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Attempts were made to isolate Neospora caninum from naturally infected waterbuffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Brazil. Brains from six buffaloes with indirect fluorescent antibodies (>1:100) to N. caninum were used to isolate the parasite by bioassay in dogs and gerbils followed by in vitro culture. Shedding of Neospora-like oocysts was noticed in dogs fed brains from three buffaloes (isolate designation
A. A. R. Rodrigues; S. M. Gennari; D. M Aguiar; C. Sreekumar; D. E. Hill; K. B. Miska; M. C. B. Vianna; J. P. Dubey
A study was carried on 1377 waterbuffalo serum samples from 50 farms in southern Italy to test the presence of Neospora caninum antibodies by indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Rabbit anti-buffalo immunoglobulins conjugated to fluorescein were used in the test. Fluorescence in sera dilutions above 1:200 was considered as indicative of the presence of N. caninum antibodies. The overall prevalence of infection in the animals was 34.6%. The prevalence increased in relation to the age of subjects and most of the herds examined (82%) were found infected. In two farms abortions and neurological signs were reported. No suppurative inflammatory lesions were seen, but few protozoan-like cysts were observed on foetal tissues by histology. PMID:10889356
Guarino, A; Fusco, G; Savini, G; Di Francesco, G; Cringoli, G
The waterbuffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is a prominent livestock species for the production of milk and meat in many countries. We investigated the diversity of rumen methanogens in Mediterranean waterbuffaloes maintained in Brazil under different diets: corn silage, grazing pasture, or sugar cane. A total of 467 clones were isolated from three methanogen 16S rRNA gene clone libraries that each represented a distinct feed type. The 467 clones were assigned to 19 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Four OTUs were represented in all three libraries, eight OTUs were library-specific, six OTUs were found in only the corn silage and pasture grazing libraries, and one OTU was shared only between pasture grazing and sugar cane libraries. We found that Methanobrevibacter-related sequences were the most abundant in the waterbuffaloes sampled for our analysis, in contrast to previously reported studies showing that Methanomicrobium mobile-like methanogens were the most abundant methanogens in waterbuffaloes of Murrah and Surti breeds sampled in India. Considering the worldwide distribution of waterbuffaloes and the likely wide variety of diets provided, our results combined with studies from other groups support that larger scope analyses of microbiomes for this livestock species would provide great insight into the contribution of geographical location, breed, and diet in determining the population structure of rumen microorganisms. PMID:22286379
Franzolin, Raul; St-Pierre, Benoit; Northwood, Korinne; Wright, André-Denis G
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal disease caused by miss folded prion protein. Studies in the cattle, comparing genetic data from BSE diseased and healthy animals have shown that indel polymorphisms in the promoter and intron 1 of PRNP gene were associated with disease susceptibility. Several studies were conducted to find out allele and genotypic frequencies of indel polymorphisms in promoter and intron 1 of the cattle PRNP gene. Unlike domestic cattle and bison, no indel polymorphisms of the PRNP promoter and intron 1 were examined in any population of the waterbuffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Aim of this study was to analyse frequencies of allele, genotype, and haplotype of the indel polymorphisms (23 bp indel in promoter and 12 bp indel in intron 1) in prion protein coding gene (PRNP) of waterbuffalo. Therefore a PCR based procedure, previously used in cattle to detect indel polymorphisms of PRNP promoter and intron 1 locus, was applied to 106 Anatolian waterbuffalo DNAs. Our results have revealed high frequency of in variants and in23/in12 haplotype for PRNP promoter and intron 1 indel polymorphisms in waterbuffalo. The results of the study have demonstrated that frequencies of allele, genotype, and haplotype of the indel polymorphisms in PRNP gene of the Anatolian waterbuffalo are significantly different those from cattle and bison PRNP indel polymorphisms. PMID:19912420
Background Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) was isolated from dairy buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) naturally affected with respiratory and reproductive clinical conditions. Results Examination of nasal and vaginal swabs collected from 12 diseased buffaloes led to the isolation of three paramyxovirus isolates from two animals. Antigenic, morphological and biological characteristics of these three isolates were essentially similar to those of members of the Paramyxoviridae family. Antigenic analysis by direct immunofluorescence and cross neutralization test placed these isolates together with bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3). Nucleotide and amino acid phylogenetic analysis of partial matrix gene sequences of the buffalo isolates and six field BPIV3 isolates from bovines in Argentina were studied. Buffalo isolates were similar to genotype B (BPIV3b) while the six BPIV3 isolates were similar to genotypes A (BPIV3a) and C (BPIV3c). Conclusions This is the first characterization of BPIV3 in waterbuffalo. According to the samples analyzed, in Argentina, the genotype B was found in buffalo and the genotypes A and C were found in cattle.
Experimental mesocosm studies revealed that the presence of benthivorous smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) significantly enhanced turbidity, phytoplankton biomass, ammonium (NH4 ), and total nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations in a shallow, aerobic, hypereutrophic oxbow lake. The effects of Ictiobuson water quality are similar to the results of experiments performed on other benthivorous fish species. Prior studies have suggested that
Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a rapid method with high specificity and efficiency under isothermal condition using a set of four specifically designed primers that recognize six distinct sequences on the target gene. In this study, a LAMP method was developed for specific detection of Babesia orientalis in waterbuffalo (Bubalus babalis, Linnaeus, 1758). Four primers were designed from the V4 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene of B. orientalis. Blood samples were collected from B. orientalis experimentally infected waterbuffalo as well as from 165 waterbuffalo from eight different regions of the Hubei province, south China. Genomic DNA was extracted, subjected to the LAMP assay and compared with results obtained using a previously described semi-nested PCR. The LAMP assay proofed to be B. orientalis specific and more sensitive than the semi-nested PCR. While previously B. orientalis had not been reported north of the Yangtse River, our results show that B. orientalis has spread to the north of the river. This could pose a serious threat to the waterbuffalo industry. PMID:19665847
Asian schistosomiasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease infecting up to a million people and threatening tens of millions more. Control of this disease is hindered by the animal reservoirs of the parasite, in particular the waterbuffalo (Bubalus bubalis), which is responsible for significant levels of human transmission. A transmission-blocking vaccine administered to buffaloes is a realistic option which would aid in the control of schistosomiasis. This will however require a better understanding of the immunobiology of schistosomiasis in naturally exposed buffaloes, particularly the immune response to migrating schistosome larvae, which are the likely targets of an anti-schistosome vaccine. To address this need we investigated the immune response at the major sites of larval migration, the skin and the lungs, in previously exposed and re-challenged waterbuffaloes. In the skin, a strong allergic-type inflammatory response occurred, characterised by leukocyte and eosinophil infiltration including the formation of granulocytic abscesses. Additionally at the local skin site, interleukin-5 transcript levels were elevated, while interleukin-10 levels decreased. In the skin-draining lymph node (LN) a predominant type-2 profile was seen in stimulated cells, while in contrast a type-1 profile was detected in the lung draining LN, and these responses occurred consecutively, reflecting the timing of parasite migration. The intense type-2 immune response at the site of cercarial penetration is significantly different to that seen in naive and permissive animal models such as mice, and suggests a possible mechanism for immunity. Preliminary data also suggest a reduced and delayed immune response occurred in buffaloes given high cercarial challenge doses compared with moderate infections, particularly in the skin. This study offers a deeper understanding into the immunobiology of schistosomiasis in a natural host, which may aid in the future design of more effective vaccines. PMID:24086786
McWilliam, Hamish E G; Piedrafita, David; Li, Yuesheng; Zheng, Mao; He, Yongkang; Yu, Xinling; McManus, Donald P; Meeusen, Els N T
Asian schistosomiasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease infecting up to a million people and threatening tens of millions more. Control of this disease is hindered by the animal reservoirs of the parasite, in particular the waterbuffalo (Bubalus bubalis), which is responsible for significant levels of human transmission. A transmission-blocking vaccine administered to buffaloes is a realistic option which would aid in the control of schistosomiasis. This will however require a better understanding of the immunobiology of schistosomiasis in naturally exposed buffaloes, particularly the immune response to migrating schistosome larvae, which are the likely targets of an anti-schistosome vaccine. To address this need we investigated the immune response at the major sites of larval migration, the skin and the lungs, in previously exposed and re-challenged waterbuffaloes. In the skin, a strong allergic-type inflammatory response occurred, characterised by leukocyte and eosinophil infiltration including the formation of granulocytic abscesses. Additionally at the local skin site, interleukin-5 transcript levels were elevated, while interleukin-10 levels decreased. In the skin-draining lymph node (LN) a predominant type-2 profile was seen in stimulated cells, while in contrast a type-1 profile was detected in the lung draining LN, and these responses occurred consecutively, reflecting the timing of parasite migration. The intense type-2 immune response at the site of cercarial penetration is significantly different to that seen in naive and permissive animal models such as mice, and suggests a possible mechanism for immunity. Preliminary data also suggest a reduced and delayed immune response occurred in buffaloes given high cercarial challenge doses compared with moderate infections, particularly in the skin. This study offers a deeper understanding into the immunobiology of schistosomiasis in a natural host, which may aid in the future design of more effective vaccines.
McWilliam, Hamish E. G.; Piedrafita, David; Li, Yuesheng; Zheng, Mao; He, Yongkang; Yu, Xinling; McManus, Donald P.; Meeusen, Els N. T.
The prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was conducted in 300 buffaloes from Ahvaz, Kouzestan province, southwest of Iran. Blood sera were screened using a Modified agglutination test (MAT) incorporating 2-mercaptoethanol. Positive reactions in sera dilutions above 1:25 were considered as indicative for the presence of T. gondii antibodies. The overall prevalence of infection in the animals was 14.33% with titers of 1:25 in 21, 1:50 in 12, 1:100 in 6, 1:200 in 2 and 1:400 in 2. The prevalence was different in relation to the sex with buffaloes with 19.7% and 7% in females and males respectively. These results indicate that T. gondii infection in waterbuffaloes of Khouzestan is relatively high and consumption of buffalo meat may be a risk factor for humans in Ahvaz, southwest of Iran. PMID:20962725
Hamidinejat, Hossein; Ghorbanpour, Masoud; Nabavi, Leily; Haji Hajikolaie, Mohammad Rahim; Razi Jalali, Mohammad Hossein
In the present study, waterbuffalo MHC (Bubu)-DRB cDNA was cloned and characterized. The 1022 base long-amplified cDNA product encompassed a single open reading frame of 801 bases that coded for 266 amino acids. The Bubu-DRB sequence showed maximum homology with the BoLA-DRB3*0101 allele of cattle. A total of seven amino acid residues were found to be unique for the Bubu-DRB sequence. The majority of amino acid substitutions was observed in the ?1 domain. Residues associated with important functions were mostly conserved. Waterbuffalo DRB was phylogenetically closer to goat DRB*A.
Naskar, Soumen; Deb, Sitangsu M.; Niranjan, Saket K.; Kumar, Subodh; Sharma, Deepak; Sakaram, Durgam; Sharma, Arjava
The polymorphism of several genes has been shown to affect the milk composition traits in dairy cattle, including DGAT1-exon8 K232A, GH-intron3 MspI, GH-exon5 AluI, GHR-exon8 F279Y, PRL-exon3 RsaI and PRLR-exon3 S18N. However, the polymorphism and effects of these genes on the milk traits of waterbuffalo are still unclear. In this study, four DNA pooling samples from Murrah, Nili-ravi, Murrah-Nili-Swamp crossbreed and Chinese swamp buffalo were constructed, respectively, and polymorphism of these sites was investigated using PCR-Single-strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing. Twenty-eight inter-specific single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) were found in these six assayed gene fragments between buffalo and dairy cattle, including nine intra-specific SNPs among buffalo groups. All buffalo fixed a K allele genotype in DGAT1-exon8, MspI(+) restriction site(c nucleotide) and AluI(+) site(c nucleotide) at intron3 and exon5 of GH gene, F allele genotype of F279Y mutation in GHR gene, RsaI(-) restriction site at PRL-exon3/exon4 and N allele genotype of S18N mutation at PRLR-exon3. It provides an indirect evidence that waterbuffalo have fixed alleles with genotypes reported in dairy cattle, which is thought to be responsible for high milk fat, high protein content and low milk yield. Moreover, three new intra-specific SNPs were found including 275th?bp (c/t) in DGAT1 of Murrah buffalo, 109th?bp (t/a) in PRL-exon3/exon4 and 43rd?bp (c/t) in PRLR-exon3 of Chinese swamp buffalo. Information provided in this study will be useful in further studies to improve buffalo breeding for better lactation performances. PMID:21883511
Pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of an intravenous dose of 5 mg.kg-1 ofloxacin were investigated in waterbuffalo calves. Plasma concentrations of ofloxacin were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Ofloxacin was rapidly distributed from the central to the peripheral compartment as evidenced by a short distribution half-life (0.09 h ± 0.003 h) and high K12 (4.7 h(-1) ± 0.1 h(-1)), and was detected in plasma for 8 h. The large volume of distribution (2.48 L.kg(-1) ± 0.18 L.kg(-1)) obtained in this study indicated high distribution of ofloxacin in waterbuffalo calves. The elimination half-life, the area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve and total body clearance were 2.11 h ± 0.13 h, 6.20 µg.mL(-1) ± 0.23 µg.mL(-1).h and 0.81 mL.kg(-1).h(-1) ± 0.03 mL.kg(-1).h(-1), respectively. About 18.7% of administered drug was bound to plasma proteins and approximately 32.5% of the administered dose was recovered in urine within 48 h. The results of the study indicated a favourable pharmacokinetic profile of ofloxacin in waterbuffalo calves, which suggests that ofloxacin may be effective against urinary pathogens in this species. PMID:23718538
Trypanosoma evansi infection in the Philippines is frequently reported to affect the country's livestock, particularly, the buffaloes. To assess the prevalence and intraspecific diversity of T. evansi in the country, blood samples from waterbuffaloes in different geographical regions were collected during an outbreak. T. evansi was detected in all 79 animals tested using PCR targeting the RoTat 1.2 VSG gene. Sequencing of the rDNA complete internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region including the 5.8S subunit showed high similarity (99-100%) between Philippine isolates and known T. evansi isolates in Genbank. Tree construction based on the same region confirmed the close relationship between Philippine and reported Thai isolates as compared to Egyptian isolates separated by relatively small genetic distances, 47 polymorphisms, despite the clustering in four branches. Overall, the results of this study prove genetic diversity within T. evansi species despite previous reports on limited heterogeneity among isolates worldwide. PMID:23377905
Villareal, Marjo V; Mingala, Claro N; Rivera, Windell L
The objectives of this investigation were to understand transplacental transport of iron by secreted uteroferrin (UF) and haemophagous areas of waterbuffalo placenta and clarify the role(s) of blood extravasation at the placental-maternal interface. Placentomes and interplacentomal region of 51 placentae at various stages of gestation were fixed, processed for light and transmission electron microscopy, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Haemophagous areas were present in placentomes collected between 4 and 10 months of pregnancy. Perl's reaction for ferric iron was negative in placentomes, but positive in endometrial glands. Positive staining for UF indicated areas in which it was being taken up by phagocytosis and/or fluid phase pinocytosis in areolae of the interplacentomal mesenchyme, with little staining in endometrial stroma. Imunohistochemistry detected UF in trophectoderm of haemophagous regions of placentomes and in other parts of the foetal villous tree, but the strongest immunostaining was in the epithelial cells and lumen of uterine glands. Ultrastructural analyses indicated that erythrophagocytosis was occurring and that erythrocytes were present inside cells of the chorion that also contained endocytic vesicles and caveolae. Results of this study indicate that both the haemophagous areas of placentomes and the areolae at the interface between chorion and endometrial glands are important sites for iron transfer from mother to foetal-placental tissues in buffalo throughout pregnancy. PMID:19453495
Pereira, F T V; Braga, F C; Burioli, K C; Kfoury, J R; Oliveira, L J; Papa, P C; Carvalho, A F; Ambrósio, C E; Bazer, F W; Miglino, M A
Recent zooarchaeological studies on waterbuffalo (Bubalus sp.) remains from China and south Asia question the traditional view that waterbuffalo were first domesticated in Neolithic China over 7000years ago. The results from several recent population genetic studies of modern domesticated buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) are not consistent with each other, placing the original center of buffalo's domestication in south Asia,
Dongya Y. Yang; Li Liu; Xingcan Chen; Camilla F. Speller
The objective of this experiment was to assess the features and extent of follicular apoptosis in the waterbuffalo (Bubalus bubalis) ovary using classical histology and nick end labelling technique. Ovaries (n=40) procured from the slaughterhouse were used for the study. The sections (5 ?m) were used for detection of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labelling (TUNEL) and classical histology (H&E). Those follicles showing ? 5% TUNEL positivity (TUNEL assay) and pyknotic nuclei (histology) in granulosa cells were classified as atretic. Based on histology, the atretic primary and secondary follicles (%) were 93.82 and 95.62 respectively. The histology study reveals that the rates (%) of atresia in <1, 1-3, 3-5 mm and >5 mm were 36.90, 40.50, 62.84 and 74.5 respectively. Further the atretic tertiary follicles (%) were significantly lower than the primary and secondary classes of follicles. TUNEL assay reveals that the atretic rate (%) of tertiary follicles in <1, 1-3, 3-5 and ? 5 mm class follicles were 50.88, 53.84, 81.81 and 36.36 respectively. The percentage of atresia in >5 mm diameter follicles were significantly lower in TUNEL than histology. Percentages of granulosa and thecal cells positive for atresia by TUNEL were 30.7 ± 0.53 and 13.82 ± 0.18 respectively per follicle. The initial structural changes in atretic follicles were seen primarily in the granulosa cells. In severely atretic follicles TUNEL positive granulosa cells along with theca cells have to be considered in assessing the rate and extent of atresia. PMID:20070580
Sreejalekshmi, P; Raghavendra, B S; Subramani, T Siva; Murthy, V Chandrashekara; Jamuna, K V; Prasad, R V; Ravindra, J P; Selvaraju, S
Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins present in a wide variety of plants and animals, which serve various important physiological\\u000a functions. A soluble ?-galactoside binding lectin has been isolated and purified to homogeneity from buffalo brain using ammonium\\u000a sulphate precipitation (40–70%) and gel permeation chromatography on Sephadex G50–80 column. The molecular weight of buffalo brain lectin (BBL) as determined by SDS-PAGE under
Thirty buffaloes naturally infected with Theileria annulata and 10 parasitologically free controls were used to determine the potential clinical, haematological and therapeutic impact of tropical theileriosis in Egypt. The clinical signs in the infected buffaloes were pyrexia (40.5-41.5 degrees C), enlargement of superficial lymph nodes, slight nasal and ocular discharges, salivation, anaemia and respiratory distress. Eye lesions also were recorded. There was a significant decrease in erythrocyte counts and haemoglobin content and a significant decrease in total leucocyte counts in infected buffaloes compared to controls. Early treatment with buparvaquone was 100% effective in eliminating the protozoan parasites from the blood and lymph nodes and led to an improvement in the clinical state whereas treatment in the later stages of the disease whilst eliminating the parasites failed to improve the clinical condition of the animal. PMID:17420101
The aim of the present work was to describe the occurrence of antibodies to Neospora caninum in waterbuffaloes on four ranches located in Corrientes province in the northeast of Argentina. Antibodies against N. caninum were determined in sera of 449 waterbuffaloes by using an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). A Bayesian logistic regression mixed model was used to quantify the strength of association between positive serological results to N. caninum and gender, age and category (calf, steer, heifer, cow) as risk factors. Antibody titers were found in 287 (64%) buffaloes. All ranches had seropositive animals. Age was more strongly associated with positive results to N. caninum (OR: 1.4; CI 95%: 0.86-2.22) than gender (OR: 1.02, CI 95%: 0.40-2.59) and category (OR: 0.88, CI 95%: 0.57-0.88). Results suggest a high exposure of waterbuffaloes to N. caninum by postnatal transmission in these four ranches located in Corrientes province, Argentina. Further studies are needed to quantify the consequences of Neospora-infections in the waterbuffalo industry. PMID:17950535
Campero, C M; Pérez, A; Moore, D P; Crudeli, G; Benitez, D; Draghi, M G; Cano, D; Konrad, J L; Odeón, A C
Several 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate-O-acyltransferases (AGPATs) can acylate lysophosphatidic acid to produce phosphatidic acid. Of the eight AGPAT isoforms, AGPAT6 is a crucial enzyme for glycerolipids and triacylglycerol biosynthesis in some mammalian tissues. We amplified and identified the complete coding sequence (CDS) of the waterbuffalo AGPAT6 gene by using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, based on the conversed sequence information of the cattle or expressed sequence tags of other Bovidae species. This novel gene was deposited in the NCBI database (accession No. JX518941). Sequence analysis revealed that the CDS of this AGPAT6 encodes a 456-amino acid enzyme (molecular mass = 52 kDa; pI = 9.34). Waterbuffalo AGPAT6 contains three hydrophobic transmembrane regions and a signal 37-amino acid peptide, localized in the cytoplasm. The deduced amino acid sequences share 99, 98, 98, 97, 98, 98, 97 and 95% identity with their homologous sequences from cattle, horse, human, mouse, orangutan, pig, rat, and chicken, respectively. The phylogenetic tree analysis based on the AGPAT6 CDS showed that waterbuffalo has a closer genetic relationship with cattle than with other species. Tissue expression profile analysis shows that this gene is highly expressed in the mammary gland, moderately expressed in the heart, muscle, liver, and brain; weakly expressed in the pituitary gland, spleen, and lung; and almost silently expressed in the small intestine, skin, kidney, and adipose tissues. Four predicted microRNA target sites are found in the waterbuffalo AGPAT6 CDS. These results will establish a foundation for further insights into this novel waterbuffalo gene. PMID:24114207
Song, S; Huo, J L; Li, D L; Yuan, Y Y; Yuan, F; Miao, Y W
Background Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal herpesvirus infection, affecting various wild and domestic ruminants all over the world. Waterbuffaloes were reported to be particularly susceptible for the ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) causing the sheep-associated form of MCF (SA-MCF). This report describes the first case of possibly caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever symptoms in a domestic waterbuffalo in Switzerland. Case presentation The buffalo cow presented with persistent fever, dyspnoea, nasal bleeding and haematuria. Despite symptomatic therapy, the buffalo died and was submitted to post mortem examination. Major findings were an abomasal ulceration, a mild haemorrhagic cystitis and multifocal haemorrhages on the epicardium and on serosal and mucosal surfaces. Eyes and oral cavity were not affected. Histopathology revealed a mild to moderate lymphohistiocytic vasculitis limited to the brain and the urinary bladder. Although these findings are typical for MCF, OvHV-2 DNA was not detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes or in paraffin-embedded brain, using an OvHV-2 specific real time PCR. With the aid of a panherpesvirus PCR, a caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2) sequence could be amplified from both samples. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of malignant catarrhal fever in the subfamily Bovinae, where the presence of CpHV-2 could be demonstrated. The etiological context has yet to be evaluated.
The swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is a multi-purpose animal in agriculture that is challenged by extinction due to low reproductive efficiency. Nuclear transfer (NT) has been used to preserve special breeds of buffalo, as well as to increase the number of animals. However, cloned buffalo embryos have impaired development, as in other species. To understand the chromatin remodeling activities in
T. Suteevun; S. L. Smith; S. Muenthaisong; X. Yang; R. Parnpai; X. C. Tian
This review deals with the behaviour of river buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), in confinement and in extensive conditions, also focusing on the effects of different housing and rearing conditions on their welfare. The behavioural repertoire expressed by buffaloes in extensive and intensive conditions is similar to those displayed by other domestic ruminants. However, through natural selection, buffaloes have also acquired several morphological, physiological and behavioural (i.e. wallowing) adaptations to hot climatic conditions. Buffaloes kept in intensive conditions and having no access to pasture and water for wallowing extend their periods of idling and are less often involved in investigative activities. Confinement is also associated with a reduction of space; however, no specific studies have been carried out to determine the specific requirements of this species. Space restriction can adversely affect various aspects of buffalo welfare, such as health (increased levels of lesions and injuries), social behaviour (increased number of agonistic interactions) and heat dissipation. The buffaloes, originating from tropical areas, are well adapted to large variations in food availability and quality, and to dietetic unbalances. As to human animal relationship, it has been observed that the incidence of stepping and kicking behaviour of buffaloes in the milking parlour is positively correlated with the frequency of oxytocin injections, whereas the frequency of positive stockperson interactions with the animals such as talking quietly, petting and gentle touching are negatively correlated with the number of kicks during milking. Data from farms where both dairy cattle and buffaloes are present show that avoidance distance measured in the pen is lower in buffaloes than in cattle. This may be attributed to the fact that buffaloes are generally recognised to be curious animals. Finally, the effects of different farming practices on animal-related indicators are described. However, these measures should be integrated into a monitoring protocol, such as the Welfare Quality® scheme, to reliably assess buffalo welfare in the current intensive farming conditions. PMID:23803231
Napolitano, F; Pacelli, C; Grasso, F; Braghieri, A; De Rosa, G
In this study, attempts have been made to identify and characterize waterbuffalo (Bubalus bubalis) mammary derived growth inhibitor (MDGI) gene, isolated from a mammary gland cDNA library of lactating buffalo. The complete MDGI cDNA was of 698 nucleotides, consisting 61 nucleotides in 5' UTR, coding region of 402 nucleotides, and 235 nucleotides representing the 3' UTR. Comparison of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence data with that of MDGI/fatty acid binding protein (FABP) of other species shows three buffalo specific nucleotide changes while seven nucleotide changes were common to cattle and buffalo. Buffalo and cattle MDGI had 100% amino acid sequence similarity, which also shared three amino acid changes: 34 (Ala-Gly), 109 (Leu-Met), and 132 (Glu-Gln) as compared to other species. Comparison with FABPs reported from other cattle tissues revealed highest amino acid sequence similarity with FABP-heart (100%) and least with FABP-liver (20.5%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed cattle MDGI to be closest to buffalo, while mouse MDGI was distantly placed, whereas different tissue derived FABPs of cattle showed FABP-heart closest and FABP-epidermis most distantly placed from buffalo MDGI. This report also differs from the earlier findings that MDGI is intermediate of FABP-heart and adipose. PMID:17453652
Mukesh, M; Mishra, B P; Kataria, R S; Ahlawat, S P S; Sobti, R C
Background Minisatellites are an integral part of eukaryotic genomes and show variation in the complexity of their organization. Besides their presence in non-coding regions, a small fraction of them are part of the transcriptome, possibly participating in gene regulation, expression and silencing. We studied the minisatellite (TGG)n tagged transcriptome in the waterbuffaloBubalus bubalis across various tissues and the spermatozoa, and characterized the genes TSPY1 and COL6A1 discovered in the process. Results Minisatellite associated sequence amplification (MASA) conducted using cDNA and oligonucleotide primer (TGG)5 uncovered 38 different mRNA transcripts from somatic tissues and gonads and 15 from spermatozoa. These mRNA transcripts corresponded to several known and novel genes. The majority of the transcripts showed the highest level of expression either in the testes or spermatozoa with exception of a few showing higher expression levels in the lungs and liver. Transcript SR1, which is expressed in all the somatic tissues and gonads, was found to be similar to the Bos taurus collagen type VI alpha 1 gene (COL6A1). Similarly, SR29, a testis-specific transcript, was found to be similar to the Bos taurus testis-specific Y-encoded protein-1 representing cancer/testis antigen 78 (CT78). Subsequently, full length coding sequences (cds) of these two transcripts were obtained. Quantitative PCR (q-PCR) revealed 182-202 copies of theTSPY1 gene in waterbuffalo, which localized to the Y chromosome. Conclusions The MASA approach enabled us to identify several genes, including two of clinical significance, without screening an entire cDNA library. Genes identified with TGG repeats are not part of a specific family of proteins and instead are distributed randomly throughout the genome. Genes showing elevated expression in the testes and spermatozoa may prove to be potential candidates for in-depth characterization. Furthermore, their possible involvement in fertility or lack thereof would augment animal biotechnology.
The presence and prevalence of tick-borne haemoparasites in waterbuffalo from the Hubei province, south China was investigated using the reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay and phylogenetic analysis of the parasite 18S rRNA gene. Theileria buffeli (19.1%) was the most frequently found species in all of the locations, followed by Babesia orientalis (8.9%), Babesia bovis (1.0%) and Babesia bigemina (0.7%). Only 12 (3.9%) of the samples had mixed infections. Eleven samples with single infections were selected for further characterization using 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the eight T. buffeli 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained grouped into four clusters, of which three grouped with the known T. buffeli types B and D. The remaining five grouped separately from the previously describe T. buffeli types, constituting new T. buffeli types. The two B. bigemina 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained grouped closely with B. bigemina Kunming; this serves as the first report of B. bigemina in the Hubei province. The B. orientalis Daye 18S rRNA gene sequence obtained grouped closely with the previously reported B. orientalis Wuhan strain and with Babesia sp. Kashi 1 and Kashi 2. PMID:22154255
BackgroundWaterbuffalo is an economically important livestock species and about half of its total world population exists in India. Development of stem cell technology in buffalo can find application in targeted genetic modification of this species. Testis has emerged as a source of pluripotent stem cells in mice and human; however, not much information is available in buffalo.Objectives and MethodsPou5f1
During schistosomiasis surveillance studies in Central Sulawesi tissues of an Asian waterbuffalo, Bubalus bubalis, from Puroo, Lake Lindu, Sulawesi were collected and examined microscopically. Several myocardial cysts were seen; one was in subendocardial...
R. J. Brown W. P. Carney M. Sudomo G. Simandjuntak
Cleavage patterns of mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) by 15 restriction endonucleases were analyzed for 10 swamp and 13 river types of domestic waterbuffaloes. Digestions with nine enzymes exhibited polymorphisms giving two or three kinds of cleavage patterns. Five mtDNA types were identified, three types in the swamp buffaloes of the Philippines, Vietnam, and Indonesia (S-types) and two types in the
Kazuaki Tanaka; Takahiro Yamagata; Joseph S. Masangkay; Muhammad O. Faruque; Dang Vu-Binh; Salundik; Sri Supraptini Mansjoer; Yoshi Kawamoto; Takao Namikawa
Background Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) were first described as placental antigens present in the blood serum of the mother soon after implantation. Here, we describe the purification of several pregnancy-associated glycoproteins from waterbuffalo placenta (wbPAGs). A specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed for early pregnancy diagnosis in buffalo species. Results Amino-terminal microsequencing of immunoreactive placental proteins allowed the identification of eleven wbPAGs sequences [Swiss-Prot accession numbers: P86369 to P86379]. Three polyclonal antisera (AS#858, AS#859 and AS#860) were raised in rabbits against distinct wbPAG fractions. A new RIA (RIA-860) was developed and used to distinguish between pregnant (n?=?33) and non-pregnant (n?=?26) waterbuffalo females. Conclusions Our results confirmed the multiplicity of PAG expression in buffalo placenta. In addition, the RIA-860 system was shown to be sensitive, linear, reproducible, accurate and specific in measuring PAG concentrations in buffalo plasma samples from Day 37 of gestation onwards.
Background Though India has sequenced waterbuffalo genome but its draft assembly is based on cattle genome BTau 4.0, thus de novo chromosome wise assembly is a major pending issue for global community. The existing radiation hybrid of buffalo and these reported STR can be used further in final gap plugging and “finishing” expected in de novo genome assembly. QTL and gene mapping needs mining of putative STR from buffalo genome at equal interval on each and every chromosome. Such markers have potential role in improvement of desirable characteristics, such as high milk yields, resistance to diseases, high growth rate. The STR mining from whole genome and development of user friendly database is yet to be done to reap the benefit of whole genome sequence. Description By in silico microsatellite mining of whole genome, we have developed first STR database of waterbuffalo, BuffSatDb (Buffalo MicroSatellite Database (http://cabindb.iasri.res.in/buffsatdb/) which is a web based relational database of 910529 microsatellite markers, developed using PHP and MySQL database. Microsatellite markers have been generated using MIcroSAtellite tool. It is simple and systematic web based search for customised retrieval of chromosome wise and genome-wide microsatellites. Search has been enabled based on chromosomes, motif type (mono-hexa), repeat motif and repeat kind (simple and composite). The search may be customised by limiting location of STR on chromosome as well as number of markers in that range. This is a novel approach and not been implemented in any of the existing marker database. This database has been further appended with Primer3 for primer designing of the selected markers enabling researcher to select markers of choice at desired interval over the chromosome. The unique add-on of degenerate bases further helps in resolving presence of degenerate bases in current buffalo assembly. Conclusion Being first buffalo STR database in the world , this would not only pave the way in resolving current assembly problem but shall be of immense use for global community in QTL/gene mapping critically required to increase knowledge in the endeavour to increase buffalo productivity, especially for third world country where rural economy is significantly dependent on buffalo productivity.
