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1

Frequency of Toxoplasmosis in Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Trinidad  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasmosis has been reported to occur in several animals and humans causing different clinical manifestations. The study was conducted to determine the frequency of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies (IgG) in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) across farms in Trinidad using a latex agglutination test. Of a total of 333 water buffalo tested, 26 (7.8%) were seropositive for T. gondii antibodies. Seropositivity for toxoplasmosis was statistically significantly (P < 0.05; ?2) higher in adult water buffalo, 12.4% (14 of 113) compared with young water buffalo, 4.2% (6 of 143). Seropositivity for toxoplasmosis across the seven farms ranged from 0.0% (0 of 20) in Farm G compared with 20.0% (10 of 50) detected in Farm B. The differences in seropositivity by management system, free-ranging 6.7% (14 of 213) and semi-intensive 10.0% (12 of 120) and by sex, in male 6.7% (7 of 104) and female 8.3% (19 of 229) water buffalo, were not statistically significant (P > 0.05; ?2). This is the first documentation of toxoplasmosis in water buffalo in Trinidad. PMID:22195295

Persad, Anil; Charles, Roxanne; Adesiyun, Abiodun A.

2011-01-01

2

Characterization and kinetics studies of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) myoglobin.  

PubMed

The colour of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis L.) meat is darker than bovine meat. Since meat colour depends on the concentration of myoglobin (Mb) and its oxidation state, we have determined the main structural and functional properties of buffalo Mb. Buffalo Mb was purified from longissimus dorsi muscles and its molecular mass determined by ESI Q-TOF mass spectrometry. The molecular mass 17,034.50 was 86.20 Da higher than the bovine Mb. This was confirmed by analysing its primary structure, using a combined approach based on Edman degradation and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Comparing the amino acid sequences of both Mbs, we found three amino acid differences out of 153 amino acid residues. One is a conservative substitution (D(bov)141E(buf)), and the other two (A(bov)19T(buf) and A(bov)117D(buf)) are nonconservative. These amino acid substitutions are unlikely to cause structural changes because they are located far from the heme binding pocket, as revealed by the 3D structure of buffalo Mb elaborated by homology modelling. Stability analyses show no difference with the bovine Mb for helix E and only minor differences in the stability values for helices A and G. Moreover, autoxidation rates of purified buffalo and bovine myoglobins at 37 degrees C, pH 7.2, were almost identical, 0.052+/-0.001 h(-1) and 0.054+/-0.002 h(-1), respectively, as were their oxygen-binding Kd values, 3.7+/-0.1 microM and 3.5+/-0.1 microM, respectively. The percent of MetMb values were almost identical. The results presented here suggest that the darker buffalo meat depends on factors other than the oxidation rate of its Mb, as, for example, the Mb content (0.393+/-0.005 g/100 g of tissue) and consequently MetMb, which are almost twice as high as bovine meat (Mb: 0.209+/-0.003 g/100 g of tissue). PMID:16959515

Dosi, Roberta; Di Maro, Antimo; Chambery, Angela; Colonna, Giovanni; Costantini, Susan; Geraci, Giuseppe; Parente, Augusto

2006-10-01

3

Isolation and characterization of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Argentina  

PubMed Central

Background Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) was isolated from dairy buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) naturally affected with respiratory and reproductive clinical conditions. Results Examination of nasal and vaginal swabs collected from 12 diseased buffaloes led to the isolation of three paramyxovirus isolates from two animals. Antigenic, morphological and biological characteristics of these three isolates were essentially similar to those of members of the Paramyxoviridae family. Antigenic analysis by direct immunofluorescence and cross neutralization test placed these isolates together with bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3). Nucleotide and amino acid phylogenetic analysis of partial matrix gene sequences of the buffalo isolates and six field BPIV3 isolates from bovines in Argentina were studied. Buffalo isolates were similar to genotype B (BPIV3b) while the six BPIV3 isolates were similar to genotypes A (BPIV3a) and C (BPIV3c). Conclusions This is the first characterization of BPIV3 in water buffalo. According to the samples analyzed, in Argentina, the genotype B was found in buffalo and the genotypes A and C were found in cattle. PMID:22716217

2012-01-01

4

Effects of smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus biomass on water transparency, nutrients, and productivity in shallow experimental ponds.  

PubMed

The smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus is a native benthivore to floodplain lakes in the Yazoo River Basin, USA. Based on evidence from other benthivorous fish studies we hypothesized high biomasses of I. bubalus contribute to poor water quality conditions. We tested this hypothesis in shallow (<1.5 m) 0.05 ha earthen ponds at three stocking biomasses over a 10-week period during the summer of 2012. The most notable results from the permutational multivariate analysis of variance suggest I. bubalus at high and moderate biomasses significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced turbidity and suspended solid levels while decreasing Secchi depth. Our results suggest that effects of I. bubalus on water clarity may have considerable ecological implications in natural habitats such as shallow floodplain lakes. PMID:24526283

Goetz, D; Kröger, R; Miranda, L E

2014-05-01

5

The Effects of Benthivorous Smallmouth Buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) on Water Quality and Nutrient Cycling in a Shallow Floodplain Lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental mesocosm studies revealed that the presence of benthivorous smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) significantly enhanced turbidity, phytoplankton biomass, ammonium (NH4 ), and total nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations in a shallow, aerobic, hypereutrophic oxbow lake. The effects of Ictiobuson water quality are similar to the results of experiments performed on other benthivorous fish species. Prior studies have suggested that

David E. Shormann; James B. Cotner

1997-01-01

6

Ciliate protozoa in the rumen of Brazilian water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis Linnaeus.  

PubMed

Total numbers and distribution of genera, subgenera and species were determined for the ciliate protozoa in rumen contents of 4 Brazilian water buffalo Bubalus bubalis Linnaeus. The fauna of one animal, housed in close proximity to European and zebu-type cattle, differed considerably from that of the remaining animals, which were somewhat isolated on a large ranch. Several of the protozoan species observed in the semi-isolated animals were first described in rumen contents from humped Indian cattle, and their subsequent occurrence in other hosts and geographic locations has been limited or absent. In all, 49 different species of protozoa were found, 8 of which have not been previously described. Three of the new species belong to the genus Entodinium: E. ciculum sp. n., E. spinonucleatum sp. n. and E. triangulum sp. n.; 4 to Diplodinium (Ostracodinium): D. (O.) brazili sp. n., D. (O.) esalqum sp. n., D. (O.) nucleolobum sp. n., and D. (O.) tiete sp. n.; and one to Diplodinium (Eudiplodinium): D. (E.) bubalus sp. n. PMID:120894

Dehority, B A

1979-11-01

7

Plasma and milk kinetic of eprinomectin and moxidectin in lactating water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).  

PubMed

The pharmacokinetics and mammary excretion of moxidectin and eprinomectin were determined in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) following topical administration of 0.5mgkg(-1). Following administration of moxidectin, plasma and milk concentrations of moxidectin increased to reach maximal concentrations (C(max)) of 5.46+/-3.50 and 23.76+/-16.63ngml(-1) at T(max) of 1.20+/-0.33 and 1.87+/-0.77 days in plasma and milk, respectively. The mean residence time (MRT) were similar for plasma and milk (5.27+/-0.45 and 5.87+/-0.80 days, respectively). The AUC value was 5-fold higher in milk (109.68+/-65.01ngdayml(-1)) than in plasma (23.66+/-12.26ngdayml(-1)). The ratio of AUC milk/plasma for moxidectin was 5.04+/-2.13. The moxidectin systemic availability (expressed as plasma AUC values) obtained in buffaloes was in the same range than those reported in cattle. The faster absorption and elimination processes of moxidectin were probably due to a lower storage in fat associated with the fact that animals were in lactation. Nevertheless, due to its high excretion in milk and its high detected maximum concentration in milk which is equivalent or higher to the Maximal Residue Level value (MRL) (40ngml(-1)), its use should be prohibited in lactating buffaloes. Concerning eprinomectin, the C(max) were of 2.74+/-0.89 and 3.40+/-1.68ngml(-1) at T(max) of 1.44+/-0.20 and 1.33+/-0.0.41 days in plasma and milk, respectively. The MRT and the AUC were similar for plasma (3.17+/-0.41 days and 11.43+/-4.01ngdayml(-1)) and milk (2.70+/-0.44 days and 8.49+/-3.33ngdayml(-1)). The ratio of AUC milk/plasma for eprinomectin was 0.76+/-0.16. The AUC value is 20 times lower than that reported in dairy cattle. The very low extent of mammary excretion and the milk levels reported lower than the MRL (20ngml(-1)) supports the permitted use of eprinomectin in lactating water buffaloes. PMID:18774650

Dupuy, Jacques; Sutra, Jean-François; Alvinerie, Michel; Rinaldi, Laura; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Mezzino, Laura; Pennacchio, Saverio; Cringoli, Giuseppe

2008-11-01

8

Local Immune Responses of the Chinese Water Buffalo, Bubalus bubalis, against Schistosoma japonicum Larvae: Crucial Insights for Vaccine Design  

PubMed Central

Asian schistosomiasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease infecting up to a million people and threatening tens of millions more. Control of this disease is hindered by the animal reservoirs of the parasite, in particular the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), which is responsible for significant levels of human transmission. A transmission-blocking vaccine administered to buffaloes is a realistic option which would aid in the control of schistosomiasis. This will however require a better understanding of the immunobiology of schistosomiasis in naturally exposed buffaloes, particularly the immune response to migrating schistosome larvae, which are the likely targets of an anti-schistosome vaccine. To address this need we investigated the immune response at the major sites of larval migration, the skin and the lungs, in previously exposed and re-challenged water buffaloes. In the skin, a strong allergic-type inflammatory response occurred, characterised by leukocyte and eosinophil infiltration including the formation of granulocytic abscesses. Additionally at the local skin site, interleukin-5 transcript levels were elevated, while interleukin-10 levels decreased. In the skin-draining lymph node (LN) a predominant type-2 profile was seen in stimulated cells, while in contrast a type-1 profile was detected in the lung draining LN, and these responses occurred consecutively, reflecting the timing of parasite migration. The intense type-2 immune response at the site of cercarial penetration is significantly different to that seen in naive and permissive animal models such as mice, and suggests a possible mechanism for immunity. Preliminary data also suggest a reduced and delayed immune response occurred in buffaloes given high cercarial challenge doses compared with moderate infections, particularly in the skin. This study offers a deeper understanding into the immunobiology of schistosomiasis in a natural host, which may aid in the future design of more effective vaccines. PMID:24086786

McWilliam, Hamish E. G.; Piedrafita, David; Li, Yuesheng; Zheng, Mao; He, Yongkang; Yu, Xinling; McManus, Donald P.; Meeusen, Els N. T.

2013-01-01

9

Rumen ciliate faunae of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and goat (Capra hircus) in Nepal.  

PubMed

Rumen ciliate composition of river-type water buffalo and goat in Nepal was surveyed. As the result of survey, 13 genera representing 52 species and 20 formae of the ciliates were identified. Of them 13 genera with 44 species and 9 formae were found from the water buffalo and 8 genera with 21 species and 12 formae from the goat. The present paper shows the first report of Hsiungella triciliata, Entodinium brevispinum, E. convexum, E. javanicum, E. rectangulatum f. rectangulatum, E. rectangulatum f. lobosospinosum, Diplodinium nanum, D. psittaceum, D. sinhalicum and Ostracodinium quadrivesiculatum from water buffalo and Epidinium ecaudatum f. parvicaudatum from goat. PMID:11999448

Gurung, Yam Bahadur; Parajuli, Nirmal; Miyazaki, Yutaka; Imai, Soichi; Kobayashi, Kosaku

2002-03-01

10

Molecular characterization of MHC-DRB cDNA in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).  

PubMed

In the present study, water buffalo MHC (Bubu)-DRB cDNA was cloned and characterized. The 1022 base long-amplified cDNA product encompassed a single open reading frame of 801 bases that coded for 266 amino acids. The Bubu-DRB sequence showed maximum homology with the BoLA-DRB3*0101 allele of cattle. A total of seven amino acid residues were found to be unique for the Bubu-DRB sequence. The majority of amino acid substitutions was observed in the ?(1) domain. Residues associated with important functions were mostly conserved. Water buffalo DRB was phylogenetically closer to goat DRB*A. PMID:22481880

Naskar, Soumen; Deb, Sitangsu M; Niranjan, Saket K; Kumar, Subodh; Sharma, Deepak; Sakaram, Durgam; Sharma, Arjava

2012-01-01

11

Comparison of pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin after subcutaneous administration of various multiple-dose regimens to water buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis).  

PubMed

Objective-To determine pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in water buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis) after multiple SC administrations and to assess differences in regimen efficacy. Animals-18 healthy buffalo calves. Procedures-Calves (n = 6 calves/group) were assigned to receive marbofloxacin SC in the neck at 1 of 3 dosages (2 mg/kg, q 24 h for 6 days [regimen 1]; 4 mg/kg, q 48 h for 6 days [regimen 2]; and 4 mg/kg, q 24 h for 3 days [regimen 3]). Serum marbofloxacin concentrations were analyzed. Efficacy predictors were estimated on the basis of minimum inhibitory concentration and mutant prevention concentration reported for Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica. Results-Mean ± SD area under the concentration-time curve was 5.92 ± 0.40 ?g•h/mL for regimen 1, which differed significantly from that for regimens 2 (14.26 ± 0.92 ?g•h/mL) and 3 (14.17 ± 0.51 ?g•h/mL). Mean residence time and mean elimination half-life for regimen 2 (9.93 ± 0.20 hours and 8.77 ± 0.71 hours) both differed significantly from those for regimens 1 (721 ± 0.11 hours and 5.71 ± 0.38 hours) and 3 (759 ± 0.13 hours and 737 ± 1.19 hours). Values obtained from indices for P multocida and M haemolytica had an excessively wide range because of the various degrees of antimicrobial susceptibility (low, medium, and high) of the strains. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Regimen 3 had the most favorable indices, and it would be conducive for owner compliance and require less handling of animals. PMID:25419804

Baroni, Eduardo E; Rubio, Sonia; De Lucas, José J; Andrés, María D San; Andrés, Manuel I San

2014-12-01

12

Identity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus) and the suppression of Sarcocystis sinensis as a nomen nudum.  

PubMed

There are uncertainties concerning the identity and host species specificity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus). Currently, in cattle three species are recognized with known endogenous stages, viz.: S. cruzi (with canine definitive host), S. hirsuta (feline definitive host), and S. hominis (primate definitive host). Recently, a fourth Sarcocystis species with an unknown life cycle has been reported from cattle. In the water buffalo, four species of Sarcocystis have been described: S. fusiformis (feline definitive host), S. buffalonis (feline definitive host), S. levinei (canine definitive host), and S. dubeyi (definitive host unknown but not cat or dog). Besides, there are studies of Sarcocystis infections in buffalo and cattle from China with results that are difficult to interpret and validate. For example, some of the studies report transmission of Sarcocystis species between cattle and buffalo, but steps to preclude exogenous exposures were not reported. A species of the water buffalo, 'S. sinensis', was proposed at a Chinese national conference in 1990, and published as an abstract without figures and with no archived type specimens for verification. The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature Articles 9 and 10 state that "abstracts of articles, papers, posters, text of lectures, and similar material when issued primarily to participants at meetings, symposia, colloquia or congress does not constitute published work"; therefore, S. sinensis is a nomen nudum. PMID:25034134

Dubey, J P; Fayer, R; Rosenthal, B M; Calero-Bernal, R; Uggla, A

2014-09-15

13

Development and evaluation of real-time PCR assay for the detection of Babesia orientalis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

Babesia orientalis is the causative agent of babesiosis in water buffalo (Bubalus babalis, Linnaeus, 1758). In this study, a TaqMan real-time PCR assay was developed for quantitative detection of B. orientalis in water buffalo. Hybridization probe and oligonucleotide primers were designed based on the v4 region of 18S rRNA gene. Detection limit was determined at 2 parasites. Blood samples were collected from experimentally infected water buffalo, as well as from 180 field samples, which were collected from 4 different geographical locations to the north and south of the Yangtse River. The parasite was detected by real-time PCR on day 2 until day 39 post-infection, while reverse line blot (RLB) was on day 6 until day 36 in experimentally infected water buffalo. For the results of 180 field samples, statistical analysis showed no significant difference in relative effectiveness of real-time PCR and RLB. The analysis also indicated that there was no difference in the prevalence of B. orientalis between the regions of south and north of the Yangtse River by both the real-time PCR assay and RLB detection. These results indicated that the parasite infection has spread to the north of the Yangtse River. PMID:21711103

He, Lan; Feng, Hui-Hui; Zhang, Qin-Li; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Khan, Muhanmad Kasib; Hu, Min; Zhou, Yan-Qin; Zhao, Jun-Long

2011-12-01

14

Physicochemical Properties and Oxidative Inactivation of Soluble Lectin from Water Buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis ) Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins present in a wide variety of plants and animals, which serve various important physiological\\u000a functions. A soluble ?-galactoside binding lectin has been isolated and purified to homogeneity from buffalo brain using ammonium\\u000a sulphate precipitation (40–70%) and gel permeation chromatography on Sephadex G50–80 column. The molecular weight of buffalo brain lectin (BBL) as determined by SDS-PAGE under

Sabika Rizvi; Naheed Banu

2008-01-01

15

Molecular characterization of oxytocin receptor gene in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).  

PubMed

Buffaloes are known for their productivity as compared to average yielding cows due to higher fat percentage, better feed conversion ability and disease resistance. On the other hand, the reproductive performances of buffaloes are often considered as poor owing to late sexual maturity, weak/silent oestrus, repeat breeder and prolonged intercalving interval. The study of cascade of events during oestrus and oestrous cycle can be useful for the improvement of reproductive efficiency of buffaloes. More precisely, the hormonal changes initiated at the molecular level within the animal determine the reproductive nature of the species. Nucleotide/protein sequence analysis serves as a vital tool in analysing the binding of the hormones for their effect or functions. In this study, we have reported cloning and characterization of the complete coding (cDNA) sequence of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) in buffaloes. Buffalo OXTR gene contains an uninterrupted ORF of 1176 nucleotides corresponding to an inferred polypeptide length of 391 amino acids (aa). The molecular weight of the deduced aa sequence was found to be 43 kDa with an isoelectric point of 9.253 and 16.328 charge at pH 7.0. The deduced protein sequence consists of 38 strongly basic (+) (K,R), 22 strongly acidic (-) (D,E), 186 hydrophobic (A, I, L, F, W, V) and 95 Polar (N, C, Q, S, T, Y) aa. Results indicated that aspartate (D) at aa position 85 and D, R and C at aa positions 136, 137 and 138, respectively, are conserved in buffaloes. The buffalo OXTR gene shared a per cent similarity ranging from 84.7 to 98.1 and 88.5 to 97.7 at nucleotide and deduced aa sequence levels, respectively, with that of other species. Phylogram constructed on the basis of either nucleotide or deduced aa sequences of buffalo OXTR gene showed that buffalo, cattle and sheep have diverged from human and swine and formed a separate clad. The buffalo sequence has shown maximum similarity and closeness with cattle followed by sheep both at nucleotide and at aa level. PMID:25132183

Arunmozhi, N; Singh, S K; Sarath, T; Agarwal, S K; Doiphode, A; Shankar, U

2014-10-01

16

A possible case of caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever in a domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Switzerland  

PubMed Central

Background Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal herpesvirus infection, affecting various wild and domestic ruminants all over the world. Water buffaloes were reported to be particularly susceptible for the ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) causing the sheep-associated form of MCF (SA-MCF). This report describes the first case of possibly caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever symptoms in a domestic water buffalo in Switzerland. Case presentation The buffalo cow presented with persistent fever, dyspnoea, nasal bleeding and haematuria. Despite symptomatic therapy, the buffalo died and was submitted to post mortem examination. Major findings were an abomasal ulceration, a mild haemorrhagic cystitis and multifocal haemorrhages on the epicardium and on serosal and mucosal surfaces. Eyes and oral cavity were not affected. Histopathology revealed a mild to moderate lymphohistiocytic vasculitis limited to the brain and the urinary bladder. Although these findings are typical for MCF, OvHV-2 DNA was not detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes or in paraffin-embedded brain, using an OvHV-2 specific real time PCR. With the aid of a panherpesvirus PCR, a caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2) sequence could be amplified from both samples. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of malignant catarrhal fever in the subfamily Bovinae, where the presence of CpHV-2 could be demonstrated. The etiological context has yet to be evaluated. PMID:22132808

2011-01-01

17

Impact of Livestock Hygiene Education Programs on Mastitis in Smallholder Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Chitwan, Nepal  

PubMed Central

A project implemented from 2003–2005 trained women in Chitwan District, Nepal, in hygienic dairy production using a process of social mobilization. The aim of this research was to assess if the prevalence of mastitis in water buffalo in the households of women who were trained was lower one year after training than in untrained households, if the training influenced knowledge and practices for the prevention or control of mastitis, and if these practices and knowledge were associated with a lower prevalence of mastitis. A total of 202 households from Eastern and Western Chitwan District were included in the study. Of these, 60 households had participated in the project and 142 had not. Milk samples were collected from 129 households (33 project households and 96 non-project households). Clinical mastitis was determined using visual inspection of udders and detection of macroscopic clots and flakes in milk. The California Mastitis Test was used to diagnose sub-clinical mastitis from milk samples, and the IDEXX SNAP test to identify the presence of tetracycline residues. The prevalence of mastitis in trained households (39.4%) was 43.78% of that in untrained households (60.4%), lower but not significantly so (p = 0.08, 95% CI 0.17–1.12). Thirteen indicators of knowledge or practice for the control or prevention of mastitis were more likely to occur in trained households, four significantly so (not consuming milk from sick buffalo (p=0.001), using soap to wash hands before milking (p=0.001), discarding milk after antibiotic usage (p=0.01), and choosing appropriate flooring for their livestock (p=0.03)). Trained households that discarded milk from sick buffalo were 2.96 times more likely to have at least one animal with mastitis in the household (p=0.03, 95% CI 1.15–7.65). Trained households that knew to wash buffalos teats after milking were less likely (OR 0.25) to have mastitis in their herd ((p=0.02, 95% CI 0.08–0.80). Of the 138 buffalos tested, only one tested positive for tetracycline residues. PMID:20655119

Ng, Linda; Jost, Christine; Robyn, Misha; Dhakal, I.P.; Bett, Bernard; Dhakal, Pramod; Khadkha, Rupak

2010-01-01

18

Diurnal changes in concentration of rumen ciliates and in occurrence of dividing forms in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalus) fed once daily.  

PubMed Central

When buffalo were fed once daily, significant diurnal variations in concentration of rumen ciliates and occurrence of dividing protozoa were found. Differences in proportions of dividing Entodinium- and Diplodinium-type ciliates were also observed. Results obtained suggest that the range of diurnal fluctuations in rumen protozoa concentration may be related to the percentage of dividing cells in populaitons of these organisms. PMID:405923

Michalowski, T

1977-01-01

19

Diurnal changes in concentration of rumen ciliates and in occurrence of dividing forms in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalus) fed once daily.  

PubMed

When buffalo were fed once daily, significant diurnal variations in concentration of rumen ciliates and occurrence of dividing protozoa were found. Differences in proportions of dividing Entodinium- and Diplodinium-type ciliates were also observed. Results obtained suggest that the range of diurnal fluctuations in rumen protozoa concentration may be related to the percentage of dividing cells in populaitons of these organisms. PMID:405923

Michalowski, T

1977-04-01

20

Molecular Mining of Alleles in Water Buffalo Bubalus bubalis and Characterization of the TSPY1 and COL6A1 Genes  

PubMed Central

Background Minisatellites are an integral part of eukaryotic genomes and show variation in the complexity of their organization. Besides their presence in non-coding regions, a small fraction of them are part of the transcriptome, possibly participating in gene regulation, expression and silencing. We studied the minisatellite (TGG)n tagged transcriptome in the water buffalo Bubalus bubalis across various tissues and the spermatozoa, and characterized the genes TSPY1 and COL6A1 discovered in the process. Results Minisatellite associated sequence amplification (MASA) conducted using cDNA and oligonucleotide primer (TGG)5 uncovered 38 different mRNA transcripts from somatic tissues and gonads and 15 from spermatozoa. These mRNA transcripts corresponded to several known and novel genes. The majority of the transcripts showed the highest level of expression either in the testes or spermatozoa with exception of a few showing higher expression levels in the lungs and liver. Transcript SR1, which is expressed in all the somatic tissues and gonads, was found to be similar to the Bos taurus collagen type VI alpha 1 gene (COL6A1). Similarly, SR29, a testis-specific transcript, was found to be similar to the Bos taurus testis-specific Y-encoded protein-1 representing cancer/testis antigen 78 (CT78). Subsequently, full length coding sequences (cds) of these two transcripts were obtained. Quantitative PCR (q-PCR) revealed 182-202 copies of theTSPY1 gene in water buffalo, which localized to the Y chromosome. Conclusions The MASA approach enabled us to identify several genes, including two of clinical significance, without screening an entire cDNA library. Genes identified with TGG repeats are not part of a specific family of proteins and instead are distributed randomly throughout the genome. Genes showing elevated expression in the testes and spermatozoa may prove to be potential candidates for in-depth characterization. Furthermore, their possible involvement in fertility or lack thereof would augment animal biotechnology. PMID:21949806

Kumar, Sudhir; Ali, Sher

2011-01-01

21

Occurrence of Theileria and Babesia species in water buffalo (Bubalus babalis, Linnaeus, 1758) in the Hubei province, South China.  

PubMed

The presence and prevalence of tick-borne haemoparasites in water buffalo from the Hubei province, south China was investigated using the reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay and phylogenetic analysis of the parasite 18S rRNA gene. Theileria buffeli (19.1%) was the most frequently found species in all of the locations, followed by Babesia orientalis (8.9%), Babesia bovis (1.0%) and Babesia bigemina (0.7%). Only 12 (3.9%) of the samples had mixed infections. Eleven samples with single infections were selected for further characterization using 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the eight T. buffeli 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained grouped into four clusters, of which three grouped with the known T. buffeli types B and D. The remaining five grouped separately from the previously describe T. buffeli types, constituting new T. buffeli types. The two B. bigemina 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained grouped closely with B. bigemina Kunming; this serves as the first report of B. bigemina in the Hubei province. The B. orientalis Daye 18S rRNA gene sequence obtained grouped closely with the previously reported B. orientalis Wuhan strain and with Babesia sp. Kashi 1 and Kashi 2. PMID:22154255

He, Lan; Feng, Hui-Hui; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Qing-Li; Fang, Rui; Wang, Li-Xia; Tu, Pan; Zhou, Yan-Qin; Zhao, Jun-Long; Oosthuizen, Marinda C

2012-05-25

22

Production of wild buffalo (Bubalus arnee) embryos by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer using domestic buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to explore the possibility of producing wild buffalo embryos by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) through handmade cloning using wild buffalo somatic cells and domestic buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes. Somatic cells derived from the ear skin of wild buffalo were found to express vimentin but not keratin and cytokeratin-18, indicating that they were of fibroblast origin. The population doubling time of skin fibroblasts from wild buffalo was significantly (p < 0.05) higher, and the cell proliferation rate was significantly (p < 0.05) lower compared with that of skin fibroblasts from domestic buffalo. Neither the cleavage (92.6 ± 2.0% vs 92.8 ± 2.0%) nor the blastocyst rate (42.4 ± 2.4% vs 38.7 ± 2.8%) was significantly different between the intraspecies cloned embryos produced using skin fibroblasts from domestic buffalo and interspecies cloned embryos produced using skin fibroblasts from wild buffalo. However, the total cell number (TCN) was significantly (p < 0.05) lower (192.0 ± 25.6 vs 345.7 ± 42.2), and the apoptotic index was significantly (p < 0.05) higher (15.1 ± 3.1 vs 8.0 ± 1.4) for interspecies than that for intraspecies cloned embryos. Following vitrification in open-pulled straws (OPS) and warming, although the cryosurvival rate of both types of cloned embryos, as indicated by their re-expansion rate, was not significantly different (34.8 ± 1.5% vs 47.8 ± 7.8), the apoptotic index was significantly (p < 0.05) higher for vitrified-warmed interspecies than that for corresponding intraspecies cloned embryos (48.9 ± 7.2 vs 23.9 ± 2.8). The global level of H3K18ac was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in interspecies cloned embryos than that in intraspecies cloned embryos. The expression level of HDAC1, DNMT3a and CASPASE3 was significantly (p < 0.05) higher, that of P53 was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in interspecies than in intraspecies embryos, whereas that of DNMT1 was similar between the two types of embryos. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that wild buffalo embryos can be produced by iSCNT. PMID:24494649

Priya, D; Selokar, N L; Raja, A K; Saini, M; Sahare, A A; Nala, N; Palta, P; Chauhan, M S; Manik, R S; Singla, S K

2014-04-01

23

Cryopreservation of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen in Bioxcell extender.  

PubMed

This study was designed to compare commercially available extender Bioxcell with tris-citric egg yolk extender for post thaw quality and in vivo fertility of buffalo semen. For comparison of post thaw semen quality: semen was collected from five adult Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls of similar age group with artificial vagina (at 42 degrees C) for three weeks (replicates). Qualifying ejaculates having motility >60% from each buffalo bull were divided in two aliquots and diluted (at 37 degrees C having 50 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml) in tris-citric egg yolk or Bioxcell extender. Diluted semen was cooled to 4 degrees C in 2 hours, equilibrated for 4 hours and filled in 0.5 ml straws. Semen straws were kept over liquid nitrogen vapors (5 cm) for 10 minutes. Straws were then plunged and stored in liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C). After 24 hours of storage, semen straws were thawed at 37 degrees C for 30 seconds to assess sperm motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity, normal apical ridge, and abnormalities (head, mid piece, and tail). For comparison of in vivo fertility: semen from two buffalo bulls of known fertility was cryopreserved in tris-citric egg yolk and Bioxcell as described earlier, and used for inseminations under field conditions. Post-thaw percentage of sperm motility (45.3 +/- 1.1, 45.0 +/- 1.4), viability (66.2 +/- 1.1, 64.4 +/- 1.3) plasma membrane integrity (60.4 +/- 1.2, 59.2 +/- 1.4) and normal apical ridge (82.9 +/- 0.5, 80.7 +/- 0.5) did not differ (P > 0.05) in tris-citric egg yolk and Bioxcell extender, respectively. Similarly, sperm abnormalities of head (1.20 +/- 0.1, 1.20 +/- 0.1), mid piece (0.67 +/- 0.1, 0.87 +/- 0.1) and tail (11.7 +/- 0.2, 11.6 +/- 0.3) remained similar (P > 0.05) in tris-citric egg yolk and Bioxcell extender, respectively. In vivo fertility rates of buffalo semen cryopreserved in tris-citric egg yolk and Bioxcell also remained similar (44% vs. 47%). It is concluded that commercially available Bioxcell may be used for the cryopreservation of buffalo semen with an equal efficiency to tris-citric egg yolk extender. PMID:20570331

Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Rakha, B A; Andrabi, S M H; Iqbal, S; Ullah, N

2010-10-01

24

Factors affecting the quality of cryopreserved buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa.  

PubMed

Storage of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull semen in the cryopreserved state is discussed in this article. Fertility rate in buffalo following artificial insemination with frozen-thawed semen is reviewed. To better understand the freezability of bubaline spermatozoa, the available data on biochemical components and the activity of specific enzymes of semen/spermatozoa are given. Moreover, the major factors that may influence the post-thaw viability and fertility of buffalo spermatozoa are examined in detail. In addition, suggestions for improvement in cryogenic procedures for buffalo spermatozoa are also given. PMID:18954384

Andrabi, S M H

2009-06-01

25

Purification of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins from late-pregnancy Bubalus bubalis placentas and development of a radioimmunoassay for pregnancy diagnosis in water buffalo females  

PubMed Central

Background Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) were first described as placental antigens present in the blood serum of the mother soon after implantation. Here, we describe the purification of several pregnancy-associated glycoproteins from water buffalo placenta (wbPAGs). A specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed for early pregnancy diagnosis in buffalo species. Results Amino-terminal microsequencing of immunoreactive placental proteins allowed the identification of eleven wbPAGs sequences [Swiss-Prot accession numbers: P86369 to P86379]. Three polyclonal antisera (AS#858, AS#859 and AS#860) were raised in rabbits against distinct wbPAG fractions. A new RIA (RIA-860) was developed and used to distinguish between pregnant (n?=?33) and non-pregnant (n?=?26) water buffalo females. Conclusions Our results confirmed the multiplicity of PAG expression in buffalo placenta. In addition, the RIA-860 system was shown to be sensitive, linear, reproducible, accurate and specific in measuring PAG concentrations in buffalo plasma samples from Day 37 of gestation onwards. PMID:23634647

2013-01-01

26

Expression and localization of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors in the corpus luteum during oestrous cycle in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to document the expression and localization of VEGF system comprising of VEGF isoforms (VEGF 120, VEGF 164 and VEGF 188) and their receptors (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2) in buffalo corpus luteum (CL) obtained from different stages of the oestrous cycle. Real-time RT-PCR (qPCR), Western blot and immunohistochemistry were applied to investigate mRNA expression, protein expression and localization of examined factors. In general, all the components of VEGF system (the VEGF isoforms and their receptors) were found in the water buffalo CL during the oestrous cycle. The mRNA as well as protein expression of VEGF system was highest during the early and mid-luteal phase, which later steadily decreased (p < 0.05) after day 10 to reach the lowest level in regressed CL. As demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, VEGF protein was localized predominantly in luteal cells; however, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 were localized in luteal cells as well as in endothelial cells. In conclusion, the dynamics of expression and localization of VEGF system in buffalo corpora lutea during the luteal phase were demonstrated in this study, indicating the possible role of VEGF system in the regulation of luteal angiogenesis and proliferation of luteal as well as endothelial cells through their non-angiogenic function. PMID:23551326

Chouhan, V S; Panda, R P; Yadav, V P; Babitha, V; Khan, F A; Das, G K; Gupta, M; Dangi, S S; Singh, G; Bag, S; Sharma, G T; Berisha, B; Schams, D; Sarkar, M

2013-10-01

27

Association of a novel SNP in exon 10 of the IGF2 gene with growth traits in Egyptian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).  

PubMed

Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) plays an important role in muscle growth and it might be used as a marker for the growth traits selection strategies in farm animals. The objectives of this study were to detect polymorphisms in exon 10 of IGF2 and to determine associations between these polymorphisms and growth traits in Egyptian water buffalo. PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and DNA sequencing methods were used to detect any prospective polymorphism. A novel single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), C287A, was detected. It was a non-synonymous mutation and led to replacement of glutamine (Q) amino acid (aa) by histidine (H) aa. Three different SSCP patterns were observed: AA, AC, and CC, with frequencies of 0.540, 0.325, and 0.135, respectively. Association analyses revealed that the AA individuals had a higher average daily gain (ADG) than other individuals (CC and AC) from birth to 9 months of age. We conclude that the AA genotype in C287A SNP in the exon 10 of the IGF2 gene is associated with the ADG during the age from birth to 9 months and could be used as a potential genetic marker for selection of growth traits in Egyptian buffalo. PMID:24756464

Abo-Al-Ela, Haitham G; El-Magd, Mohammed Abu; El-Nahas, Abeer F; Mansour, Ali A

2014-08-01

28

Post-warming hatching and birth of live calves following transfer of in vitro-derived vitrified water buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis) embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viability of in vitro-derived vitrified-warmed preimplantation stage buffalo embryos were assessed in vitro and in vivo. Oocytes were collected from ovaries of slaughtered riverine buffaloes, matured and fertilized in vitro with frozen semen from riverine buffalo bull and cultured on cumulus cell monolayers. Resultant preimplantation stage embryos were cryopreserved by vitrification with ethylene glycol, ficoll and sucrose. Seventy-one frozen embryos

Danilda Hufana-Duran; Prudencio B Pedro; Hernando V Venturina; Rogelio D Hufana; Apolinario L Salazar; Peregrino G Duran; Libertado C Cruz

2004-01-01

29

Post-warming hatching and birth of live calves following transfer of in vitro-derived vitrified water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos.  

PubMed

Viability of in vitro-derived vitrified-warmed preimplantation stage buffalo embryos were assessed in vitro and in vivo. Oocytes were collected from ovaries of slaughtered riverine buffaloes, matured and fertilized in vitro with frozen semen from riverine buffalo bull and cultured on cumulus cell monolayers. Resultant preimplantation stage embryos were cryopreserved by vitrification with ethylene glycol, ficoll and sucrose. Seventy-one frozen embryos were warmed in 0.5M sucrose and were further cultured in vitro for 72 h to assess hatching rate. On the other hand, 95 embryos were transferred non-surgically to riverine buffalo recipients to assess development competence in vivo through detection of pregnancy and birth of live calves. Hatching rate of 83.10% (59/71) was noted among embryos cultured in vitro. Pregnancy rate was 16.36% (9/55) while calving rate was 10.91% (6/55) after transfer of in vitro-derived vitrified-warmed embryos to recipient animals. Six healthy and normal calves with average birth weight of 38.75+/-3.55 kg were born from the transferred embryos. These results indicate the viability of vitrified in vitro-derived buffalo embryos and the potential application of in vitro embryo production and vitrification techniques for production and transport of buffalo embryos from germplasm-rich sources to guarantee genetic improvement in many parts of the world. PMID:15036974

Hufana-Duran, Danilda; Pedro, Prudencio B; Venturina, Hernando V; Hufana, Rogelio D; Salazar, Apolinario L; Duran, Peregrino G; Cruz, Libertado C

2004-05-01

30

Gene mapping in the river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis L)  

E-print Network

.4.2.2); superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1.); triose-phosphate isomerase (TPI; EC 5.3.1.1). Two different buffer of reference for buffalo enzyme activity. Starch gel electrophoresis (Harris and Hopkinson, 1978) was carried (5 h, maximum 30 mA or 300 V/gel), gels were stained for enzyme activity according to Harris

Boyer, Edmond

31

Cytochrome b gene haplotypes characterize chromosomal lineages of anoa, the Sulawesi dwarf buffalo (Bovidae: Bubalus sp.).  

PubMed

Partial mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences reveal two deeply differentiated mtDNA lineages in anoa dwarf buffaloes (Bubalus depressicornis) from the studbook herd in European zoos. Three matrilinear lineages of lowland anoas (depressicornis type) contributed three rather similar sequence haplotypes, but one remarkably distinct haplotype was observed exclusively in mountain anoas (quarlesi type) descended from one founder female. The carriers of the distinctive mtDNA haplotype were also distinguished by several chromosomal and phenotypic peculiarities too. The differentiation between the mtDNA lineages of anoa approached or even surpassed the genetic divergence between some uncontested species of wild cattle. The depth of this haplotype divergence in anoas is discussed against the background of the phylogenetic age of these paleoendemic inhabitants of a predator-free island refugium, Sulawesi, who are among the most plesiomorphic living bovines. The studbook breeding of captive anoas as a safeguard against extinction might profit from such population genetic markers. These cytochrome b gene sequences were unable to resolve the phylogeny of nine bovine taxa robustly, except the divergence of Bubalus, Synceros, Bison, and Bos (sensu lato) genera. PMID:9987926

Schreiber, A; Seibold, I; Nötzold, G; Wink, M

1999-01-01

32

RsaI repetitive DNA in Buffalo Bubalus bubalis representing retrotransposons, conserved in bovids, are part of the functional genes  

PubMed Central

Background Repetitive sequences are the major components of the eukaryotic genomes. Association of these repeats with transcribing sequences and their regulation in buffalo Bubalus bubalis has remained largely unresolved. Results We cloned and sequenced RsaI repeat fragments pDp1, pDp2, pDp3, pDp4 of 1331, 651, 603 and 339 base pairs, respectively from the buffalo, Bubalus bubalis. Upon characterization, these fragments were found to represent retrotransposons and part of some functional genes. The resultant clones showed cross hybridization only with buffalo, cattle, goat and sheep genomic DNA. Real Time PCR, detected ~2 × 104 copies of pDp1, ~ 3000 copies of pDp2 and pDp3 and ~ 1000 of pDp4 in buffalo, cattle, goat and sheep genomes, respectively. RsaI repeats are transcriptionally active in somatic tissues and spermatozoa. Accordingly, pDp1 showed maximum expression in lung, pDp2 and pDp3 both in Kidney, and pDp4 in ovary. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed repeats to be distributed all across the chromosomes. Conclusions The data suggest that RsaI repeats have been incorporated into the exonic regions of various transcribing genes, possibly contributing towards the architecture and evolution of the buffalo and related genomes. Prospects of our present work in the context of comparative and functional genomics are highlighted. PMID:21718551

2011-01-01

33

Evaluation of antifreeze protein III for cryopreservation of Nili-Ravi (Bubalus bubalis) buffalo bull sperm.  

PubMed

Lower fertility in buffaloes with frozen-thawed semen is attributed to sperm damage that is believed to be due to formation of ice crystals during freeze/thaw process. It was hypothesized that antifreeze proteins in the extender may improve the post thaw quality of buffalo bull sperm. For this purpose, two separate experiments were conducted to evaluate antifreeze proteins III (AFP III) at 0 (control), 0.1, 1 and 10 ?g/mL (Experiment I) and 0 (control), 0.01, 0.1 and 1 ?g/mL (Experiment II) for its effect on post thaw quality of buffalo bull semen. Semen was collected from three Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls with artificial vagina (42 °C) for three weeks (replicate) per experiment. For each experiment, qualifying ejaculates (6 ejaculates/bull) were divided into four aliquots and diluted (at 37 °C having 50 × 10(6) sperm/mL) in tris-citric acid extender containing above mentioned concentrations of AFP III. Diluted semen was cooled to 4 °C in 2 h, equilibrated for 4 h, filled in 0.5 mL straws, kept over liquid nitrogen vapors for 10 min and plunged in the liquid nitrogen. After 24 h of storage, semen straws were thawed at 37 °C for 30 s to assess sperm progressive motility (SM), plasma membrane integrity (PMI), viability (live sperm with intact acrosome) and normal epical ridge (NAR). In experiment I, improvement (P<0.05) in percentage SM and sperm PMI was recorded in extender containing 0.1 ?g/mL AFP III compared to control, the higher concentrations (1 ?g/mL and 10 ?g/mL) being inefficient. While evaluating the lower concentration (experiment II), 0.01 ?g/mL of AFP III in the extender it was found to be ineffective to improve semen quality parameters, while 0.1 ?g/mL AFP III in extender was found better in terms of progressive motility and plasma membrane integrity of buffalo bull semen compared to control. Sperm viability and NAR remained similar (P>0.05) in extenders containing different concentrations of AFP III and control in both of experiments. In conclusion addition of AFP III in the extender at 0.1 ?g/mL improved the progressive motility and plasma membrane integrity of cryopreserved buffalo bull semen. PMID:24925471

Qadeer, S; Khan, M A; Ansari, M S; Rakha, B A; Ejaz, R; Husna, A U; Ashiq, M; Iqbal, R; Ullah, N; Akhter, S

2014-07-01

34

Effect of Leptin on In Vitro Nuclear Maturation and Apoptosis of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Oocyte  

PubMed Central

Background: Leptin, as a 16 kDa adipokine, is a pleiotropic cytokine-like hormone that primarily secreted from adipose tissue. It also involves in the regulation of energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, immunity, lipid and glucose homeostasis, fatty acid oxidation, angiogenesis, puberty and reproduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of in vitro addition of leptin to in vitro maturation (IVM) medium on buffalo oocyte maturation and apoptosis. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, Ovaries from apparently normal reproductive organs of slaughtered adult buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with unknown breeding history were collected from Urmia Abattoir, Urmia, Iran, and were transported immediately to the laboratory in a thermos flask containing sterile normal saline with added antibiotics. Oocytes were aspirated from 2-8 mm visible follicles of the ovaries using an 18-G needle attached to a 10 ml syringe. IVM medium included tissue culture medium-199 (TCM-199), 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 22 µg/ml sodium pyruvate, 0.5 IU/ml ovine follicle-stimulating hormone (oFSH), 0.5 IU/ml ovine luteinizing hormone (oLH), 1 ?g/ml oestradiol, 50 ?g/ml gentamycin, and leptin [0 (control), 10, 50, and 100 ng/ml]. The good quality buffalo oocytes (batches of 10 oocytes) were placed in a culture plate containing six 50 ?l droplets of maturation medium, covered with sterilized mineral oil, and then incubated at 38.5?C with 5% CO2 in air for 24 hours. The maturation of oocytes was evaluated under a stereomicroscope by detecting the first polar body extrusion of oocytes. FITC-Annexin V propidium iodide (PI) staining method was used to detect oocyte apoptosis. Results: From a total of 115 collected ovaries, 1100 oocytes were recovered among which 283 oocyte were suitable for IVM. In the groups of leptin treated with 0 (control), 10, 50 and 100 ng/ml, the percentage of oocytes maturation was 74.65, 83.81, 77.85, and 75.40%, while the percentage of oocytes apoptosis was 9.83, 9.54, 9.93, and 10.42%, respectively. Our results showed that addition of 10 ng/ml leptin to buffalo IVM medium increased oocyte maturation, significantly, as compared with that in control group. However, addition of leptin to IVM medium had no significant influence on buffalo oocyte apoptosis. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that addition of 10 ng/ml leptin to IVM medium of buffalo oocyte can improve oocyte nuclear maturation. Furthermore, we showed that there is no relation between in vitro addition of leptin to buffalo oocyte IVM medium and oocyte apoptos Conclusion: Our findings suggested that addition of 10 ng/ml leptin to IVM medium of buffalo oocyte can improve oocyte nuclear maturation. Furthermore, we showed that there is no relation between in vitro addition of leptin to buffalo oocyte IVM medium and oocyte apoptosis. PMID:24696768

Khaki1, Amir; Batavani, Rouzali; Najafi, Gholamreza; Tahmasbian, Hamid; Belbasi, Abolfazl; Mokarizadeh, Aram

2014-01-01

35

A rapid improved method for sexing embryo of water buffalo.  

PubMed

The objective of the experiment of this paper is to develop and improve in the sexing method for preimplantation embryos of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) reaction. Embryo sexing has been recognized to control effectively the sex of offspring in the embryo transfer industry. A rapid and simple detection system was established by adding ethidium bromide (EB) or 5 ?l of CuSO4 (3M) to the product of LAMP reaction. The result of these additions after 2 min was a color change and a precipitate. It could be employed as an alternative method in the detection of the reaction products in place of the time consuming electrophoresis or the turbidity meter. The in vitro produced buffalo embryos were divided into one to eight pieces using a microblade attached to a micromanipulator. The cell number in each piece was counted before sexing. Sexing of DNA samples extracted from one to five biopsies cells was performed by LAMP. After biopsy, the remaining part of the embryos was used to confirm the sex by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fifty buffalo embryos were used and the accuracy of sex prediction was 100% when the blastomeres dissociated from a morula exceeds three. In conclusion, the present procedure without turbidity meter and electrophoresis was reliable and applicable for sexing the water buffalo embryos. PMID:21396688

Zoheir, K M A; Allam, A A

2011-07-01

36

Methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) gene based phylogenetic analysis of methanogens population in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to decipher the diversity of methanogens in rumen of Murrah buffaloes so that effective strategies can be made in order to mitigate methane emission from these methanogens. In the present study diversity of rumen methanogens in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from North India was evaluated by using mcr-A gene library obtained from the pooled PCR product from four animals and by using MEGA4 software. A total of 104 clones were examined, revealing 26 different mcr-A gene sequences or phylotypes. Of the 26 phylotypes, 16 (64 of 104 clones) were less than 97% similar to any of the cultured strain of methanogens. Seven clone sequences were clustered with Methanomicrobium mobile and three clone sequences were clustered with Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii during the phylogenetic analysis. Uncultured group of methanogens comes out to be the major component of the methanogens community structure in Murrah buffaloes. Methanomicrobium phylotype comes out to be major phylotype among cultured methanogens followed by Methanobrevibacter phylotype. These results help in making effective strategies to check the growth of dominant communities in the rumen of this animal which in turn help in the reduction of methane emission in the environment and ultimately helps us in fighting with the problem of global warming. PMID:21887637

Chaudhary, Prem Prashant; Sirohi, Sunil Kumar; Singh, Dheer; Saxena, Jyoti

2011-08-01

37

Glutathione-supplemented tris-citric acid extender improves the post-thaw quality and in vivo fertility of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa.  

PubMed

In this study we evaluated the effects of semen extender supplementation with different concentrations of glutathione (GSH) on buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, viability and DNA integrity as well as in vivo fertility. Semen from three Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls was collected, and qualified semen ejaculates (n=18) were split into five aliquots for dilution (37°C; 50×10(6)spermatozoaml(-1)) with experimental tris-citric acid extender containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 mM GSH. Extended semen was cooled to 4°C, equilibrated and filled in French straws. The straws were kept on liquid nitrogen vapors (5 cm above the LN(2) level) for 10 min and plunged in liquid nitrogen for storage. Sperm motility (%), plasma membrane integrity (%), viability (%) and DNA integrity (%) were assessed at 0, 2 and 4h post-thawing (37°C). Extender supplementation with GSH (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mM) increased sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability in a dose dependent manner. Sperm DNA integrity was higher (p<0.05) in all experimental extenders containing GSH when compared to the control extender (0 mM GSH). The in vivo fertility rate of cryopreserved buffalo bull (n=2) spermatozoa was higher (p<0.05) in extender containing 2.0 mM GSH compared to that of control. In summary, tris-citric acid extender supplemented with glutathione improved the freezability of buffalo bull spermatozoa in a dose dependant manner. Moreover, the addition of 2.0 mM GSH to the extender enhanced the in vivo fertility of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa. PMID:23153697

Ansari, Muhammad S; Rakha, Bushra A; Andrabi, Syed M H; Ullah, Nemat; Iqbal, Razia; Holt, William V; Akhter, Shamim

2012-11-01

38

Microscopical and serological studies on Sarcocystis infection with first report of S. cruzi in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Assiut, Egypt.  

PubMed

This study was performed for the purpose of investigating the prevalence and the species composition of Sarcocystis spp. in buffaloes in Assiut province, Egypt. Macroscopically we reported the infection of buffaloes with Sarcocystis fusiformis, while microscopically three Sarcocystis species (Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis levinei and Sarcocystis hominis) cysts were recognized, and were differentiated by their morphological features using both histopathological sections and electron microscope scanning. Regarding the prevalence of Sarcocystis species among buffaloes in Assiut province, we reported that, using gross examination of 90 buffaloes' esophagus, only 23 samples out of 90 (25.5 %) were found to be infected; on the other hand, by using microscopical examination, the prevalence was 27.7 % (25 samples out of 90 samples were found to be infected). Using ELISA, 85 samples out of 90 (94.4 %) were found positive, an overall prevalence of 94.4 %. In this work we concluded that customary meat inspection methods in abattoirs in Egypt are insufficient for detecting Sarcocystis infection. Due to the presence of hidden or microscopic cysts, we strongly recommend the use of combined microscopical examination and ELISA for Sarcocystis diagnosis, to avoid human infection of such zoonotic parasite and to control the consequent disease. In addition, this study introduced the first report of S. cruzi in buffaloes in Egypt, and proved the hypothesis that S. cruzi is able to use animals such as water buffalo as intermediate hosts. PMID:25320487

Metwally, Asmaa M; Abd Ellah, Mahmoud R; Al-Hosary, Amira A; Omar, Mosaab A

2014-12-01

39

Myxosporeans infecting the gills of bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) in Illinois, USA.  

PubMed

Four myxosporean species were found on the gills of Ictiobus bubalus from Illinois (USA). Myxobolus endovasus (Davis, 1947) Grinham et Cone, 1990 is revised. Three new species are recorded. Myxobolus enoblei sp. n. has spores ovoid in frontal view, 14.3 x 13 microns in size. Myxobolus morrisonae sp. n. has spores subcircular in frontal view, 10 x 9.5 microns in size; the surface of shell valves appears hairy when studied by SEM. Triangula illinoisensis sp. n. has spores rounded semicircular in frontal view, 10.2 x 12.8 microns in size. Triangula illinoisensis is the fourth species of its genus to be described from fishes. PMID:8682408

Lom, J; Cone, D

1996-01-01

40

Cryogenic changes in proteases and antiprotease activities of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus) semen.  

PubMed

The postthaw motility and fertility of buffalo and cattle semen is reduced when they are cryopreserved for artificial insemination. In the present study, an attempt was made to characterize the cryogenic changes in proteases and antiprotease activities (APA) of buffalo and cattle semen because these proteolysis regulators have been reported to be associated with sperm motility and fertility. Buffalo sperm demonstrated at least two major proteases of 45 and 42 kDa and three minor proteases of 95, 52, and 33 kDa. Similarly, cattle sperm demonstrated three major proteases of 62, 45, and 42 kDa and two minor proteases of 85 and 78 kDa. Buffalo seminal plasma demonstrated at least three major proteases of 78, 68, and 62 kDa and one minor protease of 98 kDa and cattle seminal plasma demonstrated one major protease of 68 kDa and two minor proteases of 78 and 75 kDa. Except for the 45 kDa protease, most of the previously mentioned proteases were found to be metalloproteinases. Compared with fresh sperm, cryopreserved buffalo and cattle sperm demonstrated a major protease band of 52/49 kDa and the activity of this protease reduced progressively with the duration of cryopreservation. On the contrary, compared with the fresh seminal plasma, cryopreserved buffalo and cattle semen extenders displayed the presence of a new protease band of 45 kDa and demonstrated that this protease activity was leaked from buffalo and cattle cryopreserved spermatozoa. Buffalo and cattle seminal plasmas displayed at least two major APA of 86 and 26 kDa. Compared with buffalo, cattle seminal plasma demonstrated significantly greater APA. Thus, the present study demonstrated the presence of an array of proteases and APA in buffalo and cattle semen and the activities of which changed during cryopreservation. The leakage of the specific protease activity and changes in the proteases and APA might be attributed to reduced motility and fertility of cryopreserved semen in these species. PMID:24210916

Gurupriya, Vijayasaraswathy S; Divyashree, Bannur C; Roy, Sudhir C

2014-02-01

41

Laboratory-based measurements of swimming performance and related metabolic rates of field-sampled smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus): a study of seasonal changes.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have demonstrated how the performance physiology of fish may change when they are acclimated to designated laboratory temperatures, but few researchers have examined naturally occurring seasonal effects on several physiological parameters associated with swimming performance. Using field-acclimatized smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) collected each season, we report significant seasonal effects in the following variables: critical swimming speed (modified), metabolic rate (standard, active, and scope for activity), and swimming efficiency (total and net cost of transport). Underlying seasonal changes in performance was the reproductive cycle of buffalo, particularly the period of fall gonadal recrudescence. Compared with spring, fall buffalo had a significantly lower mean critical swimming speed (72%) and lower active metabolic rate (53%), even when tested at similar temperatures. During spring, buffalo had a high mean critical swimming speed and low net cost of transport in comparison with other seasons. Buffalo are known to participate in a spring migration and spawning that may require the increased performance and efficiency observed during that season. In addition, significant sex effects were detected in winter measurements of standard metabolic rate and net cost of transport, with females the more efficient swimmers. PMID:9678496

Adams, S R; Parsons, G R

1998-01-01

42

Analysis of In Vitro Effects of Sex Steroids on Lymphocyte Responsiveness in Murrah Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)  

PubMed Central

Present study was carried out on forty four apparently healthy Murrah buffaloes of different age groups of both sexes to investigate the effects of sex steroids on cell mediated immunity in vitro. Estrogen inhibited proliferation in mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes from prepubertal but not post pubertal buffaloes of either sex. Estrogen at 100?pg/mL concentration stimulating the proliferation significantly (P < 0.05). in all groups and had higher stimulatory effect in lymphocytes from day 10 than day 0 of estrous cycle. Progesterone inhibited lymphocyte proliferation, and inhibition was directly related to the dose, in all groups of either sex. Testosterone did not inhibit proliferation at any dose level and did not show any consistent and lucid effects on lymphocyte proliferation. Present study revealed that buffalo lymphocytes produce appreciable amounts of NO in culture system after treatment with estradiol. Significantly high levels of NO in culture supernatant were found in prepubertal buffalo calves and least in post pubertal buffaloes, which had an inverse relation with lymphocyte proliferation in presence of estradiol. NO in culture supernatant was high at the lowest dose of progesterone which was proportional to the lymphocyte proliferation when treated with progesterone. No significant difference in NO culture supernatant was observed between different concentrations of testosterone treatment. PMID:22619742

Pampori, Zahoor Ahmad; Pandita, Sujata

2012-01-01

43

Establishment and Characterization of a Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Mammary Epithelial Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to establish the buffalo mammary epithelial cell line (BuMEC) and characterize its mammary specific functions. Methodology Buffalo mammary tissue collected from the slaughter house was processed enzymatically to obtain a heterogenous population of cells containing both epithelial and fibroblasts cells. Epithelial cells were purified by selective trypsinization and were grown in a plastic substratum. The purified mammary epithelial cells (MECs) after several passages were characterized for mammary specific functions by immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and western blot. Principal Findings The established buffalo mammary epithelial cell line (BuMEC) exhibited epithelial cell characteristics by immunostaining positively with cytokeratin 18 and negatively with vimentin. The BuMEC maintained the characteristics of its functional differentiation by expression of ?-casein, ?-casein, butyrophilin and lactoferrin. BuMEC had normal growth properties and maintained diploid chromosome number (2n?=?50) before and after cryopreservation. A spontaneously immortalized buffalo mammary epithelial cell line was established after 20 passages and was continuously subcultured for more than 60 passages without senescence. Conclusions We have established a buffalo mammary epithelial cell line that can be used as a model system for studying mammary gland functions. PMID:22792341

Anand, Vijay; Dogra, Nilambra; Singh, Surender; Kumar, Sudarshan N.; Jena, Manoj K.; Malakar, Dhruba; Dang, Ajay K.; Mishra, Bishnu P.; Mukhopadhyay, Tapas K.; Kaushik, Jai K.; Mohanty, Ashok K.

