for eight taxa of fish and invertebrates representing the major trophic levels in the Buffalo River. By comparing exposure concentrations with reference toxicities, we calculated risk to the eight receptor organisms for typical and worst cases of exposure to the 41 contaminants. For mixtures of the contaminants present at the Buffalo River, primarily metals and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, we compared sediment concentrations with effects range-low (EL-R) values as reference values for toxicity of mixtures to estimate risk to aquatic biota.

  15. Molecular phylogeny of Pakistani riverine buffalo based on genetic variability of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene.

    PubMed

    Saif, Rashid; Wasim, Muhammad; Babar, Masroor Ellahi

    2012-10-01

    Mitochondrial cytochrome b gene is considered to be one of the best markers for breed characterization as well as studying the ancestry in the vertebrates due to its exclusive maternal inheritance. DNA fingerprinting by single nucleotide polymorphism is most reliable and widely used molecular technique in modern forensics and is being considered in this study. Partial sequencing of 1,061 bp of aforementioned gene from 14580 to 15643 was conducted in two famous Pakistani buffalo breeds named Nili-Ravi and Kundi. In which we explore seven haplotypes within earlier and none in the latter breed. Nili-Ravi is polymorphic at four codons of this gene, and the protein translation is also different from the reference sample while monomorphic at three codons with no amino acid replacement. Haplotypes frequency distribution of these four haplotypes named NR3, NR4, NR5, NR7 revealed that the prevalence of each haplotype is 0.04 % in the Pakistani buffalo population of this Nili-Ravi breed while complete homoplasmy was observed in the Kundi breed population. Nili-Ravi breed of buffalo is genetically more variable than the Kundi breed as far as the gene in subject is concerned. It means later breed has spent more time to propagate its wild type haplotype which make this breed more ancestral as compare to Nili-Ravi. Secondly both breeds share their common ancestors with regional water buffalo rather than the swamp one. PMID:22718511

  16. Description of Events Where African Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) Strayed from the Endemic Foot-and-Mouth Disease Zone in South Africa, 1998-2008.

    PubMed

    van Schalkwyk, O L; Knobel, D L; De Clercq, E M; De Pus, C; Hendrickx, G; Van den Bossche, P

    2014-11-01

    African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are reservoir hosts of Southern African Territories (SAT) foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus strains. In South Africa, infected buffaloes are found in the FMD-infected zone comprising the Kruger National Park (KNP) and its adjoining reserves. When these buffaloes stray into livestock areas, they pose a risk of FMD transmission to livestock. We assessed 645 records of stray buffalo events (3124 animals) from the FMD infected zone during 1998-2008 for (i) their temporal distribution, (ii) group size, (iii) age and gender composition, (iv) distance from the infected zone fence and (v) outcome reported for each event. A maximum entropy model was developed to evaluate spatial predictors of stray buffalo events and assess current disease control zones. Out of all buffaloes recorded straying, 38.5% escaped from the FMD infected zone during 2000/2001, following floods that caused extensive damage to wildlife fences. Escape patterns were not apparently influenced by season. The median size of stray groups was a single animal (IQR [1-2]). Adult animals predominated, comprising 90.4% (620/686) of the animals for which age was recorded. Of the 315 events with accurate spatial information, 204 (64.8%) were recorded within 1 km from the FMD infected zone. During late winter/spring (June-October), stray buffaloes were found significantly closer to the FMD infected zone (median = 0.3 km, IQR [0.1-0.6]). Less than 13% (40/315) of stray groups reached the FMD protection zone without vaccination, posing a higher risk of spreading FMD to these more susceptible livestock. Model outputs suggest that distance from the FMD infected zone, urban areas and permanent water sources contributed almost 85% to the spatial probability of stray buffalo events. Areas with a high probability for stray buffalo events were well covered by current disease control zones, although FMD risk mitigation could be improved by expanding the vaccination zone in certain areas. PMID:25377758

  17. Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University at Buffalo

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    , characterizing system response, and designing control systems. This session will show how you can use MATLABMechanical and Aerospace Engineering University at Buffalo S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f N e w Y o r k MAE Seminar Series Mathematical Modeling with MATLAB Heather Wellman Abstract: Mathematical

  18. Snow From Great Lakes Covers Buffalo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On November 20, 2000, Buffalo, New York was blanketed by a late-autumn storm that left 25 inches of snow on the ground in a 24-hour period, most of it during the afternoon rush hour. Buffalo officials declared a state of emergency and New York National Guardsmen were called in to assist with clearing snow from roads. With the exception of essential vehicles or people retrieving stranded children, all driving was banned in the city. This SeaWiFS pass over the central United States and Canada depicts a source for all of the snow in Buffalo. Cold, dry Canadian air blowing toward the southeast picked up a lot of moisture from the relatively warm Great Lakes -- forming the clouds that lightened their loads over Buffalo. This image was acquired November 21, 2000, by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) flying aboard the Orbview-2 satellite. Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  19. Geology Fieldnotes: Buffalo National River, Arkansas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site contains information on the Buffalo National River in Arkansas, including geology, park maps, and visitor information. It discusses landscape formations, the course of the river, and prehistoric sites along the river, which is situated in the Ozarks of Arkansas.

  20. Evaluation of the effectiveness of using alfalfa and buffalo grass for remediation of trichloroethylene from groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Caravello, V.

    1998-06-03

    Phytoremediation is receiving increasing attention due to the potential for vegetation to play a significant role in bioremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater. The purpose of this research was to conduct a pilot study to determine if buffalo grass would enhance the remediation of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE). A mass-balance experiment was designed and executed to determine the extent of TCE remediation/degradation occurring through buffalo grass. Measurements for TCE in air, water, and soil were completed for three treatments: (1) buffalo grass, (2) alfalfa, and (3) soil following challenge with a water-TCE mixture. In total, 267 air samples, 43 water samples, 85 soil samples, and 40 vegetative samples were collected and analyzed. The analysis identified two important facts. First, there were no significant differences detected between TCE concentrations in soil, water, and air between groups. Second, there is a significant difference in the amount of the TCE-water mixture consumed in chambers with plants versus chambers without plants. The mass balance of the experiment was not achieved due to unaccountable losses of TCE from the chambers. The major loss mechanism for TCE appears to be from the breakthrough of air sampling media during the experiment. Thus, the data are insufficient to determine if remediation occurred via plants or by preferential pathways through the soil. Future experiments should be designed to include daily monitoring of the aquifer, humidity tolerant air sampling protocol, and relief from the build-up of humidity and transpiration inside the chambers.

  1. 36. Photocopy of photograph (Buffalo CourierExpress article file #Z733B9268, print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photocopy of photograph (Buffalo Courier-Express article file #Z733-B9268, print in possession of Ciminilli Construction, Buffalo, N.Y.), photographer unknown, 1938 GENERAL RENOVATIONS - Cyclorama Building, 369 Franklin Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  2. 30. Photocopy of photograph (from Buffalo Illustrated file #129B8B92, prints ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photocopy of photograph (from Buffalo Illustrated file #129B8B92, prints inpossession of Ciminilli Construction,Buffalo, N.Y.), photographer unknown,1890 GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST - Cyclorama Building, 369 Franklin Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  3. 77 FR 20871 - Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ...SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting...for the next meeting of the Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council. The meeting...announces the meeting of the Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council. The...

  4. 75 FR 16204 - Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ...SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting...for the next meeting of the Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council. The meeting...announces the meeting of the Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council. The...

  5. 76 FR 59480 - Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ...SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting...for the next meeting of the Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council. The meeting...announces the meeting of the Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council. The...

  6. 78 FR 26416 - Environmental Impact Statement: City of Buffalo, Erie County, New York

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ...Environmental Impact Statement: City of Buffalo, Erie County, New York AGENCY: Federal...proposed highway project in the City of Buffalo, Erie County, New York. FOR FURTHER...NYSDOT Region 5; 100 Seneca Street, Buffalo, NY 14203, Telephone (716)...

  7. An aerosol-mediated magnetic colloid: Study of nickel nanoparticles Department of Chemistry, The University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo,

    E-print Network

    Swihart, Mark T.