Understanding the mechanism of milk fat synthesis and secretion is important for dairy industry, as the nature of the cream fraction influences the manufacturing properties and organoleptic qualities of milk and dairy products. So, there is a need to understand the mechanism of milk fat synthesis and to elucidate the key genes regulating milk fat synthesis by studying the expression of genes involved in milk fat synthesis. Present manuscript reports the expression of genes involved in milk fat synthesis and metabolism in buffalo mammary tissue. The expression of lipogenic genes was studied in lactating and non-lactating mammary tissue of waterbuffalo by semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR expression analysis. The genes studied were acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), 3 hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH), LIPIN, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBF). The expression of ACACA, BDH, LIPIN, PPARG, LPL, and SREBF was higher in lactating as compared to non-lactating buffalo whereas no difference was found in the expression of SCD between both the stages. PMID:21965031
The aim of this study was to document the expression and localization of VEGF system comprising of VEGF isoforms (VEGF 120, VEGF 164 and VEGF 188) and their receptors (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2) in buffalo corpus luteum (CL) obtained from different stages of the oestrous cycle. Real-time RT-PCR (qPCR), Western blot and immunohistochemistry were applied to investigate mRNA expression, protein expression and localization of examined factors. In general, all the components of VEGF system (the VEGF isoforms and their receptors) were found in the waterbuffalo CL during the oestrous cycle. The mRNA as well as protein expression of VEGF system was highest during the early and mid-luteal phase, which later steadily decreased (p < 0.05) after day 10 to reach the lowest level in regressed CL. As demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, VEGF protein was localized predominantly in luteal cells; however, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 were localized in luteal cells as well as in endothelial cells. In conclusion, the dynamics of expression and localization of VEGF system in buffalo corpora lutea during the luteal phase were demonstrated in this study, indicating the possible role of VEGF system in the regulation of luteal angiogenesis and proliferation of luteal as well as endothelial cells through their non-angiogenic function. PMID:23551326
Chouhan, Vs; Panda, Rp; Yadav, Vp; Babitha, V; Khan, Fa; Das, Gk; Gupta, M; Dangi, Ss; Singh, G; Bag, S; Sharma, Gt; Berisha, B; Schams, D; Sarkar, M
Clinical and histopathological findings of a congenital ocular dermoid cyst, located at the lower eyelid of a river female buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calf were presented. A soft, fluctuant, non-tender, hyperaemic cystic mass was detected overlaying the left eye. Fine needle aspirate revealed filamentous debris with no malignant cells. The cyst was treated surgically by orbital exenteration and subsequently subjected to histopathological examination. The histopathological study disclosed a conjunctival dermoid cyst. This report is novel, in that; such ocular cyst has not previously been described in river buffalo calves. PMID:17359456
Viability of in vitro-derived vitrified-warmed preimplantation stage buffalo embryos were assessed in vitro and in vivo. Oocytes were collected from ovaries of slaughtered riverine buffaloes, matured and fertilized in vitro with frozen semen from riverine buffalo bull and cultured on cumulus cell monolayers. Resultant preimplantation stage embryos were cryopreserved by vitrification with ethylene glycol, ficoll and sucrose. Seventy-one frozen embryos
Danilda Hufana-Duran; Prudencio B Pedro; Hernando V Venturina; Rogelio D Hufana; Apolinario L Salazar; Peregrino G Duran; Libertado C Cruz
The sucking louse Haematopinus tuberculatus (Burmeister 1839) is an ectoparasite of buffaloes, cattle, camels, and American bison. Alphacypermethrin (ACYP) is a pyrethroid insecticide commonly used to control arthropods of veterinary and public health interest. Therapeutics, such as antiparasitic compounds, is often administered to buffaloes based on dosage and intervals recommended for cattle because very few drugs have buffalo-specific label indications. A trial was conducted on 20 louse-infested buffaloes at a farm to assess the efficacy and safety of ACYP pour-on, at the manufacturer's recommended dose for cattle, on buffaloes naturally infested by H. tuberculatus. Ten animals were assigned to ACYP-treated group (ACYP-group) and ten to untreated control group (C-group). On day 0, all ACYP-group buffaloes received alphacypermethrin pour-on. Louse counts were performed on days -1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 at eight predilection sites on the skin of each buffalo. ACYP was completely effective (100%) at day 7, highly effective (99.8%) at day 14, and completely effective (100%) from day 21 until the end of the study (day 56 post-treatment). During the trial, ACYP was well tolerated by all animals as there were no observed clinically adverse reactions. The results of this trial suggest that ACYP is an effective, safe, and user-friendly compound suitable for treatment of buffaloes with natural louse infestations. PMID:23733232
Toxocara vitulorum is a pathogenic nematode from the small intestine of very young buffalo calves. To understand the development of the inflammatory responses in the wall of the gut, samples of tissues were removed from the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of buffalo calves naturally infected with T. vitulorum during the beginning of the infection, at the peak of egg output,
Maria F Neves; Wilma A Starke-Buzetti; Alessandra M. M. G Castro
Two experiments were conducted to assess the timing and synchrony of ovulation, plasma LH concentrations, and pregnancy rate in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) treated with the Ovsynch (GnRH-PGF2?-GnRH) protocol. In Experiment 1, 10 non-lactating cycling buffaloes received 10?g of a GnRH analogue i.m. (buserelin acetate) without regard to the stage of the estrous cycle (day of treatment, day 0), followed
The methylation of DNA at cytosine residues within CpG dinucleotides is associated with transcriptional repression and is implicated in maintaining genomic stability and also the silencing of repetitive elements. These imprinted genes are unique as they are expressed exclusively from one parental allele. The present study was carried out to detect methylation status in H19 gene promoter CTCF III region in three Indian buffalo breeds (Jaffarabadi, Surti and Mehsani) by bisulfite sequencing. Methylation percent in Jaffarabadi, Surti and Mehsani buffaloes were found to be 50.19, 70.85 and 52.24, respectively, with mean incidence of methylation percent in H19 in all three breeds as 57.36. Apart from CpG methylation, unexpected nucleotide conversion (T>C, A>G, G>A) and deletion (A and G) after bisulfite sequencing were also observed. We observed no significant relationships in milk yield and milk fat per cent with methylation pattern in H19 gene in any of the three breeds. PMID:23054415
Tripathi, Ajai K; Solanki, Jitendra V; Joshi, Chaitanya G
The objective of the current study was to isolate and identify phenotypes of Staphylococcus spp. strains derived from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) milk. A total of 548 milk samples from 137 buffalo were cultured in Columbia agar enriched with 5% defibrinated sheep blood. Determination of the capacity of Staphylococcus aureus to produce enterotoxins A-D and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) was achieved by reverse passive latex agglutination (RPLA). Antimicrobial sensitivity of S. aureus strains was evaluated using the disk diffusion technique, and ?-lactamase detection was achieved using the chromogenic test with paper discs impregnated with nitrocefin. From all the mammary quarters examined, 36 (10.8%) were positive for Staphylococcus spp., 83.3% were coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CNS), 11.1% were coagulase-positive staphylococcus (CPS), and 5.6% were of CPS+CNS positive. All isolates of S. aureus produced at least 1 toxin and 5 out of 6 isolates (83.0%) produced ?-lactamase. One hundred percent of S. aureus isolates were sensitive to methicillin and amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, and resistant to ampicillin, penicillin, and oxacillin. Analysis of the results obtained in the current study highlight the epidemiologic importance of buffalo milk regarding the production of enterotoxins and TSST-1 and the potential risk to public health. PMID:22362803
Oliveira, Andrea A F; Pinheiro, José W; Mota, Rinaldo A; Cunha, Maria L R S; Lopes, Carlos A M; Rocha, Noeme S
Hand-made cloning (HMC) has proved to be an efficient alternative to the conventional micromanipulator-based technique in some domestic animal species. This study reports the development of an effective culture system for in vitro culture of zona-free cloned buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos reconstructed using adult skin fibroblast cells as nucleus donor. Cleavage and blastocyst rates observed were 52 and 0% in modified Charles Rosenkrans 2 (mCR2), 61 and 4.6% in modified Synthetic Oviductal Fluid (mSOF), and 82 and 40.3% in Research Vitro Cleave (RVCL; Cook, Australia) medium, respectively. Similarly, higher blastocyst rates (24.5 +/- 4.1%) were observed when zona-free parthenotes were cultured in RVCL medium. Culturing zona-free cloned buffalo embryos on flat surfaces (FS) yielded significantly higher (p < 0.05) blastocyst rates than Well of the Wells (WOW) or microdrops (MD). Furthermore, development in WOW was found to be significantly better than MD culture. The quality of HMC blastocysts was examined using differential staining. This study establishes the application of zona-free nuclear transfer procedures for the production of hand-made cloned buffalo embryos and the development of efficient culture system and appropriate media requirements for enhancing their preimplantation development. PMID:18800862
Growth of buffalo preantral follicles in culture was studied to investigate the effect of size of preantral follicles, individual or group culture, long-term culture of preantral follicles for (40 days), addition of human follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), insulin-transferrin-selenium (ITS), growth factors (epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), vaso active intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in culture media, and substitution of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) for FSH as gonadotrophin source in culture media. Preantral follicles were isolated mechanically from ovaries of matured, nonpregnant slaughtered buffaloes and cultured in droplets of culture media under mineral oil in a 35 mm petri dish in a CO2 incubator (38-39 degrees C, 5% CO2 in air, 90-95% relative humidity) for 15 days. Preantral follicle isolation and washing medium consisted of Minimum Essential Medium (MEM) supplemented with steer serum (10%), glutamine (2 mM), sodium pyruvate (0.23 mM), hypoxanthine (2 mM) and gentamycin (50 microg/ml), respectively. In Experiment 1, we placed isolated preantral follicles individually or in groups of 2-4 preantral follicles in 30 or 50 microl droplets, respectively, using two culture media: washing media and washing media + ITS (1%) + FSH (0.05 IU/ml), respectively. In Experiment 2, we grouped isolated preantral follicles were grouped into six different size classes: < or = 36, 37-54, 55-72, 73-90, 90-108 and > or = 109 microm. We cultured groups of 2-4 preantral follicles in washing media + ITS (1A) + FSH (0.05 IU/ml) in a CO2 incubator for 15 days. In Experiment 3, we allocated groups of 2-4 preantral follicles to 10 treatments: (1) only washing media, (2) washing media + FSH (0.05 IU/ml), (3) washing media + ITS (17%), (4) washing media + ITS (1%) + FSH (50 IU/ml), (5) washing media + ITS (1%) + EGF (50 ng/ml), (6) washing media + ITS (1%) + FSH (0.05 IU/ml) + EGF (50 ng/ml), (7) washing media + ITS (1%) + FGF (50 ng/ml), (8) washing media + ITS (1%) + FSH (0.05 IU/ml) + FGF (50 ng/ml), (9) washing media + ITS (1%) + VIP (50 ng/ml), and (10) washing media + ITS (1%) + FSH (0.05 IU/ml) + VIP (50 ng/ml). In Experiment 4, based on the results of Experiment 3, we incubated preantral follicles from those treatments showing significantly (P < 0.05) higher growth up to 40 days. In Experiment 5, we allocated groups of 2-4 preantral follicles to two treatments: (1) washing media + PMSG (50 IU/ml), and (2) washing media + ITS (1%) + PMSG (50 IU/ml) and cultured in a CO2 incubator for 15 days. The results indicated that the preantral follicles cultured in groups had a higher growth rate (P < 0.05) than those cultured as individuals. ITS, FSH, PMSG and growth factors significantly (P < 0.05) promoted the growth of the preantral follicles. Following 40 days of culture, follicular architecture was preserved in nearly 17% of the follicles though there was no antrum formation. The growth rate of preantral follicles was lower in buffalo than in cattle. PMID:12041688
Gupta, P S P; Nandi, S; Ravindranatha, B M; Sarma, P V
The objective of the present study was to describe ultrastructural changes in the nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles during in vitro maturation (IVM) of buffalo cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). The structures were collected by ovum pick-up (OPU). Some COCs, removed from maturation medium at 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h, were processed for transmission electron microscopy. The average number of COCs collected by OPU/animal/session was 6.4, and 44% of them were viable. Immature oocytes had a peripherally located nucleus, Golgi complex and mitochondrial clusters, as well as a large number of coalescent lipid vacuoles. After 6 h of IVM, the oocyte nucleus morphology changed from round to a flatter shape, and the granulosa cells (GC) lost most of their contact with zona pellucida (ZP). At 12 h the first polar body was extruded and the aspect of lipid droplet changed to dark, probably denoting lipid oxidation. Cortical granules were clearly visible at 18 h of maturation, always located along the oocyte periphery. At 24 h of IVM the number of cortical granules increased. Ultrastructure studies revealed that: (1) immature oocytes have a high lipid content; (2) the perivitelline space (PS) increases during IVM; (3) Golgi complexes and mitochondrial clusters migrate to oocyte periphery during IVM; (4) 6 h of IVM are enough to lose contact between GC and ZP; (5) the oocyte lipid droplets' appearance changes between 6 and 12 h of IVM. PMID:20576206
Mondadori, Rafael Gianella; Santin, Tiago Rollemberg; Fidelis, Andrei Antonioni Guedes; Name, Khesller Patrícia Olázia; da Silva, Juliana Souza; Rumpf, Rodolfo; Báo, Sônia Nair
Histogenesis of the reticular groove (sulcus reticuli) of the buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) was observed from primordial stage to birth. The epithelium of the reticular groove was considered early embryonic until a crown-rump (CR) length of 2.2 cm, and was uniformly distributed at CR 2.2 cm; superficial and basal zones developed by CR 3.2. cm. At CR 10.5 cm, the basal zone in the floor evaginated and formed longitudinal folds. At CR 25.5 cm, the basal zone in the lipids evaginated and formed papillae. The core of the longitudinal folds and papillae was formed by the lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, and submucosa. Keratinization was seen at CR 50.5 cm, and the epithelium was stratified squamous epithelium with keratinization, similar to that of the adult buffalo. The floor and lip had a single layer of muscle. A small oblique muscle layer was also found in the concavity of the lip. The correlation between structure and function of the reticular groove is discussed. PMID:6178327
A 7-year-old female buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from a local herd in Serres, northern Greece, was presented to a private veterinary clinic with a chronic loss of appetite for 15 days. The clinical examination revealed high fever (41.5 degrees C), lethargy, yellow discoloration of skin and mucous membranes, an abdomen that appeared to be empty, hyperactive rumen motility, and tachypnea. A biochemical profile revealed an elevated total bilirubin concentration and hepatic enzyme activities, whereas globulin, creatinine, and glucose concentrations were within the reference intervals. The animal received a 12-day course of treatment with intramuscular administration of ampicillin and corticosteroids. However, no significant clinical improvement was achieved, and the buffalo was euthanized. Gross necropsy lesions included serous atrophy of adipose tissue and hepatomegaly. Microscopic lesions included necrotizing pyogranulomatous hepatitis with thrombosis, hemorrhages, edema, and fibrosis. Small, nonpigmented, bacterial colonies were harvested in pure culture from the liver and were confirmed as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia by polymerase chain reaction. The bacterium was sensitive to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, colistin, polymyxin, trimethoprim/sulfamethaxazole, and chloramphenicol. In contrast, resistance to ticarcillin, piperacillin, imipenem, ceftazidime, amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, and tetracycline was displayed. The bacterial strain carried the L1 metallo-beta-lactamase (L1) and tet35 genes, which contribute to high-level resistance to beta-lactams and tetracycline, respectively. Although S. maltophilia is widely believed to be a contaminant, the present report suggests that the isolation, identification, and susceptibility testing of this multidrug-resistant bacterium may be of clinical importance in diagnostic samples. PMID:20807941
Petridou, Evanthia; Filioussis, George; Karavanis, Emmanouel; Kritas, Spyridon K
Leptin gene has been found to be associated with various economic traits including milk production and fat quality in dairy animals. In the present study, we investigated genetic variations in intron 1 region of leptin gene in riverine buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and sequencing methods and associated them with milk traits. The study revealed three SSCP variants A, B and C among a total of 301 buffaloes from nine breeds. The frequency of variant C was found invariably high among all the breeds except in Marathwada buffalo. Variant A was found to be absent in Chilika, Nili-Ravi, Nagpuri and Pandharpuri breeds and also had the lowest frequencies in Mehsana, Jaffarabadi, Murrah and Toda breeds. Sequencing of SSCP variants revealed a total of five polymorphic sites, with three haplotypes. Statistical analysis revealed significantly high fat percentage at 150 days in SSCP variant B in Mehsana buffaloes. However, the associations of SSCP variants of leptin gene with total milk yield, 305 days milk yield and total fat yield were found to be non-significant. The present study is the first report on association analysis of leptin gene polymorphisms with milk production and milk quality traits in river buffalo. PMID:22395794
The buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is a source of milk and meat, and also serves as a draft animal. In this study, a 5000-rad whole-genome radiation hybrid (RH) panel for river buffalo was constructed and used to build preliminary RH maps for BBU3 and BBU10 chromosomes. The preliminary maps contain 66 markers, including coding genes, cattle expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and microsatellite loci. The RH maps presented here are the starting point for mapping additional loci that will allow detailed comparative maps between buffalo, cattle and other species whose genomes may be mapped in the future. A large quantity of DNA has been prepared from the cell lines forming the river buffalo RH panel and will be made publicly available to the international community both for the study of chromosome evolution and for the improvement of traits important to the role of buffalo in animal agriculture. PMID:17403053
Amaral, M E J; Owens, K E; Elliott, J S; Fickey, C; Schäffer, A A; Agarwala, R; Womack, J E
The objective of this study was to determine the best combined hormonal treatment to utilize in order to obtain a high number of good quality in vivo and in vitro matured oocytes from prepuberal Mediterranean Italian buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis). Transvaginal ultrasound follicular aspiration was employed to recover oocytes from antral follicles. Fifteen barn housed buffalo calves, between 5 and 9 months of age were used in this study and randomly divided into control (Group A) and treated groups. A commercially available preparation of 2000 IU eCG was administered to animals in the treatment groups, followed by 2000 IU of hCG given either 12 h (Group B), or 24 h (Group C) before ovum pick up (OPU). From the time of administration of eCG treatments, the best timing for hCG administration before OPU was determined and integrated with the administration of 500 IU of FSH-LH in a decreasing dosage protocol over 4 days (Group D). Expanded cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) recovered from all groups were immediately fixed for later aceto-orcein staining. All other COCs were processed for in vitro maturation using standard procedures and then fixed and stained for assessment of nuclear maturation. Collectively, hormonal stimulation did not increase the number of ovarian antral follicles available compared to the control group (P > 0.05), but did result in higher output of medium (Group B: 9.8 +/- 7.1; Group C: 3.4 +/- 6.7; Group D: 15.6 +/- 4.9 versus Group A: 1.6 +/- 2.2) and large follicles (Group B: 44.8 +/- 22.9; Group C: 8.7 +/- 6.1; Group D: 70.2 +/- 10 versus Group A: 6.1 +/- 6.3). Administration of hCG 12 h before follicle aspiration proved to be the best strategy to obtain high numbers of immature and mature oocytes from antral follicles (P < 0.05; Group B: 70.8 +/- 12 and Group D: 82 +/- 12.6 versus Group A: 43.6 +/- 13.9 and Group C: 27.2 +/- 13.9). A significantly higher number of expanded COCs was obtained from hormonally stimulated groups compared to the control group (P < 0.05; Group B: 28.7 +/- 16.8, Group C: 16.3 +/- 5.9 and Group D: 27.1 +/- 16.9 versus Group A: 6.2 +/- 6). A higher oocyte maturational competence (P < 0.05) was found in Groups A, B and D (80.8 +/- 7.9, 87.5 +/- 8.2, and 86.5 +/- 4.3, respectively) compared to Group C (60 +/- 26.2). In conclusion, in prepuberal buffalo calves combined gonadotrophin stimulation protocols yielded higher numbers of medium to large size follicles compared to a control group. A high number of good quality oocytes were recovered by transvaginal ultrasound follicle aspiration, and a high rate of metaphase II progression was reached after in vivo and in vitro maturation. PMID:12041691
Presicce, Giorgio Antonio; Senatore, Elena Maria; De Santis, Giuseppe; Stecco, Romana; Terzano, Giuseppina Maria; Borghese, Antonio; De Mauro, Guillermo Javier
The study of bovine mammary gland functional genomics requires appropriate cDNA library collections to access gene expression patterns from different developmental and physiological stages. The present study was undertaken with the objective to identify candidate genes involved in the process of increased milk synthesis following 0, 48 and 96 h of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) treatment to Surti buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) through differential display reverse transcriptase PCR (DDRT-PCR). Of a total 50 sequenced DD bands, 64% of ESTs were differentially expressed (appeared only in post-treatment samples, i.e. 48 h and 96 h) and 36% were up-regulated after rbST treatment. Of the ESTs 32%were found to be located on Bos taurus chromosome 24 (equivalent to buffalo chromosome 22), whereas 16% of ESTs could not be mapped, indicating that they are specific to buffalo. Quantitative real time PCR assay of 15 ESTs revealed transcript level surge in 13 ESTs, and decline in one EST, while one showed up-regulation in expression level at 48 h while down-regulation at 96 h. This study indicates more than 30 novel transcripts, with unknown function, involved in increased milk synthesis and also the involvement of many more genes in the physiology of milk production than once thought. PMID:21774858
The aim of the present study was to decipher the diversity of methanogens in rumen of Murrah buffaloes so that effective strategies can be made in order to mitigate methane emission from these methanogens. In the present study diversity of rumen methanogens in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from North India was evaluated by using mcr-A gene library obtained from the pooled PCR product from four animals and by using MEGA4 software. A total of 104 clones were examined, revealing 26 different mcr-A gene sequences or phylotypes. Of the 26 phylotypes, 16 (64 of 104 clones) were less than 97% similar to any of the cultured strain of methanogens. Seven clone sequences were clustered with Methanomicrobium mobile and three clone sequences were clustered with Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii during the phylogenetic analysis. Uncultured group of methanogens comes out to be the major component of the methanogens community structure in Murrah buffaloes. Methanomicrobium phylotype comes out to be major phylotype among cultured methanogens followed by Methanobrevibacter phylotype. These results help in making effective strategies to check the growth of dominant communities in the rumen of this animal which in turn help in the reduction of methane emission in the environment and ultimately helps us in fighting with the problem of global warming. PMID:21887637
A vast majority of the world buffalo resource is concentrated in tropical and subtropical countries. Apart from heat stress and poor nutritional availability, endometritis is one of the most commonly encountered reproductive problems limiting fertility and consequently productive potential of the species. As demonstrated recently, endometritis impairs growth and follicular fluid composition of the largest follicle in buffalo. In the present study, the effect of endometritis on luteal development, function, nitric oxide (NO), and ascorbic acid was investigated. Reproductive tracts were collected from 90 cyclic buffaloes at an abattoir and grouped into endometritic (n?=?36) or non-endometritic (n?=?54) buffaloes based on physical examination of uterine mucus, white side test, and uterine cytology. Samples with pus-containing mucus, positive reaction on white side test, and/or >5 % neutrophils were considered to be positive for endometritis. Corpora lutea were enucleated, weighed, classified into stages I to IV, and assayed for progesterone (P(4)), NO, and ascorbic acid concentrations. Endometritic buffaloes had lesser (P?0.0001) luteal weight and P(4), NO, and ascorbic acid concentrations than non-endometritic buffaloes. The findings indicated that endometritis impairs corpus luteum development and function in buffalo. Reduced luteal NO and ascorbic acid concentrations during endometritis are novel findings. PMID:23070685
Pande, Megha; Das, Goutam Kumar; Khan, Firdous Ahmad; Sarkar, Mihir; Pathak, Mohan Chandra; Prasad, Jai Kishan; Kumar, Harendra
Successful nuclear transfer (NT) of somatic cell nuclei from various mammalian species to enucleated bovine oocytes provides a universal cytoplast for NT in endangered or extinct species. Buffalo fetal fibroblasts were isolated from a day 40 fetus and were synchronized in presumptive G(0) by serum deprivation. Buffalo and bovine oocytes from abattoir ovaries were matured in vitro and enucleated at 22 h. In the first experiment, we compared the ability of buffalo and bovine oocyte cytoplasm to support in vitro development of NT embryos produced by buffalo fetal fibroblasts as donor nuclei. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the NT embryos derived from buffalo and bovine oocytes, in fusion (74% versus 71%) and cleavage (77% versus 75%) rates, respectively. No significant differences were also observed in blastocyst development (39% versus 33%) and the mean cell numbers of day 7 cloned blastocysts (88.5 +/- 25.7 versus 51.7 +/- 5.4). In the second experiment, we evaluated the effects of activation with calcium ionophore A23187 on development of NT embryos after electrical fusion. A significantly higher (p < 0.05) percentage of blastocyst development was observed in the NT embryos activated by calcium ionophore and 6-DMAP when compared with 6-DMAP alone (33% versus 17%). The results indicate that the somatic nuclei from buffalo can be reprogrammed after transfer to enucleated bovine oocytes, resulting in the production of cloned buffalo blastocysts similar to those transferred into buffalo oocytes. Calcium ionophore used in conjunction with 6-DMAP effectively induces NT embryo development. PMID:11945219
Kitiyanant, Y; Saikhun, J; Chaisalee, B; White, K L; Pavasuthipaisit, K
The present study was conducted to know the role of Nitric Oxide (NO) on the acrosome reaction (AR) in Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa. Ejaculated buffalo spermatozoa were washed, suspended in sp-TALP media containing 6 mg BSA/mL and cell concentration was adjusted to 50×10(6) cells/mL. The cells were incubated for 6h in the absence or presence of heparin (10 ?g/mL) to induce capacitation. Fully capacitated spermatozoa were incubated in presence of 100 ?g/mL Lysophosphatidyl choline (LPC, T1) or 100 ?M Spermine-NONOate (T2) or 100 mM L-NAME (T3) or 100 ?M Spermine-NONOate+100 mM L-NAME (T4) or 1 mM db-cAMP + 0.1 mM IBMX (T5) or 100?M H-89 (T6) or 100 ?M Spermine-NONOate+100 ?M H-89 (T7) in combination to induce acrosome reaction. The extent of AR was assessed by dual-staining of spermatozoa with trypan blue/Giemsa stain. AR-associated tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins were detected by SDS-PAGE followed by immunoblotting using monoclonal anti-phosphotyrosine antibody. Significant (P<0.05) number of spermatozoa were acrosome reacted in Spermine-NONOate (T2) treated cells but it was significantly (P<0.05) lower than LPC (T1) induced AR. Addition of Spermine-NONOate + L-NAME (T4) resulted in non significant (P>0.05) decrease in acrosome reaction. On addition of H-89 + Spermine-NONOate (T7) to sperm culture medium, resulted in significant (P<0.05) decrease in the percent acrosome reaction. Conversely, addition of db-cAMP+IBMX (T5, cAMP analogue) resulted in the significantly (P<0.05) higher number of acrosome reacted spermatozoa. Pattern of sperm protein tyrosine phosphorylation was also different in NO induced acrosome reaction compared to that of LPC. The present study concluded that nitric oxide is involved in acrosome reaction of buffalo spermatozoa by causing the tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins mainly p17 and p20 and through activation of cAMP/PKA pathway. PMID:22445612
Present study was carried out on forty four apparently healthy Murrah buffaloes of different age groups of both sexes to investigate the effects of sex steroids on cell mediated immunity in vitro. Estrogen inhibited proliferation in mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes from prepubertal but not post pubertal buffaloes of either sex. Estrogen at 100?pg/mL concentration stimulating the proliferation significantly (P < 0.05). in all groups and had higher stimulatory effect in lymphocytes from day 10 than day 0 of estrous cycle. Progesterone inhibited lymphocyte proliferation, and inhibition was directly related to the dose, in all groups of either sex. Testosterone did not inhibit proliferation at any dose level and did not show any consistent and lucid effects on lymphocyte proliferation. Present study revealed that buffalo lymphocytes produce appreciable amounts of NO in culture system after treatment with estradiol. Significantly high levels of NO in culture supernatant were found in prepubertal buffalo calves and least in post pubertal buffaloes, which had an inverse relation with lymphocyte proliferation in presence of estradiol. NO in culture supernatant was high at the lowest dose of progesterone which was proportional to the lymphocyte proliferation when treated with progesterone. No significant difference in NO culture supernatant was observed between different concentrations of testosterone treatment.
Background The objective of this study was to establish the buffalo mammary epithelial cell line (BuMEC) and characterize its mammary specific functions. Methodology Buffalo mammary tissue collected from the slaughter house was processed enzymatically to obtain a heterogenous population of cells containing both epithelial and fibroblasts cells. Epithelial cells were purified by selective trypsinization and were grown in a plastic substratum. The purified mammary epithelial cells (MECs) after several passages were characterized for mammary specific functions by immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and western blot. Principal Findings The established buffalo mammary epithelial cell line (BuMEC) exhibited epithelial cell characteristics by immunostaining positively with cytokeratin 18 and negatively with vimentin. The BuMEC maintained the characteristics of its functional differentiation by expression of ?-casein, ?-casein, butyrophilin and lactoferrin. BuMEC had normal growth properties and maintained diploid chromosome number (2n?=?50) before and after cryopreservation. A spontaneously immortalized buffalo mammary epithelial cell line was established after 20 passages and was continuously subcultured for more than 60 passages without senescence. Conclusions We have established a buffalo mammary epithelial cell line that can be used as a model system for studying mammary gland functions.
In the present study, 19 microsatellite markers were assessed for their power of exclusion to test parentage in river buffalo. Microsatellite genotypes of 216 unrelated buffaloes belonging to five different breeds were utilized for the study. The probabilities of exclusion were calculated for three hypothetical situations viz. paternity testing (PE1), one parental genotype unavailable (PE2) and exclusion of both parents i.e. substituted offspring (PE3). The mean probability of exclusion across 19 investigated markers in buffalo was 0.578 (PE1), 0.405 (PE2) and 0.764 (PE3) respectively. The probability of exclusion for paternity (PE1) ranged between 0.297 and 0.814 across different markers. The exclusion probability for the cases one parent unavailable (PE2) and substituted offspring (PE3) varied from 0.143 to 0.688 and 0.465 to 0.946 respectively. Polymorphism information content and expected heterozygosity were found to have significantly high correlation with probability of exclusion of microsatellite markers. The cumulative PE1 of nine marker loci was estimated to be 0.9999 while in case of absence of one of the parental genotypes, a minimum of 11 markers were required to achieve a cumulative PE2 of 0.999. In conclusion, the present study proposes two multiplex sets with four and five markers respectively for routine parentage testing in buffalo and an additional set of four markers for doubtful cases of paternity. PMID:22555978
Handmade cloning (HMC), a simple, micromanipulation-free cloning technique, has been applied for the production of cloned embryos and offspring in many livestock species. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of donor cell type on developmental competence of HMC embryos and to explore the possibility of establishing pregnancies using these embryos in buffalo. After technical optimization
R. A. Shah; A. George; M. K. Singh; D. Kumar; T. Anand; M. S. Chauhan; R. S. Manik; P. Palta; S. K. Singla
Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is known for its weak/silent estrous behaviour, lower conception rate and longer inter-calving interval as compared to cattle. Understanding the kinetics and functional properties of luteal cells may be helpful to improve reproductive efficiency in the buffalo. Hence the present study was designed to assess the size and distribution of steroidogenic luteal cells along with biochemical properties during different phases of corpus luteum (CL) in the buffalo. The ovaries collected from the local abattoir were classified into three phases, early, mid and late, based on the morphological appearance of the CL as well as the follicles in the ovary. The proportion (%) of the luteal cells (>10microm diameter) increased (P<0.01) from early (30.7+/-1.3) to mid (36.30+/-1.6), and then decreased (P<0.01) in late luteal (31.46+/-1.8) phases. Percentage of small luteal cells (10-20microm diameter) was higher (P<0.05) in early (58.47+/-0.61) and mid (61.29+/-0.67) than late luteal (37.18+/-1.50) phases of CL. However, the percentage of large luteal cells (20-50microm diameter) was higher (P<0.05) only in late (62.82+/-1.50) than early (41.53+/-0.61) and mid (38.71+/-0.67) phases of CL. The average size (microm) of the large luteal cells increased (P<0.05) from early (25.46+/-0.62) to mid (27.15+/-0.5) and late (28.86+/-0.47) luteal phases. The percentage of luteal cells expressing in situ DNA fragmentation was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the late luteal (41.17+/-5.8) than mid-luteal (21.15+/-4.9) phase of the CL. In the early stage, half of the steroidogenic luteal cells had significantly (P<0.05) less 3beta-HSD activity than the other two phases. In the mid stage, the steroidogenic luteal cells had significantly higher (P<0.05) intense 3beta-HSD activity than the other two phases. Further in the late phase, a significant (P<0.05) reduction in intense 3beta-HSD activity was observed in the large luteal cells. The lipid peroxidation (micromol/g of CL) levels were significantly (P<0.05) higher in late luteal (3.46+/-0.2) than the mid-luteal (1.43+/-0.16) phases. The superoxide dismutase and catalase enzyme levels (U/mg of protein) were also significantly (P<0.05) higher in late luteal (0.9+/-0.015 and 3.37+/-0.45, respectively) than the mid-luteal (0.1+/-0.01 and 2.34+/-0.3, respectively) phases. In contrast, the GPx activity (U/mg of protein) decreased significantly (P<0.05) from mid-luteal (1.85+/-0.4) to late luteal (1.22+/-0.2) phases. The present study suggests that (i) the decrease in progesterone levels in late CL may be associated with loss of 3beta-HSD activity in large luteal cells and (ii) demise of the buffalo CL may be mediated by apoptosis despite the high levels of luteal antioxidant enzymes. PMID:20378285
Selvaraju, S; Raghavendra, B S; Subramani, T Siva; Priyadharsini, R; Reddy, I J; Ravindra, J P
It has been reported that buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos reconstructed by somatic cell nucleus transfer (SCNT) can develop to the full term of gestation and result in newborn calves. However, the developmental competence of reconstructed embryos is still low. Recently, it has been reported that treating donor cells or embryos with trichostatin A (TSA) can increase the cloning efficiency in some species. Thus, the present study was undertaken to improve the development of buffalo SCNT embryos by treatment of donor cells (buffalo fetal fibroblasts) with TSA and explore the relation between histone acetylation status of donor cells and developmental competence of SCNT embryos. Treatment of donor cells with either 0.15 or 0.3 ?M TSA for 48 hours resulted in a significant increase in the cleavage rate and blastocyst yield of SCNT embryos (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the expression level of HDAC1 in donor cells was also decreased (0.4-0.6 fold, P < 0.05) by TSA treatment, although the expression level of HAT1 was not affected. Further measurement of the epigenetic maker AcH4K8 in buffalo IVF and SCNT embryos at the eight-cell stage revealed that the spatial distribution of acH4K8 staining in SCNT embryos was different from the IVF embryos. Treatment of donor cells with TSA resulted in an increase in the AcH4K8 level of SCNT embryos and similar to fertilized counterparts. These results suggest that treatment of donor cells with TSA can facilitate their nucleus reprogramming by affecting the acetylated status of H4K8 and improving the in vitro development of buffalo SCNT embryos. The AcH4K8 status at the eight-cell stage can be used as an epigenetic marker for predicting the SCNT efficiency in buffalos. PMID:24007823
Plasma levels of progesterone, prolactin, luteinizing hormone, and electrolytes were monitored by radioimmunoassay in ten cycling buffaloes maintained at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana during the hot summer months of June July. The plasma progesterone concentration ranged from 0.28±0.04 to 3.09±0.03 ng/ml at various stages of the oestrous cycle. Prolactin values ranged from 319±23 to 371±25 ng/ml and LH levels from 0.95±0.05 to 1.35±0.08 ng/ml. Concentrations differed significantly ( P?0.05) at various stages of the cycle. Levels of electrolytes, viz. Ca+ +, Na+ and K+, were well within the normal range. The high levels of prolactin, progesterone and LH during the hot summer were assessed in relation to poor reproductive efficiency in buffaloes.
This study was aimed to establish a buffalo mammary epithelial cells (BuMECs) line and maintain it for long-term by subculturing. BuMECs isolated from lactating buffalo mammary glands were cultured on a collagen matrix gel. BuMECs expressed significant amounts of the epithelial cell specific marker cytokeratin 18 as determined by immunohistochemistry. The BuMECs displayed monolayer, cobble-stone morphology, and formed lumen-, dome-, and duct-like structures. Furthermore, they were capable of synthesizing CSN2, BLG, ACACA, and BTN1A1, showed viability after thawing and expressed milk protein genes. The enhanced green fluorescent protein gene was transferred successfully into the BuMECs using lipofection method and the transfected cells could be maintained for long-term in culture by subculturing. PMID:23180034
Various enzymes of glycolysis (hexokinase, phosphoglucoisomerase, aldolase and lactate dehydrogenase), the Krebs cycle (isocitrate, succinic and malate dehydrogenases), and the pentose phosphate cycle (glucose-6-phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenases) were studied in buffalo spermatozoa by biochemical and cytochemical methods. The enzymes of glycolysis were found to be loosely bound whereas those of the Krebs and pentose phosphate cycles were strongly bound to mitochondrial membranes. All the enzymes studied were localized histochemically in the mid-piece. PMID:513003
Zearalenone (ZEA) as a mycoestrogen is found frequently in human foods and animal feeds. Its estrogenic effects depend on\\u000a its biotransformation fate including both first- and second-phase reactions, which are predominantly governed by hydroxylation\\u000a and glucuronidation, respectively. In this study, we investigate the hepatic biotransformation of ZEA in river buffalo. To\\u000a evaluate the hepatic biotransformation of ZEA, both subcellular fractions
Early return-to-estrus after embryo collection would shorten the interval between consecutive superovulations and improve efficiency of embryo production. Following superovulation and embryo collection, 80 buffaloes were treated with 15.0mg Luprostiol (PGF2? analogue) for the induction of luteolysis and early return-to-estrus. A total of 67.5% donor animals returned to estrus, on average 11.8±0.84 days after the PGF2? treatment. The number of
Methane emissions from ruminant livestock are considered to be one of the more potent forms of greenhouses gases contributing to global warming. Many strategies to reduce emissions are targeting the methanogens that inhabit the rumen, but such an approach can only be successful if it targets all the major groups of ruminant methanogens. Therefore, a thorough knowledge of the diversity of these microbes in breeds of buffaloes, as well as in response to geographical location and different diets, is required. Therefore, molecular diversity of rumen methanogens in Surti buffaloes was investigated using 16S rRNA gene libraries prepared from pooled rumen contents from three Surti buffaloes. A total of 171 clones were identified revealing 23 different sequences (phylotypes). Of these 23 sequences, twelve sequences (12 OTUs, 83 clones) and 10 sequences (10 OTUs, 83 clones) were similar to methanogens belonging to the orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanobacteriales, and the remaining 1 phylotype (5 clones) were similar to Methanosarcina barkeri. These unique sequences clustered within a distinct and strongly supported phylogenetic group. Further studies and effective strategies can be made to inhibit the growth of Methanomicrobiales and Methanobacteriales phylotypes to reduce the methane emission from rumen and thus help in preventing global warming.
Methane emissions from ruminant livestock are considered to be one of the more potent forms of greenhouses gases contributing to global warming. Many strategies to reduce emissions are targeting the methanogens that inhabit the rumen, but such an approach can only be successful if it targets all the major groups of ruminant methanogens. Therefore, a thorough knowledge of the diversity of these microbes in breeds of buffaloes, as well as in response to geographical location and different diets, is required. Therefore, molecular diversity of rumen methanogens in Surti buffaloes was investigated using 16S rRNA gene libraries prepared from pooled rumen contents from three Surti buffaloes. A total of 171 clones were identified revealing 23 different sequences (phylotypes). Of these 23 sequences, twelve sequences (12 OTUs, 83 clones) and 10 sequences (10 OTUs, 83 clones) were similar to methanogens belonging to the orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanobacteriales, and the remaining 1 phylotype (5 clones) were similar to Methanosarcina barkeri. These unique sequences clustered within a distinct and strongly supported phylogenetic group. Further studies and effective strategies can be made to inhibit the growth of Methanomicrobiales and Methanobacteriales phylotypes to reduce the methane emission from rumen and thus help in preventing global warming. PMID:24031614
Singh, K M; Pandya, P R; Parnerkar, S; Tripathi, A K; Rank, D N; Kothari, R K; Joshi, C G
A study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional response of organically grown diets in buffaloes on nutrients utilization and nutrient efficiency for milk production. For this, ten milch Murrah buffaloes of average body weight (490.72 ± 6.65 kg), milk yield (8.13 ± 0.33 kg), and lactation stage (85 ± 5.28 days) were distributed in inorganic (InDg()) and organic dietary groups (OrDg) with five animals in each. Buffaloes of InDg and OgDg were fed sorghum hay-berseem fodder-concentrate mixture-based diets grown inorganically and organically, respectively. After 60 days of feeding, a digestion cum metabolism trial was conducted to assess feed intake, nutrient utilization, and N balance, while milk yield and composition were recorded fortnightly. DM, CP, digestible crude protein (DCP), and metabolizable energy (ME) intake (g/Kg w(0.75)) were similar in animals of InDg and OrDg. NDF, ADF, and hemicellulose digestibility were (P < 0.05) higher in animals on OrDg (59.20, 51.55, and 62.67) than InDg diet (54.57, 43.72, and 56.61 %), respectively. Urinary n loss (g/day) was (P < 0.05) lower in OrDg (67.23) than in InDg (83.55); however, milk N was comparable in animals of both dietary groups (47.36 vs 45.82 g/day). Nitrogen balance was higher in animals of OrDg (39.72) than in InDg (28.08). DCP, TDN, and ME values of both diets were similar. No effect of diet was observed on milk yield and its composition; however, increased lactation length decreased milk yield. Buffaloes on both diets had similar efficiency and conversion ratio of nutrients for milk production. Results revealed that diets (organically vs. inorganically grown) have no effect on milk yield and its composition; however, buffaloes on organic diet have higher fiber digestibility and low urinary N loss which did not affect the dietary nutrients efficiency and conversion ratio for milk production. PMID:22733348
Leptin is supposed to play a crucial role in ovarian luteal dynamics. The present study was aimed to investigate the importance of leptin and its receptors in buffalo corpus luteum (CL) obtained from different stages of the estrous cycle. Real-time RT-PCR (qPCR), western blot and immunohistochemistry techniques were applied to investigate mRNA expression, protein expression and localization of examined factors. Additionally to assess the contribution of leptin in progesterone production the expression profiles of StAR, P450scc and HSD were also investigated. In general, we demonstrated presence of leptin and its receptors in buffalo CL during the estrous cycle. The mRNA levels of leptin and its receptors were significantly up regulated in (P<0.05) in all the stages and highest levels were observed in mid and late luteal stages consistent with in vivo luteinization of buffalo CL and declined coincidental to luteal regression. The expression of StAR, P450scc and HSD factors maintained low in early luteal phase, after that level of expression increased steadily to show a significant rise (P<0.05) in mid luteal phase followed by gradual decline in late luteal phase and regressed CL and this correlates well with the Ob and ObR receptor activity, verifying their key role in progesterone and other steroids production in functional CL. As revealed by immunohistochemistry, leptin protein was localized predominantly in large luteal cells however leptin receptor (Ob-R) was localized in large luteal cells as well as in endothelial cells. It can be concluded from our study that leptin via its autocrine/paracrine effects play a significant role in promoting angiogenesis, steroidogenesis and also acts as key survival factor in bubaline CL. PMID:22959515
Kumar, Lalit; Panda, R P; Hyder, I; Yadav, V P; Sastry, K V H; Sharma, G T; Mahapatra, R K; Bag, S; Bhure, S K; Das, G K; Mitra, A; Sarkar, M
The waterbuffalo is vital to the lives of small farmers and to the economy of many countries worldwide. Not only are they draught animals, but they are also a source of meat, horns, skin and particularly the rich and precious milk that may be converted to creams, butter, yogurt and many cheeses. Genome analysis of waterbuffalo has advanced significantly in recent years. This review focuses on currently available genome resources in waterbuffalo in terms of cytogenetic characterization, whole genome mapping and next generation sequencing. No doubt, these resources indicate that genome science comes of age in the species and will provide knowledge and technologies to help optimize production potential, reproduction efficiency, product quality, nutritional value and resistance to diseases. As waterbuffalo and domestic cattle, both members of the Bovidae family, are closely related, the vast amount of cattle genetic/genomic resources might serve as shortcuts for the buffalo community to further advance genome science and biotechnologies in the species.
Michelizzi, Vanessa N.; Dodson, Michael V.; Pan, Zengxiang; Amaral, M Elisabete J; Michal, Jennifer J.; McLean, Derek J.; Womack, James E.; Jiang, Zhihua
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of osteopontin (OPN), an ubiquitous acid glycoprotein, on in vitro sperm capacitation and on in vitro embryo production (IVEP) efficiency in buffalo. In experiment 1, after swim-up separation the sperm were incubated in Tyrode albumin lactate pyruvate medium in the absence of capacitating agents (control), with the standard concentration of heparin (0.01 mM) and three different concentrations of OPN (0.1, 1, and 10 mcg/mL), both in the presence and absence of heparin, for 2 and 4 hours. Capacitation was assessed indirectly by estimating the percentage of acrosome-reacted sperm after incubation with lysophosphatidylcholine. In order to determine the effect of OPN, in the presence of heparin, on fertilization (Experiment 2) and in vitro embryo development (experiment 3), in vitro-matured buffalo oocytes were fertilized in the presence of 0, 0.1, 1, and 10 mcg/mL of OPN. After IVF, the presumptive zygotes were dezonated, fixed, stained, and then evaluated microscopically. At Days 5 and 7 of culture, the cleavage and blastocyst rates were evaluated, respectively. Two hours of treatment with OPN at the two higher concentrations (1 and 10 mcg/mL) promoted in vitro capacitation of buffalo sperm (experiment 1). A synergic action of OPN with heparin was also done for all OPN concentrations tested. At 4 hours incubation, all treatments, including heparin (20.4%), improved (P < 0.01) capacitation compared with the control (16.2%). Interestingly, the best results were reported in all groups treated with OPN + heparin (40.8%, 38.6%, and 33.8%, respectively; P < 0.01). The addition of OPN to the IVF medium had a positive influence on total penetration, synchronous pronuclei formation (experiment 2), and IVEP efficiency (experiment 3). In particular, the two lower concentrations of OPN (0.1 and 1 mcg/mL), compared with the control, gave higher synchronous pronuclei formation (73.5%, 75.0%, and 46.5%, respectively; P < 0.01) and cleavage rates (70.3%, 71.6%, and 59.3%, respectively; P < 0.01). Interestingly, the treatments also improved blastocyst yields (29.3%, 30.3%, and 19.4%, respectively; P < 0.01). In conclusion, these results indicate that adding OPN to the IVF system improves IVEP efficiency by enhancing in vitro sperm capacitation and blastocyst yields in buffalo. PMID:23726297
Boccia, Lucia; Di Francesco, Serena; Neglia, Gianluca; De Blasi, Marina; Longobardi, Valentina; Campanile, Giuseppe; Gasparrini, Bianca
The objective in this study was to investigate the effect of repeated oocyte collection by transvaginal, ultrasound-guidance, oocyte pick-up (OPU) in nine, prepubertal (8-12 months), swamp buffaloes. Animals were treated with FSH for 3 days and received GnRH on the third day, 24 h before OPU. This session was repeated on five occasions at 2 weekly intervals. Over the five sessions of hormone treatment followed by OPU, 39/42 (92.9%) animals responded and had 6.6+/-3.6 follicles with a follicular diameter of 5.0+/-2.0 mm. The oocyte recovery rate was 5.4+/-3.7 and averaged 82.8% oocytes, except for session 4, when oocyte recovery was around 75.0%. Most oocytes were denuded (39.5%), whilst 28.8% had a substantial cumulus mass. There were no differences in the ovarian responses and the recovery rates between the collections. It was concluded that five repeat cycles of FSH and OPU did not influence the follicular response to superstimulation or the number of oocytes recovered from prepubertal, buffalo calves. PMID:15019465
In the present paper, cellular composition of buffalo corpus luteum (CL) with its functional characterization based on 3?-HSD and progesterone secretory ability at different stages of estrous cycle and pregnancy was studied. Buffalo uteri along with ovaries bearing CL were collected from the local slaughter house. These were classified into different stages of estrous cycle (Stage I, II, III and IV) and pregnancy (Stage I, II and III) based on morphological appearance of CL, surface follicles on the ovary and crown rump length of conceptus. Luteal cell population, progesterone content and steroidogenic properties were studied by dispersion of luteal cells using collagenase type I enzyme, RIA and 3?-HSD activity, respectively. Large luteal cells (LLC) appeared as polyhedral or spherical in shape with a centrally placed large round nucleus and an abundance of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. However, small luteal cells (SLC) appeared to be spindle shaped with an eccentrically placed irregular nucleus and there was paucity of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. The size of SLC (range 12-23?m) and LLC (range 25-55?m) increased (P<0.01) with the advancement of stage of estrous cycle and pregnancy. The mean progesterone concentration per gram and per CL increased (P<0.01) from Stage I to III of estrous cycle with maximum concentration at Stage III of estrous cycle and pregnancy. The progesterone concentration decreased at Stage IV (day 17-20) of estrous cycle coinciding with CL regression. Total luteal cell number (LLC and SLC) also increased (P<0.01) from Stage I to III of estrous cycle and decreased (P<0.05), thereafter, at Stage IV indicating degeneration of luteal cells and regression of the CL. Total luteal cell population during pregnancy also increased (P<0.01) from Stage I to II and thereafter decreased (P>0.05) indicating cessation of mitosis. Increased (P<0.05) large luteal cell numbers from Stage I to III of estrous cycle and pregnancy coincided with the increased progesterone secretion and 3?-HSD activity of CL. Thus, proportionate increases of large compared with small luteal cells were primarily responsible for increased progesterone secretion during the advanced stages of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Total luteal cells and progesterone content per CL during the mid-luteal stage in buffalo as observed in the present study seem to be less than with cattle suggesting inherent luteal deficiency. PMID:23896394
Baithalu, Rubina Kumari; Singh, S K; Gupta, Chhavi; Raja, Anuj K; Saxena, Abhishake; Kumar, Yogendra; Singh, R; Agarwal, S K
Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate three thawing rates on the post thaw motility, viability and chromatin structure of buffalo semen frozen in 0.5-ml straws. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study semen was collected with artificial vagina (42?) from four buffalo bulls.Split pooled ejaculates (n=4) were extended at 37? with a Bioxcell® extender. Semen was cooled to 4? within 2 hours, equilibrated at 4? for 4 hours, then filled in 0.5 ml French straws, and frozen in programmable cell freezer before plunging into liquid nitrogen. Straws were thawed at water bath temperatures of 37, 50 or 70? for 30, 15 and 6 seconds, respectively. Semen was incubated at 37? for 2 hours and evaluated for post thaw motility, viability, acrosomal and DNA integrity of spermatozoa. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for comparisons of means. When the ANOVA test showed statistical differences, the mean of the treatments were compared using Duncan’s multiple range tests. Results: The initial postthaw motility (0 hour) averaged 62.7 ± 7.2%, 73.1 ± 9.77%, and 74.9 ± 8.58% for the three thaw rates, respectively. Kinematic parameters such as average path velocity, linearity and beat/cross frequency in the thaw rate of 70? for 6 seconds were superior to other rates studied (p<0.05). After 2 hours of incubation, proportions of progressive motility and Kinematic parameters decreased in all groups (p>0.05). A positive correlation was detected between sperm motility and thawing rate after two hours incubation times. The percentage of viable spermatozoa and spermatozoa with an intact acrosome and plasma membrane integrity were not different between the groups of samples thawed at different temperatures (p>0.05). The percentage of spermatozoa with chromatin dispersion forthe thaw rate of 70? for 6 seconds was significantly higher than for the to other rates studied (p< 0.05). In contrast with motility and viability, the DNA integrity of post thaw spermatozoa remained unaffected during 2 hours incubation. Conclusion: The post thaw motility and kinematic parameters of buffalo spermatozoa were significantly improved immediately after thawing by increasing the thawing rate from 37? in 30 seconds to70? in 6 seconds. However, this relative advantage had disappeared after incubation in a water bath at 37? for two hours.A thaw rate of 70? for 6 seconds was associated with higher chromatin dispersion than the other thaw rates studied. Sperm thawing over at 50 degrees could be safely used to improve motility recovery after sperm cryopreservation in buffalo bulls.
Libraries of rumen bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences of Gayals (Bos frontalis) and Swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were cloned and sequenced in the present work to compare the bacterial diversity with the third published library of Holstein cow. Sequence similarity of 97% was used as the definition of operational taxonomic unit (OTU). The majority of the 470 sequences retrieved fell into the phyla of low G + C subdivision (329 sequences) and Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides (CFB, 123 sequences) with the percentages of 70 and 26.2, respectively. The remaining clones belonged to the phyla of Proteobacter, high G + C gram positive bacteria (HGCGPB) and Spirochaetes, accounting for 3.8% totally. Only 73 clones (25 OTUs, 15.5%) could be closely related to cultured representatives. However, a larger fraction was related to uncultured representatives. Holstein cow may have more representatives of cultural bacteria and there were more uncultured clones for Gayals. The percentage of cultural representatives was 24, 13.3 and 9.5 for Holstein cow, Swamp buffaloes and Gayals, respectively. Twenty-three OTUs of the 236 ones appeared in more than one library, five of which were cultural. Selenomonas ruminantium, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens were found in two different libraries, while Succiniclasticum ruminis and Pseudobutyrivibrio ruminis were found in all three libraries. Some of the animal-specific bacteria that had not been described previously in the ruminal ecosystem, e.g. Allisonella histaminiformans for Gayals and Staphylococcus sciuri for Swamp buffaloes were also recovered. PMID:19662514
Approximately 250,000 waterbuffalo (Bubalus bubalis) live in the Campania region of southern Italy where the breeding of this species is very popular. Of these animals, almost 150,000 are concentrated in the Caserta province where the prevalence of Brucella abortus in this species represents approximately 20% at herd level. The Italian brucellosis eradication programme provides a slaughter and vaccination strategy for this province. B. abortus strain RB51 (RB51) has become the official vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in cattle in several countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of RB51 in waterbuffalo compared to the B. abortus S19 vaccine (S19). The study was performed in accordance with a protocol described in mice. Female buffalo aged five months were inoculated. Five received a RB51 dosage on two occasions that was three times greater than that approved for use in cattle and a booster after one month, five received B. abortus S19 vaccine at the standard dosage and three controls received a phosphate buffer solution. Buffalo were then challenged with a virulent B. abortus strain 544 thirty days post vaccination. Antibodies that developed in the five animals vaccinated with RB51 were not detected by the Rose Bengal test or complement fixation test (CFT) and were also tested by CFT prepared with RB51 antigen. After culling, B. abortus was cultured from the spleen, retropharyngeal and supra-mammary lymph nodes. A statistical evaluation was performed to assess the immunogenicity values obtained in buffalo vaccinated with S19, compared to those obtained in buffalo vaccinated with the RB51 vaccine and in the unvaccinated control group. PMID:20391363
Caporale, Vincenzo; Bonfini, Barbara; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Di Provvido, Andrea; Forcella, Simona; Giovannini, Armando; Tittarelli, Manuela; Scacchia, Massimo
Background Salmonellosis in waterbuffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves is a widespread disease characterized by severe gastrointestinal lesions, profuse diarrhea and severe dehydration, occasionally exhibiting a systemic course. Several Salmonella serovars seem to be able to infect waterbuffalo, but Salmonella isolates collected from this animal species have been poorly characterized. In the present study, the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in waterbuffalo calves affected by lethal gastroenteritis was assessed, and a polyphasic characterization of isolated strains of S. Typhimurium was performed. Results The microbiological analysis of the intestinal contents obtained from 248 waterbuffalo calves affected by lethal gastroenteritis exhibited a significant prevalence of Salmonella spp. (25%), characterized by different serovars, most frequently Typhimurium (21%), Muenster (11%), and Give (11%). The 13 S. Typhimurium isolates were all associated with enterocolitis characterized by severe damage of the intestine, and only sporadically isolated with another possible causative agent responsible for gastroenteritis, such as Cryptosporidium spp., Rotavirus or Clostridium perfringens. Other Salmonella isolates were mostly isolated from minor intestinal lesions, and often (78% of cases) isolated with other microorganisms, mainly toxinogenic Escherichia coli (35%), Cryptosporidium spp. (20%) and Rotavirus (10%). The S. Typhimurium strains were characterized by phage typing and further genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of 24 virulence genes. The isolates exhibited nine different phage types and 10 different genetic profiles. Three monophasic S. Typhimurium (B:4,12:i:-) isolates were also found and characterized, displaying three different phage types and three different virulotypes. The molecular characterization was extended to the 7 S. Muenster and 7 S. Give isolates collected, indicating the existence of different virulotypes also within these serovars. Three representative strains of S. Typhimurium were tested in vivo in a mouse model of mixed infection. The most pathogenic strain was characterized by a high number of virulence factors and the presence of the locus agfA, coding for a thin aggregative fimbria. Conclusions These results provide evidence that Salmonella is frequently associated with gastroenteritis in waterbuffalo calves, particularly S. Typhimurium. Moreover, the variety in the number and distribution of different virulence markers among the collected S. Typhimurium strains suggests that within this serovar there are different pathotypes potentially responsible for different clinical syndromes.
