Science.gov

Sample records for water buffalo bubalus

  1. A review of Neospora caninum in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Reichel, Michael P; McAllister, Milton M; Nasir, Amar; Moore, Dadin P

    2015-09-15

    A number of countries in the world have reported infections with Neospora caninum in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), from Africa to Asia, Europe and South America and recently Australia. In general, clinical manifestations (such as abortion) seem rare, which has raised the prospect that buffalo may be inherently resistant to clinical effects of N. caninum infection. Worldwide, the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection (as a measure of exposure determined by the detection of antibody) in buffalo is high, at approximately 48%. This reported seroprevalence is three or four times higher than that reported from the world's cattle populations, which have collective seroprevalence rates of 16.1% for dairy cattle and 11.5% for beef cattle. However, there is a lack of standardisation in seroprevalence studies and some studies may well under-estimate the true level of infection. Epidemiologic evidence supports post-natal transmission, and in utero transmission has also been demonstrated. The causes for water buffalo to have markedly higher seroprevalence but apparently lower neosporosis abortion rates than cattle warrant further investigation. PMID:26298507

  2. Redescription of Sarcocystis fusiformis sarcocysts from the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five species of Sarcocystis have been reported from the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): Sarcocystis fusiformis and Sarcocystis buffalonis have macrocysts and cats act as definitive hosts; Sarcocystis levinei has microcysts and dogs act as definitive host; Sarcocystis dubeyi and S. sinensis have mic...

  3. Sarcocystis dubeyi (Huong and Uggla, 1999) infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) are intermediate hosts for 4 species of Sarcocystis, i.e., S. fusiformis and S. buffalonis with cats as definitive hosts, S. levinei with dogs as definitive hosts, and S. dubeyi with an unknown definitive host, but thought to be zoonotic. Currently, the latter speci...

  4. FATAL INTESTINAL COCCIDIOSIS IN A THREE-WEEK OLD BUFFALO CALF (BUBALUS BUBALUS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalus) is important to the economy of several countries, especially in Asia and Brazil. Little is known regarding the impact of coccidiosis in buffaloes. Cattle and buffaloes are considered to have common species of Eimeria, but critical cross transmissions have not been...

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Veracruz State, Mexico and its association with climatic factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Infection with Toxoplasma gondii in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) is of epidemiological importance because of the risk for transmission to humans. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in 339 water buffaloes in Veracruz State, Mexico using the modified aggl...

  6. Effects of smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus biomass on water transparency, nutrients, and productivity in shallow experimental ponds.

    PubMed

    Goetz, D; Kröger, R; Miranda, L E

    2014-05-01

    The smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus is a native benthivore to floodplain lakes in the Yazoo River Basin, USA. Based on evidence from other benthivorous fish studies we hypothesized high biomasses of I. bubalus contribute to poor water quality conditions. We tested this hypothesis in shallow (<1.5 m) 0.05 ha earthen ponds at three stocking biomasses over a 10-week period during the summer of 2012. The most notable results from the permutational multivariate analysis of variance suggest I. bubalus at high and moderate biomasses significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced turbidity and suspended solid levels while decreasing Secchi depth. Our results suggest that effects of I. bubalus on water clarity may have considerable ecological implications in natural habitats such as shallow floodplain lakes. PMID:24526283

  7. Effects of smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus biomass on water transparency, nutrients, and productivity in shallow experimental ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goetz, Daniel B.; Kroger, Robert; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2014-01-01

    The smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus is a native benthivore to floodplain lakes in the Yazoo River Basin, USA. Based on evidence from other benthivorous fish studies we hypothesized high biomasses of I. bubalus contribute to poor water quality conditions. We tested this hypothesis in shallow (< 1.5 m) 0.05 ha earthen ponds at three stocking biomasses over a 10-week period during the summer of 2012. The most notable results from the permutational multivariate analysis of variance suggest I. bubalus at high and moderate biomasses significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced turbidity and suspended solid levels while decreasing Secchi depth. Our results suggest that effects of I. bubalus on water clarity may have considerable ecological implications in natural habitats such as shallow floodplain lakes.

  8. Isolation and characterization of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) was isolated from dairy buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) naturally affected with respiratory and reproductive clinical conditions. Results Examination of nasal and vaginal swabs collected from 12 diseased buffaloes led to the isolation of three paramyxovirus isolates from two animals. Antigenic, morphological and biological characteristics of these three isolates were essentially similar to those of members of the Paramyxoviridae family. Antigenic analysis by direct immunofluorescence and cross neutralization test placed these isolates together with bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3). Nucleotide and amino acid phylogenetic analysis of partial matrix gene sequences of the buffalo isolates and six field BPIV3 isolates from bovines in Argentina were studied. Buffalo isolates were similar to genotype B (BPIV3b) while the six BPIV3 isolates were similar to genotypes A (BPIV3a) and C (BPIV3c). Conclusions This is the first characterization of BPIV3 in water buffalo. According to the samples analyzed, in Argentina, the genotype B was found in buffalo and the genotypes A and C were found in cattle. PMID:22716217