2012-01-01

44

Soya-lecithin in extender improves the freezability and fertility of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa.  

PubMed

Egg yolk is routinely used as a cryoprotectant in semen extenders. However, it may contain cryoprotective antagonists, and there are hygienic risks associated with its use. Proteins of plant origin, like soya-lecithin, lack these hazards. The aim of this study was to use soya-lecithin as a cryoprotectant in extender and to investigate its effects on in vitro quality and in vivo fertility of buffalo semen. Semen from three buffalo bulls was frozen in tris-citric extender containing 5.0%, 10% or 15% soya-lecithin or 20% egg yolk. Sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability were assessed post-dilution, pre-freezing and post-thaw. In Post-dilution and pre-freezing, the values for motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability remained higher (p ? 0.05) in extenders containing 10% soya-lecithin and control compared with extender containing 5% and 15% soya-lecithin. However, motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability were higher (p < 0.05) in extender containing 10% soya-lecithin compared with control and extenders containing 5% and 15% soya-lecithin. Semen from two buffalo bulls was frozen in tris-citric extender containing either 10% soya-lecithin or 20% egg yolk. Higher (p < 0.05) fertility rate was recorded in buffaloes inseminated with semen containing 10% soya-lecithin (56%) compared with 20% egg yolk (41.5%). The results suggest that 10% soya-lecithin in extender improves the freezability and fertility of buffalo bull spermatozoa and can be used as an alternate to egg yolk in cryopreservation of buffalo semen. PMID:22211278

Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Andrabi, S M H; Rakha, B A; Ullah, N; Khalid, M

2012-10-01

45

Effect of straw size and thawing time on quality of cryopreserved buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen.  

PubMed

This study was designed to compare the effect of straw size (0.25 vs. 0.5 ml) and thawing time (30 vs. 60 sec) on the quality of cryopreserved buffalo bull semen. Sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability were higher (p ? 0.05) in 0.25 ml than 0.5 ml straw, thawed at 37°C either for 30 or 60 sec. In conclusion, cryopreservation of buffalo semen in 0.25 ml straw resulted in a higher post-thaw quality. PMID:21455280

Ansari, Muhammad S; Rakha, Bushra A; Andrabi, Syed M H; Akhter, Shamim

2011-03-01

46

Capacitation of frozen thawed buffalo bull (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa with higher heparin concentrations.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to examine the effect of high heparin concentration on capacitation of buffalo spermatozoa with a short incubation time. Frozen thawed spermatozoa from three buffalo bulls were pooled and treated with either 50, 100 or 200 microg/ml heparin for 30 min. Capacitation was evaluated by acrosome reaction of spermatozoa and in vitro fertilization rate (per cent cleavage rate, per cent cleavage index). Acrosome reaction was induced in heparin treated spermatozoa with calcium ionophore A23187 and staining was carried out with Coomassie G-250 to evaluate the response as compared with control (0 heparin + calcium ionophore). Significantly higher percentage of acrosome reaction (AR) spermatozoa was noted after heparin treatment (36.8-48.2%) as compared with control (8.1% ; p < 0.05) but differences among the three heparin concentrations were non-significant. However, a significantly higher in vitro fertilization rate was recorded in spermatozoa capacitated by 50 and 100 microg/ml heparin (80.4 and 75.9% cleavage rate, respectively) as compared with 200 microg/ml heparin (47.2% cleavage rate; p < 0.001). It is concluded that buffalo spermatozoa capacitated with 50-100 microg/ml heparin had significantly higher ability to improve in vitro fertilization rate in buffalo. PMID:17635774

Mehmood, A; Anwar, M; Saqlan Naqvi, S M

2007-08-01

47

Isolation and enrichment of type A spermatogonia from pre-pubertal buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis) testis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to isolate and subsequently enrich type A spermatogonia from pre-pubertal buffalo testis. Two-step enzymatic digestion was used to isolate spermatogonia from 10 to 14 months pre-pubertal buffalo calves, resulting in maximal release of spermatogonia from the seminiferous tubules. After enzymatic digestion, the type A spermatogonia were subsequently enriched by differential plating and Percoll gradient centrifugation. The identity of type A spermatogonia was determined by light microscopy and further characterised by Dolichos biflorus agglutinin, a specific marker for bovine type A spermatogonia by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. After enzymatic isolation, the cell suspension contained about 27% of type A spermatogonia, which was enriched up to 71% with >70% cell viability. Further flow cytometric analysis showed the presence of THY1+ cells (cells expressing thymocyte differentiation antigen 1), suggesting that THY1 is a conserved marker of the undifferentiated spermatogonial cells in buffalo. The isolation of the enriched type A spermatogonia from buffalo testis opens ways to study the further biochemical characteristics of this important class of germ cells in this species. PMID:22742713

Rafeeqi, T; Kaul, G

2013-06-01

48

ISOLATION, CULTURE AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ENDOMETRIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS IN BUFFALO (BUBALUS BUBALIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the authors isolated and developed the culture of endometrial epithelial cells from buffalo uterus as well as evaluated functional properties of epithelial cells. In primary culture, epithelial cells appeared cuboidal or columnar and showed contact inhibition at the stage of confluence. Protein and DNA concentrations were found to increase with the time in culture. PGF2? concentrations

S. Mondal; S. Nandi; I. J. Reddy; K. P. Suresh

2009-01-01

49

Seasonal variations in developmental competence and relative abundance of gene transcripts in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes.  

PubMed

Hot season is a major constraint to production and reproduction in buffaloes. The present work aimed to investigate the effect of season on ovarian function, developmental competence, and the relative abundance of gene expression in buffalo oocytes. Three experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, pairs of buffalo ovaries were collected during cold season (CS, autumn and winter) and hot season (HS, spring and summer), and the number of antral follicles was recorded. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were aspirated and evaluated according to their morphology into four Grades. In experiment 2, Grade A and B COCs collected during CS and HS were in vitro matured (IVM) for 24 hours under standard conditions at 38.5 °C in a humidified air of 5% CO2. After IVM, cumulus cells were removed and oocytes were fixed, stained with 1% aceto-orcein, and evaluated for nuclear configuration. In vitro matured buffalo oocytes harvested during CS or HS were in vitro fertilized (IVF) using frozen-thawed buffalo semen and cultured in vitro to the blastocyst stage. In experiment 3, buffalo COCs and in vitro matured oocytes were collected during CS and HS, and then snap frozen in liquid nitrogen for gene expression analysis. Total RNA was extracted from COCs and in vitro matured oocytes, and complementary DNA was synthesized; quantitative Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction was performed for eight candidate genes including GAPDH, ACTB, B2M, GDF9, BMP15, HSP70, and SOD2. The results indicated that HS significantly (P < 0.01) decreased the number of antral follicles and the number of COCs recovered per ovary. The number of Grade A, B, and C COCs was lower (P < 0.05) during HS than CS. In vitro maturation of buffalo oocytes during HS significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the number of oocytes reaching the metaphase II stage and increased the percentage of degenerated oocytes compared with CS. Oocytes collected during HS also showed signs of cytoplasmic degeneration. After IVF, cleavage rate was lower (P < 0.01) for oocytes collected during HS, and the percentage of oocytes arrested at the two-cell stage was higher (P < 0.01) than oocytes IVF during CS. Oocytes matured during CS showed a higher (P < 0.01) blastocyst rate than those matured during HS. Also, COCs recovered in HS showed significant (P < 0.05) upregulation of HSP70 mRNA expression compared with those recovered in CS. For in vitro matured oocytes, CS down regulated the transcript abundance of ACTB and upregulated GAPDH and HSP70 mRNA levels compared with HS condition. In conclusion, HS could impair buffalo fertility by reducing the number of antral follicles and oocyte quality. In vitro maturation of buffalo oocytes during HS impairs their nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation, fertilization, and subsequent embryo development to the morula and blastocyst stages. This could be in part because of the altered gene expression found in COCs and in vitro matured oocytes. PMID:25156970

Abdoon, Ahmed S; Gabler, Christoph; Holder, Christoph; Kandil, Omaima M; Einspanier, Ralf

2014-11-01

50

Pregnancy rates following AI with sexed semen in Mediterranean Italian buffalo heifers (Bubalus bubalis).  

PubMed

The use of sexed semen in farm animal production and genetic improvement has been shown to be feasible with variable degree of efficiency in a number of species, and proved to be economically viable in cattle. In the last two decades, various newly developed reproductive technologies applicable in buffaloes have mushroomed. Recently, following the birth of the first buffalo calves using AI with sexed semen, commercial interest to exploit sexing of semen in this species too is aroused. In order to verify the successful adoption of this technology in the buffalo, the present study on the use of sexed semen for AI was carried out and compared with conventional artificial insemination using nonsexed semen. A total of 379 buffalo heifers were used for synchronization of ovulation using the Presynch protocol in the South of Italy. Selected animals at the time of AI were randomly allocated to three different experiment groups: (1) 102 animals subjected to AI in the body of the uterus with sexed semen (SS body); (2) 104 animals subjected to AI in the horn of the uterus with sexed semen (SS horn); and (3) 106 animals subjected to AI in the body of the uterus with conventional nonsexed semen (NSS body). Semen of three buffalo bulls was sexed by a collaborating company and commercially distributed in 0.25 mL straws with a total of 2 million sexed spermatozoa. Pregnancy rates were first assessed at Day 28 following AI, and rechecked at Day 45 by ultrasound. Pregnancy rates were nonsignificantly different between animals inseminated with sexed or nonsexed semen: 80/206 (38.8%) and 40/106 (37.7%), respectively (P = 0.85). However, site of insemination of sexed semen affected pregnancy rate significantly as higher pregnancy rates were obtained when sexed semen was deposited into the body rather than the horn of the uterus: 46/101 (45.5%) and 34/105 (32.3%), respectively (P = 0.05). In conclusion, the use of sexed semen in buffalo heifers gave satisfactory and similar pregnancy rates when compared with conventional nonsexed semen. Deposition of sexed semen into the body of the uterus, however, increased pregnancy rates significantly. PMID:21497388

Campanile, G; Gasparrini, B; Vecchio, D; Neglia, G; Senatore, E M; Bella, A; Presicce, G A; Zicarelli, L

2011-08-01

51

On the leakage of acrosomal hyaluronidase from the spermatozoa of the buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).  

PubMed

The sonication method produced a quantitatively higher release of buffalo sperm hyaluronidase than the freeze-thaw technique. The released enzyme constituted 10 p. 100 of the total enzymatic activity of the fresh semen. Seminal plasma hyaluronidase activity was not correlated with the motility score of the semen sample. Unlike cattle semen, the seminal plasma enzyme level in buffalo semen stored at 37 degrees C showed a sharp rise, whereas samples stored at 0 degrees C evidenced negligible enzyme leakage. Dilution of semen in citric acid whey (CAW) at 5 or 37 degrees C significantly prevented the enzyme from leaking into the plasma, although more enzyme was released in extended semen when it was exposed to cold treatments. The enzyme was quite stable in both the seminal plasma and the acrosomal preparations during storage when stored at 5 degrees C for prolonged periods. PMID:7349430

Ganguli, N C; Kakar, S S

1980-01-01

52

Development of a sequential multicolor-FISH approach with 13 chromosome-specific painting probes for the rapid identification of river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, 2n?=?50) chromosomes.  

PubMed

The development of new molecular techniques (array CGH, M-FISH, SKY-FISH, etc.) has led to great advancements in the entire field of molecular cytogenetics. However, the application of these methods is still very limited in farm animals. In the present study, we report, for the first time, the production of 13 river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, 2n?=?50) chromosome-specific painting probes, generated via chromosome microdissection and the DOP-PCR procedure. A sequential multicolor-FISH approach is also proposed on the same slide for the rapid identification of river buffalo chromosome/arms, namely, 1p-1q, 2p-2q, 3p-3q, 4p-4q, 5p-5q, 18, X, and Y, using both conventional and late-replicating banded chromosome preparations counterstained by DAPI. The provided 'bank' of chromosome-specific painting probes is useful for any further cytogenetic investigation not only for the buffalo breeds, but also for other species of the family Bovidae, such as cattle, sheep, and goats, for chromosome abnormality diagnosis, and, more generally, for evolutionary studies. PMID:24664789

Pauciullo, Alfredo; Perucatti, Angela; Iannuzzi, Alessandra; Incarnato, Domenico; Genualdo, Viviana; Di Berardino, Dino; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo

2014-08-01

53

Effect of Different Thawing Rates on Post-Thaw Viability, Kinematic Parameters and Chromatin Structure of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Spermatozoa  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate three thawing rates on the post thaw motility, viability and chromatin structure of buffalo semen frozen in 0.5-ml straws. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study semen was collected with artificial vagina (42?) from four buffalo bulls.Split pooled ejaculates (n=4) were extended at 37? with a Bioxcell® extender. Semen was cooled to 4? within 2 hours, equilibrated at 4? for 4 hours, then filled in 0.5 ml French straws, and frozen in programmable cell freezer before plunging into liquid nitrogen. Straws were thawed at water bath temperatures of 37, 50 or 70? for 30, 15 and 6 seconds, respectively. Semen was incubated at 37? for 2 hours and evaluated for post thaw motility, viability, acrosomal and DNA integrity of spermatozoa. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for comparisons of means. When the ANOVA test showed statistical differences, the mean of the treatments were compared using Duncan’s multiple range tests. Results: The initial postthaw motility (0 hour) averaged 62.7 ± 7.2%, 73.1 ± 9.77%, and 74.9 ± 8.58% for the three thaw rates, respectively. Kinematic parameters such as average path velocity, linearity and beat/cross frequency in the thaw rate of 70? for 6 seconds were superior to other rates studied (p<0.05). After 2 hours of incubation, proportions of progressive motility and Kinematic parameters decreased in all groups (p>0.05). A positive correlation was detected between sperm motility and thawing rate after two hours incubation times. The percentage of viable spermatozoa and spermatozoa with an intact acrosome and plasma membrane integrity were not different between the groups of samples thawed at different temperatures (p>0.05). The percentage of spermatozoa with chromatin dispersion forthe thaw rate of 70? for 6 seconds was significantly higher than for the to other rates studied (p< 0.05). In contrast with motility and viability, the DNA integrity of post thaw spermatozoa remained unaffected during 2 hours incubation. Conclusion: The post thaw motility and kinematic parameters of buffalo spermatozoa were significantly improved immediately after thawing by increasing the thawing rate from 37? in 30 seconds to70? in 6 seconds. However, this relative advantage had disappeared after incubation in a water bath at 37? for two hours.A thaw rate of 70? for 6 seconds was associated with higher chromatin dispersion than the other thaw rates studied. Sperm thawing over at 50 degrees could be safely used to improve motility recovery after sperm cryopreservation in buffalo bulls. PMID:23577311

Rastegarnia, Abdolreza; Shahverdi, Abdolhossein; Rezaei Topraggaleh, Tohid; Ebrahimi, Bita; Shafipour, Vahid

2013-01-01

54

Effects of milk feeding, frequency and concentration on weaning and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calf growth, health and behaviour.  

PubMed

Growth, weight at birth and daily weight gain (DWG) on 12 water buffalo calves, starting from 6 days of age until completion of weaning, was investigated in this study. Different feeding regimens were given to two groups of animals with regard to daily milk replacer: (1) group 1 (G1) received a double concentration in single administration; whereas (2) group 2 (G2) received the same amount of milk replacer split twice daily. Blood samples were collected from each calf on days 6, 30, 60 and 90 to evaluate acute phase proteins (haptoglobin), bactericide activity, lysozime, total protein content and biochemical parameters. No differences were observed between the two groups in terms of dry matter intake, feed efficiency and live body weight at the end of the study. Interestingly, a significantly (P?water buffalo calf during weaning. This new approach facilitates calves management, without interfering with calves growing performances. PMID:23712396

Vecchio, Domenico; Di Palo, Rossella; De Carlo, Esterina; Esposito, Luigi; Presicce, Giorgio Antonio; Martucciello, Alessandra; Chiosi, Emilio; Rossi, Pasquale; Neglia, Gianluca; Campanile, Giuseppe

2013-11-01

55

A distinct genetic population of Gongylonema pulchrum from water buffaloes in Nepal.  

PubMed

Whole-length esophagi of 111 Murrah cross water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were collected in the Kathmandu and Chitwan districts of Nepal from December 2009 to February 2010. Gullet worms showing a typical epithelium-dwelling character were detected in 13 of 53 (24.5%) buffaloes in Kathmandu and in 5 of 58 (8.6%) buffaloes in Chitwan. The worms' morphology and measurements were identical to those of Gongylonema pulchrum Molin, 1857, except for the length of the left spicules relative to the body length. Scanning electron microscopy did not detect any further morphological differences regarding the collected specimen from Nepal compared with G. pulchrum . The ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA), including internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and 2, and a partial region of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) of mitochondrial DNA of the worms were characterized and compared with those of G. pulchrum collected from cattle, deer, wild boars, and monkeys in Japan and from cattle in Iran. The 18S, 5.8S, and 28S rDNA nucleotide sequences of the buffalo-collected worms had 99.8% (1,779/1,782), 100% (158/158), and 98.3-98.8% (3,494-3,507/3,551) identities, respectively, with those of G. pulchrum from the other host mammals. The ITS regions exhibited higher variations between the buffalo-collected worms and G. pulchrum from the other host mammals (85-88% identity for ITS1 and 56-80% identity for ITS2). The COI also showed lower identities (89.2-90.2%), although only a single amino acid substitution was noted compared with the majority of G. pulchrum samples collected in Japan. Based on these molecular genetic characters in the rDNA and COI mitochondrial DNA, together with a shorter left spicule length relative to body length, the gullet worms isolated from buffaloes in Nepal might belong to a distinct local or buffalo-preferring population of G. pulchrum, although its geographical distribution on the continent and host specificity remain to be clarified. PMID:23421498

Makouloutou, Patrice; Rana, Hari Bahadur; Adhikari, Bishunu; Devkota, Bhuminand; Dhakal, Ishwari Prasad; Sato, Hiroshi

2013-08-01

56

Mensuration of spermatozoa from different levels of the reproductive tract of the buffalo-bull (Bubalus bubalis)  

E-print Network

buffalo-bulls were removed by the open method of castration under local anesthesia. The epididymis nigrosin stain in a watch glass. Semen was also collected from 6 breeding buffalo- bulls on a local farm by artificial vagina ; a drop from each sample was mixed with buffered eosin nigrosin stain. The stained sperm

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

57

Genetic and Phylogenetic Studies of Toll-Like Receptor 5 (TLR5) in River Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis)  

E-print Network

). River buffalo x cattle hybrids have not been observed, but inter-species fertilization is possible in vitro (Kochhar et al., 2002). In contrast, African buffalo have more chromosomes than their Asian counterparts. Cape buffalo have 52 chromosomes...-like receptor 7 and TLR8 recognize single-stranded RNA (Hemmi et al., 2002; Heil et al., 2004; Kawai & Akira, 2006). TLR9 forms a homodimer to recognize unmethylated CpG islands (Hemmi et al., 2000; Kawai & Akira, 2006). Toll-like receptors 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6...

Jones, Brittany

2012-08-21

58

Bull-specific effect on fertilization rate and viable embryo recovery in the superovulated buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).  

PubMed

This study was conducted to compare fertilization rate and viable embryo recovery rate in superovulated buffalo (n = 64) following insemination with semen from buffalo bulls (n = 5) having different fertility rates as determined by AI. Frozen-thawed semen from fertile bulls with similar post-thaw progressive motility and sperm morphology was used to inseminate buffalo at superovulatory estrus. Fertilization and viable embryo recovery rates differed among bulls, but this bull-specific effect was not related to the overall herd fertility rate as determined by AI in normal cyclic animals. These results indicate that individual bulls differ in their contribution to fertilization of superovulated donors and also to embryonic development, as determined by viable embryo recovery. Moreover, the results also suggest that buffalo bulls can be screened for optimal fertility and embryo recovery rates in superovulated donors. Further studies are warranted to ascertain the factors which contribute to such bull-specific effects. PMID:10734367

Misra, A K; Rao, M M; Kasiraj, R; Reddy, N S; Pant, H C

1999-09-01

59

Hepatic hemosiderosis in buffalo fish ( Ictiobus spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatocellular hemosiderosis was observed in several species of fish associated with mixed chemical pollution in a Mississippi River Basin ecosystem. Three species of buffalo fish—smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus), bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus), and black buffalo (Ictiobus niger)—were collected from a contaminated site, Devil's Swamp, and a control site, Tunica Swamp, both near Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Liver, kidney and spleen were

A. Thiyagarajah; W. R. Hartley; A. Abdelghani

1998-01-01

60

Bovine herpesvirus type 1 marker vaccine induces cross-protection against bubaline herpesvirus type 1 in water buffalo.  

PubMed

Water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) are susceptible to bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) and a species-specific herpesvirus, bubaline herpesvirus type 1 (BuHV-1). In this study, an attenuated marker BoHV-1 based vaccine against BuHV-1 challenge was evaluated to determine whether it induces protection from viral replication. One group of water buffalo calves was immunized with an attenuated BoHV-1 marker vaccine. A second group was not vaccinated and used as the control. During the post-vaccination period, we monitored the humoral immune response. The efficacy of the vaccine was tested after intranasal challenge of the calves with a BuHV-1 strain. The experiment showed that after vaccination, BuHV-1 replication was significantly reduced by approximately three titer points compared to the controls. The control animals showed high levels of viral shedding and mild signs associated with BuHV-1 infection. Therefore, our study provides evidence for the existence of cross-protection between BoHV-1 and BuHV-1 in buffalo calves. PMID:24985155

Montagnaro, Serena; De Martinis, Claudio; Iovane, Valentina; Ciarcia, Roberto; Damiano, Sara; Nizza, Sandra; De Martino, Luisa; Iovane, Giuseppe; Pagnini, Ugo

2014-09-01

61

Evaluation of sperm functional attributes in relation to in vitro sperm-zona pellucida binding ability and cleavage rate in assessing frozen thawed buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen quality.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate sperm functional attributes in relation to in vitro sperm-zona binding ability and cleavage rate in assessing frozen thawed buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen quality. Frozen-thawed forty-eight ejaculates from eight Surti buffalo bulls (six ejaculates/bull) obtained by artificial vagina were used. Frozen semen from each bull was thawed, pooled, and subjected for sperm functional (six replicates) and in vitro fertilization (four replicates) tests. The progressive forward motility, plasmalemma functional integrity assessed by fluorogenic [6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA), and propidium iodide (PI)], hypoosmotic swelling (HOS), and hypoosmotic swelling-Giemsa (HOS-G) test, mitochondrial membrane potential, sperm nuclear morphology, the number of sperm bound to zona and cleavage rate differed significantly (P<0.05) between bulls. When the animals were grouped based on cleavage rate (group I, >40% cleavage rate, n=5, and group II, <40% cleavage rate, n=3), in vitro fertility parameters and all the sperm functional attributes except sperm nuclear morphology differed significantly (P<0.05). The proportions of sperm with functional plasmalemma in the tail and intact acrosome assessed by HOS-G test (25.33, range: 17.48-40.27) were significantly (P<0.001) lower than the functional plasmalemma in the tail assessed by HOS test (39.80, range: 27.85-54.67). The number of sperm bound to zona had significant correlations with the mitochondrial membrane potential (r=0.90, P<0.01) and plasmalemma integrity (fluorogenic, r=0.74 and HOS, r=0.79, P<0.05) and HOS-G, r=0.87, P<0.01). The cleavage rate had significant (P<0.05) correlations with the mitochondrial membrane potential (r=0.70) and plasmalemma integrity measured by HOS-G test (r=0.68). The present study indicates that these attributes could represent important determinants of buffalo sperm quality influencing cleavage rate. PMID:17576042

Selvaraju, S; Ravindra, J P; Ghosh, J; Gupta, P S P; Suresh, K P

2008-07-01

62

Characterisation and In Silico Analysis of Interleukin-4 cDNA of Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus) and Indian Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-4 (IL-4) produced from Th2 cells modulates both innate and adaptive immune responses. It is a common belief that wild animals possess better immunity against diseases than domestic and laboratory animals; however, the immune system of wild animals is not fully explored yet. Therefore, a comparative study was designed to explore the wildlife immunity through characterisation of IL-4 cDNA of nilgai, a wild ruminant, and Indian buffalo, a domestic ruminant. Total RNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of nilgai and Indian buffalo and reverse transcribed into cDNA. Respective cDNA was further cloned and sequenced. Sequences were analysed in silico and compared with their homologues available at GenBank. The deduced 135 amino acid protein of nilgai IL-4 is 95.6% similar to that of Indian buffalo. N-linked glycosylation sequence, leader sequence, Cysteine residues in the signal peptide region, and 3? UTR of IL-4 were found to be conserved across species. Six nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions were found in Indian buffalo compared to nilgai amino acid sequence. Tertiary structure of this protein in both species was modeled, and it was found that this protein falls under 4-helical cytokines superfamily and short chain cytokine family. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a single cluster of ruminants including both nilgai and Indian buffalo that was placed distinct from other nonruminant mammals. PMID:24348167

Saini, M.; Palai, T. K.; Das, D. K.; Hatle, K. M.; Gupta, P. K.

2013-01-01

63

Expression of cytochrome P450 aromatase transcripts in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)-ejaculated spermatozoa and its relationship with sperm motility.  

PubMed

The cytochrome P450 aromatase (aromP450) deficient mice are infertile due to an impairment of spermatogenesis associated with a decrease in sperm motility and inability to fertilize oocytes. The sperm analysis showed decreased sperm motility in humans, having Cyp19 gene mutations. Further, in human, it was hypothesized that aromatase could be used as marker of sperm quality, particularly in the acquisition of its motility. However, there is no information regarding the expression of aromP450 in spermatozoa of farm animals including cattle and buffalo. In the present study, the expression of aromP450 in ejaculated buffalo spermatozoa and its relationship with sperm motility of ejaculated spermatozoa was studied by RT-PCR using total RNA isolated from buffalo-ejaculated spermatozoa. The results showed that conventional RT-PCR could not amplify aromatase transcript, while a nested PCR detected the presence of P450arom mRNA in buffalo-ejaculated spermatozoa. RT reaction followed by nested PCR was performed to compare the expression of aromatase transcripts in buffalo-ejaculated spermatozoa of two category semen graded on the basis of mass motility and motile and non-motile spermatozoa separated by swim-up. A higher (P<0.01) expression of aromP450 transcript was found in spermatozoa obtained from the good quality semen (higher mass motility) to that in spermatozoa of poor quality semen (low mass motility). Similarly, higher (P<0.01) expression of aromP450 mRNA was observed in the motile spermatozoa as compared to non-motile spermatozoa separated from good quality semen by swim-up. It is concluded that the present study demonstrates a positive relation between aromatase transcript and mass motility of buffalo-ejaculated spermatozoa, which could be a putative marker for the quality of semen in farm animals, particularly the acquisition of sperm motility. PMID:17851018

Tiwari, Ashutosh; Singh, Dheer; Kumar, O Suneel; Sharma, M K

2008-04-01

64

In vitro embryo production in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) using sexed sperm and oocytes from ovum pick up.  

PubMed

The objective was to explore the use of sexed sperm and OPU-derived oocytes in an IVP system to produce sex-preselected bubaline embryos. Oocytes were recovered from 20 fertile Murrah and Nili-Ravi buffalo cows by repeated (twice weekly) ultrasound-guided transvaginal ovum pick up (OPU), or by aspiration of abbatoir-derived bubaline ovaries, and subjected to IVF, using frozen-thawed sexed or unsexed bubaline semen. On average, 4.6 oocytes were retrieved per buffalo per session (70.9% were Grades A or B). Following IVF with sexed sperm, oocytes derived from OPU had similar developmental competence as those from abattoir-derived ovaries, in terms of cleavage rate (57.6 vs. 50.4%, P=0.357) and blastocyst development rate (16.0 vs. 23.9%, P=0.237). Furthermore, using frozen-thawed sexed versus unsexed semen did not affect rates of cleavage (50.5 vs. 50.9%, P=0.978) or blastocyst development (15.3 vs. 19.1%, P=0.291) after IVF using OPU-derived oocytes. Of the embryos produced in an OPU-IVP system, 9 of 34 sexed fresh embryos (26.5%) and 5 of 43 sexed frozen embryos (11.6%) transferred to recipients established pregnancies, whereas 7 of 26 unsexed fresh embryos (26.9%) and 6 out of 39 unsexed frozen embryos (15.4%) transferred to recipients established pregnancies. Eleven sex-preselected buffalo calves (10 females and one male) and 10 sexed buffalo calves (six females and four males) were born following embryo transfer. In the present study, OPU, sperm sexing technology, IVP, and embryo transfer, were used to produce sex-preselected buffalo calves. This study provided proof of concept for further research and wider field application of these technologies in buffalo. PMID:18336893

Liang, X W; Lu, Y Q; Chen, M T; Zhang, X F; Lu, S S; Zhang, M; Pang, C Y; Huang, F X; Lu, K H

2008-04-15

65

In-Vitro Indicators of Natural Resistance and Milk-Producing Ability in Dairy Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of detecting novel phenotypes of natural resistance at the molecular level through the in-vitro stimulation of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). This study was conducted with 16 healthy buffaloes who were reared for milk production and for whom data on milk-producing ability were available for several lactations. MDMs from circulating monocytes were activated with interferon-gamma and lipopolysaccharide. The response was evaluated using Western blotting to detect the presence of 2 types of proteins separated by electrophoresis: tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins, which are indicators of the dynamic control of biochemical pathways, and IkB-alpha (Kappa light polipeptide gene enhancer in B-cells Inhibitor, alpha) protein, which controls the activity of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells-a transcription factor that is responsible for the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. The results showed that the buffaloes who were positive for IkB-alpha proteins had a significantly higher milk-producing ability than the buffaloes who did not express IkB-alpha. On the contrary, no significant difference was detected between the high and low milk-producing buffaloes with regard to the presence of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. This preliminary study indicated that it may be possible to identify the more disease-resistant nonhuman animals on a molecular level. The results, therefore, indicate that an intense selection toward the increase of milk yield could impair natural disease resistance in future dairy buffalo generations. PMID:25111879

Miarelli, Maria; Signorelli, Federica

2015-01-01

66

Effect of antibiotics in extender on bacterial and spermatozoal quality of cooled buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull semen.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to study the effect of traditional antibiotic combination (streptomycin and penicillin; SP) and relatively modern combination of antibiotics (gentamycin, tylosin, lincomycin and spectinomycin; GTLS) in extender on bacterial control and spermatozoal quality of liquid buffalo bull semen stored at 5 degrees C. Semen collected from Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls (n = 10) was diluted with skim milk extender containing either SP (streptomycin 1000 microg/ml and penicillin 1000 IU/ml), GTLS (gentamycin 500 microg/ml, tylosin 100 microg/ml, lincomycin 300 microg/ml and spectinomycin 600 microg/ml) or negative control with no antibiotics (NA). Liquid semen was stored at 5 degrees C for 5 days. Aerobic bacteria isolated from buffalo semen were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The only facultative anaerobic bacterium isolated was Klebsiella pneumoniae. In vitro antibiotic sensitivity test revealed that Ps. aeruginosa and Staph. aureus were susceptible to gentamycin. Staphylococcus aureus and K. pneumoniae were susceptible to tylosin and linco-spectinomycin. Total aerobic bacterial count was significantly lower in semen samples treated with GTLS than those of SP on third and fifth day of storage at 5 degrees C. There was no difference (p > 0.05) in sperm motility, longevity and plasma membrane integrity (PMI) in extender containing SP or GTLS combination until the third day of storage at 5 degrees C. On fifth day of storage sperm motility, longevity and PMI was significantly better in extender containing SP compared with GTLS and NA. Intact acrosomes, and sperm head, mid piece and tail abnormalities remained similar (p > 0.05) because of antibiotics up to 5 days of storage. In conclusion, GTLS is more capable than SP for bacterial control of buffalo bull semen. Moreover, GTLS and SP are equally efficient in preserving spermatozoal quality of extended buffalo bull semen for 3 days at 5 degrees C. PMID:18042206

Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Andrabi, S M H; Ullah, N; Qayyum, M

2008-06-01

67

In-Vitro Indicators of Natural Resistance and Milk-Producing Ability in Dairy Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of detecting novel phenotypes of natural resistance at the molecular level through the in-vitro stimulation of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). This study was conducted with 16 healthy buffaloes who were reared for milk production and for whom data on milk-producing ability were available for several lactations. MDMs from circulating monocytes were activated with interferon-gamma and lipopolysaccharide. The response was evaluated using Western blotting to detect the presence of 2 types of proteins separated by electrophoresis: tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins, which are indicators of the dynamic control of biochemical pathways, and IkB-alpha (Kappa light polipeptide gene enhancer in B-cells Inhibitor, alpha) protein, which controls the activity of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells—a transcription factor that is responsible for the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. The results showed that the buffaloes who were positive for IkB-alpha proteins had a significantly higher milk-producing ability than the buffaloes who did not express IkB-alpha. On the contrary, no significant difference was detected between the high and low milk-producing buffaloes with regard to the presence of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. This preliminary study indicated that it may be possible to identify the more disease-resistant nonhuman animals on a molecular level. The results, therefore, indicate that an intense selection toward the increase of milk yield could impair natural disease resistance in future dairy buffalo generations. PMID:25111879

Miarelli, Maria; Signorelli, Federica

2015-01-01

68

Body condition, energy balance and immune status of periparturient Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) supplemented with inorganic chromium.  

PubMed

Periparturient Murrah buffaloes were used to determine whether body condition, energy balance and immune status are affected by inorganic Cr supplementation. Twenty-four Murrah buffaloes were blocked into four groups having six animals in each group and fed for 60 days pre-partum to 150 days post-partum. Feeding regimen was same in all the groups except that these were supplemented with 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 of Cr per kilogram of dry matter (DM) in the four respective groups. Buffaloes were weighed at fortnightly intervals. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein at days -60, -30, -15, -7, 0, 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 of experimental feeding for the estimation of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), Cr level, lymphocyte proliferation, neutrophil phagocytic activity, plasma total immunoglobulin (TIg), immunoglobulin G (IgG) and cortisol levels. Results revealed that with approaching parturition, dry matter intake (DMI), immune response and plasma Cr level decreased (P < 0.05) gradually and minimum values were observed on the day of parturition in all groups. In contrast, body condition score (BCS), plasma NEFA and BHBA concentrations showed increasing (P < 0.05) trends towards calving and level decreased after calving. Dietary Cr supplementation did not have any effect on DMI and BCS, but immune response and plasma Cr concentration showed a positive correlation with dietary Cr supplementation. Buffaloes supplemented with 1.5 mg/kg Cr had significantly (P < 0.05) low plasma NEFA and BHBA concentrations. The results of present findings indicated that dietary inorganic Cr supplementation reduced lipid mobilization and improved immune response in periparturient buffaloes. PMID:25037066

Deka, Rijusmita Sarma; Mani, Veena; Kumar, Muneendra; Shiwajirao, Zade Satish; Tyagi, Amrish Kumar; Kaur, Harjit

2014-10-01

69

Efficiency of SCNT buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos in different culture medium and analysis of mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factors during embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Growth factors in culture media are known to affect the embryo production rates in in vitro production cultures. To improve the efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) derived embryos in Indian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), embryos were cultured in three different culture mediums viz. Group-A; TCM-199 + FBS, Group-B; TCM-199 + Poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and Group-C; CR1aa + BSA. Embryo production rate and expression level of insulin-like growth factor genes (IGF-1, IGF-1R, IGF-2 and IGF-2R) were analysed in embryo culture. Cleavage and blastocyst production rates were 62.5% and 22.3% in Group-A, 53.8% and 13.0% in Group-B and 62.0% and 19.2% in Group-C respectively, whereas in in vitro fertilization (IVF) control cultured in TCM-199 plus 10% FBS, rates were 79.1% and 29.4%. Relative gene expression of SCNT embryos was compared with that in IVF control. IGF-1 and IGF-2 mRNA expression at blastocyst stage was up-regulated (p ? 0.05) in all culture groups, while IGF-1R and IGF-2R expression was down regulated (p ? 0.05) in Group-B and Group-C. In conclusion, the higher mRNA levels at certain stages in different culture conditions affected in vitro development of SCNT embryos. These results show that the transcript level of the insulin-like growth factor genes was significantly altered by in vitro culture condition. Culture medium TCM-199 with 10% FBS produced higher number of embryos and was able to co-op with gene expression of IVF control. Differences continue to be observed between SCNT cultured and IVF embryos, and until these differences are minimized, aberrations in SCNT embryonic development will continue to arise. PMID:19392670

Pandey, A; Gupta, S C; Singh, N; Rana, J S; Gupta, N

2010-10-01

70

Minimum number of spermatozoa per dose in Mediterranean Italian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) using sexed frozen semen and conventional artificial insemination.  

PubMed

In buffaloes, AI with sexed semen is not fully optimized, and the procedure has only been performed using the approach currently in use for cattle. The objective of the present work was to compare the pregnancy rates in Mediterranean Italian buffalo cows inseminated with sexed frozen-thawed semen at 2, 4, 6, and 8 million sperm per dose, using the Ovsynch protocol and conventional AI at a fixed time. Fresh ejaculates from three buffalo bulls were processed according to Beltsville sperm sorting technology, and packaged in 0.25-mL straws with two total concentrations of 2 and 4 million live sorted sperm per straw. After thawing, semen was evaluated for total motility, forward motility, average path velocity, membrane and DNA integrity, and membrane fluidity. Sorting efficiency was estimated using a real time polymerase chain reaction method developed and validated in our laboratory. The artificial inseminations were conducted during the breeding season on 849 Italian Mediterranean buffalo heifers and cows distributed in 13 farms in northern and central Italy. No significant difference in quality parameters was reported between nonsexed and sexed straws produced with 2 and 4 million sperm. Lower pregnancy rate (P < 0.001) was reported when inseminating doses of sexed semen at 2 million were used (53/170; 31.2%), with respect to conventional nonsexed (78/142; 54.9%), and sexed doses at 4, 6, and 8 million spermatozoa (102/205, 49.8%; 84/175, 48.0%; and 74/157, 47.1%, respectively). No differences were evident using conventional doses and sexed semen with sperm numbers equal or higher than 4 million per dose. Pregnancies were not affected by the sire; 39/82 (47.6%), 120/270 (44.4%), and 151/355 (42.5%), respectively, for the three bulls. Variability in pregnancy rates observed in different herds was not significant. Furthermore, no significant difference was reported between pregnancies obtained with sexed semen in heifers and multiparous, respectively, 179/407 (44.0%) and 131/300 (43.7%). The results of the present work indicate that in Mediterranean Italian buffalo the dose of 4 million represents an optimal compromise when using sexed semen with conventional technologies of insemination, together with estrus synchronization, and the minimum number of spermatozoa per dose. In addition, the real time polymerase chain reaction method was optimized and is now available for estimating sorting efficiency in buffalo. PMID:23523175

Gaviraghi, A; Puglisi, R; Balduzzi, D; Severgnini, A; Bornaghi, V; Bongioni, G; Frana, A; Gandini, L M; Lukaj, A; Bonacina, C; Galli, A

2013-05-01

71

Phylogeography and domestication of Indian river buffalo  

PubMed Central

Background The water buffalo- Bubalus bubalis holds tremendous potential in livestock sector in many Asian countries, particularly India. The origin, domestication and genetic structure of the Indian river buffalo are poorly understood. Therefore, to understand the relationship among the maternal lineages of Indian river buffalo breeds and their domestication process, we analysed mitochondrial D-loop region of 217 animals representing eight breeds from eight different locations in India along with published sequences of Mediterranean buffalo. Results The maximum parsimony tree showed one major clade with six internal branches. Reduced median network revealed expansion from more than one set of haplotypes indicating complex domestication events for this species. In addition, we found several singleton haplotypes. Using rho statistics, we obtained a time estimate of 6300 years BP for the expansion of one set of hapltoypes of the Indian domestic buffalo. A few breed specific branches in the network indicated an ancient time depth of differentiation of some of the maternal lineages of river buffalo breeds. The multidimensional display of breed pairwise FST values showed significant breed differentiation. Conclusion Present day river buffalo is the result of complex domestication processes involving more than one maternal lineage and a significant maternal gene flow from the wild populations after the initial domestication events. Our data are consistent with the available archaeological information in supporting the proposition that the river buffalo was likely to be domesticated in the Western region of the Indian subcontinent, specifically the present day breeding tracts of the Mehsana, Surati and Pandharpuri breeds. PMID:17915036

Kumar, Satish; Nagarajan, Muniyandi; Sandhu, Jasmeet S; Kumar, Niraj; Behl, Vandana

2007-01-01

72

Comparative quality assessment of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen chilled (5°C) in egg yolk- and soya milk-based extenders.  

PubMed

Egg yolk-Tris is most commonly used semen extender; however, its use involves hygienic risk, interference with fertility and poor microscopic examination. Therefore, replacement of egg yolk with a plant-based component with protective effects on spermatozoa would be advantageous. In present study, we observed effect of soya milk-based extenders on dilution and liquid preservation of Murrah buffalo bull semen at 5°C up to 72 h in comparison with conventional egg yolk-Tris extender (Ext.1). In experiment one, a total of 32 buffalo semen ejaculates from four animals were extended and preserved at 5°C for 72 h in soya milk-based extender (Ext.2) with different percentages (10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30%) of soya milk for optimization of soya milk concentration. Semen quality was assessed for individual motility, viability, membrane integrity and acrosome integrity at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h of liquid preservation. The results of experiment one indicated that 25% soya milk is an optimum concentration for buffalo bull semen extender preparation. A modified method was used to prepare another soya milk-based extender (Ext.3). In the second experiment, two soya extenders (Ext.2 and 3) with optimized concentration (25%) of soya milk were comparatively assessed with egg yolk-Tris extender (Ext.1) for semen quality parameters at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h of liquid preservation. The individual sperm motility at 0 and 24 h following dilution were found non-significant among extenders. However, after 48 h of dilution, individual motility in Ext.3 was observed significantly (p < 0.05) higher than Ext.1. After 24, 48 and 72 h of dilution sperm membrane integrity in Ext.3 was found significantly (p < 0.05) higher than Ext.1. Overall, comparative evaluation of sperm parameters obtained revealed that Ext.3 containing 25% soya milk can be used as a substitute of egg yolk-based extender for buffalo semen liquid preservation. PMID:22017209

Singh, A K; Singh, V K; Narwade, B M; Mohanty, T K; Atreja, S K

2012-08-01

73

Impact of gonadotropin supplementation on the expression of germ cell marker genes (MATER, ZAR1, GDF9, and BMP15) during in vitro maturation of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocyte.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to investigate whether gonadotropins [follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)] and buffalo follicular fluid (bFF) supplementation in maturation medium influences the transcript abundance of germ cell marker genes [maternal antigen that embryos require (MATER), Zygote arrest 1 (ZAR1), growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15)] mRNA in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes. Buffalo ovaries were collected from local abattoir, oocytes were aspirated from antral follicles (5-8 mm) and matured in vitro using two different maturation regimens, viz, group A: gonadotropin (FSH and LH) and group B: non-gonadotropin-supplemented maturation medium containing 20% buffalo follicular fluid (bFF). mRNA was isolated from immature (330) and in vitro matured oocytes from both the groups (A, 320; B, 340), and reverse transcribed using Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase. Expression levels of MATER, ZAR1, GDF9, and BMP15 mRNA transcripts were analyzed in oocytes of both maturation groups as well as immature oocytes using real-time PCR. QPCR results showed that GDF9 and BMP15 transcripts were significantly (p<0.05) influenced with gonadotropins and bFF supplementation during in vitro maturation of buffalo oocyte; however, MATER and ZAR1 transcripts were not influenced with gonadotropins and bFF supplementation in vitro. These results indicated that the expression levels of MATER, ZAR1, GDF9, and BMP15 mRNA were varied differentially during in vitro maturation of buffalo oocyte and were found to be gonadotropins (FSH and LH) or bFF dependent for GDF9 and BMP15. PMID:23263936

Nath, Amar; Sharma, Veena; Dubey, Pawan K; Pratheesh, M D; Gade, Nitin E; Saikumar, G; Sharma, G Taru

2013-01-01

74

Effect of Extender and Equilibration Time on Post Thaw Motility and Chromatin Structure of Buffalo Bull (Bubalus Bubalis) Spermatozoa  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of four equilibration times (2, 4, 8 and 16 hours) and two extenders (tris or Bioxcell®) on cryopreservation of buffalo semen. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, split pooled ejaculates (n=4), possessing more than 70% visual sperm motility were divided in two aliquots and diluted in Bioxcell® and tris-citric egg yolk (TCE) extenders. Semen was cooled to 4°C within 2 hours, equilibrated at 4°C for 2, 4, 8 and 16 hours, then transferred into 0.5 ml French straws, and frozen in a programmable cell freezer before being plunged into liquid nitrogen. Postthaw motility characteristics, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome morphology and DNA integrity of the buffalo sperm were studied after thawing. Results There were significant interactions between equilibration times and extenders for sperm motility and membrane integrity. Post thaw sperm motility (PMOT), progressive motile spermatozoa (PROG), plasma membrane integrity (PMI) and normal apical ridge (NAR) measures were lower for sperm equilibrated for 2 hours in both TCE and Bioxcell® extender compared to others equilibration times. PMOT, PMI and NAR for sperm equilibrated for 4, 8 and 16 hours showed no significant differences in either extender, although PROG measures were superior in Bioxcell®compared to TCE at all equilibration times (p<0.05). Kinematic parameters such as average path velocity, curvilinear velocity and linearity in the Bioxcell®extender were superior to those in the TCE extender studied. In contrast to motility and viability, the DNA integrity of post thaw spermatozoa remained unaffected by different equilibration times. Conclusion Equilibration time is necessary for preservation of the motility and integrity of buffalo sperm membranes. Equilibration times of over than 2 hours resulted in the greatest preservation of total semen parameters during cryopreservation. There were no significant interactions between equilibration times over 4 hours and type of extender which lead to greater post thaw sperm survival. PMID:25383327

Shahverdi, Abdolhossain; Rastegarnia, Abdolreza; Rezaei Topraggaleh, Tohid

2014-01-01

75

Effect of low density lipoproteins in extender on freezability and fertility of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull semen.  

PubMed

This study was designed to determine whether low-density lipoporoteins (LDLs) extracted from egg yolk in extender improve the freezability and fertility of buffalo bull semen. Semen from three Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls was diluted at 37 °C with tris-citric acid extender (50 × 10(6) motile spermatozoa mL(-1)) containing LDLs 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 15% extracted from egg yolk and extender containing 20% egg yolk was kept as control. Diluted semen was cooled to 4 °C in 2 h, equilibrated at 4 °C for 4 h, filled in 0.5 mL French straws, and kept on liquid nitrogen vapors for 10 min. Straws were then plunged and stored in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C). Sperm motility (visually; %), plasma membrane integrity (%; with supravital hypo-osmotic swelling test), and viability (%; with dual staining test using Trypan-blue Giemsa) were assessed at post-dilution, pre-freezing and post-thawing. At post-dilution and pre-freezing, sperm progressive motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability was similar (P > 0.05) in extender containing 10% LDLs or the control. However, at post-thaw the aforementioned parameters were higher (P < 0.05) in extender containing 10% LDLs compared with the control and other experimental extenders. The fertility rate of inseminations performed were higher (P < 0.05) with extender containing 10% LDLs than the control. It was concluded that LDLs (10%) in extender improved the freezability and fertility of buffalo bull spermatozoa. PMID:21601914

Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Rakha, B A; Andrabi, S M H; Khalid, M; Ullah, N

2011-09-01

76

Butylated hydroxytoluene inclusion in semen extender improves the post-thawed semen quality of Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).  

PubMed

The study was carried out to evaluate the potential impact of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the frozen-thawed semen quality of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls. Ejaculated bull semen was extended in a Tris-citrate egg yolk extender containing various concentrations of BHT (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0mM). Semen was frozen at -196 degrees C using 50 x 10(6) spermatozoa per 0.5 mL straws. Five straws from each treatment were thawed to assess the semen quality in terms of sperm motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity and acrosomal integrity. Post-thawed sperm motility was determined using a phase-contrast microscope. Viability, plasma membrane integrity and acrosomal integrity were evaluated by the supravital staining, hypo-osmotic swelling test and normal acrosomal reaction, respectively. The highest (P<0.05) motility, acrosomal integrity and hypo-osmotic swelling response of spermatozoa was achieved by addition of 1.0 and 2.0mM BHT to semen extender. However, highest (P<0.05) viability of spermatozoa was achieved by inclusion of 2.0mM BHT. The higher concentration of BHT (3.0mM) reduced the motility, acrosomal integrity, viability and hypo-osmotic swelling response of the spermatozoa compared to other concentration used. In conclusion, BHT when added in the semen extender can improve the semen quality of buffalo bulls. PMID:19246080

Ijaz, A; Hussain, A; Aleem, M; Yousaf, M S; Rehman, H

2009-05-01

77

Effects of bull and heparin and sperm concentrations on in vitro fertilization of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis ) oocytes matured in vitro.  

PubMed

A study was undertaken to assess the ability of spermatozoa from 6 buffalo bulls, at different levels of heparin and sperm concentrations, to achieve an acceptable level of fertilization in vitro. Frozen-thawed spermatozoa, 3 dosages of heparin (0, 10 and 100 ug/ml) in the presence and absence of penicillamine, hypotaurine and epinephrine (PHE), and 4 sperm concentrations (1 x 10(6), 2 x 10(6), 3 x 10(6) and 4 x 10(6) /ml) were studied using 3202 buffalo oocytes. The mean proportions of fertilized oocytes in the group treated with 10 ug/ml of heparin were significantly higher (P<0.05) with the semen of Bulls A, B and C (44.7 to 64.3%) than in medium devoid of heparin. An increase in the dosage of heparin from 10 ug/ml to 100 ug/ml reduced the overall fertilization rate. However, optimal fertilization (30.9%) at 100 ug/ml heparin was observed for semen from Bull D. Bulls E and F yielded the lowest fertilization rate (9.6 and 14.2%, respectively) at the above mentioned heparin dosage. Analysis of sperm density revealed that a concentration of 2 x 10(6) spermatozoa yielded optimal fertilization rates in vitro. Higher sperm concentrations (3 x 10(6) or 4 x 10(6)) resulted in higher oocyte penetration rates but gave rise to polyspermy. PMID:16727261

Totey, S M; Pawshe, C H; Singh, G P

1993-04-01

78

Equivalency of Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) Embryonic Stem Cells Derived From Fertilized, Parthenogenetic, and Hand-Made Cloned Embryos  

PubMed Central

Abstract This study was aimed at establishing buffalo embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from in vitro fertilized (IVF), parthenogenetic, and hand-made cloned (HMC) embryos and to check their equivalency in terms of stem cell marker expression, longevity, proliferation, and differentiation pattern. ESCs derived from all three sources were found by immunofluorescence to express the pluripotency markers SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, OCT4, and SOX2 and were able to form embryoid bodies containing cells expressing genes specific to endoderm (AFP, HNF4, and GATA4), mesoderm (MSX1, BMP4, and ASA), and ectoderm (cytokeratin 8 and NF68). Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) showed cells from all sources to be positive for pluripotency markers OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, STAT3, REX1, FOXD3, NUCLEOSTEMIN, and TELOMERASE. Pluripotency markers OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, and c-MYC were also analyzed by real-time PCR. No significant differences were observed among ESCs from all three sources for all these genes except NANOG, whose expression was higher (p<0.05) in HMC-derived ESCs (6.897±2.3) compared to that in parthenogenesis- and IVF-derived cells (1.603±0.315 and 1±0, respectively). Pluripotent, stable buffalo ESC lines derived from IVF, parthenogenesis, and HMC embryos may be genetically manipulated to provide a powerful tool for studies involving embryonic development, genomic imprinting, gene targeting, cloning, chimera formation, and transgenic animal production. PMID:22582863

Muzaffar, Musharifa; Selokar, Naresh L.; Singh, Karn P.; Zandi, Mohammad; Singh, Manoj K.; Shah, Riaz A.; Chauhan, Manmohan S.; Singla, Suresh K.; Palta, Prabhat

2012-01-01

79

Efficiency to reach age of puberty and behaviour of buffalo heifers (Bubalus bubalis) kept on pasture or in confinement.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the influence of rearing system (free-ranging (FR) v. confinement (C)) on buffalo heifer efficiency to reach age of puberty and on behavioural and immune functions, two experiments were conducted from September 2010 to October 2011. In Experiment I, 32 subjects aged 8 to 9 months at the start of experiment were used. A total of 16 animals (group C) were group housed in an indoor slatted floor pen (4 m2/animal) with an outdoor paddock (4 m2/animal); 16 others grazed on a Mediterranean natural pasture of 40 ha (group FR). Behavioural data were collected and organic matter digestibility, blood metabolites and progesterone were determined. At the end of the experiment, a novel object test and a skin test were conducted, and the avoidance distance (AD) at the manger was measured. Free-ranging animals were able to express natural behaviours such as wallowing and grazing. C animals devoted more time to the novel object than FR animals, whereas AD at manger was lower in group FR than in group C (P<0.01). Cellular immune response was higher in FR heifers than in C animals (P<0.01). FR animals also showed a higher digestibility of organic matter (P<0.01). Heifers from group FR had higher plasma concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (P<0.001) and lower concentrations of glucose than heifers from group C (P<0.001). C animals showed higher daily weight gains (P<0.01) and weight at the puberty (P<0.05), but there were no differences in terms of age of puberty between the two groups. The intakes of dry matter (DM), CP and energy to reach the age of puberty were similar in both groups. In order to verify whether the results obtained in Experiment I could be replicated in different rearing conditions (reduced pasture availability, different location and altitude), a second experiment was conducted on 26 animals, where only onset of age of puberty and metabolic profile were monitored. In Experiment II, 13 heifers grazed on a natural pasture of 5 ha, other 13 received the same space as indicated for Experiment I. Results from Experiment II generally confirmed those of Experiment I. Only the intakes of DM and energy to reach the age of puberty were higher in group C than in FR (P<0.001). A lower competition with human nutrition, reproductive performances similar to those shown by confined animals and the indications given by immune and behavioural variables, suggest that a free-range-based system may be conveniently used for buffalo heifer farming purposes. PMID:25076110

Sabia, E; Napolitano, F; De Rosa, G; Terzano, G M; Barile, V L; Braghieri, A; Pacelli, C

2014-11-01

80

Prognostic value of various spermatological attributes as predictors of zona binding and zona penetration of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen.  