    14260 S. Wang Department of Physics, The University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14260 H. Luo Department of Physics, The University at Buffalo, The State University 14260 P. N. Prasada Department of Chemistry, The University at Buffalo, The State University of New York

  8. The African buffalo: a villain for inter-species spread of infectious diseases in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Michel, Anita L; Bengis, Roy G

    2012-01-01

    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a large wild bovid which until recently ranged across all but the driest parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and their local range being limited to about 20 km from surface water. They are of high ecological value due to their important role as bulk feeders in the grazing hierarchy. They also have high economic value, because they are one of the sought after 'Big Five' in the eco-tourism industry. In Africa, buffaloes have been recognised for some time as an important role player in the maintenance and transmission of a variety of economically important livestock diseases at the wildlife and/or livestock interface. These include African strains of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), Corridor disease (theileriosis), bovine tuberculosis and bovine brucellosis. For a number of other diseases of veterinary importance, African buffaloes may also serve as amplifier or incidental host, whereby infection with the causative pathogens may cause severe clinical signs such as death or abortion as in the case of anthrax and Rift Valley fever, or remain mild or subclinical for example heartwater. The long term health implications of most of those infections on the buffalo at a population level is usually limited, and they do not pose a threat on the population's survival. Because of their ability to harbour and transmit important diseases to livestock, their sustainable future in ecotourism, trade and transfrontier conservation projects become complex and costly and reliable diagnostic tools are required to monitor these infections in buffalo populations. PMID:23327373

  9. Habitat quality and heterogeneity influence distribution and behavior in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Winnie, John A; Cross, Paul; Getz, Wayne

    2008-05-01

    Top-down effects of predators on prey behavior and population dynamics have been extensively studied. However, some populations of very large herbivores appear to be regulated primarily from the bottom up. Given the importance of food resources to these large herbivores, it is reasonable to expect that forage heterogeneity (variation in quality and quantity) affects individual and group behaviors as well as distribution on the landscape. Forage heterogeneity is often strongly driven by underlying soils, so substrate characteristics may indirectly drive herbivore behavior and distribution. Forage heterogeneity may further interact with predation risk to influence prey behavior and distribution. Here we examine differences in spatial distribution, home range size, and grouping behaviors of African buffalo as they relate to geologic substrate (granite and basalt) and variation in food quality and quantity. In this study, we use satellite imagery, forage quantity data, and three years of radio-tracking data to assess how forage quality, quantity, and heterogeneity affect the distribution and individual and herd behavior of African buffalo. We found that buffalo in an overall poorer foraging environment keyed-in on exceptionally high-quality areas, whereas those foraging in a more uniform, higher-quality area used areas of below-average quality. Buffalo foraging in the poorer-quality environment had smaller home range sizes, were in smaller groups, and tended to be farther from water sources than those foraging in the higher-quality environment. These differences may be due to buffalo creating or maintaining nutrient hotspots (small, high-quality foraging areas) in otherwise low-quality foraging areas, and the location of these hotspots may in part be determined by patterns of predation risk. PMID:18543637

  10. The flood of December 1982 and the 100- and 500-year flood on the Buffalo River, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neely, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    Flood profiles, peak discharges, and stages were determined for the December 1982, the 100-year, and the 500-year floods at 17 sites along the Buffalo River, Arkansas. Typical synthetic stage hydrographs for the 100- and 500-year floods were determined for each site. Flow duration data for gaging stations at St. Joe and Rush are shown. The average velocity of the water for the 100- and 500-year floods is shown for each site. Approximate flood boundaries delineating the 100- and 500-year floods are shown for Ponca, Steel Creek, Pruitt, St. Joe, and Buffalo Point. (Author 's abstract)

  11. ANALYSIS OF BANK STABILITY AND POTENTIAL LOADINGS FROM STREAMBANKS ALONG THE SOUTH BRANCH OF THE BUFFALO RIVER, MN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The South Branch of the Buffalo River is part of the larger Red River Basin, MN. In 1996 the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) performed water quality assessments for selected rivers and lakes in the Red River Basin, with impairment of streams primarily being found to be caused by high level...

  12. Quality of cooked ground buffalo meat treated with the crude extracts of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suchandra Hazra; Subhasish Biswas; Debasish Bhattacharyya; Sudip Kumar Das; Anupam Khan

    The study was conducted to evaluate the physico-chemical, microbial and organoleptic qualities of cooked ground buffalo meat\\u000a (GBM), treated with, 1, 1.5 and 2% levels of aqueous solution of crude extract of drumstick (Moringa oleifera) leaves. The\\u000a meat samples treated with 1.5% crude extract of drumstick leaves significantly (P?water holding capacity (WHC) and lowered cooking

  13. A Review of Recent Developments in Buffalo Reproduction — A Review

    PubMed Central

    Warriach, H. M.; McGill, D. M.; Bush, R. D.; Wynn, P. C.; Chohan, K. R.

    2015-01-01

    The buffalo is an important livestock resource in several countries of South Asia and the Mediterranean regions. However, reproductive efficiency is compromised due to known problems of biological and management origins, such as lack of animal selection and poor nutrition. Under optimal conditions puberty is attained at 15 to 18 months in river buffalo, 21 to 24 months in swamp buffalo and is influenced by genotype, nutrition, management and climate. However, under field conditions these values deteriorate up to a significant extant. To improve reproductive efficiency, several protocols of oestrus and ovulation synchronization have been adopted from their use in commercial cattle production. These protocols yield encouraging pregnancy rates of (30% to 50%), which are comparable to those achieved in buffaloes bred at natural oestrus. The use of sexed semen in buffalo heifers also showed promising pregnancy rates (50%) when compared with conventional non-sexed semen. Assisted reproductive technologies have been transferred and adapted to buffalo but the efficiency of these technologies are low. However, these latest technologies offer the opportunity to accelerate the genetic gain in the buffalo industry after improving the technology and reducing its cost. Most buffaloes are kept under the small holder farming system in developing countries. Hence, future research should focus on simple, adoptable and impact- oriented approaches which identify the factors determining low fertility and oestrus behaviour in this species. Furthermore, role of kisspeptin needs to be explored in buffalo. PMID:25656203

  14. A review of recent developments in buffalo reproduction - a review.

    PubMed

    Warriach, H M; McGill, D M; Bush, R D; Wynn, P C; Chohan, K R

    2015-03-01

    The buffalo is an important livestock resource in several countries of South Asia and the Mediterranean regions. However, reproductive efficiency is compromised due to known problems of biological and management origins, such as lack of animal selection and poor nutrition. Under optimal conditions puberty is attained at 15 to 18 months in river buffalo, 21 to 24 months in swamp buffalo and is influenced by genotype, nutrition, management and climate. However, under field conditions these values deteriorate up to a significant extant. To improve reproductive efficiency, several protocols of oestrus and ovulation synchronization have been adopted from their use in commercial cattle production. These protocols yield encouraging pregnancy rates of (30% to 50%), which are comparable to those achieved in buffaloes bred at natural oestrus. The use of sexed semen in buffalo heifers also showed promising pregnancy rates (50%) when compared with conventional non-sexed semen. Assisted reproductive technologies have been transferred and adapted to buffalo but the efficiency of these technologies are low. However, these latest technologies offer the opportunity to accelerate the genetic gain in the buffalo industry after improving the technology and reducing its cost. Most buffaloes are kept under the small holder farming system in developing countries. Hence, future research should focus on simple, adoptable and impact- oriented approaches which identify the factors determining low fertility and oestrus behaviour in this species. Furthermore, role of kisspeptin needs to be explored in buffalo. PMID:25656203

  15. Some characteristics of vaginal prolapse in Nepali buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Sah, Shyam Kishore; Nakao, Toshihiko

    2003-11-01

    Prolapse of vagina is one of the important maternal abnormalities during pregnancy in cattle and buffaloes. A field investigation was carried out on 26 Murrah graded buffaloes to study clinical characteristics of vaginal prolapse in buffaloes in Nepal. Fifty-seven percent of the 26 buffaloes with vaginal prolapse were either heifers or in first lactation. Sixty-five percent of the cases were in seventh month of pregnancy or later. About three quarters of the cases occurred between June and October. Twelve cases (63%) of the 19 animals excluding 7 heifers had a history of vaginal prolapse in previous gestations. A half of the buffaloes were showing prolapse of the vagina even when they were in standing position and showing moderate or vigorous straining. After the conventional treatments, twenty-three buffaloes retained the replaced vagina and calved normally. One animal aborted although the vagina was retained. Two buffaloes had severest degree of vaginal prolapse complicated with edema, injury and cyanosis, and they did not respond to the treatment. The two buffaloes had frequently recurrent prolapse and subsequently died. Early detection and prompt treatment may be imperative to control the vaginal prolapse in buffaloes. PMID:14665751

  16. Buffalo district heating system design and construction

    SciTech Connect

    Oliker, I.