The possibility of producing interspecies handmade cloned (iHMC) embryos by nuclear transfer from donor cells of cattle, goat and rat using buffalo oocytes as recipient cytoplasts was explored. Zona-free buffalo oocytes were enucleated by protrusion cone-guided bisection with a microblade. After electrofusion with somatic cells, reconstructed oocytes were activated by calcimycin A23187, treated with 6-dimethylaminopurine and were cultured in K-RVCL-50® medium for 8 days. Although the cleavage rate was not significantly different when buffalo, cattle, goat or rat cells were used as donor nuclei (74.6 ± 3.8, 82.8 ± 5.3, 86.0 ± 4.9 and 82.3 ± 3.6%, respectively), the blastocyst rate was significantly higher (P<0.01) for buffalo (51.4 ± 2.6) than for cattle (3.5 ± 1.0) or the goat (2.2 ± 0.9), whereas none of the embryos crossed the 32-cell stage when rat cells were used. However, the total cell number was similar for buffalo-buffalo (175.0 ± 5.07) and cattle-buffalo embryos (178.0 ± 11.84). Following transfer of 3 buffalo-buffalo embryos each to 6 recipients, 3 were found to be pregnant, though the pregnancies were not carried to full term. These results suggest that interspecies blastocyst stage embryos can be produced by iHMC using buffalo cytoplasts and differentiated somatic cells from cattle and goat and that the source of donor nucleus affects the developmental competence of interspecies embryos. PMID:21288667
Selokar, N L; George, A; Saha, A P; Sharma, R; Muzaffer, M; Shah, R A; Palta, P; Chauhan, M S; Manik, R S; Singla, S K
The present study was conducted primarily to optimize electrofusion conditions for efficient production of zona-free nuclear transfer embryos in buffalos (Bubalus bubalis). We found that 4V AC current for proper triplet alignment and single step fusion method, using a single DC pulse of 3.36 kV/cm for 4-?s duration, produced the most convincing results for efficient reconstitution of zona-free cloned embryos. Lysis rate was very high (84.28 ± 2.59%) when triplets were in physical contact with negative electrode after applying DC current, however, cleavage rate and blastocyst rate were found to be similar when the triplets were not in physical contact with either positive or negative electrodes or when they were in physical contact with the positive electrode. Significant improvement in blastocyst production was observed when the somatic cell faced the positive electrode than when it faced the negative electrode (39.17 ± 2.74% vs. 25.91 ± 2.00%, respectively) during electrofusion. Similarly, the blastocyst rate (52.0 ± 3.4%) was found to be significantly higher when reconstructed embryos were activated 6 h post electrofusion as compared to 0, 2, 4 and 8 h (16.04 ± 6.3%; 18.36 ± 1.4%; 22.44 ± 3.7% and 30.02 ± 4.6%, respectively). This study establishes the application of zona-free nuclear transfer procedures for the production of handmade cloned buffalo embryos through optimization of electrofusion parameters and post fusion holding time for enhancing their preimplantation development. PMID:22541327
Selokar, N L; Shah, R A; Saha, A P; Muzaffar, M; Saini, M; Chauhan, M S; Manik, R S; Palta, P; Singla, S K
Hepatocellular hemosiderosis was observed in several species of fish associated with mixed chemical pollution in a Mississippi River Basin ecosystem. Three species of buffalo fish—smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus), bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus), and black buffalo (Ictiobus niger)—were collected from a contaminated site, Devil's Swamp, and a control site, Tunica Swamp, both near Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Liver, kidney and spleen were
The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of cryopreservation of inter-subspecies cloned embryos in buffalo. In our experiment, river buffalo ear fibroblast nucleus was fused into swamp buffalo oocyte cytoplasm. The blastocyst formation rate for nuclear transfer of freshly thawed cells was not different from those of growing cells, confluent or serum-starved cells. A total of 122 cloned blastocysts derived from cryopreserved fibroblasts were cryopreserved and thawed, 37 were survived, the cryosurvival rate was 30.3%. The survived blastocysts were transferred into 15 recipient buffalos. Five of the recipients established pregnancy, but four of them aborted on day 53, 59, 145 and 179 of gestation respectively. One cross-bred buffalo (Murrah × Swamp buffalo (2n = 49) received three embryos delivered a 40.5 kg female calf by natural delivery on day 320 of gestation. Up to now (13-month old), the cloned calf has been growing well with no abnormity observed. These results demonstrated that cryopreservation of inter-subspecies cloned embryos is feasible to produce buffalo offspring. PMID:19788521
Yang, B Z; Yang, C Y; Li, R C; Qin, G S; Zhang, X F; Pang, C Y; Chen, M T; Huang, F X; Li, Z; Zheng, H Y; Huang, Y J; Liang, X W
The possibility of producing interspecies handmade cloned (iHMC) embryos by nuclear transfer from donor cells of cattle, goat and rat using buffalo oocytes as recipient cytoplasts was explored. Zona-free buffalo oocytes were enucleated by protrusion cone-guided bisection with a microblade. After electrofusion with somatic cells, reconstructed oocytes were activated by calcimycin A23187, treated with 6-dimethylaminopurine and were cultured in K-RVCL-50®
N. L. Selokar; A. George; A. P. Saha; R. Sharma; M. Muzaffer; R. A. Shah; P. Palta; M. S. Chauhan; R. S. Manik; S. K. Singla
An outbreak of ulcerative blepharitis associated with a specific clone of Staphylococcus epidermidis was recorded in four different herds of waterbuffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) maintained at different locations. That the isolates were of the same clone S. epidermidis was deduced on the basis of identity of biochemical (STAPH-Trac, API), antibiogram, ?-lactamase and slime production profiles. The syndrome was characterized by
To elucidate the genetic characteristics of the bovine Inhibin ? subunit (INHA) gene, the polymorphisms in exon 1 of INHA and its bilateral sequences were assayed using PCR with direct sequencing in buffalo, gayal and yak. A comparative analysis was conducted by pooled the results in this study with the published data of INHA on some mammals including some bovine species together. A synonymous substitution c.73C>A was identified in exon 1 of INHA for buffalo, which results in identical encoding product in river and swamp buffalo. In gayal, two non-synonymous but same property substitutions in exon 1 of INHA, viz. c.62 C>T and c.187 G>A, were detected, which lead to p. P21L, p. V63M changes in INHA, respectively. In yak, nucleotide substitution c.62C> T, c.129A>G were found in exon 1 of INHA, the former still causes p. P21L substitution and the latter is synonymous. For the sequence of the 5'-flanking region of INHA examined, no SNPs were found within the species, but a substitution, c. -6T>G, was found. The nucleotide in this site in gayal, yak and cattle was c. -6G, whereas in buffalo it was c. -6T. Meanwhile, a 6-bp deletion, namely c. 262+31_262+36delTCTGAC, was found in the intron of buffalo INHA gene. For this deletion, wild types (+/+) account for main part in river buffalo while mutant types (-/-) are predominant in swamp buffalo. This deletion was not found in gayal, yak and cattle, though these all have another deletion in the intron of INHA, c. 262+78_262+79delTG. The results of sequence alignment showed that the substitutions c. 43A and c. 67G in exon 1 of INHA are specific to buffalo, whereas the substitutions c. 173A and c. 255G are exclusive to gayal, yak and cattle, and c. 24C, c. 47G, c. 174T and c. 206T are specific to goat. Furthermore, there are few differences among gayal, yak and cattle, but there relatively great differences between buffalo, goat and other bovine species regarding the sequences of INHA exon 1. PMID:22855448
The methanogenic communities in buffalo rumen were characterized using a culture-independent approach of a pooled sample of rumen fluid from three adult Surti buffaloes. Buffalo rumen is likely to include species of various methanogens, so 16S rDNA sequences were amplified and cloned from the sample. A total of 171 clones were sequenced to examine 16S rDNA sequence similarity. About 52.63% sequences (90 clones) had ? 90% similarity, whereas, 46.78% of the sequences (81 clones) were 75-89% similar to 16S rDNA database sequences, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses were also used to infer the makeup of methanogenic communities in the rumen of Surti buffalo. As a result, we distinguished 23 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on unique 16S rDNA sequences: 12 OTUs (52.17%) affiliated to Methanomicrobiales order, 10 OTUs (43.47%) of the order Methanobacteriales and one OTU (4.34%) of Methanosarcina barkeri like clone, respectively. In addition, the population of Methanomicrobiales and Methabacteriales orders were also observed, accounting 4% and 2.17% of total archea. This study has revealed the largest assortment of hydrogenotrophic methanogens phylotypes ever identified from rumen of Surti buffaloes. PMID:21507441
Singh, K M; Tripathi, A K; Pandya, P R; Parnerkar, S; Rank, D N; Kothari, R K; Joshi, C G
The aim was to ascertain whether relationships between corpus luteum (CL) vascularization, CL function, and pregnancy outcome in AI in buffaloes were consistent across the breeding season and transition period to the nonbreeding season in a Mediterranean environment. Stage of the estrous cycle in Italian Mediterranean buffaloes was synchronized using the Ovsynch with timed AI program and buffaloes were mated by AI in both the breeding season (N = 131) and transition period (N = 125). Detailed investigation of CL structure and function was undertaken in 39 buffaloes at each of the respective times using realtime B-mode/color-Doppler ultrasonography on Days 10 and 20 after AI. Progesterone (P4) concentrations were determined by RIA in all buffaloes. Pregnancy rate on Day 45 after AI was greater (P < 0.05) during the breeding season (58.0%) than the transitional period (45.6%) and this was primarily the result of a lower (P < 0.05) late embryonic mortality during the breeding season (7.3%) compared with the transition period (23%). Circulating concentrations of P4 on Days 10 and 20 after AI were greater (P < 0.01) during the breeding season (4.6 ± 0.3 and 3.4 ± 0.2, respectively) than during the transition period (1.6 ± 0.12 and 1.8 ± 0.2, respectively), and this was independent of reproductive status as there was no interaction between pregnancy and season. Corpus luteum time average medium velocity at Day 10 after AI was greater (P < 0.01) during the breeding season (19.3 ± 1.5) than in the transitional period (8.3 ± 0.7). There were positive correlations in pregnant buffaloes between CL time average medium velocity and P4 concentrations on Day 10 (r = 0.722; P < 0.01) and Day 20 (r = 0.446; P < 0.01) after AI. The findings were interpreted to indicate that relationships between CL vascularization, CL function, and pregnancy outcome in AI in buffaloes are consistent across the breeding season and transition period to the nonbreeding season. The distinction between the breeding season and the transition period is the relatively low proportion of buffaloes that have CL function and P4 concentrations required to establish a pregnancy during the transition period, which is manifested in a greater incidence of embryonic mortality. PMID:22979961
Di Francesco, S; Neglia, G; Vecchio, D; Rossi, P; Russo, M; Zicarelli, L; D'Occhio, M J; Campanile, G
It was demonstrated that cysteamine supplementation during in vitro maturation (IVM) improves embryo development by increasing glutathione (GSH) synthesis in several species. An improved developmental competence of oocytes matured in the presence of cysteamine was also recorded in buffalo species. The purpose of this work was to investigate (1) if glutathione is de novo synthesized during in vitro maturation of
Bianca Gasparrini; Hichem Sayoud; Gianluca Neglia; Daniel Gustavo de Matos; Isabelle Donnay; Luigi Zicarelli
Studies were made on several parameters of the population of smallmouth buffalo in Elephant Butte Lake, New Mexico. Results are compared with similar studies made prior to April 1968, to determine influences caused by commercial removal of 95,640 fish wei...
Growth factors in culture media are known to affect the embryo production rates in in vitro production cultures. To improve the efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) derived embryos in Indian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), embryos were cultured in three different culture mediums viz. Group-A; TCM-199 + FBS, Group-B; TCM-199 + Poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and Group-C; CR1aa + BSA. Embryo production rate and expression level of insulin-like growth factor genes (IGF-1, IGF-1R, IGF-2 and IGF-2R) were analysed in embryo culture. Cleavage and blastocyst production rates were 62.5% and 22.3% in Group-A, 53.8% and 13.0% in Group-B and 62.0% and 19.2% in Group-C respectively, whereas in in vitro fertilization (IVF) control cultured in TCM-199 plus 10% FBS, rates were 79.1% and 29.4%. Relative gene expression of SCNT embryos was compared with that in IVF control. IGF-1 and IGF-2 mRNA expression at blastocyst stage was up-regulated (p ? 0.05) in all culture groups, while IGF-1R and IGF-2R expression was down regulated (p ? 0.05) in Group-B and Group-C. In conclusion, the higher mRNA levels at certain stages in different culture conditions affected in vitro development of SCNT embryos. These results show that the transcript level of the insulin-like growth factor genes was significantly altered by in vitro culture condition. Culture medium TCM-199 with 10% FBS produced higher number of embryos and was able to co-op with gene expression of IVF control. Differences continue to be observed between SCNT cultured and IVF embryos, and until these differences are minimized, aberrations in SCNT embryonic development will continue to arise. PMID:19392670
Pandey, A; Gupta, S C; Singh, N; Rana, J S; Gupta, N
The present study was designed to study the effect of traditional antibiotic combination (streptomycin and penicillin; SP) and relatively modern combination of antibiotics (gentamycin, tylosin, lincomycin and spectinomycin; GTLS) in extender on bacterial control and spermatozoal quality of liquid buffalo bull semen stored at 5 degrees C. Semen collected from Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls (n = 10) was diluted with skim milk extender containing either SP (streptomycin 1000 microg/ml and penicillin 1000 IU/ml), GTLS (gentamycin 500 microg/ml, tylosin 100 microg/ml, lincomycin 300 microg/ml and spectinomycin 600 microg/ml) or negative control with no antibiotics (NA). Liquid semen was stored at 5 degrees C for 5 days. Aerobic bacteria isolated from buffalo semen were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The only facultative anaerobic bacterium isolated was Klebsiella pneumoniae. In vitro antibiotic sensitivity test revealed that Ps. aeruginosa and Staph. aureus were susceptible to gentamycin. Staphylococcus aureus and K. pneumoniae were susceptible to tylosin and linco-spectinomycin. Total aerobic bacterial count was significantly lower in semen samples treated with GTLS than those of SP on third and fifth day of storage at 5 degrees C. There was no difference (p > 0.05) in sperm motility, longevity and plasma membrane integrity (PMI) in extender containing SP or GTLS combination until the third day of storage at 5 degrees C. On fifth day of storage sperm motility, longevity and PMI was significantly better in extender containing SP compared with GTLS and NA. Intact acrosomes, and sperm head, mid piece and tail abnormalities remained similar (p > 0.05) because of antibiotics up to 5 days of storage. In conclusion, GTLS is more capable than SP for bacterial control of buffalo bull semen. Moreover, GTLS and SP are equally efficient in preserving spermatozoal quality of extended buffalo bull semen for 3 days at 5 degrees C. PMID:18042206
Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Andrabi, S M H; Ullah, N; Qayyum, M
Oviductin is a high molecular weight oviduct-specific glycoprotein secreted by the non-ciliated epithelial cells of oviduct during estrous cycle and early pregnancy. It plays an important role during fertilization and early embryonic development. The oviductin gene from oviductal tissues of buffalo was successfully cloned and sequenced. The sequence analysis revealed that buffalo and cattle oviductin share very high homology between their cDNA sequences. The predicted amino acid sequences of the buffalo oviductin exhibited the highest percent of identity of 97 % with bovine followed by 94 % with goat, 93 % with sheep, 78 % with porcine, 72 % with human, 67 % with hamster and rabbit and 65 % with mouse. Oviductin was also observed to share high similarity with the mammalian chitinase, however oviductins do not show chitinase activity due to Glu?Ile mutation in the active site responsible for chitinase activity. The phylogenetic tree based on amino acid sequences of oviductin indicated that buffalo oviductin was closely related to its cattle counterpart, and this clustering is in accordance with the classic taxonomic relationship. Tissue specific expression of the transcripts for buffalo oviductin revealed a high level expression in oviduct and ovary followed by testis, mammary gland, kidney, while in mammary epithelial cells and liver its expression was very low. The full length matured oviductin and its domains constituting chitinase-like domain and mucin-like domain were cloned into pET and pGEX series of expression vectors and over expressed in E. coli. The soluble recombinant oviductin was successfully purified to homogeneity. Full length recombinant oviductin was expressed partially in soluble form, where as the chitinase-like and mucin-like domains of oviductin were expressed in insoluble form and aggregating to form inclusion bodies at both 37 and 16 °C induction temperatures. PMID:22782592
In buffaloes, AI with sexed semen is not fully optimized, and the procedure has only been performed using the approach currently in use for cattle. The objective of the present work was to compare the pregnancy rates in Mediterranean Italian buffalo cows inseminated with sexed frozen-thawed semen at 2, 4, 6, and 8 million sperm per dose, using the Ovsynch protocol and conventional AI at a fixed time. Fresh ejaculates from three buffalo bulls were processed according to Beltsville sperm sorting technology, and packaged in 0.25-mL straws with two total concentrations of 2 and 4 million live sorted sperm per straw. After thawing, semen was evaluated for total motility, forward motility, average path velocity, membrane and DNA integrity, and membrane fluidity. Sorting efficiency was estimated using a real time polymerase chain reaction method developed and validated in our laboratory. The artificial inseminations were conducted during the breeding season on 849 Italian Mediterranean buffalo heifers and cows distributed in 13 farms in northern and central Italy. No significant difference in quality parameters was reported between nonsexed and sexed straws produced with 2 and 4 million sperm. Lower pregnancy rate (P < 0.001) was reported when inseminating doses of sexed semen at 2 million were used (53/170; 31.2%), with respect to conventional nonsexed (78/142; 54.9%), and sexed doses at 4, 6, and 8 million spermatozoa (102/205, 49.8%; 84/175, 48.0%; and 74/157, 47.1%, respectively). No differences were evident using conventional doses and sexed semen with sperm numbers equal or higher than 4 million per dose. Pregnancies were not affected by the sire; 39/82 (47.6%), 120/270 (44.4%), and 151/355 (42.5%), respectively, for the three bulls. Variability in pregnancy rates observed in different herds was not significant. Furthermore, no significant difference was reported between pregnancies obtained with sexed semen in heifers and multiparous, respectively, 179/407 (44.0%) and 131/300 (43.7%). The results of the present work indicate that in Mediterranean Italian buffalo the dose of 4 million represents an optimal compromise when using sexed semen with conventional technologies of insemination, together with estrus synchronization, and the minimum number of spermatozoa per dose. In addition, the real time polymerase chain reaction method was optimized and is now available for estimating sorting efficiency in buffalo. PMID:23523175
Gaviraghi, A; Puglisi, R; Balduzzi, D; Severgnini, A; Bornaghi, V; Bongioni, G; Frana, A; Gandini, L M; Lukaj, A; Bonacina, C; Galli, A
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious diseases affecting wide range of host species with variable severity\\u000a and decreased productivity. The present study was undertaken to compare the clinical and leucocytic changes in indigenous\\u000a Indian cattle and buffaloes experimentally infected with FMD virus (FMDV) Asia 1. A mild type of disease was observed in the\\u000a cattle, more so
M. S. Mohan; M. R. Gajendragad; S. Gopalakrishna; Nem Singh
Background Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) of GACA\\/GATA have been implicated with differentiation of sex-chromosomes and speciation. However,\\u000a the organization of these repeats within genomes and transcriptomes, even in the best characterized organisms including human,\\u000a remains unclear. The main objective of this study was to explore the buffalo transcriptome for its association with GACA\\/GATA\\u000a repeats, and study the structural organization and differential
Jyoti Srivastava; Sanjay Premi; Sudhir Kumar; Sher Ali
Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) is used to increase milk yield in cows, but it has been forbidden in some countries and in the EU. However, rbST misuse represents a concern in both bovine and buffalo dairy production. A number of studies on rbST treatment have been performed on bovines, but there are few data on buffaloes. In this study, we treated eight lactating buffaloes with biweekly injections of a slow-release formulation of rbST, for five cycles of administration, and analysed total ST and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) variations in serum and IGF-1 in milk. The aim was to assess their power as potential indicators of rbST-treatment. Blood was collected on days 2, 5, 9 and 14 of each cycle, and milk on days 2, 9 and 14 of cycles 2 and 5. Results showed an extraordinary increase in ST levels on day 2 in treated animals, followed by a rapid decrease over the following days, while a significant increase in IGF-1 was observed both in serum and in milk throughout most of each cycle. These results suggest that serum ST levels are a good indicator of treatment. However, the rapid decrease after the peak limits the useful period of sample collection. PMID:21843393
The present study has examined the effect of different concentrations (1 ?g/ml, 10 ?g/ml and 100 ?g/ml) of titanium oxide (TiO(2)) nanoparticles (NPs) (<100 nm) on viability, membrane integrity, capacitation status and DNA integrity of buffalo spermatozoa. Characterization of NPs was done by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test and acridine orange test (AOT) were employed to detect DNA fragmentation in sperm treated with NPs. There was significant (p < 0.05) decrease in cell viability and membrane integrity (assessed by enzyme leakage) at 6 h of incubation with NPs. However, significant (p < 0.05) increase in sperm capacitation was observed for TiO(2) NP albeit at lower concentrations. In DNA fragmentation assay, there was dose-dependent increase in the DNA fragmentation (r = 0.96). Ultrathin cross-sections revealed TiO(2) NPs inside head and plasma membrane of the buffalo spermatozoa as assessed by TEM. These studies suggest that TiO(2) NPs may have cytotoxic effect on buffalo spermatozoa by affecting sperm functionality and causing high amount of DNA fragmentations. PMID:23064765
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of treatment with recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST) on the response to superovulatory treatment in swamp buffalo. Estrous cycles of 16 buffalo cows were synchronized by intravaginal administration of progesterone and estradiol benzoate, and the cows were then randomly divided into 2 groups. The rBST-treated group received 250 mg of a sustained-release formula of rBST on Day 4 after progesterone implantation, whereas the control group did not receive rBST. Both groups were then given a superovulatory regimen of twice daily injections of FSH for 3.5 d (total dose of 260 mg, i.m.), between Days 9 and 11 after administration of progesterone. The cows were bred naturally 1 d after the last FSH injection, then 6 d after breeding they were slaughtered, and their reproductive tracts were removed. The numbers of corpora lutea (CL) and follicles were recorded, and embryos were flushed out of the uterine horns. There were no significant differences between the rBST-treated and control cows for the mean numbers (+/- SEM) of CL (6.0 +/- 2.2 vs 4.3 +/- 1.1), follicles (15.9 +/- 4.1 vs 19.8 +/- 2.9), or total embryos recovered per collection (4.5 +/- 1.6 vs 2.3 +/- 1.0). However, there were significant differences between rBST-treated and control cows for the numbers of transferable embryos per collection (3.0 +/- 1.0 vs 0.8 +/- 0.3; P < or = 0.05) and the overall proportion of transferable embryos (75 vs 33%; P < or = 0.01). The results of this study show that pretreatment of swamp buffalo with rBST significantly increases the production of transferable embryos in response to superovulation. PMID:10734373
Songsasen, N; Yiengvisavakul, V; Buntaracha, B; Pharee, S; Apimeteetumrong, M; Sukwongs, Y
A major research goal in rumen microbial ecology is to understand the relationship between community composition and its function, particularly involved in fermentation process is of a potential interest. The buffalo rumen microbiota impacts human food safety as well as animal health. Although the bacteria of bovine rumen have been well characterized, techniques have been lacking to correlate total community structure with gene function. We applied 454 next generations sequencing technology to characterize general microbial diversity present in buffalo rumen metagenome and also identified the repertoire of microbial genes present, including genes associated with antibiotic resistance and bacterial virulence. Results suggest that over six percent (6.44%) of the sequences from our buffalo rumen pool sample could be categorized as virulence genes and genes associated with resistance to antibiotic and toxic compounds (RATC), which is a higher proportion of virulence genes reported from metagenome samples of chicken cecum (5.39%), cow rumen (4.43%) and Sargasso sea (2.95%). However, it was lower than the proportion found in cow milk (11.33%) cattle faeces (8.4%), Antarctic marine derived lake (8.45%), human fecal (7.7%) and farm soil (7.79%). The dynamic nature of metagenomic data, together with the large number of RATC classes observed in samples from widely different ecologies indicates that metagenomic data can be used to track potential targets and relative amounts of antibiotic resistance genes in individual animals. In addition, these data can be also used to generate antibiotic resistance gene profiles to facilitate an understanding of the ecology of the microbial communities in each habitat as well as the epidemiology of antibiotic resistant gene transport between and among habitats. PMID:22850272
Singh, K M; Jakhesara, S J; Koringa, P G; Rank, D N; Joshi, C G
The aim of this study was to compare the proteome profiles of the chorioamnion and corresponding caruncle for buffalo embryos that had either normal or retarded development on Day 25 after artificial insemination (AI). In experiment 1, embryos that were to subsequently undergo late embryonic mortality had a smaller width on Day 25 after AI than embryos associated with pregnancy on Day 45 after AI. In experiment 2, 25 Italian Mediterranean buffaloes underwent transrectal ultrasonography on Day 25 after AI, and pregnant animals were categorized as one of two groups based on embryonic width: normal embryos (embryonic width > 2.7 mm) and retarded embryos (embryonic width < 2.7 mm). Three buffaloes of each group were slaughtered on Day 27 after AI to collect chorioamnion and caruncle tissues for subsequent proteomic analyses. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometer analysis were used to ascertain the proteomic profiles. To confirm 2D-DIGE-results, three selected proteins were analyzed by Western blot. The proteomic profiles of the chorioamnion of retarded embryos and the corresponding caruncles showed differences in the expression of several proteins compared to normal embryos. In particular, a down-regulation was observed for proteins involved in protein folding (HSP 90-alpha, calreticulin), calcium binding (annexin A1, annexin A2), and coagulation (fibrinogen alpha-chain) (P < 0.05), whereas proteins involved in protease inhibition (alpha-1-antiproteinase, serpin H1, serpin A3-8), DNA and RNA binding (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1 and K), chromosome segregation (serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A), cytoskeletal organization (ezrin), cell redox homeostasis (amine oxidase-A), and hemoglobin binding (haptoglobin) were up-regulated (P < 0.05). PMID:23575152
Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Gasparrini, Bianca; Neglia, Gianluca; Vecchio, Domenico; Strazzullo, Maria; Giovane, Alfonso; Servillo, Luigi; Zicarelli, Luigi; D'Occhio, Michael J; Campanile, Giuseppe
Twenty male buffalo calves (15 months, 200.2?±?9.75) were divided into four groups of five animals in each and fed diets without (T1) or supplemented with 0.3 ppm selenium (Se)?+?40 ppm zinc (Zn) (T2), 0.3 ppm Se?+?40 ppm Zn?+?10 ppm copper (Cu) (T3), and 40 ppm Zn?+?10 ppm Cu (T4) for 120 days, during which blood samples were collected on days 0, 40, 80, and 120. Concentrations of glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, urea, uric acid, and creatinine were similar in all the four groups. The level of different serum enzymes viz. lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, and hormones viz. T(3), T(4), testosterone and insulin were similar (P?>?0.05) among the four groups but the ratio of T(4)/T(3) was reduced (P?0.05) in the groups (T2 and T3) where selenium was supplemented at 120th day of supplementation. It was deduced that supplementation of 0.3 ppm Se and/or 10.0 ppm of Cu with 40 ppm Zn had no effect on blood metabolic profile in buffalo calves, except the ratio of T(4) and T(3) hormone which indicates that selenium plays an important role in converting T(4) hormone to T(3) which is more active form of thyroid hormone. PMID:21947859
The objective of this study was to optimize cryopreservation conditions for buffalo in vitro produced (IVP) embryos. The in vitro fertilized (IVF) and somatic cell nuclear transferred (SCNT) blastocysts were vitrified with either 40% ethylene glycol (EG), 25% EG + 25% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), or 20% EG + 20% DMSO + 0.5 m sucrose, and the IVF blastocysts produced from abattoir-derived ovaries were also slow-frozen with either 10% EG or 0.05 m trehalose dehydrate + 1.8% EG + 0.4% BSA. Cryosurvival rates of blastocysts harvested on various days or at various developmental stages were also examined. In this study: (1) vitrification with 20% EG + 20% DMSO + 0.5 m sucrose had the best cryopreservation efficiency; (2) IVF and SCNT blastocysts had similar cryotolerance (P > 0.05); (3) after thawing, slow-frozen blastocysts reexpanded earlier than the vitrified blastocysts (P < 0.01); (4) cryosurvival rate of expanded blastocysts was higher than that of early blastocysts (P < 0.05); (5) cryosurvival rates of Days 5 to 7 blastocysts (Day 0 = day of IVF or SCNT) were higher than those of Days 8 to 9 blastocysts (P < 0.01); and (6) after embryo transfer, pregnancy rates for fresh and cryopreserved blastocysts were not different (P > 0.05). In conclusion, vitrification of Days 6 to 7 expanded blastocysts with 20% EG + 20% DMSO + 0.5 m sucrose was optimal for cryopreservation of buffalo IVP embryos. PMID:22925650
Yang, C Y; Pang, C Y; Yang, B Z; Li, R C; Lu, Y Q; Liang, X W
We report an extended river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, 2n = 50; BBU) cytogenetic map including 388 loci, of which 68 have been FISH-mapped on autosomes in the present study. Ovine and caprine BAC clones containing both type I loci (known genes) and type II loci (simple sequence repeats (SRs), microsatellite marker, sequence-tagged sites (STSs)), previously assigned to sheep chromosomes, have been localized on R-banded river buffalo chromosomes (BBU), which expands the cytogenetic map of this important domestic species and increases our knowledge of the physical organization of its genome. The loci mapped in the present study correspond to loci already localized on homoeologous cattle (and sheep) chromosomes and chromosome bands, further confirming the high degree of chromosome homoeologies among bovids. The comparison of the integrated cytogenetic maps of BBU2p/BBU10 and BBU5p/BBU16 with those of human chromosomes (HSA) 6 and 11, respectively, identified, at least, nine conserved chromosome segments in each case and complex rearrangements differentiating river buffalo (and cattle) and human chromosomes. PMID:18685962
Di Meo, G P; Perucatti, A; Floriot, S; Hayes, H; Schibler, L; Incarnato, D; Di Berardino, D; Williams, J; Cribiu, E; Eggen, A; Iannuzzi, L
Background Cow’s milk allergy is the most common food allergy in young children. In areas outside the United States, milk from other mammals has been studied as a possible and desirable alternative for children with cow’s milk allergy. Objectives We chose to further investigate waterbuffalo’s milk as an alternative for cow’s milk allergic children in the United States. Methods Children with cow’s milk allergy were skin prick tested with waterbuffalo’s milk. Additionally, subjects were followed clinically for 1 year after the test to determine how many of the subjects had persistent cow’s milk allergy. Results In total, 30 children, age 8 months to 8 years, were skin prick tested to waterbuffalo’s milk with 73% (22/30) having a positive test. All children with a negative waterbuffalo’s milk skin test also had a negative cow’s milk skin test. In follow-up, most (7 of 8) of the children with a negative skin prick test (SPT) to waterbuffalo’s milk were found to have outgrown their cow’s milk allergy. In comparison, all of the subjects with a positive skin test to waterbuffalo’s milk had persistent cow’s milk allergy. After adjusting for this, we determined that 96% (22/23) of the children with persistent cow’s milk allergy were positive on skin testing to waterbuffalo’s milk. Conclusions In this population, the vast majority of children with persistent cow’s milk allergy were positive on skin prick testing to waterbuffalo’s milk. These results indicate that waterbuffalo’s milk is unlikely to be a successful alternative for children with cow’s milk allergy.
Sheehan, William J.; Gardynski, Andrea; Phipatanakul, Wanda
In this study, we investigated the susceptibility of frozen-thawed swamp buffalo sperm nuclear DNA to undergo controlled acid-induced denaturation in situ, as analysed by flow cytometry, and aimed to correlate the results with sperm head morphology over three seasons in tropical Thailand. Artificial insemination (AI) doses (n = 218) from 18 AI buffalo sires, prepared between 1980 and 1989 and 2003 and 2005, were tested and compared among three seasons, the rainy season, July-October; winter, November-February; and summer, March-June. The overall mean of DNA fragmentation index (DFI) (+/- SD) was 1.84 +/- 1.68%, range from 0.19 to 7.92%, with 0.221 +/- 0.021 of the x-DFI ranging from 0.190 to 0.350 and 0.023 +/- 0.009 of the SD-DFI ranging from 0.010 to 0.070. The DFI was consistently low (range 1.40 +/- 0.21% to 2.16 +/- 0.21%; LSM +/- SEM), with x-DFI ranging from 0.216 +/- 0.003 to 0.225 +/- 0.003 and SD-DFI ranging from 0.022 +/- 0.001 to 0.024 +/- 0.001 across the seasons. The DFI was low enough to be related to high fertility potential. However, DFI values varied statistically among seasons, being lower in the rainy season (1.40 +/- 0.21%, P < 0.05) than in winter (2.16 +/- 0.21%) or summer (2.00 +/- 0.20%), and were also affected by the year of semen collection and processing (P < 0.001). The proportion of morphologically abnormal sperm head shapes was low, with no significant differences between seasons. However, DFI was significantly related to the proportion of loose abnormal sperm heads (r = 0.27, P < 0.01). In conclusion, frozen-thawed swamp buffalo sperm chromatin integrity is not seriously damaged by cryopreservation or affected by the seasonal variations in temperature and humidity seen in tropical Thailand. PMID:17718812
The safeguard of river buffalo Mozzarella cheese, a Protected Designation of Origin dairy product, has prompted an analytical study to trace the milk and curd used as raw material in cheesemaking. This is to prevent the illegal use of milk or curd from different geographical areas outside of those indicated in the official production protocol. For this purpose, we studied primary proteolysis occurring in fresh and frozen milk and curd to identify a molecular marker that could indicate the raw material used. Whole casein from frozen river buffalo milk was separated using cation-exchange chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE, and a protein component with an estimated molecular weight of 15.3 kDa was detected. This protein component was revealed in fresh river buffalo milk as a faint electrophoresis band, which drastically increased in intensity in refrigerated and frozen milk as well as in curd and was found to be associated with beta-CN through hydrophobic interaction. By using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight peptide mass mapping, this component was identified as the C-terminal fragment f(69-209) of beta-CN (expected molecular weight of 15,748.8 Da). beta-Casein f(69-209), originating from the early hydrolysis of Lys(68)-Ser(69) by plasmin, has no counterpart in bovine milk. The increased rate of hydrolysis by plasmin toward the cleavage site Lys(68)-Ser(69) has to be ascribed to the elevated proline content of the peptide 61-73. The favored production of beta-CN f(69-209) has also drawn attention to the complementary proteose peptone beta-CN f(1-68) that is presumed to play a physiological role in inducing milk secretion similar to that of beta-CN f(1-29). The higher in vivo and in vitro production rate, compared with gamma(1)-CN formation, indicates that beta-CN f(69-209) and its complementary fragment are candidate molecular markers to evaluate milk and curd freshness. We suggested [corrected] indirect ELISA analysis based on the determination of remaining nonhydrolyzed beta-CN to perform a quantitative evaluation of proteolysis. PMID:19307613
Di Luccia, A; Picariello, G; Trani, A; Alviti, G; Loizzo, P; Faccia, M; Addeo, F
The gene responsible for coding the leptin hormone has been associated with productive and reproductive traits in cattle. In dairy cattle, different polymorphisms found in the leptin gene have been associated with several traits of economic interest, such as energy balance, milk yield and composition, live weight, fertility and dry matter consumption. The aim of this study was to detect genetic variability in the leptin gene of buffaloes and to test possible associations with milk yield, fat and protein percentages, age at first calving and first calving interval. Three genotypes (AA, AG and GG) were identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, which presented genotypic frequencies of 0.30, 0.54 and 0.16, respectively. The allele frequencies were 0.57 for the A allele and 0.43 for the G allele. No significant effects were found in the present study, but there is an indicative that leptin gene affects lipid metabolism. PMID:23661024
Zetouni, Larissa; de Camargo, Gregório Miguel Ferreira; da Silva Fonseca, Patrícia Dias; Gil, Fernanda Maria Monsalves; Lugo, Naudin Alejandro Hurtado; Aspilcueta-Borquis, Rusbel Raul; Cervini, Marcelo; Tonhati, Humberto
An indirect Sandwich ELISA to measure growth hormone level in serum and milk of buffaloes was developed. The assay was based on purified anti rbST IgG raised in rabbits and chicken and rabbit anti chicken IgG horseradish peroxidase. The assay was validated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, precision and recovery. Parallelism was demonstrated between the standard curve and serially diluted serum, milk and pituitary derived growth hormone. Sensitivity of the assay was 0.1 ng/ml. Recovery of exogenous bovine somatotropin from serum and milk ranged from 90 to 102% and 96 to 108% respectively. The intra and inter assay variations to measure growth hormone in serum and milk were 3.36 to 8.81% and 6.01 to 12.31% respectively. Statistical analysis for parallelism and cross-reactivity of rbST with serum of other species confirmed the reproducibility of the assay. PMID:17821853
Three experiments were conducted to treat forty-two summer-anestrous buffalo at three different villages. In all the experiments animals were randomly divided into two groups. One group was treated with a progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID) plus 800 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) at the time of PRID removal. The second group was retained as untreated control animals. All the treated animals were clinically examined and inseminated twice 48 and 72 h post treatment. Ovulation and fertility rates at induced estrus were 88, 90 and 100% and 50, 60 and 50% during Experiments I, II and III, respectively. None of the controls exhibited estrus during the course of the study. PMID:16726443
This study investigated the effects of supplementation of culture medium with 10 ?M Y-27632, a specific inhibitor of Rho kinase activity, for 6 days on self-renewal of buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cell-like cells at Passage 50-80. Y-27632 increased mean colony area (P<0.05) although it did not improve their survival. It decreased OCT4 expression (P<0.05), increased NANOG expression (P<0.05), but had no effect on SOX2 expression. It also increased expression of anti-apoptotic gene BCL-2 (P<0.05) and decreased that of pro-apoptotic genes BAX and BID (P<0.05). It increased plating efficiency of single-cell suspensions of ES cells (P<0.05). Following vitrification, the presence of Y-27632 in the vitrification solution or thawing medium or both did not improve ES cell colony survival. However, following seeding of clumps of ES cells transfected with pAcGFP1N1 carrying green fluorescent protein (GFP), Y-27632 increased colony formation rate (P<0.01). ES cell colonies that formed in all Y-27632-supplemented groups were confirmed for expression of pluripotency markers alkaline phosphatase, SSEA-4 and TRA-1-60, and for their ability to generate embryoid bodies containing cells that expressed markers of ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. In conclusion, Y-27632 improves survival of buffalo ES cells under unfavourable conditions such as enzymatic dissociation to single cells or antibiotic-assisted selection after transfection, without compromising their pluripotency. PMID:22951036
Poor estrus expression and anestrus decrease the reproductive efficiency of buffaloes. The objective of this study was to determine whether the addition of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) to an estrous synchronization protocol and timed insemination could improve ovulation and pregnancy rates of anestrous buffalo cows under tropical conditions. The study population comprised 65 lactating Murrah buffalo cows which were assigned
K. Murugavel; D. Antoine; M. S. Raju; F. López-Gatius
Two species of buffalo fish, smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) and bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus), were collected from a contaminated (multiple metals and organic chemicals) Mississippi River Basin ecosystem, Devil's Swamp and a control site, Tunica Swamp, both near Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA. The buffalo fish were examined for general health and histopathological effects. This research consists of an analysis of
Arunthavarani Thiyagarajah; William R. Hartley; Sharee E. Major; Michael W. Broxson
The effects of trickle infections of waterbuffaloes with Fasciola hepatica (60 metacercariae daily during a period of 20 days) on the blood plasma levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), 6-keto-prostaglandin F1? (6-keto-PG F1?) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) were assessed. F. hepatica specific IgG and T- and B-lymphocyte ratios were evaluated as indicators of the immune response. Although the applied mode
Long Chen; Arwid Daugschies; Bingyun Wang; Xinzhi Mao
The effects of supplementation of in vitro maturation (IVM) or in vitro culture (IVC) or both IVM and IVC media with cysteamine on the yield, hatching rate (HR) and total cell number (TCN) of buffalo blastocysts were examined. Oocytes obtained from slaughterhouse buffalo ovaries were subjected to IVM and IVF. The IVM or IVC media were supplemented with 0, 50,
T. AnandA; D. KumarA; M. S. ChauhanA; R. S. ManikA; P. PaltaA
The aim of this study was to test the effect of progesterone supplementation to Ovsynch protocol in cyclic and non-cyclic Mediterranean Italian buffaloes on conception rate after fixed time artificial insemination. From 169 pluriparous buffaloes, 2 groups were identified and subjected to: (1) Ovsynch protocol (OV; n=83) and (2) Ovsynch protocol with the supplementation of progesterone from days 0 to
F. De Rensis; G. Ronci; P. Guarneri; Bui Xuan Nguyen; G. A. Presicce; G. Huszenicza; R. J. Scaramuzzi
Cornu Bubali (waterbuffalo horn, WBH) has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for thousands of years. In the present study, three peptides with antioxidant properties were purified from aqueous extract of Cornu Bubali (waterbuffalo horn, WBH) by consecutive chromatographic methods including gel filtration chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The sequences of the three peptides
Rui Liu; Min Wang; Jin-ao Duan; Jian-ming Guo; Yu-ping Tang
The effect of the digestion process in the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) of animal models on the fate and integrity of plant DNA has been widely evaluated since DNA availability and integrity is a key factor for hypothetical horizontal gene transfer of recombinant DNA from GM crop-derived feeds to animal and human gut microflora. In this study, plant DNA sequences from
We investigated the effect of chromium (Cr) supplementation on the growth performance, energy metabolites, and hormonal variation in winter-exposed buffalo calves. Twenty-four female buffalo calves were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments (n?=?6) for a period of 120 days. Feeding regimen was the same in all the groups, except the animals in the four respective groups were additionally supplemented with 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg of Cr/kg DM in the form of CrCl3.6H2O. Calves were monitored daily for physiological variables and dry matter intake (DMI). Blood samples were collected at fortnightly intervals from each buffalo calves to measure concentrations of hormones (insulin, cortisol, and growth hormone), energy metabolites (glucose and non-esterified fatty acids), and plasma mineral levels. After 120 days of feeding trial, buffalo calves fed with Cr had lower (P?0.05) circulating plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and cortisol hormones, whereas plasma thyroid hormone and non-esterified fatty acids concentrations were found similar (P?>?0.05) among all the treatments. The results suggested that dietary Cr supplementation influenced plasma Cr levels without affecting the plasma concentrations of other trace minerals. However, physiological variables, nutrient intake, and growth performance of buffalo calves did not differ among all treatments (P?>?005). In summary, the current study showed that supplementation of Cr at the level of 1.0 and 1.5 mg of Cr/kg DMI was more effective in improving glucose utilization by increasing potency of insulin hormone and reducing concentration of cortisol hormone. Results also suggested that supplemental Cr also improves blood plasma Cr levels. PMID:24013931
The genetic variation and relationships among six Turkish waterbuffalo populations, typical of different regions, were assessed using a set of 26 heterologous (bovine) microsatellite markers. Between seven and 17 different alleles were identified per microsatellite in a total of 254 alleles. The average number of alleles across all loci in all the analysed populations was found to be 12.57. The expected mean heterozygosity (H(e)) per population ranged between 0.5 and 0.58. Significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed for 44 locus-population combinations. Population differentiation was analysed by estimation of the F(st) index (values ranging from 0.053 to 0.123) among populations. A principal component analysis of variation revealed the Merzifon population to show the highest differentiation compared with the others. In addition, some individuals of the Danamandira population appeared clearly separated, while the Afyon, Coskun, Pazar and Thural populations represented a single cluster. The assignment of individuals to their source populations, performed using the Bayesian clustering approach implemented in the structure 2.2 software, supports a high differentiation of Merzifon and Danamandira populations. The results of this study are useful for the development of conservation strategies for the Turkish buffalo. PMID:19799598
Gargani, M; Pariset, L; Soysal, M I; Ozkan, E; Valentini, A
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether enriching the oocyte in vitro maturation medium with cystine, in the presence of cysteamine, would improve the in vitro embryo production efficiency in buffalo by further increasing the GSH reservoir created by the oocyte during maturation.Cumulus–oocytes complexes were matured in vitro in TCM 199+10% FCS, 0.5?g\\/ml FSH, 5?g\\/ml LH and 1?g\\/ml
Bianca Gasparrini; Lucia Boccia; Joelle Marchandise; Rossella Di Palo; Fabienne George; Isabelle Donnay; Luigi Zicarelli
The serological profiles of 21 female buffaloes vaccinated between 3 and 8 months of age using Brucella abortus strain 19 (S19) were evaluated by rose bengal (RBT), 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME) and complement fixation (CFT) tests. The serum strains were collected in day zero, 15, 30, 45, 60th days and subsequently to each 30 months, until 720th day after vaccination. No animal
G. Nardi Júnior; M. G. Ribeiro; A. M. Jorge; J. Megid; L. M. P. Silva
Gene expression analysis unravels the complex changes or relations at transcriptomic level. To nullify all type of errors that can be incorporated during any stage of RNA extraction into cDNA synthesis and for reliable results, the data obtained from qPCR have to be normalized using the appropriate/suitable housekeeping genes (HKGs). Unfortunately, till date, no such HKG has been reported for bubaline mammary gland. The objective of the present study was thus to identify and validate the potential HKGs for the gene expression studies in buffalo mammary gland. Mammary tissues from twelve buffaloes during different physiological stages: pre-pubertal (heifer), lactation and involution were obtained for the present study. A total of 16 potential HKGs (GAPDH, ?-actin, UXT, ?2M, A2M, RPl4, RPS9, RPS15A, RPS18, RPS23, HMBS, HPRT1, GTP, EEF1A1, UB1 and RPL22) from different functional classes were evaluated. The analysis revealed that the expression of EEF1A1, RPl4, ?2M and RPS15A was most consistent across different physiological stages of buffalo mammary gland. On the other hand, ?-actin, A2M, RPL22 and GAPDH were the least stable genes making them unsuitable as HKGs. Based on our analysis, we recommend the use of EEF1A1, RPl4, ?2M and RPS15A genes as suitable HKGs for accurate normalization of gene expression data in bubaline mammary gland. PMID:23363300