PubMed

Twenty-four ejaculates from six (four ejaculates each) Surti buffalo bulls aged 4-8 years were used to assess various attributes of spermatozoa influencing the zona-binding and zona-penetration tests. Ejaculates from each bulls were subjected to in vitro sperm--zona binding and sperm--zona penetration tests (four replicates per bull) using immature buffalo oocytes. The average number of spermatozoa bound per oocyte was 27.79 +/- 5.90. The average number of spermatozoa penetrated per oocyte was 3.35 +/- 0.64. The average number of zona-bound and -penetrated spermatozoa differed significantly between animals. Significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed between the plasmalemma integrity as assessed by eosin--nigrosin stain and hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test. Furthermore, the percentage of cells positive for the HOS test, i.e. functional membrane integrity (51.25 +/- 2.32) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than hypo-osmotic swelling-Giemsa (HOS-G) test, i.e. the subpopulation of spermatozoa positive for functional membrane and acrosomal integrities (42.87 +/- 4.56). The HOS test had significant correlations with plasmalemma integrity as measured by the vital stain, eosin--nigrosin (r = 0.85, p < 0.05). The HOS-G test also had significant correlation with plasmalemma integrity measured by vital stains such as eosin--nigrosin (r = 0.90, p < 0.05) and fluorogenic stains [carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) and propidium iodide (PI); r = 0.92, p < 0.01] and HOS test (r = 0.93), acrosomal integrity (r = 0.86, p < 0.05) and mitochondrial membrane potential (r = 0.99, p < 0.01). The plasmalemma integrity (fluorogenic stain), functional membrane integrity (HOS test), subpopulation of spermatozoa positive for functional membrane and acrosomal integrities (HOS-G test) and mitochondrial membrane potential had significant (p < 0.05) correlation with sperm zona binding and penetration. The present study indicates that these parameters could represent important determinants of sperm quality influencing zona binding and penetration. PMID:18673329

Selvaraju, S; Ghosh, J; Ravindra, J P

2009-02-01

81

Multilocus phylogeographical analysis of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) genotypes from sympatric cattle and water buffalo populations supports evolutionary host constraint and close phylogenetic relationships with genotypes found in other ruminants.  

PubMed

Species of the subgenus Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) have been reported in cattle and other domestic and wild ruminants worldwide. A previous study in Brazil found at least four genotypes infecting cattle (Bos taurus), but only one in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). However, the small number of isolates examined from buffalo, all inhabiting nearby areas, has precluded evaluation of their diversity, host associations and geographical structure. To address these questions, we evaluated the genetic diversity and phylogeographical patterns of 25 isolates from water buffalo and 28 from cattle from four separate locations in Brazil and Venezuela. Multigene phylogenetic analyses of ssrRNA, internal transcribed spacer of rDNA (ITSrDNA), 5SrRNA, glycosomal glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH), mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cyt b), spliced leader (SL) and cathepsin L-like (CATL) sequences positioned all isolates from sympatric and allopatric buffalo populations into the highly homogeneous genotype TthIA, while the cattle isolates were assigned to three different genotypes, all distinct from TthIA. Polymorphisms in all of these sequences separated the trypanosomes infecting water buffalo, cattle, sheep, antelope and deer, and suggested that they correspond to separate species. Congruent phylogenies inferred with all genes indicated a predominant clonal structure of the genotypes. The multilocus analysis revealed one monophyletic assemblage formed exclusively by trypanosomes of ruminants, which corresponds to the subgenus T. (Megatrypanum). The high degree of host specificity, evidenced by genotypes exclusive to each ruminant species and lack of genotype shared by different host species, suggested that the evolutionary history of trypanosomes of this subgenus was strongly constrained by their ruminant hosts. However, incongruence between ruminant and trypanosome phylogenies did not support host-parasite co-evolution, indicating that host switches have occurred across ruminants followed by divergences, giving rise to new trypanosome genotypes adapted exclusively to one host species. PMID:22051399

Garcia, Herakles A; Rodrigues, Adriana C; Martinkovic, Franjo; Minervino, Antonio H H; Campaner, Marta; Nunes, Vânia L B; Paiva, Fernando; Hamilton, Patrick B; Teixeira, Marta M G

2011-11-01

82

First report of isolation and molecular characterization of bubaline herpesvirus 1 (BuHV1) from Argentinean water buffaloes.  

PubMed

Herpesviruses have mainly co-evolved with their hosts for millions of years. However, bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV1) and related ruminant alphaherpesviruses have been reported to cross the species barrier. Bubaline herpesvirus 1 (BuHV1) is an alphaherpesvirus closely related to BoHV1 and BoHV5. According to the serological cross-relationships between ruminant alphaherpesviruses, several surveys have studied the occurrence of BoHV1-related virus infection in wild and domestic ruminant species. Recent studies in Argentina showed an increase in serological prevalence against BoHV1 related viruses in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) population. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of related ruminant alphaherpesvirus in the Argentinean water buffalo population. BuHV1 was successfully isolated from 5 out of 225 buffaloes analyzed. One isolate was obtained from nasal secretions, and the others were from vaginal swabs. The buffaloes belonged to four different farms located in northeastern Argentina. The isolates were characterized as alphaherpesvirus by direct immunofluorescence using FITC-anti-BoHV1 IgG. Restriction analysis performed with BamHI and BstEII on the complete genome showed differences between the isolates and those from BoHV1 and BoHV5 subtypes. Phylogenetic analysis on both UL27 and US6 showed similarity in tree topology. While three of the isolates grouped together with sequences of BoHV5, two other isolates clustered separately. Genetic analysis of eight concatenated sequences from all isolates and references strains showed high nucleotide sequence identity between BuHV1 and BoHV5. While three of the isolates clustered together with the BoHV5 reference strain, the last two isolates were closely related to an Australian BuHV1 strain. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation and molecular characterization of BuHV1 in South America. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that two different BuHV1 lineages circulate in the Argentinean water buffalo population. PMID:24938487

Maidana, Silvina S; Konrad, José L; Craig, María I; Zabal, Osvaldo; Mauroy, Axel; Thiry, Etienne; Crudeli, Gustavo; Romera, Sonia A

2014-11-01

83

Platelet activating factor improves the in vitro penetration of zona free hamster eggs by buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa.  

PubMed

Twelve buffalo bulls of Murrah breed, selected on the basis of their conception rates, were classified into low-, moderate- and high-fertility groups. Frozen semen was thawed and treated with 200 microM platelet activating factor (PAF) for 15 min at 37 degrees C and 5% CO2. In both treated and control (no PAF) semen samples (five replicates per bull), the following were assessed: motility, acrosome reaction (AR) evaluation (for 10 replicates of each bull), and zona-free hamster oocyte penetration test--to determine aspects of fertilization in vitro, viz., sperm attached per ovum (SA/O), fertilization percent (FP), fertilization index (FI), and polyspermic ova (PO). There was an effect of group (P < 0.01) on all parameters; all except motility were increased by PAF treatment. However, the group X treatment interaction was not significant for any parameter. The overall mean values of motility, AR, SA/O, FP, FI, and PO, for controls, treated spermatozoa and (net change) were: 42.89 +/- 0.85, 36.65 +/- 0.85, (-6.24); 28.94 +/- 0.46, 61.44 +/- 0.58, (32.50); 126 +/- 2, 145 +/- 2, (19); 74.21 +/- 1.59, 89.11 +/- 1.18, (14.90); 0.79 +/- 0.02, 1.10 +/- 0.03, (0.31) and 5.22 +/- 1.22, 21.69 +/- 1.88, (16.47)%, respectively. In conclusion, PAF significantly increased the AR and other aspects of fertilization, despite a small reduction in motility. PMID:15763101

Kumar, Subodh; Sharma, Arjava

2005-04-01

84

Bacterial diversity associated with feeding dry forage at different dietary concentrations in the rumen contents of Mehshana buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) using 16S pyrotags.  

PubMed

Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene targeting bacteria was applied to identify diet-induced shifts in the microbiome of both solid and liquid ruminal fractions retrieved from water buffalo fed different diets. The depth of coverage of metabolically active bacteria in a community using different primer pairs was also investigated. To assess reproducibility, animal to animal variation was considered in all phylogenetic and community comparisons. The experiment included four non-lactating water buffaloes fed three different diets for six weeks each; diets were M1 (50% concentrate: 50% dry roughage), M2 (25% concentrate: 75% dry roughage) and M3 (100% dry roughage). A total of 333, 851 pyrotags were analyzed in this study. Phylogenetic analysis revealed significant differences in the rumen microbiome mediated by primer and diet (P < 0.05). Differences in community composition due to primer, diet, fraction and animal were compared using unweighted and weighted UniFrac analysis. Clustering of communities was largely explained by primer differences in both weighted and unweighted UniFrac analyses (P < 0.001). In the weighted analysis, communities clustered by diets (P < 0.05) and fractions (P < 0.08) while no inter-animal variation was observed. The identified repertoire of bacterial populations was dependent on the primer pair, as targeting the V4-V5 region resulted in greater diversity profiles of the microbiome. Within each primer pair, dietary changes altered the community composition with noticeable shifts at genus level. Genera such as Ruminococcus and Fibrobacter (P < 0.05) were higher in abundance on M3 diet while Prevotella dominated (P < 0.05) on M1 diet. PMID:24315806

Pitta, D W; Kumar, S; Veiccharelli, B; Parmar, N; Reddy, B; Joshi, C G

2014-02-01

85

Gill histopathology of two species of buffalo fish from a contaminated Swamp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two species of buffalo fish, smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) and bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus), were collected from a contaminated (multiple metals and organic chemicals) Mississippi River Basin ecosystem, Devil's Swamp and a control site, Tunica Swamp, both near Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA. The buffalo fish were examined for general health and histopathological effects. This research consists of an analysis of

Arunthavarani Thiyagarajah; William R. Hartley; Sharee E. Major; Michael W. Broxson

1996-01-01

86

Effects of Trichostatin A on In Vitro Development and DNA Methylation Level of the Satellite I Region of Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Cloned Embryos.  

PubMed

Trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, has been widely used to improve the cloning efficiency in several species. This brings our attention to investigation of the effects of TSA on developmental potential of swamp buffalo cloned embryos. Swamp buffalo cloned embryos were produced by electrical pulse fusion of male swamp buffalo fibroblasts with swamp buffalo enucleated oocytes. After fusion, reconstructed oocytes were treated with 0, 25 or 50 nM TSA for 10 h. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the rates of fusion (82-85%), cleavage (79-84%) and development to the 8-cell stage (59-65%) among treatment groups. The highest developmental rates to the morula and blastocyst stages of embryos were found in the 25 nM TSA-treated group (42.7 and 30.1%, respectively). We also analyzed the DNA methylation level in the satellite I region of donor cells and in in vitro fertilized (IVF) and cloned embryos using the bisulfite DNA sequencing method. The results indicated that the DNA methylation levels in cloned embryos were significantly higher than those of IVF embryos but approximately similar to those of donor cells. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the methylation level among TSA-treated and untreated cloned embryos. Thus, TSA treatments at 25 nM for 10 h could enhance the in vitro developmental potential of swamp buffalo cloned embryos, but no beneficial effect on the DNA methylation level was observed. PMID:24909601

Srirattana, Kanokwan; Ketudat-Cairns, Mariena; Nagai, Takashi; Kaneda, Masahiro; Parnpai, Rangsun

2014-10-23

87

Castration methods do not affect weight gain and have diverse impacts on the welfare of water buffalo males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Castration is used to improve the management of water buffalo beef males raised under extensive conditions. However, as buffalo are considered robust animals, their welfare is often neglected, which, among other implications, may compromise their productivity. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different castration methods on the stress level and weight gain of water buffalo

L. T. Martins; M. C. Gonçalves; K. C. S. Tavares; S. Gaudêncio; P. C. Santos Neto; A. L. G. Dias; A. Gava; M. E. Saito; A. Mezzalira; A. D. Vieira

2011-01-01

88

VOL. 31, No.4 UNL WATER CENTERIENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMS AUGUST 1999 From Buffalo to Bottled Water,  

E-print Network

bottled water plant in the small, north central Nebraska community (photo: Steve Ress), Public Power and Irrigation District, Nebraska Public Power District, KN Energy, Gateway Farm Expo and the Nebraska WaterVOL. 31, No.4 UNL WATER CENTERIENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMS AUGUST 1999 Current From Buffalo to Bottled

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

89

Changes in Total Body Water and Dry Body Weight with Age and Body Weight in Friesians and Water Buffaloes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety Friesian and 153 Water Buffalo cows, 6 to 60 months and 100 to 500 kg body weight, were used in this study. Total body water was determined by 3H-radio- isotope dilution technique and dry body weight deduced by subtracting total body water from live body weight. In Friesians and Buffaloes there were significant posi- tive correlations (P < 0.01)

T. H. Kamal; S. M. Seif

1969-01-01

90

Evaluation of Milk Trace Elements, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Alkaline Phosphatase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity of Subclinical Mastitis as and Indicator of Subclinical Mastitis in Riverine Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)  

PubMed Central

Mastitis is a highly morbid disease that requires detection at the subclinical stage. Tropical countries like India mainly depend on milch buffaloes for milk. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the trace minerals viz. copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn) and enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in riverine buffalo milk can be used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis (SCM) with the aim of developing suitable diagnostic kit for SCM. Trace elements and enzyme activity in milk were estimated with Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer, GBC 932 plus and biochemical methods, respectively. Somatic cell count (SCC) was done microscopically. The cultural examination revealed Gram positive bacteria as the most prevalent etiological agent. A statistically significant (p<0.01) increase in SCC, Fe, Zn, Co and LDH occurred in SCM milk containing gram positive bacterial agents only. ALP was found to be elevated in milk infected by both gram positive and negative bacteria. The percent sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated taking bacterial culture examination and SCC?2×105 cells/ml of milk as the benchmark. Only ALP and Zn, the former being superior, were found to be suitable for diagnosis of SCM irrespective of etiological agents. LDH, Co and Fe can be introduced in the screening programs where Gram positive bacteria are omnipresent. It is recommended that both ALP and Zn be measured together in milk to diagnose buffalo SCM, irrespective of etiology. PMID:25049573

Guha, Anirban; Gera, Sandeep; Sharma, Anshu

2012-01-01

91

Divergent development of testosterone secretion in male zebu (Bos indicus) and crossbred cattle (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) and buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) during growth.  

PubMed

Delayed pubertal development and low fertility of Bos indicus x Bos taurus crossbred male cattle and domestic buffaloes is hardly understood hence, a sensitive enzymeimmunoassay (EIA) was developed using the second antibody-coating technique and testosterone-3-O-carboxymethyloxime-horseradish peroxidase conjugate as a label for determination of testosterone in blood plasma. The EIA was validated by standard criteria. Blood samples were collected by venipuncture from growing male cattle (Karan Fries and Sahiwal) and buffalo (Murrah) and testosterone was estimated using the EIA procedure. Plasma testosterone concentrations increased significantly (P < 0.05) with advancing age. Testosterone concentrations were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in Sahiwal males in comparison to Karan Fries males. The low testosterone levels in crossbred than Sahiwal could imply that crossbred males have either not stabilized genetically or not adapted well in Indian climatic conditions resulting in poor libido and poor semen quality. The low testosterone levels in Murrah buffalo males may be the possible reason for delayed maturity in this species. The direct, sensitive EIA validated for estimating the plasma testosterone concentration was reliable for studying the testosterone profile in blood plasma of males. The results suggest that there could be a requirement for higher testosterone secretion by males during early stages of growth for attaining early sexual maturity. PMID:20213223

Gulia, S; Sarkar, M; Kumar, Vijay; Meyer, H H D; Prakash, B S

2010-08-01

92

Genetic characterization of Babesia and Theileria parasites in water buffaloes in Sri Lanka.  

PubMed

Water buffaloes are thought to be the reservoir hosts for several hemoprotozoan parasites that infect cattle. In the present study, we surveyed Sri Lankan bred water buffaloes for infections with Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis using parasite-specific PCR assays. When 320 blood-derived DNA samples from water buffaloes reared in three different districts (Polonnaruwa, Mannar, and Mullaitivu) of Sri Lanka were PCR screened, B. bovis, B. bigemina, and T. orientalis were detected. While T. orientalis was the predominant parasite (82.5%), low PCR-positive rates were observed for B. bovis (1.9%) and B. bigemina (1.6%). Amplicons of the gene sequences of the Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 (RAP-1) of B. bovis, the Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA-1) of B. bigemina, and the Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) of T. orientalis were compared with those characterized previously in Sri Lankan cattle. While the B. bigemina AMA-1 sequences from water buffaloes shared high identity values with those from cattle, B. bovis RAP-1 sequences from water buffaloes diverged genetically from those of cattle. For T. orientalis, none of the MPSP sequence types reported previously in Sri Lankan cattle (types 1, 3, 5, and 7) were detected in the water buffaloes, and the MPSP sequences analyzed in the present study belonged to types N1 or N2. In summary, in addition to reporting the first PCR-based survey of Babesia and Theileria parasites in water buffaloes in Sri Lanka, the present study found that the predominant variants of water buffalo-derived B. bovis RAP-1 and T. orientalis MPSP sequences were different from those previously described from cattle in this country. PMID:24365246

Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Fukushi, Shintaro; Hayashida, Kyoko; Kothalawala, Hemal; Silva, Seekkuge Susil Priyantha; Vimalakumar, Singarayar Caniciyas; Kanagaratnam, Ratnam; Meewewa, Asela Sanjeewa; Suthaharan, Kalpana; Puvirajan, Thamotharampillai; de Silva, Weligodage Kumarawansa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

2014-02-24

93

A new translocation t(1p;18) in an Italian Mediterranean river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, 2n = 50) bull: cytogenetic, fertility and inheritance studies.  

PubMed

In recent years increasing attention has been paid to the cytogenetic control of Italian Mediterranean river buffalo (BBU) bulls authorized as sires which are registered in the stud book. Chromosome abnormalities described in this species are mainly numerical and affecting sex chromosomes. During routine cytogenetic analyses performed on young Italian Mediterranean river buffalo bulls in the progeny test, 1 animal was found to be carrier of a never before reported translocation t(1p;18) originated by fission of BBU1 and subsequent centric fusion of BBU1p with BBU18 as demonstrated by both R-banding and FISH-mapping techniques using specific molecular markers of BBU1p (DEFB1) and BBU18 (GPI). According to sperm analyses the semen characteristics were in physiological ranges, but the calf crop percentage was only 48.77% instead of 70-80%. Cytogenetic analyses performed on 50 offspring (36 females and 14 males) showed that 15 of them (30%) were carriers of the same translocation. PMID:22986410

Albarella, S; Ciotola, F; Coletta, A; Genualdo, V; Iannuzzi, L; Peretti, V

2013-01-01

94

Expression Pattern of Pluripotent Markers in Different Embryonic Developmental Stages of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryos and Putative Embryonic Stem Cells Generated by Parthenogenetic Activation  

PubMed Central

Abstract In this study, we describe the production of buffalo parthenogenetic blastocysts and subsequent isolation of parthenogenetic embryonic stem cell (PGESC)-like cells. PGESC colonies exhibited dome-shaped morphology and were clearly distinguishable from the feeder layer cells. Different stages of development of parthenogenetic embryos and derived embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like cells expressed key ESC-specific markers, including OCT-4, NANOG, SOX-2, FOXD3, REX-1, STAT-3, TELOMERASE, NUCLEOSTEMIN, and cMYC. Immunofluorescence-based studies revealed that the PGESCs were positive for surface-based pluripotent markers, viz., SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA 1-80, TRA 1-60, CD-9, and CD-90 and exhibited high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. PGEC cell-like cells formed embryoid body (EB)-like structures in hanging drop cultures and when cultured for extended period of time spontaneously differentiated into derivatives of three embryonic germ layers as confirmed by RT-PCR for ectodermal (CYTOKERATIN8, NF-68), mesodermal (MSX1, BMP-4, ASA), and endodermal markers (AFP, HNF-4, GATA-4). Differentiation of PGESCs toward the neuronal lineage was successfully directed by supplementation of serum-containing media with retinoic acid. Our results indicate that the isolated ESC-like cells from parthenogenetic blastocyst hold properties of ESCs and express markers of pluripotency. The pluripotency markers were also expressed by early cleavage-stage of buffalo embryos. PMID:23194456

Singh, Karn P.; Kaushik, Ramakant; Garg, Veena; Sharma, Ruchi; George, Aman; Singh, Manoj K.; Manik, Radhey S.; Palta, Prabhat; Singla, Suresh K.

2012-01-01

95

Improvement of liquid and frozen-thawed semen quality of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls (Bubalus bubalis) through supplementation of fat.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of dietary fat on quality of liquid and frozen-thawed semen of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls. Adult bulls (n=21) were fed a balanced ration (Con; n=7) or the same ration either containing sunflower oil (SF-O; n=7) or whole sunflower seeds (SF-S; n=7) for 63 days. Body weight and body condition score of each bull was recorded on days 0, 30 and 60 of the experiment. Semen was collected on days 39, 46, 53 and 60, frozen by a fast method and stored at -196 degrees C for 24h. Sperm motility was assessed using a bright field microscope. Plasma membrane integrity of fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa was assessed using a hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) assay. The concentration of spermatozoa and volume of semen was not different among groups on various days of collection. Sunflower-enriched diets did not affect the motility and number of HOS-positive spermatozoa in the fresh semen. Motility and HOS of post-thawed spermatozoa were higher (p<0.05) in bulls fed the sunflower-enriched diets. Similarly, diets did not affect the body condition score and body weight of bulls. In conclusion, feeding of sunflower oil or sunflower seed as fat sources can improve the quality of buffalo bull spermatozoa. PMID:19246083

Adeel, M; Ijaz, A; Aleem, M; Rehman, H; Yousaf, M S; Jabbar, M A

2009-05-01

96

Effects of plane of nutrition on growth, feed intake, digestibility and nitrogen balance in Murrah graded male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves in Nepal.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted using 17 male buffalo calves to assess the effects of plane of nutrition on dry matter intake (DMI), daily gain (DG), body size measurement, apparent digestibility and nitrogen (N) balance. To attain 250kg BW, the calves were allocated into three groups: H, L-H and L, receiving the concentrate at 1.50% of BW, 0.75% of BW until 190kg BW and 1.50% thereafter and 0.75% of BW, respectively. The animals had ad libitum access to urea-treated rice straw (UTRS). The DMI of UTRS through the experiment was higher in L and L-H than H, showing 3.52, 2.90 and 2.62kg/day, respectively (P<0.01), but the total DMI did not differ among the treatment groups. The DG throughout the experiment was high in the order of H, L-H and L, showing 0.72, 0.57 and 0.45kg, respectively (P<0.01). The digestibility of DM, organic matter, crude protein, neutral and acid detergent fiber and N retention were higher in H than in L (P<0.05). The findings of this study thus revealed the greater DG has an advantage of shortening the growing period around 3months, and consequently increasing benefit in fattening of buffalo calves in Nepal. PMID:22250739

Kumagai, Hajime; Baral, Bodh R; Shiino, Tatsu; Devkota, Naba R; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kolachhapati, Mana R; Tiwari, Ishwor C P

2012-01-01

97

Comparison of endocrine changes, timing of ovulations, ovarian follicular growth, and efficacy associated with Estradoublesynch and Heatsynch protocols in Murrah buffalo cows (Bubalus bubalis).  

PubMed

Poor estrus expression and the difficulty encountered in predicting the time of ovulation compromise the reproductive efficiency of Murrah buffalo cows. Synchronization of ovulation and timed artificial insemination are able to precisely control the time of ovulation and thus avoid the need for estrus detection. Recently, the Estradoublesynch protocol (administration of a PGF2? injection 2 days before Heatsynch protocol; GnRH 0, PGF2? 7, estradiol benzoate [EB] 8) was developed that precisely synchronized ovulation twice, i.e., after GnRH and EB injections and resulted in satisfactory pregnancy rates in Murrah buffaloes. The present study was conducted on 104 cycling and 31 anestrus buffaloes to compare (1) the endocrine changes, timing of ovulations, ovarian follicular growth, and efficacy of Estradoublesynch and Heatsynch protocols in cycling and (2) the efficacy of Estradoublesynch and Heatsynch protocols for the improvement of fertility in cycling and anestrus Murrah buffalo cows. Ovulation was confirmed after all GnRH and EB treatments by ultrasonographic examination at 2-hour intervals. Plasma progesterone and total estrogen concentrations were determined in blood samples collected at daily intervals, beginning 2 days before the onset of protocols until the day of second ovulation detection. Ovulatory follicle size was measured by ultrasonography at six time points (first PGF2? administration of Estradoublesynch protocol every 2 days before the onset of Heatsynch protocol, GnRH administration of both protocols, 2 hours before ovulation detection after GnRH administration of both protocols, second PGF2? injection of Estradoublesynch protocol, PGF2? injection of Heatsynch protocol, EB injection of both protocols and, 2 hours before ovulation detection after EB administration of both protocols). Plasma LH, total estrogen, and progesterone concentrations were determined in blood samples collected at 30-minute intervals for 8 hours, beginning GnRH and EB injections, and thereafter at 2-hour intervals until 2 hours after the detection of ovulation. The first ovulatory rate was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the Estradoublesynch protocol (84.6%) than that in the Heatsynch protocol (36.4%). The first LH peak concentration (74.6 ± 10.4 ng/mL) in the Estradoublesynch protocol was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of the Heatsynch protocol (55.3 ± 7.4 ng/mL). In Estradoublesynch protocol, the total estrogen concentration gradually increased from the day of GnRH administration coinciding with LH peak, and then gradually declined to the basal level until the time of ovulation detection. However, in Heatsynch protocol, the gradual increase in total estrogen concentration after GnRH administration was observed only in those buffalo cows, which responded to treatment with ovulation. In both Estradoublesynch and Heatsynch protocols, ovulatory follicle size increased by treatment with GnRH and EB until the detection of ovulation. The pregnancy rate after the Estradoublesynch protocol (60.0%) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that achieved after the Heatsynch protocol (32.5%). Satisfactory success rate using the Estradoublesynch protocol was attributed to the higher release of LH after treatment with GnRH, leading to ovulation in most of the animals and hence creating the optimum follicular size at EB injection for ovulation and pregnancy to occur. PMID:25145622

Mirmahmoudi, R; Souri, M; Prakash, B S

2014-10-15

98

Effect of different seasons on concentration of plasma luteinizing hormone and seminal quality vis-à-vis freezability of buffalo bulls ( Bubalus bubalis)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal variations in semen quality, freezability and plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were studied between summer and spring. Semen volume, density and initial sperm motility did not differ significantly between different seasons. Plasma LH decreased between summer and spring but the differences were, however, not significant. Pre-freezing motility did not differ significantly but post-freezing motility varied significantly ( P<0.01) between seasons. Post-freezing motility was lowest during summer and highest during winter. It can be concluded that summer spermatozoa may be fragile and cannot withstand freezing stress. To increase reproductive efficiency in buffalo during summer, semen should be frozen during winter and spring and used during hot weather conditions. Seasonal variations in plasma LH levels were insignificant.

Bahga, C. S.; Khokar, B. S.

1991-12-01

99

Expression pattern of glucose metabolism genes in relation to development rate of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes and in vitro-produced embryos.  

PubMed

The expression pattern of glucose metabolism genes (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase [G6PDH], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], and pyruvate dehydrogenase [PDH]) were studied in buffalo in vitro-matured oocytes and in vitro-produced embryos cultured under different glucose concentrations (0 mM, 1.5 mM, 5.6 mM, and 10 mM) during in vitro maturation of oocytes and culture of IVF produced embryos. The expression of the genes varied significantly over the cleavage stages under different glucose concentrations. Developmental rate of embryos was highest under a constant glucose level (5.6 mM) throughout during maturation of oocytes and embryo culture. Expression pattern of glucose metabolism genes under optimum glucose level (5.6 mM) indicated that glycolysis is the major pathway of glucose metabolism during oocyte maturation and early embryonic stages (pre-maternal to zygotic transition [MZT]) and shifts to oxidative phosphorylation during post-MZT stages in buffalo embryos. Higher glucose level (10 mM) caused abrupt changes in gene expression and resulted in shifting toward anaerobic metabolism of glucose during post-MZT stages. This resulted in decreased development rate of embryos during post-MZT stages. High expression of LDH and PDH in the control groups (0 mM glucose) indicated that in absence of glucose, embryos try to use available pyruvate and lactate sources, but succumb to handle the post-MZT energy requirement, resulting to poor development rate. Expression pattern of G6PDH during oocyte maturation as well early embryonic development was found predictive of quality and development competence of oocytes/ embryos. PMID:23992643

Kumar, Parveen; Rajput, Sandeep; Verma, Arpana; De, Sachinandan; Datta, Tirtha Kumar

2013-11-01

100

Effect of physiologically relevant heat shock on development, apoptosis and expression of some genes in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos produced in vitro.  

PubMed

For investigating the effects of physiologically relevant heat shock, buffalo oocytes/embryos were cultured at 38.5°C (control) or were exposed to 39.5°C (Group II) or 40.5°C (Group III) for 2 h once every day throughout in vitro maturation (IVM), fertilization (IVF) and culture (IVC). Percentage of oocytes that developed to 8-cell, 16-cell or blastocyst stage was lower (p < 0.05) and the number of apoptotic nuclei was higher (p < 0.05) for Group III > Group II > controls. At both 8-16-cell and blastocyst stages, relative mRNA abundance of stress-related genes HSP 70.1 and HSP 70.2 and pro-apoptotic genes CASPASE-3, BID and BAX was higher (p < 0.05) in Groups III and II than that in controls with the exception of stress-related gene HSF1. Expression level of anti-apoptotic genes BCL-XL and MCL-1 was also higher (p < 0.05) in Groups III and II than that in controls at both 8-16-cell and blastocyst stages. Among the genes related to embryonic development, at 8-16-cell stage, the expression level of GDF9 was higher (p < 0.05) in Group III than that in controls, whereas that of GLUT1, ZAR1 and BMP15 was not significantly different among the three groups. At the blastocyst stage, relative mRNA abundance of GLUT1 and GDF9 was higher (p < 0.05) in Group II than that in controls, whereas that of ZAR-1 and BMP15 was not affected. The results of this study demonstrate that exposure of buffalo oocytes and embryos to elevated temperatures for duration of time that is physiologically relevant severely compromises their developmental competence, increases apoptosis and affects stress-, apoptosis- and development-related genes. PMID:23581430

Yadav, A; Singh, K P; Singh, M K; Saini, N; Palta, P; Manik, R S; Singla, S K; Upadhyay, R C; Chauhan, M S

2013-10-01

101

Transcriptional profile of endometrial TLR4 and 5 genes during the estrous cycle and uterine infection in the buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).  

PubMed

Endometritis is one of the leading causes of infertility in the cattle and buffalo and innate immune mechanism plays an important role in clearing the infection. In this regard, endometrial expression and function of Toll Like Receptors (TLR) are focus of investigation in the recent years. In this study, we report the transcriptional profiles of TLR4 and 5 in the buffalo endometrium during the follicular, early, mid and late luteal phases of estrous cycle and 'subclinical and clinical endometritis' and also at true anestrus (n?=?10 for each stage) using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR as they are the ligands for the lipopolysaccharide and flagellin components of E.coli, the most common cause of postpartum endometritis. We found a significant positive correlation between TLR4 and 5 in all the groups (r?=?0.696-0.803; P??0.05). Chi-square analysis showed that the qualitative expression of endometrial TLR4 and 5 transcripts was significantly associated with the phase of estrous cycle and also with uterine infection (P?

Ajevar, Ganesan; Muthu, Sankar; Sarkar, Mihir; Kumar, Harendra; Das, Goutam Kumar; Krishnaswamy, Narayanan

2014-06-01

102

Molecular Genetic Diversity and Quantitation of Methanogen in Ruminal Fluid of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Fed Ration (Wheat Straw and Concentrate Mixture Diet)  

PubMed Central

High roughage diet causes more methane emissions; however, the total methanogen abundance is not influenced by roughage proportion. Technologies to reduce methane emissions are lacking, and development of inhibitors and vaccines that mitigate rumen-derived methane by targeting methanogens relies on present knowledge of the methanogens. In this work, we have investigated molecular diversity of rumen methanogens of Surti buffalo. DNA from rumen fluid was extracted, and 16S rRNA encoding genes were amplified using methanogen specific primer to generate 16S rDNA clone libraries. Seventy-six clones were randomly selected and analysed by RFLP resulting in 21 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). BLAST analysis with available sequences in database revealed sequences of 13 OTUs (55 clones) showing similarity with Methanomicrobium sp, 3 OTUs (15 clones) with Methanobrevibacter sp. The remaining 5 OTUs (6 clones) belonged to uncultured archaea. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that methanogenic communities found in the library were clustered in the order of Methanomicrobiales (18 OTUs) and Methanobacteriales (3 OTUs). The population of Methanomicrobiales, Methanobacteriales, and Methanococcales were also observed, accounting for 1.94%, 0.72%, and 0.47% of total archaea, respectively. PMID:23862067

Singh, K. M.; Tripathi, A. K.; Pandya, P. R.; Parnerkar, S.; Kothari, R. K.; Joshi, C. G.

2013-01-01

103

Effects of plane of nutrition on slaughtering traits and meat characteristics in Murrah graded male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves in Nepal.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted using 17 male buffalo calves to assess the effects of plane of nutrition on slaughtering traits and meat characteristics. To attain 250 kg body weight (BW), the calves were allocated into three groups: high (H), low-high (L-H) and low (L) corresponding to concentrate levels receiving the concentrate at 1.50% of BW, 0.75% of BW until 190 kg BW and 1.50% thereafter, and 0.75% of BW, respectively. The animals had ad libitum access to urea-treated rice straw. No significant differences of hot carcass weight, dressing percentage and lean fat-bone yields were observed among the treatment groups. The L group had heavier brisket weight and lower percentage of round weight in the hot carcass than the H and L-H groups (P<0.05). The H group had heavier hearts than the L group, and the H and L-H groups had heavier livers and kidneys than the L group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference of rib eye area, pH and the contents of moisture, crude protein and fat in loin meat among the groups. The findings indicated that the effects of plane of nutrition affected the weight or percentages of some cut yields in the hot carcasses and internal organs. PMID:22574796

Kumagai, Hajime; Baral, Bodh R; Shiino, Tatsu; Devkota, Naba R; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki

2012-05-01

104

Developmental Competence of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Pluripotent Embryonic Stem Cells Over Different Homologous Feeder Layers and the Comparative Evaluation with Various Extracellular Matrices  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Use of somatic cells as a feeder layer to maintain the embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in undifferentiated state limits the stem cell research design, since experimental data may result from a combined ESCs and feeder cell response to various stimuli. Therefore, present study was designed to evaluate the developmental competence of the buffalo ESCs over different homogenous feeders and compare with various extracellular matrices using different concentrations of LIF. Methods and Results Inner cell masses (ICMs) of in vitro hatched blastocysts were cultured onto homologous feeders viz. fetal fibroblast, granulosa and oviductal cell feeder layers and synthetic matrices viz. fibronectin, collagen type I and matrigel in culture medium. Developmental efficiency was found higher for ESCs cultured on fetal fibroblast and granulosa layers (83.33%) followed by fibronectin (77.78%) at 30 ng LIF. Oviductal feeder was found to be the least efficient feeder showing only 11.11% undifferentiated primary ESC colonies at 30 ng LIF. However, neither feeder layer nor synthetic matrix could support the development of primary colonies at 10 ng LIF. Expression of SSEA- 4, TRA-1-60 and Oct-4 were found positive in ESC colonies from all the feeders and synthetic matrices with 20 ng and 30 ng LIF. Conclusions Fetal fibroblast and granulosa cell while, amongst synthetic matrices, fibronectin were found to be equally efficient to support the growth and maintenance of ESCs pluripotency with 30 ng LIF. This well-defined culture conditions may provide an animal model for culturing human embryonic stem cells in the xeno-free or feeder-free conditions for future clinical applications. PMID:24298371

Sharma, Manjinder; Dubey, Pawan K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Nath, Amar; Kumar, G. Sai; Sharma, G. Taru

2013-01-01

105

Prevalence Survey of Selected Bovine Pathogens in Water Buffaloes in the North Region of Brazil  

PubMed Central

Although the largest buffalo herd in the occident is in the north region of Brazil, few studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of selected parasitic diseases in buffalo herd. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil. A total of 4796 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and simultaneously analyzed by the IFAT and ELISA. The serological prevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 41.3% and 55.5% in ELISA and 35.7% and 48.8% in IFAT, respectively. The overall prevalence of A. marginale, B. bovis, and B. bigemina was 63%, 25%, and 21% by ELISA and 50.0%, 22.5%, and 18.8% by IFAT, respectively. This study shows valuable information regarding the serological survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil which will likely be very beneficial for the management and control programs of this disease. PMID:24563780

da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; dos Santos, Priscilla Nunes; de Santana Castro, Gustavo Nunes; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Barbosa, José Diomedes

2014-01-01

106

Humoral immune response of water buffalo monitored with three different antigens of Toxocara vitulorum.  

PubMed

Humoral immune response of water buffalo naturally infected with Toxocara vitulorum was monitored using three different antigens of this parasite in serum and colostrum of buffalo cows and calves. Soluble extract (Ex) and excretory/secretory (ES) larval antigens and perienteric fluid antigen (Pe) of adult T. vitulorum were used to measure the antibody levels by an indirect ELISA. Serum of 7-12 buffalo cows for the first 365 days and colostrum of the same number of buffalo cows for the first 60 days of parturition, and serum of 8-10 buffalo calves for the first 365 days after birth were assayed. The ELISA detected antibodies against all three T. vitulorum antigens in the colostrum and serum of 100% of buffalo cows and calves examined. The highest antibody levels against Ex, ES and Pe antigens were detected in the buffalo cow sera during the perinatal period and were maintained at high levels through 300 days after parturition. On the other hand, colostrum antibody concentrations of all three antigens were highest on the first day post-parturition, but decreased sharply during the first 15 days. Concomitantly to the monitoring of immune response, the parasitic status of the calves was also evaluated. In calves, antibodies passively acquired were at the highest concentrations 24 h after birth and remained at high levels until 45 days coincidentally with the peak of T. vitulorum infection. The rejection of the worms by the calves occurred simultaneously with the decline of antibody levels, which reached their lowest levels between 76 and 150 days. Thereafter, probably because of the presence of adults/larvae stimulation, the calves acquired active immunity and the antibodies started to increase slightly in the serum and plateaued between the days 211 and 365. All three antigens were detected by the serum antibodies of buffalo calves; however, the concentration of anti-Pe antibody was higher than anti-EX and anti-ES, particularly after 90 days of age. By conclusion, the buffalo cows develop immunity and keep high levels of antibodies against T. vitulorum-Ex, ES and Pe antigens and these antibodies are transferred to their calves through the colostrum. This passively acquired immunity does not protect the calves against the acquisition of the infection, but these antibodies, passively or actively acquired, may have an important role during worm rejection by the calves and prevention of intestinal reinfection. PMID:15158557

de Souza, E M; Starke-Buzetti, W A; Ferreira, F P; Neves, M F; Machado, R Z

2004-06-10

107

Toll-Like Receptor Responses to Peste des petits ruminants Virus in Goats and Water Buffalo  

PubMed Central

Ovine rinderpest or goat plague is an economically important and contagious viral disease of sheep and goats, caused by the Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Differences in susceptibility to goat plague among different breeds and water buffalo exist. The host innate immune system discriminates between pathogen associated molecular patterns and self antigens through surveillance receptors known as Toll like receptors (TLR). We investigated the role of TLR and cytokines in differential susceptibility of goat breeds and water buffalo to PPRV. We examined the replication of PPRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of Indian domestic goats and water buffalo and demonstrated that the levels of TLR3 and TLR7 and downstream signalling molecules correlation with susceptibility vs resistance. Naturally susceptible goat breeds, Barbari and Tellichery, had dampened innate immune responses to PPRV and increased viral loads with lower basal expression levels of TLR 3/7. Upon stimulation of PBMC with synthetic TLR3 and TLR7 agonists or PPRV, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were found to be significantly higher while immunosuppressive interleukin (IL) 10 levels were lower in PPRV resistant Kanni and Salem Black breeds and water buffalo at transcriptional level, correlating with reduced viralloads in infected PBMC. Water buffalo produced higher levels of interferon (IFN) ? in comparison with goats at transcriptional and translational levels. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with human IFN? resulted in reduction of PPRV replication, confirming the role of IFN? in limiting PPRV replication. Treatment with IRS66, a TLR7 antagonist, resulted in the reduction of IFN? levels, with increased PPRV replication confirming the role of TLR7. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of TLR7 of these goat breeds did not show any marked nucleotide differences that might account for susceptibility vs resistance to PPRV. Analyzing other host genetic factors might provide further insights on susceptibility to PPRV and genetic polymorphisms in the host. PMID:25369126

Dhanasekaran, Sakthivel; Biswas, Moanaro; Vignesh, Ambothi R.; Ramya, R.; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar; Tirumurugaan, Krishnaswamy G.; Raja, Angamuthu; Kataria, Ranjit S.; Parida, Satya; Subbiah, Elankumaran

2014-01-01

108

Toll-Like Receptor Responses to Peste des petits ruminants Virus in Goats and Water Buffalo.  

PubMed

Ovine rinderpest or goat plague is an economically important and contagious viral disease of sheep and goats, caused by the Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Differences in susceptibility to goat plague among different breeds and water buffalo exist. The host innate immune system discriminates between pathogen associated molecular patterns and self antigens through surveillance receptors known as Toll like receptors (TLR). We investigated the role of TLR and cytokines in differential susceptibility of goat breeds and water buffalo to PPRV. We examined the replication of PPRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of Indian domestic goats and water buffalo and demonstrated that the levels of TLR3 and TLR7 and downstream signalling molecules correlation with susceptibility vs resistance. Naturally susceptible goat breeds, Barbari and Tellichery, had dampened innate immune responses to PPRV and increased viral loads with lower basal expression levels of TLR 3/7. Upon stimulation of PBMC with synthetic TLR3 and TLR7 agonists or PPRV, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were found to be significantly higher while immunosuppressive interleukin (IL) 10 levels were lower in PPRV resistant Kanni and Salem Black breeds and water buffalo at transcriptional level, correlating with reduced viralloads in infected PBMC. Water buffalo produced higher levels of interferon (IFN) ? in comparison with goats at transcriptional and translational levels. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with human IFN? resulted in reduction of PPRV replication, confirming the role of IFN? in limiting PPRV replication. Treatment with IRS66, a TLR7 antagonist, resulted in the reduction of IFN? levels, with increased PPRV replication confirming the role of TLR7. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of TLR7 of these goat breeds did not show any marked nucleotide differences that might account for susceptibility vs resistance to PPRV. Analyzing other host genetic factors might provide further insights on susceptibility to PPRV and genetic polymorphisms in the host. PMID:25369126

Dhanasekaran, Sakthivel; Biswas, Moanaro; Vignesh, Ambothi R; Ramya, R; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar; Tirumurugaan, Krishnaswamy G; Raja, Angamuthu; Kataria, Ranjit S; Parida, Satya; Subbiah, Elankumaran

2014-01-01

109

Bovine tuberculosis in African buffaloes: observations regarding Mycobacterium bovis shedding into water and exposure to environmental mycobacteria  

PubMed Central

Background African buffaloes are the maintenance host for Mycobacterium bovis in the endemically infected Kruger National Park (KNP). The infection is primarily spread between buffaloes via the respiratory route, but it is not known whether shedding of M. bovis in nasal and oral excretions may lead to contamination of ground and surface water and facilitate the transmission to other animal species. A study to investigate the possibility of water contamination with M. bovis was conducted in association with a BCG vaccination trial in African buffalo. Groups of vaccinated and nonvaccinated buffaloes were kept together with known infected in-contact buffalo cows to allow natural M. bovis transmission under semi-free ranging conditions. In the absence of horizontal transmission vaccinated and control buffaloes were experimentally challenged with M. bovis. Hence, all study buffaloes in the vaccination trial could be considered potential shedders and provided a suitable setting for investigating questions relating to the tenacity of M. bovis shed in water. Results Serial water samples were collected from the drinking troughs of the buffaloes once per season over an eleven-month period and cultured for presence of mycobacteria. All water samples were found to be negative for M. bovis, but 16 non-tuberculous Mycobacterium spp. isolates were cultured. The non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species were further characterised using 5'-16S rDNA PCR-sequencing, resulting in the identification of M. terrae, M. vaccae (or vanbaalenii), M. engbaekii, M. thermoresistibile as well as at least two species which have not yet been classified. Conclusion The absence of detectable levels of Mycobacterium bovis in the trough water suggests that diseased buffalo do not commonly shed the organism in high quantities in nasal and oral discharges. Surface water may therefore not be likely to play an important role in the transmission of bovine tuberculosis from buffalo living in free-ranging ecosystems. The study buffalo were, however, frequently exposed to different species of non-tuberculous, environmental mycobacteria, with an unknown effect on the buffaloes' immune response to mycobacteria. PMID:17900356

Michel, Anita L; de Klerk, Lin-Mari; van Pittius, Nico C Gey; Warren, Rob M; van Helden, Paul D

2007-01-01

110

Water buffalo genome characterization by the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip.  

PubMed

To define the best strategies for genomic association studies and genomic selection, it is necessary to determine the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and the genetic structure of the study population. The current study evaluated the transference of genomic information contained in the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip from cattle to buffaloes, and assessed the extent of the LD in buffaloes. Of the 688,593 bovine single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that were successfully genotyped from the 384 buffalo samples, only 16,580 markers were polymorphic, and had minor allele frequencies greater than 0.05. A total of 16,580 polymorphic SNPs were identified, which were uniformly distributed throughout the autosomes, because the density and mean distance between markers were similar for all autosomes. The average minor allele frequency for the 16,580 SNPs was 0.23. The overall mean LD for pairs of adjacent markers was 0.29 and 0.71, when measured as for r2 and |D'|, respectively. The 16,580 polymorphic SNPs were matched to Bos taurus chromosome in the current bovine genome assembly (Btau 4.2), and could be utilized in association studies. In conclusion, the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip contains approximately 16,580 polymorphic markers for the water buffalo, which are broadly distributed across the genome. These data could be used in genomic association and genomic selection studies; however, it might be necessary to develop a panel with specific SNP markers for water buffaloes. PMID:25036164

Borquis, R R A; Baldi, F; de Camargo, G M F; Cardoso, D F; Santos, D J A; Lugo, N H; Sargolzaei, M; Schenkel, F S; Albuquerque, L G; Tonhati, H

2014-01-01

111

Effects of the Water-Miscible Organic Solvents on Lactoperoxidase Purified from Creek-Water Buffalo Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water buffalo lactoperoxidase (WBLPO) was purified with Amberlite CG-50 (NH4+ form) resin, CM-Sephadex C-50 ion-exchange chromatography, and Sephadex G-100 gel-filtration chromatography from skimmed buffalo milk. The purity of the WBLPO was shown with SDS-PAGE. The Rz(A412\\/A280) value for the WBLPO was 0.9. The optimum pH for the WBLPO was at 6.0. The Km value at optimum pH and 25°C was

H. Özdemir; H. I. Hacibeyoglu; Ö. I. Küfrevioglu

2003-01-01

112

In vitro production of cattle × buffalo hybrid embryos using cattle oocytes and African buffalo ( Syncerus caffer caffer) epididymal sperm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interspecies hybridization of bovids occurs between domestic cattle and at least three other species; American bison (Bison bison), yak (Bos grunniens) and banteng (Bos banteng). Birth of a cattle×buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) hybrid has reportedly occurred in Russia and in China, but these reports were not authenticated. Such hybrids could be important in improving livestock production and management of diseases that

O. D. Owiny; D. M. Barry; M. Agaba; R. A. Godke

2009-01-01

113

Satellite-tagged transcribing sequences in Bubalus bubalis genome undergo programmed modulation in meiocytes: possible implications for transcriptional inactivation.  

PubMed

We cloned and sequenced a 1378 bp BamHI satellite DNA fraction from the water buffalo Bubalus bubalis and have studied its expression in different tissues. The GC-rich sequences of the resultant contig pDS5 crosshybridize only with bovid DNA and are not conserved evolutionarily. Typing of buffalo genomic DNA using pDS5 with several restriction enzymes revealed multilocus monomorphic bands. Similar typing of cattle, buffalo, goat, sheep, and gaur genomic DNA revealed variations in copy number and allele length giving rise to species-specific band patterns. Expression study of pDS5 in bubaline samples by RNA slot-blot, Northern blot, and RT-PCR showed various levels of signal in all the somatic tissues and germline cells except heart. A GenBank database search revealed homology of pDS5 sequences in the 5' region from nt 1-1261 with collagen gene. An AluI typing analysis of DNA from bubaline semen samples showed consistent loss of two bands. The presence of corresponding bands in somatic tissues suggests a sequence modulation within the pDS5 array in meiocytes during spermatogenesis, which is restored in the somatic cells after fertilization. Modulation of the satellite-tagged transcribing sequence in the meiocytes may be a mechanism of its inactivation. PMID:11747610

Chattopadhyay, M; Gangadharan, S; Kapur, V; Azfer, M A; Prakash, B; Ali, S

2001-09-01

114

Milk of Cow (Bos taurus), Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), and Goat (Capra hircus): a Better Alternative than Fetal Bovine Serum in Media for Primary Isolation, In Vitro Cultivation, and Maintenance of Leishmania donovani Promastigotes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tyndalized milk of goat, cow, and buffalo was found to be a potential substitute for fetal bovine serum (FBS) in the medium for the cultivation of Leishmania donovani promastigotes. The numbers (means) of promasti- gotes reached 2.6 107, 2.3 107, and 2.1 107\\/ml, respectively, in the medium supplemented with 10% milk of goat, cow, and buffalo, in comparison to 1.9

M. Muniaraj; C. S. Lal; S. Kumar; P. K. Sinha; P. Das

2007-01-01

115

Two Different Macaviruses, ovine herpesvirus-2 and caprine herpesvirus-2, Behave Differently in Water Buffaloes than in Cattle or in Their Respective Reservoir Species  

PubMed Central

The ongoing global spread of “exotic” farm animals, such as water buffaloes, which carry their native sets of viruses, may bear unknown risks for the animals, into whose ecological niches the former are introduced and vice versa. Here, we report on the occurrence of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) on Swiss farms, where “exotic” water buffaloes were kept together with “native” animals, i.e. cattle, sheep, and goats. In the first farm with 56 water buffaloes, eight cases of MCF due to ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) were noted, whereas additional ten water buffaloes were subclinically infected with either OvHV-2 or caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2). On the second farm, 13 water buffaloes were infected with CpHV-2 and two of those succumbed to MCF. In neither farm, any of the two viruses were detected in cattle, but the Macaviruses were present at high prevalence among their original host species, sheep and goats, respectively. On the third farm, sheep were kept well separated from water buffaloes and OvHV-2 was not transmitted to the buffaloes, despite of high prevalence of the virus among the sheep. Macavirus DNA was frequently detected in the nasal secretions of virus-positive animals and in one instance OvHV-2 was transmitted vertically to an unborn water buffalo calf. Thus, water buffaloes seem to be more susceptible than cattle to infection with either Macavirus; however, MCF did not develop as frequently. Therefore, water buffaloes seem to represent an interesting intermediate-type host for Macaviruses. Consequently, water buffaloes in their native, tropic environments may be vulnerable and endangered to viruses that originate from seemingly healthy, imported sheep and goats. PMID:24386255

Stahel, Anina B. J.; Baggenstos, Rhea; Engels, Monika; Friess, Martina; Ackermann, Mathias

2013-01-01

116

Combining Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Knowledge to Assess and Manage Feral Water Buffalo Impacts on Perennial Freshwater Springs of the Aboriginal-Owned Arnhem Plateau, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aboriginal land managers have observed that feral Asian water buffalo ( Bubalis bubalis Lydekker) are threatening the ecological and cultural integrity of perennial freshwater sources in Arnhem Land, Australia. Here we present collaborative research between the Aboriginal Rangers from Warddeken Land Management Limited and Western scientists which quantified the ground-level impacts of buffalo on seven perennial freshwater springs of the Arnhem Plateau. A secondary aim was to build the capacity of Aboriginal Rangers to self-monitor and evaluate the ecological outcomes of their land management activities. Sites with high buffalo abundance had significantly different ground, ground cover, and water quality attributes compared to sites with low buffalo abundance. The low buffalo abundance sites were characterized by tall herbaceous vegetation and flat ground, whereas wallows, bare ground, and short ungrazed grasses were indicators of sites with high buffalo abundance. Water turbidity was greater when buffalo abundance was high. The newly acquired monitoring skills and derived indicators of buffalo damage will be used by Aboriginal Rangers to assess the ecological outcomes of their future buffalo control efforts on the Arnhem Plateau.

Ens, Emilie-Jane; Cooke, Peter; Nadjamerrek, Ray; Namundja, Seraine; Garlngarr, Victor; Yibarbuk, Dean

2010-04-01

117

High Prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum Infection in Water Buffaloes in the Philippines Assessed by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction  

PubMed Central

Difficulty in controlling human Schistosoma japonicum infection is partly attributed to the presence of non-human definitive hosts. Water buffaloes are a major reservoir for transmission of S. japonicum to humans in China. However, in the Philippines, reports based on microscopic examination of buffalo stool identified a low prevalence of S. japonicum, and mathematical models using these data concluded that water buffaloes are not a major reservoir for transmission of S. japonicum to humans. We collected stool from 81 buffaloes in Macanip, Leyte, the Philippines, and assayed for S. japonicum infection by the Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory technique, the Kato-Katz technique, miracidia hatching, and a highly validated real-time polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence defined by each assay was 3.7%, 3.7%, 0%, and 51.5% respectively. Our results demonstrate that microscopic-based techniques dramatically underestimate the prevalence of S. japonicum infection in water buffaloes in the Philippines and warrant reexamination of the role of bovines in transmission of S. japonicum to humans in the Philippines. PMID:20348514

Wu, Hai-Wei; Qin, Yuan-Fang; Chu, Kai; Meng, Rui; Liu, Yun; McGarvey, Stephen T.; Olveda, Remigio; Acosta, Luz; Ji, Min-Jun; Fernandez, Tomas; Friedman, Jennifer F.; Kurtis, Jonathan D.

2010-01-01

118

A signature protein-based method to distinguish Mediterranean water buffalo and foreign breed milk.  

PubMed

A novel genetic variant at the ?s1-casein locus of water buffalo (WB), 8-residue shorter than its wild-type has been found and sequenced. The internal deletion of the peptide E(35)KVNELsT(42) was confirmed by the isolation of the junction peptide. The 8-residue deletion mutant has a molecular weight that is 919 Da less than that of the wild-type. The novel isoform with a unique f35-42 deletion could be the result of the skipping of exon 6, generating an exon 6-deleted variant of ?s1-casein. The wild-type and its shortened ?s1-casein forms were found to co-exist in many individual milk samples. In contrast, the 8-residue, internally deleted ?s1-casein variant did not occur in water buffaloes of the Mediterranean breed reared in Italy. Wild-type ?s1-casein has 6 to 8 phosphate groups (P) while the internally deleted form 6 and 7P per molecule. PMID:23768399

Caira, Simonetta; Pinto, Gabriella; Balteanu, Valentin A; Chianese, Lina; Addeo, Francesco

2013-11-01

119

Retention of Anchor and Spaghetti Tags by Paddlefish, Catfishes, and Buffalo Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tag retention was measured for paddlefish Polyodon spathula, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus, smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus, and bigmouth buffalo Ictiobus cyprinellus. Fish were captured in 1986 and 1987, triple-tagged with spaghetti tags (Floy FT-4 lock-on), anchor tags (Floy FD-6813), and fin or opercular marks, and released into Energy Lake, Kentucky. After testing for homogeneity, we constructed

Tom J. Timmons; Mark H. Howell

1995-01-01

120

Effect of vitamin E and selenium supplementation on oxidative stress indices and cortisol level in blood in water buffaloes during pregnancy and early postpartum period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pregnancy is a physiology state accompanied by high energy and oxygen demand that may lead to increased level of oxidative\\u000a stress and development of metabolic and reproductive disorders in pregnant water buffaloes. In the present study, the alterations\\u000a in serum cortisol and erythrocyte lipid peroxides and superoxide dismutase activities were examined in 28 pregnant water buffaloes\\u000a supplemented with antioxidant nutrients,

Umesh Dimri; Rakesh Ranjan; Mahesh C. Sharma; V. P. Varshney

2010-01-01

121

Effect on quarter milk somatic cell count and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus rostri causing intramammary infection in dairy water buffaloes.  