    1987-11-01

    This report addresses the introduction of district heating in Buffalo, NY from feasibility study to implementation. The reemergence of district heating in the US and associated advantages are reviewed. Advanced piping technology which has enabled district heating to compete economically with alternative technologies is summarized. Identification and analysis of the customer heat load considered in downtown Buffalo for the pilot system and future expansion is discussed. Various options for initiating construction of a district heating system were considered as exemplified by the configuration for the pilot system which was selected to serve five downtown buildings. A conceptual plan is presented which permits the system to expand in an economically viable manner. The report concludes with an economic analysis which simulates the operation and expansion of the system. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. The reproductive pattern and efficiency of female buffaloes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Singh; A. S. Nanda; G. P. Adams

    2000-01-01

    Buffaloes play a prominent role in rural livestock production, particularly in Asia. Reproductive efficiency is the primary factor affecting productivity and is hampered in female buffalo by (i) inherent late maturity, (ii) poor estrus expression in summer, (iii) distinct seasonal reproductive patterns, and (iv) prolonged intercalving intervals. Ovarian function is central to these issues; hence, the focal point of this

  18. "Just Following the Buffalo": Origins of a Montana Metis Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Martha Harroun

    2006-01-01

    By 1879 the vast buffalo herds were all but gone from the Great Plains. Many of the remaining animals had moved south from the Milk River of northern Montana and Alberta into the Judith Basin of central Montana. In these rich grasslands, for a few more years, life went on as it had for centuries. Following the buffalo came many Indian bands, as…

  19. Tracing movement of African buffalo in southern Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Vosloo; A. D. S. Bastos; A. Michel; G. R. Thomson

    2001-01-01

    Summary Genetic characterisation of two pathogens, namely foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus and Mycobacterium bovis, isolated from African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in southern Africa was used to determine the origin of buffalo in situations where the source of infection was obscure. By determining the phylogenetic relatedness of various FMD virus isolates using partial sequencing of the main antigenic determinant,

  20. Cytogenetic studies of buffaloes in Romania Brndu&jadnr;a Elena LIVESCU

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Cytogenetic studies of buffaloes in Romania Brându&jadnr;a Elena LIVESCU Genetics Department, Research Institute for Cattle Bredding 8113 Corbeanca, Romania The karyotype of two buffalo populations chromosomes. Our results support the view that the buffaloes from Romania belong to the same Asiatic buffalo

  1. University at Buffalo The State University of New York Interactive Exploration of

    E-print Network

    Pei, Jian

    University at Buffalo The State University of New York Interactive Exploration of Coherent Patterns University at Buffalo University at Buffalo The State University of New York 08.25.03 #12;University at Buffalo The State University of New York Microarray Technology http://www.ipam.ucla.edu/programs/fg2000

  2. EVALUATION OF POPULATION EFFECTS OF BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS IN FREE-RANGING AFRICAN BUFFALO ( SYNCERUS CAFFER )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy C. Rodwell; Ian J. Whyte; Walter M. Boyce

    2001-01-01

    We examined data from 3,743 buffalo (Syncerus caffer) culled between 1991 and 1998 in Kruger National Park, South Africa, to evaluate effects of bovine tuberculosis on the buffalo population and examine risk factors of bovine tuberculosis. We found no evidence that bovine tuberculosis affected fertility or lactation status of female buffalo, but adult buffalo .3 years old were underrepresented in

  3. Effect of Stream Impoundment in Tennessee on the Fish Populations of Tributary Streams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Ruhr

    1957-01-01

    Data from a statewide survey of warm water streams in Tennessee were used to determine the extent to which gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), carp (Cyprinus carpio), smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus), and drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) inhabit smallmouth bass-rock bass streams. Reproduction of those species in tributary streams was minor or absent. By comparing samples from streams that were accessible from an

  4. Interspecific Comparisons and the Potential Importance of Nutrient Excretion by Benthic Fishes in a Large Reservoir

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith B. Gido

    2002-01-01

    Fishes can provide an important link between benthic and pelagic habitats by removing nutrients from sediments and excreting them into the water column. The relative importance of nutrients excreted by fishes to ecosystem productivity may vary among species and with abiotic conditions. I measured excretion rates of three benthic feeding fishes, gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum, smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus, and

  5. National Science Foundation boosts area research -2005-11-16 http://buffalo.bizjournals.com/buffalo/stories/2005/11/14/daily22.html 1 of 2 12/1/2005 3:05 PM

    E-print Network

    Miller, Russ

    National Science Foundation boosts area research - 2005-11-16 http://buffalo.bizjournals.com/buffaloNews by Markets More News and FeaturesMore News and Features Subscribe to Business First of Buffalo Home » Buffalo at Buffalo will share in an $800,000 National Science Foundation award to establish a computational grid

  6. University of Buffalo Teaching & Learning Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    For folks studying evolutionary biology, this collection from the University of Buffalo's Teaching and Learning Center is a gem. The site contains materials that cover sixteen different animals in a form that resembles a digital image narrative. Visitors can view multiple, fully labeled external and internal views and details of each animal. These materials were developed by Professor Clyde F. Herreid and a team of librarians, graduate student assistants and other staff. Users can browse around by subject heading (such as grasshoppers) or they can also search the entire collection. Each specimen is very well marked and it's a great way to learn about the world of evolutionary biology.

  7. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Bigmouth Buffalo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Elizabeth A.

    1983-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for Bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus), a freshwater fish. The models are scaled to produce an indices of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for freshwater areas of the continental United States. Other habitat suitability models found in the literature are also included. Habitat suitability indices (HSI's) are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  8. Agricultural Energy Conservation Project. Buffalo County target area. Progress report, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Bockstadter, T.L.; Eisenhauer, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    As part of the Agriculture Energy Conservation Project, an irrigation management demonstration program was begun in Buffalo County. Irrigation scheduling, furrow irrigation management, center pivot management, and interrow tillage practices were demonstrated on five fields in the county. This project demonstrates that irrigation scheduling (the proper timing of irrigations and the proper application amount) and pumping plant testing are important to reduce the amount of energy and water consumed by irrigation. Proper distribution of water throughout the field is also an important consideration regardless of the type of system being used.

  9. PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE This article was downloaded by: [University at Buffalo, the State University of New York (SUNY)

    E-print Network

    Wu, Changxu (Sean)

    PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE This article was downloaded by: [University at Buffalo, the State, State University of New York (SUNY)-Buffalo, Buffalo, New York b Research Institute on Addictions, State University of New York (SUNY)-Buffalo, Buffalo, New York Online publication date: 20 August 2010 To cite

  10. Phylogeography of the African buffalo based on mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal loci: Pleistocene origin and population expansion of the Cape buffalo subspecies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hooft van W. F; A. F. Groen; H. H. T. Prins

    2002-01-01

    Population genetics and phylogeography of the African buffalo ( Syncerus caffer ) are inferred from genetic diversity at mitochondrial D-loop hypervariable region I sequences and a Y-chromosomal microsatellite. Three buffalo subspecies from different parts of Africa are included. Nucleotide diversity of the subspecies Cape buffalo at hypervariable region I is high, with little differentiation between populations. A mutation rate of

  11. Genetic Variation and Phylogenetic Relationships of Indian Buffaloes of Uttar Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Jyoti; Salar, R. K.; Banerjee, Priyanka; S, Upasna; Tantia, M. S.; Vijh, R. K.

