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Sample records for water buffalo bubalus

  1. A review of Neospora caninum in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Reichel, Michael P; McAllister, Milton M; Nasir, Amar; Moore, Dadin P

    2015-09-15

    A number of countries in the world have reported infections with Neospora caninum in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), from Africa to Asia, Europe and South America and recently Australia. In general, clinical manifestations (such as abortion) seem rare, which has raised the prospect that buffalo may be inherently resistant to clinical effects of N. caninum infection. Worldwide, the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection (as a measure of exposure determined by the detection of antibody) in buffalo is high, at approximately 48%. This reported seroprevalence is three or four times higher than that reported from the world's cattle populations, which have collective seroprevalence rates of 16.1% for dairy cattle and 11.5% for beef cattle. However, there is a lack of standardisation in seroprevalence studies and some studies may well under-estimate the true level of infection. Epidemiologic evidence supports post-natal transmission, and in utero transmission has also been demonstrated. The causes for water buffalo to have markedly higher seroprevalence but apparently lower neosporosis abortion rates than cattle warrant further investigation. PMID:26298507

  2. Sarcocystis dubeyi (Huong and Uggla, 1999) infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) are intermediate hosts for 4 species of Sarcocystis, i.e., S. fusiformis and S. buffalonis with cats as definitive hosts, S. levinei with dogs as definitive hosts, and S. dubeyi with an unknown definitive host, but thought to be zoonotic. Currently, the latter speci...

  3. Redescription of Sarcocystis fusiformis sarcocysts from the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five species of Sarcocystis have been reported from the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): Sarcocystis fusiformis and Sarcocystis buffalonis have macrocysts and cats act as definitive hosts; Sarcocystis levinei has microcysts and dogs act as definitive host; Sarcocystis dubeyi and S. sinensis have mic...

  4. FATAL INTESTINAL COCCIDIOSIS IN A THREE-WEEK OLD BUFFALO CALF (BUBALUS BUBALUS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalus) is important to the economy of several countries, especially in Asia and Brazil. Little is known regarding the impact of coccidiosis in buffaloes. Cattle and buffaloes are considered to have common species of Eimeria, but critical cross transmissions have not been...

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Veracruz State, Mexico and its association with climatic factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Infection with Toxoplasma gondii in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) is of epidemiological importance because of the risk for transmission to humans. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in 339 water buffaloes in Veracruz State, Mexico using the modified aggl...

  6. Isolation and characterization of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) was isolated from dairy buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) naturally affected with respiratory and reproductive clinical conditions. Results Examination of nasal and vaginal swabs collected from 12 diseased buffaloes led to the isolation of three paramyxovirus isolates from two animals. Antigenic, morphological and biological characteristics of these three isolates were essentially similar to those of members of the Paramyxoviridae family. Antigenic analysis by direct immunofluorescence and cross neutralization test placed these isolates together with bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3). Nucleotide and amino acid phylogenetic analysis of partial matrix gene sequences of the buffalo isolates and six field BPIV3 isolates from bovines in Argentina were studied. Buffalo isolates were similar to genotype B (BPIV3b) while the six BPIV3 isolates were similar to genotypes A (BPIV3a) and C (BPIV3c). Conclusions This is the first characterization of BPIV3 in water buffalo. According to the samples analyzed, in Argentina, the genotype B was found in buffalo and the genotypes A and C were found in cattle. PMID:22716217

  7. Effects of smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus biomass on water transparency, nutrients, and productivity in shallow experimental ponds.

    PubMed

    Goetz, D; Krger, R; Miranda, L E

    2014-05-01

    The smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus is a native benthivore to floodplain lakes in the Yazoo River Basin, USA. Based on evidence from other benthivorous fish studies we hypothesized high biomasses of I. bubalus contribute to poor water quality conditions. We tested this hypothesis in shallow (<1.5m) 0.05ha earthen ponds at three stocking biomasses over a 10-week period during the summer of 2012. The most notable results from the permutational multivariate analysis of variance suggest I. bubalus at high and moderate biomasses significantly (p<0.05) enhanced turbidity and suspended solid levels while decreasing Secchi depth. Our results suggest that effects of I. bubalus on water clarity may have considerable ecological implications in natural habitats such as shallow floodplain lakes. PMID:24526283

  8. Effects of smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus biomass on water transparency, nutrients, and productivity in shallow experimental ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goetz, Daniel B.; Kroger, Robert; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2014-01-01

    The smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus is a native benthivore to floodplain lakes in the Yazoo River Basin, USA. Based on evidence from other benthivorous fish studies we hypothesized high biomasses of I. bubalus contribute to poor water quality conditions. We tested this hypothesis in shallow (< 1.5 m) 0.05 ha earthen ponds at three stocking biomasses over a 10-week period during the summer of 2012. The most notable results from the permutational multivariate analysis of variance suggest I. bubalus at high and moderate biomasses significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced turbidity and suspended solid levels while decreasing Secchi depth. Our results suggest that effects of I. bubalus on water clarity may have considerable ecological implications in natural habitats such as shallow floodplain lakes.

  9. Serum biochemical and haematological reference intervals for water buffalo Bubalus bubalis heifers.

    PubMed

    Abd Ellah, Mahmoud R; Hamed, Maha I; Ibrahim, Derar R; Rateb, Hassan Z

    2014-01-01

    Based on a review of the literature, reference intervals for water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) serum biochemistry and haematology have not previously been published. The current study was done to establish reference intervals for water buffalo heifers. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry stated that at least 120 values are necessary to obtain reliable estimates for reference intervals. A total number of 127 clinically healthy buffalo heifers (1-2 years old) were included in the study. Animals were examined at buffalo farms that belong to Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Three types of samples were collected: serum samples for biochemical analysis, whole blood samples for haematological analysis and faecal samples for parasitological examination. Animals that fitted the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Biochemical analysis included serum total proteins, albumin, total globulins, alpha, beta and gamma globulin levels, and aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase activity. In addition to the above, serum creatinine, urea, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, copper, zinc, iron, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, glucose levels and 20 haematological variables were measured. The 95.0% reference intervals were calculated by removing the upper and lower 2.5% of the interval for each serum biochemical constituent to give the 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles. Confidence intervals were calculated for each reference limit. Reference intervals from the current study were compared with established values for cows. The current study is as far as could be determined the first that establishes reference intervals for the serum biochemical and haematological parameters in water buffalo heifers. PMID:24831856

  10. Analysis of mitochondrial D-loop region casts new light on domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Kierstein, Gerold; Vallinoto, Marcelo; Silva, Artur; Schneider, Maria Paula; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo; Brenig, Bertram

    2004-02-01

    The phylogeny of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) is still a matter of discussion, especially if the two types of domestic water buffalo (swamp and river) derived from different domestication events or if they are products of human selection. To obtain more insight, we analyzed the entire mitochondrial D-loop region of 80 water buffaloes of four different breeds, i.e., 19 swamp buffaloes (Carabao) and 61 river buffaloes (Murrah, Jafarabadi, and Mediterranean), sampled in Brazil and Italy. We detected 36 mitochondrial haplotypes with 128 polymorphic sites. Pooled with published data of South-East Asian and Australian water buffaloes and based on comprehensive median-joining network and population demography analyses we show evidence that both river and swamp buffaloes decent from one domestication event, probably in the Indian subcontinent. However, the today swamp buffaloes have an unravelled mitochondrial history, which can be explained by introgression of wild water buffalo mtDNA into domestic stocks. We are also discussing indications for an independent domestication of buffaloes in China. PMID:14715223

  11. Natural Babesia bovis Infection in Water Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and Crossbred Cattle under Field Conditions in Egypt: a Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Mahmmod, Yasser

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a little or no data available on the natural Babesia bovis (B. bovis) infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) comparing to the available one for cattle. This study was conducted to investigate the natural B. bovis infection in water buffaloes in comparison to crossbred cattle under field conditions in Egypt. Methods: A total of 35 buffaloes and cattle were clinically and laboratory investigated from March to June 2008. Twenty-nine buffaloes and cattle out of 35 were naturally infected with B. bovis and showed signs of bovine babesiosis. Three cows and three buffaloes showed no clinical signs and were free from external, internal, and blood parasites served as control group. Results: Babesia bovis-infected cattle showed typical signs of bovine babesiosis while B. bovis-infected buffaloes showed a milder form (less severe) of the clinical signs. Advanced cases of cattle showed dark brown to dark red (coffee-color) urine, hemoglobinuria and nervous manifestations while these manifestations were not detected in the infected buffaloes. Hematological changes in both species however, these changes were less significant in buffaloes than those reported in cattle. Conclusion: This paper documents the first description of natural B. bovis infection in water buffaloes which were found to be more likely to be tolerant than cattle to the natural clinical infection with B. bovis and its subsequent haematological changes. Our finding may lead to a better understanding of the disease pattern of B. bovis infection under field conditions in buffaloes. PMID:25629060

  12. Molecular analyses detect natural coinfection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) in serologically negative animals.

    PubMed

    Craig, Mara I; Knig, Guido A; Benitez, Daniel F; Draghi, Mara G

    2015-01-01

    Infection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) has been confirmed in several studies by serological and molecular techniques. In order to determine the presence of persistently infected animals and circulating species and subtypes of BVDV we conducted this study on a buffalo herd, whose habitat was shared with bovine cattle (Bossp.). Our serological results showed a high level of positivity for BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 within the buffalo herd. The molecular analyses of blood samples in serologically negative animals revealed the presence of viral nucleic acid, confirming the existence of persistent infection in the buffaloes. Cloning and sequencing of the 5' UTR of some of these samples revealed the presence of naturally mix-infected buffaloes with at least two different subtypes (1a and 1b), and also with both BVDV species (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2). PMID:25962538

  13. Prevalence and distribution of Neospora caninum in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle in the Northern Territory of Australia.

    PubMed

    Neverauskas, Claudia E; Nasir, Amar; Reichel, Michael P

    2015-10-01

    The seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and domestic cattle in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia has never been determined. A total of 480 serum samples from water buffalo and 192 serum samples from cattle, collected by the NT Government from 1993 through to 2001, at 18 different survey sites throughout the Northern Territory were tested by commercial ELISA for anti-N. caninum antibodies. The water buffalo samples demonstrated a seroprevalence of 88.3% (95% CI ± 2.9%), while 31.8% (±6.1%) of the cattle sera tested positive for N. caninum antibodies. Individual buffalo from the same herd, sampled over years, showed considerable fluctuations in S/P ratios. Overall, seropositivity was consistent across buffalo herds, and showed a slight decline over the years. The study presents evidence for the first time that N. caninum infection in water buffalo in the Northern Territory is a highly endemic and that infection rates are higher than those for cattle. This is important for an understanding of any potential sylvatic life cycle of N. caninum in Northern Australia. This survey also tests cattle from that territory for the first time for evidence of N. caninum infection and makes an important contribution to the understanding of disease management issues for the beef industry in the region. PMID:25992666

  14. Transcriptional dynamics of homeobox C11 gene in water buffalo bubalus bubalis.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Leena; Pathak, Deepali; Sehgal, Neeta; Ali, Sher

    2015-06-01

    The Hox complex contains 39 genes clustered into four groups involved in cell differentiation and development. We cloned full-length sequence of Hoxc11 gene from water buffalo Bubalus bubalis, assessed its copy number, localized the same onto the chromosome 5, and studied its evolutionary conservation across the species. Northern hybridization of Hoxc11 showed a 2.2 kb band in the tissues analyzed. Real-Time PCR showed highest expression of Hoxc11 gene in lung followed by spleen, spermatozoa, and testis. Six interacting partners of this gene showed higher expression in spleen, lung, testis, and spermatozoa. During the early stages of development, Hoxc11 and its interacting partners both showed lower expression, which then became prominent during the age of 1-3 years, regressed drastically thereafter, and remained so until the animal's life time (? 20 years). The high expression of Hoxc11 and its interacting partners in spermatozoa and testis during the onset of puberty suggests its likely role in the differentiation of gonads and subsequent reproductive activities. Additional work on Hoxc11 especially, in the context of respiratory, immunological, and in/fertility in other species, including humans would be useful for establishing its broader biological significance towards the enrichment of functional and comparative genomics. PMID:25760398

  15. Identity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus) and the suppression of Sarcocystis sinensis as a nomen nudum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are uncertainties concerning the identity and host species specificity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus). Currently, in cattle three species are recognized with known endogenous stages, viz.: S. cruzi (with canine definitive host), S. hirsuta...

  16. Identification and genetic characterization of rabies virus from Egyptian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) bitten by a fox.

    PubMed

    El-Tholoth, Mohamed; El-Beskawy, Mohamed; Hamed, Mohamed F

    2015-09-01

    Rabies is caused by negative strand RNA-virus classified in the genus Lyssavirus, family Rhabdoviridae of the order Mononegavirales. The aim of the present study was to identify and analyze nucleotides sequence of nucleoprotein (N) gene of rabies virus (RABV) from two cases of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) bitten by a fox in Egypt, 2013. The diseased buffaloes showed nervous manifestations with fever. Specimens from brains of the buffaloes with suspected rabies were collected. RABV in collected samples was identified using direct fluorescent antibody (dFA) technique, histopathological examination and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Also, nucleotides sequence of partially amplified nucleoprotein (N) gene was compared with the other street strains of RABV available on GenBank. The results revealed that RABV antigen was identified in the brains of diseased buffaloes by dFA technique and the characteristic intracytoplasmic inclusions (Negri bodies) and RABV nucleic acid were detected by histopathology and RT-PCR, respectively. The identified virus showed close genetic relationship with street strains identified previously from dogs in different Governorates in Egypt and with strains identified in Israel and Jordan indicating transmission of the virus between Egyptian Governorates with a potential transmission from and/or to our neighboring countries. PMID:26396980

  17. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the STAT1 gene in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Deng, Tingxian; Pang, Chunying; Zhu, Peng; Liao, Biyun; Zhang, Ming; Yang, Bingzhuang; Liang, Xianwei

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) is a critical component of the transcription factor complex in the interferon (IFN) signaling pathways. Of the seven STAT isoforms, STAT1 is a key mediator of type I and type III IFN signaling, but limited information is available for the STAT genes in the water buffalo. Here, we amplified and identified the complete coding sequence (CDS) of the buffalo STAT1 gene by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Sequence analysis indicated that the buffalo STAT1 gene length size was 3437 bp, containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 2244 bp that encoded 747 amino acids for the first time. The buffalo STAT1 CDS showed 99, 98, 89, 93, 86, 85, and 87% identity with that of Bos taurus, Ovis aries, Homo sapiens, Sus scrofa, Rattus norvegicus, Mus musculus, and Capra hircus. The phylogenetic analyses revealed that the nearest relationship existed between the water buffalo and B. taurus. The STAT1 gene was ubiquitously expressed in 11 buffalo tissues by real-time PCR, whereas STAT1 was expressed at higher levels in the lymph. The STAT1 gene contained five targeted microRNA sequences compared with the B. taurus by the miRBase software that provide a fundamental for identifying the STAT1 gene function. PMID:25336386

  18. Seroprevalence of flaviviruses antibodies in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The state of Par encompasses 26% of Brazilian Amazon where an enormous diversity of arboviruses has been found. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and distribution of hemagglutination-inhibition antibodies against antigens of six Flavivirus (yellow fever virus, Ilheus virus, Saint Louis encephalitis virus, Cacipacore virus, Bussuquara virus and Rocio virus) in water buffaloes in Par state, Brazil. The prevalence of antibodies in these farm animals is important to determine the circulating arboviruses. Findings All investigated arboviruses were detected in the species studied and our results indicate that water buffaloes are susceptible to Flavivirus infection. Furthermore, there is solid evidence of active circulation of these viruses in the Brazilian Amazon. Conclusions Water buffaloes showed higher prevalence of heterotypic antibody reactions and we hypothesized that they can serve as sentinels to detect the movement of such arboviruses in the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:24666635

  19. Molecular detection of bovine immunodeficiency virus in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from the Amazon region, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Albernaz, Tatiane Teles; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira; Reis, Jenner Karlison Pimenta; de Sousa Rodrigues, Ana Paula; da Cunha Kassar, Telissa; Resende, Claudia Fideles; de Oliveira, Cairo Henrique Sousa; Silva, Rafaela das Mercês; Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2015-12-01

    Bovine immunodeficiency is a chronic progressive disease caused by a lentivirus that affects cattle and buffaloes. Although the infection has been described in cattle in some countries, including in Brazil, there are only two reports of infection in buffaloes: one in Pakistan and one in Cambodia. The aim of the present study was to survey the occurrence of bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) in water buffaloes from the Amazon region, Pará state, Brazil. BIV proviral DNA was surveyed in 607 whole blood samples of water buffaloes from 10 farms located in the state of Pará using semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (PCR-SN) to amplify the pol region of the viral genome. Of the 607 samples tested, 27 (4.4 %) were positive for BIV proviral DNA. The amplified fragments were confirmed by sequence analysis after cloning and nucleotide sequencing. The sequence obtained had 99 % similarity to the reference strain (R-29). The present study provides important epidemiological data because BIV was detected for the first time in water buffaloes in Brazil. Further, the results suggest the possibility of the virus being a risk factor for herd health because it may be a potential causal agent of chronic disease and, also may be associated to other infectious diseases. PMID:26174574

  20. Genetic analysis of river, swamp and hybrid buffaloes of north-east India throw new light on phylogeography of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Mishra, B P; Dubey, P K; Prakash, B; Kathiravan, P; Goyal, S; Sadana, D K; Das, G C; Goswami, R N; Bhasin, V; Joshi, B K; Kataria, R S

    2015-12-01

    This study analysed buffaloes from north-east India and compared their nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variations with buffaloes of mainland India, China, Mediterranean and South-East Asia. Microsatellite genotypes of 338 buffaloes including 210 from six north-east Indian buffalo populations and three mainland Indian breeds were analysed to evaluate their genetic structure and evolutionary relationships. Phylogenetic analysis and multidimensional scaling plot of pairwise FST revealed the clustering of all swamp-type buffaloes of north-east India with Lower Assamese (significantly hybrid type) buffaloes in one plane and all the mainland river buffaloes in another plane while the upper Assamese buffaloes being distinct from both these clusters. Analysis of mtDNA D-loop region of 530-bp length was performed on 345 sequences belonging to 23 buffalo populations from various geographical regions to establish the phylogeography of Indian water buffalo. The swamp buffaloes of north-east India clustered with both the lineages of Chinese swamp buffalo. Multidimensional scaling display of pairwise FST derived from mitochondrial DNA data showed clustering of upper Assamese, Chilika and Mediterranean buffaloes distinctly from all the other Indian buffalo populations. Median-joining network analysis further confirmed the distinctness and ancestral nature of these buffaloes. The study revealed north-east region of India forming part of the wider hybrid zone of water buffalo that may probably extend from north-east India to South-East Asia. PMID:25780854

  1. Identity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus) and the suppression of Sarcocystis sinensis as a nomen nudum.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Fayer, R; Rosenthal, B M; Calero-Bernal, R; Uggla, A

    2014-09-15

    There are uncertainties concerning the identity and host species specificity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus). Currently, in cattle three species are recognized with known endogenous stages, viz.: S. cruzi (with canine definitive host), S. hirsuta (feline definitive host), and S. hominis (primate definitive host). Recently, a fourth Sarcocystis species with an unknown life cycle has been reported from cattle. In the water buffalo, four species of Sarcocystis have been described: S. fusiformis (feline definitive host), S. buffalonis (feline definitive host), S. levinei (canine definitive host), and S. dubeyi (definitive host unknown but not cat or dog). Besides, there are studies of Sarcocystis infections in buffalo and cattle from China with results that are difficult to interpret and validate. For example, some of the studies report transmission of Sarcocystis species between cattle and buffalo, but steps to preclude exogenous exposures were not reported. A species of the water buffalo, 'S. sinensis', was proposed at a Chinese national conference in 1990, and published as an abstract without figures and with no archived type specimens for verification. The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature Articles 9 and 10 state that "abstracts of articles, papers, posters, text of lectures, and similar material when issued primarily to participants at meetings, symposia, colloquia or congress does not constitute published work"; therefore, S. sinensis is a nomen nudum. PMID:25034134

  2. Molecular characterization of oxytocin receptor gene in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Arunmozhi, N; Singh, S K; Sarath, T; Agarwal, S K; Doiphode, A; Shankar, U

    2014-10-01

    Buffaloes are known for their productivity as compared to average yielding cows due to higher fat percentage, better feed conversion ability and disease resistance. On the other hand, the reproductive performances of buffaloes are often considered as poor owing to late sexual maturity, weak/silent oestrus, repeat breeder and prolonged intercalving interval. The study of cascade of events during oestrus and oestrous cycle can be useful for the improvement of reproductive efficiency of buffaloes. More precisely, the hormonal changes initiated at the molecular level within the animal determine the reproductive nature of the species. Nucleotide/protein sequence analysis serves as a vital tool in analysing the binding of the hormones for their effect or functions. In this study, we have reported cloning and characterization of the complete coding (cDNA) sequence of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) in buffaloes. Buffalo OXTR gene contains an uninterrupted ORF of 1176 nucleotides corresponding to an inferred polypeptide length of 391 amino acids (aa). The molecular weight of the deduced aa sequence was found to be 43 kDa with an isoelectric point of 9.253 and 16.328 charge at pH 7.0. The deduced protein sequence consists of 38 strongly basic (+) (K,R), 22 strongly acidic (-) (D,E), 186 hydrophobic (A, I, L, F, W, V) and 95 Polar (N, C, Q, S, T, Y) aa. Results indicated that aspartate (D) at aa position 85 and D, R and C at aa positions 136, 137 and 138, respectively, are conserved in buffaloes. The buffalo OXTR gene shared a per cent similarity ranging from 84.7 to 98.1 and 88.5 to 97.7 at nucleotide and deduced aa sequence levels, respectively, with that of other species. Phylogram constructed on the basis of either nucleotide or deduced aa sequences of buffalo OXTR gene showed that buffalo, cattle and sheep have diverged from human and swine and formed a separate clad. The buffalo sequence has shown maximum similarity and closeness with cattle followed by sheep both at nucleotide and at aa level. PMID:25132183

  3. Characterization of Arcobacter suis isolated from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) milk.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, Federica; Salas-Massó, Nuria; Serraino, Andrea; Figueras, Maria José

    2015-10-01

    During a survey in a dairy plant in Italy, the second strain (strain FG 206) of Arcobacter suis described in the literature was isolated from raw water buffalo milk. The objective of this study was to confirm the species identification, better define the species by comparing its characteristics with those of the reference strain (F41(T) = CECT 7833(T) = LMG 26152(T)) and to investigate its potential clinical relevance by detecting the virulence gene pattern of the new strain. Phenotypical characterization and 16S rRNA-RFLP gave a complete overlap of results for the two strains. As expected, an RFLP pattern common to A. suis and Arcobacter defluvii was obtained by MseI endonuclease digestion, and a pattern specific for A. suis was obtained by BfaI endonuclease digestion. 16S rRNA sequencing and multilocus phylogenetic analysis (MLPA) showed a robust relatedness of strain FG 206 to the A. suis type strain F41(T). The recovery of strain FG 206 from a dairy plant shows that this species of Arcobacter is present in the food chain. Like the type strain recovered from pig meat, the species A. suis may not be confined to a single type of food. PMID:26187844

  4. Endocrinological evaluation of the induction of superovulation with PMSG in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Schallenberger, E; Wagner, H G; Papa, R; Hartl, P; Tenhumberg, H

    1990-08-01

    Ten nonlactating buffalo were superovulated with 3000 IU PMSG. Luteolysis was induced with 500 microg Cloprostenol (PG) 60 and 72 h after PMSG. Five buffalo were alloted for natural mating and five were bred by artificial insemination 60 and 84 h after the first PG treatment. Since four buffalo developed pyometra, only 6 of 10 underwent embryo collection successfully 180 to 190 h after PG. Three buffalo yielded only one morula each, while the remaining three yielded a total of two, three and four morulae and/or blastocysts as well als zero, one and three unfertilized ova, respectively. Six of the ten buffalo were assigned to an intensive blood collection regimen. Mean concentrations of progesterone (ng/ml) increased from 1.9 at PMSG stimulation to 4.8 at induction of luteolysis and decreased to a nadir of 0.2 about 72 h after PG treatment. The preovulatory surge of LH occurred 36 +/- 9 h after PG and was low in magnitude (7.3 +/- 1.3 ng/ml). Stimulation of 3 to 12 follicles resulted in concentrations of estradiol-17beta exceeding 5 pg/ml within 48 h after PMSG treatment and reaching a maximum of 32 +/- 11 pg/ml about the time of the preovulatory surge. Only in two individuals did concentrations decrease below 5 pg/ml within the following 12 h. In the other four buffalo 3 to 10 unovulated structures remained palpable, secreting estradiol-17beta far exceeding the preovulatory concentrations. The fast appearing, low magnitude LH surges were key problems resulting from PMSG treatment. They caused unovulated endocrinologically active follicles. High estrogen levels during the early luteal period may activate subclinical uterine infections, which in turn may negatively affect embryonic development. PMID:16726846

  5. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with exposure of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) to Neospora caninum in northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kengradomkij, Chanya; Inpankaew, Tawin; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Wongpanit, Kannika; Wongnakphet, Sirichai; Mitchell, Thomas J; Xuan, Xuenan; Igarashi, Ikuo; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Stich, Roger W

    2015-01-15

    Water buffalo are important draft animals for agriculture in resource-restricted areas worldwide. Water buffalo were shown to be experimentally susceptible to infection with Neospora caninum, potentially affected by neosporosis, and naturally exposed to the parasite in Asia. Although enzootic to Thailand, the distribution of N. caninum among Thai water buffalo is unclear. The objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum among water buffalo of northeast Thailand and to identify risk factors associated with their exposure to N. caninum. Sera from 628 water buffalo from 288 farms were tested with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). A total of 57 samples from 48 herds contained antibodies to N. caninum, indicating overall seroprevalence of 9.1% and 16.7% among individual animals and herds, respectively. The overall seroprevalence was highest in provinces located in the Khorat Basin in the southern part of the region tested. Host age was also associated with seroprevalence, with the greatest seroprevalence (16.1%) among buffalo over 10 years of age, followed by 5-10 years of age (13.4%), 3-5 years (9.2%), and less than 3 years (1.2%). These results collectively suggested that horizontal transmission from canine definitive hosts was an important route of water buffalo exposure to N. caninum. These results also verified the importance of risk factor analysis for effective bovine neosporosis control strategies at the local level. PMID:25499824

  6. A comparison of FLOTAC and CFF techniques in detecting gastrointestinal parasites in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Salvador, Roderick T; Abalos, Rogelyn P; Ruba, Angeline M; Mingala, Claro N

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the usefulness of FLOTAC and centrifugal fecal flotation (CFF) techniques. More specifically, the taxonomic classes (Nematoda and Cestoda) of endoparasites present in fecal samples of buffaloes are identified, the sensitivity and specificity of FLOTAC relative to CFF are calculated, and the agreement of both techniques is evaluated using Kappa statistics. Fresh fecal samples from 220 buffaloes in 10 municipalities were collected. Sheather's sugar was used as a flotation solution for both the FLOTAC and CFF techniques. Of the 220 animals, 109 samples were nematode positive and 111 samples were nematode negative according to the FLOTAC technique, while 74 were found to be positive and 146 negative according to the CFF technique. No cestodes were detected by either technique. The calculated sensitivity for FLOTAC is 89.19% and its specificity is 70.55%. Kappa statistics revealed moderate agreement (k = 0.535) between the two techniques in detecting nematodes. The prevalence observed based on FLOTAC and CFF test were 49.54% (109/220; 95% CI: 47.75-56.34) and 33.64% (72/220; 95% CI: 27.42-40.3), respectively. PMID:25115063

  7. Effect of supplemental light on growth, prolactin, progesterone and luteinizing hormone in water buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, K. S.; Gwazdauskas, F. C.; Akers, R. M.; McGilliard, M. L.

    1989-06-01

    Fifty non-pregnant Surti buffalo heifers aged between 17 and 42 months ( n=24, <24 months; n=26, >24 months) were randomly assigned to groups subject to either natural daylight +4h supplemental light ( n=25) or natural day light ( n=25), to study changes in growth, serum prolactin (Prl), progesterone (P4) and luteinizing hormone (LH) to supplemental lighting. Ambient temperatures (T) and relative humidity (RH) generally were >27° C and <70% during the day-time, respectively. Light-supplemented heifers had 16.2 kg net body weight (BW) gain at 9 weeks compared to 20.8 kg for controls, but higher mean Prl after 6.5 weeks ( P<0.01), and higher P4 (0.41 vs 0.19 ng/ml; P<0.06) than control heifers. Older heifers had 39.7% greater BW ( P<0.01), but a net 4.3% BW gain compared to a 10.1% gain for younger heifers at 10 weeks. Older, light-supplemented heifers had higher mean P4 (0.63 vs 0.19 ng/ml; P<0.07) than the other groups. These weight and hormonal changes suggest that 4 h supplemental light can alter growth and endocrine function in buffaloes under similar planes of nutrition. While light supplementation did not have a positive effect on body wieght during the 10 week study, body weight and endocrine changes due to supplemental light may be important factors for initiation of reproductive cyclicity.

  8. Sustained delivery of exogenous melatonin influences biomarkers of oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in summer-stressed anestrous water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok; Mehrotra, S; Singh, G; Narayanan, K; Das, G K; Soni, Y K; Singh, Mahak; Mahla, A S; Srivastava, N; Verma, M R

    2015-06-01

    High ambient temperature during summer in tropical and subtropical countries predisposes water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) to develop oxidative stress having antigonadotropic and antisteroidogenic actions. Melatonin is a regulator of seasonal reproduction in photoperiodic species and highly effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Therefore, a study was designed to evaluate the effect of sustained-release melatonin on biomarkers of oxidative stress i.e., the serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO), and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC). For the study, postpartum buffaloes diagnosed as summer anestrus (absence of overt signs of estrus, concurrent rectal examination, and RIA for serum progesterone) were grouped as treated (single subcutaneous injection of melatonin at 18 mg/50 kg body weight dissolved in sterilized corn oil as vehicle, n = 20) and untreated (subcutaneous sterilized corn oil, n = 8). Blood sampling for estimation of serum TAC and MDA (mmol/L) and NO (?mol/L) was carried out at 4 days of interval from 8 days before treatment till 28 days after treatment or for the ensuing entire cycle length. Results showed serum TAC concentration was higher in the treatment group with a significant (P < 0.05) increasing trend, whereas MDA and NO revealed a significant (P < 0.05) decline. Serum MDA and NO were higher in control compared with those of treatment group. Moreover, buffaloes in the treatment group showed 90% estrus induction with 18.06 1.57 days mean interval from treatment to the onset of estrus. These results report that melatonin has a protective effect by elevating antioxidant status and reducing oxidative stress resulting in the induction of cyclicity in summer-stressed anestrous buffaloes. PMID:25805692

  9. Detection of Sarcocystis spp. in cattle (Bos taurus) and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Iran by PCR-RFLP.

    PubMed

    Hamidinejat, Hossein; Razi Jalali, Mohammad Hossein; Gharibi, Darioush; Molayan, Pedram Haddad

    2015-12-01

    Sarcocystis species are cyst-forming intracellular protozoan parasites. Cattle are mainly infected with Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis hominis and Sarcocystis hirsuta. Water buffaloes are intermediate hosts for Sarcocystis fusiformis, Sarcocystis levinei (S. cruzi-like species), Sarcocystis dubeyi, Sarcocystis sinensis (S. hominis-like species) and Sarcocystis buffalonis (S. hirsuta- like species). The aim of this study was Identification of Sarcocystis spp. in slaughtered cattle and water buffaloes in Ahvaz, Khuzestan province by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Meat inspection was done on 124 cattle and 147 water buffaloes. From each animal tissue samples (each 50 g) from heart, esophagus, diaphragm and intercostal muscle were collected during meat inspection. Samples examined with digestion method. Genomic DNA of 80 positive samples was extracted and their 18S rRNA gene was amplified. PCR products were digested by restricted enzymes (FokI, SspI and DraI). S. cruzi in cattle and S. fusiformis in water buffaloes were identified. Our study clarified that sarcocystosis in cattle in Ahvaz district may be results acute infection according to determined species, but in buffaloes as S. fusiformis was detected we may expect only economic loss follow up slaughterhouse inspection. PMID:26688630

  10. Molecular cloning, sequence characterization, and gene expression profiling of a novel water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) gene, AGPAT6.

    PubMed

    Song, S; Huo, J L; Li, D L; Yuan, Y Y; Yuan, F; Miao, Y W

    2013-01-01

    Several 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate-O-acyltransferases (AGPATs) can acylate lysophosphatidic acid to produce phosphatidic acid. Of the eight AGPAT isoforms, AGPAT6 is a crucial enzyme for glycerolipids and triacylglycerol biosynthesis in some mammalian tissues. We amplified and identified the complete coding sequence (CDS) of the water buffalo AGPAT6 gene by using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, based on the conversed sequence information of the cattle or expressed sequence tags of other Bovidae species. This novel gene was deposited in the NCBI database (accession No. JX518941). Sequence analysis revealed that the CDS of this AGPAT6 encodes a 456-amino acid enzyme (molecular mass = 52 kDa; pI = 9.34). Water buffalo AGPAT6 contains three hydrophobic transmembrane regions and a signal 37-amino acid peptide, localized in the cytoplasm. The deduced amino acid sequences share 99, 98, 98, 97, 98, 98, 97 and 95% identity with their homologous sequences from cattle, horse, human, mouse, orangutan, pig, rat, and chicken, respectively. The phylogenetic tree analysis based on the AGPAT6 CDS showed that water buffalo has a closer genetic relationship with cattle than with other species. Tissue expression profile analysis shows that this gene is highly expressed in the mammary gland, moderately expressed in the heart, muscle, liver, and brain; weakly expressed in the pituitary gland, spleen, and lung; and almost silently expressed in the small intestine, skin, kidney, and adipose tissues. Four predicted microRNA target sites are found in the water buffalo AGPAT6 CDS. These results will establish a foundation for further insights into this novel water buffalo gene. PMID:24114207

  11. A possible case of caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever in a domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal herpesvirus infection, affecting various wild and domestic ruminants all over the world. Water buffaloes were reported to be particularly susceptible for the ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) causing the sheep-associated form of MCF (SA-MCF). This report describes the first case of possibly caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever symptoms in a domestic water buffalo in Switzerland. Case presentation The buffalo cow presented with persistent fever, dyspnoea, nasal bleeding and haematuria. Despite symptomatic therapy, the buffalo died and was submitted to post mortem examination. Major findings were an abomasal ulceration, a mild haemorrhagic cystitis and multifocal haemorrhages on the epicardium and on serosal and mucosal surfaces. Eyes and oral cavity were not affected. Histopathology revealed a mild to moderate lymphohistiocytic vasculitis limited to the brain and the urinary bladder. Although these findings are typical for MCF, OvHV-2 DNA was not detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes or in paraffin-embedded brain, using an OvHV-2 specific real time PCR. With the aid of a panherpesvirus PCR, a caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2) sequence could be amplified from both samples. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of malignant catarrhal fever in the subfamily Bovinae, where the presence of CpHV-2 could be demonstrated. The etiological context has yet to be evaluated. PMID:22132808

  12. Impact of Livestock Hygiene Education Programs on Mastitis in Smallholder Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Chitwan, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Linda; Jost, Christine; Robyn, Misha; Dhakal, I.P.; Bett, Bernard; Dhakal, Pramod; Khadkha, Rupak

    2010-01-01

    A project implemented from 2003–2005 trained women in Chitwan District, Nepal, in hygienic dairy production using a process of social mobilization. The aim of this research was to assess if the prevalence of mastitis in water buffalo in the households of women who were trained was lower one year after training than in untrained households, if the training influenced knowledge and practices for the prevention or control of mastitis, and if these practices and knowledge were associated with a lower prevalence of mastitis. A total of 202 households from Eastern and Western Chitwan District were included in the study. Of these, 60 households had participated in the project and 142 had not. Milk samples were collected from 129 households (33 project households and 96 non-project households). Clinical mastitis was determined using visual inspection of udders and detection of macroscopic clots and flakes in milk. The California Mastitis Test was used to diagnose sub-clinical mastitis from milk samples, and the IDEXX SNAP test to identify the presence of tetracycline residues. The prevalence of mastitis in trained households (39.4%) was 43.78% of that in untrained households (60.4%), lower but not significantly so (p = 0.08, 95% CI 0.17–1.12). Thirteen indicators of knowledge or practice for the control or prevention of mastitis were more likely to occur in trained households, four significantly so (not consuming milk from sick buffalo (p=0.001), using soap to wash hands before milking (p=0.001), discarding milk after antibiotic usage (p=0.01), and choosing appropriate flooring for their livestock (p=0.03)). Trained households that discarded milk from sick buffalo were 2.96 times more likely to have at least one animal with mastitis in the household (p=0.03, 95% CI 1.15–7.65). Trained households that knew to wash buffalos teats after milking were less likely (OR 0.25) to have mastitis in their herd ((p=0.02, 95% CI 0.08–0.80). Of the 138 buffalos tested, only one tested positive for tetracycline residues. PMID:20655119

  13. Clinicophysiological and haemodynamic effects of fentanyl with xylazine, medetomidine and dexmedetomidine in isoflurane-anaesthetised water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Singh, Gyan D; Kinjavdekar, Prakash; Amarpal; Aithal, Hari P; Pawde, Abhijeet M; Zama, Malik M S; Singh, Jasmeet; Tiwary, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the sedative, analgesic and clinical effects of xylazine, medetomidine and dexmedetomidine with fentanyl as pre-anaesthetics in water buffaloes and to compare the dose-sparing effect of xylazine, medetomidine and dexmedetomidine on thiopental for induction and isoflurane for maintenance of anaesthesia in water buffaloes. Six male water buffaloes randomly received intravenous fentanyl (5.0 g/kg body weight) and xylazine (0.05 mg/kg body weight), fentanyl (5.0 g/kg body weight) and medetomidine (2.5 g/kg body weight), fentanyl (5.0 g/kg body weight) and dexmedetomidine (5.0 g/kg body weight) at weekly intervals in groups I1, I2 and I3, respectively. After 15 min, the animals were restrained in right lateral recumbency and anaesthesia was induced by 5% thiopental sodium administered intravenously. The intubated animal was connected to the large animal anaesthesia machine and isoflurane in 100% oxygen (5 L/min) was insufflated for 60 min. The treatments were compared by clinicophysiological, haematobiochemical and haemodynamic parameters. Fentanyl-medetomidine and fentanyl-dexmedetomidine produced more cardiovascular depression during the pre-anaesthetic period but less depression of cardio-respiratory dynamics in the post induction and maintenance period. Quicker recovery was recorded in I2 and I3 groups. A lower dose of thiopental was required in group I3 (4.33 mg/kg 0.66 mg/kg) than in groups I2 (4.41 mg/kg 0.98 mg/kg) and I1 (4.83 mg/kg 0.79 mg/kg). The dose of isoflurane was less in group I3 (45.50 mL 5.45 mL) than in group I1 and I2 (48.66 mL 5.10 mL and 48.00 mL 6.38 mL). Better anaesthesia was recorded with fentanyl-dexmedetomidine-thiopental-isoflurane (group I3) than with fentanyl-medetomidine-thiopental-isoflurane (group I2) and fentanyl-xylazine-thiopental-isoflurane (group I1). Fentanyl-medetomidine and fentanyl-dexmedetomidine were better pre-anaesthetic agents in comparison to fentanyl-xylazine for thiopental and isoflurane anaesthesia. Fentanyl-dexmedetomidine-thiopental-isoflurane and fentanyl-medetomidine-thiopental-isoflurane produced effective surgical anaesthesia and were found to be safe, as cardio-pulmonary functions were well preserved during maintenance anaesthesia with no deleterious effect on vital organ functions in water buffaloes. PMID:23718913

  14. Protective Effect of the Nramp1 BB Genotype against Brucella abortus in the Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)?

    PubMed Central

    Capparelli, Rosanna; Alfano, Flora; Amoroso, Maria Grazia; Borriello, Giorgia; Fenizia, Domenico; Bianco, Antonio; Roperto, Sante; Roperto, Franco; Iannelli, Domenico

    2007-01-01

    We tested 413 water buffalo cows (142 cases and 271 controls) for the presence of anti-Brucella abortus antibodies (by the skin test, the agglutination test, and the complement fixation test) and the Nramp1 genotype (by capillary electrophoresis). Four alleles (Nramp1A, -B, -C, and -D) were detected in the 3? untranslated region of the Nramp1 gene. The BB genotype was represented among only controls, providing evidence that this genotype confers resistance to Brucella abortus. The monocytes from the BB (resistant) subjects displayed a higher basal level of Nramp1 mRNA and a lower number of viable intracellular bacteria than did the monocytes from AA (susceptible) subjects. The higher basal level of the antibacterial protein Nramp1 most probably provides the BB animals with the possibility of controlling bacteria immediately after their entry inside the cell. PMID:17145946

  15. Controlled breeding and reproductive management in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using Eazi Breed controlled internal drug release.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Shivayogi; Ramesha, Kerekoppa P

    2015-01-01

    Buffalo reproduction is considerably affected by late maturity, poor oestrus symptoms and long postpartum periods. This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of Eazi Breed controlled internal drug release (CIDR), an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device, in relation to oestrus and fertility. Five hundred true anoestrus buffalo cows, in the age group 4-6 years in 10 villages of Dharwad district in Karnataka state in India, were randomly selected and treated with CIDR for 9 days. Two mL of Cidirol (1 mg oestradiol benzoate) was administered intramuscularly to all animals on day 10. Forty-two buffaloes (8.4%) that failed to show oestrus signs (1.6%) or showed weak signs of oestrus (6.8%) after the first treatment were treated again 72 h after the Cidriol injection with a new device, and inseminated after the expression of oestrus. After the second treatment all the animals showed oestrus signs. The percentage of buffaloes showing intense oestrus was 67.40%, intermediate oestrus was shown by 25.80%, whilst 6.80% buffaloes showed weak oestrus even after the second treatment. The buffaloes showing oestrus signs were inseminated twice with an interval of 12 h, starting 12 h after the start of the oestrus signs. In 86 buffaloes showing prolonged oestrus signs a third insemination was done. The conception rates were 85.16%, 60.47% and 44.11% respectively in buffaloes showing intense, intermediate and weak oestrus. Transrectal palpation of the genital tract was performed 45-60 days post-insemination to diagnose pregnancy status, and in doubtful cases pregnancy was reconfirmed at 90 days after insemination. Out of 500 buffaloes treated in this way 380 animals became pregnant and the pregnancy rate was 76%. This study revealed the usefulness of Eazi Breed CIDR along with Cidirol treatment in buffaloes to improve their reproductive performance. PMID:26244580

  16. Mitochondrial genome of Babesia orientalis, apicomplexan parasite of water buffalo (Bubalus babalis, Linnaeus, 1758) endemic in China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Apicomplexan parasites of the genus Babesia, Theileria and Plasmodium are very closely related organisms. Interestingly, their mitochondrial (mt) genomes are highly divergent. Among Babesia, Babesia orientalis is a new species recently identified and specifically epidemic to the southern part of China, causing severe disease to water buffalo. However, no information on the mt genome of B. orientalis was available. Methods Four pairs of primers were designed based on the full genome sequence of B. orientalis (unpublished data) and by aligning reported mt genomes of B. bovis, B. bigemina, and T. parva. The entire mt genome was amplified by four sets of PCR. The obtained mt genome was annotated by aligning with published apicomplexan mt genomes and Artemis software v11. Phylogenetic analysis was performed by using cox1 and cob amino acid sequences. Results The complete mt genome of B. orientalis (Wuhan strain) was sequenced and characterized. The entire mt genome is 5996 bp in length with a linear form, containing three protein-coding genes including cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1), cytochrome b (cob) and cytochrome c oxidase III (cox3) and six rRNA large subunit gene fragments. The gene arrangement in B. orientalis mt genome is similar to those of B. bovis, B. gibsoni and Theileria parva, but different from those of T. orientalis, T. equi and Plasmodium falciparum. Comparative analysis indicated that cox1 and cob genes were more conserved than cox3. Phylogenetic analysis based on amino acid sequences of cox1, cob and cox1 + cob, respectively, revealed that B. orientalis fell into Babesia clade with the closest relationship to B. bovis. Conclusions The availability of the entire mt genome sequences of B. orientalis provides valuable information for future phylogenetic, population genetics and molecular epidemiological studies of apicomplexan parasites. PMID:24580772

  17. Evaluation of Analgesic Effect of Caudal Epidural Tramadol, Tramadol-Lidocaine, and Lidocaine in Water Buffalo Calves (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Atiba, Ayman; Ghazy, Alaa; Gomaa, Naglaa; Kamal, Tarek; Shukry, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this study was to compare the analgesic effect of tramadol and a combination of tramadol-lidocaine with that produced by lidocaine administration in the epidural space in buffalo calves. In a prospective randomized crossover study, ten male buffalo calves were used to compare the epidural analgesic effect of tramadol (1 mg/kg) and tramadol-lidocaine combination (0.5 mg/kg and 0.11 mg/kg, resp.) with that produced by 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg). Loss of sensation was examined by pin-prick test. Onset time, duration, and degree of analgesia and ataxia were recorded after each treatment. Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), rectal temperature, and haematobiochemical parameters were recorded after all treatments. Time to onset and duration of analgesia, respectively, were as follows: tramadol 11 ± 2 min and 208 ± 15 min; tramadol-lidocaine 6 ± 2 min and 168 ± 9 min; lidocaine 4 ± 1 min and 67 ± 13 min. Onset time and duration were significantly longer with tramadol than the other treatments. Duration was significantly longer with tramadol-lidocaine than lidocaine. Ataxia was mildly observed in tramadol-lidocaine and was moderate in lidocaine. HR, RR, and rectal temperature did not differ significantly from baseline after any treatment. Haematobiochemical parameters returned to basal levels by 24 h after all treatments. This combination might be clinically useful to provide analgesia in buffalo for long-duration surgical procedures. PMID:26770870

  18. Mitochondrial DNA Variability of Domestic River Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Populations: Genetic Evidence for Domestication of River Buffalo in Indian Subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Muniyandi; Nimisha, Koodali; Kumar, Satish

    2015-01-01

    River buffalo, Bubalus bubalis is a large bovine species frequently used livestock in southern Asia. It is believed that the river buffalo was domesticated from Bubalus arnee, the wild buffalo of mainland Asia, a few thousand years ago, probably during the period of Indus Valley civilization. However, the domestication history of the river buffalo has been the subject of debate for many decades mainly due to the lack of clear archeological evidence and the divisive conclusions of the genetic studies. Therefore, in order to understand the domestication history and genetic relationship among the various river buffalo populations, we analyzed 492-bp region of mitochondrial DNA control region sequences of 414 river buffalo sampled from India, Pakistan, Egypt, and Iran along with the available 403 swamp buffalo sequences. The phylogenetic analyses of our study along with the archaeological evidence suggest that the river buffalo was domesticated in an atypical manner involving continuous introgression of wild animals to the domestic stocks in Indian subcontinent prior to mature phase of Indus Valley civilization (26001900 BC). Specifically, our data exclude Mesopotamian region as the place of domestication of the river buffalo. PMID:25900921

  19. Mitochondrial DNA Variability of Domestic River Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Populations: Genetic Evidence for Domestication of River Buffalo in Indian Subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Muniyandi; Nimisha, Koodali; Kumar, Satish

    2015-05-01

    River buffalo, Bubalus bubalis is a large bovine species frequently used livestock in southern Asia. It is believed that the river buffalo was domesticated from Bubalus arnee, the wild buffalo of mainland Asia, a few thousand years ago, probably during the period of Indus Valley civilization. However, the domestication history of the river buffalo has been the subject of debate for many decades mainly due to the lack of clear archeological evidence and the divisive conclusions of the genetic studies. Therefore, in order to understand the domestication history and genetic relationship among the various river buffalo populations, we analyzed 492-bp region of mitochondrial DNA control region sequences of 414 river buffalo sampled from India, Pakistan, Egypt, and Iran along with the available 403 swamp buffalo sequences. The phylogenetic analyses of our study along with the archaeological evidence suggest that the river buffalo was domesticated in an atypical manner involving continuous introgression of wild animals to the domestic stocks in Indian subcontinent prior to mature phase of Indus Valley civilization (2600-1900 BC). Specifically, our data exclude Mesopotamian region as the place of domestication of the river buffalo. PMID:25900921

  20. In silico mining of putative microsatellite markers from whole genome sequence of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and development of first BuffSatDB

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Though India has sequenced water buffalo genome but its draft assembly is based on cattle genome BTau 4.0, thus de novo chromosome wise assembly is a major pending issue for global community. The existing radiation hybrid of buffalo and these reported STR can be used further in final gap plugging and finishing expected in de novo genome assembly. QTL and gene mapping needs mining of putative STR from buffalo genome at equal interval on each and every chromosome. Such markers have potential role in improvement of desirable characteristics, such as high milk yields, resistance to diseases, high growth rate. The STR mining from whole genome and development of user friendly database is yet to be done to reap the benefit of whole genome sequence. Description By in silico microsatellite mining of whole genome, we have developed first STR database of water buffalo, BuffSatDb (Buffalo MicroSatellite Database (http://cabindb.iasri.res.in/buffsatdb/) which is a web based relational database of 910529 microsatellite markers, developed using PHP and MySQL database. Microsatellite markers have been generated using MIcroSAtellite tool. It is simple and systematic web based search for customised retrieval of chromosome wise and genome-wide microsatellites. Search has been enabled based on chromosomes, motif type (mono-hexa), repeat motif and repeat kind (simple and composite). The search may be customised by limiting location of STR on chromosome as well as number of markers in that range. This is a novel approach and not been implemented in any of the existing marker database. This database has been further appended with Primer3 for primer designing of the selected markers enabling researcher to select markers of choice at desired interval over the chromosome. The unique add-on of degenerate bases further helps in resolving presence of degenerate bases in current buffalo assembly. Conclusion Being first buffalo STR database in the world , this would not only pave the way in resolving current assembly problem but shall be of immense use for global community in QTL/gene mapping critically required to increase knowledge in the endeavour to increase buffalo productivity, especially for third world country where rural economy is significantly dependent on buffalo productivity. PMID:23336431

  1. Cholesterol and fatty acid composition of longissimus thoracis from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and Brahman-influenced cattle raised under savannah conditions.

    PubMed

    Giuffrida-Mendoza, Maria; Arenas de Moreno, Lilia; Huerta-Leidenz, Nelson; Uzcátegui-Bracho, Sojan; Valero-Leal, Kutchynskaya; Romero, Sonia; Rodas-González, Argenis

    2015-08-01

    Male (n=66) water buffalo (Buffalo) and Brahman-influenced cattle (Brahman) were born, raised, weaned, fattened on grazing savannah and harvested at two different ages (19 and 24months) to compare lipid composition of the longissimus thoracis muscle. Half of the animals were castrated at seven months of age (MOA) to examine the castration effects. At 24 MOA Brahman steers showed the highest content of total lipids (P<0.05). No significant variation was detected in cholesterol content for either the main or interaction effects in the age groups. Some individual fatty acids varied with the species (P<0.05), however, interspecific similarities were found in fatty acid ratios. For health-related indices, only atherogenic index (AI) showed lower values in favor of Buffalo meat (P<0.05) at both harvesting ages. Although, meat derived from both bovid groups was leaner and showed lower cholesterol level, AI indicates that Buffalo meat might be beneficial from a human health standpoint. PMID:25879797

  2. Sequence analysis of UTR and coding region of kappa-casein gene of Indian riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Mukesh, Manishi; Mishra, Bishnu P; Kataria, Ranjit S; Sobti, Ranbir C; Ahlawat, Shiv Pal S

    2006-04-01

    In this study, complete nucleotide as well as derived amino acid sequence characterization of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) kappa-casein gene has been presented. Kappa-casein cDNA clones were identified and isolated from a buffalo lactating mammary gland cDNA library. Sequence analysis of kappa-casein cDNA revealed 850 nucleotides with an open reading frame (ORF) of 573 nucleotides, encoding mature peptide of 169 amino acids. The 5' untranslated region (UTR) comprised 71 nucleotides, while 3' UTR was of 206 nucleotides. A total of 11 nucleotide and seven amino acid changes were observed in, buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) as compared to cattle (Bos taurus), sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra hircus). Among these nucleotide changes, eight were unique in buffalo as they were fully conserved in cattle, sheep and goat. Majority of the nucleotide changes and all the amino acid changes; 14 (Asp-Glu), 19(Asp/Ser-Asn), 96(Ala-Thr), 126(Ala-Val), 128(Ala/Gly-Val), 156(Ala/Pro-Val) and 168(Ala/Glu-Val) were limited to exon IV. Three glycosylation sites, Thr 131, Thr 133 and Thr 142 reported in cattle and goat kappa-casein gene were also conserved in buffalo, however, in sheep Thr 142 was replaced by Ala. Chymosin hydrolysis site, between amino acids Phe 105 and Met 106, important for rennet coagulation process, were found to be conserved across four bovid species. Buffalo kappa-casein with the presence of amino acids Thr 136 and Ala 148 seems to be an intermediate of "A" and "B" variants of cattle. Comparison with other livestock species revealed buffalo kappa-casein sharing maximum nucleotide (95.5%) and amino acid (92.6%) similarity with cattle, whereas with pig it showed least sequence similarity of 76.0% and 53.2%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on both nucleotide and amino acid sequence indicated buffalo kappa-casein grouping with cattle, while sheep and goat forming a separate cluster close to them. The non-ruminant species viz. camel, horse and pig were distantly placed, in separate lineages. PMID:17076250

  3. Congenital ocular dermoid cyst in a river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calf.

    PubMed

    Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei, F; Farshid, A A; Saifzadeh, S

    2007-02-01

    Clinical and histopathological findings of a congenital ocular dermoid cyst, located at the lower eyelid of a river female buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calf were presented. A soft, fluctuant, non-tender, hyperaemic cystic mass was detected overlaying the left eye. Fine needle aspirate revealed filamentous debris with no malignant cells. The cyst was treated surgically by orbital exenteration and subsequently subjected to histopathological examination. The histopathological study disclosed a conjunctival dermoid cyst. This report is novel, in that; such ocular cyst has not previously been described in river buffalo calves. PMID:17359456

  4. Fatal Theileria orientalis N2 genotype infection among Asian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in a commercial dairy farm in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Vinodkumar, Kulangara; Shyma, Varikkottil; Justin, Davis Kollannur; Ashok, Sivasailam; Anu, Joseph Parassery; Mini, Kattilveetil; Muhammedkutty, Varikkottil; Sasidharan, Suchithra; Chullipparambil, Sunanda

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen dairy buffaloes of a farm in the state of Kerala, India developed fatal oriental theileriosis within 2 months of their procurement. Typical piroplasms of Theileria orientalis were observed in the erythrocytes of all affected animals by Giemsa-Leishman staining of blood smears. Case fatality rate was 87·5% (seven out of eight) in the clinically progressed cases. Therapeutic management with anti-theilerial drugs buparvaquone and oxytetracycline led to recovery of seven other animals in less advanced stages of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the reasons for increased virulence of this pathogen, hitherto considered to be benign. Acute haemolytic anaemia was the predominant haematological finding in the affected animals. Lymphocytic infiltration and degeneration of vital organs leading to functional derangement was the cause of the high mortality. Identification of T. orientalis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DNA sequencing of the PCR products revealed close identity with already reported sequences of T. orientalis/buffeli N2 genotype. The sequences were deposited in GenBank with accession number KM609973 and KM043772. Rhipicephalus ticks, previously not reported as vectors for oriental theileriosis, were identified as the potential vectors. This is the first report of fatal oriental theileriosis in Asian water buffaloes. PMID:26522773

  5. Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Swamp Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) Fattened at Different Feeding Intensities

    PubMed Central

    Lambertz, C.; Panprasert, P.; Holtz, W.; Moors, E.; Jaturasitha, S.; Wicke, M.; Gauly, M.

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-four male 1-year old swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were randomly allocated to 4 groups. One group grazed on guinea grass (GG) and another on guinea grass and the legume Stylosanthes guianensis (GL). The other two groups were kept in pens and fed freshly cut guinea grass and concentrate at an amount of 1.5% (GC1.5) and 2.0% (GC2.0) of body weight, respectively. The effect of the different feeding intensities on carcass characteristics and meat quality were assessed. The mean body weight at slaughter was 398 (±16) kg. Average daily gain was higher in concentrate-supplemented groups (570 and 540 g/d in GC1.5 and GC2.0, respectively) when compared to GG (316 g/d) and GL (354 g/d) (p<0.01). Likewise, the warm carcass weight was higher in GC1.5 and GC2.0 compared to GG and GL. Dressing percentage was 48.1% and 49.5% in GC1.5 and GC2.0 in comparison to 42.9% and 44.8% observed in GG and GL, respectively. Meat of Longissimus throracis from GC1.5 and GC2.0 was redder in color (p<0.01), while water holding capacity (drip and thawing loss) was improved in pasture-fed groups (p<0.05). Protein and fat content of Longissimus thoracis was higher in animals supplemented with concentrate (p<0.01), as was cholesterol content (p<0.05), whereas PUFA:SFA ratio was higher and n-6/n-3 ratio lower (p<0.01) in pasture-fed buffaloes. Results of the present study showed that the supplementation of pasture with concentrate enhances the growth and carcass characteristics of swamp buffaloes expressed in superior dressing percentage, better muscling, and redder meat with a higher content of protein and fat, whereas animals grazing only on pasture had a more favorable fatty acid profile and water holding capacity. In conclusion, the supplementation of concentrate at a rate of about 1.5% of body weight is recommended to improve the performance and carcass quality of buffaloes. PMID:25049987

  6. Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Swamp Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) Fattened at Different Feeding Intensities.

    PubMed

    Lambertz, C; Panprasert, P; Holtz, W; Moors, E; Jaturasitha, S; Wicke, M; Gauly, M

    2014-04-01

    Twenty-four male 1-year old swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were randomly allocated to 4 groups. One group grazed on guinea grass (GG) and another on guinea grass and the legume Stylosanthes guianensis (GL). The other two groups were kept in pens and fed freshly cut guinea grass and concentrate at an amount of 1.5% (GC1.5) and 2.0% (GC2.0) of body weight, respectively. The effect of the different feeding intensities on carcass characteristics and meat quality were assessed. The mean body weight at slaughter was 398 (16) kg. Average daily gain was higher in concentrate-supplemented groups (570 and 540 g/d in GC1.5 and GC2.0, respectively) when compared to GG (316 g/d) and GL (354 g/d) (p<0.01). Likewise, the warm carcass weight was higher in GC1.5 and GC2.0 compared to GG and GL. Dressing percentage was 48.1% and 49.5% in GC1.5 and GC2.0 in comparison to 42.9% and 44.8% observed in GG and GL, respectively. Meat of Longissimus throracis from GC1.5 and GC2.0 was redder in color (p<0.01), while water holding capacity (drip and thawing loss) was improved in pasture-fed groups (p<0.05). Protein and fat content of Longissimus thoracis was higher in animals supplemented with concentrate (p<0.01), as was cholesterol content (p<0.05), whereas PUFA:SFA ratio was higher and n-6/n-3 ratio lower (p<0.01) in pasture-fed buffaloes. Results of the present study showed that the supplementation of pasture with concentrate enhances the growth and carcass characteristics of swamp buffaloes expressed in superior dressing percentage, better muscling, and redder meat with a higher content of protein and fat, whereas animals grazing only on pasture had a more favorable fatty acid profile and water holding capacity. In conclusion, the supplementation of concentrate at a rate of about 1.5% of body weight is recommended to improve the performance and carcass quality of buffaloes. PMID:25049987

  7. Molecular characterisation of three regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA unit and the mitochondrial cox1 gene of Sarcocystis fusiformis from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Gjerde, Bjørn; Hilali, Mosaad; Mawgood, Sahar Abdel

    2015-09-01

    A total of 33 macroscopically visible (3-11 × 1-5 mm) sarcocysts of Sarcocystis fusiformis were excised from the oesophagus of 12 freshly slaughtered water buffalos in Giza, Egypt. Genomic DNA was extracted from the sarcocysts, and all isolates were characterised at the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene through PCR amplification and direct sequencing, whereas a few selected isolates were characterised at the 18S and 28S ribosomal (r) RNA genes and the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of the nuclear rDNA unit following cloning. Among the 33 cox1 sequences (1,038-bp long), there was a total of 13 haplotypes, differing from each other by one to seven substitutions and sharing an identity of 99.3-99.9 %. In comparison, the sequence identity was 98.8-99.0 % among eight complete 18S rRNA gene sequences (1,873-1,879-bp long), 98.1-100 % among 28 complete ITS1 sequences (853-864-bp long) and 97.4-99.6 % among five partial 28S rRNA gene sequences (1,607-1,622 bp). At the three nuclear loci, the intraspecific (and intra-isolate) sequence variation was due to both substitutions and indels, which necessitated cloning of the PCR products before sequencing. Some additional clones of the 18S and 28S rRNA genes were highly divergent from the more typical clones, but the true nature of these aberrant clones could not be determined. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses based on either 18S rRNA gene or cox1 nucleotide sequences, placed S. fusiformis closest to Sarcocystis cafferi from the African buffalo, but only the analyses based on cox1 data separated the two taxa clearly from each other and showed that they were separate species (monophyletic clusters and 93 % sequence identity at cox1 versus interleaved sequences and 98.7-99.1 % sequence identity at the 18S rRNA gene). Two cats experimentally infected with sarcocysts of S. fusiformis started shedding small numbers of sporocysts 8-10 days post-infection (dpi) and were euthanized 15 dpi. Sporocysts isolated from the intestinal mucosa of both cats were identified molecularly as belonging to S. fusiformis through PCR amplification and sequencing of the partial cox1. The two sporocyst-derived cox1 sequences were identical with the most common sarcocyst-derived cox1 haplotype. PMID:26051128

  8. Reproductive biotechniques in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis): status, prospects and challenges.

    PubMed

    Singh, B; Chauhan, M S; Singla, S K; Gautam, S K; Verma, V; Manik, R S; Singh, A K; Sodhi, M; Mukesh, M

    2009-01-01

    The swamp buffalo holds tremendous potential in the livestock sector in Asian and Mediterranean countries. Current needs are the faster multiplication of superior genotypes and the conservation of endangered buffalo breeds. Recent advances in assisted reproductive technologies, including in vitro embryo production methodologies, offer enormous opportunities to not only improve productivity, but also to use buffaloes to produce novel products for applications to human health and nutrition. The use of molecular genomics will undoubtedly advance these technologies for their large-scale application and resolve the key problems currently associated with advanced reproductive techniques, such as animal cloning, stem cell technology and transgenesis. Preliminary success in the application of modern reproductive technologies warrants further research at the cellular and molecular levels before their commercial exploitation in buffalo breeding programmes. PMID:19383257

  9. Genome-wide profiling of sperm DNA methylation in relation to buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull fertility.

    PubMed

    Verma, Arpana; Rajput, Sandeep; De, Sachinandan; Kumar, Rakesh; Chakravarty, Atish Kumar; Datta, Tirtha Kumar

    2014-09-15

    The DNA methylation pattern in spermatozoa of buffalo bulls of different fertility status was investigated. Spermatozoa isolated DNA from two groups of buffalo bulls (n = 5), selected based on their artificial insemination-generated conception rate data followed by IVF efficiency, were studied for global methylation changes using a custom-designed 180 K buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) CpG island/promoter microarray. A total of 96 individual genes with another 55 genes covered under CpG islands were found differentially methylated in sperm of high-fertile and subfertile buffalo bulls. Important genes associated with biological processes, cellular components, and functions were identified to be differentially methylated in buffalo bulls with differential fertility status. The identified differentially methylated genes were found to be involved in germ cell development, spermatogenesis, capacitation, and embryonic development. The observations hint that methylation defects of sperm DNA may play a crucial role in determining the fertility of breeding bulls. This growing field of sperm epigenetics will be of great benefit in understanding the graded fertility conditions of breeding bulls in commercial livestock production system. PMID:25023295

  10. Optimization of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryonic Stem Cell Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Zandi, Mohammad; Muzaffar, Musharifa; Shah, Syed Mohmad; Kumar Singh, Manoj; Palta, Prabhat; Kumar Singla, Suresh; Manik, Radheysham; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Objective In order to retain an undifferentiated pluripotent state, embryonic stem (ES) cells have to be cultured on feeder cell layers. However, use of feeder layers limits stem cell research, since experimental data may result from a combined ES cell and feeder cell response to various stimuli. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, a buffalo ES cell line was established from in vitro derived blastocysts and characterized by the Alkaline phosphatase (AP) and immunoflourescence staining of various pluripotency markers. We examined the effect of various factors like fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and Y-27632 to support the growth and maintenance of bubaline ES cells on gelatin coated dishes, in order to establish feeder free culture systems. We also analyzed the effect of feeder-conditioned media on stem cell growth in gelatin based cultures both in the presence as well as in the absence of the growth factors. Results The results showed that Y-27632, in the presence of FGF-2 and LIF, resulted in higher colony growth and increased expression of Nanog gene. Feeder-Conditioned Medium resulted in a significant increase in growth of buffalo ES cells on gelatin coated plates, however, feeder layer based cultures produced better results than gelatin based cultures. Feeder layers from buffalo fetal fibroblast cells can support buffalo ES cells for more than two years. Conclusion We developed a feeder free culture system that can maintain buffalo ES cells in the short term, as well as feeder layer based culture that can support the long term maintenance of buffalo ES cells. PMID:26199905

  11. Molecular characterisation of Sarcocystis bovifelis, Sarcocystis bovini n. sp., Sarcocystis hirsuta and Sarcocystis cruzi from cattle (Bos taurus) and Sarcocystis sinensis from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Gjerde, Bjørn

    2016-04-01

    About 200 individual sarcocysts were excised from 12 samples of cattle beef from five countries (Argentina, Brazil, Germany, New Zealand, Uruguay) and tentatively identified to species or cyst type on the basis of their size and shape and cyst wall morphology. Genomic DNA was extracted from 147 of these sarcocysts and used initially for PCR amplification and sequencing of the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1) in order to identify the sarcocysts to species and/or sequence type. In addition, seven Sarcocystis sinensis-like sarcocysts collected from the oesophagus of water buffaloes in Egypt were examined at cox1 for comparative purposes. Based on the results from the cox1 marker, selected sarcocyst isolates from both hosts were further characterised at one to three regions of the nuclear ribosomal (r) DNA unit, i.e. the complete 18S rRNA gene, the complete internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region and the partial 28S rRNA gene. This was done in order to compare the results with previous molecular identifications based on 18S rRNA gene sequences and to evaluate the utility of these regions for species delimitations and phylogenetic inferences. On the basis of sarcocyst morphology and molecular data, primarily the cox1 sequences, four Sarcocystis spp. were identified in the samples of cattle beef. Twenty-two microscopic sarcocysts (1 × 0.1 mm) with hair-like protrusions were assigned to Sarcocystis cruzi, 56 macroscopic sarcocysts (3-8 × 0.5 mm) with finger-like protrusions were assigned to Sarcocystis hirsuta and 45 and 24 microscopic sarcocysts (1-3 × 0.1-0.2 mm) with finger-like protrusions were assigned to Sarcocystis bovifelis and Sarcocystis bovini n. sp., respectively. Sarcocysts of S. cruzi were identified in samples of beef from Argentina and Uruguay; sarcocysts of S. hirsuta in samples from Argentina, Brazil, Germany and New Zealand; sarcocysts of S. bovifelis in samples from Argentina and Germany; and sarcocysts of S. bovini in samples from Argentina and New Zealand. The microscopic sarcocysts from water buffaloes were confirmed to belong to S. sinensis. The cox1 sequences of S. bovifelis and S. bovini, respectively, shared an identity of 93-94 % with each other, and these sequences shared an identity of 89-90 % with cox1 of S. sinensis. In contrast, the intraspecific sequence identity was 98.4-100 % (n = 45), 99.3-100 % (n = 24) and 99.5-100 % (n = 7) for sequences of S. bovifelis, S. bovini and S. sinensis, respectively. In each of the latter three species, an aberrant type of cox1 sequences was also identified, which was only 91-92 % identical with the predominant cox1 type of the same species and about 98 % identical with the aberrant types of the two other species. These aberrant cox1 sequences are believed to represent non-functional nuclear copies of the mitochondrial genes (numts or pseudogenes). They might be used as additional markers to separate the three species from each other. Sequencing of a considerable number of clones of S. bovifelis, S. bovini and S. sinensis from each of the three regions of the rDNA unit revealed intraspecific sequence variation in all loci in all species and particularly in the ITS1 locus (78-100 % identity). As regards the 18S rRNA gene, it was possible to separate the three species from each other on the basis of a few consistent nucleotide differences in the less variable 3' end half of the gene. A comparison of the new sequences with GenBank sequences obtained from S. sinensis-like sarcocysts in cattle in other studies indicated that previous sequences derived from cattle in Germany and Austria belonged to S. bovifelis, whereas those derived from cattle in China belonged to S. bovini. On the basis of the new 28S rRNA sequences, it was possible to separate S. sinensis from S. bovifelis and S. bovini, whereas the latter two species could not be separated from each other. Based on ITS1 sequences, the three species were indistinguishable. Phylogenetic analysis using maximum parsimony placed with fairly high support cox1 sequences of S. bovifelis, S. bovini and S. sinensis, respectively, into three monophyletic clusters, with S. bovifelis and S. bovini being a sister group to S. sinensis. In contrast, phylogenies based on each of the three regions of the rDNA unit did not separate sequences of the three species completely from each other. Characterisation of cox1 of 56 isolates of S. hirsuta from four countries revealed only 13 haplotypes and an intraspecific sequence identity of 99.3-100 %. In the three regions of the rDNA unit, there was more extensive sequence variation, particularly in the ITS1 region. The 22 cox1 sequences of S. cruzi displayed a moderate intraspecific variation (98.6-100 %), whereas there was no variation at the 18S rRNA gene among 10 sequenced isolates. Sequencing of 16 clones of the partial 28S rRNA gene of S. cruzi yielded two markedly different sequence types, having an overall sequence identity of 95-100 %. PMID:26677095

  12. In vitro culture and differentiation of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatogonia.

    PubMed

    Xie, B; Qin, Z; Huang, B; Xie, T; Yao, H; Wei, Y; Yang, X; Shi, D; Jiang, H

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a culture system which could support buffalo spermatogonia differentiation into spermatids in vitro. Testes from 3- to 5-month-old buffaloes were decapsulated and seminiferous tubules were enzymatically dissociated to recover spermatogonia and sertoli cells. The cells were cultured in modified Dulbecco modified Eagle medium supplemented with different concentrations of foetal bovine serum, retinol, testosterone for 2 months at 37 degrees C. Spermatogonia and sertoli cells were identified with an antibody against c-kit or GATA4, respectively. The viability of spermatogonia in the media supplemented with different concentrations of serum was all significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared with that in the medium without serum. A-paired or A-aligned spermatogonia and spermatogonial colonies (AP-positive) were observed after 7-10 days of culture and spermatid-like cells with a flagellum (6-8 microm) appeared after 30 days of culture. For cultured conditions, retinol could not significantly promote the formation of spermatid-like cells (p > 0.05), whereas supplementation of testosterone could significantly promote (p < 0.05) the formation of spermatid-like cells after 41 days of culture. The expression of the spermatid-specific marker gene (PRM2) was identified after 30 days of culture by RT-PCR. Yet, the transition protein 1 (TP1, a haploid makers) was not detected. Meanwhile, spermatids developed in vitro were also confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. These results suggest that buffalo spermatogonia could differentiate into spermatids in vitro based on the analysis of their morphology, PRM2 expression and Raman spectroscopy. Yet, the normality of the spermatid-like cells was not supported by TP1 expression. PMID:19090820

  13. H19 gene methylation study in Indian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Ajai K; Solanki, Jitendra V; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2013-03-01

    The methylation of DNA at cytosine residues within CpG dinucleotides is associated with transcriptional repression and is implicated in maintaining genomic stability and also the silencing of repetitive elements. These imprinted genes are unique as they are expressed exclusively from one parental allele. The present study was carried out to detect methylation status in H19 gene promoter CTCF III region in three Indian buffalo breeds (Jaffarabadi, Surti and Mehsani) by bisulfite sequencing. Methylation percent in Jaffarabadi, Surti and Mehsani buffaloes were found to be 50.19, 70.85 and 52.24, respectively, with mean incidence of methylation percent in H19 in all three breeds as 57.36. Apart from CpG methylation, unexpected nucleotide conversion (T>C, A>G, G>A) and deletion (A and G) after bisulfite sequencing were also observed. We observed no significant relationships in milk yield and milk fat per cent with methylation pattern in H19 gene in any of the three breeds. PMID:23054415

  14. Glycome characterization of immunoglobulin G from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) colostrum.

    PubMed

    Bhanu, L S Mamatha; Amano, M; Nishimura, S-I; Aparna, H S

    2015-11-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a major glycoprotein in ruminant colostrum. First day buffalo colostrum protein was purified on Sephadex G-100 and its mass was determined by MALDI-TOF as 147.848 KDa. The PMF data of protein subunits revealed its homology to IgG, which was supported by the identification of peptide sequences LLIYGATSR and VYNEYLPAPIVR corresponding to light and heavy chains of IgG by CID MS/MS analysis. The N-glycan microheterogeneity was established based on chemoselective glycoblotting technique with the identification of high mannose, neutral complex/hybrid and sialylated complex/hybrid glycans. A complete structural assignment of 54 N-linked oligosaccharides were identified and the ratio of sialyl oligosaccharides was found to be higher compared to neutral saccharides. The fucosylation observed in more than 20 oligosaccharides, high mannose and trisialyl oligosaccharides were present in diminutive amount. The high non-fucosyl and sialyl oligosaccharides in buffalo colostrum IgG provide ample scope for its utilization in targeted therapies to elicit effective ADCC and anti-inflammatory responses. PMID:26239923

  15. Cytochrome b gene haplotypes characterize chromosomal lineages of anoa, the Sulawesi dwarf buffalo (Bovidae: Bubalus sp.).