  9. Analysis of mitochondrial D-loop region casts new light on domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Kierstein, Gerold; Vallinoto, Marcelo; Silva, Artur; Schneider, Maria Paula; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo; Brenig, Bertram

    2004-02-01

    The phylogeny of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) is still a matter of discussion, especially if the two types of domestic water buffalo (swamp and river) derived from different domestication events or if they are products of human selection. To obtain more insight, we analyzed the entire mitochondrial D-loop region of 80 water buffaloes of four different breeds, i.e., 19 swamp buffaloes (Carabao) and 61 river buffaloes (Murrah, Jafarabadi, and Mediterranean), sampled in Brazil and Italy. We detected 36 mitochondrial haplotypes with 128 polymorphic sites. Pooled with published data of South-East Asian and Australian water buffaloes and based on comprehensive median-joining network and population demography analyses we show evidence that both river and swamp buffaloes decent from one domestication event, probably in the Indian subcontinent. However, the today swamp buffaloes have an unravelled mitochondrial history, which can be explained by introgression of wild water buffalo mtDNA into domestic stocks. We are also discussing indications for an independent domestication of buffaloes in China. PMID:14715223

  10. Molecular analyses detect natural coinfection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) in serologically negative animals.

    PubMed

    Craig, María I; König, Guido A; Benitez, Daniel F; Draghi, María G

    2015-01-01

    Infection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) has been confirmed in several studies by serological and molecular techniques. In order to determine the presence of persistently infected animals and circulating species and subtypes of BVDV we conducted this study on a buffalo herd, whose habitat was shared with bovine cattle (Bossp.). Our serological results showed a high level of positivity for BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 within the buffalo herd. The molecular analyses of blood samples in serologically negative animals revealed the presence of viral nucleic acid, confirming the existence of persistent infection in the buffaloes. Cloning and sequencing of the 5' UTR of some of these samples revealed the presence of naturally mix-infected buffaloes with at least two different subtypes (1a and 1b), and also with both BVDV species (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2). PMID:25962538

  11. Transcriptional dynamics of homeobox C11 gene in water buffalo bubalus bubalis.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Leena; Pathak, Deepali; Sehgal, Neeta; Ali, Sher

    2015-06-01

    The Hox complex contains 39 genes clustered into four groups involved in cell differentiation and development. We cloned full-length sequence of Hoxc11 gene from water buffalo Bubalus bubalis, assessed its copy number, localized the same onto the chromosome 5, and studied its evolutionary conservation across the species. Northern hybridization of Hoxc11 showed a 2.2 kb band in the tissues analyzed. Real-Time PCR showed highest expression of Hoxc11 gene in lung followed by spleen, spermatozoa, and testis. Six interacting partners of this gene showed higher expression in spleen, lung, testis, and spermatozoa. During the early stages of development, Hoxc11 and its interacting partners both showed lower expression, which then became prominent during the age of 1-3 years, regressed drastically thereafter, and remained so until the animal's life time (? 20 years). The high expression of Hoxc11 and its interacting partners in spermatozoa and testis during the onset of puberty suggests its likely role in the differentiation of gonads and subsequent reproductive activities. Additional work on Hoxc11 especially, in the context of respiratory, immunological, and in/fertility in other species, including humans would be useful for establishing its broader biological significance towards the enrichment of functional and comparative genomics. PMID:25760398

  12. Prevalence and distribution of Neospora caninum in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle in the Northern Territory of Australia.

    PubMed

    Neverauskas, Claudia E; Nasir, Amar; Reichel, Michael P

    2015-10-01

    The seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and domestic cattle in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia has never been determined. A total of 480 serum samples from water buffalo and 192 serum samples from cattle, collected by the NT Government from 1993 through to 2001, at 18 different survey sites throughout the Northern Territory were tested by commercial ELISA for anti-N. caninum antibodies. The water buffalo samples demonstrated a seroprevalence of 88.3% (95% CI ± 2.9%), while 31.8% (±6.1%) of the cattle sera tested positive for N. caninum antibodies. Individual buffalo from the same herd, sampled over years, showed considerable fluctuations in S/P ratios. Overall, seropositivity was consistent across buffalo herds, and showed a slight decline over the years. The study presents evidence for the first time that N. caninum infection in water buffalo in the Northern Territory is a highly endemic and that infection rates are higher than those for cattle. This is important for an understanding of any potential sylvatic life cycle of N. caninum in Northern Australia. This survey also tests cattle from that territory for the first time for evidence of N. caninum infection and makes an important contribution to the understanding of disease management issues for the beef industry in the region. PMID:25992666

  13. Identity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus) and the suppression of Sarcocystis sinensis as a nomen nudum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are uncertainties concerning the identity and host species specificity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus). Currently, in cattle three species are recognized with known endogenous stages, viz.: S. cruzi (with canine definitive host), S. hirsuta...