Aggarwal, J; Sharma, A; Kishore, A; Mishra, B P; Yadav, A; Mohanty, A; Sodhi, M; Kataria, R S; Malakar, D; Mukesh, M
Poor estrus expression and anestrus decrease the reproductive efficiency of buffaloes. The objective of this study was to determine whether the addition of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) to an estrous synchronization protocol and timed insemination could improve ovulation and pregnancy rates of anestrous buffalo cows under tropical conditions. The study population comprised 65 lactating Murrah buffalo cows which were assigned to CIDR (n=33) or CIDR+eCG (n=32) treatment groups. Cows in the CIDR group were fitted for 8d with a controlled intravaginal drug release (CIDR) device containing 1.38 g progesterone, received GnRH (10 microg i.m.) on D 0, PGF(2alpha) (750 microg i.m.) on D 7, and GnRH (10 microg i.m.) on D 9; whereas cows in the CIDR+eCG group received the same treatment plus eCG (500 IU, i.m.) at the time of PGF(2alpha) treatment. All cows were inseminated 16-20 h after the second GnRH treatment. Blood samples were obtained 10d before the start of synchronization treatment (Day -10) and at the onset of treatment (Day 0). Cows with plasma progesterone concentrations <1 ng/mL recorded in both samples (Low-Low levels of P4) were classified as non-cyclic cows. Similarly, when either one or both of the sample pair contained concentrations of serum progesterone >/=1 ng/mL (High-High, Low-High, or High-Low levels of P4), the buffaloes were classified as cyclic cows. Ovulation rate, defined as the number of buffaloes with at least one corpus luteum 10 days after insemination, was significantly higher (P=0.018) in the CIDR+eCG (84.4%) cows than in the CIDR cows (57.6%). Pregnancy rate was numerically lower in CIDR (27.3%) than CIDR+eCG (40.6%) cows, though differences were not significant (P=0.25). Pregnancy rates for CIDR+eCG cows were similar to that of cows inseminated after natural estrus (40.9%; 29/71). In the non-cyclic animals, higher ovulation rates (P=0.026) were recorded for the CIDR+eCG (81%) than for the CIDR cows (47.4%). Our results indicate that the addition of eCG to a progesterone-based estrous synchronization regimen substantially improves the ovulation rate in non-cyclic buffaloes. When this treatment is followed by timed AI, pregnancy rates achieved in anestrous buffaloes, whether cyclic and non-cyclic, may approach the rates observed in cows inseminated at natural estrus. PMID:19181376
Murugavel, K; Antoine, D; Raju, M S; López-Gatius, F
In the milk industry in India, buffalo breeds are most commonly used for milk production. Efficiency of fiber digestion in ruminants is critical for animal productivity. Bacteria play an important role in fiber digestion and utilization. Absolute quantification real-time PCR was used to quantify ten bacterial species in rumen fluid of Surti buffalo fed green fodder, dry roughage and compound concentrate mixture. Abundance of each target taxon was calculated as a fraction of the total 16S rRNA gene copies in the samples, using taxon-specific primers. Bacterial populations showed a clear predominance of Ruminococcus albus, which comprised 5.66% of the bacterial rRNA gene copies in the samples. However, only 0.9% to 4.24% of the bacterial rRNA gene copies were represented by the ruminal Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Prevotella species. The proportion of rRNA gene copies attributable to Selenomonas ruminantium, Streptococcus bovis, Ruminobacter amylophilus, Treponema bryantii and Anaerovibrio lipolytica was even less abundant, each comprising < 0.11% of the bacterial rRNA gene copies. The data suggest that the aggregate abundance of the most intensively studied ruminal bacterial species is relatively low and that a large fraction of the uncultured population represents a single bacterial genus. PMID:24053023
Singh, Krishna M; Tripathi, Ajai K; Pandya, Paresh R; Parnerkar, Subhash; Rank, Dharamshibhai N; Kothari, Ramesh K; Joshi, Chaitanya G
A 5-year-old river buffalo cow underwent cytogenetic investigation since it had only one male offspring, apparently with normal body constitution, which died one month after birth. The female carrier had normal body conformation and internal sex adducts, as revealed by rectal palpation performed by a specialist veterinary practitioner. The cow was found to carry a complex and rare chromosome abnormality. Indeed, a centric fission of one river buffalo (BBU) chromosome 1 with a subsequent (or simultaneous) centric fusion of BBU1p with BBU23 was revealed by both RBA-banding and specific molecular markers of BBU1p (DEFB1) and BBU23 (ACTA2). CBA-banding revealed a pale, very small C-band in the der1 (BBU1q) and a prominent C-band on the new biarmed chromosome originated by rob(1p;23). Both telomeric probes and AgNOR staining confirmed the Robertsonian translocation (rob), both FITC-signals and the NORs (BBU23) being telomerically located. Furthermore, telomeric signals on der1 (BBU1q) indicate that these 2 chromosomal events may be the result of a reciprocal translocation which occurred between BBU1 and BBU23. PMID:20693780
Di Meo, G P; Perucatti, A; Genualdo, V; Iannuzzi, A; Sarubbi, F; Caputi-Jambrenghi, A; Incarnato, D; Peretti, V; Vonghia, G; Iannuzzi, L
The objective of this study was to optimize the activation protocol for buffalo oocytes after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The release of the second polar body (PB) at 3, 6 and 9 h after ICSI of in-vitro matured oocytes activated either with 5 ?m ionomycin (Io) or with 7% ethanol (EtOH) was preliminary examined. The highest rate of second PB extrusion occurred at 3 h of activation, and the second PB extrusion in EtOH group was significantly higher than that in Io group. Oocytes that extruded the second PB were selected and cultured either with 1.9 mm 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) for 3 h or with 10 ?g/ml cycloheximide (CHX) for 5 h. Significantly higher rate of oocytes formed 2 pronuclei in EtOH combined with CHX (EtOH + CHX) (62%) group compared to those of Io + CHX (42%) and EtOH + 6-DMAP (48%) groups (p<0.01) whereas Io + 6-DMAP group showed intermediate value (58%). Significantly higher blastocyst formation rates were obtained in Io + 6-DMAP (29%) and EtOH + CHX (24%) groups than in Io + CHX (6%) and EtOH + 6-DMAP (17%) groups. Our results indicate that buffalo ICSI oocytes are effectively activated by combination treatment of Io with 6-DMAP and EtOH with CHX resulting in the highest cleavage and blastocyst formation rates. PMID:20546174
Liang, Y Y; Ye, D N; Laowtammathron, C; Phermthai, T; Nagai, T; Somfai, T; Parnpai, R
The serological profiles of 21 female buffaloes vaccinated between 3 and 8 months of age using Brucella abortus strain 19 (S19) were evaluated by rose bengal (RBT), 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME) and complement fixation (CFT) tests. The serum strains were collected in day zero, 15, 30, 45, 60th days and subsequently to each 30 months, until 720th day after vaccination. No animal showed reaction in day zero. In 15th day above 95% of animals revealed reaction in all tests. All the animals presented absence of reactions in CFT, RBT and 2ME tests at 270, 300 and 360 days after vaccination, respectively. Our finding highlighted early response in CFT compared than other conventional agglutination tests. None of animals presented oscillation of titers or reactions in any test after 360 day of study, which enables the use of these tests after this period without interference of antibodies from S19 vaccine origin between 3 and 8 months in buffalo heifers. PMID:22284623
Nardi, G Júnior; Ribeiro, M G; Jorge, A M; Megid, J; Silva, L M P
The objective was to investigate the effect of recipient oocyte age and the interval from activation to fusion on developmental competence of buffalo nuclear transfer (NT) embryos. Buffalo oocytes matured in vitro for 22 h were enucleated by micromanipulation under the spindle view system, and a fetal fibroblast (pretreated with 0.1 ?g/mL aphidicolin for 24 h, followed by culture for 48 h in 0.5% fetal bovine serum) was introduced into the enucleated oocyte, followed by electrofusion. Both oocytes and NT embryos were activated by exposure to 5 ?M ionomycin for 5 min, followed by culture in 2 mM 6-dimethyl-aminopurine for 3 h. When oocytes matured in vitro for 28, 29, 30, 31, or 32 h were activated, more oocytes matured in vitro for 30 h developed into blastocysts in comparison with oocytes matured in vitro for 32 h (31.3 vs 19.9%, P < 0.05). When electrofusion was induced 27 h after the onset of oocyte maturation, the cleavage rate (78.0%) was higher than that of electrofusion induced at 28 h (67.2%, P < 0.05), and the blastocyst yield (18.1%) was higher (P < 0.05) than that of electrofusion induced at 25 or 26 h (7.4 and 8.5%, respectively). A higher proportion of NT embryos activated at 3 h after electrofusion developed to the blastocyst stage (18.6%) in comparison with NT embryos activated at 1 h (6.0%), 2 h (8.3%), or 4 h (10.6%) after fusion (P < 0.05). No recipient was pregnant 60 d after transfer of blastocysts developed from NT embryos activated at 1 h (0/8), 2 h (0/10), or 4 h (0/9) after fusion. However, 3 of 16 recipients were pregnant following transfer of blastocysts developed from the NT embryos activated at 3 h after fusion, and two of these recipients maintained pregnancy to term. We concluded that the developmental potential of buffalo NT embryos was related to recipient oocyte age and the interval from fusion to activation. PMID:21752448
This study investigated the effects of serum-starvation, total confluence, and roscovitine treatment on cell-cycle synchronization of buffalo ear skin fibroblasts to the G0/G1 stage and on the developmental competence of cloned embryos. Serum starvation of total confluence cultures for 24 h had a higher (p<0.05) proportion of cells at G0/G1 stage (94.4%) compared with serum starved cyclic and nonstarved confluent cultures (76.8 and 86.0%, respectively), whereas differences between cyclic cells with or without serum starvation were not significant. The proportion of cells at G0/G1 was higher (p<0.05) with 20 and 30 ?M roscovitine treatment than that with 10 ?M (94.4, 96.4, and 86.6%, respectively), which was similar to that for total confluence (86.0%). MTT assay showed that cell viability decreased as dose of roscovitine increased. The blastocyst rate was significantly higher (p<0.05) when nuclear transfer embryos were reconstructed using donors cells from total confluence, confluence serum starved, and roscovitine-treated (20 and 30 ?M) groups (48.8, 48.9, 57.9, and 62.9%, respectively) compared to nontreated cyclic cells (20.2%). However, the cleavage rate and total cell number of cloned embryos were similar for all the groups. The number of ICM cells was improved by 30 ?M roscovitine treatment (45.25 ± 2.34). The cryosurvival rate of blastocysts derived from cells synchronized with 20 or 30 ?M roscovitine was higher compared to that for total confluence group (33.6, 37.8 vs. 23.8%). In conclusion, treatment with 30 ?M roscovitine is optimal for harvesting G0/G1 stage cells for producing high quality cloned buffalo embryos, and that it is better than serum-starvation or total confluence for cell synchronization. PMID:22372577
For investigating the effects of physiologically relevant heat shock, buffalo oocytes/embryos were cultured at 38.5°C (control) or were exposed to 39.5°C (Group II) or 40.5°C (Group III) for 2 h once every day throughout in vitro maturation (IVM), fertilization (IVF) and culture (IVC). Percentage of oocytes that developed to 8-cell, 16-cell or blastocyst stage was lower (p < 0.05) and the number of apoptotic nuclei was higher (p < 0.05) for Group III > Group II > controls. At both 8-16-cell and blastocyst stages, relative mRNA abundance of stress-related genes HSP 70.1 and HSP 70.2 and pro-apoptotic genes CASPASE-3, BID and BAX was higher (p < 0.05) in Groups III and II than that in controls with the exception of stress-related gene HSF1. Expression level of anti-apoptotic genes BCL-XL and MCL-1 was also higher (p < 0.05) in Groups III and II than that in controls at both 8-16-cell and blastocyst stages. Among the genes related to embryonic development, at 8-16-cell stage, the expression level of GDF9 was higher (p < 0.05) in Group III than that in controls, whereas that of GLUT1, ZAR1 and BMP15 was not significantly different among the three groups. At the blastocyst stage, relative mRNA abundance of GLUT1 and GDF9 was higher (p < 0.05) in Group II than that in controls, whereas that of ZAR-1 and BMP15 was not affected. The results of this study demonstrate that exposure of buffalo oocytes and embryos to elevated temperatures for duration of time that is physiologically relevant severely compromises their developmental competence, increases apoptosis and affects stress-, apoptosis- and development-related genes. PMID:23581430
Yadav, A; Singh, K P; Singh, M K; Saini, N; Palta, P; Manik, R S; Singla, S K; Upadhyay, R C; Chauhan, M S
The expression pattern of glucose metabolism genes (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase [G6PDH], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], and pyruvate dehydrogenase [PDH]) were studied in buffalo in vitro-matured oocytes and in vitro-produced embryos cultured under different glucose concentrations (0 mM, 1.5 mM, 5.6 mM, and 10 mM) during in vitro maturation of oocytes and culture of IVF produced embryos. The expression of the genes varied significantly over the cleavage stages under different glucose concentrations. Developmental rate of embryos was highest under a constant glucose level (5.6 mM) throughout during maturation of oocytes and embryo culture. Expression pattern of glucose metabolism genes under optimum glucose level (5.6 mM) indicated that glycolysis is the major pathway of glucose metabolism during oocyte maturation and early embryonic stages (pre-maternal to zygotic transition [MZT]) and shifts to oxidative phosphorylation during post-MZT stages in buffalo embryos. Higher glucose level (10 mM) caused abrupt changes in gene expression and resulted in shifting toward anaerobic metabolism of glucose during post-MZT stages. This resulted in decreased development rate of embryos during post-MZT stages. High expression of LDH and PDH in the control groups (0 mM glucose) indicated that in absence of glucose, embryos try to use available pyruvate and lactate sources, but succumb to handle the post-MZT energy requirement, resulting to poor development rate. Expression pattern of G6PDH during oocyte maturation as well early embryonic development was found predictive of quality and development competence of oocytes/ embryos. PMID:23992643
Peripheral blood cell cultures were treated for late incorporation of both BrdU and Hoechst-33258 to obtain R-banding pattern preparations. Twenty-eight bovine cosmids from 19 bovine syntenic groups (U), three of which contain type I loci and 25 which contain microsatellite loci and have previously been assigned to cattle chromosomes, were comparatively FISH-mapped to sheep and river buffalo chromosomes according to the standard karyotypes (13 loci for the first time in the latter species). The results enrich the physical maps of both species with information relative to the following loci and to the corresponding syntenic groups: IDVGA35 and IDVGA53 (U6), IDVGA61 and IDVGA84 (U13), JAB10 (U5), IDVGA41 and IDVGA57 (U27), IDVGA87 (U11), IDVGA32 and IDVGA10 (U19), IDVGA49, IDVGA66 and IDVGA68 (U1), ZNF164 (U23), IDVGA74 and IDVGA70 (U9), IDVGA47, IDVGA46 and IDVGA58 (U21), MAP1B (U14), IDVGA79 (U4), CATHL (U12), IDVGA71 (U8), IDVGA59 (U26), IDVGA29 (U29), IDVGA7 (U7), IDVGA82 (X), IDVGA50 (Y). All mapped loci were localized on homoeologous chromosomes and chromosome regions of the two species, confirming the high degree of chromosome homoeologies between the subfamilies Bovinae and Caprinae. PMID:12826750
Di Meo, G P; Perucatti, A; Incarnato, D; Ferretti, L; Di Berardino, D; Caputi Jambrenghi, A; Vonghia, G; Iannuzzi, L
Serum samples from 169 waterbuffaloes and 121 beef cattle were analyzed for antibodies to T. gondii by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Positive results were obtained in 27.2% of waterbuffaloes and 17.4% of cattle. Statistical analysis indicated significant differences between the prevalence in cattle and buffalo (p ? 0.05). The highest titres found in positive animals were 1:256 (buffaloes) and 1:64 (cattle). In both bovine species, toxoplasmosis frequency in young animals (less than 2 years old) was lower compared to older individuals, although the differences seen in cattle were not statistically significant. PMID:23990431
de F Santos, Laura M J; Damé, Maria Cecília F; Cademartori, Beatris G; da Cunha Filho, Nilton A; da R Farias, Nara Amélia; Ruas, Jerônimo L
Four Thai swamp buffaloes (SB) and four Murrah buffaloes (MB) fed a based diet of fresh ruzi grass (Bachiaria ruziziensis) with an increased proportion of fresh leucaena leaves. Intake of nutrients in animals increased when ruzi grass was mixed with leucaena. Digestibility of nutrients were the highest in SB and MB fed diets containing 25% and 50% of leucaena, respectively, and nitrogen (N) balances in both animal breeds were varied among diets. The regression equation coefficient of mimosine + DHP in the urine was twice as high in SB than in MB. Urinary purine derivatives excretion rate in SB was higher than that in MB. Plasma triiodothyronine and thyroxine declined in both animal breeds fed a diet containing >1 g mimosine intake/kg BW(0.75)/day. Plasma urea-N was the lowest in SB, but the highest in MB when fed a diet containing 84% of leucaena. Plasma ?-HBA in SB have declined when diets contained >50% of leucaena but that in MB was not affected by any diet. In conclusion, the effect of leucaena in diet upon buffalo breeds depends on the proportion of leucaena in the diet, mimosine contents and condensed tannins components. PMID:21928129
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether enriching the oocyte in vitro maturation medium with cystine, in the presence of cysteamine, would improve the in vitro embryo production efficiency in buffalo by further increasing the GSH reservoir created by the oocyte during maturation. Cumulus-oocytes complexes were matured in vitro in TCM 199 + 10% FCS, 0.5 microg/ml FSH, 5 microg/ml LH and 1 microg/ml 17beta-estradiol in the absence or presence of cysteamine (50 microM), with or without 0.3mM cystine. In Experiment 1, glutathione content was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorimetric analysis in representative samples of oocytes matured in the four different experimental conditions. In Experiment 2, oocytes were fixed and stained to assess nuclear maturation and normal pronuclear development following IVM and IVF respectively. In Experiment 3, mature oocytes were in vitro fertilized and cultured to assess development to blastocysts. In all supplemented groups the intracytoplasmic GSH concentration was significantly higher than the control, with the highest GSH levels in oocytes matured in the presence of both thiol compounds (3.6, 4.7, 5.4 and 6.9 picomol/oocyte in the control, cysteamine, cystine and cystine+cysteamine groups, respectively; P < 0.05). Cystine supplementation of IVM medium, both in the presence or absence of cysteamine, significantly increased the proportion of oocytes showing two normal synchronous pronuclei following fertilization. In all supplemented groups, cleavage rate was significantly improved compared to the control (55, 66.1, 73.5 and 78.4% in the control, cysteamine, cystine and cystine+cysteamine groups, respectively; P < 0.05). Similarly, blastocyst yield was also increased in the three enriched groups compared to the control (17.1, 23.8, 29.3, 30.9% in the control, cysteamine, cystine and cystine+cysteamine groups, respectively; P < 0.05). Overall, the addition of cystine to a cysteamine-enriched medium resulted in a significant increase of cleavage rate and transferable embryo yield compared to the medium supplemented with only cysteamine. PMID:15979699
Gasparrini, Bianca; Boccia, Lucia; Marchandise, Joelle; Di Palo, Rossella; George, Fabienne; Donnay, Isabelle; Zicarelli, Luigi
Summary Schistosomiasis japonica is an endemic, zoonotic disease of major public health importance in China where waterbuffaloes account for approximately 75% of disease transmission. Interventions that reduce schistosome infection in waterbuffaloes will enhance their health simultaneously reducing disease transmission to humans. While chemotherapy has proved successful, it requires continued time consuming and expensive mass treatments. A more sustainable option would be development of vaccines that reduce transmission of S. japonicum from bovines to replace bovine chemotherapy. We performed two randomized double blind trials in waterbuffaloes to determine if DNA vaccines encoding triose phosphate isomerase (SjCTPI), or the tetraspanin 23 kDa integral membrane protein (SjC23), alone or fused to bovine heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) could induce a level of immunity conducive to long-term sustainable control. Groups of waterbuffaloes (15/group) received 3 intramuscular injections, 4 weeks apart. Booster immunizations were co-administered with a plasmid DNA encoding IL-12. Four weeks after the last injection, waterbuffaloes were challenged with 1000 cercariae, and vaccine efficacy analyzed 8 weeks later. Waterbuffaloes vaccinated with SjCTPI-Hsp70 or SjCTPI plasmids had worm burdens reduced by 51.2% and 41.5%, respectively. Importantly, fecal miracidial-hatching was reduced by 52.1% and 33.2% respectively compared to control vaccinated waterbuffaloes. Vaccination with SjC23-Hsp70 and SjC23 plasmids reduced worm burdens by 50.9% and 45.5%, respectively, and fecal miracidial-hatching by 52.0% and 47.4%. A mathematical model of schistosome transmission predicts that schistosome vaccines capable of reducing waterbuffaloes’ fecal egg output by 45%, alone or in conjunction with praziquantel treatment, will lead to a significant reduction in transmission of schistosomiasis. Both DNA vaccines tested here exceed this hypothetical level. Indeed, mathematical modeling of SjCTPI-Hsp70 and SjC23-Hsp70 alone and in conjunction with human chemotherapy showed a significant reduction in transmission almost to the point of elimination.
Da'Dara, Akram A.; Li, Yuesheng S.; Xiong, Tie; Zhou, Jie; Williams, Gail M.; McManus, Donald P.; Feng, Zheng; Yu, Xin L.; Gray, Darren J.; Harn, Donald A.
Four male swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) each fitted with a duodenal catheter, with an initial body weight of 244±19.8kg were used to study the recovery rate of urinary purine derivatives (PD) after duodenally infused with incremental amounts of purine bases (PB). During the experiment, the buffaloes were fed, at a maintenance energy level, a diet containing 40% oil palm frond
O Pimpa; J. B Liang; J Balcells; Z. A Jelan; N Abdullah
To identify contaminants responsible for toxicity of sediments from the Buffalo River, toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) were conducted with interstitial (pore) water from several sites. Initial toxicity of the samples was determined using fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia, and TIE analyses were conducted with the most sensitive of the two species at a particular site. Fathead
Gerald T. Ankley; Mary K. Schubauer-Berigan; Joseph R. Dierkes
Little is known about the diversity and public health significance of Cryptosporidium species in waterbuffaloes. In this study, we examined the distribution of Cryptosporidium spp. in waterbuffalo calves in Egypt. Rectal fecal specimens from 179 calves and 359 adults were screened microscopically for Cryptosporidium oocysts using modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain. Cryptosporidium spp. in 17 microscopy-positive specimens from calves were genotyped by DNA sequence analysis of the small-subunit rRNA gene, and Cryptosporidium parvum was subtyped by sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene. Cryptosporidium ryanae was found in 10 specimens and C. parvum in 7 specimens, with the former belonging to the newly identified C. ryanae buffalo variant and the latter belonging to the subtypes IIdA20G1 (in 5 specimens) and IIaA15G1R1 (in 2 specimens). The prevailing occurrence of C. ryanae and the subtype family IId of C. parvum and the absence of C. bovis and C. andersoni represent some features of Cryptosporidium transmission in waterbuffaloes in Egypt. PMID:22963712
Background African buffaloes are the maintenance host for Mycobacterium bovis in the endemically infected Kruger National Park (KNP). The infection is primarily spread between buffaloes via the respiratory route, but it is not known whether shedding of M. bovis in nasal and oral excretions may lead to contamination of ground and surface water and facilitate the transmission to other animal species. A study to investigate the possibility of water contamination with M. bovis was conducted in association with a BCG vaccination trial in African buffalo. Groups of vaccinated and nonvaccinated buffaloes were kept together with known infected in-contact buffalo cows to allow natural M. bovis transmission under semi-free ranging conditions. In the absence of horizontal transmission vaccinated and control buffaloes were experimentally challenged with M. bovis. Hence, all study buffaloes in the vaccination trial could be considered potential shedders and provided a suitable setting for investigating questions relating to the tenacity of M. bovis shed in water. Results Serial water samples were collected from the drinking troughs of the buffaloes once per season over an eleven-month period and cultured for presence of mycobacteria. All water samples were found to be negative for M. bovis, but 16 non-tuberculous Mycobacterium spp. isolates were cultured. The non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species were further characterised using 5'-16S rDNA PCR-sequencing, resulting in the identification of M. terrae, M. vaccae (or vanbaalenii), M. engbaekii, M. thermoresistibile as well as at least two species which have not yet been classified. Conclusion The absence of detectable levels of Mycobacterium bovis in the trough water suggests that diseased buffalo do not commonly shed the organism in high quantities in nasal and oral discharges. Surface water may therefore not be likely to play an important role in the transmission of bovine tuberculosis from buffalo living in free-ranging ecosystems. The study buffalo were, however, frequently exposed to different species of non-tuberculous, environmental mycobacteria, with an unknown effect on the buffaloes' immune response to mycobacteria.
Michel, Anita L; de Klerk, Lin-Mari; van Pittius, Nico C Gey; Warren, Rob M; van Helden, Paul D
This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the Smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability (HIS) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.
Sixty-three Brucella isolates from waterbuffaloes and cattle slaughtered within the Italian national plan for brucellosis control were characterized by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Genotyping indicated a strong influence of geographic origin on the Brucella abortus biovar distribution in areas where brucellosis is endemic and highlighted the importance of rigorous management procedures aimed at avoiding inter- and intraherd spreading of pathogens.
Peletto, Simone; Lucibelli, Maria G.; Acutis, Pier L.; Ercolini, Danilo; Galiero, Giorgio
Sixty-three Brucella isolates from waterbuffaloes and cattle slaughtered within the Italian national plan for brucellosis control were characterized by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Genotyping indicated a strong influence of geographic origin on the Brucella abortus biovar distribution in areas where brucellosis is endemic and highlighted the importance of rigorous management procedures aimed at avoiding inter- and intraherd spreading of pathogens. PMID:23183984
Borriello, Giorgia; Peletto, Simone; Lucibelli, Maria G; Acutis, Pier L; Ercolini, Danilo; Galiero, Giorgio
Tyndalized milk of goat, cow, and buffalo was found to be a potential substitute for fetal bovine serum (FBS) in the medium for the cultivation of Leishmania donovani promastigotes. The numbers (means) of promasti- gotes reached 2.6 107, 2.3 107, and 2.1 107\\/ml, respectively, in the medium supplemented with 10% milk of goat, cow, and buffalo, in comparison to 1.9
M. Muniaraj; C. S. Lal; S. Kumar; P. K. Sinha; P. Das
Waterbuffaloes were vaccinated three times with 10,000 Schistosoma japonicum cercariae irradiated with ultraviolet (uv) light at a dose of 400 microW x min/cm2. The irradiation was performed with cheap, simple, and portable equipment in a rural area of Hubei Province (People's Republic of China). A challenge infection of 1000 untreated cercariae was given to six vaccinated and six naive control buffaloes, while two vaccinated animals were not challenged. The experiment was terminated 6 weeks after the challenge. Control animals had lost body weight and harbored a mean of 110 worms and 37 eggs per gram of liver. The vaccinated animals gained weight after the challenge and developed 89% resistance to infection with S. japonicum. Since schistosomiasis japonica is nowadays transmitted in China predominantly by domestic livestock, a uv-attenuated cercarial vaccine for bovines may contribute to the control of this disease.
Shi, Y.E.; Jiang, C.F.; Han, J.J.; Li, Y.L.; Ruppel, A. (Tongii Medical Univ., Wuhan, Hubei Province (China))
The present study was carried out between March 2006 and June 2010. During the study nine abattoirs were visited and 166 waterbuffalo internal organs were examined in Black Sea Region of Turkey. It was found that 10.24% buffaloes were infected with cystic echinococcosis (CE). The rate of CE found as 3.77% in males and 21.66% in females, 37.93% in older and 4.38% in young animals. The degree of prevalence according to age and sex was statistically significant (p<0.05). CE was observed 29.41% only in liver, 47.06% only in lungs and 23.53% in both liver and lungs. Therefore, the lungs were the predominant sites of the CE in buffaloes. Molecular identification on nine isolates, based on mitochondrial cox1 sequencing analyses, revealed that six cysts belonged to G1 genotype (domestic sheep strain) while 3 samples showed variant genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus complex G1-G2-G3. Two of them showed a thymine in position 52, like G2 strain, but the rest of sequences were completely identical to strain G1; also one specimen showed a single nucleotide change compared to strain G1 (C122T). PMID:21601988
Bovine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused mainly by Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina, which are associated to considerable economic losses in cattle herds worldwide. Approximately 60% of buffalo herds in South America are located in Northern Brazil. Little is known about the impact of babesiosis on buffalo herds in Brazil. The present work aimed to verify the occurrence of B. bovis and B. bigemina in 542 waterbuffaloes in the state of Pará, Northern Brazil, using molecular and serological techniques. The percentage of seropositive animals for B. bovis and B. bigemina was 41.2% and 19.0%, respectively, by ELISA. B. bovis and B. bigemina DNA were detected in 15 and 16% of sampled buffaloes, respectively. A high correlation (Kappa index of 0.9) between serological and molecular tests suggests that the combination of the utilized techniques in the present study is suitable for babesiosis diagnosis in an endemic unstable area. Significantly difference of positivity for serological and molecular assays was verified to localities and reproductive status of sampled animals, but not between buffalo breeds. The immune status of sampled buffaloes associated to the circulation of babesiosis agents in sampled population suggests that the studied area is at risk to clinical babesiosis outbreaks. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that this region can be classified as endemically unstable. PMID:23790545
da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; André, Marcos Rogério; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; de Albuquerque Lopes, Cinthia Távora; da Silva Lima, Danillo Henrique; de Andrade, Stefano Juliano Tavares; Oliveira, Carlos Magno Chaves; Barbosa, José Diomedes
This study was conducted to determine the chromium content of different feedstuffs, their estimated requirement, and effect of dietary Cr supplementation on nutrient intake, nutrient utilization, growth performance, and mineral balance in buffalo calves during summer season. Levels of Cr was higher in cultivated fodder, moderate in cakes and cereal grains, while straw, grasses, and non-conventional feeds were poor in Cr content. To test the effect of Cr supplementation in buffalo calves, 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ppm of inorganic Cr were fed to 24 buffalo calves. Buffalo calves were randomly assigned to four treatments (n?=?6) and raised for 120 days. A metabolic trial for a period of 7 days was conducted after 3 months of dietary treatments. Blood samples were collected at fortnight interval for plasma mineral estimation. The results suggested that dietary Cr supplementation in summer did not have any affects (P?>?0.05) on feed consumption, growth performance, nitrogen balance, and physiological variables. However, dietary Cr supplementation had significant effect (P?0.05) on balance and plasma Cr (ppb) levels without affecting (P?>?0.05) balance and plasma levels of other trace minerals. The estimated Cr requirement of buffalo calves during summer season was calculated to be 0.044 mg/kg body mass and 10.37 ppm per day. In conclusion, dietary Cr supplementation has regardless effect on feed consumption, mass gain, and nutrient utilization in buffalo calves reared under heat stress conditions. However, supplementation of Cr had positive effect on its balance and plasma concentration without interacting with other trace minerals. PMID:23963742
Difficulty in controlling human Schistosoma japonicum infection is partly attributed to the presence of non-human definitive hosts. Waterbuffaloes are a major reservoir for transmission of S. japonicum to humans in China. However, in the Philippines, reports based on microscopic examination of buffalo stool identified a low prevalence of S. japonicum, and mathematical models using these data concluded that waterbuffaloes are not a major reservoir for transmission of S. japonicum to humans. We collected stool from 81 buffaloes in Macanip, Leyte, the Philippines, and assayed for S. japonicum infection by the Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory technique, the Kato-Katz technique, miracidia hatching, and a highly validated real-time polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence defined by each assay was 3.7%, 3.7%, 0%, and 51.5% respectively. Our results demonstrate that microscopic-based techniques dramatically underestimate the prevalence of S. japonicum infection in waterbuffaloes in the Philippines and warrant reexamination of the role of bovines in transmission of S. japonicum to humans in the Philippines.
Wu, Hai-Wei; Qin, Yuan-Fang; Chu, Kai; Meng, Rui; Liu, Yun; McGarvey, Stephen T.; Olveda, Remigio; Acosta, Luz; Ji, Min-Jun; Fernandez, Tomas; Friedman, Jennifer F.; Kurtis, Jonathan D.
Background Secreted modular calcium binding protein-1 (Smoc-1) belongs to the BM-40 family which has been implicated with tissue remodeling, angiogenesis and bone mineralization. Besides its anticipated role in embryogenesis, Smoc-1 has been characterized only in a few mammalian species. We made use of the consensus sequence (5' CACCTCTCCACCTGCC 3') of 33.15 repeat loci to explore the buffalo transcriptome and uncovered the Smoc-1 transcript tagged with this repeat. The main objective of this study was to gain an insight into its structural and functional organization, and expressional status of Smoc-1 in waterbuffalo, Bubalus bubalis. Results We cloned and characterized the buffalo Smoc-1, including its copy number status, in-vitro protein expression, tissue & age specific transcription/translation, chromosomal mapping and localization to the basement membrane zone. Buffalo Smoc-1 was found to encode a secreted matricellular glycoprotein containing two EF-hand calcium binding motifs homologous to that of BM-40/SPARC family. In buffalo, this single copy gene consisted of 12 exons and was mapped onto the acrocentric chromosome 11. Though this gene was found to be evolutionarily conserved, the buffalo Smoc-1 showed conspicuous nucleotide/amino acid changes altering its secondary structure compared to that in other mammals. In silico analysis of the Smoc-1 proposed its glycoprotein nature with a calcium dependent conformation. Further, we unveiled two transcript variants of this gene, varying in their 3'UTR lengths but both coding for identical protein(s). Smoc-1 evinced highest expression of both the variants in liver and modest to negligible in other tissues. The relative expression of variant-02 was markedly higher compared to that of variant-01 in all the tissues examined. Moreover, expression of Smoc-1, though modest during the early ages, was conspicuously enhanced after 1 year and remained consistently higher during the entire life span of buffalo with gradual increment in expression of variant-02. Immunohistochemically, Smoc-1 was localized in the basement membrane zones and extracellular matrices of various tissues. Conclusion These data added to our understandings about the tissue, age and species specific functions of the Smoc-1. It also enabled us to demonstrate varying expression of the two transcript variants of Smoc-1 amongst different somatic tissues/gonads and ages, in spite of their identical coding frames. Pursuance of these variants for their roles in various disease phenotypes such as hepatocellular carcinoma and angiogenesis is envisaged to establish broader biological significance of this gene.
Tag retention was measured for paddlefish Polyodon spathula, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus, smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus, and bigmouth buffalo Ictiobus cyprinellus. Fish were captured in 1986 and 1987, triple-tagged with spaghetti tags (Floy FT-4 lock-on), anchor tags (Floy FD-6813), and fin or opercular marks, and released into Energy Lake, Kentucky. After testing for homogeneity, we constructed
Recombinant fatty acid binding protein (rFABP) of Fasciola gigantica was expressed in Escherichia coli and used as vaccine in Freund’s adjuvant to evaluate the level of protection induced in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves. Fifteen buffalo calves were distributed to three groups of five calves each. An antigen dose of 400 ?g for each of the three immunizations at 3-week intervals, and
P. Azhahia Nambi; S. C. Yadav; O. K. Raina; D. Sriveny; Mohini Saini
This study was conducted to evaluate the feeding value of Jambo grass (Sorghum bicolour Sorghum sudanefe) silage as a replacement of conventional fodder (Jambo grass; JG) in the diet of lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Jumbo grass was ensiled with molasses (at 2% of fodder DM) on large scale in bunker silos for 30 days. Two experimental iso-nitrogenous and
Embryonic stem (ES) cells de- rived from mammalian embryos have the ability to form any terminally differentiated cell of the body. We herein describe production of parthenogenetic buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) blastocysts and subsequent isolation of an ES cell line. Established parthenogenetic ES (PGES) cells exhibited diploid karyotype and high telomerase activity. PGES cells showed remarkable long-term proliferative capacity providing the
Purpose To optimize In vitro maturation (IVM) of quality oocytes for embryo production through IVF and SCNT.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Buffalo oocytes were in vitro matured in the presence of the pokeweed lectin (Phytolacca americana), a potent lymphocyte mitogen. Lectin was supplemented\\u000a in TCM + 10% FBS at the doses of 0, 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 40 ?g\\/ml and cumulus expansion and
SUMMARY Management of the natural environment and its resources leads to conflicts between different stake- holders worldwide. Recently mangrove browsing by feral waterbuffalo in the East-Godavari Delta (India) has been considered a threat to the regeneration of mangroves by the local Forest Department, which led to conflicts between the authorities and local herds- men who have an ancient tradition
F. DAHDOUH-GUEBAS; D. VRANCKEN; T. RAVISHANKAR; N. KOEDAM
Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) causes the disease called Surra in domestic animals, which is of great economic importance in South Asian countries. In order to improve the diagnosis of Surra, we endeavored to develop a real-time PCR assay for the detection and quantification of parasites in waterbuffaloes using specific primers for the T. evansi Rode Trypanozoon antigen type (RoTat)
Satoru Konnai; Hirohisa Mekata; Claro N. Mingala; Nancy S. Abes; Charito A. Gutierrez; Jesus Rommel V. Herrera; Alan P. Dargantes; William H. Witola; Libertado C. Cruz; Noboru Inoue; Misao Onuma; Kazuhiko Ohashi
Serum samples from 200 dairy cattle and 200 beef waterbuffaloes were collected in southern Vietnam during May to September 1995. The sera were analysed for antibodies to Neospora caninum by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the indirect fluorescent antibody test, and for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by the direct agglutination test. Significant levels of N. caninum antibodies were detected
L. T. T Huong; B.-L Ljungström; A Uggla; C Björkman
Bovine babesiosis is a tick-transmitted hemoprotozoan disease that is mainly caused by Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina and is characterized by significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The disease is widespread in the northeastern region of Thailand, where an increasingly large part of the livestock is composed of waterbuffaloes. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological distribution of B. bovis and B. bigemina in waterbuffaloes in the northeastern region of Thailand. A total of 305 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and simultaneously analyzed by the nested PCR (nPCR) assay, ELISA, and IFAT techniques. The overall prevalence of B. bovis and B. bigemina was 11.2% and 3.6% by nPCR, 14.7% and 5.9% by ELISA, and 16.8% and 5.6% by IFAT, respectively. The high concordance between the molecular and the serological detection tests revealed the specificity and sensitivity of the diagnostic assays used for the detection of infection as well as the endemic stability status of the parasites in the surveyed areas. Statistically significant differences in the prevalence of the two infections were observed on the basis of age and location but not gender. Our data provide valuable information regarding the epidemiology of B. bovis and B. bigemina infection in waterbuffaloes in the northeastern region of Thailand which will likely be very beneficial for management and control programs of this disease. PMID:21324601
The present study evaluated the effects of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2 and epidermal growth factor (EGF) on proliferation and the expression of some genes in spermatogonial cells. Spermatogonial cells were isolated from prepubertal buffalo testes and enriched by double enzyme treatment, filtration through 80- and 60-?m nylon mesh filters, differential plating on lectin-coated dishes and Percoll density gradient centrifugation. Cells were then cultured on a buffalo Sertoli cell feeder layer and formed colonies within 15-18 days. The colonies were found to predominantly contain undifferentiated Type A spermatogonia because they bound Dolichos biflorus agglutinin and did not express c-kit. The colonies expressed alkaline phosphatase, NANOG, octamer-binding transcription factor (OCT)-4 and tumour rejection antigen (TRA)-1-60. Cells were subcultured for 15 days, with or without growth factor supplementation. After 15 days, colony area and the relative mRNA abundance of PLZF were higher (P<0.05) following supplementation with 40ngmL(-1) GDNF+10ngmL(-1) EGF+10ngmL(-1) FGF2 than with the same concentrations of GDNF alone or GDNF plus either EGF or FGF2. Expression of TAF4B was higher (P<0.05) in the presence of FGF2, whereas the expression of THY1 was not affected by growth factor supplementation. In the Sertoli cell feeder layer, EGF and FGF2 decreased (P<0.05), whereas GDNF increased (P<0.05), the relative mRNA abundance of ETV5 compared with control. In conclusion, an in vitro culture system that incorporates various growth factors was developed for the short-term culture of buffalo spermatogonia. PMID:23171731
The present study was undertaken to examine whether the presence of antral follicles (AFs) affects the survival, growth and steroidogenesis of preantral follicles (PFs) and compare the maturation and developmental competence of buffalo oocytes derived from in vivo developed and in vitro cultured AFs. Two experiments were carried out. In experiment I, PFs (200-250 ?m) were isolated and cultured with or without AFs (3-5 mm) in TCM-199 medium that contained 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 1% insulin transferin selenium (ITS), 20 ng/ml epidermal growth factor (EGF), 0.5 ?g/ml follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and 100 ng/ml insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I. In experiment II, in vitro developmental competence was compared for the cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) recovered from in vivo developed and in vitro cultured AFs. Survival, growth, development of antrum, accumulation of estradiol and progesterone was (P < 0.05) higher when PFs were co-cultured with AFs. Developmental competence of both types of follicular oocytes did not differ significantly in terms of maturation and cleavage rate, but morula and blastocyst production rate were (P < 0.05) higher with in vivo developed AFs as compared with the in vitro cultured antral follicular oocytes. In conclusion, co-culture of PFs with AFs supports long-term survival and growth of buffalo PFs and this co-culture system plays a dual role for in vitro production of embryos as well as understanding the relationship between developing PFs and AFs. PMID:22251772
Sharma, G Taru; Dubey, Pawan K; Nath, Amar; Saikumar, G
Comparative FISH-mapping among Y chromosomes of cattle (Bos taurus, 2n = 60, BTA, submetacentric Y chromosome), zebu (Bos indicus, 2n = 60, BIN, acrocentric Y chromosome but with visible small p-arms), river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, 2n = 50, BBU, acrocentric Y chromosome), sheep (Ovis aries, 2n = 54, OAR, small metacentric Y chromosome) and goat (Capra hircus, 2n = 60,
G. P. Di Meo; A. Perucatti; S. Floriot; D. Incarnato; R. Rullo; A. Caputi Jambrenghi; L. Ferretti; G. Vonghia; E. Cribiu; A. Eggen; L. Iannuzzi
Background The presence of animal reservoirs in Schistosoma japonicum infection has been a major obstacle in the control of schistosomiasis. Previous studies have proven that the inclusion of control measures on animal reservoir hosts for schistosomiasis contributed to the decrease of human cases. Animal surveillance should therefore be included to strengthen and improve the capabilities of current serological tests. Methodology/Principal Findings Thioredoxin peroxidase-1 (SjTPx-1) and four tandem repeat proteins (Sj1TR, Sj2TR, Sj4TR, Sj7TR) were initially evaluated against human sera. The previous test showed high sensitivity and specificity for antibody detection against SjTPx-1 and Sj7TR. In this study, the immunodiagnostic potential of these recombinant proteins was evaluated using enzyme-linked immunoassay on 50 waterbuffalo serum samples collected in Cagayan, the Philippines as compared with the soluble egg antigen (SEA). For specificity, 3 goat serum samples positive with Fasciola hepatica were used and among the antigens used, only SEA showed cross-reaction. Stool PCR targeting the S. japonicum 82 bp mitochondrial NAD 1 gene was done to confirm the true positives and served as the standard test. Twenty three samples were positive for stool PCR. SjTPx-1 and Sj1TR gave the highest sensitivity among the recombinant proteins tested for waterbuffalo samples with 82.61% and 78.26% respectively which were higher than that of SEA (69.57%). Conclusions/Significance These results prove that SjTPx-1 works both for humans and waterbuffaloes making it a good candidate antigen for zoonotic diagnosis. Sj1TR showed good results for waterbuffaloes and therefore can also be used as a possible candidate for detecting animal schistosome infection.
Angeles, Jose Ma. M.; Goto, Yasuyuki; Kirinoki, Masashi; Asada, Masahito; Leonardo, Lydia R.; Rivera, Pilarita T.; Villacorte, Elena A.; Inoue, Noboru; Chigusa, Yuichi; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro
In this study we investigated the prevalence and enzootic potential of Theileria spp. in waterbuffalo in the Hubei province in China. An indirect ELISA based on a recombinant major piroplasma surface protein was developed. The complete ORF of the 33-kDa major piroplasma surface protein (p33) was obtained from Theileria sergenti genomic DNA by PCR, cloned into the pET-28(a) vector
L. X. Wang; J. H. Zhao; L. He; Q. Liu; D. N. Zhou; Y. Q. Zhou; J. L. Zhao
Waterbuffalo and yellow cattle are the two of the most important natural reservoir hosts for Schistosoma japonicum in endemic areas of China, although their susceptibility differs, with waterbuffalo being less conducive to the growth and development of S. japonicum. Results from the current study show that the general morphology and ultrastructure of adult schistosomes derived from the two hosts also differed. Using high-throughput microarray technology, we also compared the gene expression profiles of adult schistosomes derived from the two hosts. We identified genes that were differentially expressed in worms from the two natural hosts. Further analysis revealed that genes associated with protein kinase and phosphatase, the stimulus response, and lipid and nucleotide metabolism were overexpressed, whereas genes associated with reproduction, anatomical structure morphogenesis and multifunctional motif were underexpressed in schistosomes from waterbuffalo. These differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in nucleotide, energy, lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, transcription, transport and signaling pathway. This suggests that they are key molecules affecting the survival and development of schistosomes in different natural host species. The results of this study add to current understanding of the interplay between parasites and their natural hosts, and provide valuable information for the screening of vaccine candidates or new drug targets against schistosomiasis in the natural reservoir hosts in endemic areas.