    2013-01-01

    India possesses a total buffalo population of 105 million out of which 26.1% inhabit Uttar Pradesh. The buffalo of Uttar Pradesh are described as nondescript or local buffaloes. Currently, there is no report about the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationship and matrilineal genetic structure of these buffaloes. To determine the origin and genetic diversity of UP buffaloes, we sequenced and analysed the mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequences in 259 samples from entire Uttar Pradesh. One hundred nine haplotypes were identified in UP buffaloes that were defined by 96 polymorphic sites. We implemented neutrality tests to assess signatures of recent historical demographic events like Tajima’s D test and Fu’s Fs test. The phylogenetic studies revealed that there was no geographic differentiation and UP buffaloes had a single maternal lineage while buffaloes of Eastern UP were distinctive from rest of the UP buffaloes. PMID:25049904

  12. Department of Biomedical Engineering The University at Buffalo, The State University of New York seeks faculty at all ranks

    E-print Network

    Adams, Mark

    Department of Biomedical Engineering The University at Buffalo, The State Engineering Department (www.bme.buffalo.edu). The Biomedical Engineering Department and the School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences at the University at Buffalo. Over

  13. 77 FR 27487 - License Amendment Request From The State University of New York, University of Buffalo Reactor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ...University of New York, University of Buffalo Reactor Facility AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...resource@nrc.gov. The University of Buffalo Decommissioning Plan and License Amendment...University of New York, University of Buffalo requesting approval of a...

  14. Flood characteristics of the Buffalo River at Tyler Bend, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neely, Braxtel L.

    1987-01-01

    The Buffalo River is located in the Ozark Mountains in north-central Arkansas. Tyler Bend is on the Buffalo River about 1.5 miles upstream from U.S. Highway 65. The National Park Service is developing several recreational park sites along this scenic river. The magnitude, frequency, duration and velocities of floods are primary factors needed for establishing guidelines for developing facilities and managing park sites. The Park Service plans to develop park facilities at Tyler Bend and needs flood information at this site. This report provides information on the 100-, 75-, 50-, 30-, 20-, 10-, and 5-year floods on the Buffalo River at Tyler Bend. It was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service and is based on data collected during the December 1982 flood, gaging station data for the Buffalo River near St. Joe, Arkansas and a Statewide flood-frequency report. (Lantz-PTT)

  15. INDUSTRIAL WASTE AND PRETREATMENT IN THE BUFFALO MUNICIPAL SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The requirements and affects of the combined treatment of industrial and domestic wastewaters were investigated for the Buffalo Sewer Authority's sewerage system. A comprehensive industrial waste survey was performed to obtain the required background information on industrial dis...

  16. Molecular Dynamics Studies on the Buffalo Prion Protein

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jiapu

    2015-01-01

    It was reported that buffalo is a low susceptibility species resisting to TSEs (Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies) (same as rabbits, horses and dogs). TSEs, also called prion diseases, are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases that affect a wide variety of species (in humans prion diseases are (v)CJDs, GSS, FFI, and kulu etc). It was reported that buffalo is a low susceptibility species resisting to prion diseases (as rabbits, dogs, horses). In molecular structures, these neurodegenerative diseases are caused by the conversion from a soluble normal cellular prion protein, predominantly with alpha-helices, into insoluble abnormally folded infectious prions, rich in beta-sheets. This paper studies the molecular structure and structural dynamics of buffalo prion protein, in order to find out the reason why buffaloes are resistant to prion diseases. We first did molecular modeling a homology structure constructed by one mutation at residue 143 from the Nuclear Magnetic Resonanc...

  17. Efficiency of ciprofloxacin for bacterial control, post-thaw quality, and in vivo fertility of buffalo spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Rakha, B A; Andrabi, S M H; Qadeer, S; Iqbal, R; Ullah, N

    2013-09-01

    Ciprofloxacin (CP) was evaluated for bacterial control, post-thaw quality, and fertility of buffalo semen. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus sp., Corynebacterium sp., Micrococcus sp., and Staphylococcus sp. were isolated from buffalo semen. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Corynebacterium sp., and Micrococcus sp. were resistant to streptomycin, whereas P. aeruginosa and Proteus sp. were resistant to penicillin. All bacteria were susceptible to CP. In vitro dose toxicity was assessed in sodium citrate buffer containing 0, 200 to 2000 ?g/mL of CP. CP up to 1000 ?g/mL was found nontoxic to motility and viability of buffalo sperm. For post-thaw quality, buffalo semen was frozen in Tris-citric acid extender containing streptomycin-penicillin (SP; 1000 ?g/mL-1000 IU/mL) or CP 600 ?g/mL and was assessed for total aerobic bacterial count (post-thaw), motility, plasma membrane integrity, viability at 0, 2, and 4 hours post-thaw. At 4 hours post-thaw, plasma membrane integrity (%) was higher (P < 0.05) in extender containing CP than SP. Total aerobic bacterial count was 0.00 in extender containing CP compared with 0.07 × 10(4) cfu/mL with SP. To assess the in vivo fertility rate, semen (two bulls) frozen in Tris-citric acid extender containing SP or CP was used to inseminate, and 400 inseminations (200/group) were recorded. Higher (P ? 0.05) fertility rate was recorded with CP (55%) compared with SP (41%). In conclusion, use of CP in extender was efficient to control the bacterial contamination without compromising the post-thaw quality and fertility of cryopreserved water buffalo bull semen. PMID:23746693

  18. Sequence diversity and molecular evolutionary rates between buffalo and cattle.

    PubMed

    Moaeen-ud-Din, M; Bilal, G

    2015-02-01

    Identification of genes of importance regarding production traits in buffalo is impaired by a paucity of genomic resources. Choice to fill this gap is to exploit data available for cow. The cross-species application of comparative genomics tools is potential gear to investigate the buffalo genome. However, this is dependent on nucleotide sequences similarity. In this study, gene diversity between buffalo and cattle was determined using 86 gene orthologues. There was approximately 3% difference in all genes in terms of nucleotide diversity and 0.267 ± 0.134 in amino acids, indicating the possibility for successfully using cross-species strategies for genomic studies. There were significantly higher non-synonymous substitutions both in cattle and buffalo; however, there was similar difference in terms of dN- dS (4.414 versus 4.745) in buffalo and cattle, respectively. Higher rate of non-synonymous substitutions at similar level in buffalo and cattle indicated a similar positive selection pressure. Results for relative rate test were assessed with the chi-squared test. There was no significance difference on unique mutations between cattle and buffalo lineages at synonymous sites. However, there was a significance difference on unique mutations for non-synonymous sites, indicating ongoing mutagenic process that generates substitutional mutation at approximately the same rate at silent sites. Moreover, despite of common ancestry, our results indicate a different divergent time among genes of cattle and buffalo. This is the first demonstration that variable rates of molecular evolution may be present within the family Bovidae. PMID:25619307

  19. GENETIC RESOURCES AND DIVERSITY IN DAIRY BUFFALOES OF PAKISTAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. SAJJAD KHAN; NAZIR AHMAD

    Buffalo is the main dairy animal in Pakistan. There are five known buffalo breeds in the country namely: Nili, Ravi, Nili-Ravi, Kundhi and Azi Kheli (or Azakhale). Population trend is available for Nili- Ravi and Kundhi breeds and is positive. Azi-Kheli breed was included in 2006 livestock census for the first time. General production system is low-input extensive system but

  20. Repeated ovum pick-up in Italian Mediterranean buffalo cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Boni; S. Roviello; L. Zicarelli

    1996-01-01

    The potential of the ovum pick-up technique, used over a long period, was evaluated in 6 Italian Mediterranean buffalo cows that had more than 500 d open. The cows were submitted to ovum pick-up twice weekly for 2 mo. An additional 2-mo cycle of ovum pick-up was performed in 3 of the buffalo. The ovum pick-up sampling did not affect

  1. Geography & Map Resources: University of Buffalo Libraries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    It's often difficult to find high-quality and well-curated lists of materials related to geography and cartography online. However, this collection created by David J. Bertuca, the subject librarian for geography at the University of Buffalo Libraries, serves as a rich trove of resources. The items here are divided into over a dozen headings, including Government Resources and Map Collections. Each area contains at least ten offerings with Bertucaâ??s own salient commentary on the contents of each site, tool, collection, or application. The Selected Blogs feature is a real treat as it includes links to the fun and informative worlds of Google Maps Mania and Strange Maps. Visitors can also contact Bertuca directly to suggest links or to inquire about other resources.