  14. Identification and genetic characterization of rabies virus from Egyptian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) bitten by a fox.

    PubMed

    El-Tholoth, Mohamed; El-Beskawy, Mohamed; Hamed, Mohamed F

    2015-09-01

    Rabies is caused by negative strand RNA-virus classified in the genus Lyssavirus, family Rhabdoviridae of the order Mononegavirales. The aim of the present study was to identify and analyze nucleotides sequence of nucleoprotein (N) gene of rabies virus (RABV) from two cases of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) bitten by a fox in Egypt, 2013. The diseased buffaloes showed nervous manifestations with fever. Specimens from brains of the buffaloes with suspected rabies were collected. RABV in collected samples was identified using direct fluorescent antibody (dFA) technique, histopathological examination and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Also, nucleotides sequence of partially amplified nucleoprotein (N) gene was compared with the other street strains of RABV available on GenBank. The results revealed that RABV antigen was identified in the brains of diseased buffaloes by dFA technique and the characteristic intracytoplasmic inclusions (Negri bodies) and RABV nucleic acid were detected by histopathology and RT-PCR, respectively. The identified virus showed close genetic relationship with street strains identified previously from dogs in different Governorates in Egypt and with strains identified in Israel and Jordan indicating transmission of the virus between Egyptian Governorates with a potential transmission from and/or to our neighboring countries. PMID:26396980

  15. Local Immune Responses of the Chinese Water Buffalo, Bubalus bubalis, against Schistosoma japonicum Larvae: Crucial Insights for Vaccine Design

    PubMed Central

    McWilliam, Hamish E. G.; Piedrafita, David; Li, Yuesheng; Zheng, Mao; He, Yongkang; Yu, Xinling; McManus, Donald P.; Meeusen, Els N. T.

    2013-01-01

    Asian schistosomiasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease infecting up to a million people and threatening tens of millions more. Control of this disease is hindered by the animal reservoirs of the parasite, in particular the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), which is responsible for significant levels of human transmission. A transmission-blocking vaccine administered to buffaloes is a realistic option which would aid in the control of schistosomiasis. This will however require a better understanding of the immunobiology of schistosomiasis in naturally exposed buffaloes, particularly the immune response to migrating schistosome larvae, which are the likely targets of an anti-schistosome vaccine. To address this need we investigated the immune response at the major sites of larval migration, the skin and the lungs, in previously exposed and re-challenged water buffaloes. In the skin, a strong allergic-type inflammatory response occurred, characterised by leukocyte and eosinophil infiltration including the formation of granulocytic abscesses. Additionally at the local skin site, interleukin-5 transcript levels were elevated, while interleukin-10 levels decreased. In the skin-draining lymph node (LN) a predominant type-2 profile was seen in stimulated cells, while in contrast a type-1 profile was detected in the lung draining LN, and these responses occurred consecutively, reflecting the timing of parasite migration. The intense type-2 immune response at the site of cercarial penetration is significantly different to that seen in naive and permissive animal models such as mice, and suggests a possible mechanism for immunity. Preliminary data also suggest a reduced and delayed immune response occurred in buffaloes given high cercarial challenge doses compared with moderate infections, particularly in the skin. This study offers a deeper understanding into the immunobiology of schistosomiasis in a natural host, which may aid in the future design of more effective vaccines. PMID:24086786

  16. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the STAT1 gene in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Deng, Tingxian; Pang, Chunying; Zhu, Peng; Liao, Biyun; Zhang, Ming; Yang, Bingzhuang; Liang, Xianwei

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) is a critical component of the transcription factor complex in the interferon (IFN) signaling pathways. Of the seven STAT isoforms, STAT1 is a key mediator of type I and type III IFN signaling, but limited information is available for the STAT genes in the water buffalo. Here, we amplified and identified the complete coding sequence (CDS) of the buffalo STAT1 gene by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Sequence analysis indicated that the buffalo STAT1 gene length size was 3437 bp, containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 2244 bp that encoded 747 amino acids for the first time. The buffalo STAT1 CDS showed 99, 98, 89, 93, 86, 85, and 87% identity with that of Bos taurus, Ovis aries, Homo sapiens, Sus scrofa, Rattus norvegicus, Mus musculus, and Capra hircus. The phylogenetic analyses revealed that the nearest relationship existed between the water buffalo and B. taurus. The STAT1 gene was ubiquitously expressed in 11 buffalo tissues by real-time PCR, whereas STAT1 was expressed at higher levels in the lymph. The STAT1 gene contained five targeted microRNA sequences compared with the B. taurus by the miRBase software that provide a fundamental for identifying the STAT1 gene function. PMID:25336386