    PubMed

    Schreiber, A; Seibold, I; Ntzold, G; Wink, M

    1999-01-01

    Partial mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences reveal two deeply differentiated mtDNA lineages in anoa dwarf buffaloes (Bubalus depressicornis) from the studbook herd in European zoos. Three matrilinear lineages of lowland anoas (depressicornis type) contributed three rather similar sequence haplotypes, but one remarkably distinct haplotype was observed exclusively in mountain anoas (quarlesi type) descended from one founder female. The carriers of the distinctive mtDNA haplotype were also distinguished by several chromosomal and phenotypic peculiarities too. The differentiation between the mtDNA lineages of anoa approached or even surpassed the genetic divergence between some uncontested species of wild cattle. The depth of this haplotype divergence in anoas is discussed against the background of the phylogenetic age of these paleoendemic inhabitants of a predator-free island refugium, Sulawesi, who are among the most plesiomorphic living bovines. The studbook breeding of captive anoas as a safeguard against extinction might profit from such population genetic markers. These cytochrome b gene sequences were unable to resolve the phylogeny of nine bovine taxa robustly, except the divergence of Bubalus, Synceros, Bison, and Bos (sensu lato) genera. PMID:9987926

  16. Morphogenesis of Mammary Glands in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Challana, Amit; Gupta, Anuradha; Bansal, Neelam; Uppal, Varinder

    2014-01-01

    The present research was elucidated on the morphogenesis of mammary gland of buffalo during prenatal development. Total of 16 foetuses ranging from 1.2?cm (34 days) to 108?cm CVRL (curved crown rump length) (317 days) were used for study. The study revealed that mammary line was first observed at 1.2?cm CVRL (34 days), mammary hillock at 1.7?cm (37 days), and mammary bud at 2.6 cm CVRL (41 days) foetuses. Epidermal cone was found at 6.7?cm CVRL (58 days) whereas primary and secondary ducts were observed at 7.4?cm CVRL (62 days) and 15?cm CVRL (96 days), respectively. Connective tissue whorls were reported at 18.2 cm CVRL (110 days) and internal elastic lamina and muscle layers at 24.1?cm CVRL (129 days). Lobules were observed at 29.3 cm CVRL (140 days), rosette of furstenberg at 39.5 cm CVRL (163 days), and keratin plug at 45.5?cm CVRL (176 days) foetus. Primordia of sweat and sebaceous glands around hair follicle were seen at 21.2?cm CVRL (122 days) of foetal life. Differentiation of all the skin layers along with cornification was observed at 69?cm (229 days) in group III foetuses. PMID:24876967

  17. Ultrastructural and morphometric characterization of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) ovarian preantral follicles.

    PubMed

    Mondadori, R G; Luque, M C A; Santin, T R; Báo, S N

    2007-02-01

    The main objective of the present study was to characterize buffalo preantral ovarian follicles. Parts of ovarian cortex, collected from postpubertal buffalo females that were having estrous cycles at regular intervals, were selected under stereomicroscopy and processed for optic and transmission electron microscopy. Primordial follicles were characterized as an oocyte encircled by one layer of flattened cells. The buffalo primordial follicle has a mean diameter of 35 microm and the oocyte diameter is 24.9 microm. The oocyte nucleus is relatively large and eccentric; and in the cytoplasm a large amount of mitochondria, vesicles and endoplasmic reticulum cistern, mainly of the smooth type is observed. The primordial follicles cells are rich in plasma membrane invaginations, which are observed within the cell and between the cell and the oocyte. The primary follicles (mean diameter of 41.8 microm) consist of an oocyte, with a medium diameter of 26.9 microm, surrounded by one layer of cubical granulosa cells. At this follicular stage, the beginning of zona pellucida deposition can also be seen in areas between the oocyte and follicular cells. The secondary follicles, which are surrounded by more than one layer of cubical cells, have a diameter of 53.3 microm, and the oocyte has a mean diameter of 29.4 microm. The ultrastructural analysis showed a large amount of coalescent vesicles, more evident in the oocyte periphery. The zona pellucida (ZP) is thicker at this stage and contains a large quantity of glycoproteins. In general, the ultrastructure of buffalo preantral follicles was similar to that of other mammalian species, but some differences were observed, which indicate species specific characteristics. The main differences observed were cytoplasmic vesicles quantity, mitochondria shape and inner content, ZP deposition and granulosa cell-oocyte junctions. In conclusion, the morphological differences described in this paper, could be responsible for some functional differences observed in Bubalus bubalis in vitro embryo production and follicular dynamics, when compared with Bos taurus or Bos indicus species. PMID:16580155

  18. Lead and trace element levels in milk and blood of buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Hyderabad, India.

    PubMed

    Shailaja, M; Reddy, Yathapu Srinivasa; Kalakumar, B D P; Brinda, S A; Manohar, Gottimukkula; Kumar, B Dinesh

    2014-06-01

    The presence of lead (Pb) in milk and its interaction with trace elements is a serious health concern. Present study is aimed at determining Pb and trace element (Fe, Zn and Mg) levels in milk and blood/serum samples of lactating buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) living in a market-area (Group-A) and a dairy-experimental station (Group-B), Hyderabad, India. In addition, kidney and liver function tests were assessed. Fodder, milk and blood Pb levels were significantly (p < 0.01) higher in Group-B. Elevated Pb levels correlated positively with reduced Fe and Zn levels in both serum and milk. A significant (p < 0.01) positive correlation between blood Pb and milk Pb levels was observed. Kidney and liver function markers were significantly higher in Group-B buffaloes. The results suggest that contaminated fodder might be one of the responsible factors for elevated Pb levels. In addition, lower levels of Fe and Zn might have led to bioaccumulation of Pb in blood and milk. PMID:24671305

  19. Evaluation of antifreeze protein III for cryopreservation of Nili-Ravi (Bubalus bubalis) buffalo bull sperm.

    PubMed

    Qadeer, S; Khan, M A; Ansari, M S; Rakha, B A; Ejaz, R; Husna, A U; Ashiq, M; Iqbal, R; Ullah, N; Akhter, S

    2014-07-01

    Lower fertility in buffaloes with frozen-thawed semen is attributed to sperm damage that is believed to be due to formation of ice crystals during freeze/thaw process. It was hypothesized that antifreeze proteins in the extender may improve the post thaw quality of buffalo bull sperm. For this purpose, two separate experiments were conducted to evaluate antifreeze proteins III (AFP III) at 0 (control), 0.1, 1 and 10 μg/mL (Experiment I) and 0 (control), 0.01, 0.1 and 1 μg/mL (Experiment II) for its effect on post thaw quality of buffalo bull semen. Semen was collected from three Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls with artificial vagina (42 °C) for three weeks (replicate) per experiment. For each experiment, qualifying ejaculates (6 ejaculates/bull) were divided into four aliquots and diluted (at 37 °C having 50 × 10(6) sperm/mL) in tris-citric acid extender containing above mentioned concentrations of AFP III. Diluted semen was cooled to 4 °C in 2 h, equilibrated for 4 h, filled in 0.5 mL straws, kept over liquid nitrogen vapors for 10 min and plunged in the liquid nitrogen. After 24 h of storage, semen straws were thawed at 37 °C for 30 s to assess sperm progressive motility (SM), plasma membrane integrity (PMI), viability (live sperm with intact acrosome) and normal epical ridge (NAR). In experiment I, improvement (P<0.05) in percentage SM and sperm PMI was recorded in extender containing 0.1 μg/mL AFP III compared to control, the higher concentrations (1 μg/mL and 10 μg/mL) being inefficient. While evaluating the lower concentration (experiment II), 0.01 μg/mL of AFP III in the extender it was found to be ineffective to improve semen quality parameters, while 0.1 μg/mL AFP III in extender was found better in terms of progressive motility and plasma membrane integrity of buffalo bull semen compared to control. Sperm viability and NAR remained similar (P>0.05) in extenders containing different concentrations of AFP III and control in both of experiments. In conclusion addition of AFP III in the extender at 0.1 μg/mL improved the progressive motility and plasma membrane integrity of cryopreserved buffalo bull semen. PMID:24925471

  20. Effect of Leptin on In Vitro Nuclear Maturation and Apoptosis of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Oocyte

    PubMed Central

    Khaki1, Amir; Batavani, Rouzali; Najafi, Gholamreza; Tahmasbian, Hamid; Belbasi, Abolfazl; Mokarizadeh, Aram

    2014-01-01

    Background: Leptin, as a 16 kDa adipokine, is a pleiotropic cytokine-like hormone that primarily secreted from adipose tissue. It also involves in the regulation of energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, immunity, lipid and glucose homeostasis, fatty acid oxidation, angiogenesis, puberty and reproduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of in vitro addition of leptin to in vitro maturation (IVM) medium on buffalo oocyte maturation and apoptosis. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, Ovaries from apparently normal reproductive organs of slaughtered adult buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with unknown breeding history were collected from Urmia Abattoir, Urmia, Iran, and were transported immediately to the laboratory in a thermos flask containing sterile normal saline with added antibiotics. Oocytes were aspirated from 2-8 mm visible follicles of the ovaries using an 18-G needle attached to a 10 ml syringe. IVM medium included tissue culture medium-199 (TCM-199), 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 22 g/ml sodium pyruvate, 0.5 IU/ml ovine follicle-stimulating hormone (oFSH), 0.5 IU/ml ovine luteinizing hormone (oLH), 1 ?g/ml oestradiol, 50 ?g/ml gentamycin, and leptin [0 (control), 10, 50, and 100 ng/ml]. The good quality buffalo oocytes (batches of 10 oocytes) were placed in a culture plate containing six 50 ?l droplets of maturation medium, covered with sterilized mineral oil, and then incubated at 38.5?C with 5% CO2 in air for 24 hours. The maturation of oocytes was evaluated under a stereomicroscope by detecting the first polar body extrusion of oocytes. FITC-Annexin V propidium iodide (PI) staining method was used to detect oocyte apoptosis. Results: From a total of 115 collected ovaries, 1100 oocytes were recovered among which 283 oocyte were suitable for IVM. In the groups of leptin treated with 0 (control), 10, 50 and 100 ng/ml, the percentage of oocytes maturation was 74.65, 83.81, 77.85, and 75.40%, while the percentage of oocytes apoptosis was 9.83, 9.54, 9.93, and 10.42%, respectively. Our results showed that addition of 10 ng/ml leptin to buffalo IVM medium increased oocyte maturation, significantly, as compared with that in control group. However, addition of leptin to IVM medium had no significant influence on buffalo oocyte apoptosis. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that addition of 10 ng/ml leptin to IVM medium of buffalo oocyte can improve oocyte nuclear maturation. Furthermore, we showed that there is no relation between in vitro addition of leptin to buffalo oocyte IVM medium and oocyte apoptos Conclusion: Our findings suggested that addition of 10 ng/ml leptin to IVM medium of buffalo oocyte can improve oocyte nuclear maturation. Furthermore, we showed that there is no relation between in vitro addition of leptin to buffalo oocyte IVM medium and oocyte apoptosis. PMID:24696768

  1. Quantification, morphology and ultrastructure of preantral follicles of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) foetuses.

    PubMed

    Santos, S S D; Ferreira, M A P; Lima, M Y S; Sampaio, R V; Cordeiro, M S; Silva, T V G; Costa, N N; Miranda, M S; Ohashi, O M

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the number, morphology and ultrastructure of preantral ovarian follicles of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) foetuses at different ages. Quantification revealed number of primordial, primary and secondary follicles of 48,857 ± 17,506, 26,000 ± 20,452, 18,428 ± 10,875 and 18,375 ± 19,690, 225 ± 349, 326 ± 288 at 12-34 cm and 35-60 cm crown rump length (CRL), respectively. Follicular diameter values were 28.9 (± 3.4), 34.7 (± 5.9) and 59.4 (± 12.6) μm; oocyte diameters were 21.7 (± 2.8), 24.3 (± 3.4) and 33.0 (± 7.7) μm, and the numbers of follicular cells in the follicle equatorial section were 7.1 (± 1.4), 12.0 (± 2.4) and 13.8 (± 2.4) for primordial, primary and secondary follicles, respectively. The primordial follicle consisted of an oocyte surrounded by a layer of flattened follicular cells with a normally eccentric oocyte nucleus. Dispersed Golgi complex, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, rounded mitochondria and several lipid vesicles were observed in the cytoplasm and cell junctions between the follicle cell membranes and the oocyte. This work describes the number, morphometry and ultrastructure of preantral follicles of buffalo foetuses, concluding that folliculogenesis is established between 8 and 34 cm CRL and that follicle number varies individually and according to age and that further studies are needed in this species. PMID:20403125

  2. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Mature and Immature Oocytes of the Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qiang; Liu, Zhen-Fang; Huang, Yu-Lin; Lu, Yang-Qing; Zhang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Maternal protein components change markedly during mammalian oogenesis. Many of these proteins have yet to be characterized and verified. In this study, a proteomics approach was used to evaluate changes in proteins during oogenesis in the Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Proteins from 500 immature oocytes and 500 in vitro matured oocytes were subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis, and more than 400 spots were detected. Image analysis indicated that 17 proteins were differentially expressed between the two groups. Eight proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. In mature oocytes, three proteins were down-regulated: major vault protein (MVP), N-acetyllactosaminide β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyl-transferase (GCNT-2), and gem-associated protein (GEMIN)8, whereas five other proteins, heat shock protein (HSP)60, Ras-responsive element-binding protein 1 (RREB-1), heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein (HSC71), hemoglobin subunit α (HBA), and BMP-2-inducible protein kinase (BMP-2K), were up-regulated. The expression profiles of HSP60 and GEMIN8 were further verified by Western blotting. The changes in HSP60 protein expression demonstrate the increasing need for mitochondrial protein importation to facilitate macromolecular assembly during oocyte maturation. The down-regulation of GEMIN8 production implies that RNA splicing is impaired in mature oocytes. PMID:26784167

  3. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Mature and Immature Oocytes of the Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Liu, Zhen-Fang; Huang, Yu-Lin; Lu, Yang-Qing; Zhang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Maternal protein components change markedly during mammalian oogenesis. Many of these proteins have yet to be characterized and verified. In this study, a proteomics approach was used to evaluate changes in proteins during oogenesis in the Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Proteins from 500 immature oocytes and 500 in vitro matured oocytes were subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis, and more than 400 spots were detected. Image analysis indicated that 17 proteins were differentially expressed between the two groups. Eight proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. In mature oocytes, three proteins were down-regulated: major vault protein (MVP), N-acetyllactosaminide ?-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyl-transferase (GCNT-2), and gem-associated protein (GEMIN)8, whereas five other proteins, heat shock protein (HSP)60, Ras-responsive element-binding protein 1 (RREB-1), heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein (HSC71), hemoglobin subunit ? (HBA), and BMP-2-inducible protein kinase (BMP-2K), were up-regulated. The expression profiles of HSP60 and GEMIN8 were further verified by Western blotting. The changes in HSP60 protein expression demonstrate the increasing need for mitochondrial protein importation to facilitate macromolecular assembly during oocyte maturation. The down-regulation of GEMIN8 production implies that RNA splicing is impaired in mature oocytes. PMID:26784167

  4. Hormonal dynamics and follicular turnover in prepuberal Mediterranean Italian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Presicce, Giorgio Antonio; Parmeggiani, Albamaria; Senatore, Elena Maria; Stecco, Romana; Barile, Vittoria Lucia; De Mauro, Guillermo Javier; De Santis, Giuseppe; Maria Terzano, Giuseppina

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was the investigation of hormonal and ovarian follicular dynamics in prepuberal buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) bred in Italy. Eleven 5-9-month old buffalo calves ranging in weight from 122 to 270kg, maintained under controlled nutritional and environmental conditions, underwent 50 days of ultrasonographic ovarian follicular monitoring in the months of October-December. Blood sampling for E(2) and FSH determination and ultrasonographic monitoring using a 7.5MHz linear probe and an ALOKA SSD-500 monitor were performed daily. No differences in any of the parameters under study were highlighted when calves were divided into two weight categories (<200 and >200kg) and thus data were pooled. In this study, values are reported as mean+/-S.D. A range of two-six regular follicular waves was reported among calves with an average of 4+/-1.1. Overall interval (days) between wave emergence was 9.9+/-2.8 and largest diameters (mm) of dominant and first subordinate follicles were 8.4+/-1.2 and 4.8+/-0.6, respectively (P<0.05). With the exception of one calf, some minor follicular waves (short waves or SWs; 1.6+/-1), lasting <10 days (6.1+/-1.2) were reported. They were monitored contemporaneously on the ovary contralateral (n=7) or ipsilateral (n=3) to the main follicular wave. Growth rate (mm per day) of dominant follicles (DF) was significantly faster than for corresponding subordinate follicles (SF) and follicles of SWs (1.08+/-0.2 versus 0.79+/-0.1 and 0.83+/-0.1, respectively, P<0.05). The static phase (days) lasted longer in DF compared to SF and SW (5.4+/-1.8 versus 2.4+/-1.2 and 2.6+/-1, respectively, P<0.05). The regressing phase (mm per day) was similar among DF, SF and SW (0.86+/-0.2, 0.94+/-0.2 and 0.84+/-0.1, respectively, P=0.09). Episodic spikes of E(2) and FSH were reported, corresponding to wave development throughout the course of investigation. In conclusion, the majority of buffalo calves displayed a typical pattern of regular follicular development in conjunction with a dynamic trend of ovarian and hypophyseal hormones. Some minor follicle turnover was reported with parallel main follicular waves. PMID:12763162

  5. Histology and ultrastructure of the lymph nodes of the buffalo (Bos bubalus).

    PubMed

    Zidan, M; Pabst, R

    2015-06-01

    Pre-scapular, femoral and mesenteric lymph nodes from five buffalo calves and five buffalo bulls were studied using light and transmission electron microscopy. The nodes were surrounded with a thin capsule of dense connective tissue and smooth muscles. Subcapsular and trabecular lymphatic sinuses were lined with endothelial cells resting on a basement membrane. The cortex was formed by lymphoid follicles and inter-follicular lymphocytes. Primary and secondary follicles were observed. The medulla was made up of medullary cords of lymphocytes separated by lymphatic sinuses. These sinuses were lined with a discontinuous epithelium and interestingly crossed by reticular fibres. High endothelial venules were found in the paracortical area. Several lymphocytes were observed infiltrating the wall of these venules. The lymph nodes of the Egyptian water buffalo showed a typical structure compared with the majority of mammals, with no age-related structural variation. PMID:24810142

  6. Methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) gene based phylogenetic analysis of methanogens population in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Prem Prashant; Sirohi, Sunil Kumar; Singh, Dheer; Saxena, Jyoti

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to decipher the diversity of methanogens in rumen of Murrah buffaloes so that effective strategies can be made in order to mitigate methane emission from these methanogens. In the present study diversity of rumen methanogens in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from North India was evaluated by using mcr-A gene library obtained from the pooled PCR product from four animals and by using MEGA4 software. A total of 104 clones were examined, revealing 26 different mcr-A gene sequences or phylotypes. Of the 26 phylotypes, 16 (64 of 104 clones) were less than 97% similar to any of the cultured strain of methanogens. Seven clone sequences were clustered with Methanomicrobium mobile and three clone sequences were clustered with Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii during the phylogenetic analysis. Uncultured group of methanogens comes out to be the major component of the methanogens community structure in Murrah buffaloes. Methanomicrobium phylotype comes out to be major phylotype among cultured methanogens followed by Methanobrevibacter phylotype. These results help in making effective strategies to check the growth of dominant communities in the rumen of this animal which in turn help in the reduction of methane emission in the environment and ultimately helps us in fighting with the problem of global warming. PMID:21887637

  7. Effect of bypass fat supplementation on productive performance and blood biochemical profile in lactating Murrah (Bubalus bubalis) buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Amit; Sahoo, Biswanath; Singh, Vijay Kumar; Srivastava, Susant; Singh, Suresh Pratap; Pattanaik, Ashok Kumar

    2012-10-01

    The study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of bypass fat on productive performance and blood biochemical profile of lactating Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Fifteen multiparous buffaloes (2-4 lactation) of early to mid lactation were divided in three homogenous groups T(1) (control), T(2), and T(3) of five each. The animals in T(1) were fed with a basal diet consisting of a concentrate mixture, green sorghum, and wheat straw as per requirements, while the animals in group T(2) and T(3) were fed with same ration supplemented with 0.7 % (100 g/day) and 1.4 % (200 g/day) bypass fat (on dry matter intake (DMI) basis), respectively. The feed intake, milk yield, and milk composition were not influenced by supplemental bypass fat. However, fat-corrected milk (6.5 %) yield was higher (P < 0.05) in T(3) (14.21) than that of T(1) (9.83) and similar with T(2) (11.05). Feed efficiency (milk yield/kg DMI) was higher (P < 0.05) in group T(3) (0.51) than that of T(1) (0.38) and T(2) (0.41) indicating that buffaloes fed with bypass fat which is 1.4 % (200 g/day) of the diet were economically more efficient. The serum cholesterol level was higher (P < 0.01) in bypass fat-supplemented group (T(2) and T(3)) of animals. Serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (good cholesterol) level was more (P < 0.05) than LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol) level with higher dose of bypass fat in T(3) than T(2). It was concluded that bypass fat supplementation with 1.4 % of the diet (200 g/day) increased the fat-corrected milk production and feed efficiency along with serum HDL cholesterol level in lactating Murrah buffaloes. PMID:22373930

  8. Potential functional gene diversity involved in methanogenesis and methanogenic community structure in Indian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) rumen.

    PubMed

    Singh, Krishna M; Patel, Amrutlal K; Shah, Ravi K; Reddy, Bhaskar; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the methanogen community structure and methanogenesis from Bubalus bubalis in India may be beneficial to methane mitigation. Our current understanding of the microbial processes leading to methane production is incomplete, and further advancement in the knowledge of methanogenesis pathways would provide means to manipulate its emission in the future. In the present study, we evaluated the methanogenic community structure in the rumen as well as their potential genes involved in methanogenesis. The taxonomic and metabolic profiles of methanogens were assessed by shotgun sequencing of rumen metagenome by Ion Torrent semiconductor sequencing. The buffalo rumen contained representative genera of all the families of methanogens. Members of Methanobacteriaceae were found to be dominant, followed by Methanosarcinaceae, Methanococcaceae, Methanocorpusculaceae, and Thermococcaceae. A total of 60 methanogenic genera were detected in buffalo rumen. Methanogens related to the genera Methanobrevibacter, Methanosarcina, Methanococcus, Methanocorpusculum, Methanothermobacter, and Methanosphaera were predominant, representing >70 % of total archaeal sequences. The metagenomic dataset indicated the presence of genes involved in the methanogenesis and acetogenesis pathways, and the main functional genes were those of key enzymes in the methanogenesis. Sequences related to CoB--CoM heterodisulfide reductase, methyl coenzyme M reductase, f420-dependent methylenetetrahydromethanopterin reductase, and formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase were predominant in rumen. In addition, methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase, methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase, 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, and acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase were also recovered. PMID:25663664

  9. The complete coding region sequence of river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) SRY gene.

    PubMed

    Parma, Pietro; Feligini, Maria; Greppi, Gianfranco; Enne, Giuseppe

    2004-02-01

    The Y-linked SRY gene is responsible for testis determination in mammals. Mutations in this gene can lead to XY Gonadal Dysgenesis, an abnormal sexual phenotype described in humans, cattle, horses and river buffalo. We report here the complete river buffalo SRY sequence in order to enable the genetic diagnosis of this disease. The SRY sequence was also used to confirm the evolutionary divergence time between cattle and river buffalo 10 million years ago. PMID:15354359

  10. Trehalose improves semen antioxidant enzymes activity, post-thaw quality, and fertility in Nili Ravi buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Sajid; Andrabi, Syed Murtaza Hassan; Riaz, Amjad; Durrani, Aneela Zameer; Ahmad, Nasim

    2016-03-15

    Our objectives were to study the effect of trehalose in extender on (1) antioxidant enzymes profile during cryopreservation (after dilution, before freezing, and after thawing), (2) in vitro quality (after thawing), and (3) in vivo fertility of Nili Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa. Semen samples (n = 20) from four buffalo bulls were diluted in Tris-citric acid-based extender having different concentrations of trehalose (0.0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 mM) and frozen in French straws. At post dilution, profile of sperm catalase (U/mL) was higher (P < 0.05) in extenders containing 15, 30, and 45 mM of trehalose as compared to control. Although profiles of superoxide dismutase (U/mL) and total glutathione (μM) were higher (P < 0.05) in extenders containing 15 and 30 mM of trehalose as compared to control. At prefreezing, sperm catalase, superoxide dismutase, and total glutathione profiles were higher (P < 0.05) in all the treatment groups as compared to control. At post thawing, the profiles of catalase and total glutathione were higher (P < 0.05) in extender containing 30-mM trehalose as compared to other treatment groups and control. Whereas, profile of superoxide dismutase was higher (P < 0.05) in extenders containing 30, 45, and 60 mM of trehalose as compared to control and 15mM group. Post thaw total sperm motility (%) was higher (P < 0.05) in extender containing 30-mM trehalose as compared to control and 15 and 60-mM groups. Although sperm progressive motility (%), rapid velocity (%), average path velocity (μm/s), straight line velocity (μm/s), curvilinear velocity (μm/s), plasma membrane (structural and functional, %), acrosome (%), and DNA (%) integrity were higher (P < 0.05) in extender containing 30 mM trehalose as compared to other treatment groups and control. The fertility rates (61% vs. 43%) were higher (P < 0.05) in buffaloes inseminated with semen doses cryopreserved in extender containing 30 mM of trehalose than the control. It is concluded that addition of 30-mM trehalose in extender improves the semen antioxidant enzymes activity, post thaw quality, and fertility in Nili Ravi buffaloes. PMID:26653954

  11. Myxosporeans infecting the gills of bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) in Illinois, USA.

    PubMed

    Lom, J; Cone, D

    1996-01-01

    Four myxosporean species were found on the gills of Ictiobus bubalus from Illinois (USA). Myxobolus endovasus (Davis, 1947) Grinham et Cone, 1990 is revised. Three new species are recorded. Myxobolus enoblei sp. n. has spores ovoid in frontal view, 14.3 x 13 microns in size. Myxobolus morrisonae sp. n. has spores subcircular in frontal view, 10 x 9.5 microns in size; the surface of shell valves appears hairy when studied by SEM. Triangula illinoisensis sp. n. has spores rounded semicircular in frontal view, 10.2 x 12.8 microns in size. Triangula illinoisensis is the fourth species of its genus to be described from fishes. PMID:8682408

  12. Somatic cell cloning in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): effects of interspecies cytoplasmic recipients and activation procedures.

    PubMed

    Kitiyanant, Y; Saikhun, J; Chaisalee, B; White, K L; Pavasuthipaisit, K

    2001-01-01

    Successful nuclear transfer (NT) of somatic cell nuclei from various mammalian species to enucleated bovine oocytes provides a universal cytoplast for NT in endangered or extinct species. Buffalo fetal fibroblasts were isolated from a day 40 fetus and were synchronized in presumptive G(0) by serum deprivation. Buffalo and bovine oocytes from abattoir ovaries were matured in vitro and enucleated at 22 h. In the first experiment, we compared the ability of buffalo and bovine oocyte cytoplasm to support in vitro development of NT embryos produced by buffalo fetal fibroblasts as donor nuclei. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the NT embryos derived from buffalo and bovine oocytes, in fusion (74% versus 71%) and cleavage (77% versus 75%) rates, respectively. No significant differences were also observed in blastocyst development (39% versus 33%) and the mean cell numbers of day 7 cloned blastocysts (88.5 +/- 25.7 versus 51.7 +/- 5.4). In the second experiment, we evaluated the effects of activation with calcium ionophore A23187 on development of NT embryos after electrical fusion. A significantly higher (p < 0.05) percentage of blastocyst development was observed in the NT embryos activated by calcium ionophore and 6-DMAP when compared with 6-DMAP alone (33% versus 17%). The results indicate that the somatic nuclei from buffalo can be reprogrammed after transfer to enucleated bovine oocytes, resulting in the production of cloned buffalo blastocysts similar to those transferred into buffalo oocytes. Calcium ionophore used in conjunction with 6-DMAP effectively induces NT embryo development. PMID:11945219

  13. Laboratory-based measurements of swimming performance and related metabolic rates of field-sampled smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus): a study of seasonal changes.

    PubMed

    Adams, S R; Parsons, G R

    1998-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated how the performance physiology of fish may change when they are acclimated to designated laboratory temperatures, but few researchers have examined naturally occurring seasonal effects on several physiological parameters associated with swimming performance. Using field-acclimatized smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) collected each season, we report significant seasonal effects in the following variables: critical swimming speed (modified), metabolic rate (standard, active, and scope for activity), and swimming efficiency (total and net cost of transport). Underlying seasonal changes in performance was the reproductive cycle of buffalo, particularly the period of fall gonadal recrudescence. Compared with spring, fall buffalo had a significantly lower mean critical swimming speed (72%) and lower active metabolic rate (53%), even when tested at similar temperatures. During spring, buffalo had a high mean critical swimming speed and low net cost of transport in comparison with other seasons. Buffalo are known to participate in a spring migration and spawning that may require the increased performance and efficiency observed during that season. In addition, significant sex effects were detected in winter measurements of standard metabolic rate and net cost of transport, with females the more efficient swimmers. PMID:9678496

  14. Profile of muscle tissue gene expression specific to water buffalo: Comparison with domestic cattle by genome array.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Hongbao; Gui, Linsheng; Wang, Hongcheng; Mei, Chugang; Zhang, Yaran; Xu, Huaichao; Jia, Cunlin; Zan, Linsen

    2016-02-10

    In contrast with the past, the water buffalo is now not only a draft animal, but also an important food source of milk and meat. It is increasingly apparent that the water buffalo have huge potential for meat production, but its breeding needs to be investigated. Regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in the meat quality difference between the buffalo (Bubalus bulabis) and yellow cattle (Bos taurus), 12 chemical-physical characteristics related to the meat quality of longissimus thoracis muscles (LTM) have been compared at the age of 36months. Intramuscular lipid and b* (yellowness) were greater in cattle than the buffalo, whereas a* (redness) was greater in the buffalo. Gene expression profiles were constructed by bovine genome array. A total of 8884 and 10,960 probes were detected in buffalo and cattle, respectively, with 1580 genes being differentially expressed. Over 400 probes were upregulated and nearly 1200 were downregulated in LTM of the buffalo, most being involved in ribosomal RNA (rRNA) processing, cholesterol homeostasis, regulation of transcription, response to hypoxia, and glycolysis. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to validate the microarray data. Enriched GO analyses of highly expressed genes in LTM showed that protein biosynthesis, striated muscle contraction, iron homeostasis, iron transport, glycolysis and glucose metabolism were similar between the buffalo and cattle. High protein content, low fat content and deep meat color of buffalo LTM may be closely associated with the increased expression of genes involved in cholesterol and iron homeostasis, while also reducing the expression of genes involved in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and protein oxidative phosphorylation. These results establish the groundwork for further studies on buffalo meat quality and will be beneficial in improving water buffalo breeding by molecular biotechnology. PMID:26598327

  15. Establishment and Characterization of a Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Mammary Epithelial Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Vijay; Dogra, Nilambra; Singh, Surender; Kumar, Sudarshan N.; Jena, Manoj K.; Malakar, Dhruba; Dang, Ajay K.; Mishra, Bishnu P.; Mukhopadhyay, Tapas K.; Kaushik, Jai K.; Mohanty, Ashok K.

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to establish the buffalo mammary epithelial cell line (BuMEC) and characterize its mammary specific functions. Methodology Buffalo mammary tissue collected from the slaughter house was processed enzymatically to obtain a heterogenous population of cells containing both epithelial and fibroblasts cells. Epithelial cells were purified by selective trypsinization and were grown in a plastic substratum. The purified mammary epithelial cells (MECs) after several passages were characterized for mammary specific functions by immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and western blot. Principal Findings The established buffalo mammary epithelial cell line (BuMEC) exhibited epithelial cell characteristics by immunostaining positively with cytokeratin 18 and negatively with vimentin. The BuMEC maintained the characteristics of its functional differentiation by expression of ?-casein, ?-casein, butyrophilin and lactoferrin. BuMEC had normal growth properties and maintained diploid chromosome number (2n?=?50) before and after cryopreservation. A spontaneously immortalized buffalo mammary epithelial cell line was established after 20 passages and was continuously subcultured for more than 60 passages without senescence. Conclusions We have established a buffalo mammary epithelial cell line that can be used as a model system for studying mammary gland functions. PMID:22792341

  16. Power of exclusion of 19 microsatellite markers for parentage testing in river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Kathiravan, P; Kataria, R S; Mishra, B P

    2012-08-01

    In the present study, 19 microsatellite markers were assessed for their power of exclusion to test parentage in river buffalo. Microsatellite genotypes of 216 unrelated buffaloes belonging to five different breeds were utilized for the study. The probabilities of exclusion were calculated for three hypothetical situations viz. paternity testing (PE1), one parental genotype unavailable (PE2) and exclusion of both parents i.e. substituted offspring (PE3). The mean probability of exclusion across 19 investigated markers in buffalo was 0.578 (PE1), 0.405 (PE2) and 0.764 (PE3) respectively. The probability of exclusion for paternity (PE1) ranged between 0.297 and 0.814 across different markers. The exclusion probability for the cases one parent unavailable (PE2) and substituted offspring (PE3) varied from 0.143 to 0.688 and 0.465 to 0.946 respectively. Polymorphism information content and expected heterozygosity were found to have significantly high correlation with probability of exclusion of microsatellite markers. The cumulative PE1 of nine marker loci was estimated to be 0.9999 while in case of absence of one of the parental genotypes, a minimum of 11 markers were required to achieve a cumulative PE2 of 0.999. In conclusion, the present study proposes two multiplex sets with four and five markers respectively for routine parentage testing in buffalo and an additional set of four markers for doubtful cases of paternity. PMID:22555978

  17. Collagen-IV supported embryoid bodies formation and differentiation from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Taru Sharma, G.; Dubey, Pawan K.; Verma, Om Prakash; Pratheesh, M.D.; Nath, Amar; Sai Kumar, G.

    2012-08-03

    Graphical abstract: EBs formation, characterization and expression of germinal layers marker genes of in vivo developed teratoma using four different types of extracellular matrices. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV matrix is found cytocompatible for EBs formation and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Established 3D microenvironment for ES cells development and differentiation into three germ layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV may be useful as promising candidate for ES cells based therapeutic applications. -- Abstract: Embryoid bodies (EBs) are used as in vitro model to study early extraembryonic tissue formation and differentiation. In this study, a novel method using three dimensional extracellular matrices for in vitro generation of EBs from buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cells and its differentiation potential by teratoma formation was successfully established. In vitro derived inner cell masses (ICMs) of hatched buffalo blastocyst were cultured on buffalo fetal fibroblast feeder layer for primary cell colony formation. For generation of EBs, pluripotent ES cells were seeded onto four different types of extracellular matrices viz; collagen-IV, laminin, fibronectin and matrigel using undifferentiating ES cell culture medium. After 5 days of culture, ESCs gradually grew into aggregates and formed simple EBs having circular structures. Twenty-six days later, they formed cystic EBs over collagen matrix with higher EBs formation and greater proliferation rate as compared to other extracellular matrices. Studies involving histological observations, fluorescence microscopy and RT-PCR analysis of the in vivo developed teratoma revealed that presence of all the three germ layer derivatives viz. ectoderm (NCAM), mesoderm (Flk-1) and endoderm (AFP). In conclusion, the method described here demonstrates a simple and cost-effective way of generating EBs from buffalo ES cells. Collagen-IV matrix was found cytocompatible as it supported buffalo EBs formation, their subsequent differentiation could prove to be useful as promising candidate for ES cells based therapeutic applications.

  18. Seasonal variations in developmental competence and relative abundance of gene transcripts in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes.

    PubMed

    Abdoon, Ahmed S; Gabler, Christoph; Holder, Christoph; Kandil, Omaima M; Einspanier, Ralf

    2014-11-01

    Hot season is a major constraint to production and reproduction in buffaloes. The present work aimed to investigate the effect of season on ovarian function, developmental competence, and the relative abundance of gene expression in buffalo oocytes. Three experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, pairs of buffalo ovaries were collected during cold season (CS, autumn and winter) and hot season (HS, spring and summer), and the number of antral follicles was recorded. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were aspirated and evaluated according to their morphology into four Grades. In experiment 2, Grade A and B COCs collected during CS and HS were in vitro matured (IVM) for 24 hours under standard conditions at 38.5 °C in a humidified air of 5% CO2. After IVM, cumulus cells were removed and oocytes were fixed, stained with 1% aceto-orcein, and evaluated for nuclear configuration. In vitro matured buffalo oocytes harvested during CS or HS were in vitro fertilized (IVF) using frozen-thawed buffalo semen and cultured in vitro to the blastocyst stage. In experiment 3, buffalo COCs and in vitro matured oocytes were collected during CS and HS, and then snap frozen in liquid nitrogen for gene expression analysis. Total RNA was extracted from COCs and in vitro matured oocytes, and complementary DNA was synthesized; quantitative Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction was performed for eight candidate genes including GAPDH, ACTB, B2M, GDF9, BMP15, HSP70, and SOD2. The results indicated that HS significantly (P < 0.01) decreased the number of antral follicles and the number of COCs recovered per ovary. The number of Grade A, B, and C COCs was lower (P < 0.05) during HS than CS. In vitro maturation of buffalo oocytes during HS significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the number of oocytes reaching the metaphase II stage and increased the percentage of degenerated oocytes compared with CS. Oocytes collected during HS also showed signs of cytoplasmic degeneration. After IVF, cleavage rate was lower (P < 0.01) for oocytes collected during HS, and the percentage of oocytes arrested at the two-cell stage was higher (P < 0.01) than oocytes IVF during CS. Oocytes matured during CS showed a higher (P < 0.01) blastocyst rate than those matured during HS. Also, COCs recovered in HS showed significant (P < 0.05) upregulation of HSP70 mRNA expression compared with those recovered in CS. For in vitro matured oocytes, CS down regulated the transcript abundance of ACTB and upregulated GAPDH and HSP70 mRNA levels compared with HS condition. In conclusion, HS could impair buffalo fertility by reducing the number of antral follicles and oocyte quality. In vitro maturation of buffalo oocytes during HS impairs their nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation, fertilization, and subsequent embryo development to the morula and blastocyst stages. This could be in part because of the altered gene expression found in COCs and in vitro matured oocytes. PMID:25156970

  19. Isolation, characterization, and EGFP expression in the buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) mammary gland epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Ramakant; Singh, Karn Pratap; Kumari, Archana; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Manik, Radhey Shyam; Palta, Prabhat; Singla, Suresh Kumar; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to establish a buffalo mammary epithelial cells (BuMECs) line and maintain it for long-term by subculturing. BuMECs isolated from lactating buffalo mammary glands were cultured on a collagen matrix gel. BuMECs expressed significant amounts of the epithelial cell specific marker cytokeratin 18 as determined by immunohistochemistry. The BuMECs displayed monolayer, cobble-stone morphology, and formed lumen-, dome-, and duct-like structures. Furthermore, they were capable of synthesizing CSN2, BLG, ACACA, and BTN1A1, showed viability after thawing and expressed milk protein genes. The enhanced green fluorescent protein gene was transferred successfully into the BuMECs using lipofection method and the transfected cells could be maintained for long-term in culture by subculturing. PMID:23180034

  20. Molecular Identification of Methanogenic Archaea From Surti Buffaloes (Bubalus Bubalis), Reveals More Hydrogenotrophic Methanogens Phylotypes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, K.M.; Pandya, P.R.; Parnerkar, S.; Tripathi, A.K.; Rank, D.N.; Kothari, R.K.; Joshi, C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock are considered to be one of the more potent forms of greenhouses gases contributing to global warming. Many strategies to reduce emissions are targeting the methanogens that inhabit the rumen, but such an approach can only be successful if it targets all the major groups of ruminant methanogens. Therefore, a thorough knowledge of the diversity of these microbes in breeds of buffaloes, as well as in response to geographical location and different diets, is required. Therefore, molecular diversity of rumen methanogens in Surti buffaloes was investigated using 16S rRNA gene libraries prepared from pooled rumen contents from three Surti buffaloes. A total of 171 clones were identified revealing 23 different sequences (phylotypes). Of these 23 sequences, twelve sequences (12 OTUs, 83 clones) and 10 sequences (10 OTUs, 83 clones) were similar to methanogens belonging to the orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanobacteriales, and the remaining 1 phylotype (5 clones) were similar to Methanosarcina barkeri. These unique sequences clustered within a distinct and strongly supported phylogenetic group. Further studies and effective strategies can be made to inhibit the growth of Methanomicrobiales and Methanobacteriales phylotypes to reduce the methane emission from rumen and thus help in preventing global warming. PMID:24031614

  1. Molecular identification of methanogenic archaea from surti buffaloes (bubalus bubalis), reveals more hydrogenotrophic methanogens phylotypes.

    PubMed

    Singh, K M; Pandya, P R; Parnerkar, S; Tripathi, A K; Rank, D N; Kothari, R K; Joshi, C G

    2011-01-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock are considered to be one of the more potent forms of greenhouses gases contributing to global warming. Many strategies to reduce emissions are targeting the methanogens that inhabit the rumen, but such an approach can only be successful if it targets all the major groups of ruminant methanogens. Therefore, a thorough knowledge of the diversity of these microbes in breeds of buffaloes, as well as in response to geographical location and different diets, is required. Therefore, molecular diversity of rumen methanogens in Surti buffaloes was investigated using 16S rRNA gene libraries prepared from pooled rumen contents from three Surti buffaloes. A total of 171 clones were identified revealing 23 different sequences (phylotypes). Of these 23 sequences, twelve sequences (12 OTUs, 83 clones) and 10 sequences (10 OTUs, 83 clones) were similar to methanogens belonging to the orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanobacteriales, and the remaining 1 phylotype (5 clones) were similar to Methanosarcina barkeri. These unique sequences clustered within a distinct and strongly supported phylogenetic group. Further studies and effective strategies can be made to inhibit the growth of Methanomicrobiales and Methanobacteriales phylotypes to reduce the methane emission from rumen and thus help in preventing global warming. PMID:24031614

  2. Nutritional evaluation of organically grown fodders in lactating Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Singh, Sultan; Nag, Subir Kumar; Maity, Subhendu Bikash; Kushwaha, Badri Prasad

    2013-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional response of organically grown diets in buffaloes on nutrients utilization and nutrient efficiency for milk production. For this, ten milch Murrah buffaloes of average body weight (490.72 ± 6.65 kg), milk yield (8.13 ± 0.33 kg), and lactation stage (85 ± 5.28 days) were distributed in inorganic (InDg()) and organic dietary groups (OrDg) with five animals in each. Buffaloes of InDg and OgDg were fed sorghum hay-berseem fodder-concentrate mixture-based diets grown inorganically and organically, respectively. After 60 days of feeding, a digestion cum metabolism trial was conducted to assess feed intake, nutrient utilization, and N balance, while milk yield and composition were recorded fortnightly. DM, CP, digestible crude protein (DCP), and metabolizable energy (ME) intake (g/Kg w(0.75)) were similar in animals of InDg and OrDg. NDF, ADF, and hemicellulose digestibility were (P < 0.05) higher in animals on OrDg (59.20, 51.55, and 62.67) than InDg diet (54.57, 43.72, and 56.61 %), respectively. Urinary n loss (g/day) was (P < 0.05) lower in OrDg (67.23) than in InDg (83.55); however, milk N was comparable in animals of both dietary groups (47.36 vs 45.82 g/day). Nitrogen balance was higher in animals of OrDg (39.72) than in InDg (28.08). DCP, TDN, and ME values of both diets were similar. No effect of diet was observed on milk yield and its composition; however, increased lactation length decreased milk yield. Buffaloes on both diets had similar efficiency and conversion ratio of nutrients for milk production. Results revealed that diets (organically vs. inorganically grown) have no effect on milk yield and its composition; however, buffaloes on organic diet have higher fiber digestibility and low urinary N loss which did not affect the dietary nutrients efficiency and conversion ratio for milk production. PMID:22733348

  3. Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) pre-antral follicle population and ultrastructural characterization of antral follicle oocyte.

    PubMed

    Mondadori, R G; Santin, T R; Fidelis, A A G; Porfírio, E P; Báo, S N

    2010-02-01

    The main objectives of the present study were to determine the ultrastructural modifications occurring in the oocyte during late folliculogenesis and to estimate pre-antral follicle population in buffalo. Half the collected ovaries were fixed and prepared for optic microscopy; the antral follicles from the other ovaries were measured and individually punctured. The cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were processed for transmission electron microscopy. The number of pre-antral follicles in buffalo ovaries was estimated at 19 819 structures. Cumulus-oocyte complexes derived from 1-mm antral follicle had an eccentrical nucleus and compact corona radiata, ooplasm vilosities were fully embedded in zona pellucida (ZP) and a well-defined junction could be observed. Mitochondria were predominantly round and well distributed in ooplasm, as were small lipid vacuoles. In COCs derived from 2-mm antral follicles, the initial formation of perivitelline space was observed. The nucleus was peripherally located and the number of pleomorphic mitochondria increased. Cortical granules were clustered at oocyte periphery and lipid vacuoles increased in number and size. In COCs derived from 6-mm antral follicles, the organelles were located mainly in the perinuclear region. Golgi complexes and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) were more developed. Mitochondria migrated to the cortical region and lipid vacuoles migrated to the medullar region. In COCs derived from 10-mm antral follicles, the lipid vacuoles coalesced and occupied the medullar region of the oocyte, together with a well-developed SER. Mitochondria were pleomorphic and located at the oocyte periphery. In conclusion, the morphological differences described in this paper could be responsible for some functional differences observed in in vitro embryo production and follicular dynamics for buffalo, when compared with cattle. PMID:19055556

  4. In vivo differentiation potential of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cell.

    PubMed

    Verma, Om Prakash; Kumar, Rajesh; Nath, Amar; Sharma, Manjinder; Dubey, Pawan Kumar; Kumar, G Sai; Sharma, G Taru

    2012-06-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) derived from inner cell mass (ICM) of mammalian blastocyst are having indefinite proliferation and differentiation capability for any type of cell lineages. In the present study, ICMs of in vitro-derived buffalo blastocysts were cultured into two different culture systems using buffalo fetal fibroblast as somatic cell support and Matrigel as synthetic support to obtain pluripotent buffalo embryonic stem cell (buESC) colonies. Pluripotency of the ESCs were characterised through pluripotency markers whereas, their differentiation capability was assessed by teratoma assay using immuno-compromised mice. Cumulus ooccyte complexes from slaughter house-derived ovaries were subjected to in vitro maturation, in vitro fertilization and in vitro culture to generate blastocysts. Total 262 blastocysts were derived through IVEP with 11.83 % (31/262) hatching rate. To generate buESCs, 15 ICMs from hatched blastocysts were cultured on mitomycin-C-treated homologous fetal fibroblast feeder layer, whereas the leftover 16 ICMs were cultured on extra-cellular matrix (Matrigel). No significant differences were observed for primary ESCs colony formation between two culture systems. Primary colonies as well as passaged ESCs were characterised by alkaline phosphatase staining, karyotyping and expression of transcription-based stem cell markers, OCT-4 and cell surface antigens SSEA-4 and TRA-1-60. Batch of ESCs found positive for pluripotency markers and showing normal karyotype after fifteenth passage were inoculated into eight immuno-compromised mice through subcutaneous and intramuscular route. Subcutaneous route of inoculation was found to be better than intramuscular route. Developed teratomas were excised surgically and subjected to histological analysis. Histological findings revealed presence of all the three germinal layer derivatives in teratoma sections. Presence of germinal layer derivatives were further confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for the presence of differentiation markers like nerve cell adhesion molecule, fetal liver kinase-1 and alpha-feto protein for ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm, respectively. PMID:22678753

  5. The effects of high temperature and roof modification on physiological responses of swamp buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis) in the tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khongdee, Titaporn; Sripoon, S.; Vajrabukka, C.

    2013-05-01

    The objective of the experiments reported here was to measure the effects of cooling techniques (Modified roof vs Normal roof) on the performance and physiology of 12 young male buffaloes with a similar live weight of 160 kg. The study was conducted at Chainat Agriculture and Technology College, Chainat Province, Thailand. The animals were divided randomly into two groups, each group comprising six buffaloes, and the two groups were studied to evaluate the effects of modified roofing (normal roof fitted with woven polypropylene shade cloth) on the subjects' physiological responses to heat stress under hot humid conditions. The modified roof resulted in lowered heat stress in buffaloes compared to those under a standard roof. The difference was shown by the buffaloes having a significantly lower mean rectal temperature (39.14 ± 0.07 vs 40.00 ± 0.10°C) and plasma cortisol (2.14 ± 0.24 vs 3.38 ± 0.37 ng/ml). The average daily water consumption was significantly lower in the MR group (MR, 29.71 ± 0.86 vs NR, 34.14 ± 1.06 L head -1 day-1), while there was a tendency for the roughage intake to be higher in the MR group compared to that of the NR group (MR, 5.88 ± 0.18 vs NR, 6.44 ± 0.19 kg head-1 -1 day-1; P = 0.0508). It was concluded that roof modification facilitated a reduction in heat load from roof re-radiation, and was an effective means of alleviating thermal stress in young buffaloes.

  6. Genetic parameters for milk, fat and protein yields in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis Artiodactyla, Bovidae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate genetic parameters for test-day milk, fat and protein yields and 305-day-yields in Murrah buffaloes. 4,757 complete lactations of Murrah buffaloes were analyzed. Co-variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method. The models included additive direct genetic and permanent environmental effects as random effects, and the fixed effects of contemporary group, milking number and age of the cow at calving as linear and quadratic covariables. Contemporary groups were defined by herd-year-month of test for test-day yields and by herd-year-season of calving for 305-day yields. The heritability estimates obtained by two-trait analysis ranged from 0.15 to 0.24 for milk, 0.16 to 0.23 for protein and 0.13 to 0.22 for fat, yields. Genetic and phenotypic correlations were all positive. The observed population additive genetic variation indicated that selection might be an effective tool in changing population means in milk, fat and protein yields. PMID:21637608

  7. A rapid method for authentication of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) meat by Alkaline Lysis method of DNA extraction and species specific polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Girish, P S; Haunshi, S; Vaithiyanathan, S; Rajitha, R; Ramakrishna, C

    2013-02-01

    Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) meat is a major item of export from India but export of beef i.e. meat from cattle (Bos indicus) is prohibited. Also, adulteration of buffalo meat with that of beef (meat from cattle) is a common fraudulent practice because of prohibition on cow slaughter in most states of India. Food analysts require precise identification techniques to implement such regulations. In the present study, a method of DNA extraction by Alkaline lysis from meat samples and speciation of buffalo meat using species specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) has been reported. Alkaline lysis technique is a rapid method which involves triturating meat with four volumes of 0.2N NaOH, dilution of resultant liquid extract with eight volumes of 0.2N NaOH, heating the mix 75C for 20min followed by neutralization with eight volumes of 0.04N Tris HCl. Entire procedure of DNA extraction takes less than 30min and it is economical as it involves less expensive chemicals. Method was successfully applied in animal byproducts also viz., liver, heart and kidney. For authentication of buffalo meat, pair of primers was designed based on mitochondrial D loop gene nucleotide sequence. PCR amplification using the designed primers gave amplicon of size 482bp in buffalo and no amplification was detected in closely related species viz., cattle, sheep and goat meat samples. Results of the assay were highly repetitive and reliable. An export sample referred by export regulation authorities was also analyzed by using the Alkaline lysis method of DNA extraction and species specific PCR which enabled authentication of meat within 5h. PMID:24425899

  8. Cellular and functional characterization of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) corpus luteum during the estrous cycle and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Baithalu, Rubina Kumari; Singh, S K; Gupta, Chhavi; Raja, Anuj K; Saxena, Abhishake; Kumar, Yogendra; Singh, R; Agarwal, S K

    2013-08-01

    In the present paper, cellular composition of buffalo corpus luteum (CL) with its functional characterization based on 3?-HSD and progesterone secretory ability at different stages of estrous cycle and pregnancy was studied. Buffalo uteri along with ovaries bearing CL were collected from the local slaughter house. These were classified into different stages of estrous cycle (Stage I, II, III and IV) and pregnancy (Stage I, II and III) based on morphological appearance of CL, surface follicles on the ovary and crown rump length of conceptus. Luteal cell population, progesterone content and steroidogenic properties were studied by dispersion of luteal cells using collagenase type I enzyme, RIA and 3?-HSD activity, respectively. Large luteal cells (LLC) appeared as polyhedral or spherical in shape with a centrally placed large round nucleus and an abundance of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. However, small luteal cells (SLC) appeared to be spindle shaped with an eccentrically placed irregular nucleus and there was paucity of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. The size of SLC (range 12-23?m) and LLC (range 25-55?m) increased (P<0.01) with the advancement of stage of estrous cycle and pregnancy. The mean progesterone concentration per gram and per CL increased (P<0.01) from Stage I to III of estrous cycle with maximum concentration at Stage III of estrous cycle and pregnancy. The progesterone concentration decreased at Stage IV (day 17-20) of estrous cycle coinciding with CL regression. Total luteal cell number (LLC and SLC) also increased (P<0.01) from Stage I to III of estrous cycle and decreased (P<0.05), thereafter, at Stage IV indicating degeneration of luteal cells and regression of the CL. Total luteal cell population during pregnancy also increased (P<0.01) from Stage I to II and thereafter decreased (P>0.05) indicating cessation of mitosis. Increased (P<0.05) large luteal cell numbers from Stage I to III of estrous cycle and pregnancy coincided with the increased progesterone secretion and 3?-HSD activity of CL. Thus, proportionate increases of large compared with small luteal cells were primarily responsible for increased progesterone secretion during the advanced stages of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Total luteal cells and progesterone content per CL during the mid-luteal stage in buffalo as observed in the present study seem to be less than with cattle suggesting inherent luteal deficiency. PMID:23896394

  9. Genetic Evaluation of Dual-Purpose Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Colombia Using Principal Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Agudelo-Gómez, Divier; Pineda-Sierra, Sebastian; Cerón-Muñoz, Mario Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Genealogy and productive information of 48621 dual-purpose buffaloes born in Colombia between years 1996 and 2014 was used. The following traits were assessed using one-trait models: milk yield at 270 days (MY270), age at first calving (AFC), weaning weight (WW), and weights at the following ages: first year (W12), 18 months (W18), and 2 years (W24). Direct additive genetic and residual random effects were included in all the traits. Maternal permanent environmental and maternal additive genetic effects were included for WW and W12. The fixed effects were: contemporary group (for all traits), sex (for WW, W12, W18, and W24), parity (for WW, W12, and MY270). Age was included as covariate for WW, W12, W18 and W24. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted using the genetic values of 133 breeding males whose breeding-value reliability was higher than 50% for all the traits in order to define the number of principal components (PC) which would explain most of the variation. The highest heritabilities were for W18 and MY270, and the lowest for AFC; with 0.53, 0.23, and 0.17, respectively. The first three PCs represented 66% of the total variance. Correlation of the first PC with meat production traits was higher than 0.73, and it was -0.38 with AFC. Correlations of the second PC with maternal genetic component traits for WW and W12 were above 0.75. The third PC had 0.84 correlation with MY270. PCA is an alternative approach for analyzing traits in dual-purpose buffaloes and reduces the dimension of the traits. PMID:26230093

  10. Genetic Evaluation of Dual-Purpose Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Colombia Using Principal Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Agudelo-Gómez, Divier; Pineda-Sierra, Sebastian; Cerón-Muñoz, Mario Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Genealogy and productive information of 48621 dual-purpose buffaloes born in Colombia between years 1996 and 2014 was used. The following traits were assessed using one-trait models: milk yield at 270 days (MY270), age at first calving (AFC), weaning weight (WW), and weights at the following ages: first year (W12), 18 months (W18), and 2 years (W24). Direct additive genetic and residual random effects were included in all the traits. Maternal permanent environmental and maternal additive genetic effects were included for WW and W12. The fixed effects were: contemporary group (for all traits), sex (for WW, W12, W18, and W24), parity (for WW, W12, and MY270). Age was included as covariate for WW, W12, W18 and W24. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted using the genetic values of 133 breeding males whose breeding-value reliability was higher than 50% for all the traits in order to define the number of principal components (PC) which would explain most of the variation. The highest heritabilities were for W18 and MY270, and the lowest for AFC; with 0.53, 0.23, and 0.17, respectively. The first three PCs represented 66% of the total variance. Correlation of the first PC with meat production traits was higher than 0.73, and it was -0.38 with AFC. Correlations of the second PC with maternal genetic component traits for WW and W12 were above 0.75. The third PC had 0.84 correlation with MY270. PCA is an alternative approach for analyzing traits in dual-purpose buffaloes and reduces the dimension of the traits. PMID:26230093

  11. Cross Talk between KGF and KITLG Proteins Implicated with Ovarian Folliculogenesis in Buffalo Bubalus bubalis

    PubMed Central

    Panwar, Deepak; Rawal, Leena; Sehgal, Neeta; Ali, Sher

    2015-01-01

    Molecular interactions between mesenchymal-derived Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and Kit ligand (KITLG) are essential for follicular development. These factors are expressed by theca and granulosa cells. We determined full length coding sequence of buffalo KGF and KITLG proteins having 194 and 274 amino acids, respectively. The recombinant KGF and KITLG proteins were solubilized in 10 mM Tris, pH 7.5 and 50 mM Tris, pH 7.4 and purified using Ni-NTA column and GST affinity chromatography, respectively. The purity and molecular weight of His-KGF (~23 kDa) and GST-KITLG (~57 kDa) proteins were confirmed by SDS-PAGE and western blotting. The co-immunoprecipitation assay accompanied with computational analysis demonstrated the interaction between KGF and KITLG proteins. We deduced 3D structures of the candidate proteins and assessed their binding based on protein docking. In the process, KGF specific residues, Lys123, Glu135, Lys140, Lys155 and Trp156 and KITLG specific ones, Ser226, Phe233, Gly234, Ala235, Phe236, Trp238 and Lys239 involved in the formation of KGF-KITLG complex were detected. The hydrophobic interactions surrounding KGF-KITLG complex affirmed their binding affinity and stability to the interacting interface. Additionally, in-silico site directed mutagenesis enabled the assessment of changes that occurred in the binding energies of mutated KGF-KITLG protein complex. Our results demonstrate that in the presence of KITLG, KGF mimics its native binding mode suggesting all the KGF residues are specific to their binding complex. This study provides an insight on the critical amino acid residues participating in buffalo ovarian folliculogenesis. PMID:26083339

  12. Domestic livestock resources of Turkey: water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Orhan; Ertugrul, Mehmet; Wilson, Richard Trevor

    2012-04-01

    Water buffalo are an ancient component of Turkey's domestic livestock resources. Commonly referred to as the Anatolian buffalo the animal is part of the Mediterranean group which includes Syrian, Egyptian and Southeast European animals. Once quite numerous, there have been drastic reductions in their numbers since the 1970s due to intensification of dairy activities, agricultural mechanization and changing consumer preferences. The main areas of distribution are in northwest Turkey in the Marmara and Black Sea Regions. Buffalo are kept in small herds by livestock and mixed crop-livestock farmers. Milk is the main product, meat is largely a by-product of the dairy function and provision of the once-important draught power is now a minor output. Buffalo milk is used to prepare a variety of speciality products but output of both milk and meat is very low in comparison to cattle. Conditions of welfare and health status are not optimal. Internal parasites are a constraint on productivity. Some buffalo are being used for conservation grazing in the Black Sea area to maintain optimal conditions for bird life in a nature reserve. Long neglected by government there are recent activities to establish conservation herds, set up in vitro banks and undertake molecular characterization. More effort is needed by government to promote buffalo production and to engage the general public in conservation of their national heritage. PMID:21870064

  13. Water buffalo genome science comes of age.

    PubMed

    Michelizzi, Vanessa N; Dodson, Michael V; Pan, Zengxiang; Amaral, M Elisabete J; Michal, Jennifer J; McLean, Derek J; Womack, James E; Jiang, Zhihua

    2010-01-01

    The water buffalo is vital to the lives of small farmers and to the economy of many countries worldwide. Not only are they draught animals, but they are also a source of meat, horns, skin and particularly the rich and precious milk that may be converted to creams, butter, yogurt and many cheeses. Genome analysis of water buffalo has advanced significantly in recent years. This review focuses on currently available genome resources in water buffalo in terms of cytogenetic characterization, whole genome mapping and next generation sequencing. No doubt, these resources indicate that genome science comes of age in the species and will provide knowledge and technologies to help optimize production potential, reproduction efficiency, product quality, nutritional value and resistance to diseases. As water buffalo and domestic cattle, both members of the Bovidae family, are closely related, the vast amount of cattle genetic/genomic resources might serve as shortcuts for the buffalo community to further advance genome science and biotechnologies in the species. PMID:20582226

  14. Effect of Relaxin on Fertility Parameters of Frozen-Thawed Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Sperm.

    PubMed

    Elkhawagah, A R; Longobardi, V; Neglia, G; Salzano, A; Zullo, G; Sosa, G A; Campanile, G; Gasparrini, B

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of relaxin on fertility parameters of buffalo frozen/thawed sperm. Sperm were incubated in the absence of capacitating agents (negative control), with a known capacitating agent such as heparin (positive control) and with 50 and 100 ng/ml relaxin for 2 and 4 h. Sperm viability, motility, capacitation and the effect of relaxin on the fertilizing ability after heterologous IVF were evaluated. Although viability was not affected, relaxin increased (p < 0.05) sperm motility compared to the negative and positive controls both after 2 h (60.0 ± 2.0, 60.0 ± 3.1, 68.3 ± 1.7 and 69.4 ± 2.7, respectively, in negative control, positive control, 50 and 100 ng/ml relaxin) and 4 h (55.0 ± 2.5, 53.3 ± 3.0, 62.2 ± 3.0 and 65.0 ± 3.2, respectively, in negative control, positive control, 50 and 100 ng/ml relaxin) incubation. When sperm were incubated with both 100 ng/ml relaxin and heparin, a decrease (p < 0.01) of pattern A, that is low capacitation level, was observed compared to the negative control both after 2 h (54.4, 34.3 and 36.4%, respectively, in negative control, positive control and 100 ng/ml relaxin) and 4 h (51.9, 35.0 and 34.3%, respectively, in negative control, positive control and 100 ng/ml relaxin). Moreover, an increase (p < 0.01) of pattern EA, that is high capacitation level, was recorded with 100 ng/ml relaxin and heparin compared to the negative control both after 2 h (44.1, 59.3 and 57.7%, respectively, in negative control, positive control and 100 ng/ml relaxin) and after 4 h (43.0, 54.4 and 56.0%, respectively, in negative control, positive control and 100 ng/ml relaxin). Finally, relaxin increased (p < 0.01) cleavage rate compared to the negative control (57.1 ± 4.4, 72.5 ± 6.0, 71.4 ± 5.5 and 73.6 ± 2.9, respectively, in negative control, positive control, 50 and 100 ng/ml relaxin). In conclusion, relaxin has a beneficial effect on motility, capacitation and fertilizing ability of frozen-thawed buffalo sperm. PMID:26372314

  15. Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) term amniotic-membrane-derived cells exhibited mesenchymal stem cells characteristics in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Kaushalya; Kumar, Rajesh; Singh, Jarnail; Gahlawat, S K; Kumar, Dharmendra; Selokar, Naresh Lalaji; Yadav, S P; Gulati, B R; Yadav, P S

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies suggested that placentae amniotic membrane is a valuable source of stem cells in human as well as in livestock species. Advantages of amnion over other sources of stem cells included abundant availability, ethically non-objectionable and non-invasive source. The aim of the present study was the isolation, culture and characterization of amniotic-membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells from term placentae collected postpartum in buffalo. We have observed that both presumptive epithelial-like and fibroblast-like cells were cultured and maintained from term amnion. These cells were shown the positive expression of pluripotency markers (OCT-4, SOX-2, NANOG, TERT), mesenchymal stem cell markers (CD29, CD44, CD105) and negative for haematopoietic marker (CD34) genes at different passages. In addition, these cells were also positive for alkaline phosphatase staining. Stem-ness potential of any stem cells is determined by their potential to differentiate into specific lineages of cell type. In the present study, we have successfully differentiated the amniotic-membrane-derived cells into adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages of cells in vitro. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate that amniotic-membrane-derived cells expressed pluripotent and mesenchymal stem cells markers and have propensity to differentiate into cells of mesenchymal lineage cell type upon directed differentiation in vitro. PMID:26019121

  16. Comparative therapeutic effect of toltrazuril, sulphadimidine and amprolium on Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii given at different times following infection in buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Mohamed M; Radwaan, Mervat E; Moustafa, Abdel Moneim M; Ebeid, Mohamed H

    2008-04-17

    We compared the therapeutic effect of three anticoccidial drugs (toltrazuril, sulphadimidine and amprolium) in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves experimentally infected with Eimeria bovis (E. bovis) and E. zuernii oocysts (3 x 104oocyst/calf). Buffalo calves (1.5-4 month old, 70-kg body weight) were randomly allocated into 3 groups (9 calves each). Group T was experimentally infected with oocysts and treated with toltrazuril (20 mg/kg BW twice orally at a 1-week interval). Group S was experimentally infected with oocysts and treated with sulphadimidine (125 mg/kg injected IM followed by half dose for 4 successive days). Group A was experimentally infected with oocysts and treated with amprolium (50 mg/kg orally for 7 successive days). Each group had three subgroups (three calves/subgroup) to represent timing of the drug administration: 1st day of coccidia infection (FD), onset of clinical signs of coccidiosis (CC), and onset of oocyst shedding into the faeces (OS). Clinical signs, body-weight gain (BWG) and number of oocysts per gram feces (OPG) were monitored daily for 35 days post-infection (DPI). The OPG were reduced (but the BWG was not different) in the T calves compared to S and A calves. Within the same group, treatment from the 1st day of infection reduced the OPG and increased the BWG compared to the later treatment timings. PMID:18262668

  17. Association of microsatellite (GT)n polymorphism at 3'UTR of NRAMP1 with the macrophage function following challenge with Brucella LPS in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Indrajit; Sharma, Arjava; Singh, Rajendra; Deb, Sitnangshu M; Singh, Dhirendra K; Mitra, Abhijit

    2008-05-25

    Brucella abortus is a facultative intracellular pathogen that survives and replicates in host macrophages. Hence, macrophage function plays an important role in influencing natural resistance/susceptibility to intracellular pathogen. The natural resistance associated macrophage protein 1 (NRAMP1; erstwhile referred as Ity/Lsh/Bcg), a transmembrane protein, regulates activity of macrophages against intracellular pathogens. In bovine, natural resistance to brucellosis is significantly associated with (GT)13 allelic variant of microsatellite locus at 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of the NRAMP1 gene. In the present study we screened 65 Murrah breed of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) to identify polymorphism at 3'UTR of NRAMP1 gene and evaluate the association of these polymorphisms with the macrophage function. Four allelic variants (viz., GT13, GT14, GT15 and GT16) were identified. Majority of the buffaloes were of either homozygous (GT)14/(GT)14 or heterozygous (GT)14/(GT)15 with (GT)14 allele occurring most frequently (62%). For association study, non-vaccinated and serologically negative animals were divided into three genotypic groups: group 1 (n=2) comprising animals of homozygous (GT)13 genotype, whereas, group 2 (n=4) and group 3 (n=6) consisted animals of heterozygous [(GT)13/(GT)n, where n not equal 13] and non-(GT)13 [(GT)n/(GT)n, where n not equal 13] genotype, respectively. Macrophages, after maturation, were challenged with Brucella LPS to assay the macrophage function in terms of H2O2 and NO production. The (GT)13 allele, either in homozygoous {(GT)13/(GT)13} or heterozygous {(GT)13/(GT)n, where n=14, 15 or 16}, was significantly (p<0.01) associated with increased production of H2O2 and NO. In this manuscript, for the first time, we have identified (GT)13 allelic variant and demonstrated its significant association with the improved macrophage function in buffalo. PMID:18078724

  18. Comparison of α1-Antitrypsin, α1-Acid Glycoprotein, Fibrinogen and NOx as Indicator of Subclinical Mastitis in Riverine Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Guha, Anirban; Guha, Ruby; Gera, Sandeep

    2013-06-01

    Mastitis set apart as clinical and sub clinical is a disease complex of dairy cattle, with sub clinical being the most important economically. Of late, laboratories showed interest in developing biochemical markers to diagnose sub clinical mastitis (SCM) in herds. Many workers reported noteworthy alternation of acute phase proteins (APPs) and nitric oxide, (measured as nitrate+nitrite = NOx) in milk due to intra-mammary inflammation. But, the literature on validation of these parameters as indicators of SCM, particularly in riverine milch buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) milk is inadequate. Hence, the present study focused on comparing several APPs viz. α1- anti trypsin, α1- acid glycoprotein, fibrinogen and NOx as indicators of SCM in buffalo milk. These components in milk were estimated using standardized analytical protocols. Somatic cell count (SCC) was done microscopically. Microbial culture was done on 5% ovine blood agar. Of the 776 buffaloes (3,096 quarters) sampled, only 347 buffaloes comprising 496 quarters were found positive for SCM i.e. milk culture showed growth in blood agar with SCC≥2×10(5) cells/ml of milk. The cultural examination revealed Gram positive bacteria as the most prevalent etiological agent. It was observed that α1- anti trypsin and NOx had a highly significant (p<0.01) increase in SCM milk, whereas, the increase of α1- acid glycoprotein in infected milk was significant (p<0.05). Fibrinogen was below detection level in both healthy and SCM milk. The percent sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated taking bacterial culture examination and SCC≥2×10(5) cells/ml of milk as the benchmark. Udder profile correlation coefficient was also used. Allowing for statistical and epidemiological analysis, it was concluded that α1- anti trypsin indicates SCM irrespective of etiology, whereas α1- acid glycoprotein better diagnosed SCM caused by gram positive bacteria. NOx did not prove to be a good indicator of SCM. It is recommended measuring both α1- anti trypsin and α1- acid glycoprotein in milk to diagnose SCM in buffalo irrespective of etiology. PMID:25049851

  19. Comparison of α1-Antitrypsin, α1-Acid Glycoprotein, Fibrinogen and NOx as Indicator of Subclinical Mastitis in Riverine Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Guha, Anirban; Guha, Ruby; Gera, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Mastitis set apart as clinical and sub clinical is a disease complex of dairy cattle, with sub clinical being the most important economically. Of late, laboratories showed interest in developing biochemical markers to diagnose sub clinical mastitis (SCM) in herds. Many workers reported noteworthy alternation of acute phase proteins (APPs) and nitric oxide, (measured as nitrate+nitrite = NOx) in milk due to intra-mammary inflammation. But, the literature on validation of these parameters as indicators of SCM, particularly in riverine milch buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) milk is inadequate. Hence, the present study focused on comparing several APPs viz. α1- anti trypsin, α1- acid glycoprotein, fibrinogen and NOx as indicators of SCM in buffalo milk. These components in milk were estimated using standardized analytical protocols. Somatic cell count (SCC) was done microscopically. Microbial culture was done on 5% ovine blood agar. Of the 776 buffaloes (3,096 quarters) sampled, only 347 buffaloes comprising 496 quarters were found positive for SCM i.e. milk culture showed growth in blood agar with SCC≥2×105 cells/ml of milk. The cultural examination revealed Gram positive bacteria as the most prevalent etiological agent. It was observed that α1- anti trypsin and NOx had a highly significant (p<0.01) increase in SCM milk, whereas, the increase of α1- acid glycoprotein in infected milk was significant (p<0.05). Fibrinogen was below detection level in both healthy and SCM milk. The percent sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated taking bacterial culture examination and SCC≥2×105 cells/ml of milk as the benchmark. Udder profile correlation coefficient was also used. Allowing for statistical and epidemiological analysis, it was concluded that α1- anti trypsin indicates SCM irrespective of etiology, whereas α1- acid glycoprotein better diagnosed SCM caused by gram positive bacteria. NOx did not prove to be a good indicator of SCM. It is recommended measuring both α1- anti trypsin and α1- acid glycoprotein in milk to diagnose SCM in buffalo irrespective of etiology. PMID:25049851

  20. Transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus from experimentally infected Indian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) to in-contact nave and vaccinated Indian buffalo and cattle.