Aboriginal land managers have observed that feral Asian waterbuffalo (Bubalis bubalis Lydekker) are threatening the ecological and cultural integrity of perennial freshwater sources in Arnhem Land, Australia.\\u000a Here we present collaborative research between the Aboriginal Rangers from Warddeken Land Management Limited and Western scientists\\u000a which quantified the ground-level impacts of buffalo on seven perennial freshwater springs of the Arnhem
Emilie-Jane Ens; Peter Cooke; Ray Nadjamerrek; Seraine Namundja; Victor Garlngarr; Dean Yibarbuk
The present study has evaluated the association of growth differentiation factor9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein15 (BMP15) mRNA expression in cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) of buffalo ovary during in vitro maturation (IVM). GDF9 and BMP15 are expressed specifically in mammalian oocytes and also participate in cumulus-oocyte crosstalk. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) technique was applied to investigate the relative abundance (RA) of GDF9 and BMP15 mRNA transcripts throughout the IVM process. Relative mRNA expression pattern of these specific genes were assessed in oocytes and cumulus cells at 0, 6, 12 and 24 h of in vitro culture. Our results revealed that RA of GDF9 during different hours of IVM showed significant reduction between 0 h and 24 h of maturation in oocytes and BMP15 transcript increased significantly (P<0.05) between 6 h and 12 h and decreased again between 12 h and 24. In cumulus cells, GDF9 remained stable during IVM upto 12 h of maturation and decreased significantly between 12 h and 24 h of maturation. Conversely, significant reduction of BMP15 was observed between 0 h and 6 h, stayed stable upto 12 h and became undetectable at 24 h of maturation. In conclusion, these two genes were differentially expressed during the period of oocyte maturation process and notably, BMP15 expression pattern is associated specifically with the period of cumulus cell expansion. PMID:23724366
The lousicidal and repellent effects of five essential oils were investigated for the first time against the buffalo louse, Haematopinus tuberculatus, and flies infesting waterbuffaloes in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt. For the in vitro studies, filter paper contact bioassays were used to test the oils and their lethal activities were compared with that of d-phenothrin. Four minutes post-treatment, the median lethal concentration, LC50, values were 2.74, 7.28, 12.35, 18.67 and 22.79% for camphor (Cinnamomum camphora), onion (Allium cepa), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) and rosemary oils (Rosmarinus officinalis), respectively, whereas for d-phenothrin, it was 1.17%. The lethal time (50) (LT50) values were 0.89, 2.75, 15.39, 21.32, 11.60 and 1.94 min after treatment with 7.5% camphor, onion, peppermint, chamomile, rosemary and d-phenothrin, respectively. All the materials used except rosemary, which was not applied, were ovicidal to the eggs of H. tuberculatus. Despite the results of the in vitro assays, the in vivo treatments revealed that the pediculicidal activity was more pronounced with oils. All treated lice were killed after 0.5-2 min, whereas with d-phenothrin, 100% mortality was reached only after 120 min. The number of lice infesting buffaloes was significantly reduced 3, 6, 4, 6 and 9 days after treatment with camphor, peppermint, chamomile, onion, and d-phenothrin, respectively. Moreover, the oils and d-phenothrin significantly repelled flies, Musca domestica, Stomoxys calcitrans, Haematobia irritans and Hippobosca equina, for 6 and 3 days post-treatment, respectively. No adverse effects were noted on either animals or pour-on operators after exposure to the applied materials. Consequently, some Egyptian essential oils show potential for the development of new, speedy and safe lousicides and insect repellents for controlling lice and flies which infest waterbuffaloes. PMID:19596520
Khater, Hanem F; Ramadan, Mohamed Y; El-Madawy, Reham S
This study aimed to generate a profile of the health and productivity of waterbuffaloes in a communal setting. Using the Epi-Info version 6.04 for data management, a coded information system was used to accommodate data coming from the reference population. Calves and cows that were born and milked, respectively, were enrolled and monitored for six months. The key outcomes of interest monitored in this study included mortality, morbidity and productivity. Results of the study showed a 93.7 percent probability of the calves surviving up to six months with a calculated mortality true rate of 0.7 deaths per 1000 calf-days at risk. Three calves died during the six month observation period with a mean age at death of 3 days. Analysis of variance on productivity showed that the parasitic load, specifically coccidia, liver fluke and trypanosoma affected the growth rate of the calves. The productivity of cows in the study in terms of milk production was also highly affected by the endoparasitic load and disease condition of the animal. Univariate analysis revealed a significant association between calf scouring and cow's mastitis (MASTITIS)(P=0.066). Meanwhile, for the cows, the parasitic load particularly fasciolosis (P=0.000), coccidiosis (P=0.002) and trypanosomosis (P=0.094) (P<0.10) also significantly affected the milk production. The results give a clearer view of the relationship between the health and productivity profiles of these animals. PMID:18551780
A real-time polymerase chain reaction approach was used in this study to determine the population of major ruminal bacterial\\u000a species (Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus, and Ruminococcus flavefaciens) in digesta and rumen fluid of swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Four rumen-fistulated, male swamp buffalo were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to evaluate the\\u000a effect of the urea-treated rice
This study was designed to determine effect of various plant protein sources in high-quality feed block (HQFB) on feed intake,\\u000a rumen fermentation, and microbial population in swamp buffalo. Four rumen-fistulated swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were randomly assigned according to a 4?×?4 Latin square design. Four kinds of plant protein sources (coarse rice bran (CRB),\\u000a cassava hay (CH), Phaseolus calcaratus hay,
Background Application of assisted reproductive technologies in buffaloes is limited to some extent by farmers’ inability to detect oestrus because of its poor expression. The present study aimed at investigating reliability of a milk progesterone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to assess the ovarian cyclicity during post partum, oestrus and post-breeding periods in waterbuffaloes. Methods Progesterone concentrations were measured by an ELISA in milk of 23 postpartum buffaloes in relation to oestrus, pregnancy, body condition score (BCS) and milk production. Two milk samples were taken at 10?days intervals, every month starting from day 30 and continued to day 150 post partum. BCS and milk production were recorded during sample collection. Milk samples from bred buffaloes were collected at Day 0 (day of breeding), Days 10–12 and Days 22–24. Defatted milk was preserved at ?80°C until analysis. Pregnancy was confirmed by palpation per rectum on Days 70–90. Results Seventeen buffaloes had 47 ovulatory cycles, one to four in each, 13 were detected in oestrus once (28?% oestrus detection rate). Progesterone concentration ?1?ng/ml in one of the two 10-day-interval milk samples reflected ovulation and corpus luteum formation. The intervals between calving to first luteal activity and to first detected oestrus varied from 41 to 123?days (n?=?17) and 83 to 135 (n?=?13) days, respectively. Eight buffaloes were bred in the course of the study and seven were found pregnant. These buffaloes had a progesterone profile of low (<1?ng/ml), high (? 1?ng/ml) and high (? 1?ng/ml) on Day 0, Days 10–12 and Days 22–24, respectively. Buffaloes cycling later in the postpartum period had fewer missed oestruses (P?0.05). Buffaloes with a superior BCS had a shorter calving to oestrus interval and produced more milk (P?0.05). Conclusions Milk progesterone ELISA is a reliable tool for monitoring ovarian cyclicity and good BCS may be an indicator of resuming cyclicity in waterbuffalo.
The effects of some nongenetic factors on milk protein fraction contents and relative proportions were estimated in 606 individual milk samples of Mediterranean waterbuffalo. Content of ?(S1)-casein (CN), ?(S2)-CN, ?-CN, ?-CN, ??-CN, glycosylated ?-CN (glyco-?-CN), ?-lactalbumin, and ?-lactoglobulin was measured by reversed-phase HPLC. Relative contents of ?(S1)-CN%, ?(S2)-CN%, ?-CN%, and ?-CN% were, respectively, 32.1, 17.1, 34.5, and 15.7%, whereas ?-CN% accounted for 0.6% of total casein content. Increasing total casein content in milk would result in a greater proportion of ?-CN% at the expense of all of the other major casein fractions, especially of ?-CN%. Values of ?(S2)-CN%, ?-CN%, and ?-CN% tended to decrease with parity, although their variations were not significant, whereas ?(S1)-CN% and glyco-?-CN% showed the opposite trend. Contents of most protein fractions showed the typical trends observed for milk components as lactation progressed, with high contents in early lactation, a minimum in midlactation, followed by a gradual increase toward the latter part of lactation. Values of ?(S1)-CN% increased during lactation, whereas ?(S2)-CN% decreased. The proportion of ?-CN% had its maximum value between 60 and 160 d of lactation, followed by a decrease, whereas ?-CN% had its minimum value in early lactation (<60 d) and remained relatively constant in the period of mid and late lactation. Glyco-?-CN% and ?-lactoglobulin% decreased in the first part of lactation, to reach their minimum values in midlactation, followed by an increase. Milk of top-producing buffaloes, compared with that of low-producing ones, had a significantly greater value of ?-CN% and glyco-?-CN%, and lower proportion of ?(S1)-CN%. The possible effect exerted by protein genetic variants in affecting variation of milk protein fraction contents and relative proportions should be further considered to better get insight into buffalo milk protein composition. PMID:22818435
In this study we investigated the prevalence and enzootic potential of Theileria spp. in waterbuffalo in the Hubei province in China. An indirect ELISA based on a recombinant major piroplasma surface protein was developed. The complete ORF of the 33-kDa major piroplasma surface protein (p33) was obtained from Theileria sergenti genomic DNA by PCR, cloned into the pET-28(a) vector and expressed in E. coli as a His-fusion protein. Then the recombinant p33 (rp33) was purified and used as the antigen to develop an iELISA. Specificity test showed that there was no cross-reaction with Babesia orientalis, Schistosoma japonicum, Anaplasma marginale and Toxoplasma gondii. 178 waterbuffaloes raised in different locations in Hubei province in China were detected by this iELISA, all samples were also examined by PCR and microscopy at the same time. The iELISA result showed a higher positive rate (27.5%) than PCR (22.5%) and microscopy (12.9%). This result indicated that the iELISA is a suitable method for the diagnosis of T. sergenti infection and could be used in serological surveys to map out the prevalence of the disease. PMID:20207484
Wang, L X; Zhao, J H; He, L; Liu, Q; Zhou, D N; Zhou, Y Q; Zhao, J L
The performance of four wastewater treatment plants that serve the Buffalo City (Dimbaza, East London) and Nkokonbe (Alice, Fort Beaufort) Municipal areas in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were investigated for the removal of microbial and chemical contaminants. Statistical evidence showed a relationship between the quality of the final effluent and that of the receiving water body and
A seroprevalence study of bovine neosporosis was conducted among 1,927 dairy cattle and 341 waterbuffaloes from Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh states in plateau of southern peninsular India by employing competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 12.61 and 9.97 % sera samples were found positive for the presence of Neospora caninum antibody, respectively, among cattle and waterbuffaloes. Out of 1,927 sera samples from cattle, 912 and 1,015 samples were collected from unorganized and organized herds, respectively. The cattle screened were of upgraded Holstein-Friesian and waterbuffaloes were of graded Surti breed. Significantly (p < 0.05) higher prevalence was found in the cattle in unorganized herds (16.66 %) in comparison to organized herds (8.96 %). The highest seroprevalence was recorded in the age group of 4 years and above in both type of cattle herds and waterbuffaloes. There was a significant variation of seroprevalence (p < 0.05) observed between different age groups of cattle. The rate of seroprevalence increased with the increment in the age of the animals suggesting a possibility of horizontal mode of transmission of the infection from the environment. The percentage of abortion history was more in seropositive group (51.65 %) in comparison to the seronegative group (5.84 %) and the seropositive cattle were 8.84 times more likely to experience abortion than the seronegative cattle. The occurrence of abortion among different age groups varied significantly (p < 0.05). The findings revealed the presence of neosporosis in the southern peninsular India among cattle and waterbuffaloes and a strong association between the seroprevalence and abortion. PMID:22644733
Sengupta, P P; Balumahendiran, M; Raghavendra, A G; Honnappa, T G; Gajendragad, M R; Prabhudas, K
In order to determine the molecular and serological prevalence of Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis, a total of 247 blood samples were collected from cattle and waterbuffalos in Beheira and Faiyum Provinces in Egypt and examined by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In cattle, the prevalence of B. bigemina and B. bovis was 5.30% and 3.97% by nPCR and 10.60% and 9.27% by ELISA, respectively, whereas those of waterbuffalos were 10.42% and 4.17% by nPCR and 15.63% and 11.46% by ELISA, respectively. Statistically significant differences in the prevalence of the two infections were observed on the basis of age and health status. Sequencing analysis revealed two genotypes for B. bovis spherical body protein-4. In conclusion, the current data provide valuable information regarding the epidemiology of B. bigemina and B. bovis infections in cattle and waterbuffalos from Egypt, which can be employed in developing future strategies for disease management and control. PMID:24075417
Ibrahim, Hany M; Adjou Moumouni, Paul F; Mohammed-Geba, Khaled; Sheir, Sherin K; Hashem, Ihab S Y; Cao, Shinuo; Terkawi, Mohamad A; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan
Waterbuffalo (WB) is an important domestic animal in Vietnam. This study utilized a card agglutination test to investigate seroprevalence of surra in WB population. Sera were collected from 585 WB from 4 different regions in Cao Bang and Thai Nguyen Provinces. Among them, 131 samples (22.4%) were positive for surra. The highest prevalence (24.6%) was found among 3 to 5 years old WB. Buffaloes less than 3 years old had the lowest prevalence (15.6%). Among 27 abortion cases, 9 WB (33.3%) were surra positive. For treatment of surra, Berenil(®) demonstrated a 100% cure rate, while that of Trypamidium(®) was only 40%. Our findings suggest that the current control strategy has not succeeded in reducing prevalence of surra in Vietnam. PMID:23665513
In domestic animals of the family Bovidae, sex preselection of offspring has been demanded for convenience of milk/beef production and animal breeding. Development of the nonsurgical embryo transfer technique and sexing methods of preimplantation embryos made it possible. Sexing based on detection of Y chromosome-specific DNA sequences is considered the most reliable method to date. PCR enables amplification of a target sequence from a small number of blastomeres. However, it requires technical skill and is time consuming. Furthermore, PCR has the risk of false positives because of DNA contamination during handling of the PCR products in duplicate PCR procedures and/or electrophoresis. Therefore, for embryo sexing to become widely used in the cattle embryo transfer industry, a simple, rapid and precise sexing method needs to be developed. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel DNA amplification method, and the reaction is carried out under isothermal conditions (range, 60 to 65 C) using DNA polymerase with strand displacement activity. When the target DNA is amplified by LAMP, a white precipitate derived from magnesium pyrophosphate (a by-product of the LAMP reaction) is observed. It is noteworthy that LAMP does not need special reagents or electrophoresis to detect the amplified DNA. This review describes the development and application of an embryo sexing method using LAMP in cattle and waterbuffaloes. PMID:23965599
The osteopontin gene may influence the fertility of waterbuffaloes because it is a protein present in sperm. The aim of this work was to identify polymorphisms in this gene and associate them with fertility parameters of animals kept under extensive grazing. A total of 306 male buffaloes older than 18 months, from two farms, one in the state of Amapá and the other in the state of Pará, Brazil were used in the study. Seven SNPs were identified in the regions studied. The polymorphisms were in gene positions 1478, 1513 and 1611 in the region 5'upstrem and positions 6690, 6737, 6925 and 6952 in the region amplified in intron 5. The SNPs were associated with the traits, namely scrotal circumference, scrotal volume, sperm motility, sperm concentration and sperm pathology. There were significant SNPs (p < 0.05) for all the traits. The SNP 6690 was significant for scrotal circumference, sperm concentration, sperm motility and sperm pathology and the SNP 6737 for scrotal volume. The genotype AA of SNP 6690 presented the highest averages for scrotal circumference, sperm concentration and motility and the lowest total number of sperm pathologies. For the scrotal volume trait, the animals with the largest volume were correlated with the presence of the genotype GG of SNP 6737. These results indicate a significance of the osteopontin gene as it seems to exert a substantial influence on the semen production traits of male buffaloes. PMID:23346959
New Mexico's underground water resources include over 15 billion acre-feet of saline water of varying salinity levels. Salt tolerant crops that are capable of producing commercial yields economically may displace more conventional crops and spare the stat...
The Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip features 54,001 informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that uniformly span the entire bovine genome. Among them, 52,255 SNPs have locations assigned in the current genome assembly (Btau_4.0), including 19,294 (37%) intragenic SNPs (i.e., located within genes) and 32,961 (63%) intergenic SNPs (i.e., located between genes). While the SNPs represented on the Illumina Bovine50K BeadChip are evenly distributed along each bovine chromosome, there are over 14,000 genes that have no SNPs placed on the current BeadChip. Kernel density estimation, a non-parametric method, was used in the present study to identify SNP-poor and SNP-rich regions on each bovine chromosome. With bandwidth = 0.05 Mb, we observed that most regions have SNP densities within 2 standard deviations of the chromosome SNP density mean. The SNP density on chromosome X was the most dynamic, with more than 30 SNP-rich regions and at least 20 regions with no SNPs. Genotyping ten waterbuffalo using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip revealed that 41,870 of the 54,001 SNPs are fully scored on all ten waterbuffalo, but 6,771 SNPs are partially scored on one to nine animals. Both fully scored and partially/no scored SNPs are clearly clustered with various sizes on each chromosome. However, among 43,687 bovine SNPs that were successfully genotyped on nine and ten waterbuffalo, only 1,159 were polymorphic in the species. These results indicate that the SNPs sites, but not the polymorphisms, are conserved between two species. Overall, our present study provides a solid foundation to further characterize the SNP evolutionary process, thus improving understanding of within- and between-species biodiversity, phylogenetics and adaption to environmental changes.
Michelizzi, Vanessa N.; Wu, Xiaolin; Dodson, Michael V.; Michal, Jennifer J.; Zambrano-Varon, Jorge; McLean, Derek J.; Jiang, Zhihua
Hepcidin, a novel gene encoded, 25 residue, 2-3 KDa cysteine rich cationic peptide synthesized in liver cells play an important role in iron metabolism in addition to its antimicrobial activity. In this study hepcidin cDNA expressed on hepatocytes of Bubalus bubalis has been characterized and the antibacterial activity of buffalo hepcidin analog has been determined. The complete buffalo hepcidin sequence is of 324 bp and have an ORF of 249 nucleotides from 14 to 262. The sequence analysis at nucleotide level showed homology of 98.0% with cattle, 84.3% with pig, whereas with human, chimpanzee and gorilla 80.3%, 80.7% and 81.5% respectively. The percent identity of buffalo hepcidin cDNA to that of japanese macaque, dog, gibbon, mouse and norway rat are81.9%, 79.9%, 79.9%, 67.9% and 65.9% respectively. The hepcidin cDNA of buffalo and cattle showed a total difference of five nucleotides at position 15, 108, 225, 240 and 246 with no difference in deduced amino acid sequence. The base A(15), C(108), A(225), C(240), A(246) in cattle are replaced by G(15), G(108), G(225), T(240) and G(246) respectively in buffalo. The deduced amino acid sequence of buffalo preprohepcidin consists of 82 amino acids containing 10 strongly basic, 3 strongly acidic, 27 hydrophobic and 29 polar amino acids. The predicted molecular weight and isoelectric point (P(I)) for the peptide is 8883.67 Daltons and 8.804 respectively. Phylogenetic analysis both at nucleotide and amino acid level indicate that buffalo and cattle hepcidin sequences comprises one clad which is more closely related to pig compared to human. The chemically synthesized analog of buffalo hepcidin using Fmoc chemistry in solid phase had antibacterial activity. PMID:21161377
Waterbuffalo are economically important animals in many regions of the world, especially in developing countries. The International WaterBuffalo Consortium will sequence an Italian inbred female (33-fold coverage) to build the genome assembly and additional individuals to screen for SNPs. Based on...
A hydrodynamic and water quality transport study of the Buffalo River has been conducted. sing a two-dimensional (laterally averaged) model and incorporating appropriate specification of boundary conditions, we simulated the transport of river water temperature and conductivity f...
This Website gives users the chance to explore the landmark and industrial history of the city of Buffalo and its role in America's industrial expansion. The site features sections on the historic lighthouses and railroading industry of Buffalo, the Erie Canal, the broadcasting industry of Buffalo, and the Pan-American Exposition held in the city in 1901. The site is built around its use of appealing Shockwave and audio plug-ins to give users the sights and sounds of Buffalo's industrial past, but substantial historical background is also provided. The site is maintained by Aaron T. Heverin and supported by the Western New York Heritage Industry and the Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society.
Human enteric viruses (HEntVs) are a major cause of water-related diseases. The prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV), rotaviruses (RoV) and enteroviruses (EnV) in Buffalo River waters was assessed quantitatively over a period of 12 months (August 2010 to July 2011). Seventy-two samples were collected from six sites, including three dams, and concentrated using the adsorption-elution method. Viral RNA was extracted using a commercial kit, and the viruses were quantified by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR). Two or more viruses were detected in 12.5% of the samples. HAV was detected in 43.1% of the samples and in significantly (p < 0.05) varying concentrations of 1.5 × 101–1.9 × 105 genome copies/L compared to RoV and EnV, while RoVs were detected in 13.9% of samples, with concentrations ranging from 2.5 × 101–2.1 × 103 genome copies/L, and EnV were detected in 9.7% of the samples, with concentrations ranging from 1.3 × 101–8.6 × 101 genome copies/L. Only HAV was detected at all the sites, with the Bridle Drift Dam recording significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations. The presence of enteric viruses in Buffalo River may constitute public health risks and the incidence of HAV at all the sites could reflect both the epidemiological status of hepatitis A and HAV persistence in the water environments.
Human enteric viruses (HEntVs) are a major cause of water-related diseases. The prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV), rotaviruses (RoV) and enteroviruses (EnV) in Buffalo River waters was assessed quantitatively over a period of 12 months (August 2010 to July 2011). Seventy-two samples were collected from six sites, including three dams, and concentrated using the adsorption-elution method. Viral RNA was extracted using a commercial kit, and the viruses were quantified by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR). Two or more viruses were detected in 12.5% of the samples. HAV was detected in 43.1% of the samples and in significantly (p < 0.05) varying concentrations of 1.5 × 10(1)–1.9 × 10(5) genome copies/L compared to RoV and EnV, while RoVs were detected in 13.9% of samples, with concentrations ranging from 2.5 × 10(1)–2.1 × 10(3) genome copies/L, and EnV were detected in 9.7% of the samples, with concentrations ranging from 1.3 × 10(1)–8.6 × 10(1) genome copies/L. Only HAV was detected at all the sites, with the Bridle Drift Dam recording significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations. The presence of enteric viruses in Buffalo River may constitute public health risks and the incidence of HAV at all the sites could reflect both the epidemiological status of hepatitis A and HAV persistence in the water environments. PMID:23202829
Carboxypeptidase-B (E.C 188.8.131.52) catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptides and esters at C-terminus of arginine and lysine residues. Our study describes the large scale purification, N-terminal sequence analysis and physiochemical properties of pancreatic enzyme from river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). The enzyme was purified up to 71 folds by anion-exchange chromatography with 21% final recovery. Purified enzyme displayed two bands on SDS-PAGE with molecular weights of 9 kDa and 26 kDa respectively, the N-terminal sequence of later was EFLDKLDFYV. The enzyme has shown optimum activity at pH 9.0 and 40?C. The KM, Kcat and Kcat/KM values of purified carboxypeptidase-B with Hippuryl-L-Arg are 30?M, 72sec(-1) and 2.4x10(5) M(-1) sec(-1) respectively. A computer based model for the structure of enzyme was proposed by chromatographic studies of component fragments and N-terminal sequence. The enzyme purified in the present study was free of carboxypeptidase A and endoprotease contamination. It was efficiently used in the processing of recombinant buffalo proinsulin, in combination with trypsin. Activation of proinsulin was monitored by MALDI-TOF analysis of peptides before and after the action of enzymes. PMID:24035945
Nadeem, Muhammad Shahid; Murtaza, Bibi Nazia; Ahmad, Habib
The present paper addresses the issue of buffalo welfare. Firstly, the biological characteristics and behav - ioural needs of buffalo are considered. Subsequently, the effects of intensive farming and some animal- related indicators, to be used for a monitoring scheme of buffalo welfare at farm level, are described. The attention was focused on the following indicators: excessive thinning or fattening
Giuseppe De Rosa; Fernando Grasso; Corrado Pacelli; Fabio Napolitano; Christoph Winckler
...Days, Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary...in the Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY for the Boom Days Fireworks. This zone...of the Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY during the Boom Days Fireworks on...
Background Papillomaviruses (PVs) are highly epitheliotropic as they usually establish productive infections within squamous epithelia of the skin, the anogenital tract and the oral cavity. In this study, early (E) and late (L) protein expression of bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2) in the urothelium of the urinary bladder is described in cows and waterbuffaloes suffering from naturally occurring papillomavirus-associated urothelial bladder tumors. Methods and Findings E5 protein, the major oncoprotein of the BPV-2, was detected in all tumors. L1 DNA was amplified by PCR, cloned and sequenced and confirmed to be L1 DNA. The major capsid protein, L1, believed to be only expressed in productive papillomavirus infection was detected by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical investigations confirmed the presence of L1 protein both in the cytoplasm and nuclei of cells of the neoplastic urothelium. Finally, the early protein E2, required for viral DNA replication and known to be a pivotal factor for both productive and persistent infection, was detected by Western blot and immunohistochemically. Electron microscopic investigations detected electron dense particles, the shape and size of which are consistent with submicroscopic features of viral particles, in nuclei of neoplastic urothelium. Conclusion This study shows that both active and productive infections by BPV-2 in the urothelium of the bovine and bubaline urinary bladder can occur in vivo.
At 1050 Gallery, Block 12, two centrifugal pumps, Buffalo Pumps, Buffalo, NY, driven by Allis Chalmers motors (size 3 HSO, head 230, 120 cpm, 1750, rpm, Impulse dia. 15) installed in the 1960s and used for water-cooling system for 230-kv cable; the cables have been removed and the pumps are not currently used. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA
2. Photocopy of photograph (from Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society) Photographer unknown 1928 GENERAL VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST - Buffalo Lighthouse, Buffalo Harbor, Buffalo River & Lake Erie, Buffalo, Erie County, NY
1. Photocopy of photograph (from the Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society) Photographer unknown 1859 GENERAL VIEW FROM THE SOUTHEAST - Buffalo Lighthouse, Buffalo Harbor, Buffalo River & Lake Erie, Buffalo, Erie County, NY
The Buffalo River drains a 446-square-mile (1,155-sq-km) watershed in western New York State and discharges into Lake Erie at the city of Buffalo. The Buffalo River has been classified by the State of New York as a fishing and fish survival stream, but municipal and industrial discharges have degraded the water quality and resulted in a fish advisory for the
E. C. Fleming; D. E. Averett; M. G. Channell; B. D. Perry
Y-chromosomal variation in the waterbuffalo was analysed by sequencing of DBY, ZFY and SRY gene segments. A clear separation of the paternal lineages of the river and swamp types parallels the differences between their maternal lineages and nuclear DNA. Sequence divergence was found to be comparable to the divergence of taurine cattle and zebu, and this divergence predated domestication, confirming that river and swamp buffalo originated from different wild populations. Within a sample of 23 Thai swamp buffaloes, we identified four haplotypes with different geographical distributions, two of which were shared by Thai wild buffaloes. PMID:20219068
Yindee, M; Vlamings, B H; Wajjwalku, W; Techakumphu, M; Lohachit, C; Sirivaidyapong, S; Thitaram, C; Amarasinghe, A A A W K; Alexander, P A B D A; Colenbrander, B; Lenstra, J A
Toxocara vitulorum, a nematode parasite in the small intestine of cattle and waterbuffaloes, causes high morbidity and mortality of 1–3 months old buffalo calves. This research evaluated the specific perieneteric antigens (Pe) reactivity of anti-T. vitulorum-Pe antibody (Tv-Pe-Ab) in both immune sera and colostrum from buffalo cows immediately post-partum from buffalo cows. The presence of Tv-Pe-Ab in sera of
Buffalo are of high economic importance for farmers in several developing countries but reproductive performance is poor. A large proportion of heifers attain puberty at 3-5 years of age. A good quality diet supplemented with extra nutrients reduces the age of puberty, whereas the effects of administration of exogenous GnRH or equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) are equivocal. The incidence of anoestrus in buffalo ranges from 20 to 80% depending on season. Most buffalo cease ovarian cyclicity during hot summers probably due to the combined effects of nutrition, environment and management. Keeping buffalo cool by wallowing, water sprinklers or shade improves fertility. Supplementary feeding with Urea Molasses Multi-nutrient Blocks (UMMB) for 60 days before calving enhances the early onset of postpartum oestrus. Regular UMMB supplementation also improves pregnancy rates in anoestrous non-pregnant buffalo. Prepartum vaginal prolapse is hereditary and eradication can be achieved by genetic selective breeding programmes. Treatment with calcium, phosphorus and progesterone gives only transient relief to clinical cases. Uterine torsion is the most common cause of dystocia (70%). Deployment of Sharma's detorsion method and anti-stress measures increase survival rates in cases presented within 36 h. In conclusion, greater understanding about the effects of better year-round nutrition, improved management and markers for logical breeding programmes are essential to curtail the incidence of the reproductive disorders that reduce buffalo fertility. PMID:14635924
Thirteen goat BAC clones containing coding sequences from HSA7, HSA12q, HSA4 and HSA6p were fluorescence in situ mapped to river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, BBU) and sheep (Ovis aries, OAR) R-banded chromosomes. The following type I loci were mapped: BCP to BBU8q32 and OAR4q32, CLCN1 to BBU8q34 and OAR4q34, IGFBP3 to BBU8q24 and OAR4q27, KRT to BBU4q21 and OAR 3q21, IFNG
G. P. Di Meo; A. Perucatti; L. Schibler; D. Incarnato; L. Ferrara; E. P. Cribiu; L. Iannuzzi
Industrial toxic metals, pollutants and bio-accumulative pesticides interfere with the male reproductive functions in farm animals. Frozen-thawed semen samples were incubated with heavy metals (cadmium and lead) and pesticides (chlorpyrifos and endosulfan) of different concentrations (0, 0.005, 0.05, 0.02, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 ?g/ml) for 1 h, and various spermatozoa functional parameters and in vitro fertilization rates were assessed. Any significant effect was assessed by comparing the 1 h data between the control and treatment groups. Progressive forward motility was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in spermatozoa exposed to lower concentrations (0.05-0.5 ?g/ml) of toxic substances. The straight-line velocity (?m/s) and the average path velocity (?m/s) were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in spermatozoa exposed to 1.0 and 0.5 ?g/ml of cadmium (11.6 ± 1.9 and 16.3 ± 1.9) and chlorpyrifos (10.4 ± 1.5 and 17.1 ± 1.3), respectively, when compared to control (20.4 ± 1.4 and 28.1 ± 1.7). The acrosomal integrity was also significantly (p < 0.05) reduced at 0.05 ?g/ml of chlorpyrifos (33.3 ± 1.9), 1.0 ?g/ml of cadmium (36.8 ± 3.7), 1.0 ?g/ml of lead (39.4 ± 2.8) and 0.5 ?g/ml of endosulfan (38.3 ± 3.2), respectively. The spermatozoa chromatin decondensation was significantly (p < 0.05) affected at higher concentrations (>0.5 ?g/ml) of these chemicals. The mitochondrial membrane potential (%) was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced at 0.05 ?g/ml of cadmium (3.2 ± 0.2) and chlorpyrifos (4.3 ± 0.4), 0.1 ?g/ml of lead (3.8 ± 0.3) and 0.5 ?g/ml of endosulfan (3.2 ± 0.3) when compared to control (6.7 ± 1.0). The in vitro fertilization capabilities (cleavage percentage) of spermatozoa were significantly reduced at 1.0 ?g/ml of cadmium (28.3 ± 2.4) and 2.0 ?g/ml of lead (31.1 ± 2.7), chlorpyrifos (29.4 ± 2.2) and endosulfan (32.6 ± 2.5) when compared to control (59.4 ± 4.4). This study suggested that the mitochondrial membrane potential was primarily affected even with lowest doses of toxic chemicals. Cadmium when compared to lead and chlorpyrifos when compared to endosulfan were found to be more toxic to the spermatozoa. PMID:21241381
Selvaraju, S; Nandi, S; Gupta, P S P; Ravindra, J P
A retrospective analysis using records of lactating Bulgarian Murrah buffaloes subjected to the California Mastitis Test in a herd in Nueva Ecija, Philippines was done to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) and to identify risk factors that may influence its occurrence and recurrence. Results showed that SCM prevalence was 42.76%, whereas its recurrence was 75.03%. Age and lactation length influenced the occurrence of SCM. In contrast to the conclusions for dairy cows, younger buffalo cows were more susceptible compared with those at least 6 yr old. Dams younger than 3 yr have a 76% probability, whereas those age 3 yr have an 82% probability of having SCM. PMID:22365218
Salvador, R T; Beltran, J M C; Abes, N S; Gutierrez, C A; Mingala, C N
Twelve Murrah buffaloes in second or third parity during early lactation (50–70 days) were selected from the Institute’s herd.\\u000a All the buffaloes were kept under loose housing system and were provided ad lib green maize fodder and water to drink during 30 days experiment during the month of August- September. The buffaloes were\\u000a divided into two groups of six each. Showering
...July 4th Fireworks, Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary...temporary safety zone on Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY. This safety zone is intended to restrict...will be held on Lake Erie near Buffalo, NY. The Captain of the Port Buffalo has...
The Corps of Engineers Buffalo District conducted a demonstration of equipment for dredging contaminated sediments. Several thousand cubic yards of sediment were removed from outside the Buffalo River Federal navigation channel limits using three dredge types: (1) open bucket, (2) enclosed bucket, and (3) submersible pump. The effectiveness of a silt screen deployed downstream of the dredge to reduce suspended sediment transport was also evaluated. Extensive sediment and water column monitoring and sampling were conducted during the 2-week demonstration as part of the effort to determine sediment resuspension rates and contaminant releases associated with the dredging operations. Water column samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, total organic carbon, PCBs, PAHs, metals, ammonia, and pH. A water column bioassay test using Daphnia magna was also performed to assess toxicity effects of the dredging operation. Results of this study were used to assess and refine techniques and laboratory tests that have been previously developed by the Corps of Engineers to predict sediment resuspension rates and contaminant releases. In another phase of the study, the Bureau of Mines demonstrated the use of polyelectrolytes for rapid removal of suspended solids from a dilute dredged material slurry.
...water pond and diversion ditches; small shop/office and maintenance facility; fuel facility; access and haul roads; top soil (growth media) stockpiles; powerline; water supply well; and exploration. The Buffalo Valley Mine Road is a...
The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) has been implicated as the reservoir of several bovine infectious agents. However, there is insufficient information on the protective immune responses in the African buffalo, particularly in infected animals. In this study, we analysed Th1 cytokines IL-2 and IFN-?, and Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-10. The cloned cDNA of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-? contained an open reading frame of 468, 501, 408 and 540 nucleotides, encoding polypeptides of 155, 166, 135 and 179 amino acids, respectively. Nucleotide sequence homology of IL-2, IFN-? and IL-4 was more than 98% between the African buffalo and cattle, which resulted in identical polypeptides. Meanwhile, IL-10 gene of African buffalo and cattle had 95% homology in nucleotide sequence, corresponding to thirteen amino acid residues substitution. Cysteine residues and potential glycosylation sites were conserved within the family Bovinae. Phylogenetic analyses including cytokines of the African buffalo placed them within a cluster comprised mainly of species belonging to the order Artiodactyla, including cattle, waterbuffalo, sheep, goat, pig and artiodactyl wildlife. A deeper understanding of the structure of these cytokines will shed light on their protective role in the disease-resistant African buffalo in comparison with other closely related species. PMID:22117600
Suzuki, S; Konnai, S; Okagawa, T; Githaka, N W; Kariuki, E; Gakuya, F; Kanduma, E; Shirai, T; Ikebuchi, R; Ikenaka, Y; Ishizuka, M; Murata, S; Ohashi, K
Waterbuffaloes production has increased greatly during the late 90's having the nead of better production systems in this kind of exploitations. There has been a tendency to determine the biological and physiological parameters as well as the nu- tritional condition of these animals. Blood serum Inmunoglobu- lins (IgM, IgG and IgA) levels were measured in 30 samples from two
Oswaldo E. Vale Echeto; José D. Vargas; María A. Vale Oviedo; María G. Oviedo de Vale
The results of an emission inventory of air pollutant sources in the Buffalo, New York Metropolitan Area is presented. The objectives of the study were to determine the total quantities of the various air pollutants emitted and to estimate their seasonal ...
|Parental choice of schools results in racial isolation or effective integration, depending on how choice is used and regulated. The role of choice in desegregation plans is compared. The Buffalo plan is hailed as most successful in that it desegregated the schools, distributed costs and benefits fairly, and strengthened education. (VM)|
...Niagara International Airport, Buffalo, NY AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Country Road, Suite 446, Garden City, NY 11530, Telephone (516) 227-3815. SUPPLEMENTARY...Office, 600 Old 68 Cayuga Road, Buffalo, NY Country Road, Suite 446, Garden...
A novel method is presented here as an analytical tool for food control and authentication of dairy products manufactured from the milk of cow, sheep, goat, and buffalo. The method is based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of species-specific mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) targets followed by fragment size analysis by capillary electrophoresis. The method includes (a) simultaneous detection of four species, (b) internal control for DNA extraction and PCR, (c) mtDNA as a target for PCR, (d) amplicons of <200 bp, and (e) flexibility in the electrophoresis and fragment size detection method. Species identification proved to be straightforward, efficient, sensitive, and robust. The method is sensitive to an at least 1% (v/v) relative proportion of milk in binary mixtures. A survey of commercial products showed that 12.5% failed to conform to the description of the contents, by either the introduction or absence of listed species, thus demonstrating the relevance of this type of testing. PMID:23025240
Gonçalves, Joana; Pereira, Filipe; Amorim, António; van Asch, Barbara
Schistosomiasis japonica is a zoonosis of major public health importance in southern China. We undertook a drug intervention to test the hypothesis that buffalo are major reservoirs for human infection in the marshlands/lake areas, where one million people are infected. We compared human and buffalo infection rates and intensity in an intervention village (Jishan), where humans and buffalo were treated with praziquantel, and a control village (Hexi), where only humans were treated, in the Poyang Lake region. Over the four-year study, human incidence in Jishan decreased but increased in Hexi. Adjustment of incidence by age, sex, water exposure, year, and village further confirmed the decreased human infection in Jishan. Chemotherapy for buffaloes resulted in a decrease in buffalo infection rates in Jishan, which coincided with the reduction in human infection rates there in the last two years of the study. Mathematical modeling predicted that buffalo are responsible for 75% of human transmission in Jishan. PMID:16474093
Guo, Jiagang; Li, Yuesheng; Gray, Darren; Ning, An; Hu, Guanghan; Chen, Honggen; Davis, George M; Sleigh, Adrian C; Feng, Zheng; McManus, Donald P; Williams, Gail M
This engaging project was developed by the Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History at the University of Kentucky Libraries. It was designed to preserve the story of the Buffalo Trace Distillery in Frankfort, Kentucky which has a truly remarkable history intertwined with that of the Bluegrass State. The project features the people and stories of the Buffalo Trace family, such as master distiller emeritus Elmer T. Lee and descendants of figures like Colonel Albert Blanton and Pappy Van Winkle. On the top of the homepage, visitors can make their way through sections such as Brands, People, Roles, Documentary, and Image Gallery. The Documentary contains a complete film about the history of this unique business and the People section features interesting interviews with those who have made the business known around the world.
To further probe into whether swamp buffaloes were domesticated once or multiple times in China, this survey examined the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Control Region (D-loop) diversity of 471 individuals representing 22 populations of 455 Chinese swamp buffaloes and 16 river buffaloes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Chinese swamp buffaloes could be divided into two distinct lineages, A and B, which were defined previously. Of the two lineages, lineage A was predominant across all populations. For predominant lineage A, Southwestern buffalo populations possess the highest genetic diversity among the three hypothesized domestication centers (Southeastern, Central, and Southwestern China), suggesting Southwestern China as the most likely location for the domestication of lineage A. However, a complex pattern of diversity is detected for the lineage B, preventing the unambiguous pinpointing of the exact place of domestication center and suggesting the presence of a long-term, strong gene flow among swamp buffalo populations caused by extensive migrations of buffaloes and frequent human movements along the Yangtze River throughout history. Our current study suggests that Southwestern China is the most likely domestication center for lineage A, and may have been a primary center of swamp buffalo domestication. More archaeological and genetic evidence is needed to show the process of domestication. PMID:23437167
The Corps of Engineers Buffalo District conducted a demonstration of equipment for dredging contaminated sediments. Several thousand cubic yards of sediment were removed from outside the Buffalo River Federal navigation channel limits using three dredge types: (1) open bucket, (2) enclosed bucket, and (3) submersible pump. The effectiveness of a silt screen deployed downstream of the dredge to reduce suspended
D. E. Averett; P. A. Zappi; H. E. Tatem; A. C. Gibson; E. A. Tominey
A computational and data grid developed at the Center for Comput ational Research in Buffalo, New York, will provide a heterogeneous platform to enable scientific and engineering applications to run in a Buffalo-centric grid-based setting. A proof -of- concept heterogeneous grid has been developed using a critical scientific application in the field of structural biology. The design and functionality of
To further probe into whether swamp buffaloes were domesticated once or multiple times in China, this survey examined the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Control Region (D-loop) diversity of 471 individuals representing 22 populations of 455 Chinese swamp buffaloes and 16 river buffaloes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Chinese swamp buffaloes could be divided into two distinct lineages, A and B, which were defined previously. Of the two lineages, lineage A was predominant across all populations. For predominant lineage A, Southwestern buffalo populations possess the highest genetic diversity among the three hypothesized domestication centers (Southeastern, Central, and Southwestern China), suggesting Southwestern China as the most likely location for the domestication of lineage A. However, a complex pattern of diversity is detected for the lineage B, preventing the unambiguous pinpointing of the exact place of domestication center and suggesting the presence of a long-term, strong gene flow among swamp buffalo populations caused by extensive migrations of buffaloes and frequent human movements along the Yangtze River throughout history. Our current study suggests that Southwestern China is the most likely domestication center for lineage A, and may have been a primary center of swamp buffalo domestication. More archaeological and genetic evidence is needed to show the process of domestication.
A concealed, west-dipping, high-angle reverse fault, one of a pair first reported by N.H. Foster, P.E. Goodwin, and R.E. Fisher in 1969, has been interpreted from seismic profiles in the area south and west of Buffalo, Wyoming. The fault, named the Buffalo deep fault (BDF) by D.L. Blackstone, Jr., in 1981, trends generally north-northwest and dips westward along the deepest part of the Powder River basin near the western margin. The projected surface trace lies as much as 14 mi east of the nearest outcrop of Precambrian rocks on the eastern flank of the Bighorn Mountains. Offset on the BDF decreases upward through the Paleozoic section into younger rocks that have been folded into the synclinal bend of an east-facing monocline. The monocline, the BDF, and another reverse fault appear clearly on a high-quality seismic profile that trends east-west about 8 mi southwest of Buffalo, Wyoming. This profile is one of many that have been surveyed across the mountain front. Maximum throw across the BDF is about 4500 ft from the base of the Phanerozoic section. This throw, plus the steepened dips on the upthrown western block, account for only part of the large uplift on the Bighorn Mountains. The remainder of the uplift probably is the consequence of movement on younger thrust faults, strike-slip faults, and normal faults, many of which are exposed. The BDF, monocline, thrust faults, and strike-slip faults were formed by horizontal compression, a dominantly eastward component of movement for the Bighorn Mountain block with respect to the Powder River basin.
Ruminants are capable of hydrolyzing lignocellulosic residues to absorbable sugars by virtue of the microbial communities residing in their rumen. However, large sections of such microbial communities are not yet culturable using conventional laboratory techniques. Therefore in the present study, the metagenomic DNA of swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) rumen contents was explored using culture-independent techniques. The consensus regions of glycosyl hydrolase 5 (GH5) family of cellulases were used as primers for PCR amplification. A full-length metagenomic cellulase gene, Umcel5B29, with a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 1611 bp was identified. The similarity search analysis revealed that Umcel5B29 is closely related to the cellulases (73% to 98% similarity) of ruminal unculturable microorganisms, indicating its phylogenetic origin. Further analysis indicated that Umcel5B29 does not contain a carbohydrate binding module (CBM). Subsequently, Umcel5B29 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme worked optimally at pH 5.5 and 45°C, a condition similar to the buffalo's rumen. However, the enzyme retained more than 70% of its maximal activity after incubation at pH 4-7 and more than 50% maximal activity after incubation at 30-60°C for 30 min. These characteristics render Umcel5B29 as a potential candidate for the bio-stoning process of denim. PMID:23134306
Cheema, Tanzeem Akbar; Jirajaroenrat, Kanya; Sirinarumitr, Theerapol; Rakshit, Sudip K
The qualitative and quantitative food habits are described for 1,132 smallmouth buffalo and 623 bigmouth buffalo commercially harvested from four Oklahoma reservoirs. Smallmouth buffalo are predominantly bottom feeders, whereas bigmouth buffalo are more p...
In vitro oocyte maturation is an important step in the laboratory production of embryos. The technique of in vitro maturation (IVM) has generally been standardized in sheep, but now the efforts are aimed at reducing the cost of the technology by replacing expensive inputs of the IVM medium with less expensive and chemically defined inputs. In this study, a novel
P. S. P. Gupta; J. P. Ravindra; V. Girish Kumar; H. M. Raghu; S. Nandi
Genetic studies on populations of large river fishes provide a potentially useful but underutilized research and assessment tool. Population genetic research on freshwater systems has provided meaningful insight into stock structure, hybridization issues, and gene flow/migration...
A review and synthesis of existing information was used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for Bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus) a freshwater species. The models are scaled to produce indices of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitab...
... Specific Requirements New York Â§ 117.773 Buffalo...advance of a vessel's time of intended passage through...advance of a vessel's time of intended passage through...effective on Sundays, and on New Year's Day,...
The Buffalo River drains a 446-square-mile (1,155-sq-km) watershed in western New York State and discharges into Lake Erie at the city of Buffalo. The Buffalo River has been classified by the State of New York as a fishing and fish survival stream, but municipal and industrial discharges have degraded the water quality and resulted in a fish advisory for the river. Under the Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediment Program, the US Environmental Protection Agency asked the US Army Corps of Engineers to evaluate solidification/stabilization (S/S) for potential treatment of the contaminated sediments in the Buffalo River. An evaluation of S/S technology was conducted on the bench-scale level on Buffalo River sediment to determine whether physical and chemical properties of the sediment would be improved. Based on analyses of the untreated sediment, five metals were selected for evaluation: chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc. Initial screening tests (ISTs) were conducted on the sediments to narrow the range of binder-to-soil ratios (BSRs) to be prepared in the detailed evaluation.
Sera from 186 sheep, 83 cattle, and 103 waterbuffaloes from Punjab, India, were evaluated for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using a commercial ELISA kit. This study was planned using a 2-stage random sampling procedure and sampling software 'survey toolbox.' In the first step, villages were selected randomly from a sampling frame of all the villages of Punjab, followed by
S. Sharma; K. S. Sandhu; M. S. Bal; H. Kumar; S. Verma; J. P. Dubey
OVERVIEW OF AMERICAN BRASS BUFFALO PLANT FROM ROOF OF STRAND ANNEALING TOWER, INCLUDING CASTING SHOP AND BAG HOUSE (CENTER-LEFT) AND PORTION OF REROLL BAY (R). VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY
OVERVIEW OF AMERICAN BRASS BUFFALO PLANT FROM ROOF OF STRAND ANNEALING TOWER, INCLUDING ORIGINAL BRASS MILL (1906-7,1911) TUBE MILL (1915), COPPER MILL (1921). - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY
The greater efficiency of an improved harness for buffalo as draft animals is explained and demonstrated with pictures and with load and endurance tests. The improved harness can be made with local materials in tropical regions. A questionnaire on buffalo...