  17. Seroprevalence of flaviviruses antibodies in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The state of Pará encompasses 26% of Brazilian Amazon where an enormous diversity of arboviruses has been found. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and distribution of hemagglutination-inhibition antibodies against antigens of six Flavivirus (yellow fever virus, Ilheus virus, Saint Louis encephalitis virus, Cacipacore virus, Bussuquara virus and Rocio virus) in water buffaloes in Pará state, Brazil. The prevalence of antibodies in these farm animals is important to determine the circulating arboviruses. Findings All investigated arboviruses were detected in the species studied and our results indicate that water buffaloes are susceptible to Flavivirus infection. Furthermore, there is solid evidence of active circulation of these viruses in the Brazilian Amazon. Conclusions Water buffaloes showed higher prevalence of heterotypic antibody reactions and we hypothesized that they can serve as sentinels to detect the movement of such arboviruses in the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:24666635

  18. Molecular detection of bovine immunodeficiency virus in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from the Amazon region, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Albernaz, Tatiane Teles; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira; Reis, Jenner Karlison Pimenta; de Sousa Rodrigues, Ana Paula; da Cunha Kassar, Telissa; Resende, Claudia Fideles; de Oliveira, Cairo Henrique Sousa; Silva, Rafaela das Mercês; Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2015-12-01

    Bovine immunodeficiency is a chronic progressive disease caused by a lentivirus that affects cattle and buffaloes. Although the infection has been described in cattle in some countries, including in Brazil, there are only two reports of infection in buffaloes: one in Pakistan and one in Cambodia. The aim of the present study was to survey the occurrence of bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) in water buffaloes from the Amazon region, Pará state, Brazil. BIV proviral DNA was surveyed in 607 whole blood samples of water buffaloes from 10 farms located in the state of Pará using semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (PCR-SN) to amplify the pol region of the viral genome. Of the 607 samples tested, 27 (4.4 %) were positive for BIV proviral DNA. The amplified fragments were confirmed by sequence analysis after cloning and nucleotide sequencing. The sequence obtained had 99 % similarity to the reference strain (R-29). The present study provides important epidemiological data because BIV was detected for the first time in water buffaloes in Brazil. Further, the results suggest the possibility of the virus being a risk factor for herd health because it may be a potential causal agent of chronic disease and, also may be associated to other infectious diseases. PMID:26174574

  19. Characterization of Arcobacter suis isolated from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) milk.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, Federica; Salas-Massó, Nuria; Serraino, Andrea; Figueras, Maria José

    2015-10-01

    During a survey in a dairy plant in Italy, the second strain (strain FG 206) of Arcobacter suis described in the literature was isolated from raw water buffalo milk. The objective of this study was to confirm the species identification, better define the species by comparing its characteristics with those of the reference strain (F41(T) = CECT 7833(T) = LMG 26152(T)) and to investigate its potential clinical relevance by detecting the virulence gene pattern of the new strain. Phenotypical characterization and 16S rRNA-RFLP gave a complete overlap of results for the two strains. As expected, an RFLP pattern common to A. suis and Arcobacter defluvii was obtained by MseI endonuclease digestion, and a pattern specific for A. suis was obtained by BfaI endonuclease digestion. 16S rRNA sequencing and multilocus phylogenetic analysis (MLPA) showed a robust relatedness of strain FG 206 to the A. suis type strain F41(T). The recovery of strain FG 206 from a dairy plant shows that this species of Arcobacter is present in the food chain. Like the type strain recovered from pig meat, the species A. suis may not be confined to a single type of food. PMID:26187844

  20. Molecular characterization of oxytocin receptor gene in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Arunmozhi, N; Singh, S K; Sarath, T; Agarwal, S K; Doiphode, A; Shankar, U

    2014-10-01

    Buffaloes are known for their productivity as compared to average yielding cows due to higher fat percentage, better feed conversion ability and disease resistance. On the other hand, the reproductive performances of buffaloes are often considered as poor owing to late sexual maturity, weak/silent oestrus, repeat breeder and prolonged intercalving interval. The study of cascade of events during oestrus and oestrous cycle can be useful for the improvement of reproductive efficiency of buffaloes. More precisely, the hormonal changes initiated at the molecular level within the animal determine the reproductive nature of the species. Nucleotide/protein sequence analysis serves as a vital tool in analysing the binding of the hormones for their effect or functions. In this study, we have reported cloning and characterization of the complete coding (cDNA) sequence of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) in buffaloes. Buffalo OXTR gene contains an uninterrupted ORF of 1176 nucleotides corresponding to an inferred polypeptide length of 391 amino acids (aa). The molecular weight of the deduced aa sequence was found to be 43 kDa with an isoelectric point of 9.253 and 16.328 charge at pH 7.0. The deduced protein sequence consists of 38 strongly basic (+) (K,R), 22 strongly acidic (-) (D,E), 186 hydrophobic (A, I, L, F, W, V) and 95 Polar (N, C, Q, S, T, Y) aa. Results indicated that aspartate (D) at aa position 85 and D, R and C at aa positions 136, 137 and 138, respectively, are conserved in buffaloes. The buffalo OXTR gene shared a per cent similarity ranging from 84.7 to 98.1 and 88.5 to 97.7 at nucleotide and deduced aa sequence levels, respectively, with that of other species. Phylogram constructed on the basis of either nucleotide or deduced aa sequences of buffalo OXTR gene showed that buffalo, cattle and sheep have diverged from human and swine and formed a separate clad. The buffalo sequence has shown maximum similarity and closeness with cattle followed by sheep both at nucleotide and at aa level. PMID:25132183