    PubMed

    Madhanmohan, M; Yuvaraj, S; Nagendrakumar, S B; Srinivasan, V A; Gubbins, Simon; Paton, David James; Parida, Satya

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from experimentally infected Indian buffalo to in-contact nave and vaccinated cattle and buffalo. In each of six rooms, two donor buffalo that had been inoculated with FMDV were housed for five days with four recipient animals, comprising one vaccinated buffalo, one vaccinated calf, one unvaccinated buffalo and one unvaccinated calf. Vaccination was carried out with current Indian vaccine strain (O/IND/R2/75) and challenged on 28 days post-vaccination with an antigenically similar strain (O/HAS/34/05). All 12 donor buffalo and the six unvaccinated cattle and six unvaccinated calves developed clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). In contrast, all six vaccinated cattle (100%) and four out of six vaccinated buffalo (66.6%) were protected from disease but all became infected with FMDV. This confirms that buffalo have the potential to spread FMD by direct contact and that vaccination can block this spread. The numbers of animals in the study were too small to determine if the differences in clinical protection afforded by vaccination of cattle and buffalo are significant and warrant a different dose regime. PMID:24837776

  1. Investigation into omocysteine, vitamin E and malondialdehyde as indicators of successful artificial insemination in synchronized buffalo cows (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Barbato, Olimpia; Chiaradia, Elisabetta; Barile, Vittoria Lucia; Pierri, Francesca; de Sousa, Noelita Melo; Terracina, Luigi; Canali, Claudio; Avellini, Luca

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to describe modifications in plasma homocysteine (Hcy), vitamin E (VitE) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in the first 56days after artificial insemination (AI) in buffalo. Thirty-five buffalo cows were divided, ex post, into three groups on the basis of pregnancy diagnosis: pregnant, not pregnant, with embryonic mortality. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography and plasma concentrations of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs). Our results showed that, in pregnant buffaloes, included those with embryonic mortality, MDA increased progressively while VitE decreased. In non-pregnant buffaloes, MDA and Vit E were unchanged. Hcy concentrations also remained unchanged within each group throughout the study period, but were lower in non-pregnant buffaloes than in the pregnant ones and in those with embryonic mortality. In conclusion, present data suggest that successful pregnancy in buffalo cows might be linked to Hcy metabolism and oxidative stress involvement. PMID:26850546

  2. The effect of a high-roughage diet on the metabolism of aromatic compounds by rumen microbes: a metagenomic study using Mehsani buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Vimalkumar S; Purohit, Hemant J; Raje, Dhananjay V; Parmar, Nidhi; Patel, Anand B; Jones, Oliver A H; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2016-02-01

    In developing countries, livestock are often fed a high-lignin, low-nutrient diet that is rich in aromatic compounds. It is therefore important to understand the structure of the microbial community responsible for the metabolism of these substances. A metagenomic analysis was therefore carried out to assess the microbial communities associated with the liquid and solid fractions of rumen biomaterial from domestic Mehsani buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) fed with varying proportions of roughage. The experimental design consisted of three feeding regimes (50, 75 and 100 % roughage) and two roughage types (green and dry). Genes associated with aromatic compound degradation were assessed via high-throughput DNA sequencing. A total of 3914.94 Mb data were generated from all treatment groups. Genes coding for functional responses associated with aromatic compound metabolism were more prevalent in the liquid fraction of rumen samples than solid fractions. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were also observed between treatment groups. These differences were dependent on the proportion of roughage fed to the animal, with the type of roughage having little effect. The genes present in the highest abundance in all treatment groups were those related to aromatic compound catabolism. At the phylum level, Bacteroidetes were dominant in all treatments closely followed by the Firmicutes. This study demonstrates the use of feed type to selectively enrich microbial communities capable of metabolizing aromatic compounds in the rumen of domestic buffalo. The results may help to improve nutrient utilization efficiency in livestock and are thus of interest to farming industries, particularly in developing countries, worldwide. PMID:26711277

  3. An inter-subspecies cloned buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) obtained by transferring of cryopreserved embryos via somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Yang, B Z; Yang, C Y; Li, R C; Qin, G S; Zhang, X F; Pang, C Y; Chen, M T; Huang, F X; Li, Z; Zheng, H Y; Huang, Y J; Liang, X W

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of cryopreservation of inter-subspecies cloned embryos in buffalo. In our experiment, river buffalo ear fibroblast nucleus was fused into swamp buffalo oocyte cytoplasm. The blastocyst formation rate for nuclear transfer of freshly thawed cells was not different from those of growing cells, confluent or serum-starved cells. A total of 122 cloned blastocysts derived from cryopreserved fibroblasts were cryopreserved and thawed, 37 were survived, the cryosurvival rate was 30.3%. The survived blastocysts were transferred into 15 recipient buffalos. Five of the recipients established pregnancy, but four of them aborted on day 53, 59, 145 and 179 of gestation respectively. One cross-bred buffalo (Murrah Swamp buffalo (2n = 49) received three embryos delivered a 40.5 kg female calf by natural delivery on day 320 of gestation. Up to now (13-month old), the cloned calf has been growing well with no abnormity observed. These results demonstrated that cryopreservation of inter-subspecies cloned embryos is feasible to produce buffalo offspring. PMID:19788521

  4. Sarcocystis cafferi, n. sp. (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) from the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four species of Sarcocystis are currently recognized in the Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): Sarcocystis fusiformis with macrocysts and cats as definitive hosts, S. buffalonis also with macrocysts and cats as definitive hosts, S. levinei with microcysts and dogs as definitive hosts, and S. dub...

  5. Comparison of non-linear models to describe the lactation curves for milk yield and composition in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, N

    2016-02-01

    In order to describe the lactation curves of milk yield (MY) and composition in buffaloes, seven non-linear mathematical equations (Wood, Dhanoa, Sikka, Nelder, Brody, Dijkstra and Rook) were used. Data were 116 117 test-day records for MY, fat (FP) and protein (PP) percentages of milk from the first three lactations of buffaloes which were collected from 893 herds in the period from 1992 to 2012 by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran. Each model was fitted to monthly production records of dairy buffaloes using the NLIN and MODEL procedures in SAS and the parameters were estimated. The models were tested for goodness of fit using adjusted coefficient of determination ( $$_{{{\\rm adj}}}^{2} $$ ), root means square error (RMSE), Durbin-Watson statistic and Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The Dijkstra model provided the best fit of MY and PP of milk for the first three parities of buffaloes due to the lower values of RMSE and AIC than other models. For the first-parity buffaloes, Sikka and Brody models provided the best fit of FP, but for the second- and third-parity buffaloes, Sikka model and Brody equation provided the best fit of lactation curve for FP, respectively. The results of this study showed that the Wood and Dhanoa equations were able to estimate the time to the peak MY more accurately than the other equations. In addition, Nelder and Dijkstra equations were able to estimate the peak time at second and third parities more accurately than other equations, respectively. Brody function provided more accurate predictions of peak MY over the first three parities of buffaloes. There was generally a positive relationship between 305-day MY and persistency measures and also between peak yield and 305-day MY, calculated by different models, within each lactation in the current study. Overall, evaluation of the different equations used in the current study indicated the potential of the non-linear models for fitting monthly productive records of buffaloes. PMID:26354679

  6. Loss of heat shock protein 70 from apical region of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) sperm head after freezing and thawing.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Tincy; Divyashree, Bannur C; Roy, Sudhir C; Roy, Kajal S

    2016-03-15

    The post-thaw fertility of frozen-thawed mammalian spermatozoa is substantially low as compared with that of fresh sperm. Furthermore, the post-thaw fertility of the cryopreserved buffalo sperm has been reported to be poor as compared with that of cattle sperm. Recently, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) has been found to play a critical role in mammalian fertilization and early embryonic development in boar and cattle. However, the presence of such fertility-related HSP70 in buffalo sperm and its status after cryopreservation has not been reported so far. Thus, a study was conducted to determine the effect of cryopreservation on the level and distribution pattern of HSP70 molecule in buffalo sperm after cryopreservation. Buffalo semen samples, after dilution in semen extender, were aliquoted in straws and divided into two groups. One group was not cryopreserved, and the other group was cryopreserved for 60 days. Sperm proteins were extracted from both non-cryopreserved (NC) and cryopreserved (C) sperm and subjected to Western blot analysis for detection of HSP70 using a monoclonal anti-HSP70 antibody. The distribution pattern of these proteins in buffalo sperm was also monitored before and after cryopreservation using indirect immunofluorescence technique. A prominent 70-kDa protein band of HSP70 protein was detected in protein extracts of both NC and C buffalo sperm. Densitometry analysis revealed that the intensity of 70-kDa HSP70 protein band of cryopreserved sperm decreased significantly (P < 0.05) compared with that of NC sperm. However, the level of HSP70 in cryopreserved extended seminal plasma (ESP) did not change as compared with that of NC samples indicating a possible degradation of HSP70 in the spermatozoa itself rather than leakage of the protein into the ESP. Furthermore, Western blot also confirmed that several HSP70 immunoreactive protein bands detected in the ESP were contributed by the egg yolk that was added to the extender. Immunocytochemistry revealed that HSP70 proteins were distributed over the apical region of sperm head and/or acrosome, post-acrosomal, and middle piece regions of NC buffalo spermatozoa. However, the fluorescence signal of apical region of sperm head was lost significantly (P < 0.05) after a cycle of freezing and thawing. Thus, the present study confirmed that there was loss of HSP70 from buffalo sperm head after freezing and thawing of buffalo spermatozoa, and this may be one of the causes of the reduced post-thaw fertility of sperm in this species. PMID:26607876

  7. Characterisation and in silico analysis of interleukin-4 cDNA of nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus) and Indian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Saini, M; Palai, T K; Das, D K; Hatle, K M; Gupta, P K

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4) produced from Th2 cells modulates both innate and adaptive immune responses. It is a common belief that wild animals possess better immunity against diseases than domestic and laboratory animals; however, the immune system of wild animals is not fully explored yet. Therefore, a comparative study was designed to explore the wildlife immunity through characterisation of IL-4 cDNA of nilgai, a wild ruminant, and Indian buffalo, a domestic ruminant. Total RNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of nilgai and Indian buffalo and reverse transcribed into cDNA. Respective cDNA was further cloned and sequenced. Sequences were analysed in silico and compared with their homologues available at GenBank. The deduced 135 amino acid protein of nilgai IL-4 is 95.6% similar to that of Indian buffalo. N-linked glycosylation sequence, leader sequence, Cysteine residues in the signal peptide region, and 3' UTR of IL-4 were found to be conserved across species. Six nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions were found in Indian buffalo compared to nilgai amino acid sequence. Tertiary structure of this protein in both species was modeled, and it was found that this protein falls under 4-helical cytokines superfamily and short chain cytokine family. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a single cluster of ruminants including both nilgai and Indian buffalo that was placed distinct from other nonruminant mammals. PMID:24348167

  8. In vitro embryo production in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) using sexed sperm and oocytes from ovum pick up.

    PubMed

    Liang, X W; Lu, Y Q; Chen, M T; Zhang, X F; Lu, S S; Zhang, M; Pang, C Y; Huang, F X; Lu, K H

    2008-04-15

    The objective was to explore the use of sexed sperm and OPU-derived oocytes in an IVP system to produce sex-preselected bubaline embryos. Oocytes were recovered from 20 fertile Murrah and Nili-Ravi buffalo cows by repeated (twice weekly) ultrasound-guided transvaginal ovum pick up (OPU), or by aspiration of abbatoir-derived bubaline ovaries, and subjected to IVF, using frozen-thawed sexed or unsexed bubaline semen. On average, 4.6 oocytes were retrieved per buffalo per session (70.9% were Grades A or B). Following IVF with sexed sperm, oocytes derived from OPU had similar developmental competence as those from abattoir-derived ovaries, in terms of cleavage rate (57.6 vs. 50.4%, P=0.357) and blastocyst development rate (16.0 vs. 23.9%, P=0.237). Furthermore, using frozen-thawed sexed versus unsexed semen did not affect rates of cleavage (50.5 vs. 50.9%, P=0.978) or blastocyst development (15.3 vs. 19.1%, P=0.291) after IVF using OPU-derived oocytes. Of the embryos produced in an OPU-IVP system, 9 of 34 sexed fresh embryos (26.5%) and 5 of 43 sexed frozen embryos (11.6%) transferred to recipients established pregnancies, whereas 7 of 26 unsexed fresh embryos (26.9%) and 6 out of 39 unsexed frozen embryos (15.4%) transferred to recipients established pregnancies. Eleven sex-preselected buffalo calves (10 females and one male) and 10 sexed buffalo calves (six females and four males) were born following embryo transfer. In the present study, OPU, sperm sexing technology, IVP, and embryo transfer, were used to produce sex-preselected buffalo calves. This study provided proof of concept for further research and wider field application of these technologies in buffalo. PMID:18336893

  9. Energy metabolites, lipid variables and lactation performance of periparturient Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) fed on diet supplemented with inorganic chromium.

    PubMed

    Zade, Satish; Mani, Veena; Deka, Rijusmita Sarma; Kumar, Muneendra; Kaur, Harjit; Kewalramani, Neelam J; Tyagi, Amrish Kumar

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of chromium (Cr) supplementation as inorganic Cr (CrCl36H2O) on energy balance, lipid peroxidation, and lactation performance in periparturient Murrah buffaloes. Twenty-four multiparous Murrah buffaloes according to lactation, parity, body mass, and expected calving date were divided equally. Experimental buffaloes were randomly assigned to four treatment diets: a control diet and three diets with an inorganic Cr supplementation at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg of Cr/kg dry matter (DM), respectively from 60 days before expected calving date until 60 days of lactation. Milk productions of buffaloes were recorded every day until 60 days in milk. Blood samples were collected at days -60, -45, -30,-21, -15, -7, -3, 0, 7, 15, 21, 30, 45, and 60 days relative to actual calving for determination of plasma glucose, nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), total cholesterol, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and minerals. Adding inorganic Cr to the diet of Murrah buffaloes increased milk yield. Percentage of fat and total solid yield increased significantly through the experiment in the Cr-supplemented group. At the day of calving, buffaloes showed a decrease in dry matter intake (DMI), plasma glucose, and zinc (Zn) and Cr concentrations. In contrast, plasma NEFA, TBARS, and copper (Cu) levels were found highest at the day of calving among all groups. Cr supplementation increased peripheral blood glucose concentration while decreased level of NEFA and TBARS was recorded in Cr-fed buffaloes. Supplemental Cr had no effect on plasma cholesterol, total protein, albumin, and BUN in periparturient period. Dietary Cr supplementation had positive effect on plasma Cr concentration, but the plasma concentration of Cu, Zn, and iron (Fe) was not affected by different dietary Cr level supplementation. The results suggest that dietary inorganic Cr supplementation improved milk yield by reducing negative energy balance and lipid peroxidation in buffaloes during periparturient period. PMID:24833279

  10. Short communication: Variable number of tandem repeat polymorphisms in DGAT1 gene of buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) is associated with milk constituents.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, D F; de Souza, G F P; Aspilcueta-Borquis, R R; Araujo Neto, F R; de Camargo, G M F; Hurtado-Lugo, N A; Scalez, D C B; de Freitas, A C; Albuquerque, L G; Tonhati, H

    2015-05-01

    The diacylglycerol-O-transferase 1 gene is a positional and functional candidate for milk composition traits. The objective of this study was to evaluate the segregation of the variable number of tandem repeat polymorphisms in the regulatory region of diacylglycerol-O-transferase 1 gene in a water buffalo herd, and to assess the association of this mutation with milk production traits. For this purpose, 196 Murrah buffalo cows were genotyped by PCR. The association of the marker with total milk, fat, and protein yields at 305 d of lactation, milk fat and protein percentage, and somatic cell scores were evaluated by single-trait analyses using a generalized mixed model. Two segregating alleles were identified in the population. The allele with 2 repeats affected fat percentage favorably. The present results suggest that this polymorphism is an interesting marker to include in the genetic evaluation of buffaloes. PMID:25726116

  11. Supplementation of Slow-Release Melatonin Improves Recovery of Ovarian Cyclicity and Conception in Summer Anoestrous Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Mehrotra, S; Singh, G; Maurya, V P; Narayanan, K; Mahla, A S; Chaudhari, R K; Singh, M; Soni, Y K; Kumawat, B L; Dabas, S K; Srivastava, N

    2016-02-01

    The role of melatonin as a protective neurohormone against restoring cyclicity in summer anoestrous animals in photoperiod species has gained wider acceptance. This study was designed to uncover the evidence the slow-release melatonin (MLT) has on initiation of ovarian cyclicity and conception rate (CR) in summer anoestrous buffaloes. Thus, buffaloes diagnosed as summer anoestrous (absence of overt signs of oestrus, concurrent rectal examination and radioimmunoassay for serum progesterone at 10 days interval) were grouped as untreated (Group I, sterilized corn oil, n = 8) and treated (Group II, single subcutaneous injection of MLT @18 mg/50 kg bwt in sterilized corn oil, n = 20). Animals treated and detected in oestrus were artificially inseminated (AI) followed by division into Group III (second dose of MLT on 5th day post-AI, n = 8) and Group IV (no melatonin administration, n = 10). Blood samples were collected at 4 days interval for estimation of serum MLT, progesterone and oestrogen using radioimmunoassay kit. Mean oestrous induction rate (OIR), oestrous induction interval (OII), interoestrous interval (IOI) and CR were estimated. Compared to control, concentration of melatonin was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in treated group ranging from 14.34 ± 1.72 to 412.31 ± 14.47 pg/ml whereas other two hormones did not show any concentration difference. Melatonin-administered buffaloes showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher (90%) OIR with OII of 18.06 ± 1.57 days. Results showed improvement in conception rate in buffaloes administered with post-insemination melatonin. It can be concluded from the study that slow-release melatonin supplementation restored cyclicity in summer anoestrous animals resulting in improvement in conception rate in buffaloes. PMID:26566713

  12. Chromium Supplements in the Feed for Lactating Murrah Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis): Influence on Nutrient Utilization, Lactation Performance, and Metabolic Responses.

    PubMed

    Deka, Rijusmita Sarma; Mani, Veena; Kumar, Muneendra; Shiwajirao, Zade Satish; Kaur, Harjit

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of inorganic chromium (Cr) on nutrient intake, nutrient utilization, milk mineral contents, and blood biochemical in lactating Murrah buffaloes. Twenty-four multifarious Murrah buffaloes were blocked into four groups having six animals in each group and fed for 150 days post-partum. Feeding regimen was same in all the groups except that treatment groups were supplemented with 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg inorganic Cr/kg dry matter (DM) in the four respective groups. Group fed on basal diet supplemented with 0.0 mg Cr/kg DM served as a control. Adding inorganic Cr to the diet of lactating buffaloes increased feed intake, milk yield, and nutrient digestibility. Nitrogen (N) and Cr balance were significantly increased (P<0.05) by adding Cr. Milk and plasma Cr concentration could be increased by adding Cr (P<0.001), while no significant differences were found between the four treatments in milk and plasma concentration of calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). Feeding of diet supplemented with inorganic Cr decreased plasma insulin concentration (P=0.016). Concentration of blood glucose and the ratio of blood glucose to insulin were increased by adding Cr (P=0.037 and P=0.011, respectively). Adding Cr to the diet of lactating buffaloes did not show any effect on blood hemoglobin (Hb), while plasma concentration of progesterone and antioxidant status was increased (P<0.05). It could be concluded that adding Cr to the diet of lactating buffaloes improved nutrient intake, nutrient utilization, and lactation performance. PMID:26013395

  13. Minimum number of spermatozoa per dose in Mediterranean Italian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) using sexed frozen semen and conventional artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Gaviraghi, A; Puglisi, R; Balduzzi, D; Severgnini, A; Bornaghi, V; Bongioni, G; Frana, A; Gandini, L M; Lukaj, A; Bonacina, C; Galli, A

    2013-05-01

    In buffaloes, AI with sexed semen is not fully optimized, and the procedure has only been performed using the approach currently in use for cattle. The objective of the present work was to compare the pregnancy rates in Mediterranean Italian buffalo cows inseminated with sexed frozen-thawed semen at 2, 4, 6, and 8 million sperm per dose, using the Ovsynch protocol and conventional AI at a fixed time. Fresh ejaculates from three buffalo bulls were processed according to Beltsville sperm sorting technology, and packaged in 0.25-mL straws with two total concentrations of 2 and 4 million live sorted sperm per straw. After thawing, semen was evaluated for total motility, forward motility, average path velocity, membrane and DNA integrity, and membrane fluidity. Sorting efficiency was estimated using a real time polymerase chain reaction method developed and validated in our laboratory. The artificial inseminations were conducted during the breeding season on 849 Italian Mediterranean buffalo heifers and cows distributed in 13 farms in northern and central Italy. No significant difference in quality parameters was reported between nonsexed and sexed straws produced with 2 and 4 million sperm. Lower pregnancy rate (P < 0.001) was reported when inseminating doses of sexed semen at 2 million were used (53/170; 31.2%), with respect to conventional nonsexed (78/142; 54.9%), and sexed doses at 4, 6, and 8 million spermatozoa (102/205, 49.8%; 84/175, 48.0%; and 74/157, 47.1%, respectively). No differences were evident using conventional doses and sexed semen with sperm numbers equal or higher than 4 million per dose. Pregnancies were not affected by the sire; 39/82 (47.6%), 120/270 (44.4%), and 151/355 (42.5%), respectively, for the three bulls. Variability in pregnancy rates observed in different herds was not significant. Furthermore, no significant difference was reported between pregnancies obtained with sexed semen in heifers and multiparous, respectively, 179/407 (44.0%) and 131/300 (43.7%). The results of the present work indicate that in Mediterranean Italian buffalo the dose of 4 million represents an optimal compromise when using sexed semen with conventional technologies of insemination, together with estrus synchronization, and the minimum number of spermatozoa per dose. In addition, the real time polymerase chain reaction method was optimized and is now available for estimating sorting efficiency in buffalo. PMID:23523175

  14. Phenotypic Characterization and Multivariate Analysis to Explain Body Conformation in Lesser Known Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from North India

    PubMed Central

    Vohra, V.; Niranjan, S. K.; Mishra, A. K.; Jamuna, V.; Chopra, A.; Sharma, Neelesh; Jeong, Dong Kee

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic characterization and body biometric in 13 traits (height at withers, body length, chest girth, paunch girth, ear length, tail length, length of tail up to switch, face length, face width, horn length, circumference of horn at base, distances between pin bone and hip bone) were recorded in 233 adult Gojri buffaloes from Punjab and Himachal Pradesh states of India. Traits were analysed by using varimax rotated principal component analysis (PCA) with Kaiser Normalization to explain body conformation. PCA revealed four components which explained about 70.9% of the total variation. First component described the general body conformation and explained 31.5% of total variation. It was represented by significant positive high loading of height at wither, body length, heart girth, face length and face width. The communality ranged from 0.83 (hip bone distance) to 0.45 (horn length) and unique factors ranged from 0.16 to 0.55 for all these 13 different biometric traits. Present study suggests that first principal component can be used in the evaluation and comparison of body conformation in buffaloes and thus provides an opportunity to distinguish between early and late maturing to adult, based on a small group of biometric traits to explain body conformation in adult buffaloes. PMID:25656215

  15. Activation and Inhibition of The Wnt3A Signaling Pathway in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryonic Stem Cells: Effects of WNT3A, Bio and Dkk1

    PubMed Central

    Zandi, Mohammad; Shah, Syed Mohamad; Muzaffar, Musharifa; Kumar Singh, Manoj; Palta, Prabhat; Kumar Singla, Suresh; Sham Manik, Radhey; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background This research studies the effects of activation and inhibition of Wnt3A signaling pathway in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem (ES) cell-like cells. Materials and Methods To carry on this experimental study, the effects of activation and inhibition of Wnt3A signaling in buffalo ES cell-like cells were examined using Bio (0.5 mM) combined with WNT3A (200 ng/ml), as an activator, and Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1, 250 ng/ml), as an inhibitor, of the pathway. ES cells were cultured up to three weeks in ES cell medium without fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), but in the presence of Bio, WNT3A, Bio+WNT3A and Dkk1. The effects of these supplements were measured on the mean area of ES cell colonies and on the expression levels of a number of important genes related to pluripotency (Oct4, Nanog, Sox2 and c-Myc) and the Wnt pathway (?-catenin). ES cell colonies cultured in ES cell medium that contained optimized quantities of LIF and FGF-2 were used as the control. Data were collected for week-1 and week-3 treated cultures. In addition, WNT3A-transfected ES cells were compared with the respective mock-transfected colonies, either alone or in combination with Dkk1 for expression of ?-catenin and the pluripotency-related genes. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, and statistical significance was accepted at P<0.05. Results Among various examined concentrations of Bio (0.5-5 mM), the optimum effect was observed at the 0.5 mM dose as indicated by colony area and expressions of pluripotency-related genes at both weeks-1 and -3 culture periods. At this concentration,the expressions of Nanog, Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc and ?-catenin genes were nonsignificantly higher compared to the controls. Expressions of these genes were highest in the Bio+WNT3A treated group, followed by the WNT3A and Bio-supplemented groups, and lowest in the Dkk1-treated group. The WNT-transfected colonies showed higher expressions compared to both mock and Dkk1-treated mock transfected colonies. Conclusion WNT3A functions to maintain the pluripotency of ES cell-like cells both as an exogenous growth factor as well as an endogenously expressed gene. It complements the absence of FGF-2 and LIF, otherwise propounded essential for buffalo ES cell culture. WNT3A antagonizes the inhibitory effects of Dkk1 and acts in combination with its activator, Bio, to activate the Wnt signaling pathway. PMID:26644860

  16. Metagenomic analysis of virulence-associated and antibiotic resistance genes of microbes in rumen of Indian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Singh, K M; Jakhesara, S J; Koringa, P G; Rank, D N; Joshi, C G

    2012-10-10

    A major research goal in rumen microbial ecology is to understand the relationship between community composition and its function, particularly involved in fermentation process is of a potential interest. The buffalo rumen microbiota impacts human food safety as well as animal health. Although the bacteria of bovine rumen have been well characterized, techniques have been lacking to correlate total community structure with gene function. We applied 454 next generations sequencing technology to characterize general microbial diversity present in buffalo rumen metagenome and also identified the repertoire of microbial genes present, including genes associated with antibiotic resistance and bacterial virulence. Results suggest that over six percent (6.44%) of the sequences from our buffalo rumen pool sample could be categorized as virulence genes and genes associated with resistance to antibiotic and toxic compounds (RATC), which is a higher proportion of virulence genes reported from metagenome samples of chicken cecum (5.39%), cow rumen (4.43%) and Sargasso sea (2.95%). However, it was lower than the proportion found in cow milk (11.33%) cattle faeces (8.4%), Antarctic marine derived lake (8.45%), human fecal (7.7%) and farm soil (7.79%). The dynamic nature of metagenomic data, together with the large number of RATC classes observed in samples from widely different ecologies indicates that metagenomic data can be used to track potential targets and relative amounts of antibiotic resistance genes in individual animals. In addition, these data can be also used to generate antibiotic resistance gene profiles to facilitate an understanding of the ecology of the microbial communities in each habitat as well as the epidemiology of antibiotic resistant gene transport between and among habitats. PMID:22850272

  17. Effect of treatment with recombinant bovine somatotropin on responses to superovulatory treatment in swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Songsasen, N; Yiengvisavakul, V; Buntaracha, B; Pharee, S; Apimeteetumrong, M; Sukwongs, Y

    1999-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of treatment with recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST) on the response to superovulatory treatment in swamp buffalo. Estrous cycles of 16 buffalo cows were synchronized by intravaginal administration of progesterone and estradiol benzoate, and the cows were then randomly divided into 2 groups. The rBST-treated group received 250 mg of a sustained-release formula of rBST on Day 4 after progesterone implantation, whereas the control group did not receive rBST. Both groups were then given a superovulatory regimen of twice daily injections of FSH for 3.5 d (total dose of 260 mg, i.m.), between Days 9 and 11 after administration of progesterone. The cows were bred naturally 1 d after the last FSH injection, then 6 d after breeding they were slaughtered, and their reproductive tracts were removed. The numbers of corpora lutea (CL) and follicles were recorded, and embryos were flushed out of the uterine horns. There were no significant differences between the rBST-treated and control cows for the mean numbers (+/- SEM) of CL (6.0 +/- 2.2 vs 4.3 +/- 1.1), follicles (15.9 +/- 4.1 vs 19.8 +/- 2.9), or total embryos recovered per collection (4.5 +/- 1.6 vs 2.3 +/- 1.0). However, there were significant differences between rBST-treated and control cows for the numbers of transferable embryos per collection (3.0 +/- 1.0 vs 0.8 +/- 0.3; P < or = 0.05) and the overall proportion of transferable embryos (75 vs 33%; P < or = 0.01). The results of this study show that pretreatment of swamp buffalo with rBST significantly increases the production of transferable embryos in response to superovulation. PMID:10734373

  18. Effect of additional chromium supplementation on health status, metabolic responses, and performance traits in periparturient Murrah Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Deka, Rijusmita Sarma; Mani, Veena; Kumar, Muneendra; Zade, Shiwajirao Satish; Upadhaya, Ramesh Chand; Kaur, Harjit

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of inorganic chromium (Cr) on body condition, metabolic responses, lactation performance, and reproductive parameters in periparturient Murrah buffaloes. Twenty-four multiparous advanced pregnant Murrah buffaloes were randomly assigned to four treatment diets. Feeding regimen was the same in all the groups, except that the animals in the four respective groups were additionally supplemented with 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5mg of Cr/kg dry matter (DM) from day 60 prepartum to 150days postpartum. Dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production were recorded every day, while body condition score (BCS) and whole blood samples were collected at days -60, -45, -30, -15, -7, -3, 0, 3, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 relative to actual calving. As the days to calving advanced, DMI, plasma glucose, insulin, leptin, and Cr levels decreased (P?buffaloes. These results could be interpreted as an improvement in the body condition, metabolic response, milk yield, efficiency of milk production and nutrient utilization, and reproductive performance of peripartum Murrah buffaloes. PMID:25388756

  19. Seasonal variation in nuclear DNA integrity of frozen-thawed spermatozoa from Thai AI swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Koonjaenak, S; Johannisson, A; Pongpeng, P; Wirojwuthikul, S; Kunavongkrit, A; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    2007-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the susceptibility of frozen-thawed swamp buffalo sperm nuclear DNA to undergo controlled acid-induced denaturation in situ, as analysed by flow cytometry, and aimed to correlate the results with sperm head morphology over three seasons in tropical Thailand. Artificial insemination (AI) doses (n = 218) from 18 AI buffalo sires, prepared between 1980 and 1989 and 2003 and 2005, were tested and compared among three seasons, the rainy season, July-October; winter, November-February; and summer, March-June. The overall mean of DNA fragmentation index (DFI) (+/- SD) was 1.84 +/- 1.68%, range from 0.19 to 7.92%, with 0.221 +/- 0.021 of the x-DFI ranging from 0.190 to 0.350 and 0.023 +/- 0.009 of the SD-DFI ranging from 0.010 to 0.070. The DFI was consistently low (range 1.40 +/- 0.21% to 2.16 +/- 0.21%; LSM +/- SEM), with x-DFI ranging from 0.216 +/- 0.003 to 0.225 +/- 0.003 and SD-DFI ranging from 0.022 +/- 0.001 to 0.024 +/- 0.001 across the seasons. The DFI was low enough to be related to high fertility potential. However, DFI values varied statistically among seasons, being lower in the rainy season (1.40 +/- 0.21%, P < 0.05) than in winter (2.16 +/- 0.21%) or summer (2.00 +/- 0.20%), and were also affected by the year of semen collection and processing (P < 0.001). The proportion of morphologically abnormal sperm head shapes was low, with no significant differences between seasons. However, DFI was significantly related to the proportion of loose abnormal sperm heads (r = 0.27, P < 0.01). In conclusion, frozen-thawed swamp buffalo sperm chromatin integrity is not seriously damaged by cryopreservation or affected by the seasonal variations in temperature and humidity seen in tropical Thailand. PMID:17718812

  20. Effect of Extender and Equilibration Time on Post Thaw Motility and Chromatin Structure of Buffalo Bull (Bubalus Bubalis) Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Shahverdi, Abdolhossain; Rastegarnia, Abdolreza; Rezaei Topraggaleh, Tohid

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of four equilibration times (2, 4, 8 and 16 hours) and two extenders (tris or Bioxcell®) on cryopreservation of buffalo semen. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, split pooled ejaculates (n=4), possessing more than 70% visual sperm motility were divided in two aliquots and diluted in Bioxcell® and tris-citric egg yolk (TCE) extenders. Semen was cooled to 4°C within 2 hours, equilibrated at 4°C for 2, 4, 8 and 16 hours, then transferred into 0.5 ml French straws, and frozen in a programmable cell freezer before being plunged into liquid nitrogen. Postthaw motility characteristics, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome morphology and DNA integrity of the buffalo sperm were studied after thawing. Results There were significant interactions between equilibration times and extenders for sperm motility and membrane integrity. Post thaw sperm motility (PMOT), progressive motile spermatozoa (PROG), plasma membrane integrity (PMI) and normal apical ridge (NAR) measures were lower for sperm equilibrated for 2 hours in both TCE and Bioxcell® extender compared to others equilibration times. PMOT, PMI and NAR for sperm equilibrated for 4, 8 and 16 hours showed no significant differences in either extender, although PROG measures were superior in Bioxcell®compared to TCE at all equilibration times (p<0.05). Kinematic parameters such as average path velocity, curvilinear velocity and linearity in the Bioxcell®extender were superior to those in the TCE extender studied. In contrast to motility and viability, the DNA integrity of post thaw spermatozoa remained unaffected by different equilibration times. Conclusion Equilibration time is necessary for preservation of the motility and integrity of buffalo sperm membranes. Equilibration times of over than 2 hours resulted in the greatest preservation of total semen parameters during cryopreservation. There were no significant interactions between equilibration times over 4 hours and type of extender which lead to greater post thaw sperm survival. PMID:24611139

  1. Involvement of the nervous system following experimental infection with Pasteurella multocida B:2 in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): A clinicopathological study.

    PubMed

    Marza, Ali Dhiaa; Jesse, Faez Firdaus Abdullah; Ahmed, Ihsan Muneer; Teik Chung, Eric Lim; Ibrahim, Hayder Hamzah; Zamri-Saad, Mohd; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Saharee, Abdul Aziz; Haron, Abdul Wahid; Alwan, Mohammed Jwaid; Mohd Lila, Mohd Azmi

    2016-04-01

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute, fatal, septicaemic disease of cattle and buffaloes caused by one of two specific serotypes of Pasteurella multocida B:2 and E:2 in Asian and African, respectively. It is well known that HS affect mainly the respiratory and digestive tracts. However, involvement of the nervous system in pathogenesis of HS has been reported in previous studies without details. In this study, nine buffalo calves of 8 months old were distributed into three groups. Animals of Group 1 and 2 were inoculated orally and subcutaneously with 10 ml of 1 × 10(12) cfu/ml of P. multocida B:2, respectively, while animals of Group 3 were inoculated orally with 10 ml of phosphate buffer saline as a control. All calves in Group 1 and Group 3 were euthanised after 504 h (21 day) post-infection, while calves in Group 2 had to euthanise after 12 h post-infection as they develop sever clinical signs of HS. Significant differences were found in Group 2 in the mean scores of clinical signs, gross and histopathological changes which mainly affect different anatomic regions of the nervous system. In addition, successful bacterial isolation of P. multocida B:2 were obtained from different sites of the nervous system. On the other hand, less sever, clinical, gross and histopathological changes were found in Group 1. These results provide for the first time strong evidence of involving of the nervous system in pathogenesis of HS, especially in the peracute stage of the disease. PMID:26850845

  2. Efficiency to reach age of puberty and behaviour of buffalo heifers (Bubalus bubalis) kept on pasture or in confinement.

    PubMed

    Sabia, E; Napolitano, F; De Rosa, G; Terzano, G M; Barile, V L; Braghieri, A; Pacelli, C

    2014-11-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of rearing system (free-ranging (FR) v. confinement (C)) on buffalo heifer efficiency to reach age of puberty and on behavioural and immune functions, two experiments were conducted from September 2010 to October 2011. In Experiment I, 32 subjects aged 8 to 9 months at the start of experiment were used. A total of 16 animals (group C) were group housed in an indoor slatted floor pen (4 m2/animal) with an outdoor paddock (4 m2/animal); 16 others grazed on a Mediterranean natural pasture of 40 ha (group FR). Behavioural data were collected and organic matter digestibility, blood metabolites and progesterone were determined. At the end of the experiment, a novel object test and a skin test were conducted, and the avoidance distance (AD) at the manger was measured. Free-ranging animals were able to express natural behaviours such as wallowing and grazing. C animals devoted more time to the novel object than FR animals, whereas AD at manger was lower in group FR than in group C (P<0.01). Cellular immune response was higher in FR heifers than in C animals (P<0.01). FR animals also showed a higher digestibility of organic matter (P<0.01). Heifers from group FR had higher plasma concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (P<0.001) and lower concentrations of glucose than heifers from group C (P<0.001). C animals showed higher daily weight gains (P<0.01) and weight at the puberty (P<0.05), but there were no differences in terms of age of puberty between the two groups. The intakes of dry matter (DM), CP and energy to reach the age of puberty were similar in both groups. In order to verify whether the results obtained in Experiment I could be replicated in different rearing conditions (reduced pasture availability, different location and altitude), a second experiment was conducted on 26 animals, where only onset of age of puberty and metabolic profile were monitored. In Experiment II, 13 heifers grazed on a natural pasture of 5 ha, other 13 received the same space as indicated for Experiment I. Results from Experiment II generally confirmed those of Experiment I. Only the intakes of DM and energy to reach the age of puberty were higher in group C than in FR (P<0.001). A lower competition with human nutrition, reproductive performances similar to those shown by confined animals and the indications given by immune and behavioural variables, suggest that a free-range-based system may be conveniently used for buffalo heifer farming purposes. PMID:25076110

  3. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) induces buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cell differentiation into germ cells.

    PubMed

    Shah, Syed Mohmad; Saini, Neha; Ashraf, Syma; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Manik, Radhey Sham; Singla, Suresh Kumar; Palta, Prabhat; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) stimulation on differentiation of buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cells into germ lineage cells. ES cells were subjected to invitro differentiation in floating and adherent cultures, under different BMP4 concentrations (20, 50 and 100ngml(-1)) for different culture intervals (4, 8 and 14 days). qPCR analysis revealed that BMP4 at a concentration of 50-100ngml(-1) for a culture period of 14 days led to maximum induction of germ lineage genes like DAZL, VASA, PLZF (PGC-specific); SYCP3, MLH1, TNP1/2 and PRM2 (Meiotic genes); BOULE and TEKT1 (Spermatocyte markers); GDF9, ZP2 and 3 (Oocyte markers). The expression levels of all the genes were significantly higher under BMP4 differentiation as compared to BMP4+NOGGIN and spontaneously differentiated cultures. Immunocytochemical analysis of embryoid bodies (EBs) and monolayer adherent cultures revealed expression of PGC- (c-KIT, DAZL and VASA); Meiotic- (SYCP3, MLH1 and PROTAMINE1); Spermatocyte- (ACROSIN and HAPRIN); and Oocyte- markers (GDF9 and ZP4). Western blotting was positive for VASA, GDF9 and ZP4. Oocyte-like structures (OLS) obtained in monolayer differentiated cultures harbored a big nucleus and a ZP4 coat. They showed embryonic development and progressed through 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell and blastocyst-like structures. Global DNA methylation analysis showed significantly (p<0.05) decreased levels of 5-methyl-2-deoxycytidine in EBs obtained in optimum differentiation medium. The expression of meiotic markers coupled with expression of spermatocyte and oocyte markers is an indication of post-meiotic progression into spermatogenesis and oogenesis, respectively. PMID:26529649

  4. Seasonality affects post-thaw plasma membrane intactness and sperm velocities in spermatozoa from Thai AI swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Koonjaenak, S; Pongpeng, P; Wirojwuthikul, S; Johannisson, A; Kunavongkrit, A; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    2007-06-01

    Altogether 218 frozen semen AI doses, prepared between 1980 and 1989 and also between 2003 and 2005 from 18 AI Thai swamp buffalo sires, were examined to determine whether seasonality affects post-thaw viability, as plasma membrane integrity (PMI, using SYBR-14/PI), plasma membrane stability (PMS, using Annexin-V/PI), or motility (Mot, using CASA). A thermoresistance test (38 degrees C for 60 min) was used to further analyze sperm survivability in vitro. All variables were compared over 3 seasons of the year (rainy: July-October; winter: November-February; and summer: March-June), with distinct ambient temperature and humidity. PMI (% of alive spermatozoa) was higher in winter (54.6%, P<0.001) than in the rainy (43.5%) or summer (46.7%) seasons. Outcomes of PMS (Annexin-V/PI assay) confirmed those of PMI, the highest PMS in spermatozoa processed in winter (55.7%, P<0.001). Spermatozoa depicting linear Mot post-thaw ranged from 48.2% to 48.8% across seasons (ns), proportions that decreased during incubation (33.5-37.9%), albeit without seasonal differences. The mean percentages of straight linear velocity (VSL), average path velocity (VAP), or curvilinear velocity (VCL) were higher (P<0.05-0.001) in the rainy season than in winter or summer, while average lateral head displacement (ALH) was higher (P<0.05) in summer, differences maintained after incubation. In conclusion, post-thaw PMS and PMI, assessed by flow cytometry, were significantly better in sperm samples processed during winter than in samples processed during the other seasons of the year, a seasonal difference not picked up by CASA, probably due to the larger number of spermatozoa assessed. PMID:17442385

  5. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) NOD1 and NOD2 Receptors and Their Functional Role in In-Vitro Cellular Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Brahma, Biswajit; Kumar, Sushil; De, Bidhan Chandra; Mishra, Purusottam; Patra, Mahesh Chandra; Gaur, Deepak; Chopra, Meenu; Gautam, Devika; Mahanty, Sourav; Malik, Hrudananda; Malakar, Dhruba; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; De, Sachinandan

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are innate immune receptors that recognize bacterial cell wall components and initiate host immune response. Structure and function of NLRs have been well studied in human and mice, but little information exists on genetic composition and role of these receptors in innate immune system of water buffalo—a species known for its exceptional disease resistance. Here, a comparative study on the functional domains of NOD1 and NOD2 was performed across different species. The NOD mediated in-vitro cellular responses were studied in buffalo peripheral blood mononuclear cells, resident macrophages, mammary epithelial, and fibroblast cells. Buffalo NOD1 (buNOD1) and buNOD2 showed conserved domain architectures as found in other mammals. The domains of buNOD1 and buNOD2 showed analogy in secondary and tertiary conformations. Constitutive expressions of NODs were ubiquitous in different tissues. Following treatment with NOD agonists, peripheral lymphocytes showed an IFN-γ response along-with production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Alveolar macrophages and mammary epithelial cells showed NOD mediated in-vitro immune response through NF-κB dependent pathway. Fibroblasts showed pro-inflammatory cytokine response following agonist treatment. Our study demonstrates that both immune and non-immune cells could generate NOD-mediated responses to pathogens though the type and magnitude of response depend on the cell types. The structural basis of ligand recognition by buffalo NODs and knowledge of immune response by different cell types could be useful for development of non-infective innate immune modulators and next generation anti-inflammatory compounds. PMID:25786158

  6. Assessment of intracellular Ca2+, cAMP and 1,2-diacylglycerol in cryopreserved buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa on supplementation of taurine and trehalose in the extender.

    PubMed

    Singh, V K; Atreja, S K; Kumar, R; Chhillar, S; Singh, A K

    2012-08-01

    In mammalian spermatozoa, intracellular calcium plays a major role in sperm functions like motility and capacitation. Cryopreservation-induced modifications to sperm membrane result in an influx of intracellular calcium affecting calcium-dependent intracellular signalling pathways. Intracellular calcium activates adenyl cyclase to produce cAMP that activates phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2) ) and phospholipase C (PLC) generating lysophosphatidyl choline, 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) and IP(3) , acting as intracellular secondary messengers required for sperm capacitation. Present study was designed to determine levels of intracellular calcium, cAMP and DAG in fresh and frozen-thawed buffalo spermatozoa cryopreserved in the presence and absence of taurine or trehalose. A total number of nine ejaculates from three randomly chosen buffalo bulls were cryopreserved in Tris-based egg yolk extender and thawed in warm water at 37C. The cAMP was measured by enzyme immuno assay, and intracellular calcium was quantified using fluorescent dye FURA 2-AM. Total lipid was extracted from spermatozoa, and DAG was estimated using thin layer chromatography followed by spectrophotometric analysis. Intracellular calcium, cAMP and DAG levels in spermatozoa were significantly (p < 0.01) increased following cryopreservation as compared to fresh ejaculate. Addition of taurine or trehalose to the freezing medium significantly decreased (p < 0.01) the levels of intracellular calcium and cAMP in frozen-thawed spermatozoa. 1,2-diacylglycerol content was also decreased significantly (p < 0.01) in spermatozoa cryopreserved in presence of additives. Moreover, significant (p < 0.01) improvement in post-thaw motility, viability and membrane integrity of spermatozoa on addition of taurine or trehalose clearly indicated the reduced level of capacitation-like changes in buffalo spermatozoa. PMID:21988572

  7. Malignant Catarrhal Fever: An Emerging Disease in the African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Pfitzer, S; Last, R; Espie, I; van Vuuren, M

    2015-06-01

    Within the tribe Bovini in the subfamily Bovinae, the water buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis), American bison (Bison bison), European bison (Bubalus bonasus) and yak (Bos grunniens) are recognized as species highly susceptible to malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). In contrast, the lack of reports describing clinical MCF in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) whether free ranging or captive has led to a perception that African buffaloes are resistant to MCF. During the last decade, several cases of MCF in African buffaloes were confirmed in South Africa and experience with seven of these cases is described in this report. Detection of viral nucleic acid in blood or tissues was successful in six African buffaloes that suffered from clinical signs compatible with MCF. Four were positive for infection with ovine herpesvirus type 2 (the causative virus of sheep-associated MCF), and two were positive for alcelaphine herpesvirus type 1 (causative virus of wildebeest-associated MCF). Histopathological examination of tissue samples from all the animals yielded typical lesions that were consistent with those described for MCF in domestic cattle. Developments in the management of African buffaloes translocated from their traditional habitats have likely contributed to the identification of another susceptible host in the subfamily Bovinae. PMID:23957274

  8. Bacterial diversity associated with feeding dry forage at different dietary concentrations in the rumen contents of Mehshana buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) using 16S pyrotags.

    PubMed

    Pitta, D W; Kumar, S; Veiccharelli, B; Parmar, N; Reddy, B; Joshi, C G

    2014-02-01

    Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene targeting bacteria was applied to identify diet-induced shifts in the microbiome of both solid and liquid ruminal fractions retrieved from water buffalo fed different diets. The depth of coverage of metabolically active bacteria in a community using different primer pairs was also investigated. To assess reproducibility, animal to animal variation was considered in all phylogenetic and community comparisons. The experiment included four non-lactating water buffaloes fed three different diets for six weeks each; diets were M1 (50% concentrate: 50% dry roughage), M2 (25% concentrate: 75% dry roughage) and M3 (100% dry roughage). A total of 333, 851 pyrotags were analyzed in this study. Phylogenetic analysis revealed significant differences in the rumen microbiome mediated by primer and diet (P < 0.05). Differences in community composition due to primer, diet, fraction and animal were compared using unweighted and weighted UniFrac analysis. Clustering of communities was largely explained by primer differences in both weighted and unweighted UniFrac analyses (P < 0.001). In the weighted analysis, communities clustered by diets (P < 0.05) and fractions (P < 0.08) while no inter-animal variation was observed. The identified repertoire of bacterial populations was dependent on the primer pair, as targeting the V4-V5 region resulted in greater diversity profiles of the microbiome. Within each primer pair, dietary changes altered the community composition with noticeable shifts at genus level. Genera such as Ruminococcus and Fibrobacter (P < 0.05) were higher in abundance on M3 diet while Prevotella dominated (P < 0.05) on M1 diet. PMID:24315806

  9. First report of Cryptosporidium species in farmed and wild buffalo from the Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Zahedi, Alireza; Phasey, Jordan; Boland, Tony; Ryan, Una

    2016-03-01

    A molecular epidemiological survey of Cryptosporidium from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in the Northern Territory in Australia was conducted. Fecal samples were collected from adult farmed (n = 50) and wild buffalo (n = 50) and screened using an 18S quantitative PCR (qPCR). Positives were typed by sequence analysis of 18S nested PCR products. The qPCR prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in farmed and wild buffalo was 30 and 12 %, respectively. Sequence analysis identified two species: C. parvum and C. bovis, with C. parvum accounting for ~80 % of positives typed from the farmed buffalo fecal samples compared to 50 % for wild buffalo. Subtyping at the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) locus identified C. parvum subtypes IIdA19G1 (n = 4) and IIdA15G1 (n = 1) in the farmed buffalo and IIaA18G3R1 (n = 2) in the wild buffalo. The presence of C. parvum, which commonly infects humans, suggests that water buffaloes may contribute to contamination of rivers and waterways with human infectious Cryptosporidium oocysts, and further research on the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in buffalo populations in Australia is required. PMID:26758449

  10. The river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, 2n = 50) cytogenetic map: assignment of 64 loci by fluorescence in situ hybridization and R-banding.

    PubMed

    Iannuzzi, L; Di Meo, G P; Perucatti, A; Schibler, L; Incarnato, D; Gallagher, D; Eggen, A; Ferretti, L; Cribiu, E P; Womack, J

    2003-01-01

    Sixty-four genomic BAC-clones mapping five type I (ADCYAP1, HRH1, IL3, RBP3B and SRY) and 59 type II loci, previously FISH-mapped to goat (63 loci) and cattle (SRY) chromosomes, were fluorescence in situ mapped to river buffalo R-banded chromosomes, noticeably extending the physical map of this species. All mapped loci from 26 bovine syntenic groups were located on homeologous chromosomes and chromosome regions of river buffalo and goat (cattle) chromosomes, confirming the high degree of chromosome homeologies among bovids. Furthermore, an improved cytogenetic map of the river buffalo with 293 loci from all 31 bovine syntenic groups is reported. PMID:14970681

  11. Identification of Appropriate Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Analysis of Heat-Stressed Mammary Epithelial Cells in Riverine Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Kapila, Neha; Kishore, Amit; Sodhi, Monika; Sharma, Ankita; Kumar, Pawan; Mohanty, A. K.; Jerath, Tanushri; Mukesh, M.

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression studies require appropriate normalization methods for proper evaluation of reference genes. To date, not many studies have been reported on the identification of suitable reference genes in buffaloes. The present study was undertaken to determine the panel of suitable reference genes in heat-stressed buffalo mammary epithelial cells (MECs). Briefly, MEC culture from buffalo mammary gland was exposed to 42?C for one hour and subsequently allowed to recover at 37?C for different time intervals (from 30?m to 48?h). Three different algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper softwares, were used to evaluate the stability of 16 potential reference genes from different functional classes. Our data identified RPL4, EEF1A1, and RPS23 genes to be the most appropriate reference genes that could be utilized for normalization of qPCR data in heat-stressed buffalo MECs. PMID:25937980

  12. Effects of trichostatin A on In vitro development and DNA methylation level of the satellite I region of swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) cloned embryos.

    PubMed

    Srirattana, Kanokwan; Ketudat-Cairns, Mariena; Nagai, Takashi; Kaneda, Masahiro; Parnpai, Rangsun

    2014-01-01

    Trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, has been widely used to improve the cloning efficiency in several species. This brings our attention to investigation of the effects of TSA on developmental potential of swamp buffalo cloned embryos. Swamp buffalo cloned embryos were produced by electrical pulse fusion of male swamp buffalo fibroblasts with swamp buffalo enucleated oocytes. After fusion, reconstructed oocytes were treated with 0, 25 or 50 nM TSA for 10 h. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the rates of fusion (82-85%), cleavage (79-84%) and development to the 8-cell stage (59-65%) among treatment groups. The highest developmental rates to the morula and blastocyst stages of embryos were found in the 25 nM TSA-treated group (42.7 and 30.1%, respectively). We also analyzed the DNA methylation level in the satellite I region of donor cells and in in vitro fertilized (IVF) and cloned embryos using the bisulfite DNA sequencing method. The results indicated that the DNA methylation levels in cloned embryos were significantly higher than those of IVF embryos but approximately similar to those of donor cells. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the methylation level among TSA-treated and untreated cloned embryos. Thus, TSA treatments at 25 nM for 10 h could enhance the in vitro developmental potential of swamp buffalo cloned embryos, but no beneficial effect on the DNA methylation level was observed. PMID:24909601

  13. Genetic diversity in Trypanosoma theileri from Sri Lankan cattle and water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Naoaki; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Fukushi, Shintaro; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Tuvshintulga, Bumduuren; Kothalawala, Hemal; Silva, Seekkuge Susil Priyantha; Igarashi, Ikuo; Inoue, Noboru

    2015-01-30

    Trypanosoma theileri is a hemoprotozoan parasite that infects various ruminant species. We investigated the epidemiology of this parasite among cattle and water buffalo populations bred in Sri Lanka, using a diagnostic PCR assay based on the cathepsin L-like protein (CATL) gene. Blood DNA samples sourced from cattle (n=316) and water buffaloes (n=320) bred in different geographical areas of Sri Lanka were PCR screened for T. theileri. Parasite DNA was detected in cattle and water buffaloes alike in all the sampling locations. The overall T. theileri-positive rate was higher in water buffaloes (15.9%) than in cattle (7.6%). Subsequently, PCR amplicons were sequenced and the partial CATL sequences were phylogenetically analyzed. The identity values for the CATL gene were 89.6-99.7% among the cattle-derived sequences, compared with values of 90.7-100% for the buffalo-derived sequences. However, the cattle-derived sequences shared 88.2-100% identity values with those from buffaloes. In the phylogenetic tree, the Sri Lankan CATL gene sequences fell into two major clades (TthI and TthII), both of which contain CATL sequences from several other countries. Although most of the CATL sequences from Sri Lankan cattle and buffaloes clustered independently, two buffalo-derived sequences were observed to be closely related to those of the Sri Lankan cattle. Furthermore, a Sri Lankan buffalo sequence clustered with CATL gene sequences from Brazilian buffalo and Thai cattle. In addition to reporting the first PCR-based survey of T. theileri among Sri Lankan-bred cattle and water buffaloes, the present study found that some of the CATL gene fragments sourced from water buffaloes shared similarity with those determined from cattle in this country. PMID:25554063

  14. Importation of in vitro-produced Bubalus bubalis embryos from Italy into the United States: a case report.

    PubMed

    BonDurant, R H; Drost, M; Zambrano-Varon, J; Campanile, G; Gasparrini, B; Zicarelli, L

    2007-08-01

    On December 19, 2005, 14 in vitro-fertilized water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos, which had been cryopreserved by vitrification, were thawed and transferred into B. bubalis recipients in California. The embryos had been produced in Italy, following transvaginal oocyte pickup (TVOPU), with subsequent in vitro maturation, insemination, and culture. This case study relates our experience in meeting the regulatory criteria, established by the Animal Import/Export Office of the USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS), in order to successfully import these embryos into the USA. PMID:17582487

  15. Effects of climate on the thermoregulatory responses of male buffalo ( Bubalus-bubalis) calves supplemented with different levels of testosterone and TDN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangwar, P. C.

    1982-03-01

    The present work was undertaken to study the changes in the thermoregulatory responses due to changing climate, androgen and TDN percent in 12 buffalo male calves from 4 months of age for a period of two years. The results obtained were: (1) The amplitudes of the diurnal cycles in rectal temperature (Tre) in each month of the experiment were very similar but longer in summer months as compared to winter months, (2) The correlation between Tre and ambient temperature (Ta) was high in all months. (3) Buffalo calves without testosterone supplementation on 70% TDN showed maximum rise in Tre by 0.076 0C per degree of ambient temperature, indicating more strain, (4) Highest respiratory frequencies occurred at 10:00 h during summer months. Subgroup 2 of group 1 showed the maximum rise by 311% in respiratory frequency in summer over winter due to least acclimatization, (5) The mean daily increase by 9.94C in ambient temperature doubled the respiratory frequency of male buffalo calves from January to April, and (6) Androgen therapy and higher TDN percent level helped the male buffalo calves to adjust better and sooner than the other calves to changing climates.

  16. Construction of a recombinant human insulin expression vector for mammary gland-specific expression in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) mammary epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Ramakant; Singh, Karn Pratap; Kumari, Archana; Rameshbabu, K; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Manik, Radhey Shyam; Palta, Prabhat; Singla, Suresh Kumar; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was construction of mammary gland specific expression vector for high level of human insulin (hINS) expression in transgenic buffalo for therapeutic use. We have constructed mammary gland specific vector containing human insulin gene and there expression efficiency was checked into in vitro cultured buffalo mammary epithelial cells (BuMECs). Human pro-insulin coding region was isolated from human genomic DNA by intron skipping PCR primer and furin cleavage site was inserted between B-C and C-A chain of human insulin by overlap extension PCR. A mammary gland-specific buffalo beta-lactoglobulin promoter was isolated from buffalo DNA and used for human insulin expression in BuMEC cells. The construct was transfected into BuMECs by lipofection method and positive transgene cell clones were obtained by G418 selection after 3 weeks. Expression of hINS in transfected cells were confirmed by RT-PCR, Immunocytochemistry, Western Blotting and ELISA. The pAcISUBC insulin-expressing clones secreted insulin at varying levels between 0.18 - 1.43 ng/ml/24 h/2.0 × 10(6) cells. PMID:24969480

  17. Impact of buserelin acetate or hCG administration on day 5 post-ovulation on subsequent luteal profile and conception rate in Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Pandey, A K; Dhaliwal, G S; Ghuman, S P S; Agarwal, S K

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed to establish the impact of buserelin acetate or hCG administration on day 5 post-ovulation on subsequent luteal profile and conception rate in buffalo. The buffalo (n=45) were subjected to an estrous synchronization protocol (synthetic analog of PGF2? administered, through intramuscular route, 11 days apart), followed by artificial insemination (AI) during mid to late estrus. On day 5 post-ovulation, buffalo were administered (i.m.) normal saline (Control, n=14), buserelin acetate (20?g, d5-BA, n=14) or human chorionic gonadotropin (3000IU, d5-hCG, n=17). Ovarian ultrasonography was conducted on the day of induced estrus and on days 0, 5, 12, 16 and 21 post-ovulation to assess preovulatory follicle or corpus luteum (CL) diameter. Also, on these days, jugular vein blood sampling was conducted for the estimation of plasma progesterone. First service conception rate was greater (?(2)=5.18, P>0.05) in d5-BA and d5-hCG groups (71.4% and 47.1%, respectively) as compared to control (28.6%). Both treatment groups had a greater (P<0.05) CL diameter and plasma progesterone during the post-treatment period in comparison to that control treatment group. Treatment-induced accessory CL formation was observed in 92.9% and 76.5% buffalo of d5-BA and d5-hCG groups, respectively. In conclusion, buserelin acetate and hCG administration on day 5 post-ovulation leads to accessory CL formation that may have a role in enhancing conception rate. PMID:26471839

  18. Insight into Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) RIG1 and MDA5 Receptors: A Comparative Study on dsRNA Recognition and In-Vitro Antiviral Response

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Manvender; Brahma, Biswajit; Maharana, Jitendra; Patra, Mahesh Chandra; Kumar, Sushil; Mishra, Purusottam; Saini, Megha; De, Bidhan Chandra; Mahanty, Sourav; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; De, Sachinandan

    2014-01-01

    RIG1 and MDA5 have emerged as important intracellular innate pattern recognition receptors that recognize viral RNA and mediate cellular signals controlling Type I interferon (IFN-I) response. Buffalo RIG1 and MDA5 genes were investigated to understand the mechanism of receptor induced antiviral response. Sequence analysis revealed that RIG1 and MDA5 maintain a domain arrangement that is common in mammals. Critical binding site residues of the receptors are evolutionary conserved among mammals. Molecular dynamics simulations suggested that RIG1 and MDA5 follow a similar, if not identical, dsRNA binding pattern that has been previously reported in human. Moreover, binding free energy calculation revealed that MDA5 had a greater affinity towards dsRNA compared to RIG1. Constitutive expressions of RLR genes were ubiquitous in different tissues without being specific to immune organs. Poly I:C stimulation induced elevated expressions of IFN-? and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) through interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) mediated pathway in buffalo foetal fibroblast cells. The present study provides crucial insights into the structure and function of RIG1 and MDA5 receptors in buffalo. PMID:24587036

  19. Liposome-based semen extender is suitable alternative to egg yolk-based extender for cryopreservation of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Saini, Monika; Kumar, Dharmendra; Balhara, A K; Yadav, S P; Singh, P; Yadav, P S

    2015-08-01

    Demand for alternative of egg yolk in freezing extenders have increased in recent years due to variability in egg yolk composition, risk of microbial contamination and presence of steroid hormones. The alternative to egg yolk-based extender (EY) can be soya lecithin-based extender (SL) and liposome-based extender (LP). However, the efficacy of SL is still a matter of debate. Few studies have been performed on the effect of LP but to date evaluation of buffalo semen cryopreserved in LP has not been studied. Therefore, this study was designed to compare SL and LP with conventional EY for evaluation of post-thaw quality of buffalo semen. Results showed that total, progressive and rapid sperm motility were found significantly higher (P<0.05) in LP among these extenders. In vitro assessment of post-thaw sperm longevity has also resulted in better maintenance of sperm kinetics and motility in LP in comparison to other extenders. Furthermore, sperm cryopreserved in LP travelled significantly more (P<0.05) distance in cervical mucus as compared to SL and EY. Therefore, it can be concluded that the LP is more efficient than SL and EY for the cryopreservation of buffalo semen. PMID:26065809

  20. Evaluation of Milk Trace Elements, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Alkaline Phosphatase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity of Subclinical Mastitis as and Indicator of Subclinical Mastitis in Riverine Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Guha, Anirban; Gera, Sandeep; Sharma, Anshu

    2012-03-01

    Mastitis is a highly morbid disease that requires detection at the subclinical stage. Tropical countries like India mainly depend on milch buffaloes for milk. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the trace minerals viz. copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn) and enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in riverine buffalo milk can be used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis (SCM) with the aim of developing suitable diagnostic kit for SCM. Trace elements and enzyme activity in milk were estimated with Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer, GBC 932 plus and biochemical methods, respectively. Somatic cell count (SCC) was done microscopically. The cultural examination revealed Gram positive bacteria as the most prevalent etiological agent. A statistically significant (p<0.01) increase in SCC, Fe, Zn, Co and LDH occurred in SCM milk containing gram positive bacterial agents only. ALP was found to be elevated in milk infected by both gram positive and negative bacteria. The percent sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated taking bacterial culture examination and SCC≥2×10(5) cells/ml of milk as the benchmark. Only ALP and Zn, the former being superior, were found to be suitable for diagnosis of SCM irrespective of etiological agents. LDH, Co and Fe can be introduced in the screening programs where Gram positive bacteria are omnipresent. It is recommended that both ALP and Zn be measured together in milk to diagnose buffalo SCM, irrespective of etiology. PMID:25049573

  1. Effects of FSH and LH on steroid production by buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) granulosa cells cultured in vitro under serum-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, M; Pandita, S; Palta, P

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of FSH and LH on oestradiol-17β and progesterone production by buffalo granulosa cells cultured under serum-free conditions. Granulosa cells (3 × 10(5) ) from small (≤ 5 mm diameter) follicles were cultured for up to 4 days in 48-well plates coated with 3.3 μg/cm(2) fibronectin in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) : nutrient mixture F-12 Ham (1 : 1 ratio) supplemented with 10(-7) m androstenedione, 5 μg/ml human apo-transferrin and 0.1% bovine serum albumin, in the presence or absence of FSH or LH (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 or 64 ng/ml each). Basal oestradiol-17β production by granulosa cells from small follicles reduced (p < 0.01) from days 1 to 2 of culture and became undetectable by day 3 and basal progesterone production increased (p < 0.05) from day 1 through day 4 of the culture. Although there was no effect of FSH on day 1 of the culture, FSH at 2, 4, 8 and 16 ng/ml increased (p < 0.05) oestradiol-17β production by granulosa cells from small follicles on day 2. Progesterone secretion was increased (p < 0.05) by all doses of FSH on all days of culture. All doses of LH had no effect on oestradiol-17β or progesterone production by granulosa cells from small follicles on any day of the culture. The results of this study demonstrate a serum-free culture system for buffalo granulosa cells and stimulatory effect of FSH but not LH on steroid hormone production by buffalo granulosa cells under these conditions. PMID:19497023

  2. Effect of boron as an antidote on dry matter intake, nutrient utilization and fluorine balance in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) exposed to high fluoride ration.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Vijay K; Gupta, Meenakshi; Lall, D

    2008-12-01

    It is well known that excessive accumulation of fluorides can exert toxic effects on various tissues and organs so as to severely damage the health and production of animals. The aim of this study was to determine beneficial effect of boron on nutrient utilization in buffalo calves exposed to high fluoride (F) ration. For this purpose, we used three groups of four male Murrah buffalo calves (body weight 98-100 kg, aged 6-8 month) each. Control animal was given only basal diet and concentrate mixture. However, treatment I animals were fed basal diet, concentrate mixture, and F [as NaF, 60 ppm of dry matter (DM)]. The treatment II animals were fed basal diet, concentrate mixture, F (as NaF, 60 ppm of DM), and B (as sodium tetraborate, 140 ppm of DM). After 90 days of experimental feeding, a metabolism trial of 7 days duration was conducted to study the treatment effect on nutrient utilization of proximate nutrients, absorption, excretion, and retention of N, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, and F. Dietary F significantly (p < 0.05) depressed the dry matter intake and increased the apparent digestibility, absorption, and retention of F. However, boron supplementation significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the apparent digestibility, absorption, and retention of F and improved the dry matter intake, fecal excretion, and percent of absorbed F excreted via urine. Apparent digestibility of proximate nutrients (viz. DM, crude protein, crude fiber, ether extract, and nitrogen free extract) was unaffected on either F or F+B treatment. However, absorption and excretion of N, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, and Cu were affected significantly (p < 0.05) on F or F+B treatment. These findings suggest that fluoride-containing diet for short duration has effect on nutrient utilization, and boron at 140-ppm dose level, in general, antagonized the absorption and retention of F and also improved the feed intake in buffalo calves. PMID:18781284

  3. Exploring genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes in Indian cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) using next generation sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shreya M; Koringa, Prakash G; Nathani, Neelam M; Patel, Namrata V; Shah, Tejash M; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2015-02-01

    Activation of innate immunity initiates various cascades of reactions that largely contribute to defense against physical, microbial or chemical damage, prompt for damage repair and removal of causative organisms as well as restoration of tissue homeostasis. Genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes plays prominent role in disease resistance capabilities in various breeds of cattle and buffalo. Here we studied single nucleotide variations (SNP/SNV) and haplotype structure in innate immune genes viz CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1, BNBD4, BNBD5, TAP and LAP in Gir cattle and Murrah buffalo. Targeted sequencing of exonic regions of these genes was performed by Ion Torrent PGM sequencing platform. The sequence reads obtained corresponding to coding regions of these genes were mapped to reference genome of cattle BosTau7 by BWA program using genome analysis tool kit (GATK). Further variant analysis by Unified Genotyper revealed 54 and 224 SNPs in Gir and Murrah respectively and also 32 SNVs was identified. Among these SNPs 43, 36, 11,32,81,21 and 22 variations were in CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1 and TAP genes respectively. Among these identified 278 SNPs, 24 were found to be reported in the dbSNP database. Variant analysis was followed by structure formation of haplotypes based on multiple SNPs using SAS software revealed a large number of haplotypes. The SNP discovery in innate immune genes in cattle and buffalo breeds of India would advance our understanding of role of these genes in determining the disease resistance/susceptibility in Indian breeds. The identified SNPs and haplotype data would also provide a wealth of sequence information for conservation studies, selective breeding and designing future strategies for identifying disease associations involving samples from distinct populations. PMID:26925373

  4. Analysis of genetic variations across regulatory and coding regions of kappa-casein gene of Indian native cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Kishore, Amit; Mukesh, M; Sobti, R C; Kataria, R S; Mishra, B P; Sodhi, Monika

    2014-12-01

    The promoter region of kappa-casein (?-CN) gene in Indian native cattle and buffalo breeds was sequenced and analyzed for nucleotide variations. Sequence comparison across breeds of Indian cattle revealed a total of 7 variations in the promoter region, of which -515 G/T, -427 C/T, -385 C/T, -283 A/G and -251 C/T were located within consensus binding sites for octamer-binding protein (OCT1)/pregnancy specific mammary nuclear factor (PMF), activator protein-2 (AP2), hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF-1) and GAL4 transcription factors (TFs), respectively. These variations might be involved in gain or loss of potential transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). Unlike the other 4 variants, the -283 (A/G) variant located within HNF-1 TFBS was specific to Indian cattle as this change has not been observed in the Bos taurus sequence. Other TFBSs viz., MGF, TBP, NF-1, milk box and C/EBP were conserved across species. For the Indian native buffalo breeds, only 3 changes were identified in the promoter region; -305 (A/C), -160 (T/C) and -141 (A/G) and most of the TFBSs were found to be conserved. However, deletion of two adjacent nucleotides located in and around binding site for C/EBP TF was identified in buffalo when compared with promoter sequence of bovine ?-CN. For ?-CN of Indian native cattle, a strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed for variations 515 G/T, -427 C/T and -385 C/T in the promoter region; and for variations at codons 136 and 148 of exon-IV. Further, among intragenic haplotypes, variation -427 C/T was found to be in LD with variations at codons 136 and 148. The information generated in the present work provides comprehensive characterization of ?-CN gene promoter and coding regions in Indian cattle and buffaloes and reported variations could become important candidates for carrying out further research in dairy traits. PMID:25606460

  5. Analysis of genetic variations across regulatory and coding regions of kappa-casein gene of Indian native cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Amit; Mukesh, M.; Sobti, R.C.; Kataria, R.S.; Mishra, B.P.; Sodhi, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The promoter region of kappa-casein (κ-CN) gene in Indian native cattle and buffalo breeds was sequenced and analyzed for nucleotide variations. Sequence comparison across breeds of Indian cattle revealed a total of 7 variations in the promoter region, of which − 515 G/T, − 427 C/T, − 385 C/T, − 283 A/G and − 251 C/T were located within consensus binding sites for octamer-binding protein (OCT1)/pregnancy specific mammary nuclear factor (PMF), activator protein-2 (AP2), hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF-1) and GAL4 transcription factors (TFs), respectively. These variations might be involved in gain or loss of potential transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). Unlike the other 4 variants, the − 283 (A/G) variant located within HNF-1 TFBS was specific to Indian cattle as this change has not been observed in the Bos taurus sequence. Other TFBSs viz., MGF, TBP, NF-1, milk box and C/EBP were conserved across species. For the Indian native buffalo breeds, only 3 changes were identified in the promoter region; − 305 (A/C), − 160 (T/C) and − 141 (A/G) and most of the TFBSs were found to be conserved. However, deletion of two adjacent nucleotides located in and around binding site for C/EBP TF was identified in buffalo when compared with promoter sequence of bovine κ-CN. For κ-CN of Indian native cattle, a strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed for variations 515 G/T, − 427 C/T and − 385 C/T in the promoter region; and for variations at codons 136 and 148 of exon-IV. Further, among intragenic haplotypes, variation − 427 C/T was found to be in LD with variations at codons 136 and 148. The information generated in the present work provides comprehensive characterization of κ-CN gene promoter and coding regions in Indian cattle and buffaloes and reported variations could become important candidates for carrying out further research in dairy traits. PMID:25606460

  6. Improvement of liquid and frozen-thawed semen quality of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls (Bubalus bubalis) through supplementation of fat.

    PubMed

    Adeel, M; Ijaz, A; Aleem, M; Rehman, H; Yousaf, M S; Jabbar, M A

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of dietary fat on quality of liquid and frozen-thawed semen of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls. Adult bulls (n=21) were fed a balanced ration (Con; n=7) or the same ration either containing sunflower oil (SF-O; n=7) or whole sunflower seeds (SF-S; n=7) for 63 days. Body weight and body condition score of each bull was recorded on days 0, 30 and 60 of the experiment. Semen was collected on days 39, 46, 53 and 60, frozen by a fast method and stored at -196 degrees C for 24h. Sperm motility was assessed using a bright field microscope. Plasma membrane integrity of fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa was assessed using a hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) assay. The concentration of spermatozoa and volume of semen was not different among groups on various days of collection. Sunflower-enriched diets did not affect the motility and number of HOS-positive spermatozoa in the fresh semen. Motility and HOS of post-thawed spermatozoa were higher (p<0.05) in bulls fed the sunflower-enriched diets. Similarly, diets did not affect the body condition score and body weight of bulls. In conclusion, feeding of sunflower oil or sunflower seed as fat sources can improve the quality of buffalo bull spermatozoa. PMID:19246083

  7. Molecular characterization and expression of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) DEAD-box family VASA gene and mRNA transcript variants isolated from testis tissue.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Ramakant; Singh, Karn Pratap; Bahuguna, Vivek; Rameshbabu, K; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Manik, Radhey Shyam; Palta, Prabhat; Singla, Suresh Kumar; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh

    2015-11-01

    VASA is a member of the DEAD-box protein family that plays an indispensable role in mammalian spermatogenesis, particularly during meiosis. In the present study, we isolated, sequenced, and characterized VASA gene in buffalo testis. Here, we demonstrated that VASA mRNA is expressed as multiple isoforms and uses four alternative transcriptional start sites (TSSs) and four different polyadenylation sites. The TSSs identified by 5'-RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM-5'-RACE) were positioned at 48, 53, 85, and 88 nucleotides upstream relative to the translation initiation codon. 3'-RACE experiment revealed the presence of tandem polyadenylation signals, which lead to the expression of at least four different 3'-untranslated regions (209, 233, 239 and 605 nucleotides). The full-length coding region of VASA was 2190 bp, which encodes a 729 amino acid (aa) protein containing nine consensus regions of the DEAD box protein family. VASA variants are highly expressed in testis of adult buffalo. We found five variants, one full length VASA (729 aa) and four splice variants VASA 2, 4, 5, 6 (683, 685, 679, 703 aa). The expression level of VASA 1 was significantly higher than rest of all (P < 0.05) except VASA 6. The relative ratio for VASA 1:2:4:5:6 was 100:1.0:1.6:0.9:48. PMID:26127001

  8. Molecular and serological prevalence of Anaplasma marginale in water buffaloes in northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa da Silva, Jenevaldo; Vinhote, Wagner Marcelo Sousa; Oliveira, Carlos Magno Chaves; Andr, Marcos Rogrio; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Barbosa, Jos Diomedes

    2014-03-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis, caused by Anaplasma marginale, occurs in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world and is a major constraint on cattle production in many countries. Approximately 60% of the buffalo herds in South America are located in northern Brazil. However, compared with the research on cattle, research on buffaloes has been neglected. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the distribution of A. marginale in water buffaloes in northern Brazil. A total of 500 buffalo blood samples was randomly collected from 16 provinces and was analyzed using both nPCR assay and ELISA techniques. The percentage of animals that were seropositive for A. marginale according to ELISA was 49% (245/500). The main risk factors associated with seroprevalence were the region (p=0.021; OR=1.2) and the reproductive status (p=0.0001; OR=1.6). Anaplasma marginale DNA was detected in 5.4% (27/500) of the sampled buffaloes. Our data provide information about the incidence of A. marginale infection in water buffaloes and may guide future programs aimed at controlling the disease in the northern region of Brazil. Although these water buffaloes are exposed to A. marginale, a low rate of A. marginale PCR-positive animals was found, which could be explained by the habitat in which the sampled animals live because they exhibited a low rate of attached ticks on their skin. PMID:24246707

  9. Comparison digestibility and protozoa population of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow

    PubMed Central

    Jabari, Safora; Eslami, Moosa; Chaji, Morteza; Mohammadabadi, Tahereh; Bojarpour, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to compare the morphology and activity of rumen protozoa of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow using in vitro digestibility and gas production parameters of steam treated sugarcane pith. Rumen fluid obtained from two buffalo and cow steers fed the same diet, 30:70 concentrate: forage. To separate rumen protozoa, antibiotic solution and fungicides were added to rumen fluid. The results of present experiment indicated that the neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 7.8 vs. 1.69%) and acid detergent fiber (ADF; 6.24 vs. 3.24%) digestibility of steam treated sugarcane pith by rumen protozoal population of Khuzestan buffalo was higher than those of cow (p < 0.05). Also, digestibility of dry matter, NDF and ADF by whole buffalo micro-organisms was more than those in cow (p < 0.05). The results indicated that the potential of gas production of sugarcane pith by rumen protozoa in water buffalo was more than that of cow (p < 0.05). Total rumen ciliate protozoa numbers in water buffalo were significantly higher than those of cow (3.68 105 vs. 2.18 105 mL-1 of rumen content) (p < 0.05). The number of Diplodinium in buffalo was more than that of cow (41.27 vs. 35.7% of total rumen protozoa, respectively). Percentage of Entodinium, Epidinium, Ophryoscolex and Isotricha in cow was more than those of buffalo. Therefore, in the same diet, protozoa and total rumen micro-organisms of Khuzestan water buffalo have higher digestion activity compared to Holstein cow. PMID:25610581

  10. Comparison digestibility and protozoa population of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow.

    PubMed

    Jabari, Safora; Eslami, Moosa; Chaji, Morteza; Mohammadabadi, Tahereh; Bojarpour, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to compare the morphology and activity of rumen protozoa of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow using in vitro digestibility and gas production parameters of steam treated sugarcane pith. Rumen fluid obtained from two buffalo and cow steers fed the same diet, 30:70 concentrate: forage. To separate rumen protozoa, antibiotic solution and fungicides were added to rumen fluid. The results of present experiment indicated that the neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 7.8 vs. 1.69%) and acid detergent fiber (ADF; 6.24 vs. 3.24%) digestibility of steam treated sugarcane pith by rumen protozoal population of Khuzestan buffalo was higher than those of cow (p < 0.05). Also, digestibility of dry matter, NDF and ADF by whole buffalo micro-organisms was more than those in cow (p < 0.05). The results indicated that the potential of gas production of sugarcane pith by rumen protozoa in water buffalo was more than that of cow (p < 0.05). Total rumen ciliate protozoa numbers in water buffalo were significantly higher than those of cow (3.68 10(5) vs. 2.18 10(5) mL(-1) of rumen content) (p < 0.05). The number of Diplodinium in buffalo was more than that of cow (41.27 vs. 35.7% of total rumen protozoa, respectively). Percentage of Entodinium, Epidinium, Ophryoscolex and Isotricha in cow was more than those of buffalo. Therefore, in the same diet, protozoa and total rumen micro-organisms of Khuzestan water buffalo have higher digestion activity compared to Holstein cow. PMID:25610581

  11. Effect of different seasons on concentration of plasma luteinizing hormone and seminal quality vis--vis freezability of buffalo bulls ( Bubalus bubalis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahga, C. S.; Khokar, B. S.