  2. SUNY-Buffalo Libraries Digital Initiative

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Website, created and maintained by the University at Buffalo Libraries, offers extensive links to full-text, online versions of popular government documents on such topics as aging, the Census, employment, consumer information, copyrights, domestic violence, health, education, the environment, home safety, parenting, small businesses, social security, taxes, travel, and wildlife. Some of the sections are updated more recently than others, but all of them are still actively maintained and provide HTML or .pdf versions of the kinds of government documents that ordinary citizens may actually want to consult. Another portion of the site contains extensive materials taken from the library's Love Canal Collection. This section provides background information on the Love Canal contamination which occurred in the 1970s and the controversy over its effects on the surrounding populace as well as numerous pertinent documents, including EPA analyses, court opinions, reports by interfaith advocates for government and industry action, and much more.

  3. EFFECT OF RUST ON THE WETTABILITY OF STEEL BY WATER W. Lu and D.D.L. Chung1

    E-print Network

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    EFFECT OF RUST ON THE WETTABILITY OF STEEL BY WATER W. Lu and D.D.L. Chung1 Composite Materials Research Laboratory, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260-4400, USA (Received-carbon steel in water, was found to improve the wettability of steel by water. The advancing contact angle

  4. Liquefaction potential for New Uork state: a preliminary report on sites in Manhattan and Buffalo. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Budhu, M.; Vijayakumar, V.; Giese, R.F.; Baumgras, L.

    1987-08-31

    The chances of a major earthquake occurring in New York in the near future is low. However, New York has experienced and no doubt will continue to experience moderate earthquakes. Catastrophic damage due to structural causes is not likely to occur for non-masonry buildings, but ground failure due to soil liquefaction is possible. It appears from the study that areas that lie adjacent to bodies of water (the Harlem River in Manhattan and Lake Erie in Buffalo) are liable to liquefy.

  5. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE WETTABILITY OF STEEL, CARBON, AND POLYETHYLENE FIBERS BY WATER

    E-print Network

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE WETTABILITY OF STEEL, CARBON, AND POLYETHYLENE FIBERS BY WATER W. Lu, X at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260-4400, USA (Received March 9, 1998; in final form April 10, 1998) ABSTRACT The wettability of fibers by water was found to increase in this order: polyethylene fiber, steel fiber

  6. Selectively maintained paleoviruses in Holarctic water fleas reveal an ancient origin for phleboviruses

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Derek

    Selectively maintained paleoviruses in Holarctic water fleas reveal an ancient origin of Biological Sciences, The State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260, USA b A.N. Severtsov fresh- water habitats and has been the subject of multidisciplinary study for over half a century

  7. Fish communities of the Buffalo River Basin and nearby basins of Arkansas and their relation to selected environmental factors, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James C.

    2004-01-01

    The Buffalo River lies in north-central Arkansas and is a tributary of the White River. Most of the length of the Buffalo River lies within the boundaries of Buffalo National River, a unit of the National Park Service; the upper 24 river kilometers lie within the boundary of the Ozark National Forest. Much of the upper and extreme lower parts of the basin on the south side of the Buffalo River is within the Ozark National Forest. During the summers of 2001 and 2002, fish communities were sampled at 52 sites in the study area that included the Buffalo River Basin and selected smaller nearby basins within the White River Basin in north-central Arkansas. Water quality (including nutrient and bacteria concentrations) and several other environmental factors (such as stream size, land use, substrate size, and riparian shading) also were measured. A total of 56 species of fish were collected from sites within the Buffalo River Basin in 2001 and 2002. All 56 species also were collected from within the boundaries of Buffalo National River. Twenty-two species were collected from headwater sites on tributaries of the Buffalo River; 27 species were collected from sites within or immediately adjacent to the Ozark National Forest. The list of species collected from Buffalo National River is similar to the list of species reported by previous investigators. Species richness at sites on the mainstem of the Buffalo River generally increased in a downstream direction. The number of species collected (both years combined) increased from 17 at the most upstream site to 38 near the mouth of the Buffalo River. In 2001 and 2002, a total of 53 species of fish were collected from sites outside the Buffalo River Basin. Several fish community metrics varied among sites in different site categories (mainstem, large tributary, small tributary, headwater, and developed out-of-basin sites). Median relative abundances of stonerollers ranged from about 25 to 55 percent and were highest at headwater and developed out-of-basin sites and lowest at mainstem sites. The relative abundances at the headwater and developed out-of-basin sites were significantly different from the relative abundances at the mainstem sites. Percentages of individuals of algivorous/herbivorous, invertivorous, and piscivorous species at headwater sites were significantly lower than values at mainstem and developed out-of-basin sites. Percentages of individuals of invertivorous species at mainstem sites were significantly higher than values at small tributary, headwater, and developed out-of-basin sites. Percentages of top carnivores at mainstem sites were significantly higher than values at tributary and headwater sites. The numbers of darter, sculpin, plus madtom species at mainstem, large tributary, and developed out-of-basin sites were significantly higher than values at other sites, and the values at small tributary sites and headwater sites were each significantly different from values at the other four types of sites. The number of lithophilic spawning species at large tributary sites was not significantly different from values at mainstem and developed out-of-basin sites, but values for small tributary and headwater sites each were significantly different from values for all other categories. Index of biotic integrity scores varied among the site categories. Scores for mainstem sites were significantly larger than all but large tributary site scores. Scores for headwater sites were significantly smaller than mainstem and large tributary site scores. Several analyses of the data described in this report suggest that drainage area is the most important single factor influencing fish communities of the Buffalo River Basin and nearby basins. Species richness increases with increasing drainage area and some species are restricted to smaller streams while other species are more common in larger streams. Some community metrics also are related to land use and related factors

  8. 8. View of DL&W complex from across Buffalo River. Two ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View of DL&W complex from across Buffalo River. Two passenger buildings are at center, with train shed extending toward right. Skyway shows at top left, with Naval Park construction below. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Lackawanna Terminal, Main Street & Buffalo River, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  9. Habitat preferences of the secretive forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus) in Central Africa

    E-print Network

    Penteriani, Vincenzo

    Habitat preferences of the secretive forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus) in Central Africa M December 2005; accepted 3 May 2006 doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00196.x Abstract The forest buffalo Syncerus caffer nanus is one of the three subspecies of African buffalo inhabiting the rainforests

  10. David J. Hemmer Campus Address dhemmer@buffalo.edu Home Address

    E-print Network

    David J. Hemmer Campus Address dhemmer@buffalo.edu Home Address 244 Mathematics Building 30 Opal Court Buffalo, NY 14260 East Amherst, NY 14051 716-645-8775 716-688-8418 EDUCATION: 2001 Ph Dartmouth College EMPLOYMENT: 2012-Present Professor and Chairman, University at Buffalo 2007- 2012

  11. 75 FR 13235 - FM Table of Allotments, Buffalo and Centerville, Texas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ...RM-11576] FM Table of Allotments, Buffalo and Centerville, Texas AGENCY: Federal...Channel 278A for vacant Channel 299A at Buffalo, Texas, and Channel 267A for vacant...states that the channel substitutions at Buffalo and Centerville, Texas, serve the...

  12. David J. Hemmer Campus Address dhemmer@math.buffalo.edu Home Address

    E-print Network

    David J. Hemmer Campus Address dhemmer@math.buffalo.edu Home Address 244 Mathematics Building 30 Opal Court Buffalo, NY 14260 East Amherst, NY 14051 716-645-8775 716-688-8418 EDUCATION: 2001 Ph College EMPLOYMENT: 2012-Present Professor and Department Chairman, University at Buffalo, SUNY 2007- 2012

  13. Ecological cues, gestation length, and birth timing in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer)

    E-print Network

    Getz, Wayne M.

    Ecological cues, gestation length, and birth timing in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) S.J. Ryan and parturition in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and the synchrony of birth timing with resource cues period of buffalo has been estimated to be around 11 months, these findings suggest that improved protein

  14. New Maximum Age of Bigmouth Buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus Craig P. Paukertl

    E-print Network

    New Maximum Age of Bigmouth Buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus Craig P. Paukertl and James M. Long University, Brookings, SD 57007 INTRODUCfION and METHODS Bigmouth buffalo, lctio/ms cyprinelllls, inhabit exists. The oldest reported bigmouth buffalo was 20 yr (696 mm total length) from a Saskatchewan Lake (3

  15. The effect of Urea-Molasses-Mineral Blocks on rumen parameters and growth performance of buffaloes

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The effect of Urea-Molasses-Mineral Blocks on rumen parameters and growth performance of buffaloes on growing buffaloes in order to study the effect of UMMB supplementation on rumen parameters and growth 3 kg. The OM content of UMMB was 68.2 % and CP 35.9 % on the DM basis. Rumen fistulated buffaloes (4

  16. News and Views The abundance of eland, buffalo, and wild pigs in Middle and Later

    E-print Network

    News and Views The abundance of eland, buffalo, and wild pigs in Middle and Later Stone Age sites surrounding both coastal sites housed exceptional numbers of buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and bushpig of buffalo and bushpig and the rarity of eland. The unanticipated abundance of eland in the KRM MSA fauna led

  17. Disentangling association patterns in fissionfusion societies using African buffalo as an example

    E-print Network

    Getz, Wayne M.