  1. Endocrinological evaluation of the induction of superovulation with PMSG in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Schallenberger, E; Wagner, H G; Papa, R; Hartl, P; Tenhumberg, H

    1990-08-01

    Ten nonlactating buffalo were superovulated with 3000 IU PMSG. Luteolysis was induced with 500 microg Cloprostenol (PG) 60 and 72 h after PMSG. Five buffalo were alloted for natural mating and five were bred by artificial insemination 60 and 84 h after the first PG treatment. Since four buffalo developed pyometra, only 6 of 10 underwent embryo collection successfully 180 to 190 h after PG. Three buffalo yielded only one morula each, while the remaining three yielded a total of two, three and four morulae and/or blastocysts as well als zero, one and three unfertilized ova, respectively. Six of the ten buffalo were assigned to an intensive blood collection regimen. Mean concentrations of progesterone (ng/ml) increased from 1.9 at PMSG stimulation to 4.8 at induction of luteolysis and decreased to a nadir of 0.2 about 72 h after PG treatment. The preovulatory surge of LH occurred 36 +/- 9 h after PG and was low in magnitude (7.3 +/- 1.3 ng/ml). Stimulation of 3 to 12 follicles resulted in concentrations of estradiol-17beta exceeding 5 pg/ml within 48 h after PMSG treatment and reaching a maximum of 32 +/- 11 pg/ml about the time of the preovulatory surge. Only in two individuals did concentrations decrease below 5 pg/ml within the following 12 h. In the other four buffalo 3 to 10 unovulated structures remained palpable, secreting estradiol-17beta far exceeding the preovulatory concentrations. The fast appearing, low magnitude LH surges were key problems resulting from PMSG treatment. They caused unovulated endocrinologically active follicles. High estrogen levels during the early luteal period may activate subclinical uterine infections, which in turn may negatively affect embryonic development. PMID:16726846

  2. Effect of supplemental light on growth, prolactin, progesterone and luteinizing hormone in water buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, K. S.; Gwazdauskas, F. C.; Akers, R. M.; McGilliard, M. L.

    1989-06-01

    Fifty non-pregnant Surti buffalo heifers aged between 17 and 42 months ( n=24, <24 months; n=26, >24 months) were randomly assigned to groups subject to either natural daylight +4h supplemental light ( n=25) or natural day light ( n=25), to study changes in growth, serum prolactin (Prl), progesterone (P4) and luteinizing hormone (LH) to supplemental lighting. Ambient temperatures (T) and relative humidity (RH) generally were >27° C and <70% during the day-time, respectively. Light-supplemented heifers had 16.2 kg net body weight (BW) gain at 9 weeks compared to 20.8 kg for controls, but higher mean Prl after 6.5 weeks ( P<0.01), and higher P4 (0.41 vs 0.19 ng/ml; P<0.06) than control heifers. Older heifers had 39.7% greater BW ( P<0.01), but a net 4.3% BW gain compared to a 10.1% gain for younger heifers at 10 weeks. Older, light-supplemented heifers had higher mean P4 (0.63 vs 0.19 ng/ml; P<0.07) than the other groups. These weight and hormonal changes suggest that 4 h supplemental light can alter growth and endocrine function in buffaloes under similar planes of nutrition. While light supplementation did not have a positive effect on body wieght during the 10 week study, body weight and endocrine changes due to supplemental light may be important factors for initiation of reproductive cyclicity.

  3. Sustained delivery of exogenous melatonin influences biomarkers of oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in summer-stressed anestrous water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok; Mehrotra, S; Singh, G; Narayanan, K; Das, G K; Soni, Y K; Singh, Mahak; Mahla, A S; Srivastava, N; Verma, M R

    2015-06-01

    High ambient temperature during summer in tropical and subtropical countries predisposes water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) to develop oxidative stress having antigonadotropic and antisteroidogenic actions. Melatonin is a regulator of seasonal reproduction in photoperiodic species and highly effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Therefore, a study was designed to evaluate the effect of sustained-release melatonin on biomarkers of oxidative stress i.e., the serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO), and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC). For the study, postpartum buffaloes diagnosed as summer anestrus (absence of overt signs of estrus, concurrent rectal examination, and RIA for serum progesterone) were grouped as treated (single subcutaneous injection of melatonin at 18 mg/50 kg body weight dissolved in sterilized corn oil as vehicle, n = 20) and untreated (subcutaneous sterilized corn oil, n = 8). Blood sampling for estimation of serum TAC and MDA (mmol/L) and NO (?mol/L) was carried out at 4 days of interval from 8 days before treatment till 28 days after treatment or for the ensuing entire cycle length. Results showed serum TAC concentration was higher in the treatment group with a significant (P < 0.05) increasing trend, whereas MDA and NO revealed a significant (P < 0.05) decline. Serum MDA and NO were higher in control compared with those of treatment group. Moreover, buffaloes in the treatment group showed 90% estrus induction with 18.06 ± 1.57 days mean interval from treatment to the onset of estrus. These results report that melatonin has a protective effect by elevating antioxidant status and reducing oxidative stress resulting in the induction of cyclicity in summer-stressed anestrous buffaloes. PMID:25805692