    1991-12-01

    Seasonal variations in semen quality, freezability and plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were studied between summer and spring. Semen volume, density and initial sperm motility did not differ significantly between different seasons. Plasma LH decreased between summer and spring but the differences were, however, not significant. Pre-freezing motility did not differ significantly but post-freezing motility varied significantly ( P<0.01) between seasons. Post-freezing motility was lowest during summer and highest during winter. It can be concluded that summer spermatozoa may be fragile and cannot withstand freezing stress. To increase reproductive efficiency in buffalo during summer, semen should be frozen during winter and spring and used during hot weather conditions. Seasonal variations in plasma LH levels were insignificant.

  12. Computational studies on receptor-ligand interactions between novel buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) variants and muramyl dipeptide (MDP).

    PubMed

    Brahma, Biswajit; Patra, Mahesh Chandra; Mishra, Purusottam; De, Bidhan Chandra; Kumar, Sushil; Maharana, Jitendra; Vats, Ashutosh; Ahlawat, Sonika; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; De, Sachinandan

    2016-04-01

    Nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2), a member of intracellular NOD-like receptors (NLRs) family, recognizes the bacterial peptidoglycan, muramyl dipeptide (MDP) and initiates host immune response. The precise ligand recognition mechanism of NOD2 has remained elusive, although studies have suggested leucine rich repeat (LRR) region of NOD2 as the possible binding site of MDP. In this study, we identified multiple transcripts of NOD2 gene in buffalo (buNOD2) and at least five LRR variants (buNOD2-LRRW (wild type), buNOD2-LRRV1-V4) were found to be expressed in buffalo peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The newly identified buNOD2 transcripts were shorter in lengths as a result of exon-skipping and frame-shift mutations. Among the variants, buNOD2-LRRW, V1, and V3 were expressed more frequently in the animals studied. A comparative receptor-ligand interaction study through modeling of variants, docking, and molecular dynamics simulation revealed that the binding affinity of buNOD2-LRRW towards MDP was greater than that of the shorter variants. The absence of a LRR segment in the buNOD2 variants had probably affected their affinity toward MDP. Notwithstanding a high homology among the variants, the amino acid residues that interact with MDP were located on different LRR motifs. The binding free energy calculation revealed that the amino acids Arg850(LRR4) and Glu932(LRR7) of buNOD2-LRRW, Lys810(LRR3) of buNOD2-LRRV1, and Lys830(LRR3) of buNOD2-LRRV3 largely contributed towards MDP recognition. The knowledge of MDP recognition and binding modes on buNOD2 variants could be useful to understand the regulation of NOD-mediated immune response as well as to develop next generation anti-inflammatory compounds. PMID:26897084

  13. Expression and characterization of constitutive heat shock protein 70.1 (HSPA-1A) gene in in vitro produced and in vivo-derived buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos.

    PubMed

    Sharma, G T; Nath, A; Prasad, S; Singhal, S; Singh, N; Gade, N E; Dubey, P K; Saikumar, G

    2012-12-01

    Cells are blessed with a group of stress protector molecules known as heat shock proteins (HSPs), amongst them HSP70, encoded by HSPA-1A gene, is most abundant and highly conserved protein. Variety of stresses hampers the developmental competence of embryos under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Present work was designed to study the quantitative expression of HSPA-1A mRNA in immature oocytes (IMO), matured oocytes (MO), in vitro produced (IVP) and in vivo-derived (IVD) buffalo embryos to assess the level of stress to which embryos are exposed under in vivo and in vitro culture conditions. Further, HSPA-1A gene sequence was analysed to determine its homology with other mammalian sequences. The mRNA expression analysis was carried out on 72 oocytes (40 IMO; 32 MO), 76 IVP and 55 IVD buffalo embryos. Expression of HSPA-1A was found in oocytes and throughout the developmental stages of embryos examined irrespective of the embryo source; however, higher (p < 0.05) expression was observed in 8-16 cell, morula and blastocyst stages of IVP embryos as compared to IVD embryos. Phylogenetic analysis of bubaline HSPA-1A revealed that it shares 91-98% identity with other mammalian sequences. It can be concluded that higher level of HSPA-1A mRNA in IVP embryos in comparison with in vivo-derived embryos is an indicator of cellular stress in IVP system. This study suggests need for further optimization of in vitro culture system in which HSPA-1A gene could be used as a stress biomarker during pre-implantation development. PMID:22463675

  14. Effect of physiologically relevant heat shock on development, apoptosis and expression of some genes in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos produced in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yadav, A; Singh, K P; Singh, M K; Saini, N; Palta, P; Manik, R S; Singla, S K; Upadhyay, R C; Chauhan, M S

    2013-10-01

    For investigating the effects of physiologically relevant heat shock, buffalo oocytes/embryos were cultured at 38.5C (control) or were exposed to 39.5C (Group II) or 40.5C (Group III) for 2h once every day throughout in vitro maturation (IVM), fertilization (IVF) and culture (IVC). Percentage of oocytes that developed to 8-cell, 16-cell or blastocyst stage was lower (p<0.05) and the number of apoptotic nuclei was higher (p<0.05) for Group III>Group II>controls. At both 8-16-cell and blastocyst stages, relative mRNA abundance of stress-related genes HSP 70.1 and HSP 70.2 and pro-apoptotic genes CASPASE-3, BID and BAX was higher (p<0.05) in Groups III and II than that in controls with the exception of stress-related gene HSF1. Expression level of anti-apoptotic genes BCL-XL and MCL-1 was also higher (p<0.05) in Groups III and II than that in controls at both 8-16-cell and blastocyst stages. Among the genes related to embryonic development, at 8-16-cell stage, the expression level of GDF9 was higher (p<0.05) in Group III than that in controls, whereas that of GLUT1, ZAR1 and BMP15 was not significantly different among the three groups. At the blastocyst stage, relative mRNA abundance of GLUT1 and GDF9 was higher (p<0.05) in Group II than that in controls, whereas that of ZAR-1 and BMP15 was not affected. The results of this study demonstrate that exposure of buffalo oocytes and embryos to elevated temperatures for duration of time that is physiologically relevant severely compromises their developmental competence, increases apoptosis and affects stress-, apoptosis- and development-related genes. PMID:23581430

  15. Genetic characterization of Babesia and Theileria parasites in water buffaloes in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Fukushi, Shintaro; Hayashida, Kyoko; Kothalawala, Hemal; Silva, Seekkuge Susil Priyantha; Vimalakumar, Singarayar Caniciyas; Kanagaratnam, Ratnam; Meewewa, Asela Sanjeewa; Suthaharan, Kalpana; Puvirajan, Thamotharampillai; de Silva, Weligodage Kumarawansa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2014-02-24

    Water buffaloes are thought to be the reservoir hosts for several hemoprotozoan parasites that infect cattle. In the present study, we surveyed Sri Lankan bred water buffaloes for infections with Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis using parasite-specific PCR assays. When 320 blood-derived DNA samples from water buffaloes reared in three different districts (Polonnaruwa, Mannar, and Mullaitivu) of Sri Lanka were PCR screened, B. bovis, B. bigemina, and T. orientalis were detected. While T. orientalis was the predominant parasite (82.5%), low PCR-positive rates were observed for B. bovis (1.9%) and B. bigemina (1.6%). Amplicons of the gene sequences of the Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 (RAP-1) of B. bovis, the Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA-1) of B. bigemina, and the Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) of T. orientalis were compared with those characterized previously in Sri Lankan cattle. While the B. bigemina AMA-1 sequences from water buffaloes shared high identity values with those from cattle, B. bovis RAP-1 sequences from water buffaloes diverged genetically from those of cattle. For T. orientalis, none of the MPSP sequence types reported previously in Sri Lankan cattle (types 1, 3, 5, and 7) were detected in the water buffaloes, and the MPSP sequences analyzed in the present study belonged to types N1 or N2. In summary, in addition to reporting the first PCR-based survey of Babesia and Theileria parasites in water buffaloes in Sri Lanka, the present study found that the predominant variants of water buffalo-derived B. bovis RAP-1 and T. orientalis MPSP sequences were different from those previously described from cattle in this country. PMID:24365246

  16. Separation and quantification of water buffalo milk protein fractions and genetic variants by RP-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, Valentina; Giantin, Mery; Rostellato, Roberta; Dacasto, Mauro; Carnier, Paolo

    2013-01-15

    A RP-HPLC method, developed for the separation and quantification of the most common genetic variants of bovine milk proteins, was successfully applied to the analysis of water buffalo milk. All the most common buffalo casein and whey proteins fractions, as well as their genetic variants, were detected and separated simultaneously in 40 min. Purified buffalo proteins were used as calibration standards and a total of 536 individual milk samples were analysed for protein composition. ?(S1)-, ?(S2)-, ??-, and ?-casein were 32.2%, 15.8%, 36.5%, and 15.5%, respectively, of total casein content, whereas content of ?-Lactoglobulin was approximately 1.3 times as high as that of ?-Lactalbumin. The existence of a polymorphism of ?-casein was demonstrated in Mediterranean water buffalo and ?(S1)- and ?-casein genetic variants were successfully detected by RP-HPLC. PMID:23122071

  17. Amnion Epithelial Cells of Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) Term Placenta Expressed Embryonic Stem Cells Markers and Differentiated into Cells of Neurogenic Lineage In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, K; Selokar, N L; Gahlawat, S K; Kumar, Dharmendra; Kumar, Pawan; Yadav, P S

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the present study was the isolation, culture, and characterization of amniotic membrane-derived epithelial cells (AE) from term placenta collected postpartum in buffalo. We found that cultured cells were of polygonal in shape, resistance to trypsin digestion and expressed cytokeratin-18 indicating that they were of epithelial origin. These cells have negative expression of mesenchymal stem cell markers (CD29, CD44, and CD105) and positive for pluripotency marker (OCT4) genes indicated that cultured cells were not contaminated with mesenchymal stem cells. Immunofluorescence staining with pluripotent stem cell surface markers, SSEA-1, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81 indicated that these cells may retain pluripotent stem cell characteristics even after long period of differentiation. Differentiation potential of these cells was determined by their potential to differentiate into cells of neurogenic lineages using retinoic acid. In conclusion, we demonstrate that AE cells expressed pluripotent stem cell markers and have propensity to differentiate into cells of neurogenic lineage upon directed differentiation in vitro. PMID:26670951

  18. Effect of season, late embryonic mortality and progesterone production on pregnancy rates in pluriparous buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) after artificial insemination with sexed semen.

    PubMed

    Campanile, Giuseppe; Vecchio, Domenico; Neglia, Gianluca; Bella, Antonino; Prandi, Alberto; Senatore, Elena M; Gasparrini, Bianca; Presicce, Giorgio A

    2013-03-01

    The use of sexed semen technology in buffaloes is nowadays becoming more and more accepted by farmers, to overcome the burden of unwanted male calves with related costs and to more efficiently improve production and genetic gain. The aim of this study was to verify the coupling of some variables on the efficiency of pregnancy outcome after deposition of sexed semen through AI. Pluriparous buffaloes from two different farms (N = 152) were screened, selected, and subjected to Ovsynch protocol for AI using nonsexed and sexed semen from four tested bulls. AI was performed in two distinct periods of the year: September to October and January to February. Neither farms nor bulls had a significant effect on pregnancy rates pooled from the two periods. The process for sexing sperm cells did not affect pregnancy rates at 28 days after AI, for nonsexed and sexed semen, respectively 44/73 (60.2%) and 50/79 (63.2%), P = 0.70, and at 45 days after AI, for nonsexed and sexed semen, respectively 33/73 (45.2%) and 33/79 (49.3%), P = 0.60. Pregnancy rate at 28 days after AI during the transitional period of January to February was higher when compared with September to October, respectively 47/67 (70.1%) versus 47/85 (55.2%), P = 0.06. When the same pregnant animals were checked at Day 45 after AI, the difference disappeared between the two periods, because of a higher embryonic mortality, respectively 32/67 (47.7%) versus 40/85 (47.0%), P = 0.93. Hematic progesterone concentration at Day 10 after AI did not distinguish animals pregnant at Day 28 that would or would not maintain pregnancy until Day 45 (P = 0.21). On the contrary, when blood samples were taken at Day 20 after AI, the difference in progesterone concentration between pregnant animals that would maintain their pregnancy until Day 45 was significant for both pooled (P = 0.00) and nonsexed (P = 0.00) and sexed semen (P = 0.09). A similar trend was reported when blood samples were taken at Day 25, being highly significant for pooled, nonsexed, and sexed semen (P = 0.00). Hematic progesterone concentration between the two periods of the year was highly significant for pregnant animals at 28 days from AI when blood samples were taken at Day 20 after AI for pooled, nonsexed, and sexed semen, respectively P = 0.00, 0.00, and 0.06, and for pregnant animals at Day 45 for pooled, nonsexed, and sexed semen, respectively P = 0.00, 0.00, and 0.01. From these results, it can be stated that hematic progesterone concentration measurement since Day 20 after AI can be predictive of possible pregnancy maintenance until Day 45. Furthermore, the transitional period of January to February, although characterized by a higher pregnancy outcome when compared with September to October, suffers from a higher late embryonic mortality as evidenced by a significant different hematic progesterone concentration between the two periods at Day 20 after AI. PMID:23265928

  19. Handmade Cloned Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryos Produced from Somatic Cells Isolated from Milk and Ear Skin Differ in Their Developmental Competence, Epigenetic Status, and Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Jyotsana, Basanti; Sahare, Amol A; Raja, Anuj K; Singh, Karn P; Singla, Suresh K; Chauhan, Manmohan S; Manik, Radhey S; Palta, Prabhat

    2015-10-01

    We compared the cloning efficiency of buffalo embryos produced by handmade cloning (HMC) using ear skin- and milk-derived donor cells. The blastocyst rate was lower (p??milk-derived blastocysts and that of NANOG was (p? milk-derived?>?skin-derived blastocysts. The expression level of all these genes, except NANOG, was lower (p?

  20. A comparative study on mimosine, 3,4-dihydroxy pyridone (3,4-DHP) and 2,3-dihydroxy pyridone (2,3-DHP), purine derivatives (PD) excretion in the urine, thyroid hormone and blood metabolites profiles of Thai swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Jetana, Thongsuk; Thongruay, Sirima; Uswang, Sawong; Hengtrakulsin, Runchuan

    2012-04-01

    Four Thai swamp buffaloes (SB) and four Murrah buffaloes (MB) fed a based diet of fresh ruzi grass (Bachiaria ruziziensis) with an increased proportion of fresh leucaena leaves. Intake of nutrients in animals increased when ruzi grass was mixed with leucaena. Digestibility of nutrients were the highest in SB and MB fed diets containing 25% and 50% of leucaena, respectively, and nitrogen (N) balances in both animal breeds were varied among diets. The regression equation coefficient of mimosine + DHP in the urine was twice as high in SB than in MB. Urinary purine derivatives excretion rate in SB was higher than that in MB. Plasma triiodothyronine and thyroxine declined in both animal breeds fed a diet containing >1 g mimosine intake/kg BW(0.75)/day. Plasma urea-N was the lowest in SB, but the highest in MB when fed a diet containing 84% of leucaena. Plasma β-HBA in SB have declined when diets contained >50% of leucaena but that in MB was not affected by any diet. In conclusion, the effect of leucaena in diet upon buffalo breeds depends on the proportion of leucaena in the diet, mimosine contents and condensed tannins components. PMID:21928129

  1. Effect of dietary protein on intake, nutrients utilization, nitrogen balance, blood metabolites, growth and puberty in growing Bhadawari buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) heifers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sultan; Kushwaha, Badri Prasad; Maity, Subendu Bikas; Singh, Krishan Kunwar; Das, Nityanand

    2015-01-01

    Fifteen Bhadawari buffalo heifers of 207??9.78 kg mean body weight were randomly distributed into three dietary groups to evaluate the effect of protein level on nutrient utilization, nitrogen (N) balance, growth rate, blood metabolites, and puberty. All animals were offered wheat straw-berseem diets supplemented with concentrate mixtures of similar energy (2.7 Mcal/kg) and different protein levels (14.3-22%). Animals of standard-protein group (SPG) were offered protein and energy as per requirement, while animals of low-protein group (LPG) and high-protein group (HPG) were fed 20% less and 20% more protein, respectively, than SPG. Feed dry matter (DM) and metabolizable energy (ME) intake (% body wt. and g/kg w(0.75)) were similar for all three diets; however, the crude protein (CP) and digestible crude protein (DCP) intake on percent body weight and per kilogram metabolic weight was higher (P??0.05) in SPG (330.8 g/day) than in LPG (296.7 g/day), while the animals gained more weight in January to March months and the lowest weight in May to July months. Protein level had no effect on conception rate of heifers. Results revealed that 20% higher or less protein than the ICAR requirement had no significant (P?>?0.05) on feed intake, nutrient conversion efficiency for weight gain, heifer growth, and puberty; however, 20% more protein increased urinary N loss. PMID:25407740

  2. Molecular prevalence of different genotypes of Theileria orientalis detected from cattle and water buffaloes in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Altangerel, Khukhuu; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Inpankaew, Tawin; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Ueno, Akio; Xuan, Xuenan; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2011-12-01

    Here we report on an epidemiological study regarding the molecular prevalence of different genotypes of Theileria orientalis present among domestic cattle and water buffalo populations bred in Thailand. A phylogenetic analysis based on the parasitic gene encoding a major piroplasm surface protein revealed the presence of 5 genotypes (Types 1, 3, 5, 7, and N-3) in cattle and 7 genotypes (Types 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, N-2, and N-3) in water buffaloes. Types 4, 7, and N-3 of T. orientalis were reported for the first time in water buffaloes. The previously reported C and Thai types from Thailand clustered as types 7 and 6, respectively, in the present analysis. Great similarities were observed among nucleotide sequences of isolates of the same genotype from cattle and water buffaloes, and, therefore, water buffaloes were considered to serve as a reservoir for these genotypes of T. orientalis in Thailand. In conclusion, T. orientalis parasites circulating in Thailand are more diverse in their genetic characters than previously anticipated. PMID:21671722

  3. Infection of water buffalo in Rio de Janeiro Brazil with Anaplasma marginale strains also reported in cattle.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jenevaldo B; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Barbosa, Jos D; de la Fuente, Jos

    2014-10-15

    Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent pathogen of cattle in tropical and subtropical regions of the world and causes the disease bovine anaplasmosis. The importance of water buffalo in the world economy is increasing. In addition, while water buffalo may serve as a reservoir host for A. marginale, the susceptibility of this host for A. marginale cattle strains in Brazil has not been reported. The major surface protein 1 alpha (msp1?) gene has been shown to be a stable genetic marker for identification of A. marginale strains. Herein, we analyzed blood samples from 200 water buffalo and identified the A. marginale strains in an endemic area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where ticks were present and water buffalo and cattle co-mingled. Ticks that were feeding on the study buffalo were collected and identified. The prevalence of A. marginale in water buffalo in this study was low (10%). Sequence analysis of the msp1? gene demonstrated the presence of 8 different A. marginale strains. Two A. marginale strains in the water buffalo, (?-?-?-?-?) and (?-?-?-?), were similar to those reported in cattle from nearby regions. The results of this study suggested that water buffalo in this region are naturally infected with the same strains of A. marginale found in cattle. PMID:25260335

  4. Prevalence Survey of Selected Bovine Pathogens in Water Buffaloes in the North Region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; dos Santos, Priscilla Nunes; de Santana Castro, Gustavo Nunes; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Barbosa, Jos Diomedes

    2014-01-01

    Although the largest buffalo herd in the occident is in the north region of Brazil, few studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of selected parasitic diseases in buffalo herd. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil. A total of 4796 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and simultaneously analyzed by the IFAT and ELISA. The serological prevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 41.3% and 55.5% in ELISA and 35.7% and 48.8% in IFAT, respectively. The overall prevalence of A. marginale, B. bovis, and B. bigemina was 63%, 25%, and 21% by ELISA and 50.0%, 22.5%, and 18.8% by IFAT, respectively. This study shows valuable information regarding the serological survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil which will likely be very beneficial for the management and control programs of this disease. PMID:24563780

  5. Prevalence survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; Dos Santos, Priscilla Nunes; de Santana Castro, Gustavo Nunes; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Barbosa, Jos Diomedes

    2014-01-01

    Although the largest buffalo herd in the occident is in the north region of Brazil, few studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of selected parasitic diseases in buffalo herd. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil. A total of 4796 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and simultaneously analyzed by the IFAT and ELISA. The serological prevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 41.3% and 55.5% in ELISA and 35.7% and 48.8% in IFAT, respectively. The overall prevalence of A. marginale, B. bovis, and B. bigemina was 63%, 25%, and 21% by ELISA and 50.0%, 22.5%, and 18.8% by IFAT, respectively. This study shows valuable information regarding the serological survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil which will likely be very beneficial for the management and control programs of this disease. PMID:24563780

  6. DNA-based vaccines protect against zoonotic schistosomiasis in water buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Da'Dara, Akram A.; Li, Yuesheng S.; Xiong, Tie; Zhou, Jie; Williams, Gail M.; McManus, Donald P.; Feng, Zheng; Yu, Xin L.; Gray, Darren J.; Harn, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Schistosomiasis japonica is an endemic, zoonotic disease of major public health importance in China where water buffaloes account for approximately 75% of disease transmission. Interventions that reduce schistosome infection in water buffaloes will enhance their health simultaneously reducing disease transmission to humans. While chemotherapy has proved successful, it requires continued time consuming and expensive mass treatments. A more sustainable option would be development of vaccines that reduce transmission of S. japonicum from bovines to replace bovine chemotherapy. We performed two randomized double blind trials in water buffaloes to determine if DNA vaccines encoding triose phosphate isomerase (SjCTPI), or the tetraspanin 23 kDa integral membrane protein (SjC23), alone or fused to bovine heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) could induce a level of immunity conducive to long-term sustainable control. Groups of water buffaloes (15/group) received 3 intramuscular injections, 4 weeks apart. Booster immunizations were co-administered with a plasmid DNA encoding IL-12. Four weeks after the last injection, water buffaloes were challenged with 1000 cercariae, and vaccine efficacy analyzed 8 weeks later. Water buffaloes vaccinated with SjCTPI-Hsp70 or SjCTPI plasmids had worm burdens reduced by 51.2% and 41.5%, respectively. Importantly, fecal miracidial-hatching was reduced by 52.1% and 33.2% respectively compared to control vaccinated water buffaloes. Vaccination with SjC23-Hsp70 and SjC23 plasmids reduced worm burdens by 50.9% and 45.5%, respectively, and fecal miracidial-hatching by 52.0% and 47.4%. A mathematical model of schistosome transmission predicts that schistosome vaccines capable of reducing water buffaloes’ fecal egg output by 45%, alone or in conjunction with praziquantel treatment, will lead to a significant reduction in transmission of schistosomiasis. Both DNA vaccines tested here exceed this hypothetical level. Indeed, mathematical modeling of SjCTPI-Hsp70 and SjC23-Hsp70 alone and in conjunction with human chemotherapy showed a significant reduction in transmission almost to the point of elimination. PMID:18524429

  7. Serological evidence of Hobi-like virus circulation in Argentinean water buffaloes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: The aim of this work was to determine the serological levels of BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and Hobi-like Virus in non-vaccinated water buffaloes from three northeast provinces of Argentina, in order to have an update of the circulation of pestiviruses in that region. Materials and methods: Mediter...

  8. Molecular update on cystic echinococcosis in cattle and water buffaloes of southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, L; Maurelli, M P; Capuano, F; Perugini, A G; Veneziano, V; Cringoli, S

    2008-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE)--caused by the larval stage (hydatid cyst) of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus--is one of the most widespread zoonoses of veterinary and medical importance. Molecular techniques have allowed the identification of 10 different genotypes (G1-G10) of the parasite. The present paper is an update regarding the E. granulosus genotypes infecting water buffaloes and cattle bred in the Campania region of southern Italy. The molecular study was performed on 30 hydatid cysts (11 from water buffaloes and 19 from cattle). Two different mitochondrial DNA genes, namely the cytochrome c oxidase subunits 1 and the 12S ribosomal DNA (12S rDNA) were used as genetic markers. Three different genotypes of E. granulosus were unequivocally identified, i.e. the G1 (common sheep), G2 (Tasmanian sheep) and G3 (buffalo) genotypes, as well as some G1 and G2 variants. It should be noted that the present study demonstrated for the first time: (i) the presence of the G2 genotype in water buffaloes from a Mediterranean area; and (ii) the fact that the analysed portion of the 12S rDNA gene can not discriminate between the G2 and G3 genotypes of E. granulosus. The finding of the G1, G2 and G3 genotypes in large ruminants from southern Italy is of epidemiological relevance and immediate public health importance because of their recognized infectivity in humans. PMID:18234031

  9. Toll-Like Receptor Responses to Peste des petits ruminants Virus in Goats and Water Buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Dhanasekaran, Sakthivel; Biswas, Moanaro; Vignesh, Ambothi R.; Ramya, R.; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar; Tirumurugaan, Krishnaswamy G.; Raja, Angamuthu; Kataria, Ranjit S.; Parida, Satya; Subbiah, Elankumaran

    2014-01-01

    Ovine rinderpest or goat plague is an economically important and contagious viral disease of sheep and goats, caused by the Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Differences in susceptibility to goat plague among different breeds and water buffalo exist. The host innate immune system discriminates between pathogen associated molecular patterns and self antigens through surveillance receptors known as Toll like receptors (TLR). We investigated the role of TLR and cytokines in differential susceptibility of goat breeds and water buffalo to PPRV. We examined the replication of PPRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of Indian domestic goats and water buffalo and demonstrated that the levels of TLR3 and TLR7 and downstream signalling molecules correlation with susceptibility vs resistance. Naturally susceptible goat breeds, Barbari and Tellichery, had dampened innate immune responses to PPRV and increased viral loads with lower basal expression levels of TLR 3/7. Upon stimulation of PBMC with synthetic TLR3 and TLR7 agonists or PPRV, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were found to be significantly higher while immunosuppressive interleukin (IL) 10 levels were lower in PPRV resistant Kanni and Salem Black breeds and water buffalo at transcriptional level, correlating with reduced viralloads in infected PBMC. Water buffalo produced higher levels of interferon (IFN) α in comparison with goats at transcriptional and translational levels. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with human IFNα resulted in reduction of PPRV replication, confirming the role of IFNα in limiting PPRV replication. Treatment with IRS66, a TLR7 antagonist, resulted in the reduction of IFNα levels, with increased PPRV replication confirming the role of TLR7. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of TLR7 of these goat breeds did not show any marked nucleotide differences that might account for susceptibility vs resistance to PPRV. Analyzing other host genetic factors might provide further insights on susceptibility to PPRV and genetic polymorphisms in the host. PMID:25369126

  10. Underway view from port side in the Buffalo River with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Underway view from port side in the Buffalo River with water cannons spraying. City of Buffalo in background. TC - Fireboat EDWARD M. COTTER, Moored on the Buffalo River at 155 Ohio Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  11. [Analysis and identification of water soluble components of water buffalo horn].

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Duan, Jin-ao; Wu, Hao; Liu, Pei; Shang, Er-xin; Qian, Da-wei

    2015-05-01

    This study is to analyze and identify the water soluble components of water buffalo horn (Bubali Cornu, WBH), and also establish a method for investigating these components. Shotgun proteomic analysis identified proteins in WBH aqueous extraction: keratin, collagen, desmoglein, etc. Ultrafiltration and LC-MS/MS were used to separate and identify the peptides in WBH aqueous extract, as a result, identified peptides were mainly derived from nonspecific degradation products of keratin and collagen, which including C-terminal peptides and non C-terminal peptides. Hypoxanthine, uridine, guanosine, and adenosine were identified by comparing with the standards. The strategy in present study could be used in analyzing water soluble components of animal horn derived TCM. It provides a reference for investigation of the material basis of animal horn derived TCM. PMID:26234143

  12. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Smallmouth Buffalo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Twomey, Katie

    1982-01-01

    This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the Smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability (HIS) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.

  13. Water buffalo genome characterization by the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip.

    PubMed

    Borquis, R R A; Baldi, F; de Camargo, G M F; Cardoso, D F; Santos, D J A; Lugo, N H; Sargolzaei, M; Schenkel, F S; Albuquerque, L G; Tonhati, H

    2014-01-01

    To define the best strategies for genomic association studies and genomic selection, it is necessary to determine the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and the genetic structure of the study population. The current study evaluated the transference of genomic information contained in the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip from cattle to buffaloes, and assessed the extent of the LD in buffaloes. Of the 688,593 bovine single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that were successfully genotyped from the 384 buffalo samples, only 16,580 markers were polymorphic, and had minor allele frequencies greater than 0.05. A total of 16,580 polymorphic SNPs were identified, which were uniformly distributed throughout the autosomes, because the density and mean distance between markers were similar for all autosomes. The average minor allele frequency for the 16,580 SNPs was 0.23. The overall mean LD for pairs of adjacent markers was 0.29 and 0.71, when measured as for r2 and |D'|, respectively. The 16,580 polymorphic SNPs were matched to Bos taurus chromosome in the current bovine genome assembly (Btau 4.2), and could be utilized in association studies. In conclusion, the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip contains approximately 16,580 polymorphic markers for the water buffalo, which are broadly distributed across the genome. These data could be used in genomic association and genomic selection studies; however, it might be necessary to develop a panel with specific SNP markers for water buffaloes. PMID:25036164

  14. Genetic variations in merozoite surface antigen genes of Babesia bovis detected in Vietnamese cattle and water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Naoaki; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Tuvshintulga, Bumduuren; Hayashida, Kyoko; Igarashi, Ikuo; Inoue, Noboru; Long, Phung Thang; Lan, Dinh Thi Bich

    2015-03-01

    The genes that encode merozoite surface antigens (MSAs) in Babesia bovis are genetically diverse. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity of B. bovis MSA-1, MSA-2b, and MSA-2c genes in Vietnamese cattle and water buffaloes. Blood DNA samples from 258 cattle and 49 water buffaloes reared in the Thua Thien Hue province of Vietnam were screened with a B. bovis-specific diagnostic PCR assay. The B. bovis-positive DNA samples (23 cattle and 16 water buffaloes) were then subjected to PCR assays to amplify the MSA-1, MSA-2b, and MSA-2c genes. Sequencing analyses showed that the Vietnamese MSA-1 and MSA-2b sequences are genetically diverse, whereas MSA-2c is relatively conserved. The nucleotide identity values for these MSA gene sequences were similar in the cattle and water buffaloes. Consistent with the sequencing data, the Vietnamese MSA-1 and MSA-2b sequences were dispersed across several clades in the corresponding phylogenetic trees, whereas the MSA-2c sequences occurred in a single clade. Cattle- and water-buffalo-derived sequences also often clustered together on the phylogenetic trees. The Vietnamese MSA-1, MSA-2b, and MSA-2c sequences were then screened for recombination with automated methods. Of the seven recombination events detected, five and two were associated with the MSA-2b and MSA-2c recombinant sequences, respectively, whereas no MSA-1 recombinants were detected among the sequences analyzed. Recombination between the sequences derived from cattle and water buffaloes was very common, and the resultant recombinant sequences were found in both host animals. These data indicate that the genetic diversity of the MSA sequences does not differ between cattle and water buffaloes in Vietnam. They also suggest that recombination between the B. bovis MSA sequences in both cattle and water buffaloes might contribute to the genetic variation in these genes in Vietnam. PMID:25575442

  15. Low genetic diversity associated with low prevalence of Anaplasma marginale in water buffaloes in Maraj Island, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jenevaldo B; Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Barbosa, Jos D; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; de la Fuente, Jos

    2014-10-01

    The rickettsia Anaplasma marginale is the etiologic agent of bovine anaplasmosis, an important tick-borne disease affecting cattle in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In endemic regions, the genetic diversity of this pathogen is usually related to the high prevalence of the disease in cattle. The major surface protein 1 alpha (MSP1a) has been used as a marker to characterize the genetic diversity and for geographical identification of A. marginale strains. The present study reports the characterization of A. marginale MSP1a diversity in water buffaloes. Blood samples were collected from 200 water buffaloes on Maraj Island, Brazil where the largest buffalo herd is located in the Western hemisphere. Fifteen buffaloes (7.5%) were positive for A. marginale msp1? by PCR. Four different strains of A. marginale with MSP1a tandem repeat structures (4-63-27), (162-63-27), (78-24-24-25-31) and (?-10-10-15) were found, being (4-63-27) the most common. MSP1a tandem repeats composition in buffalos and phylogenetic analysis using msp1? gene showed that the A. marginale strains identified in buffaloes are closely related to A. marginale strains from cattle. The results demonstrated low genetic diversity of A. marginale associated with low bacterial prevalence in buffaloes and suggested that buffaloes may be reservoirs of this pathogen for cattle living in the same area. The results also suggested that mechanical transmission and not biological transmission by ticks might be playing the major role for pathogen circulation among water buffaloes in Maraj Island, Brazil. PMID:25108778

  16. The utility of polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of lumpy skin disease in cattle and water buffaloes in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Sharawi, S S A; Abd El-Rahim, I H A

    2011-12-01

    An outbreak of lumpy skin disease (LSD) occurred among cattle and water buffaloes in Egypt in 2006. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) were compared. Eight of ten (80%) tissue specimens from diseased cattle were positive with AGPT while 100% were positive with PCR. Of ten tissue specimens from diseased water buffaloes, 70% were positive with AGPT while 100% were positive with PCR. Ten milk samples were obtained from diseased water buffaloes; PCR detected nucleic acid of LSD virus (LSDV) in 50% while AGPT failed to detect LSDV antigen. Water buffaloes are susceptible to LSDV infection. The clinical signs of LSD were less severe in water buffaloes, but the virus was excreted in their milk. Diagnosis of LSD outbreaks by PCR will facilitate rapid application of control measures. Mass vaccination should be applied in both cattle and water buffaloes in Egypt using an effective specific vaccine against LSD, such as the attenuated Neethling strain vaccine or a recombinant vaccine. PMID:22435194

  17. Morphologic and Genotypic Characterization of Psoroptes Mites from Water Buffaloes in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Said; Abd El Wahab, Taher; El Naby Metwaly, Abd; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Species delimitation of Psoroptes spp. and identity of the parasite in water buffaloes remain poorly defined. In this study, Psoroptes infestation on three water buffalo farms in Egypt was examined based on morphometric characteristics, especially the opisthosomal setae of adult male mites. Clinical investigations showed that 28% (196/700) of the sampled animals had mange infestation. Microscopic examinations of 80 skin scrapings indicated the occurrence of Psoroptes mites in 17 (21.3%) samples, Sarcoptes mites in 27 (33.7%) samples, and the concurrence of both in 36 (45.0%) samples. Morphologically, the Psoroptes parasite was identified as Psoroptes natalensis. DNA sequence analysis of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) in 11 representative samples confirmed the diagnosis and suggested the presence of a distinct variety of Psoroptes natalensis in Egypt. PMID:26517834

  18. Link between Geographical Origin and Occurrence of Brucella abortus Biovars in Cow and Water Buffalo Herds

    PubMed Central

    Peletto, Simone; Lucibelli, Maria G.; Acutis, Pier L.; Ercolini, Danilo; Galiero, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Sixty-three Brucella isolates from water buffaloes and cattle slaughtered within the Italian national plan for brucellosis control were characterized by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Genotyping indicated a strong influence of geographic origin on the Brucella abortus biovar distribution in areas where brucellosis is endemic and highlighted the importance of rigorous management procedures aimed at avoiding inter- and intraherd spreading of pathogens. PMID:23183984

  19. Helmintic infections in water buffaloes on Italian farms: a spatial analysis.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Laura; Musella, Vincenzo; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Condoleo, Renato U; Cringoli, Giuseppe

    2009-05-01

    The present paper reports the results of a cross-sectional survey aimed at obtaining up-to-date information on the spatial distribution of different groups and/or species of helminths in water buffaloes from central Italy. Geographical information systems (GIS) and spatial analysis were used to plan the sampling procedures, to display the results as maps and to detect spatial clusters of helminths in the study area. The survey was conducted on 127 water buffalo farms, which were selected in the study area using a grid sampling approach, followed by proportional allocation. Faecal samples (n. = 1,883) collected from the 127 farms were examined using the Flotac dual technique. Gastrointestinal strongyles were the most frequent helminths (33.1%) on the tested farms, followed by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica (7.1%), the rumen fluke Calicophoron daubneyi (7.1%), the nematode Strongyloides spp. (3.1%), the lancet liver fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum (2.4%) and the tapeworm Moniezia spp. (2.4%). In order to display the spatial distribution of the various helminths detected on the water buffalo farms (used as epidemiological unit in our study), point maps were drawn within the GIS. In addition, for each helminth, clustering of test-positive farms were investigated based on location determined by exact coordinates. Using spatial scan statistic, spatial clusters were found for the flukes F. hepatica and C. daubneyi and the cestode Moniezia spp.; these findings are consistent with the life cycle of these parasites, which have strong environmental determinants. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that, with the appropriate survey-based data at hand, GIS is a useful tool to study epidemiological patterns of infections in veterinary health, in particular in water buffaloes. PMID:19440965

  20. Schistosoma japonicum: An ultraviolet-attenuated cercarial vaccine applicable in the field for water buffaloes

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Y.E.; Jiang, C.F.; Han, J.J.; Li, Y.L.; Ruppel, A. )

    1990-07-01

    Water buffaloes were vaccinated three times with 10,000 Schistosoma japonicum cercariae irradiated with ultraviolet (uv) light at a dose of 400 microW x min/cm2. The irradiation was performed with cheap, simple, and portable equipment in a rural area of Hubei Province (People's Republic of China). A challenge infection of 1000 untreated cercariae was given to six vaccinated and six naive control buffaloes, while two vaccinated animals were not challenged. The experiment was terminated 6 weeks after the challenge. Control animals had lost body weight and harbored a mean of 110 worms and 37 eggs per gram of liver. The vaccinated animals gained weight after the challenge and developed 89% resistance to infection with S. japonicum. Since schistosomiasis japonica is nowadays transmitted in China predominantly by domestic livestock, a uv-attenuated cercarial vaccine for bovines may contribute to the control of this disease.

  1. Molecular characterization of T-cell immunoglobulin mucin domain-3 and Galectin-9 genes of swamp- and riverine-type water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Duran, P L H; Padiernos, R B C; Abella, E A; Konnai, S; Mingala, C N

    2015-12-01

    Molecular characterization of T-cell immunoglobulin mucin domain-3 (TIM-3) and Galectin-9 (GAL-9) genes of swamp- and riverine-type water buffaloes was conducted to compare these genes with other species; determine the unique characteristic specific in water buffalo; and provide baseline information for the assessment of disease progression in buffalo species. TIM-3 and GAL-9 genes were amplified, purified, sequenced and characterized. The sequence result of TIM-3 in both types of water buffaloes contained 843 nucleotides encoding to 280 amino acids while GAL-9 of swamp-type and riverine-type water buffaloes contained 1023 and 972 nucleotides encoding to 340 and 323 amino acids, respectively. Meanwhile, the nucleotide and amino sequence of TIM-3 in water buffalo were 83-98% and 94-97% identical with other artiodactyl species, respectively. On the other hand, GAL-9 nucleotide and amino acid sequence in water buffalo were 85-98% and 76-96% identical with other artiodactyl species. The tyrosine-kinase phosphorylation motif and potential glycosylation sites were conserved within the tribe Bovinae. It is imperative to have further studies in the assessment of the role of these genes in disease progression in water buffalo during chronic infection. The study is the first report that describes the genetic characteristic of TIM-3 and GAL-9 genes in water buffalo. PMID:26441033

  2. Temporal leakage of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase and loss of two low-molecular-weight forms of glutathione peroxidase-1 from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) sperm after freezing and thawing.

    PubMed

    Kar, Senjuti; Divyashree, Bannur C; Roy, Sudhir C

    2015-03-01

    The postthaw motility and fertility of frozen-thawed buffalo spermatozoa are substantially low as compared with those of cattle sperm. The sperm motility and fertility have been positively correlated with the antioxidant enzyme activities of human and canine sperm. However, the extent of antioxidant enzyme loss during cryopreservation, although reported for human and cattle sperm, is still not clear for buffalo sperm. Thus, in the present study, an attempt was made to determine the activities of various antioxidant enzymes in buffalo spermatozoa cryopreserved for various durations (0, 30, and 60days) and the mechanism of antioxidant enzyme loss, if any, during the process. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of cryopreserved sperm decreased and that of extended seminal plasma increased progressively with the increase in duration of cryopreservation indicating the possible time-dependent leakage of these enzymes from cryopreserved sperm into the extended seminal plasmas. The catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzyme activities could not be detected in buffalo sperm but could be detected in fresh and extended seminal plasmas. Total GPx activities of extended seminal plasma decreased progressively with the increase in duration of cryopreservation. To confirm the presence of these enzymes at protein levels, specific antioxidant enzymes such as Cu,Zn SOD of 16kDa and three molecular weight forms (57.7, 40.9, and 26.05kDa) of GPx-1 were detected in buffalo sperm by Western blot. Furthermore, the intensities of 16-kDa Cu,Zn SOD in 60-day cryopreserved sperm and those of two low-molecular-weight forms of GPx-1 (40.9 and 26.05kDa) in 30-day cryopreserved sperm decreased significantly (P<0.05) as compared with those of noncryopreserved (0-daycryopreserved) sperm indicating selective and temporal leakage of only low-molecular-weight antioxidant proteins in the initial phase. However, all the mentioned GPx-1 forms disappeared in 60-day-old cryopreserved sperm. Immunocytochemistry experiment also revealed that Cu,Zn SOD proteins are distributed over the acrosomal region of noncryopreserved buffalo spermatozoa, and the fluorescence signal decreased substantially in 60-day cryopreserved sperm. Thus, the present study reported that there is temporal leakage of Cu,Zn SOD and loss of two low-molecular-weight forms of GPx-1 from the cryopreserved buffalo spermatozoa after freezing and thawing. PMID:25459023

  3. Novel polymorphisms in UTR and coding region of inducible heat shock protein 70.1 gene in tropically adapted Indian zebu cattle (Bos indicus) and riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Sodhi, M; Mukesh, M; Kishore, A; Mishra, B P; Kataria, R S; Joshi, B K

    2013-09-25

    Due to evolutionary divergence, cattle (taurine, and indicine) and buffalo are speculated to have different responses to heat stress condition. Variation in candidate genes associated with a heat-shock response may provide an insight into the dissimilarity and suggest targets for intervention. The present work was undertaken to characterize one of the inducible heat shock protein genes promoter and coding regions in diverse breeds of Indian zebu cattle and buffaloes. The genomic DNA from a panel of 117 unrelated animals representing 14 diversified native cattle breeds and 6 buffalo breeds were utilized to determine the complete sequence and gene diversity of HSP70.1 gene. The coding region of HSP70.1 gene in Indian zebu cattle, Bos taurus and buffalo was similar in length (1,926 bp) encoding a HSP70 protein of 641 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight (Mw) of 70.26 kDa. However buffalo had a longer 5' and 3' untranslated region (UTR) of 204 and 293 nucleotides respectively, in comparison to Indian zebu cattle and Bos taurus wherein length of 5' and 3'-UTR was 172 and 286 nucleotides, respectively. The increased length of buffalo HSP70.1 gene compared to indicine and taurine gene was due to two insertions each in 5' and 3'-UTR. Comparative sequence analysis of cattle (taurine and indicine) and buffalo HSP70.1 gene revealed a total of 54 gene variations (50 SNPs and 4 INDELs) among the three species in the HSP70.1 gene. The minor allele frequencies of these nucleotide variations varied from 0.03 to 0.5 with an average of 0.26. Among the 14 B. indicus cattle breeds studied, a total of 19 polymorphic sites were identified: 4 in the 5'-UTR and 15 in the coding region (of these 2 were non-synonymous). Analysis among buffalo breeds revealed 15 SNPs throughout the gene: 6 at the 5' flanking region and 9 in the coding region. In bubaline 5'-UTR, 2 additional putative transcription factor binding sites (Elk-1 and C-Re1) were identified, other than three common sites (CP2, HSE and Pax-4) observed across all the analyzed animals. No polymorphism was found within the 3'-UTR of Indian cattle or buffalo as it was found to be monomorphic. The promoter sequences generated in 117 individuals showed a rich array of sequence elements known to be involved in transcription regulation. A total of 11 nucleotide changes were observed in the promoter sequence across the analyzed species, 3 of these changes were located within the potential transcription factor binding domains. We also identified 4 microsatellite markers within the buffalo HSP70.1 gene and 3 microsatellites within bovine HSP70.1. The present study identified several distinct changes across indicine, taurine and bubaline HSP70.1 genes that could further be evaluated as molecular markers for thermotolerance. PMID:23792016

  4. Two Different Macaviruses, ovine herpesvirus-2 and caprine herpesvirus-2, Behave Differently in Water Buffaloes than in Cattle or in Their Respective Reservoir Species

    PubMed Central

    Stahel, Anina B. J.; Baggenstos, Rhea; Engels, Monika; Friess, Martina; Ackermann, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing global spread of “exotic” farm animals, such as water buffaloes, which carry their native sets of viruses, may bear unknown risks for the animals, into whose ecological niches the former are introduced and vice versa. Here, we report on the occurrence of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) on Swiss farms, where “exotic” water buffaloes were kept together with “native” animals, i.e. cattle, sheep, and goats. In the first farm with 56 water buffaloes, eight cases of MCF due to ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) were noted, whereas additional ten water buffaloes were subclinically infected with either OvHV-2 or caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2). On the second farm, 13 water buffaloes were infected with CpHV-2 and two of those succumbed to MCF. In neither farm, any of the two viruses were detected in cattle, but the Macaviruses were present at high prevalence among their original host species, sheep and goats, respectively. On the third farm, sheep were kept well separated from water buffaloes and OvHV-2 was not transmitted to the buffaloes, despite of high prevalence of the virus among the sheep. Macavirus DNA was frequently detected in the nasal secretions of virus-positive animals and in one instance OvHV-2 was transmitted vertically to an unborn water buffalo calf. Thus, water buffaloes seem to be more susceptible than cattle to infection with either Macavirus; however, MCF did not develop as frequently. Therefore, water buffaloes seem to represent an interesting intermediate-type host for Macaviruses. Consequently, water buffaloes in their native, tropic environments may be vulnerable and endangered to viruses that originate from seemingly healthy, imported sheep and goats. PMID:24386255

  5. Molecular and serological prevalence of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; Andr, Marcos Rogrio; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; de Albuquerque Lopes, Cinthia Tvora; da Silva Lima, Danillo Henrique; de Andrade, Stefano Juliano Tavares; Oliveira, Carlos Magno Chaves; Barbosa, Jos Diomedes

    2013-11-01

    Bovine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused mainly by Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina, which are associated to considerable economic losses in cattle herds worldwide. Approximately 60% of buffalo herds in South America are located in Northern Brazil. Little is known about the impact of babesiosis on buffalo herds in Brazil. The present work aimed to verify the occurrence of B. bovis and B. bigemina in 542 water buffaloes in the state of Par, Northern Brazil, using molecular and serological techniques. The percentage of seropositive animals for B. bovis and B. bigemina was 41.2% and 19.0%, respectively, by ELISA. B. bovis and B. bigemina DNA were detected in 15 and 16% of sampled buffaloes, respectively. A high correlation (Kappa index of 0.9) between serological and molecular tests suggests that the combination of the utilized techniques in the present study is suitable for babesiosis diagnosis in an endemic unstable area. Significantly difference of positivity for serological and molecular assays was verified to localities and reproductive status of sampled animals, but not between buffalo breeds. The immune status of sampled buffaloes associated to the circulation of babesiosis agents in sampled population suggests that the studied area is at risk to clinical babesiosis outbreaks. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that this region can be classified as endemically unstable. PMID:23790545

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging and computer tomography of brain lesions in water buffaloes and cattle stunned with handguns or captive bolts.

    PubMed

    Schwenk, Barbara K; Lechner, Isabel; Ross, Steffen G; Gascho, Dominic; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Glardon, Matthieu; Stoffel, Michael H

    2016-03-01

    Owing to the demand for genuine mozzarella, some 330 water buffaloes are being slaughtered every year in Switzerland albeit a stunning procedure meeting animal welfare and occupational safety requirements remains to be established. To provide a basis for improvements, we sized anatomical specifics in water buffaloes and cattle and we assessed brain lesions after stunning with captive bolts or handguns by diagnostic imaging. In water buffaloes and cattle, the median distance from the frontal skin surface to the inner bone table was 74.0mm (56.0-100.0mm) vs 36.6mm (29.3-44.3mm) and from skin to the thalamus 144.8mm (117.1-172.0mm) vs 102.0 (101.0-121.0mm), respectively. Consequently, customary captive bolt stunners may be inadequate. Free bullets are potentially suitable for stunning buffaloes but involve occupational safety hazards. The results of the present study shall be used to develop a device allowing effective and safe stunning of water buffaloes. PMID:26610289

  7. Combining Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Knowledge to Assess and Manage Feral Water Buffalo Impacts on Perennial Freshwater Springs of the Aboriginal-Owned Arnhem Plateau, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ens, Emilie-Jane; Cooke, Peter; Nadjamerrek, Ray; Namundja, Seraine; Garlngarr, Victor; Yibarbuk, Dean

    2010-04-01

    Aboriginal land managers have observed that feral Asian water buffalo ( Bubalis bubalis Lydekker) are threatening the ecological and cultural integrity of perennial freshwater sources in Arnhem Land, Australia. Here we present collaborative research between the Aboriginal Rangers from Warddeken Land Management Limited and Western scientists which quantified the ground-level impacts of buffalo on seven perennial freshwater springs of the Arnhem Plateau. A secondary aim was to build the capacity of Aboriginal Rangers to self-monitor and evaluate the ecological outcomes of their land management activities. Sites with high buffalo abundance had significantly different ground, ground cover, and water quality attributes compared to sites with low buffalo abundance. The low buffalo abundance sites were characterized by tall herbaceous vegetation and flat ground, whereas wallows, bare ground, and short ungrazed grasses were indicators of sites with high buffalo abundance. Water turbidity was greater when buffalo abundance was high. The newly acquired monitoring skills and derived indicators of buffalo damage will be used by Aboriginal Rangers to assess the ecological outcomes of their future buffalo control efforts on the Arnhem Plateau.

  8. High Prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum Infection in Water Buffaloes in the Philippines Assessed by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hai-Wei; Qin, Yuan-Fang; Chu, Kai; Meng, Rui; Liu, Yun; McGarvey, Stephen T.; Olveda, Remigio; Acosta, Luz; Ji, Min-Jun; Fernandez, Tomas; Friedman, Jennifer F.; Kurtis, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    Difficulty in controlling human Schistosoma japonicum infection is partly attributed to the presence of non-human definitive hosts. Water buffaloes are a major reservoir for transmission of S. japonicum to humans in China. However, in the Philippines, reports based on microscopic examination of buffalo stool identified a low prevalence of S. japonicum, and mathematical models using these data concluded that water buffaloes are not a major reservoir for transmission of S. japonicum to humans. We collected stool from 81 buffaloes in Macanip, Leyte, the Philippines, and assayed for S. japonicum infection by the Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory technique, the Kato-Katz technique, miracidia hatching, and a highly validated real-time polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence defined by each assay was 3.7%, 3.7%, 0%, and 51.5% respectively. Our results demonstrate that microscopic-based techniques dramatically underestimate the prevalence of S. japonicum infection in water buffaloes in the Philippines and warrant reexamination of the role of bovines in transmission of S. japonicum to humans in the Philippines. PMID:20348514

  9. A signature protein-based method to distinguish Mediterranean water buffalo and foreign breed milk.

    PubMed

    Caira, Simonetta; Pinto, Gabriella; Balteanu, Valentin A; Chianese, Lina; Addeo, Francesco

    2013-11-01

    A novel genetic variant at the ?s1-casein locus of water buffalo (WB), 8-residue shorter than its wild-type has been found and sequenced. The internal deletion of the peptide E(35)KVNELsT(42) was confirmed by the isolation of the junction peptide. The 8-residue deletion mutant has a molecular weight that is 919 Da less than that of the wild-type. The novel isoform with a unique f35-42 deletion could be the result of the skipping of exon 6, generating an exon 6-deleted variant of ?s1-casein. The wild-type and its shortened ?s1-casein forms were found to co-exist in many individual milk samples. In contrast, the 8-residue, internally deleted ?s1-casein variant did not occur in water buffaloes of the Mediterranean breed reared in Italy. Wild-type ?s1-casein has 6 to 8 phosphate groups (P) while the internally deleted form 6 and 7P per molecule. PMID:23768399

  10. Effect of timing of development on total cell number and expression profile of HSP-70.1 and GLUT-1 in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes and preimplantation embryos produced in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rajhans, Rajib; Kumar, G Sai; Dubey, Pawan K; Sharma, G Taru

    2010-05-01

    The present study was designed to compare the expression profile of two developmentally important genes (HSP-70.1 and GLUT-1) and TCN (total cell number) count in fast (group A) and slow (group B) cleaved buffalo embryos to access their in vitro developmental competence. Buffalo COCs (cumulus oocyte complexes) were collected from local abattoir ovaries and subjected to in vitro maturation in: TCM-199 supplemented with 10% FBS (fetal bovine serum), BSA (3 mg/ml), sodium pyruvate (0.25 mM) and 20 ng/ml EGF (epidermal growth factor) at 38.5 degrees C under 5% CO2. In vitro derived embryos were collected at 4-8, 8-16 cell, morula and blastocyst stages at specific time points for gene expression analysis and total cell count. A semiquantitative RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-PCR) assay was used to determine the HSP-70.1 and GLUT-1 transcripts. Results showed that developmental competence and TCN count in fast (group A)-cleaving embryos was significantly (P<0.05) higher than in the slow group (group B). The gene transcript of HSP-70.1 and GLUT-1 was expressed in oocytes (immature and mature) and throughout the embryonic developmental stages in the fast group (group A), while in the slow (group B) cleaving embryos, the expression of HSP-70.1 was absent in all the embryonic developmental stages, and expression of GLUT-1 was absent after 8-16 cell stage. In conclusion, TCN count and expression profile of HSP-70.1 and GLUT-1 genes in buffalo embryos are different taking into account the cleavage rate. Quality of such embryos for research purposes, TCN and expression profiling of developmentally important genes should be employed to optimize the in vitro culture system to produce superior quality of embryos. PMID:20100172

  11. Stream habitat and water-quality information for sites in the Buffalo River Basin and nearby basins of Arkansas, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James C.

    2004-01-01

    The Buffalo River lies in north-central Arkansas and is a tributary of the White River. Stream-habitat and water-quality information are presented for 52 sites in the Buffalo River Basin and adjacent areas of the White River Basin. The information was collected during the summers of 2001 and 2002 to supplement fish community sampling during the same time period.

  12. Phylogenetic analysis and comparison between cow and buffalo (including Egyptian buffaloes) mitochondrial displacement-loop regions.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Hassan A I; El-Hefnawi, Mahmoud M

    2008-08-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis has been used extensively for phylogenetic analysis studies and systematics. The displacement loop (D-loop) region inside the mtDNA is a non-coding part whose analysis can indicate variations between closely related populations. This paper reports for the first time the characterization and analysis of the complete sequence of the D-loop region from Egyptian buffaloes and analysis in conjunction with previously published Indian and European Bubalus bubalis and Bos sub-tribe sequences. In the entire D-loop of the Egyptian buffaloes, we identified four haplotypes and nine polymorphic sites from the nine sequenced D-loop regions--while in the studied set of buffaloes we identified 28 polymorphic sites in the entire D-loop, and 49 polymorphic sites in the case of cows. Alignment between buffaloes and cows to evaluate the characteristics of the D-loop region showed that the second region of the conserved sequence block (CSB2) is apparently the most variable region in the D-loop between cows and buffaloes, with four insertions in all buffaloes and two substitutions, followed by the second region of the extended termination associated sequence (ETAS2) with a substitution rate of 1/10. The Egyptian buffaloes were shown to be closest to the Italian counterparts, exemplifying the closeness of ethnicity and the history of civilization of that region. PMID:19462514

  13. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in dairy cattle, beef cattle and water buffaloes in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingbo; Li, Pei; Zhao, Xiaoping; Xu, Hailing; Wu, Wenxian; Wang, Yuanfei; Guo, Yaqiong; Wang, Lin; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-30

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are important protists in a wide range of vertebrate hosts, causing diarrheal diseases. Cattle are considered potential reservoirs of Cryptosporidium infection in humans, although their role in the transmission of E. bieneusi is not clear. In the present work, 793 fecal specimens from dairy cattle, native beef cattle, and water buffaloes on 11 farms in China were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi using nested PCR targeting the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium spp. and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of E. bieneusi. For Cryptosporidium, 144/446 (32.3%) dairy cattle, 44/166 (26.5%) beef cattle, and 43/181 (23.8%) water buffaloes were PCR-positive. Sequence analysis was successful for 213 of the 231 Cryptosporidium-positive isolates; among them 94 had Cryptosporidium andersoni, 61 had Cryptosporidium bovis, 54 had Cryptosporidium ryanae, 2 had a Cryptosporidium suis-like genotype, and 2 had mixed infections of C. bovis and C. ryanae. In dairy and beef cattle, C. andersoni and C. bovis were the most common species, whereas C. ryanae was the dominant species in water buffaloes. The latter species produced SSU rRNA sequences different between cattle and water buffaloes. For E. bieneusi, the infection rate of E. bieneusi in dairy cattle, beef cattle and water buffaloes was 4.9%, 5.4% and 2.2%, respectively. All 35 E. bieneusi-positive specimens were successfully sequenced, revealing the presence of four genotypes: three Group 2 genotypes previously reported in cattle as well as humans (I, J and BEB4) and one Group 1 genotype recently reported in yaks (CHN11). Genotypes I and J were the most common genotypes in dairy and beef cattle, while genotype CHN11 was the only genotype seen in water buffaloes. Thus, the distribution of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi in water buffaloes might be different from in dairy and beef cattle in China. These findings indicate that some of the Cryptosporidium species and all four E. bieneusi genotypes identified in bovine animals in the study areas may have zoonotic potential. PMID:25541482

  14. Molecular epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of diverse bovine astroviruses associated with diarrhea in cattle and water buffalo calves in China.

    PubMed

    Alfred, Niyokwishimira; Liu, Huan; Li, Mu Lan; Hong, Shao Feng; Tang, Hai Bo; Wei, Zu Zhang; Chen, Ying; Li, Fa Kai; Zhong, Yi Zhi; Huang, Wei Jian

    2015-06-01

    Astroviruses are the principal causative agents of gastroenteritis in humans and have been associated with diarrhea in other mammals as well as birds. However, astroviral infection of animals had been poorly studied. In the present study, 211 rectal swabs collected from cattle and water buffalo calves with mild to severe diarrhea were tested for bovine astrovirus (BAstV) by RT-PCR. Results: 92/211 (43.6%) samples were positive for BAstV, at a rate of 46.10% (71/154) in cattle and 36.84% (21/57) in water buffalo. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial and full-length of 25 ORF2 amino acid sequences obtained in this study classified the Guangxi BAstVs isolates into five subgroups under the genus of Mamastrovirus, genotype MAstV33, which suggested that the water buffalo was a new host of this genogroup that previously included only cattle and roe deer. Despite the origin of the host, the Guangxi BAstV isolates were closely related to the BAstV Hong Kong isolates (B18/HK and B76-2/HK), but highly divergent from the BAstV NeuroS1 isolate previously associated with neurologic disease in cattle in the U.S.A. Nucleotide sequence-based characterization of the ORF1b/ORF2 junction and corresponding overlapping regions showed distinctive properties, which may be common to BAstVs. Our results suggested that cattle and water buffalo are prone to infection of closely related astroviruses, which probably evolved from the same ancestor. The current study described astroviruses in water buffalo for the first time and is thus far among the largest epidemiological investigations of BAstV infection in cattle conducted in China. PMID:25716289

  15. Molecular epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of diverse bovine astroviruses associated with diarrhea in cattle and water buffalo calves in China

    PubMed Central

    ALFRED, Niyokwishimira; LIU, Huan; LI, Mu Lan; HONG, Shao Feng; TANG, Hai Bo; WEI, Zu Zhang; CHEN, Ying; LI, Fa Kai; ZHONG, Yi Zhi; HUANG, Wei Jian

    2015-01-01

    Astroviruses are the principal causative agents of gastroenteritis in humans and have been associated with diarrhea in other mammals as well as birds. However, astroviral infection of animals had been poorly studied. In the present study, 211 rectal swabs collected from cattle and water buffalo calves with mild to severe diarrhea were tested for bovine astrovirus (BAstV) by RT-PCR. Results: 92/211 (43.6%) samples were positive for BAstV, at a rate of 46.10% (71/154) in cattle and 36.84% (21/57) in water buffalo. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial and full-length of 25 ORF2 amino acid sequences obtained in this study classified the Guangxi BAstVs isolates into five subgroups under the genus of Mamastrovirus, genotype MAstV33, which suggested that the water buffalo was a new host of this genogroup that previously included only cattle and roe deer. Despite the origin of the host, the Guangxi BAstV isolates were closely related to the BAstV Hong Kong isolates (B18/HK and B76-2/HK), but highly divergent from the BAstV NeuroS1 isolate previously associated with neurologic disease in cattle in the U.S.A. Nucleotide sequence-based characterization of the ORF1b/ORF2 junction and corresponding overlapping regions showed distinctive properties, which may be common to BAstVs. Our results suggested that cattle and water buffalo are prone to infection of closely related astroviruses, which probably evolved from the same ancestor. The current study described astroviruses in water buffalo for the first time and is thus far among the largest epidemiological investigations of BAstV infection in cattle conducted in China. PMID:25716289

  16. Antimicrobial Effect of Malpighia Punicifolia and Extension of Water Buffalo Steak Shelf-Life.

    PubMed

    Tremonte, Patrizio; Sorrentino, Elena; Succi, Mariantonietta; Tipaldi, Luca; Pannella, Gianfranco; Ibañez, Eléna; Mendiola, Jose Antonio; Di Renzo, Tiziana; Reale, Anna; Coppola, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a multiple approach was used to characterize Malpighia punicifolia extract and to evaluate its inhibitory activity against several meat spoilage bacteria. First, volatile fraction, vitamins and phenolic compounds of the extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction were determined by GC-MS and HPLC. Then, the antimicrobial action of the extract was in vitro evaluated against Pseudomonas putida DSMZ 291(T) , Pseudomonas fluorescens DSMZ 50009(T) , Pseudomonas fragi DSMZ 3456(T) , and Brochothrix thermosphacta DSMZ 20171(T) by the agar well diffusion assay and by the agar dilution test. Based on the results of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the assayed bacteria, 4 different concentrations of the extract were used in a challenge test on water buffalo steaks stored for 21 d at 4 °C. Results of chemical analyses showed that M. punicifolia extract is characterized by the presence of several compounds, already described for their antimicrobial (phenolic acids, flavonones, and furanes) and antioxidant (ascorbic acid) properties. The in vitro detection of antimicrobial activities highlighted that the extract, used at 8% concentration, was able to inhibit all the target bacteria. Moreover, very low MIC values (up to 0.025%) were detected. In situ tests, performed on water buffalo steaks treated with the extract in the concentration range 0.025% to 0.05%, showed a strong inhibition of both intentionally inoculated bacteria and naturally occurring microorganisms. Positive results, in terms of color and odor, were also observed during the entire storage of steaks preserved with the extract. PMID:26556435

  17. Antimicrobial Effect of Malpighia Punicifolia and Extension of Water Buffalo Steak Shelf‐Life

    PubMed Central

    Tremonte, Patrizio; Sorrentino, Elena; Tipaldi, Luca; Pannella, Gianfranco; Ibañez, Eléna; Mendiola, Jose Antonio; Di Renzo, Tiziana; Reale, Anna; Coppola, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the present study, a multiple approach was used to characterize Malpighia punicifolia extract and to evaluate its inhibitory activity against several meat spoilage bacteria. First, volatile fraction, vitamins and phenolic compounds of the extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction were determined by GC‐MS and HPLC. Then, the antimicrobial action of the extract was in vitro evaluated against Pseudomonas putida DSMZ 291T, Pseudomonas fluorescens DSMZ 50009T, Pseudomonas fragi DSMZ 3456T, and Brochothrix thermosphacta DSMZ 20171T by the agar well diffusion assay and by the agar dilution test. Based on the results of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the assayed bacteria, 4 different concentrations of the extract were used in a challenge test on water buffalo steaks stored for 21 d at 4 °C. Results of chemical analyses showed that M. punicifolia extract is characterized by the presence of several compounds, already described for their antimicrobial (phenolic acids, flavonones, and furanes) and antioxidant (ascorbic acid) properties. The in vitro detection of antimicrobial activities highlighted that the extract, used at 8% concentration, was able to inhibit all the target bacteria. Moreover, very low MIC values (up to 0.025%) were detected. In situ tests, performed on water buffalo steaks treated with the extract in the concentration range 0.025% to 0.05%, showed a strong inhibition of both intentionally inoculated bacteria and naturally occurring microorganisms. Positive results, in terms of color and odor, were also observed during the entire storage of steaks preserved with the extract. PMID:26556435

  18. Establishment of Trophectoderm Cell Lines from Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryos of Different Sources and Examination of In Vitro Developmental Competence, Quality, Epigenetic Status and Gene Expression in Cloned Embryos Derived from Them

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Sushil Kumar; Sandhu, Anjit; Singh, Karn Pratap; Singla, Suresh Kumar; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh; Manik, Radheysham; Palta, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Despite being successfully used to produce live offspring in many species, somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) has had a limited applicability due to very low (>1%) live birth rate because of a high incidence of pregnancy failure, which is mainly due to placental dysfunction. Since this may be due to abnormalities in the trophectoderm (TE) cell lineage, TE cells can be a model to understand the placental growth disorders seen after NT. We isolated and characterized buffalo TE cells from blastocysts produced by in vitro fertilization (TE-IVF) and Hand-made cloning (TE-HMC), and compared their growth characteristics and gene expression, and developed a feeder-free culture system for their long-term culture. The TE-IVF cells were then used as donor cells to produce HMC embryos following which their developmental competence, quality, epigenetic status and gene expression were compared with those of HMC embryos produced using fetal or adult fibroblasts as donor cells. We found that although TE-HMC and TE-IVF cells have a similar capability to grow in culture, significant differences exist in gene expression levels between them and between IVF and HMC embryos from which they are derived, which may have a role in the placental abnormalities associated with NT pregnancies. Although TE cells can be used as donor cells for producing HMC blastocysts, their developmental competence and quality is lower than that of blastocysts produced from fetal or adult fibroblasts. The epigenetic status and expression level of many important genes is different in HMC blastocysts produced using TE cells or fetal or adult fibroblasts or those produced by IVF. PMID:26053554

  19. Hydrologic and water-quality characteristics for Bear Creek near Silver Hill, Arkansas, and selected Buffalo River sites, 1999-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, Joel M.; Green, W. Reed

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe and compare the hydrologic and water-quality characteristics of Bear Creek near Silver Hill, Arkansas, to two sites on the Buffalo River upstream from the confluence of Bear Creek, to a site on Calf Creek, a smaller tributary to the Buffalo River, to selected undeveloped sites across the Nation, and to a developed site in Arkansas. A better understanding of the hydrology and water quality of Bear Creek is of interest to many, including the National Park Service, which administers the Buffalo National River, to evaluate its effects on the hydrology and water quality of the Buffalo River. The streamflow at Bear Creek near Silver Hill varied seasonally and annually from January 1999 to March 2004. The mean annual streamflow at Bear Creek for calendar years 1999 to 2003 was 86.0 cubic feet per second. The highest annual mean streamflow occurred in 2002 (158 cubic feet per second) and the lowest annual mean streamflow occurred in 1999 (56.4 cubic feet per second). The mean annual streamflow for calendar years 1999 to 2003 at the Buffalo River near Boxley and Buffalo River near St. Joe was 102 and 881 cubic feet per second, respectively. Concentrations of nitrogen measured for Bear Creek generally were greater than concentrations measured at the two Buffalo River sites and were similar to concentrations measured at Calf Creek. Concentrations of phosphorus measured at Bear Creek generally were greater than concentrations measured at the two Buffalo River sites and were similar to concentrations measured at Calf Creek. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations generally were greater at Bear Creek than concentrations measured at the Buffalo River and similar to concentrations at Calf Creek. Bear Creek had significantly greater suspended-sediment concentrations than the Buffalo River near Boxley and the Buffalo River near St. Joe and similar concentrations to Calf Creek. Nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, and suspended-sediment loads at Bear Creek and two Buffalo River sites varied because of differences in land use and contributing drainage area for each site. In general, the Buffalo River near St. Joe had the greatest annual loads of nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, and suspended sediment. The Buffalo River near Boxley had the least annual nutrient and suspended-sediment loads amongthe three sites. Buffalo River near Boxley had lesser annual loads than the other two sites probably because of the higher percentage of forested land in the basin and smaller contributing drainage area. Mean annual nutrient, dissolved organic carbon, and suspended- sediment yields computed for Bear Creek were greater than yields computed for both of the Buffalo River sites. Bear Creek had greater median annual nutrient yields than selected undeveloped basins across the Nation and less median annual nutrient yields than the Illinois River south of Siloam Springs, Arkansas, which is representative of a developed basin. Bear Creek had greater median annual flow-weighted nutrient concentrations than the Buffalo River near St. Joe, the Buffalo River near Boxley, and selected undeveloped sites across the Nation. Bear Creek had less median flow-weighted nutrient concentrations than the Illinois River.

  20. Behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes during the traditional manufacture of water-buffalo Mozzarella cheese.