PubMed

In many parts of the world, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the predominant cause of intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy cows and in water buffaloes, as well. A longitudinal field study was carried out on one well-managed dairy water buffalo herd to determine the prevalence and distribution of CNS and a recently described CNS-species, Staphylococcus rostri, in milk samples to explore its relevance for buffaloes' udder health throughout lactation, and to gain insight into the susceptibility of the latter species toward commonly used antimicrobials. Twice weekly quarter milk samples from a cohort of 11 lactating water buffaloes were collected over an 8-mo period. The CNS (n=109; 76.2% of all culture-positive samples) were the predominant pathogens causing IMI, followed by Corynebacterium bovis (n=11; 7.6%) and Streptococcus spp. (n=9; 6.2%) other than Stretococcus uberis (n=2; 1.4%). Thirty-seven hemolytic staphylococci suspected to be Staphylococcus aureus were further differentiated using transfer DNA-intergenic spacer-PCR and rpoB-gene sequencing because they were coagulase-negative. Thirty-three of those isolates were identified as Staph. rostri, whereas 2 others were identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis. None of the Staph. rostri isolates displayed resistance to the antimicrobial agents tested. Mean quarter milk somatic cell count (qSCC) of all samples collected throughout lactation was 20,970 cells/mL. The qSCC at sampling of quarters infected with Staph. rostri (34,466 cells/mL) and CNS other than Staph. rostri (34,813 cells/mL) were significantly higher than the qSCC of noninfected quarters (20,287 cells/mL), yet not significantly different from each other. These findings provide novel insight into the prevalence and distribution, antimicrobial susceptibility, and relevance of Staph. rostri compared with other CNS species causing IMI in water buffaloes. Further studies are needed to pinpoint the relevance, niches, and transmission routes of Staph. rostri, as well as other CNS in water buffaloes. PMID:23548306

Locatelli, C; Piepers, S; De Vliegher, S; Barberio, A; Supré, K; Scaccabarozzi, L; Pisoni, G; Bronzo, V; Haesebrouck, F; Moroni, P

2013-06-01

122

The past and present of and potential for the domestic (water) buffalo in Africa.  

PubMed

Egypt is the only country in Africa where domestic buffalo have a long-term presence and constitute an important part of the array of domestic animal resources. Attempts to introduce buffalo to other African countries have been made since at least the 1920s. Nine such attempted introductions are documented in this paper, although for most cases, there is very limited information. Buffalo have disappeared without trace in some countries and were slaughtered in at least two because of lack of adaptation or susceptibility to disease. In addition to Egypt, only Tanzania and Mozambique are known to have buffalo in 2012. There are suitable ecological niches for buffalo in many African countries. Failure to provide sufficient financial resources by governments, initially small numbers of animals and probable lack of interest by the private sector are among the reasons for the failure of buffalo to become a contributor to African livestock production. Policy makers and development agencies should very carefully consider the overall benefits against the overall costs of attempted introductions of buffalo (and of other exotic livestock species) in to African countries. PMID:22327409

Wilson, Richard Trevor

2012-10-01

123

Utilization of ELISA Using Thioredoxin Peroxidase-1 and Tandem Repeat Proteins for Diagnosis of Schistosoma japonicum Infection among Water Buffaloes  

PubMed Central

Background The presence of animal reservoirs in Schistosoma japonicum infection has been a major obstacle in the control of schistosomiasis. Previous studies have proven that the inclusion of control measures on animal reservoir hosts for schistosomiasis contributed to the decrease of human cases. Animal surveillance should therefore be included to strengthen and improve the capabilities of current serological tests. Methodology/Principal Findings Thioredoxin peroxidase-1 (SjTPx-1) and four tandem repeat proteins (Sj1TR, Sj2TR, Sj4TR, Sj7TR) were initially evaluated against human sera. The previous test showed high sensitivity and specificity for antibody detection against SjTPx-1 and Sj7TR. In this study, the immunodiagnostic potential of these recombinant proteins was evaluated using enzyme-linked immunoassay on 50 water buffalo serum samples collected in Cagayan, the Philippines as compared with the soluble egg antigen (SEA). For specificity, 3 goat serum samples positive with Fasciola hepatica were used and among the antigens used, only SEA showed cross-reaction. Stool PCR targeting the S. japonicum 82 bp mitochondrial NAD 1 gene was done to confirm the true positives and served as the standard test. Twenty three samples were positive for stool PCR. SjTPx-1 and Sj1TR gave the highest sensitivity among the recombinant proteins tested for water buffalo samples with 82.61% and 78.26% respectively which were higher than that of SEA (69.57%). Conclusions/Significance These results prove that SjTPx-1 works both for humans and water buffaloes making it a good candidate antigen for zoonotic diagnosis. Sj1TR showed good results for water buffaloes and therefore can also be used as a possible candidate for detecting animal schistosome infection. PMID:22953018

Angeles, Jose Ma. M.; Goto, Yasuyuki; Kirinoki, Masashi; Asada, Masahito; Leonardo, Lydia R.; Rivera, Pilarita T.; Villacorte, Elena A.; Inoue, Noboru; Chigusa, Yuichi; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro

2012-01-01

124

Ultrastructural Observation and Gene Expression Profiling of Schistosoma japonicum Derived from Two Natural Reservoir Hosts, Water Buffalo and Yellow Cattle  

PubMed Central

Water buffalo and yellow cattle are the two of the most important natural reservoir hosts for Schistosoma japonicum in endemic areas of China, although their susceptibility differs, with water buffalo being less conducive to the growth and development of S. japonicum. Results from the current study show that the general morphology and ultrastructure of adult schistosomes derived from the two hosts also differed. Using high-throughput microarray technology, we also compared the gene expression profiles of adult schistosomes derived from the two hosts. We identified genes that were differentially expressed in worms from the two natural hosts. Further analysis revealed that genes associated with protein kinase and phosphatase, the stimulus response, and lipid and nucleotide metabolism were overexpressed, whereas genes associated with reproduction, anatomical structure morphogenesis and multifunctional motif were underexpressed in schistosomes from water buffalo. These differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in nucleotide, energy, lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, transcription, transport and signaling pathway. This suggests that they are key molecules affecting the survival and development of schistosomes in different natural host species. The results of this study add to current understanding of the interplay between parasites and their natural hosts, and provide valuable information for the screening of vaccine candidates or new drug targets against schistosomiasis in the natural reservoir hosts in endemic areas. PMID:23110087

Yang, Jianmei; Feng, Xingang; Fu, Zhiqiang; Yuan, Chunxiu; Hong, Yang; Shi, Yaojun; Zhang, Min; Liu, Jinming; Li, Hao; Lu, Ke; Lin, Jiaojiao

2012-01-01

125

Differential expression dynamics of Growth differentiation factor9 (GDF9) and Bone morphogenetic factor15 (BMP15) mRNA transcripts during in vitro maturation of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) cumulus-oocyte complexes.  

PubMed

The present study has evaluated the association of growth differentiation factor9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein15 (BMP15) mRNA expression in cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) of buffalo ovary during in vitro maturation (IVM). GDF9 and BMP15 are expressed specifically in mammalian oocytes and also participate in cumulus-oocyte crosstalk. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) technique was applied to investigate the relative abundance (RA) of GDF9 and BMP15 mRNA transcripts throughout the IVM process. Relative mRNA expression pattern of these specific genes were assessed in oocytes and cumulus cells at 0, 6, 12 and 24 h of in vitro culture. Our results revealed that RA of GDF9 during different hours of IVM showed significant reduction between 0 h and 24 h of maturation in oocytes and BMP15 transcript increased significantly (P<0.05) between 6 h and 12 h and decreased again between 12 h and 24. In cumulus cells, GDF9 remained stable during IVM upto 12 h of maturation and decreased significantly between 12 h and 24 h of maturation. Conversely, significant reduction of BMP15 was observed between 0 h and 6 h, stayed stable upto 12 h and became undetectable at 24 h of maturation. In conclusion, these two genes were differentially expressed during the period of oocyte maturation process and notably, BMP15 expression pattern is associated specifically with the period of cumulus cell expansion. PMID:23724366

Kathirvel, Muralidharan; Soundian, Eswari; Kumanan, Vijayarani

2013-12-01

126

Genetic Diversity in the Prion Protein Gene (PRNP) of Domestic Cattle and Water Buffaloes in Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT There has been an accumulation of information on frequencies of insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms within the bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) and on the number of octapeptide repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding region of bovine PRNP related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility. We investigated the frequencies of 23-bp indel polymorphism in the promoter region (23indel) and 12-bp indel polymorphism in intron 1 region (12indel), octapeptide repeat polymorphisms and SNPs in the bovine PRNP of cattle and water buffaloes in Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand. The frequency of the deletion allele in the 23indel site was significantly low in cattle of Indonesia and Thailand and water buffaloes. The deletion allele frequency in the 12indel site was significantly low in all of the cattle and buffaloes categorized in each subgroup. In both indel sites, the deletion allele has been reported to be associated with susceptibility to classical BSE. In some Indonesian local cattle breeds, the frequency of the allele with 5 octapeptide repeats was significantly high despite the fact that the allele with 6 octapeptide repeats has been reported to be most frequent in many breeds of cattle. Four SNPs observed in Indonesian local cattle have not been reported for domestic cattle. This study provided information on PRNP of livestock in these Southeast Asian countries. PMID:24705506

UCHIDA, Leo; HERIYANTO, Agus; THONGCHAI, Chalermchaikit; HANH, Tran Thi; HORIUCHI, Motohiro; ISHIHARA, Kanako; TAMURA, Yutaka; MURAMATSU, Yasukazu

2014-01-01

127

Diagnostic value of the recombinant tandem repeat antigen TeGM6-4r for surra in water buffaloes.  

PubMed

Trypanosoma evansi infection, or surra, is currently affecting various species of animals, especially water buffaloes. Since diagnosis is an important aspect of surra control, development of novel diagnostic antigens is of interest to implement and improve the currently utilized methods. Our study evaluated the tandem repeat antigen TeGM6-4r in T. evansi antibody detection in water buffaloes. TeGM6-4r-based ELISA was performed with 20 positive and 8 negative controls and 484 field samples from water buffaloes in Northern Vietnam. To examine cross-reactivity, sera from Japanese cattle that had been experimentally infected with Theileria orientalis (n=10), Babesia bovis (n=3), Babesia bigemina (n=7) and Trypanosoma theileri (n=59) were included in the study. The sensitivity of the test was 80%. TeGM6-4r did not react with Theileria or Babesia infected sera, however it showed cross reactivity with 11/59 T. theileri infected samples. The reference test, CATT/T. evansi also reacted with 3/59 T. theileri infected sera. The lysate antigen-based ELISA reacted with 4/59 T. theileri, 9/10 Theileria and 3/10 Babesia infected sera. In contrast, TeGM6-4r-based ELISA was 86.3% sensitive and 58.3% specific in the screening of field samples. The average seroprevalence of T. evansi infection among water buffaloes in Northern Vietnam was 27.1% by CATT/T. evansi and 53.7% by TeGM6-4r. Seroprevalence in the five surveyed provinces ranged from 17.4% to 39.8% in the reference test, and 47.3% to 67.3% in the recombinant antigen based test. The finding indicated that the disease is still widely endemic in the area and that surveillance programs need to be carried out regularly to better control surra. We proposed TeGM6-4r as a useful serodiagnostic antigen for the detection and epidemiological surveillance of T. evansi infection among water buffaloes. PMID:24524896

Nguyen, Thu-Thuy; Zhou, Mo; Ruttayaporn, Ngasaman; Nguyen, Quoc Doanh; Nguyen, Viet Khong; Goto, Yasuyuki; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro; Inoue, Noboru

2014-03-17

128

Effect of flubendiamide, lead and their combined exposure on erythrocytic indices in water buffalo calves.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effect of flubendiamide, lead and their combined oral administration on erythrocytic indices in water buffalo calves. Exposure to flubendiamide alone resulted in non-significant decreases in Hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), total erythrocyte count (TEC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH). Lead acetate exposure resulted in significant declines in Hb, PCV and TEC. Combined exposure to flubendiamide and lead resulted in declines in Hb, TEC and PCV, but values did not differ significantly from corresponding values in the group treated with lead alone. Changes in MCV, MCHC and MCH were inconsistent. Plasma calcium concentration declined on day 90 in lead-exposed animals, but increased again on day 30 post-treatment. Results of the present study indicated that flubendiamide exposure results in marginal alterations in erythrocytic indices, but lead exposure caused significant declines in Hb, PCV and TEC. No interactive effects were observed for flubendiamide and lead on changes in erythrocytic indices. PMID:24292848

Ranjan, Amita; Dumka, Vinod Kumar; Singh, Nittin Dev

2014-04-01

129

Assessment of water buffalo health and productivity in a communal management system in the Philippines.  

PubMed

This study aimed to generate a profile of the health and productivity of water buffaloes in a communal setting. Using the Epi-Info version 6.04 for data management, a coded information system was used to accommodate data coming from the reference population. Calves and cows that were born and milked, respectively, were enrolled and monitored for six months. The key outcomes of interest monitored in this study included mortality, morbidity and productivity. Results of the study showed a 93.7 percent probability of the calves surviving up to six months with a calculated mortality true rate of 0.7 deaths per 1000 calf-days at risk. Three calves died during the six month observation period with a mean age at death of 3 days. Analysis of variance on productivity showed that the parasitic load, specifically coccidia, liver fluke and trypanosoma affected the growth rate of the calves. The productivity of cows in the study in terms of milk production was also highly affected by the endoparasitic load and disease condition of the animal. Univariate analysis revealed a significant association between calf scouring and cow's mastitis (MASTITIS)(P=0.066). Meanwhile, for the cows, the parasitic load particularly fasciolosis (P=0.000), coccidiosis (P=0.002) and trypanosomosis (P=0.094) (P<0.10) also significantly affected the milk production. The results give a clearer view of the relationship between the health and productivity profiles of these animals. PMID:18551780

Mingala, Claro N; Gundran, Romeo S

2008-01-01

130

Low incidence of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) carriers in Indian cattle and buffalo breeds.  

PubMed

BLAD is an autosomal recessive genetic disease that affects Holstein-Friesian (HF) cattle worldwide. It is a disease characterized by a reduced expression of the adhesion molecules on neutrophils. The disease is caused by a mutation that replaces adenine at 383 with guanine, which causes an amino acid change from aspartic acid to glycine. Blood samples and a few semen samples were collected from 1250 phenotypically normal individuals, including HF (N=377), HF crossbred (N=334), Jersey (105), other breeds of cattle (N=160) and water buffalo Bubalus bubalis (N=274) belonging to various artificial insemination stations, bull mother farms (BMFs) and embryo transfer (ET) centres across the country. PCR-RFLP was performed to detect a point mutation in CD18, surface molecules of neutrophils. The results indicate that out of 1250 cattle and buffaloes tested for BLAD, 13 HF purebreds out of 377 and 10 HF crossbreds out of 334 appear to be BLAD carriers. In the HF and HF crossbred population, the percentage of BLAD carriers was estimated as 3.23%. The condition is alarming as the mutant gene has already entered the HF crossbred cattle population and therefore, the population of HF and its crossbreds needs regular screening to avoid the risk of spreading BLAD in the breeding cattle population of India. PMID:17495349

Patel, Rajesh K; Singh, Krishna M; Soni, Kalpesh J; Chauhan, Jenabhai B; Sambasiva Rao, Krothapalli R S

2007-01-01

131

Use of Real-Time PCR Technique in Studying Rumen Cellulolytic Bacteria Population as Affected by Level of Roughage in Swamp Buffalo  

Microsoft Academic Search

A real-time polymerase chain reaction approach was used in this study to determine the population of major ruminal bacterial\\u000a species (Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus, and Ruminococcus flavefaciens) in digesta and rumen fluid of swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Four rumen-fistulated, male swamp buffalo were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to evaluate the\\u000a effect of the urea-treated rice

Metha Wanapat; Anusorn Cherdthong

2009-01-01

132

Effects of various plant protein sources in high-quality feed block on feed intake, rumen fermentation, and microbial population in swamp buffalo  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to determine effect of various plant protein sources in high-quality feed block (HQFB) on feed intake,\\u000a rumen fermentation, and microbial population in swamp buffalo. Four rumen-fistulated swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were randomly assigned according to a 4?×?4 Latin square design. Four kinds of plant protein sources (coarse rice bran (CRB),\\u000a cassava hay (CH), Phaseolus calcaratus hay,

Suban Foiklang; Metha Wanapat; Wetchasit Toburan

133

Comparative virulence of three Trypanosoma evansi isolates from water buffaloes in the Philippines.  

PubMed

The virulence of three Trypanosoma evansi isolates in Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao water buffaloes was compared determining the mortality rate, parasitemia level, clinical signs, and lesions on mice. A total of 51 inbred Balb/c mice (5-6 weeks old) were used and divided into two sets. Set A had three groups corresponding to three trypanosomes isolates (Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao) with seven mice each whose parasitemia level, clinical signs, and lesions were noted at necropsy. Set B had three groups corresponding to the three isolates with ten mice each whose mortality was monitored. Each infected mouse was inoculated with 0.2 ml of T. evansi intraperitoneally and blood was examined under high power magnification. Their parasitemia level was determined using "Rapid Matching Method". Dead mice were subjected to necropsy and the lungs, liver, spleen, brain and heart were subjected to histopathological processing. Results showed that the mortality rate was highest at Day 3 for the Visayas isolates (70%), while at Day 5 for Luzon (90%) and Mindanao (70%) isolates. The parasitemia level of Visayas isolates (1×10(8.7)) reached the earliest peak at Day 4 while Luzon isolates (1×10(9)) at Day 6 and Mindanao isolates (1×10(8.7)) at Day 8. Statistical analysis using Least significant difference (LSD) revealed significant difference among treatment means at Days 2 and 4. All of the affected mice showed rough hair coat, decreased body weight, and decreased packed cell volume. The most obvious gross lesions observed were pale liver with petechiations and pale muscles. Histopathological examination revealed depletion of the red pulp and extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen. Congestion, intralesional trypanosomes in blood vessel and extramedullary hematopoiesis were observed in the liver. In the lungs non-specific lesions observed were pulmonary edema, congestion and hemosiderosis. PMID:22154978

Verdillo, John Christian M; Lazaro, Jonathan V; Abes, Nancy S; Mingala, Claro N

2012-02-01

134

Yeasts and hygienic-sanitary microbial indicators in water buffalo mozzarella produced and commercialized in Minas Gerais, Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the yeast populations and the main hygienic-sanitary microbial indicators in water buffalo mozzarella produced and commercialized in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Forty-two water buffalo mozzarella samples were purchased from retail outlets in Belo Horizonte. In addition, five samples of consecutive starter cultures, curd before acidification, acidified curd and mozzarella were collected at an industry in the city of Oliveira. Only three of the five water samples analyzed were suitable for consumption according to Brazilian sanitary standards. Four milk samples were highly contaminated with fecal coliforms, and did not meet the minimal hygienic-sanitary standards according to Brazilian regulations. Only one sample of buffalo muzzarela purchased from retail outlets exceeded the limit for coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Eleven samples showed counts of thermotolerant coliforms higher than 5 × 10(3) CFU.g(-1), but still lower than the maximum permitted by the Brazilian laws. Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were not isolated. Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida lusitaniae and C. parapsilosis were the prevalent yeast species isolated from cheese. Among samples from the production stages, the acidified curd presented the highest numbers of yeasts, with C. catenulata being the most frequent species isolated. Some opportunistic yeast species such as C. guilliermondii, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. lusitaniae, C. catenulata, C. rugosa and C. krusei occurred in the mozzarella cheese samples analyzed. The mozzarella cheese presented a low microbial load as compared to other cheese already studied, and the yeast biota included species typical of cheese and also opportunistic pathogens. PMID:24516436

Facchin, Susanne; Barbosa, Anne C; Carmo, Luiz S; Silva, Maria Crisolita C; Oliveira, Afonso L; Morais, Paula B; Rosa, Carlos A

2013-01-01

135

Habitat Selection by African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Response to Landscape-Level Fluctuations in Water Availability on Two Temporal Scales  

PubMed Central

Seasonal fluctuations in water availability cause predictable changes in the profitability of habitats in tropical ecosystems, and animals evolve adaptive behavioural and spatial responses to these fluctuations. However, stochastic changes in the distribution and abundance of surface water between years can alter resource availability at a landscape scale, causing shifts in animal behaviour. In the Okavango Delta, Botswana, a flood-pulsed ecosystem, the volume of water entering the system doubled between 2008 and 2009, creating a sudden change in the landscape. We used African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) to test the hypotheses that seasonal habitat selection would be related to water availability, that increased floodwater levels would decrease forage abundance and affect habitat selection, and that this would decrease buffalo resting time, reduce reproductive success and decrease body condition. Buffalo selected contrasting seasonal habitats, using habitats far from permanent water during the rainy season and seasonally-flooded habitats close to permanent water during the early and late flood seasons. The 2009 water increase reduced forage availability in seasonally-flooded habitats, removing a resource buffer used by the buffalo during the late flood season, when resources were most limited. In response, buffalo used drier habitats in 2009, although there was no significant change in the time spent moving or resting, or daily distance moved. While their reproductive success decreased in 2009, body condition increased. A protracted period of high water levels could prove detrimental to herbivores, especially to smaller-bodied species that require high quality forage. Stochastic annual fluctuations in water levels, predicted to increase as a result of anthropogenically-induced climate change, are likely to have substantial impacts on the functioning of water-driven tropical ecosystems, affecting environmental conditions within protected areas. Buffer zones around critical seasonal resources are essential to allow animals to engage in compensatory behavioural and spatial mechanisms in response to changing environmental conditions. PMID:24983377

Bennitt, Emily; Bonyongo, Mpaphi Casper; Harris, Stephen

2014-01-01

136

Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in tissue samples of cattle and buffaloes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue samples were collected at random from cattle (Bos taurus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from an abattoir of the district of Lahore and were analyzed for the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis through acid-fast staining and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Body condition of animals and diarrhea were recorded. Most\\u000a of the animals were emaciated. Diarrhea was

Farhan Anwar Khan; Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry; Muhammad Ijaz Ali; Shahid Khan; Naima Mumtaz; Ijaz Ahmad

2010-01-01

137

Microarray Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles of Schistosoma japonicum Derived from Less-Susceptible Host Water Buffalo and Susceptible Host Goat  

PubMed Central

Background Water buffalo and goats are natural hosts for S. japonicum in endemic areas of China. The susceptibility of these two hosts to schistosome infection is different, as water buffalo are less conducive to S. japonicum growth and development. To identify genes that may affect schistosome development and survival, we compared gene expression profiles of schistosomes derived from these two natural hosts using high-throughput microarray technology. Results The worm recovery rate was lower and the length and width of worms from water buffalo were smaller compared to those from goats following S. japonicum infection for 7 weeks. Besides obvious morphological difference between the schistosomes derived from the two hosts, differences were also observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Microarray analysis showed differentially expressed gene patterns for parasites from the two hosts, which revealed that genes related to lipid and nucleotide metabolism, as well as protein folding, sorting, and degradation were upregulated, while others associated with signal transduction, endocrine function, development, immune function, endocytosis, and amino acid/carbohydrate/glycan metabolism were downregulated in schistosomes from water buffalo. KEGG pathway analysis deduced that the differentially expressed genes mainly involved lipid metabolism, the MAPK and ErbB signaling pathways, progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, dorso-ventral axis formation, reproduction, and endocytosis, etc. Conclusion The microarray gene analysis in schistosomes derived from water buffalo and goats provide a useful platform to disclose differences determining S. japonicum host compatibility to better understand the interplay between natural hosts and parasites, and identify schistosome target genes associated with susceptibility to screen vaccine candidates. PMID:23940568

Yang, Jianmei; Hong, Yang; Yuan, Chunxiu; Fu, Zhiqiang; Shi, Yaojun; Zhang, Min; Shen, Liuhong; Han, Yanhui; Zhu, Chuangang; Li, Hao; Lu, Ke; Liu, Jinming; Feng, Xingang; Lin, Jiaojiao

2013-01-01

138

The Schistosoma japonicum self-cure phenomenon in water buffaloes: potential impact on the control and elimination of schistosomiasis in China.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis japonica, caused by Schistosoma japonicum, is an important zoonotic disease in China, the Philippines and small pockets of Indonesia. In addition to infecting people, S. japonicum can infect over 40 species of wild and domestic animals which have varying impacts on human infection. It is now generally accepted that bovines, particularly water buffaloes, are the major reservoir for human infection in China as they are naturally infected with schistosomes and deposit more eggs into the environment than humans or any other animal host. This complicates control efforts and the economic burden associated with schistosomiasis morbidity and mortality has taken its toll on both human and livestock populations. Over the last 50years, the schistosomiasis control program in China has made great strides in reducing prevalence and morbidity, and the Chinese authorities now aim to eliminate the disease nationwide in the next decade. Current Chinese control strategies place particular importance on interventions targeting bovines including: praziquantel treatment, barrier farming to prevent grazing in transmission areas, their replacement with mechanized tractors and possible bovine vaccination. A number of studies have shown that in the period following S. japonicum infection, the worm burden drops sharply in water buffaloes and some other animal hosts such as pigs. This is due to a self-cure phenomenon whereby there is parasite clearance by both immune and non-immune factors. Here we review studies investigating the self-cure effect, paying particular attention to S. japonicum infection in water buffaloes, and discuss its potential impact on the future schistosomiasis control and elimination efforts in China. Further understanding of the mechanism of self-cure in water buffaloes could be important for future schistosome vaccine design and delivery. PMID:24440417

Li, Yue-Sheng; McManus, Donald P; Lin, Dan-Dan; Williams, Gail M; Harn, Donald A; Ross, Allen G; Feng, Zheng; Gray, Darren J

2014-03-01

139

The Correlation between Age, Body Weight and Testicular Parameters in Murrah Buffalo Bulls Raised in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract Buffalo are an economically important source for meat and milk production, especially in Brazil. However, important aspects of their biology remain unknown thus far. Herein, we describe the reproductive characteristics of male Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) raised under extensive management conditions by applying biometrics associated with testicular weight. We analyzed seven males, divided into two groups: G1, which consisted of four 18-month-old animals, and G2, which consisted of three 24-month-old animals. Testicular development occurs slowly in Murrah buffalo, suggesting a delay of sexual maturity. The biometric testicular parameters analyzed were scrotal circumference, testicular weight, testicular length, testicular width, testicular thickness and testicular circumference. Our data indicate strong correlations between SC, age and body weight, and additional significant relationships were identified between body weight, age and other testicular parameters. Thus, these parameters are suitable indicators when selecting bulls for breeding purposes. PMID:22986925

da LUZ, Patricia Aparecida Cardoso; SANTOS, Paulo Ramos da Silva; ANDRIGHETTO, Cristiana; JORGE, Andre Mendes; de ASSIS NETO, Antonio Chaves

2012-01-01

140

Death by attack from a domestic buffalo.  

PubMed

Attacks on humans by domestic animals causing fatal injuries are not uncommon in rural areas of India. But injuries due to buffalo gore are rarely observed in villages and are different from other casualties like stab injuries, road fatalities, etc. As the victims of buffalo attack are usually recovered from the fields or forest, the investigating officer could be mislead as to the nature of infliction of fatal injuries to a possible homicide. The injuries caused by the horns of buffaloes are of various shapes, sizes and directions. They are violent and goring in nature. The wound sustained may be contusions, lacerations, criss-cross wounds, penetration of body cavities, and sometimes fractures. In the absence of any eye witness, it becomes very difficult to believe the unsuspecting domestic water buffalo as attacker. This case is reported for its rarity, for the awareness of the possible injuries in such unnatural deaths, and factors predisposing to a buffalo attack. PMID:20129432

Bakkannavar, Shankar M; Monteiro, Francis N P; Bhagavath, Prashantha; Pradeep Kumar, G

2010-02-01

141

Embryo sexing and sex chromosomal chimerism analysis by loop-mediated isothermal amplification in cattle and water buffaloes.  

PubMed

In domestic animals of the family Bovidae, sex preselection of offspring has been demanded for convenience of milk/beef production and animal breeding. Development of the nonsurgical embryo transfer technique and sexing methods of preimplantation embryos made it possible. Sexing based on detection of Y chromosome-specific DNA sequences is considered the most reliable method to date. PCR enables amplification of a target sequence from a small number of blastomeres. However, it requires technical skill and is time consuming. Furthermore, PCR has the risk of false positives because of DNA contamination during handling of the PCR products in duplicate PCR procedures and/or electrophoresis. Therefore, for embryo sexing to become widely used in the cattle embryo transfer industry, a simple, rapid and precise sexing method needs to be developed. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel DNA amplification method, and the reaction is carried out under isothermal conditions (range, 60 to 65 C) using DNA polymerase with strand displacement activity. When the target DNA is amplified by LAMP, a white precipitate derived from magnesium pyrophosphate (a by-product of the LAMP reaction) is observed. It is noteworthy that LAMP does not need special reagents or electrophoresis to detect the amplified DNA. This review describes the development and application of an embryo sexing method using LAMP in cattle and water buffaloes. PMID:23965599

Hirayama, Hiroki; Kageyama, Soichi; Moriyasu, Satoru; Sawai, Ken; Minamihashi, Akira

2013-01-01

142

Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Arcobacter species in cow milk, water buffalo milk and fresh village cheese.  

PubMed

In this study, the presence of Arcobacter spp. was examined in cow milk (n=50), water buffalo (WB) milk (n=50) and fresh village cheese (n=50) samples. The 16S rDNA-RFLP method was used for the identification of Arcobacter spp. The disc diffusion method was used to investigate the susceptibility of all strains identified to 18 different antimicrobial substances. The most commonly isolated Arcobacter species were found to be Arcobacter butzleri (38.89%), Arcobacter cryaerophilus (22.23%) and Arcobacter skirrowii (11.12%) in cow milk; A. cryaerophilus (33.33%), Arcobacter cibarius (20.83%) and A. butzleri (12.50%) in WB milk; and A. skirrowii (28.57%), A. butzleri (21.43%) and A. cryaerophilus (14.29%) in fresh village cheese. This is the first study to identify the presence of Arcobacter nitrofigilis, Arcobacter cloacae, Arcobacter halophilus, Arcobacter bivalviorum and A. cibarius species in analyzed samples. It was found that all of the A. cryaerophilus (n:16) isolates were resistant to cefoperazone, cloxacillin and penicillin G; all of the A. skirrowii (n:12) and A. butzleri (n:10) isolates were resistant to cefoperazone, tetracycline, ampicillin, erythromycin, cloxacillin and penicillin G. It was concluded that cow milk, WB milk and fresh village cheese samples are an important source of Arcobacter species and pose a risk to public health. PMID:25064812

Yesilmen, Simten; Vural, Aydin; Erkan, Mehmet Emin; Yildirim, Ibrahim Halil

2014-10-01

143

Identification of virulence factors in 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer genotyped Staphylococcus aureus isolated from water buffaloes and small ruminants.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus is an important human and animal pathogen, and is regarded as an important cause of intramammary infection (IMI) in ruminants. Staphylococcus aureus genetic variability and virulence factors have been well studied in veterinary medicine, especially in cows as support for control and management of IMI. The aim of the present study was to genotype 71 Staph. aureus isolates from the bulk tank and foremilk of water buffaloes (n=40) and from udder tissue (n=7) and foremilk (n=24) from small ruminants. The method used was previously applied to bovine Staph. aureus and is based on the amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. The technique applied was able to identify different Staph. aureus genotypes isolated from dairy species other than the bovine species, and cluster the genotypes according to species and herds. Virulence gene distribution was consistent with genotype differentiation. The isolates were also characterized through determination of the presence of 19 virulence-associated genes by specific PCR. Enterotoxins A, C, D, G, I, J, and L were associated with Staph. aureus isolates from buffaloes, whereas enterotoxins C and L were linked to small ruminants. Genes coding for methicillin resistance, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, exfoliative toxins A and B, and enterotoxins B, E, and H were undetected. These findings indicate that RNA template-specific PCR is a valid technique for typing Staph. aureus from buffaloes and small ruminants and is a useful tool for understanding udder infection epidemiology. PMID:24140323

Cremonesi, P; Zottola, T; Locatelli, C; Pollera, C; Castiglioni, B; Scaccabarozzi, L; Moroni, P

2013-12-01

144

Assessment of the risks for human health of adenoviruses, hepatitis a virus, rotaviruses and enteroviruses in the buffalo river and three source water dams in the eastern cape.  

PubMed

Buffalo River is an important water resource in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The potential risks of infection constituted by exposure to human enteric viruses in the Buffalo River and three source water dams along its course were assessed using mean values and static quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). The daily risks of infection determined by the exponential model [for human adenovirus (HAdV) and enterovirus (EnV)] and the beta-Poisson model (for hepatitis A virus (HAV) and rotavirus (RoV)) varied with sites and exposure scenario. The estimated daily risks of infection values at the sites where the respective viruses were detected, ranged from 7.31 × 10(-3) to 1 (for HAdV), 4.23 × 10(-2) to 6.54 × 10(-1) (RoV), 2.32 × 10(-4) to 1.73 × 10(-1) (HAV) and 1.32 × 10(-4) to 5.70 × 10(-2) (EnV). The yearly risks of infection in individuals exposed to the river/dam water via drinking, recreational, domestic or irrigational activities were unacceptably high, exceeding the acceptable risk of 0.01 % (10(-4) infection/person/year), and the guideline value used as by several nations for drinking water. The risks of illness and death from infection ranged from 6.58 × 10(-5) to 5.0 × 10(-1) and 6.58 × 10(-9) to 5.0 × 10(-5), respectively. The threats here are heightened by the high mortality rates for HAV, and its endemicity in South Africa. Therefore, we conclude that the Buffalo River and its source water dams are a public health hazard. The QMRA presented here is the first of its kinds in the Eastern Cape Province and provides the building block for a quantitatively oriented local guideline for water quality management in the Province. PMID:24676673

Chigor, Vincent N; Sibanda, Timothy; Okoh, Anthony I

2014-06-01

145

The buffalo wars  

E-print Network

The wandering buffalo of Yellowstone National Park are the subject of a heated debate in the western United States. The animals carry a disease called brucellosis, which infects both buffalo and cattle and has economic ...

Nasr, Susan L

2006-01-01

146

CLONING, CHARACTERIZATION, AND EXPRESSION STUDIES IN ESCHERICHIA COLI OF GROWTH HORMONE cDNAs FROM INDIAN ZEBU CATTLE, REVERINE BUFFALO, AND BEETAL GOAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth hormone cDNAs from three different economically important animal species of indian origin viz., indian zebu cattle (Bos indicus), indian reverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), and beetal goat (Capra hircus) were isolated by the RT–PCR technique. The amplified product was then cloned into phagemid pBluescriptIIKS and the nucleotide sequence of the entire 573 base coding region for each product was

U. K. Mukhopadhyay; G. Sahni

2002-01-01

147

Characterization of the exonic regions of the JY-1 gene in zebu cattle and buffaloes.  

PubMed

Protein JY-1 is an oocyte-specific protein that plays an important regulatory role in the granulosa cell layer and during the early embryo development stages. It is the first specific protein of maternal origin discovered in a single-ovulating species. In this study, the exon regions of the JY-1 gene were characterized by sequencing in 20 unrelated cattle (Bos taurus indicus) and 20 unrelated buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Eighteen polymorphisms were detected in cattle and 10 polymorphisms in buffaloes. Some of the polymorphisms were identified in codifying regions and caused amino acid changes. The insertion of a thymine was detected in the codifying region of exon 3 of the buffalo sequence when compared to the cattle one. This insertion causes a change in the codons frameshift from this point onwards, modifying the 19 terminal amino acids of the buffalo protein and creating a premature stop codon. This finding may explain reproductive differences between cattle and buffaloes in terms of follicle recruitment, embryo development and incidence of twin pregnancies. PMID:23714232

de Camargo, G M F; Baldi, F; Regitano, L C A; Tonhati, H

2013-12-01

148

Variation of serum inorganic phosphorus and association with haemoglobinuria and osteomalacia in female water buffaloes in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Data from an animal health service in the Punjab of Pakistan showed that 39 adult female buffaloes with haemoglobinuria were 21 times more likely to have serum inorganic phosphorus (serum P) levels < 0.97 mmol/l than 24 controls sampled during the period of case occurrence (December 1984-March 1985). Age > 7 years or early lactation (1-60 days post partum) were unrelated to the disease. Similarly, symptoms of osteomalacia in 19 multiparous buffaloes were associated with low P (OR = 14.3) but not with age. Subsequently, a serum survey was carried out from February 1985 to July 1987 to investigate serum P variations with season and host factors. Data from 139 farms (426 adult female buffaloes, 468 lactations) indicated strong farm and seasonal effects on serum P. Serum P declined during the study period and was lowest during December-March 1985/1986 and again 1986/1987. Calving season, parity > 1, high pregnancy > 6 months, or daily milk production were not related to serum P in the final model. Seasonal effects were interpreted as soil borne and related to feed changes from maize to berseem in December. PMID:9500165

Heuer, C; Bode, E

1998-01-01

149

Quantitative RT-PCR detection of hepatitis A virus, rotaviruses and enteroviruses in the Buffalo River and source water dams in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.  

PubMed

Human enteric viruses (HEntVs) are a major cause of water-related diseases. The prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV), rotaviruses (RoV) and enteroviruses (EnV) in Buffalo River waters was assessed quantitatively over a period of 12 months (August 2010 to July 2011). Seventy-two samples were collected from six sites, including three dams, and concentrated using the adsorption-elution method. Viral RNA was extracted using a commercial kit, and the viruses were quantified by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR). Two or more viruses were detected in 12.5% of the samples. HAV was detected in 43.1% of the samples and in significantly (p < 0.05) varying concentrations of 1.5 × 10(1)–1.9 × 10(5) genome copies/L compared to RoV and EnV, while RoVs were detected in 13.9% of samples, with concentrations ranging from 2.5 × 10(1)–2.1 × 10(3) genome copies/L, and EnV were detected in 9.7% of the samples, with concentrations ranging from 1.3 × 10(1)–8.6 × 10(1) genome copies/L. Only HAV was detected at all the sites, with the Bridle Drift Dam recording significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations. The presence of enteric viruses in Buffalo River may constitute public health risks and the incidence of HAV at all the sites could reflect both the epidemiological status of hepatitis A and HAV persistence in the water environments. PMID:23202829

Chigor, Vincent Nnamdigadi; Okoh, Anthony Ifeanyi

2012-11-01

150

Quantitative RT-PCR Detection of Hepatitis A Virus, Rotaviruses and Enteroviruses in the Buffalo River and Source Water Dams in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa  

PubMed Central

Human enteric viruses (HEntVs) are a major cause of water-related diseases. The prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV), rotaviruses (RoV) and enteroviruses (EnV) in Buffalo River waters was assessed quantitatively over a period of 12 months (August 2010 to July 2011). Seventy-two samples were collected from six sites, including three dams, and concentrated using the adsorption-elution method. Viral RNA was extracted using a commercial kit, and the viruses were quantified by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR). Two or more viruses were detected in 12.5% of the samples. HAV was detected in 43.1% of the samples and in significantly (p < 0.05) varying concentrations of 1.5 × 101–1.9 × 105 genome copies/L compared to RoV and EnV, while RoVs were detected in 13.9% of samples, with concentrations ranging from 2.5 × 101–2.1 × 103 genome copies/L, and EnV were detected in 9.7% of the samples, with concentrations ranging from 1.3 × 101–8.6 × 101 genome copies/L. Only HAV was detected at all the sites, with the Bridle Drift Dam recording significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations. The presence of enteric viruses in Buffalo River may constitute public health risks and the incidence of HAV at all the sites could reflect both the epidemiological status of hepatitis A and HAV persistence in the water environments. PMID:23202829

Chigor, Vincent Nnamdigadi; Okoh, Anthony Ifeanyi

2012-01-01

151

TEMPERATURE AND CONDUCTIVITY MODELING FOR THE BUFFALO RIVER  

EPA Science Inventory

A hydrodynamic and water quality transport study of the Buffalo River has been conducted. sing a two-dimensional (laterally averaged) model and incorporating appropriate specification of boundary conditions, we simulated the transport of river water temperature and conductivity f...

152

Reproduction in domestic buffalo.  

PubMed

The domestic buffalo is an indispensable livestock resource to millions of smallholder farmers in developing countries, particularly in Asia. Although its reproductive biology is basically similar to that of cattle, there are important differences and unique characteristics that need to be considered in order to apply modern reproductive technologies to improve its productivity. Under most smallholder production systems, the reproductive efficiency of buffalo is compromised by factors related to climate, management, nutrition and diseases. However, when managed and fed properly, buffalo can have good fertility and provide milk, calves and draught power over a long productive life. The basic technical problems associated with artificial insemination in buffalo were largely overcome two decades ago, but the technology has not had the expected impact in some developing countries, because largely of infrastructural and logistic problems. Approaches involving the use of hormones for treating anoestrus and for synchronizing oestrus have had varying rates of success, depending on the protocols used and the incidence of underlying problems that cause infertility. Embryo technologies such as multiple ovulation embryo transfer, in vitro embryo production, cryopreservation and cloning are being intensively studied but have had far lower success rates than in cattle. Improving the productivity of buffalo requires an understanding of their potential and limitations under each farming system, development of simple intervention strategies to ameliorate deficiencies in management, nutrition and healthcare, followed by judicious application of reproductive technologies that are sustainable with the resources available to buffalo farmers. PMID:18638124

Perera, B M A O

2008-07-01

153

Research Article Range and Habitat Selection of African Buffalo  

E-print Network

a comparison of buffalo response to water availability in a smaller reserve and important information of diseases, such as anthrax (De Vos and Bryden 1996) and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD; Vosloo et al. 1996

Getz, Wayne M.

154

In vitro production of cattlexbuffalo hybrid embryos using cattle oocytes and African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) epididymal sperm.  

PubMed

Interspecies hybridization of bovids occurs between domestic cattle and at least three other species; American bison (Bison bison), yak (Bos grunniens) and banteng (Bos banteng). Birth of a cattlexbuffalo (Bubalus bubalis) hybrid has reportedly occurred in Russia and in China, but these reports were not authenticated. Such hybrids could be important in improving livestock production and management of diseases that impede production in tropical Africa. This study investigated hybridization between cattle and its closest African wild bovid relative, the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer). In an attempt to produce cattlexbuffalo hybrid embryos in vitro, matured cattle oocytes were subjected to a standard in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure with either homologous cattle (n=1166 oocytes) or heterologous African buffalo (n=1202 oocytes) frozen-thawed epididymal sperm. After IVF, 67.2% of the oocytes inseminated with the homologous cattle sperm cleaved. In contrast, fertilization with buffalo sperm resulted in only a 4.6% cleavage rate. The cleavage intervals were also slower in hybrid embryos than in the IVF-derived cattle embryos. Of the cleaved homologous cattle embryos 52.2% progressed to the morula stage compared with 12.7% for the buffalo hybrid embryos. No hybrid embryos developed beyond the early morula stage, while 40.1% of the cleaved cattlexcattle embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Transfer of buffalo hybrid IVF embryos to domestic cattle surrogates resulted in no pregnancies at 60 days post-transfer. This study indicates that interspecies fertilization of cattle oocytes with African buffalo epididymal sperm can occur in vitro, and that a barrier to hybridization occurs in the early stages of embryonic development. Chromosomal disparity is likely the cause of the fertilization abnormalities, abnormal development and subsequent arrest impairing the formation of hybrid embryos beyond the early morula stage. Transfer of the buffalo hybrid embryos did not rescue the embryos from development arrest. PMID:19118889

Owiny, O D; Barry, D M; Agaba, M; Godke, R A

2009-04-01

155

Effects of In Vitro Zinc Sulphate Additive to The Semen Extender on Water Buffalo (Bubalusbubalis) Spermatozoa before and after Freezing  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of in vitro zinc sulphate additive to semen extender on sperm parameters (progressive motility, viability, membrane integrity and DNA stability) after cryopreservation. Materials and Methods In this Prospective longitudinal laboratory study, semen samples of 5 buffalo bulls of 3-5 years old were collected at 5 different occasions from Iran, Urmia during summer and autumn 2011, 25 samples were used in each treatment. Sperm progressive motility, viability and abnormal morphology were measured before and at 0.5 (T0), 1(T1) and 2(T2) hours after diluting semen(1:10 v/v) in Tris-citric acid based extender (without egg yolk and glycerol) at 37?C containing none (control group), 0.072, 0.144, 0.288, 0.576 and 1.152 mg/L zinc sulphate to investigate dose and time effects. Next, a Tris-citric acid-egg yolk-glycerol extender (20% egg yolk and 7% glycerol) containing the same amount of zinc sulphate was prepared, diluted semen (1:10 v/v) was cooled and kept into a refrigerated chamber (4?C) for 4 hours to equilibrate. Sperm progressive motility, viability, abnormal morphology, membrane integrity and DNA damage were estimated.The equilibrated semen was loaded in 0.5 ml French straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Later, the frozen semen was thawed and the same parameters as well as total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the frozen-thawed semen were determined. Results The results showed that zinc sulphate additive at the rate of 0.288 mg/L gave a higher protection of sperm progressive motility (53.7 ± 1.8% vs. 40.5 ± 1.7%), viability (70.8 ± 1.8% vs. 60.1 ± 1.5%), membrane integrity (67.3 ± 1.6% vs. 56.6 ± 1.7%), DNA stability (10.1 ± 0.47% vs. 11.8 ± 0.33% damaged DNA) through the process of dilution, equilibration and freeze-thawing and caused a higher TAC level (81 ± 3.3% vs. 63 ± 3.2 µmol/L) after freez-thawing compared to the control group. Adding 0.576 and 1.152 mg/L zinc sulphate, however, was deleterious to the sperm and significantly reduced the studied sperm parameters. Conclusion Adding 0.288 mg/L zinc sulphate to the extender, compared to the control group, gives a better sperm preservation upon freezing processes which in turn, may results in higher semen fertility. But, addition of higher zinc sulphate concentrations (0.576 and 1.152 mg/L) are detrimental to buffalo spermatozoa. PMID:25379162

Dorostkar, Kamran; Alavi Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Khaki, Amir

2014-01-01

156

Productive Infection of Bovine Papillomavirus Type 2 in the Urothelial Cells of Naturally Occurring Urinary Bladder Tumors in Cattle and Water Buffaloes  

PubMed Central

Background Papillomaviruses (PVs) are highly epitheliotropic as they usually establish productive infections within squamous epithelia of the skin, the anogenital tract and the oral cavity. In this study, early (E) and late (L) protein expression of bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2) in the urothelium of the urinary bladder is described in cows and water buffaloes suffering from naturally occurring papillomavirus-associated urothelial bladder tumors. Methods and Findings E5 protein, the major oncoprotein of the BPV-2, was detected in all tumors. L1 DNA was amplified by PCR, cloned and sequenced and confirmed to be L1 DNA. The major capsid protein, L1, believed to be only expressed in productive papillomavirus infection was detected by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical investigations confirmed the presence of L1 protein both in the cytoplasm and nuclei of cells of the neoplastic urothelium. Finally, the early protein E2, required for viral DNA replication and known to be a pivotal factor for both productive and persistent infection, was detected by Western blot and immunohistochemically. Electron microscopic investigations detected electron dense particles, the shape and size of which are consistent with submicroscopic features of viral particles, in nuclei of neoplastic urothelium. Conclusion This study shows that both active and productive infections by BPV-2 in the urothelium of the bovine and bubaline urinary bladder can occur in vivo. PMID:23667460

Roperto, Sante; Russo, Valeria; Ozkul, Ayhan; Corteggio, Annunziata; Sepici-Dincel, Aylin; Catoi, Cornel; Esposito, Iolanda; Riccardi, Marita G.; Urraro, Chiara; Luca, Roberta; Ceccarelli, Dora M.; Longo, Michele; Roperto, Franco

2013-01-01

157

Buffalo Museum of Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you are heading to Buffalo, you might want to pay a visit to the Buffalo Museum of Science. This website is a great way to learn about the physical museum, including ongoing education programs, research facilities, and various digital collections. In the Exhibits area visitors can explore 12 different ongoing and temporary exhibits, including highlighted exhibits on nanotechnology and mummies of the world. Moving on, the Publications section of the site includes three decades of past Museum publications, including academic works and fact sheets. Users can also learn about visiting the museum in person, complete with information about special hours and special member days.

158

At 1050 Gallery, Block 12, two centrifugal pumps, Buffalo Pumps, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

At 1050 Gallery, Block 12, two centrifugal pumps, Buffalo Pumps, Buffalo, NY, driven by Allis Chalmers motors (size 3 HSO, head 230, 120 cpm, 1750, rpm, Impulse dia. 15) installed in the 1960s and used for water-cooling system for 230-kv cable; the cables have been removed and the pumps are not currently used. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

159

Buffalo Outer Harbor Quays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buffalo, a once prominent American city hit by hard times, has the opportunity to rebuild. It has industrial resources and transport options. It has a booming education system and medical business. Its technology sector is rapidly expanding. The city has a chance right now to create new glory days. This project is about transforming a forgotten piece of land, a

Ryan Decker

2010-01-01

160

Bovine calves as ideal bio-indicators for fluoridated drinking water and endemic osteo-dental fluorosis.  

PubMed

Relative susceptibility to fluoride (F) toxicosis in the form of osteo-dental fluorosis was observed in an observational survey of 2,747 mature and 887 immature domestic animals of diverse species living in areas with naturally fluoridated (>1.5 ppm F) drinking water. These animals included buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), cattle (Bos taurus), camels (Camelus dromedarius), donkeys (Equus asinus), horses (Equus caballus), goats (Capra hircus), and sheep (Ovis aries). Of these mature and immature animals, 899 (32.7 %) and 322 (36.3 %) showed evidence of dental fluorosis with varying grades, respectively. Their incisor teeth were stained with light to deep brownish color. On clinical examination, 31.2 % mature and 10.7 % immature animals revealed periosteal exostoses, intermittent lameness, and stiffness of tendons in the legs as signs of skeletal fluorosis. The maximum susceptibility to fluoride toxicosis was found in bovines (buffaloes and cattle) followed by equines (donkeys and horses), flocks (goats and sheep), and camelids (camels). The bovine calves were found to be more sensitive and highly susceptible to F toxicosis and revealed the maximum prevalence (92.2 %) of dental fluorosis. This indicates that bovine calves are less tolerant and give early sign of F poisoning (dental fluorosis) and therefore, they can be considered as bio-indicators for fluoridated water as well as for endemicity of osteo-dental fluorosis. Causes for variation in susceptibility to F toxicosis (fluorosis) in various species of domestic animal are also discussed. PMID:24671615

Choubisa, S L

2014-07-01

161

Duck egg yolk in extender improves the freezability of buffalo bull spermatozoa.  

PubMed

We investigated the use of duck egg yolk (DEY), Guinea fowl egg yolk (GFEY) and Indian indigenous hen (Desi) egg yolk (IDEY) in extender for improving the post-thaw quality of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa, and compared it with commercial hen egg yolk (CHEY; control). For this purpose, two consecutive ejaculates of semen from each of two Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls were collected on 1 day each week for 5 weeks (replicates; n=5) with artificial vagina (42 degrees C). Split pooled ejaculates, were diluted in tris-citric acid glycerol extender containing either DEY or GFEY or IDEY or CHEY at 37 degrees C. Extended semen was cooled to 4 degrees C in 2 h and equilibrated for 4 h at 4 degrees C. Cooled semen was then filled in 0.5 ml straws at 4 degrees C and frozen in programmable cell freezer. Thawing of semen was performed at 37 degrees C for 30 s. Sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and sperm morphology (acrosome integrity, head, mid-piece and tail abnormalities) of each semen sample were assessed at 0, 3 and 6 h after thawing and incubation at 37 degrees C. Visual motility (%) and percentage of intact plasma membranes assessed at 6h post-thaw of buffalo bull spermatozoa were highest (P<0.05) due to DEY as compared to GFEY, IDEY and control. The percentage of spermatozoa with normal acrosomes at 0, 3 and 6 h post-thaw was highest (P<0.05) in DEY extender than GFEY, IDEY and CHEY. Sperm tail abnormalities (%) observed at 0, 3 and 6 h post-thaw in samples cryopreserved with freezing extender having DEY were lower (P<0.05) as compared to extender containing GFEY, IDEY and CHEY. In conclusion, DEY compared to other avian yolks in extender improves the frozen-thawed quality of buffalo bull spermatozoa. PMID:17709214

Andrabi, S M H; Ansari, M S; Ullah, N; Anwar, M; Mehmood, A; Akhter, S

2008-03-01

162

76 FR 20530 - Safety Zone; Boom Days, Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2011-0132] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Boom Days, Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo...Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY for the Boom Days Fireworks. This zone is intended...Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY during the Boom Days Fireworks on April 16, 2011....

2011-04-13

163

Technical and economical feasibility of buffalo gourd as a novel energy crop: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The New Mexico Solar Energy Institute at NMSU has conducted a two-year investigation into the technical and economic feasibility of using the buffalo gourd plant as an energy feedstock in eastern New Mexico. The New Mexico buffalo gourd project conducted field planting trials to determine optimum planting density, fertilizer levels, and irrigation regime. Starchy roots produced by the field plantings were evaluated as an ethanol feedstock at both laboratory and pilot scale. These studies indicate that buffalo gourd is well suited for root production in eastern New Mexico. Current cultivars of buffalo gourd can be most efficiently produced under dry land farming conditions with little, if any, supplemental fertilizer. Traditional plant breeding techniques can be profitably employed on the buffalo gourd to breed a size and shape of root more easily harvested by existing farm machinery. Because of its sensitivity to root rot, buffalo gourd must be grown in well drained soils. Finally, buffalo gourd has been shown to be an excellent feedstock for ethanol production provided necessary pre-fermentation processing (chopping of roots) is performed correctly. A model was created to determine the economic feasibility of growing buffalo gourd in eastern New Mexico. It was determined that the net return to a farmer in eastern New Mexico can be higher planting buffalo gourd than many traditionally grown crops because of buffalo gourd's low water and fertilizer requirements. The model further indicates that net return is heavily influenced by root yield. Continued research is needed to optimize buffalo gourd root yield, as well as root size and shape, disease resistance, etc. A clearly defined R and D agenda and commercialization strategy is presented and discussed. Buffalo gourd has been demonstrated to have high potential as an alternative feedstock for ethanol production in eastern New Mexico. 128 refs., 9 figs., 28 tabs.

Goldstein, B.

1988-02-01

164

Morphological, biochemical and physiological studies on the preservation of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa  

E-print Network

(hyaluronidase, glutamate- oxaloacetic transaminase, alcohol, malate, lactate and sorbitol dehydrogenases) from it contributes more than 73.4 p. 100 of the total milk production, no suitable semen extender is yet available

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

165

Effects of treatment for anestrus in water buffaloes with PGF2? and GnRH in comparison with vitamin-mineral supplement, and some factors influencing treatment effects.  

PubMed

The effect of treatment for anestrus in buffaloes with a PGF2? or GnRH injection and vitamin-mineral (Vit-M) supplementation for 1 to 2 months and some factors influencing the treatment effect were studied. In anestrus buffaloes with CL, an injection of PGF2? tended to show higher estrus detection and pregnancy rates within 17 days after treatment than Vit-M supplementation (P<0.10). In those with inactive ovaries, effect of GnRH and Vit-M did not differ. Body condition score of the animals before treatment affected pregnancy rate within 17 days after treatment (P<0.05). Pregnancy rate within 4 months after treatment was adversely influenced by low serum concentrations of calcium (P<0.01) and gastrointestinal parasitic infection before treatment (P<0.05). PMID:23884020

Devkota, Bhuminand; Nakao, Toshihiko; Kobayashi, Kosaku; Sato, Hiroshi; Sah, Shyam Kishor; Singh, Dinesh Kumar; Dhakal, Ishwori Prasad; Yamagishi, Norio

2013-12-30

166

Short communication: Prevalence and risk factors of subclinical mastitis as determined by the California Mastitis Test in water buffaloes (Bubalis bubalis) in Nueva Ecija, Philippines.  

PubMed

A retrospective analysis using records of lactating Bulgarian Murrah buffaloes subjected to the California Mastitis Test in a herd in Nueva Ecija, Philippines was done to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) and to identify risk factors that may influence its occurrence and recurrence. Results showed that SCM prevalence was 42.76%, whereas its recurrence was 75.03%. Age and lactation length influenced the occurrence of SCM. In contrast to the conclusions for dairy cows, younger buffalo cows were more susceptible compared with those at least 6 yr old. Dams younger than 3 yr have a 76% probability, whereas those age 3 yr have an 82% probability of having SCM. PMID:22365218

Salvador, R T; Beltran, J M C; Abes, N S; Gutierrez, C A; Mingala, C N

2012-03-01

167

Physical mapping of 20 unmapped fragments of the btau_4.0 genome assembly in cattle, sheep and river buffalo.  