  4. Detection of Sarcocystis spp. in cattle (Bos taurus) and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Iran by PCR-RFLP.

    PubMed

    Hamidinejat, Hossein; Razi Jalali, Mohammad Hossein; Gharibi, Darioush; Molayan, Pedram Haddad

    2015-12-01

    Sarcocystis species are cyst-forming intracellular protozoan parasites. Cattle are mainly infected with Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis hominis and Sarcocystis hirsuta. Water buffaloes are intermediate hosts for Sarcocystis fusiformis, Sarcocystis levinei (S. cruzi-like species), Sarcocystis dubeyi, Sarcocystis sinensis (S. hominis-like species) and Sarcocystis buffalonis (S. hirsuta- like species). The aim of this study was Identification of Sarcocystis spp. in slaughtered cattle and water buffaloes in Ahvaz, Khuzestan province by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Meat inspection was done on 124 cattle and 147 water buffaloes. From each animal tissue samples (each 50 g) from heart, esophagus, diaphragm and intercostal muscle were collected during meat inspection. Samples examined with digestion method. Genomic DNA of 80 positive samples was extracted and their 18S rRNA gene was amplified. PCR products were digested by restricted enzymes (FokI, SspI and DraI). S. cruzi in cattle and S. fusiformis in water buffaloes were identified. Our study clarified that sarcocystosis in cattle in Ahvaz district may be results acute infection according to determined species, but in buffaloes as S. fusiformis was detected we may expect only economic loss follow up slaughterhouse inspection. PMID:26688630

  5. A possible case of caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever in a domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal herpesvirus infection, affecting various wild and domestic ruminants all over the world. Water buffaloes were reported to be particularly susceptible for the ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) causing the sheep-associated form of MCF (SA-MCF). This report describes the first case of possibly caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever symptoms in a domestic water buffalo in Switzerland. Case presentation The buffalo cow presented with persistent fever, dyspnoea, nasal bleeding and haematuria. Despite symptomatic therapy, the buffalo died and was submitted to post mortem examination. Major findings were an abomasal ulceration, a mild haemorrhagic cystitis and multifocal haemorrhages on the epicardium and on serosal and mucosal surfaces. Eyes and oral cavity were not affected. Histopathology revealed a mild to moderate lymphohistiocytic vasculitis limited to the brain and the urinary bladder. Although these findings are typical for MCF, OvHV-2 DNA was not detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes or in paraffin-embedded brain, using an OvHV-2 specific real time PCR. With the aid of a panherpesvirus PCR, a caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2) sequence could be amplified from both samples. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of malignant catarrhal fever in the subfamily Bovinae, where the presence of CpHV-2 could be demonstrated. The etiological context has yet to be evaluated. PMID:22132808

  6. Controlled breeding and reproductive management in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using Eazi Breed controlled internal drug release.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Shivayogi; Ramesha, Kerekoppa P

    2015-01-01

    Buffalo reproduction is considerably affected by late maturity, poor oestrus symptoms and long postpartum periods. This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of Eazi Breed controlled internal drug release (CIDR), an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device, in relation to oestrus and fertility. Five hundred true anoestrus buffalo cows, in the age group 4-6 years in 10 villages of Dharwad district in Karnataka state in India, were randomly selected and treated with CIDR for 9 days. Two mL of Cidirol (1 mg oestradiol benzoate) was administered intramuscularly to all animals on day 10. Forty-two buffaloes (8.4%) that failed to show oestrus signs (1.6%) or showed weak signs of oestrus (6.8%) after the first treatment were treated again 72 h after the Cidriol injection with a new device, and inseminated after the expression of oestrus. After the second treatment all the animals showed oestrus signs. The percentage of buffaloes showing intense oestrus was 67.40%, intermediate oestrus was shown by 25.80%, whilst 6.80% buffaloes showed weak oestrus even after the second treatment. The buffaloes showing oestrus signs were inseminated twice with an interval of 12 h, starting 12 h after the start of the oestrus signs. In 86 buffaloes showing prolonged oestrus signs a third insemination was done. The conception rates were 85.16%, 60.47% and 44.11% respectively in buffaloes showing intense, intermediate and weak oestrus. Transrectal palpation of the genital tract was performed 45-60 days post-insemination to diagnose pregnancy status, and in doubtful cases pregnancy was reconfirmed at 90 days after insemination. Out of 500 buffaloes treated in this way 380 animals became pregnant and the pregnancy rate was 76%. This study revealed the usefulness of Eazi Breed CIDR along with Cidirol treatment in buffaloes to improve their reproductive performance. PMID:26244580