    PubMed

    Villani, F; Pepe, O; Mauriello, G; Moschetti, G; Sannino, L; Coppola, S

    1996-05-01

    The behaviour of a four-strains mixture of Listeria monocytogenes (strains Scott A, V7, OH and Cal) during the traditional manufacture of water-buffalo Mozzarella cheese was investigated at two levels of inoculation: ca 10(5) and 10(3) cfu ml-1 of vat milk. No significant change in Listeria counts was observed during the curd ripening (4.0-4.5 h), at the end of which the pH ranged between 4.83 and 4.91. A decrease of about 2 log was observed after stretching of the curd in hot water (95 degrees C), followed by complete elimination of Listeria after 48 and 24 h of storage of the final cheese in the conditioning liquid (skim water resulting from the stretching, pH ca 4.0) with initial high and low contamination of the cheese milk respectively. Results also indicated that a 1.7 log reduction of L. monocytogenes could be achieved during the preparation of the natural whey culture utilized as starter in cheesemaking. PMID:8672274

  1. Incidence of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk using cultural method and the PCR assay

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Momtaz, Hassan; Behzadnia, Asma; Baghbadorani, Zeinab Torki

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence rate of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk in Iran. Methods From September 2010 to December 2011 a total of 260 bulk milk samples including 85 bovine, 37 camel, 34 water buffalo, 56 ovine and 48 caprine bulk milk samples were collected from commercial dairy herds, in Fars and Khuzestan provinces, Iran and were evaluated for the presence of Listeria species using cultural method and the PCR assay. Results Using cultural method, 19 samples (7.3%) were positive for Listeria spp. The highest prevalence of Listeria was found in raw water buffalo milk (11.8%), followed by raw bovine milk (10.6%), raw ovine milk (7.1%), and raw caprine milk (4.2%) samples. All 37 camel milk samples from 20 camel breeding farms were negative for Listeria spp. The overall prevalence of Listeria was 7.3%, in which Listeria innocua was the most recovered species (4.2%); the remaining isolates were Listeria monocytogenes (1.9%), Listeria ivanovii (0.08%) and Listeria seeligari (0.04%). The PCR assay could identify 8 Listeria-contaminated milk samples that were negative using the cultural method. Conclusions The results presented in this study indicate the potential risk of infection with Listeria in people consuming raw and unpasteurized milk.

  2. Molecular characterization of a new microvariant of the G3 genotype for Echinococcus granulosus in water buffalo in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Babazadeh, Marzie; Sharifiyazdi, Hassan; Moazeni, Mohammad; Gorjipour, Sedigheh; Heidari, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sample obtained from water buffalo originating from southwest of Iran was performed using comparative sequence analysis of cox1 mitochondrial gene. DNA was extracted from protoscoleces removed from hydatid cyst from the liver of a 2-year-old male buffalo slaughtered in Khuzestan province. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses were conducted based on cox1 mitochondrial gene. We found the presence of a new microvariant of G3 genotype for E. granulosus in Iran which is genetically differentiated from reference G3 sequence (M84663). The difference was a transition mutation of adenine to guanine in position 214 (A214G) resulting in a substitution of the threonine (ACT) by alanine (GCT). These findings extend the knowledge of heterogeneity and distribution of G3 genotype for E. granulosus in world. PMID:25992257

  3. Genetic diversity in the prion protein gene (PRNP) of domestic cattle and water buffaloes in Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Leo; Heriyanto, Agus; Thongchai, Chalermchaikit; Hanh, Tran Thi; Horiuchi, Motohiro; Ishihara, Kanako; Tamura, Yutaka; Muramatsu, Yasukazu

    2014-07-01

    There has been an accumulation of information on frequencies of insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms within the bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) and on the number of octapeptide repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding region of bovine PRNP related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility. We investigated the frequencies of 23-bp indel polymorphism in the promoter region (23indel) and 12-bp indel polymorphism in intron 1 region (12indel), octapeptide repeat polymorphisms and SNPs in the bovine PRNP of cattle and water buffaloes in Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand. The frequency of the deletion allele in the 23indel site was significantly low in cattle of Indonesia and Thailand and water buffaloes. The deletion allele frequency in the 12indel site was significantly low in all of the cattle and buffaloes categorized in each subgroup. In both indel sites, the deletion allele has been reported to be associated with susceptibility to classical BSE. In some Indonesian local cattle breeds, the frequency of the allele with 5 octapeptide repeats was significantly high despite the fact that the allele with 6 octapeptide repeats has been reported to be most frequent in many breeds of cattle. Four SNPs observed in Indonesian local cattle have not been reported for domestic cattle. This study provided information on PRNP of livestock in these Southeast Asian countries. PMID:24705506

  4. Base flow, water quality, and streamflow gain and loss of the Buffalo River, Arkansas, and selected tributaries, July and August 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moix, Matthew W.; Galloway, Joel M.

    2005-01-01

    A study of the Buffalo National River in north-central Arkansas was conducted between July 28-30 and August 13-15, 2003, to characterize the base-flow and water-quality characteristics and streamflow gain and loss in the Buffalo River. The study was separated into two time periods because of a precipitation event that occurred on the afternoon of July 30 causing appreciable storm runoff. Streamflow was separated to identify base-flow and surface-runoff components using the Base Flow Index hydrograph separation computer program. Base-flow separation analyses indicated annual variability in streamflow throughout the Buffalo River Basin. Based upon these analyses, total and base flow were below average for the mainstem of the river and Richland Creek during the 2003 water year. Waterquality samples were collected from 25 surface-water sites on the Buffalo River and selected tributaries. Most nutrient concentrations for the mainstem of the Buffalo River were near or below the minimum reporting level and were less than the median flow-weighted concentration for relatively undeveloped stream basins in the United States. Streamflow measurement data were collected at 44 locations along the mainstem of the Buffalo River and at points of inflow (prior to confluence with the mainstem) to identify gaining and losing reaches. Seven gaining and five losing reaches were identified for the Buffalo River. Additionally, surface flow on the mainstem of the Buffalo River was diverted to subsurface flow on the mainstem at two locations (river miles 73.6 and 131.6) where the mainstem was found to be dry. Reaches throughout the length of the river had calculated gains or losses that were less than the sum of measurement errors for the respective reaches of river.

  5. Diagnostic value of the recombinant tandem repeat antigen TeGM6-4r for surra in water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thu-Thuy; Zhou, Mo; Ruttayaporn, Ngasaman; Nguyen, Quoc Doanh; Nguyen, Viet Khong; Goto, Yasuyuki; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro; Inoue, Noboru

    2014-03-17

    Trypanosoma evansi infection, or surra, is currently affecting various species of animals, especially water buffaloes. Since diagnosis is an important aspect of surra control, development of novel diagnostic antigens is of interest to implement and improve the currently utilized methods. Our study evaluated the tandem repeat antigen TeGM6-4r in T. evansi antibody detection in water buffaloes. TeGM6-4r-based ELISA was performed with 20 positive and 8 negative controls and 484 field samples from water buffaloes in Northern Vietnam. To examine cross-reactivity, sera from Japanese cattle that had been experimentally infected with Theileria orientalis (n=10), Babesia bovis (n=3), Babesia bigemina (n=7) and Trypanosoma theileri (n=59) were included in the study. The sensitivity of the test was 80%. TeGM6-4r did not react with Theileria or Babesia infected sera, however it showed cross reactivity with 11/59 T. theileri infected samples. The reference test, CATT/T. evansi also reacted with 3/59 T. theileri infected sera. The lysate antigen-based ELISA reacted with 4/59 T. theileri, 9/10 Theileria and 3/10 Babesia infected sera. In contrast, TeGM6-4r-based ELISA was 86.3% sensitive and 58.3% specific in the screening of field samples. The average seroprevalence of T. evansi infection among water buffaloes in Northern Vietnam was 27.1% by CATT/T. evansi and 53.7% by TeGM6-4r. Seroprevalence in the five surveyed provinces ranged from 17.4% to 39.8% in the reference test, and 47.3% to 67.3% in the recombinant antigen based test. The finding indicated that the disease is still widely endemic in the area and that surveillance programs need to be carried out regularly to better control surra. We proposed TeGM6-4r as a useful serodiagnostic antigen for the detection and epidemiological surveillance of T. evansi infection among water buffaloes. PMID:24524896

  6. Lousicidal, ovicidal and repellent efficacy of some essential oils against lice and flies infesting water buffaloes in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Khater, Hanem F; Ramadan, Mohamed Y; El-Madawy, Reham S

    2009-10-14

    The lousicidal and repellent effects of five essential oils were investigated for the first time against the buffalo louse, Haematopinus tuberculatus, and flies infesting water buffaloes in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt. For the in vitro studies, filter paper contact bioassays were used to test the oils and their lethal activities were compared with that of d-phenothrin. Four minutes post-treatment, the median lethal concentration, LC50, values were 2.74, 7.28, 12.35, 18.67 and 22.79% for camphor (Cinnamomum camphora), onion (Allium cepa), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) and rosemary oils (Rosmarinus officinalis), respectively, whereas for d-phenothrin, it was 1.17%. The lethal time (50) (LT50) values were 0.89, 2.75, 15.39, 21.32, 11.60 and 1.94 min after treatment with 7.5% camphor, onion, peppermint, chamomile, rosemary and d-phenothrin, respectively. All the materials used except rosemary, which was not applied, were ovicidal to the eggs of H. tuberculatus. Despite the results of the in vitro assays, the in vivo treatments revealed that the pediculicidal activity was more pronounced with oils. All treated lice were killed after 0.5-2 min, whereas with d-phenothrin, 100% mortality was reached only after 120 min. The number of lice infesting buffaloes was significantly reduced 3, 6, 4, 6 and 9 days after treatment with camphor, peppermint, chamomile, onion, and d-phenothrin, respectively. Moreover, the oils and d-phenothrin significantly repelled flies, Musca domestica, Stomoxys calcitrans, Haematobia irritans and Hippobosca equina, for 6 and 3 days post-treatment, respectively. No adverse effects were noted on either animals or pour-on operators after exposure to the applied materials. Consequently, some Egyptian essential oils show potential for the development of new, speedy and safe lousicides and insect repellents for controlling lice and flies which infest water buffaloes. PMID:19596520

  7. Effect of flubendiamide, lead and their combined exposure on erythrocytic indices in water buffalo calves.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Amita; Dumka, Vinod Kumar; Singh, Nittin Dev

    2014-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of flubendiamide, lead and their combined oral administration on erythrocytic indices in water buffalo calves. Exposure to flubendiamide alone resulted in non-significant decreases in Hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), total erythrocyte count (TEC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH). Lead acetate exposure resulted in significant declines in Hb, PCV and TEC. Combined exposure to flubendiamide and lead resulted in declines in Hb, TEC and PCV, but values did not differ significantly from corresponding values in the group treated with lead alone. Changes in MCV, MCHC and MCH were inconsistent. Plasma calcium concentration declined on day 90 in lead-exposed animals, but increased again on day 30 post-treatment. Results of the present study indicated that flubendiamide exposure results in marginal alterations in erythrocytic indices, but lead exposure caused significant declines in Hb, PCV and TEC. No interactive effects were observed for flubendiamide and lead on changes in erythrocytic indices. PMID:24292848

  8. Hydrologic and Water-Quality Characteristics for Calf Creek Near Silber Hill, Arkansas and Selected Buffalo River Sites, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, Joel M.; Green, W. Reed

    2004-01-01

    The Buffalo River and its tributary, Calf Creek, are in the White River Basin in the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province in north-central Arkansas. A better understanding of the hydrology and water quality of Calf Creek is of interest to many, including the National Park Service, which administers the Buffalo National River, to evaluate its effect on the hydrology and water quality of the Buffalo River. The streamflow and water-quality characteristics of Calf Creek near Silver Hill, Arkansas, were compared to two sites on the Buffalo River upstream (near Boxley, Arkansas) and downstream (near St. Joe, Arkansas) from the confluence of Calf Creek for calendar years 2001 and 2002. Annual and seasonal loads were estimated for Calf Creek for nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, and suspended sediment and compared with loads at sites on the Buffalo River. Flow-weighted concentrations and yields were computed from estimated annual loads for comparison with other developed and undeveloped basins. Streamflow varied annually and seasonally at the three sites. The Buffalo River near St. Joe had the largest annual mean streamflow (805 to 1,360 cubic feet per second for 2001 and 2002) compared to the Buffalo River near Boxley (106 and 152 cubic feet per second for 2001 and 2002) and Calf Creek (39 and 80 cubic feet per second for 2001 and 2002). Concentrations of nutrients, suspended sediment, and fecal indicator bacteria generally were greater in samples from Calf Creek than in samples collected from both Buffalo River sites. Bacteria and suspended-sediment concentrations were greater in samples collected during high-flow events at all three sites. The Buffalo River near Boxley had the lowest concentrations for nutrients, suspended sediment, and fecal indicator bacteria. Estimated annual loads of the nutrients, suspended sediment, and organic carbon for 2001 and 2002 demonstrated substantial variability between the three sites and through time. Estimated loads for nutrients at the Buffalo River near St. Joe were 7 to 27 times the median loads estimated for Calf Creek and suspended sediment loads were as much as 120 times greater. Dissolved organic carbon loads were 16 to 20 times greater at the Buffalo River near St. Joe than for Calf Creek. The Buffalo River near Boxley had the smallest annual loads for all constituents except for suspended sediment, which were slightly greater than suspended sediment loads estimated for Calf Creek. Higher loads would be expected at the Buffalo River near St. Joe because of the larger basin area and larger volume of streamflow. Likewise, estimated loads for all three sites were greater during seasons that had greater streamflow than during seasons with more frequent periods of base-flow conditions. The highest daily loads occurred in the fall and winter of 2001 and the winter and spring of 2002.Flow-weighted concentrations generally were higher for Calf Creek than concentrations for the two sites on the Buffalo River and for typical flow-weighted concentrations found in undeveloped basins. However, the flow-weighted concentrations were lower than concentrations in a developed basin. Annual yields calculated for Calf Creek were higher than the two sites on the Buffalo River and sites that are representative of undeveloped basins but lower than a site representative of a developed basin. The Buffalo River near Boxley had yields that were less than the yields typical of undeveloped basins.

  9. The Differential Expression of Immune Genes between Water Buffalo and Yellow Cattle Determines Species-Specific Susceptibility to Schistosoma japonicum Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianmei; Fu, Zhiqiang; Hong, Yang; Wu, Haiwei; Jin, Yamei; Zhu, Chuangang; Li, Hao; Lu, Ke; Shi, Yaojun; Yuan, Chunxiu; Cheng, Guofeng; Feng, Xingang; Liu, Jinming; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2015-01-01

    Water buffalo are less susceptible to Schistosoma japonicum infection than yellow cattle. The factors that affect such differences in susceptibility remain unknown. A Bos taurus genome-wide gene chip was used to analyze gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood of water buffalo and yellow cattle pre- and post-infection with S. japonicum. This study showed that most of the identified differentially expressed genes(DEGs) between water buffalo and yellow cattle pre- and post-infection were involved in immune-related processes, and the expression level of immune genes was lower in water buffalo. The unique DEGs (390) in yellow cattle were mainly associated with inflammation pathways, while the unique DEGs (2,114) in water buffalo were mainly associated with immune-related factors. The 83 common DEGs may be the essential response genes during S. japonicum infection, the highest two gene ontology (GO) functions were associated with the regulation of fibrinolysis. The pathway enrichment analysis showed that the DEGs constituted similar immune-related pathways pre- and post-infection between the two hosts. This first analysis of the transcriptional profiles of natural hosts has enabled us to gain new insights into the mechanisms that govern their susceptibility or resistance to S. japonicum infections. PMID:26125181

  10. The "Linh Duong" Pseudonovibos spiralis (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) is a new buffalo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, G. V.; Kulikov, E. E.; Petrov, N. B.; Ivanova, N. V.; Lomov, A. A.; Kholodova, M. V.; Poltaraus, A. B.

    2001-03-01

    The controversial phylogenetic position of the recently described South-East Asian endemic bovid, Pseudonovibos spiralis, was evaluated on the basis of phylogenetic analyses of originally obtained nearly complete 12S mitochondrial rDNA sequences for this species and Bubalus bubalis and 26 sequences of Bovidae from the Genbank using Cervus elaphus (Cervidae) as outgroup. In most of the phylogenetic analyses performed using PAUP 4.0 (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and neighbour-joining), Bovidae consisted of two major clades: Bovinae including the tribes Bovini, Tragelaphini and Boselaphini, and Antilopinae+Caprinae, incorporating all other bovids. In most trees P. spiralis fell within the buffalos (subtribe Bovina) between Bubalus and Syncerus. Therefore, our phylogenetic analyses of bovid mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene sequences suggest the close relationship of this enigmatic species with the buffalos and its placement within the subtribe Bovina.

  11. Development of an Indirect ELISA Using Different Fragments of Recombinant Ncgra7 for Detection of Neospora caninum Infection in Cattle and Water Buffalo

    PubMed Central

    HAMIDINEJAT, Hossein; SEIFI ABAD SHAPOURI, Massoud Reza; NAMAVARI, Mohammad Mehdi; SHAYAN, Parviz; KEFAYAT, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dense granules are immunodominant proteins for the standardization of immunodiagnostic procedures to detect neosporosis. In the presented study different fragment of a dense-granule protein was evaluated for serodiagnosis of Neospora caninum in cattle and water buffalo. Methods: NcGRA7, from N. caninum tachyzoites was amplified. PCR product and pMAL-c2X plasmid were digested with EcoR1 restriction enzyme and expressed in Escherichia coli to evaluate its competence for detection of anti- N. caninum antibodies with ELISA in comparison with commercial IDEXX ELISA. Furthermore, 230 sera of presumably healthy cattle and water buffaloes (108 cattle and 122 water buffaloes) were analyzed by both tests to determine the agreement of these two procedures. Results: Sensitivities and specificities of NcGRA7-based ELISA were 94.64% and 90.38% respectively using sera of cattle, but were 98.57% and 86.54% in the case of buffaloes respectively. A good correlation between the results of IDEXX ELISA and ELISA based on recombinant NcGRA7 for detecting N. caninum antibodies was appeared. Analyzing by Mc Nemar?s showed that NcGRA7-based ELISA has acceptable capability to differentiate the positive results in comparison with IDEXX ELISA. Conclusion: NcGRA7-based ELISA considering utilized new fragment of genomic DNA is a good tool for serodiagnosis of anti- N. caninum antibodies for screening and epidemiological purposes on cattle herd and water buffaloes as well. PMID:25904948

  12. The Sertoli cell of the water buffalo--an electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Azmi, T I; Bongso, T A; Harisah, M; Basrur, P K

    1990-01-01

    The ultrastructure of Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules of water buffaloes before and during sexual maturity was studied by transmission electron microscopy, with emphasis on the intranucleolar vesicular elements. Sertoli cells of animals under 12 months of age were distinguished from the germ cells by the presence of electron dense membrane bound bodies within their cytoplasm. These cells, referred to as basal indifferent supporting cells, were probably involved in the phagocytosis and elimination of degenerating spermatocytes, which failed to differentiate into spermatids and spermatozoa in animals under one year of age. In 12 month old animals, a few Sertoli cells exhibiting the vesicular elements appeared in the nucleolar region while in animals over 15 months of age Sertoli cells could be positively identified by the characteristic cytoplasm containing microtubules, elongated and electron dense mitochondria, extensive granular endoplasmic reticulum and the presence of spermatids in various stages of spermiogenesis. The vesicular elements in the nucleolar region of the Sertoli cells were most prominent at this stage. Ultrastructural features of the Sertoli cells revealed an abundance of ribosome-like particles surrounding the vesicles of varying size. Some of these vesicular elements contained amorphous material suggesting that they represent the products sequestered in the nuclear region for transport to the cytoplasm and that the process of spermiogenesis may be dependent on the ability of Sertoli cells to generate these products at sexual maturity. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9a. Fig. 9b. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. PMID:2306676

  13. Characterization of leptin receptor gene in Bubalus bubalis and association analysis with body measurement traits.

    PubMed

    De Matteis, Giovanna; Scat, Maria Carmela; Catillo, Gennaro; Terzano, Giuseppina Maria; Grandoni, Francesco; Napolitano, Francesco

    2015-06-01

    Leptin has a pleiotropic effect on regulating appetite, energy metabolism, growth, reproduction, body composition and immunity. This property supports leptin and its receptor as candidate genes for evaluating genetic polymorphisms to associate with growth, milk yield and other economic traits. The aim of this study is to characterize the leptin receptor gene in Bubalus bubalis, to identify single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites in different coding and non-coding regions and to analyse potential associations between SNPs identified and the body measurements traits of growing buffalo heifers. A group of 64 animals were genotyped by direct sequencing and twenty-eight SNPs were detected. A sequence analysis revealed the presence of nine interesting SNPs in gene sequence. The association analysis of polymorphisms with the body measurements traits of growing buffalo heifers shows significant statistical effects on chest depth and sacrum height. Therefore according to the results obtained from this study, the leptin receptor gene appears to have potential effects on the body measurement traits of Bubalus bubalis. PMID:25431006

  14. Yeasts and hygienic-sanitary microbial indicators in water buffalo mozzarella produced and commercialized in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Facchin, Susanne; Barbosa, Anne C.; Carmo, Luiz S.; Silva, Maria Crisolita C.; Oliveira, Afonso L.; Morais, Paula B.; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the yeast populations and the main hygienic-sanitary microbial indicators in water buffalo mozzarella produced and commercialized in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Forty-two water buffalo mozzarella samples were purchased from retail outlets in Belo Horizonte. In addition, five samples of consecutive starter cultures, curd before acidification, acidified curd and mozzarella were collected at an industry in the city of Oliveira. Only three of the five water samples analyzed were suitable for consumption according to Brazilian sanitary standards. Four milk samples were highly contaminated with fecal coliforms, and did not meet the minimal hygienic-sanitary standards according to Brazilian regulations. Only one sample of buffalo muzzarela purchased from retail outlets exceeded the limit for coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Eleven samples showed counts of thermotolerant coliforms higher than 5 103 CFU.g?1, but still lower than the maximum permitted by the Brazilian laws. Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were not isolated. Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida lusitaniae and C. parapsilosis were the prevalent yeast species isolated from cheese. Among samples from the production stages, the acidified curd presented the highest numbers of yeasts, with C. catenulata being the most frequent species isolated. Some opportunistic yeast species such as C. guilliermondii, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. lusitaniae, C. catenulata, C. rugosa and C. krusei occurred in the mozzarella cheese samples analyzed. The mozzarella cheese presented a low microbial load as compared to other cheese already studied, and the yeast biota included species typical of cheese and also opportunistic pathogens. PMID:24516436

  15. Bioconcentration of some macrominerals in soil, forage and buffalo hair continuum: A case study on pasture irrigated with sewage water.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zafar Iqbal; Ahmad, Kafeel; Ashraf, Iqra; Gondal, Sumaira; Sher, Muhammad; Hayat, Zafar; Laudadio, Vito; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2015-05-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the bioaccumulation of some macrominerals in grazing buffaloes fed forage irrigated with sewage water or canal water. In particular, the transfer of sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) from soil to plant and in turn to animals was evaluated under sub-tropical environmental conditions. Samples of soil, forage and buffalo hair were collected and digested by wet method. Sodium and K concentrations were significantly higher in the soil but lower in the forages; however, Mg and Ca concentrations in both soil and forages were higher. The correlation between soil, forage and hair showed an imbalanced flow of Na, Mg and K and a balanced flow of Ca from soil to forage and then to animals. Based on the findings, the highest rates of transfer of minerals were found for sewage water treatment, whereas lowest rates were found for canal water treatment, except for Na. As the transfer of minerals depends on their bioavailability, the highest values may be due to the high rates of mineral uptake by plants. Thus, the high transfer rate of some elements by plants could become toxic in future causing detrimental effect to grazing livestock. PMID:25972745

  16. Bioconcentration of some macrominerals in soil, forage and buffalo hair continuum: A case study on pasture irrigated with sewage water

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zafar Iqbal; Ahmad, Kafeel; Ashraf, Iqra; Gondal, Sumaira; Sher, Muhammad; Hayat, Zafar; Laudadio, Vito; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the bioaccumulation of some macrominerals in grazing buffaloes fed forage irrigated with sewage water or canal water. In particular, the transfer of sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) from soil to plant and in turn to animals was evaluated under sub-tropical environmental conditions. Samples of soil, forage and buffalo hair were collected and digested by wet method. Sodium and K concentrations were significantly higher in the soil but lower in the forages; however, Mg and Ca concentrations in both soil and forages were higher. The correlation between soil, forage and hair showed an imbalanced flow of Na, Mg and K and a balanced flow of Ca from soil to forage and then to animals. Based on the findings, the highest rates of transfer of minerals were found for sewage water treatment, whereas lowest rates were found for canal water treatment, except for Na. As the transfer of minerals depends on their bioavailability, the highest values may be due to the high rates of mineral uptake by plants. Thus, the high transfer rate of some elements by plants could become toxic in future causing detrimental effect to grazing livestock. PMID:25972745

  17. A nonsense mutation in the tyrosinase gene causes albinism in water buffalo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is an autosomal recessive hereditary pigmentation disorder affecting humans and several other animal species. Oculocutaneous albinism was studied in a herd of Murrah buffalo to determine the clinical presentation and genetic basis of albinism in this species. Results Clinical examinations and pedigree analysis were performed in an affected herd, and wild-type and OCA tyrosinase mRNA sequences were obtained. The main clinical findings were photophobia and a lack of pigmentation of the hair, skin, horns, hooves, mucosa, and iris. The results of segregation analysis suggest that this disease is acquired through recessive inheritance. In the OCA buffalo, a single-base substitution was detected at nucleotide 1,431 (G to A), which leads to the conversion of tryptophan into a stop codon at residue 477. Conclusion This premature stop codon produces an inactive protein, which is responsible for the OCA buffalo phenotype. These findings will be useful for future studies of albinism in buffalo and as a possible model to study diseases caused by a premature stop codon. PMID:22817390

  18. Effects of Smallmouth Buffalo and Potassium Permanganate Treatment on Plankton ans Pond Water Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Removal of intermediate hosts is one option for control of disease in channel catfish production systems. We evaluated use of predaceous fish (smallmouth buffalo) and chemical treatment (potassium permanganate) to remove snails that serve as hosts protecting Dero worms. Both methods of treatment r...

  19. Intraspecific and interspecific genetic variation of Gongylonema pulchrum and two rodent Gongylonema spp. (G. aegypti and G. neoplasticum), with the proposal of G. nepalensis n. sp. for the isolate in water buffaloes from Nepal.

    PubMed

    Setsuda, Aogu; Da, Nengtai; Hasegawa, Hideo; Behnke, Jerzy M; Rana, Hari Bahadur; Dhakal, Ishwari Prasad; Sato, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    The gullet worm (Gongylonema pulchrum) has been recorded from a variety of mammals worldwide. In an earlier study, we demonstrated two separate transmission cycles in cattle (Bos taurus) and wild mammals in Japan based on nucleotide sequences of the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox-1) region of mitochondrial DNA of multiple isolates of different origins. Our earlier study additionally demonstrated two major cox-1 haplotypes of G. pulchrum prevalent in cattle in Japan. In the present study, we collected G. pulchrum from cattle and goats (Capra hircus) in Alashan League, Inner Mongolia, China; Gongylonema aegypti from spiny mice (Acomys dimidiatus) in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt; and Gongylonema neoplasticum from a black rat (Rattus rattus) in Okinawa Island, Japan, to analyze their genetic relationships with G. pulchrum in Japan. The gullet worms from Alashan League had almost identical rDNA nucleotide sequences and two cox-1 haplotypes as seen in G. pulchrum from the cattle in Japan. The two rodent Gongylonema spp. had distinct rDNA nucleotide sequences compared with those of G. pulchrum; only the 18S and 5.8S rDNA sequences showed high identities at 97.2-98.7 %, while the remaining sequences were less than 75 % identical. The 18S, 5.8S, and 28S rDNA sequences of the two rodent Gongylonema spp. showed nucleotide identities of 99.8 % (1811/1814), 100 % (158/158), and 98.9 % (3550/3590), respectively. The cox-1 regions showed 91.6 % (338/369)-92.1 % (340/369) identities, with completely identical amino acid sequences. The genetic diversities of three distinct Gongylonema spp. and their possible intraspecific genetic variation may allow us to resolve the taxonomic position of Gongylonema spp. which display few obvious morphological differences from their congeners. Consequently, the Gongylonema isolate from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Nepal reported in our previous study is concluded to be a new species, and Gongylonema nepalensis n. sp. is erected for it. PMID:26531300

  20. Localization of IGF proteins in various stages of ovarian follicular development and modulatory role of IGF-I on granulosa cell steroid production in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Singh, Jai; Paul, A; Thakur, N; Yadav, V P; Panda, R P; Bhure, S K; Sarkar, M

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine the expression of insulin like growth factor (IGF) genes in the bubaline ovarian follicles and modulatory role of IGF-I on progesterone production from granulosa cells (GC) of pre-ovulatory follicle in vitro. According to size, follicles were classified into four groups: GI (small), GII (medium), GIII (large) and GIV (preovulatory). All IGF genes were expressed in both GC and theca interna (TI) cells. The relative expression of IGF-I and IGF receptor I (IGFR-I) genes increased with follicle size and was greatest in the pre-ovulatory follicle (P<0.05). Expression of IGF-II and IGFR-II genes was minimal in GC but was readily detected in TI cells. In TI cells, the gene expression was greater in medium and large as compared to small and pre-ovulatory follicles. The expression of all binding protein (IGFBP) genes was detected in both GC and TI cells. Expression of IGFBP-3 gene increased with follicle size and was greatest in pre-ovulatory follicles (P<0.05). The expression of IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-4 was less in pre-ovulatory follicles but expression of IGFBP-5 and IGFBP-6 genes were greater at this stage. The GC culture was conducted for three time durations and with three doses of IGF-I. Expression of steroidogenic genes (StAR, CYP11A1, HSD3B) and progesterone concentration were increased in a dose and time dependent fashion. The present study, therefore, provided evidence of an autocrine/paracrine role of IGFs in follicular development and a stimulatory role of IGF1 in steroid production in GC of preovulatory follicles in the bubaline species. PMID:25951771

  1. Comparative Analysis of Transcriptional Profiles of Adult Schistosoma japonicum from Different Laboratory Animals and the Natural Host, Water Buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chuang; Hou, Nan; Chen, Qijun

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is one of the most widely distributed parasitic diseases in the world. Schistosoma japonicum, a zoonotic parasite with a wide range of mammalian hosts, is one of the major pathogens of this disease. Although numerous studies on schistosomiasis japonica have been performed using laboratory animal models, systematic comparative analysis of whole-genome expression profiles in parasites from different laboratory animals and nature mammalian hosts is lacking to date. Methodology/Principal Findings Adult schistosomes were obtained from laboratory animals BALB/c mice, C57BL/6 mice, New Zealand white rabbits and the natural host, water buffaloes. The gene expression profiles of schistosomes from these animals were obtained and compared by genome-wide oligonucleotide microarray analysis. The results revealed that the gene expression profiles of schistosomes from different laboratory animals and buffaloes were highly consistent (r>0.98) genome-wide. Meanwhile, a total of 450 genes were identified to be differentially expressed in schistosomes which can be clustered into six groups. Pathway analysis revealed that these genes were mainly involved in multiple signal transduction pathways, amino acid, energy, nucleotide and lipid metabolism. We also identified a group of 1,540 abundantly and stably expressed gene products in adult worms, including a panel of 179 Schistosoma- or Platyhelminthes-specific genes that may be essential for parasitism and may be regarded as novel potential anti-parasite intervention targets for future research. Conclusions/Significance This study provides a comprehensive database of gene expression profiles of schistosomes derived from different laboratory animals and water buffaloes. An expanded number of genes potentially affecting the development of schistosomes in different animals were identified. These findings lay the foundation for schistosomiasis research in different laboratory animals and natural hosts at the transcriptional level and provide a valuable resource for screening anti-schistosomal intervention targets. PMID:26285138

  2. Habitat selection by African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in response to landscape-level fluctuations in water availability on two temporal scales.

    PubMed

    Bennitt, Emily; Bonyongo, Mpaphi Casper; Harris, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal fluctuations in water availability cause predictable changes in the profitability of habitats in tropical ecosystems, and animals evolve adaptive behavioural and spatial responses to these fluctuations. However, stochastic changes in the distribution and abundance of surface water between years can alter resource availability at a landscape scale, causing shifts in animal behaviour. In the Okavango Delta, Botswana, a flood-pulsed ecosystem, the volume of water entering the system doubled between 2008 and 2009, creating a sudden change in the landscape. We used African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) to test the hypotheses that seasonal habitat selection would be related to water availability, that increased floodwater levels would decrease forage abundance and affect habitat selection, and that this would decrease buffalo resting time, reduce reproductive success and decrease body condition. Buffalo selected contrasting seasonal habitats, using habitats far from permanent water during the rainy season and seasonally-flooded habitats close to permanent water during the early and late flood seasons. The 2009 water increase reduced forage availability in seasonally-flooded habitats, removing a resource buffer used by the buffalo during the late flood season, when resources were most limited. In response, buffalo used drier habitats in 2009, although there was no significant change in the time spent moving or resting, or daily distance moved. While their reproductive success decreased in 2009, body condition increased. A protracted period of high water levels could prove detrimental to herbivores, especially to smaller-bodied species that require high quality forage. Stochastic annual fluctuations in water levels, predicted to increase as a result of anthropogenically-induced climate change, are likely to have substantial impacts on the functioning of water-driven tropical ecosystems, affecting environmental conditions within protected areas. Buffer zones around critical seasonal resources are essential to allow animals to engage in compensatory behavioural and spatial mechanisms in response to changing environmental conditions. PMID:24983377

  3. Habitat Selection by African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Response to Landscape-Level Fluctuations in Water Availability on Two Temporal Scales

    PubMed Central

    Bennitt, Emily; Bonyongo, Mpaphi Casper; Harris, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal fluctuations in water availability cause predictable changes in the profitability of habitats in tropical ecosystems, and animals evolve adaptive behavioural and spatial responses to these fluctuations. However, stochastic changes in the distribution and abundance of surface water between years can alter resource availability at a landscape scale, causing shifts in animal behaviour. In the Okavango Delta, Botswana, a flood-pulsed ecosystem, the volume of water entering the system doubled between 2008 and 2009, creating a sudden change in the landscape. We used African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) to test the hypotheses that seasonal habitat selection would be related to water availability, that increased floodwater levels would decrease forage abundance and affect habitat selection, and that this would decrease buffalo resting time, reduce reproductive success and decrease body condition. Buffalo selected contrasting seasonal habitats, using habitats far from permanent water during the rainy season and seasonally-flooded habitats close to permanent water during the early and late flood seasons. The 2009 water increase reduced forage availability in seasonally-flooded habitats, removing a resource buffer used by the buffalo during the late flood season, when resources were most limited. In response, buffalo used drier habitats in 2009, although there was no significant change in the time spent moving or resting, or daily distance moved. While their reproductive success decreased in 2009, body condition increased. A protracted period of high water levels could prove detrimental to herbivores, especially to smaller-bodied species that require high quality forage. Stochastic annual fluctuations in water levels, predicted to increase as a result of anthropogenically-induced climate change, are likely to have substantial impacts on the functioning of water-driven tropical ecosystems, affecting environmental conditions within protected areas. Buffer zones around critical seasonal resources are essential to allow animals to engage in compensatory behavioural and spatial mechanisms in response to changing environmental conditions. PMID:24983377

  4. First cloned swamp buffalo produced from adult ear fibroblast cell.

    PubMed

    Tasripoo, K; Suthikrai, W; Sophon, S; Jintana, R; Nualchuen, W; Usawang, S; Bintvihok, A; Techakumphu, M; Srisakwattana, K

    2014-07-01

    The world's first cloned swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) derived from adult ear skin fibroblast has been reported. Donor fibroblast cells were produced from biopsies taken from adult male ear skin and in vitro matured oocytes obtained from a slaughterhouse were used as cytoplasts. A total of 39 blastocysts and 19 morulae fresh embryos were transferred into 12 recipient buffaloes. Progesterone assays indicated establishment of pregnancy in 10 of the 12 buffaloes (83.3%) after 45 days, with six animals still pregnant at 3 months. One recipient maintained pregnancy to term and naturally delivered a 40 kg male calf after 326 days of gestation. DNA analysis showed that the cloned calf was genetically identical to the donor cells. Genotype analyses, using 12 buffalo microsatellite markers, confirmed that the cloned calf was derived from the donor cell lines. In conclusion, the present study reports, for the first time, the establishment of pregnancy and birth of the first cloned Thai swamp buffalo derived from adult ear skin fibroblast cells. PMID:24804579

  5. 33 CFR 110.84b - Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84b Section 110.84b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas 110.84b Buffalo, N.Y. The area within the Port of Buffalo known as...

  6. 33 CFR 110.84b - Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84b Section 110.84b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas 110.84b Buffalo, N.Y. The area within the Port of Buffalo known as...

  7. Microarray Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles of Schistosoma japonicum Derived from Less-Susceptible Host Water Buffalo and Susceptible Host Goat

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianmei; Hong, Yang; Yuan, Chunxiu; Fu, Zhiqiang; Shi, Yaojun; Zhang, Min; Shen, Liuhong; Han, Yanhui; Zhu, Chuangang; Li, Hao; Lu, Ke; Liu, Jinming; Feng, Xingang; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2013-01-01

    Background Water buffalo and goats are natural hosts for S. japonicum in endemic areas of China. The susceptibility of these two hosts to schistosome infection is different, as water buffalo are less conducive to S. japonicum growth and development. To identify genes that may affect schistosome development and survival, we compared gene expression profiles of schistosomes derived from these two natural hosts using high-throughput microarray technology. Results The worm recovery rate was lower and the length and width of worms from water buffalo were smaller compared to those from goats following S. japonicum infection for 7 weeks. Besides obvious morphological difference between the schistosomes derived from the two hosts, differences were also observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Microarray analysis showed differentially expressed gene patterns for parasites from the two hosts, which revealed that genes related to lipid and nucleotide metabolism, as well as protein folding, sorting, and degradation were upregulated, while others associated with signal transduction, endocrine function, development, immune function, endocytosis, and amino acid/carbohydrate/glycan metabolism were downregulated in schistosomes from water buffalo. KEGG pathway analysis deduced that the differentially expressed genes mainly involved lipid metabolism, the MAPK and ErbB signaling pathways, progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, dorso-ventral axis formation, reproduction, and endocytosis, etc. Conclusion The microarray gene analysis in schistosomes derived from water buffalo and goats provide a useful platform to disclose differences determining S. japonicum host compatibility to better understand the interplay between natural hosts and parasites, and identify schistosome target genes associated with susceptibility to screen vaccine candidates. PMID:23940568

  8. 33 CFR 117.773 - Buffalo River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buffalo River. 117.773 Section 117.773 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York 117.773 Buffalo River. (a) The draw of...

  9. 33 CFR 117.773 - Buffalo River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buffalo River. 117.773 Section 117.773 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York 117.773 Buffalo River. (a) The draw of...

  10. 33 CFR 117.773 - Buffalo River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo River. 117.773 Section 117.773 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York 117.773 Buffalo River. (a) The draw of...

  11. 33 CFR 117.773 - Buffalo River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buffalo River. 117.773 Section 117.773 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York 117.773 Buffalo River. (a) The draw of...

  12. 33 CFR 117.773 - Buffalo River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buffalo River. 117.773 Section 117.773 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York 117.773 Buffalo River. (a) The draw of...

  13. 33 CFR 117.955 - Buffalo Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buffalo Bayou. 117.955 Section 117.955 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of...

  14. 33 CFR 117.955 - Buffalo Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buffalo Bayou. 117.955 Section 117.955 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of...

  15. 33 CFR 117.955 - Buffalo Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buffalo Bayou. 117.955 Section 117.955 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of...

  16. 33 CFR 117.955 - Buffalo Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buffalo Bayou. 117.955 Section 117.955 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of...

  17. 33 CFR 117.955 - Buffalo Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Bayou. 117.955 Section 117.955 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of...

  18. Kappa-casein polymorphisms in Indian dairy cattle and buffalo: a new genetic variant in buffalo.

    PubMed

    Mitra, A; Schlee, P; Krause, I; Blusch, J; Werner, T; Balakrishnan, C R; Pirchner, F

    1998-01-01

    We screened 57 Sahiwal cattle (Bos indicus) and 53 Murrah, 19 Nili-Ravi and 11 Egyptian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) to detect the polymorphisms at kappa-casein (CSN3) gene using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). CSN3 A and B alleles were identified by PCR-RFLP using the restriction enzymes that detect the underlying nucleotide changes at codon 136 (Taql) and at codon 148 (HindIII or HinfI) in cattle. The frequency of CSN3 B allele in the Sahiwal cattle was estimated as 0.16 with no homozygous BB animal. Using the same set of primers as used in the Sahiwal cattle, a part of exon IV of buffalo CSN3 gene was amplified, but restriction enzyme analysis using HindIII/HinfI and TaqI did not reveal any polymorphism. However, DNA sequencing of the amplified fragment (GenBank Acc. No. U96662) revealed one polymorphism at codon 135 (ThrACC -->I1eATC) in buffalo; the frequencies of 135 Thr/Ile alleles were estimated as 0.88 and 0.12, respectively. PMID:9713674

  19. Postnatal development of intestinal endocrine cell populations in the water buffalo

    PubMed Central

    LUCINI, CARLA; DE GIROLAMO, PAOLO; COPPOLA, LUIGI; PAINO, GIUSEPPE; CASTALDO, LUCIANA

    1999-01-01

    The frequency and distribution of 11 endocrine cell populations were studied in the intestine of differently aged buffalo, grouped on the basis of diet: 2-d-olds (suckling), 5-mo-olds (weaning) and 5-y-olds (ruminant adult diet). The endocrine cell populations were identified immunocytochemically using antisera against 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), somatostatin, gastrin, cholecystokinin (CCK), COOH-terminal octapeptide of gastrin/CCK, neurotensin, motilin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), secretin, glucagon/glicentin (GLU/GLI) and polypeptide YY (PYY). In adult buffalos the regional distribution of endocrine cells is similar to that of other adult ruminants. During postnatal development, these cell types showed the following changes in their frequency and distribution: (1) 5-HT, neurotensin and gastrin/CCK immunoreactive cells (i.c.) showed a decrease in frequency with age; (2) somatostatin i.c. frequency remained stable with age; (3) motilin, GIP, secretin and CCK i.c. showed a slight increase in frequency with age; (4) GLU/GLI and PYY i.c. decreased in frequency with age in the small intestine, caecum and proximal colon and an increase in frequency in the rectum. It was hypothesised that the endocrine cell types, whose presence and localisation is substantially stable in all examined ages, probably contain substances that are strictly necessary for intestinal function. In contrast the hormones contained in the cell populations that decreased with age, are probably involved in physiological needs during the milk and weaning diet or play a role in intestinal growth. PMID:10580859

  20. First molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from bovines (Bos taurus and Bubalus bubalis) in Sri Lanka: unexpected absence of C. parvum from pre-weaned calves

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia has important implications for investigating their epidemiology and underpins their control. We undertook the first molecular epidemiological survey of domestic bovids in selected regions of Sri Lanka to establish whether they excreted Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia with zoonotic potential. Methods Faecal samples were collected from dairy calves (n?=?340; Bos taurus; < 3months of age; weekly sampling for six weeks) and water buffaloes (n?=?297; Bubalus bubalis; <6months and ?6months of age; one sampling) from seven different farms in Sri Lanka. Genomic DNAs were extracted from individual faecal samples and then tested for the presence of parasite DNA using a PCR-based mutation scanning-targeted sequencing-phylogenetic approach, employing genetic markers within the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA and 60kDa glycoprotein genes (designated pSSU and pgp60, respectively) for Cryptosporidium, and within the triose phosphate isomerise (ptpi) gene for Giardia. Results Based on pSSU sequence data, C. bovis, C. ryanae and six new genotypes that were genetically similar but not identical to C. andersoni (n?=?1), C. bovis (n?=?1), C. ryanae (n?=?3) and C. suis (n?=?1) were recorded in cattle. For pSSU, two other, new genotypes were defined in water buffalo, which were genetically most similar to Cryptosporidium genotypes recorded previously in this host species in other countries including Australia. Consistent with the findings for pSSU, no species or genotypes of Cryptosporidium with zoonotic potential were detected using pgp60. Based on ptpi sequence data, G. duodenalis assemblages A and E were detected in four and 137 samples from cattle, respectively, and assemblage E in two samples from water buffaloes. Conclusions The present study showed that C. parvum, the most commonly reported zoonotic species of Cryptosporidium recognised in bovine calves globally, was not detected in any of the samples from pre-weaned calves tested in the present study. However, eight new genotypes were recorded. Future studies of different host species in various regions are required to investigate the molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis in Sri Lanka and neighbouring countries in South Asia. PMID:24559043

  1. The Correlation between Age, Body Weight and Testicular Parameters in Murrah Buffalo Bulls Raised in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da LUZ, Patrcia Aparecida Cardoso; SANTOS, Paulo Ramos da Silva; ANDRIGHETTO, Cristiana; JORGE, Andr Mendes; de ASSIS NETO, Antnio Chaves

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Buffalo are an economically important source for meat and milk production, especially in Brazil. However, important aspects of their biology remain unknown thus far. Herein, we describe the reproductive characteristics of male Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) raised under extensive management conditions by applying biometrics associated with testicular weight. We analyzed seven males, divided into two groups: G1, which consisted of four 18-month-old animals, and G2, which consisted of three 24-month-old animals. Testicular development occurs slowly in Murrah buffalo, suggesting a delay of sexual maturity. The biometric testicular parameters analyzed were scrotal circumference, testicular weight, testicular length, testicular width, testicular thickness and testicular circumference. Our data indicate strong correlations between SC, age and body weight, and additional significant relationships were identified between body weight, age and other testicular parameters. Thus, these parameters are suitable indicators when selecting bulls for breeding purposes. PMID:22986925

  2. Comparative analysis of the river buffalo somatostatin gene.

    PubMed

    Stafuzza, N B; Borges, M M; Amaral, M E J

    2014-01-01

    The somatostatin protein plays a crucial role in the regulation of multiple biological functions, such as growth, fat deposition, and nutrient absorption in vertebrates. Polymorphisms in the somatostatin gene have been associated with growth traits in livestock species, including cattle and goat. In this study, we conducted complete molecular characterization of the somatostatin gene in Bubalus bubalis (Murrah breed) by sequencing a Murrah BAC clone spanning 72,489 base pairs (bp) in length. The buffalo somatostatin gene contains 1481 bp organized into a 5'-untranslated region (135 bp), exon 1 (139 bp), intron 1 (839 bp), exon 2 (212 bp), and 3'UTR (156 bp). Comparative analysis between the buffalo somatostatin DNA coding sequence and the amino acid sequence with other bovids (cattle, goat, and sheep), horse, pig, human, rodents (mouse and rat), and chicken. Identity varied from 83-99% on the DNA sequence level and 88-100% on the protein level. In addition, a comparison of gene sequences between Murrah and Mediterranean breeds revealed 6 potential single-nucleotide polymorphisms (1 in exon 1 and 5 in intron 1), which were validated in different buffalo populations. This comparative analysis provides basic information for future studies of different buffalo herds using the position candidate gene approach, quantitative trait loci analysis, and polymorphisms associated with growth traits. PMID:25501213

  3. Molecular and serological detection of Babesia bovis- and Babesia bigemina-infection in bovines and water buffaloes raised jointly in an endemic field.

    PubMed

    Romero-Salas, Dora; Mira, Anabela; Mosqueda, Juan; García-Vázquez, Zeferino; Hidalgo-Ruiz, Mario; Vela, Noot Aditya Ortiz; de León, Adalberto Angel Perez; Florin-Christensen, Monica; Schnittger, Leonhard

    2016-02-15

    Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina are causative agents of bovine babesiosis, a tick-borne disease of cattle in tropical and subtropical regions. Babesia spp. infection adversely affects cattle health and can be fatal resulting in considerable economic loss worldwide. Under endemic stability conditions, herds contain high numbers of chronically infected, asymptomatic carrier animals, in which no parasitemia is detected by microscopic blood smear examination. In addition to bovines, also water buffaloes are infected by both Babesia spp. commonly leading to a subclinical infection. The infection rate (by nPCR) and herd exposure (by IFAT) of bovines and water buffaloes reared under similar field conditions in an area of endemic stability were determined and compared. In order to optimize direct parasite detection, highly sensitive nPCR assays were developed and applied, allowing the detection of as little as 0.1fg DNA of each Babesia pathogen. Significantly lower percentages (p<0.001) of seropositive water buffaloes compared to bovines were observed for B. bovis (71.4% vs. 98%) and B. bigemina (85% vs. 100%). Interestingly, in comparison, differences noticed between water buffaloes and bovines were considerably larger with direct parasite detection by nPCR (16.2% vs. 82.3% and 24% vs. 94.1% for B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively). As expected, bovines subjected to monthly acaricide applications exhibited a significant lower infection rate as determined by nPCR than bovines not subjected to these measures (B. bovis 33.3% vs. 90.7%, p<0.001; B. bigemina 80% vs. 96.5%, p<0.001, for treated vs. untreated animals). Interestingly no differences between these groups were observed with respect to seropositivity, suggesting similar rates of parasite exposure (B. bovis 100% vs. 97.7%, p<0.001; B. bigemina 100% vs. 100%, p<0.001). Importantly, a significantly higher number of water buffaloes as determined by nPCR were infected when reared jointly with bovines not subjected to tick control than when reared jointly with bovines subjected to tick control (B. bovis 31.6% vs. 9.5%, p<0.01; B. bigemina 42.1% vs. 9.5%, p<0.01, for water buffaloes reared with untreated vs. treated bovines) and/or when reared without bovines (B. bovis 31.6% vs. 11.6%, p<0.01; B. bigemina 42.1% vs. 20%, p<0.01). An accumulation of seropositivity and a decline of infection rates were observed in older animals, while differences observed with regard to gender may warrant further investigation. In summary, our findings suggest that water buffaloes are much more capable to limit or eliminate Babesia infection, possibly due to a more capable immune defense. Furthermore, an increased Babesia spp. parasite reservoir of bovines seems to increase the infection rate of water buffaloes when both are reared on the same pasture. PMID:26827869

  4. Molecular and seroepidemiological survey of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina infections in cattle and water buffaloes in the central region of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Luo, Yuzi; Cao, Shinuo; Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Lan, Dinh Thi Bich; Long, Phung Thang; Yu, Longzheng; Zhou, Mo; Gong, Haiyan; Zhang, Houshuang; Zhou, Jinlin; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, a total of 137 blood samples were collected from cattle and water buffaloes in central region of Vietnam and tested using nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) to determine the molecular and serological prevalence of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina. In cattle, the prevalence of B. bovis and B. bigemina was 21.3% and 16.0% by nPCR, 73.4% and 42.6% by ELISA and 60.6% and 59.6% by IFAT, respectively, whereas those of water buffalos were 23.3% and 0% by nPCR, 37.2% and 9.3% by ELISA and 27.9% and 18.6% by IFAT, respectively. IFAT and ELISA detected a higher number of infected cattle and water buffaloes than nPCR totally. Statistically significant differences in the prevalence of the two infections were observed on the basis of age. Overall, the current data suggest high incidence of B. bovis and B. bigemina infections in the central region of Vietnam, which is needed to develop comprehensive approach to the modern surveillance, diagnosis and control of bovine babesiosis. PMID:25382466

  5. Molecular and serological prevalence of Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis in cattle and water buffalos under small-scale dairy farming in Beheira and Faiyum Provinces, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Hany M; Adjou Moumouni, Paul F; Mohammed-Geba, Khaled; Sheir, Sherin K; Hashem, Ihab S Y; Cao, Shinuo; Terkawi, Mohamad A; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2013-11-15

    In order to determine the molecular and serological prevalence of Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis, a total of 247 blood samples were collected from cattle and water buffalos in Beheira and Faiyum Provinces in Egypt and examined by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In cattle, the prevalence of B. bigemina and B. bovis was 5.30% and 3.97% by nPCR and 10.60% and 9.27% by ELISA, respectively, whereas those of water buffalos were 10.42% and 4.17% by nPCR and 15.63% and 11.46% by ELISA, respectively. Statistically significant differences in the prevalence of the two infections were observed on the basis of age and health status. Sequencing analysis revealed two genotypes for B. bovis spherical body protein-4. In conclusion, the current data provide valuable information regarding the epidemiology of B. bigemina and B. bovis infections in cattle and water buffalos from Egypt, which can be employed in developing future strategies for disease management and control. PMID:24075417

  6. Clinical and molecular study of a new form of hereditary myotonia in Murrah water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Borges, Alexandre S; Barbosa, Jos D; Resende, Luiz Antnio L; Mota, Lgia S L S; Amorim, Rogrio M; Carvalho, Thas L; Garcia, Jos F; Oliveira-Filho, Jos P; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Souza, Jorge Estefano S; Winand, Nena J

    2013-03-01

    Hereditary myotonia caused by mutations in CLCN1 has been previously described in humans, goats, dogs, mice and horses. The goal of this study was to characterize the clinical, morphological and genetic features of hereditary myotonia in Murrah buffalo. Clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed on affected and normal animals. CLCN1 cDNA and the relevant genomic region from normal and affected animals were sequenced. The affected animals exhibited muscle hypertrophy and stiffness. Myotonic discharges were observed during EMG, and dystrophic changes were not present in skeletal muscle biopsies; the last 43 nucleotides of exon-3 of the CLCN1 mRNA were deleted. Cloning of the genomic fragment revealed that the exclusion of this exonic sequence was caused by aberrant splicing, which was associated with the presence of a synonymous SNP in exon-3 (c.396C>T). The mutant allele triggered the efficient use of an ectopic 5' splice donor site located at nucleotides 90-91 of exon-3. The predicted impact of this aberrant splicing event is the alteration of the CLCN1 translational reading frame, which results in the incorporation of 24 unrelated amino acids followed by a premature stop codon. PMID:23339992

  7. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma evansi infection in water buffaloes from the mountainous region of North Vietnam and effectiveness of trypanocidal drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Quoc Doanh; Nguyen, Thu-Thuy; Pham, Quang Phuc; LE, Ngoc My; Nguyen, Giang Thanh T; Inoue, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    Water buffalo (WB) is an important domestic animal in Vietnam. This study utilized a card agglutination test to investigate seroprevalence of surra in WB population. Sera were collected from 585 WB from 4 different regions in Cao Bang and Thai Nguyen Provinces. Among them, 131 samples (22.4%) were positive for surra. The highest prevalence (24.6%) was found among 3 to 5 years old WB. Buffaloes less than 3 years old had the lowest prevalence (15.6%). Among 27 abortion cases, 9 WB (33.3%) were surra positive. For treatment of surra, Berenil demonstrated a 100% cure rate, while that of Trypamidium was only 40%. Our findings suggest that the current control strategy has not succeeded in reducing prevalence of surra in Vietnam. PMID:23665513

  8. Embryo Sexing and Sex Chromosomal Chimerism Analysis by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification in Cattle and Water Buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    HIRAYAMA, Hiroki; KAGEYAMA, Soichi; MORIYASU, Satoru; SAWAI, Ken; MINAMIHASHI, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In domestic animals of the family Bovidae, sex preselection of offspring has been demanded for convenience of milk/beef production and animal breeding. Development of the nonsurgical embryo transfer technique and sexing methods of preimplantation embryos made it possible. Sexing based on detection of Y chromosome-specific DNA sequences is considered the most reliable method to date. PCR enables amplification of a target sequence from a small number of blastomeres. However, it requires technical skill and is time consuming. Furthermore, PCR has the risk of false positives because of DNA contamination during handling of the PCR products in duplicate PCR procedures and/or electrophoresis. Therefore, for embryo sexing to become widely used in the cattle embryo transfer industry, a simple, rapid and precise sexing method needs to be developed. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel DNA amplification method, and the reaction is carried out under isothermal conditions (range, 60 to 65 C) using DNA polymerase with strand displacement activity. When the target DNA is amplified by LAMP, a white precipitate derived from magnesium pyrophosphate (a by-product of the LAMP reaction) is observed. It is noteworthy that LAMP does not need special reagents or electrophoresis to detect the amplified DNA. This review describes the development and application of an embryo sexing method using LAMP in cattle and water buffaloes. PMID:23965599

  9. Embryo sexing and sex chromosomal chimerism analysis by loop-mediated isothermal amplification in cattle and water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Hiroki; Kageyama, Soichi; Moriyasu, Satoru; Sawai, Ken; Minamihashi, Akira

    2013-01-01

    In domestic animals of the family Bovidae, sex preselection of offspring has been demanded for convenience of milk/beef production and animal breeding. Development of the nonsurgical embryo transfer technique and sexing methods of preimplantation embryos made it possible. Sexing based on detection of Y chromosome-specific DNA sequences is considered the most reliable method to date. PCR enables amplification of a target sequence from a small number of blastomeres. However, it requires technical skill and is time consuming. Furthermore, PCR has the risk of false positives because of DNA contamination during handling of the PCR products in duplicate PCR procedures and/or electrophoresis. Therefore, for embryo sexing to become widely used in the cattle embryo transfer industry, a simple, rapid and precise sexing method needs to be developed. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel DNA amplification method, and the reaction is carried out under isothermal conditions (range, 60 to 65 C) using DNA polymerase with strand displacement activity. When the target DNA is amplified by LAMP, a white precipitate derived from magnesium pyrophosphate (a by-product of the LAMP reaction) is observed. It is noteworthy that LAMP does not need special reagents or electrophoresis to detect the amplified DNA. This review describes the development and application of an embryo sexing method using LAMP in cattle and water buffaloes. PMID:23965599

  10. Genetic diversity analysis of buffalo fatty acid synthase (FASN) gene and its differential expression among bovines.

    PubMed

    Niranjan, S K; Goyal, S; Dubey, P K; Kumari, N; Mishra, S K; Mukesh, M; Kataria, R S

    2016-01-10

    Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN) gene seems to be structurally and functionally different in bovines in view of their distinctive fatty acid synthesis process. Structural variation and differential expression of FASN gene is reported in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), a bovine species close to cattle, in this study. Amino acid sequence and phylogenetic analysis of functionally important thioesterase (TE) domain of FASN revealed its conserved nature across mammals. Amino acid residues at TE domain, responsible for substrate binding and processing, were found to be invariant in all the mammalian species. A total of seven polymorphic nucleotide sites, including two in coding region of TE domain were identified across the 10 buffalo populations of riverine and swamp types. G and C alleles were found almost fixed at g18996 and g19056 loci, respectively in riverine buffaloes. Principal component analysis of three SNPs (g18433, g18996 and g19056) revealed distinct classification of riverine and swamp buffalo populations. Reverse Transcription-PCR amplification of mRNA corresponding to exon 8-10 region of buffalo FASN helped in identification of two transcript variants; one transcript of 565 nucleotides and another alternate transcript of 207 nucleotides, seems to have arisen through alternative splicing. Both the transcripts were found to be expressed in most of the vital tissues of buffalo with the highest expression in mammary gland. Semi-quantitative and real-time expression analysis across 13 different buffalo tissues revealed its highest expression in lactating mammary gland. When compared, expression of FASN was also found to be higher in liver, adipose and skeletal muscle of buffalo tissues, than cattle. However, the FASN expression was highest in adipose among the three tissues in both the species. Results indicate structural and functional distinctiveness of bovine FASN. Presence of alternate splicing in buffalo FASN also seems to be a unique phenomenon to the bovines, probably associated with mRNA based regulation of the biological functions of FASN in these species. PMID:26376068

  11. The prion protein gene polymorphisms associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility differ significantly between cattle and buffalo.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Du, Yanli; Chen, Shunmei; Qing, Lili; Wang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Jingfei; Wu, Dongdong; Zhang, Yaping

    2015-12-01

    Prion protein, encoded by the prion protein gene (PRNP), plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Several polymorphisms within the PRNP are known to be associated with influencing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility in cattle, namely two insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms (a 23-bp indel in the putative promoter and a 12-bp indel in intron 1), the number of octapeptide repeats (octarepeats) present in coding sequence (CDS) and amino acid polymorphisms. The domestic buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, are a ruminant involved in various aspects of agriculture. It is of interest to ask whether the PRNP polymorphisms differ between cattle and buffalo. In this study, we analyzed the previously reported polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo breeds, and compared these polymorphisms in cattle with BSE, healthy cattle and buffalo by pooling data from the literature. Our analysis revealed three significant findings in buffalo: 1) extraordinarily low deletion allele frequencies of the 23- and 12-bp indel polymorphisms; 2) significantly low allelic frequencies of six octarepeats in CDS and 3) the presence of S4R, A16V, P54S, G108S, V123M, S154N and F257L substitutions in buffalo CDSs. Sequence alignments comparing the buffalo coding sequence to other species were analyzed using the McDonald-Kreitman test to reveal five groups (Bison bonasus, Bos indicus, Bos gaurus, Boselaphus tragocamelus, Syncerus caffer caffer) with significantly divergent non-synonymous substitutions from buffalo, suggesting potential divergence of buffalo PRNP and others. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of PRNP polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo. Our findings have provided evidence that buffaloes have a unique genetic background in the PRNP gene in comparison with cattle. PMID:26319996

  12. A Global View of 54,001 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) on the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip and Their Transferability to Water Buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Michelizzi, Vanessa N.; Wu, Xiaolin; Dodson, Michael V.; Michal, Jennifer J.; Zambrano-Varon, Jorge; McLean, Derek J.; Jiang, Zhihua

    2011-01-01

    The Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip features 54,001 informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that uniformly span the entire bovine genome. Among them, 52,255 SNPs have locations assigned in the current genome assembly (Btau_4.0), including 19,294 (37%) intragenic SNPs (i.e., located within genes) and 32,961 (63%) intergenic SNPs (i.e., located between genes). While the SNPs represented on the Illumina Bovine50K BeadChip are evenly distributed along each bovine chromosome, there are over 14,000 genes that have no SNPs placed on the current BeadChip. Kernel density estimation, a non-parametric method, was used in the present study to identify SNP-poor and SNP-rich regions on each bovine chromosome. With bandwidth = 0.05 Mb, we observed that most regions have SNP densities within 2 standard deviations of the chromosome SNP density mean. The SNP density on chromosome X was the most dynamic, with more than 30 SNP-rich regions and at least 20 regions with no SNPs. Genotyping ten water buffalo using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip revealed that 41,870 of the 54,001 SNPs are fully scored on all ten water buffalo, but 6,771 SNPs are partially scored on one to nine animals. Both fully scored and partially/no scored SNPs are clearly clustered with various sizes on each chromosome. However, among 43,687 bovine SNPs that were successfully genotyped on nine and ten water buffalo, only 1,159 were polymorphic in the species. These results indicate that the SNPs sites, but not the polymorphisms, are conserved between two species. Overall, our present study provides a solid foundation to further characterize the SNP evolutionary process, thus improving understanding of within- and between-species biodiversity, phylogenetics and adaption to environmental changes. PMID:21209788

  13. Searching for copy number variations in the buffalo genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water buffalo are economically important animals in many regions of the world, especially in developing countries. The International Water Buffalo Consortium will sequence an Italian inbred female (33-fold coverage) to build the genome assembly and additional individuals to screen for SNPs. Based on...

  14. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage...

  15. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage...

  16. Copper and zinc concentrations in uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle and pre-pubertal phase in water buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Alavi Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Asri Rezaie, Siamak; Khaki, Amir; Belbasi, Abulfazl; Tahmasebian, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    To investigate uterine fluid and serum copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) variations during the estrous cycle in water buffaloes, 71 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from the abattoir in Urmia, Iran. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examining ovarian structures; 18, 15, 16 and 22 were pro-estrous, estrous, met-estrous and diestrous, respectively. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. Blood serum and uterine fluid samples of 71 pre-pubertal buffalo calves were also collected and treated in similar manners. The mean ( SEM) total serum (77.10 1.50 g dL-1) and uterine fluid (296.40 9.40 ?g dL-1) Cu in cyclic cows was higher than the values of 54.00 1.10 ?g dL-1 and 133.40 5.70 ?g dL-1 in pre-pubertal calves, respectively. Blood serum (114.60 3.20 ?g dL-1) and the uterine fluid (349.90 8.90 ?g dL-1) Zn content in cyclic cows were also higher than those (98.80 1.50 ?g dL-1 and 246.6 4.50 ?g dL-1 respectively) in pre-pubertal calves. Serum Cu in pro-estrus and estrus were lower than those in other stages and also lower than those in the uterine fluid. The lowest serum Zn content was recorded in pro- and met-estrus, while in the uterine fluid it was observed in estrus. In all stages of estrous cycle the uterine fluid Zn content was significantly higher than those of the serum. These results suggested that during the estrous cycle in the buffalo cows, Cu and Zn were actively secreted in uterine lumen and were not dependent on blood serum. The values also increased after puberty.

  17. The effect of buffalo CD14 shRNA on the gene expression of TLR4 signal pathway in buffalo monocyte/macrophages.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangping; Li, Meiqing; Huang, Shihai; Qiao, Shuye; Qin, Zhaoxian; Kang, Chao; Shi, Deshun

    2014-12-01

    CD14 plays a crucial role in the inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which interacts with TLR4 and MD-2 to enable cell activation, resulting in inflammation. Upstream inhibition of the inflammation pathway mediated by bacterial LPS, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and cluster of differentiation antigen 14 (CD14) was proven to be an effective therapeutic approach for attenuating harmful immune activation. To explore the effect of CD14 downregulation on the expression of TLR4 signaling pathway-related genes after LPS stimulation in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) monocyte/macrophages, effective CD14 shRNA sequences were screened using qRT-PCR and FACS analysis with buffalo CD14 shRNA lentiviral recombinant plasmids (pSicoRGFP-shRNA) and buffalo CD14 fusion expression plasmids (pDsRed-N1-buffalo CD14) co-transfected into HEK293T cells via liposomes. Of the tested shRNAs, shRNA-1041 revealed the highest knockdown efficiency (p < 0.01). When buffalo peripheral blood monocyte/macrophages were infected with shRNA-1041 lentivirus and stimulated with LPS, the expression of endogenous CD14 was significantly decreased by CD14 shRNA (p < 0.01), and the mRNA expression levels of TLR4, IL-6 and TNF-? were also significantly downregulated compared to the control groups (p < 0.01). These results demonstrated that the knockdown of endogenous CD14 had clear regulatory effects on the signal transduction of TLR4 after stimulation with LPS. These results may provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of CD14 regulation in the development of several buffalo diseases. PMID:25355240

  18. Quantitative RT-PCR Detection of Hepatitis A Virus, Rotaviruses and Enteroviruses in the Buffalo River and Source Water Dams in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Chigor, Vincent Nnamdigadi; Okoh, Anthony Ifeanyi

    2012-01-01

    Human enteric viruses (HEntVs) are a major cause of water-related diseases. The prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV), rotaviruses (RoV) and enteroviruses (EnV) in Buffalo River waters was assessed quantitatively over a period of 12 months (August 2010 to July 2011). Seventy-two samples were collected from six sites, including three dams, and concentrated using the adsorption-elution method. Viral RNA was extracted using a commercial kit, and the viruses were quantified by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR). Two or more viruses were detected in 12.5% of the samples. HAV was detected in 43.1% of the samples and in significantly (p < 0.05) varying concentrations of 1.5 × 101–1.9 × 105 genome copies/L compared to RoV and EnV, while RoVs were detected in 13.9% of samples, with concentrations ranging from 2.5 × 101–2.1 × 103 genome copies/L, and EnV were detected in 9.7% of the samples, with concentrations ranging from 1.3 × 101–8.6 × 101 genome copies/L. Only HAV was detected at all the sites, with the Bridle Drift Dam recording significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations. The presence of enteric viruses in Buffalo River may constitute public health risks and the incidence of HAV at all the sites could reflect both the epidemiological status of hepatitis A and HAV persistence in the water environments. PMID:23202829

  19. TEMPERATURE AND CONDUCTIVITY MODELING FOR THE BUFFALO RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A hydrodynamic and water quality transport study of the Buffalo River has been conducted. sing a two-dimensional (laterally averaged) model and incorporating appropriate specification of boundary conditions, we simulated the transport of river water temperature and conductivity f...

  20. Thermal Band Characterization of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper. [Buffalo, New York and water temperature in Lake Erie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, J. C.; Barker, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    A quick look monitor in the spacecraft control center was used to measure the TM Band 6 shutter background and the 34.7 C internal blackbody signal on over 50 dates. Comparison of relative internal gains between the four channels to prelaunch values showed changes over 9 months of up to 5%, while 512 x 512 subsections of the original 10 daytime scenes showed scene counts that ranged from 135 down to 62. A night scene of the Buffalo area was used to determine channel gain relative to the mean and to discern a systematic along scan pattern in a difference between forward and reverse scan counts of up to 0.5. A corrected digital image was produced and individual gains and offsets were calculated for the four channels. At satellite radiance was determine and noise equivalent temperature difference was calculated. The calibration data and the Buffalo scene, with the corrections and estimates of the atmospheric transmission and radiance, were used to make a temperature estimate for an area of Lake Erie of 21 C to 27 C. Local records of the temperature showed 21 C.

  1. Copper and zinc concentrations in uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle and pre-pubertal phase in water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Alavi Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Asri Rezaie, Siamak; Khaki, Amir; Belbasi, Abulfazl; Tahmasebian, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    To investigate uterine fluid and serum copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) variations during the estrous cycle in water buffaloes, 71 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from the abattoir in Urmia, Iran. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examining ovarian structures; 18, 15, 16 and 22 were pro-estrous, estrous, met-estrous and diestrous, respectively. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. Blood serum and uterine fluid samples of 71 pre-pubertal buffalo calves were also collected and treated in similar manners. The mean (± SEM) total serum (77.10 ± 1.50 µg dL(-1)) and uterine fluid (296.40 ± 9.40 μg dL(-1)) Cu in cyclic cows was higher than the values of 54.00 ± 1.10 μg dL(-1) and 133.40 ± 5.70 μg dL(-1) in pre-pubertal calves, respectively. Blood serum (114.60 ± 3.20 μg dL(-1)) and the uterine fluid (349.90 ± 8.90 μg dL(-1)) Zn content in cyclic cows were also higher than those (98.80 ± 1.50 μg dL(-1) and 246.6 ± 4.50 μg dL(-1) respectively) in pre-pubertal calves. Serum Cu in pro-estrus and estrus were lower than those in other stages and also lower than those in the uterine fluid. The lowest serum Zn content was recorded in pro- and met-estrus, while in the uterine fluid it was observed in estrus. In all stages of estrous cycle the uterine fluid Zn content was significantly higher than those of the serum. These results suggested that during the estrous cycle in the buffalo cows, Cu and Zn were actively secreted in uterine lumen and were not dependent on blood serum. The values also increased after puberty. PMID:26893810

  2. Mass spectrometry detection of fraudulent use of cow whey in water buffalo, sheep, or goat Italian ricotta cheese.

    PubMed

    Camerini, Serena; Montepeloso, Emanuela; Casella, Marialuisa; Crescenzi, Marco; Marianella, Rosa Maria; Fuselli, Fabio

    2016-04-15

    Ricotta cheese is a typical Italian product, made with whey from various species, including cow, buffalo, sheep, and goat. Ricotta cheese nominally manufactured from the last three species may be fraudulently produced using the comparatively cheaper cow whey. Exposing such food frauds requires a reliable analytical method. Despite the extensive similarities shared by whey proteins of the four species, a mass spectrometry-based analytical method was developed that exploits three species-specific peptides derived from β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin. This method can detect as little as 0.5% bovine whey in ricotta cheese from the other three species. Furthermore, a tight correlation was found (R(2)>0.99) between cow whey percentages and mass spectrometry measurements throughout the 1-50% range. Thus, this method can be used for forensic detection of ricotta cheese adulteration and, if properly validated, to provide quantitative evaluations. PMID:26675863

  3. In vitro production of cattlexbuffalo hybrid embryos using cattle oocytes and African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) epididymal sperm.