    COMMENTARY Disentangling association patterns in fission­fusion societies using African buffalo of the FDI using data from African buffalo, Syncerus caffer, in the Kruger National Park. The traditional approach sug- gested that the buffalo population was spatially and temporally structured into four

  18. Novel SNP Discovery in African Buffalo, Syncerus caffer, Using High-Throughput Sequencing

    E-print Network

    Steve Kemp

    Novel SNP Discovery in African Buffalo, Syncerus caffer, Using High-Throughput Sequencing Nikki le The African buffalo, Syncerus caffer, is one of the most abundant and ecologically important species and genomics studies. We sequenced pools of Cape buffalo DNA from a total of 9 animals, on an ABI SOLiD4

  19. 76 FR 16294 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Buffalo Bayou, Mile 4.3, Houston, Harris County, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ...1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Buffalo Bayou, Mile 4.3, Houston, Harris...operation regulation for the drawbridge across Buffalo Bayou, mile 4.3, Houston, Harris...Basis and Purpose The drawbridge across Buffalo Bayou, mile 4.3, was removed and...

  20. University at Buffalo CENTER FOR COMPUTATIONAL RESEARCH CCRUB High-Performance Computing + High

    E-print Network

    Pitman, Bruce

    University at Buffalo CENTER FOR COMPUTATIONAL RESEARCH CCRUB High-Performance Computing + High of Mathematics CCR #12;University at Buffalo CENTER FOR COMPUTATIONAL RESEARCH CCRUB Major Initial Focus of CCRGlobal Climate Change #12;University at Buffalo CENTER FOR COMPUTATIONAL RESEARCH CCRUB High Performance

  1. A comprehensive review on the composition and properties of buffalo milk

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A comprehensive review on the composition and properties of buffalo milk Mohamed H. Abd El and properties of buffalo milk (BM). Buffalo milk has higher levels of fat, lactose, protein, ash and Ca not present in cow milk (CM). The fat globules of BM are larger but are less stable and contained less

  2. Distribution of oxidases in the testis of buffalo, goat and ram : an histochemical study

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Distribution of oxidases in the testis of buffalo, goat and ram : an histochemical study G. S in the testis of buffalo, goat and ram. The results in these three species were more or less similar. Peroxidase of buffalo, goat and ram. (1) Present address :Reproductive Biology Lab., Dept. of Biology, Guru Nanak Dev

  3. Spatial properties of a forest buffalo herd and individual positioning as a response to environmental cues

    E-print Network

    Penteriani, Vincenzo

    -Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic, studied a herd of forest buffaloes (Syncerus caffer nanusARTICLE Spatial properties of a forest buffalo herd and individual positioning as a response properties noted in forest during the wet season. Moreover, forest buffaloes had a more aggregated spatial

  4. SOME BEHAVIORAL ASPECTS OF FOREST BUFFALO (SYNCERUS CAFFER NANUS): FROM HERD TO

    E-print Network

    Penteriani, Vincenzo

    and social interactions of forest buffalo in natural forest clearings that represent crucial places in the rain forest for feeding and social interactions among individuals. Data were collected from a buffalo, herd size, rain forest, social behavior, Syncerus caffer nanus The forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer

  5. Information summary, Area of Concern: Buffalo River, New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.R.; Brandon, D.L.; Simmers, J.W.; Tatem, H.E.; Skogerbee, J.G.

    1991-03-01

    The Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO) is carrying out a 5-year study and demonstration project, Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS), with emphasis on removal of toxic pollutants from bottom sediments. Information from the ARCS program is to be used to guide development of Remedial Action Plans for 42 identified Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs). The AOCs are areas where serious impairment of beneficial uses of water or biota (drinking, swimming, fishing, navigation, etc.) is known to exist, or where environmental quality criteria are exceeded to the point that such impairment is likely. Priority consideration was given to five AOCs, including Buffalo River, N.Y. The WES Environmental Lab. reviewed existing data and information for each of these five AOCs. The approach used was to bring together WES scientists who have been conducting research on aspects of contaminant mobility in the aquatic environment to develop a list of information required to evaluate the potential for contaminant mobility. This report summarizes the information obtained for the Buffalo River. Topics include: Fish tissue concentrations, Groundwater, Land use, Metal contamination, Pesticides, Point and nonpoint source discharges, Risk assessment, Spills, Toxicity bioassay, and Water quality.

  6. Developing forage based rations for lactating buffaloes Department of Animal Nutrition, CCS Haryana Agricultural University Hisar, 125 004 Haryana, India

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Developing forage based rations for lactating buffaloes MA Akbar Department of Animal Nutrition but its crude protein content, and its intake by the buffaloes are low which could be overcome by mixing on nutrients utilization and milk production in Murrah buffaloes. Twelve Murrah buffaloes were randomly divided

  7. Effects of Solubilized Water on the Relaxation Dynamics Surrounding 6-Propionyl-2-(N,N-dimethylamino)naphthalene

    E-print Network

    Cartwright, Alexander N.

    Effects of Solubilized Water on the Relaxation Dynamics Surrounding 6-Propionyl-2-(N at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14260-3000 We report on the picosecond time-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim]- [PF6]) at 298 K as a function of solubilized water in the [bmim][PF6

  8. National Collegiate Water Ski Association Tournament

    E-print Network

    . The frigid 52 degree waters of Buffalo Springs Lake in Lubbock, Texas made for a numbing start to the 1500mWater Ski National Collegiate Water Ski Association Tournament October 16-18, 2008 Cycling Team Collegiate Mountain Bike Nationals October 24-25, 2008 Men's Water Polo Collegiate Water Polo Association

  9. Occurrence of Chrysomya bezziana in a buffalo in Jammu.

    PubMed

    Katoch, R; Godara, R; Yadav, Anish; Sharma, Shikha; Ahmad, Irshad

    2014-12-01

    Cutaneous myiasis caused by the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, is a commonly occurring infestation of livestock and man in Southeast Asian and African countries. A buffalo, aged five years was presented with traumatic wound in the abnormal growth at the base of tail, housing maggots in it. Based on morphological features, the collected larvae were identified as C. bezziana larvae. The first ever occurrence of C. bezziana in a buffalo from this part of country and its public health significance have been discussed. PMID:25320496

  10. Writing on Water, A Lightweight Soft-State Tracking Framework for Dense Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    E-print Network

    Demirbas, Murat

    Writing on Water, A Lightweight Soft-State Tracking Framework for Dense Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Xuming Lu Murat Demirbas Computer Science and Engineering Department University at Buffalo, SUNY Email: xuminglu, demirbas@cse.buffalo.edu Abstract-- In a mobile ad hoc network, tracking protocols need to deal

  11. Memory and myth at the Buffalo Bill Museum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg Dickinson; Brian L. Ott; Aoki Eric

    2005-01-01

    Few places tell the myth of the American frontier more vigorously than the Buffalo Bill Museum does in Cody, Wyoming. Traveling to the museum through the ‘Western’ landscape of Wyoming into the foothills of the Rockies prepares visitors for the tale of Western settlement. This narrative, which works to secure a particular vision of the West, draws upon the material

  12. Paleoecology of Early eocene strata near Buffalo, Wyoming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. V. Durkin; F. J. Rich

    1986-01-01

    Palynological investigation has helped illustrate the paleoecology of a vertical section of strata from the Wasatch Formation between the Healy and Walters coal burns near Buffalo, Wyoming. Numerous silicified logs and stumps of cypress and sequoia have been preserved at the site and drew initial attention to it. Flood-basin deposits enclose the trees and include sandstones, siltstones, shale, and coal

  13. ARTHRITIS AND NATURE'S JOINTS NEIL E. WILLIAMS (University at Buffalo)

    E-print Network

    Williams, Neil E.