PubMed

The recent advances in sequencing technology and bioinformatics have revolutionized genomic research, making the decoding of the genome an easier task. Genome sequences are currently available for many species, including cattle, sheep and river buffalo. The available reference genomes are very accurate, and they represent the best possible order of loci at this time. In cattle, despite the great accuracy achieved, a part of the genome has been sequenced but not yet assembled: these genome fragments are called unmapped fragments. In the present study, 20 unmapped fragments belonging to the Btau_4.0 reference genome have been mapped by FISH in cattle (Bos taurus, 2n = 60), sheep (Ovis aries, 2n = 54) and river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, 2n = 50). Our results confirm the accuracy of the available reference genome, though there are some discrepancies between the expected localization and the observed localization. Moreover, the available data in the literature regarding genomic homologies between cattle, sheep and river buffalo are confirmed. Finally, the results presented here suggest that FISH was, and still is, a useful technology to validate the data produced by genome sequencing programs. PMID:23652984

De Lorenzi, L; Genualdo, V; Perucatti, A; Iannuzzi, A; Iannuzzi, L; Parma, P

2013-01-01

168

Presence of Campylobacter and Arcobacter species in in-line milk filters of farms authorized to produce and sell raw milk and of a water buffalo dairy farm in Italy.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to investigate the presence of Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter spp. in dairy herds authorized for the production and sale of raw milk and in a water buffalo dairy farm, and to test the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates. A total of 196 in-line milk filters were collected from 14 dairy farms (13 bovine and 1 water buffalo) for detection of Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter spp. by microbiological culture. For each farm investigated, 1 isolate for each Campylobacter and Arcobacter species isolated was tested using the Etest method (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) to evaluate the susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, erythromycin, and gentamicin. A total of 52 isolates were detected in 49 milk filters in 12 farms (85.7%) out of 14 and the isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni (6), Campylobacter hyointestinalis ssp. hyointestinalis (8), Campylobacter concisus (1), Campylobacter fetus ssp. fetus (1), Arcobacter butzleri (22), and Arcobacter cryaerophilus (14). The small number of isolates tested for antimicrobial susceptibility precludes any epidemiological consideration but highlights that all Campylobacter isolates were susceptible to macrolides, which are the first-choice drugs for the treatment of campylobacteriosis, and that resistance to fluoroquinolones and tetracycline was detected; for Arcobacter isolates, resistance to ampicillin and chloramphenicol was detected. The sale of raw milk for human consumption by self-service automatic vending machines has been allowed in Italy since 2004 and the presence of C. jejuni in in-line milk filters confirms that raw milk consumption is a significant risk factor for human infection. The high occurrence of emerging Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter spp. discovered in dairy farms authorized for production and sale of raw milk represents an emerging hazard for human health. PMID:23453517

Serraino, A; Florio, D; Giacometti, F; Piva, S; Mion, D; Zanoni, R G

2013-05-01

169

Buffalo river dredging demonstration. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Corps of Engineers Buffalo District conducted a demonstration of equipment for dredging contaminated sediments. Several thousand cubic yards of sediment were removed from outside the Buffalo River Federal navigation channel limits using three dredge types: (1) open bucket, (2) enclosed bucket, and (3) submersible pump. The effectiveness of a silt screen deployed downstream of the dredge to reduce suspended sediment transport was also evaluated. Extensive sediment and water column monitoring and sampling were conducted during the 2-week demonstration as part of the effort to determine sediment resuspension rates and contaminant releases associated with the dredging operations. Water column samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, total organic carbon, PCBs, PAHs, metals, ammonia, and pH. A water column bioassay test using Daphnia magna was also performed to assess toxicity effects of the dredging operation. Results of this study were used to assess and refine techniques and laboratory tests that have been previously developed by the Corps of Engineers to predict sediment resuspension rates and contaminant releases. In another phase of the study, the Bureau of Mines demonstrated the use of polyelectrolytes for rapid removal of suspended solids from a dilute dredged material slurry.

Averett, D.E.; Zappi, P.A.; Tatem, H.E.; Gibson, A.C.; Tominey, E.A.

1996-02-01

170

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University at Buffalo  

E-print Network

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University at Buffalo S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f N e w Y o r k MAE Seminar Series Rotation and Vorticity in Mechanics and Physics Alireza Hadjesfandiari Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University at Buffalo ah@buffalo.edu Abstract: Rotation

Krovi, Venkat

171

University at Buffalo (SUNY) Department of Industrial Engineering Scheduling Theory  

E-print Network

University at Buffalo (SUNY) Department of Industrial Engineering IE 661 Scheduling Theory Chapter 1 Rakesh Nagi Department of Industrial Engineering University at Buffalo (SUNY) #12;University at Buffalo (SUNY) Department of Industrial Engineering Chapter 1: Introduction Role of Scheduling Allocation

Nagi, Rakesh

172

University at Buffalo (SUNY) Department of Industrial Engineering Scheduling Theory  

E-print Network

University at Buffalo (SUNY) Department of Industrial Engineering IE 661 Scheduling Theory Chapter 2 Rakesh Nagi Department of Industrial Engineering University at Buffalo (SUNY) #12;University at Buffalo (SUNY) Department of Industrial Engineering Chapter 2: Deterministic Models Preliminaries

Nagi, Rakesh

173

New method for the simultaneous identification of cow, sheep, goat, and water buffalo in dairy products by analysis of short species-specific mitochondrial DNA targets.  

PubMed

A novel method is presented here as an analytical tool for food control and authentication of dairy products manufactured from the milk of cow, sheep, goat, and buffalo. The method is based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of species-specific mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) targets followed by fragment size analysis by capillary electrophoresis. The method includes (a) simultaneous detection of four species, (b) internal control for DNA extraction and PCR, (c) mtDNA as a target for PCR, (d) amplicons of <200 bp, and (e) flexibility in the electrophoresis and fragment size detection method. Species identification proved to be straightforward, efficient, sensitive, and robust. The method is sensitive to an at least 1% (v/v) relative proportion of milk in binary mixtures. A survey of commercial products showed that 12.5% failed to conform to the description of the contents, by either the introduction or absence of listed species, thus demonstrating the relevance of this type of testing. PMID:23025240

Gonçalves, Joana; Pereira, Filipe; Amorim, António; van Asch, Barbara

2012-10-24

174

Brewster F2A-2 Buffalo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brewster F2A-2 Buffalo: The Navy's Brewster F2A-2 Buffalo did not prove to be a particularly effective fighter aircraft, but that did not prevent countries such as England, Finland, and Australia from operating version of the Buffalo. This F2A-2 arrived at Langley from the factory by truck in 1942, and was sent to NAS Norfolk two years later.

1943-01-01

175

Effects of cooling and warming conditions on post-thawed motility and fertility of cryopreserved buffalo spermatozoa.  

PubMed

The principal objective of this study was to derive an improved procedure for cryopreservation of swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa. Experiments were conducted to determine effects of cooling rate, intermediate plunge temperature and warming rate on motility and acrosome integrity of spermatozoa. Spermatozoa were obtained from three bulls (three ejaculates/bull) and were subjected to nine cooling conditions before being frozen in liquid nitrogen: cooling at 10, 20, or 30 degrees C/min each to -40, -80, or -120 degrees C before being plunged into liquid nitrogen. The spermatozoa frozen under a given condition were then thawed either at 1000 or 200 degrees C/min. Cooling rate, intermediate temperature and warming rate significantly affected survival of spermatozoa obtained from the three bulls. Cooling spermatozoa from 4 to -120 degrees C either at 20 or 30 degrees C/min yielded better progressive motility compared to other cooling conditions (50 versus 30%). Rapid warming was superior to slow warming. In an additional study, motility and fertility of spermatozoa frozen after being cooled to -120 degrees C at 20 degrees C and 30 degrees C/min and those frozen by a standard protocol used routinely for semen processing were assessed. Progressive motility of cryopreserved spermatozoa cooled at 20 degrees C and 30 degrees C/min was 40%, while that of spermatozoa cryopreserved using a standard protocol was 25%. A total of 178 buffalo cows were inseminated with cryopreserved spermatozoa obtained from one bull, and their pregnancy status was assessed 60 days later by rectal palpation. Out of the 60, 26 (43%) and 23 of 58 (40%) cows inseminated with sperm cooled at 20 and 30 degrees C/min, respectively, became pregnant, whereas 17 of 60 (28%) cows inseminated with sperm frozen by a standard protocol became pregnant. This study demonstrates that an effective cryopreservation procedure for buffalo spermatozoa can be derived by systematic examination of various cryobiological factors. PMID:11408115

Sukhato, P; Thongsodseang, S; Utha, A; Songsasen, N

2001-07-01

176

Seminal plasma immunoglobulins of the Indian buffalo.  

PubMed

Seminal plasma immunoglobulins of normospermic fertile Indian buffalo bulls were investigated using rabbit antibuffalo immunoglobulin (polyvalent) serum, rabbit antibuffalo IgG and IgM serums, gel diffusion, and immunoelectrophoretic analysis. Immunoglobulin G was the predominant immunoglobulin in the seminal plasma of the buffalo. Strong antigenic cross reactions were observed between the seminal plasma IgG molecules of the buffalo and cattle, indicating the structural homology of seminal plasma IgG of these two species. These observations are in accordance with the close taxonomic and phylogenetic relationship between buffalo and cattle in the evolution of ruminant species. PMID:6442848

Kulkarni, B A

1984-01-01

177

Buffalo Bill Letters to George T. Beck  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created as part of the larger Rocky Mountain Online Archive, this collection contains a clutch of letters written by William F. "Buffalo Bill" Cody to one George T. Beck. Beck was a Wyoming sheep rancher, oil land developer, and the last president of the Council of the Territory of Wyoming before it became a state in 1890. He was also trained as a mining engineer and was president of the Shoshone Irrigation Company. Most of the letters here concern Cody's interest in this company and its water project. Visitors can read the letters, look over the collection summary, and view a brief biography of Cody and Beck. It's a very interesting look into a lesser-known side of this American icon, one that reveals his intense interest in this rather involved business venture.

2005-01-01

178

Arachidic acid in extender improves post-thaw parameters of cryopreserved Nili-Ravi buffalo bull semen.  

PubMed

Cryopreservation process reduces lipids and phospholipids from buffalo bull spermatozoa. It was therefore hypothesized that supplementation of fatty acid to extender may improve the post-thaw quality of buffalo semen. The objective was to evaluate the effect of arachidic acid supplementation in extender on post-thaw quality of buffalo bull (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa. Semen was collected from three adult Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls of similar age group with artificial vagina (42°C) for 3 weeks (replicate). Qualified semen ejaculates (n = 18) were split into four aliquots and diluted in tris-citric acid extender containing 0.0 (control), 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 ng/ml at 37°C having approximately 50 × 10(6) spermatozoa/ml. Diluted semen was cooled to 4°C in 2 h and equilibrated for 4 h at 4°C. Cooled semen was filled in 0.5-ml straws at 4°C, kept on liquid nitrogen vapours for 10 min and plunged in liquid nitrogen for storage. Thawing of frozen semen was performed after 24 h at 37°C for 30 s. Sperm progressive motility (%) was improved in a dose-dependent manner by supplementing arachidic acid at 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 ng/ml compared with control. Structural and functional integrity of sperm plasma membrane (%), number of acrosome-intact live sperm (%) and sperm chromatin integrity (%) were better (p < 0.05) in extender having 5.0 ng/ml of arachidic acid compared with control. At 10.0 ng/ml, these values did not vary (p > 0.05) from those at 5.0 ng/ml. Further improvement in structural and functional integrity of sperm plasma membrane, number of acrosome-intact live sperm and chromatin integrity was observed at 20.0 ng/ml of arachidic acid in extender. In conclusion, arachidic acid supplementation in extender improved the post-thaw quality parameters of cryopreserved Nili-Ravi buffalo bull spermatozoa. Among the arachidic acid concentrations studied, maximum improvement in post-thaw semen quality parameters was observed at 20.0 ng/ml. PMID:24112366

Ejaz, R; Ansari, M S; Rakha, B A; Ullah, N; Husna, A U; Iqbal, R; Akhter, S

2014-02-01

179

http://www.cubs.buffalo.edu Feature Selection  

E-print Network

http://www.cubs.buffalo.edu Feature Selection Scatter matrices, Fisher's discriminant, Principal Component Analysis. #12;http://www.cubs.buffalo.edu Feature extraction ­ Structural #12;http://www.cubs.buffalo.edu Feature extraction ­ Structural #12;http://www.cubs.buffalo.edu Feature extraction ­ Texture #12;http://www.cubs

Govindaraju, Venu

180

Phylogeography and Domestication of Chinese Swamp Buffalo  

PubMed Central

To further probe into whether swamp buffaloes were domesticated once or multiple times in China, this survey examined the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Control Region (D-loop) diversity of 471 individuals representing 22 populations of 455 Chinese swamp buffaloes and 16 river buffaloes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Chinese swamp buffaloes could be divided into two distinct lineages, A and B, which were defined previously. Of the two lineages, lineage A was predominant across all populations. For predominant lineage A, Southwestern buffalo populations possess the highest genetic diversity among the three hypothesized domestication centers (Southeastern, Central, and Southwestern China), suggesting Southwestern China as the most likely location for the domestication of lineage A. However, a complex pattern of diversity is detected for the lineage B, preventing the unambiguous pinpointing of the exact place of domestication center and suggesting the presence of a long-term, strong gene flow among swamp buffalo populations caused by extensive migrations of buffaloes and frequent human movements along the Yangtze River throughout history. Our current study suggests that Southwestern China is the most likely domestication center for lineage A, and may have been a primary center of swamp buffalo domestication. More archaeological and genetic evidence is needed to show the process of domestication. PMID:23437167

Xie, Wen-Mei; Xu, Ping; Chang, Ti-Cheng; Liu, Li; Cheng, Feng; Zhang, Run-Feng; Lan, Xian-Yong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chu-Zhao

2013-01-01

181

PHYLOGEOGRAPHIC PATTERNS IN LARGE RIVER ECOSYSTEMS: GENETIC STRUCTURE OF SMALLMOUTH BUFFALO (ICTIOBUS BUBALUS) IN THE OHIO RIVER  

EPA Science Inventory

Genetic studies on populations of large river fishes provide a potentially useful but underutilized research and assessment tool. Population genetic research on freshwater systems has provided meaningful insight into stock structure, hybridization issues, and gene flow/migration...

182

Lake Erie Seiches and Their Impact on Hydrodynamics and Sediment Transport in the Buffalo River, Buffalo, New York  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Buffalo River discharges into Lake Erie near the upper end of the Niagara River. The lower 9.2 km of the river has been designated as a Great Lakes Area of Concern due to beneficial use impairments associated with poor water quality, degraded riparian and river habitat, and contaminated sediments. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers maintains a navigational channel at a depth of 6.7 m below mean lake level by dredging every 2-3 years. Its low gradient and current velocities that often are <10 cm/sec allow Lake Erie waters to enter the Buffalo River reversing flow. These estuarine-like conditions can occur during low flow periods in the river when water levels at the eastern end of Lake Erie rise in response to seiches when persistent winds transport water from west to east increasing water elevation at the Buffalo (eastern) end of the lake. To better understand the interaction between the downriver and upriver (lake-driven) flow, Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs), temperature sensors, and water level recorders have been deployed in the lower 9 km of the river. To map the river and document changes in bottom morphology side-scan sonar surveys have been conducted. Sediment trend analysis (STA) and numerical modeling complement and augment field observations. Changes in grain size distributions derived from the STA show two distinct flow regimes existing in the river with sediments deposited around the mouth of the river re-entrained and transported upriver. Results from numerical modeling using a particle-tracking component also show a similar pattern. Where the two flow regimes intersect, sedimentary furrows have been mapped using side-scan sonar and confirmed by divers. ADCP findings document periodic high flow events in the river related to heavy rainfalls and snow melt as well as the propagation of Lake Erie seiches upriver as far as 9 km. The water level data agree well with ADCP data obtained in the river. The river also exhibits its own seiche with period of ~ 2.0 hours. The hydrodynamics and sediment transport patterns in the Buffalo River reveal a complex pattern. Studying the river is timely as a large-scale sediment remediation project currently is underway that will modify the channel morphology as a consequence of environmental dredging within and outside the navigational channel.

Singer, J.; Manley, T.; McLaren, P.; Manley, P.; Atkinson, J. F.; Hughes, W.; Klawinski, A.

2011-12-01

183

Effect of Ground Corn Cob Replacement for Cassava Chip on Feed Intake, Rumen Fermentation and Urinary Derivatives in Swamp Buffaloes  

PubMed Central

Four Thai - rumen fistulated male swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), about four years old with 400±20 kg liveweight, were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to receive dietary treatments. The treatments were: ground corn cob (GCC) replacement for cassava chip (CC) in concentrate at 0% (T1); GCC replacement at 33% (T2); GCC replacement at 67% (T3); and GCC replacement at 100% (T4), respectively. During the experiment, concentrate was offered at 0.5% BW while 5% urea-treated rice straw was given at ad libitum. The result revealed that there was no effect of GCC replacement on DMI among treatments. In addition, digestibilities of DM, OM and CP were not different while aNDF linearly increased with an increasing level of GCC replacement. However, GCC replacement did not affect rumen fermentation such as ruminal pH, NH3-N and VFA concentration; except C3 proportion which was the highest at 33% replacement while the lowest was at 100% replacement. All replacements of GCC resulted in similar protozoal and bacterial populations and microbial protein synthesis (MPS). Purine derivatives (PD) concentration in urine and PD to creatinine (PDC) index were varied with time of urination and among treatments at 0 to 8 and 8 to 16 h post feeding and higher values were shown among the GCC replacement groups. However at 16 to 24 h-post feeding, it was untraceable. In addition, creatinine concentration was similar among all treatments at every sampling time. Based on the above results, GCC can be used as an energy source for swamp buffalo fed with rice straw. Spot sampling of urine can be used for purine derivatives determination. PMID:25049671

Wanapat, M.; Pilajun, R.; Kang, S.; Setyaningsih, K.; Setyawan, A. R.

2012-01-01

184

Effect of ground corn cob replacement for cassava chip on feed intake, rumen fermentation and urinary derivatives in swamp buffaloes.  

PubMed

Four Thai - rumen fistulated male swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), about four years old with 400±20 kg liveweight, were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to receive dietary treatments. The treatments were: ground corn cob (GCC) replacement for cassava chip (CC) in concentrate at 0% (T1); GCC replacement at 33% (T2); GCC replacement at 67% (T3); and GCC replacement at 100% (T4), respectively. During the experiment, concentrate was offered at 0.5% BW while 5% urea-treated rice straw was given at ad libitum. The result revealed that there was no effect of GCC replacement on DMI among treatments. In addition, digestibilities of DM, OM and CP were not different while aNDF linearly increased with an increasing level of GCC replacement. However, GCC replacement did not affect rumen fermentation such as ruminal pH, NH3-N and VFA concentration; except C3 proportion which was the highest at 33% replacement while the lowest was at 100% replacement. All replacements of GCC resulted in similar protozoal and bacterial populations and microbial protein synthesis (MPS). Purine derivatives (PD) concentration in urine and PD to creatinine (PDC) index were varied with time of urination and among treatments at 0 to 8 and 8 to 16 h post feeding and higher values were shown among the GCC replacement groups. However at 16 to 24 h-post feeding, it was untraceable. In addition, creatinine concentration was similar among all treatments at every sampling time. Based on the above results, GCC can be used as an energy source for swamp buffalo fed with rice straw. Spot sampling of urine can be used for purine derivatives determination. PMID:25049671

Wanapat, M; Pilajun, R; Kang, S; Setyaningsih, K; Setyawan, A R

2012-08-01

185

Sequential Cross-Species Chromosome Painting among River Buffalo, Cattle, Sheep and Goat: A Useful Tool for Chromosome Abnormalities Diagnosis within the Family Bovidae  

PubMed Central

The main goal of this study was to develop a comparative multi-colour Zoo-FISH on domestic ruminants metaphases using a combination of whole chromosome and sub-chromosomal painting probes obtained from the river buffalo species (Bubalus bubalis, 2n?=?50,XY). A total of 13 DNA probes were obtained through chromosome microdissection and DOP-PCR amplification, labelled with two fluorochromes and sequentially hybridized on river buffalo, cattle (Bos taurus, 2n?=?60,XY), sheep (Ovis aries, 2n?=?54,XY) and goat (Capra hircus, 2n?=?60,XY) metaphases. The same set of paintings were then hybridized on bovine secondary oocytes to test their potential use for aneuploidy detection during in vitro maturation. FISH showed excellent specificity on metaphases and interphase nuclei of all the investigated species. Eight pairs of chromosomes were simultaneously identified in buffalo, whereas the same set of probes covered 13 out 30 chromosome pairs in the bovine and goat karyotypes and 40% of the sheep karyotype (11 out of 27 chromosome pairs). This result allowed development of the first comparative M-FISH karyotype within the domestic ruminants. The molecular resolution of complex karyotypes by FISH is particularly useful for the small chromosomes, whose similarity in the banding patterns makes their identification very difficult. The M-FISH karyotype also represents a practical tool for structural and numerical chromosome abnormalities diagnosis. In this regard, the successful hybridization on bovine secondary oocytes confirmed the potential use of this set of probes for the simultaneous identification on the same germ cell of 12 chromosome aneuploidies. This is a fundamental result for monitoring the reproductive health of the domestic animals in relation to management errors and/or environmental hazards. PMID:25330006

Pauciullo, Alfredo; Perucatti, Angela; Cosenza, Gianfranco; Iannuzzi, Alessandra; Incarnato, Domenico; Genualdo, Viviana; Di Berardino, Dino; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo

2014-01-01

186

Use of real-time PCR technique in studying rumen cellulolytic bacteria population as affected by level of roughage in swamp buffalo.  

PubMed

A real-time polymerase chain reaction approach was used in this study to determine the population of major ruminal bacterial species (Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus, and Ruminococcus flavefaciens) in digesta and rumen fluid of swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Four rumen-fistulated, male swamp buffalo were randomly assigned according to a 4 x 4 Latin square design to evaluate the effect of the urea-treated rice straw (roughage source)-to-concentrate ratio on cellulolytic bacterial distribution. Animals were fed roughage-to-concentrate (R:C) ratios of 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, and 25:75, respectively. At the end of each period, rumen fluid and digesta were collected at 0 h and 4 h post-morning-feeding. It was found that feeding urea-treated rice straw solely increased these three cellulolytic bacteria numbers up to 2.65 x 10(9) and 3.54 x 10(9) copies per milliliter for F. succinogenes, 5.10 x 10(7) and 7.40 x 10(7) copies per milliliter for R. flavefaciens, and 4.00 x 10(6) and 6.00 x 10(6) copies per milliliter for R. albus in rumen fluid and digesta, respectively. The distribution of the three cellulolytic bacteria species in digesta were highest at 3.21 x 10(9), 4.55 x 10(7), and 4.56 x 10(6) copies per milliliter for F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens, and R. albus, respectively. Moreover, at 4 h post-morning-feeding, the populations of the three cellulolytic bacteria were higher than found at 0 h post-morning-feeding. It is most notable that F. succinogenes were the highest in population in the rumen of swamp buffalo and cellulolytic bacteria mostly adhered to feed digesta in the rumen. PMID:19018588

Wanapat, Metha; Cherdthong, Anusorn

2009-04-01

187

Chromosome constitution of a hybrid between East African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) and Dwarf Forest Buffalo  

E-print Network

NOTE Chromosome constitution of a hybrid between East African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer-en-Josas (Prance) Summary The chromosome constitution of a male hybrid of first backcross between a female Fi East Buffalo (Syncerus cagey nanus) had a chromosome number of 53: zi acro- centric pairs, 2 unpaired

Boyer, Edmond

188

Buffalo News -Buffalo seen as possible link with supercomputer network Subscribe Today -2 weeks FREE  

E-print Network

FREE GO TO BUFFALO.COM Monday, November 8, 2004 Partly cloudy 42°F / 6°C more weather>> Business Today popular stories More by this author Buffalo seen as possible link with supercomputer network By FRED O troves of data they need for computer models. "We're completely balkanized on our campuses," said Larry

Miller, Russ

189

OVERVIEW OF AMERICAN BRASS BUFFALO PLANT FROM ROOF OF STRAND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERVIEW OF AMERICAN BRASS BUFFALO PLANT FROM ROOF OF STRAND ANNEALING TOWER, INCLUDING ORIGINAL BRASS MILL (1906-7,1911) TUBE MILL (1915), COPPER MILL (1921). - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

190

OVERVIEW OF AMERICAN BRASS BUFFALO PLANT FROM ROOF OF STRAND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERVIEW OF AMERICAN BRASS BUFFALO PLANT FROM ROOF OF STRAND ANNEALING TOWER, INCLUDING CASTING SHOP AND BAG HOUSE (CENTER-LEFT) AND PORTION OF REROLL BAY (R). VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

191

Assignment of PCR markers to river buffalo chromosomes  

E-print Network

Note Assignment of PCR markers to river buffalo chromosomes Hanaa A. Oraby Soheir M. El Nahas H syntenic groups have also been reported in cattle, where they have been assigned to chromosomes BTA 12, BTA to river buffalo chromosomes BBU 13, BBU 16 and BBU 18, respectively. © Inra/Elsevier, Paris buffalo

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

192

RAW COPPER SLABS USED IN CASTING OPERATIONS AT BUFFALO PLANT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

RAW COPPER SLABS USED IN CASTING OPERATIONS AT BUFFALO PLANT OF AMERICAN BRASS COMPANY. MATERIALS STORAGE FOR THE CAST SHOP NOW OCCUPIES A PORTION OF THE ORIGINAL BRASS MILL BUILT BY THE BUFFALO COPPER AND BRASS ROLLING MILL IN 1906-07 AND EXPANDED IN 1911. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

193

University at Buffalo (SUNY) Department of Industrial Engineering Scheduling Theory  

E-print Network

1 University at Buffalo (SUNY) Department of Industrial Engineering IE 661 Scheduling Theory Course Introduction Rakesh Nagi Department of Industrial Engineering University at Buffalo (SUNY) #12;2 University at Buffalo (SUNY) Department of Industrial Engineering About the course This graduate level course covers

Nagi, Rakesh

194

http://www.cubs.buffalo.edu Pattern Recognition  

E-print Network

http://www.cubs.buffalo.edu Pattern Recognition Classification cost Biometric system errors ROC curve #12;http://www.cubs.buffalo.edu Bayesian classification · Bayes classification rule: classify x samples of class 1 2 - the cost of misclassifying samples of class 2 #12;http://www.cubs.buffalo.edu Total

Govindaraju, Venu

195

Morphological features of spermatozoa of swamp buffalo AI bulls in Thailand.  

PubMed

The appearance and incidence of sperm abnormalities was studied in 115 ejaculates, collected periodically over 1 year covering all seasons from five mature, healthy swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls reared under tropical conditions and serving as the current source of semen for artificial insemination (AI) in Thailand. Light microscopy of stained smears was used to investigate sperm head shape morphology, while unstained wet smears were used to examine other sperm abnormalities. The most commonly found morphological aberrations were pear-shaped spermatozoa, knobbed acrosomes, proximal cytoplasmic droplets, simple bent tails and coiled tails under the head, whose ultrastructure (scanning electron microscopy) corresponded to what has been found in other species of bovidae, including varieties of buffalo. The mean prevalence (as least squares mean +/- SEM) of sperm abnormalities was low (below 15%), corresponding to healthy spermiograms. The younger bulls (<10 years old, n = 3) had less abnormalities than the older ones (10.1 +/- 0.6% versus 14.1 +/- 0.8%, P < 0.001, n = 2), including abnormalities of sperm head shape (1.1 +/- 0.3% versus 3.6 +/- 0.3, P < 0.001), acrosome defects with knobbed acrosomes (1.1 +/- 0.2% versus 1.2 +/- 0.3%, P < 0.001), spermatozoa with proximal cytoplasmic droplets (2.7 +/- 0.1% versus 1.4 +/- 0.2%, P < 0.001), defective mid-pieces (0.2 +/- 0.1% versus 0.3 +/- 0.1%) and abnormal sperm tails (3.1 +/- 0.3% versus 5.7 +/- 0.4%, P < 0.001). The within-bull effect of the year solely affected the incidence of pear-shaped spermatozoa while the incidences of abnormal contour, variable size of sperm head shapes, abnormal mid-piece and simple bent tail among bulls were affected by ejaculate (week of collection). Interaction between age and ejaculate affected only the prevalence of spermatozoa with proximal cytoplasmic droplets. In conclusion, the types of defects encountered were similar to those found in other bovidae, with a very low prevalence over the year the AI sires were followed through. PMID:17493162

Koonjaenak, S; Chanatinart, V; Ekwall, H; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

2007-05-01

196

Casting the Buffalo Commons: A Rhetorical Analysis of Print Media Coverage of the Buffalo Commons Proposal for the Great Plains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1987, Frank and Deborah Popper, a planner/geographer team from Rutgers University, proposed the Buffalo Commons. If implemented, the Buffalo Commons would have preserved a large area of the Great Plains, including land in ten states, in a national park to be used by exiting Native American reservations, and for the reintroduction of buffalo.

Umberger, Mary L.

2002-01-01

197

Rumen Microorganisms in Buffalo from Southern Utah  

PubMed Central

Rumen microbial populations from buffalo (Bison bison bison Linn.) in southern Utah were identified on the basis of their morphology and staining characteristics. The rumen bacteria and ciliate protozoa were similar in number and kind to those found in domestic livestock. PMID:16349763

Pearson, Henry A.

1967-01-01

198

2002-03 Pro Forma Buffalo Joe's  

E-print Network

, Chicken & Dogs Buffalo Joe's Burger King Chicago Style Carryouts The Chicken Shack DD Dogs Homer's McDonald it with the food offerings of Kafé Kellogg, Evanston offers a huge variety of meal options ­ from Thai to pizza to Mexican. Armed with these guides to dining in Evanston, you should be able to fulfill all your food

Grzybowski, Bartosz A.

199

Geology Fieldnotes: Buffalo National River, Arkansas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains information on the Buffalo National River in Arkansas, including geology, park maps, and visitor information. It discusses landscape formations, the course of the river, and prehistoric sites along the river, which is situated in the Ozarks of Arkansas.

200

Studies on preimplantation development of buffalo embryos.  

PubMed

A total of 71 lactating and nonlactating buffalo-cows of the Murrah breed and F(1)-F(3) crossbreds of Murrah x Bulgarian buffalo were used for a year as donors of embryos after a preliminary treatment for superovulation induction with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) or follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in combination with prostaglandin F-2 alpha analog (PGF-2 alpha) according to general application procedures in cows. From 36 to 72 h following prostaglandin injection, the buffalo-cows were checked with the help of a teaser bull for detection of estrus. The animals in estrus were inseminated twice either naturally or artificially with frozen semen. Nonsurgical flushing of the uterine horns was done in 45 of the buffalo-cows between 108 and 162 h after the onset of estrus. After slaughter the uterine horns and oviducts of the other 26 animals were flushed separately between 74 and 108 h after the beginning of estrus. Seven late morulae and eight hatched blastocysts were recovered between 114 and 116 h from the onset of estrus as a result of nonsurgical flushing. All of the 40 embryos recovered after 117 h were in the hatched blastocyst stage. As a result of flushing the oviducts and the uterine horns of slaughtered donors between 74 and 100 h, eggs were obtained only from the oviducts, while flushing conducted between 102 and 108 yielded eggs from both the oviducts and the uterine horns. PMID:16726357

Karaivanov, C; Vlahov, K; Petrov, M; Kacheva, D; Stojanova, M; Alexiev, A; Polihronov, O; Danev, A

1987-11-01

201

Snow From Great Lakes Covers Buffalo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On November 20, 2000, Buffalo, New York was blanketed by a late-autumn storm that left 25 inches of snow on the ground in a 24-hour period, most of it during the afternoon rush hour. Buffalo officials declared a state of emergency and New York National Guardsmen were called in to assist with clearing snow from roads. With the exception of essential vehicles or people retrieving stranded children, all driving was banned in the city. This SeaWiFS pass over the central United States and Canada depicts a source for all of the snow in Buffalo. Cold, dry Canadian air blowing toward the southeast picked up a lot of moisture from the relatively warm Great Lakes -- forming the clouds that lightened their loads over Buffalo. This image was acquired November 21, 2000, by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) flying aboard the Orbview-2 satellite. Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

202

HISTORY OF THE BUFFALO CREEK VALLEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archaeological evidence in and around the Buffalo Creek watershed suggests that this area had a role in supporting early North American civilizations. Only miles away from the watershed, in the town of Avella, is the Meadowcroft Rock Shelter, an archaeological site considered to be one of the first places of human habitation in the United States. The rock shelter was

Michael A. Vacca; Ron Eisert

203

33 CFR 117.773 - Buffalo River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...117.773 Buffalo River. (a) The draw of the Michigan Avenue bridge, mile 1...From March 22 through December 15, the draw shall open within 20 minutes of signal. However, the draw need not open from 7:30 a.m. to...

2010-07-01

204

33 CFR 117.773 - Buffalo River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...if notice is given at least 4 hours in advance of a vessel's time of intended passage through the draws. (d) The South Park Avenue bridge, mile 5.3, at Buffalo, shall open on signal if notice is given at least 4 hours in advance of...

2011-07-01

205

Haff Disease: Rhabdomyolysis After Eating Buffalo Fish  

PubMed Central

Haff disease, rhabdomyolysis after ingesting certain types of fish, was first reported in 1924 in Europe. There have been a limited number of cases reported in the United States. We present the case of a patient who presents with symptoms of rhabdomyolysis after eating cooked buffalo fish purchased at a suburban grocery market.

Herman, Linda L.; Bies, Christine

2014-01-01

206

In vitro evaluation of liquid-stored buffalo semen at 5°C diluted in soya lecithin based extender (Bioxcell®), tris-citric egg yolk, skim milk and egg yolk-citrate extenders.  

PubMed

This study was designed to compare the quality of liquid-stored buffalo bull spermatozoa in soya lecithin based extender Bioxcell(®) (BIOX), milk (MILK), tris-citric egg yolk (TEY) and egg yolk-citrate (EYC) extender at 5°C. Semen was collected from five Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls of 6-7 years of age with artificial vagina over a period of 3 weeks (two consecutive ejaculates once in a week). Semen ejaculates having more than 60% motility were pooled, split into four aliquots, diluted (37°C; 10 × 10(6) motile spermatozoa/ml), cooled from 37 to 5°C in 2 h (0.275°C/min) and stored for 5 days. Sperm motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity (PMI) and normal acrosomal ridge were studied at first, third and fifth day of storage. Higher values of progressive sperm motility (%), sperm viability (%), sperm PMI (%) and normal apical ridge (%) were observed in BIOX, MILK and TEY extenders at first, third and fifth day of storage than EYC extender. Progressive sperm motility, sperm viability and sperm PMI in BIOX(®) extender were not different from MILK and TEY extenders at 1st and third day storage period. However, at fifth day of storage, the values for these parameters remained significantly higher (p<0.05) in BIOX(®) compared with MILK, TEY and EYC extenders. At fifth day of storage, the semen quality parameters for Bioxcell(®) were comparable to those with MILK and TEY extenders at third day of storage. In conclusion, motility, viability and PMI of buffalo bull spermatozoa remained similar in Bioxcell(®) , milk and TEY extender at first and third days of storage at 5°C. Yet, the values for the aforementioned parameters in Bioxcell(®) were higher compared with milk, TEY and EYC extender at fifth day of storage at 5°C. PMID:20070582

Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Rakha, B A; Ullah, N; Andrabi, S M H; Khalid, M

2011-02-01

207

Quality of cooked ground buffalo meat treated with the crude extracts of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted to evaluate the physico-chemical, microbial and organoleptic qualities of cooked ground buffalo meat\\u000a (GBM), treated with, 1, 1.5 and 2% levels of aqueous solution of crude extract of drumstick (Moringa oleifera) leaves. The\\u000a meat samples treated with 1.5% crude extract of drumstick leaves significantly (P?water holding capacity (WHC) and lowered cooking

Suchandra Hazra; Subhasish Biswas; Debasish Bhattacharyya; Sudip Kumar Das; Anupam Khan

208

Determination of Vitamin A from Buffalo Milk Using HPLC Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

HPLC is a very sensitive method and also allows for the separation and determination of mixed vitamins, in very low concentrations. A number of 10 samples of Romanian buffalo milk were taken in wintertime, in order to detect the concentration of vitamin A using HPLC. Comparing the chromatograms of buffalo milk obtained is shown that there is a good correlation

Aurelia PECE; Adela PINTEA; Constantin BELE; Gheorghe MURESAN; Cristian COROIAN

209

33 CFR 110.84b - Buffalo, N.Y.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

The area within the Port of Buffalo known as Port of Buffalo Small Boat Harbor commencing at a point on shore at latitude 42°51?05? N., longitude 78°51?55? W.; thence 240° to rip-rap dike thence following the dike to the shoreline; thence along the shoreline to the point of...

2010-07-01

210

"Just Following the Buffalo": Origins of a Montana Metis Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By 1879 the vast buffalo herds were all but gone from the Great Plains. Many of the remaining animals had moved south from the Milk River of northern Montana and Alberta into the Judith Basin of central Montana. In these rich grasslands, for a few more years, life went on as it had for centuries. Following the buffalo came many Indian bands, as…

Foster, Martha Harroun

2006-01-01

211

Consumer Unawareness and Competitive Strategies Department of Economics, SUNY at Buffalo, zl24@buffalo.edu  

E-print Network

Consumer Unawareness and Competitive Strategies Zhen Liu Department of Economics, SUNY at Buffalo.qiu@mcgill.ca Abstract Many purchase decisions rely on complex information. In reality, some consumers may not be well informed and unaware of their lack of information, a situation termed consumer unawareness. This paper

Niebur, Ernst

212

Biological Survey Buffalo River and Outer Harbor of Buffalo, N.Y  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shoreline of the Buffalo River is developed with heavy industry such as Republic Steel, Allied Chemical, Mobil Oil and numerous grain elevators. Similarly, on southeast shore o f the Outer Harbor, heavy industry such as Bethlehem Steel, Huron Cement and Lackawanna Steel is evident. On the eastern shore o f the Outer Harbor, freighters unload salt, taconite, coal, etc.

Joseph C. Makarewicz; Ronald C. Dilcher; James M. Haynes; Karl Shump

1982-01-01

213

Insights into resistome and stress responses genes in Bubalus bubalis rumen through metagenomic analysis.  

PubMed

Buffalo rumen microbiota experience variety of diets and represents a huge reservoir of mobilome, resistome and stress responses. However, knowledge of metagenomic responses to such conditions is still rudimentary. We analyzed the metagenomes of buffalo rumen in the liquid and solid phase of the rumen biomaterial from river buffalo adapted to varying proportion of concentrate to green or dry roughages, using high-throughput sequencing to know the occurrence of antibiotics resistance genes, genetic exchange between bacterial population and environmental reservoirs. A total of 3914.94 MB data were generated from all three treatments group. The data were analysed with Metagenome rapid annotation system tools. At phyla level, Bacteroidetes were dominant in all the treatments followed by Firmicutes. Genes coding for functional responses to stress (oxidative stress and heat shock proteins) and resistome genes (resistance to antibiotics and toxic compounds, phages, transposable elements and pathogenicity islands) were prevalent in similar proportion in liquid and solid fraction of rumen metagenomes. The fluoroquinolone resistance, MDR efflux pumps and Methicillin resistance genes were broadly distributed across 11, 9, and 14 bacterial classes, respectively. Bacteria responsible for phages replication and prophages and phage packaging and rlt-like streptococcal phage genes were mostly assigned to phyla Bacteroides, Firmicutes and proteaobacteria. Also, more reads matching the sigma B genes were identified in the buffalo rumen. This study underscores the presence of diverse mechanisms of adaptation to different diet, antibiotics and other stresses in buffalo rumen, reflecting the proportional representation of major bacterial groups. PMID:24985977

Reddy, Bhaskar; Singh, Krishna M; Patel, Amrutlal K; Antony, Ancy; Panchasara, Harshad J; Joshi, Chaitanya G

2014-10-01

214

Setaria cervi : Enzymes of glycolysis and PEP-succinate pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Setaria cervi, the filarial parasite inhabiting the Indian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis Linn.) contained almost all the enzymes involved in glycogen degradation. Significant activities of glycogen phosphorylase, glucokinase, phosphoglucomutase, phosphoglucose isomerase, phosphofructokinase, FDP-aldolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphopyruvate hydratase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase were detected in cell-free extracts of whole worms.

Nuzhat Anwar; Afzal A. Ansari; S. Ghatak; C. R. Krishna Murti

1977-01-01

215

Interspecific Comparisons and the Potential Importance of Nutrient Excretion by Benthic Fishes in a Large Reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fishes can provide an important link between benthic and pelagic habitats by removing nutrients from sediments and excreting them into the water column. The relative importance of nutrients excreted by fishes to ecosystem productivity may vary among species and with abiotic conditions. I measured excretion rates of three benthic feeding fishes, gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum, smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus, and

Keith B. Gido

2002-01-01

216

Effect of Stream Impoundment in Tennessee on the Fish Populations of Tributary Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from a statewide survey of warm water streams in Tennessee were used to determine the extent to which gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), carp (Cyprinus carpio), smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus), and drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) inhabit smallmouth bass-rock bass streams. Reproduction of those species in tributary streams was minor or absent. By comparing samples from streams that were accessible from an

C. E. Ruhr

1957-01-01

217

Genetic Variation and Phylogenetic Relationships of Indian Buffaloes of Uttar Pradesh  

PubMed Central

India possesses a total buffalo population of 105 million out of which 26.1% inhabit Uttar Pradesh. The buffalo of Uttar Pradesh are described as nondescript or local buffaloes. Currently, there is no report about the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationship and matrilineal genetic structure of these buffaloes. To determine the origin and genetic diversity of UP buffaloes, we sequenced and analysed the mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequences in 259 samples from entire Uttar Pradesh. One hundred nine haplotypes were identified in UP buffaloes that were defined by 96 polymorphic sites. We implemented neutrality tests to assess signatures of recent historical demographic events like Tajima’s D test and Fu’s Fs test. The phylogenetic studies revealed that there was no geographic differentiation and UP buffaloes had a single maternal lineage while buffaloes of Eastern UP were distinctive from rest of the UP buffaloes. PMID:25049904

Joshi, Jyoti; Salar, R. K.; Banerjee, Priyanka; S, Upasna; Tantia, M. S.; Vijh, R. K.

2013-01-01

218

INDUSTRIAL WASTE AND PRETREATMENT IN THE BUFFALO MUNICIPAL SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The requirements and affects of the combined treatment of industrial and domestic wastewaters were investigated for the Buffalo Sewer Authority's sewerage system. A comprehensive industrial waste survey was performed to obtain the required background information on industrial dis...

219

Cryogenic changes in seminal protein of cattle and buffalo.  

PubMed

The effect of subzero temperatures on the electrophoretic pattern of seminal plasma protein of cattle and buffalo was studied. The profiles of the seminal proteins of these two closely related species differed considerably. Cattle had 11 proteins in the anodic system (pH 8.6) and none in the cathodic system (pH 4.3), while buffalo have 19 in the anodic system (pH 8.6) and 2 proteins in the cathodic system (pH 4.3). Freezing of semen at -5 degrees C for 24 h caused aggregation of seminal proteins in both species. A higher aggregation and loss of proteins were observed when freezing was done in liquid nitrogen at -196 degrees C. The effect was more pronounced in buffalo than in cattle. Loss of more seminal plasma proteins due to cryoinjury in buffalo semen may account for its poorer freezability than that of cattle semen. PMID:16726543

Muer, S K; Roy, S B; Mohan, G; Dhoble, R L

1988-01-01

220

Efficiency of ciprofloxacin for bacterial control, post-thaw quality, and in vivo fertility of buffalo spermatozoa.  

PubMed

Ciprofloxacin (CP) was evaluated for bacterial control, post-thaw quality, and fertility of buffalo semen. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus sp., Corynebacterium sp., Micrococcus sp., and Staphylococcus sp. were isolated from buffalo semen. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Corynebacterium sp., and Micrococcus sp. were resistant to streptomycin, whereas P. aeruginosa and Proteus sp. were resistant to penicillin. All bacteria were susceptible to CP. In vitro dose toxicity was assessed in sodium citrate buffer containing 0, 200 to 2000 ?g/mL of CP. CP up to 1000 ?g/mL was found nontoxic to motility and viability of buffalo sperm. For post-thaw quality, buffalo semen was frozen in Tris-citric acid extender containing streptomycin-penicillin (SP; 1000 ?g/mL-1000 IU/mL) or CP 600 ?g/mL and was assessed for total aerobic bacterial count (post-thaw), motility, plasma membrane integrity, viability at 0, 2, and 4 hours post-thaw. At 4 hours post-thaw, plasma membrane integrity (%) was higher (P < 0.05) in extender containing CP than SP. Total aerobic bacterial count was 0.00 in extender containing CP compared with 0.07 × 10(4) cfu/mL with SP. To assess the in vivo fertility rate, semen (two bulls) frozen in Tris-citric acid extender containing SP or CP was used to inseminate, and 400 inseminations (200/group) were recorded. Higher (P ? 0.05) fertility rate was recorded with CP (55%) compared with SP (41%). In conclusion, use of CP in extender was efficient to control the bacterial contamination without compromising the post-thaw quality and fertility of cryopreserved water buffalo bull semen. PMID:23746693

Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Rakha, B A; Andrabi, S M H; Qadeer, S; Iqbal, R; Ullah, N

2013-09-01

221

Identification and IVC of spermatogonial stem cells in prepubertal buffaloes.  

PubMed

Development of suitable selective marker for buffalo spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), optimization of long-term IVC conditions, and their pluripotent retention capacity in buffaloes can be of prime importance in selective genetic modifications of this species. In the present study, we identified CDH1 as a specific marker for buffalo SSCs and revealed that it existed in two protein isoforms (large [135 kDa] and small [90 kDa] subunits) in the buffalo testis; furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CDH1 expression was present in spermatogonia but absent in the somatic cells of 4-month-old buffalo testis. After 7 days of enrichment, expression of CDH1 was also detectable in IVC colonies (?53% enrichment efficiency by Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)). For long-term culture of SSCs, proliferation studies with different factors showed that combination of 20 ng/mL GDNF, 10 ng/mL FGF2, and 1000 U/mL LIF could significantly promote number of colonies (?two folds) and proliferation of buffalo SSCs (?three folds) compared with those of control or single-treatment groups; furthermore, addition of these combination growth factors significantly upregulated the messenger RNA level of spermatogonial-specific and pluripotency-related markers (BCL6B, GFRA1, and POU5F1), whereas downregulated receptor tyrosine kinase (KIT). For confirmation of their stem cell potential, Dolichos biflorus agglutinin-stained cells were identified in the basal membrane of seminiferous tubules of xenotransplanted mice testis. These findings indicate the identification of a new buffalo SSCs marker; furthermore, it may help in establishing long-term culture that would assist in genetic modification of these buffaloes. PMID:24703765

Yu, Xue; Riaz, Hasan; Dong, Ping; Chong, Zhenlu; Luo, Xuan; Liang, Aixin; Yang, Liguo

2014-06-01

222

Geography & Map Resources: University of Buffalo Libraries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's often difficult to find high-quality and well-curated lists of materials related to geography and cartography online. However, this collection created by David J. Bertuca, the subject librarian for geography at the University of Buffalo Libraries, serves as a rich trove of resources. The items here are divided into over a dozen headings, including Government Resources and Map Collections. Each area contains at least ten offerings with BertucaâÂÂs own salient commentary on the contents of each site, tool, collection, or application. The Selected Blogs feature is a real treat as it includes links to the fun and informative worlds of Google Maps Mania and Strange Maps. Visitors can also contact Bertuca directly to suggest links or to inquire about other resources.

223

SUNY-Buffalo Libraries Digital Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Website, created and maintained by the University at Buffalo Libraries, offers extensive links to full-text, online versions of popular government documents on such topics as aging, the Census, employment, consumer information, copyrights, domestic violence, health, education, the environment, home safety, parenting, small businesses, social security, taxes, travel, and wildlife. Some of the sections are updated more recently than others, but all of them are still actively maintained and provide HTML or .pdf versions of the kinds of government documents that ordinary citizens may actually want to consult. Another portion of the site contains extensive materials taken from the library's Love Canal Collection. This section provides background information on the Love Canal contamination which occurred in the 1970s and the controversy over its effects on the surrounding populace as well as numerous pertinent documents, including EPA analyses, court opinions, reports by interfaith advocates for government and industry action, and much more.

224

Aransas-Wood Buffalo Whooping Crane Abundance Survey (2011-2012).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Aransas-Wood Buffalo population of Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) is the last wild migratory flock of the species. Twice yearly the population makes the more than 4000 km migration between their nesting territories near Canadas Wood Buffalo National...

2012-01-01

225

Detection of cow milk in cooked buffalo Mozzarella used as Pizza topping  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most popular worldwide meals is Pizza. Among the main ingredients, buffalo or cow Mozzarella are the cheeses most widely used. Different prices between buffalo and cow Mozzarella can stimulate frauds but it is unknown whether the European official method can differentiate Mozzarella from cow or buffalo milk after oven cooking when used as a Pizza topping. Preliminary

F. Locci; R. Ghiglietti; S. Francolino; R. Iezzi; V. Oliviero; A. Garofalo; G. Mucchetti

2008-01-01

226

A comprehensive review on the composition and properties of buffalo milk  

E-print Network

and properties of buffalo milk (BM). Buffalo milk has higher levels of fat, lactose, protein, ash and Ca levels of phosphorylation. The activities of several enzymes in BM are presented and discussed products. Buffaloes are widely distributed throughout Asia, the Middle East, Europe, China, South America

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

227

University at Buffalo CENTER FOR COMPUTATIONAL RESEARCH CCRUB High-Performance Computing + High  

E-print Network

University at Buffalo CENTER FOR COMPUTATIONAL RESEARCH CCRUB High-Performance Computing + High of Mathematics CCR #12;University at Buffalo CENTER FOR COMPUTATIONAL RESEARCH CCRUB Major Initial Focus of CCRGlobal Climate Change #12;University at Buffalo CENTER FOR COMPUTATIONAL RESEARCH CCRUB High Performance

Pitman, Bruce

228

Occurrence of Chrysomya bezziana in a buffalo in Jammu.  

PubMed

Cutaneous myiasis caused by the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, is a commonly occurring infestation of livestock and man in Southeast Asian and African countries. A buffalo, aged five years was presented with traumatic wound in the abnormal growth at the base of tail, housing maggots in it. Based on morphological features, the collected larvae were identified as C. bezziana larvae. The first ever occurrence of C. bezziana in a buffalo from this part of country and its public health significance have been discussed. PMID:25320496

Katoch, R; Godara, R; Yadav, Anish; Sharma, Shikha; Ahmad, Irshad

2014-12-01

229

No Retreat: Lorna Peterson--University at Buffalo, NY  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When Clark Atlanta University announced in 2003 it would close its library school, Lorna Peterson, a library educator at the University at Buffalo, NY, mounted a campaign to save the program, which has graduated more black library leaders than any other. "I did not want this to happen without a fight. It cannot be said that librarians, Friends of…

Library Journal, 2005

2005-01-01

230

Obesity and sleep: the Buffalo Police health study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study aims to look at the prevalence of obesity and its association with sleep problems among police officers. Design\\/methodology\\/value – The authors conducted a cross-sectional study of the relationship between obesity and sleep disorders among 110 randomly selected police officers from the Buffalo, New York, Police Department in 1999. Participants, who ranged in age from 26 to

Luenda E. Charles; Cecil M. Burchfiel; Desta Fekedulegn; Michael E. Andrew; John M. Violanti; Bryan Vila

2007-01-01

231

Milk Production in Lactating Buffalo Receiving Recombinantly Produced Bovine Somatotropin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty healthy Murrah buffalo (Buba- lus bubalis) in their second to fourth lac- tations were selected from the herd at the National Dairy Research Institute, Kamal, Haryana, India, for use in a 35-d study to determine the effects of recombinantly produced bovine somatotropin 1 on milk production, milk composition, and dry matter intake. Treatments were daily in- jections of 0,

R. S. Ludri; R. C. Upadhyay; Mahendra Singh; J. R. M. Guneratne; R. P. Basson

1989-01-01

232

Native American Casinos: The New Buffalo? Jeremy Bylund  

E-print Network

1 Native American Casinos: The New Buffalo? Jeremy Bylund The Federal Government of the United States views Native American gaming as the primary tool for economic revitalization on native research about the impact of Indian gambling on the Native American population as a whole. The evidences

Jarvis, Tyler J.

233

ARTHRITIS AND NATURE'S JOINTS NEIL E. WILLIAMS (University at Buffalo)  

E-print Network

ARTHRITIS AND NATURE'S JOINTS NEIL E. WILLIAMS (University at Buffalo) forthcoming: MIT Press form natural kinds tends not to sit well with the essentialist treatment of natural kinds with the essentialist treatment of natural kinds, and not with treating disease as forming natural kinds. A similar

Williams, Neil E.

234

Toxicological effects of monocrotophos on microorganisms in the rumen of Bubalus bubalis.  

PubMed

Repeated oral administration of monocrotophos in doses of 0.5 and 2.0 mg.kg-1.d-1 produced a significant reduction in the total number of protozoa (31-40%) in the rumen of buffalo calves. However, the insecticide has no appreciable effect on the total bacterial count. Rumen pH declined significantly with both doses of insecticide. In the differential protozoal count, different doses of monocrotophos caused an increase in the percentage of Dasytrichia, Epidinium and other protozoa; however, the percentage of Isotrichia and Diplodinium significantly decreased. PMID:2781592

Sandhu, H S; Singh, T J

1989-09-01

235

Effect of Corticosteroid on Uterine Involution and Reproductive Efficiency in Postpartum Nili-Ravi Buffaloes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of corticosteroid on uterine involution and blood picture was studied. Two injections of dexamethasone sodium phosphate, each of 16 mg, were given to eight buffaloes on day 1 and 8 postpartum. Eight buffaloes were kept as control. Uterine involution was completed significantly (P<0.05) earlier in treated than in control buffaloes (23±0.56 vs. 29±0.50 days). The parity and sex

M. H. Gill; R. A. Chaudhry; T. Rahil; K. R. Chohan

1992-01-01

236

Evaluation of quality and shelf life of buffalo meat keema at refrigerated storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific basis on the quality changes of traditional keema will boost and sustain meat production and utilization in buffalo\\u000a abundant countries. A programme was undertaken to determine the influence of age and gender on the quality of buffalo meat\\u000a keema at refrigerator storage (4?±?1 °C). Buffalo meat keema was evaluated by analyzing the changes in physicochemical, microbiological\\u000a and sensory attributes. The

G. Kandeepan; A. S. R. Anjaneyulu; N. Kondaiah; S. K. Mendiratta; R. S. Rajkumar

237

Mortality among cattle and buffaloes in Sri Lanka due to haemorrhagic septicaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the mortality of cattle and buffaloes in 62 epizootics of haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) in the HS enzootic and non-enzootic regions of Sri Lanka was collected and subjected to statistical analysis. It was found that the overall mortality for buffaloes was higher than for cattle (45.2 and 15.8% respectively,P<0.001). For buffaloes in enzootic areas only the overall mortality was

M. C. L. Alwis

1981-01-01

238

Department of Anthropology University at Buffalo, State University of New York  

E-print Network

Department of Anthropology University at Buffalo, State University of New York Position Announcement Assistant Professor in Biological Anthropology with Specialization in Bioarchaeology The Department of Anthropology invites applications

McCombe, Bruce D.

239

Quality of cooked ground buffalo meat treated with the crude extracts of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) leaves.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to evaluate the physico-chemical, microbial and organoleptic qualities of cooked ground buffalo meat (GBM), treated with, 1, 1.5 and 2% levels of aqueous solution of crude extract of drumstick (Moringa oleifera) leaves. The meat samples treated with 1.5% crude extract of drumstick leaves significantly (P?water holding capacity (WHC) and lowered cooking loss and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value as compared to control and other treated samples. Microbial load in terms of Total Plate Count (TPC) was found to be decreased significantly (P??0.05) difference was observed in juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability scores between the treated meat samples. PMID:23572848

Hazra, Suchandra; Biswas, Subhasish; Bhattacharyya, Debasish; Das, Sudip Kumar; Khan, Anupam

2012-04-01

240

Department of Biomedical Engineering The University at Buffalo, The State University of New York seeks faculty at all ranks  

E-print Network

Department of Biomedical Engineering The University at Buffalo, The State Engineering Department (www.bme.buffalo.edu). The Biomedical Engineering Department must possess a Ph.D. or MD/Ph.D. in Biomedical Engineering or a closely related

Adams, Mark

241

The Buffalo/Spey jet-STOL research aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The program to design and build a Buffalo/Spey Augmentor-Wing research aircraft is presented. The development of an internally blown flap system for the generation of powered lift is discussed. Modification, development, and testing of the Rolls-Royce Spey engine are reported. The ground tests and first flights of the aircraft are described and the application of the internally blown flap concept for short takeoff military transport aircraft is proposed.