    PubMed

    Owiny, O D; Barry, D M; Agaba, M; Godke, R A

    2009-04-01

    Interspecies hybridization of bovids occurs between domestic cattle and at least three other species; American bison (Bison bison), yak (Bos grunniens) and banteng (Bos banteng). Birth of a cattlexbuffalo (Bubalus bubalis) hybrid has reportedly occurred in Russia and in China, but these reports were not authenticated. Such hybrids could be important in improving livestock production and management of diseases that impede production in tropical Africa. This study investigated hybridization between cattle and its closest African wild bovid relative, the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer). In an attempt to produce cattlexbuffalo hybrid embryos in vitro, matured cattle oocytes were subjected to a standard in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure with either homologous cattle (n=1166 oocytes) or heterologous African buffalo (n=1202 oocytes) frozen-thawed epididymal sperm. After IVF, 67.2% of the oocytes inseminated with the homologous cattle sperm cleaved. In contrast, fertilization with buffalo sperm resulted in only a 4.6% cleavage rate. The cleavage intervals were also slower in hybrid embryos than in the IVF-derived cattle embryos. Of the cleaved homologous cattle embryos 52.2% progressed to the morula stage compared with 12.7% for the buffalo hybrid embryos. No hybrid embryos developed beyond the early morula stage, while 40.1% of the cleaved cattlexcattle embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Transfer of buffalo hybrid IVF embryos to domestic cattle surrogates resulted in no pregnancies at 60 days post-transfer. This study indicates that interspecies fertilization of cattle oocytes with African buffalo epididymal sperm can occur in vitro, and that a barrier to hybridization occurs in the early stages of embryonic development. Chromosomal disparity is likely the cause of the fertilization abnormalities, abnormal development and subsequent arrest impairing the formation of hybrid embryos beyond the early morula stage. Transfer of the buffalo hybrid embryos did not rescue the embryos from development arrest. PMID:19118889

  4. A duplex PCR-based assay for simultaneous detection of Trypanosoma evansi and Theileria annulata infections in water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Sudan, Vikrant; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Parashar, Rahul; Shanker, Daya

    2015-06-01

    Trypanosomosis and bovine tropical theileriosis are important vector-borne protozoan diseases imposing some of the serious constraints on the health and productivity of domestic cattle in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Following recovery from primary infection of both these conditions, animals become persistent carriers and act as reservoirs of infection thereby playing a critical role in disease epidemiology. The present study describes development and evaluation of duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for simultaneous detection of Trypanosoma evansi and Theileria annulata in buffaloes. Following in silico screening for candidate target genes representing each of the pathogens, an optimized duplex PCR assay was established using TBR F/R and TAMS F/R as primer sets encoding for products of 164 and 721bp for T. evansi and T. annulata, respectively. The results were compared and correlated with conventional Giemsa-stained thin blood smear examination and the single PCR assay. The duplex PCR detected each pathogen with the same level of sensitivity, irrespective of whether its DNA was amplified in isolation or together with DNA of another pathogen. Moreover, single and duplex PCRs were able to detect each species with equal sensitivity in serially diluted DNA representing mixtures of T. evansi and T. annulata, and no evidence of nonspecific amplification from nontarget species was observed. The developed assay may be seen as a good tool for epidemiological studies aiming at assessing the burden of dual infections and improving control of the associated diseases in endemic regions. PMID:25846571

  5. OPTIXcell improves the postthaw quality and fertility of buffalo bull sperm.

    PubMed

    Ansari, M S; Rakha, B A; Akhter, S; Ashiq, M

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the liposome-containing, animal protein-free, commercially available OPTIXcell extender with the Tris-citric-egg yolk extender for postthaw quality and fertility of buffalo semen. Semen was collected from five adult Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls of similar age group with an artificial vagina (at 42C) for 3weeks (replicates). Semen ejaculates from each buffalo bull were divided into two aliquots and diluted (at 37C having 50נ10(6) spermatozoa/mL) in the OPTIXcell or Tris-citric-egg yolk (control) extender. Diluted semen was cooled to 4C in 2hours, equilibrated for 4hours, and filled in 0.5-mL straws. The semen straws were kept over liquid nitrogen vapors (5cm) for 10minutes. The straws were then plunged and stored in liquid nitrogen (-196C). After 24hours of storage, the semen straws were thawed at 37C for 30seconds to assess postthaw quality. Percentages of sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, viability, and acrosomal integrity were improved (P<0.05) in the OPTIXcell extender compared to the Tris-citric-egg yolk extender. Values for DNA integrity (%) did not differ in the OPTIXcell and Tris-citric-egg yolk extenders. The overall conception rate in buffaloes was improved (P<0.05) with semen cryopreserved in the OPTIXcell extender (59.5%) compared to semen cryopreserved in the Tris-citric-egg yolk extender (41.5%). It is concluded that the liposome-containing commercially available OPTIXcell extender is more efficient to conserve postthaw quality and resulted in higher fertility rate of buffalo in the field. PMID:26522702

  6. Influence of cutting and deboning operations on the microbiological quality and shelf life of buffalo meat.

    PubMed

    Voloski, F L S; Tonello, L; Ramires, T; Reta, G G; Dewes, C; Iglesias, M; Mondadori, R G; Gandra, E A; da Silva, W P; Duval, E H

    2016-06-01

    Considering the specific biochemical composition of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) meat (high iron content, high biological value proteins and essential fatty acids, low amounts of fat and cholesterol), we evaluated the influence of cutting and deboning operations on the microbiological quality and shelf-life of vacuum-packed buffalo meat stored under refrigeration. On the processing day, samples were collected from carcass, deboning room surfaces and meat cuts. Samples from meat cuts were evaluated weekly for two months. On the processing day, higher counts of Pseudomonas spp. were observed in samples from meat cuts compared with the hindquarters and the processing surfaces. For thermotolerant coliform scores, the averages were -0.5log MPN·cm(-2), -0.4log MPN·cm(-2) and 0.9log MPN·g(-1), respectively. Higher counts of Pseudomonas spp. and LAB in meat cuts were observed on the processing day and after the first week of storage, respectively, remaining constant during shelf life. Listeria grayi was identified in two samples of hindquarters and meat cuts during storage. Listeria innocua was identified in one meat cut. In conclusion, cutting and deboning operations influence the microbiological quality and shelf life of vacuum-packed buffalo meat stored under refrigeration. PMID:26897086

  7. Effects of In Vitro Zinc Sulphate Additive to The Semen Extender on Water Buffalo (Bubalusbubalis) Spermatozoa before and after Freezing

    PubMed Central

    Dorostkar, Kamran; Alavi Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Khaki, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of in vitro zinc sulphate additive to semen extender on sperm parameters (progressive motility, viability, membrane integrity and DNA stability) after cryopreservation. Materials and Methods In this Prospective longitudinal laboratory study, semen samples of 5 buffalo bulls of 3-5 years old were collected at 5 different occasions from Iran, Urmia during summer and autumn 2011, 25 samples were used in each treatment. Sperm progressive motility, viability and abnormal morphology were measured before and at 0.5 (T0), 1(T1) and 2(T2) hours after diluting semen(1:10 v/v) in Tris-citric acid based extender (without egg yolk and glycerol) at 37˚C containing none (control group), 0.072, 0.144, 0.288, 0.576 and 1.152 mg/L zinc sulphate to investigate dose and time effects. Next, a Tris-citric acid-egg yolk-glycerol extender (20% egg yolk and 7% glycerol) containing the same amount of zinc sulphate was prepared, diluted semen (1:10 v/v) was cooled and kept into a refrigerated chamber (4˚C) for 4 hours to equilibrate. Sperm progressive motility, viability, abnormal morphology, membrane integrity and DNA damage were estimated.The equilibrated semen was loaded in 0.5 ml French straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Later, the frozen semen was thawed and the same parameters as well as total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the frozen-thawed semen were determined. Results The results showed that zinc sulphate additive at the rate of 0.288 mg/L gave a higher protection of sperm progressive motility (53.7 ± 1.8% vs. 40.5 ± 1.7%), viability (70.8 ± 1.8% vs. 60.1 ± 1.5%), membrane integrity (67.3 ± 1.6% vs. 56.6 ± 1.7%), DNA stability (10.1 ± 0.47% vs. 11.8 ± 0.33% damaged DNA) through the process of dilution, equilibration and freeze-thawing and caused a higher TAC level (81 ± 3.3% vs. 63 ± 3.2 µmol/L) after freez-thawing compared to the control group. Adding 0.576 and 1.152 mg/L zinc sulphate, however, was deleterious to the sperm and significantly reduced the studied sperm parameters. Conclusion Adding 0.288 mg/L zinc sulphate to the extender, compared to the control group, gives a better sperm preservation upon freezing processes which in turn, may results in higher semen fertility. But, addition of higher zinc sulphate concentrations (0.576 and 1.152 mg/L) are detrimental to buffalo spermatozoa. PMID:25379162

  8. Bovine calves as ideal bio-indicators for fluoridated drinking water and endemic osteo-dental fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Choubisa, S L

    2014-07-01

    Relative susceptibility to fluoride (F) toxicosis in the form of osteo-dental fluorosis was observed in an observational survey of 2,747 mature and 887 immature domestic animals of diverse species living in areas with naturally fluoridated (>1.5ppmF) drinking water. These animals included buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), cattle (Bos taurus), camels (Camelus dromedarius), donkeys (Equus asinus), horses (Equus caballus), goats (Capra hircus), and sheep (Ovis aries). Of these mature and immature animals, 899 (32.7%) and 322 (36.3%) showed evidence of dental fluorosis with varying grades, respectively. Their incisor teeth were stained with light to deep brownish color. On clinical examination, 31.2% mature and 10.7% immature animals revealed periosteal exostoses, intermittent lameness, and stiffness of tendons in the legs as signs of skeletal fluorosis. The maximum susceptibility to fluoride toxicosis was found in bovines (buffaloes and cattle) followed by equines (donkeys and horses), flocks (goats and sheep), and camelids (camels). The bovine calves were found to be more sensitive and highly susceptible to F toxicosis and revealed the maximum prevalence (92.2%) of dental fluorosis. This indicates that bovine calves are less tolerant and give early sign of F poisoning (dental fluorosis) and therefore, they can be considered as bio-indicators for fluoridated water as well as for endemicity of osteo-dental fluorosis. Causes for variation in susceptibility to F toxicosis (fluorosis) in various species of domestic animal are also discussed. PMID:24671615

  9. At 1050 Gallery, Block 12, two centrifugal pumps, Buffalo Pumps, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    At 1050 Gallery, Block 12, two centrifugal pumps, Buffalo Pumps, Buffalo, NY, driven by Allis Chalmers motors (size 3 HSO, head 230, 120 cpm, 1750, rpm, Impulse dia. 15) installed in the 1960s and used for water-cooling system for 230-kv cable; the cables have been removed and the pumps are not currently used. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  10. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor mutations are associated with white-spotted coat color in swamp buffalo.

    PubMed

    Yusnizar, Y; Wilbe, M; Herlino, A O; Sumantri, C; Noor, R Rachman; Boediono, A; Andersson, L; Andersson, G

    2015-12-01

    A candidate gene analysis of the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) gene was used in an attempt to identify the genetic basis for a white-spotted coat color phenotype in the Asian swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis carabanensis). Ninety-three buffaloes-32 solid, 38 spotted and 23 white individuals-were Sanger-sequenced for all MITF exons as well as highly conserved intronic and flanking regions. MITF cDNA representing skin and iris tissue from six spotted, nine solid and one white buffaloes was also Sanger-sequenced to confirm detected mutations. Two independent loss-of-function mutations, a premature stop codon (c.328C>T, p.Arg110*) and a donor splice-site mutation (c.840+2T>A, p.Glu281_Leu282Ins8), both of which cause white-spotted coat color in swamp buffaloes, were identified. The nonsense mutation leads to a premature stop codon in exon 3, and likely removal of the resulting mRNA via nonsense-mediated decay pathway, whereas the donor splice-site mutation leads to aberrant splicing of exon 8 that encodes part of a highly conserved region of MITF. The resulting insertion of eight amino acid residues is expected to perturb the leucine zipper part in the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) domain and will most likely influence dimerization and DNA binding capacity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay was performed using mutant and wild-type MITF proteins and showed that the mutant MITF protein resulting from the splice-site mutation decreased in vitro DNA binding capacity compared to wild-type MITF. White-spotted buffalo bulls are sacrificed in funeral ceremonies in Tana Toraja, Indonesia, because they are considered holy, and our results show that genetic variation causes a tie to the cultural use of these buffaloes. PMID:26417640

  11. 33 CFR 207.580 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.580 Section 207.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS 207.580 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.;...

  12. 33 CFR 207.580 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.580 Section 207.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS 207.580 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.;...

  13. The fishes of Buffalo National River, Arkansas, 2001-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James C.; Justus, B.G.

    2005-01-01

    During June through September 2001 and 2002, extensive fish community sampling was conducted at 29 sites within the boundaries of Buffalo National River. Samples were collected using backpack, tote barge, and boat electrofishing equipment. Kick seining also was used at all sites. To supplement these results, samples were collected in 2003 from less typical habitats and during other seasons of the year. Ten supplemental samples were collected from the Buffalo River and five samples were collected from tributaries of the Buffalo River. During the 3 years of sampling, 66 species of fish were collected or observed from the 42 sampling sites. Stonerollers, duskystripe shiners, longear sunfish, and rainbow darters were among the more abundant fish species at most sites. Each of these species is common and abundant throughout much of the Ozark Plateaus in creeks and small rivers. Other species (for example, banded sculpin, southern redbelly dace, orangethroat darter, and Ozark minnow) were among the more abundant species at other sites. These species prefer small- to medium-sized, springfed streams or small creeks. A preliminary list of species expected to occur at Buffalo National River provided by the National Park Service incorrectly listed 47 species because of incorrect species range or habitat requirements. Upon revising this list, the inventory yielded 66 of the 78 species (85 percent). Twelve additional species not collected in 2001-2003 may occur at Buffalo National River for two primary reasons--because the species had been collected previously at the park, or because the park occurs within the known species range and habitats found at the park are suitable for the species. Although no fish species collected from Buffalo National River are federally-listed threatened or endangered species, several species collected at Buffalo National River may be of special interest to National Park Service managers and others. Ten species are endemic to the Ozark Plateaus area and most of these ten are restricted to the White River Basin. For some species the Buffalo River is a population stronghold. The yoke darter and Ozark bass are especially abundant in the Buffalo River. In Arkansas, the Ozark shiner is most abundant in the Buffalo River and, although populations of Ozark shiners are declining in Arkansas, this is not typically the case in the Buffalo River. Data from 2001-2003 indicate that gilt darters currently (2005) are less common in the Buffalo River than during the 1970's. Populations of channel catfish (and any other fish species whose movements are inhibited by the cold water temperatures of the White River) may continue to decline without remedial efforts.

  14. Y-chromosomal variation confirms independent domestications of swamp and river buffalo.

    PubMed

    Yindee, M; Vlamings, B H; Wajjwalku, W; Techakumphu, M; Lohachit, C; Sirivaidyapong, S; Thitaram, C; Amarasinghe, A A A W K; Alexander, P A B D A; Colenbrander, B; Lenstra, J A

    2010-08-01

    Y-chromosomal variation in the water buffalo was analysed by sequencing of DBY, ZFY and SRY gene segments. A clear separation of the paternal lineages of the river and swamp types parallels the differences between their maternal lineages and nuclear DNA. Sequence divergence was found to be comparable to the divergence of taurine cattle and zebu, and this divergence predated domestication, confirming that river and swamp buffalo originated from different wild populations. Within a sample of 23 Thai swamp buffaloes, we identified four haplotypes with different geographical distributions, two of which were shared by Thai wild buffaloes. PMID:20219068

  15. Generation of a Novel Bacteriophage Library Displaying scFv Antibody Fragments from the Natural Buffalo Host to Identify Antigens from Adult Schistosoma japonicum for Diagnostic Development.

    PubMed

    Hosking, Christopher G; McWilliam, Hamish E G; Driguez, Patrick; Piedrafita, David; Li, Yuesheng; McManus, Donald P; Ilag, Leodevico L; Meeusen, Els N T; Veer, Michael J de

    2015-12-01

    The development of effective diagnostic tools will be essential in the continuing fight to reduce schistosome infection; however, the diagnostic tests available to date are generally laborious and difficult to implement in current parasite control strategies. We generated a series of single-chain antibody Fv domain (scFv) phage display libraries from the portal lymph node of field exposed water buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, 11-12 days post challenge with Schistosoma japonicum cercariae. The selected scFv-phages showed clear enrichment towards adult schistosomes and excretory-secretory (ES) proteins by immunofluorescence, ELISA and western blot analysis. The enriched libraries were used to probe a schistosome specific protein microarray resulting in the recognition of a number of proteins, five of which were specific to schistosomes, with RNA expression predominantly in the adult life-stage based on interrogation of schistosome expressed sequence tags (EST). As the libraries were enriched by panning against ES products, these antigens may be excreted or secreted into the host vasculature and hence may make good targets for a diagnostic assay. Further selection of the scFv library against infected mouse sera identified five soluble scFv clones that could selectively recognise soluble whole adult preparations (SWAP) relative to an irrelevant protein control (ovalbumin). Furthermore, two of the identified scFv clones also selectively recognised SWAP proteins when spiked into naïve mouse sera. These host B-cell derived scFvs that specifically bind to schistosome protein preparations will be valuable reagents for further development of a cost effective point-of-care diagnostic test. PMID:26684756

  16. Generation of a Novel Bacteriophage Library Displaying scFv Antibody Fragments from the Natural Buffalo Host to Identify Antigens from Adult Schistosoma japonicum for Diagnostic Development

    PubMed Central

    Hosking, Christopher G.; McWilliam, Hamish E. G.; Driguez, Patrick; Piedrafita, David; Li, Yuesheng; McManus, Donald P.; Ilag, Leodevico L.; Meeusen, Els N. T.; de Veer, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The development of effective diagnostic tools will be essential in the continuing fight to reduce schistosome infection; however, the diagnostic tests available to date are generally laborious and difficult to implement in current parasite control strategies. We generated a series of single-chain antibody Fv domain (scFv) phage display libraries from the portal lymph node of field exposed water buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, 1112 days post challenge with Schistosoma japonicum cercariae. The selected scFv-phages showed clear enrichment towards adult schistosomes and excretory-secretory (ES) proteins by immunofluorescence, ELISA and western blot analysis. The enriched libraries were used to probe a schistosome specific protein microarray resulting in the recognition of a number of proteins, five of which were specific to schistosomes, with RNA expression predominantly in the adult life-stage based on interrogation of schistosome expressed sequence tags (EST). As the libraries were enriched by panning against ES products, these antigens may be excreted or secreted into the host vasculature and hence may make good targets for a diagnostic assay. Further selection of the scFv library against infected mouse sera identified five soluble scFv clones that could selectively recognise soluble whole adult preparations (SWAP) relative to an irrelevant protein control (ovalbumin). Furthermore, two of the identified scFv clones also selectively recognised SWAP proteins when spiked into nave mouse sera. These host B-cell derived scFvs that specifically bind to schistosome protein preparations will be valuable reagents for further development of a cost effective point-of-care diagnostic test. PMID:26684756

  17. Comparative expression profiling of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 in milk of Bos indicus and Bubalus bubalis during lactation.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, S K; Singh, S; Kumar, S; Dang, A K; Datta, T K; Das, S K; Mohanty, T K; Kaushik, J K; Mohanty, A K

    2015-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) is a key molecule in mammary gland development, which facilitates the removal of mammary epithelial cells (MECs) by apoptosis that takes place during remodeling of the mammary gland during involution. IGFBP-5 binds with IGFs for their bioavailability. IGFBP-5 has been reported to perform pleiotropic roles such as cellular apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. To understand the role of IGFBP-5 during lactation and clinical mastitis, expression profiling of IGFBP-5 at the protein level was performed in both indigenous cows (Bos indicus) and buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) belonging to two different breeds - Sahiwal cows and Murrah buffaloes. Reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) of IGFBP-5 mRNA confirmed its expression in milk somatic cells and MECs of Sahiwal cows. ELISA was performed for quantitative measurement of IGFBP-5 concentrations in milk during different days (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300) of lactation, during the involution period and in animals exhibiting short lactation and clinical mastitis. The highest concentration of IGFBP-5 in milk was observed during the involution period followed by colostrum, late and early lactation, respectively, in both cattle and buffaloes. No significant difference in the concentration of IGFBP-5 was observed during the first 150 days of lactation between cows and buffaloes. However, higher concentration of IGFBP-5 was observed in cows during late lactation (200 to 300 days) in comparison with buffaloes. To validate the ELISA data, quantitative real-time PCR was performed in MECs of Sahiwal cows. The relative mRNA abundance of IGFBP-5 was found to be significantly (P<0.05) higher on day 15 than between 50 and 150 days of lactation in case of Sahiwal cows. Highest mRNA expression of IGFBP-5 was observed around 300 days of lactation followed by 200 and 250 days (P<0.05), respectively. Murrah buffaloes showed low levels of IGFBP-5 protein in milk as compared with Sahiwal cows during lactation in ELISA. Animals having history of short lactation length (short lactating animals) showed higher levels of IGFBP-5 expression (at protein level) in comparison with normal lactating animals. We propose that higher level IGFBP-5 expression may have functional significance in lactation persistency. As a pro-apoptotic molecule, higher expression of IGFBP-5 was observed to be inversely related to lactation length and milk production. PMID:25491373

  18. Water quality in Reedy Fork and Buffalo Creek basins in the Greensboro area, North Carolina, 1986-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davenport, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Water and bottom-sediment samples were collected from April 1986 through September 1987 at 19 sites in Guilford County and the City of Greensboro, North Carolina. Sampling locations included 13 stream sites, two lakes that supply the City of Greensboro with drinking water, two City of Greensboro finished drinking-water filtration plants, and effluent from the two municipal wastewater plants prior to outfall into receiving streams. Water sampling consisted of six surveys during various stages of steady ground-water flow at all sites and high-flow-event sampling during two storms at six sites. Bottom-sediment samples were collected at three sites during two routine sampling surveys. A summary of nearly 22, 000 separate chemical or physical analyses of water samples or bottom sediment is presented and discussed as individual values, ranges of values, or median values with respect to the locations of sampling sites, streamflow conditions, or other information bearing on water-quality conditions under discussion. The results include discussions of general water-quality indicators; major ion, nutrient, and trace-element concentrations; acid and base/neutral extractable organic compounds; volatile organic compounds; and organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides detected at each sampling site. Loadings of selected constituents are also estimated on a yearly and daily basis. The quality of the raw and finished water, municipal effluents, and streams in the Greensboro area are characterized by using State and Federal water-quality standards. Inorganic constituents most commonly found in excess of standards were iron, copper, zinc, arsenic, phosphorus, manganese, cyanide, and mercury. Relatively few organic compounds were detected; however, those consistently reported were phthalate, thihalomethane, organophosphorus pesticide, benzol, and phenolic compounds. Selected inorganic, physical, and total organic carbon data are used in a Wilcoxon test for two independent variables to statistically compare water-quality characteristics in selected rural, semideveloped and urban basins. During low-flow sampling, the constituents that differed significantly among all sites were calcium, magnesium, and chloride. During low flows, concentrations of orthophosphate, fluoride, sulfate, and TOC differed at the urban site from the rural and semideveloped and urban sites. There were no significant differences among sites in concentrations of sodium, suspended sediment, nickel, zinc, copper, and mercury during low flows. The Wilcoxon test performed on high-flow data indicated that concentrations of TOC, chloride, sulfate, suspended sediment, and nickel were not significantly different among the sites.

  19. 76 FR 20530 - Safety Zone; Boom Days, Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Boom Days, Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo... temporary safety zone in the Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY for the Boom Days Fireworks. This zone is... Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY during the Boom Days Fireworks on April 16, 2011. This temporary safety...

  20. Expression and antigenic characterization of bubaline herpesvirus 1 (BuHV1) glycoprotein E and its potential application in the epidemiology and control of alphaherpesvirus infections in Mediterranean water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Nogarol, C; Bertolotti, L; De Carlo, E; Masoero, L; Caruso, C; Profiti, M; Martucciello, A; Galiero, G; Cordioli, P; Lelli, D; Nardelli, S; Ingravalle, F; Rosati, S

    2014-10-01

    Bubaline herpesvirus 1 (BuHV1) is a member of ruminant alphaherpesviruses antigenically related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV1). The impact of BuHV1 infection in infectious bovine rhinotracheitis control program is difficult to establish, due to the lack of specific diagnostic test. The ectodomain of glycoprotein E of BuHV1 was expressed as recombinant secreted protein and used in indirect ELISA as well as in a discriminatory test using the BoHV1 counterpart. A panel of monoclonal antibodies was produced against BuHV1; 6 out of 7 anti-gE monoclonal antibodies specifically recognized the BuHV1 gE. Results indicated BuHV1 gE as a sensitive marker of infection compared to seroneutralization (SN) test or blocking ELISA. When BoHV1 and BuHV1 gEs were immobilized in different wells of the same ELISA microplate, bovine and water buffalo sera were more reactive against the respective infecting virus. About one third of seropositive buffaloes with no history of contact with cattle and having higher SN titres, reacted in BoHV1 gE blocking ELISA, possibly because of steric hindrance. Since in two occasions BuHV1 was also isolated from water buffalo scoring gB+/gE+ BoHV1 blocking ELISA, we conclude that the combination of the two blocking ELISAs is not suitable to differentiate between BoHV1 and BuHV1. PMID:24992670

  1. Technical and economical feasibility of buffalo gourd as a novel energy crop: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, B.

    1988-02-01

    The New Mexico Solar Energy Institute at NMSU has conducted a two-year investigation into the technical and economic feasibility of using the buffalo gourd plant as an energy feedstock in eastern New Mexico. The New Mexico buffalo gourd project conducted field planting trials to determine optimum planting density, fertilizer levels, and irrigation regime. Starchy roots produced by the field plantings were evaluated as an ethanol feedstock at both laboratory and pilot scale. These studies indicate that buffalo gourd is well suited for root production in eastern New Mexico. Current cultivars of buffalo gourd can be most efficiently produced under dry land farming conditions with little, if any, supplemental fertilizer. Traditional plant breeding techniques can be profitably employed on the buffalo gourd to breed a size and shape of root more easily harvested by existing farm machinery. Because of its sensitivity to root rot, buffalo gourd must be grown in well drained soils. Finally, buffalo gourd has been shown to be an excellent feedstock for ethanol production provided necessary pre-fermentation processing (chopping of roots) is performed correctly. A model was created to determine the economic feasibility of growing buffalo gourd in eastern New Mexico. It was determined that the net return to a farmer in eastern New Mexico can be higher planting buffalo gourd than many traditionally grown crops because of buffalo gourd's low water and fertilizer requirements. The model further indicates that net return is heavily influenced by root yield. Continued research is needed to optimize buffalo gourd root yield, as well as root size and shape, disease resistance, etc. A clearly defined R and D agenda and commercialization strategy is presented and discussed. Buffalo gourd has been demonstrated to have high potential as an alternative feedstock for ethanol production in eastern New Mexico. 128 refs., 9 figs., 28 tabs.

  2. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Buffalo, New York. 162.175 Section 162.175 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed 6 miles per hour. Note: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33...

  3. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Buffalo, New York. 162.175 Section 162.175 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed 6 miles per hour. Note: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33...

  4. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Buffalo, New York. 162.175 Section 162.175 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed 6 miles per hour. Note: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33...

  5. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Buffalo, New York. 162.175 Section 162.175 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed 6 miles per hour. Note: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33...

  6. Actin Polymerization: An Event Regulated by Tyrosine Phosphorylation During Buffalo Sperm Capacitation.

    PubMed

    Naresh, S; Atreja, S K

    2015-12-01

    In the female reproductive tract, the spermatozoa undergo a series of physiological and biochemical changes, prior to gaining the ability to fertilize, that result to capacitation. However, the actin polymerization and protein tyrosine phosphorylation are the two necessary steps for capacitation. In this study, we have demonstrated the actin polymerization and established the correlation between protein tyrosine phosphorylation and actin reorganization during invitro capacitation in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa. Indirect immunofluorescence and Western blot techniques were used to detect actin polymerization and tyrosine phosphorylation. The time-dependent fluorimetric studies revealed that the actin polymerization starts from the tail region and progressed towards the head region of spermatozoa during capacitation. The lysophosphatidyl choline (LPC)-induced acrosome reaction (AR) stimulated quick actin depolymerization. The inhibitor cytochalasin D (CD) blocked the invitro capacitation by inhibiting the actin polymerization. In addition, we also performed different inhibitor (Genistein, H-89, PD9809 and GF-109) and enhancer (dbcAMP, H2 O2 and vanadate) studies on actin tyrosine phosphorylation and actin polymerization. The inhibitors of tyrosine phosphorylation inhibit actin tyrosine phosphorylation and polymerization, whereas enhancers of tyrosine phosphorylation stimulate F-actin formation and tyrosine phosphorylation. These observations suggest that the tyrosine phosphorylation regulates the actin polymerization, and both are coupled processes during capacitation of buffalo spermatozoa. PMID:26514336

  7. Effect of donor cell type on developmental competence, quality, gene expression, and epigenetic status of interspecies cloned embryos produced using cells from wild buffalo and oocytes from domestic buffalo.

    PubMed

    Saini, M; Selokar, N L; Raja, A K; Sahare, A A; Singla, S K; Chauhan, M S; Manik, R S; Palta, P

    2015-07-01

    This study compared the cloning efficiency of donor cells of fibroblast and epithelial origin isolated from ear skin of a wild buffalo (Bubalus arnee) and used with cytoplasts from domestic buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in interspecies SCNT by hand-made cloning. The cleavage (93.0 2.8% vs. 85.6 2.4%) and blastocyst rates (50.6 4.0% vs. 20.5 2.6%) were higher (P < 0.05) for fibroblasts than those for epithelial cells, whereas the total cell number (490 42 and 492 95, respectively) and apoptotic index (2.3 0.3 and 2.5 0.6, respectively) of blastocysts were similar. The global level of H3K18ac and H3K27me3 was lower (P < 0.05) in fibroblasts than that in epithelial cells. The global level of H3K18ac was higher (P < 0.05) in fibroblast than that in epithelial cell-derived blastocysts, whereas that of H3K27me3 was similar between the two groups. The expression level of HDAC1, DNMT1, DNMT3a, and P53 was higher (P < 0.05) in fibroblasts than that in epithelial cells; that of CASPASE3 showed an opposite pattern (P < 0.001), whereas CASPASE7 expression level was similar in the two groups. In the embryos, the expression level of HDAC1, DNMT3a, and CDX2 was lower (P < 0.05) in fibroblast than that in epithelial cell-derived blastocysts; that of NANOG showed an opposite pattern (P < 0.05), whereas that of OCT4 was similar between the two groups. In conclusion, donor cells of fibroblast origin are easier to reprogram than those of epithelial origin in interspecies SCNT, and cloning efficiency, epigenetic status, and gene expression pattern vary among cells having different origin although they may be from the same tissue. PMID:25799471

  8. Effects of Treatment for Anestrus in Water Buffaloes with PGF2? and GnRH in Comparison with Vitamin-Mineral Supplement, and Some Factors Influencing Treatment Effects

    PubMed Central

    DEVKOTA, Bhuminand; NAKAO, Toshihiko; KOBAYASHI, Kosaku; SATO, Hiroshi; SAH, Shyam Kishor; SINGH, Dinesh Kumar; DHAKAL, Ishwori Prasad; YAMAGISHI, Norio

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The effect of treatment for anestrus in buffaloes with a PGF2? or GnRH injection and vitamin-mineral (Vit-M) supplementation for 1 to 2 months and some factors influencing the treatment effect were studied. In anestrus buffaloes with CL, an injection of PGF2? tended to show higher estrus detection and pregnancy rates within 17 days after treatment than Vit-M supplementation (P<0.10). In those with inactive ovaries, effect of GnRH and Vit-M did not differ. Body condition score of the animals before treatment affected pregnancy rate within 17 days after treatment (P<0.05). Pregnancy rate within 4 months after treatment was adversely influenced by low serum concentrations of calcium (P<0.01) and gastrointestinal parasitic infection before treatment (P<0.05). PMID:23884020

  9. UPPER BUFFALO WILDERNESS AND BUFFALO ADDITION ROADLESS AREA, ARKANSAS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mary H.; Armstrong, Michelle K.

    1984-01-01

    The Upper Buffalo Wilderness and Buffalo Addition Roadless Area covers about 19 sq mi in the Ozark National Forest, Newton County, Arkansas. No metal-bearing minerals were observed during geologic mapping, and analyses for zinc and lead contents in surface rock and sediment samples from the study area are not anomalous. Exploratory drilling into the Boone Formation and (or) the Everton Formation will be necessary to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of zinc and lead in the study area.

  10. Anthelmintic Effect of Biocompatible Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on Gigantocotyle explanatum, a Neglected Parasite of Indian Water Buffalo.

    PubMed

    Khan, Yasir Akhtar; Singh, Braj Raj; Ullah, Rizwan; Shoeb, Mohd; Naqvi, Alim H; Abidi, Syed M A

    2015-01-01

    Helminth parasites of veterinary importance cause huge revenue losses to agrarian economy worldwide. With the emergence of drug resistance against the current formulations, there is a need to focus on the alternative approaches in order to control this menace. In the present study, biocompatible zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were used to see their in vitro effect on the biliary amphistomes, Gigantocotyle explanatum, infecting Bubalus bubalis because these nanoparticles are involved in generation of free radicals that induce oxidative stress, resulting in disruption of cellular machinery. The ZnO NPs were synthesized by using egg albumin as a biotemplate and subsequently characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Diffraction and Spectrophotometrical, which showed that ZnO NPs were highly purified wurtzite type polycrystals, with a mean size of 16.7 nm. When the parasites were treated with lower concentrations (0.004% and 0.008%) of the ZnO NPs, the worms mounted a protective response by stimulating the antioxidant system but the treatment of G. explanatum with 0.012% ZnO NPs produced significant inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p< 0.05) and glutathione S- transferase (GST) (p<0.01), while the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation marker, was significantly (p< 0.01) elevated. SEM and histopathology revealed pronounced tegumental damage showing the disruption of surface papillae and the annulations, particularly in the posterior region near acetabulum. The under expression of a number of polypeptides, loss of worm motility in a time dependent manner, further reflect strong anthelmintic potential of ZnO NPs. It can be concluded that the anthelmintic effect might be due to the production of reactive oxygen species that target a variety of macromolecules such as nucleic acid, protein and lipids which are involved in different cellular processes. PMID:26177503

  11. Anthelmintic Effect of Biocompatible Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on Gigantocotyle explanatum, a Neglected Parasite of Indian Water Buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Yasir Akhtar; Singh, Braj Raj; Ullah, Rizwan; Shoeb, Mohd; Naqvi, Alim H.; Abidi, Syed M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Helminth parasites of veterinary importance cause huge revenue losses to agrarian economy worldwide. With the emergence of drug resistance against the current formulations, there is a need to focus on the alternative approaches in order to control this menace. In the present study, biocompatible zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were used to see their in vitro effect on the biliary amphistomes, Gigantocotyle explanatum, infecting Bubalus bubalis because these nanoparticles are involved in generation of free radicals that induce oxidative stress, resulting in disruption of cellular machinery. The ZnO NPs were synthesized by using egg albumin as a biotemplate and subsequently characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Diffraction and Spectrophotometrical, which showed that ZnO NPs were highly purified wurtzite type polycrystals, with a mean size of 16.7 nm. When the parasites were treated with lower concentrations (0.004% and 0.008%) of the ZnO NPs, the worms mounted a protective response by stimulating the antioxidant system but the treatment of G. explanatum with 0.012% ZnO NPs produced significant inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p< 0.05) and glutathione S- transferase (GST) (p<0.01), while the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation marker, was significantly (p< 0.01) elevated. SEM and histopathology revealed pronounced tegumental damage showing the disruption of surface papillae and the annulations, particularly in the posterior region near acetabulum. The under expression of a number of polypeptides, loss of worm motility in a time dependent manner, further reflect strong anthelmintic potential of ZnO NPs. It can be concluded that the anthelmintic effect might be due to the production of reactive oxygen species that target a variety of macromolecules such as nucleic acid, protein and lipids which are involved in different cellular processes. PMID:26177503

  12. Improving smallholder food security through investigations of carcass composition and beef marketing of buffalo and cattle in northern Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Nampanya, Sonevilay; Khounsy, Syseng; Phonvisay, Aloun; Bush, Russell David; Windsor, Peter Andrew

    2015-04-01

    This study determined the carcass composition of Lao indigenous buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos indicus), then examined trends in bovine meat marketing following review of records of beef production and prices in the two major cities of Luang Prabang (LPB) and Xieng Khoung (XK) provinces in northern Laos. Samples from 41 buffalo and 81 cattle (n?=?122) were collected from animals slaughtered in May-June 2014, with live weights, carcass weights and other carcass-related variables collected. The animals were classified into four age cohort groups (<2, 2-<4, 4-6 and >6years) with quantitative and dichotomous qualitative traits determined. There were significant differences in buffalo and cattle predicted mean carcass weights between age classification categories (p?=?0.003 and 0.001) but not in dressing percentages (p?=?0.1 and 0.1). The carcass weight of buffalo was 104 (23.1)-176 (12.0)?kg compared to 65 (8.7)-84 (6.5)?kg of cattle, with dressing percentages of 37-40 and 39-42%, respectively. Despite an average bovine meat price increase of 42-48% between 2011 and 2013, there was a reduction in the numbers of large ruminants slaughtered in the surveyed cities of LPB (11%) and XK (7%), with bovine meat availability per person of 5.2-6.6kg (LPB) and 3.0-3.8kg (XK). Improving the sustainability of the bovine meat supply in Laos requires a systems approach involving improvements to animal health and production, livestock marketing, plus the critical development of improved slaughterhouse facilities enabling a meat-processing sector to emerge. This development pathway is of particular importance for building the capacity of Laos to reduce food insecurity and alleviate the poverty of its largely rural smallholder community. PMID:25700673

  13. Evaluation of neutron exposure conditions for the Buffalo Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lippincott, E.P.; Kellogg, L.S.; McElroy, W.N.; Baldwin, C.A.

    1984-04-01

    The light water test reactor at the Nuclear Science and Technology Facility of the State University of New York at Buffalo is currently being used to irradiate specimens in in-core positions for NRC-sponsored metallurgical tests. It is important that the neutron exposures for these Buffalo tests be consistent with those determined for related irradiations in the BSR and ORR reactor at ORNL. Therefore, HEDL National Reactor Dosimetry Center dosimetry procedures and ORNL calculational procedures were used for an evaluation of typical test conditions.

  14. Comparison of CNVs in Buffalo with other species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a read-depth (RD) and a hybrid read-pair, split-read (RAPTR-SV) CNV detection method, we identified over 1425 unique CNVs in 14 Water Buffalo individual compared to the cattle genome sequence. Total variable sequence of the CNV regions (CNVR) from the RD method approached 59 megabases (~ 2% of...

  15. Comparative studies confirm natural infections of buffaloes by Sarcocystis cruzi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controversy exists concerning whether cattle and water buffalo sustain infections with cysts distinct arrays species in the genus Sarcocystis. In particular, morphologically similar parasites have been alternately ascribed to S. cruzi or to S. levinei, depending on their occurrence in cattle and wa...

  16. Technical and economical feasibility of buffalo gourd as a novel energy crop. Final report, 14 November 1983-31 December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, B.

    1988-02-01

    The New Mexico Solar Energy Institute has conducted a two-year investigation into the technical and economic feasibility of using the buffalo gourd plant as an energy feedstock in eastern New Mexico. The studies indicate that buffalo gourd is well suited for root production in eastern NM. Buffalo gourd has been shown to be an excellent feedstock for ethanol production provided necessary pre-fermentation processing (chopping of roots) is performed correctly. A model was created to determine the economic feasibility of growing buffalo gourd in eastern NM. It was determined that the net return to a farmer in eastern NM can be higher planting buffalo gourd than many traditionally grown crops because of buffalo gourd's low water and fertilizer requirements. A clearly defined RandD agenda and commercialization strategy is presented and discussed. Buffalo gourd has been demonstrated to have high potential as an alternative feedstock for ethanol production in eastern NM.

  17. Buffalo river dredging demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Averett, D.E.; Zappi, P.A.; Tatem, H.E.; Gibson, A.C.; Tominey, E.A.

    1996-02-01

    The Corps of Engineers Buffalo District conducted a demonstration of equipment for dredging contaminated sediments. Several thousand cubic yards of sediment were removed from outside the Buffalo River Federal navigation channel limits using three dredge types: (1) open bucket, (2) enclosed bucket, and (3) submersible pump. The effectiveness of a silt screen deployed downstream of the dredge to reduce suspended sediment transport was also evaluated. Extensive sediment and water column monitoring and sampling were conducted during the 2-week demonstration as part of the effort to determine sediment resuspension rates and contaminant releases associated with the dredging operations. Water column samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, total organic carbon, PCBs, PAHs, metals, ammonia, and pH. A water column bioassay test using Daphnia magna was also performed to assess toxicity effects of the dredging operation. Results of this study were used to assess and refine techniques and laboratory tests that have been previously developed by the Corps of Engineers to predict sediment resuspension rates and contaminant releases. In another phase of the study, the Bureau of Mines demonstrated the use of polyelectrolytes for rapid removal of suspended solids from a dilute dredged material slurry.

  18. The resurrection of a species: Sarcocystis bovifelis Heydorn et al., 1975 is distinct from the current Sarcocystis hirsuta in cattle and morphologically indistinguishable from Sarcocystis sinensis in water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Gjerde, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    In the mid-1970s, it was established through transmission experiments and ultrastructural studies of sarcocysts by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) that cattle was the intermediate host of three Sarcocystis spp. using dogs, cats and humans, respectively, as definitive hosts. The cat-transmitted species with microscopic sarcocysts was initially named Sarcocystis bovifelis, but it was soon renamed Sarcocystis hirsuta, since it was considered to be identical with a previously named species. In recent years, an apparently new species has been detected in cattle in several countries by molecular methods and TEM and found by both methods to be indistinguishable from Sarcocystis sinensis in water buffaloes. This species was recently named Sarcocystis rommeli. Beginning in August 2014, a thorough review of papers comprising TEM micrographs of thick-walled sarcocysts in cattle was made in order to determine whether S. sinensis-like sarcocysts had been reported previously under other designations. Surprisingly, the review showed that the species S. bovifelis Heydorn et al., 1975 as described from cattle in Germany was S. sinensis-like and that indistinguishable sarcocysts had also been found in cattle in New Zealand and Canada in the 1980s. However, in the New Zealand study, these small sarcocysts were erroneously thought to represent developmental stages of a species with ultrastructurally similar but macroscopic sarcocysts, since the macroscopic cysts were found to be infective for cats. Thus, in the late 1980s, the cat-transmitted S. bovifelis, after having been renamed S. hirsuta, was erroneously synonymised with a second cat-transmitted species in cattle and then slid into obscurity until recently being rediscovered as a S. sinensis-like species in cattle and then named S. rommeli. Following the erroneous synonymisation, the name S. hirsuta has consistently been used for a taxon with macroscopic sarcocysts, and this usage should be continued. The name S. bovifelis should again be used not only for the species originally described from cattle in Germany but also for morphologically indistinguishable taxa recently reported from cattle under the names S. sinensis and S. rommeli. Because of the morphological similarity between S. bovifelis and S. sinensis, it is likely that cats also act as definitive hosts for S. sinensis. The present paper also gives a thorough review of all research in the 1970s pertaining to S. bovifelis, including its development in cats and cattle; a review of reports of S. bovifelis-like sarcocysts in cattle, water buffaloes and other hosts; and a review of reports of the taxon currently named S. hirsuta in cattle. The usage of the name S. sinensis versus Sarcocystis dubeyi for the S. bovifelis-like taxon in water buffaloes is discussed, and the latter name is found to represent a nomen dubium since the original description concerned a mixture of a S. sinensis- and a Sarcocystis hominis-like species. Based on available transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, the three-dimensional configuration of the cyst wall protrusions of S. bovifelis/S. sinensis and the current S. hirsuta has been inferred and is described. The protrusions of S. bovifelis/S. sinensis are shaped like soft plastic tubes, having a cylindrical basal portion and a flattened distal portion, making them prone to fold over. The protrusions of the current S. hirsuta are thin, flattened and flexible rectangular structures (like a soft cover note book), which are attached to the cyst surface with a narrow stalk. The appearance of both types of protrusions in ultrathin sections viewed by TEM is highly dependent on how the sarcocysts and the protrusions themselves have been sectioned. PMID:26462803

  19. Characteristics and Behavior of a Two-Hour Oscillation in the Buffalo River, Buffalo, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, A. S.; Sabato, J. S.; Singer, J.; Manley, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Buffalo River discharges into Lake Erie near the upper end of the Niagara River. The lower 9.2 km of the river has been designated as a Great Lakes Area of Concern due to environmental problems associated with poor water quality, degraded riparian and river habitat, and contaminated sediments. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers maintains a navigational channel at a depth of 6.7 m below mean lake level by periodic dredging. In 2011, extensive dredging took place within the upper portions of the river to remove some of the most contaminated sediments. This dredging resulted in both widening and deepening of the channel. The Buffalo River's gradient is low and current velocities generally are <10 cm/sec. The low flow conditions coupled with the orientation of the river allows Lake Erie waters to enter the Buffalo River reversing its flow. The largest episodic lake-driven flow reversals were found during strong westerly wind events that setup an elevated water level at the eastern (Buffalo) end of the lake. Lower amplitude flow reversals could also be associated with subsequent Lake Erie surface seiches or other phenomena. They also occur during times when no seiche conditions are present. The interaction between river flow and reverse (lake-driven) flow was investigated using Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs), temperature sensors, and water level recorders deployed for the past five years at various locations in the lower 9 km of the river. The collected data record the periodic reversals associated with Lake Erie seiches, but also reveal an oscillation within the river. This 'river seiche' has a period of ~2 hours and occurs continuously, persisting even during high flow events and during times of strong lake-driven flow reversals. To better understand the characteristics and behavior of this 'river oscillation', time-series plots and Fourier power spectra were produced from the ADCP data. These data show that the magnitude of the oscillation is on the order of 5-10 cm s-1. There are three coherent spectral peaks with significant power above the noise. These peaks have periods centered on 1.8, 2.0 and 2.2 hours. Our preliminary conjecture is that the oscillation is similar to a forced resonance in a closed basin.

  20. Hydrogeology of the Buffalo aquifer, Clay and Wilkin Counties, West-Central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Buffalo aquifer is the principal source of ground-water supplies in the Moorhead, Minnesota area. The aquifer is an elongate deposit of sand and gravel, which locally contains water under confined conditions. Although the Buffalo aquifer contains about 270 billion gallons of water in storage, only 120 billion gallons could be withdrawn. Largest well yields occur along the deep trough in the center of the aquifer. Induced streambed infiltration may be possible in certain areas where the stream overlies the aquifer and where the intervening lake sediments are thin or absent. A numerical model constructed for aquifer evaluation has shown that a considerable amount of ground water is discharged through the confining bed to the stream or leaves the area as underflow to the west. Water from the Buffalo aquifer generally is very hard and of the calcium bicarbonate type. The average discharge of the Buffalo River for the base period 1946-78 ranges from 0.229 cubic foot per second per square mile near Hawley to 0.108 cubic foot per second per square mile at Sabin. Surface water in the Buffalo River drainage system is dominantly a calcium bicarbonate type similar to ground water of the area, especially at low flow in the upper reaches of the tributaries. (USGS)

  1. Brewster F2A-2 Buffalo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1943-01-01

    Brewster F2A-2 Buffalo: The Navy's Brewster F2A-2 Buffalo did not prove to be a particularly effective fighter aircraft, but that did not prevent countries such as England, Finland, and Australia from operating version of the Buffalo. This F2A-2 arrived at Langley from the factory by truck in 1942, and was sent to NAS Norfolk two years later.

  2. Lake Effect Snow Covers Buffalo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    An average of one foot of snow per day has fallen on Buffalo, New York, since Christmas Eve, resulting in a total of up to 5 feet from December 24-28. The snow fell very heavily, with accumulations of up to 3 inches per hour. Cold winds blowing along the surface of Lake Erie pick up warmth and moisture, which falls as snow as the warm air rises. This image was acquired by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), operated by NOAA, on December 27, 2001, at 12:32 p.m. EST. The scene shows thick bands of clouds extending from the eastern tip of Lake Erie and over Buffalo. The arrows show the wind direction, which is blowing down the length of the lake. Image and animation by Robert Simmon, based on data from the NASA GOES Project Science Office.

  3. An Evaluation of the Impact of the Niagara River Ice Boom on the Air Temperature Regime at Buffalo, New York.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Frank H.; Assel, Raymond A.; Gaskill, Daniel W.

    1982-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the Niagara River ice boom has prolonged the Lake Erie ice cover at Buffalo, New York, resulting in significant changes in the spring warm-up of Lake Erie and longer, colder winters in the area. Statistical analysis of Buffalo air temperatures compared with those for Lockport, NY does not reveal statistically significant cooling in the climate at Buffalo related to the operation of the ice boom. However, because of the distance of the airport (where the temperature gage is located) from the shore zone, the possibility of a localized effect of small magnitude within the vicinity of the ice boom cannot be ruled out. A comparison of the water temperature at the Buffalo intake as recorded in pre- and post-boom years also indicates that the ice boom has not had an impact on the timing of the spring rise in Lake Erie water temperature at Buffalo. Analysis of winter temperature trends since 1898 shows that the winter severity at Buffalo follows a general pattern characteristic not only of the region around the eastern end of Lake Erie but also of the Great Lakes Region as a whole. Winters have become colder since the installation of the ice boom, but these colder winters are part of a general climatic trend toward more severe winters beginning in 1958. Thus, there is no evidence to suggest that the ice boom has increased winter severity or duration at Buffalo relative to other areas around the Great Lakes.

  4. Phylogeography and Domestication of Chinese Swamp Buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wen-Mei; Xu, Ping; Chang, Ti-Cheng; Liu, Li; Cheng, Feng; Zhang, Run-Feng; Lan, Xian-Yong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chu-Zhao

    2013-01-01

    To further probe into whether swamp buffaloes were domesticated once or multiple times in China, this survey examined the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Control Region (D-loop) diversity of 471 individuals representing 22 populations of 455 Chinese swamp buffaloes and 16 river buffaloes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Chinese swamp buffaloes could be divided into two distinct lineages, A and B, which were defined previously. Of the two lineages, lineage A was predominant across all populations. For predominant lineage A, Southwestern buffalo populations possess the highest genetic diversity among the three hypothesized domestication centers (Southeastern, Central, and Southwestern China), suggesting Southwestern China as the most likely location for the domestication of lineage A. However, a complex pattern of diversity is detected for the lineage B, preventing the unambiguous pinpointing of the exact place of domestication center and suggesting the presence of a long-term, strong gene flow among swamp buffalo populations caused by extensive migrations of buffaloes and frequent human movements along the Yangtze River throughout history. Our current study suggests that Southwestern China is the most likely domestication center for lineage A, and may have been a primary center of swamp buffalo domestication. More archaeological and genetic evidence is needed to show the process of domestication. PMID:23437167

  5. Isolation, characterization and functional analysis of full length p53 cDNA from Bubalus bubalis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Minu; Aggarwal, Suruchi; Mohanty, Ashok K; Mukhopadhyay, Tapas

    2015-09-01

    p53 plays a pivotal role in maintaining the genomic integrity of the cell and has an important role in cellular transformation. We isolated and cloned a full length p53 cDNA (Bp53) from water buffalo in expression vectors designed to generate tagged proteins with FLAG or GFP. Bp53 was found to be 1161 nucleotide long and codes for 386 amino acid residues with 79% homology with human p53 containing 393 amino acids. Although Bp53 has some inherent differences in amino acid composition in different functional domains as compared to human p53 but the total electrostatic charge of amino acids has been maintained. Bp53 cDNA was transiently transfected in a p53 null human NSCLC cell line and as expected, it was predominantly localized in the nucleus. Besides, Bp53 effectively transactivates a number of target genes similar to human p53 and exerts most of its anti-tumorigenic potential in culture as observed in clonogenic and cell viability assays. Like human p53 mutants, core domain mutant version of Bp53 was found to be mis-localized to cytoplasm with diminished tumor suppressor activity. However, Bp53 appeared to be more sensitive to mdm2 mediated degradation and as a result, this protein was less stable as compared to human p53. For the first time we have characterized a functionally efficient wild-type p53 from buffalo having lower stability than human p53 and thus, buffalo p53 could be used as a model system for further insight to the molecular basis of wild-type p53 instability. PMID:26003295

  6. PHYLOGEOGRAPHIC PATTERNS IN LARGE RIVER ECOSYSTEMS: GENETIC STRUCTURE OF SMALLMOUTH BUFFALO (ICTIOBUS BUBALUS) IN THE OHIO RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genetic studies on populations of large river fishes provide a potentially useful but underutilized research and assessment tool. Population genetic research on freshwater systems has provided meaningful insight into stock structure, hybridization issues, and gene flow/migration...

  7. Hydrologic characteristics of Bear Creek near Silver Hill and Buffalo River near St. Joe, Arkansas, 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Jim C.; Haggard, Brian E.; Green, W. Reed

    2002-01-01

    The Buffalo River and its tributary Bear Creek are in the White River Basin in the Ozark Plateaus in north-central Arkansas. Analysis of streamflow measurements and water-quality samples at a site on Bear Creek and a site on the Buffalo River in Searcy County, Arkansas, quantify differences between the two sites during calendar years 1999 and 2000. Streamflow and water quality also vary seasonally at each site. Mean annual streamflow was substantially larger at the Buffalo River site (836 and 719 cubic feet per second in 1999 and 2000) than at the Bear Creek site (56 and 63 cubic feet per second). However, during times of low flow, discharge of Bear Creek comprises a larger proportion of the flow of the Buffalo River. Concentrations of nutrients, fecal-indicator bacteria, dissolved organic carbon, and suspended sediment generally were greater in samples from Bear Creek than in samples from the Buffalo River. Statistically significant differences were detected in concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate, total nitrogen, dissolved phosphorus, orthophosphorus, total phosphorus, fecal coliform bacteria, and suspended sediment. Loads varied between sites, hydrologic conditions, seasons, and years. Loads were substantially higher for the Buffalo River than for Bear Creek (as would be expected because of the Buffalo?s higher streamflow). Loads contributed by surface runoff usually comprised more than 85 percent of the annual load. Constituent yields (loads divided by drainage area) were much more similar between sites than were loads. Flow-weighted concentrations and dissolved constituent yields generally were greater for Bear Creek than yields for the Buffalo River and flowweighted concentrations yields were higher than typical flow-weighted concentrations and yields in undeveloped basins, but lower than flow-weighted concentrations and yields at a site in a more developed basin.

  8. Constant transmission of mitochondrial DNA in intergeneric cloned embryos reconstructed from swamp buffalo fibroblasts and bovine ooplasm.

    PubMed

    Srirattana, Kanokwan; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Akagi, Satoshi; Tasai, Mariko; Tagami, Takahiro; Nirasawa, Keijiro; Nagai, Takashi; Kanai, Yukio; Parnpai, Rangsun; Takeda, Kumiko

    2011-04-01

    Although interspecies/intergeneric somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) has been proposed as a tool to produce offspring of endangered species, conflict between donor nucleus and recipient cytoplasm in iSCNT embryos has been identified as an impediment to implementation for agricultural production. To investigate the nuclear-mitochondrial interactions on the developmental potential of iSCNT embryos, we analyzed the mtDNA copy numbers in iSCNT embryos reconstructed with water buffalo (swamp type) fibroblasts and bovine enucleated oocytes (buffalo iSCNT). As controls, SCNT embryos were derived from bovine fibroblasts (bovine SCNT). Buffalo iSCNT and bovine SCNT embryos showed similar rates of cleavage and development to the 8-cell stage (P>0.05). However, buffalo iSCNT embryos did not develop beyond the 16-cell stage. Both bovine and buffalo mtDNA content in buffalo iSCNT embryos was stable throughout the nuclear transfer process, and arrested at the 8- to 16-cell stage (P>0.05). In bovine SCNT embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage, mtDNA copy number was increased (P<0.05). In conclusion, both the donor cell and recipient cytoplast mtDNAs of buffalo iSCNT embryos were identified and maintained through the iSCNT process until the 8-16-cell stage. In addition, the copy number of mtDNA per embryo was a useful monitor to investigate nuclear-mitochondrial interactions. PMID:21729201

  9. Sequential Cross-Species Chromosome Painting among River Buffalo, Cattle, Sheep and Goat: A Useful Tool for Chromosome Abnormalities Diagnosis within the Family Bovidae

    PubMed Central

    Pauciullo, Alfredo; Perucatti, Angela; Cosenza, Gianfranco; Iannuzzi, Alessandra; Incarnato, Domenico; Genualdo, Viviana; Di Berardino, Dino; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to develop a comparative multi-colour Zoo-FISH on domestic ruminants metaphases using a combination of whole chromosome and sub-chromosomal painting probes obtained from the river buffalo species (Bubalus bubalis, 2n = 50,XY). A total of 13 DNA probes were obtained through chromosome microdissection and DOP-PCR amplification, labelled with two fluorochromes and sequentially hybridized on river buffalo, cattle (Bos taurus, 2n = 60,XY), sheep (Ovis aries, 2n = 54,XY) and goat (Capra hircus, 2n = 60,XY) metaphases. The same set of paintings were then hybridized on bovine secondary oocytes to test their potential use for aneuploidy detection during in vitro maturation. FISH showed excellent specificity on metaphases and interphase nuclei of all the investigated species. Eight pairs of chromosomes were simultaneously identified in buffalo, whereas the same set of probes covered 13 out 30 chromosome pairs in the bovine and goat karyotypes and 40% of the sheep karyotype (11 out of 27 chromosome pairs). This result allowed development of the first comparative M-FISH karyotype within the domestic ruminants. The molecular resolution of complex karyotypes by FISH is particularly useful for the small chromosomes, whose similarity in the banding patterns makes their identification very difficult. The M-FISH karyotype also represents a practical tool for structural and numerical chromosome abnormalities diagnosis. In this regard, the successful hybridization on bovine secondary oocytes confirmed the potential use of this set of probes for the simultaneous identification on the same germ cell of 12 chromosome aneuploidies. This is a fundamental result for monitoring the reproductive health of the domestic animals in relation to management errors and/or environmental hazards. PMID:25330006

  10. Relationship between the solubility, dosage and antioxidant capacity of carnosic acid in raw and cooked ground buffalo meat patties and chicken patties.

    PubMed

    Naveena, B M; Vaithiyanathan, S; Muthukumar, M; Sen, A R; Kumar, Y Praveen; Kiran, M; Shaju, V A; Chandran, K Ramesh

    2013-10-01

    Antioxidant capacity of oil soluble and water dispersible carnosic acid (CA) extracted from dried rosemary leaves using HPLC was evaluated at two different dosages (22.5 ppm vs 130 ppm) in raw and cooked ground buffalo meat patties and chicken patties. Irrespective of total phenolic content, CA extracts reduced (p<0.05) the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) by 39%-47% and 37%-40% in cooked buffalo meat and chicken patties at lower dosage (22.5 ppm) relative to control samples. However, at higher dosage (130 ppm) the TBARS values were reduced (p<0.05) by 86%-96% and 78%-87% in cooked buffalo meat and chicken patties compared to controls. The CA extracts were also effective in inhibiting (p<0.05) peroxide value and free fatty acids in cooked buffalo meat and chicken patties. The CA extracts when used at higher dosage, were also effective in stabilizing raw buffalo meat color. PMID:23743029

  11. Diversity, Antimicrobial Action and Structure-Activity Relationship of Buffalo Cathelicidins

    PubMed Central

    Brahma, Biswajit; Patra, Mahesh Chandra; Karri, Satyanagalakshmi; Chopra, Meenu; Mishra, Purusottam; De, Bidhan Chandra; Kumar, Sushil; Mahanty, Sourav; Thakur, Kiran; Poluri, Krishna Mohan; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; De, Sachinandan

    2015-01-01

    Cathelicidins are an ancient class of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with broad spectrum bactericidal activities. In this study, we investigated the diversity and biological activity of cathelicidins of buffalo, a species known for its disease resistance. A series of new homologs of cathelicidin4 (CATHL4), which were structurally diverse in their antimicrobial domain, was identified in buffalo. AMPs of newly identified buffalo CATHL4s (buCATHL4s) displayed potent antimicrobial activity against selected Gram positive (G+) and Gram negative (G-) bacteria. These peptides were prompt to disrupt the membrane integrity of bacteria and induced specific changes such as blebing, budding, and pore like structure formation on bacterial membrane. The peptides assumed different secondary structure conformations in aqueous and membrane-mimicking environments. Simulation studies suggested that the amphipathic design of buCATHL4 was crucial for water permeation following membrane disruption. A great diversity, broad-spectrum antimicrobial action, and ability to induce an inflammatory response indicated the pleiotropic role of cathelicidins in innate immunity of buffalo. This study suggests short buffalo cathelicidin peptides with potent bactericidal properties and low cytotoxicity have potential translational applications for the development of novel antibiotics and antimicrobial peptidomimetics. PMID:26675301

  12. Thermal comfort indices of female Murrah buffaloes reared in the Eastern Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Jamile Andréa Rodrigues; de Araújo, Airton Alencar; Lourenço Júnior, José de Brito; dos Santos, Núbia de Fátima Alves; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto; de Oliveira, Raimundo Parente

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to develop new and more specific thermal comfort indices for buffaloes reared in the Amazon region. Twenty female Murrah buffaloes were studied for a year. The animals were fed in pasture with drinking water and mineral supplementation ad libitum. The following parameters were measured twice a week in the morning (7 AM) and afternoon (1 PM): air temperature (AT), relative air humidity (RH), dew point temperature (DPT), wet bulb temperature (WBT), black globe temperature (BGT), rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR), and body surface temperature (BST). The temperature and humidity index (THI), globe temperature and humidity index (GTHI), Benezra's comfort index (BTCI), and Ibéria's heat tolerance index (IHTI) were calculated so they could be compared to the new indices. Multivariate regression analyses were carried out using the canonical correlation model, and all indices were correlated with the physiological and climatic variables. Three pairs of indices (general, effective, and practical) were determined comprising the buffalo comfort climatic condition index (BCCCI) and the buffalo environmental comfort index (BECI). The indices were validated and a great agreement was found among the BCCCIs (general, effective, and practical), with 98.3 % between general and effective a.nd 92.6 % between general and practical. A significant correlation ( P < 0.01) was found between the new indices and the physiological and climatic variables, which indicated that these may be used in pairs to diagnose thermal stress in buffaloes reared in the Amazon.

  13. Evaluation of solidification/stabilization technology for Buffalo River sediment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, E.C.; Averett, D.E.; Channell, M.G.; Perry, B.D.

    1991-05-01

    The Buffalo River drains a 446-square-mile (1,155-sq-km) watershed in western New York State and discharges into Lake Erie at the city of Buffalo. The Buffalo River has been classified by the State of New York as a fishing and fish survival stream, but municipal and industrial discharges have degraded the water quality and resulted in a fish advisory for the river. Under the Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediment Program, the US Environmental Protection Agency asked the US Army Corps of Engineers to evaluate solidification/stabilization (S/S) for potential treatment of the contaminated sediments in the Buffalo River. An evaluation of S/S technology was conducted on the bench-scale level on Buffalo River sediment to determine whether physical and chemical properties of the sediment would be improved. Based on analyses of the untreated sediment, five metals were selected for evaluation: chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc. Initial screening tests (ISTs) were conducted on the sediments to narrow the range of binder-to-soil ratios (BSRs) to be prepared in the detailed evaluation.

  14. Thermal comfort indices of female Murrah buffaloes reared in the Eastern Amazon.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jamile Andréa Rodrigues; de Araújo, Airton Alencar; Lourenço Júnior, José de Brito; dos Santos, Núbia de Fátima Alves; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto; de Oliveira, Raimundo Parente

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to develop new and more specific thermal comfort indices for buffaloes reared in the Amazon region. Twenty female Murrah buffaloes were studied for a year. The animals were fed in pasture with drinking water and mineral supplementation ad libitum. The following parameters were measured twice a week in the morning (7 AM) and afternoon (1 PM): air temperature (AT), relative air humidity (RH), dew point temperature (DPT), wet bulb temperature (WBT), black globe temperature (BGT), rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR), and body surface temperature (BST). The temperature and humidity index (THI), globe temperature and humidity index (GTHI), Benezra's comfort index (BTCI), and Ibéria's heat tolerance index (IHTI) were calculated so they could be compared to the new indices. Multivariate regression analyses were carried out using the canonical correlation model, and all indices were correlated with the physiological and climatic variables. Three pairs of indices (general, effective, and practical) were determined comprising the buffalo comfort climatic condition index (BCCCI) and the buffalo environmental comfort index (BECI). The indices were validated and a great agreement was found among the BCCCIs (general, effective, and practical), with 98.3 % between general and effective a.nd 92.6 % between general and practical. A significant correlation (P < 0.01) was found between the new indices and the physiological and climatic variables, which indicated that these may be used in pairs to diagnose thermal stress in buffaloes reared in the Amazon. PMID:26041385

  15. Lake Erie Seiches and Their Impact on Hydrodynamics and Sediment Transport in the Buffalo River, Buffalo, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, J.; Manley, T.; McLaren, P.; Manley, P.; Atkinson, J. F.; Hughes, W.; Klawinski, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Buffalo River discharges into Lake Erie near the upper end of the Niagara River. The lower 9.2 km of the river has been designated as a Great Lakes Area of Concern due to beneficial use impairments associated with poor water quality, degraded riparian and river habitat, and contaminated sediments. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers maintains a navigational channel at a depth of 6.7 m below mean lake level by dredging every 2-3 years. Its low gradient and current velocities that often are <10 cm/sec allow Lake Erie waters to enter the Buffalo River reversing flow. These estuarine-like conditions can occur during low flow periods in the river when water levels at the eastern end of Lake Erie rise in response to seiches when persistent winds transport water from west to east increasing water elevation at the Buffalo (eastern) end of the lake. To better understand the interaction between the downriver and upriver (lake-driven) flow, Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs), temperature sensors, and water level recorders have been deployed in the lower 9 km of the river. To map the river and document changes in bottom morphology side-scan sonar surveys have been conducted. Sediment trend analysis (STA) and numerical modeling complement and augment field observations. Changes in grain size distributions derived from the STA show two distinct flow regimes existing in the river with sediments deposited around the mouth of the river re-entrained and transported upriver. Results from numerical modeling using a particle-tracking component also show a similar pattern. Where the two flow regimes intersect, sedimentary furrows have been mapped using side-scan sonar and confirmed by divers. ADCP findings document periodic high flow events in the river related to heavy rainfalls and snow melt as well as the propagation of Lake Erie seiches upriver as far as 9 km. The water level data agree well with ADCP data obtained in the river. The river also exhibits its own seiche with period of ~ 2.0 hours. The hydrodynamics and sediment transport patterns in the Buffalo River reveal a complex pattern. Studying the river is timely as a large-scale sediment remediation project currently is underway that will modify the channel morphology as a consequence of environmental dredging within and outside the navigational channel.

  16. 77 FR 39408 - Safety Zone; Buffalo July 4th Fireworks, Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Buffalo July 4th Fireworks, Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  17. Study on the inter-subspecies nuclear transfer of river buffalo somatic cell nuclei into swamp buffalo oocyte cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Yang, C Y; Li, R C; Pang, C Y; Yang, B Z; Qin, G S; Chen, M T; Zhang, X F; Huang, F X; Zheng, H Y; Huang, Y J; Liang, X W

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of inter-subspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) of river buffalo (50 chromosomes) somatic cell nuclei into swamp buffalo (48 chromosomes) oocyte cytoplasm. The enucleated swamp buffalo oocytes were fused with four different types of river buffalo cells: freshly thawed ear fibroblasts, serum-starved ear fibroblasts, cumulus cells and ear fibroblasts from a cloned buffalo calf. As a result, the developmental competence of embryos reconstructed with freshly thawed ear fibroblasts was the poorest (P<0.01), while those of the other three types were not different from each other. Furthermore, the efficiency of swamp-swamp buffalo, swamp-river buffalo and bovine-buffalo SCNT were also compared. The results showed that the blastocyst rate of swamp-river reconstructed embryos was not different from swamp-swamp embryos, while significantly higher than that of bovine-buffalo embryos (P<0.01). A total of thirty cloned blastocysts derived from freshly thawed ear fibroblasts were transferred into thirteen recipient buffaloes, four recipients established pregnancy, while three of them aborted on Days 65, 75 and 90 of gestation, respectively. One cross-bred buffalo (Murrah x swamp, 49 chromosomes) receiving three embryos delivered a 39 kg female calf on Day 335 of gestation. These results indicate that the inter-subspecies SCNT is feasible to produce swamp-river buffalo embryos, and these can develop to full term and result in live buffalo calves. PMID:20621244

  18. 33 CFR 162.165 - Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., New York. 162.165 Section 162.165 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... and Rochester Harbors, New York. In Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, no vessel may exceed 6 miles per... Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207....

  19. 33 CFR 162.165 - Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., New York. 162.165 Section 162.165 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... and Rochester Harbors, New York. In Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, no vessel may exceed 6 miles per... Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207....

  20. 33 CFR 162.165 - Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., New York. 162.165 Section 162.165 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... and Rochester Harbors, New York. In Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, no vessel may exceed 6 miles per... Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207....

  1. 33 CFR 162.165 - Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., New York. 162.165 Section 162.165 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... and Rochester Harbors, New York. In Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, no vessel may exceed 6 miles per... Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207....

  2. 33 CFR 162.165 - Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., New York. 162.165 Section 162.165 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... and Rochester Harbors, New York. In Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, no vessel may exceed 6 miles per... Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207....

  3. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed 6 miles per hour. Note: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock...

  4. SEROLOGICAL SURVEY OF ANTIBODIES TO TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN SHEEP, CATTLE, AND BUFFALOES IN PUNJAB, INDIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sera from 186 sheep, 83 cattle, and 103 water buffaloes from Punjab, India were evaluated for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using a commercial ELISA kit. This study was planned using a 2-stage random sampling procedure employing sampling software ‘survey toolbox’. In the first step, villages were...

  5. RAW COPPER SLABS USED IN CASTING OPERATIONS AT BUFFALO PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RAW COPPER SLABS USED IN CASTING OPERATIONS AT BUFFALO PLANT OF AMERICAN BRASS COMPANY. MATERIALS STORAGE FOR THE CAST SHOP NOW OCCUPIES A PORTION OF THE ORIGINAL BRASS MILL BUILT BY THE BUFFALO COPPER AND BRASS ROLLING MILL IN 1906-07 AND EXPANDED IN 1911. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  6. Casting the Buffalo Commons: A Rhetorical Analysis of Print Media Coverage of the Buffalo Commons Proposal for the Great Plains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umberger, Mary L.

    2002-01-01

    In 1987, Frank and Deborah Popper, a planner/geographer team from Rutgers University, proposed the Buffalo Commons. If implemented, the Buffalo Commons would have preserved a large area of the Great Plains, including land in ten states, in a national park to be used by exiting Native American reservations, and for the reintroduction of buffalo.

  7. Carbohydrate biofuels III: Consumptive-use and root yield of buffalo gourd

    SciTech Connect

    Smeal, D.; Gregory, E.J.; Tomko, J.

    1995-11-01

    Biofuel provided by the dried roots of the wild buffalo gourd, Cucurbita foetidissima, represents a potential, cleaner-burning alternative to other biofuels (i.e. wood and coal) currently used for cooking and heating on the Navajo Indian Reservation. However, no information is available regarding the plant`s water requirements for growth and viable root production on the Colorado Plateau in northwestern New Mexico where the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project is located. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between buffalo gourd root production and evapotranspiration under variable irrigation as provided by a line-source design. Total dry root yields ranged from 1.6 Mg ha{sup -1} (5.1 tons/acre), and increased linearly within an irrigation treatment range of 371 to 927 nm (14.6 to 36.5 in.), respectively. Peak average daily water-use of buffalo gourd providing maximum root yield was 8.6 mm (0.34 in.) and occurred in late July to early August. Results of this study indicate that buffalo gourd can be successfully grown in northwestern New Mexico when irrigated. Other observations during this study suggest that planting rates for optimum root production need to be established.

  8. Haemato-biochemical and oxidative status of buffaloes naturally infected with Trypanosoma evansi.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vijay; Nigam, Rajesh; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Sudan, Vikrant; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Yadav, Pramod Kumar

    2015-09-15

    Blood samples were collected from 05 clinically healthy and 10 adult female water buffaloes naturally infected with Trypanosoma evansi. Confirmation of disease free and infected status of buffaloes was made on clinical signs, observation of T. evansi parasites in the blood smear and duplex PCR based assay. Blood samples were evaluated for levels of haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), differential leucocytes count (DLC), lipid peroxidation (LPO), calcium, phosphorous, magnesium sodium and potassium and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The results of the study revealed substantial decrease in levels of Hb, PCV and increase in LPO, SOD, CAT and AST in infected animals compared to healthy animals. However other haematological and biochemical indices did not show significant variations in infected and healthy buffaloes. The enhanced erythrocytic oxidation and reduction of hematological indices, suggests that the enhanced oxidation of the erythrocytes may be a contributory factor in erythrocytic destruction and progression of the anaemia in T. evansi infection in water buffaloes. PMID:26242833

  9. Baseline risk assessment for aquatic life for the Buffalo River, New York, Area of Concern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Hickey, James P.

    1995-01-01

    The Great Lakes National Program Office of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated the Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) program to address concerns of environmental degradation at 43 Areas of Concern in the Great Lakes. In our first report (Passino-Reader et al. 1992), we developed a generic approach for baseline hazard evaluation of aquatic life in the Great Lakes Areas of Concern. In this report, we demonstrate the application of the generic approach to the Buffalo River (New York) Area of Concern. Using available historical data on residues in sediments, water, and biota, we evaluated exposure for 41 contaminants from the Buffalo River for eight taxa of fish and invertebrates representing the major trophic levels in the Buffalo River. By comparing exposure concentrations with reference toxicities, we calculated risk to the eight receptor organisms for typical and worst cases of exposure to the 41 contaminants. For mixtures of the contaminants present at the Buffalo River, primarily metals and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, we compared sediment concentrations with effects range-low (EL-R) values as reference values for toxicity of mixtures to estimate risk to aquatic biota.

  10. Haff Disease: Rhabdomyolysis After Eating Buffalo Fish

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Linda L.; Bies, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Haff disease, rhabdomyolysis after ingesting certain types of fish, was first reported in 1924 in Europe. There have been a limited number of cases reported in the United States. We present the case of a patient who presents with symptoms of rhabdomyolysis after eating cooked buffalo fish purchased at a suburban grocery market. PMID:25247039

  11. Rumen Microorganisms in Buffalo from Southern Utah

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Henry A.

    1967-01-01

    Rumen microbial populations from buffalo (Bison bison bison Linn.) in southern Utah were identified on the basis of their morphology and staining characteristics. The rumen bacteria and ciliate protozoa were similar in number and kind to those found in domestic livestock. PMID:16349763

  12. 36. Photocopy of photograph (Buffalo CourierExpress article file #Z733B9268, print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photocopy of photograph (Buffalo Courier-Express article file #Z733-B9268, print in possession of Ciminilli Construction, Buffalo, N.Y.), photographer unknown, 1938 GENERAL RENOVATIONS - Cyclorama Building, 369 Franklin Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  13. Effect of pour-on alphacypermethrin on feed intake, body condition score, milk yield, pregnancy rates, and calving-to-conception interval in buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Bifulco, G; Veneziano, V; Cimmino, R; Esposito, L; Auletta, L; Varricchio, E; Balestrieri, A; Claps, S; Campanile, G; Neglia, G

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy of alphacypermethrin (ACYP) on pediculosis due to Haematopinus tuberculatus and to evaluate the influence of the treatment on productive and reproductive performance in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) reared in an intensive system. The trial was performed on 56 pluriparous buffaloes at 86.8 8.1 d in milk. The animals underwent individual louse count and were divided into 2 homogenous groups according to louse count, age, number of lactations, days in milk, live BW, BCS, pregnancy status, and milk yield. Group A (n = 28) was treated by a pour-on formulation of ACYP, and Group S (n = 28) was treated by pour-on saline solution. Individual louse counts were performed weekly on 10 buffaloes in each group. Feed intake was recorded daily and the total mixed ration, individual ingredients, and orts were analyzed to calculate DM ingestion. Individual milk yield was recorded daily and milk samples were analyzed at the beginning of the trial, after 4 wk, and at the end of the trial to assess milk composition. Individual BCS was also evaluated simultaneously. Finally, the animals underwent synchronization of ovulation starting 4 wk after treatment and the pregnancy rate and the calving-conception interval were evaluated. Data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney test and ANOVA for repeated measures. The infestation was constant in Group S, whereas no lice were present in Group A throughout the study. Daily DMI was similar in the 2 groups (16.7 0.4 vs. 16.3 0.3 kg/d in Group A vs. Group S, respectively), although buffaloes in Group A showed higher (P < 0.05) BCS score at the end of the trial (7.39 0.1 vs. 7.14 0.1 in Group A vs. Group S, respectively). The average milk yield/buffalo was higher (P < 0.05) in Group A compared to Group S (10.58 0.1 vs. 10.39 0.1 kg in Group A vs. Group S, respectively) and this was mainly due to the higher milk production recorded in buffaloes at less than 75 d in milk (11.81 0.1 vs. 11.45 0.1 kg in Group A vs. Group S, respectively). Despite of a similar fertility rate (90.5 vs. 80.9% in Group A vs. Group S, respectively), a lower (P < 0.05) calving-conception interval was recorded in Group A compared to Group S (118 16 vs. 177 16 d in Group A vs. Group S, respectively). In addition to the pour-on treatment against pediculosis, productive and reproductive performance were also improved. This represents a significant improvement in dairy buffalo herd management. PMID:26020206

  14. Evaluation of the effectiveness of using alfalfa and buffalo grass for remediation of trichloroethylene from groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Caravello, V.