    ARTHRITIS AND NATURE'S JOINTS NEIL E. WILLIAMS (University at Buffalo) forthcoming: MIT Press Carving Nature at its Joints ­ Topics in Contemporary Philosophy V. 8. Abstract The thought that diseases form natural kinds tends not to sit well with the essentialist treatment of natural kinds

  14. Buffalo Bill' Wild West and John M. Burke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason Berger

    2002-01-01

    Public relations and advertising textbooks either ignore or treat the old fashioned press agent with contempt. Yet the origin of modern day sports and entertainment promotion dates back to a group of press agents who made important contributions to the marketing communication tactics we take for granted. From 1884 to 1917, the promotion of Buffalo Bill' Wild West incorporated advertising,

  15. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the omasum in cows and buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Mohindroo, Jitender; Kumar, Ashwani; Sangwan, Vandana; Udehiya, Rahul; Singh, Simrat Sagar

    2008-01-01

    The study was conducted to establish the ultrasonographic features of the healthy and impacted omasum in cows and buffaloes. Scanning was done using a 3.5 MHz microconvex transducer. In healthy buffaloes, the omasum could be scanned at the eighth to ninth intercostal space as a round or oval structure having thick echogenic wall with echogenic leaves. Gradual slow movements of omasal leaves could also be seen in real-time B-mode. The omasum appeared to be very clear, large, and close to the transducer at the start of the omasal contraction, and as the contraction progressed the omasum retracted away from the transducer and became very small. In healthy cows the omasum was seen as a crescent-shaped structure with an echogenic wall. The contents of the omasum or omasal leaves could not be visualized. Omasal contractility was not as prominent as in buffaloes. In buffaloes, the impacted omasum appeared amotile, the omasal leaves were not visible, and the omasum as a whole gave a prominent distal acoustic shadow. In cows, the impaction could be diagnosed based on amotile omasum covering a large area on the right side. Ultrasonography was found to be helpful in subjective assessment of omasal impaction but could not aid in diagnosing the severity of impaction. PMID:18546788

  16. AROMATIC AMINES IN AND NEAR THE BUFFALO RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three sediment samples taken from the Buffalo River and two soil samples taken near its bank have been analyzed for 2-propanol-extractable, basic organic compounds by using GC/MS. Eleven aromatic amines related to the commercial production of malachite green and crystal violet we...

  17. No Retreat: Lorna Peterson--University at Buffalo, NY

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    When Clark Atlanta University announced in 2003 it would close its library school, Lorna Peterson, a library educator at the University at Buffalo, NY, mounted a campaign to save the program, which has graduated more black library leaders than any other. "I did not want this to happen without a fight. It cannot be said that librarians, Friends of…

  18. Native American Casinos: The New Buffalo? Jeremy Bylund

    E-print Network

    Jarvis, Tyler J.

    1 Native American Casinos: The New Buffalo? Jeremy Bylund The Federal Government of the United States views Native American gaming as the primary tool for economic revitalization on native research about the impact of Indian gambling on the Native American population as a whole. The evidences

  19. ECOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS OF BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS IN AFRICAN BUFFALO HERDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex Caron; Paul C. Cross; Johan T. du Toit

    2003-01-01

    Following the recent invasion of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) into the Kruger National Park, South Africa, we conducted a study on the maintenance host, African buffalo, to investigate associations between BTB prevalence and calf:cow ratio, age structure, body condition, and endoparasite load. Statistical analyses compared herds of zero, medium (1- 40%), and high (.40%) BTB prevalence. To control for ecological variation

  20. Hidden Effects of Chronic Tuberculosis in African Buffalo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna E. Jolles; David V. Cooper; Simon A. Levin

    2005-01-01

    Infectious diseases can bring about population declines and local host extinctions, contributing significantly to the global biodiversity crisis. Nonetheless, studies measuring population-level effects of pathogens in wild host populations are rare, and taxonomically biased toward avian hosts and macroparasitic infections. We investigated the effects of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by the bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium bovis, on African buffalo (Syncerus caffer)

  1. Area contingency plan: Eastern Great Lakes. (COTP Buffalo)

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1994-06-30

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Eastern Great Lakes Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Buffalo Coastal Zone.

  2. University at Buffalo Technology Incubator Application for Occupancy

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    University at Buffalo Technology Incubator Application for Occupancy The information requested here will assist both the Incubator and your business in determining if the Incubator facility is appropriate for the long-term successes of the Incubator and you. It is essential that the information contained within

  3. Teat anatomy affects requirements for udder preparation in Mediterranean buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Ambord, Sarah; Stoffel, Michael H; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2010-11-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the interrelation between teat anatomy and machine milking in dairy buffaloes raised in Switzerland. A 3-min pre-stimulation induced milk ejection before cluster attachment in most cases and caused an optimal milk removal during machine milking. In an additional experiment, longitudinal cross-section ultrasound was obtained before and after a 3-min pre-stimulation. Teat wall thickness, teat diameter, cisternal diameter and teat canal length were evaluated. It was observed that 3-min pre-stimulation dramatically reduced teat canal length whereas all the other anatomical parameters remained unchanged. The vacuum needed to open the teat canal was also measured before and after a 3-min pre-stimulation by using a special teat cup with only the mouthpiece of the liner remaining on the top of the teat cup (no liner, no pulsation). Without pre-stimulation but after wetting the teat canal by stripping one squirt of milk out of the teat, no milk could be withdrawn with a vacuum up to 39 kPa. However, after pre-stimulation, milk flow occurred in all buffaloes at a vacuum between 16 and 38 kPa. In the last experiment, the teat tissue was examined in slaughtered buffaloes and compared with teat tissue of cows. No difference was noted in histological sections and teat canal length was similar in cows and buffaloes. Proximal to the teat canal, the teat did not pass into an open cistern but the lumen was collapsed. In conclusion, buffaloes need to be well pre-stimulated because the tissue above the teat canal provides additional teat closure before milk ejection. Therefore, milk can only be obtained after pre-stimulation. PMID:20822559

  4. 46 CFR 401.407 - Basic rates and charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port Huron...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to...Area 4 (Undesignated Waters): Service Lake Erie (East ofSoutheast Shoal) Buffalo Six-Hour Period ...b) Area 5 (Designated Waters): Any point on or...

  5. 46 CFR 401.407 - Basic rates and charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port Huron...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port...a) Area 4 (Undesignated Waters): Service Lake Erie (East of Southeast Shoal) Buffalo Six-hour period $791... (b) Area 5 (Designated Waters): Any point on or in...

  6. 46 CFR 401.407 - Basic rates and charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port Huron...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port...a) Area 4 (Undesignated Waters): Service Lake Erie (East of Southeast Shoal) Buffalo Six-hour Period $760... (b) Area 5 (Designated Waters): Any point on or in...

  7. 46 CFR 401.407 - Basic rates and charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port Huron...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port...a) Area 4 (Undesignated Waters): Service Lake Erie (East of Southeast Shoal) Buffalo 6-Hour Period $828... (b) Area 5 (Designated Waters): Any point on or in...

  8. 46 CFR 401.407 - Basic rates and charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port Huron...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port...a) Area 4 (Undesignated Waters): Service Lake Erie (East of Southeast Shoal) Buffalo 6-hour Period $849... (b) Area 5 (Designated Waters): Any point on or in...

  9. Mapping cattle copy number variations in water buffalo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copy number variation (CNV) is abundant in livestock, differing from SNPs in extent, origin and functional impact. Despite progress in CNV discovery, the nucleotide resolution architecture of most CNVs remains elusive. Using modified forms of open-source variant detection software packages, we have ...