Whittley, D. C.

1973-01-01

242

Ruminal ecology of swamp buffalo as influenced by dietary sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four, 3-year old, rumen fistulated swamp buffalo bulls were randomly assigned in a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to received four dietary treatments; factor A=2 sources of energy (cassava chip and corn cobs), factor B=2 levels of urea in concentrate mixture (15 and 30g\\/kg). During the experiment, concentrate was offered at 5g\\/kg BW while 50g\\/kg urea-treated

M. Wanapat; R. Pilajun; P. Kongmun

2009-01-01

243

Diversity analysis of methanogens in rumen of Bubalus bubalis by 16S riboprinting and sequence analysis.  

PubMed

The molecular diversity of rumen methanogens was investigated by 16S rDNA gene library prepared from the rumen contents obtained from Murrah buffaloes in India. Genomic DNA was isolated from adult male fistulated buffaloes and PCR conditions were set up using specific primers. Amplified product was cloned into a suitable vector, and the positive clones were selected assuming based on blue-white screening and sequenced. Positive clones were reamplified and the resulting PCR products were further subjected to Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) by using HaeIII enzyme. A total of 108 clones were examined, and the analysis revealed 16 phylotypes. Out of sixteen phylotypes, nine phylotypes belong to the uncultured group of methanogens, and the rest of seven phylotypes belong to the order Methanomicrobiales, Methanococcales and Methanobacteriales. Out of the 108 rDNA clones, 66 clones which constitute 61.1% of the total clone representing 9 phylotypes, show less than 97% sequence similarity with any of the cultured strain of methanogens. The second largest group of clones (24 clones) represented by four phylotypes show a sequence similarity ranging from 91% to 99% with Methanomicrobium mobile strain of methanogens. The third group of 16S rDNA clones clustered along with M. burtonii strain of methanogens. This group consists of 6 clones and constitutes about 5.5% of the total clones and represented by only single phylotype. Fourth and fifth clusters of 16S rDNA clones consist of 5 and 7 clones respectively, and these were matched with Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii and Methanobrevibacter rumanatium strain of methanogens and constitute about 4.6% and 6.4% of the total clones. PMID:22155312

Chaudhary, Prem Prashant; Sirohi, Sunil Kumar; Saxena, Jyoti

2012-02-01

244

The Olduvai buffalo Pelorovis and the origin of Bos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of the genus Bos is a debated issue. From ˜ 0.5 Ma until historic times, the genus is well known in the Eurasian large mammal assemblages, where it is represented by Bos primigenius. This species has a highly derived cranial anatomy that shows important morphological differences from other Plio-Pleistocene Eurasian genera of the tribe Bovini such as Leptobos, Bison, Proamphibos-Hemibos, and Bubalus. The oldest clear evidence of Bos is the skull fragment ASB-198-1 from the middle Pleistocene (˜ 0.6-0.8 Ma) site of Asbole (Lower Awash Valley, Ethiopia). The first appearance of Bos in Europe is at the site of Venosa-Notarchirico, Italy (˜ 0.5-0.6 Ma). Although the origin of Bos has traditionally been connected with Leptobos and Bison, after a detailed anatomical and morphometric study we propose here a different origin, connecting the middle Pleistocene Eurasian forms of B. primigenius with the African Late Pliocene and early Pleistocene large size member of the tribe Bovini Pelorovis sensu stricto. The dispersal of the Bos lineage in Western Europe during middle Pleistocene times seems to coincide with the arrival of the Acheulean tool technology in this continent.

Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Antonio Pérez-Claros, Juan; Palombo, Maria Rita; Rook, Lorenzo; Palmqvist, Paul

2007-09-01

245

Summary statistics and graphical comparisons of specific conductance, temperature, and dissolved oxygen data, Buffalo Bayou, Houston, Texas, April 1986-March 1991  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Buffalo Bayou is the major stream that drains the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area. The U.S. Geological Survey has provided specific conductance, temperature, and dissolved oxygen data to the City of Houston for three sites along a 7.7-mile reach of Buffalo Bayou since 1986. Summary statistics and graphical comparisons of the data show substantial variability in the properties during 1986-91. Specific conductance ranged from about 100 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius at each of the three sites to 17,100 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius at the most downstream site, at the headwaters of the Houston Ship Channel. Water temperatures ranged from 5 to 33 degrees Celsius. Temperatures were very similar at the two upstream sites and slightly warmer at the most downstream site. Dissolved oxygen ranged from zero at the most downstream site to 11.7 milligrams per liter at the most upstream site.

Brown, D. W.; Paul, E. M.

1995-01-01

246

Dynamics of Mycobacterium and bovine tuberculosis in a Human-Buffalo Population  

PubMed Central

A new model for the transmission dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and bovine tuberculosis in a community, consisting of humans and African buffalos, is presented. The buffalo-only component of the model exhibits the phenomenon of backward bifurcation, which arises due to the reinfection of exposed and recovered buffalos, when the associated reproduction number is less than unity. This model has a unique endemic equilibrium, which is globally asymptotically stable for a special case, when the reproduction number exceeds unity. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses, using data relevant to the dynamics of the two diseases in the Kruger National Park, show that the distribution of the associated reproduction number is less than unity (hence, the diseases would not persist in the community). Crucial parameters that influence the dynamics of the two diseases are also identified. Both the buffalo-only and the buffalo-human model exhibit the same qualitative dynamics with respect to the local and global asymptotic stability of their respective disease-free equilibrium, as well as with respect to the backward bifurcation phenomenon. Numerical simulations of the buffalo-human model show that the cumulative number of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cases in humans (buffalos) decreases with increasing number of bovine tuberculosis infections in humans (buffalo).

Hassan, A. S.; Garba, S. M.; Gumel, A. B.; Lubuma, J. M.-S.

2014-01-01

247

Novel SNP Discovery in African Buffalo, Syncerus caffer, Using High-Throughput Sequencing  

E-print Network

Novel SNP Discovery in African Buffalo, Syncerus caffer, Using High-Throughput Sequencing Nikki le-scale SNP discovery in this species would greatly facilitate further research into the area of host genetics, Noyes H, Brass A, Bradley DG, Kemp SJ, et al. (2012) Novel SNP Discovery in African Buffalo, Syncerus

Steve Kemp

248

33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. ...NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.175 Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed 6...

2013-07-01

249

33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. ...NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.175 Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed 6...

2011-07-01

250

33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. ...NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.175 Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed 6...

2010-07-01

251

33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. ...NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.175 Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed 6...

2014-07-01

252

33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. ...NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.175 Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed 6...

2012-07-01

253

Karyotypic evolution of ribosomal sites in buffalo subspecies and their crossbreed  

PubMed Central

Domestic buffaloes are divided into two group based on cytogenetic characteristics and habitats: the “river buffaloes” with 2n = 50 and the “swamp buffaloes”, 2n = 48. Nevertheless, their hybrids are viable, fertile and identified by a 2n = 49. In order to have a better characterization of these different cytotypes of buffaloes, and considering that NOR-bearing chromosomes are involved in the rearrangements responsible for the karyotypic differences, we applied silver staining (Ag-NOR) and performed fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments using 18S rDNA as probe. Metaphases were obtained through blood lymphocyte culture of 21 individuals, including river, swamp and hybrid cytotypes. Ag-NOR staining revealed active NORs on six chromosome pairs (3p, 4p, 6, 21, 23, 24) in the river buffaloes, whereas the swamp buffaloes presented only five NOR-bearing pairs (4p, 6, 20, 22, 23). The F1 cross-breed had 11 chromosomes with active NORs, indicating expression of both parental chromosomes. FISH analysis confirmed the numerical divergence identified with Ag-NOR. This result is explained by the loss of the NOR located on chromosome 4p in the river buffalo, which is involved in the tandem fusion with chromosome 9 in this subspecies. A comparison with the ancestral cattle karyotype suggests that the NOR found on the 3p of the river buffalo may have originated from a duplication of ribosomal genes, resulting in the formation of new NOR sites in this subspecies. PMID:25071402

Degrandi, Tiago Marafiga; Pita, Sebastian; Panzera, Yanina; de Oliveira, Edivaldo Herculano C.; Marques, José Ribamar Felipe; Figueiró, Marivaldo Rodrigues; Marques, Larissa Coêlho; Vinadé, Lucia; Gunski, Ricardo José; Garnero, Analía Del Valle

2014-01-01

254

Habitat preferences of the secretive forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus) in Central Africa  

E-print Network

Habitat preferences of the secretive forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus) in Central Africa M of Western and Central Africa. Because of its secretive behaviour and main habitat (dense rainforests buffalo is a forest-dwelling species, inhabit- ing the rainforests of Western and Central Africa (Sinclair

Penteriani, Vincenzo

255

Disaster at Buffalo Creek. From chaos to responsibility.  

PubMed

The litigation initiated by the 625 survivors of the Buffalo Creek flood who refused to settle with the coal company claims office was a landmark case. For the first time, individuals who were not present at the scene of a disaster were allowed to recover for mental injuries. Psychic impairment, the term coined for these injuries, was found in virtually all of the survivor-plaintiffs. In an out of court settlement, the survivors were awarded $13.5 million, $6 million of which was distributed on the basis of a point system as compensation for the psychological damages. PMID:1259040

Stern, G M

1976-03-01

256

Identification of Theileria parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo) 18S rRNA gene sequence variants in the African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in southern Africa.  

PubMed

Theileria parva is the causative agent of Corridor disease in cattle in South Africa. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the reservoir host, and, as these animals are important for eco-tourism in South Africa, it is compulsory to test and certify them disease free prior to translocation. A T. parva-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene is one of the tests used for the diagnosis of the parasite in buffalo and cattle in South Africa. However, because of the high similarity between the 18S rRNA gene sequences of T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo), the latter is also amplified by the real-time PCR primers, although it is not detected by the T. parva-specific hybridization probes. Preliminary sequencing studies have revealed a small number of sequence differences within the 18S rRNA gene in both species but the extent of this sequence variation is unknown. The aim of the current study was to sequence the 18S rRNA genes of T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo), and to determine whether all identified genotypes can be correctly detected by the real-time PCR assay. The reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay was used to identify T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo) positive samples from buffalo blood samples originating from the Kruger National Park, Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Park, and a private game ranch in the Hoedspruit area. T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo) were identified in 42% and 28%, respectively, of 252 samples, mainly as mixed infections. The full-length 18S rRNA gene of selected samples was amplified, cloned and sequenced. From a total of 20 sequences obtained, 10 grouped with previously published T. parva sequences from GenBank while 10 sequences grouped with a previously published Theileria sp. (buffalo) sequence. All these formed a monophyletic group with known pathogenic Theileria species. Our phylogenetic analyses confirm the distinction between Theileria sp. (buffalo) and T. parva and indicate the existence of a single group of T. parva and two Theileria sp. (buffalo) 18S rRNA gene variants in the African buffalo. Despite the observed variation in the full-length parasite 18S rRNA gene sequences, the area in the V4 hypervariable region where the RLB and real-time PCR hybridization probes were developed was relatively conserved. The T. parva specific real-time PCR assay was able to successfully detect all T. parva variants and, although amplicons were obtained from Theileria sp. (buffalo) DNA, none of the Theileria sp. (buffalo) 18S rRNA sequence variants were detected by the T. parva-specific hybridization probes. PMID:21700394

Chaisi, Mamohale E; Sibeko, Kgomotso P; Collins, Nicola E; Potgieter, Fred T; Oosthuizen, Marinda C

2011-12-15

257

Isolation and characterization of two distinct growth hormone cDNAs from the tetraploid smallmouth buffalofish (Ictiobus bubalus).  

PubMed

The growth hormone (GH) gene has been characterized for a number of fishes and used to establish phylogenetic relationships and population structures. Analysis of tetraploid fishes, such as salmon and some Asian cyprinids, has shown the presence of two GH genes. Fishes in the sucker family (Catostomidae, Cypriniformes) are also tetraploid, and the present study reports the isolation and characterization of two GH cDNAs from a representative species, the smallmouth buffalofish (Ictiobus bubalus). The GH cDNAs of smallmouth buffalofish are 1272 and 1273nt in length, and each codes for a polypeptide of 210 amino acids, predicted to be cleaved to a final product of 188 aa. The GH cDNAs of smallmouth buffalofish are 6% divergent in nt sequence in the coding region, and there are 16 differences in predicted aa sequence. Because the cDNAs have distinct sequences in coding regions and in UTRs, which differed by more than 10%, they were identified as GHI and GHII. The predicted GHI protein contains 4 Cys residues, homologous to other vertebrate GH sequences. On the other hand, GHII has 5 Cys residues, homologous to other ostariophysan sequences. GHI and GHII are most similar to other cypriniform fishes for both nt and protein sequences. Phylogenetically, the sequences of smallmouth buffalofish GH consistently grouped with Asian cyprinids, but not loaches, consistent with morphological evidence suggesting that suckers are most closely related to minnows. PMID:15081842

Clements, Mark D; Bart, Henry L; Hurley, David L

2004-05-01

258

Survey Level Report of the Upper Buffalo Creek Ditch Enlargement Project, Dunklin County, Arkansas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An intensive survey for prehistoric, historic and architectural resources within the Upper Buffalo Creek Ditch Enlargement PRoject area in northwestern Mississippi County, Arkansas, and southern Dunklin County, Missouri, was conducted in June and July 197...

C. H. LeeDecker

1980-01-01

259

Immunological studies on seminal plasma proteins of the Indian buffalo and cattle.  

PubMed

Seminal plasma proteins of the Indian buffalo and cattle were immunologically investigated using rabbit antibuffalo seminal plasma serum, rabbit anticattle seminal plasma serum (unabsorbed and absorbed), gel diffusion, and immunoelectrophoretic analysis. At least 9-12 and 7-10 different proteins, respectively, were present in the seminal plasma of the buffalo and cattle. Albumin and IgG were identified in both the species. At least 4-6 seminal plasma proteins of the buffalo and cattle were antigenically similar to their blood serum proteins. Using absorbed rabbit antibuffalo seminal plasma serum and rabbit anticattle seminal plasma serum, at least 6-7 and 5-6 seminal plasma specific proteins, respectively, were observed in the buffalo and cattle seminal plasma. Antigenically these proteins were different from the blood serum proteins of these two species. The origin and biological significance of seminal plasma proteins are discussed. PMID:2415074

Kulkarni, B A

1985-01-01

260

Libido and semen characteristics of Murrah, Surti, and local buffalo bulls in Sri Lanka.  

PubMed

The sperm properties and the libido were investigated in four Murrahs, three Surtis, and one local buffalo over a period of four months. As regards their libido, no specific features were found for the different breeds. The volume of the ejaculates and the concentration of the sperms were highest in the Murrah buffaloes, but they also exhibited the highest proportion of dead sperms in the first ejaculate. The local buffalo bull had a greater ejaculate than the Surti bulls but its sperm concentration was smaller and the proportion of dead and/or abnormal sperms was higher. Comparing the first and the second ejaculate, significant differences were found as regards the proportion of dead sperms and the motility in Murrah bulls, the sperm concentration and the proportion of dead sperms in Surti bulls, and proportion of abnormal sperms in the local buffalo bull. PMID:7342961

Rajamahendran, R; Manickavadivale, S

1981-01-01

261

SERUM CHEMISTRY AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATIONS OF BROWN BULLHEADS (AMEIURUS NEBULOSUS) FROM THE BUFFALO AND NIAGARA RIVERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Cholangiomas and cholangiocarcinomas were observed in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from the Buffalo and Niagara Rivers (NY) and Old Woman Creek (OH). ignificant increases in serum BUN, uric acid, triglycerides inorganic phosphate, ALT, LDL, calcium and iron and ...

262

75 FR 57056 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Buffalo Resource Management Plan Amendment for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Buffalo Resource Management Plan Amendment...Fortification Creek Planning Area and Environmental...Fortification Creek Planning Area (FCPA...special management'' in the Powder...maintaining other management activities in the planning area. The...

2010-09-17

263

Buffalo's Center for Immunology: A New Answer to an Old Dilemma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Center for Immunology at the University of Buffalo provides a viable resource for educating medical students in immunology until a department of immunology can be developed within the medical school. (HS)

Rose, Noel R.; Bogazzi, Pierluigi E.

1972-01-01

264

SOME BEHAVIORAL ASPECTS OF FOREST BUFFALO (SYNCERUS CAFFER NANUS): FROM HERD TO  

E-print Network

inhabits the dense rain forests of western and central Africa. We recorded the 1st data on the behavior the forest buffalo is a forest-dwelling subspecies, inhabiting the rain forest of western and central Africa

Penteriani, Vincenzo

265

75 FR 13235 - FM Table of Allotments, Buffalo and Centerville, Texas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Channel 267A for vacant Channel 278A at Centerville...ADDRESSES: Federal Communications Commission, 445...Channel 299A and adding Channel 278A at Buffalo and by adding Channel 267A at Centerville. Federal Communications Commission....

2010-03-19

266

The detection of antibody against peste des petits ruminants virus in Sheep, Goats, Cattle and Buffaloes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monoclonal antibody-based competitive ELISA (C-ELISA) has been used for the specific measurement of antibodies to peste des\\u000a petits ruminants (PPR) viruses in sheep, goats, cattle and Buffalo. Serum samples from sheep (n?=?232), goats (n?=?428), cattle\\u000a (n?=?43), buffalo (n?=?89) were tested. The animals had not been vaccinated against rinderpest or PPR. Findings suggested\\u000a that the sero-positive cases were significantly higher in

Haider Ali Khan; Muhammad Siddique; Sajjad-ur-Rahman; Muhammad Abubakar; Muhammad Ashraf

2008-01-01

267

Study of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in the American Buffalo (Bison bison)  

Microsoft Academic Search

American buffalos have been studied for their hemoglobin and transferrin types, which show no detectable polymorphism (Braend and Stormont, 1963; Stormont, 1964). This report summarizes new data on erythrocytic glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) in this species. Blood samples were collected in ACD vacutainer tubes from 45 male and 41 female buffalos from the Wichita Mountains Wildlife

S. N. Naik; D. E. Anderson

1970-01-01

268

Manufacture of low lactose concentrated ultrafiltered-diafiltered retentate from buffalo milk and skim milk.  

PubMed

Lactose concentration was reduced by 68.64 and 74.64 % in buffalo milk and skim milk by their respective 3.05 fold and 4.4 fold UF-DF concentration. The maximum UF-DF concentration of buffalo milk to 66.65 % volume reduction was observed as compared to 74.35 % volume reduction in buffalo skim milk. Average initial permeate flux rate of buffalo milk (42.86 l/h/m(2)) was much lower than skim milk (71.43 l/h/m(2)), which dropped to 2.86 and 5.95 l/h/m(2) during UF-DF concentration. The initial permeate flux rate of homogenized buffalo milk (26.79 l/h/m(2)) was comparatively lower than that of buffalo milk which dropped to 2.38 l/h/m(2) after 66.33 % volume reduction and 3.02 fold UF-DF concentration. PMID:24493903

Solanki, Puneet; Gupta, Vijay Kumar

2014-02-01

269

Identification of PDC-109-like protein(s) in buffalo seminal plasma.  

PubMed

The FN-2 family of seminal plasma proteins represents the major protein fraction of bovine seminal plasma. These proteins also constitute the major seminal plasma proteins fraction in horse, goat and bison seminal plasma and are present in pig, rat, mouse, hamster and human seminal plasma. BSP-A1 and BSP-A2, the predominant proteins of the FN-2 family, are collectively termed as PDC-109. Fn-2 proteins play an important role in fertilization, including sperm capacitation and formation of oviductal sperm reservoirs. Significantly, BSP proteins were also shown to have negative effects in the context of sperm storage. No conclusive evidence for the presence of buffalo seminal plasma protein(s) similar to PDC-109 exists. Studies with buffalo seminal plasma indicated that isolation and identification of PDC-109-like protein(s) from buffalo seminal plasma by conventional methods might be difficult. Thus, antibodies raised against PDC-109 isolated, and purified from cattle seminal plasma, were used for investigating the presence of PDC-109-like protein(s) in buffalo seminal plasma. Buffalo seminal plasma proteins were resolved on SDS-PAGE, blotted to nitro cellulose membranes and probed for the presence of PDC-109-like protein(s) using the PDC-109 antisera raised in rabbits. A distinct immunoreactive band well below the 20-kDa regions indicated the presence of PDC-109-like protein(s) in buffalo seminal plasma. PMID:19117702

Harshan, Hiron M; Sankar, Surya; Singh, L P; Singh, Manish Kumar; Sudharani, S; Ansari, M R; Singh, S K; Majumdar, A C; Joshi, P

2009-10-01

270

The trypanocidal Cape buffalo serum protein is xanthine oxidase.  

PubMed Central

Plasma and serum from Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) kill bloodstream stages of all species of African trypanosomes in vitro. The trypanocidal serum component was isolated by sequential chromatography on hydroxylapatite, protein A-G, Mono Q, and Superose 12. The purified trypanocidal protein had a molecular mass of 150 kDa, and activity correlated with the presence of a 146-kDa polypeptide detected upon reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Amino acid sequences of three peptide fragments of the 146-kDa reduced polypeptide, ligand affinity and immunoaffinity chromatography of the native protein, and sensitivity to pharmacological inhibitors, identified the trypanocidal material as xanthine oxidase (EC 1.1.3.22). Trypanocidal activity resulted in the inhibition of trypanosome glycolysis and was due to H2O2 produced during catabolism of extracellular xanthine and hypoxanthine by the purine catabolic enzyme. PMID:9284156

Muranjan, M; Wang, Q; Li, Y L; Hamilton, E; Otieno-Omondi, F P; Wang, J; Van Praagh, A; Grootenhuis, J G; Black, S J

1997-01-01

271

Ascorbic acid in buffalo ovary in relation to oestrous cycle.  

PubMed

Concentration of ascorbic acid was determined in different parts of buffalo ovary at four different stages of oestrous cycle viz. early luteal, mid luteal, late luteal and follicular. The stages were decided from the physical and morphological examinations of corpora lutea. The ovary was dissected in three components viz. corpus luteum, follicular fluid and ovarian stromal tissue for ascorbic acid assay. Corpus luteum showed significant change in concentration of ascorbic acid with the advancement of oestrous cycle, value being highest in late- luteal stage. Follicular fluid and ovarian stromal tissue did not show significant changes in ascorbic acid at any stage of the oestrous cycle. Small follicles, irrespective of the stage of oestrous cycle had, however, significantly higher ascorbic acid content than large follicles. PMID:10549174

Meur, S K; Sanwal, P C; Yadav, M C

1999-04-01

272

Seasonal variations in seminal plasma proteins of buffalo.  

PubMed

The study was designed to evaluate the influence of season on semen characteristics and seminal plasma protein profile of buffalo bull semen. Thirty-six ejaculates were collected in three seasons (winter, summer and rainy) from six adult Bhadawari bulls, and semen characteristics were evaluated immediately after collection. The seminal plasma was harvested by centrifugation and protein profiling, and percentage protein fractions were analysed by SDS-PAGE. The significant effect of season was observed on ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, progressive motility, percentage live spermatozoa, hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) and acrosomal integrity. The electrophoretogram of seminal plasma proteins revealed 20 protein bands in winter, 23 bands in rainy and 25 bands in summer seasons, illustrating the significant effect of seasons on seminal plasma proteins. Among these protein bands, 18 bands were observed common in semen samples of all three seasons while protein bands of 46, 55, 58, 144 and 160 kDa were found in rainy and summer seasons. The protein bands of 48 and 60 kDa were observed only in winter season, whereas 184 and 200 kDa were reported in summer season only. The protein fractions (protein%) of common protein bands observed in three seasons revealed a significant effect of season on protein bands of 24.5, 66, 70, 72, 84 and 86 kDa. From the study, it was pertinent that bull seminal plasma contains specific proteins in particular season, which may be associated with some of the semen characteristics, and these proteins could be used as markers of the semen quality of buffalo bulls. PMID:24597848

Sharma, L; Pandey, V; Nigam, R; Singh, P; Saxena, A; Swain, D K

2014-06-01

273

33 CFR 165.939 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...by the Captain of the Port Buffalo to monitor a safety zone, permit entry into the zone, give...by the Captain of the Port. (2) Public vessel...165.23 of this part, entry into, transiting...by the Captain of the Port Buffalo, or his...

2010-07-01

274

33 CFR 110.84 - Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84... Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. An area...and Bird Island Pier opposite the foot of Porter Avenue, bounded as follows:...

2010-07-01

275

The role of African buffalos (syncerus caffer) in the maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease in Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To study the role of African buffalos (Syncerus caffer) in the maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease in Uganda, serum samples were collected from 207 African buffalos, 21 impalas (Aepyceros melampus), 1 giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), 1 common eland (Taurotragus oryx), 7 hartebeests (Alcelaphus buselaphus) and 5 waterbucks (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) from four major National Parks in Uganda between 2005 and 2008. Serum

Chrisostom Ayebazibwe; Frank N Mwiine; Kirsten Tjørnehøj; Sheila N Balinda; Vincent B Muwanika; Anna R Ademun Okurut; Graham J Belsham; Preben Normann; Hans R Siegismund; Soren Alexandersen

2010-01-01

276

Serratia marcescens infection associated with early abortion in cows and buffaloes.  

PubMed

Serratia marcescens was isolated in pure culture from cases of septic abortion in 4 cows on one farm and 10 buffaloes on two other farms. A reddish vaginal discharge was observed after abortion in all animals and in the internal organs of the aborted fetuses. All but two of the isolates produced prodigiosin, and two of the isolates from buffaloes were atypical in that they fermented raffinose. O-serological, bacteriophage and bacteriocin typing revealed four different strains. All cows were infected by the same strain, and this strain was also isolated from the semen of a breeding bull on the same farm. In another farm a strain of serotype O 14 was isolated from 6 of 10 buffaloes, and two other distinct strains were isolated from the remainder. The strain from the cattle was sensitive to gentamicin and so were two of the buffalo isolates. The infected cows were treated with intra-uterine gentamicin and the organism disappeared from cervical mucus after 3 days. Each animal after abortion showed a raised titre of agglutinating antibody to their respective isolate. A survey of 1172 healthy buffaloes and cattle gave an incidence of 1.8% with raised titres towards S. marcescens. PMID:3042434

Das, A M; Paranjape, V L; Pitt, T L

1988-08-01

277

Proteomic analysis of cow, yak, buffalo, goat and camel milk whey proteins: quantitative differential expression patterns.  

PubMed

To aid in unraveling diverse genetic and biological unknowns, a proteomic approach was used to analyze the whey proteome in cow, yak, buffalo, goat, and camel milk based on the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) techniques. This analysis is the first to produce proteomic data for the milk from the above-mentioned animal species: 211 proteins have been identified and 113 proteins have been categorized according to molecular function, cellular components, and biological processes based on gene ontology annotation. The results of principal component analysis showed significant differences in proteomic patterns among goat, camel, cow, buffalo, and yak milk. Furthermore, 177 differentially expressed proteins were submitted to advanced hierarchical clustering. The resulting clustering pattern included three major sample clusters: (1) cow, buffalo, and yak milk; (2) goat, cow, buffalo, and yak milk; and (3) camel milk. Certain proteins were chosen as characterization traits for a given species: whey acidic protein and quinone oxidoreductase for camel milk, biglycan for goat milk, uncharacterized protein (Accession Number: F1MK50 ) for yak milk, clusterin for buffalo milk, and primary amine oxidase for cow milk. These results help reveal the quantitative milk whey proteome pattern for analyzed species. This provides information for evaluating adulteration of specific specie milk and may provide potential directions for application of specific milk protein production based on physiological differences among animal species. PMID:23464874

Yang, Yongxin; Bu, Dengpan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Sun, Peng; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Lingyun

2013-04-01

278

Responses to selection for milk traits in dairy buffaloes.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to estimate the index and individual responses to selection for milk (MY), fat (FY) and protein (PY) yields for different breeding goals for two commercial buffalo milk production systems in São Paulo State characterized by: 1) all milk produced is sold to the industry (MILK) and 2) all milk produced is used in the mozzarella cheese-making process at the farm (MOZZARELLA). The current payment policy is based exclusively on milk volume. The mozzarella price refers to the wholesale selling price. Index responses to selection (IR) were calculated for three different breeding goals (BG): 1) MY exclusively (BG(1)); 2) FY + PY (BG(2)) and 3) MY + FY + PY (BG(3)). IR for the MILK system were 41.79 US dollars (BG(1)), 5.91 US dollars (BG(2)) and 38.22 US dollars (BG(3)). For the MOZZARELLA system, IR were 179.50 US dollars (BG(1)), 262.85 US dollars (BG(2)) and 402.41 US dollars (BG(3)). The results suggest that for the present circumstances, selection for milk components is not advantageous when milk is produced for sale to the industry. However, when mozzarella making is added to the system, the selection for components and milk volume is the most economically beneficial. PMID:17183486

Seno, L O; Cardoso, V L; Tonhati, H

2006-01-01

279

Quality and shelf life of cooked buffalo tripe rolls at refrigerated storage under vacuum packaging condition.  

PubMed

Cooked buffalo tripe rolls prepared from a combination of buffalo tripe and buffalo meat by using mincing and blade tenderization process were stored at 4?±?1 °C in polyethylene teraphthalate laminated with polythene (PET/PE) pouches under vacuum packaging condition. The samples were evaluated for physico-chemical parameters, microbial quality and sensory attributes at regular intervals of 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. Significant changes were seen in physico-chemical, microbial and sensory characteristics of BTRs during storage at refrigeration temperature (4?±?1 °C) under vacuum packaging condition. All microbial counts were well within the acceptable limits and the products did not show any signs of spoilage. Thus, BTRs prepared by mincing or BT can be best stored up to 28 days at 4?±?1 °C under vacuum packaging. PMID:24966432

Anandh, M Anna; Venkatachalapathy, R T; Radha, K; Lakshmanan, V

2014-07-01

280

Buffalo, Bush Meat, and the Zoonotic Threat of Brucellosis in Botswana  

PubMed Central

Background Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance infecting humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Little is known about the epidemiology and persistence of brucellosis in wildlife in Southern Africa, particularly in Botswana. Methods Archived wildlife samples from Botswana (1995–2000) were screened with the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) and included the African buffalo (247), bushbuck (1), eland (5), elephant (25), gemsbok (1), giraffe (9), hartebeest (12), impala (171), kudu (27), red lechwe (10), reedbuck (1), rhino (2), springbok (5), steenbok (2), warthog (24), waterbuck (1), wildebeest (33), honey badger (1), lion (43), and zebra (21). Human case data were extracted from government annual health reports (1974–2006). Findings Only buffalo (6%, 95% CI 3.04%–8.96%) and giraffe (11%, 95% CI 0–38.43%) were confirmed seropositive on both tests. Seropositive buffalo were widely distributed across the buffalo range where cattle density was low. Human infections were reported in low numbers with most infections (46%) occurring in children (<14 years old) and no cases were reported among people working in the agricultural sector. Conclusions Low seroprevalence of brucellosis in Botswana buffalo in a previous study in 1974 and again in this survey suggests an endemic status of the disease in this species. Buffalo, a preferred source of bush meat, is utilized both legally and illegally in Botswana. Household meat processing practices can provide widespread pathogen exposure risk to family members and the community, identifying an important source of zoonotic pathogen transmission potential. Although brucellosis may be controlled in livestock populations, public health officials need to be alert to the possibility of human infections arising from the use of bush meat. This study illustrates the need for a unified approach in infectious disease research that includes consideration of both domestic and wildlife sources of infection in determining public health risks from zoonotic disease invasions. PMID:22412932

Alexander, Kathleen Anne; Blackburn, Jason Kenna; Vandewalle, Mark Eric; Pesapane, Risa; Baipoledi, Eddie Kekgonne; Elzer, Phil H.

2012-01-01

281

Detection of Helicobacter pylori in bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine milk in Iran.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori infection in humans is one of the most common infections worldwide. However, the origin and transmission of this bacterium has not been clearly explained. One of the suggested theories is transmission via raw milk from animals to human beings. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of H. pylori in bulk milk samples from dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds in Iran. In the present study, 447 bulk milk samples from 230 dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds were collected in four provinces and tested for H. pylori by cultural method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of the ureC (glmM) gene. The animals whose milk samples collected for this study were clinically healthy. Using the cultural method, three of 447 milk samples (0.67%), including two sheep (2.2%) and one buffalo (1.6%) milk samples, were found to be contaminated with H. pylori. H. pylori ureC gene was detected in 56 (12.5%) of milk samples, including 19 cow (14.1%), 11 sheep (12.2%), nine goat (8.7%), two camel (3.6%), and 15 buffalo (23.4%) milk samples. Using PCR method, there were significant differences (p<0.05) in the level of contamination with H. pylori between milk samples collected from different species. The present study is the first report of the isolation of H. pylori from raw sheep and buffalo milk in Iran and the first demonstration of H. pylori DNA in camel and buffalo milk. PMID:22458716

Rahimi, Ebrahim; Kheirabadi, Elahe Kazemi

2012-05-01

282

Interaction of calf suckling, use of oxytocin and milk yield with reproductive performance of dairy buffaloes.  

PubMed

Calf suckling and oxytocin injections are commonly used for pre-milking stimulus in dairy buffaloes under field conditions. A study was conducted to investigate effect of these treatments on reproductive performance. Fifty one Nili-Ravi buffaloes were monitored from parturition up to 150 days postpartum through rectal examination. Data on milk yield, body condition score (BCS) and reproductive parameters were recorded weekly. Postpartum ovulation interval (POI) was determined by presence of an ovulation depression or a very soft corpus luteum haemorrhagicum and was confirmed through milk progesterone levels (MPL). Suckling was used to stimulate milk let down, and where the calf had died, injection of oxytocin was resorted to. Milk samples were analyzed for MPL using radioimmunoassay (RIA) and fat; and milk yield was converted to 4% fat corrected milk (FCM). The mean postpartum uterine involution length (PUI) was 34.30+/-1.33 days. Mean POI was 59.37+/-4.76 days and mean postpartum estrus interval (PEI) was 69.03+/-6.03 days. Suckling period averaged 26.40+/-5.57 days and correlated with POI (r=0.19, P<0.01) and PEI (r=0.23, P<0.01). POI was shortest in buffaloes suckled for one month (P<0.05). Oxytocin was used with a mean dosage of 7.50 IU, delaying placental expulsion time (PET) and POI but shortening PEI. BCS shortened PET, POI and PEI (P<0.01). Mean FCM was 14.50+/-0.20, ranging from 2 to 35 kg/d; and was higher in estrus group; correlating positively with POI (r=0.31, P<0.01). MPL were 1.37+/-0.17 ng/ml and increased after ovulation, remaining greater than 1.5 ng/ml from Day 4 to 14 of the estrus cycle, followed by a rapid decline up to next estrus. BCS in buffaloes resuming oestrus was constantly higher than those failing to resume ovarian cyclicity. Live weight, prepartum was 510.0+/-5.9 kg with a loss of 3.7+/-2.12 kg, 30 days postpartum. The present study suggests a lower reproductive efficiency of dairy buffaloes under the peri-urban farming system reflected by ovarian cyclicity in 68.63% buffaloes within 150 days postpartum and silent estrus in 51.5% of the cases. Increasing suckling duration and use of oxytocin delayed POI, however, POI was shortest in buffaloes suckled for one month. The high yielding buffaloes also manifested better reproductive cyclicity; while moderate yielder showed shorter ovulation intervals and higher conception rate. PMID:17611053

Qureshi, Muhammad Subhan; Ahmad, Nazir

2008-07-01

283

Quantitative detection and characterization of human adenoviruses in the Buffalo River in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.  

PubMed

Buffalo River is an important water resource in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Over a 1-year period (August 2010-July 2011), we assessed the prevalence of human adenoviruses (HAdVs) at a total of 6 sites on the river and three dams along its course. HAdVs were detected by real-time quantitative PCR in about 35 % of the samples with concentrations ranging from 1.2 × 10(1) genome copies (GC)/l to 4.71 × 10(3) GC/l. HAdVs were detected at 5 of the 6 sampling sites with the detection rate ranging from 8.3 % at Rooikrantz Dam to 92 % at Parkside. The HAdV concentrations across the sampling sites were as follows: Parkside (3.25 × 10(2)-4.71 × 10(3) GC/); King William's Town (1.02 × 10(2)-4.56 × 10(3) GC/l); and Eluxolzweni (1.17 × 10(2)-3.97 × 10(2) GC/l). Significantly (P < 0.05) higher concentrations were detected at the non-dam sites compared to the dam sites. A very low mean concentration of 1.86 × 10(1) HAdV GC/l was observed at Bridle Drift Dam. While HAdVs were detected only once at Rooikrantz Dam (1.74 × 10(1) GC/l), no HAdV was detected at Maden Dam. Epidemiologically important serotypes, Ad40/41, constituted 83.3 %, while Ad21 made up 16.7 % of the all HAdVs detected and were characterized by qualitative PCR. The Buffalo River presents a public health risk heightened by the presence of Ad 40/41 and Ad21. Our results make imperative the need for assessing water sources for viral contamination in the interest of public health. This work is a significant contribution to the molecular epidemiology of adenoviruses and to the best of our knowledge this is the first report on detection of enteric virus from surface waters in the Eastern Cape. PMID:23412891

Chigor, Vincent N; Okoh, Anthony I

2012-12-01

284

Bird mortality associated with wind turbines at the Buffalo Ridge wind resource area, Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent technological advances have made wind power a viable source of alternative energy production and the number of windplant facilities has increased in the United States. Construction was completed on a 73 turbine, 25 megawatt windplant on Buffalo Ridge near Lake Benton, Minnesota in Spring 1994. The number of birds killed at existing windplants in California caused concern about the potential impacts of the Buffalo Ridge facility on the avian community. From April 1994 through Dec. 1995 we searched the Buffalo Ridge windplant site for dead birds. Additionally, we evaluated search efficiency, predator scavenging rates and rate of carcass decomposition. During 20 mo of monitoring we found 12 dead birds. Collisions with wind turbines were suspected for 8 of the 12 birds. During observer efficiency trials searchers found 78.8% of carcasses. Scavengers removed 39.5% of carcasses during scavenging trials. All carcasses remained recognizable during 7 d decomposition trials. After correction for biases we estimated that approximately 36 ?? 12 birds (<1 dead bird per turbine) were killed at the Buffalo Ridge windplant in 1 y. Although windplants do not appear to be more detrimental to birds than other man-made structures, proper facility sitting is an important first consideration in order to avoid unnecessary fatalities.

Osborn, R.G.; Higgins, K.F.; Usgaard, R.E.; Dieter, C.D.; Neiger, R.D.

2000-01-01

285

PUBLIC SCHOOL SEGREGATION AND RELATED POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS OF BUFFALO, NEW YORK.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ANALYSIS OF THE ETHNIC COMPOSITION AND POPULATION MOVEMENTS OF BUFFALO SHOW THAT IT IS A DEMOGRAPHICALLY DECLINING AND HIGHLY SEGREGATED CITY. FOR ANALYTICAL PURPOSES, THE CITY IS DIVIDED INTO THREE MAJOR AREAS--(1) AREA I, HIGH PERCENTAGE NEGRO, (2) AREA II, MIXED POPULATION, AND (3) AREA III, HIGH PERCENTAGE WHITE. SINCE SUBURBS AND A HIGH…

DENTLER, ROBERT A.; WARSHAUER, MARY ELLEN

286

Theileria-infected cell line from an African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).  

PubMed

Mononuclear cells were isolated from the peripheral blood of a buffalo infected with a Theileria sp. using density gradient centrifugation, and the cells were put into culture flasks covered by a monolayer of bovine endothelial cells. Twenty days after culture initiation, cells containing macroschizonts were detected in Giemsa-stained smears. The first subculture was carried out on day 45 of culture propagation. Subsequently, infected cells were subcultured twice a week, and each time 1 to 2 x 10(6) per milliliter cells were harvested. DNA was extracted from culture material and a partial polymerase chain reaction amplification of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene was carried out using Theileria genus-specific primers. Sequence data and phylogenetic analysis using the 18S rRNA gene indicated a close relationship to Theileria sp. buffalo, previously described in literature. Here, the first successful attempt to establish a macroschizont-infected lymphoblastoid cell line of Theileria sp. (buffalo) from an African buffalo is described. PMID:19430815

Zweygarth, Erich; Koekemoer, Otto; Josemans, Antoinette I; Rambritch, Natasha; Pienaar, Ronel; Putterill, John; Latif, Abdalla; Potgieter, Fred T

2009-08-01

287

Tuesday, September 08, 2009 Head Node Magic.cse.buffalo.edu  

E-print Network

Nodes Colosseum (Storage) #12;Network All network connections are Gigabit Ethernet There are two network and a NIC on the private switch. Colosseum also is duo-homed with a NIC on the public switch and a NIC clock at 6.50 Mb/S #12;The Storage Server is colosseum.cse.buffalo.edu. You should only log

Miller, Russ

288

PUTNAM'S TRADTIONAL NEO-ESSENTIALISM NEIL E. WILLIAMS (University at Buffalo)  

E-print Network

PUTNAM'S TRADTIONAL NEO-ESSENTIALISM NEIL E. WILLIAMS (University at Buffalo) forthcoming might be called `neo-essentialism' about natural kinds. These views are otherwise essentialist, and consequently that neo-essentialism is not so neo after all. 1. ESSENTIALISM OLD AND NEW "Essentialism," we

Williams, Neil E.

289

University at Buffalo SBSIRB Policy on Academic Exercises Designed for Teaching Students Research Techniques  

E-print Network

Techniques Research as defined in the Code of Federal Regulations and conducted by any member Potential Practicum Problems. Students engaged in the process of learning research techniques understandablyUniversity at Buffalo SBSIRB Policy on Academic Exercises Designed for Teaching Students Research

Krovi, Venkat

290

Pushing Convertible Constraints in Frequent Itemset Mining University at Buffalo, the State University of New York  

E-print Network

Pushing Convertible Constraints in Frequent Itemset Mining Jian Pei University at Buffalo, Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1Z4 laks@cs.ubc.ca Abstract Recent work has highlighted the importance of the constraint-based mining paradigm in the context of frequent itemsets, associations, correlations, sequential

Lakshmanan, Laks V.S.

291

Effectiveness of an Electrical Barrier and Lake Drawdown for Reducing Common Carp and Bigmouth Buffalo Abundances  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overabundance of common carp Cyprinus carpio and bigmoulh buffalo \\/ctiobus cyprinellus in North and South Heron lakes, Minnesota, has hindered production of food plants for waterfowl. These shallow (maximum depth, 1.5 m), turbid lakes are partially drawn down each winter. Common carp were radio-tracked in both lakes during the winters of 1991 and 1992 to monitor their movements and

DONOVAN D. VERRILL; CHARLES R. BERRY

1995-01-01

292

Eta-12 Forecast for Historic Lake Effect Snow in Buffalo, NY  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An examination of how the updated Eta-12 model, with its higher resolution, improved topography, and upgraded cloud and precipitation package, performed in forecasting the initiation and evolution of the first portion of the Buffalo, NY historic lake effect snow event (24-26 December 2001).

Comet

2002-03-05

293

Attempted artificaial infection or impala, blue wildebeest, buffalo, kudu, giraffe and warthog with heartwater.  

PubMed

Intravenous injection of Cowdria ruminantium infected blood produced no sings of disease in four impala, Aepyceros melampus; three blue wildebeest, Connochaetes taurinus; a buffalo, Syncerus caffer; a kudu, Tragelaphus strepsiceros; a giraffe. Giraffa camelopardalis and a warthog, Phacochoerus aethiopicus. a control sheep injected with the same blood reacted severely and showed typical lesions of heartwater at autopsy. PMID:994140

Gradwell, D V; Van Niekerk, C A; Joubert, D C

1976-09-01

294

DISPOSITIONS AND THE ARGUMENT FROM SCIENCE NEIL E. WILLIAMS (University at Buffalo)  

E-print Network

bases. One popular argument, recently dubbed the `Argument from Science,' has appeared in one or anotherDISPOSITIONS AND THE ARGUMENT FROM SCIENCE NEIL E. WILLIAMS (University at Buffalo) forthcoming. Taking its cue from physical theory, the Argument from Science treats the exclusively dispositional

Williams, Neil E.

295

Automation Robotics & Mechatronics (ARM) Lab http://www.eng.buffalo.edu/mechatronics  

E-print Network

. Case Study: A motor-rehabilitative Haptic Virtual Driving Environment (hVDE). This hVDE was developed://www.eng.buffalo.edu/~llee3 Virtual Musculoskeletal AnalysisVirtual Musculoskeletal Analysis--based Refinement of Rehabilitation Programsbased Refinement of Rehabilitation Programs Research Goal: To create a Virtual Design

Krovi, Venkat

296

KINETICS OF FRUCTOSE UTILIZATION BY BUFFALO SPERMATOZOA R.S. DHANOTIYA R.K. SRIVASTAVA  

E-print Network

KINETICS OF FRUCTOSE UTILIZATION BY BUFFALO SPERMATOZOA R.S. DHANOTIYA R.K. SRIVASTAVA spermatozoites de buffle. On a également mesuré l'effet des tampons citrate et phosphate sur la mesure de la- culés. Les mesures de la fructolyse étaient significativement plus élevées en tampon citrate qu

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

297

Clinical, bacteriological, and histopathological study of toxic puerperal metritis in Iraqi buffalo.  

PubMed

Data were collected from 42 buffalo with toxic puerperal metritis in 2 large herds, with a history of dystocia, prolapse, and retained placenta. All buffalo were subjected to detailed clinical examination including external inspection, vaginoscopy, and transrectal palpation of the cervix, uterus, and ovaries. Swabs for bacteriology and biopsies for histopathology were collected from the uterine lumen from each cow. Character, odor, and estimation of polymorphonuclear cells of the vaginal mucus were scored. Blood samples were collected from cows for creatine kinase and aspartate amino-transferase measurement. The most predisposing factor causing toxic puerperal metritis was retained placenta (52.4%), and the most prevalent bacteria in uterine lumen were Escherichia coli, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Fusobacterium necrophorum (18.5, 16.7, 13.0, and 9.3%, respectively). High levels of polymorphonuclear cells were observed in buffalo infected with A. pyogenes and gram-negative anaerobic bacteria (62.1 and 76.4%). A high prevalence of gram-negative anaerobes was isolated from uteri harboring A. pyogenes (13.0%). Buffalo with toxic puerperal metritis had significantly higher creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities than controls (499.2 +/- 23.9 and 208.3 +/- 11.3 vs. 242.7 +/- 12.9 and 166.8 +/- 11.5 U/L, respectively). In a conclusion, gram-negative anaerobes and other facultative pathogens including A. pyogenes were important pathogens that cause severe uterine inflammation. PMID:17881686

Azawi, O I; Omran, S N; Hadad, J J

2007-10-01

298

Comparative nutritive value of Chinese cabbage and Japan rape in murrah buffaloes  

E-print Network

Comparative nutritive value of Chinese cabbage and Japan rape in murrah buffaloes MA Akbar to compare the animal performance of Chinese cabbage against Japan rape fodder. Chinese cabbage and Japan rape were grown under identical conditions at the experimental area of the University. Ten adult male

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

299

LACK OF MYOGLOBIN FUNCTION IN THE ISOLATED PERFUSED BUFFALO SCULPIN (ENOPHRYS BISON) HEART  

EPA Science Inventory

The contribution of myoglobin to cardiac performance and O2 consumption was investigated using an isolated perfused buffalo sculpin (Enophrys bison) heart preparation. ose-response studies at ambient (150 Torr)(l Torr=l33.322 Pa) O2 tensions were conducted as a means of selecting...

300

33 CFR 165.911 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.  

... (2) Persons or vessels desiring to transit the area of the Nine Mile Point and Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plants or Ginna Nuclear Power Plant security zones must contact the Captain of Port Buffalo at telephone number (716) 843-9570, or...

2014-07-01

301

Distribution of oxidases in the testis of buffalo, goat and ram : an histochemical study  

E-print Network

. Peroxidase, monoamine oxidase (MAO) and cytochrome oxidase (CCO) have been histochemically localized of monoamine oxidase (MAO) has been reported in the rat testis (Bhagvat et al., 1939 ; Zeller and Joel, 1941Distribution of oxidases in the testis of buffalo, goat and ram : an histochemical study G. S

Boyer, Edmond

302

DO ZOMBIES HUNGER FOR HUMEAN NEIL E. WILLIAMS (University at Buffalo)  

E-print Network

1 DO ZOMBIES HUNGER FOR HUMEAN BRAINS? NEIL E. WILLIAMS (University at Buffalo) from: SWIF, 2007 is that of philosophical zombies. The purported possibility of zombies is the product of thought experiments experience. In the final chapter of his book Heil applies his ontology to the question of zombies, arguing

Williams, Neil E.

303

Transcript profiling of pattern recognition receptors in a semi domesticated breed of buffalo, Toda, of India.  

PubMed

The primary objective of this study was to assess the expression profile and levels of toll-like receptor (TLR) mRNAs in the spleen, lung, mediastinal lymph node (MLN), jejunum, rectum, skin and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of Toda and Murrah buffalos. Spleen and PBMC had increased expression of TLR mRNAs 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9 and 10; lung had increased expression of TLR mRNAs 2, 4, 5, 6 and 8, MLN TLR mRNA 6, 9, 10 and decrease in TLR 3 and 7 mRNAs in skin. No significant differences were observed in the expression levels of any of the TLR mRNA in jejunum and rectum. Toda buffaloes showed significantly higher expression levels of TLR 9 mRNA in MLN, TLR mRNAs 1, 5, 6, 9 and 10 in skin and TLR mRNAs 2, 4, 7 and 9 in PBMC than Murrah buffaloes living in the vicinity. Toda and Murrah buffaloes were inoculated with TLR5 (flagellin) and TLR9 (CpG ODN) ligands in vivo and expression levels of the respective TLRs analyzed 12h later. Following CpG inoculation, Toda buffaloes had significantly higher levels of TLR 9 mRNA expression but not in Murrah. However, flagellin induction did not increase TLR 5 mRNA expression in both these breeds. Histological sections of the skin were made and infiltrating cell clusters were graded and quantified. Following CpG inoculation, Toda buffaloes showed higher numbers of infiltrating grade 1 and grade 3 cell clusters while Murrah showed lower numbers of infiltrating grade 1 cells as compared to mock-inoculated skin sections. Flagellin treatment revealed no significant differences in infiltrating cell clusters in both the breeds. The results have shown differential expression of TLR mRNAs in various tissues between two divergent buffalo breeds with the highest difference in TLR expression profile seen in the skin, the largest portal of entry of pathogens, of Toda. PMID:22521945

Vignesh, A R; Dhanasekaran, S; Raj, G Dhinakar; Balachandran, C; Pazhanivel, N; Sreekumar, C; Tirumurugaan, K G; Raja, A; Kumanan, K

2012-06-15

304

Sequence of specific mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene fragment from Egyptian buffalo is used as a pattern for discrimination between river buffaloes, cattle, sheep and goats.  

PubMed

Characterization of molecular markers and the development of better assays for precise and rapid detection of domestic species are always in demand. This is particularly due to recent food scares and the crisis of biodiversity resulting from the huge ongoing illegal traffic of endangered species. The aim of this study was to develop a new and easy method for domestic species identification (river buffalo, cattle, sheep and goat) based on the analysis of a specific mitochondrial nucleotide sequence. For this reason, a specific fragment of Egyptian buffalo mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene (422 bp) was amplified by PCR using two universal primers. The sequence of this specific fragment is completely conserved between all tested Egyptian buffaloes and other river buffaloes in different places in the world. Also, the lengths of the homologous fragments were less by one nucleotide (421 bp) in case of goats and two nucleotides (420 bp) in case of both cattle and sheep. The detection of specific variable sites between investigated species within this fragment was sufficient to identify the biological origin of the samples. This was achieved by alignment between the unknown homologous sequence and the reference sequences deposited in GenBank database (accession numbers, FJ748599-FJ748607). Considering multiple alignment results between 16S rRNA homologous sequences obtained from GenBank database with the reference sequence, it was shown that definite nucleotides are specific for each of the four studied species of the family Bovidae. In addition, other nucleotides are detected which can allow discrimination between two groups of animals belonging to two subfamilies of family Bovidae, Group one (closely related species like cattle and buffalo, Subfamily Bovinae) and Group two (closely related species like sheep and goat, Subfamily Caprinae). This 16S DNA barcode character-based approach could be used to complement cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) in DNA barcoding. Also, it is a good tool for identification of unknown sample belonging to one of the four domestic animal species of family Bovidae quickly and easily. PMID:21116860

Ramadan, Hassan A I

2011-08-01

305

Exploration of salivary proteins in buffalo: an approach to find marker proteins for estrus.  

PubMed

Saliva is considered as the best source of biological material for biomarker discovery studies since it is noninvasive in comparison to other body sources. Usually buffalo cannot precisely express estrus signals. Hence, there is a need for concise methods to detect the time of estrus to ensure the success of artificial insemination. Therefore, we have established a reference proteome map on the whole saliva of buffalo during their estrous cycle with special reference to estrus. Nearly 12 bands have been observed using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of whole saliva. Collectively, 179 proteins are identified with respect to different phases of the estrous cycle using mass spectrometry. On the whole, 37 proteins are exclusively expressed in the estrus phase, which include ?-enolase, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, clusterin, lactoperoxidase, serotransferrin, TGM3, UBA6, and transducin. Among the proteins, ?-enolase and TLR 4 were validated, and their specific expression was found during estrus as compared to other phases using immunoblot. The functional annotation reveals many as binding proteins in the estrus saliva when compared to the other phases. The present findings conclude that the proteomic approach adopted to identify the proteins from buffalo saliva around the estrous cycle may provide a new tool for screening the estrus phase. The results further conclude that the specific expression of ?-enolase and TLR 4 can be taken as the indicator of estrus in buffalo.-Muthukumar, S., Rajkumar, R., Rajesh, D., Saibaba, G., Liao, C.-C., Archunan, G., Padmanabhan, P., Gulyas, B. Exploration of salivary proteins in buffalo: an approach to find marker proteins for estrus. PMID:25114174

Muthukumar, Subramanian; Rajkumar, Ramalingam; Rajesh, Durairaj; Saibaba, Ganesan; Liao, Chen-Chung; Archunan, Govindaraju; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Gulyas, Balazs

2014-11-01

306

Trade-offs of predation and foraging explain sexual segregation in African buffalo.  

PubMed

1. Many studies have investigated why males and females segregate spatially in sexually dimorphic species. These studies have focused primarily on temperate zone ungulates in areas lacking intact predator communities, and few have directly assessed predation rates in different social environments. 2. Data on the movement, social affiliation, mortality and foraging of radio-collared African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) were collected from 2001-06 in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. 3. The vast majority of mortality events were due to lion (Panthera leo) predation, and the mortality hazard associated with being an adult male buffalo in a male-only 'bachelor' group was almost four times higher than for adult females in mixed herds. The mortality rates of adult males and females within mixed herds were not statistically different. Mortality sites of male and female buffalo were in areas of low visibility similar to those used by bachelor groups, while mixed herds tended to use more open habitats. 4. Males in bachelor groups ate similar or higher quality food (as indexed by percentage faecal nitrogen), and moved almost a third less distance per day compared with mixed herds. As a result, males in bachelor groups gained more body condition than did males in breeding herds. 5. Recent comparative analyses suggest the activity-budget hypothesis as a common underlying cause of social segregation. However, our intensive study, in an area with an intact predator community showed that male and female buffalo segregated by habitat and supported the predation-risk hypothesis. Male African buffalo appear to trade increased predation risk for additional energy gains in bachelor groups, which presumably leads to increased reproductive success. PMID:18547347

Hay, C T; Cross, P C; Funston, P J

2008-09-01

307

Evaluation of hematologic values in free-ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).  