  7. Mitochondrial DNA Variability of Domestic River Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Populations: Genetic Evidence for Domestication of River Buffalo in Indian Subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Muniyandi; Nimisha, Koodali; Kumar, Satish

    2015-01-01

    River buffalo, Bubalus bubalis is a large bovine species frequently used livestock in southern Asia. It is believed that the river buffalo was domesticated from Bubalus arnee, the wild buffalo of mainland Asia, a few thousand years ago, probably during the period of Indus Valley civilization. However, the domestication history of the river buffalo has been the subject of debate for many decades mainly due to the lack of clear archeological evidence and the divisive conclusions of the genetic studies. Therefore, in order to understand the domestication history and genetic relationship among the various river buffalo populations, we analyzed 492-bp region of mitochondrial DNA control region sequences of 414 river buffalo sampled from India, Pakistan, Egypt, and Iran along with the available 403 swamp buffalo sequences. The phylogenetic analyses of our study along with the archaeological evidence suggest that the river buffalo was domesticated in an atypical manner involving continuous introgression of wild animals to the domestic stocks in Indian subcontinent prior to mature phase of Indus Valley civilization (2600–1900 BC). Specifically, our data exclude Mesopotamian region as the place of domestication of the river buffalo. PMID:25900921

  8. Mitochondrial DNA Variability of Domestic River Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Populations: Genetic Evidence for Domestication of River Buffalo in Indian Subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Muniyandi; Nimisha, Koodali; Kumar, Satish

    2015-05-01

    River buffalo, Bubalus bubalis is a large bovine species frequently used livestock in southern Asia. It is believed that the river buffalo was domesticated from Bubalus arnee, the wild buffalo of mainland Asia, a few thousand years ago, probably during the period of Indus Valley civilization. However, the domestication history of the river buffalo has been the subject of debate for many decades mainly due to the lack of clear archeological evidence and the divisive conclusions of the genetic studies. Therefore, in order to understand the domestication history and genetic relationship among the various river buffalo populations, we analyzed 492-bp region of mitochondrial DNA control region sequences of 414 river buffalo sampled from India, Pakistan, Egypt, and Iran along with the available 403 swamp buffalo sequences. The phylogenetic analyses of our study along with the archaeological evidence suggest that the river buffalo was domesticated in an atypical manner involving continuous introgression of wild animals to the domestic stocks in Indian subcontinent prior to mature phase of Indus Valley civilization (2600-1900 BC). Specifically, our data exclude Mesopotamian region as the place of domestication of the river buffalo. PMID:25900921

  9. Purification of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins from late-pregnancy Bubalus bubalis placentas and development of a radioimmunoassay for pregnancy diagnosis in water buffalo females

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) were first described as placental antigens present in the blood serum of the mother soon after implantation. Here, we describe the purification of several pregnancy-associated glycoproteins from water buffalo placenta (wbPAGs). A specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed for early pregnancy diagnosis in buffalo species. Results Amino-terminal microsequencing of immunoreactive placental proteins allowed the identification of eleven wbPAGs sequences [Swiss-Prot accession numbers: P86369 to P86379]. Three polyclonal antisera (AS#858, AS#859 and AS#860) were raised in rabbits against distinct wbPAG fractions. A new RIA (RIA-860) was developed and used to distinguish between pregnant (n?=?33) and non-pregnant (n?=?26) water buffalo females. Conclusions Our results confirmed the multiplicity of PAG expression in buffalo placenta. In addition, the RIA-860 system was shown to be sensitive, linear, reproducible, accurate and specific in measuring PAG concentrations in buffalo plasma samples from Day 37 of gestation onwards. PMID:23634647

  10. Cholesterol and fatty acid composition of longissimus thoracis from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and Brahman-influenced cattle raised under savannah conditions.

    PubMed

    Giuffrida-Mendoza, Maria; de Moreno, Lilia Arenas; Huerta-Leidenz, Nelson; Uzcátegui-Bracho, Sojan; Valero-Leal, Kutchynskaya; Romero, Sonia; Rodas-González, Argenis

    2015-08-01

    Male (n=66) water buffalo (Buffalo) and Brahman-influenced cattle (Brahman) were born, raised, weaned, fattened on grazing savannah and harvested at two different ages (19 and 24months) to compare lipid composition of the longissimus thoracis muscle. Half of the animals were castrated at seven months of age (MOA) to examine the castration effects. At 24 MOA Brahman steers showed the highest content of total lipids (P<0.05). No significant variation was detected in cholesterol content for either the main or interaction effects in the age groups. Some individual fatty acids varied with the species (P<0.05), however, interspecific similarities were found in fatty acid ratios. For health-related indices, only atherogenic index (AI) showed lower values in favor of Buffalo meat (P<0.05) at both harvesting ages. Although, meat derived from both bovid groups was leaner and showed lower cholesterol level, AI indicates that Buffalo meat might be beneficial from a human health standpoint. PMID:25879797