  10. Quality of cooked ground buffalo meat treated with the crude extracts of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Suchandra; Biswas, Subhasish; Bhattacharyya, Debasish; Das, Sudip Kumar; Khan, Anupam

    2012-04-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the physico-chemical, microbial and organoleptic qualities of cooked ground buffalo meat (GBM), treated with, 1, 1.5 and 2% levels of aqueous solution of crude extract of drumstick (Moringa oleifera) leaves. The meat samples treated with 1.5% crude extract of drumstick leaves significantly (P?water holding capacity (WHC) and lowered cooking loss and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value as compared to control and other treated samples. Microbial load in terms of Total Plate Count (TPC) was found to be decreased significantly (P??0.05) difference was observed in juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability scores between the treated meat samples. PMID:23572848

  11. Outdoor Water Use Conservation through Native Plants Shapiro, Chan, Carson, Tayag Outdoor Water Use Conservation through Native Plants

    E-print Network

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    for regular turfgrass and buffalo grass (developed by UC Davis as a water efficient alternative to turfgrassOutdoor Water Use Conservation through Native Plants Shapiro, Chan, Carson, Tayag Outdoor Water Use, the front lawn is one of the greatest consumers of outdoor water use. Because of population growth, water

  12. Reservoir analysis, Pennsylvanian Tensleep formation, Little Buffalo Basin, Wyoming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. McCaleb; W. R. Emmett; K. W. Beaver

    1971-01-01

    The Little Buffalo Basin field, in NW. Wyoming on the SW. side of the Big Horn Basin, is a N.-S. asymmetric anticline 3-1\\/2 miles long, 1-1\\/2 mile wide, with about 1,000 ft of structural closure. Oil was discovered in 1943 in the Pennsylvanian Tensleep. Cumulative production has been over 30 million bbl of oil from the 1,500 acres. Reservoir energy

  13. Genetic diversity and isolation in African Buffalo ( Syncerus caffer)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Grobler; F. H. Van Der Bank

    1996-01-01

    We studied genetic diversity in 58 buffalo from the Kruger National Park (KNP) and Willem Pretorius Nature Reserve (WPNR). Thirty-three protein-encoding loci were resolved; three were polymorphic. Average heterozygosity (H) values did not differ substantially between adult and sub-adult animals from the KNP (2.65 and 2.89%, respectively), but were lower in animals from the isolated WPNR herd (H = 1.48%

  14. Theileria -infected cell line from an African buffalo ( Syncerus caffer )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erich Zweygarth; Otto Koekemoer; Antoinette I. Josemans; Natasha Rambritch; Ronel Pienaar; John Putterill; Abdalla Latif; Fred T. Potgieter

    2009-01-01

    Mononuclear cells were isolated from the peripheral blood of a buffalo infected with a Theileria sp. using density gradient centrifugation, and the cells were put into culture flasks covered by a monolayer of bovine endothelial\\u000a cells. Twenty days after culture initiation, cells containing macroschizonts were detected in Giemsa-stained smears. The first\\u000a subculture was carried out on day 45 of culture propagation.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida B:2 Strain VTCCBAA264 Isolated from Bubalus bubalis in North India

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugasundaram, K.; Boora, Ashok; Bera, B. C.; Shukla, B. N.; Anand, Taruna; Singha, Harisankar; Riyesh, Thachamvally; Virmani, N.; Barua, S.; Ahir, V. B.; Koringa, P. G.; Sajnani, M. R.; Bhat, Vaibhav D.; Rana, N.; Singh, K. P.; Malik, P.; Singh, R. K.; Joshi, C. G.

    2014-01-01

    The Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida B:2 serotype causes hemorrhagic septicemia in bubalines with high morbidity and mortality in the Indian subcontinent. We report the draft genome sequence of Pasteurella multocida strain VTCCBAA264 isolated from the small-intestine of a buffalo calf that died of high fever. PMID:25081265

  16. Nuclear Industry Support Services by the Buffalo Materials Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, L.G. (Buffalo Materials Research Center, Buffalo, NY (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The Buffalo Materials Research Center (BMRC) is located on the campus of the State University of New York at Buffalo, Principal facilities within BMRC include a 2-MW PULSTAR, low-enrichment reactor, an electron accelerator, and irradiated materials remote testing facilities. The reactor and the materials testing facilities have been utilized extensively in support of the power reactor community since 1961. This paper briefly highlights the nature and scope of this service. The BMRC is operated for the university by Buffalo Materials Research, Inc., a private for-profit company, which is a subsidiary of Materials Engineering Associates, Inc. (MEA), a Maryland-based materials testing company. A primary mission of MEA has been research on the effects of neutron irradiation on reactor structural materials, including those used for pressure vessel and piping systems. The combined resources of MEA and BMRC have played a pivotal role in the assessment of reactor pressure vessel safety both in the United States and abroad and in the development of new radiation-resistant steels.

  17. Postpartum ovarian activity in suckled and milked buffaloes.

    PubMed

    El-Foulya, M A; Kotby, E A; El-Sobhy, H E

    1976-02-01

    Postpartum ovarian activity in suckled and milked buffaloes was investigated. 70 buffaloes were alotted at random to either a suckled group or a milked group. 60 days after calving the 1st ovulation was detected in 52.4 and 69.1% of suckled and milked animals, respectively. After a postparturient period of 3 months, corresponding figures for the 2 respective groups were 76.2 and 90.5%. The percentage of animals with postpartum ovulation interval (PPOI) of more than 3 months was 23.8% for sucklers and 9.5% for milkers. Average PPOI length for suckled and milked animals was significantly different (p less than .01, 87 vs. 51 days, respectively). Percentages of animals that came into heat 2 months after calving were 19.1% for sucklers and 31% for milkers. 90 days' postpartum, 35.1% of sucklers and 66.7% of milkers showed their 1st estrus. 61.9% of nursed animals and 33.3% of the milked animals came into heat after a long postpartum estrous interval (PPEI) of more than 3 months. Average PPEI length for sucklers was significantly different from that for milkers (131.5 vs. 77.9 days, p less than .01). PPEI lengths for primipara and pluripara were 108.6 and 100.8 days, respectively. These data show that suckling in buffaloes delayed the 1st postpartum ovulation and lengthened the period of time to the 1st postpartum heat. PMID:950068

  18. The Olduvai buffalo Pelorovis and the origin of Bos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Antonio Pérez-Claros, Juan; Palombo, Maria Rita; Rook, Lorenzo; Palmqvist, Paul

    2007-09-01

    The origin of the genus Bos is a debated issue. From ˜ 0.5 Ma until historic times, the genus is well known in the Eurasian large mammal assemblages, where it is represented by Bos primigenius. This species has a highly derived cranial anatomy that shows important morphological differences from other Plio-Pleistocene Eurasian genera of the tribe Bovini such as Leptobos, Bison, Proamphibos-Hemibos, and Bubalus. The oldest clear evidence of Bos is the skull fragment ASB-198-1 from the middle Pleistocene (˜ 0.6-0.8 Ma) site of Asbole (Lower Awash Valley, Ethiopia). The first appearance of Bos in Europe is at the site of Venosa-Notarchirico, Italy (˜ 0.5-0.6 Ma). Although the origin of Bos has traditionally been connected with Leptobos and Bison, after a detailed anatomical and morphometric study we propose here a different origin, connecting the middle Pleistocene Eurasian forms of B. primigenius with the African Late Pliocene and early Pleistocene large size member of the tribe Bovini Pelorovis sensu stricto. The dispersal of the Bos lineage in Western Europe during middle Pleistocene times seems to coincide with the arrival of the Acheulean tool technology in this continent.

  19. PHARMACOKINETICS OF SULFAMETHAZINE IN BUFFALOES F.H. KHAN, M. NAWAZ1 S. ANWAR-UL-HASSAN

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PHARMACOKINETICS OF SULFAMETHAZINE IN BUFFALOES F.H. KHAN, M. NAWAZ1 S. ANWAR-UL-HASSAN Department. Material and Methods The experimental animals were 8 healthy lactating buffaloes maintained under the same conditions at the University Experimental Sta- tion. The buffaloes ranged in weight from 434 to 586 kg

  20. University at Buffalo (SUNY) Department of Industrial Engineering IE 661 Chapter 6 Flow Shops and Flexible Flow Shops

    E-print Network

    Nagi, Rakesh

    University at Buffalo (SUNY) Department of Industrial Engineering IE 661 Chapter 6 Flow Shops and Flexible Flow Shops Chapter 6 Flow Shops & Flexible Flow Shops #12;University at Buffalo (SUNY) Department FFC|pij = pj| XXX Divergent FFC|pij = pj| Cj Cmax paramount #12;University at Buffalo (SUNY