PubMed

As part of a large-scale disease screening program, blood samples were collected from 534 African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in South Africa's Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park in October 2005 and May 2006 to establish age- and sex-specific reference intervals for erythrogram and leukogram values. Sixty-seven of the animals were positive for bovine tuberculosis (TB), allowing for comparisons between TB-positive and TB-negative groups. Positive animals had basopenia and slight lymphopenia compared to TB-negative animals. Blood values were compared to those reported for captive African buffalo, American bison (Bos bison), and cattle (Bos taurus). The free-ranging buffalo sampled in this study had higher white blood cell counts than captive buffalo, and this difference was driven by lymphocytes. Free-ranging buffalo also had higher red blood cell counts, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), white blood cell counts, neutrophils and lymphocytes, and lower mean corpuscular volume (MCV) than cattle. Demographic and environmental factors strongly affected hematologic values in the study population. Older animals had significantly higher hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), while younger animals had a higher red blood cell count, red cell distribution width (RDW), and white blood cell count, which was due to lymphocytes and basophils. Females had a higher hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, MCV, MCH, and basophils than males. At the end of the wet season, hemoglobin, red blood cell count, hematocrit, MCHC, RDW, white blood cell count, and neutrophils were all significantly higher, while basophils and MCV were lower, than at the end of the dry season. Our results emphasize the need to use species-specific data when interpreting hematologic values and point to important differences in hematology between captive and free-ranging animals of the same species. Strong variability in hematologic values with animal age and sex, season, and herd affiliation indicates that ''normal'' hematologic values in wild animals vary throughout their lives and subject to fluctuating environmental conditions. PMID:19204335

Beechler, B R; Jolles, A E; Ezenwa, V O

2009-01-01

308

Trade-offs of predation and foraging explain sexual segregation in African buffalo  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Many studies have investigated why males and females segregate spatially in sexually dimorphic species. These studies have focused primarily on temperate zone ungulates in areas lacking intact predator communities, and few have directly assessed predation rates in different social environments. 2. Data on the movement, social affiliation, mortality and foraging of radio-collared African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) were collected from 2001-06 in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. 3. The vast majority of mortality events were due to lion (Panthera leo) predation, and the mortality hazard associated with being an adult male buffalo in a male-only 'bachelor' group was almost four times higher than for adult females in mixed herds. The mortality rates of adult males and females within mixed herds were not statistically different. Mortality sites of male and female buffalo were in areas of low visibility similar to those used by bachelor groups, while mixed herds tended to use more open habitats. 4. Males in bachelor groups ate similar or higher quality food (as indexed by percentage faecal nitrogen), and moved almost a third less distance per day compared with mixed herds. As a result, males in bachelor groups gained more body condition than did males in breeding herds. 5. Recent comparative analyses suggest the activity-budget hypothesis as a common underlying cause of social segregation. However, our intensive study, in an area with an intact predator community showed that male and female buffalo segregated by habitat and supported the predation-risk hypothesis. Male African buffalo appear to trade increased predation risk for additional energy gains in bachelor groups, which presumably leads to increased reproductive success. ?? 2008 The Authors.

Hay, C.T.; Cross, P.C.; Funston, P.J.

2008-01-01

309

SERUM CHEMISTRY AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATIONS OF BROWN BULLHEADS (AMEIRUS NEBULOSUS) FROM THE BUFFALO AND NIAGARA RIVERS, NEW YORK  

EPA Science Inventory

Cholangiomas and cholangiocarcinomas were observed in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from the Buffalo and Niagara Rivers (NY) and Old Woman Creek (OH), USA. ignificant increases in serum blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, triglycerides, inorganic phosphate, ALT, LDL,...

310

Structural and Functional Insights into the Catalytic Inactivity of the Major Fraction of Buffalo Milk Xanthine Oxidoreductase  

PubMed Central

Background Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) existing in two interconvertible forms, xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and xanthine oxidase (XO), catabolises xanthine to uric acid that is further broken down to antioxidative agent allantoin. XOR also produces free radicals serving as second messenger and microbicidal agent. Large variation in the XO activity has been observed among various species. Both hypo and hyper activity of XOR leads to pathophysiological conditions. Given the important nutritional role of buffalo milk in human health especially in south Asia, it is crucial to understand the functional properties of buffalo XOR and the underlying structural basis of variations in comparison to other species. Methods and Findings Buffalo XO activity of 0.75 U/mg was almost half of cattle XO activity. Enzymatic efficiency (kcat/Km) of 0.11 sec?1 µM?1 of buffalo XO was 8–10 times smaller than that of cattle XO. Buffalo XOR also showed lower antibacterial activity than cattle XOR. A CD value (??430 nm) of 46,000 M?1 cm?1 suggested occupancy of 77.4% at Fe/S I centre. Buffalo XOR contained 0.31 molybdenum atom/subunit of which 48% existed in active sulfo form. The active form of XO in buffalo was only 16% in comparison to ?30% in cattle. Sequencing revealed 97.4% similarity between buffalo and cattle XOR. FAD domain was least conserved, while metal binding domains (Fe/S and Molybdenum) were highly conserved. Homology modelling of buffalo XOR showed several variations occurring in clusters, especially close to FAD binding pocket which could affect NAD+ entry in the FAD centre. The difference in XO activity seems to be originating from cofactor deficiency, especially molybdenum. Conclusion A major fraction of buffalo milk XOR exists in a catalytically inactive form due to high content of demolybdo and desulfo forms. Lower Fe/S content and structural factors might be contributing to lower enzymatic efficiency of buffalo XOR in a minor way. PMID:24498153

Gadave, Kaustubh S.; Panda, Santanu; Singh, Surender; Kalra, Shalini; Malakar, Dhruba; Mohanty, Ashok K.; Kaushik, Jai K.

2014-01-01

311

Economic value of urea-treated straw fed to lactating buffaloes during the dry season in Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to study the effects of feeding urea-treated rice straw to lactating buffaloes in the Koshi Hills. Six pairs of similar buffaloes on farms were selected. All were given a conventional diet based on rice straw for four weeks, then one of each pair was given 15 to 20 kg\\/day of urea-treated rice straw for a period

Purna B. Chemjong

1991-01-01

312

Renal macrophage activation and Th2 polarization precedes the development of nephrotic syndrome in Buffalo\\/Mna rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal macrophage activation and Th2 polarization precedes the development of nephrotic syndrome in Buffalo\\/Mna rats.BackgroundAt 8 weeks, Buffalo\\/Mna rats spontaneously develop a nephrotic syndrome associated with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). We have previously demonstrated that this glomerulopathy recurs after renal transplantation, thus supporting the relevance of this rat model to human idiopathic nephrotic syndrome1. In this study, we describe renal

LUDMILLA LE BERRE; CAROLINE HERVÉ; FRANÇOISE BUZELIN; CLAIRE USAL; JEAN-PAUL SOULILLOU; JACQUES DANTAL

2005-01-01

313

Diversity of anaerobic fungi and rumen fermentation characteristic in swamp buffalo and beef cattle fed on different diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study was conducted on swamp buffalo and beef cattle to investigate rumen anaerobic fungi, cellulolytic bacteria and their relationships with the fermentation characteristics. Four, rumen-fistulated crossbred beef cattle and four rumen-fistulated swamp buffalo were randomly assigned to a duplicated 4×4 Latin square design with 21-day periods. The dietary treatments consisted of four treatments; rice straw+0% urea in concentrate

P. Khejornsart; M. Wanapat; P. Rowlinson

2011-01-01

314

Methods for Monitoring Fish Communities of Buffalo National River and Ozark National Scenic Riverways in the Ozark Plateaus of Arkansas and Missouri: Version 1.0  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Buffalo National River located in north-central Arkansas, and Ozark National Scenic Riverways, located in southeastern Missouri, are the two largest units of the National Park Service in the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province. The purpose of this report is to provide a protocol that will be used by the National Park Service to sample fish communities and collect related water-quality, habitat, and stream discharge data of Buffalo National River and Ozark National Scenic Riverways to meet inventory and long-term monitoring objectives. The protocol includes (1) a protocol narrative, (2) several standard operating procedures, and (3) supplemental information helpful for implementation of the protocol. The protocol narrative provides background information about the protocol such as the rationale of why a particular resource or resource issue was selected for monitoring, information concerning the resource or resource issue of interest, a description of how monitoring results will inform management decisions, and a discussion of the linkages between this and other monitoring projects. The standard operating procedures cover preparation, training, reach selection, water-quality sampling, fish community sampling, physical habitat collection, measuring stream discharge, equipment maintenance and storage, data management and analysis, reporting, and protocol revision procedures. Much of the information in the standard operating procedures was gathered from existing protocols of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment program or other sources. Supplemental information that would be helpful for implementing the protocol is included. This information includes information on fish species known or suspected to occur in the parks, sample sites, sample design, fish species traits, index of biotic integrity metrics, sampling equipment, and field forms.

Petersen, James C.; Justus, B. G.; Dodd, H. R.; Bowles, D. E.; Morrison, L. W.; Williams, M. H.; Rowell, G. A.

2008-01-01

315

Use of Dried Stoned Olive Pomace in the Feeding of Lactating Buffaloes: Effect on the Quantity and Quality of the Milk Produced  

PubMed Central

Dried stoned olive pomace (DSOP) was administered to dairy water buffaloes, and their productive performance and milk composition were analysed. Sixteen pluriparous lactating buffaloes were divided into two uniform groups (control and experimental), taking into consideration the following parameters: milk production (2,192 and 2,102 kg) and duration of lactation (254 and 252 d) of the previous year, distance from calving (51 and 43 d), milk production (9.71 and 10.18 kg/d), body condition score (BCS) (6.44 and 6.31) and weight (617 and 653 kg) at the beginning of the trial. Both diets had the same formulation: second cut alfalfa hay 20%, corn silage 42%, concentrate 38% but the two concentrates differed in their formulation, the experimental one contained 15.50% of DSOP as fed. The employed DSOP showed high amounts of secoiridoids, such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (3,4-DHPEA) (1.2 g/kg DM), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol-elenolic acid di-aldehyde (3,4-DHPEA-EDA) (12.6 g/kg DM), p-hydroxyphenylethanol-elenolic acid di-aldehyde (p-HPEA-EDA) (5.6 g/kg DM) and lignans, which are known to be powerful bioactive compounds. The control diet had an energy-protein content of 0.86 Milk FU/kg DM and 143.3 g/kg DM of crude protein, whereas the experimental diet of 0.87 Milk FU/kg DM and 146.6 g/kg DM of crude protein. Each animal of the two groups received 17 kg DM/d and each buffalo of the experimental group, by way of the concentrate, ingested 1.05 kg DM/d of DSOP. The trial lasted 40 days. No significant difference was found between the BCS (6.41 and 6.53), live weight (625.93 and 662.50 kg) and milk production (9.69 and 10.08 kg/d) of the two groups, as was the case for fat, protein, lactose, pH and coagulating parameters of the two milks. The milk fat of the experimental group had a significantly higher content of total tocopherols (10.45 vs 8.60 ?g/g, p<0.01) and retinol (3.17 vs 2.54 ?g/g, p<0.01). The content of the reactive substances with tiobarbituric acid (TBARs) was significantly lower in the milk fat of the experimental group (12.09 vs 15.05 ?g MDA/g, p<0.01). The acid content of the milk fat of the experimental group had a significantly higher content (p<0.05) of C18:0 and of C18:3?6. LC-MS/MS analysis showed the presence of 3,4-DHPEA (36.0 ?g/L) in the milk of the DSOP-fed buffaloes, while other phenols were not found. DSOP, in the quantity utilized, can be used in the feeding of the lactating buffalo; the dietetic-nutritional characteristics of the milk are improved due to a greater contribution of tocopherols, retinol and the presence of hydroxytyrosol. PMID:25049875

Terramoccia, S.; Bartocci, S.; Taticchi, A.; Di Giovanni, S.; Pauselli, M.; Mourvaki, E.; Urbani, S.; Servili, M.

2013-01-01

316

Use of dried stoned olive pomace in the feeding of lactating buffaloes: effect on the quantity and quality of the milk produced.  

PubMed

Dried stoned olive pomace (DSOP) was administered to dairy water buffaloes, and their productive performance and milk composition were analysed. Sixteen pluriparous lactating buffaloes were divided into two uniform groups (control and experimental), taking into consideration the following parameters: milk production (2,192 and 2,102 kg) and duration of lactation (254 and 252 d) of the previous year, distance from calving (51 and 43 d), milk production (9.71 and 10.18 kg/d), body condition score (BCS) (6.44 and 6.31) and weight (617 and 653 kg) at the beginning of the trial. Both diets had the same formulation: second cut alfalfa hay 20%, corn silage 42%, concentrate 38% but the two concentrates differed in their formulation, the experimental one contained 15.50% of DSOP as fed. The employed DSOP showed high amounts of secoiridoids, such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (3,4-DHPEA) (1.2 g/kg DM), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol-elenolic acid di-aldehyde (3,4-DHPEA-EDA) (12.6 g/kg DM), p-hydroxyphenylethanol-elenolic acid di-aldehyde (p-HPEA-EDA) (5.6 g/kg DM) and lignans, which are known to be powerful bioactive compounds. The control diet had an energy-protein content of 0.86 Milk FU/kg DM and 143.3 g/kg DM of crude protein, whereas the experimental diet of 0.87 Milk FU/kg DM and 146.6 g/kg DM of crude protein. Each animal of the two groups received 17 kg DM/d and each buffalo of the experimental group, by way of the concentrate, ingested 1.05 kg DM/d of DSOP. The trial lasted 40 days. No significant difference was found between the BCS (6.41 and 6.53), live weight (625.93 and 662.50 kg) and milk production (9.69 and 10.08 kg/d) of the two groups, as was the case for fat, protein, lactose, pH and coagulating parameters of the two milks. The milk fat of the experimental group had a significantly higher content of total tocopherols (10.45 vs 8.60 ?g/g, p<0.01) and retinol (3.17 vs 2.54 ?g/g, p<0.01). The content of the reactive substances with tiobarbituric acid (TBARs) was significantly lower in the milk fat of the experimental group (12.09 vs 15.05 ?g MDA/g, p<0.01). The acid content of the milk fat of the experimental group had a significantly higher content (p<0.05) of C18:0 and of C18:3?6. LC-MS/MS analysis showed the presence of 3,4-DHPEA (36.0 ?g/L) in the milk of the DSOP-fed buffaloes, while other phenols were not found. DSOP, in the quantity utilized, can be used in the feeding of the lactating buffalo; the dietetic-nutritional characteristics of the milk are improved due to a greater contribution of tocopherols, retinol and the presence of hydroxytyrosol. PMID:25049875

Terramoccia, S; Bartocci, S; Taticchi, A; Di Giovanni, S; Pauselli, M; Mourvaki, E; Urbani, S; Servili, M

2013-07-01

317

Effects of eucalyptus crude oils supplementation on rumen fermentation, microorganism and nutrient digestibility in swamp buffaloes.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) crude oils (EuO) supplementation on voluntary feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics in swamp buffaloes. Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes, body weight (BW) of 420±15.0 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were untreated rice straw (RS) without EuO (T1) and with EuO (T2) supplementation, and 3% urea-treated rice straw (UTRS) without EuO (T3) and with EuO (T4) supplementation. The EuO was supplemented at 2 mL/h/d in respective treatment. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate mixture was offered at 3 g/kg BW while roughage was fed ad libitum. Total dry matter and roughage intake, and apparent digestibilites of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber were improved (p<0.01) by UTRS. There was no effect of EuO supplementation on feed intake and nutrient digestibility. Ruminal pH and temperature were not (p>0.05) affected by either roughage sources or EuO supplementation. However, buffaloes fed UTRS had higher ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen as compared with RS. Total volatile fatty acid and butyrate proportion were similar among treatments, whereas acetate was decreased and propionate molar proportion was increased by EuO supplementation. Feeding UTRS resulted in lower acetate and higher propionate concentration compared to RS. Moreover, supplementation of EuO reduced methane production especially in UTRS treatment. Protozoa populations were reduced by EuO supplementation while fungi zoospores remained the same. Total, amylolytic and cellulolytic bacterial populations were increased (p<0.01) by UTRS; However, EuO supplementation did not affect viable bacteria. Nitrogen intake and in feces were found higher in buffaloes fed UTRS. A positive nitrogen balance (absorption and retention) was in buffaloes fed UTRS. Supplementation of EuO did not affect nitrogen utilization. Both allantoin excretion and absorption and microbial nitrogen supply were increased by UTRS whereas efficiency of microbial protein synthesis was similar in all treatments. Findings of present study suggested that EuO could be used as a feed additive to modify the rumen fermentation in reducing methane production both in RS and UTRS. Feeding UTRS could improve feed intake and efficiency of rumen fermentation in swamp buffaloes. However, more research is warranted to determine the effect of EuO supplementation in production animals. PMID:25049925

Thao, N T; Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Kang, S

2014-01-01

318

Effects of Eucalyptus Crude Oils Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation, Microorganism and Nutrient Digestibility in Swamp Buffaloes  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) crude oils (EuO) supplementation on voluntary feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics in swamp buffaloes. Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes, body weight (BW) of 420±15.0 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were untreated rice straw (RS) without EuO (T1) and with EuO (T2) supplementation, and 3% urea-treated rice straw (UTRS) without EuO (T3) and with EuO (T4) supplementation. The EuO was supplemented at 2 mL/h/d in respective treatment. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate mixture was offered at 3 g/kg BW while roughage was fed ad libitum. Total dry matter and roughage intake, and apparent digestibilites of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber were improved (p<0.01) by UTRS. There was no effect of EuO supplementation on feed intake and nutrient digestibility. Ruminal pH and temperature were not (p>0.05) affected by either roughage sources or EuO supplementation. However, buffaloes fed UTRS had higher ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen as compared with RS. Total volatile fatty acid and butyrate proportion were similar among treatments, whereas acetate was decreased and propionate molar proportion was increased by EuO supplementation. Feeding UTRS resulted in lower acetate and higher propionate concentration compared to RS. Moreover, supplementation of EuO reduced methane production especially in UTRS treatment. Protozoa populations were reduced by EuO supplementation while fungi zoospores remained the same. Total, amylolytic and cellulolytic bacterial populations were increased (p<0.01) by UTRS; However, EuO supplementation did not affect viable bacteria. Nitrogen intake and in feces were found higher in buffaloes fed UTRS. A positive nitrogen balance (absorption and retention) was in buffaloes fed UTRS. Supplementation of EuO did not affect nitrogen utilization. Both allantoin excretion and absorption and microbial nitrogen supply were increased by UTRS whereas efficiency of microbial protein synthesis was similar in all treatments. Findings of present study suggested that EuO could be used as a feed additive to modify the rumen fermentation in reducing methane production both in RS and UTRS. Feeding UTRS could improve feed intake and efficiency of rumen fermentation in swamp buffaloes. However, more research is warranted to determine the effect of EuO supplementation in production animals. PMID:25049925

Thao, N. T.; Wanapat, M.; Cherdthong, A.; Kang, S.

2014-01-01

319

Meat quality of buffalo young bulls fed faba bean as protein source.  

PubMed

Sixteen Italian Mediterranean Buffalo young bulls were divided into two groups fed isoprotein and isoenergy diets and only differing for protein source of concentrate: faba bean (FB) vs soybean (SB). Animals were slaughtered at 350 kg BW. Meat from FB group showed significantly lower fat, protein, cholesterol and saturated fatty acids than SB group. Significant differences were also found between the three muscles analysed [Longissimus thoracis (LT), Semitendinosus (ST) and Iliopsoas plus Psoas minor (IP)]. ST showed the most favourable fatty acids profile: lower SFA, higher PUFA, MUFA, ?-3, ?-6, CLA and, consequently, lower values for both atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. Results showed that faba bean can be used as a protein source alternative to soybean in the diet of young buffalo bulls for the production of high quality meat. PMID:24018277

Calabrò, S; Cutrignelli, M I; Gonzalez, O J; Chiofalo, B; Grossi, M; Tudisco, R; Panetta, C; Infascelli, F

2014-01-01

320

Comparison of the principal proteins in bovine, caprine, buffalo, equine and camel milk.  

PubMed

Proteomic analysis of bovine, caprine, buffalo, equine and camel milk highlighted significant interspecies differences. Camel milk was found to be devoid of ?-lactoglobulin, whereas ?-lactoglobulin was the major whey protein in bovine, buffalo, caprine, and equine milk. Five different isoforms of ?-casein were found in camel milk, analogous to the micro-heterogeneity observed for bovine ?-casein. Several spots observed in 2D-electrophoretograms of milk of all species could tentatively be identified as polypeptides arising from the enzymatic hydrolysis of caseins. The understanding gained from the proteomic comparison of these milks may be of relevance both in terms of identifying sources of hypoallergenic alternatives to bovine milk and detection of adulteration of milk samples and products. PMID:22365180

Hinz, Katharina; O'Connor, Paula M; Huppertz, Thom; Ross, R Paul; Kelly, Alan L

2012-05-01

321

Efficacy of eprinomectin pour-on against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus on buffaloes.  

PubMed

A trial was conducted on 12 buffaloes naturally infested with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus to evaluate the efficacy of eprinomectin pour-on at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg body weight. A reduction in live tick count by 45.94, 63.96, 81.53, 90.54, 98.19 and 100 % was observed on days 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 and 21 post-treatment, respectively. The reinfestation of ticks was not observed up to 42 days of trial period. On the basis of the present trial of eprinomectin pour-on, it can be recommended for use in dairy buffaloes against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus infestation. PMID:24431562

Nazir, T; Katoch, R; Godara, R; Yadav, Anish

2013-10-01

322

Development and Calibration of a Fine-Grained Sediment Transport Model for the Buffalo River  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical model of the transport and fate of sediments in the Buffalo River (New York) was developed. The model framework consists of two-dimensional, vertically-integrated, time-dependent hydrodynamic and transport sub-models coupled with a three-dimensional, time-dependent sub-model of the sediment bed and its properties. The three-dimensional sediment bed model was necessary to accurately model bed properties that vary both spatially and

Joseph Gailani; Wilbert Lick; C. Kirk Ziegler; Douglas Endicott

1996-01-01

323

THE USE OF DIVERSION, EXCAVATION, AND GROUNDWATER DILUTION TO RESTORE DELAWARE PARK LAKE, BUFFALO, NEW YORK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delaware Park Lake is an 11 ha lake located in Buffalo, N.Y. The average depth of the lake in 1975 was approximately 1.0 m. The lake suffered from eutrophication and associated problems including algal blooms, fishkills, odor, high turbidity, and bacterial contamination. In 1976 a four-part project to restore the lake was proposed under the federal Clean Lakes Program. The

Gerald F. Mikol; Jay A. Bloomfield; Paul Erickson

1986-01-01

324

Effect of management practices and animal age on incidence of mastitis in Nili Ravi buffaloes.  

PubMed

Buffalo is an economically important dairy animal in South Asia but mostly ignored in research priorities. In this retrospective study, the effect of management practices and age of animal on the incidence of mastitis in Nili Ravi buffaloes was investigated. A total of 1,560 quarters of buffaloes (n?=?390) were screened by visual examination of the udder and milk (clinical mastitis) and California mastitis test (subclinical mastitis). Household data was collected on a predesigned questionnaire and analyzed. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis, clinical mastitis, and blind quarters was 41.8, 13.6, and 9.7 %, respectively. The highest prevalence was noted in the hind quarters and left side as compared to that in the forequarters and right side. This data significantly (p?buffaloes that ranged 6-10 l/day showed a higher rate of mastitis occurrence (p?

Ali, Tariq; Rahman, Abdur; Qureshi, Muhammand Subhan; Hussain, Muhammad Tariq; Khan, Muhammad Shauib; Uddin, Siraj; Iqbal, Muhammad; Han, Bo

2014-10-01

325

Buffalo Production: A Prosperous Enterprise to Empower Women Farmers and to Sustain Subsistence Farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Livestock is a paramount component in Nepalese Agriculture. It's economic contribution both to rural households (28.5%) and national economy (18%) is in increasing trend. However, the share of animal products in dietary energy supply is merely 7.5%. Buffalo contributes 69.4% and 64.6% to the total milk and meat production respectively. Its contribution to the total livestock income is 35.09% in

KARKI Lila Bahadur; BAUER Siegfried; KARKI Uma

326

Testicular development and its relationship to semen production in Murrah buffalo bulls.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship of age and body weight to testicular development and to establish norms for breeding soundness evaluations of Murrah buffalo bulls. Testicular measurements of 133 Murrah buffalo bulls of various ages were recorded with a caliper and a tape. Semen was collected twice a week for 5 weeks from groups of bulls which were 25-36 (n=17), 37-48 (n=16), 49-60 (n=14), of >60 (n=10) months of age. After examining volume, sperm concentration, and progressive motility semen was diluted in Tris-citric acid-egg yolk-fructose extender and frozen in 0.5 ml French straws. Testicular measurements of buffalo bulls were lower than those recorded for European breeds of cattle bulls. Nevertheless, like cattle bulls, scrotal circumference was highly correlated with other testicular measurements. Also, it had a significant positive relationship with semen volume and sperm concentration per ejaculate. Average sperm output per week in order of increasing age group was 15.3, 18.2, 19.8 and 23.6 x 10(9). Corresponding values for sperm output per week per gram of testis were 59.1, 45.8, 41.1, 36.2 x 10(6) indicating a reduction in spermatogenesis per unit of testis with advancing age. Compared to European breeds, daily sperm output in Murrah bulls was nearly 45% lower, presumably due to their nearly 40% lower scrotal circumference than Holstein bulls of the same age. These results indicate that in buffalo, as in cattle, scrotal circumference is a useful indicator of potential sperm output and may serve as an important criterion for selecting young bulls as AI sires. PMID:12620577

Pant, H C; Sharma, R K; Patel, S H; Shukla, H R; Mittal, A K; Kasiraj, R; Misra, A K; Prabhakar, J H

2003-06-01

327

Studies on activation and inhibition of cathepsin B from buffalo liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cathepsin B (EC 3.4.22.1) was purified from buffalo liver. The enzyme activity againsta-benzoyl-dl-arginine-naphthylamme (BANA) was substantially reduced by heat (above 37‡C) and by nondenaturing concentrations of urea (3 M) and guanidine hydrochloride (1 M). Cathepsin B was significantly activated by 1.5 mM EDTA alone. The activation of the enzyme was further enhanced in the presence of thiol compounds, e.g., cysteine

A. Salahuddin; H. Kaur

1996-01-01

328

What is Pseudonovibos spiralis?  

E-print Network

Brandt (2001) that provided a new identification for two bovid frontlets held in the Kansas Natural History Museum. The frontlets had been collected in 1929 from Suoi Kiet, Binh Tuy Province in Vietnam and had been previously identified as kouprey Bos... are made, concluding that the species is a hoax and the specimens are fakes that have been modified by humans from domestic cattle Bos taurus skulls. We have seen fake horns fashioned from Asian water buffalo Bubalus bubalis, as well as cattle. Dioli has...

Timm, Robert M.; Olson, Link E.; Brandt, John H.; Dioli, Maurizio

2001-12-01

329

Population structure and phylogeography of Toda buffalo in Nilgiris throw light on possible origin of aboriginal Toda tribe of South India.  

PubMed

We report the genetic structure and evolutionary relationship of the endangered Toda buffalo of Nilgiris in South India with Kanarese and two other riverine buffalo breeds. The upgma phylogeny drawn using Nei's distance grouped South Kanara and Toda buffaloes at a single node while Marathwada and Murrah together formed a separate node. Principal component analysis was performed with pairwise interindividual chord distances which revealed clustering of Murrah and Marathwada buffaloes distinctly, while individuals of Toda and South Kanara breeds completely intermingled with each other. Furthermore, there were highly significant group variances (p?buffalo breeds. To know the evolutionary relationship among these breeds, 537-bp D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA was analysed. The phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA haplotypes following NJ algorithm with Chinese swamp buffalo as outgroup revealed a major cluster that included haplotypes from all the four investigated breeds and two minor clusters formed by South Kanara and Toda haplotypes. Reduced median network analysis revealed haplotypes of South Kanara and Toda to be quite distinct from the commonly found haplotypes indicating that these might have been ancestral to all the present-day haplotypes. Few mutations in two of the haplotypes of South Kanara buffalo were found to have contributed to ancestral haplotypes of Toda buffalo suggesting the possible migration of buffaloes from Kanarese region towards Nilgiris along the Western Ghats. Considering the close social, economic and cultural association of Todas with their buffaloes, the present study supports the theory of migration of Toda tribe from Kanarese/Mysore region along with their buffaloes. PMID:21749476

Kathiravan, P; Kataria, R S; Mishra, B P; Dubey, P K; Sadana, D K; Joshi, B K

2011-08-01

330

Willingness to pay for cattle and buffalo insurance: an analysis of dairy farmers in central India.  

PubMed

In India, insurance market especially in agricultural sector is usually underdeveloped. The idea of livestock insurance emerged in India before three decades, yet, it has not operated in a significant way till date. It is well noted that livestock insurance scheme is the relevant strategy in managing different risks related to livestock farming but very little attention has been paid to address the livestock insurance needs of the dairy farmers. This study, therefore, addresses the basic question that how many people and to what extent they are willing to pay for livestock insurance and determine the main factors which influence insurance participation of dairy farmers. The data was collected from Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh in India with a sample survey of 120 cattle and buffalo farmers. For eliciting willingness to pay, a contingent valuation scenario was presented to dairy animal owners in the group of five to six. A logit discrete binary regression model was used to know the factors influencing adoption of livestock insurance. The results suggest that most of the farmers were willing to participate in cattle and buffalo insurance. The amount of premium varies across different breeds of dairy animals. The low level of education of many dairy farmers have negatively influenced the decision to purchase livestock insurance. Farmers having more experience in rearing dairy animals are more likely to be willing to pay for cattle and buffalo insurance. PMID:22843215

Khan, Mohd Ameer; Chander, Mahesh; Bardhan, Dwaipayan

2013-02-01

331

Home on the Range: Factors Explaining Partial Migration of African Buffalo in a Tropical Environment  

PubMed Central

Partial migration (when only some individuals in a population undertake seasonal migrations) is common in many species and geographical contexts. Despite the development of modern statistical methods for analyzing partial migration, there have been no studies on what influences partial migration in tropical environments. We present research on factors affecting partial migration in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in northeastern Namibia. Our dataset is derived from 32 satellite tracking collars, spans 4 years and contains over 35,000 locations. We used remotely sensed data to quantify various factors that buffalo experience in the dry season when making decisions on whether and how far to migrate, including potential man-made and natural barriers, as well as spatial and temporal heterogeneity in environmental conditions. Using an information-theoretic, non-linear regression approach, our analyses showed that buffalo in this area can be divided into 4 migratory classes: migrants, non-migrants, dispersers, and a new class that we call “expanders”. Multimodel inference from least-squares regressions of wet season movements showed that environmental conditions (rainfall, fires, woodland cover, vegetation biomass), distance to the nearest barrier (river, fence, cultivated area) and social factors (age, size of herd at capture) were all important in explaining variation in migratory behaviour. The relative contributions of these variables to partial migration have not previously been assessed for ungulates in the tropics. Understanding the factors driving migratory decisions of wildlife will lead to better-informed conservation and land-use decisions in this area. PMID:22570722

Naidoo, Robin; Du Preez, Pierre; Stuart-Hill, Greg; Jago, Mark; Wegmann, Martin

2012-01-01

332

Pharmacokinetics following intravenous administration and pharmacodynamics of cefquinome in buffalo calves.  

PubMed

Disposition following single intravenous injection (2 mg/kg) and pharmacodynamics of cefquinome were investigated in buffalo calves 6-8 months of age. Drug levels in plasma were estimated by high-performance liquid chromatography. The plasma concentration-time profile following intravenous administration was best described by a two-compartment open model. Rapid distribution of cefquinome was evident from the short distribution half-life (t ½ ? = 0.36 ± 0.01 h), and small apparent volume of distribution (Vd area = 0.31 ± 0.008 L/kg) indicated limited drug distribution in buffalo calves. The values of area under plasma concentration-time curve, elimination half-life (t ½ ? ), total body clearance (ClB), and mean residence time were 32.9 ± 0.56 ?g · h/mL, 3.56 ± 0.05 h, 60.9 ± 1.09 mL/h/kg, and 4.24 ± 0.09 h, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration of cefquinome were 0.035-0.07 and 0.05-0.09 ?g/mL, respectively. A single intravenous injection of 2 mg/kg may be effective to maintain the MIC up to 12 h in buffalo calves against the pathogens for which cefquinome is indicated. PMID:23456794

Dinakaran, Venkatathalam; Dumka, Vinod Kumar; Ranjan, Bibhuti; Balaje, Ramalingam; Sidhu, Pritam Kaur

2013-10-01

333

Somatotropic gene response to recombinant growth hormone treatment in buffalo leucocytes.  

PubMed

The use of recombinant bovine growth hormone (rbGH) to increase milk yield in cows is banned in some countries. In others, where it is authorised, it has triggered harsh debates on labelling of dairy products. If many studies have been performed on bovines, there is a lack of information on buffaloes, which are sometimes treated with rbGH and re-present an important economical resource for dairy products in some countries. Analytical methods with legal value for surveillance of rbGH treatments do not yet exist. Research on gene expression biomarkers is one of the most promising approaches to this purpose. For this reason, we treated five buffaloes for 10 weeks with a sustained-release formulation of rbGH and analysed the response of 20 somatotropic axis genes in leucocytes by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Overall changes in gene expression levels were of low magnitude and sometimes affected by the 'time' factor. Only the IGFBP-1 gene showed a significant under-expression (about two-fold; p <0.001) in treated animals. Taken together, these results give evidence that expression analysis of the somatotropic axis genes in leucocytes is little helpful for discrimination of rbGH-treated buffaloes, but do not exclude that another array of genes could provide useful patterns of variation. PMID:22050229

Castigliego, Lorenzo; Li, Xiao-Ning; Armani, Andrea; Razzano, Maria; Mazzi, Marco; Rosati, Remo; Gianfaldoni, Daniela; Guidi, Alessandra

2011-12-01

334

Improvement of conception rate in postpartum flaxseed supplemented buffalo with Ovsynch+CIDR protocol.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted on lactating Murrah buffalo to assess the effect of crushed flaxseed (a source of omega-3 fatty acids) supplementation (300g/100kg bwt/day for 60 days), over and above the routine feed, on luteolytic signal (PGF2?), luteal function (progesterone) and conception rate. In first experiment, on day 50 post-calving, six non-supplemented buffalo were treated to synchronize time of ovulation using an Ovsynch+Controlled Internal Drug Release (CIDR) protocol followed by intravenous oxytocin treatment (OT; 100IU) on day 15 post-ovulation. Blood samples were collected at 15min interval, 1h before to 4h after OT challenge. Thereafter, the same buffalo were supplemented with flaxseed, treated to synchronize time of ovulation starting on day 35 post-supplementation using the same protocol and subjected to OT treatment and blood sampling on day 15 post-ovulation. The PGF2? response was measured as the venous concentration of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto PGF2? (PGFM). The mean hourly concentration of PGFM subsequent to flaxseed supplemented was less (P<0.05) than in the pre-supplementation period at all the occasions. Flaxseed supplementation did not affect plasma fatty acids and other plasma metabolites except for an increase (P<0.05) in plasma cholesterol and plasma alanine transaminase. In the second experiment, 31 buffalo were randomly assigned to a control (n=16) and flaxseed supplemented (n=15) group. The latter group was supplemented with flaxseed starting from day 15 post-calving. On day 50-post-calving, buffalo of both groups were treated to synchronize time of ovulation among animals as described for the first experiment followed by artificial insemination (AI). Post-AI luteal phase plasma progesterone was greater (P<0.05) in the supplemented group compared to controls. Conception rate on day 63 post-AI was 66.7% in supplemented and 31.2% in controls (P<0.05). The present study indicated the beneficial impact of dietary supplementation of crushed flaxseed on conception rate through attenuation of luteolytic signal and improvement in post-breeding luteal profile. PMID:23260028

Nazir, G; Ghuman, S P S; Singh, J; Honparkhe, M; Ahuja, C S; Dhaliwal, G S; Sangha, M K; Saijpaul, S; Agarwal, S K

2013-02-01

335

Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Perhaps the single most critical element of the Earth system is water, the carrier and bearer of life that is inextricably woven into the fabric of the Earth system. Only on Earth does water occur in equilibrium ...

336

Effects of a novel SNP of IGF2R gene on growth traits and expression rate of IGF2R and IGF2 genes in gluteus medius muscle of Egyptian buffalo.  

PubMed

Insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R) is responsible for degradation of the muscle development initiator, IGF2, and thus it can be used as a marker for selection strategies in the farm animals. The aim of this study was to search for polymorphisms in three coding loci of IGF2R, and to analyze their effect on the growth traits and on the expression levels of IGF2R and IGF2 genes in the gluteus medius muscle of Egyptian buffaloes. A novel A266C SNP was detected in the coding sequences of the third IGF2R locus (at nucleotide number 51 of exon 23) among Egyptian water buffaloes. This SNP was non-synonymous mutation and led to replacement of Y (tyrosine) amino acid (aa) by D (aspartic acid) aa. Three different single-strand conformation polymorphism patterns were observed in the third IGF2R locus: AA, AC, and CC with frequencies of 0.555, 0.195, and 0.250, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that the homozygous AA genotype significantly associated with the average daily gain than AC and CC genotypes from birth to 9 mo of age. Expression analysis showed that the A266C SNP was correlated with IGF2, but not with IGF2R, mRNA levels in the gluteus medius muscle of Egyptian buffaloes. The highest IGF2 mRNA level was estimated in the muscle of animals with the AA homozygous genotype as compared to the AC heterozygotes and CC homozygotes. We conclude that A266C SNP at nucleotide number 51 of exon 23 of the IGF2R gene is associated with the ADG during the early stages of life (from birth to 9 mo of age) and this effect is accompanied by, and may be caused by, increased expression levels of the IGF2 gene. PMID:24613755

El-Magd, Mohammed Abu; Abo-Al-Ela, Haitham G; El-Nahas, Abeer; Saleh, Ayman A; Mansour, Ali A

2014-05-01

337

Effect of rate of addition of starter culture on textural characteristics of buffalo milk Feta type cheese during ripening.  

PubMed

The effect of rate of addition of starter culture on textural characteristics of buffalo milk Feta type cheese was investigated during ripening period up to two months. The textural characteristics of buffalo milk Feta type cheese in terms of hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness were analyzed by using textural profile analyzer. The maximum hardness was found with cheese made using 1% culture, while the minimum was found with 2% culture. The cohesiveness and springiness decreased as the level of addition of starter culture increased. The chewiness of cheese also decreased, as the rate of addition of starter culture increased for cheese making. In addition to this, yield, moisture, fat, FDM, protein, salt and S/M of fresh buffalo milk Feta type cheese increased with the increase in rate of addition of starter culture; however, TS of experimental cheeses decreased. PMID:24741179

Kumar, Sanjeev; Kanawjia, S K; Kumar, Suryamani; Khatkar, Sunil

2014-04-01

338

Rift Valley fever virus infection in African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) herds in rural South Africa: Evidence of interepidemic transmission  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging biodefense pathogen that poses significant threats to human and livestock health. To date, the interepidemic reservoirs of RVFV are not well defined. In a longitudinal survey of infectious diseases among African buffalo during 2000-2006, 550 buffalo were tested for antibodies against RVFV in 820 capture events in 302 georeferenced locations in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Overall, 115 buffalo (21%) were seropositive. Seroprevalence of RVFV was highest (32%) in the first study year, and decreased progressively in subsequent years, but had no detectable impact on survival. Nine (7%) of 126 resampled, initially seronegative animals seroconverted during periods outside any reported regional RVFV outbreaks. Seroconversions for RVFV were detected in significant temporal clusters during 2001-2003 and in 2004. These findings highlight the potential importance of wildlife as reservoirs for RVFV and interepidemic RVFV transmission in perpetuating regional RVFV transmission risk. Copyright ?? 2011 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

LaBeaud, A. D.; Cross, P. C.; Getz, W. M.; Glinka, A.; King, C. H.

2011-01-01

339

The epidemiology of tuberculosis in free-ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.  

PubMed

The presence of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in the Kruger National Park (KNP) was determined for the first time in 1990. It was diagnosed in an African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) bull, which was found recumbent and in an emaciated and moribund state near the south-western boundary fence. This prompted an investigation into the bovine tuberculosis (BTB) status of the KNP, with emphasis on its epidemiological determinants and risk factors. This report documents the findings of surveys that were conducted from 1990 to 1996. It was found that BTB had entered the KNP ecosystem relatively recently (+/- 1960), and has found favourable circumstances for survival and propagation in a fully susceptible and immunologically naive buffalo population. Indications are that it entered the KNP from across the southern river boundary, where the presence of infected domestic cattle herds had been documented. From there the infection spread through the southern buffalo population and is currently spreading in a northward direction. It was estimated that this northward spread took place at a rate of about 6 km per year; the prospect being that, if this rate of spread is maintained, the entire KNP may be affected in less than 30 years from now. Spillover from buffalo had already occurred in species such as chacma baboon (Papio ursinus), lion (Panthera leo), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and leopard (Panthera pardus). Although there is no indication yet that these species act as maintenance hosts, the possibility is raised that these, or an as yet overlooked species, might assume such a role in future. In the KNP, BTB manifests itself as a chronic and predominantly subclinical disease in buffalo. It may take years for clinical signs to develop, and then only at a terminal stage, when emaciation is a constant feature. It is suspected that the time from infection to death is variable and dependent on the animal's immune response, which can be weakened by such factors as stress, old age or droughts. It was found that, in the interim, buffalo have a normal reproductive life. On necropsy, buffalo show almost exclusively lung and upper respiratory tract involvement, pointing to an aerogenous mode of transmission. Histologically, little sign of encapsulation of lesions was detected, which suggests that they are exceptionally susceptible to BTB and that most lesions are open and infectious and progressive, leading ultimately to death of the individual. Evidence also indicates that BTB is progressive within the herd context (92% being the highest prevalence rate thus far determined in a buffalo herd) as well as progressive within the KNP buffalo population (the implication being that virtually all buffalo herds in the KNP will eventually be infected). Preliminary data suggest a positive correlation between disease prevalence and mortality, with potential mortality reaching up to 10% in buffalo herds having BTB prevalence rates of 50 % and higher. Only the future will tell what the effect of the disease on the population dynamics of buffalo will be. PMID:11585089

De Vos, V; Bengis, R G; Kriek, N P; Michel, A; Keet, D F; Raath, J P; Huchzermeyer, H F

2001-06-01

340

Rift Valley fever virus infection in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) herds in rural South Africa: evidence of interepidemic transmission.  

PubMed

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging biodefense pathogen that poses significant threats to human and livestock health. To date, the interepidemic reservoirs of RVFV are not well defined. In a longitudinal survey of infectious diseases among African buffalo during 2000-2006, 550 buffalo were tested for antibodies against RVFV in 820 capture events in 302 georeferenced locations in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Overall, 115 buffalo (21%) were seropositive. Seroprevalence of RVFV was highest (32%) in the first study year, and decreased progressively in subsequent years, but had no detectable impact on survival. Nine (7%) of 126 resampled, initially seronegative animals seroconverted during periods outside any reported regional RVFV outbreaks. Seroconversions for RVFV were detected in significant temporal clusters during 2001-2003 and in 2004. These findings highlight the potential importance of wildlife as reservoirs for RVFV and interepidemic RVFV transmission in perpetuating regional RVFV transmission risk. PMID:21460024

LaBeaud, A Desirée; Cross, Paul C; Getz, Wayne M; Glinka, Allison; King, Charles H

2011-04-01

341

Rift Valley Fever Virus Infection in African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) Herds in Rural South Africa: Evidence of Interepidemic Transmission  

PubMed Central

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging biodefense pathogen that poses significant threats to human and livestock health. To date, the interepidemic reservoirs of RVFV are not well defined. In a longitudinal survey of infectious diseases among African buffalo during 2000–2006, 550 buffalo were tested for antibodies against RVFV in 820 capture events in 302 georeferenced locations in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Overall, 115 buffalo (21%) were seropositive. Seroprevalence of RVFV was highest (32%) in the first study year, and decreased progressively in subsequent years, but had no detectable impact on survival. Nine (7%) of 126 resampled, initially seronegative animals seroconverted during periods outside any reported regional RVFV outbreaks. Seroconversions for RVFV were detected in significant temporal clusters during 2001–2003 and in 2004. These findings highlight the potential importance of wildlife as reservoirs for RVFV and interepidemic RVFV transmission in perpetuating regional RVFV transmission risk. PMID:21460024

LaBeaud, A. Desiree; Cross, Paul C.; Getz, Wayne M.; Glinka, Allison; King, Charles H.

2011-01-01

342

Spatial and temporal changes in group dynamics and range use enable anti-predator responses in African buffalo.  

PubMed

The reintroduction of large predators provides a framework to investigate responses by prey species to predators. Considerable research has been directed at the impact that reintroduced wolves (Canis lupus) have on cervids, and to a lesser degree, bovids, in northern temperate regions. Generally, these impacts alter feeding, activity, and ranging behavior, or combinations of these. However, there are few studies on the response of African bovids to reintroduced predators, and thus, there is limited data to compare responses by tropical and temperate ungulates to predator reintroductions. Using the reintroduction of lion (Panthera leo) into the Addo Elephant National Park (AENP) Main Camp Section, South Africa, we show that Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) responses differ from northern temperate ungulates. Following lion reintroduction, buffalo herds amalgamated into larger, more defendable units; this corresponded with an increase in the survival of juvenile buffalo. Current habitat preference of buffalo breeding herds is for open habitats, especially during the night and morning, when lion are active. The increase in group size and habitat preference countered initial high levels of predation on juvenile buffalo, resulting in a return in the proportion of juveniles in breeding herds to pre-lion levels. Our results show that buffalo responses to reintroduced large predators in southern Africa differ to those of northern temperate bovids or cervids in the face of wolf predation. We predict that the nature of the prey response to predator reintroduction is likely to reflect the trade-off between the predator selection and hunting strategy of predators against the life history and foraging strategies of each prey species. PMID:22834371

Tambling, Craig J; Druce, Dave J; Hayward, Matt W; Castley, J Guy; Adendorff, John; Kerley, Graham I H

2012-06-01

343

University of Buffalo study examines chronic inflammation in oral cavity and HPV status of head and neck cancers  

Cancer.gov

Among patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, a history of chronic inflammation in the mouth (periodontitis, i.e. gum disease) may be associated with an increased risk of tumors positive for human papillomavirus (HPV), according to a report published Online First by Archives of Otolaryngology – Head & Neck Surgery, a JAMA Network publication. Researchers at the University at Buffalo and colleagues evaluated data from 124 patients diagnosed with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx, and larynx between 1999 and 2007 for whom tissue samples and dental records were available. The University at Buffalo is affiliated with the Roswell Park Cancer Institute.

344

Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial examines the importance of water to Earth's ecosystems. Topics include the sources and distribution of water, the water cycle, and how snow and rain occur. There is a discussion of the phases in which it can exist (solid, liquid, or vapor), and a description of how animals adapt to cold snowy environments in the winter. Examples include burrowing, hibernation, migration, and thick fur. A quiz and glossary are included.

345

Effect of oxytocin injection to milching buffaloes on its content & stability in milk  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Oxytocin (OT) injections to milch cattle for milk letdown have become a common practice amongst dairy farmers in India. Although there is no reported evidence, it is widely presumed that long term consumption of such milk leads to adverse health consequences. However, there is no information on the effect of exogenous OT injections on milk OT content and its stability during heating and gastrointestinal digestion. This study was carried out to determine the OT content in milk samples given by buffaloes with and without OT injections and to assess the stability of OT in the milk. Methods: Milk samples from milch buffaloes (Murrah buffalo) were collected from local farmers with (n=121) or without (n=120) exogenous OT injections during 3 to 5 months of lactation period. The OT content of milk samples was estimated by competitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The thermal and digestive stability of OT was assessed by in silico and in vitro digestion methods. Results: The OT content of the milk samples was similar regardless of OT injections used. Further, OT was found to be stable to heat treatment and gastric pepsin digestion while it was rapidly digested during the simulated intestinal digestion. Reduced OT was digested by pepsin, implying that internal disulphide bridge of OT rendered the peptide resistant to peptic digestion. On the other hand, phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride (PMSF), a serine protease inhibitor, abrogated the pancreatin induced digestion of OT. Interpretation & conclusions: These findings suggest that exogenous OT injections do not influence its content in milk. Further, OT present in milk is rapidly degraded during intestinal digestion, ruling out its intestinal absorption and associated adverse health consequences, if any. PMID:25109729

Pullakhandam, Raghu; Palika, Ravindranadh; Vemula, Sudershan Rao; Polasa, Kalpagam; Boindala, Sesikeran

2014-01-01

346

Novel SNP Discovery in African Buffalo, Syncerus caffer, using high-throughput Sequencing.  

PubMed

The African buffalo, Syncerus caffer, is one of the most abundant and ecologically important species of megafauna in the savannah ecosystem. It is an important prey species, as well as a host for a vast array of nematodes, pathogens and infectious diseases, such as bovine tuberculosis and corridor disease. Large-scale SNP discovery in this species would greatly facilitate further research into the area of host genetics and disease susceptibility, as well as provide a wealth of sequence information for other conservation and genomics studies. We sequenced pools of Cape buffalo DNA from a total of 9 animals, on an ABI SOLiD4 sequencer. The resulting short reads were mapped to the UMD3.1 Bos taurus genome assembly using both BWA and Bowtie software packages. A mean depth of 2.7× coverage over the mapped regions was obtained. Btau4 gene annotation was added to all SNPs identified within gene regions. Bowtie and BWA identified a maximum of 2,222,665 and 276,847 SNPs within the buffalo respectively, depending on analysis method. A panel of 173 SNPs was validated by fluorescent genotyping in 87 individuals. 27 SNPs failed to amplify, and of the remaining 146 SNPs, 43-54% of the Bowtie SNPs and 57-58% of the BWA SNPs were confirmed as polymorphic. dN/dS ratios found no evidence of positive selection, and although there were genes that appeared to be under negative selection, these were more likely to be slowly evolving house-keeping genes. PMID:23144973

le Roex, Nikki; Noyes, Harry; Brass, Andrew; Bradley, Daniel G; Kemp, Steven J; Kay, Suzanne; van Helden, Paul D; Hoal, Eileen G

2012-01-01

347

Functional and molecular characterization of maxi K+ -channels (BK(Ca)) in buffalo myometrium.  

PubMed

Large conductance potassium channels (BK(Ca) channels) play a central role in maintaining myometrial tone, thus activation of these channels proved to have therapeutic potential in preterm labor. Present study aims to unravel the presence of BK(Ca) (maxi-K) channels in buffalo myometrium. Tension experiments, mRNA and protein expression studies were done to characterize BK(Ca) channels in buffalo myometrium. Isolated myometrial preparations exhibited rhythmic spontaneity with regular pattern of amplitude and frequency. Selective blockers of BK(Ca) channels iberiotoxin (IbTx; 100nM) and tetraethylammonium (TEA; 1mM) produced excitatory effects as evidenced by increase in amplitude and frequency of myogenic activity. 1,3-Dihydro-1-[2-hydroxy-5-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-benzimi-dazol-2-one (NS-1619; 10(-7)-10(-4)M), a BK(Ca) channel opener, produced concentration-dependent relaxation of myometrium with pD(2) of 5.02±0.19 and R(max) of 31.35±3.5% (n=5). TEA significantly antagonized NS-1619-induced relaxation (pD(2) of 4.72±0.12 and R(max) of 22.72±1.78%; n=5). IbTx also significantly shifted the dose response curve of NS-1619 towards right (pD(2) of 3.98±0.16; n=4) without significant change in the per cent maximal response. Further, RT-PCR study detected mRNA encoding BK(Ca) ?-subunit and Western blot analysis detected its protein expression in myometrium. Based on the results of the present investigation, it is suggested that BK(Ca) channels are present in the buffalo myometrium and are open in the resting state. Thus, their activation by potassium channel opener/?(2)-adrenoceptor agonist (tocolytic drug) may lead to uterine relaxation in preterm labor. PMID:21719217

Choudhury, Soumen; Garg, Satish Kumar; Singh, Thakur Uttam; Mishra, Santosh Kumar

2011-07-01

348

Evaluation of duck egg yolk for the cryopreservation of Nili-Ravi buffalo bull semen.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to investigate if the substitution of chicken egg yolk (CEY) with duck egg yolk (DEY) in extenders can improve the quality of frozen-thawed semen of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls and to study if reducing DEY level in extender affects the freezability results. Thirty semen samples collected from three buffalo bulls were diluted in extenders A, B, C, D and E containing tris, citric acid, fructose, egg yolk, glycerol and antibiotics. Extender A contained 20% CEY (control), while extenders B, C, D and E contained 5, 10, 15 and 20% DEY, respectively. After freezing and storage for 24h in liquid nitrogen, samples were evaluated for post-thaw quality. The post extension sperm motility did not differ between extenders A (control) and E (20% DEY). The same was true for post-thaw percentage of sperm with functional plasma membrane and percentage of sperm with abnormal heads or mid pieces. However, extender E showed higher (P<0.05) values for post-thaw sperm motility, livability and absolute index of livability of spermatozoa at 37 °C compared to extender A. Spermatozoa with abnormal tail were lower (P<0.05) in extender E compared to extender A. Values of these parameters of post-thaw semen quality were highest for extender E containing 20% DEY and decreased significantly with decrease in the concentration of DEY, except sperm abnormalities (head, mid-piece and tail) which increased with decrease in DEY level. These results showed that replacement of 20% CEY with 20% DEY in extenders significantly improved post-thaw sperm motility, livability and absolute index of livability of spermatozoa and reduced tail abnormalities. Reduction in the level of DEY in extenders from 20% adversely affected post-thaw semen quality of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls. PMID:22464336

Waheed, Salman; Ahmad, Nazir; Najib-ur-Rahman; Jamil-ur-Rahman, Hafez; Younis, Muhammad; Iqbal, Sajid

2012-03-01

349

Novel SNP Discovery in African Buffalo, Syncerus caffer, Using High-Throughput Sequencing  

PubMed Central

The African buffalo, Syncerus caffer, is one of the most abundant and ecologically important species of megafauna in the savannah ecosystem. It is an important prey species, as well as a host for a vast array of nematodes, pathogens and infectious diseases, such as bovine tuberculosis and corridor disease. Large-scale SNP discovery in this species would greatly facilitate further research into the area of host genetics and disease susceptibility, as well as provide a wealth of sequence information for other conservation and genomics studies. We sequenced pools of Cape buffalo DNA from a total of 9 animals, on an ABI SOLiD4 sequencer. The resulting short reads were mapped to the UMD3.1 Bos taurus genome assembly using both BWA and Bowtie software packages. A mean depth of 2.7× coverage over the mapped regions was obtained. Btau4 gene annotation was added to all SNPs identified within gene regions. Bowtie and BWA identified a maximum of 2,222,665 and 276,847 SNPs within the buffalo respectively, depending on analysis method. A panel of 173 SNPs was validated by fluorescent genotyping in 87 individuals. 27 SNPs failed to amplify, and of the remaining 146 SNPs, 43–54% of the Bowtie SNPs and 57–58% of the BWA SNPs were confirmed as polymorphic. dN/dS ratios found no evidence of positive selection, and although there were genes that appeared to be under negative selection, these were more likely to be slowly evolving house-keeping genes. PMID:23144973

le Roex, Nikki; Noyes, Harry; Brass, Andrew; Bradley, Daniel G.; Kemp, Steven J.; Kay, Suzanne; van Helden, Paul D.; Hoal, Eileen G.

2012-01-01

350

Pan-African Genetic Structure in the African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer): Investigating Intraspecific Divergence  

PubMed Central

The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) exhibits extreme morphological variability, which has led to controversies about the validity and taxonomic status of the various recognized subspecies. The present study aims to clarify these by inferring the pan-African spatial distribution of genetic diversity, using a comprehensive set of mitochondrial D-loop sequences from across the entire range of the species. All analyses converged on the existence of two distinct lineages, corresponding to a group encompassing West and Central African populations and a group encompassing East and Southern African populations. The former is currently assigned to two to three subspecies (S. c. nanus, S. c. brachyceros, S. c. aequinoctialis) and the latter to a separate subspecies (S. c. caffer). Forty-two per cent of the total amount of genetic diversity is explained by the between-lineage component, with one to seventeen female migrants per generation inferred as consistent with the isolation-with-migration model. The two lineages diverged between 145 000 to 449 000 years ago, with strong indications for a population expansion in both lineages, as revealed by coalescent-based analyses, summary statistics and a star-like topology of the haplotype network for the S. c. caffer lineage. A Bayesian analysis identified the most probable historical migration routes, with the Cape buffalo undertaking successive colonization events from Eastern toward Southern Africa. Furthermore, our analyses indicate that, in the West-Central African lineage, the forest ecophenotype may be a derived form of the savanna ecophenotype and not vice versa, as has previously been proposed. The African buffalo most likely expanded and diverged in the late to middle Pleistocene from an ancestral population located around the current-day Central African Republic, adapting morphologically to colonize new habitats, hence developing the variety of ecophenotypes observed today. PMID:23437100

Smitz, Nathalie; Berthouly, Cecile; Cornelis, Daniel; Heller, Rasmus; Van Hooft, Pim; Chardonnet, Philippe; Caron, Alexandre; Prins, Herbert; van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; De Iongh, Hans; Michaux, Johan

2013-01-01

351

SUNY Buffalo: The Center for Advanced Photonic and Electronic Materials (CAPEM)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Advanced Photonic and Electronic Materials' (CAPEM) mission is "to foster interactions and collaboration among the diverse research and development activities at the University at Buffalo in the areas of photonic and electronic materials, and to facilitate cooperative multidisciplinary activities and multi-investigator research projects." After reading a summary of its three main research activities, visitors can find out about the facilities at CAPEM including the Materials Research Instrument Facility (MRIF) and the Laboratory for Spintronics Research in Semiconductors. Under the faculty link, users can find information on individual scientists' research and links to their homepages. Researchers and students can discover upcoming conferences and workshops.