    1998-06-03

    Phytoremediation is receiving increasing attention due to the potential for vegetation to play a significant role in bioremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater. The purpose of this research was to conduct a pilot study to determine if buffalo grass would enhance the remediation of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE). A mass-balance experiment was designed and executed to determine the extent of TCE remediation/degradation occurring through buffalo grass. Measurements for TCE in air, water, and soil were completed for three treatments: (1) buffalo grass, (2) alfalfa, and (3) soil following challenge with a water-TCE mixture. In total, 267 air samples, 43 water samples, 85 soil samples, and 40 vegetative samples were collected and analyzed. The analysis identified two important facts. First, there were no significant differences detected between TCE concentrations in soil, water, and air between groups. Second, there is a significant difference in the amount of the TCE-water mixture consumed in chambers with plants versus chambers without plants. The mass balance of the experiment was not achieved due to unaccountable losses of TCE from the chambers. The major loss mechanism for TCE appears to be from the breakthrough of air sampling media during the experiment. Thus, the data are insufficient to determine if remediation occurred via plants or by preferential pathways through the soil. Future experiments should be designed to include daily monitoring of the aquifer, humidity tolerant air sampling protocol, and relief from the build-up of humidity and transpiration inside the chambers.

  15. The African buffalo: a villain for inter-species spread of infectious diseases in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Michel, Anita L; Bengis, Roy G

    2012-01-01

    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a large wild bovid which until recently ranged across all but the driest parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and their local range being limited to about 20 km from surface water. They are of high ecological value due to their important role as bulk feeders in the grazing hierarchy. They also have high economic value, because they are one of the sought after 'Big Five' in the eco-tourism industry. In Africa, buffaloes have been recognised for some time as an important role player in the maintenance and transmission of a variety of economically important livestock diseases at the wildlife and/or livestock interface. These include African strains of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), Corridor disease (theileriosis), bovine tuberculosis and bovine brucellosis. For a number of other diseases of veterinary importance, African buffaloes may also serve as amplifier or incidental host, whereby infection with the causative pathogens may cause severe clinical signs such as death or abortion as in the case of anthrax and Rift Valley fever, or remain mild or subclinical for example heartwater. The long term health implications of most of those infections on the buffalo at a population level is usually limited, and they do not pose a threat on the population's survival. Because of their ability to harbour and transmit important diseases to livestock, their sustainable future in ecotourism, trade and transfrontier conservation projects become complex and costly and reliable diagnostic tools are required to monitor these infections in buffalo populations. PMID:23327373

  16. Chromosome evolution and improved cytogenetic maps of the Y chromosome in cattle, zebu, river buffalo, sheep and goat.

    PubMed

    Di Meo, G P; Perucatti, A; Floriot, S; Incarnato, D; Rullo, R; Caputi Jambrenghi, A; Ferretti, L; Vonghia, G; Cribiu, E; Eggen, A; Iannuzzi, L

    2005-01-01

    Comparative FISH-mapping among Y chromosomes of cattle (Bos taurus, 2n = 60, BTA, submetacentric Y chromosome), zebu (Bos indicus, 2n = 60, BIN, acrocentric Y chromosome but with visible small p-arms), river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, 2n = 50, BBU, acrocentric Y chromosome), sheep (Ovis aries, 2n = 54, OAR, small metacentric Y chromosome) and goat (Capra hircus, 2n = 60, CHI, Y-chromosome as in sheep) was performed to extend the existing cytogenetic maps and improve the understanding of karyotype evolution of these small chromosomes in bovids. C- and R-banding comparison were also performed and both bovine and caprine BAC clones containing the SRY, ZFY, UMN0504, UMN0301, UMN0304 and DYZ10 loci in cattle and DXYS3 and SLC25A6 in goat were hybridized on R-banded chromosomes by FISH. The main results were the following: (a) Y-chromosomes of all species show a typical distal positive C-band which seems to be located at the same region of the typical distal R-band positive; (b) the PAR is located at the telomeres but close to both R-band positive and ZFY in all species; (c) ZFY is located opposite SRYand on different arms of BTA, BIN, OAR/CHI Y chromosomes and distal (but centromeric to ZFY) in BBU-Y; (d) BTA-Y and BIN-Y differ as a result of a centromere transposition or pericentric inversion since they retain the same gene order along their distal chromosome regions and have chromosome arms of different size; (e) BTA-Y and BBU-Y differ in a pericentric inversion with a concomitant loss or gain of heterochromatin; (f) OAR/CHI-Y differs from BBU-Y for a pericentric inversion with a major loss of heterochromatin and from BTA and BIN for a centromere transposition followed by the loss of heterochromatin. PMID:15973500

  17. The flood of December 1982 and the 100- and 500-year flood on the Buffalo River, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neely, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    Flood profiles, peak discharges, and stages were determined for the December 1982, the 100-year, and the 500-year floods at 17 sites along the Buffalo River, Arkansas. Typical synthetic stage hydrographs for the 100- and 500-year floods were determined for each site. Flow duration data for gaging stations at St. Joe and Rush are shown. The average velocity of the water for the 100- and 500-year floods is shown for each site. Approximate flood boundaries delineating the 100- and 500-year floods are shown for Ponca, Steel Creek, Pruitt, St. Joe, and Buffalo Point. (Author 's abstract)

  18. A Review of Recent Developments in Buffalo Reproduction A Review

    PubMed Central

    Warriach, H. M.; McGill, D. M.; Bush, R. D.; Wynn, P. C.; Chohan, K. R.

    2015-01-01

    The buffalo is an important livestock resource in several countries of South Asia and the Mediterranean regions. However, reproductive efficiency is compromised due to known problems of biological and management origins, such as lack of animal selection and poor nutrition. Under optimal conditions puberty is attained at 15 to 18 months in river buffalo, 21 to 24 months in swamp buffalo and is influenced by genotype, nutrition, management and climate. However, under field conditions these values deteriorate up to a significant extant. To improve reproductive efficiency, several protocols of oestrus and ovulation synchronization have been adopted from their use in commercial cattle production. These protocols yield encouraging pregnancy rates of (30% to 50%), which are comparable to those achieved in buffaloes bred at natural oestrus. The use of sexed semen in buffalo heifers also showed promising pregnancy rates (50%) when compared with conventional non-sexed semen. Assisted reproductive technologies have been transferred and adapted to buffalo but the efficiency of these technologies are low. However, these latest technologies offer the opportunity to accelerate the genetic gain in the buffalo industry after improving the technology and reducing its cost. Most buffaloes are kept under the small holder farming system in developing countries. Hence, future research should focus on simple, adoptable and impact- oriented approaches which identify the factors determining low fertility and oestrus behaviour in this species. Furthermore, role of kisspeptin needs to be explored in buffalo. PMID:25656203

  19. A review of recent developments in buffalo reproduction - a review.

    PubMed

    Warriach, H M; McGill, D M; Bush, R D; Wynn, P C; Chohan, K R

    2015-03-01

    The buffalo is an important livestock resource in several countries of South Asia and the Mediterranean regions. However, reproductive efficiency is compromised due to known problems of biological and management origins, such as lack of animal selection and poor nutrition. Under optimal conditions puberty is attained at 15 to 18 months in river buffalo, 21 to 24 months in swamp buffalo and is influenced by genotype, nutrition, management and climate. However, under field conditions these values deteriorate up to a significant extant. To improve reproductive efficiency, several protocols of oestrus and ovulation synchronization have been adopted from their use in commercial cattle production. These protocols yield encouraging pregnancy rates of (30% to 50%), which are comparable to those achieved in buffaloes bred at natural oestrus. The use of sexed semen in buffalo heifers also showed promising pregnancy rates (50%) when compared with conventional non-sexed semen. Assisted reproductive technologies have been transferred and adapted to buffalo but the efficiency of these technologies are low. However, these latest technologies offer the opportunity to accelerate the genetic gain in the buffalo industry after improving the technology and reducing its cost. Most buffaloes are kept under the small holder farming system in developing countries. Hence, future research should focus on simple, adoptable and impact- oriented approaches which identify the factors determining low fertility and oestrus behaviour in this species. Furthermore, role of kisspeptin needs to be explored in buffalo. PMID:25656203

  20. ANALYSIS OF BANK STABILITY AND POTENTIAL LOADINGS FROM STREAMBANKS ALONG THE SOUTH BRANCH OF THE BUFFALO RIVER, MN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The South Branch of the Buffalo River is part of the larger Red River Basin, MN. In 1996 the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) performed water quality assessments for selected rivers and lakes in the Red River Basin, with impairment of streams primarily being found to be caused by high level...

  1. 33 CFR 207.590 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock at... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. (a) The term “canal” when used in this section will mean all of the Black Rock Waterway, including Black Rock Lock, and...

  2. 33 CFR 110.84 - Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black Rock Channel opposite foot..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.84 Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. An area extending northwesterly between Black...

  3. 33 CFR 110.84 - Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Black Rock Channel opposite foot... Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. An area extending northwesterly between Black Rock Channel and Bird Island Pier opposite the foot of Porter Avenue, bounded as follows: Beginning...

  4. 33 CFR 110.84 - Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Black Rock Channel opposite foot... Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. An area extending northwesterly between Black Rock Channel and Bird Island Pier opposite the foot of Porter Avenue, bounded as follows: Beginning...

  5. 33 CFR 110.84 - Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Black Rock Channel opposite foot... Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. An area extending northwesterly between Black Rock Channel and Bird Island Pier opposite the foot of Porter Avenue, bounded as follows: Beginning...

  6. 33 CFR 110.84 - Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Black Rock Channel opposite foot... Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. An area extending northwesterly between Black Rock Channel and Bird Island Pier opposite the foot of Porter Avenue, bounded as follows: Beginning...

  7. Buffalo district heating system design and construction

    SciTech Connect

    Oliker, I.

    1987-11-01

    This report addresses the introduction of district heating in Buffalo, NY from feasibility study to implementation. The reemergence of district heating in the US and associated advantages are reviewed. Advanced piping technology which has enabled district heating to compete economically with alternative technologies is summarized. Identification and analysis of the customer heat load considered in downtown Buffalo for the pilot system and future expansion is discussed. Various options for initiating construction of a district heating system were considered as exemplified by the configuration for the pilot system which was selected to serve five downtown buildings. A conceptual plan is presented which permits the system to expand in an economically viable manner. The report concludes with an economic analysis which simulates the operation and expansion of the system. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Strong and stable geographic differentiation of swamp buffalo maternal and paternal lineages indicates domestication in the China/Indochina border region.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Lu, Yongfang; Yindee, Marnoch; Li, Kuan-Yi; Kuo, Hsiao-Yun; Ju, Yu-Ten; Ye, Shaohui; Faruque, Md Omar; Li, Qiang; Wang, Yachun; Cuong, Vu Chi; Pham, Lan Doan; Bouahom, Bounthong; Yang, Bingzhuang; Liang, Xianwei; Cai, Zhihua; Vankan, Dianne; Manatchaiworakul, Wallaya; Kowlim, Nonglid; Duangchantrasiri, Somphot; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; Colenbrander, Ben; Zhang, Yuan; Beerli, Peter; Lenstra, Johannes A; Barker, J Stuart F

    2016-04-01

    The swamp type of the Asian water buffalo is assumed to have been domesticated by about 4000 years BP, following the introduction of rice cultivation. Previous localizations of the domestication site were based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation within China, accounting only for the maternal lineage. We carried out a comprehensive sampling of China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Nepal and Bangladesh and sequenced the mtDNA Cytochrome b gene and control region and the Y-chromosomal ZFY, SRY and DBY sequences. Swamp buffalo has a higher diversity of both maternal and paternal lineages than river buffalo, with also a remarkable contrast between a weak phylogeographic structure of river buffalo and a strong geographic differentiation of swamp buffalo. The highest diversity of the swamp buffalo maternal lineages was found in south China and north Indochina on both banks of the Mekong River, while the highest diversity in paternal lineages was in the China/Indochina border region. We propose that domestication in this region was later followed by introgressive capture of wild cows west of the Mekong. Migration to the north followed the Yangtze valley as well as a more eastern route, but also involved translocations of both cows and bulls over large distances with a minor influence of river buffaloes in recent decades. Bayesian analyses of various migration models also supported domestication in the China/Indochina border region. Coalescence analysis yielded consistent estimates for the expansion of the major swamp buffalo haplogroups with a credibility interval of 900 to 3900 years BP. The spatial differentiation of mtDNA and Y-chromosomal haplotype distributions indicates a lack of gene flow between established populations that is unprecedented in livestock. PMID:26677084

  9. Sarcocystis rommeli, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from cattle (Bos taurus) and its differentiation from Sarcocystis hominis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for three named species of Sarcocystis, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis. Recently, a fourth species was identified and named S. sinensis. However, S. sinensis originally named a species of Sarcocystis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in China. Based ...

  10. Insights into resistome and stress responses genes in Bubalus bubalis rumen through metagenomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Bhaskar; Singh, Krishna M; Patel, Amrutlal K; Antony, Ancy; Panchasara, Harshad J; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2014-10-01

    Buffalo rumen microbiota experience variety of diets and represents a huge reservoir of mobilome, resistome and stress responses. However, knowledge of metagenomic responses to such conditions is still rudimentary. We analyzed the metagenomes of buffalo rumen in the liquid and solid phase of the rumen biomaterial from river buffalo adapted to varying proportion of concentrate to green or dry roughages, using high-throughput sequencing to know the occurrence of antibiotics resistance genes, genetic exchange between bacterial population and environmental reservoirs. A total of 3914.94 MB data were generated from all three treatments group. The data were analysed with Metagenome rapid annotation system tools. At phyla level, Bacteroidetes were dominant in all the treatments followed by Firmicutes. Genes coding for functional responses to stress (oxidative stress and heat shock proteins) and resistome genes (resistance to antibiotics and toxic compounds, phages, transposable elements and pathogenicity islands) were prevalent in similar proportion in liquid and solid fraction of rumen metagenomes. The fluoroquinolone resistance, MDR efflux pumps and Methicillin resistance genes were broadly distributed across 11, 9, and 14 bacterial classes, respectively. Bacteria responsible for phages replication and prophages and phage packaging and rlt-like streptococcal phage genes were mostly assigned to phyla Bacteroides, Firmicutes and proteaobacteria. Also, more reads matching the sigma B genes were identified in the buffalo rumen. This study underscores the presence of diverse mechanisms of adaptation to different diet, antibiotics and other stresses in buffalo rumen, reflecting the proportional representation of major bacterial groups. PMID:24985977

  11. "Just Following the Buffalo": Origins of a Montana Metis Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Martha Harroun

    2006-01-01

    By 1879 the vast buffalo herds were all but gone from the Great Plains. Many of the remaining animals had moved south from the Milk River of northern Montana and Alberta into the Judith Basin of central Montana. In these rich grasslands, for a few more years, life went on as it had for centuries. Following the buffalo came many Indian bands, as…

  12. "Just Following the Buffalo": Origins of a Montana Metis Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Martha Harroun

    2006-01-01

    By 1879 the vast buffalo herds were all but gone from the Great Plains. Many of the remaining animals had moved south from the Milk River of northern Montana and Alberta into the Judith Basin of central Montana. In these rich grasslands, for a few more years, life went on as it had for centuries. Following the buffalo came many Indian bands, as

  13. 78 FR 45059 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Buffalo Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: At various... zone without the permission of the Captain of the Port Buffalo. DATES: The regulations in 33 CFR 165... Buffalo, 1 Fuhrmann Blvd., Buffalo, NY 14203; Coast Guard telephone 716-843-9343, email...

  14. 77 FR 41914 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... Buffalo Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: At various... zone without the permission of the Captain of the Port Buffalo. DATES: The regulations in 33 CFR 165... email Waterways Management Division, Coast Guard Sector Buffalo, 1 Fuhrmann Blvd., Buffalo, NY...

  15. Contrasting historical and recent gene flow among African buffalo herds in the Caprivi Strip of Namibia.

    PubMed

    Epps, Clinton W; Castillo, Jessica A; Schmidt-Kntzel, Anne; du Preez, Pierre; Stuart-Hill, Greg; Jago, Mark; Naidoo, Robin

    2013-03-01

    Population genetic structure is often used to infer population connectivity, but genetic structure may largely reflect historical rather than recent processes. We contrasted genetic structure with recent gene-flow estimates among 6 herds of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Caprivi Strip, Namibia, using 134 individuals genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci. We tested whether historical and recent gene flows were influenced by distance, potential barriers (rivers), or landscape resistance (distance from water). We also tested at what scales individuals were more related than expected by chance. Genetic structure across the Caprivi Strip was weak, indicating that historically, gene flow was strong and was not affected by distance, barriers, or landscape resistance. Our analysis of simulated data suggested that genetic structure would be unlikely to reflect human disturbances in the last 10-20 generations (75-150 years) because of slow predicted rates of genetic drift, but recent gene-flow estimates would be affected. Recent gene-flow estimates were not consistently affected by rivers or distance to water but showed that isolation by distance appears to be developing. Average relatedness estimates among individuals exceeded random expectations only within herds. We conclude that historically, African buffalo moved freely throughout the Caprivi Strip, whereas recent gene flow has been more restricted. Our findings support efforts to maintain the connectivity of buffalo herds across this region and demonstrate the utility of contrasting genetic inferences from different time scales. PMID:23341534

  16. 76 FR 60962 - Noise Exposure Map Update for Buffalo Niagara International Airport, Buffalo, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Update for Buffalo Niagara International Airport... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the updated noise exposure maps submitted by the Niagara... of 49 U.S.C. 47501 et seq. (Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act) and 14 CFR Part 150 are...

  17. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Bigmouth Buffalo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Elizabeth A.

    1983-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for Bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus), a freshwater fish. The models are scaled to produce an indices of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for freshwater areas of the continental United States. Other habitat suitability models found in the literature are also included. Habitat suitability indices (HSI's) are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  18. Behaviour-Related Scalar Habitat Use by Cape Buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer)

    PubMed Central

    Bennitt, Emily; Bonyongo, Mpaphi Casper; Harris, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Studies of habitat use by animals must consider behavioural resource requirements at different scales, which could influence the functional value of different sites. Using Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana, we tested the hypotheses that behaviour affected use between and within habitats, hereafter referred to as macro- and microhabitats, respectively. We fitted GPS-enabled collars to fifteen buffalo and used the distances and turning angles between consecutive fixes to cluster the resulting data into resting, grazing, walking and relocating behaviours. Distance to water and six vegetation characteristic variables were recorded in sites used for each behaviour, except for relocating, which occurred too infrequently. We used multilevel binomial and multinomial logistic regressions to identify variables that characterised seasonally-preferred macrohabitats and microhabitats used for different behaviours. Our results showed that macrohabitat use was linked to behaviour, although this was least apparent during the rainy season, when resources were most abundant. Behaviour-related microhabitat use was less significant, but variation in forage characteristics could predict some behaviour within all macrohabitats. The variables predicting behaviour were not consistent, but resting and grazing sites were more readily identifiable than walking sites. These results highlight the significance of resting, as well as foraging, site availability in buffalo spatial processes. Our results emphasise the importance of considering several behaviours and scales in studies of habitat use to understand the links between environmental resources and animal behavioural and spatial ecology. PMID:26673623

  19. Molecular characterization of Anaplasma marginale in ticks naturally feeding on buffaloes.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2015-10-01

    Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent pathogen transmitted by ticks in cattle in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. However, the tick species involved in the transmission of A. marginale in buffaloes in Brazil have not been identified. The objective of the present study was to determine the presence of A. marginale in ticks parasitizing water buffaloes. A total of 200 samples of Rhipicephalus microplus, Dermacentor nitens, Amblyomma cajennense, and Amblyomma maculatum were collected and tested by conventional and quantitative PCR for the presence of the msp1a and msp5 genes. In the present study, 35 ticks (17.5%) were positive for A. marginale DNA by qPCR analysis. The positive ticks belonged to four different species: R. microplus (22.2%), A. cajennense (13.8%), A. maculatum (16.0%), and D. nitens (10.0%). Individuals of the three developmental stages (larvae, nymphs, and adults) of R. microplus and A. cajennense were found to be positive for A. marginale, only nymphs and adults of A. maculatum were found to be positive, and finally, only adults of D. nitens were positive for A. marginale. Our results suggest that R. microplus, A. cajennense, A. maculatum, and D. nitens ticks may be involved in the transmission of A. marginale in buffaloes. However, while A. marginale PCR positive ticks were recorded, this does not indicate vector competence; only that the ticks may contain a blood meal from an infected host. Additionally, the results show that the strains of A. marginale from buffaloes and cattle are phylogenetically related. PMID:26209411

  20. WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. A BOEING 737-200 HAS BEEN TOWED IN FOR AN OVERNIGHT (BALANCE) CHECK. THE TAIL DOCK STANDS ARE IN POSITION AT THE REAR OF THE AIRCRAFT TO FACILITATE INSPECTION. MAINTENANCE CREWS PERFORM NIGHTLY SERVICE ON UP TO 6 AIRCRAFT. THE NORMAL SEQUENCE OF 12 ROUTINE CHECKS COVERS SEVEN BASIC AREAS: INTERIOR, EXTERIOR, WINGS, LANDING GEAR, TAIL, AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), AND ENGINES. THE WORK FORCE CONSISTS OF 5 INSPECTORS, 3 LEAD MECHANICS, AND 24 MECHANICS; NIGHTLY SCHEDULES ARE COORDINATED BY A PLANNER. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  1. Pharmacokinetic behaviour of fenbendazole in buffalo and cattle.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, P K

    1994-02-01

    Concentrations of fenbendazole and of drug metabolites in plasma were measured in buffalo and cross-bred cattle after single intraruminal administration at two different doses. Plasma concentrations of the parent compound fenbendazole and the two metabolites, viz. oxfendazole and fenbendazole sulfone, were much lower in buffalo compared with cattle, at a dose of 7.5 mg/kg body weight as indicated by lower area under concentration curve and concentration maximum. At a dose of 15 mg/kg body weight there were corresponding increases in plasma metabolite concentrations in cattle. However, buffaloes did not show a similar corresponding increase. PMID:8196087

  2. Kinetic disposition of triclabendazole in buffalo compared to cattle.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, P K

    1995-10-01

    Concentrations of triclabendazole sulfoxide and its sulfone metabolite in plasma were measured in buffalo and cross-bred cattle after single intraruminal administration of triclabendazole at two different doses. Plasma concentrations of both metabolites were significantly lower in buffalo than cattle at both doses, which resulted in a smaller area under the concentration-time curve, a lower concentration maximum and a lower relative bioavailability. Thus, the recommended doses of 12 mg/kg body weight for the treatment of bubaline fascioliasis may not be valid for buffalo because of the substantially lower uptake of the drug in this species. PMID:8587156

  3. Population structure of African buffalo inferred from mtDNA sequences and microsatellite loci: high variation but low differentiation.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, B T; Siegismund, H R; Arctander, P

    1998-02-01

    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is widespread throughout sub-Saharan Africa and is found in most major vegetation types, wherever permanent sources of water are available, making it physically able to disperse through a wide range of habitats. Despite this, the buffalo has been assumed to be strongly philopatric and to form large aggregations that remain within separate home ranges with little interchange between units, but the level of differentiation within the species is unknown. Genetic differences between populations were assessed using mitochondrial DNA (control region) sequence data and analysis of variation at six microsatellite loci among 11 localities in eastern and southern Africa. High levels of genetic variability were found, suggesting that reported severe population bottlenecks due to outbreak of rinderpest during the last century did not strongly reduce the genetic variability within the species. The high level of genetic variation within the species was found to be evenly distributed among populations and only at the continental level were we able to consistently detect significant differentiation, contrasting with the assumed philopatric behaviour of the buffalo. Results of mtDNA and microsatellite data were found to be congruent, disagreeing with the alleged male-biased dispersal. We propose that the observed pattern of the distribution of genetic variation between buffalo populations at the regional level can be caused by fragmentation of a previous panmictic population due to human activity, and at the continental level, reflects an effect of geographical distance between populations. PMID:9532761

  4. Metaphylactic treatment strategies with toltrazuril and diclazuril and growth performance of buffalo calves exposed to a natural eimeria infection.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Antonio; Rinaldi, Laura; Cappelli, Giovanna; Saratsis, Anastasios; Nisoli, Lucio; Cringoli, Giuseppe

    2015-09-15

    Five controlled field trials were conducted in southern Italy to evaluate the effect of metaphylactic treatment strategies of toltrazuril and diclazuril for the control of coccidiosis in water buffaloes naturally infected by Eimeria spp. The 5 farms were divided into two types (A and B) according to their management system (individual or collective breeding of buffalo calves). In the farms of type A (no. 3), the buffalo calves were bred in individual boxes from the birth to the 7th/8th week of age and then transferred to concrete based pens; in the farms of type B (no. 2) the calves were bred in groups on concrete based pens from the birth. On each farm, 36 calves aged 5 weeks were divided at random into three similar groups of 12. One group was treated with toltrazuril (TOL), the second group was treated with diclazuril (DIC) and the third group was remained as untreated control group (CONT). On each farm the calves were weighed weekly and clinically examined. In the 5 buffalo farms the average oocyst excretion decreased significantly in both the treated groups (TOL and DIC), however the TOL groups had significantly low counts than the DIC groups. The body-weight gains recorded fortnightly were significantly higher in the TOL groups (range=5.4-8.1 kg) compared to the DIC (range=1.7-3.1 kg). PMID:26215929

  5. Genetic Variation and Phylogenetic Relationships of Indian Buffaloes of Uttar Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Jyoti; Salar, R. K.; Banerjee, Priyanka; S, Upasna; Tantia, M. S.; Vijh, R. K.

    2013-01-01

    India possesses a total buffalo population of 105 million out of which 26.1% inhabit Uttar Pradesh. The buffalo of Uttar Pradesh are described as nondescript or local buffaloes. Currently, there is no report about the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationship and matrilineal genetic structure of these buffaloes. To determine the origin and genetic diversity of UP buffaloes, we sequenced and analysed the mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequences in 259 samples from entire Uttar Pradesh. One hundred nine haplotypes were identified in UP buffaloes that were defined by 96 polymorphic sites. We implemented neutrality tests to assess signatures of recent historical demographic events like Tajima’s D test and Fu’s Fs test. The phylogenetic studies revealed that there was no geographic differentiation and UP buffaloes had a single maternal lineage while buffaloes of Eastern UP were distinctive from rest of the UP buffaloes. PMID:25049904

  6. Influence of heat stress on the cortisol and oxidant-antioxidants balance during oestrous phase in buffalo-cows (Bubalus bubalis): thermo-protective role of antioxidant treatment.

    PubMed

    Megahed, G A; Anwar, M M; Wasfy, S I; Hammadeh, M E

    2008-12-01

    In the present study, the effect of heat stress, which is commonly observed in the animals of Upper Egypt area in summer, as well as the effect of antioxidant treatment as a thermo-protective was examined. In this study, the animals (n = 120) were divided into winter group (n = 40, bred during winter) and summer group (n = 80, bred during summer) as well as, animals in the summer group were divided into first subgroup animals (n = 40) and injected with Viteselen intramuscularly (15 ml) twice weekly for 10 weeks and second subgroup animals (n = 40) were not treated (as control). Serum levels of progesterone (P4), oestradiol (E2), cortisol, superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidase (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) were measured. The pregnancy rate of all animals was detected rectally. The levels of oestradiol and the activity of the antioxidant SOD were decreased in serum of animals in behavioural oestrus during summer as compared with those in winter. During the same time period the levels of oxidants such as LPO and NO were increased in the serum of animals again in the phase of oestrus. In another group of animals treated by intramuscular injection with 15 ml viteselen (antioxidant) twice weekly for 6 weeks during hot months, the activities of serum SOD showed an increase and the levels of oxidants and cortisol decreased. Moreover, the levels of oestradiol were increased during the oestrous behaviour. The pregnancy rate was decreased in animals under heat stress and the pregnancy rate was enhanced dramatically when these animals received antioxidants during the heat stress. This means that the heat-stress in Upper Egypt may affect the fertility of animals and pregnancy rate and this effect may be through an increased production of free radicals and decreased production of antioxidants as well as increased levels of cortisol. Treatment of animals or supplementation with antioxidants before the beginning of months of heat-stress and also during the stress period may correct the infertility due to heat-stress through the decrease in cortisol secretion and a decrease in the oxidative stress. These results resulted in an increase in pregnancy rate in treated animals. PMID:18673331

  7. A framework radiation hybrid map of buffalo chromosome 1 ordering scaffolds from buffalo genome sequence assembly.

    PubMed

    Stafuzza, N B; Naressi, B C M; Yang, E; Cai, J J; Amaral-Trusty, M E J

    2015-01-01

    River buffalo chromosome 1 (BBU1) is a sub-metacentric chromosome homologous to bovine chromosomes 1 and 27. In this study, we constructed a new framework radiation hybrid (RH) map from BBU1 using BBURH5000 panel adding nine new genes (ADRB3, ATP2C1, COPB2, CRYGS, P2RY1, SLC5A3, SLC20A2, SST, and ZDHHC2) and one microsatellite (CSSM043) to the set of markers previously mapped on BBU1. The new framework RH map of BBU1 contained 141 markers (55 genes, 2 ESTs, 10 microsatellites, and 74 SNPs) distributed within one linkage group spanning 2832.62 centirays. Comparison of the RH map to sequences from bovine chromosomes 1 and 27 revealed an inversion close to the telomeric region. In addition, we ordered a set of 34 scaffolds from the buffalo genome assembly UMD_CASPUR_WB_2.0. The RH map could provide a valuable tool to order scaffolds from the buffalo genome sequence, contributing to its annotation. PMID:26535622

  8. Flood characteristics of the Buffalo River at Tyler Bend, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neely, Braxtel L.

    1987-01-01

    The Buffalo River is located in the Ozark Mountains in north-central Arkansas. Tyler Bend is on the Buffalo River about 1.5 miles upstream from U.S. Highway 65. The National Park Service is developing several recreational park sites along this scenic river. The magnitude, frequency, duration and velocities of floods are primary factors needed for establishing guidelines for developing facilities and managing park sites. The Park Service plans to develop park facilities at Tyler Bend and needs flood information at this site. This report provides information on the 100-, 75-, 50-, 30-, 20-, 10-, and 5-year floods on the Buffalo River at Tyler Bend. It was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service and is based on data collected during the December 1982 flood, gaging station data for the Buffalo River near St. Joe, Arkansas and a Statewide flood-frequency report. (Lantz-PTT)

  9. INDUSTRIAL WASTE AND PRETREATMENT IN THE BUFFALO MUNICIPAL SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The requirements and affects of the combined treatment of industrial and domestic wastewaters were investigated for the Buffalo Sewer Authority's sewerage system. A comprehensive industrial waste survey was performed to obtain the required background information on industrial dis...

  10. BUFFALO PEAKS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedlund, D.C.; Wood, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Field investigations were conducted to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Buffalo Peaks Wilderness Study Area, Colorado. On the basis of this study there is a probable mineral-resource potential for silver vein and bedding replacement deposits along the Weston Pass fault zone, for hydrothermal vein-type uranium deposits in the vicinity of the Parkdale iron pit, and for gold vein deposits in the parts of the Granite and Four Mile districts that are within the wilderness study area. A probable barite resource potential occurs at Rough and Tumbling Creek and near Spring Creek on the east side of the study area. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources.

  11. A field study on artificial insemination of swamp and crossbred buffaloes with sexed semen from river buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yangqing; Liao, Yanqiong; Zhang, Ming; Yang, Bingzhuang; Liang, Xianwei; Yang, Xiaogan; Lu, Shengsheng; Wu, Zhuyue; Xu, Huiyan; Liang, Yunbin; Lu, Kehuan

    2015-10-01

    Sex preselection by flow sorting of X- and Y-sperm has been proven to be an efficient and economically feasible strategy for use in Holstein dairy cow breeding, and previous reports have demonstrated the feasibility of altering the sex ratio in buffalo species by using sexed semen in either artificial insemination or IVF. However, because buffalo reproductive physiology and farm management are different from Holsteins, factors involved in artificial insemination by sexed semen need to be further addressed before being applied in buffalo breeding at village-level husbandry. In this study, a total of 4521 swamp or crossbred (F1 or F2) buffaloes with natural estrus were inseminated with X-sorted sperm from river buffaloes, resulting in a 48.5% (2194 of 4521) pregnancy rate and 87.6% (1895 of 2163) sex accuracy in the derived calves. The pregnancy rate obtained with sexed semen from Murrah bulls was higher than that of Nili-Ravi, 52.5% (895 of 1706) versus 46.1% (1299 of 2815; P < 0.01), respectively. Also, significant variations were seen in pregnancy rates from inseminations performed in different seasons (P < 0.01) and by different technicians (P < 0.01). In contrast to Holsteins, no difference was seen in the pregnancy rate between heifers and parous buffalo cows, and buffalo cows with different genetic backgrounds (swamp type, crossbred F1 and F2) showed similar fertility after insemination with sexed semen. The findings in the present study under field conditions pave the way for application of sexing technology to buffalo breeding under village-level husbandry and diverse genetic backgrounds. PMID:26149075

  12. Fish communities of the Buffalo River Basin and nearby basins of Arkansas and their relation to selected environmental factors, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James C.

    2004-01-01

    The Buffalo River lies in north-central Arkansas and is a tributary of the White River. Most of the length of the Buffalo River lies within the boundaries of Buffalo National River, a unit of the National Park Service; the upper 24 river kilometers lie within the boundary of the Ozark National Forest. Much of the upper and extreme lower parts of the basin on the south side of the Buffalo River is within the Ozark National Forest. During the summers of 2001 and 2002, fish communities were sampled at 52 sites in the study area that included the Buffalo River Basin and selected smaller nearby basins within the White River Basin in north-central Arkansas. Water quality (including nutrient and bacteria concentrations) and several other environmental factors (such as stream size, land use, substrate size, and riparian shading) also were measured. A total of 56 species of fish were collected from sites within the Buffalo River Basin in 2001 and 2002. All 56 species also were collected from within the boundaries of Buffalo National River. Twenty-two species were collected from headwater sites on tributaries of the Buffalo River; 27 species were collected from sites within or immediately adjacent to the Ozark National Forest. The list of species collected from Buffalo National River is similar to the list of species reported by previous investigators. Species richness at sites on the mainstem of the Buffalo River generally increased in a downstream direction. The number of species collected (both years combined) increased from 17 at the most upstream site to 38 near the mouth of the Buffalo River. In 2001 and 2002, a total of 53 species of fish were collected from sites outside the Buffalo River Basin. Several fish community metrics varied among sites in different site categories (mainstem, large tributary, small tributary, headwater, and developed out-of-basin sites). Median relative abundances of stonerollers ranged from about 25 to 55 percent and were highest at headwater and developed out-of-basin sites and lowest at mainstem sites. The relative abundances at the headwater and developed out-of-basin sites were significantly different from the relative abundances at the mainstem sites. Percentages of individuals of algivorous/herbivorous, invertivorous, and piscivorous species at headwater sites were significantly lower than values at mainstem and developed out-of-basin sites. Percentages of individuals of invertivorous species at mainstem sites were significantly higher than values at small tributary, headwater, and developed out-of-basin sites. Percentages of top carnivores at mainstem sites were significantly higher than values at tributary and headwater sites. The numbers of darter, sculpin, plus madtom species at mainstem, large tributary, and developed out-of-basin sites were significantly higher than values at other sites, and the values at small tributary sites and headwater sites were each significantly different from values at the other four types of sites. The number of lithophilic spawning species at large tributary sites was not significantly different from values at mainstem and developed out-of-basin sites, but values for small tributary and headwater sites each were significantly different from values for all other categories. Index of biotic integrity scores varied among the site categories. Scores for mainstem sites were significantly larger than all but large tributary site scores. Scores for headwater sites were significantly smaller than mainstem and large tributary site scores. Several analyses of the data described in this report suggest that drainage area is the most important single factor influencing fish communities of the Buffalo River Basin and nearby basins. Species richness increases with increasing drainage area and some species are restricted to smaller streams while other species are more common in larger streams. Some community metrics also are related to land use and related factors

  13. Liquefaction potential for New Uork state: a preliminary report on sites in Manhattan and Buffalo. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Budhu, M.; Vijayakumar, V.; Giese, R.F.; Baumgras, L.

    1987-08-31

    The chances of a major earthquake occurring in New York in the near future is low. However, New York has experienced and no doubt will continue to experience moderate earthquakes. Catastrophic damage due to structural causes is not likely to occur for non-masonry buildings, but ground failure due to soil liquefaction is possible. It appears from the study that areas that lie adjacent to bodies of water (the Harlem River in Manhattan and Lake Erie in Buffalo) are liable to liquefy.

  14. Buffalo gourd: potential as a fuel resource on semi-arid lands

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.G.; Morgan, R.P.; Shultz, E.B. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Buffalo gourd, (Cucurbita foetidissima), is a wild, hot-dry-land plant native to the semi-arid regions of North America. Its triglyceride oil and fermentable starch make it a potential biomass energy source. These products, along with the seed meal and foliage, also offer the potential for cultivation in semi-arid regions of the developing world as a food and feed source. Alternatively, the plant may help to maintain economic vitality in regions such as the Texas High Plains, where declining water supplies threaten present irrigation practices. Technical feasibility, impacts, commercialization requirements, and research needs are discussed.

  15. Structure of the buffalo secretory signalling glycoprotein at 2.8 Å resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Ethayathulla, Abdul S.; Srivastava, Devendra B.; Kumar, Janesh; Saravanan, Kolandaivelu; Bilgrami, Sameeta; Sharma, Sujata; Kaur, Punit; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Singh, Tej P.

    2007-04-01

    The crystal structure of a signalling glycoprotein isolated from buffalo dry secretions (SPB-40) has been determined at 2.8 Å resolution. Two unique residues, Tyr120 and Glu269, found in SPB-40 distort the shape of the sugar-binding groove considerably. The water structure in the groove is also different. The conformations of three flexible loops, His188–His197, Phe202–Arg212 and Tyr244–Pro260, also differ from those found in other structurally similar proteins. The crystal structure of a 40 kDa signalling glycoprotein from buffalo (SPB-40) has been determined at 2.8 Å resolution. SPB-40 acts as a protective signalling factor by binding to viable cells during the early phase of involution, during which extensive tissue remodelling occurs. It was isolated from the dry secretions of Murrah buffalo. It was purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with 19% ethanol as the precipitant. The protein was also cloned and its complete nucleotide and amino-acid sequences were determined. When compared with the sequences of other members of the family, the sequence of SPB-40 revealed two very important mutations in the sugar-binding region, in which Tyr120 changed to Trp120 and Glu269 changed to Trp269. The structure showed a significant distortion in the shape of the sugar-binding groove. The water structure in the groove is also drastically altered. The folding of the protein chain in the flexible region comprising segments His188–His197, Phe202–Arg212 and Tyr244–Pro260 shows large variations when compared with other proteins of the family.

  16. 78 FR 41846 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Buffalo Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: At various... fireworks events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. This action is necessary and intended for the... Buffalo. DATES: The regulations in 33 CFR 165.939 will be enforced on the dates and times listed in...

  17. Solving the Traveling Salesman's Problem Using the African Buffalo Optimization.

    PubMed

    Odili, Julius Beneoluchi; Mohmad Kahar, Mohd Nizam

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the African Buffalo Optimization (ABO) which is a new metaheuristic algorithm that is derived from careful observation of the African buffalos, a species of wild cows, in the African forests and savannahs. This animal displays uncommon intelligence, strategic organizational skills, and exceptional navigational ingenuity in its traversal of the African landscape in search for food. The African Buffalo Optimization builds a mathematical model from the behavior of this animal and uses the model to solve 33 benchmark symmetric Traveling Salesman's Problem and six difficult asymmetric instances from the TSPLIB. This study shows that buffalos are able to ensure excellent exploration and exploitation of the search space through regular communication, cooperation, and good memory of its previous personal exploits as well as tapping from the herd's collective exploits. The results obtained by using the ABO to solve these TSP cases were benchmarked against the results obtained by using other popular algorithms. The results obtained using the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm are very competitive. PMID:26880872

  18. Solving the Traveling Salesman's Problem Using the African Buffalo Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Odili, Julius Beneoluchi; Mohmad Kahar, Mohd Nizam

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the African Buffalo Optimization (ABO) which is a new metaheuristic algorithm that is derived from careful observation of the African buffalos, a species of wild cows, in the African forests and savannahs. This animal displays uncommon intelligence, strategic organizational skills, and exceptional navigational ingenuity in its traversal of the African landscape in search for food. The African Buffalo Optimization builds a mathematical model from the behavior of this animal and uses the model to solve 33 benchmark symmetric Traveling Salesman's Problem and six difficult asymmetric instances from the TSPLIB. This study shows that buffalos are able to ensure excellent exploration and exploitation of the search space through regular communication, cooperation, and good memory of its previous personal exploits as well as tapping from the herd's collective exploits. The results obtained by using the ABO to solve these TSP cases were benchmarked against the results obtained by using other popular algorithms. The results obtained using the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm are very competitive. PMID:26880872

  19. Information summary, Area of Concern: Buffalo River, New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.R.; Brandon, D.L.; Simmers, J.W.; Tatem, H.E.; Skogerbee, J.G.

    1991-03-01

    The Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO) is carrying out a 5-year study and demonstration project, Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS), with emphasis on removal of toxic pollutants from bottom sediments. Information from the ARCS program is to be used to guide development of Remedial Action Plans for 42 identified Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs). The AOCs are areas where serious impairment of beneficial uses of water or biota (drinking, swimming, fishing, navigation, etc.) is known to exist, or where environmental quality criteria are exceeded to the point that such impairment is likely. Priority consideration was given to five AOCs, including Buffalo River, N.Y. The WES Environmental Lab. reviewed existing data and information for each of these five AOCs. The approach used was to bring together WES scientists who have been conducting research on aspects of contaminant mobility in the aquatic environment to develop a list of information required to evaluate the potential for contaminant mobility. This report summarizes the information obtained for the Buffalo River. Topics include: Fish tissue concentrations, Groundwater, Land use, Metal contamination, Pesticides, Point and nonpoint source discharges, Risk assessment, Spills, Toxicity bioassay, and Water quality.

  20. Ecological implications of bovine tuberculosis in African Buffalo herds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caron, Alex; Cross, Paul C.; Du Toit, J.T.

    2003-01-01

    Following the recent invasion of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) into the Kruger National Park, South Africa, we conducted a study on the maintenance host, African buffalo, to investigate associations between BTB prevalence and calf:cow ratio, age structure, body condition, and endoparasite load. Statistical analyses compared herds of zero, medium (1–40%), and high (>40%) BTB prevalence. To control for ecological variation across the park we collected data in northern, central, and southern regions and restricted some analyses to particular regions of the park. Body condition declined over the course of the 2001 dry season, and buffaloes in the southern region of the park, with the highest BTB prevalence, were in worse condition than buffaloes in the northern region (which receives less annual rainfall but is still virtually BTB-free). Herd-level analyses of the entire park, the south and central regions, and just the southern region all indicated that herds of higher BTB prevalence were in worse condition and lost condition faster through the dry season than herds of lower BTB prevalence. Fecal endoparasite egg counts increased during the dry season and were associated with both decreased body condition and increased BTB prevalence. Although we did not detect any obvious effect of BTB on the age structure of the buffalo population, our findings indicate early symptoms of wider scale BTB-related ecological disturbances: buffalo herds with high BTB prevalence appear more vulnerable to drought (because of a decrease in body condition and an increase in endoparasite load), and because lions selectively kill weak buffaloes their prey base is accumulating a disproportionately high prevalence of BTB, to which lions are susceptible.Rea10.1890/02-5266d More: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs

  1. Occurrence of Chrysomya bezziana in a buffalo in Jammu.

    PubMed

    Katoch, R; Godara, R; Yadav, Anish; Sharma, Shikha; Ahmad, Irshad

    2014-12-01

    Cutaneous myiasis caused by the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, is a commonly occurring infestation of livestock and man in Southeast Asian and African countries. A buffalo, aged five years was presented with traumatic wound in the abnormal growth at the base of tail, housing maggots in it. Based on morphological features, the collected larvae were identified as C. bezziana larvae. The first ever occurrence of C. bezziana in a buffalo from this part of country and its public health significance have been discussed. PMID:25320496

  2. Structure of the buffalo secretory signalling glycoprotein at 2.8? resolution

    PubMed Central

    Ethayathulla, Abdul S.; Srivastava, Devendra B.; Kumar, Janesh; Saravanan, Kolandaivelu; Bilgrami, Sameeta; Sharma, Sujata; Kaur, Punit; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Singh, Tej P.

    2007-01-01

    The crystal structure of a 40?kDa signalling glycoprotein from buffalo (SPB-40) has been determined at 2.8? resolution. SPB-40 acts as a protective signalling factor by binding to viable cells during the early phase of involution, during which extensive tissue remodelling occurs. It was isolated from the dry secretions of Murrah buffalo. It was purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with 19% ethanol as the precipitant. The protein was also cloned and its complete nucleotide and amino-acid sequences were determined. When compared with the sequences of other members of the family, the sequence of SPB-40 revealed two very important mutations in the sugar-binding region, in which Tyr120 changed to Trp120 and Glu269 changed to Trp269. The structure showed a significant distortion in the shape of the sugar-binding groove. The water structure in the groove is also drastically altered. The folding of the protein chain in the flexible region comprising segments His188His197, Phe202Arg212 and Tyr244Pro260 shows large variations when compared with other proteins of the family. PMID:17401190

  3. Selective breeding: the future of TB management in African buffalo?

    PubMed

    le Roex, N; Berrington, C M; Hoal, E G; van Helden, P D

    2015-09-01

    The high prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in regions of southern African has a negative economic impact on the trade of animals and animal products, represents an ecological threat to biodiversity, and poses a health risk to local communities through the wildlife-cattle-human interface. Test and cull methods may not be logistically feasible in many free-range wildlife systems, and with the presence of co-existing BTB hosts and the limited effectiveness of the BCG vaccine in buffalo, there is a need for alternative methods of BTB management. Selective breeding for increased resistance to BTB in buffalo may be a viable method of BTB management in the future, particularly if genetic information can be incorporated into these schemes. To explore this possibility, we discuss the different strategies that can be employed in selective breeding programmes, and consider the implementation of genetic improvement schemes. We reflect on the suitability of applying this strategy for enhanced BTB resistance in African buffalo, and address the challenges of this approach that must be taken into account. Conclusions and the implications for management are presented. PMID:25985909

  4. AROMATIC AMINES IN AND NEAR THE BUFFALO RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three sediment samples taken from the Buffalo River and two soil samples taken near its bank have been analyzed for 2-propanol-extractable, basic organic compounds by using GC/MS. Eleven aromatic amines related to the commercial production of malachite green and crystal violet we...

  5. Toxicity of Parthenium hysterophorus L. to cattle and buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, T R; Ananth, M; Swamy, M N; Babu, M R; Mangala, A; Rao, P V

    1977-10-15

    Parthenium hysterophorus L., when fed to buffalo bull calves and cross bred bull calves resulted in acute toxicity leading to death. The former animals developed severe dermatitis. Autopsy revealed ulceration of alimentary tract. Extensive pathological changes were noticed in liver, kidney and skin. PMID:908415

  6. Area contingency plan: Eastern Great Lakes. (COTP Buffalo)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-30

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Eastern Great Lakes Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Buffalo Coastal Zone.

  7. No Retreat: Lorna Peterson--University at Buffalo, NY

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    When Clark Atlanta University announced in 2003 it would close its library school, Lorna Peterson, a library educator at the University at Buffalo, NY, mounted a campaign to save the program, which has graduated more black library leaders than any other. "I did not want this to happen without a fight. It cannot be said that librarians, Friends of

  8. Little Blaze and the Buffalo Jump. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roop, Peter

    The reader is one in a series of stories of the Blackfeet Indians which take place when the people were at the height of their power, hunting buffalo north to the North Saskatchewan River, south to the Yellowstone River, east to the Montana-North Dakota border, and west to the Rocky Mountains. The story is about Little Blaze, a young Blackfeet

  9. Variations in the physicochemical characteristics of the Buffalo River in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chigor, Vincent N; Sibanda, Timothy; Okoh, Anthony I

    2013-10-01

    The physicochemical characteristics of the Buffalo River in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were evaluated using standard methods. The assessment was carried out with total of 72 water samples collected from six sites over a 12-month period, from August 2010 to July 2011. Water temperature ranged from 11 to 28C, while pH varied from 6.6 to 10.7 and turbidity from 1.7 to 133 NTU. Electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS) and salinity showed drastic variations (42.3-46,693?S/cm, 20.3-23,350mg/l and 0.02-33.8PSU, respectively) and the significantly (P?Buffalo River estuary. The concentrations of other parameters ranged as follows: chloride (3.7-168mg/l), DO (6.9-11.1), BOD (0.6-9.4), COD (3.7-45.9), nitrite-nitrogen (0.02-0.21), nitrate-nitrogen (1-4.47) and orthophosphate (0.01-1.72). There was a significant positive correlation between water temperature and DO (r?=?0.200; P?Buffalo River water quality deteriorated in the plains, compared with the upper reaches. Urgent measures are needed to safeguard the river in view of the potential health concerns as many households rely solely on the untreated river water. PMID:23636499

  10. Evaluation of quality and shelf life of buffalo meat keema at refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Kandeepan, G; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Kondaiah, N; Mendiratta, S K; Rajkumar, R S

    2013-12-01

    Scientific basis on the quality changes of traditional keema will boost and sustain meat production and utilization in buffalo abundant countries. A programme was undertaken to determine the influence of age and gender on the quality of buffalo meat keema at refrigerator storage (4??1C). Buffalo meat keema was evaluated by analyzing the changes in physicochemical, microbiological and sensory attributes. The product characteristics and acceptability of keema were better in spent buffalo group than young male group. The values of pH, TBARS, total aerobic mesophils, coliforms, Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus aureus, anaerobic and psychrophilic counts of buffalo meat keema increased but appearance, flavour, juiciness, tenderness, connective tissue residue and overall acceptability scores decreased with progressing refrigerated storage. The shelf life of refrigerated buffalo meat keema was 18days with an overall acceptability score ranging from extremely acceptable to moderately acceptable. PMID:24426018

  11. The African buffalo parasite Theileria. sp. (buffalo) can infect and immortalize cattle leukocytes and encodes divergent orthologues ofTheileria parva antigen genes.

    PubMed

    Bishop, R P; Hemmink, J D; Morrison, W I; Weir, W; Toye, P G; Sitt, T; Spooner, P R; Musoke, A J; Skilton, R A; Odongo, D O

    2015-12-01

    African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the wildlife reservoir of multiple species within the apicomplexan protozoan genus Theileria, including Theileria parva which causes East coast fever in cattle. A parasite, which has not yet been formally named, known as Theileria sp. (buffalo) has been recognized as a potentially distinct species based on rDNA sequence, since 1993. We demonstrate using reverse line blot (RLB) and sequencing of 18S rDNA genes, that in an area where buffalo and cattle co-graze and there is a heavy tick challenge, T. sp. (buffalo) can frequently be isolated in culture from cattle leukocytes. We also show that T. sp. (buffalo), which is genetically very closely related to T.parva, according to 18s rDNA sequence, has a conserved orthologue of the polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM) that forms the basis of the diagnostic ELISA used for T.parva serological detection. Closely related orthologues of several CD8 T cell target antigen genes are also shared with T.parva. By contrast, orthologues of the T.parva p104 and the p67 sporozoite surface antigens could not be amplified by PCR from T. sp. (buffalo), using conserved primers designed from the corresponding T.parva sequences. Collectively the data re-emphasise doubts regarding the value of rDNA sequence data alone for defining apicomplexan species in the absence of additional data. 'Deep 454 pyrosequencing' of DNA from two Theileria sporozoite stabilates prepared from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks fed on buffalo failed to detect T. sp. (buffalo). This strongly suggests that R.appendiculatus may not be a vector for T. sp. (buffalo). Collectively, the data provides further evidence that T. sp. (buffalo). is a distinct species from T.parva. PMID:26543804

  12. The African buffalo parasite Theileria. sp. (buffalo) can infect and immortalize cattle leukocytes and encodes divergent orthologues of Theileria parva antigen genes

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, R.P.; Hemmink, J.D.; Morrison, W.I.; Weir, W.; Toye, P.G.; Sitt, T.; Spooner, P.R.; Musoke, A.J.; Skilton, R.A.; Odongo, D.O.

    2015-01-01

    African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the wildlife reservoir of multiple species within the apicomplexan protozoan genus Theileria, including Theileria parva which causes East coast fever in cattle. A parasite, which has not yet been formally named, known as Theileria sp. (buffalo) has been recognized as a potentially distinct species based on rDNA sequence, since 1993. We demonstrate using reverse line blot (RLB) and sequencing of 18S rDNA genes, that in an area where buffalo and cattle co-graze and there is a heavy tick challenge, T. sp. (buffalo) can frequently be isolated in culture from cattle leukocytes. We also show that T. sp. (buffalo), which is genetically very closely related to T. parva, according to 18s rDNA sequence, has a conserved orthologue of the polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM) that forms the basis of the diagnostic ELISA used for T. parva serological detection. Closely related orthologues of several CD8 T cell target antigen genes are also shared with T. parva. By contrast, orthologues of the T. parva p104 and the p67 sporozoite surface antigens could not be amplified by PCR from T. sp. (buffalo), using conserved primers designed from the corresponding T. parva sequences. Collectively the data re-emphasise doubts regarding the value of rDNA sequence data alone for defining apicomplexan species in the absence of additional data. ‘Deep 454 pyrosequencing’ of DNA from two Theileria sporozoite stabilates prepared from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks fed on buffalo failed to detect T. sp. (buffalo). This strongly suggests that R. appendiculatus may not be a vector for T. sp. (buffalo). Collectively, the data provides further evidence that T. sp. (buffalo). is a distinct species from T. parva. PMID:26543804

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida B:2 Strain VTCCBAA264 Isolated from Bubalus bubalis in North India

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugasundaram, K.; Boora, Ashok; Bera, B. C.; Shukla, B. N.; Anand, Taruna; Singha, Harisankar; Riyesh, Thachamvally; Virmani, N.; Barua, S.; Ahir, V. B.; Koringa, P. G.; Sajnani, M. R.; Bhat, Vaibhav D.; Rana, N.; Singh, K. P.; Malik, P.; Singh, R. K.; Joshi, C. G.

    2014-01-01

    The Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida B:2 serotype causes hemorrhagic septicemia in bubalines with high morbidity and mortality in the Indian subcontinent. We report the draft genome sequence of Pasteurella multocida strain VTCCBAA264 isolated from the small-intestine of a buffalo calf that died of high fever. PMID:25081265

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida B:2 Strain VTCCBAA264 Isolated from Bubalus bubalis in North India.

    PubMed

    Vaid, R K; Shanmugasundaram, K; Boora, Ashok; Bera, B C; Shukla, B N; Anand, Taruna; Singha, Harisankar; Riyesh, Thachamvally; Virmani, N; Barua, S; Ahir, V B; Koringa, P G; Sajnani, M R; Bhat, Vaibhav D; Rana, N; Singh, K P; Malik, P; Singh, R K; Joshi, C G

    2014-01-01

    The Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida B:2 serotype causes hemorrhagic septicemia in bubalines with high morbidity and mortality in the Indian subcontinent. We report the draft genome sequence of Pasteurella multocida strain VTCCBAA264 isolated from the small-intestine of a buffalo calf that died of high fever. PMID:25081265

  15. Genome Sequences of 11 Brucella abortus Isolates from Persistently Infected Italian Regions.

    PubMed

    Garofolo, Giuliano; Foster, Jeffrey T; Drees, Kevin; Zilli, Katiuscia; Platone, Ilenia; Ancora, Massimo; Cammà, Cesare; De Massis, Fabrizio; Calistri, Paolo; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis, typically caused by Brucella abortus, has been eradicated from much of the developed world. However, the disease remains prevalent in southern Italy, persisting as a public and livestock health concern. We report here the whole-genome sequences of 11 isolates from cattle (Bos taurus) and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) that are representative of the current genetic diversity of B. abortus lineages circulating in Italy. PMID:26679575

  16. Genome Sequences of 11 Brucella abortus Isolates from Persistently Infected Italian Regions

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Jeffrey T.; Drees, Kevin; Zilli, Katiuscia; Platone, Ilenia; Ancora, Massimo; Cammà, Cesare; De Massis, Fabrizio; Calistri, Paolo; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis, typically caused by Brucella abortus, has been eradicated from much of the developed world. However, the disease remains prevalent in southern Italy, persisting as a public and livestock health concern. We report here the whole-genome sequences of 11 isolates from cattle (Bos taurus) and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) that are representative of the current genetic diversity of B. abortus lineages circulating in Italy. PMID:26679575

  17. The Olduvai buffalo Pelorovis and the origin of Bos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martnez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Antonio Prez-Claros, Juan; Palombo, Maria Rita; Rook, Lorenzo; Palmqvist, Paul

    2007-09-01

    The origin of the genus Bos is a debated issue. From 0.5 Ma until historic times, the genus is well known in the Eurasian large mammal assemblages, where it is represented by Bos primigenius. This species has a highly derived cranial anatomy that shows important morphological differences from other Plio-Pleistocene Eurasian genera of the tribe Bovini such as Leptobos, Bison, Proamphibos-Hemibos, and Bubalus. The oldest clear evidence of Bos is the skull fragment ASB-198-1 from the middle Pleistocene ( 0.6-0.8 Ma) site of Asbole (Lower Awash Valley, Ethiopia). The first appearance of Bos in Europe is at the site of Venosa-Notarchirico, Italy ( 0.5-0.6 Ma). Although the origin of Bos has traditionally been connected with Leptobos and Bison, after a detailed anatomical and morphometric study we propose here a different origin, connecting the middle Pleistocene Eurasian forms of B. primigenius with the African Late Pliocene and early Pleistocene large size member of the tribe Bovini Pelorovis sensu stricto. The dispersal of the Bos lineage in Western Europe during middle Pleistocene times seems to coincide with the arrival of the Acheulean tool technology in this continent.

  18. Characterization of ?-casein gene in Indian riverine buffalo.

    PubMed

    P V, Vinesh; Brahma, Biswajit; Kaur, Rupinder; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; Goswami, Surender Lal; De, Sachinandan

    2013-09-25

    The study aimed at characterization of buffalo ?-casein gene and its promoter by PCR-SSCP analysis. Complete ?-casein exon VII region analysis revealed two SSCP band patterns, with pattern-I representing predominant allele B (85%) present in homozygous (genotype BB) condition and pattern-II representing a rare allele A1 present in heterozygous condition (genotype A1B). Sequencing of two patterns revealed three nucleotide substitutions at codon 68, 151 and 193 of exon VII. The cDNA sequence of buffalo ?-casein gene indicated three further nucleotide substitutions between allele A1 and B at codon 10, 39, and 41. Analysis of ?-casein proximal promoter region (-350 upstream to +32) revealed four SSCP band patterns. These SSCP patterns corresponded to nucleotide substitutions at seven locations within 382 bp 5' UTR region of ?-casein gene. Haplotype analysis suggested pattern-I of exon VII (wild type) was associated with three types of promoters and pattern-II of exon VII (rare type) corresponded to one exclusive type of promoter. The study suggested two haplotypes of exon VII and four haplotypes of promoter for buffalo ?-casein. PMID:23811487

  19. Nuclear Industry Support Services by the Buffalo Materials Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, L.G. )

    1993-01-01

    The Buffalo Materials Research Center (BMRC) is located on the campus of the State University of New York at Buffalo, Principal facilities within BMRC include a 2-MW PULSTAR, low-enrichment reactor, an electron accelerator, and irradiated materials remote testing facilities. The reactor and the materials testing facilities have been utilized extensively in support of the power reactor community since 1961. This paper briefly highlights the nature and scope of this service. The BMRC is operated for the university by Buffalo Materials Research, Inc., a private for-profit company, which is a subsidiary of Materials Engineering Associates, Inc. (MEA), a Maryland-based materials testing company. A primary mission of MEA has been research on the effects of neutron irradiation on reactor structural materials, including those used for pressure vessel and piping systems. The combined resources of MEA and BMRC have played a pivotal role in the assessment of reactor pressure vessel safety both in the United States and abroad and in the development of new radiation-resistant steels.

  20. Efficacy and pharmacokinetics of triclabendazole in buffalo with induced fasciolosis.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, P K; Gupta, S C

    1996-05-01

    A study was conducted to understand pharmacokinetics and flukicidal activity of intraruminal administration of triclabendazole (TCBZ) at 12.0, 24.0 and 36.0 mg kg-1 body weight in experimentally Fasciola gigantica-infected buffaloes on Week 2 and 10 post-infection. No fluke eggs in faeces and no flukes could be recovered from the liver of buffaloes following intraruminal administration of triclabendazole at 24.0 and 36.0 mg kg-1 body weight both on Weeks 2 and 10 post-infection, while the recommended therapeutic dose at 12.0 mg kg-1 body weight was 19-23% effective. Pharmacokinetic analysis of the data revealed a significantly higher (P < 0.05) concentration maximum of both the metabolites and area under concentration-time curve of TCBZ-SO2 in animals treated at 12.0 mg kg-1 body weight on Week 10 post-infection, whereas a significantly higher area under the concentration-curve and elimination half-life of both the metabolites and significantly higher concentration maximum and area under the concentration-time curve of both the metabolites were observed in animals treated on Week 10 post-infection at the dose rates of 24.0 and 36.0 mg kg-1 body weight, respectively. Bioavailability of triclabendazole was more in buffaloes with mature flukes than with immature flukes. PMID:8792582

  1. Comparative clinicopathological changes in buffalo and cattle following infection by Pasteurella multocida B:2.

    PubMed

    Annas, S; Zamri-Saad, M; Jesse, F F A; Zunita, Z

    2015-11-01

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute, septicaemic disease of cattle and buffalo of Asia and Africa caused by Pasteurella multocida B:2 or E:2. Buffaloes are believed to be more susceptible than cattle. In this study, 9 buffaloes of 8 months old were divided equally into 3 groups (Groups 1, 3, 5). Similarly, 9 cattle of 8 months old were equally divided into 3 groups (Groups 2, 4, 6). Animals of Groups 1 and 2 were inoculated with PBS while Groups 3 and 4 were inoculated subcutaneously with 10(5) cfu/ml of P. multocida B:2. Animals of Groups 5 and 6 were inoculated intranasally with the same inoculum. Both buffaloes and cattle that were inoculated subcutaneously succumbed to the infection at 16 h and 18 h, respectively. Two buffaloes that were inoculated intranasally (Group 5) succumbed at 68 h while the remaining cattle and buffaloes survived the 72-h study period. Endotoxin was detected in the blood of infected cattle (Group 4) and buffaloes (Groups 3 and 5) prior to the detection of P. multocida B:2 in the blood. The endotoxin was detected in the blood of buffaloes of Group 3 and cattle of Group 4 at 0.5 h post-inoculation while buffaloes of Group 5 and cattle of Group 6 at 1.5 h. On the other hand, bacteraemia was detected at 2.5 h in buffaloes of Group 3 and cattle of Group 4 and at 12 h in buffaloes of Group 5 and cattle of Group 6. Affected cattle and buffaloes showed lesions typical of haemorrhagic septicaemia. These included congestion and haemorrhages in the organs of respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts with evidence of acute inflammatory reactions. The severity of gross and histopathology lesions in cattle and buffalo calves that succumbed to the infection showed insignificant (p > 0.05) difference. However, inoculated buffalo and cattle that survived the infection showed significantly (p < 0.05) less severe gross and histopathological changes than those that succumbed. In general, cattle are more resistant to intranasal infection by P. multocida B:2 than buffaloes. PMID:26298001

  2. 33 CFR 207.590 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.590 Section 207.590 Navigation and Navigable... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. (a) The term “canal... immediately to the Black Rock Lock, foot of Bridge Street, Buffalo, N.Y., telephone 876-5454. (k) Ferry...

  3. 33 CFR 207.590 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.590 Section 207.590 Navigation and Navigable... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. (a) The term “canal... immediately to the Black Rock Lock, foot of Bridge Street, Buffalo, N.Y., telephone 876-5454. (k) Ferry...

  4. 33 CFR 207.590 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.590 Section 207.590 Navigation and Navigable... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. (a) The term “canal... immediately to the Black Rock Lock, foot of Bridge Street, Buffalo, N.Y., telephone 876-5454. (k) Ferry...

  5. 77 FR 64126 - Notice of Proposed Withdrawal of Public Land for the Buffalo Bill Dam and Reservoir Modification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Withdrawal of Public Land for the Buffalo Bill Dam and... recreational facilities constructed in connection with the Buffalo Bill Dam and Reservoir Modification Project... recreation site in the Buffalo Bill Dam and Reservoir Modification Project area: Sixth Principal Meridian...

  6. 33 CFR 207.590 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.590 Section 207.590 Navigation and Navigable... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. (a) The term “canal... immediately to the Black Rock Lock, foot of Bridge Street, Buffalo, N.Y., telephone 876-5454. (k) Ferry...

  7. 75 FR 40726 - Safety Zones: Annual Events Requiring Safety Zones in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... the Port Buffalo Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY... Buffalo Zone from July 2, 2010 through July 31, 2010. This action is necessary to protect the safety of... vessel may enter the safety zones without the permission of the Captain of the Port Buffalo. DATES:...

  8. 78 FR 23850 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... jurisdiction of the Captain of the Port Buffalo (73 FR 28704). Specifically, twenty-six permanent safety zones... the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone in the Federal Register (78 FR 11798). We received 0 comments...

  9. Mechanism of resistance to synthetic pyrethroids in buffalo flies in south-east Queensland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Buffalo fly (Haematobia irritans exigua) and horn fly (Haematobia irritans irritans) cause irritation and production loss in much of the cattle producing area of the world. In Australia losses from buffalo fly were recently estimated at A$78m per year. Control is largely performed by using organoph...

  10. Karyotypic evolution of ribosomal sites in buffalo subspecies and their crossbreed

    PubMed Central

    Degrandi, Tiago Marafiga; Pita, Sebastian; Panzera, Yanina; de Oliveira, Edivaldo Herculano C.; Marques, Jos Ribamar Felipe; Figueir, Marivaldo Rodrigues; Marques, Larissa Colho; Vinad, Lucia; Gunski, Ricardo Jos; Garnero, Anala Del Valle

    2014-01-01

    Domestic buffaloes are divided into two group based on cytogenetic characteristics and habitats: the river buffaloes with 2n = 50 and the swamp buffaloes, 2n = 48. Nevertheless, their hybrids are viable, fertile and identified by a 2n = 49. In order to have a better characterization of these different cytotypes of buffaloes, and considering that NOR-bearing chromosomes are involved in the rearrangements responsible for the karyotypic differences, we applied silver staining (Ag-NOR) and performed fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments using 18S rDNA as probe. Metaphases were obtained through blood lymphocyte culture of 21 individuals, including river, swamp and hybrid cytotypes. Ag-NOR staining revealed active NORs on six chromosome pairs (3p, 4p, 6, 21, 23, 24) in the river buffaloes, whereas the swamp buffaloes presented only five NOR-bearing pairs (4p, 6, 20, 22, 23). The F1 cross-breed had 11 chromosomes with active NORs, indicating expression of both parental chromosomes. FISH analysis confirmed the numerical divergence identified with Ag-NOR. This result is explained by the loss of the NOR located on chromosome 4p in the river buffalo, which is involved in the tandem fusion with chromosome 9 in this subspecies. A comparison with the ancestral cattle karyotype suggests that the NOR found on the 3p of the river buffalo may have originated from a duplication of ribosomal genes, resulting in the formation of new NOR sites in this subspecies. PMID:25071402

  11. African Buffalo Movement and Zoonotic Disease Risk across Transfrontier Conservation Areas, Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Caron, Alexandre; Cornelis, Daniel; Foggin, Chris; Hofmeyr, Markus; de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel

    2016-02-01

    We report on the long-distance movements of subadult female buffalo within a Transfrontier Conservation Area in Africa. Our observations confirm that bovine tuberculosis and other diseases can spread between buffalo populations across national parks, community land, and countries, thus posing a risk to animal and human health in surrounding wildlife areas. PMID:26812531

  12. African Buffalo Movement and Zoonotic Disease Risk across Transfrontier Conservation Areas, Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Daniel; Foggin, Chris; Hofmeyr, Markus; de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We report on the long-distance movements of subadult female buffalo within a Transfrontier Conservation Area in Africa. Our observations confirm that bovine tuberculosis and other diseases can spread between buffalo populations across national parks, community land, and countries, thus posing a risk to animal and human health in surrounding wildlife areas. PMID:26812531

  13. Summary statistics and graphical comparisons of specific conductance, temperature, and dissolved oxygen data, Buffalo Bayou, Houston, Texas, April 1986-March 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, D.W.; Paul, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    Buffalo Bayou is the major stream that drains the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area. The U.S. Geological Survey has provided specific conductance, temperature, and dissolved oxygen data to the City of Houston for three sites along a 7.7-mile reach of Buffalo Bayou since 1986. Summary statistics and graphical comparisons of the data show substantial variability in the properties during 1986-91. Specific conductance ranged from about 100 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius at each of the three sites to 17,100 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius at the most downstream site, at the headwaters of the Houston Ship Channel. Water temperatures ranged from 5 to 33 degrees Celsius. Temperatures were very similar at the two upstream sites and slightly warmer at the most downstream site. Dissolved oxygen ranged from zero at the most downstream site to 11.7 milligrams per liter at the most upstream site.

  14. Estimation of the methane emission factor for the Italian Mediterranean buffalo.

    PubMed

    Cndor, R D; Valli, L; De Rosa, G; Di Francia, A; De Lauretis, R

    2008-08-01

    In order to contribute to the improvement of the national greenhouse gas emission inventory, this work aimed at estimating a country-specific enteric methane (CH4) emission factor for the Italian Mediterranean buffalo. For this purpose, national agriculture statistics, and information on animal production and farming conditions were analysed, and the emission factor was estimated using the Tier 2 model of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Country-specific CH4 emission factors for buffalo cows (630 kg body weight, BW) and other buffalo (313 kg BW) categories were estimated for the period 1990-2004. In 2004, the estimated enteric CH4 emission factor for the buffalo cows was 73 kg/head per year, whereas that for other buffalo categories it was 56 kg/head per year. Research in order to determine specific CH4 conversion rates at the predominant production system is suggested. PMID:22443738

  15. Economic and Technical Feasibility Study of Utility-Scale Wind Generation for the New York Buffalo River and South Buffalo Brownfield Opportunity Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J. O.; Mosey, G.

    2014-04-01

    Through the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the economic and technical feasibility of utilizing contaminated lands in the Buffalo, New York, area for utility-scale wind development is explored. The study found that there is available land, electrical infrastructure, wind resource, and local interest to support a commercial wind project; however, economies of scale and local electrical markets may need further investigation before significant investment is made into developing a wind project at the Buffalo Reuse Authority site.

  16. Effect of colostrum and milk on small intestine expression of AQP4 and AQP5 in newborn buffalo calves.

    PubMed

    Squillacioti, C; De Luca, A; Pero, M E; Vassalotti, G; Lombardi, P; Avallone, L; Mirabella, N; Pelagalli, A

    2015-12-01

    Functional studies indicate differences in newborn gastrointestinal morphology and physiology after a meal. Both water and solutes transfer across the intestinal epithelial membrane appear to occur via aquaporins (AQPs). Given that the physiological roles of AQP4 and AQP5 in the developing intestine have not been fully established, the objective of this investigation was to determine their distribution, expression and respective mRNA in the small intestine of colostrums-suckling buffalo calves by using immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis. Results showed different tissue distribution between AQP4 and AQP5 with the presence of the former along the enteric neurons and the latter in the endocrine cells. Moreover, their expression levels were high in the ileum of colostrum-suckling buffalo calves. The data present a link between feeding, intestinal development and water homeostasis, suggesting the involvement of these channel proteins in intestinal permeability and fluid secretion/absorption during this stage of development after birth. PMID:26679810

  17. Isolation and characterization of two distinct growth hormone cDNAs from the tetraploid smallmouth buffalofish (Ictiobus bubalus).