The present review addresses summer anoestrus in buffaloes. The condition is a major impediment in the improvement of reproductive as well as productive efficiency in buffalo. Factors affecting summer anoestrus include environment, nutrition and management. The environmental factors especially longer day length and increased temperature with high humidity pre-dispose to the condition when the nutritive status of buffaloes is poor. Buffaloes with summer anoestrus fail to exhibit oestrus as a result of aberration in the endocrine profile leading to ovarian inactivity. Increased day length with high environmental temperature causes hyper-prolactinaemia, suppressing the secretion of gonadotrophins, which leads to an alteration in ovarian steroidogenesis. Heat stress produced during summer also affects folliculogenesis, follicular fluid microenvironment and oocyte quality. A large number of hormonal regimens have been used with varying degree of efficacy in terms of oestrus induction and conception rate. A combined strategy of improvement in environment, nutrition and management is pre-requisite for hormonal manipulation in order to improve productivity in summer anoestrus buffaloes. A brief description of summer anoestrus with special reference to factors responsible, endocrinology, deleterious effects on reproductive system and possible remedial measures is presented in this review. PMID:20345589
The University of Buffalo has periodically published some great guides to the architecture of its corner of western New York. The University Libraries have digitized all 21 of these fine pamphlets and placed them online for public consumption. Visitors can search for items of note via the Advanced Search tab, or they can just click on the ones that look interesting. The "A Building Like A Superhero" piece is a great place to start. It profiles the massive modernist Bulger Communication Center structure on the campus of Buffalo State College. Moving on, "Buffalo Underground: An Excursion into the Depths of Scajaquada Creek" takes interested parties into the world of this most unusual culvert and its windy ways.
Prolonged postpartum acyclicity (absence of ovarian cyclic activity) and anestrum (absence of overt estrous signs) are major sources of economic loss to buffalo breeders. Studies on the epidemiology of these two problems are highly recommended to achieve successful control. Review of the available literature on controlled studies in dairy buffaloes revealed that first ovulation as detected by rectal palpation and progesterone analysis occurred between 28-71 and 24-55 days, respectively, after calving. Postpartum estrus in the same studies occurred between 44 and 87 days. Reports concerned with data compiled from breeding records of research stations, breeding farms and small holders where estrus is a subjective measure, gave much longer periods. Also data from Egypt, India and Pakistan indicate that only 34-49% of buffaloes showed estrus during the first 90 days after calving and 31-42% remained anestrus for more than 150 days. In swamp buffaloes both postpartum ovulation and estrus are more delayed than in dairy buffaloes. The role of suckling, nutrition, body condition score at calving, milk yield, parity, season of calving and other minor factors were discussed. First postpartum ovulation is frequently followed by one or more short estrous cycles (<18 days). Long anovulatory and anestrous periods due to prolonged inter-luteal phase were reported to occur after short cycles. Also long anestrous periods due to cessation of cyclic activity (true anestrus) for 3 or more weeks and prolonged luteal activity for 28 days or more were described to occur in about 25 and 8-11% of the buffaloes, respectively, after the first or second ovulation. These cycle irregularities certainly impose difficulties on estrus detection programs in postpartum buffaloes. Four main forms of anestrus i.e. true anestrus (inactive ovaries and small and medium sized anovulatory follicles), subestrus, prolonged luteal activity and ovarian cysts in addition to pregnancy are reviewed in this article. Differentiation between true anestrus and subestrus is particularly important in buffaloes because of their weak estrous signs. However, the accuracy of a single rectal palpation of the ovaries is limited with an overestimation of the frequency of true anestrus due to misdiagnosis of the corpus luteum. The possible causes are discussed. PMID:16621354
Ship traffic in freshwater rivers may impact water quality by resuspending contaminated bottom sediment. Water samples were analyzed from two different depths at three sites across a transect of the Buffalo River, NY, before and after passage of a lake-going ship. Samples from all sites were analyzed for fecal coliform (FC), heterotrophic plate count (HPC), and total suspended solids (TSS).
Gary W. Pettibone; Kim N. Irvine; Kelly M. Monahan
The Great Lakes National Program Office of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated the Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) program to address concerns of environmental degradation at 43 Areas of Concern in the Great Lakes. In our first report (Passino-Reader et al. 1992), we developed a generic approach for baseline hazard evaluation of aquatic life in the Great Lakes Areas of Concern. In this report, we demonstrate the application of the generic approach to the Buffalo River (New York) Area of Concern. Using available historical data on residues in sediments, water, and biota, we evaluated exposure for 41 contaminants from the Buffalo River for eight taxa of fish and invertebrates representing the major trophic levels in the Buffalo River. By comparing exposure concentrations with reference toxicities, we calculated risk to the eight receptor organisms for typical and worst cases of exposure to the 41 contaminants. For mixtures of the contaminants present at the Buffalo River, primarily metals and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, we compared sediment concentrations with effects range-low (EL-R) values as reference values for toxicity of mixtures to estimate risk to aquatic biota.
Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Hickey, James P.
|Discusses the Special Collections at the State University of New York at Buffalo and the role of Charles Abbott in their development. His interest and a serendipitous lack of funds have created an unusual collection containing a Twentieth Century Poetry Collection, James Joyce holographs, and rare book collections. (CHC)|
Archaeological evidence in and around the Buffalo Creek watershed suggests that this area had a role in supporting early North American civilizations. Only miles away from the watershed, in the town of Avella, is the Meadowcroft Rock Shelter, an archaeological site considered to be one of the first places of human habitation in the United States. The rock shelter was
Phytoremediation is receiving increasing attention due to the potential for vegetation to play a significant role in bioremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater. The purpose of this research was to conduct a pilot study to determine if buffalo grass would enhance the remediation of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE). A mass-balance experiment was designed and executed to determine the extent of TCE remediation/degradation occurring through buffalo grass. Measurements for TCE in air, water, and soil were completed for three treatments: (1) buffalo grass, (2) alfalfa, and (3) soil following challenge with a water-TCE mixture. In total, 267 air samples, 43 water samples, 85 soil samples, and 40 vegetative samples were collected and analyzed. The analysis identified two important facts. First, there were no significant differences detected between TCE concentrations in soil, water, and air between groups. Second, there is a significant difference in the amount of the TCE-water mixture consumed in chambers with plants versus chambers without plants. The mass balance of the experiment was not achieved due to unaccountable losses of TCE from the chambers. The major loss mechanism for TCE appears to be from the breakthrough of air sampling media during the experiment. Thus, the data are insufficient to determine if remediation occurred via plants or by preferential pathways through the soil. Future experiments should be designed to include daily monitoring of the aquifer, humidity tolerant air sampling protocol, and relief from the build-up of humidity and transpiration inside the chambers.
The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a large wild bovid which until recently ranged across all but the driest parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and their local range being limited to about 20 km from surface water. They are of high ecological value due to their important role as bulk feeders in the grazing hierarchy. They also have high economic value, because they are one of the sought after 'Big Five' in the eco-tourism industry. In Africa, buffaloes have been recognised for some time as an important role player in the maintenance and transmission of a variety of economically important livestock diseases at the wildlife and/or livestock interface. These include African strains of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), Corridor disease (theileriosis), bovine tuberculosis and bovine brucellosis. For a number of other diseases of veterinary importance, African buffaloes may also serve as amplifier or incidental host, whereby infection with the causative pathogens may cause severe clinical signs such as death or abortion as in the case of anthrax and Rift Valley fever, or remain mild or subclinical for example heartwater. The long term health implications of most of those infections on the buffalo at a population level is usually limited, and they do not pose a threat on the population's survival. Because of their ability to harbour and transmit important diseases to livestock, their sustainable future in ecotourism, trade and transfrontier conservation projects become complex and costly and reliable diagnostic tools are required to monitor these infections in buffalo populations. PMID:23327373
Comparative FISH-mapping among Y chromosomes of cattle (Bos taurus, 2n = 60, BTA, submetacentric Y chromosome), zebu (Bos indicus, 2n = 60, BIN, acrocentric Y chromosome but with visible small p-arms), river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, 2n = 50, BBU, acrocentric Y chromosome), sheep (Ovis aries, 2n = 54, OAR, small metacentric Y chromosome) and goat (Capra hircus, 2n = 60, CHI, Y-chromosome as in sheep) was performed to extend the existing cytogenetic maps and improve the understanding of karyotype evolution of these small chromosomes in bovids. C- and R-banding comparison were also performed and both bovine and caprine BAC clones containing the SRY, ZFY, UMN0504, UMN0301, UMN0304 and DYZ10 loci in cattle and DXYS3 and SLC25A6 in goat were hybridized on R-banded chromosomes by FISH. The main results were the following: (a) Y-chromosomes of all species show a typical distal positive C-band which seems to be located at the same region of the typical distal R-band positive; (b) the PAR is located at the telomeres but close to both R-band positive and ZFY in all species; (c) ZFY is located opposite SRYand on different arms of BTA, BIN, OAR/CHI Y chromosomes and distal (but centromeric to ZFY) in BBU-Y; (d) BTA-Y and BIN-Y differ as a result of a centromere transposition or pericentric inversion since they retain the same gene order along their distal chromosome regions and have chromosome arms of different size; (e) BTA-Y and BBU-Y differ in a pericentric inversion with a concomitant loss or gain of heterochromatin; (f) OAR/CHI-Y differs from BBU-Y for a pericentric inversion with a major loss of heterochromatin and from BTA and BIN for a centromere transposition followed by the loss of heterochromatin. PMID:15973500
Di Meo, G P; Perucatti, A; Floriot, S; Incarnato, D; Rullo, R; Caputi Jambrenghi, A; Ferretti, L; Vonghia, G; Cribiu, E; Eggen, A; Iannuzzi, L
The present study examines the use of buffalo preantral follicles as a source of oocytes for in vitro embryo production. Preantral follicles were isolated from abattoir-derived buffalo ovaries and were grown for 100 days in five different culture systems: (1) minimum essential medium (MEM); (2) coconut water; (3) MEM + ovarian mesenchymal cell (OMC) co-culture; (4) MEM + granulosa cell (GC) co-culture; or (5) MEM + cumulus cell (CC) co-culture. Low growth rates for the preantral follicles were observed when follicles were cultured in MEM or coconut water medium. Moderate growth rates were seen for OMC and GC co-cultures, and high rates of growth were observed when follicles were grown in CC co-culture. The survival of preantral follicles was low in the MEM culture (<25%), but was over 75% in the other culture systems. Oocytes were not recovered from the MEM group, while an oocyte recovery rate of 80-100% was observed when the follicles were cultured with coconut water/somatic cells. Transferable embryos could be produced only with the oocytes obtained from preantral follicles grown in the OMC and CC co-culture systems. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that it is possible to produce buffalo embryos by in vitro fertilization of oocytes derived from in vitro grown preantral follicles. PMID:18221582
Gupta, P S P; Ramesh, H S; Manjunatha, B M; Nandi, S; Ravindra, J P
Study was carried out to evaluate the heat stability and quality characteristics of buffalo colostrum during its transition to normal milk. A total of 140 postpartum milk samples of 20 buffaloes (in seven postpartum milking) were collected to observe the heat stability at boiling temperature during transition period. Gradual change (coagulation\\/precipitation) was observed up to sixth postpartum milking when heated
H. H. Arain; M. Khaskheli; M. A. Arain; A. H. Soomro; A. H. Nizamani
|By 1879 the vast buffalo herds were all but gone from the Great Plains. Many of the remaining animals had moved south from the Milk River of northern Montana and Alberta into the Judith Basin of central Montana. In these rich grasslands, for a few more years, life went on as it had for centuries. Following the buffalo came many Indian bands, as…
A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for Bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus), a freshwater fish. The models are scaled to produce an indices of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for freshwater areas of the continental United States. Other habitat suitability models found in the literature are also included. Habitat suitability indices (HSI's) are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. A BOEING 737-200 HAS BEEN TOWED IN FOR AN OVERNIGHT (BALANCE) CHECK. THE TAIL DOCK STANDS ARE IN POSITION AT THE REAR OF THE AIRCRAFT TO FACILITATE INSPECTION. MAINTENANCE CREWS PERFORM NIGHTLY SERVICE ON UP TO 6 AIRCRAFT. THE NORMAL SEQUENCE OF 12 ROUTINE CHECKS COVERS SEVEN BASIC AREAS: INTERIOR, EXTERIOR, WINGS, LANDING GEAR, TAIL, AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), AND ENGINES. THE WORK FORCE CONSISTS OF 5 INSPECTORS, 3 LEAD MECHANICS, AND 24 MECHANICS; NIGHTLY SCHEDULES ARE COORDINATED BY A PLANNER. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY
The western energy boom is producing the mineral wealth to restore the US economy and security as well as producing boom towns that should be getting more media and public attention. Accurate and more sensitive journalism is needed to record what is happening in the Rocky Mountain region beyond the headlines of confrontations and boosterism. The case of uranium mining and milling is one of a long cycle of land acquisition and development, but it produced little historical record until incidents happened and charges of negligence were made. There is no shortage of material for reporters who want to cover the story of strip mining, water resources, and other issues, but the public must appreciate the life cycle of a mine before it can fully grasp the significance of individual events. This requires aggressive and independent news gathering and sustained coverage. (DCK)
The objective of the project was to determine the engineering properties of the placed fill material and the drainage characteristics of diked disposal sites in the Buffalo harbor area. The hydraulic conductivity of the dredged material and the dikes alon...
The Buffalo Federal Executive Board focuses on coordinating Governmental Policy on matters affecting the Western New York Federal Community, providing leadership in the sharing of services between agencies, and participating as a unified Federal force in ...
Schistosomiasis japonica remains a major public health problem and the Poyang Lake region in Jiangxi province is one of the worst affected endemic areas. Buffaloes play a major role in the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum to humans. The aim of the present study was to increase understanding of the epidemic characteristics of schistosomiasis japonica in waterbuffaloes in the Poyang Lake region, after achieving the national mid-term goal, and to provide a basis for further interventions. The baseline prevalence in two villages in the Poyang Lake region in May 2010 was compared with respect to usage, sex and age in the total study population. Seasonal dynamics from May 2010 to May 2011 were observed in a natural village in the studied area. The baseline prevalence of infection in both villages (Caohui and Gaozhou) was 4.94% in May 2010. The prevalence in buffalo younger than 12 months was 12.82% in Caohui and 15.11% in Gaozhou, which was significantly higher than that found in those aged 13-24 months and older than 24 months. Of the 28 infected buffaloes, 82.14% (23) were younger than 12 months. The flow of seasonal dynamics showed that S. japonicum infection buffaloes were found from May to July and from November to January of the following year. This survey suggested that it is necessary to conduct two mass treatments (especially for young animals) in late March or early April and November, with an additional treatment of positive animals in July or June. PMID:24045056
The prevalence of blood parasites was studied in cattle and buffaloes maintained at two livestock institutes. The prevalence was found to be 27.69 and 16.12% in cattle and buffaloes, respectively at Animal Sciences Institute, NARC, Islamabad. It was 22.31% in cattle at Barani Livestock Production Research Institute, Kherimurat, District Attock. Anaplasma marginale showed the highest prevalence rate as compared to
M. Q. Khan; A. Zahoor; M. Jahangir; M. Ashraf Mirza
Therapeutic trials of sarcoptic mange in buffaloes were studied at local Livestock farms, Lahore (Pakistan). A total of 600 buffaloes were examined over 1 year period (August 2006 to July 2007) for prevalence study, while 60 buffaloes were selected for therapeutic trial. Sarcoptic mange was recorded in 66 (11%) animals. The highest monthly prevalence was reported during the months of January and February (18%) followed by December and March (16%) whereas lowest during the month of July (2%). Over all highest seasonally prevalence was recorded during winter (16.5%) and lowest during summer (5%). Moreover, highest infestation rate was recorded among young (<3 months) buffaloes than with age >3 months. Sex-wise prevalence indicated more prevalence in buffalo bulls (13.15%) than female buffaloes (9.28%). Therapeutic trials were carried out by using ivermectin, doramectin and trichlorphon as per manufacturer's recommendations for a period of 10 days, while one group was kept as untreated control. Negative skin scraping, disappearance of gross lesions, stoppage of itching and regrowth of normal hair were taken as the criterion to assess the efficacy of these drugs. PMID:23129889
Kazmi, Syed Asad Irshad; Maqbool, Azhar; Tonio, Muhammad Tariq; Naureen, Abeera; Ajmal, Adeela; Anwar, Muhammad Tanveer
Field investigations were conducted to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Buffalo Peaks Wilderness Study Area, Colorado. On the basis of this study there is a probable mineral-resource potential for silver vein and bedding replacement deposits along the Weston Pass fault zone, for hydrothermal vein-type uranium deposits in the vicinity of the Parkdale iron pit, and for gold vein deposits in the parts of the Granite and Four Mile districts that are within the wilderness study area. A probable barite resource potential occurs at Rough and Tumbling Creek and near Spring Creek on the east side of the study area. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources.
Buffalo meat steaks dipped in either (1) distilled water (control), (2) lactic acid (LA), (3) LA+clove oil (clove), or (4) LA+clove+vitamin C (Vit C) were displayed at 4±1°C, illuminated by a standard fluorescent lamp. The pH, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), instrumental colour (CIE L?, a?, b?), aerobic plate counts (APC), psychrotrophic counts (PPC), coliform counts and sensory colour and
B. M. Naveena; M. Muthukumar; A. R. Sen; Y. Babji; T. R. K. Murthy
The chances of a major earthquake occurring in New York in the near future is low. However, New York has experienced and no doubt will continue to experience moderate earthquakes. Catastrophic damage due to structural causes is not likely to occur for non-masonry buildings, but ground failure due to soil liquefaction is possible. It appears from the study that areas that lie adjacent to bodies of water (the Harlem River in Manhattan and Lake Erie in Buffalo) are liable to liquefy.
Budhu, M.; Vijayakumar, V.; Giese, R.F.; Baumgras, L.
|Two Clinical Pharmacokinetics Laboratories at Buffalo are described: one at the Millard Fillmore Hospital and the other at the Buffalo Children's Hospital. Their research efforts are reviewed and their scientific contributions to clinical therapeutics and pharmaceutical research are noted. (LBH)|
In the 16th century, North America contained 25-30 million buffalo; by the late 19th century less than 100 remained. While removing the buffalo east of the Mississippi took settlers over 100 years, the remaining 10 to 15 million buffalo on the Great Plains were killed in a punctuated slaughter in a little more than 10 years. I employ theory, data
In the 16th century, North America contained 25-30 million buffalo; by the late 19th century less than 100 remained. While removing the buffalo east of the Mississippi took settlers over 100 years, the remaining 10 to 15 million buffalo on the Great Plains were killed in a punctuated slaughter in a little more than 10 years. I employ theory, data
In the sixteenth century, North America contained 25 to 30 million buffalo; by the late nineteenth century fewer than 100 remained. While removing the buffalo east of the Mississippi took over 100 years, the remaining 10 to 15 million buffalo on the Great Plains were killed in a punctuated slaughter lasting little more than ten years. I employ theory, international
8. View of DL&W complex from across Buffalo River. Two passenger buildings are at center, with train shed extending toward right. Skyway shows at top left, with Naval Park construction below. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Lackawanna Terminal, Main Street & Buffalo River, Buffalo, Erie County, NY
The purpose of this study was to characterize the ultrasonographic findings in cattle and buffaloes with chronic hepatic fascioliosis. To the best of the author's knowledge, this report is the first to document ultrasonographic findings in buffaloes with chronic hepatic fascioliosis. Ultrasonographic findings included distended gallbladders with either homogenous or heterogeneous contents, edema of the gallbladder walls, which ranged from mild or moderate to severe and bile duct mineralization. In 78% of the buffaloes, there was an ultrasonographic picture of hepatic fibrosis in which heterogeneous and hyperechogenic hepatic parenchymas with multiple echogenic foci were imaged. Other ultrasonographic findings included peritoneal, pleural and pericardial effusions. Two cows and one buffalo were slaughtered and examined postmortem. Hence, it was possible to verify distended gallbladders, edema of the gallbladder wall, calcified bile ducts, cholestasis and hepatic fibrosis by using ultrasonography in the cows and buffaloes with chronic hepatic fascioliosis. The procedure offers a useful supplement to clinical, hematological and biochemical examinations on the diagnosis of this condition. PMID:22361850
Four 1.5-year-old, male, Murrah buffalos were maintained during eight months without direct solar exposure during a study of copper toxicosis. Four days after solar exposure, all buffalos presented clinical manifestations consistent with acute photosensitization, including anorexia, apathy, loss of body weight, and generalized cutaneous lesions. Gross lesions were characterized by severe erythema, localized edema, fissures, tissue necrosis, gangrene and crust formation with serous exudation. Liver copper concentration was evaluated, and cutaneous biopsies were taken when clinical signs were evident. The liver copper concentration before solar exposure was increased in all animals. Histopathologic examination of the skin revealed hepatogenous photosensitization characterized by parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, acantholysis, degeneration of squamous epithelial cells, epidermal necrosis with atrophy of sweat glands, and multifocal superficial and deep dermal edema. These findings suggest that asymptomatic accumulation of copper within the liver might have induced hepatic insufficiency thereby resulting in secondary photosensitization when these buffalos were exposed to sunlight. PMID:20064649
Minervino, Antonio H H; Júnior, Raimundo A Barrêto; Rodrigues, Frederico A M L; Ferreira, Rodrigo N F; Reis, Leonardo F; Headley, Selwyn A; Ortolani, Enrico L
An adult female African forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus) of unknown age was presented with signs of recurrent hoof overgrowth, persistent anestrous, obesity, dull hair coat, and decreased activity level. Complete blood counts and serum biochemistry values were unremarkable. Decreased concentrations of total triiodothyronine and total thyroxine were noted compared with values for normal domestic cattle and a healthy African forest buffalo. Treatment with oral levothyroxine increased blood concentrations of total triiodothyronine and total thyroxine, and subsequent improvement in clinical signs included weight loss, hair regrowth, and reproductive cycling. PMID:17469292
Allender, Matthew C; Briggs, Michael; Shipley, Clifford F
The physicochemical characteristics of the Buffalo River in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were evaluated using standard methods. The assessment was carried out with total of 72 water samples collected from six sites over a 12-month period, from August 2010 to July 2011. Water temperature ranged from 11 to 28 °C, while pH varied from 6.6 to 10.7 and turbidity from 1.7 to 133 NTU. Electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS) and salinity showed drastic variations (42.3-46,693 ?S/cm, 20.3-23,350 mg/l and 0.02-33.8 PSU, respectively) and the significantly (P?0.05) higher mean values of these parameters recorded at Parkside reflect the influence of seawater at the Buffalo River estuary. The concentrations of other parameters ranged as follows: chloride (3.7-168 mg/l), DO (6.9-11.1), BOD (0.6-9.4), COD (3.7-45.9), nitrite-nitrogen (0.02-0.21), nitrate-nitrogen (1-4.47) and orthophosphate (0.01-1.72). There was a significant positive correlation between water temperature and DO (r?=?0.200; P?0.01). Significant (P?0.01) positive correlations also existed between TDS and salinity (r?=?0.921), COD and each of salinity (r?=?0.398), TDS (r?=?0.375) and chloride (r?=?0.330), nitrate and phosphate (r?=?0.323) and BOD and turbidity (r?=?0.290). Significant (p?0.01) inverse relationships existed between DO and each of phosphate (r?=?-0.295) and nitrate (r?=?-0.168). We conclude that the Buffalo River water quality deteriorated in the plains, compared with the upper reaches. Urgent measures are needed to safeguard the river in view of the potential health concerns as many households rely solely on the untreated river water. PMID:23636499
Chigor, Vincent N; Sibanda, Timothy; Okoh, Anthony I
The present paper summarises our recent studies on buffalo babesiosis in the Hubei province of China. It describes the pathogen and the epidemiology of the disease, the tick vector and its biology, control, immunological diagnosis, methods of in vitro cultivation of the pathogen and their practical applications. The identify of the pathogen is discussed in detail. PMID:9512742
This paper explores the creation, organizational stages, intervention activities, and outcomes of the School Improvement Resource Team (SIRT) in the Buffalo Public Schools (New York) from 1977 to 1980. Intended primarily to defuse tensions during implementation of court ordered desegregation, the SIRT effort serves as an apparently successful…
|When Clark Atlanta University announced in 2003 it would close its library school, Lorna Peterson, a library educator at the University at Buffalo, NY, mounted a campaign to save the program, which has graduated more black library leaders than any other. "I did not want this to happen without a fight. It cannot be said that librarians, Friends of…
The reader is one in a series of stories of the Blackfeet Indians which take place when the people were at the height of their power, hunting buffalo north to the North Saskatchewan River, south to the Yellowstone River, east to the Montana-North Dakota border, and west to the Rocky Mountains. The story is about Little Blaze, a young Blackfeet…
Few places tell the myth of the American frontier more vigorously than the Buffalo Bill Museum does in Cody, Wyoming. Traveling to the museum through the ‘Western’ landscape of Wyoming into the foothills of the Rockies prepares visitors for the tale of Western settlement. This narrative, which works to secure a particular vision of the West, draws upon the material
Thirty healthy Murrah buffalo (Buba- lus bubalis) in their second to fourth lac- tations were selected from the herd at the National Dairy Research Institute, Kamal, Haryana, India, for use in a 35-d study to determine the effects of recombinantly produced bovine somatotropin 1 on milk production, milk composition, and dry matter intake. Treatments were daily in- jections of 0,
R. S. Ludri; R. C. Upadhyay; Mahendra Singh; J. R. M. Guneratne; R. P. Basson
Conveys the author’s belief that the cataloging profession is uniquely suited to organize the wealth of information available on the World Wide Web. Focuses on the organization at which the author has worked for seven years (Central Technical Services, University Libraries, State University of New York at Buffalo), where she has capitalized on various OCLC-inspired opportunities to explore Internet cataloging
Three sediment samples taken from the Buffalo River and two soil samples taken near its bank have been analyzed for 2-propanol-extractable, basic organic compounds by using GC/MS. Eleven aromatic amines related to the commercial production of malachite green and crystal violet we...
The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Eastern Great Lakes Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Buffalo Coastal Zone.
This study was undertaken to investigate the population and abundance of year-classes of the buffalo fishes in Lake Sakakawea, North Dakota. Only bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus) and smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus niger) were captured. The age and gr...
The Buffalo River in Western New York was designated as one of the Areas of Concern by the Great Lakes Water Quality Board of the International Joint Commission due to its poor water quality and contaminated sediments. Cazenovia Creek is one of the three major tributaries of the Buffalo River. This research utilized remote sensing data and Geographic Information Systems
Tao Tang; Kim N. Irvine; Mike Greer; Robert Robinson
Effect of Fasciola gigantica infection on adrenal and thyroid glands was investigated using eight male, yearling Murrah buffaloes. The animals were randomly assigned to two groups of four buffaloes each (Group-A, infected; Group-B, non-infected control). Animals of Group-A were orally infected with 1000 F. gigantica viable metacercariae, keeping other four animals of Group-B as uninfected control. In the infected buffaloes,
Gebeyehu Ganga; J. P. Varshney; R. L. Sharma; V. P. Varshney; Kalicharan
Food habits and food selectivity of bigmouth buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus, in Lake Poinsett, South Dakota were studied from January through November 1968. Food of bigmouth buffalo fry ranging from 12.5 to 21.0 mm total length was primarily benthic organisms. Food of sub-adult and adult bigmouth buffalo ranging from 236 to 833 mm total length was primarily zooplankton. Most planktonic organisms
A robust molecular marker is needed for discrimination of amphistome species, because identification based on morphology alone requires specialized knowledge and techniques. In this study, we performed morphological and molecular characterization of Explanatum explanatum, a species that causes severe liver damage in definitive host species. Fifty-five adult amphistomes were collected from cattle and waterbuffaloes in Myanmar. Eighteen of the amphistomes, arbitrarily chosen, were morphologically identified as E. explanatum using sagittal sections. All of the 55 amphistome isolates had identical second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA sequences; these sequences differed at 7 nucleotide sites from those of the closest species, Paramphistomum leydeni. Our data indicate that the ITS2 sequence could be a useful molecular marker for epidemiological studies on E. explanatum. PMID:23117826
As part of the planning effort for combined sewer overflow (CSO) abatement, a combination of sampling and mathematical modeling was used to characterize both CSO and receiving water quality in the city of Buffalo, NY. Samples collected during storm events showed that while CSOs within the city boundary are a source of fecal coliform to the Buffalo River, higher concentrations
Kim N. Irvine; Mary F. Perrelli; Greg McCorkhill; Jim Caruso
Two experiments were conducted on growing buffalo calves. In fi rst experiment the animals of 1-1.5 Yr. age were divided in two groups of female (gp.I) and male (gp.II) calves and fed concentrate mixture and maize fodder. The concentrate mixture was consumed by all the animals. DM intake (kg\\/d) through green maize fodder was 4.99+ 0.11 and 5.1+ 0.13 in
Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) (EC 184.108.40.206) is a ubiquitous enzyme, which is present at the protein and carbohydrate metabolism\\u000a crossroads. The enzyme activity was investigated in biliary and rumen amphistomes, Gigantocotyle explanatum and Gastrothylax crumenifer, respectively, infecting the Indian waterbuffaloBubalus bubalis. The enzyme activity was consistently higher in G. explanatum as compared to G. crumenifer, where NAD(H) was utilized
The study aimed at characterization of buffalo ?-casein gene and its promoter by PCR-SSCP analysis. Complete ?-casein exon VII region analysis revealed two SSCP band patterns, with pattern-I representing predominant allele B (85%) present in homozygous (genotype BB) condition and pattern-II representing a rare allele A1 present in heterozygous condition (genotype A1B). Sequencing of two patterns revealed three nucleotide substitutions at codon 68, 151 and 193 of exon VII. The cDNA sequence of buffalo ?-casein gene indicated three further nucleotide substitutions between allele A1 and B at codon 10, 39, and 41. Analysis of ?-casein proximal promoter region (-350 upstream to +32) revealed four SSCP band patterns. These SSCP patterns corresponded to nucleotide substitutions at seven locations within 382bp 5' UTR region of ?-casein gene. Haplotype analysis suggested pattern-I of exon VII (wild type) was associated with three types of promoters and pattern-II of exon VII (rare type) corresponded to one exclusive type of promoter. The study suggested two haplotypes of exon VII and four haplotypes of promoter for buffalo ?-casein. PMID:23811487
P V, Vinesh; Brahma, Biswajit; Kaur, Rupinder; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; Goswami, Surender Lal; De, Sachinandan
...Withdrawal of Public Land for the Buffalo Bill Dam and Reservoir Modification Project Recreation...constructed in connection with the Buffalo Bill Dam and Reservoir Modification Project near...developed recreation site in the Buffalo Bill Dam and Reservoir Modification Project...
Parturition complications predispose establishment of uterine infections, which in turn affect subsequent fertility. The aim of present study was to characterize and compare the type of bacterial flora prevalent within the uterine lumen of dystocia-affected buffaloes and compare them with the normally calving buffaloes. The study was conducted on 40 buffaloes; of which 10 calved normally (Group I) and 30
The molecular diversity of rumen methanogens was investigated by 16S rDNA gene library prepared from the rumen contents obtained from Murrah buffaloes in India. Genomic DNA was isolated from adult male fistulated buffaloes and PCR conditions were set up using specific primers. Amplified product was cloned into a suitable vector, and the positive clones were selected assuming based on blue-white screening and sequenced. Positive clones were reamplified and the resulting PCR products were further subjected to Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) by using HaeIII enzyme. A total of 108 clones were examined, and the analysis revealed 16 phylotypes. Out of sixteen phylotypes, nine phylotypes belong to the uncultured group of methanogens, and the rest of seven phylotypes belong to the order Methanomicrobiales, Methanococcales and Methanobacteriales. Out of the 108 rDNA clones, 66 clones which constitute 61.1% of the total clone representing 9 phylotypes, show less than 97% sequence similarity with any of the cultured strain of methanogens. The second largest group of clones (24 clones) represented by four phylotypes show a sequence similarity ranging from 91% to 99% with Methanomicrobium mobile strain of methanogens. The third group of 16S rDNA clones clustered along with M. burtonii strain of methanogens. This group consists of 6 clones and constitutes about 5.5% of the total clones and represented by only single phylotype. Fourth and fifth clusters of 16S rDNA clones consist of 5 and 7 clones respectively, and these were matched with Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii and Methanobrevibacter rumanatium strain of methanogens and constitute about 4.6% and 6.4% of the total clones. PMID:22155312
Young cattle and buffaloes were vaccinated subcutaneously and intradermally with a live vaccine containing Pasteurella multocida serotype B:3,4. Twelve months after vaccination three of five young cattle in the subcutaneously vaccinated group and three of four in the intradermally vaccinated group were protected against serotype B:2 challenge. Eleven buffaloes vaccinated subcutaneously and two vaccinated intradermally survived the same challenge 13
Buffalo herds were radiotracked in Southern Africa through four land use types ( LUTs) to see whether movements, much more extensive than the same species demonstrates in East Africa, were for resource acquisition or risk avoidance, and if selection was occurring at any scale. Potential costs (risks) to buffalo herds in each LUT included predation by humans and lions, and
...prepared for a proposed highway project in the City of Buffalo, Erie County, New York. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...Entry/Peace Bridge Plaza (Plaza), in the City of Buffalo, Erie County, New York. The primary need of the project is to...
Recent seismic surveys and exploratory drilling by industry for subthrust oil and gas prospects beneath the Bighorn Mountain front along the western edge of the Powder River basin near Buffalo, Wyoming, reveal a basement-involved thrust of considerable magnitude. A deep test for oil and gas, the ARCO 1-4 Kinney Ranch borehole, was drilled 13 km (8 mi) west of Buffalo
J. A. Grow; E. N. Hinrichs; J. J. Miller; M. W. Lee; S. L. Robbins
We report an uncontrolled observational study of the treatment of udder diseases of buffalo, using a homeopathic complex medicine. Mastitis is an economically important disease of buffaloes. In India economic losses due to mastitis are estimated at US$526 million annually. Conventional veterinary treatment relies on costly antibiotics; cure rate is only 60% in field conditions with a problem of milk
Although buffalo milk is the second most produced milk in the world, and of primary nutritional importance in various parts of the world, few studies have focused on the physicochemical properties of buffalo milk fat globules. This study is a comparative analysis of buffalo and cow milk fat globules. The larger size of buffalo fat globules, 5 vs. 3.5?m, was
The present study was conducted to evaluate genetic diversity of Banni buffalo and its relationship/differentiation with Murrah using genotypic data on 24 heterologus bovine specific microsatellite marker loci. A total of 138 alleles were observed with a mean of 5.75 alleles/locus across two populations. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were found to be 0.441 and 0.572 respectively in Banni buffaloes while it was 0.464 and 0.610 respectively in Murrah buffaloes. The average heterozygosity deficit was significantly positive with substantially higher values observed in Banni (22.3%) and Murrah (24%) buffalo populations. Banni buffalo population, when evaluated for mutation drift equilibrium revealed significant heterozygosity excess under IAM while no such excess was observed under SMM and TPM. The qualitative graphical test revealed a normal L-shaped distribution of allele frequencies indicating the absence of genetic bottleneck in Banni buffaloes. The mean estimates of F-statistics over all the loci were 0.376 for F(IT), 0.187 for F(ST) and 0.232 for F(IS) respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed 18.95% of the total variation being explained by between breed differences while 14.36% of the variation explained differences between individuals within each breed. Genotype assignment test revealed distinct clustering of Banni and Murrah buffaloes. Genetic distance was estimated using three different methods, the results of which revealed considerable genetic differentiation between these two buffalo populations. The divergence time between Banni and Murrah buffaloes was estimated to be around 7286 years. The results of the present study may be helpful in decision making for conservation programs as Banni buffalo population is on decline. PMID:19130283
Mishra, B P; Kataria, R S; Kathiravan, P; Bulandi, S S; Singh, K P; Sadana, D K
Water qualities of two natural streams (Buffalo and Kings Rivers), one new cold tailwater (Beaver), and two old cold tailwaters (Norfork and Bull Shoals) in northwestern Arkansas were studied from July 1965 through October 1968. The essential difference b...
The effects of surface water withdrawal on habitat availability and quality were investigated in one lacustrine (Mossy Lake) and various river habitats in the Yazoo River Basin during the summer and fall of 1984 for the following fishes: bigmouth buffalo ...
Milk from buffalo, cow, goat and camel species was collected in Ismailia in Egypt. Aflatoxin (AFM(1)) levels were lower than previous surveys, and were influenced by feeding practices. Cows and buffaloes are fed prepared rations and had highest incidence of AFM(1). Camels forage freely on available pasture and had lowest AFM(1) in their milk. Goats are fed a combination of prepared ration as a supplement to pasture grazing. Most milks (80%, 74%, 66% and 52% of the camel, goat, cow and buffalo milks, respectively) were below the European Union maximum of AFM(1) <50 ng/L and all milk samples were <500 ng/L. PMID:19710995
Motawee, Mahmoud M; Bauer, Johann; McMahon, Donald J
BACKGROUND: Secreted modular calcium binding protein-1 (Smoc-1) belongs to the BM-40 family which has been implicated with tissue remodeling, angiogenesis and bone mineralization. Besides its anticipated role in embryogenesis, Smoc-1 has been characterized only in a few mammalian species. We made use of the consensus sequence (5' CACCTCTCCACCTGCC 3') of 33.15 repeat loci to explore the buffalo transcriptome and uncovered
Jyoti Srivastava; Sanjay Premi; Sudhir Kumar; Iqbal Parwez; Sher Ali
Linearized six degree of freedom rigid body aircraft equations of motion are presented in a stability axes system. Values of stability derivatives are estimated for two representative STOL aircraft - the DeHavilland of Canada 'Buffalo' and 'Twin Otter.' T...
|The Center for Immunology at the University of Buffalo provides a viable resource for educating medical students in immunology until a department of immunology can be developed within the medical school. (HS)|
Cholangiomas and cholangiocarcinomas were observed in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from the Buffalo and Niagara Rivers (NY) and Old Woman Creek (OH). ignificant increases in serum BUN, uric acid, triglycerides inorganic phosphate, ALT, LDL, calcium and iron and ...
The Center for Immunology at the University of Buffalo provides a viable resource for educating medical students in immunology until a department of immunology can be developed within the medical school. (HS)
Growth and carcass characteristics were measured on calves from three cattle breeds-the Sinhala, Red Sindhi and Friesian-and two buffalo breeds-the local buffalo and Murrah. The growth study was carried out on Brachiaria brizantha pasture over a period of 48 weeks. The two buffalo breeds grew fastest followed by the two Bos indicus breeds. The Friesian cattle grew at the slowest rate. The Sinhala and local buffalo had normal haematocrit values while the values for all other breeds were lower. The Sinhala and local buffalo had the highest carcass dressing percentages and the highest muscle; bone ratios. Tenderness measured by Warner-Bratzler shear force values and palatability scores by a taste panel were similar for meat from cattle and buffalo. PMID:968951
Young cattle and buffaloes were vaccinated subcutaneously and intradermally with a live vaccine containing Pasteurella multocida serotype B:3,4. Twelve months after vaccination three of five young cattle in the subcutaneously vaccinated group and three of four in the intradermally vaccinated group were protected against serotype B:2 challenge. Eleven buffaloes vaccinated subcutaneously and two vaccinated intradermally survived the same challenge 13 months after vaccination. PMID:2502878
An experimental oil adjuvant vaccine was developed against haemorrhagic septicaemia, a disease of cattle and buffalo caused by Pasteurella multocida serotype B and E. Mineral oil, Mercol 52, was used as adjuvant together with Span 85 and Tween 85 as emulsifiers. The vaccine was evaluated by single dose intramuscular immunisation of 1–2 year old buffalo calves. IgG and IgM class
A study was conducted to assess the type and prevalence of abnormalities occurring in the female reproductive tracts of 405 buffalo cows slaughtered at Mosul abattoir. Out of the 405 buffalo genital tracts examined, various abnormalities with different degrees of severity were observed in 216 (53.3%) of cases. Twenty two (5.4%) were pregnant and the remaining 41.2% (167\\/405) were macroscopically
The aim of this review is to update the knowledge regarding the composition and properties of buffalo milk (BM). Buffalo milk\\u000a has higher levels of fat, lactose, protein, ash and Ca, and vitamins A and C and lower levels of vitamin E riboflavin and\\u000a cholesterol; an absence of carotene; and the presence of the blue-green pigment (biliverdin) as well as
A comparative study on the prevalence of Anaplasma parasite was conducted on ticks carrying buffaloes and cattle. Five hundred blood samples of both animals (250 of each) were collected during February, March and April. Thin blood smears on glass slides were made, fixed in 100% methyl alcohol and examined. Microscopic examination revealed that 205 (41%) animals had Anaplasma parasites, out of which 89, 44 and 72 animals had Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma centrale and mixed infection respectively. Infected buffaloes and cattle were 75 and 130 respectively. The infection in female was 53 and 92 in buffaloes and cattle respectively. Twenty-two and 92 blood samples of male were found positive in buffaloes and cattle respectively. Comparative study revealed that the cattle were 26.82% more susceptible than buffaloes. The parasite prevailing percentage in female of both animals was slightly higher than that of the male. This investigation was aimed at studying the comparative prevalence of Anaplasma parasite in tick carrying buffaloes and cattle. PMID:16252338
Rajput, Z I; Hu, Song-Hua; Arijo, A G; Habib, M; Khalid, M
A comparative study on the prevalence of Anaplasma parasite was conducted on ticks carrying buffaloes and cattle. Five hundred blood samples of both animals (250 of each) were collected during February, March and April. Thin blood smears on glass slides were made, fixed in 100% methyl alcohol and examined. Microscopic examination revealed that 205 (41%) animals had Anaplasma parasites, out of which 89, 44 and 72 animals had Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma centrale and mixed infection respectively. Infected buffaloes and cattle were 75 and 130 respectively. The infection in female was 53 and 92 in buffaloes and cattle respectively. Twenty-two and 92 blood samples of male were found positive in buffaloes and cattle respectively. Comparative study revealed that the cattle were 26.82% more susceptible than buffaloes. The parasite prevailing percentage in female of both animals was slightly higher than that of the male. This investigation was aimed at studying the comparative prevalence of Anaplasma parasite in tick carrying buffaloes and cattle.
Rajput, Z.I.; Hu, Song-hua; Arijo, A.G.; Habib, M.; Khalid, M.
The objectives of the present study were to investigate the bacteria accompanying hydrosalpinx of the buffalo cow and investigate the correlation between bacterial infection of the uterus and hydrosalpinx. Buffalo cows' reproductive tracts were collected from Mosul abattoir. A total 385 uterine samples were examined of which 25 were having hydrosalpinx. Swabs for bacteriology, fluid for cytology and biopsies for histopathology were collected from the hydrosalpinx and the uterus from each samples included in this study. Results of this study indicated high prevalence of hydrosalpinx (6.5%) including unilateral (n = 19; 76%) and bilateral (n = 6; 24%) hydrosalpinx. Although 16 samples (64%) of the hydrosalpinx samples had no bacterial growth, the most prevalent bacteria recovered from hydrosalpinx were Corynebacterium hemolyticum and Actinomyces bovis, 42.8% and 28.6%, respectively. The most prevalent bacteria in the uterus were Archanobacterium pyogenes (18.5%), Staphylococcus aureus (14.8%), and Listeria monocytogenes (11.0%). Higher rates of leukocytes infiltration (p < 0.01) were observed in the uterine discharge than hydrosalpinx. A significant (p < 0.01) increase in lymphocytes was found in uterine discharge. Microscopic examination of the hydrosalpinx showed mucosal atrophy and dilatation of oviductal lumen without any signs of inflammation. It could be concluded that there is no correlation between bacteria isolated from uterus and hydrosalpinx. No association was found between bacteriological cultures and hydrosalpinx. Inflammation of the uterine tissue could be extended to utero-tubal junction producing local inflammation resulting in fibrosis and tubal obstruction. The obstruction in the lumen of the oviducts resulted in accumulation of fluid. PMID:18992119
The suitability of using annually grown, carrot-sized buffalo gourd (Cucurbita foetidissima) roots as a feedstock for alcoholic fermentation was explored. Roots grown in 1982 and 1983 were slurried, dextrinized and saccharified using Takatherm and Diazyme (commercial enzymes manufactured by Miles Laboratories), and fermented by the action of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These processes were monitored in detail and results were compared with those displayed by controls formulated using potato tubers. The preparation of gourd root slurries with suitable viscosity characteristics for enzymatic digestion required the addition of water (at least 50% by weight) which reduced the proportion of fermentable sugars in the resulting saccharified suspensions. The resulting slurries were well-suited to enzymatic conversion of starch to sugar. Estimates of enzymatic efficiency in gourd root suspensions did not suggest the presence of naturally occurring amylase or glucosidase inhibitors in these plant materials. Saccharified gourd root mashes supported yeast growth well and produced ethanol yields at 82.2-86.5% of the theoretically maximum efficiency. 23 references.