352

Spontaneous bilateral pneumothorax resulting from iatrogenic buffalo chest after the nuss procedure.  

PubMed

We describe a case of iatrogenic buffalo chest resulting in spontaneous bilateral pneumothorax in a 14-year-old boy with pectus excavatum in the late postoperative period after the Nuss procedure. The patient presented with a sudden onset of dyspnea 2 months after the Nuss procedure, and a chest roentgenogram showed a bilateral pneumothorax. We performed an emergency operation and found a communication between the chest cavities and a ruptured bulla in the left lung. This case highlights the potential development of simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax caused by a communication between the chest cavities after the Nuss procedure. PMID:25282216

Sakamoto, Kazuhiro; Ando, Kohei; Noma, Daisuke

2014-10-01

353

Enhancing follicular growth as a prerequisite for GnRH treatment of true anestrum in buffalo.  

PubMed

A total of 140 true anestrous buffalo were divided on the basis of receiving short-term (20 days) nutritional supplementation (N, n=80) or not (WN, n=60). The animals in N group were subdivided into NQ (n=40) where the quantity of the offered diet was increased by 20% and NF (n=40) where the offered diet was supplemented by 3% of dry protected fat. Buffaloes in either NQ or NF were equally allotted on the following treatment regimens: Insulin/GnRH (NQi or NFi, n=10 for each); rbST/GnRH (NQr or NFr, n=10 for each); GnRH alone treated (NQG or NFG, n=10 for each) and saline-treated control (NQc or NFc, n=10 for each). Insulin-treated subgroups (NQi or NFi) received s/c injection of insulin at a dose of 0.25 I.U./kg on Days 21, 22 and 23 while rbST-treated subgroups (NQr or NFr) received single IM injection of rbST (500 mg Sometribove) on Day 21. GnRH was injected at a dose of 0.020 mg buserelin (5 ml Receptal(®)) on Day 24 in all subgroups except NQCand NFC where Day 1 was the first day of the short-term nutritional improvement. Buffalo in the WN (n=60) were equally allotted on the same treatment regimens applied in the first group insulin/GnRH (WNi, n=15), rbST/GnRH (WNr, n=15); GnRH alone treated (WNG, n=15) and saline-treated control (WNC, n=15). Ultrasonic scanning of ovaries was conducted on Day 24 to measure largest follicle diameter (LFD). The results showed increases (P<0.05) in the LFD following nutritional supplementation with insulin or rbST. The recorded EIRs for GnRH pre-treated with nutritional improvement - metabolic hormones combinations (9/10 and 8/10 for NQi and NFi or 8/10 for NQr) were greater (P<0.05) than those pre-treated with either metabolic hormone alone (7/15 for WNi and/or WNr) or nutritional improvement alone (6/10 for NQG and/or NFG) and control as well. The greatest CR was recorded in the NQi group. It could be concluded that pre-GnRH nutritional improvement plus administration of insulin or rbST increases LFD in true anestrous buffalo having LFD<8.5 mm thereby increasing their fertility response to GnRH in terms of EIRs and CRs. PMID:22542581

Ramoun, A A; Serur, B H; Fattouh, El-S M; Darweish, S A; Abou El-Ghait, H A

2012-05-01

354

Production of Rough or Commercial Fishes in Elephant Butte Lake, New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elephant Butte Lake is a large warmwater impoundment of the Rio Grande in southwestern New Mexico. Thirteen of 28 species of fish present are relatively abundant. Nine of the 13 species are game fishes; one is forage; and river carpsucker (Carpiodes carpio), smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus), and carp (Cyprinus carpio) make up a large rough or commercial fish group. Buffalo

Douclas B. Jester

1976-01-01

355

Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K shows us from where we get water, how it's stored and how powerful it can be. We learn how important it is to conserve the .3% of usable fresh water available on earth.

Ptv, Idaho

2011-10-06

356

Cultural legacies, fire ecology, and environmental change in the Stone Country of Arnhem Land and Kakadu National Park, Australia  

PubMed Central

We use the fire ecology and biogeographical patterns of Callitris intratropica, a fire-sensitive conifer, and the Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), an introduced mega-herbivore, to examine the hypothesis that the continuation of Aboriginal burning and cultural integration of buffalo contribute to greater savanna heterogeneity and diversity in central Arnhem Land (CAL) than Kakadu National Park (KNP). The ‘Stone Country’ of the Arnhem Plateau, extending from KNP to CAL, is a globally renowned social–ecological system, managed for millennia by Bininj-Kunwok Aboriginal clans. Regional species declines have been attributed to the cessation of patchy burning by Aborigines. Whereas the KNP Stone Country is a modern wilderness, managed through prescribed burning and buffalo eradication, CAL remains a stronghold for Aboriginal management where buffalo have been culturally integrated. We surveyed the plant community and the presence of buffalo tracks among intact and fire-damaged C. intratropica groves and the savanna matrix in KNP and CAL. Aerial surveys of C. intratropica grove condition were used to examine the composition of savanna vegetation across the Stone Country. The plant community in intact C. intratropica groves had higher stem counts of shrubs and small trees and higher proportions of fire-sensitive plant species than degraded groves and the savanna matrix. A higher proportion of intact C. intratropica groves in CAL therefore indicated greater gamma diversity and habitat heterogeneity than the KNP Stone Country. Interactions among buffalo, fire, and C. intratropica suggested that buffalo also contributed to these patterns. Our results suggest linkages between ecological and cultural integrity at broad spatial scales across a complex landscape. Buffalo may provide a tool for mitigating destructive fires; however, their interactions require further study. Sustainability in the Stone Country depends upon adaptive management that rehabilitates the coupling of indigenous culture, disturbance, and natural resources. PMID:23467505

Trauernicht, Clay; Murphy, Brett P; Tangalin, Natalia; Bowman, David M J S

2013-01-01

357

Assistant Professor, Dept. od Civil Engineering, Univ. of Tehran, P.O. Box 11365-4563, Tehran, Iran; Fax 98-21-661024 Professor, Dept. of Civil, Struc. & Env. Engrg, State Univ. of New York at Buffalo, 130 Ketter Hall, Buffalo, New York  

E-print Network

-4563, Tehran, Iran; Fax 98-21-661024 2 Professor, Dept. of Civil, Struc. & Env. Engrg, State Univ. of New York at Buffalo, 130 Ketter Hall, Buffalo, New York SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF DIAPHRAGMS IN SLAB-ON-GIRDER STEEL damage during earthquakes. This paper presents the results from an experimental work to investigate

Bruneau, Michel

358

Tick infestation patterns in free ranging African buffalo (Syncercus caffer): Effects of host innate immunity and niche segregation among tick species?  

PubMed Central

Ticks are of vast importance to livestock health, and contribute to conflicts between wildlife conservation and agricultural interests; but factors driving tick infestation patterns on wild hosts are not well understood. We studied tick infestation patterns on free-ranging African buffalo (Syncercus caffer), asking (i) is there evidence for niche segregation among tick species?; and (ii) how do host characteristics affect variation in tick abundance among hosts? We identified ticks and estimated tick burdens on 134 adult female buffalo from two herds at Kruger National Park, South Africa. To assess niche segregation, we evaluated attachment site preferences and tested for correlations between abundances of different tick species. To investigate which host factors may drive variability in tick abundance, we measured age, body condition, reproductive and immune status in all hosts, and examined their effects on tick burdens. Two tick species were abundant on buffalo, Amblyomma hebraeum and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi. A. hebraeum were found primarily in the inguinal and axillary regions; R. e. evertsi attached exclusively in the perianal area. Abundances of A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on the host were unrelated. These results suggest spatial niche segregation between A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on the buffalo. Buffalo with stronger innate immunity, and younger buffalo, had fewer ticks. Buffalo with low body condition scores, and pregnant buffalo, had higher tick burdens, but these effects varied between the two herds we sampled. This study is one of the first to link ectoparasite abundance patterns and immunity in a free-ranging mammalian host population. Based on independent abundances of A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on individual buffalo, we would expect no association between the diseases these ticks transmit. Longitudinal studies linking environmental variability with host immunity are needed to understand tick infestation patterns and the dynamics of tick-borne diseases in wildlife. PMID:24533310

Anderson, Kadie; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Jolles, Anna E.

2012-01-01

359

Purification, properties and alternate substrate specificities of arginase from two different sources: Vigna catjang cotyledon and buffalo liver  

PubMed Central

Arginase was purified from Vigna catjang cotyledons and buffalo liver by chromatographic separations using Bio-Gel P-150, DEAE-cellulose and arginine AH Sepharose 4B affinity columns. The native molecular weight of an enzyme estimated on Bio-Gel P-300 column for Vigna catjang was 210 kDa and 120 kDa of buffalo liver, while SDS-PAGE showed a single band of molecular weight 52 kDa for cotyledon and 43 kDa for buffalo liver arginase. The kinetic properties determined for the purified cotyledon and liver arginase showed an optimum pH of 10.0 and pH 9.2 respectively. Optimal cofactor Mn++ ion concentration was found to be 0.6 mM for cotyledon and 2 mM for liver arginase. The Michaelis-Menten constant for cotyledon arginase and hepatic arginase were found to be 42 mM and 2 mM respectively. The activity of guanidino compounds as alternate substrates for Vigna catjang cotyledon and buffalo liver arginase is critically dependent on the length of the amino acid side chain and the number of carbon atoms. In addition to L-arginine cotyledon arginase showed substrate specificity towards agmatine and L-canavanine, whereas the liver arginase showed substrate specificity towards only L-canavanine. PMID:16094464

2005-01-01

360

University at Buffalo (SUNY) Department of Industrial Engineering IE 661 Chapter 6 Flow Shops and Flexible Flow Shops  

E-print Network

University at Buffalo (SUNY) Department of Industrial Engineering IE 661 Chapter 6 Flow Shops of Industrial Engineering IE 661 Chapter 6 Flow Shops and Flexible Flow Shops Presentation Approach First Steps) Department of Industrial Engineering IE 661 Chapter 6 Flow Shops and Flexible Flow Shops First Steps.... #12

Nagi, Rakesh

361

Teaching Poverty with Geographic Visualization and Geographic Information Systems (GIS): A Case Study of East Buffalo and Food Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although various methods have been used to teach about poverty in the social work classroom (e.g., quantitative, historical, and qualitative), the use of geographic visualization and geographic information systems (GIS) has become a relatively new method. In our analysis of food access on the East Side of Buffalo, New York, we demonstrate the…

Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Jung, Jin-Kyu

2014-01-01

362

Microbial and Carbohydrate Active Enzyme profile of buffalo rumen metagenome and their alteration in response to variation in the diet.  

PubMed

Rumen microbiome represents rich source of enzymes degrading complex plant polysaccharides. We describe here analysis of Carbohydrate Active Enzymes (CAZymes) from 3.5 gigabase sequences of metagenomic data from rumen samples of Mehsani buffaloes fed on different proportions of green or dry roughages to concentrate ration. A total of 2597 contigs encoding putative CAZymes were identified by CAZyme Analysis Toolkit (CAT). The phylogenetic analysis of these contigs by MG-RAST revealed predominance of Bacteroidetes, followed by Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria phyla. Moreover, a higher abundance of oligosaccharide degrading and debranching enzymes in buffalo rumen metagenome and that of cellulases and hemicellulases in termite hindgut was observed when we compared glycoside hydrolase (GH) profile of buffalo rumen metagenome with cow rumen, termite hindgut and chicken caecum metagenome. Further, comparison of microbial profile of green or dry roughage fed animals showed significantly higher abundance (p-value<0.05) of various polysaccharide degrading bacterial genera like Fibrobacter, Prevotella, Bacteroides, Clostridium and Ruminococcus in green roughage fed animals. In addition, we found a significantly higher abundance (p-value<0.05) of enzymes associated with pectin digestion such as pectin lyase (PL) 1, PL10 and GH28 in green roughage fed animals. Our study outlines CAZyme profile of buffalo rumen metagenome and provides a scope to study the role of abundant enzyme families (oligosaccharide degrading and debranching enzymes) in digestion of coarse feed. PMID:24797613

Patel, Dishita D; Patel, Amrutlal K; Parmar, Nidhi R; Shah, Tejas M; Patel, Jethabhai B; Pandya, Paresh R; Joshi, Chaitanya G

2014-07-15

363

Daily sperm production and evaluation of morphological reproductive parameters of Murrah buffaloes in an extensive breeding system  

PubMed Central

The development of male sexual maturity varies among buffaloes. The Murrah buffalo is considered the most important and efficient milk and fat producer, but aspects of its reproductive biology are still unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate the daily sperm production (DSP) and spermatogenesis in developing Murrah buffalo bulls by evaluation of the seminiferous tubules, testicular morphometry and using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The testes of Murrah buffalo bulls at 18 mo was immature and at 24 mo could still be considered an average-efficiency breed based on their DSP. At 24 mo, the DSP rate was 0.97 billion sperm per testis and 13 million sperm per gram of testis. However, the animals had superior morphometric parameters compared with those of other livestock animals, except for the seminiferous tubule volume and diameter, which were inferior. In conclusion, our data support former views that the testes of the Murrah breed does not reach sexual maturity before 2 y of age and that important developmental steps occur later than Murrah crossbreeds from Brazil. PMID:22670218

da Luz, Patricia A.C.; Andrighetto, Cristiana; Santos, Paulo R.S.; Jorge, Andre; Constantino, Maria Vitoria P.; Pereira, Flavia T.V.; Mess, Andrea; Neto, Antonio C. Assis

2012-01-01

364

Comparing ethylene glycol with glycerol for cryopreservation of buffalo bull semen in egg-yolk containing extenders.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to evaluate the possibility of substituting glycerol for ethylene glycol when cryopreserving buffalo semen. Semen of eight buffalo bulls was mixed, pooled, and frozen in one of these four diluents: centrifuged Tris egg yolk glycerol; centrifuged Tris egg yolk ethylene glycol; centrifuged Milk egg yolk glycerol; or centrifuged Milk egg yolk ethylene glycol. Semen quality parameters assessed after thawing were motility, survivability, livability, sperm abnormality, acrosome integrity, and plasma membrane integrity. Conception rate and pregnancy rate were calculated after insemination of 104 buffaloes by straws of different groups (26 female/extender). Improvement in livability, sperm abnormality, acrosome integrity, plasma membrane integrity, conception rate, and pregnancy rate were seen when using ethylene glycol to replace glycerol when freezing buffalo bull semen in centrifuged TRIS egg yolk 61.15 ± 0.73, 24.85 ± 0.41, 69.10 ± 0.81, 71.75 ± 0.72, 46.2%, and 46.2%, respectively, followed by centrifuged milk egg yolk extenders. PMID:21664674

Swelum, A A; Mansour, H A; Elsayed, A A; Amer, H A

2011-09-15

365

Giardia in mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and domestic cattle in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda.  

PubMed

Mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) are critically endangered primates surviving in two isolated populations in protected areas within the Virunga Massif of Rwanda, Uganda, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park in Uganda. Mountain gorillas face intense ecologic pressures due to their proximity to humans. Human communities outside the national parks, and numerous human activities within the national parks (including research, tourism, illegal hunting, and anti-poaching patrols), lead to a high degree of contact between mountain gorillas and wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. To assess the pathogen transmission potential between wildlife and livestock, feces of mountain gorillas, forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), and domestic cattle (Bos taurus) in Rwanda were examined for the parasites Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Giardia was found in 9% of mountain gorillas, 6% of cattle, and 2% of forest buffalo. Our study represents the first report of Giardia prevalence in forest buffalo. Cryptosporidium-like particles were also observed in all three species. Molecular characterization of Giardia isolates identified zoonotic genotype assemblage B in the gorilla samples and assemblage E in the cattle samples. Significant spatial clustering of Giardia-positive samples was observed in one sector of the park. Although we did not find evidence for transmission of protozoa from forest buffalo to mountain gorillas, the genotypes of Giardia samples isolated from gorillas have been reported in humans, suggesting that the importance of humans in this ecosystem should be more closely evaluated. PMID:24171566

Hogan, Jennifer N; Miller, Woutrina A; Cranfield, Michael R; Ramer, Jan; Hassell, James; Noheri, Jean Bosco; Conrad, Patricia A; Gilardi, Kirsten V K

2014-01-01

366

Organizational and Health Manifestations of Teacher Stress: A Preliminary Report on the Buffalo Teacher Stress Intervention Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Buffalo City (New York) Elementary Schools were assessed on perceptions of organizational stress, personal manifestations, and health status in an attempt to develop long-term stress management plans. Organizational and promotional strategies to enhance participant involvement are discussed. (Author/DF)

Golaszewski, Thomas J.; And Others

1984-01-01

367

State University of New York at Buffalo: Potential Conflict of Interest in the School Pharmacy. Report 95-D-50.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This audit examined a case of potential conflict of interest in the School of Pharmacy at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Buffalo. In 1992 a professor in the Department of Pharmacy Practice, which conducts grant-funded drug research, created Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research, Incorporated (PhOR), a private, for-profit corporation that…

New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany. Div. of Management Audit.

368

Standardization of DNA extraction from methanol acetic acid fixed cytogenetic cells of cattle and buffalo.  

PubMed

The aim of the study is to standardize the simple method for extracting DNA from cells fixed in fixative (3:1 ratio of methanol and acetic acid glacial) mostly used for chromosomal studies in cattle and buffaloes. These fixed cells were stored for more than 6 months at refrigerated temperature. The fixed cells were washed 2-3 times by the ice cold 1x Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS) with pH 7.4, so that effect of fixative may be eliminated. The genomic DNA was extracted by adding cell lysis and nucleus lysis buffers. The quality and quantity of DNA were estimated. The readings of nano drop and agarose gel electrophoresis indicate good quality DNA isolated with a rapid and simple protocol routinely using in our laboratory. The method enables us to study the DNA of a cattle and buffaloes after completing cytogenetic investigation or in cases where DNA samples are otherwise not available. This protocol may be useful for molecular analysis of DNA from fixed cells palettes. PMID:24506057

Kotikalapudi, Rosaiah; Patel, Rajesh K; Katragadda, Sanghamitra

2013-12-01

369

Effect of prostaglandin F2 alpha on libido, seminal quantity and quality of buffalo bulls.  

PubMed

Four mature Murrah buffalo bulls on a regular semen collection schedule of twice a day, two days per week, were injected with 30 mg prostaglandin F2 alpha THAM salt(PGF) intramuscularly 30 minutes prior to each alternate first ejaculation for six weeks. Effects of PGF on time to initial false mount on the decoy, time to ejaculation after two false mounts (reaction time), seminal volume, sperm concentration, total sperm output, motility of fresh and thawed semen and the semen doses obtained per collection were evaluated. Treatment caused significant (P < 0.01) reduction in the time to first false mount and the reaction time for the first ejaculations but had no effect (P > 0.05) on these for the second ejaculations. Values for other quantitative and qualitative parameters did not differ (P > 0.05) due to PGF treatment. It is concluded that PGF at the dosage and frequency of administration used may be of some value in improving libido in low-libido bulls but does not alter the reproductive capacity of buffalo bulls. PMID:16726160

Narasimha Rao, A V; Haranath, G B; Visweswara Rao, C; Ramamohana Rao, J

1986-05-01

370

Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity; the Research Institute on Addictions, University at Buffalo.  

PubMed

The Research Institute on Addictions (RIA) was established in 1970 as a research component of the New York State Department of Mental Hygiene. After three decades of serving as a research component of New York State agencies concerned with alcohol and substance abuse, RIA was legislatively transferred to the University at Buffalo in 1999. Today, RIA's cadre of senior research scientists are engaged individually and collaboratively on a multitude of addictions-related studies. The majority of the Institute's ongoing research studies relate to one or more of the following seven broad research domains: causes and consequences of alcohol, marijuana and other drug use; biological and neuroscience; gambling behavior; gender-related studies; dissemination and professional training; treatment; and youth, families and relationships. In this paper, an overview of the structure of the Institute is provided, along with a description of the organizational and scientific culture at RIA. Further information about the Institute, its scientists and its activities can be found at http://www.ria.buffalo.edu. PMID:21470324

Connors, Gerard J; Walitzer, Kimberly S

2012-07-01

371

Blood-typing of Indian Water Buffaloes with Reagents for Antigenic Factors of Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

MORE than eighty heritable antigenic factors have been detected on the erythrocytes (cells) of cattle by their reactions with blood-grouping reagents; the reagent being an antibody population made relatively specific for a particular factor by appropriate absorptions1. Using cattle reagents, it has been shown that at least nine genetic blood-group systems of cattle have their homologues in American bison, Bison

S. P. Datta; W. H. Stone

1963-01-01

372

Isolation and characterization of heparin and gelatin binding buffalo seminal plasma proteins and their effect on cauda epididymal spermatozoa.  

PubMed

Seventy semen ejaculates were obtained from 14 Murrah buffalo bulls and were subjected to plasma separation immediately after collection by centrifugation at 2000 rpm for 20 min and stored in liquid nitrogen until analysis. In the seminal plasma the total protein concentration were estimated and the heparin and gelatin binding (HB and GB) proteins were isolated using heparin and gelatin affinity column chromatography. The molecular weight of individual isolated HB and GB protein was determined by SDS-PAGE analysis. Buffalo bull spermatozoa was collected from cauda epididymis under aseptic conditions and was used for the in vitro fertility tests (i.e. bovine cervical mucus penetration test (BCMPT) and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST)). The heparin and gelatin binding buffalo seminal plasma proteins were used in six concentrations i.e. 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 microg/ml to test their effect on in vitro fertility assessment of cauda epididymal spermatozoa. The overall mean values of total protein, HB and GB proteins were recorded as 29+/-2.7, 2.61 and 0.2mg/ml, respectively. Eighteen total protein bands were observed in the range of 12-127 kDa. Eight major HB proteins were isolated in the range of 13-71 kDa. Seven major GB proteins were isolated in the range of 13-61 kDa in the buffalo seminal plasma. The mean penetration distance (mm) travelled by the buffalo cauda spermatozoa was maximum in HB proteins (26.9+/-0.6) followed by GB proteins (25.4+/-0.6) and control (21.2+/-1.4). The difference in BCMPT values between protein treated and control group was significant (P<0.05). Almost similar trend in the effect of protein on values of HOST percentage in both HB and GB proteins treated semen samples were recorded (66.4+/-0.65 and 66.1+/-0.6, respectively). The difference in HOST values between proteins treated and control group (50.4+/-2.0) was significant (P<0.05). The present results indicate that among the isolated proteins, 4 proteins were commonly seen in both the heparin and gelatin-sepharose affinity column chromatography, and the addition of buffalo seminal plasma proteins improved the in vitro sperm functions (40 microg/ml gave best results) of buffalo cauda spermatozoa. PMID:16260100

Arangasamy, A; Singh, L P; Ahmed, N; Ansari, M R; Ram, G C

2005-12-01

373

A high-resolution radiation hybrid map of the river buffalo major histocompatibility complex and comparison with BoLA.  

PubMed

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in mammals codes for antigen-presenting proteins. For this reason, the MHC is of great importance for immune function and animal health. Previous studies revealed this gene-dense and polymorphic region in river buffalo to be on the short arm of chromosome 2, which is homologous to cattle chromosome 23. Using cattle-derived STS markers and a river buffalo radiation hybrid (RH) panel (BBURH5000 ), we generated a high-resolution RH map of the river buffalo MHC region. The buffalo MHC RH map (cR5000 ) was aligned with the cattle MHC RH map (cR12000 ) to compare gene order. The buffalo MHC had similar organization to the cattle MHC, with class II genes distributed in two segments, class IIa and class IIb. Class IIa was closely associated with the class I and class III regions, and class IIb was a separate cluster. A total of 53 markers were distributed into two linkage groups based on a two-point LOD score threshold of ?8. The first linkage group included 32 markers from class IIa, class I and class III. The second linkage group included 21 markers from class IIb. Bacterial artificial chromosome clones for seven loci were mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization on metaphase chromosomes using single- and double-color hybridizations. The order of cytogenetically mapped markers in the region corroborated the physical order of markers obtained from the RH map and served as anchor points to align and orient the linkage groups. PMID:23216319

Stafuzza, N B; Greco, A J; Grant, J R; Abbey, C A; Gill, C A; Raudsepp, T; Skow, L C; Womack, J E; Riggs, P K; Amaral, M E J

2013-08-01

374

Characterization of oocyte-expressed GDF9 gene in buffalo and mapping of its TSS and putative regulatory elements.  

PubMed

Summary In spite of emerging evidence about the vital role of GDF9 in determination of oocyte competence, there is insufficient information about its regulation of oocyte-specific expression, particularly in livestock animals. Because of the distinct prominence of buffalo as a dairy animal, the present study was undertaken to isolate and characterize GDF9 cDNA using orthologous primers based on the bovine GDF9 sequence. GDF9 transcripts were found to be expressed in oocytes irrespective of their follicular origin, and shared a single transcription start site (TSS) at -57 base pairs (bp) upstream of ATG. Assignment of the TSS is consistent with the presence of a TATA element at -23 of the TSS mapped in this study. Localization of a buffalo-specific minimal promoter within 320 bp upstream of ATG was consolidated by identification of an E-box element at -113bp. Presence of putative transcription factor binding sites and other cis regulatory elements were analyzed at ~5 kb upstream of TSS. Various germ cell-specific cis-acting regulatory elements (BNCF, BRNF, NR2F, SORY, Foxh1, OCT1, LHXF etc.) have been identified in the 5' flanking region of the buffalo GDF9 gene, including NOBOX DNA binding elements and consensuses E-boxes (CANNTG). Presence of two conserved E-boxes found on buffalo sequence at -520 and -718 positions deserves attention in view of its sequence deviation from other species. Two NOBOX binding elements (NBE) were detected at the -3471 and -203 positions. The fall of the NBE within the putative minimal promoter territory of buffalo GDF9 and its unique non-core binding sequence could have a possible role in the control of the core promoter activity. PMID:22230197

Roy, B; Rajput, S; Raghav, S; Kumar, P; Verma, A; Jain, A; Jain, T; Singh, D; De, S; Goswami, S L; Datta, T K

2013-05-01

375

Economic value of urea-treated straw fed to lactating buffaloes during the dry season in Nepal.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to study the effects of feeding urea-treated rice straw to lactating buffaloes in the Koshi Hills. Six pairs of similar buffaloes on farms were selected. All were given a conventional diet based on rice straw for four weeks, then one of each pair was given 15 to 20 kg/day of urea-treated rice straw for a period of four weeks while the control group received untreated rice straw. In the final four week period all animals were given the conventional diet. Feeding straw treated with 4% urea increased the voluntary intake of straw by 25% and increased milk yield by 1.6 litres/day compared with buffaloes fed the conventional diet containing untreated straw. Milk production remained elevated after the four-week treatment period had finished. The results show that buffalo cows fed urea-treated straw achieved better weight gain, and milk yield increased significantly (P less than 0.01) compared with the control animals. During the treatment period the net benefit was 4.0 (i.e. US$1.16) Nepalese currency rupees (NCRs) per day and the incremental rate of return was 46 per cent. Moreover, in the four weeks following the treatment period the net benefit was 10.0 NCRs (i.e. US$0.40) per day. Ensiling rice straw with 4% urea can be recommended as a safe, economical and suitable method for improving the nutritional value of rice straw on small farms in Nepal thus increasing milk production and liveweight of lactating buffaloes. The practice of feeding urea-treated straw is economic for farmers during the dry season from January to April.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1763435

Chemjong, P B

1991-08-01

376

Long-term effects of dredging operations program. Collation and interpretation of data for Times Beach confined disposal facility, Buffalo, New York. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This interim report, collates all data gathered for the Times Beach confined disposal facility (CDF), Buffalo, New York. This purpose of the studies at the CDF was to determine the mobility and potential hazard of contaminants known to be in the dredged material placed at Times Beach by sampling and analyzing various components of the developing ecosystems. Upland, wetland, and aquatic areas are represented within the CDF and, for each area, inventories of colonizing biota were made and samples collected for measurement of heavy metals and organic compound contaminants. Samples of dredged material, vegetation, and soil-dwelling invertebrates, and vertebrates have been collected and heavy metal concentrations measured. Results suggest that the persistent contaminants, particularly cadmium, are concentrating in the leaf litter zone and moving into the detritivorous invertebrates. Highest concentrations of heavy metals were noted in earthworms. Earth worms, millipedes, woodlice, and spiders appeared to be target organisms for accumulation of heavy metals, and these groups contained higher concentrations of copper and cadmium than the other groups. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants in the dredged material were below machine detection limits in the vertebrate top-predators. Contaminant concentrations in water from ground water wells were below guidance limits.

Stafford, E.A.; Simmers, J.W.; Rhett, R.G.; Brown, C.P.

1991-06-01

377

Water  

MedlinePLUS

... older adults to drink plenty of liquids, including water, and how to make healthy choices. Here's a Tip "But I Don’t Feel Thirsty" With age, you might lose some of your sense of thirst. To further complicate matters, some medicines might make it even more important ...

378

Buffalo alpha S1-casein gene 5'-flanking region and its interspecies comparison.  

PubMed

The expression of milk protein genes is tightly regulated in a spatio-temporal manner through the combinatorial interaction of lactogenic hormones and a set of transcription factors mediating developmental and tissue-specific gene expression. The recruitment of a unique set of transcription factors is determined by the cis-regulatory motifs present in the gene promoter region. Here, we report the isolation, sequencing, structural analysis and interspecies comparison of the 5'cis-regulatory region of the buffalo alpha S1 (?S1)-casein gene. The proximal promoter region of the buffalo ?S1-casein gene harbored the insertion of a 72-bp fragment of long interspersed nuclear element of the L1_BT retrotransposon family. Among the core and vertebrate-specific promoter elements, the motifs for the binding of Brn POU domain factors (BRNF), Lim homeodomain factors (LHXF), NK6 homeobox transcription factors (NKX6), nuclear factor kappa B/c-rel (NFKB), AT-rich interactive domain factor (ARID), Brn POU domain factor 5 (BRN5), pancreatic and intestinal homeodomain transcription factor (PDX1), Distal-less homeodomain transcription factors (DLXF), T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer-binding factor-1 (LEFF) and GHF-1 pituitary-specific POU domain transcription factor (PIT1) were over-represented in the ?S1-casein gene regulatory region (Z score >4.0). The Multiple EM for Motif elicitation predicted three motifs which consisted of the sequences known to bind mammary gland factor/signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (MGF/STAT5), estrogen receptor-related alpha (ER?), steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR), indicating their potential role in the mammary gland-specific gene expression. The interspecies comparison of the proximal promoter region revealed conserved sequences for TATA boxes and MGF/STAT5 in all species, whereas activator protein 1 (AP1), pregnancy-specific mammary nuclear factor (PMF), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), double-stranded and single-stranded DNA-binding protein 1 (DS1 and SS), ying and yang factor 1 (YY1), and GR half-sites were among ruminants. The functional significance of the L1_BT retrotransposon insertion on the buffalo ?S1-casein gene expression needs to be experimentally validated. PMID:24142689

Patel, Amrutlal K; Singh, Mahavir; Suryanarayana, V V S

2014-02-01

379

Influence of oocyte donor on in vitro embryo production in buffalo.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to estimate the variability between buffalo as oocyte donors. In Experiment 1, reproductive variables were retrospectively analyzed in buffalo (n=40) that underwent repeated ovum pick up (OPU), over 16 puncture sessions (PS). The follicular recruitment among individuals and the relationship between follicular population and oocyte production were evaluated. In Experiment 2, eight buffalo underwent OPU for 28 PS and the oocytes were processed separately to correlate follicular and oocyte population at the first PS to blastocyst (BL) production. In Experiment 1, the average number of total follicles (TFL), small follicles (SFL), cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) and Grade A+B COC recorded in each 4-PS period had great repeatability (r=0.52, 0.54, 0.60 and 0.57, respectively). The average number of Grade A+B COC recovered during the subsequent 15 PS was positively correlated with the first PS number of TFL (r=0.60; P<0.001), SFL (r=0.68; P<0.001), COC (r=0.48; P<0.01) and Grade A+B COC (r=0.40; P<0.05). In Experiment 2, a large variability among animals was observed in blastocyst yields. When animals were grouped according to the BL yield, the greatest BL yield group had a greater (P<0.05) number of TFL (8.3 ± 0.9 compared with 5.6 ± 0.7) and SFL (7.3 ± 0.3 compared with 3.8 ± 0.7) at the first PS than the lesser BL yield group. The average number of BL produced over the subsequent sessions was correlated with the number of TFL (r=0.80; P<0.05) and COC (r=0.76; P<0.05) observed at the first PS. These results demonstrated a donor influence on the oocyte and BL production, suggesting a preliminary screening to select the donors with greater potential. PMID:24374181

Gasparrini, B; Neglia, G; Di Palo, R; Vecchio, D; Albero, G; Esposito, L; Campanile, G; Zicarelli, L

2014-01-30

380

Is the goat a new host for the G3 Indian buffalo strain of Echinococcus granulosus?  

PubMed

Four goats bred in Central Italy (province of Rieti) revealed, in the liver, metacestodes of Echinococcus granulosus. The cysts, unilocular and fertile, were examined by microscopy and molecular diagnostics. Morphological data on the rostellar hooks are in agreement with the original description of the strain found in buffaloes and are largely compatible with those reported in Europe for cattle and humans. Specific PCR followed by DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cox1 gene revealed for all the isolates 99.5% identity to the reference strain G3 genotype and 99.3% and 99.1% to G2 and G1, respectively. Further genetic markers (nad1 and 12S rRNA) confirmed the identity of the goat isolates to the G3 strain. This genotype, here reported for the first time in goats, proved to have a wider than previously supposed host range, therefore its relevance in human hydatidosis is expected to be more often evidenced. PMID:22666099

Calderini, Pietro; Gabrielli, Simona; Cancrini, Gabriella

2012-01-01

381

The ecology of rape victimization: a case study of Buffalo, New York.  

PubMed

Official crime report data gathered from the Buffalo Police Department for the year 1975 were used to analyze variations in risk of rape victimization. The ecological structuring of routine activities and the victimogenic factors possessed by rape victims were examined to account for observed differences in risk. The results showed that rape victimization is associated with the routine activities of victims in that women who are highly mobile (working women, students, and younger women in general) are at a much greater risk than women who are less mobile. The risk of rape varies with respect to location within the city, and nonwhite females are victimized more than their white female counterparts. Differential risk of rape victimization was accounted for by the routine activities of victims. Rape victimization requires the convergence in space and time of likely offenders, suitable targets, and the absence of capable guardians for preventing rape. PMID:3490418

Ploughman, P; Stensrud, J

1986-08-01

382

The new Health Sciences Library at the State University of New York at Buffalo.  

PubMed Central

The new Health Sciences Library at the State University of New York at Buffalo is a harmonious and functional blend of the old and the new. The old is a renovated Georgian style building with formal rooms containing fireplaces, carved woodwork and English oak paneling. The new is a contemporary four-story addition. Through the arrangement of space and the interior design, the new library offers users easy access to services and resources; accommodates the heavy daily flow of users and library materials; provides an environment of comfort, quiet, and safety; and promotes efficient communication among all segments of the library staff. This was accomplished through sound architectural design which included close consultation with the library director and staff during the planning process. The new library is equipped to face the challenge of meeting the needs of biomedical education, research, and clinical programs of the institution and its constituents in the years to come. Images PMID:3370382

Fabrizio, N; Huang, C K

1988-01-01

383

Methods for assessing movement path recursion with application to African buffalo in South Africa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent developments of automated methods for monitoring animal movement, e.g., global positioning systems (GPS) technology, yield high-resolution spatiotemporal data. To gain insights into the processes creating movement patterns, we present two new techniques for extracting information from these data on repeated visits to a particular site or patch ("recursions"). Identification of such patches and quantification of recursion pathways, when combined with patch-related ecological data, should contribute to our understanding of the habitat requirements of large herbivores, of factors governing their space-use patterns, and their interactions with the ecosystem. We begin by presenting output from a simple spatial model that simulates movements of large-herbivore groups based on minimal parameters: resource availability and rates of resource recovery after a local depletion. We then present the details of our new techniques of analyses (recursion analysis and circle analysis) and apply them to data generated by our model, as well as two sets of empirical data on movements of African buffalo (Syncerus coffer): the first collected in Klaserie Private Nature Reserve and the second in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Our recursion analyses of model outputs provide us with a basis for inferring aspects of the processes governing the production of buffalo recursion patterns, particularly the potential influence of resource recovery rate. Although the focus of our simulations was a comparison of movement patterns produced by different resource recovery rates, we conclude our paper with a comprehensive discussion of how recursion analyses can be used when appropriate ecological data are available to elucidate various factors influencing movement. Inter alia, these include the various limiting and preferred resources, parasites, and topographical and landscape factors. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

Bar-David, S.; Bar-David, I.; Cross, P.C.; Ryan, S.J.; Knechtel, C.U.; Getz, W.M.

2009-01-01

384

Population trends, growth, and movement of bigmouth buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus, in Lake Oahe, 1963-70  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The bigmouth buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus, is the most important commercial species in Lake Oahe, a reservoir in the upper Missouri River. The population was dominated by three strong year classes (1959, 1960, and 1962). Estimated population in the fall of 1964 was 540,000 fish of the combined 1959-60 year classes and 5 million of the 1962 year class (equivalent to 81 kg per hectare). Abundance declined irregularly during 1964-70. Annual landings of these two dominant groups during 1965-70 ranged from 149 to 271 metric tons. The total landings during the period amounted to about 151,800 fish of the 1959-60 year classes and 313,000 fish of the 1962 year class. Growth rate was high during the first few years of impoundment and then declined. Males and females grew at about the same rate for the first 4 yr of life, but females were longer and heavier than males at ages V-VIII. At these ages, fish of the 1962 year class were about 10% shorter and 36% lighter than those of the 1959 year class. Growth of tagged and untagged fish was similar. The number of females per male increased with age. Age at maturity increased slightly as growth rate declined. Movement of marked fish was extensive and the recapture of marked fish was directly related to size of fish, location of release, and subsequent fishing pressure; 44% were recaptured downstream from the point of release, and 38% upstream. Females showed a stronger tendency to move downstream than males. Maximum distance traveled was 380 km and maximum rate of travel was 6.4 km per day. Successful reproduction appeared to be associated with flooding of shoreline vegetation during spring and early summer. Inasmuch as little such flooding is expected in the future, annual landings of bigmouth buffalo will probably continue to decline sharply.

Moen, Thomas E.

1974-01-01

385

Thermal inactivation kinetics of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in buffalo Mozzarella curd.  

PubMed

The use of raw milk in the processing of buffalo Mozzarella cheese is permitted, but the heat treatment used for stretching the curd must ensure that the final product does not contain pathogens such as Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) that may be present on buffalo dairy farms. This study carried out challenge tests at temperatures between 68 °C and 80 °C for 2 to 10 min to simulate curd temperatures during the stretching phase. Curd samples were inoculated with 2 STEC strains (serotypes O157 and O26), and their inactivation rates were assessed in the different challenge tests. The curd samples were digested with papain to ensure a homogeneous dispersion of bacteria. The STEC cells were counted after inoculation (range 7.1-8.7 log cfu/g) and after heat treatments using the most probable number (MPN) technique. A plot of log MPN/g versus time was created for each separate experiment. The log linear model with tail was used to provide a reasonable fit to observed data. Maximum inactivation rate (k(max), min(-1)), residual population (log MPN/g), decimal reduction time (min), and time for a 4D (4-log10) reduction (min) were estimated at each temperature tested. A 4D reduction of the O26 STEC strain was achieved when curd was heated at 68 °C for 2.6 to 6.3 min or at 80 °C for 2.1 to 2.3 min. Greater resistance was observed for the O157 strain at 68 °C because k(max) was 1.48 min(-1). The model estimates can support cheesemakers in defining appropriate process criteria needed to control possible STEC contamination in raw milk intended for the production of Mozzarella. PMID:24342684

Trevisani, M; Mancusi, R; Valero, A

2014-02-01

386

Seminal PDC-109 protein vis-à-vis cholesterol content and freezability of buffalo spermatozoa.  

PubMed

Advancements in reproductive technologies have shown seminal plasma (SP) as a nutritive-protective medium for spermatozoa metabolism, function and transport. At the same time quality variables and thus freezability of spermatozoa are influenced by SP proteins originating from male reproductive tract. One such protein, viz. PDC-109 is reported to influence freezability of spermatozoa in cattle. Thus the present investigation was designed to evaluate effect of seminal PDC-109 protein concentration on post-thaw cholesterol content and semen quality variables (SQP) as an indicator of membrane integrity and freezability, respectively of buffalo spermatozoa. Ejaculates (n=42) selected on the basis of mass activity and individual motility were divided into three parts, first part for SP proteins isolation, second for cholesterol estimation and third part was cryo-preserved to evaluate freezability based on post-thaw SQP, viz. individual progressive motility, viability and acrosome integrity of spermatozoa. A total of 28 (66.7%) and 14 (33.3%) ejaculates from four bulls were found as freezable or non-freezable, respectively. Though total seminal plasma protein (TSPP) concentration was found similar in freezable and non-freezable ejaculates, the heparin binding proteins (HBP) content in non-freezable semen was greater (P<0.01) than freezable ejaculates. There was a similar trend for the PDC-109 protein content in respective ejaculates. Cholesterol content of spermatozoa and SQP were greater (P<0.05 and 0.01, respectively) in freezable as compared to non-freezable ejaculates of each bull at post-thaw stage. This study showed that concentrations of HBP and PDC-109 in non-freezable semen might be responsible for greater cryo-damage reflecting in poor freezability of buffalo spermatozoa. PMID:24289867

Singh, Mahak; Ghosh, S K; Prasad, J K; Kumar, Anuj; Tripathi, R P; Bhure, S K; Srivastava, N

2014-01-10

387

Cultured buffalo umbilical cord matrix cells exhibit characteristics of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Recent findings have demonstrated umbilical cord, previously considered as a biomedical waste, as a source of stem cells with promising therapeutic applications in human as well as livestock species. The present study was carried out to isolate the umbilical cord matrix cells and culture for a prolonged period, cryopreserve these cells and test their post-thaw viability, characterize these cells for expression of stem cell markers and differentiation potential in vitro. The intact umbilical cord was taken out of the amniotic sac of a fetus and then incised longitudinally to remove umbilical vessels. Wharton's jelly containing tissue was diced into small pieces and placed in tiny drops of re-calcified buffalo plasma for establishing their primary culture. Confluent primary culture was trypsinized and passaged with a split ratio of 1:2 for multiplication of cells. Cryopreservation of cells was performed at three different passages in cryopreservation medium containing 15%, 20% and 25% fetal bovine serum (FBS). A significant increase in post-thaw viability was observed in cells cryopreserved in freezing medium with higher concentration of FBS. After re-culturing, frozen-thawed cells started adhering, and spike formation occurred within 4-6 h with similar morphology to their parent representative cultures. The normal karyotype and positive expression of alkaline phosphatase and pluripotency genes OCT4, NANOG and SOX2 were observed at different passages of culture. When induced, these cells differentiated into adipogenic and osteogenic cells as confirmed by oil red O and alizarin red stains, respectively. This study indicates that buffalo umbilical cord matrix cells have stemness properties with mesenchymal lineage restricted differentiation and limited proliferation potential in vitro. PMID:23708916

Singh, Jarnail; Mann, Anita; Kumar, D; Duhan, J S; Yadav, P S

2013-06-01

388

Age, growth, and maturity of thirteen species of fish from Lake Oahe during the early years of impoundment, 1963-68  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The body-scale relation, calculated length, length-weight relation, age at maturity, and sex ratio of 13 major species collected in Lake Oahe from 1963 to 1968 with trap nets and bottom trawls are described. Eight species grew at a faster rate than has been recorded in other Missouri River reservoirs: goldeye (Hiodon alosoides), bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus), smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus), white bass (Morone chrysops), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), white crappie (Pomoxis annularis), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum), and freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens). Four species grew at rates similar to those recorded from other Missouri River reservoirs: carp (Cyprinus carpio), yellow perch (Perca flavescens), northern pike (Esox lucius), and sauger (Stizostedion canadense). One species -- river carpsucker (Carpiodes carpio) -- grew slower than in other waters. Growth generally was excellent for all major species in the early years of impoundment (1959-62) but then declined. Species showing the greatest decline in growth from 1962 to 1967 were goldeye, bigmouth buffalo, sauger, walleye, northern pike, and freshwater drum. As growth rate decreased, age at sexual maturity increased for northern pike, carp, river carpsucker, bigmouth buffalo, and freshwater drum. Although inundation of new lands was associated with rapid growth of fishes in the early years of impoundment, water level fluctuations during the growing season had no discernible effect on growth rate. Increased average reservoir depth, which decreased the amount of littoral area, was associated with decreased fish growth.

Nelson, William R.

1974-01-01

389

Molecular investigation of foot-and-mouth disease virus in domestic bovids from Gharbia, Egypt.  

PubMed

An outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) affecting cattle and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) occurred in Egypt during 2012/2013. The present study was undertaken to determine the current strains of the FMD virus (FMDV) and the prevalence of FMD among cattle and buffalo in Gharbia, Egypt. The diagnostic sensitivity of two RT-PCR assays for the detection of FMDV was evaluated. The results revealed that SAT2 was the causative agent. The percentage of infected of animals varied with the detection method, ranging from 62.5 % by the untranslated region (UTR) RT-PCR to 75.6 % by SAT2 RT-PCR. The overall prevalence and mortality rates were 100 and 21 %, respectively. The mortality was higher in buffalo (23.3 %) than it was in cattle (17 %). A partial sequence of SAT2 was identical (90-100 %) to Egyptian isolates and was close in similarity to sequences from Sudan and Libya. In conclusion, FMD in Egypt is caused by SAT2. No other serotypes were detected. The results of this study provided the valuable data regarding the epidemiology of SAT2 in cattle and water buffalo from Egypt, which strengthens the need to change the strategies of both control and prevention that help to prevent the spread of the disease. PMID:25187028

Elhaig, Mahmoud Mohey; Elsheery, Mohamed Nagi

2014-12-01

390

Shelf life study of hurdle treated ready-to-eat spiced buffalo meat product stored at 30?±?3 °C for 7 weeks under vacuum and aerobic packaging.  

PubMed

Shelf stable ready to eat spiced pickle type buffalo meat product was prepared after desorbing in infusion solution (glycerol 3.5%, sodium chloride 5.0%, honey2.0%, mango powder 2.2%, spices 1.0%, sodium nitrite 0.015%, phosphate 0.2%, Sorbic acid 0.2%.and acetic acid 1%), pressure cooking of meat in infusion solution for 20 min followed by frying for 2 min in mustard oil and mixing with prefried condiments and spices. The physico-chemical properties i.e. pH, water activity, proximate composition, FFA, Soluble hydroxyproline, TBA values, nitrite content, protein solubility, shear force value, haempigments, microbiological and sensory quality of the product remained good and hygienically safe and almost comparable in aerobic PET jars and multilayered nylon barrier pouches stored at 30?±?3 °C for 7 weeks .It can be suggested that storage of such product may be conveniently done even in food grade PET jars without going for vacuum packaging which is a bit costly. PMID:24803689

Malik, Altaf Hussain; Sharma, Brahama Deo

2014-05-01

391

Relations Among Geology, Physiography, Land Use, and Stream Habitat Conditions in the Buffalo and Current River Systems, Missouri and Arkansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study investigated links between drainage-basin characteristics and stream habitat conditions in the Buffalo National River, Arkansas and the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri. It was designed as an associative study - the two parks were divided into their principle tributary drainage basins and then basin-scale and stream-habitat data sets were gathered and compared between them. Analyses explored the relative influence of different drainage-basin characteristics on stream habitat conditions. They also investigated whether a relation between land use and stream characteristics could be detected after accounting for geologic and physiographic differences among drainage basins. Data were collected for three spatial scales: tributary drainage basins, tributary stream reaches, and main-stem river segments of the Current and Buffalo Rivers. Tributary drainage-basin characteristics were inventoried using a Geographic Information System (GIS) and included aspects of drainage-basin physiography, geology, and land use. Reach-scale habitat surveys measured channel longitudinal and cross-sectional geometry, substrate particle size and embeddedness, and indicators of channel stability. Segment-scale aerial-photo based inventories measured gravel-bar area, an indicator of coarse sediment load, along main-stem rivers. Relations within and among data sets from each spatial scale were investigated using correlation analysis and multiple linear regression. Study basins encompassed physiographically distinct regions of the Ozarks. The Buffalo River system drains parts of the sandstone-dominated Boston Mountains and of the carbonate-dominated Springfield and Salem Plateaus. The Current River system is within the Salem Plateau. Analyses of drainage-basin variables highlighted the importance of these physiographic differences and demonstrated links among geology, physiography, and land-use patterns. Buffalo River tributaries have greater relief, steeper slopes, and more streamside bluffs than the Current River tributaries. Land use patterns in both river systems correlate with physiography - cleared land area is negatively associated with drainage-basin average slope. Both river systems are dominantly forested (0-35 per-cent cleared land), however, the potential for landscape disturbance may be greater in the Buffalo River system where a larger proportion of cleared land occurs on steep slopes (>15 degrees). When all drainage basins are grouped together, reach-scale channel characteristics show the strongest relations with drainage-basin physiography. Bankfull channel geometry and residual pool dimensions are positively correlated with drainage area and topographic relief variables. After accounting for differences in drainage area, channel dimensions in Buffalo River tributaries tend to be larger than in Current River tributaries. This trend is consistent with the flashy runoff and large storm flows that can be generated in rugged, sandstone-dominate terrain. Substrate particle size is also most strongly associated with physiography; particle size is positively correlated with topographic relief variables. When tributaries are subset by river system, relations with geology and land use variables become apparent. Buffalo River tributaries with larger proportions of carbonate bedrock and cleared land area have shallower channels, better-sorted, gravel-rich substrate, and more eroding banks than those with little cleared land and abundant sandstone bedrock. Gravel-bar area on the Buffalo River main stem was also larger within 1-km of carbonate-rich tributary junctions. Because geology and cleared land are themselves correlated, relations with anthropogenic and natural factors could often not be separated. Channel characteristics in the Current River system show stronger associations with physiography than with land use. Channels are shallower and have finer substrates in the less rugged, karst-rich, western basins than in the

Panfil, Maria S.; Jacobson, Robert B.

2001-01-01

392

Biological and chemical reactivity and phosphorus forms of buffalo manure compost, vermicompost and their mixture with biochar.  

PubMed

This study characterized the carbon and phosphorus composition of buffalo manure, its compost and vermicompost and investigated if presence of bamboo biochar has an effect on their chemical and biological reactivity. The four substrates were characterized for chemical and biochemical composition and P forms. The biological stability of the four substrates and their mixtures were determined during an incubation experiment. Their chemical reactivity was analyzed after acid dichromate oxidation. Biological reactivity of these substrates was related to their soluble organic matter content, which decreased in the order buffalo manure>compost>vermicompost. Phosphorus was labile in all organic substrates and composting transformed organic P into plant available P. The presence of biochar led to a protection of organic matter against chemical oxidation and changed their susceptibility to biological degradation, suggesting that biochar could increase the carbon sequestration potential of compost, vermicompost and manure, when applied in mixture. PMID:24071441

Ngo, Phuong-Thi; Rumpel, Cornelia; Ngo, Quoc-Anh; Alexis, Marie; Velásquez Vargas, Gabriela; Mora Gil, Maria de la Luz; Dang, Dinh-Kim; Jouquet, Pascal

2013-11-01

393

Dasytricha Dominance in Surti Buffalo Rumen Revealed by 18S rRNA Sequences and Real-Time PCR Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic diversity of protozoa in Surti buffalo rumen was studied by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis, 18S\\u000a rDNA sequence homology and phylogenetic and Real-time PCR analysis methods. Three animals were fed diet comprised green fodder\\u000a Napier bajra 21 (Pennisetum purpureum), mature pasture grass (Dicanthium annulatum) and concentrate mixture (20% crude protein, 65% total digestible nutrients). A protozoa-specific primer (P-SSU-342f)

K. M. SinghA; A. K. Tripathi; P. R. Pandya; D. N. Rank; R. K. Kothari; C. G. Joshi

394

An in vitro growth inhibition test for measuring the potency of Leptospira spp. Sejroe group vaccine in buffaloes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptospira spp. serovars Hardjo and Wollfi from Sejroe serogroup have been detected in livestock in Brazil, where the main control procedures rely on vaccination. The potency of two commercial vaccines available in this country was monitored by microagglutination test-MAT and in vitro growth inhibition test-GIT in serum samples from 33 female buffaloes divided into: G1-unvaccinated control; G2-vaccinated with Leptobac-6® containing

Geraldo de Nardi Júnior; Margareth Elide Genovez; Marcio Garcia Ribeiro; Vanessa Castro; André Mendes Jorge

2010-01-01

395

A Time-Series Analysis of Acidic Particulate Matter and Daily Mortality and Morbidity in the Buffalo, New York, Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

yet to be shown with daily mortality. We considered a 2.5-year record of daily H+ and sulfate mea- surements (May 1988-October 1990) collected in the Buffalo, New York, region in a time-series analysis of respiratory, circulatory, and total daily mortality and hospital admissions. Other copol- lutants considered included particulate matter ? 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter, coefficient of haze, ozone,

R. Charon Gwynn; Richard T. Burnett; George D. Thurston

2000-01-01

396

Changes in endocrine profiles during ovsynch and ovsynch plus norprolac treatment in Murrah buffalo heifers at hot summer season  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare the changes in hormonal profiles during ovsynch and ovsynch plus norprolac treatment\\u000a in Murrah buffalo heifers following timed artificial insemination (TAI) at stressful summer months, through intensive endocrine\\u000a analysis. The norprolac (an anti-prolactin drug) at the dose rate of 10.0 mg\\/animal \\/day effectively suppressed the level\\u000a of prolactin upto 30 hours. The hormones

K. S. Roy; B. S. Prakash

2009-01-01

397

Effect of soy protein isolate incorporation on quality characteristics and shelf-life of buffalo meat emulsion sausage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incorporation of soy protein isolate (SPI) at 0, 15, and 25% levels in buffalo meat was investigated for production, quality\\u000a and shelf life evaluation of emulsion sausage (ES). Quality of ES was evaluated by pH, moisture content, thiobarbituric acid\\u000a (TBA) number, total plate count (TPC), and Yeast and mold count, sensory, characteristics and instrumental colour and texture\\u000a measurements. It was

S. Ahmad; J. A. Rizawi; P. K. Srivastava

2010-01-01

398

Selenium and vitamin E increases polymorphonuclear cell phagocytosis and antioxidant levels during acute mastitis in riverine buffaloes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant, antiinflammatory and phagocytic activities were studied in milk polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) isolated from\\u000a healthy buffaloes (group I) and during clinical mastitis with the treatment of Enrofloxacin alone (group II) and combined\\u000a treatment with Enrofloxacin and Vitamin E plus selenium (group III). On days 0,3, 8 and 15 the milk Somatic cell count (SCC)\\u000a were significantly higher in mastitic milk

Reena Mukherjee

2008-01-01

399

Effects of vegetable oil supplementation on feed intake, rumen fermentation, growth performance, and carcass characteristic of growing swamp buffaloes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen, one year old swamp buffalo males with average liveweight of 200.5±9.5kg were randomly assigned according to a completely randomized design to receive three dietary treatments of supplemental vegetable oils in concentrate contained 140, 750, and 16g of crude protein, total digestible nutrient, and ether extract, respectively (T1=unsupplemented, T2=supplemental coconut oil and sunflower oil in ratio 50:50 at 6% of

M. Wanapat; C. Mapato; R. Pilajun; W. Toburan

2011-01-01

400

Use of real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect bovine herpesvirus 1 in frozen cattle and buffalo semen in India.  

PubMed

Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) infection in cattle and buffalo makes these animals life-long carriers of the virus which is intermittently excreted in semen. In the pr