    PubMed

    Clements, Mark D; Bart, Henry L; Hurley, David L

    2004-05-01

    The growth hormone (GH) gene has been characterized for a number of fishes and used to establish phylogenetic relationships and population structures. Analysis of tetraploid fishes, such as salmon and some Asian cyprinids, has shown the presence of two GH genes. Fishes in the sucker family (Catostomidae, Cypriniformes) are also tetraploid, and the present study reports the isolation and characterization of two GH cDNAs from a representative species, the smallmouth buffalofish (Ictiobus bubalus). The GH cDNAs of smallmouth buffalofish are 1272 and 1273nt in length, and each codes for a polypeptide of 210 amino acids, predicted to be cleaved to a final product of 188 aa. The GH cDNAs of smallmouth buffalofish are 6% divergent in nt sequence in the coding region, and there are 16 differences in predicted aa sequence. Because the cDNAs have distinct sequences in coding regions and in UTRs, which differed by more than 10%, they were identified as GHI and GHII. The predicted GHI protein contains 4 Cys residues, homologous to other vertebrate GH sequences. On the other hand, GHII has 5 Cys residues, homologous to other ostariophysan sequences. GHI and GHII are most similar to other cypriniform fishes for both nt and protein sequences. Phylogenetically, the sequences of smallmouth buffalofish GH consistently grouped with Asian cyprinids, but not loaches, consistent with morphological evidence suggesting that suckers are most closely related to minnows. PMID:15081842

  18. Enriching membrane cholesterol improves stability and cryosurvival of buffalo spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Rajoriya, J S; Prasad, J K; Ramteke, S S; Perumal, P; Ghosh, S K; Singh, M; Pande, Megha; Srivastava, N

    2016-01-01

    Buffalo spermatozoa are comparatively more susceptible to freezing hazards than cattle spermatozoa. In recent times incubation of spermatozoa with cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrins (CLC) has shown improvements in semen quality in several species. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the incubation level of CLC at which maximum benefit is derived for the buffalo spermatozoa. For the study, 120 million spermatozoa were incubated in 2, 3 and 4mg/mL of CLC (Gr II, III and IV, respectively) and cholesterol and phospholipids content, their ratio, flow cytometric evaluation of plasma membrane integrity (PMI), plasma membrane fluidity and extent of cryoinjury (Chlortetracycline, CTC assay) were compared with an untreated control (Gr I). Additionally the ability of cholesterol-loaded-spermatozoa to undergo induced acrosome reaction (IAR) using ionophore calcium (A23187) was evaluated in frozen-thaw samples. Data show a significant and linear increase (CV=0.88) in cholesterol content of spermatozoa in Gr II, III and IV and a significant decrease in phospholipids content at frozen-thaw stage in Gr IV than Gr III spermatozoa. The study revealed a significant improvement in PMI and significant reduction in plasma membrane fluidity and cryoinjury of CLC treated spermatozoa at progressive stages in three groups compared to control. Nevertheless, spermatozoa of Gr II, III and IV were significantly less responsive to ionophore calcium (A23187) than Gr I. This study shows for the first time that incubation of buffalo bull spermatozoa with CLC (3mg/12010(6)) prior to processing permits greater numbers of sperm to survive cryopreservation while allowing spermatozoa to capacitate and the acrosome to react to AR inducer ionophore calcium (A23187). PMID:26619942

  19. Protein composition affects variation in coagulation properties of buffalo milk.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, V; Gervaso, M; Rostellato, R; Coletta, A; Carnier, P

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects exerted by the content of casein and whey protein fractions on variation of pH, rennet-coagulation time (RCT), curd-firming time (K20), and curd firmness of Mediterranean buffalo individual milk. Measures of milk protein composition and assessment of genotypes at CSN1S1 and CSN3 were obtained by reversed-phase HPLC analysis of 621 individual milk samples. Increased content of ?S1-casein (CN) was associated with delayed coagulation onset and increased K20, whereas average pH, RCT, and K20 decreased when ?-CN content increased. Milk with low ?-CN content exhibited low pH and RCT relative to milk with high content of ?-CN. Increased content of glycosylated ?-CN was associated with unfavorable effects on RCT. Effects of milk protein composition on curd firmness were less important than those on pH, RCT, and K20. Likely, this occurred as a consequence of the very short RCT of buffalo milk, which guaranteed a complete strengthening of the curd even in the restricted 31 min time of analysis of coagulation properties and for samples initially showing soft curds. Effects of CSN1S1-CSN3 genotypes on coagulation properties were not to be entirely ascribed to existing variation in milk protein composition associated with polymorphisms at CSN1S1 and CSN3 genes. Although the role of detailed milk protein composition in variation of cheese yield needs to be further investigated, findings of this study suggest that modification of the relative content of specific CN fractions can relevantly influence the behavior of buffalo milk during processing. PMID:23684020

  20. New crops for arid lands. [Jojoba; Buffalo gourd; Bladderpod; Gumweed

    SciTech Connect

    Hinman, C.W.

    1984-09-28

    Five plants are described that could be grown commercially under arid conditions. Once the most valuable component has been obtained from each plant (rubber from guayule; seed oil from jojoba, buffalo gourd, and bladderpod; and resin from gumweed), the remaining material holds potential for useful products as well as fuel. It is difficult to realize the full potential of arid land plants, however, because of the complexities of developing the necessary agricultural and industrial infrastructure simultaneously. To do so, multicompany efforts or cooperative efforts between government and the private sector will be required.

  1. Buffalo Flat Service 115-KV Transmission Project : Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1987-07-01

    BPA, in conjunction with Midstate Electric Cooperative (Midstate), proposed to construct two sections of a new 115-kV transmission line in central Oregon: one section from BPA's LaPine Substation to Midstate's Fort Rock Substation (BPA), and the other from Fort Rock Substation to the proposed US Air Force radar transmitter site at Buffalo Flat (Midstate). The proposed line would be a total of about 74 miles long, and of either wood or steel single-pole construction; it would parallel existing corridors and/or roads for much of the distance. 23 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Sequence analysis of the S1PR1 gene in river buffalo.

    PubMed

    Stafuzza, N B; Naressi, B C M; Borges, M M; Amaral-Trusty, M E J

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in methodologies for genomic analyses have enabled a significant advance in understanding of the river buffalo genome. The S1PR1 gene has been mapped to buffalo chromosome 6 and bovine chromosome 3; this gene is of interest as it is a candidate for marbling in meat, an important economic trait. Here, we performed next generation sequencing in a buffalo BAC DNA clone and obtained a 54.5-kb sequence encompassing the entire buffalo S1PR1 gene as well as the 27 kb upstream region and the 22 kb downstream region. The gene had a total length of 4716 bp, including three exons and two introns; exons 1 and 2 were classified as non-protein-coding. In comparison with homologues from other species, the structural organization of buffalo S1PR1 was closest to that of the goat and in both species exon 2 of the gene was non-protein-coding. One hundred and nine repetitive elements were found within the buffalo gene and its boundary regions, with 50 SINE repeats being the most abundant. Alignment of S1PR1 sequences from the Murrah and Mediterranean breeds revealed two nucleotide substitutions (g.1176C>G and g.2740T>C), which represent potential SNPs that could be used in further studies of buffalo genetic structure. PMID:26909928

  3. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of Fasciola gigantica infection in cattle and buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Krishna Murthy, C M; Souza, Placid E D

    2015-12-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was evaluated for the diagnosis of Fasciola gigantica infection in cattle and buffaloes. The excretory-secretory (E-S Ag) antigen of F. gigantica adult flukes obtained after invitro incubation was used as an antigen. The test was conducted with 276 sera collected from cattle and buffaloes which included 22 sera each from naturally infected cattle and buffaloes (known positive serum) and with similar number of samples with healthy cattle and buffaloes (known negative serum). The positive results were observed in 18 and 19 of the sera from naturally infected cattle and buffaloes with sensitivity of 81.8 and 86.3% respectively. Out of 188 serum samples which were found negative on faecal examination 32 (34%) sera of cattle and 40 (42.5%) sera of buffaloes were found positive by ELISA respectively. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 91.6 and 95.6% in cattle and buffaloes respectively. PMID:26688653

  4. Studies on cisternal and alveolar fractions & its composition and mammary health of Murrah buffaloes administered oxytocin.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Bidarimath M; Aggarwal A

    2007-08-01

    The study was conducted on 18 lactating Murrah buffaloes in 83.72 +/- 14.75 days after calving. Group I buffaloes were not injected with oxytocin and served as control. Buffaloes of Group II were injected with oxytocin @ 2.5 IU per 0.5 ml intramuscularly at the hip region for a period of 1 month while Group III buffaloes received injection of oxytocin @ 5.0 IU per ml intramuscularly at the hip region for a period of 1 month. Milk samples from three groups of buffaloes were collected after oxytocin injections at 15 days interval on 0, 15, 30 and 45 days. Blood samples were collected in heparinized tubes at 0, 15, 30 and 45 days of experiment from all three groups of buffaloes. There was no significant change in cisternal, alveolar and total milk yield by exogenous oxytocin administration. Fat % in cisternal, alveolar and total milk decreased significantly (P < 0.01) by 11.8% and 21.3% in groups II and III buffaloes, respectively. Protein % increased significantly (P < 0.01) in group III. A significant increase was observed in somatic cell counts of milk by 5.36% and 6.22% in groups II and III, respectively as compared to control group.

  5. Copper, manganese, cobalt and selenium concentrations in liver samples from African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park.

    PubMed

    Webb, E C; van Ryssen, J B; Erasmus, M E; McCrindle, C M

    2001-12-01

    Animals may act as bio-indicators for the pollution of soil, air and water. In order to monitor changes over time, a baseline status should be established for a particular species in a particular area. The concentration of minerals in soil is a poor indicator of mineral uptake by plants and thus their availability to animals. The chemical composition of body tissue, particularly the liver, is a better reflection of the dietary status of domestic and wild animals. Normal values for copper, manganese and cobalt in the liver have been established for cattle but not for African buffalo. As part of the bovine tuberculosis (BTB) monitoring programme in the Kruger National Park (KNP) in South Africa, 660 buffalo were culled. Livers (n = 311) were randomly sampled in buffered formalin for mineral analysis. The highest concentrations of copper were measured in the northern and central parts of the KNP, which is downwind of mining and refining activities. Manganese, cobalt and selenium levels in liver samples indicated neither excess nor deficiency; however, there were some significant area, age and gender differences. The results will be useful as a baseline reference when monitoring variations in the level and extent of mineral pollution on natural pastures close to mines and refineries. PMID:11785630

  6. First Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. Infecting Buffalo Calves in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Monally C C; Widmer, Giovanni; Zucatto, Anaiza S; Viol, Milena A; Inácio, Sandra V; Nakamura, Alex A; Coelho, Willian M D; Perri, Silvia H V; Meireles, Marcelo V; Bresciani, Katia D S

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of determining the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp., 222 fecal samples were collected from Murrah buffalo calves aged up to 6 mo. Fecal DNA was genotyped with a nested polymerase chain reaction targeting the 18S rRNA gene and sequencing of the amplified fragment. Nested 18S PCR was positive for 48.2% of the samples. Sequence analysis showed that the most frequent species in these animals was Cryptosporidium ryanae, which was present in buffalo calves as young as 5 d. The zoonotic species Cryptosporidium parvum was detected in one animal. An uncommon Cryptosporidium 18S genotype was found in buffaloes. PMID:25941018

  7. Thelazia rhodesii in the African buffalo, Syncerus caffer, in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Chembensofu, Mweelwa; Siamudaala, Victor M; Munyeme, Musso; Matandiko, Wigganson

    2011-03-01

    We report 2 cases of Thelazia rhodesii infection in the African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, in Zambia. African buffalo calves were captured from the livestock and wildlife interface area of the Kafue basin in the dry season of August 2005 for the purpose to translocate to game ranches. At capture, calves (n=48) were examined for the presence of eye infections by gently manipulating the orbital membranes to check for eye-worms in the conjunctival sacs and corneal surfaces. Two (4.3%) were infected and the mean infection burden per infected eye was 5.3 worms (n=3). The mean length of the worms was 16.4 mm (95% CI; 14.7-18.2 mm) and the diameter 0.41 mm (95% CI; 0.38-0.45 mm). The surface cuticle was made of transverse striations which gave the worms a characteristic serrated appearance. Although the calves showed signs of kerato-conjunctivitis, the major pathological change observed was corneal opacity. The calves were kept in quarantine and were examined thrice at 30 days interval. At each interval, they were treated with 200 µg/kg ivermectin, and then translocated to game ranches. Given that the disease has been reported in cattle and Kafue lechwe (Kobus lechwe kafuensis) in the area, there is a need for a comprehensive study which aims at determining the disease dynamics and transmission patterns of thelaziasis between wildlife and livestock in the Kafue basin. PMID:21461276

  8. Thelazia rhodesii in the African Buffalo, Syncerus caffer, in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Chembensofu, Mweelwa; Siamudaala, Victor M.; Munyeme, Musso; Matandiko, Wigganson

    2011-01-01

    We report 2 cases of Thelazia rhodesii infection in the African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, in Zambia. African buffalo calves were captured from the livestock and wildlife interface area of the Kafue basin in the dry season of August 2005 for the purpose to translocate to game ranches. At capture, calves (n=48) were examined for the presence of eye infections by gently manipulating the orbital membranes to check for eye-worms in the conjunctival sacs and corneal surfaces. Two (4.3%) were infected and the mean infection burden per infected eye was 5.3 worms (n=3). The mean length of the worms was 16.4 mm (95% CI; 14.7-18.2 mm) and the diameter 0.41 mm (95% CI; 0.38-0.45 mm). The surface cuticle was made of transverse striations which gave the worms a characteristic serrated appearance. Although the calves showed signs of kerato-conjunctivitis, the major pathological change observed was corneal opacity. The calves were kept in quarantine and were examined thrice at 30 days interval. At each interval, they were treated with 200 µg/kg ivermectin, and then translocated to game ranches. Given that the disease has been reported in cattle and Kafue lechwe (Kobus lechwe kafuensis) in the area, there is a need for a comprehensive study which aims at determining the disease dynamics and transmission patterns of thelaziasis between wildlife and livestock in the Kafue basin. PMID:21461276

  9. Sediment chemistries and chironomid deformities in the Buffalo River (NY)

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, K.M.; Diggins, T.P.

    1994-12-31

    The authors examined the surficial sediment chemistry (heavy metals) and the frequency of chironomid (Diptera) larvae mouthpart deformities from multiple PONAR grabs samples at each of 20 sites along the Buffalo River (NY) area of concern (AOC). Because of the potential for patchy invertebrate distribution and high variance in sediment chemistry, repeated spatial and temporal sampling is important to obtain a better integrated picture of contamination in rivers. The findings suggest that the Buffalo River has one of the highest percentages of deformed chironomids in AOC`s of the Great Lakes basin. One river site that was traditionally thought to be a chemical hot spot was less contaminated than another downstream section. At another site, sediment concentrations for V., Mn and AS appeared to be strongly associated with the proximity of combined sewer overflows from a region which is primarily residential. Interestingly, a demonstration project of the US Army Corps of Engineers, during which three types of dredges were used to carefully remove upper sediments from two different short reaches along the river, seemed to have no significant impact on proximate sediment chemistries or biota.

  10. Malignant schwannoma in an American buffalo (Bison bison bison).

    PubMed

    Cho, H S; Kim, Y S; Choi, C; Lee, J H; Masangkay, J S; Park, N Y

    2006-10-01

    A case of a malignant schwannoma in a 20-year-old male American buffalo (Bison bison bison) from the Grand Park Zoo, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea is reported. The animal showed no apparent clinical signs before death except for wound on the neck. Grossly, neoplastic nodules of various sizes were observed on the skin, lung, heart, liver, stomach, mesentery and kidney. Histologically, the neoplastic nodules were composed of fusiform cells that formed multidirectional bundles. The tumour cells were arranged in interlacing bands and bundles. The nuclei were atypical, hyperchromatic, with blunt or round ends. In addition, few mitotic figures were observed in the skin, lung, heart, liver, stomach, intestine and kidney. Several immunohistochemical stains, e.g. vimentin, cytokeratin (CK), smooth muscle actin (SMA), S-100 and HMB45, were used in an attempt to differentially diagnose the tumour. The neoplastic cells tested positive to S-100, but negative to vimentin, CK, SMA and HMB45. Based on the above findings, this case was diagnosed as a malignant schwannoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a schwannoma in an American buffalo (B. b. bison). PMID:16970634

  11. Molecular dynamics studies on the buffalo prion protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiapu; Wang, Feng; Chatterjee, Subhojyoti

    2016-04-01

    It was reported that buffalo is a low susceptibility species resisting to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) (same as rabbits, horses, and dogs). TSEs, also called prion diseases, are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases that affect a wide variety of species (except for rabbits, dogs, horses, and buffalo), manifesting as scrapie in sheep and goats; bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or "mad-cow" disease) in cattle; chronic wasting disease in deer and elk; and Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, fatal familial insomnia, and Kulu in humans etc. In molecular structures, these neurodegenerative diseases are caused by the conversion from a soluble normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)), predominantly with α-helices, into insoluble abnormally folded infectious prions (PrP(Sc)), rich in β-sheets. In this article, we studied the molecular structure and structural dynamics of buffalo PrP(C) (BufPrP(C)), in order to understand the reason why buffalo is resistant to prion diseases. We first did molecular modeling of a homology structure constructed by one mutation at residue 143 from the NMR structure of bovine and cattle PrP(124-227); immediately we found that for BufPrP(C)(124-227), there are five hydrogen bonds (HBs) at Asn143, but at this position, bovine/cattle do not have such HBs. Same as that of rabbits, dogs, or horses, our molecular dynamics studies also revealed there is a strong salt bridge (SB) ASP178-ARG164 (O-N) keeping the β2-α2 loop linked in buffalo. We also found there is a very strong HB SER170-TYR218 linking this loop with the C-terminal end of α-helix H3. Other information, such as (i) there is a very strong SB HIS187-ARG156 (N-O) linking α-helices H2 and H1 (if mutation H187R is made at position 187, then the hydrophobic core of PrP(C) will be exposed (L.H. Zhong (2010). Exposure of hydrophobic core in human prion protein pathogenic mutant H187R. Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics 28(3), 355-361)), (ii) at D178, there is a HB Y169-D178 and a polar contact R164-D178 for BufPrP(C) instead of a polar contact Q168-D178 for bovine PrP(C) (C.J. Cheng, & V. Daggett. (2014). Molecular dynamics simulations capture the misfolding of the bovine prion protein at acidic pH. Biomolecules 4(1), 181-201), (iii) BufPrP(C) owns three 310 helices at 125-127, 152-156, and in the β2-α2 loop, respectively, and (iv) in the β2-α2 loop, there is a strong π-π stacking and a strong π-cation F175-Y169-R164.(N)NH2, has been discovered. PMID:26043781

  12. Action of milk-clotting enzymes on beta-caseins from buffalo's and cow's milk.

    PubMed

    El-Shibiny, S; El-Salam, M H

    1976-10-01

    beta-Caseins isolated from buffalo's and cow's milk were hydrolysed either with rennet or with microbial proteases from Mucor miehei, M. pusillus Lindt or Endothia parasitica. The degradation products were separated by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and the residual beta-casein was determined quantitatively after various times. The electrophoretic patterns of the degradation products of buffalo and bovine beta-casein produced by the different enzymes were not identical. beta-Casein of buffalo's milk was hydrolysed by rennet and M. miehei protease at a slower rate than that of cow's milk. The reverse was found with E. parasitica and M. pusillus Lindt proteases. Carbamylation of buffalo beta-casein was found to retard its proteolysis by all the enzymes but particularly by rennet and M. miehei protease. PMID:791978

  13. Buffalo's Center for Immunology: A New Answer to an Old Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Noel R.; Bogazzi, Pierluigi E.

    1972-01-01

    The Center for Immunology at the University of Buffalo provides a viable resource for educating medical students in immunology until a department of immunology can be developed within the medical school. (HS)

  14. 76 FR 59480 - Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business..., lending activity reports, small business week, event announcements, and roundtable discussion on...

  15. 77 FR 20871 - Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... reports, small business week, event announcements, and roundtable discussion on small business issues....

  16. 75 FR 16204 - Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... updates, lending ] activity reports, small business week, event announcements, and roundtable...

  17. SERUM CHEMISTRY AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATIONS OF BROWN BULLHEADS (AMEIURUS NEBULOSUS) FROM THE BUFFALO AND NIAGARA RIVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cholangiomas and cholangiocarcinomas were observed in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from the Buffalo and Niagara Rivers (NY) and Old Woman Creek (OH). ignificant increases in serum BUN, uric acid, triglycerides inorganic phosphate, ALT, LDL, calcium and iron and ...

  18. Growth and carcass characteristics of cattle and buffalo breeds reared on a dry zone pasture in Sri Lanka (Ceylon).

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, T; Tilakaratne, N; Buvanendran, V

    1976-08-01

    Growth and carcass characteristics were measured on calves from three cattle breeds-the Sinhala, Red Sindhi and Friesian-and two buffalo breeds-the local buffalo and Murrah. The growth study was carried out on Brachiaria brizantha pasture over a period of 48 weeks. The two buffalo breeds grew fastest followed by the two Bos indicus breeds. The Friesian cattle grew at the slowest rate. The Sinhala and local buffalo had normal haematocrit values while the values for all other breeds were lower. The Sinhala and local buffalo had the highest carcass dressing percentages and the highest muscle; bone ratios. Tenderness measured by Warner-Bratzler shear force values and palatability scores by a taste panel were similar for meat from cattle and buffalo. PMID:968951

  19. Identification of PDC-109-like protein(s) in buffalo seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Harshan, Hiron M; Sankar, Surya; Singh, L P; Singh, Manish Kumar; Sudharani, S; Ansari, M R; Singh, S K; Majumdar, A C; Joshi, P

    2009-10-01

    The FN-2 family of seminal plasma proteins represents the major protein fraction of bovine seminal plasma. These proteins also constitute the major seminal plasma proteins fraction in horse, goat and bison seminal plasma and are present in pig, rat, mouse, hamster and human seminal plasma. BSP-A1 and BSP-A2, the predominant proteins of the FN-2 family, are collectively termed as PDC-109. Fn-2 proteins play an important role in fertilization, including sperm capacitation and formation of oviductal sperm reservoirs. Significantly, BSP proteins were also shown to have negative effects in the context of sperm storage. No conclusive evidence for the presence of buffalo seminal plasma protein(s) similar to PDC-109 exists. Studies with buffalo seminal plasma indicated that isolation and identification of PDC-109-like protein(s) from buffalo seminal plasma by conventional methods might be difficult. Thus, antibodies raised against PDC-109 isolated, and purified from cattle seminal plasma, were used for investigating the presence of PDC-109-like protein(s) in buffalo seminal plasma. Buffalo seminal plasma proteins were resolved on SDS-PAGE, blotted to nitro cellulose membranes and probed for the presence of PDC-109-like protein(s) using the PDC-109 antisera raised in rabbits. A distinct immunoreactive band well below the 20-kDa regions indicated the presence of PDC-109-like protein(s) in buffalo seminal plasma. PMID:19117702

  20. Molecular Characterization of Buffalo Haptoglobin: Sequence Based Structural Comparison Indicates Convergent Evolution Between Ruminants and Human.

    PubMed

    Niranjan, S K; Goyal, S; Dubey, P K; Vohra, V; Singh, S; Kathiravan, P; Kataria, R S

    2016-01-01

    Haptoglobin (Hp) protein has high affinity for hemoglobin (Hb) binding during intravascular hemolysis and scavenges the hemoglobin induced free radicals. Earlier reports indicate about uniqueness of Hp molecule in human and cattle, but in other animals, it is not much studied. In this paper, we characterized buffalo Hp molecule and determined its molecular structure, evolutionary importance, and tissue expression. Comparative analysis and predicted domain structure indicated that the buffalo Hp has an internal duplicated region in ?-chain only similar to an alternate Hp2 allele in human. This duplicated part encoded for an extra complement control protein CCP domain. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that buffalo and other ruminants were found to group together separated from all other non-ruminants, including human. The key amino acid residues involved in Hp and Hb as well as Hp and macrophage scavenger receptor, CD163 interactions in buffalo, depicted a significant variation in comparison to other non-ruminant species. Constitutive expression of Hp was also confirmed across all the vital tissues of buffalo, for the first time. Results revealed that buffalo Hp is both structurally and functionally conserved, having internal duplication in ?-chain similar to human Hp2 and other ruminant species, which might have evolved separately as a convergent evolutionary process. Furthermore, the presence of extra Hp CCP domain possibly in all ruminants may have an effect during dimerization of molecule in these species. PMID:26646629

  1. Phenotypic analysis of cheese yields and nutrient recoveries in the curd of buffalo milk, as measured with an individual model cheese-manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Cipolat-Gotet, C; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2015-01-01

    Traits associated with cheese yield and milk nutrient recovery in curd are used to describe the efficiency of the cheese-making process. This is fundamental for all dairy species, including the Italian Mediterranean buffalo, which is largely used for milk production aimed at the dairy industry. To assess cheese-making traits among buffalo, a model cheese-manufacturing process was tested; it was capable of processing 24 samples per run, using 0.5-L samples of milk from individual buffalo. In total, 180 buffalo reared in 7 herds located in Northeast Italy were sampled once. Briefly, each sample was weighed and heated (35°C for 30min), inoculated with starter culture (90min), and mixed with rennet (51.2 international milk-clotting units/L of milk). After 10min of gelation, the curd was cut; 5min after the cut, the curd was separated from the whey, and the curd was subjected to draining (for 30min) and pressing (18h). The curd and whey were weighed, analyzed for pH and the total solid, fat, lactose, and protein contents, and subjected to estimation of the energy content. Three measures of cheese yield (%CY), %CYCURD, %CYSOLIDS, and %CYWATER, were computed as the ratios between the weight of the curd, the curd dry matter, and the water retained in the curd, respectively, and the weight of the milk processed. These traits were multiplied by the daily milk yield to define the 3 corresponding measures of daily cheese yield (dCY, kg/d). The milk component recoveries (REC) in the curd, RECFAT, RECPROTEIN, and RECSOLIDS, represented the ratios between the weights of the fat, protein, and total solids in the curd, respectively, and the corresponding components in the milk. Finally, energy recovery (RECENERGY) was estimated. The values for %CYCURD, %CYSOLIDS, %CYWATER, RECPROTEIN, RECFAT, RECSOLIDS, and RECENERGY averaged 25.6, 12.7, 12.9, 80.4, 95.1, 66.7, and 79.3%, respectively, indicating that buffalo milk has a higher aptitude to cheese-making than bovine milk. The effect of days in milk was the most important source of variation for %CY, RECPROTEIN, and the overall recoveries (which showed higher values toward the end of lactation), whereas parity did not appear to influence any of the investigated traits. The cheese-making procedure tested allowed us to assess the variability of and relationships among different cheese yield traits, recovery traits, daily milk production traits, and milk components at the individual level. PMID:25465562

  2. Physicochemical Biomolecular Insights into Buffalo Milk-Derived Nanovesicles.

    PubMed

    Baddela, Vijay Simha; Nayan, Varij; Rani, Payal; Onteru, Suneel Kumar; Singh, Dheer

    2016-02-01

    Milk is a natural nutraceutical produced by mammals. The nanovesicles of milk play a role in horizontal gene transfer and confer health-benefits to milk consumers. These nanovesicles contain miRNA, mRNA, and proteins which mediate the intercellular communication. In this work, we isolated and characterized the buffalo milk-derived nanovesicles by dynamic light scattering (DLS), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Western probing, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The DLS data suggested a bimodal size distribution with one mode near 50 nm and the other around 200 nm for the nanovesicles. The NTA and SEM data also supported the size of nanovesicles within a range of 50-200 nm. The FTIR measurements of nanovesicles identified some prominent absorption bands attributable to the proteins (1300-1700 cm(-1), amide A and amide B bands), lipids (2800-3100 cm(-1)), polysaccharides, and nucleic acids (900-1200 cm(-1)). The comparative expression profiles of immune miRNA signatures (miR-15b, miR-21, miR-27b, miR-125b, miR-155, and miR-500) in nanovesicles isolated from milk, serum, and urine revealed that these miRNAs are present abundantly (P < 0.05) in milk-derived nanovesicles. Milk miRNAs (miR-21 and 500) that were also found stable under different household storage conditions indicated that these could be biologically available to milk consumers. Overall, nanovesicles are a new class of bioactive compounds from buffalo milk with high proportion of stable immune miRNAs compared to urine and plasma of same animals. PMID:26490380

  3. Landing performance of an air cushion landing system installed on a 1/10-scale dynamic model on the C-8 Buffalo airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the landing behavior of a 1/10-scale dynamic model of the C-8 Buffalo airplane equipped with an air-cushion landing system (ACLS) on a variety of surfaces including both calm and rough water and a smooth hard surface. Taxi runs were made on the hard surface over several obstacles. Landings were made with the model at various pitch and roll attitudes and vertical velocities and at one nominal horizontal velocity. Data from the landings include time histories of the trunk and air-cushion pressures and accelerations at selected locations on the model.

  4. Feasibility of enzymatic hydrolysis and alcoholic fermentation of starch contained in buffalo gourd (Cucurbita foetidissima) roots

    SciTech Connect

    Scheerens, J.C.; Kopplin, M.J.; Abbas, I.R.; Nelson, J.M.; Gathman, A.C.; Berry, J.W.

    1987-03-01

    The suitability of using annually grown, carrot-sized buffalo gourd (Cucurbita foetidissima) roots as a feedstock for alcoholic fermentation was explored. Roots grown in 1982 and 1983 were slurried, dextrinized and saccharified using Takatherm and Diazyme (commercial enzymes manufactured by Miles Laboratories), and fermented by the action of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These processes were monitored in detail and results were compared with those displayed by controls formulated using potato tubers. The preparation of gourd root slurries with suitable viscosity characteristics for enzymatic digestion required the addition of water (at least 50% by weight) which reduced the proportion of fermentable sugars in the resulting saccharified suspensions. The resulting slurries were well-suited to enzymatic conversion of starch to sugar. Estimates of enzymatic efficiency in gourd root suspensions did not suggest the presence of naturally occurring amylase or glucosidase inhibitors in these plant materials. Saccharified gourd root mashes supported yeast growth well and produced ethanol yields at 82.2-86.5% of the theoretically maximum efficiency. 23 references.

  5. Biochemical, Hematological, and Electrocardiographic Changes in Buffaloes Naturally Infected with Theileria annulata

    PubMed Central

    Hasanpour, A.; Moghaddam, G. A.

    2008-01-01

    Changes in selected blood and serum components and electrocardiography (ECG) were investigated in 20 adults (13 females and 7 males) of water buffaloes suffering from severe theileriosis. The age of all animals used in this study ranged 1.5-5 yr. Theileriosis was diagnosed by observation of parasites in the peripheral blood and the presence of schizonts in lymphocytes that were provided from swollen lymph nodes. Statistically significant decreases were observed in the means of RBC, WBC, and packed cell volume (PCV) in blood of infected animals. The means levels of sodium, calcium, phosphorus, and potassium of infected animals were lower than healthy animals, but only the decrease of potassium was significant. The mean serum activities of aspartate transferase and alanine aminotransfrase were significantly higher than in uninfected animals. Three cases had atrial premature beat, 2 cases had sinus tachycardia, 2 had sinus arrhythmia, and 1 had first degree of atrioventricular block in ECG. The present study showed that T. annulata infection in cattle is associated with hematological and biochemical, and ECG changes. PMID:19127327

  6. Expression and Localization of Aquaporin-1 Along the Intestine of Colostrum Suckling Buffalo Calves.

    PubMed

    De Luca, A; Vassalotti, G; Pelagalli, A; Pero, M E; Squillacioti, C; Mirabella, N; Lombardi, P; Avallone, L

    2015-10-01

    Aquaporin-1 (AQP1), a six-transmembrane domain protein, belongs to a highly conserved group of proteins called aquaporins known to regulate permeability across cell membranes. Although the role of AQP1 has been extensively studied, its specific activity along the gastrointestinal tract in animals during early postnatal development is poorly known. This study investigates the expression of AQP1 mRNA and protein in the small and large intestine of water buffalo calves after colostrum ingestion using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting, and cellular localization of AQP1 by immunohistochemistry. Our results revealed AQP1 immunoreactivity and the presence of the corresponding mRNA in all the examined tracts of the intestine but with a different cellular localization. Western blotting confirmed the presence of AQP1, with a more intense band in colostrum-suckling animals. These findings offer insights into AQP1 expression in the small and large intestine, suggesting its involvement in osmoregulation in gastrointestinal physiology particularly during the first week after birth in relation to specific maturation of intestinal structures. PMID:25348329

  7. Neutrophil Functions and Cytokines Expression Profile in Buffaloes with Impending Postpartum Reproductive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Manas Kumar; Kumar, Harendra; Nandi, Sukdeb

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to correlate the periparturient immune status in terms of neutrophil functions and cytokine expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture with impending postpartum reproductive disorders in buffaloes. Forty pregnant buffaloes were observed for occurrence of postpartum reproductive disorders (PRD), i.e., metritis, endometritis and delayed uterine involution etc., during one week prepartum to four weeks postpartum period. A representative number (n = 6) of buffaloes that did not develop any PRD were included in group I (healthy, control), while the animals which experienced PRD were assigned into group II (PRD, n = 8). The blood samples were collected at weekly interval from one week prepartum to four weeks postpartum period considering the day of calving as ‘d 0’. Differential leucocytes counts, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production activity in isolated neutrophils and the mRNA expression profile of cytokines i.e., IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-γ in PBMC culture were studied in all the samples. A higher total leucocytes, neutrophil and band cells count along with impaired neutrophil functions i.e., lowered level of production of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide before parturition and during early postpartum period were observed in buffaloes developing PRD. Further, a lower expression of IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-4 mRNA in PBMC culture was observed at calving in buffaloes that subsequently developed PRD at later postpartum. Thus, suppression in neutrophil function and cytokine expression at prepartum to early postpartum period predisposes the buffaloes to develop postpartum reproductive disorders. Hence, monitoring of neutrophils function and cytokine expression profile would be effective to predict certain reproductive disorders at late pregnancy or immediately after parturition in buffaloes. In future, this may be a novel approach for determining suitable management and therapeutic decisions for prevention of commonly occurring reproductive disorders in farm animals. PMID:25049724

  8. Molecular and cellular characterization of buffalo bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gade, N E; Pratheesh, M D; Nath, A; Dubey, P K; Amarpal; Sharma, B; Saikumar, G; Taru Sharma, G

    2013-06-01

    Immune privileged mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into multiple cell types and possess great potential for human and veterinary regenerative therapies. This study was designed with an objective to isolate, expand and characterize buffalo bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) at molecular and cellular level. Buffalo BM-MSCs were isolated by Ficoll density gradient method and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS). These cells were characterized through alkaline phosphatase (AP) staining, colony-forming unit (CFU) assay, mRNA expression analysis (CD 73, CD 90, CD 105, Oct4 and Nanog), immunolocalization along with flow cytometry (Stro 1, CD 73, CD 105, Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog) and in situ hybridization (Oct4 and Sox2). Multilineage differentiation (osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic) was induced in vitro, which was further assessed by specific staining. Buffalo BM-MSCs have the capacity to form plastic adherent clusters of fibroblast-like cells and were successfully maintained up to 16(th) passage. These cells were AP positive, and further CFU assay confirmed their clonogenic property. RT-PCR analysis and protein localization study showed that buffalo BM-MSCs are positive for various cell surface markers and pluripotency markers. Cytoplasmic distribution of mRNA for pluripotency markers in buffalo BM-MSCs and multilineage differentiation were induced in vitro, which was further assessed by specific staining. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of buffalo BM-MSCs, which suggests that MSCs can be derived and expanded from buffalo bone marrow and can be used after characterization as a novel agent for regenerative therapy. PMID:23679988

  9. Evaluation of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status on fenvalerate, nitrate and their co-exposure in Bubalus bubalis.

    PubMed

    Gill, Kamalpreet Kaur; Sandhu, Harpal Singh; Kaur, Rajdeep

    2015-09-01

    The toxic effects of pesticides and minerals have been explored in different species, but still there is paucity of information regarding their combined toxicological effects. The present investigation reports oxidative stress induced by oral subacute exposure to fenvalerate (1?mg/kg) and sodium nitrate (20?mg/kg) alone, as well as in combination daily for 21 days in buffalo calves. Fenvalerate exposure produced significant elevation in lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), while it produced significant decline in blood glutathione (GSH) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). No significant alteration was evidenced in nitric oxide (NOx) levels. Oral exposure to sodium nitrate produced significant inclination in LPO and NOx, while on the other hand significant depreciation in SOD and CAT with no significant change in GPx activity. Combined exposure to fenvalerate and sodium nitrate produced severe effects with an appreciably more prominent elevation in extent of LPO and decline in blood GSH levels. PMID:26267048

  10. Comparative Expression Analysis of Gametogenesis-Associated Genes in Foetal and Adult Bubaline (Bubalus bubalis) Ovaries and Testes.

    PubMed

    Shah, S M; Saini, N; Ashraf, S; Zandi, M; Singh, M K; Manik, R S; Singla, S K; Palta, P; Chauhan, M S

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to identify and analyse the expression of gametogenesis-associated genes and proteins in foetal and adult buffalo gonads of both the sexes. Relative quantification of the genes was determined by qPCR and Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry was also performed for various gametogenesis-associated proteins in foetal and adult gonads of both the sexes. We observed significantly (p<0.05) increased expression of primordial germ cell-specific, meiotic as well as genes associated with oocyte maturation and development in foetal ovaries as compared to the adult ones. However, significantly (p<0.05) increased expression of proteins associated with oocyte maturation like GDF9 and ZP4 was found in adult ovaries, indicating temporal regulation of mRNA translation during oogenesis. Meiotic genes showed significantly (p<0.05) increased expression in adult testes as compared to foetal testes and ovaries, indicating onset of meiosis at a later stage in spermatogenesis. In general, the expression of primordial germ cell-associated as well as meiotic genes was higher in adult testes, indicating the increased biological activity in the organ. Immunohistochemistry revealed localized expression of gametogenesis-associated proteins in ovarian follicles and seminiferous tubules of testes, while the surrounding somatic tissues were devoid of these proteins. The study gives an understanding of the sequential and temporal events of gene expression as well as mRNA translation during male and female gametogenesis. It could also be concluded that follicles and seminiferous tubules are the functional units of the female and male gonads, respectively, and their function could be enhanced by appropriate chemical and genetic intervention of the somatic tissue immediately surrounding them. This assumes importance in the context that buffalo attains sexual maturity at an older age of 2-3years and have smaller ovaries with lesser number of primordial follicles in comparison with cattle, which is suggested to be the main reason of their poor breeding performance. PMID:25703697

  11. 77 FR 27487 - License Amendment Request From The State University of New York, University of Buffalo Reactor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires... COMMISSION License Amendment Request From The State University of New York, University of Buffalo Reactor....resource@nrc.gov . The University of Buffalo Decommissioning Plan and License Amendment Request...

  12. 78 FR 59923 - Buffalo Dunes Wind Project, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Buffalo Dunes Wind Project, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding, of Buffalo Dunes Wind Project, LLC's application for...

  13. 3 CFR 8945 - Proclamation 8945 of March 25, 2013. Establishment of the Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., hereby proclaim, set apart, and reserve as the Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument (monument... of the Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument 8945 Proclamation 8945 Presidential Documents... National MonumentBy the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Colonel Charles Young...

  14. Proteomic analysis of cow, yak, buffalo, goat and camel milk whey proteins: quantitative differential expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongxin; Bu, Dengpan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Sun, Peng; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Lingyun

    2013-04-01

    To aid in unraveling diverse genetic and biological unknowns, a proteomic approach was used to analyze the whey proteome in cow, yak, buffalo, goat, and camel milk based on the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) techniques. This analysis is the first to produce proteomic data for the milk from the above-mentioned animal species: 211 proteins have been identified and 113 proteins have been categorized according to molecular function, cellular components, and biological processes based on gene ontology annotation. The results of principal component analysis showed significant differences in proteomic patterns among goat, camel, cow, buffalo, and yak milk. Furthermore, 177 differentially expressed proteins were submitted to advanced hierarchical clustering. The resulting clustering pattern included three major sample clusters: (1) cow, buffalo, and yak milk; (2) goat, cow, buffalo, and yak milk; and (3) camel milk. Certain proteins were chosen as characterization traits for a given species: whey acidic protein and quinone oxidoreductase for camel milk, biglycan for goat milk, uncharacterized protein (Accession Number: F1MK50 ) for yak milk, clusterin for buffalo milk, and primary amine oxidase for cow milk. These results help reveal the quantitative milk whey proteome pattern for analyzed species. This provides information for evaluating adulteration of specific specie milk and may provide potential directions for application of specific milk protein production based on physiological differences among animal species. PMID:23464874

  15. Identification of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in the DGAT1 gene of buffaloes by PCR-SSCP

    PubMed Central

    Raut, Ashwin A.; Kumar, Anil; Kala, Sheo N.; Chhokar, Vinod; Rana, Neeraj; Beniwal, Vikas; Jaglan, Sundeep; Samuchiwal, Sachin K.; Singh, Jitender K.; Mishra, Anamika

    2012-01-01

    Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) is a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the final step of triglyceride synthesis. The DGAT1 gene is a strong functional candidate for determining milk fat content in cattle. In this work, we used PCR-SSCP (polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism) and DNA sequencing to examine polymorphism in the region spanning exon 7 to exon 9 of the DGAT1 gene in Murrah and Pandharpuri buffaloes. Three alleles (A, B and C) and four novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the buffalo DGAT1 gene. The frequencies of the alleles differed between the two buffalo breeds, with allele C being present in Murrah but not in Pandharpuri buffalo. The allele variation detected in this work may influence DGAT1 expression and function. The results described here could be useful in examining the association between the DGAT1 gene and milk traits in buffalo. PMID:23055800

  16. Paleoecology of Early eocene strata near Buffalo, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Durkin, T.V.; Rich, F.J.

    1986-08-01

    Palynological investigation has helped illustrate the paleoecology of a vertical section of strata from the Wasatch Formation between the Healy and Walters coal burns near Buffalo, Wyoming. Numerous silicified logs and stumps of cypress and sequoia have been preserved at the site and drew initial attention to it. Flood-basin deposits enclose the trees and include sandstones, siltstones, shale, and coal beds that accumulated as channel, levee, crevasse-splay, and swamp/marsh sediments. Detrital sediments were probably derived from the Bighorn Mountains and accumulated as they were carried into the Powder River basin fluvial system. One hundred five polynomorph taxa have been distinguished, as well as 10 types of fungal spores. Platycarya, Tilia, Sparganium, and Platanus pollen indicate an early Eocene age for the strata. Other pollen, as well as the genera of trees and megafossil remains from a clinker bed several miles from the study area, reinforce the interpretation of a warm-temperature or subtropical climate at the time of deposition. The megafossil assemblage includes pinnae of the aquatic fern Marsilea, never before described from the fossil record. Variations in the species composition of the polynomorph assemblages show that several plant communities existed in succession at the site. These varied from pond or marsh types to mature forests.

  17. Using the local immune response from the natural buffalo host to generate an antibody fragment library that binds the early larval stages of Schistosoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Hosking, Christopher G; Driguez, Patrick; McWilliam, Hamish E G; Ilag, Leodevico L; Gladman, Simon; Li, Yuesheng; Piedrafita, David; McManus, Donald P; Meeusen, Els N T; de Veer, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    Antibodies isolated from the local draining inguinal lymph node of field exposed-water buffaloes following challenge with Schistosoma japonicum cercariae showed high reactivity towards S. japonicum antigen preparations and bound specifically to formaldehyde-fixed S. japonicum schistosomules. Using this specific local immune response we produced a series of single-chain antibody Fv domain libraries from the same lymph nodes. Removal of phage that cross reacted with epitopes on adult parasites yielded a single-chain antibody Fv domain-phage library that specifically bound to whole formaldehyde-fixed and live S. japonicum schistosomules. DNA sequencing indicated clear enrichment of the single-chain antibody Fv domain library for buffalo B-cell complementarity determining regions post-selection for schistosomule binding. This study also revealed that long heavy chain complementarity determining regions appear to be an important factor when selecting for antibody binding fragments against schistosomule proteins. The selected single-chain antibody Fv domain-phage were used to probe a schistosome-specific protein microarray, which resulted in the recognition of many proteins expressed across all schistosome life-cycle stages. Following absorption to adult worms, the single-chain antibody Fv domain-phage library showed significantly reduced binding to most proteins, whilst two proteins (NCBI GenBank accession numbers AY915878 and AY815196) showed increased binding. We have thus developed a unique set of host derived single-chain antibody Fv domains comprising buffalo B-cell variable regions that specifically bind to early S. japonicum life-stages. PMID:26116907

  18. Quality and shelf life of cooked buffalo tripe rolls at refrigerated storage under vacuum packaging condition.

    PubMed

    Anandh, M Anna; Venkatachalapathy, R T; Radha, K; Lakshmanan, V

    2014-07-01

    Cooked buffalo tripe rolls prepared from a combination of buffalo tripe and buffalo meat by using mincing and blade tenderization process were stored at 4??1C in polyethylene teraphthalate laminated with polythene (PET/PE) pouches under vacuum packaging condition. The samples were evaluated for physico-chemical parameters, microbial quality and sensory attributes at regular intervals of 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28days of storage. Significant changes were seen in physico-chemical, microbial and sensory characteristics of BTRs during storage at refrigeration temperature (4??1C) under vacuum packaging condition. All microbial counts were well within the acceptable limits and the products did not show any signs of spoilage. Thus, BTRs prepared by mincing or BT can be best stored up to 28days at 4??1C under vacuum packaging. PMID:24966432

  19. Storage stability of smoked buffalo rumen meat product treated with ginger extract.

    PubMed

    Anandh, M Anna; Lakshmanan, V

    2014-06-01

    Smoked buffalo rumen meat products were prepared from 3 times blade tenderized buffalo tripe with 5.0% ginger extract and were subjected to various physico-chemical parameters, microbial profile and sensory quality at 25??1C under aerobic packaging. All physico-chemical parameters, microbial counts and sensory evaluation score of ginger extract treated buffalo rumen meat product were higher compared to control. pH, moisture content, thiobarbituric acid, tyrosine values, total plate, yeast and mould and staphylococcal counts were increased and extract release volume were decreased significantly with increasing storage period. Throughout the storage period, all microbial counts and sensory evaluation score were within the acceptable limits up to storage period of 15days at 25??1C in LDPE pouches under aerobic packaging. PMID:24876655

  20. Determination of thermal process schedule for emulsion type buffalo meat block in retort pouch.

    PubMed

    Devadason, I Prince; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Mendirtta, S K; Murthy, T R K

    2014-11-01

    The process temperature for buffalo met blocks processed in retort pouches calculated based on the heat resistance of Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 in Phosphate buffer saline (PBS- Ph 7.0) as reference medium and in buffalo meat block (pH 6.28) was in the range of 110-121C. The D values and Z values calculated for C.sporogenes PA 3679 confirmed that the suspension was best suited for conducting thermal resistance studies. The experiment for indirect confirmation of microbial safety of the products involving inoculating the buffalo meat emulsion filled in pouches with C.sporogenes PA 3679 and processed at Fo 12.13 min showed no growth of microorganisms. PMID:26396350

  1. Identification of functional consequence of a novel selection signature in CYP11b1 gene for milk fat content in Bubalus bubalis.

    PubMed

    Maryam, J; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Nadeem, Asif; Yaqub, Tahir; Hashmi, Abu Saeed

    2015-12-01

    Genomic selection for traits of economic importance is an emerging approach carrying tremendous potentials. Many of polygenic traits as milk fat, protein and yield have been characterize at genomic level and important selection signatures have been identified. Cytochrome P450 enzymes are potential loci for affecting many of dairy capabilities. Present study was conducted for genomic dissection of CYP11b1 gene in riverine buffaloes and seven genetic variations were identified. Out of these, one novel polymorphism (p.A313T) was found well associated with milk fat %age. AB genotyped buffaloes were found to have higher milk fat %age (8.9%) for this loci. p.A313T was further validated at larger data set by restriction digestion using CviAII enzyme. Functional consequences of this locus were also predicted by studying three dimensional structure of CYP11b1 protein. For this purpose, 3D protein model was predicted by homology modeling, secondary structural attributes were determined, signal peptide was predicted and a transmembrane helix was also identified. One of polymorphism (p.Y205L) was found in the vicinity of functionally significant F-G loop region, which is the part of protein gets attached to the inner mitochondrial membrane. But this variation could not be associated and needs further investigation. p.A30V, a popular selection marker in cattle, was found in buffaloes as well but could not be associated and might need further confirmation on larger data set. Results of this study illustrate the impending potential of this gene in determining dairy capabilities of buffaloes and might have a role in selection of superior dairy buffaloes. PMID:26629413

  2. Identification of functional consequence of a novel selection signature in CYP11b1 gene for milk fat content in Bubalus bubalis

    PubMed Central

    Maryam, J.; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Nadeem, Asif; Yaqub, Tahir; Hashmi, Abu Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Genomic selection for traits of economic importance is an emerging approach carrying tremendous potentials. Many of polygenic traits as milk fat, protein and yield have been characterize at genomic level and important selection signatures have been identified. Cytochrome P450 enzymes are potential loci for affecting many of dairy capabilities. Present study was conducted for genomic dissection of CYP11b1 gene in riverine buffaloes and seven genetic variations were identified. Out of these, one novel polymorphism (p.A313T) was found well associated with milk fat %age. AB genotyped buffaloes were found to have higher milk fat %age (8.9%) for this loci. p.A313T was further validated at larger data set by restriction digestion using CviAII enzyme. Functional consequences of this locus were also predicted by studying three dimensional structure of CYP11b1 protein. For this purpose, 3D protein model was predicted by homology modeling, secondary structural attributes were determined, signal peptide was predicted and a transmembrane helix was also identified. One of polymorphism (p.Y205L) was found in the vicinity of functionally significant F-G loop region, which is the part of protein gets attached to the inner mitochondrial membrane. But this variation could not be associated and needs further investigation. p.A30V, a popular selection marker in cattle, was found in buffaloes as well but could not be associated and might need further confirmation on larger data set. Results of this study illustrate the impending potential of this gene in determining dairy capabilities of buffaloes and might have a role in selection of superior dairy buffaloes. PMID:26629413

  3. Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis in Cattle and African Buffalo in the Limpopo National Park, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Tanner, M; Inlameia, O; Michel, A; Maxlhuza, G; Pondja, A; Fafetine, J; Macucule, B; Zacarias, M; Manguele, J; Moiane, I C; Marranangumbe, A S; Mulandane, F; Schnfeld, C; Moser, I; van Helden, P; Machado, A

    2015-12-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and brucellosis are prevalent in buffaloes of the Kruger National Park (KNP, South Africa). Both diseases were considered to have no or a very low prevalence in wildlife and livestock in and around the Limpopo National Park (LNP, Mozambique). The same applies for tuberculosis in Gonarezhou National Park (GNP, Zimbabwe), but just recently, BTB was detected in buffaloes in the GNP and fears arose that the disease might also spread to the LNP as a result of the partial removal of the fences between the three parks to form the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park. To assess the status of both diseases in and around LNP, 62 buffaloes were tested for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and bovine brucellosis. The percentage of positive BTB reactors in buffalo was 8.06% using BovidTB Stat-Pak and 0% with BOVIGAM IFN-? test and IDEXX ELISA. The brucellosis seroprevalence in buffalo was found to be 17.72% and 27.42% using Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and ELISA, respectively. In addition, 2445 cattle in and around the LNP were examined for BTB using the single intradermal cervical comparative tuberculin test (SICCT), and an apparent prevalence of 0.98% was found with no significant difference inside (0.5%) and outside (1.3%) the park. This is the first published report on the presence of positive reactors to BTB and bovine brucellosis in buffalo and cattle in and outside the LNP. Monitoring the wildlife-livestock-human interface of zoonotic high-impact diseases such as BTB and brucellosis is of outmost importance for the successful implementation and management of any transfrontier park that aims to improve the livelihoods of the local communities. PMID:24479882

  4. Buffalo, Bush Meat, and the Zoonotic Threat of Brucellosis in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Kathleen Anne; Blackburn, Jason Kenna; Vandewalle, Mark Eric; Pesapane, Risa; Baipoledi, Eddie Kekgonne; Elzer, Phil H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance infecting humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Little is known about the epidemiology and persistence of brucellosis in wildlife in Southern Africa, particularly in Botswana. Methods Archived wildlife samples from Botswana (19952000) were screened with the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) and included the African buffalo (247), bushbuck (1), eland (5), elephant (25), gemsbok (1), giraffe (9), hartebeest (12), impala (171), kudu (27), red lechwe (10), reedbuck (1), rhino (2), springbok (5), steenbok (2), warthog (24), waterbuck (1), wildebeest (33), honey badger (1), lion (43), and zebra (21). Human case data were extracted from government annual health reports (19742006). Findings Only buffalo (6%, 95% CI 3.04%8.96%) and giraffe (11%, 95% CI 038.43%) were confirmed seropositive on both tests. Seropositive buffalo were widely distributed across the buffalo range where cattle density was low. Human infections were reported in low numbers with most infections (46%) occurring in children (<14 years old) and no cases were reported among people working in the agricultural sector. Conclusions Low seroprevalence of brucellosis in Botswana buffalo in a previous study in 1974 and again in this survey suggests an endemic status of the disease in this species. Buffalo, a preferred source of bush meat, is utilized both legally and illegally in Botswana. Household meat processing practices can provide widespread pathogen exposure risk to family members and the community, identifying an important source of zoonotic pathogen transmission potential. Although brucellosis may be controlled in livestock populations, public health officials need to be alert to the possibility of human infections arising from the use of bush meat. This study illustrates the need for a unified approach in infectious disease research that includes consideration of both domestic and wildlife sources of infection in determining public health risks from zoonotic disease invasions. PMID:22412932

  5. Action of milk clotting enzymes on alphas-caseins from buffalo's and cow's milk.

    PubMed

    El-Shibiny, S; El-Salam, M H

    1977-10-01

    alphaS-Caseins were isolated from buffalo's and cow's milk and hydrolyzed with rennet, bovine pepsin, microbial proteases from Mucor miebei, Mucor pusillus Lindt, and Endotbia parasitica. The rate of hydrolysis was followed by determining the unaltered alphaS-casein in the digest after acrylamide gel electrophoresis. The rate of hydrolysis of alphaS-casein from the two species with the different enzymes was comparable, being more rapid with microbial enzymes particularly Endotbia parasitica protease. However, the electrophoretic patterns of the degradation products of buffalo's and cow's alphaS-casein produced by microbial rennets were not identical. PMID:334809

  6. Phylogeny of Theileria buffeli genotypes identified in the South African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) population.

    PubMed

    Chaisi, Mamohale E; Collins, Nicola E; Oosthuizen, Marinda C

    2014-08-29

    Theileria buffeli/orientalis is a group of benign and mildly pathogenic species of cattle and buffalo in various parts of the world. In a previous study, we identified T. buffeli in blood samples originating from the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Game Park (HIP) and the Addo Elephant Game Park (AEGP) in South Africa. The aim of this study was to characterise the 18S rRNA gene and complete internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) region of T. buffeli samples, and to establish the phylogenetic position of this species based on these loci. The 18S rRNA gene and the complete ITS region were amplified from DNA extracted from blood samples originating from buffalo in HIP and AEGP. The PCR products were cloned and the resulting recombinants sequenced. We identified novel T. buffeli-like 18S rRNA and ITS genotypes from buffalo in the AEGP, and novel Theileria sinensis-like 18S rRNA genotypes from buffalo in the HIP. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the T. buffeli-like sequences were similar to T. buffeli sequences from cattle and buffalo in China and India, and the T. sinensis-like sequences were similar to T. sinensis 18S rRNA sequences of cattle and yak in China. There was extensive sequence variation between the novel T. buffeli genotypes of the African buffalo and previously described T. buffeli and T. sinensis genotypes. The presence of organisms with T. buffeli-like and T. sinensis-like genotypes in the African buffalo could be of significant importance, particularly to the cattle industry in South Africa as these animals might act as sources of infections to nave cattle. This is the first report on the characterisation of the full-length 18S rRNA gene and ITS region of T. buffeli and T. sinensis genotypes in South Africa. Our study provides invaluable information towards the classification of this complex group of benign and mildly pathogenic species. PMID:25002308

  7. Plasma levels of fenbendazole metabolites in buffalo and cattle after long-term intraruminal administration.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, P K

    1993-12-01

    Plasma metabolite levels were measured in buffalo and cross-bred cattle after daily intraruminal administration of fenbendazole at 0.5 mg/kg body weight. An equilibrium between the absorption of fenbendazole and disposition of its metabolites could be observed between days 3 to 6 and remained almost unchanged thereafter. The buffaloes had a lower uptake of the anthelmintic and lower plasma levels of its metabolites than in cattle. The findings were compared with those obtained after a single intraruminal therapeutic dose of fenbendazole. PMID:8122352

  8. Mechanism of resistance to synthetic pyrethroids in buffalo flies in south-east Queensland.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, J T; Morgan, J A T; James, P J; Brown, G W; Guerrero, F D; Jorgensen, W K

    2011-03-01

    Resistance to synthetic pyrethroids (SP) was first recorded in buffalo flies in Australia in 1980, associated with previous use of DDT and fenvalerate. By the 1990s, resistance was widespread. Resistance to SP in the related horn fly of the Americas is associated with kdr and super-kdr mutations in a gene encoding for a voltage-gated sodium channel. We describe 7-20-fold resistance to SP in buffalo flies from south-east Queensland, present evidence of flies that are heterozygous resistant at the kdr locus and show an increase in the frequency of the resistant allele 1 month after treatment of cattle with SP. PMID:21323651

  9. Infection control in general practices in Buffalo City and OR Tambo District Municipalities, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Good infection control practices are effective in reducing rates of infection in health care settings. Studies in primary care in developed countries indicate that many general practitioners (GPs) do not comply with optimal infection control practices. There are no published studies from developing countries in Southern Africa. Objectives The aim of this study was to describe infection control practices in private GP surgeries in the Buffalo City and OR Tambo District Municipalities in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Method A literature review was conducted to appraise current best practice with respect to Standard Infection Control and Transmission Based Precautions. A questionnaire, inquiring into GPs actual practices, was posted to each surgery. Results The valid response rate was 34% (47/140). Methods used to sterilise instruments in 40 practices were: ultraviolet sterilisation (23), chemical disinfection (14), boiling water (7), and steam autoclave (2). Compounds used for chemical disinfection included organotin quaternary, chlorhexidine and benzyl ammonium chloride with a quaternary complex. Twenty-two (47%) used a hand rub. Sixteen (35%) GPs stated that they had a policy to promptly triage patients who are coughing, and 23 (50%) had a policy for airflow movement in the surgery. All practices appropriately disposed of sharps. Thirty-seven (80%) expressed interest in a seminar on infection control. Conclusions Overall, GPs were aware of infection control precautions. Ultraviolet sterilisers and chlorhexidine are not recommended, however, for sterilisation or high level disinfection of medical instruments, and their use should be discontinued. Hand rubs are underutilised. GPs should implement Transmission Based Precautions to prevent airborne and droplet infections.

  10. Critical and Demographic Effective Population Size of African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Borgu Sector of Kainji Lake National Park, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aremu, O. T.; Onadeko, S. A.; Ola-Adams, B. A.; Inah, E. I.

    Effective population size of African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) was estimated using Franklin and Frankham model. Buffalo relative abundance was calculated using a 4x4 km transect constructed in each of the identified six vegetation communities in the Park, which were traversed once a month for a period of 24 months. The results revealed that the relative abundance of Buffalo in the Park was 0.3720.03 groups km-2 consisting of 515.827 groups representing 24216.309 individuals which consist of 30 adult males and 70 adult females representing 12.40 and 28.93%, respectively of the total Buffalo population in the Park which was considered to be the effective breeding population size. The composition of the population structure was significantly different (p< 0.05). The effective population size of Buffalo in the Park was estimated to be 581.344.91 which was above the recommended value of 100 which shows that the Buffalo population in the Park was not threatened by demographic stochasticity factors but rather by illegal human activities in the Park. Measures to improve conservation and management of the existing Buffalo population in the Park are also discussed.

  11. Pharmacokinetic profile of cefquinome after oral subchronic flubendiamide exposure and in vitro plasma protein binding in buffalo calves.

    PubMed

    Venkatachalam, Dinakaran; Dumka, Vinod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The disposition kinetics study of cefquinome was conducted following single intravenous (IV) administration of 2mg/kg bodyweight in buffalo calves after oral subchronic exposure to flubendiamide and to determine the in vitro plasma protein binding of cefquinome. Plasma concentrations of cefquinome were analyzed using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results were compared with our earlier study on the pharmacokinetics of cefquinome in untreated buffalo calves. Plasma concentration-time data for cefquinome following IV injection were best fit into a two-compartmental open model in flubendiamide-exposed buffalo calves. Following flubendiamide exposure, most of the pharmacokinetic parameters of cefquinome were significantly altered in buffalo calves. Cefquinome was bound to plasma proteins of buffalo calves to the extent of 11.4±0.66%. In flubendiamide-exposed animals an intravenous dose of 2mg/kg body weight would maintain the therapeutic plasma levels required to be effective against the bacterial pathogens with MIC values ≤0.39μg/mL for only 12h, whereas in untreated buffalo calves the same dose of 2mg/kg body weight would maintain the plasma levels up to 24h, The study revealed that subchronic flubendiamide exposure significantly alters the disposition of cefquinome in buffalo calves. PMID:25546120

  12. Expression and purification of buffalo interferon-tau and efficacy of recombinant buffalo interferon-tau for in vitro embryo development.

    PubMed

    Saugandhika, Shrabani; Sharma, Vishal; Malik, Hrudananda; Saini, Sikander; Bag, Sudam; Kumar, Sudarshan; Singh, Niraj Kumar; Mohanty, Ashok Kumar; Malakar, Dhruba

    2015-09-01

    The aim of our study was to optimize growth and induction parameters, for expression and large scale purification of functionally active buffalo interferon tau, and to study its possible impact on in vitro blastocyst development. The buffalo interferon-tau gene (BuIFN-T1) bearing gene bank accession No. JX481984, with signal sequence, was obtained through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from bovine early embryos and was cloned into pJET vector. After being verified, the fragments without signal sequence, were inserted into the expression vector pET-22b and the recombinant plasmid was induced to express the recombinant protein in a prokaryotic expression system. The recombinant BuIFN-T was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot and subjected to three steps of large scale purification using His Affinity chromatography, Anion Exchange chromatography and Gel Filtration chromatography. The purified recombinant BuIFN-T protein was validated by mass spectroscopy analysis. To examine the effect of recombinant BuIFN-T protein on developmental competency of buffalo embryos, purified recombinant BuIFN-T protein was added to in vitro embryo culture medium (at concentration of 0, 1μg/ml, 2μg/ml, 4μg/ml) for 9days. Addition of recombinant BuIFN-T (2μg/ml) significantly improved the rate of blastocyst production, 45.55% against 31.1% control (p<0.01). Here we conclude that the recombinant BuIFN-T was successfully purified to homogeneity from a prokaryotic expression system and it significantly increased the blastocyst production rate in buffalo. These findings suggest a potential impact of IFN-T in promoting embryonic growth and development. PMID:25890875

  13. Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  14. Chitosan-gelatin scaffolds for tissue engineering: physico-chemical properties and biological response of buffalo embryonic stem cells and transfectant of GFP-buffalo embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Thein-Han, W W; Saikhun, J; Pholpramoo, C; Misra, R D K; Kitiyanant, Y

    2009-11-01

    The favorable cellular response of newly developed cell line, buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cells to three-dimensional biodegradable chitosan-gelatin composite scaffolds with regard to stem-cell-based tissue engineering is described. Chitosan-gelatin composites were characterized by a highly porous structure with interconnected pores, and the mechanical properties were significantly enhanced. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction study indicated increased amorphous content in the scaffold on the addition of gelatin to chitosan. To develop a transfectant of green fluorescence protein (GFP)-buffalo ES cell, transfection of GFP plasmid to the cell was carried out via the electroporation procedure. In comparison with pure chitosan, cell spreading and proliferation were greater in highly visualized GFP-expressing cell-chitosan-gelatin scaffold constructs. The relative comparison of biological response involving cell proliferation and viability on the scaffolds suggests that blending of gelatin in chitosan improved cellular efficiency. Studies involving scanning electron and fluorescence microscopy, histological observations and flow cytometer analysis of the constructs implied that the polygonal cells attached to and penetrated the pores, and proliferated well, while maintaining their pluripotency during the culture period for 28days. Chitosan-gelatin scaffolds were cytocompatible with respect to buffalo ES cells. The study underscores for the first time that chitosan-gelatin scaffolds are promising candidates for ES-cell-based tissue engineering. PMID:19460465

  15. An association analysis between OXT genotype and milk yield and flow in Italian Mediterranean river buffalo.

    PubMed

    Pauciullo, Alfredo; Cosenza, Gianfranco; Steri, Roberto; Coletta, Angelo; Jemma, Lazzaro; Feligini, Maria; Di Berardino, Dino; Macciotta, Nicol P P; Ramunno, Luigi

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate possible associations between three SNPs at the oxytocin locus (AM234538: g.28C>T; g.204A>G and g.1627G>T) and two productive traits, milk yield and milkability, in Italian Mediterranean river buffaloes. Effects of parity, calving season and month of production were also evaluated. A total of 41 980 test-day records belonging to 219 lactations of 163 buffalo cows were investigated. The allele call rate was 988% and the major allele frequency for all the investigated loci was 076. The OXT genotype was significantly associated with milk yield (P=0029). The TT genotype showed an average daily milk yield approximately 17 kg higher than GT buffaloes. Such a difference represents about 23% more milk/d. A large dominance effect (-117043 kg) was estimated, whereas the contribution of OXT genotype (r(2)(OXT)) to the total phenotypic variance in milk yield was equal to 006. The TT genotype showed higher values also for the milk flow, even though the estimated difference did not reach a level of statistical significance (P=007). Such an association, among the first reported for the oxytocin locus in ruminants, should be tested on a population scale and possible effects on milk composition traits should be evaluated in order to supply useful indications for the application of marker-assisted selection programmes in river buffaloes. PMID:22280971

  16. Managing Conduct: A Comparative Policy Analysis of Safe Schools Policies in Toronto, Canada and Buffalo, USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Public school districts in Buffalo, USA and Toronto, Canada reviewed their safe schools policies in 2008. Revised Codes of Conduct are compared to earlier versions and each other, and a conceptual policy web is used to understand how local, state/provincial, national, and international influences affect local safe school policies. The comparison

  17. A Case Study in Master Planning the Learning Landscape Hub Concepts for the University at Buffalo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugdale, Shirley; Torino, Roger; Felix, Elliot

    2009-01-01

    This case study describes concepts for three types of learning spaces that grew out of a Learning Landscape planning process. The process was part of a master plan study for the three campuses of the University at Buffalo. It involved research into user needs and aspirations about future pedagogy, development of learning space strategy,

  18. TETRACHLORO-9H-CARBAZOLE, A PREVIOUSLY UNRECOGNIZED CONTAMINANT IN SEDIMENTS OF THE BUFFALO RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three sediment samples taken from the Buffalo River, New York, have been analyzed for polychlorinated planar molecules similar in structure to the highly toxic 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Although no TCDD was found, residues of chlorinated dibenzofuran, fluorene, biphenylene, phenanthrene (ant...

  19. 78 FR 26416 - Environmental Impact Statement: City of Buffalo, Erie County, New York

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: City of Buffalo, Erie County, New York... issuing this notice to advise the public that an environmental impact statement will be prepared for a... of Transportation, will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) in accordance with...

  20. The Self as Cultural Metaphor in Acosta's Autobiography of a Brown Buffalo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Genaro M.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the personal life of Oscar Zeta Acosta as revealed in his work "The Autobiography of a Brown Buffalo," tracing Acosta's involvement in the Chicano social movement in Los Angeles in the late 1960s and his development of cultural identity and political consciousness. (DMM)

  1. Exploration of salivary proteins in buffalo: an approach to find marker proteins for estrus.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, Subramanian; Rajkumar, Ramalingam; Rajesh, Durairaj; Saibaba, Ganesan; Liao, Chen-Chung; Archunan, Govindaraju; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Gulyas, Balazs

    2014-11-01

    Saliva is considered as the best source of biological material for biomarker discovery studies since it is noninvasive in comparison to other body sources. Usually buffalo cannot precisely express estrus signals. Hence, there is a need for concise methods to detect the time of estrus to ensure the success of artificial insemination. Therefore, we have established a reference proteome map on the whole saliva of buffalo during their estrous cycle with special reference to estrus. Nearly 12 bands have been observed using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of whole saliva. Collectively, 179 proteins are identified with respect to different phases of the estrous cycle using mass spectrometry. On the whole, 37 proteins are exclusively expressed in the estrus phase, which include ?-enolase, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, clusterin, lactoperoxidase, serotransferrin, TGM3, UBA6, and transducin. Among the proteins, ?-enolase and TLR 4 were validated, and their specific expression was found during estrus as compared to other phases using immunoblot. The functional annotation reveals many as binding proteins in the estrus saliva when compared to the other phases. The present findings conclude that the proteomic approach adopted to identify the proteins from buffalo saliva around the estrous cycle may provide a new tool for screening the estrus phase. The results further conclude that the specific expression of ?-enolase and TLR 4 can be taken as the indicator of estrus in buffalo. PMID:25114174

  2. Bird mortality associated with wind turbines at the Buffalo Ridge wind resource area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osborn, R.G.; Higgins, K.F.; Usgaard, R.E.; Dieter, C.D.; Neiger, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    Recent technological advances have made wind power a viable source of alternative energy production and the number of windplant facilities has increased in the United States. Construction was completed on a 73 turbine, 25 megawatt windplant on Buffalo Ridge near Lake Benton, Minnesota in Spring 1994. The number of birds killed at existing windplants in California caused concern about the potential impacts of the Buffalo Ridge facility on the avian community. From April 1994 through Dec. 1995 we searched the Buffalo Ridge windplant site for dead birds. Additionally, we evaluated search efficiency, predator scavenging rates and rate of carcass decomposition. During 20 mo of monitoring we found 12 dead birds. Collisions with wind turbines were suspected for 8 of the 12 birds. During observer efficiency trials searchers found 78.8% of carcasses. Scavengers removed 39.5% of carcasses during scavenging trials. All carcasses remained recognizable during 7 d decomposition trials. After correction for biases we estimated that approximately 36 ?? 12 birds (<1 dead bird per turbine) were killed at the Buffalo Ridge windplant in 1 y. Although windplants do not appear to be more detrimental to birds than other man-made structures, proper facility sitting is an important first consideration in order to avoid unnecessary fatalities.

  3. Environmental assessment: Buffalo Bill area 69-kV transmission lines, Cody, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to remove two existing 34.5-kV transmission lines connecting Shoshone Powerplant-Heart Mountain Switchyard-North Cody Substation and replace them with a new 69-kV line. The new 69-kV line would connect the proposed Buffalo Bill Switchyard to North Cody Substation. An abandoned 69-kV line connecting Shoshone Powerplant and Heart Mountain Switchyard would be rebuilt and returned to service between Buffalo Bill Switchyard and Heart Mountain Switchyard. This action is proposed because the existing lines, built between 1922 and 1941, have reached the end of their useful life due to their deteriorated condition. In order to provide for the increased generation of the Shoshone and Buffalo Bill powerplants, the capacity of the existing transmission system into Buffalo Bill Powerplant must be upgraded to prevent overload and inevitable system interruptions. Reliability of service in the area would be improved by replacement of the existing deteriorated lines with new construction. 25 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Politics and Precursors: The Educational Opportunity Program ("SEEK") at State University College at Buffalo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Jeffrey J.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the origins in New York City of the compensatory higher education program SEEK and the circumstances surrounding its adoption at the State Univerity College at Buffalo. Argues that the project's history is an informative lesson in the interaction of educational planning and political power. (CMG)

  5. Exposure of vaccinated and naive cattle to natural challenge from buffalo-derived Theileria parva.

    PubMed

    Sitt, Tatjana; Poole, E Jane; Ndambuki, Gideon; Mwaura, Stephen; Njoroge, Thomas; Omondi, George P; Mutinda, Matthew; Mathenge, Joseph; Prettejohn, Giles; Morrison, W Ivan; Toye, Philip

    2015-08-01

    Integrative management of wildlife and livestock requires a clear understanding of the diseases transmitted between the two populations. The tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria parva causes two distinct diseases in cattle, East Coast fever and Corridor disease, following infection with parasites derived from cattle or buffalo, respectively. In this study, cattle were immunized with a live sporozoite vaccine containing three T.?parva isolates (the Muguga cocktail), which has been used extensively and successfully in the field to protect against cattle-derived T.?parva infection. The cattle were exposed in a natural field challenge site containing buffalo but no other cattle. The vaccine had no effect on the survival outcome in vaccinated animals compared to unvaccinated controls: nine out of the 12 cattle in each group succumbed to T.?parva infection. The vaccine also had no effect on the clinical course of the disease. A combination of clinical and post mortem observations and laboratory analyses confirmed that the animals died of Corridor disease. The results clearly indicate that the Muguga cocktail vaccine does not provide protection against buffalo-derived T.?parva at this site and highlight the need to evaluate the impact of the composition of challenge T.?parva populations on vaccine success in areas where buffalo and cattle are present. PMID:26005635

  6. LACK OF MYOGLOBIN FUNCTION IN THE ISOLATED PERFUSED BUFFALO SCULPIN (ENOPHRYS BISON) HEART

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of myoglobin to cardiac performance and O2 consumption was investigated using an isolated perfused buffalo sculpin (Enophrys bison) heart preparation. ose-response studies at ambient (150 Torr)(l Torr=l33.322 Pa) O2 tensions were conducted as a means of selecting...

  7. 78 FR 11798 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ...The Coast Guard proposes to amend and establish regulations requiring safety zones for firework events that take place annually within the Captain of the Port Zone Buffalo. This proposed rule is intended to amend and establish restrictions on vessel access to designated areas on U.S. navigable waterways during certain fireworks displays. The safety zones amended and established by this......

  8. Bilateral Pneumothoraces Following BiV ICD Placement: A Case of Buffalo Chest Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rali, Aniket S.; Manyam, Harish

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 73 Final Diagnosis: Buffalo chest syndrome Symptoms: Medication: Clinical Procedure: Bi-ventricular ICD Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Rare disease Background: Contralateral pneumothorax following device implantation on the left side has been reported in a few cases. The majority of contralateral pneumothoraces showed evidence of atrial perforation on computed tomography (CT), echocardiography, or chest x-rays and required lead revision. To the best of our knowledge there is only 1 other reported case of contralateral pneumothorax without evidence of macro-displacement of the atrial lead. In that case the patient experienced a right-sided pneumothorax on day 1 after undergoing repositioning of the atrial lead. Case Report: The current case is unique on several accounts, including timing of the contralateral pneumothorax and no evidence of associated atrial lead perforation on device interrogation or CT imaging. Furthermore, the appearance of contralateral pneumothorax within 8 hours of clampi