Flow cytometry is a useful tool that provides an accurate, objective and rapid evaluation of semen quality. The use of this technique could significantly improve the quality of buffalo semen samples used in artificial insemination. This study was carried out to evaluate, by flow cytometry, frozen-thawed buffalo spermatozoa quality parameters such as sperm viability by SYBR-14/propidium iodide staining; mitochondrial function by JC-1 potentiometric probe; sperm chromatin stability (SCSA) by acridine orange; and acrosome reaction (AR) by FITC-PNA staining. Semen samples from five Italian Mediterranean buffalo bulls were used. Sperm viability was not different between bulls and ranged from 33.4% to 43.6%. A consistent rate (55.1 ± 10.8%) of sperm cells showed high mitochondrial membrane potential (??(high)), with no significant differences between subjects. Sperm chromatin structure assay differed significantly between the five buffalo bulls; moreover, data showed high stability within each buffalo. DNA fragmentation indexes (DFI), such as %-DFI, -DFI, SD-DFI, were 11.2 ± 8.6, 153.3 ± 24.6 and 81.6 ± 21.2, respectively. Regarding AR, the percentage of acrosome-reacted live (ARL) and acrosome-reacted dead (ARD) spermatozoa was 0.3 ± 0.2 and 15.3 ± 5.5, respectively. This functional parameter differed significantly between buffalo bulls and showed high stability. Following to Ca(2+) ionophore A23187 for 3 h, AR significantly differed between subjects and was characterized by an increase in both ARL (10.8%) and ARD population (22.0%). This study indicates that flow cytometry could be a useful tool for a quick multiparametric evaluation of sperm quality in buffalo. In particular, SCSA and AR resulted in sperm functional parameters sensitive enough for the diagnosis of frozen-thawed semen fertilizing potential. PMID:22834640
Minervini, F; Guastamacchia, R; Pizzi, F; Dell'Aquila, M E; Barile, V L
Immune privileged mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into multiple cell types and possess great potential for human and veterinary regenerative therapies. This study was designed with an objective to isolate, expand and characterize buffalo bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) at molecular and cellular level. Buffalo BM-MSCs were isolated by Ficoll density gradient method and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS). These cells were characterized through alkaline phosphatase (AP) staining, colony-forming unit (CFU) assay, mRNA expression analysis (CD 73, CD 90, CD 105, Oct4 and Nanog), immunolocalization along with flow cytometry (Stro 1, CD 73, CD 105, Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog) and in situ hybridization (Oct4 and Sox2). Multilineage differentiation (osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic) was induced in vitro, which was further assessed by specific staining. Buffalo BM-MSCs have the capacity to form plastic adherent clusters of fibroblast-like cells and were successfully maintained up to 16(th) passage. These cells were AP positive, and further CFU assay confirmed their clonogenic property. RT-PCR analysis and protein localization study showed that buffalo BM-MSCs are positive for various cell surface markers and pluripotency markers. Cytoplasmic distribution of mRNA for pluripotency markers in buffalo BM-MSCs and multilineage differentiation were induced in vitro, which was further assessed by specific staining. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of buffalo BM-MSCs, which suggests that MSCs can be derived and expanded from buffalo bone marrow and can be used after characterization as a novel agent for regenerative therapy. PMID:23679988
Gade, N E; Pratheesh, M D; Nath, A; Dubey, P K; Amarpal; Sharma, B; Saikumar, G; Taru Sharma, G
The objectives of the present study were to determine the relationship between bacteriological findings, clinical signs and histopathological changes in postpartum metritis. Evaluation of the treatment efficiency of using systemic or intra-uterine infusion of antibiotics with some hormonal preparations for the treatment of postpartum metritis. Data were collected from 50 buffalo cows with history of calving of more than 1 month. All buffaloes were subjected to detailed clinical examination including external inspection, vaginoscopy and transrectal palpation of the cervix, uterus and ovaries. Swabs for bacteriology and biopsies for histopathology were collected from uterine lumen from each buffalo included in the present study. Bacteria identified using API systems following aerobic and anaerobic cultures. Vaginal mucus scored for character, odour and estimation of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs). Treatment conducted using oxytetracycline in local intrauterine infusion or systemically with hormonal treatment including prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and oestradiol benzoate. Results revealed that the most predisposing factor for postpartum uterine infection was retained placenta and toxic puerperal metritis. The most prevalent bacteria in uterine lumen were Escherichia coli, Archanobacterium pyogenes, Bacteroides fragilis and Fusobacterium necrophorum the most prevalent bacteria in buffaloes with postpartum metritis. A. pyogenes and F. necrophorum were an important pathogens causing severe uterine inflammation as found in histopathological examinations. Buffaloes with postpartum metritis showed good clinical cure when oxytetracycline injected systemically with PGF2 alpha. Intrauterine infusion of oxytetracycline had no advantage for the treatment of uterine infection in buffalo cows with postpartum metritis. PGF2 alpha improved clinical cure of buffaloes with postpartum metritis. PMID:18363608
This study evaluated fertility in swamp buffalo after synchronization of ovulation combined with fixed time artificial insemination. At the start of the study, designated day 0, from a group of 98 female Thai swamp buffalo, 55 buffalo (heifers n° = 20 and cows n° = 35) were selected to be synchronized with GnRH (Day 0) followed by PGF2alpha (Day 7)
T. Chaikhun; T. Tharasanit; J. Rattanatep; F. De Rensis; M. Techakumphu
...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y...NAVIGATION REGULATIONS Â§ 207.590 Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y...this section will mean all of the Black Rock Waterway, including Black Rock...
2 Abstract: Lice infestation has major impacts on the productivity and welfare of livestock. The current study was carried out to throw light on the effect of lice infestation on general health condition and ovarian activity in buffalo-cows with emphasis on its control by an alternative safe way. A total number of 1583 buffalo-cows reared at Lower Egypt was included
W. M. Ahmed; Salwa M. Habeeb; Faragalla M. El Moghazy; Emtenan M. Hanafi
Two African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), an eland (Taurotragus oryx) and a waterbuck (Kobus defassa) were intravenously inoculated with Cowdria ruminantium (Kiswani). Amblyomma gemma nymphs were fed on the animals at 3 weekly intervals. Jugular blood was also collected at 3 weekly intervals and inoculated into sheep. Nymphal ticks that fed on one buffalo on days 16 and 37 and on
...2009-07-01 false Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N...Areas Â§ 110.84 Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N...Black Rock Channel and Bird Island Pier opposite the foot of Porter Avenue, bounded...
...2010-07-01 false Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N...Areas Â§ 110.84 Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N...Black Rock Channel and Bird Island Pier opposite the foot of Porter Avenue, bounded...
...2009-07-01 false Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo... Â§ 165.939 Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo...Ohio. (1) Boldt Castle 4th of July Fireworks, Heart Island, NY. (i)...
Eco-tourism depending on wildlife is becoming increasingly profitable and landowners are beginning to favor game farming and ecotourism. In these areas, large-scale translocation of wildlife involves a diversity of species and large populations. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is one of the major tourist attractions in Zambia. It accounts for 8.7% and 12.4% of the total animal species hunted in the Game Management Areas and the total hunting revenue earned in Zambia, respectively. It is ecologically an important animal species essential for the purpose of habitat control and facilitating the provision of suitable grazing pastures. However, the rearing of the African buffalo on game ranches has been hampered by its carrier state of the Southern Africa Terroritory (SAT) serotypes of foot and mouth disease virus (FMD). The African buffalo is also known to be a carrier of Theileria parva lawrencei, the causative agent of corridor disease (CD) that continues to have devastating effects on the livestock industry in Zambia. In addition, the importation of buffaloes from countries with populations endemic to bovine tuberculosis is highly restricted. Veterinary regulations in Zambia, strongly advocate against the translocation of buffaloes from protected areas to private ranches for disease control purposes thereby mounting a considerable constraint on the economic and ecological viability of the industry. It is hoped that this review will motivate the relevant government authorities in exploiting ways in which this animal species play a central role in eco-tourism. PMID:16786973
Munang'andu, Hetron M; Munag'andu, Hetron M; Siamudaala, Victor M; Nambota, Andrew; Bwalya, John M; Munyeme, Musso; Mweene, Aaron S; Takada, Ayato; Kida, Hiroshi
Progressive weight gain, faecal egg counts, packed cell volume, percent eosinophils in blood, serum antibody and serum levels of glutamate dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase were recorded in seven swamp buffalo (Bubalis bubalis), 7 Ongole (Bos indicus) and four Bali calves (Bos sundiacus) which were infected orally with 15 metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica twice weekly for 32 weeks. Similar observations were made on four buffalo, 4 Ongole calves and 3 Bali calves maintained fluke-free as controls. Flukes were counted at slaughter 36 weeks after initial infection. Mean daily weight gains of infected Bali (228 +/- 100 (SD) g/day) and infected Ongole calves (328 +/- 57 (SD) g/day) were lower (p = 0.026 and 0.067, respectively) than those of control calves (405 +/- 107 (SD) g/day), but infected buffalo calves (379 +/- 78 (SD) g/day) had similar weight gains to those of the controls (p = 0.57). Throughout the trial, faecal Fasciola egg counts in buffaloes were about one-fifth of counts of Ongole calves, and counts in Bali calves were intermediate. Ongole calves had three times the number of flukes at slaughter in their liver compared to buffalo and Bali calves, which had similar numbers. However, there was evidence that Bali calves had acquired a degree of resistance about 24 weeks after infection commenced and may have lost adult flukes as a consequence. PMID:17405628
To aid in unraveling diverse genetic and biological unknowns, a proteomic approach was used to analyze the whey proteome in cow, yak, buffalo, goat, and camel milk based on the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) techniques. This analysis is the first to produce proteomic data for the milk from the above-mentioned animal species: 211 proteins have been identified and 113 proteins have been categorized according to molecular function, cellular components, and biological processes based on gene ontology annotation. The results of principal component analysis showed significant differences in proteomic patterns among goat, camel, cow, buffalo, and yak milk. Furthermore, 177 differentially expressed proteins were submitted to advanced hierarchical clustering. The resulting clustering pattern included three major sample clusters: (1) cow, buffalo, and yak milk; (2) goat, cow, buffalo, and yak milk; and (3) camel milk. Certain proteins were chosen as characterization traits for a given species: whey acidic protein and quinone oxidoreductase for camel milk, biglycan for goat milk, uncharacterized protein (Accession Number: F1MK50 ) for yak milk, clusterin for buffalo milk, and primary amine oxidase for cow milk. These results help reveal the quantitative milk whey proteome pattern for analyzed species. This provides information for evaluating adulteration of specific specie milk and may provide potential directions for application of specific milk protein production based on physiological differences among animal species. PMID:23464874
The effect of washing frequency on the physiological responses and performance of buffalo calves was studied in hot summer. Thirty Nili-Ravi calves aged 4-6 months were divided into three uniform groups of ten. The calves of group A, B and C were washed two (9 a.m. and 3 p.m.), three (8 a.m., 12 noon and 4 p.m.) and four (8 a.m., 11 a.m., 2 p.m. and 5 p.m.) times in a day, respectively. They were washed with water for 5 min at a stretch. The mean linear body measurements, body weight, dry matter intake through concentrate, green fodder and physiological responses, i.e. rectal temperature, pulse rate and respiration rate before and after washing under different daily washing frequency were recorded fortnightly. The average daily gain was also calculated. The mean total dry matter intake was increased with the increase frequency of washing. The maximum mean daily body weight gain was recorded in group C followed by group B and A. There were statistically significant (P?0.05) differences between the three washing groups. Calves were more comfortable with increase number of washing in a day in hot summer. The rectal temperature, pulse rate and respiration rate also varied significantly (P?0.05) between the three experiment groups. It can be concluded that daily four times washing in hot summer had more beneficial effects over three and two times washing of young Nili-Ravi buffalo calves to decrease rectal temperature, pulse rate and respiration rate and to increase average feed utilization and daily gain under tropical climate. PMID:20614236
Das, Kalyan Sundar; Singh, Ghansham; Paul, Shyam S; Malik, Raman; Oberoi, Parminder S; Deb, Sitanshu M
Hemorrhagic septicemia (HS), an acute, fatal and septicemic disease of cattle and buffaloes caused by Pasteurella multocida, is important in tropical regions of the world, especially in African and Asian countries. The prevalence of disease has been well documented with predominant isolation of P. multocida serotypes B:2 and E:2. Conventional methods of identification such as serotyping, biotyping, antibiogram determination and pathogenicity as well as molecular methods (P. multocida-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a serogroup B-specific PCR assay, multiplex capsular typing system and loop-mediated isothermal amplification techniques) and characterization (restriction endonuclease analysis, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, repetitive extragenic palidromic PCR and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR analysis) are applied in parallel for rapid epidemiological investigations of HS outbreaks. Although several vaccine formulations including alum precipitated, oil adjuvant and multiple emulsion vaccines are commercially available, the quest for suitable broadly protective HS vaccines with long-lasting immunity is on the upsurge. Concurrently, attempts are being made to unravel the mysteries of the pathogen and its virulence factors, pathogenesis and determinants of protective immunity as well as diversity among strains of P. multocida. This review highlights the advances in these various aspects of HS. PMID:21676341
Several faculty members at the State University of New York at Buffalo School of Nursing were interested in developing a nursing center in Western New York to serve the homeless population. The City Mission in Buffalo was selected as a site to conduct a survey to identify the demographic characteristics of one group of homeless subjects and their perceived needs. One hundred and twenty-four questionnaires were completed and analyzed statistically. The profile of the respondents was that of a young, single, Protestant white male from the Buffalo area with a history of local residence. A large proportion of the subjects perceived themselves as experiencing health problems. Both disease prevention and health promotion needs were recognized. The findings of this study were consistent with those of earlier studies including those completed in Boston, Massachusetts (1984). These data have served as a base for the provision of primary nursing interventions for this population within a nursing center model. PMID:2366115
Skelly, A H; Getty, C; Kemsley, M; Hunter, J; Shipman, J
Lice infestations are commonly seen in buffaloes, causing damage directly to the animal, i.e., itching, skin lesions, and anemia. In addition, these insects can also be vectors for infectious diseases. The present study describes an outbreak of lice in buffaloes as well as evidence for Haematopinus tuberculatus acting as a vector of anaplasmosis. Lice and blood were collected from 4 young buffaloes (2- to 4-mo-old) and a molecular analysis for the presence of Anaplasma marginale was conducted. DNA of A. marginale was detected in the blood of all 4 animals. Twelve lice were collected and separated in 4 groups, with 3 insects each, to comprise a pool of samples. After DNA extraction and molecular analysis, a positive PCR for A. marginale was found in all pooled samples. These results identify sucking lice as potential vectors of anaplasmosis. However, additional studies are necessary to fully evaluate the vector potential of H. tuberculatus for A. maginale transmission. PMID:23050728
Da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer; Lopes, Leandro Sâmia; Diaz, Jorge Damian Stumpfs; Tonin, Alexandre Alberto; Stefani, Lenita Moura; Araújo, Denise Nunes
Milk samples were collected from Murrah buffalo between Day 30 and Day 120 post partum and analysed for progesterone concentration to monitor ovarian cyclicity. Progesterone levels were low (1 to 5 ng/ml) during the anestrous period. Levels were also low around estrus, but they began to increase at Day 6 postestrus; high levels (15 to 32 ng/ml) were maintained for different periods. There was a marked drop in progesterone level after Day 16 to 18 of the estrous cycle in those animals which returned to estrus. Progesterone levels remained high in buffalo which did not return to estrus, indicating that these animals were pregnant. Some of the progesterone cycles were not associated with the expression of estrus. This study indicated that a milk progesterone enzymoimmunoassay can be used to detect early pregnancy as well as conditions such as silent estrus and anovulatory estrus; it can thus help reduce the long intercalving period in buffalo. PMID:16726787
In the present study, 560 buffaloes from a private animal farm in Giza Governorate were examined over one year for scabies infestation. The results showed that 466 Buffaloes (83.2%) were infested with two mange mites; Psoroptes natalensis and Sarcoptes scabiei. The highest prevalence rate of infestation was during winter (90.4%), and lowest was in summer (71.4%). The infestation on females was 90.4%, while on males was 80.8%. The mites were predominant on the withers, lumber, back, croup and the external angle of ilium. Buffaloes more than five years old were highly infested than smaller ones, but no mite's infestation were detected in those less than one year. PMID:21634242
Helicobacter pylori infection in humans is one of the most common infections worldwide. However, the origin and transmission of this bacterium has not been clearly explained. One of the suggested theories is transmission via raw milk from animals to human beings. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of H. pylori in bulk milk samples from dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds in Iran. In the present study, 447 bulk milk samples from 230 dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds were collected in four provinces and tested for H. pylori by cultural method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of the ureC (glmM) gene. The animals whose milk samples collected for this study were clinically healthy. Using the cultural method, three of 447 milk samples (0.67%), including two sheep (2.2%) and one buffalo (1.6%) milk samples, were found to be contaminated with H. pylori. H. pylori ureC gene was detected in 56 (12.5%) of milk samples, including 19 cow (14.1%), 11 sheep (12.2%), nine goat (8.7%), two camel (3.6%), and 15 buffalo (23.4%) milk samples. Using PCR method, there were significant differences (p<0.05) in the level of contamination with H. pylori between milk samples collected from different species. The present study is the first report of the isolation of H. pylori from raw sheep and buffalo milk in Iran and the first demonstration of H. pylori DNA in camel and buffalo milk. PMID:22458716
The present study was conducted on 50 recently calved Iraqi Buffalo cows. Depending on the kind of parturition, buffalo cows were divided into two main groups, the first group had normal unassisted parturition (NP) (26 animals) and the second group with certain periparturent complications (PPC) (24 animals). After 24 h of parturition, these two groups were further subdivided into two groups as cows expel their foetal membranes in <24 h postpartum and referred as non-retained placenta (NRP) while cows that did not expel their foetal membrane after 24 h referred as retained placenta (RP). Sampling for bacteriology, uterine discharge for polymorphonuclear cells per cent and blood samples for polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) and the enzyme creatine kinase activity were performed at 6, 24 and 48 h postpartum. In PPC group, the most prevalent bacteria after 6 h of calving were Escherichia coli, beta-haemolytic Streptococci and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Total bacterial isolates in the uterus of buffaloes with RP in PPC group after 24 and 48 h were 129 and 183 respectively. Among the isolates, Archanobacterium pyogenes, Fusobacterium necrophorum, Prevotella melaninogenicus and Staphylococcus aureus were the most prevalent isolates after 48 h of RP buffaloes in PPC group. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil were significantly (p < 0.01) increased in the uterine discharge than in blood in buffaloes with RP in both PPC and NP groups. In conclusion, uterine contamination occurs as a result of postpartum ascending contamination by non-specific environmental organisms. The presence of Lactobacillus sp. in the uterus indicated a healthy uterus. Peripartum complications followed by retention of foetal membranes with the dominance of E. coli in the uterine lumen might favour the colonization of other bacteria including facultative anaerobic and strictly anaerobic in the uterine wall of buffaloes. PMID:18067535
Calf suckling and oxytocin injections are commonly used for pre-milking stimulus in dairy buffaloes under field conditions. A study was conducted to investigate effect of these treatments on reproductive performance. Fifty one Nili-Ravi buffaloes were monitored from parturition up to 150 days postpartum through rectal examination. Data on milk yield, body condition score (BCS) and reproductive parameters were recorded weekly. Postpartum ovulation interval (POI) was determined by presence of an ovulation depression or a very soft corpus luteum haemorrhagicum and was confirmed through milk progesterone levels (MPL). Suckling was used to stimulate milk let down, and where the calf had died, injection of oxytocin was resorted to. Milk samples were analyzed for MPL using radioimmunoassay (RIA) and fat; and milk yield was converted to 4% fat corrected milk (FCM). The mean postpartum uterine involution length (PUI) was 34.30+/-1.33 days. Mean POI was 59.37+/-4.76 days and mean postpartum estrus interval (PEI) was 69.03+/-6.03 days. Suckling period averaged 26.40+/-5.57 days and correlated with POI (r=0.19, P<0.01) and PEI (r=0.23, P<0.01). POI was shortest in buffaloes suckled for one month (P<0.05). Oxytocin was used with a mean dosage of 7.50 IU, delaying placental expulsion time (PET) and POI but shortening PEI. BCS shortened PET, POI and PEI (P<0.01). Mean FCM was 14.50+/-0.20, ranging from 2 to 35 kg/d; and was higher in estrus group; correlating positively with POI (r=0.31, P<0.01). MPL were 1.37+/-0.17 ng/ml and increased after ovulation, remaining greater than 1.5 ng/ml from Day 4 to 14 of the estrus cycle, followed by a rapid decline up to next estrus. BCS in buffaloes resuming oestrus was constantly higher than those failing to resume ovarian cyclicity. Live weight, prepartum was 510.0+/-5.9 kg with a loss of 3.7+/-2.12 kg, 30 days postpartum. The present study suggests a lower reproductive efficiency of dairy buffaloes under the peri-urban farming system reflected by ovarian cyclicity in 68.63% buffaloes within 150 days postpartum and silent estrus in 51.5% of the cases. Increasing suckling duration and use of oxytocin delayed POI, however, POI was shortest in buffaloes suckled for one month. The high yielding buffaloes also manifested better reproductive cyclicity; while moderate yielder showed shorter ovulation intervals and higher conception rate. PMID:17611053
The objectives of this study were to determine the non-specific aerobic and anaerobic bacterial causes of endometritis causing repeat breeding of cycling Iraqi buffalo cows at Nineveh province, validate diagnostic criteria for endometritis and to evaluate the treatment efficiency of using systemic or intra-uterine infusion of antibiotics for the treatment of endometritis. Data were collected from 60 buffalo cows with history of repeat breeding in different herds. All buffaloes were subjected to detailed clinical examination including external inspection, vaginoscopy and transrectal palpation of the cervix, uterus and ovaries. Swabs for bacteriology and biopsies for histopathology were collected from the uterine lumen from each cow. Character, odour and estimation of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) of the vaginal mucus were scored. Blood samples were collected from cows for creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) measurement. Treatment conducted using oxytetracycline with tylosin in local intrauterine infusion or systemically with hormonal treatment. The most pre-disposing factor for uterine infection was retained placenta (13.3%). The most prevalent bacteria in uterine lumen were E. coli (23%), Archanobacterium pyogenes (13%) and Staphylococcus aureus (10%) were mostly isolated from buffaloes with repeat breeding. Vaginal mucus character score was associated with the bacterial growth density score. The difference in PMN was highly significant (p < 0.01) in animals with repeat breeding than control groups. In addition, PMNs was significantly (p < 0.01) correlated r = 0.894 with the character of vaginal discharge. High level of PMNs observed in buffaloes infected with A. pyogenes. Buffalo cows with endometritis had higher CK (321.47 +/- 39.06 vs 162.01 +/- 16.41 U/l) and AST (133.93 +/- 12.43 vs 97.01 +/- 6.86 U/l) activities (p < 0.05) than control-heifers, but no significant difference was observed between buffalo cows with endometritis in CK (321.47 +/- 39.06 vs 208.33 +/- 5.84) and AST (133.93 +/- 12.43 vs 156.17 +/- 9.65) activities than control-pluriparious. It could be concluded that A. pyogenes was the only non-specific uterine pathogen directly associated with severe endometrial lesions. Vaginoscopy examination combined with palpation of uterus increase the accuracy of diagnosing endometritis and cytogenic examination of uterine discharge is more reliable method of establishing the presence or absence of uterine inflammation in buffalo cows. Animals with repeat breeding (endometritis) showed clinical cure and improved pregnancy in all treatment groups with no significant difference. The use of oestradiol in repeat breeder cases has no effect in improving neither clinical cure rate nor pregnancy rate. PMID:18992092
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of commercial exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (EFE) mixture added at 1.5\\u000a and 3.0 g (cellulase 4,000 µM glucose\\/g\\/h?+?xylanase 7,990 µM xylose\\/g\\/min; 50:50 w\\/w) per kilogram of dry matter (DM) of feed on nutrient digestibility, milk production, milk composition, and some blood constituents\\u000a in lactating Murrah buffaloes. Eighteen buffaloes were allotted to three dietary treatments, on
Chandra Shekhar; Sudarshan S. Thakur; Sachin K. Shelke
The present study was undertaken to characterize the full-length transcripts of Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes 1-10 of river buffalo. The conceptualized amino acid identity of bubaline TLRs ranged between 86% to 100% with ruminants, while it ranged between 45% to 91% with other vertebrate species. Simple modular architecture tool (SMART) analysis revealed the presence of TIR domains and varying numbers of leucine-rich repeat motifs in all the buffalo TLRs. With respect to TIR domains, TLRs 1, 2 and 3 of river buffalo were found to have 99.3% identity with cattle and 100% identity of TLRs 4, 6 and 10 with sheep. Phylogenetic analysis of TLRs of buffalo and different vertebrate species revealed the clustering of major TLR gene subfamilies with high bootstrap values. The evolutionary relationship between buffalo and other ruminant species was found to vary among different TLRs. In order to understand the relationship between TLRs of different ruminant species, multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis of pairwise amino acid differences between different species within each TLR was performed. Buffalo and cattle were found to be closely related only with respect to TLRs 1, 2 and 7, while buffalo and sheep were found to be clustering together with respect to TLRs 3, 6, 8 and 10. The distinct relationship of bubaline TLRs with cattle and sheep revealed the possible differences in the pathogen recognition receptor systems in these animals and consequently the differences in their susceptibility/resistance to various invading organisms. PMID:22694123
Dubey, P K; Goyal, S; Kathiravan, P; Mishra, B P; Gahlawat, S K; Kataria, R S
The current study was aimed to establish the impact of progesterone supplementation (norgestomet progestagen) between days 4 to 10 post-ovulation on subsequent luteal profile and conception rate in buffaloes. The 28 Murrah buffaloes of second to fourth parity, having normal reproductive organs, were estrus synchronized by double PGF(2?) protocol at 11 days apart. The buffaloes were inseminated during mid- to late estrus and thereafter repeated at 24 h interval. The buffaloes were randomly assigned into two groups: (1) control (no treatment, n = 14) and (2) treatment group (CRESTAR ear implant, n = 14). The CRESTAR ear implant (3 mg, norgestomet progestagen) was inserted subcutaneous between days 4 to 10 post-ovulation. The ovaries were scanned at estrus and thereafter on days 4, 10, 16, 21, and 40 post-ovulation to examine the preovulatory follicle (POF) and corpus luteum (CL) diameter. Each ultasonography was followed by blood sample collection for analysis of plasma progesterone concentrations following ovulation. The conception rate was similar (p > 0.05) between treated and control buffaloes. The pregnant buffalo of the control group had larger (p < 0.05) POF diameter than nonpregnant counterparts. The CL diameter was similar (p > 0.05) in both treated and untreated control as well as in their pregnant and nonpregnant buffaloes of the respective groups. The plasma progesterone concentrations were higher (p < 0.05) in the treatment group on the day 10 post-ovulation as compared to the control buffaloes. It is concluded that norgestomet supplementation had no impact on conception rate and CL diameter but enhances the plasma progesterone concentrations following treatment in buffaloes. PMID:22802094
An extraordinary plan of official control was carried out in 2008 in Campania (Italy) with the aim to monitor polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) levels in buffalo milk and to detect the contaminated farms, most of which are located in Caserta province.For these companies has been ordered seizure and execution of additional analyses has been
Mauro Esposito; Francesco Paolo Serpe; Frank Neugebauer; Stefania Cavallo; Pasquale Gallo; Germana Colarusso; Loredana Baldi; Giuseppe Iovane; Luigi Serpe
Characterization of field isolates of viruses associated with pox-like outbreaks involving both cows (cattle) and buffaloes\\u000a was carried out. PCR and electron microcopy of representative virus isolates from these animals, initially identified them\\u000a as orthopoxviruses (OPXVs). Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of A-type inclusion and haemagglutinin (HA) genes of these\\u000a isolates revealed a closer relationship with other OPXVs. Sequencing of the
S. Yadav; M. Hosamani; V. Balamurugan; V. Bhanuprakash; Raj Kumar Singh
Buffalo River is an important water resource in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Over a 1-year period (August 2010-July 2011), we assessed the prevalence of human adenoviruses (HAdVs) at a total of 6 sites on the river and three dams along its course. HAdVs were detected by real-time quantitative PCR in about 35 % of the samples with concentrations ranging from 1.2 × 10(1) genome copies (GC)/l to 4.71 × 10(3) GC/l. HAdVs were detected at 5 of the 6 sampling sites with the detection rate ranging from 8.3 % at Rooikrantz Dam to 92 % at Parkside. The HAdV concentrations across the sampling sites were as follows: Parkside (3.25 × 10(2)-4.71 × 10(3) GC/); King William's Town (1.02 × 10(2)-4.56 × 10(3) GC/l); and Eluxolzweni (1.17 × 10(2)-3.97 × 10(2) GC/l). Significantly (P < 0.05) higher concentrations were detected at the non-dam sites compared to the dam sites. A very low mean concentration of 1.86 × 10(1) HAdV GC/l was observed at Bridle Drift Dam. While HAdVs were detected only once at Rooikrantz Dam (1.74 × 10(1) GC/l), no HAdV was detected at Maden Dam. Epidemiologically important serotypes, Ad40/41, constituted 83.3 %, while Ad21 made up 16.7 % of the all HAdVs detected and were characterized by qualitative PCR. The Buffalo River presents a public health risk heightened by the presence of Ad 40/41 and Ad21. Our results make imperative the need for assessing water sources for viral contamination in the interest of public health. This work is a significant contribution to the molecular epidemiology of adenoviruses and to the best of our knowledge this is the first report on detection of enteric virus from surface waters in the Eastern Cape. PMID:23412891
Pasteurella multocida serotypes B:2 and E:2 are the main causative agents of ruminant hemorrhagic septicemia in Asia and Africa, respectively. Pasteurella multocida strain PMTB was isolated from a buffalo with hemorrhagic septicemia and has been determined to be serotype B:2. Here we report the draft genome sequence of strain PMTB. PMID:24136854
Yap, Huan Yong; Ghazali, Kamal; Wan Mohamad Nazarie, Wan Fahmi; Mat Isa, Mohd Noor; Zakaria, Zunita; Omar, Abdul Rahman
An experimental oil adjuvant vaccine was developed against haemorrhagic septicaemia, a disease of cattle and buffalo caused by Pasteurella multocida serotype B and E. Mineral oil, Mercol 52, was used as adjuvant together with Span 85 and Tween 85 as emulsifiers. The vaccine was evaluated by single dose intramuscular immunisation of 1-2 year old buffalo calves. IgG and IgM class antibodies were determined by ELISA. The group of animals immunised with the experimental oil adjuvant vaccine showed a high titre of the IgG class of antibodies measured at 300 days post vaccination. To compare the protective efficacy of the vaccine with the commonly used broth bacterin, another group of buffalo calves was immunised by broth bacterin. This group showed a low level of IgG antibodies. Protection was assessed by challenge with 10(9) viable bacteria of P. multocida type B:2,5 administered subcutaneously, 250 days post vaccination. Animals vaccinated with the experimental oil adjuvant vaccine were fully protected. The other groups of animals, vaccinated with broth bacterin or used as control (non-vaccinated), developed symptoms of haemorrhagic septicaemia. A strong relationship between IgG but not IgM class antibody level and resistance to challenge was observed. The experiment demonstrated that the experimental oil adjuvant vaccine was superior to broth bacterin in providing protection against experimental haemorrhagic septicaemia in young buffalo calves beyond 250 days. PMID:9351202
...175 Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed 6 miles per hour. Note: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. [CGD...
|This case study describes concepts for three types of learning spaces that grew out of a Learning Landscape planning process. The process was part of a master plan study for the three campuses of the University at Buffalo. It involved research into user needs and aspirations about future pedagogy, development of learning space strategy,…
|New data issued by the U.S. Bureau of the Census and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) show that most poor households in the Buffalo (New York) metropolitan area pay extremely large portions of their limited incomes for housing costs. Housing is considered affordable for a low-income household if it consumes no more than…
Public school districts in Buffalo, USA and Toronto, Canada reviewed their safe schools policies in 2008. Revised Codes of Conduct are compared to earlier versions and each other, and a conceptual policy web is used to understand how local, state\\/provincial, national, and international influences affect local safe school policies. The comparison demonstrates that while influenced by international beliefs about unsafe
As recently freed black Americans moved westward in the decades after the Civil War, they sought employment opportunities and escape from an oppressive racial environment. Some men became United States soldiers, named the Buffalo Soldiers by plains Indians, serving in the West. Neglected by the white public and scholars for years, in 1967 William H. Leckie published his classic book,
In a recent article, Schmolck, Buffalo, and Squire (2000) investi- gated memory distortions in college students' recollections of how they heard the verdict in the O.J. Simpson murder trial. Students were questioned either 15 months or 32 months after the verdict was ren- dered. Their responses were compared with their own reports 3 days after the verdict. Responses 15 months
Logging of boreal riparian old-growth white spruce took place in Wood Buffalo National Park from 1951 to 1991. In this study we focus on one of the areas, Timber Berth 408, logged from 1966 to 1991. Regeneration surveys of white spruce were conducted in clearcuts and undisturbed vegetation during June 1994. The age of a clearcut is unrelated to either
Recent technological advances have made wind power a viable source of alternative energy production and the number of windplant facilities has increased in the United States. Construction was completed on a 73 turbine, 25 megawatt windplant on Buffalo Ridge near Lake Benton, Minnesota in Spring 1994. The number of birds killed at existing windplants in California caused concern about the potential impacts of the Buffalo Ridge facility on the avian community. From April 1994 through Dec. 1995 we searched the Buffalo Ridge windplant site for dead birds. Additionally, we evaluated search efficiency, predator scavenging rates and rate of carcass decomposition. During 20 mo of monitoring we found 12 dead birds. Collisions with wind turbines were suspected for 8 of the 12 birds. During observer efficiency trials searchers found 78.8% of carcasses. Scavengers removed 39.5% of carcasses during scavenging trials. All carcasses remained recognizable during 7 d decomposition trials. After correction for biases we estimated that approximately 36 ?? 12 birds (<1 dead bird per turbine) were killed at the Buffalo Ridge windplant in 1 y. Although windplants do not appear to be more detrimental to birds than other man-made structures, proper facility sitting is an important first consideration in order to avoid unnecessary fatalities.
Osborn, R. G.; Higgins, K. F.; Usgaard, R. E.; Dieter, C. D.; Neiger, R. D.
In order to control smallmouth buffalo, river carpsucker, and carp by commercial harvest, the three species must be managed as a group. A decline in one population allows an increase in another, because the habitat becomes more suitable as interspecific c...
Twenty-four buffalo calves, having similar age and initial body weight, were divided into two groups with equal number of calves of both sexes in each group to study the effect of calf starter ration on feed intake and weight gain. Calf starter and conventional dairy rations with crude protein 18% and total digestible nutrients 75-80% along with green fodder were
The authors describe the automation system with its integrated controls in use at the Buffalo plant of Davenport Cement Company. Following a brief description of the plant itself, the authors discuss the hardware and software control strategies being used. It is noted that the combination of the distributed control system and the integrated programmable logic controllers that were added during
An overabundance of common carp Cvprinus carpio and bigmouth buffalo Ictiobus cyprinellus in North and South Heron lakes, Minnesota, has hindered production of food plants for waterfowl. These shallow (maximum depth, 1.5 m), turbid lakes are partially drawn down each winter. Common carp were radio-tracked in both lakes during the winters of' 1991 and 1992 to monitor their movements and
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for stroke in patients undergoing heart surgery.Methods: A retrospective chart review of patients who underwent cardiac surgery in three hospitals of the State University of New York at Buffalo system over a 36-month period was completed. Demographics and risk factors were recorded, and stroke and death were determined by
John J. Ricotta; Gian Luca Faggioli; Alice Castilone; James M. Hassett
An examination of how the updated Eta-12 model, with its higher resolution, improved topography, and upgraded cloud and precipitation package, performed in forecasting the initiation and evolution of the first portion of the Buffalo, NY historic lake effect snow event (24-26 December 2001).
An evaluation of wind energy resources found in the area of the City of Buffalo is presented. Wind speed and direction data from three sites within the City have been collected and subjected to computer processing for identification of candidate sites for wind energy conversion applications. A detailed assessment of wind turbine performance at the three sites is carried out
|EDUCATIONAL INEQUALITY IN BUFFALO HAS LED TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PLAN FOR PROGRESSIVE ELIMINATION OF RACIAL IMBALANCE AND PROVISION OF INCREASED EDUCATIONAL QUALITY AND OPPORTUNITIES. CITIZEN OPINIONS, OBTAINED THROUGH INTERVIEWS, RESULTED IN A MODIFICATION OF THE "4-4-4 PLAN" (DIVISION OF GRADES 1-12 INTO THREE SCHOOLS, EACH WITH FOUR GRADES)…
Data were collected from 42 buffalo with toxic puerperal metritis in 2 large herds, with a history of dystocia, prolapse, and retained placenta. All buffalo were subjected to detailed clinical examination including external inspection, vaginoscopy, and transrectal palpation of the cervix, uterus, and ovaries. Swabs for bacteriology and biopsies for histopathology were collected from the uterine lumen from each cow. Character, odor, and estimation of polymorphonuclear cells of the vaginal mucus were scored. Blood samples were collected from cows for creatine kinase and aspartate amino-transferase measurement. The most predisposing factor causing toxic puerperal metritis was retained placenta (52.4%), and the most prevalent bacteria in uterine lumen were Escherichia coli, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Fusobacterium necrophorum (18.5, 16.7, 13.0, and 9.3%, respectively). High levels of polymorphonuclear cells were observed in buffalo infected with A. pyogenes and gram-negative anaerobic bacteria (62.1 and 76.4%). A high prevalence of gram-negative anaerobes was isolated from uteri harboring A. pyogenes (13.0%). Buffalo with toxic puerperal metritis had significantly higher creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities than controls (499.2 +/- 23.9 and 208.3 +/- 11.3 vs. 242.7 +/- 12.9 and 166.8 +/- 11.5 U/L, respectively). In a conclusion, gram-negative anaerobes and other facultative pathogens including A. pyogenes were important pathogens that cause severe uterine inflammation. PMID:17881686
Presents a social studies lesson, Head-Smashed-In, based on inquiry and cooperative learning principles, that asks students to hypothesize about the mystery of an Indian buffalo jump. Provides clues and topographical maps for the Head-Smashed-In jump in Alberta, Canada. Objectives include understanding the relationship between physical environment…
A heterogeneity study of the Tensleep reservoir in the Little Buffalo Basin field, Wyo., revealed that extensive cross-bedding, permeability variation, and fracture orientation have influenced and will continue to influence recovery from the reservoir. Well spacing has been reduced from 40 to 20 acres in areas of the field that would not otherwise have been efficiently depleted. The infill development
An analysis of toxic release inventories (TRI) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-regulated facilities in Buffalo, NY, fails to show evidence of environmental racism. Environmental racism is the disproportionate impact of environmental hazards on people of color communities (Bryant 1995, 6). The data do indicate some evidence of environmental classism, the disproportionate impact of environmental hazards on lower income populations.
Africanastrongylus giganticus n. sp. is described based on large ostertagiine nematodes occurring in the abomasum of African buffalo, Syncerus caffer, from Uganda; this represents the second species recognized in the genus. Specimens of A. giganticus are characterized by large size (15-19 mm in tot...
The brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) test determines the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH); the activity of this enzyme is greatest in growing oocytes, but it declines as oocytes mature. The objective was to develop and evaluate this test for assessing development of buffalo oocytes (to select developmentally competent oocytes for increased in vitro embryo production). Oocytes were exposed to BCB
B. M. Manjunatha; P. S. P. Gupta; M. Devaraj; J. P. Ravindra; S. Nandi
The American buffalo is a symbol of the American West. It is well established that this American species faced extinction in the late nineteenth century. Many also know that at the turn of the century, President Theodore Roosevelt was a champion for the protection of America’s natural beauty, including its wildlife. As I began my research on Theodore Roosevelt and
Genetic diversity in nine African buffalo ( Syncerus caffer ) populations throughout Africa was analysed with 14 microsatellites to study the effects of rinderpest epidemics and habitat fragmentation during the 20th century. A gradient of declining expected heterozygosity was observed among populations in Save Valley Conservancy (Zimbabwe), and northern and southern Kruger National Park (South Africa). This was explained by
Objective: Mature cathelicidin peptides show inhibitory activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species, certain fungi, parasites or enveloped viruses. The function of cathelicidins is not limited to antimicrobial killing, but extends to other aspects of immunity and tissue repair. In the present study RNAs from different tissues of buffalo were extracted, reverse transcribed and amplified using specific pair of primer
Pasteurella multocida serotypes B:2 and E:2 are the main causative agents of ruminant hemorrhagic septicemia in Asia and Africa, respectively. Pasteurella multocida strain PMTB was isolated from a buffalo with hemorrhagic septicemia and has been determined to be serotype B:2. Here we report the draft genome sequence of strain PMTB.
Yap, Huan Yong; Ghazali, Kamal; Wan Mohamad Nazarie, Wan Fahmi; Mat Isa, Mohd Noor; Zakaria, Zunita
The Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) summarized here was conducted at a U.S.Postal Service (USPS) Facility in Buffalo, NY. The PPOA documented and quantified waste generation at the General Mail Facility (GMF) where mail is processed, and at the Vehicle Maintena...
Background While prions play a central role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, the biology of these proteins and the pathophysiology of these diseases remain largely unknown. Since no case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has ever been reported in buffalo despite their phylogenetic proximity to cattle, genetic differences may be driving the different susceptibilities of these two species to BSE. We thus hypothesized that differences in expression of the most recently identified member of the prion family or Shadoo (SPRN) gene may relate to these species-specific differences. Principal Findings We first analyzed and compared the polymorphisms of the SPRN gene (?4.4 kb), including the putative promoter, coding and 3? regions, and further verified the entire ORF and putative promoter. This yielded a total of 117 fixed differences, remarkably: 1) a 12-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the hydrophobic domain of the cattle but not buffalo gene, introducing a four amino acid expansion/contraction in a series of 5 tandem Ala/Gly-containing repeats; 2) two fixed missense mutations (102Ser?Gly and 119Thr?Ala), and three missense mutations (92Pro>Thr/Met, 122Thr>Ile and 139Arg>Trp) in the coding region presenting different (P<0.05) genotypic and allelic frequency distributions between cattle and buffalo; and, 3) functional luciferase-reporter experiments for the predicted promoter region, consistent with a significantly higher activity in buffalo than cattle. Supporting these findings, immunoblotting revealed higher relative expression levels of Sho protein in cerebrum from buffalo than from cattle. In addition, for cattle, highest Sho expression was detected in obex, as compared to cerebrum or cerebellum. Significance Our findings support Sho as a non-PrP specific marker for prion infections, with obex as the best tissue source for the detection of Sho in TSE rapid tests. Moreover, these discoveries may prove advantageous for further understanding the biology of prion diseases.
The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis of wave pattern of follicular growth and to monitor the ovarian follicular dynamic in Iraqi buffalo cows. Reproductive tracts were collected at random intervals slaughtered at Mosul abattoir. According to morphological appearance of the corpus luteum, the estrous cycle was divided into four stages. The number of subordinate follicle (<5 mm in diameter) was higher during stage 1 (metestrous) and stage (proestrous and estrous) than during other stages of the estrous cycles, 13.5 +/- 6.08 and 4 9.41 +/- 3.94, respectively. There were fewer follicles (5-8 mm in diameter) during early diestrous and proestrous, 1.66 +/- 1.42 and estrous, 0.69 +/- 0.47 than during metestrous, 4.53 +/- 3.23 and late diestrous, 3.66 +/- 2.23. Follicles > 8-12 mm in diameter were more numerous during early diestrous, 1.62 +/- 1.29 and late diestrous, 1.03 +/- 0.72. A total 38 (64.6%; 82/127) animals examined showed follicles larger than 8 mm during early and late diestrous (stage 2 and stage 3). This indicated that these buffaloes developed two follicular waves in their cycle. Buffaloes did not show follicles larger than 8 mm during early and late diestrous were 45 animals (35.4%; 45/127), but all of these presented one large follicle during the following stage. These buffaloes develop only one follicular wave in their cycle. It could be concluded that, 64.6% of Iraqi buffalo cows develop two patterns of follicular waves, and 35.4% showed one wave of follicular dynamics. PMID:19052905
Cholangiomas and cholangiocarcinomas were observed in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from the Buffalo and Niagara Rivers (NY) and Old Woman Creek (OH), USA. ignificant increases in serum blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, triglycerides, inorganic phosphate, ALT, LDL,...
Cholangiomas and cholangiocarcinomas were observed in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from the Buffalo and Niagara Rivers (NY) and Old Woman Creek (OH), USA. Significant increases in serum blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, triglycerides, inor...
L. C. Folmar G. R. Gardner J. Hickey S. Bonomelli T. Moody
2 Abstract: Twenty lactating buffaloes divided into 4 groups (five animals each) were used to evaluate the singular and combined effect of bovine somatotropin and monensin on the productive performance of Egyptian dairy buffaloes. Treatments were 1) control ; 2) injection of exogenous bovine somatotropin (rbST); 3) concentrate feed mixture top dressed with 400 mg of monensin(M)\\/d\\/animal; 4) somatotropin(rbST) and
Cholangiomas and cholangiocarcinomas were observed in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from the Buffalo and Niagara Rivers (NY) and Old Woman Creek (OH), USA. Significant increases in serum blood urea\\u000a nitrogen, uric acid, triglycerides, inorganic phosphate, ALT, LDL, calcium, and iron and a significant decrease in cholesterol\\u000a were found in the fish from the Buffalo and Niagara Rivers compared to
L. C. Folmar; G. R. Gardner; J. Hickey; S. Bonomelli; T. Moody
Buffalo, New York’s Citizen Soldiers: Personal Histories of Combat, Trauma, and Returning Home after the Second World War\\u000aThis thesis focuses on interviews from nine World War Two veterans who are from Buffalo, New York and the immediate surrounding areas. Included are three infantry men from the European theatre, including one paratrooper. Three who served in the Pacific theatre, including
The present paper describes the isolation of buffalo pox virus from scab lesions and its molecular characterization through\\u000a B5R gene sequencing. During our study, pustular pox lesions were observed on the teats and mammary parenchyma of cattle and\\u000a buffaloes, and the disease was of significant zoonotic importance since similar lesions were produced on the hands, legs,\\u000a and face of people
B. M. Chandranaik; Raj Kumar Singh; Mahusudan Hosamani; Giriappa Krishnappa; Balur R. Harish; C. S. Chethana; C. Renukaprasad
The aim of this paper is to report the study of hepatogenous photosensitization in buffaloes during two outbreaks provoked by ingestion of Brachiaria decumbens in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Ten young buffaloes in outbreak 1 and seven buffaloes in outbreak 2 were intoxicated by B. decumbens. Nine clinically healthy buffaloes raised under the same conditions as the sick animals served as the control group. All animals were subjected to clinical examination, and serum was collected to measure gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), direct bilirubin (DB), indirect bilirubin (IB) and total bilirubin (TB) as indicators of liver function and urea and creatinine as indicators of renal function. Histopathology of liver fragments from five different animals was carried out. During the outbreaks and every two months for one year, samples of grass from paddocks where the animals got sick were collected for quantitative evaluation of the saponin protodioscin, combined with observations of pasture characteristics and daily rainfall. Clinical signs included apathy, weight loss, restlessness, scar retraction of the ears and intense itching at the skin lesions, mainly on the rump, the tail head, neck and hindlimbs, similar to the signs observed in other ruminants. Only the GGT enzyme presented significantly different (P < 0.01) serum levels between intoxicated animals (n = 17) and healthy animals (n = 9), indicating liver damage in buffaloes bred in B. decumbens pastures. Microscopy of the liver showed foamy macrophages and lesions of liver disease associated with the presence of crystals in the bile ducts, which have also been found in sheep and cattle poisoned by grasses of the genus Brachiaria. During the outbreaks, protodioscin levels were higher than 3%, and shortly after, these levels were reduced to less than 0.80%, suggesting a hepatic injury etiology. The outbreaks took place at the beginning of the rainy season, and there was a positive correlation between saponin and the amount of rainfall, as well as between saponin and the amount of green leaves in the pasture. These findings indicate that the grass was more toxic in this period. This is the first report of photosensitization by B. decumbens in buffalo. PMID:23850427
De Oliveira, C H S; Barbosa, J D; Oliveira, C M C; Bastianetto, E; Melo, M M; Haraguchi, M; Freitas, L G L; Silva, M X; Leite, R C
Simultaneous spontaneous bilateral pneumothoraces, the presentation of separate right and left pneumothoraces together, is a rare event. The pleural cavities in humans are separated completely and the only previous reports of pleuropleural communication have been associated with major invasive thoracic procedures, specifically mediastinal surgery. The term “buffalo chest” has been coined for the condition on the basis that the buffalo or bison has a single pleural cavity, one of the few mammals to do so. We present the case of a woman with a past history of a single right sided spontaneous pneumothorax but no major thoracic surgery, who presented to the emergency department with a second spontaneous right pneumothorax that was under tension. After thoracostomy, she was found to have bilateral pneumothoraces which resolved with a unilateral chest drain demonstrating pleuropleural communication. We believe this to be the first reported case of such a presentation in the literature. The case demonstrates an unusual emergency presentation of a rare anatomical anomaly.
Hartin, D J; Kendall, R; Boyle, A A; Atkinson, P R T
?-lactoglobulin is a rich source of bioactive peptides. The LC-MS separated tryptic peptides of buffalo colostrum ?-lactoglobulin (BLG-col) were computed based on MS-MS fragmentation for de novo sequencing. Among the selected peptides (P1-P8), a variant was detected with methionine at position 74 instead of glutamate. The sequences of two peptides were identical to hypocholesterolemic peptides whereas the remaining peptides were in accordance with buffalo milk ?-lactoglobulin. Comparative sequence analysis of BLG-col to milk ?-lactoglobulin was carried out using CLUSTALW2 and a molecular model for BLG-col was constructed (PMDB ID-PM0076812). The synthesized variant pentapeptide (IIAMK, m/z-576 Da) was found to inhibit angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) with an IC(50) of 498 ± 2 ?M, which was rationalized through docking simulations using Molgrow virtual docker. PMID:22541393
Proteomic analysis of bovine, caprine, buffalo, equine and camel milk highlighted significant interspecies differences. Camel milk was found to be devoid of ?-lactoglobulin, whereas ?-lactoglobulin was the major whey protein in bovine, buffalo, caprine, and equine milk. Five different isoforms of ?-casein were found in camel milk, analogous to the micro-heterogeneity observed for bovine ?-casein. Several spots observed in 2D-electrophoretograms of milk of all species could tentatively be identified as polypeptides arising from the enzymatic hydrolysis of caseins. The understanding gained from the proteomic comparison of these milks may be of relevance both in terms of identifying sources of hypoallergenic alternatives to bovine milk and detection of adulteration of milk samples and products. PMID:22365180
Hinz, Katharina; O'Connor, Paula M; Huppertz, Thom; Ross, R Paul; Kelly, Alan L
Sixteen Italian Mediterranean Buffalo young bulls were divided into two groups fed isoprotein and isoenergy diets and only differing for protein source of concentrate: faba bean (FB) vs soybean (SB). Animals were slaughtered at 350kg BW. Meat from FB group showed significantly lower fat, protein, cholesterol and saturated fatty acids than SB group. Significant differences were also found between the three muscles analysed [Longissimus thoracis (LT), Semitendinosus (ST) and Iliopsoas plus Psoas minor (IP)]. ST showed the most favourable fatty acids profile: lower SFA, higher PUFA, MUFA, ?-3, ?-6, CLA and, consequently, lower values for both atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. Results showed that faba bean can be used as a protein source alternative to soybean in the diet of young buffalo bulls for the production of high quality meat. PMID:24018277
Calabrò, S; Cutrignelli, M I; Gonzalez, O J; Chiofalo, B; Grossi, M; Tudisco, R; Panetta, C; Infascelli, F
Natural organic matter (NOM) is a term collectively used to describe the complex matrix of organic material present in natural waters. The impact of NOM on the speciation of aluminum at Buffalo Pound water treatment plant was evaluated in the present study using fulvic acid. The first stage of the study was to conduct aluminum (Al) speciation experiments (using background
The objective was to determine the effects of oviductal proteins on sperm function. Abbatoir-derived buffalo oviducts were flushed with PBS; the fluid recovered (protein concentration, 2.3mg\\/mL; average of 3.5mgprotein\\/oviduct) was centrifuged, dialyzed, and clarified, and the supernatant applied to a Heparin-Sepharose affinity column. Unbound fractions were collected and bound proteins were separately eluted (with elution buffer). Eight distinct protein bands
Fifty-seven cycling buffalo cows of the river type were treated with two doses of 0.5 mg cloprostenol intramuscularly given 11 days apart. Each animal was inseminated twice at 72 and 96 hours after the second injection of cloprostenol. The first service conception rate diagnosed by rectal palpation at 90 days was 38.6 per cent. At the time of insemination the
N Pathiraja; AS Abeyratne; BM Perera; V Buvanendran
Clearance of trypanosomes from the blood of infected Cape buffalo was associated with the development of two responses: (i) complement-dependent and clone-specific lytic activity and (ii) complement-independent try- panocidal activity that was not restricted by trypanosome clone or species. This latter activity was mediated by H2O2 and required the presence of xanthine oxidase in serum but not the addition of
Buffalo meat nuggets were prepared after equilibrating the ingredients to temperatures of 4, 10, 25 and 37°C. Following comminution for 6min, the temperatures of the batters were 16.3, 19.3, 27.4 and 34.8°C and their pH and emulsion stability ranged from 6.18 to 6.29 and 88.76 to 95.33%, respectively. Increasing temperature of comminution led to increased cooking losses and TBARS values.
R. Thomas; A. S. R. Anjaneyulu; Y. P. Gadekar; H. Pragati; N. Kondaiah
Genetic variations was detected in Egyptian buffaloes at six locations; El-Behira (Be), El-Sharkia (Sh), El-Menofia (Me), Kafr El-Sheikh (Kf), El-Menia (Mn) and Sohag (So). Ten individuals from each location were blood sampled. SDS-protein and esterase markers were used to detect the genetic variations within the six studied location. SDS-protein profiles showed lower percentage of polymorphism (21.5%) than esterase profiles (45.7%)
Outer membrane protein (OMP) from Pasteurella multocida serotype B:2 was extracted and characterized using SDS-PAGE. Ten major polypeptide bands of MW 88 to 25 kDa were observed. Immunoblotting suggested that the polypeptides of MW 44, 37 and 30 kDa were the major immunogens. Buffalo calves vaccinated with the OMP vaccine or a commercial haemorrhagic septicaemia oil adjuvant vaccine developed highest
Buffalo butter oil was fractionated by stepwise crystallization at several temperatures between 15–40°C using slow cooling of melted butter oil (80°C) with agitation (10rpm) in conjunction with vacuum filtration to produce five solid and five liquid fractions. Fractions were analysed for fatty acid (FA) composition, acyl-carbon profile and evaluated for solid fat content (SFC) by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance and
A. E Fatouh; R. K Singh; P. E Koehler; G. A Mahran; M. A El-Ghandour; A. E Metwally
The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis of wave pattern of follicular growth and to monitor the ovarian follicular\\u000a dynamic in Iraqi buffalo cows. Reproductive tracts were collected at random intervals slaughtered at Mosul abattoir. According\\u000a to morphological appearance of the corpus luteum, the estrous cycle was divided into four stages. The number of subordinate\\u000a follicle
The rate of spread of bovine brucellosis was investigated in buffalo and Jersey cattle herds maintained at a Livestock Research station in Pakistan. Reactor animals (identified by conventional serological tests) were either retained or culled because of advanced age or poor productivity. Reactors were housed, managed and fed separately from the rest of the herds. The initial seroprevalence of brucellosis among both the Jersey cattle and the buffalo tested was 21.4%, the difference being statistically insignificant (p = 0.218). For 34 months, the spread of brucellosis was limited to 25 new reactors in the 334 cows and 33 in the 442 buffaloes. The mean attack rate was 7.5% for both herds during the test intervals. Trend analysis of proportions positive at each testing revealed a significant decrease in the percentages observed at the first testing. The management practice of segregation offered some advantage in reducing the spread of brucellosis to negative animals. However, an epidemiological study covering a large number of herds would be required to identify risk factors responsible for perpetuating the disease. PMID:2132710
Chondrogenic differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) via embryoid bodies (EBs) is an established model to investigate chondrogenesis signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms in vitro. Our aim has been to improve upon the number of differentiated cells needed for the in vitro development of functional cartilage. Chondrogenic differentiation of buffalo ESCs was modulated by bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF-10), transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-?1 ) individually and their combination. ESCs differentiation into chondrocytes was characterized by the appearance of Alcian blue-stained nodules and the expression of cartilage-associated genes (RT-PCR) and protein (immunocytochemistry). BMP-2 or FGF-10 treatment enhanced chondrogenic differentiation, whereas TGF-?1 treatment inhibited buffalo ESC-derived chondrogenesis. The combination of BMP-2 and FGF-10 was the most effective treatment. This treatment resulted in a higher number of Alcian blue-positive nodules by 15.2-fold, expression of the mesenchymal cell marker scleraxis gene by 3.25-fold, and the cartilage matrix protein collagen II gene and protein 1.9- and 7-fold, respectively, compared to the untreated control group. Chondrogenesis was also recapitulated from mesenchymal and chondrogenic progenitor cells, resulting in the establishment of mature chondrocytes. Thus, buffalo ESCs can be successfully triggered in vitro to differentiate into chondrocyte-like cells by specific growth factors, which may provide a novel in vitro model for further investigation of the regulatory mechanism(s) involved. PMID:23852953
Disposition following single intravenous injection (2 mg/kg) and pharmacodynamics of cefquinome were investigated in buffalo calves 6-8 months of age. Drug levels in plasma were estimated by high-performance liquid chromatography. The plasma concentration-time profile following intravenous administration was best described by a two-compartment open model. Rapid distribution of cefquinome was evident from the short distribution half-life (t ½? ?=?0.36?±?0.01 h), and small apparent volume of distribution (Vdarea?=?0.31?±?0.008 L/kg) indicated limited drug distribution in buffalo calves. The values of area under plasma concentration-time curve, elimination half-life (t ½? ), total body clearance (ClB), and mean residence time were 32.9?±?0.56 ?g·h/mL, 3.56?±?0.05 h, 60.9?±?1.09 mL/h/kg, and 4.24?±?0.09 h, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration of cefquinome were 0.035-0.07 and 0.05-0.09 ?g/mL, respectively. A single intravenous injection of 2 mg/kg may be effective to maintain the MIC up to 12 h in buffalo calves against the pathogens for which cefquinome is indicated. PMID:23456794
Gene coding for leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), a metalloprotease, was identified in the tropical liver fluke, Fasciola gigantica; that on sequence analysis showed a close homology (98.6%) with leucine aminopeptidase of the temperate liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica. The recombinant leucine aminopeptidase protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. F. gigantica peroxiredoxin, a hydrogen peroxide scavenger and an immunomodulating protein, was also cloned and expressed in E. coli. A vaccination trial in buffaloes was conducted with these two recombinant proteins, with 150 and 300 ?g of leucine aminopeptidase and a cocktail of 150 ?g each of recombinant leucine aminopeptidase and peroxiredoxin in three groups, respectively. Both Th1- and Th2-associated humoral immune responses were elicited to immunization with these antigens. A challenge study with 400 metacercariae did not show a significant protection in terms of reduction in the worm burden (8.4%) or anti-fecundity/embryonation effect in the immunized groups, as to the non-immunized control animals. Our observations in this buffalo vaccination trial are contrary to the earlier promise shown by leucine aminopeptidase of F. hepatica as a leading candidate vaccine molecule. Identification of leucine aminopeptidase gene and evaluation of the protein for its protective efficacy in buffaloes is the first scientific report on this protein in F. gigantica. PMID:21376699
Raina, O K; Nagar, Gaurav; Varghese, Anju; Prajitha, G; Alex, Asha; Maharana, B R; Joshi, P
Partial migration (when only some individuals in a population undertake seasonal migrations) is common in many species and geographical contexts. Despite the development of modern statistical methods for analyzing partial migration, there have been no studies on what influences partial migration in tropical environments. We present research on factors affecting partial migration in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in northeastern Namibia. Our dataset is derived from 32 satellite tracking collars, spans 4 years and contains over 35,000 locations. We used remotely sensed data to quantify various factors that buffalo experience in the dry season when making decisions on whether and how far to migrate, including potential man-made and natural barriers, as well as spatial and temporal heterogeneity in environmental conditions. Using an information-theoretic, non-linear regression approach, our analyses showed that buffalo in this area can be divided into 4 migratory classes: migrants, non-migrants, dispersers, and a new class that we call "expanders". Multimodel inference from least-squares regressions of wet season movements showed that environmental conditions (rainfall, fires, woodland cover, vegetation biomass), distance to the nearest barrier (river, fence, cultivated area) and social factors (age, size of herd at capture) were all important in explaining variation in migratory behaviour. The relative contributions of these variables to partial migration have not previously been assessed for ungulates in the tropics. Understanding the factors driving migratory decisions of wildlife will lead to better-informed conservation and land-use decisions in this area. PMID:22570722
Naidoo, Robin; Du Preez, Pierre; Stuart-Hill, Greg; Jago, Mark; Wegmann, Martin
It is now a well-accepted notion that each new experimental design requires proper evaluation of internal control genes (ICGs) for accurate normalization of expression data. In riverine buffaloes, till date no appropriate ICG has been reported for studying transcriptional response under any of the physiological stressful condition. The objective here was to test 16 well-known reference genes from different functional categories that could serve as suitable ICG during heat stress studies in buffalo mammary tissue. Briefly, the mammary explants were exposed to 45°C for 1 h and subsequently allowed to recover at 37°C for different time points (2-24 h). Three software programs, geNorm, Normfinder and BestKeeper, were used to measure gene transcript stability. RPL22 was excluded because of weak amplification and unacceptable PCR efficiency. Except GAPDH, all other genes showed expression stability within the acceptable range (<1.5). RPL4, B2M, RPS23 and EEF1A1 genes were found to be most stably expressed while GAPDH and ACTB showed least stability. The BestKeeper analysis identified high correlation for RPL4 (r=0.953) and EEF1A1 (r=0.914) with BestKeeper index. Based on the present findings, it could be suggested that geometric average of RPL4, B2M, RPS23 and EEF1A1 would provide accurate normalization to transcriptional data of buffalo mammary explant in response to heat stress. PMID:23496011
Sodhi, M; Kishore, A; Khate, K; Kapila, N; Mishra, B P; Kataria, R S; Mohanty, A K; Varshney, N; Mukesh, M
The objective of this study has been to develop a prediction equation of fat-free mass (FFM) from buffalo calves. Twenty buffaloes were fed ad libitum access at unifeed, with vitamin-mineral integration, for 14 months. Seven days before slaughtering, the animals were weighed and bioelectrical impedance measurements were collected. The data were analyzed by multiple linear regressions to evaluate the relationship between FFM and various predictor variables. Stepwise regression was used to eliminate variables that did not influence variation in the model. The value of resistance collected showed a decrease when the electrical frequency increases, while the values of reactance (Xc) increase. When using live weight (LW) and reactance at 500 and at 1000 kHz as independent variables, we obtained the best R2 Adj (0.967) and Durbin Watson statistic (2.596) that explain the prediction model (FFM = - 30.59 + 0.993LW + 0.150Xc500 - 0.123Xc1000 + 9.11). These results indicate that the use of bioelectrical impedance analysis has excellent potential as a rapid method, with minimal perturbation for the animal, to predict FFM in buffalo. PMID:22443823
The objective of the study was to compare the sensory profile of Cheddar cheese prepared from cow and buffalo milk using indigenous and commercial cultures. Commercially available and locally isolated, indigenous starter cultures were used to prepare cow and buffalo milk Cheddar cheese. The cheese was ripened at 4 and 12°C and analyzed for descriptive sensory profile by a panel of 10 assessors after 60 and 120 d of ripening. On evaluation, the mean scores for odor, flavor, and texture attributes obtained for buffalo milk cheese were significantly higher than those obtained for cow milk cheese. For most of the traits, cheese samples prepared from indigenous cultures and ripened at higher temperature received higher descriptive scores compared with those of commercial cultures and ripened at lower degrees. Milk sources highly significantly affected the "creamy" and "sour" traits of odor; the "creamy," "smoky," and "soapy" flavors; and all the texture attributes except "maturity." Starter cultures considerably influenced the production of "acidic," "bitter," "sweet," and "sour" characteristics. The use of elevated ripening temperature showed noticeable effect on all the characteristics except the "creamy" odor and flavor. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis also showed that milk sources, starter cultures, and ripening temperatures significantly influenced the sensory characteristics. PMID:23332853
The present study was conducted on lactating Murrah buffalo to assess the effect of crushed flaxseed (a source of omega-3 fatty acids) supplementation (300g/100kg bwt/day for 60 days), over and above the routine feed, on luteolytic signal (PGF2?), luteal function (progesterone) and conception rate. In first experiment, on day 50 post-calving, six non-supplemented buffalo were treated to synchronize time of ovulation using an Ovsynch+Controlled Internal Drug Release (CIDR) protocol followed by intravenous oxytocin treatment (OT; 100IU) on day 15 post-ovulation. Blood samples were collected at 15min interval, 1h before to 4h after OT challenge. Thereafter, the same buffalo were supplemented with flaxseed, treated to synchronize time of ovulation starting on day 35 post-supplementation using the same protocol and subjected to OT treatment and blood sampling on day 15 post-ovulation. The PGF2? response was measured as the venous concentration of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto PGF2? (PGFM). The mean hourly concentration of PGFM subsequent to flaxseed supplemented was less (P<0.05) than in the pre-supplementation period at all the occasions. Flaxseed supplementation did not affect plasma fatty acids and other plasma metabolites except for an increase (P<0.05) in plasma cholesterol and plasma alanine transaminase. In the second experiment, 31 buffalo were randomly assigned to a control (n=16) and flaxseed supplemented (n=15) group. The latter group was supplemented with flaxseed starting from day 15 post-calving. On day 50-post-calving, buffalo of both groups were treated to synchronize time of ovulation among animals as described for the first experiment followed by artificial insemination (AI). Post-AI luteal phase plasma progesterone was greater (P<0.05) in the supplemented group compared to controls. Conception rate on day 63 post-AI was 66.7% in supplemented and 31.2% in controls (P<0.05). The present study indicated the beneficial impact of dietary supplementation of crushed flaxseed on conception rate through attenuation of luteolytic signal and improvement in post-breeding luteal profile. PMID:23260028
Nazir, G; Ghuman, S P S; Singh, J; Honparkhe, M; Ahuja, C S; Dhaliwal, G S; Sangha, M K; Saijpaul, S; Agarwal, S K
A total of 130 animals (82 cattle, 48 buffaloes) with histories of anestrous 60-90 days post-partum and belonging to different agroclimatic zones of Punjab were subjected to rectal palpation and blood samplings at least three times at weekly intervals. The body condition score (BCS) of each animal was also recorded. The animals were divided into two groups; viz., true anestrous (Gp-I) and subestrus (Gp-II) through rectal palpation of ovaries and plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations. Furthermore, the Gp I and II animals were divided into treatment (Gp Ia, 40 cattle and 16 buffaloes; Gp IIa, 12 cattle and 14 buffaloes) and control groups (Gp Ib, 20 cattle and 8 buffaloes; Gp IIb, 10 cattle and 10 buffaloes). True anestrous animals (Gp Ia) were treated with 3 injections of hydroxyprogesterone caproate (750 mg, i.m.) at 72-hr intervals followed by injection of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG; 750 I.U., i.m.) 72 hr after the last progesterone injection. The animals were bred at the first estrus after the induced one. The first service conception rate (FSCR), overall conception rate (OCR), services per conception and pregnancy rate of the true anestrous treated cattle (Gp Ia) were 44.4%, 48.0%, 2.08 and 60.0%, respectively. In the true anestrous control cattle (Gp Ib), only five that were observed to be in estrus failed to conceive. In the anestrous treated buffaloes (Gp Ia), the FSCR, OCR, services per conception and pregnancy rate were 50.0%, 62.5%, 1.6 and 62.5%, respectively. No buffalo amongst true anestrous control (Gp Ib) showed estrus. The subestrus animals (Gp IIa) were administered Prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha); 25 mg Dinoprost, i.m.) and bred at induced estrus. Amongst the Gp IIa animals, all cattle (100%) and twelve buffaloes (85.7%) responded to treatment. Of these animals, the FSCR and pregnancy rate at induced estrus in the cattle were 50.0% each, whereas they were 66.6% and 57.1%, respectively, in the buffaloes. The subestrus control animals (Gp IIb) remained infertile. In summary, the plasma P(4) profile can be used to differentiate true anestrous and subestrus animals and thus to determine a hormonal therapy. Furthermore, fertile estrus can be induced with hormonal therapy in anestrous and subestrus bovines. PMID:19122399
Honparkhe, M; Singh, Jagir; Dadarwal, D; Dhaliwal, G S; Kumar, Ajeet
In this study, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method and culturing strategies were used to detect carriers of Salmonella spp. in cattle and buffalo. In order to perform the assay, 100 faecal samples were obtained from both buffalo and cattle\\u000a in Urmia, Iran, in July 2008. Samples were tested for Salmonella isolation by culturing techniques and biochemical testes. Faecal samples were
The urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) was measured in six buffaloes (Bubalis bubalis) during fasting and in fourteen buffaloes given four restricted levels of roughage (2.5-4.8 kg DM/d). Only allantoin and uric acid, not xanthine and hypoxanthine, were present in the urine, the pattern of excretion being similar to that in cattle. The fasting PD excretion amounted to 0.20 (SD 0.06) mmol/kg metabolic weight (W)0.75 per d, and the rate of PD excretion as a linear function of feed intake was 5.2 mmol/kg digestible organic matter intake. Both values were considerably lower than the values for cattle reported in the literature. Creatinine excretion values were 0.33 (SD 0.06) and 0.44 (SD 0.09) mmol/kg (W)0.75 per d determined in fasting and feeding periods respectively. Fasting N excretion was 257 (SD 49) mg N/kg (W)0.75 per d. Both creatinine and fasting N excretions were also lower than in cattle. The activities of xanthine oxidase (EC 220.127.116.11) in plasma, liver and intestinal mucosa were determined in buffaloes, cattle and sheep. Xanthine oxidase activities in buffaloes were 24.5 (SD 2.7) unit/l plasma and 0.44 (SD 0.02) and 0.31 (SD 0.10) unit/g fresh tissue in liver and intestinal mucosa respectively. These activities were higher than those in cattle and sheep. Xanthine oxidase was practically absent from plasma and intestine of sheep. It is suggested that the differences in PD excretion between buffaloes and cattle were probably due to the smaller proportion of plasma PD that was disposed of in the urine of buffaloes. PMID:8785213
Chen, X B; Samaraweera, L; Kyle, D J; Orskov, E R; Abeygunawardene, H
In an effort to develop a watershed-wide water quality management plan for the Buffalo River, NY, the Erie County Department of Environment and Planning has begun a pilot watershed management project for Cazenovia Creek, one of three major tributaries. In support of the management project a water sampling effort covering four events and two non-events for 25 different analytes at
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging biodefense pathogen that poses significant threats to human and livestock health. To date, the interepidemic reservoirs of RVFV are not well defined. In a longitudinal survey of infectious diseases among African buffalo during 2000-2006, 550 buffalo were tested for antibodies against RVFV in 820 capture events in 302 georeferenced locations in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Overall, 115 buffalo (21%) were seropositive. Seroprevalence of RVFV was highest (32%) in the first study year, and decreased progressively in subsequent years, but had no detectable impact on survival. Nine (7%) of 126 resampled, initially seronegative animals seroconverted during periods outside any reported regional RVFV outbreaks. Seroconversions for RVFV were detected in significant temporal clusters during 2001-2003 and in 2004. These findings highlight the potential importance of wildlife as reservoirs for RVFV and interepidemic RVFV transmission in perpetuating regional RVFV transmission risk. Copyright ?? 2011 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
LaBeaud, A. D.; Cross, P. C.; Getz, W. M.; Glinka, A.; King, C. H.
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging biodefense pathogen that poses significant threats to human and livestock health. To date, the interepidemic reservoirs of RVFV are not well defined. In a longitudinal survey of infectious diseases among African buffalo during 2000-2006, 550 buffalo were tested for antibodies against RVFV in 820 capture events in 302 georeferenced locations in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Overall, 115 buffalo (21%) were seropositive. Seroprevalence of RVFV was highest (32%) in the first study year, and decreased progressively in subsequent years, but had no detectable impact on survival. Nine (7%) of 126 resampled, initially seronegative animals seroconverted during periods outside any reported regional RVFV outbreaks. Seroconversions for RVFV were detected in significant temporal clusters during 2001-2003 and in 2004. These findings highlight the potential importance of wildlife as reservoirs for RVFV and interepidemic RVFV transmission in perpetuating regional RVFV transmission risk. PMID:21460024
LaBeaud, A Desirée; Cross, Paul C; Getz, Wayne M; Glinka, Allison; King, Charles H
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging biodefense pathogen that poses significant threats to human and livestock health. To date, the interepidemic reservoirs of RVFV are not well defined. In a longitudinal survey of infectious diseases among African buffalo during 2000–2006, 550 buffalo were tested for antibodies against RVFV in 820 capture events in 302 georeferenced locations in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Overall, 115 buffalo (21%) were seropositive. Seroprevalence of RVFV was highest (32%) in the first study year, and decreased progressively in subsequent years, but had no detectable impact on survival. Nine (7%) of 126 resampled, initially seronegative animals seroconverted during periods outside any reported regional RVFV outbreaks. Seroconversions for RVFV were detected in significant temporal clusters during 2001–2003 and in 2004. These findings highlight the potential importance of wildlife as reservoirs for RVFV and interepidemic RVFV transmission in perpetuating regional RVFV transmission risk.
LaBeaud, A. Desiree; Cross, Paul C.; Getz, Wayne M.; Glinka, Allison; King, Charles H.
The presence of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in the Kruger National Park (KNP) was determined for the first time in 1990. It was diagnosed in an African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) bull, which was found recumbent and in an emaciated and moribund state near the south-western boundary fence. This prompted an investigation into the bovine tuberculosis (BTB) status of the KNP, with emphasis on its epidemiological determinants and risk factors. This report documents the findings of surveys that were conducted from 1990 to 1996. It was found that BTB had entered the KNP ecosystem relatively recently (+/- 1960), and has found favourable circumstances for survival and propagation in a fully susceptible and immunologically naive buffalo population. Indications are that it entered the KNP from across the southern river boundary, where the presence of infected domestic cattle herds had been documented. From there the infection spread through the southern buffalo population and is currently spreading in a northward direction. It was estimated that this northward spread took place at a rate of about 6 km per year; the prospect being that, if this rate of spread is maintained, the entire KNP may be affected in less than 30 years from now. Spillover from buffalo had already occurred in species such as chacma baboon (Papio ursinus), lion (Panthera leo), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and leopard (Panthera pardus). Although there is no indication yet that these species act as maintenance hosts, the possibility is raised that these, or an as yet overlooked species, might assume such a role in future. In the KNP, BTB manifests itself as a chronic and predominantly subclinical disease in buffalo. It may take years for clinical signs to develop, and then only at a terminal stage, when emaciation is a constant feature. It is suspected that the time from infection to death is variable and dependent on the animal's immune response, which can be weakened by such factors as stress, old age or droughts. It was found that, in the interim, buffalo have a normal reproductive life. On necropsy, buffalo show almost exclusively lung and upper respiratory tract involvement, pointing to an aerogenous mode of transmission. Histologically, little sign of encapsulation of lesions was detected, which suggests that they are exceptionally susceptible to BTB and that most lesions are open and infectious and progressive, leading ultimately to death of the individual. Evidence also indicates that BTB is progressive within the herd context (92% being the highest prevalence rate thus far determined in a buffalo herd) as well as progressive within the KNP buffalo population (the implication being that virtually all buffalo herds in the KNP will eventually be infected). Preliminary data suggest a positive correlation between disease prevalence and mortality, with potential mortality reaching up to 10% in buffalo herds having BTB prevalence rates of 50 % and higher. Only the future will tell what the effect of the disease on the population dynamics of buffalo will be. PMID:11585089
De Vos, V; Bengis, R G; Kriek, N P; Michel, A; Keet, D F; Raath, J P; Huchzermeyer, H F
Perhaps the single most critical element of the Earth system is water, the carrier and bearer of life that is inextricably woven into the fabric of the Earth system. Only on Earth does water occur in equilibrium ...
The present study was conducted during 2005 and 2006 on 200 Nili-Ravi buffaloes kept in two agroecological zones (irrigated [zone 1] and rain-fed [zone-2]) of Punjab, Pakistan, with the objective to determine the level of trace minerals (Cu, Fe, Zn, Se) in serum of the buffaloes suffering from vaginal prolapse and to compare them with their healthy counterparts. In each zone 50 buffaloes suffering from prepartum vaginal prolapse during their seventh month of gestation were identified through survey. Vaginal prolapse-affected buffaloes belonging to zone 1 were identified as group VPB1 (N = 50), whereas buffaloes belonging to zone 2 were recognized as VPB2 (N = 50). The buffaloes of control group in zone 1 and zone 2 were identified as NCB1 and NCB2, respectively. The blood samples in all four groups of buffaloes were collected three times, i.e., first when these animals were in the eighth month of gestation, second during the eighth to ninth month of gestation, and finally when these animals were in the ninth or later month of gestation. The mean serum copper concentrations in buffaloes of group VPB1 were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in comparison with NCB1 and NCB2, whereas there were nonsignificant differences (P > 0.05) in copper concentrations between VPB1 and VPB2. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) of iron concentration in VPB1 compared with NCB1 and NCB2. Similarly, VPB2 also had significantly lower (P < 0.05) iron concentrations compared with NCB1 and NCB2. Serum zinc concentrations were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in animals of the VPB1 group when compared with NCB1 and NCB2. Similarly, lower zinc concentrations were observed in VPB2 in comparison with NCB1 and NCB2. There was significantly lower (P < 0.05) zinc concentration in affected buffaloes (VPB1 and VPB2) from the ninth month of gestation to term when compared with those in the eighth to ninth mo of gestation, and with those not yet in the eighth month of gestation. Serum selenium concentration were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in control group buffaloes (NCB1 and NCB2) in comparison with vaginal prolapse-affected buffaloes (VPB1 and VPB2). During different stages of gestation, mean serum selenium concentrations varied nonsignificantly (P > 0.05) within each group of buffalo. Based on information obtained from this study, it was concluded that the low serum concentration of copper and selenium are linked to increased incidence of vaginal prolapse in buffaloes during the last trimester of gestation. PMID:22284967
Akhtar, M S; Lodhi, L A; Ahmad, I; Qureshi, Z I; Muhammad, G
Sixty pluriparous, clinically normal buffalo cows (n=60) were used to investigate the relationships between metabolic status, subclinical endometritis and reproductive performance. Subclinical endometritis was diagnosed by endometrial cytology (EC) and ultrasonography (US) during weeks 4-9 postpartum (pp). A comparative assessment of these diagnostic approaches was made with respect to reproductive outcomes. Blood samples were collected on a weekly basis from weeks 4 to 9 in order to estimate some blood metabolites including blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Reproductive tract examination was carried out weekly from weeks 4 to 9 by endometrial cytology (percentage of polymorphonuclear cells; PMN%) and Ultrasonography (detection of fluid in uterus regardless to its amount or echogenicity; FIU). The percentage of buffalo cow suffering from subclinical endometritis as diagnosed by endometrial cytology was significantly (P<0.01) higher in non-pregnant cows (80%) at weeks 4 and 5 (60%) pp when compared with pregnant animals (0). HDL-c concentration was significantly lower (P<0.05) in cytologically diagnosed ENDM group (15.4±0.7mg/dl) if compared to NOENDM group (25.0±3.1mg/dl) during week 4 pp. During week 5 pp, triglycerides concentration was significantly high (P<0.05) in ENDM group, as diagnosed by the presence of FIU (184.6±12.4mg/dl) if compared to NOENDM group (102.7±30.6mg/dl). Total cholesterol concentration was significantly lower (P<0.01) in ENDM group (51.9±0.5mg/dl) than that of NOENDM group (85.9±2.0mg/dl) during week 6 pp. In conclusion, Weeks 4 and 5 pp are the best times to identify cytologically diagnosed endometritis. Furthermore, glucose and total cholesterol indicated that energy status is not a risk factor for cytologically diagnosed subclinical endometritis in buffalo cows. PMID:23751508
The aims of this study were to study the prevalence of oviduct abnormalities of buffaloes, investigate bacteria accompanying hydrosalpinx, pyosalpinx and salpingitis. In addition, the study was designed to investigate the correlation between bacterial infection of the uterus and oviduct lesions in buffaloes. Bacteriological examinations were performed on hydrosalpinx, pyosalpinx and salpingitis. Hydrosalpinx was found in 28 (6.9%) cases of which 20 (71.4%) were found unilaterally and 8 (28.6%) bilaterally. Pyosalpinx was recorded in 12 (2.9%). Three cases (0.7%) of oviducts filled with blood were recorded. Obstruction of oviducts was recorded in 5 (1.2%). Adhesions between mesosalpinx and perisalpingeal tissues were observed in 7 (1.7) cases. One case of double oviduct was found in the left side of the tract examined. The most prevalent bacteria recovered from hydrosalpinx were Corynebacterium hemolyticum and Actinomyces bovis, 42.8% and 28.6%, respectively. No correlation was noticed between bacteria isolated from the uterus and hydrosalpinx. The most prevalent bacteria recovered from pyosalpinx were Escherichia coli, Archanobacterium pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, 33.3%, 26.7% and 16.7%, respectively. Higher rates of leukocyte infiltration (P < 0.01) were observed in the uterine discharge and pyosalpinx than hydrosalpinx. In a conclusion, the current study disclosed that oviductal lesions seem to be an important problem in buffalo cows. In addition, there is no correlation between bacteria isolated from uterus and hydrosalpinx. There is a high correlation between bacteria isolated from uterus and pyosalpinx and salpingitis. The occurrence of pyosalpinx and salpingitis is mainly due to bacterial infection. Bacterial isolates from pyosalpinx and salpingitis might be related to ascending infection from the uterus. PMID:18612835
We use the fire ecology and biogeographical patterns of Callitris intratropica, a fire-sensitive conifer, and the Asian waterbuffalo (Bubalus bubalis), an introduced mega-herbivore, to examine the hypothesis that the continuation of Aboriginal burning and cultural integration of buffalo contribute to greater savanna heterogeneity and diversity in central Arnhem Land (CAL) than Kakadu National Park (KNP). The 'Stone Country' of the Arnhem Plateau, extending from KNP to CAL, is a globally renowned social-ecological system, managed for millennia by Bininj-Kunwok Aboriginal clans. Regional species declines have been attributed to the cessation of patchy burning by Aborigines. Whereas the KNP Stone Country is a modern wilderness, managed through prescribed burning and buffalo eradication, CAL remains a stronghold for Aboriginal management where buffalo have been culturally integrated. We surveyed the plant community and the presence of buffalo tracks among intact and fire-damaged C. intratropica groves and the savanna matrix in KNP and CAL. Aerial surveys of C. intratropica grove condition were used to examine the composition of savanna vegetation across the Stone Country. The plant community in intact C. intratropica groves had higher stem counts of shrubs and small trees and higher proportions of fire-sensitive plant species than degraded groves and the savanna matrix. A higher proportion of intact C. intratropica groves in CAL therefore indicated greater gamma diversity and habitat heterogeneity than the KNP Stone Country. Interactions among buffalo, fire, and C. intratropica suggested that buffalo also contributed to these patterns. Our results suggest linkages between ecological and cultural integrity at broad spatial scales across a complex landscape. Buffalo may provide a tool for mitigating destructive fires; however, their interactions require further study. Sustainability in the Stone Country depends upon adaptive management that rehabilitates the coupling of indigenous culture, disturbance, and natural resources. PMID:23467505
Trauernicht, Clay; Murphy, Brett P; Tangalin, Natalia; Bowman, David M J S
In the present study viable protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus were exposed to in vitro anthelmintic treatment to observe efficacy against Indian buffalo isolates. Evaluation criteria included morphological changes, viability scores and expression of peptides as a product of prestressed protoscoleces. Protoscolex changes included presence of bladder-like structure and morphological distortion. Two peptides of relative molecular weight (Mr) 40 and 70 kDa were visualized when proteins were separated by discontinuous gel electrophoresis. These two peptides seemed to be products of prestressed protoscoleces. PMID:18519006
Pan, D; Bhattacharya, D; Bera, A K; Gudewar, J; De, S; Das, S K
The Center for Advanced Photonic and Electronic Materials' (CAPEM) mission is "to foster interactions and collaboration among the diverse research and development activities at the University at Buffalo in the areas of photonic and electronic materials, and to facilitate cooperative multidisciplinary activities and multi-investigator research projects." After reading a summary of its three main research activities, visitors can find out about the facilities at CAPEM including the Materials Research Instrument Facility (MRIF) and the Laboratory for Spintronics Research in Semiconductors. Under the faculty link, users can find information on individual scientists' research and links to their homepages. Researchers and students can discover upcoming conferences and workshops.
The parasitic copepod, Haemobaphes intermedius, was detected in 62% of juvenile buffalo sculpins Enophrys bison, a previously unreported host, from the San Juan Islands archipelago in Washington State. Most infestations were characterized by the presence of a single female copepod infestations with multiple H. intermedius occurred either unilaterally or bilaterally in 29% of parasitized individuals. Impaired condition of parasitized hosts was indicated by significantly lower total lengths and weights (34.9 mm; 1.6 g) than in unparasitized cohorts (38.9 mm; 2.1 g). Host specificity was indicated by the failure to detect H. intermedius in 43 sympatric great sculpins Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus from the same location.
A total of 140 true anestrous buffalo were divided on the basis of receiving short-term (20 days) nutritional supplementation (N, n=80) or not (WN, n=60). The animals in N group were subdivided into NQ (n=40) where the quantity of the offered diet was increased by 20% and NF (n=40) where the offered diet was supplemented by 3% of dry protected fat. Buffaloes in either NQ or NF were equally allotted on the following treatment regimens: Insulin/GnRH (NQi or NFi, n=10 for each); rbST/GnRH (NQr or NFr, n=10 for each); GnRH alone treated (NQG or NFG, n=10 for each) and saline-treated control (NQc or NFc, n=10 for each). Insulin-treated subgroups (NQi or NFi) received s/c injection of insulin at a dose of 0.25 I.U./kg on Days 21, 22 and 23 while rbST-treated subgroups (NQr or NFr) received single IM injection of rbST (500 mg Sometribove) on Day 21. GnRH was injected at a dose of 0.020 mg buserelin (5 ml Receptal(®)) on Day 24 in all subgroups except NQCand NFC where Day 1 was the first day of the short-term nutritional improvement. Buffalo in the WN (n=60) were equally allotted on the same treatment regimens applied in the first group insulin/GnRH (WNi, n=15), rbST/GnRH (WNr, n=15); GnRH alone treated (WNG, n=15) and saline-treated control (WNC, n=15). Ultrasonic scanning of ovaries was conducted on Day 24 to measure largest follicle diameter (LFD). The results showed increases (P<0.05) in the LFD following nutritional supplementation with insulin or rbST. The recorded EIRs for GnRH pre-treated with nutritional improvement - metabolic hormones combinations (9/10 and 8/10 for NQi and NFi or 8/10 for NQr) were greater (P<0.05) than those pre-treated with either metabolic hormone alone (7/15 for WNi and/or WNr) or nutritional improvement alone (6/10 for NQG and/or NFG) and control as well. The greatest CR was recorded in the NQi group. It could be concluded that pre-GnRH nutritional improvement plus administration of insulin or rbST increases LFD in true anestrous buffalo having LFD<8.5 mm thereby increasing their fertility response to GnRH in terms of EIRs and CRs. PMID:22542581
Ramoun, A A; Serur, B H; Fattouh, El-S M; Darweish, S A; Abou El-Ghait, H A
Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in some National Parks in Southern Africa, whilst no studies have been conducted on BTB on buffalo populations in Zambia. The increased demand for ecotourism and conservation of the African buffalo on private owned game ranches has prompted the Zambian Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) and private sector in Zambia to generate a herd of “BTB-free buffaloes” for ex situ conservation. In the present study, 86 African buffaloes from four different herds comprising a total of 530 animals were investigated for the presence of BTB for the purpose of generating “BTB free” buffalo for ex-situ conservation. Using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT) the BTB status at both individual animal and herd level was estimated to be 0.0% by the CIDT technique. Compared to Avian reactors only, a prevalence of 5.8% was determined whilst for Bovine-only reactors a prevalence of 0.0% was determined. These results suggest the likelihood of buffalo herds in the Kafue National Park being free of BTB.
Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in some National Parks in Southern Africa, whilst no studies have been conducted on BTB on buffalo populations in Zambia. The increased demand for ecotourism and conservation of the African buffalo on private owned game ranches has prompted the Zambian Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) and private sector in Zambia to generate a herd of "BTB-free buffaloes" for ex situ conservation. In the present study, 86 African buffaloes from four different herds comprising a total of 530 animals were investigated for the presence of BTB for the purpose of generating "BTB free" buffalo for ex-situ conservation. Using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT) the BTB status at both individual animal and herd level was estimated to be 0.0% by the CIDT technique. Compared to Avian reactors only, a prevalence of 5.8% was determined whilst for Bovine-only reactors a prevalence of 0.0% was determined. These results suggest the likelihood of buffalo herds in the Kafue National Park being free of BTB. PMID:21776347
This tutorial examines the importance of water to Earth's ecosystems. Topics include the sources and distribution of water, the water cycle, and how snow and rain occur. There is a discussion of the phases in which it can exist (solid, liquid, or vapor), and a description of how animals adapt to cold snowy environments in the winter. Examples include burrowing, hibernation, migration, and thick fur. A quiz and glossary are included.
... have Web sites that include data on drinking water quality, including results of lead testing. Links to such data can be found at the following EPA Web site: ... Elevated Lead in Tap Water---District of Columbia, 2004 . MMWR. April 2, 2004; ...
When drugs bind to a protein, the intramolecular structures can be altered, resulting in conformational change of the protein. Donepezil, an Acetyl Cholinesterase inhibitor (AChE), is commonly prescribed to patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) to enhance cholinergic neurotransmission. It is the “first-line” agents in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease used to improve cognitive function in the disease. In the present study, a cysteine protease inhibitor (cystatin) has been isolated from buffalo brain using alkaline treatment, 40 to 60% ammonium sulphate fractionation and gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-75 with % yield of 64.13 and fold purification of 384.7. The purified inhibitor (Buffalo Brain Cystatin, (BBC)) was eluted as a single papain inhibitory peak which migrated as single band on native PAGE; however, on SDS-PAGE with and without beta mercaptoethanol (?ME) BBC gave two bands of M W 31.6 and 12.4?KDa, respectively. The molecular weight determined by gel filtration came out to be 43.6?KDa. The UV spectra of cystatin on interaction with donepezil suggested a conformational change in the protein. The fluorescence spectra of BC-donepezil composite show structural changes indicating 40?nm red shift with significant increase in fluorescence intensity of cystatin in the presence of donepezil representing an unfolding of cystatin on interaction, which is an indication of side effect of donepezil during the use of this drug.
Microorganisms residing in the rumens of cattle represent a rich source of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes, since their diet consists of plant-based materials that are high in cellulose and hemicellulose. In this study, a metagenomic library was constructed from buffalo rumen contents using pCC1FOS fosmid vector. Ninety-three clones from the pooled library of approximately 10,000 clones showed degrading activity against AZCL-HE-Cellulose, whereas four other clones showed activity against AZCL-Xylan. Contig analysis of pyrosequencing data derived from the selected strongly positive clones revealed 15 ORFs that were closely related to lignocellulose-degrading enzymes belonging to several glycosyl hydrolase families. Glycosyl hydrolase family 5 (GHF5) was the most abundant glycosyl hydrolase found, and a majority of the GHF5s in our metagenomes were closely related to several ruminal bacteria, especially ones from other buffalo rumen metagenomes. Characterization of BT-01, a selected clone with highest cellulase activity from the primary plate screening assay, revealed a cellulase encoding gene with optimal working conditions at pH 5.5 at 50 °C. Along with its stability over acidic pH, the capability efficiently to hydrolyze cellulose in feed for broiler chickens, as exhibited in an in vitro digestibility test, suggests that BT-01 has potential application as a feed supplement. PMID:22790926
When drugs bind to a protein, the intramolecular structures can be altered, resulting in conformational change of the protein. Donepezil, an Acetyl Cholinesterase inhibitor (AChE), is commonly prescribed to patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) to enhance cholinergic neurotransmission. It is the "first-line" agents in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease used to improve cognitive function in the disease. In the present study, a cysteine protease inhibitor (cystatin) has been isolated from buffalo brain using alkaline treatment, 40 to 60% ammonium sulphate fractionation and gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-75 with % yield of 64.13 and fold purification of 384.7. The purified inhibitor (Buffalo Brain Cystatin, (BBC)) was eluted as a single papain inhibitory peak which migrated as single band on native PAGE; however, on SDS-PAGE with and without beta mercaptoethanol ( ? ME) BBC gave two bands of M W 31.6 and 12.4?KDa, respectively. The molecular weight determined by gel filtration came out to be 43.6?KDa. The UV spectra of cystatin on interaction with donepezil suggested a conformational change in the protein. The fluorescence spectra of BC-donepezil composite show structural changes indicating 40?nm red shift with significant increase in fluorescence intensity of cystatin in the presence of donepezil representing an unfolding of cystatin on interaction, which is an indication of side effect of donepezil during the use of this drug. PMID:24062965