  11. Immunolocalization of pulmonary intravascular macrophages, TLR4, TLR9 and IL-8 in normal and Pasteurella multocida-infected lungs of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Sethi, R S; Brar, R S; Singh, O; Singh, B

    2011-01-01

    Water buffalo are of considerable economic significance in South East Asia, but these animals suffer from many bacterial respiratory diseases including haemorrhagic septicaemia caused by Pasteurella multocida. Bacterial respiratory diseases of animals cause lung inflammation that is characterized by the activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expressed on macrophages, expression of chemokines and recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes. Pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs) present in the alveolar septa play a critical role in lung inflammation, but there are no data on the immunolocalization of PIMs or the expression of TLRs and chemokines such as interleukin (IL)-8, in the lungs of water buffalo. The present study compares the occurrence of PIMs, TLR4, TLR9 and IL-8 in the lungs of normal water buffalo and those infected with P. multocida. Labelling of PIMs with the anti-human macrophage antibody (MCA874G) demonstrated an increase in this population in inflamed lungs. TLR4 and IL-8 were detected in the alveolar septa, airway epithelium and endothelium of large blood vessels of normal lungs. TLR9 expression was similar to that of TLR4, but TLR9 was not expressed by the endothelium of arteries and veins. While the expression of TLR9 and IL-8 was increased in the inflamed lungs compared with normal lungs, TLR4 labelling intensity remained unchanged or was reduced. The expression of these molecules potentially plays a role in the regulation of lung inflammation. PMID:20880542

  12. Fatal Theileria orientalis N2 genotype infection among Asian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in a commercial dairy farm in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Vinodkumar, Kulangara; Shyma, Varikkottil; Justin, Davis Kollannur; Ashok, Sivasailam; Anu, Joseph Parassery; Mini, Kattilveetil; Muhammedkutty, Varikkottil; Sasidharan, Suchithra; Chullipparambil, Sunanda

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen dairy buffaloes of a farm in the state of Kerala, India developed fatal oriental theileriosis within 2 months of their procurement. Typical piroplasms of Theileria orientalis were observed in the erythrocytes of all affected animals by Giemsa-Leishman staining of blood smears. Case fatality rate was 87·5% (seven out of eight) in the clinically progressed cases. Therapeutic management with anti-theilerial drugs buparvaquone and oxytetracycline led to recovery of seven other animals in less advanced stages of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the reasons for increased virulence of this pathogen, hitherto considered to be benign. Acute haemolytic anaemia was the predominant haematological finding in the affected animals. Lymphocytic infiltration and degeneration of vital organs leading to functional derangement was the cause of the high mortality. Identification of T. orientalis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DNA sequencing of the PCR products revealed close identity with already reported sequences of T. orientalis/buffeli N2 genotype. The sequences were deposited in GenBank with accession number KM609973 and KM043772. Rhipicephalus ticks, previously not reported as vectors for oriental theileriosis, were identified as the potential vectors. This is the first report of fatal oriental theileriosis in Asian water buffaloes. PMID:26522773

  13. Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Swamp Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) Fattened at Different Feeding Intensities.

    PubMed

    Lambertz, C; Panprasert, P; Holtz, W; Moors, E; Jaturasitha, S; Wicke, M; Gauly, M

    2014-04-01

    Twenty-four male 1-year old swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were randomly allocated to 4 groups. One group grazed on guinea grass (GG) and another on guinea grass and the legume Stylosanthes guianensis (GL). The other two groups were kept in pens and fed freshly cut guinea grass and concentrate at an amount of 1.5% (GC1.5) and 2.0% (GC2.0) of body weight, respectively. The effect of the different feeding intensities on carcass characteristics and meat quality were assessed. The mean body weight at slaughter was 398 (±16) kg. Average daily gain was higher in concentrate-supplemented groups (570 and 540 g/d in GC1.5 and GC2.0, respectively) when compared to GG (316 g/d) and GL (354 g/d) (p<0.01). Likewise, the warm carcass weight was higher in GC1.5 and GC2.0 compared to GG and GL. Dressing percentage was 48.1% and 49.5% in GC1.5 and GC2.0 in comparison to 42.9% and 44.8% observed in GG and GL, respectively. Meat of Longissimus throracis from GC1.5 and GC2.0 was redder in color (p<0.01), while water holding capacity (drip and thawing loss) was improved in pasture-fed groups (p<0.05). Protein and fat content of Longissimus thoracis was higher in animals supplemented with concentrate (p<0.01), as was cholesterol content (p<0.05), whereas PUFA:SFA ratio was higher and n-6/n-3 ratio lower (p<0.01) in pasture-fed buffaloes. Results of the present study showed that the supplementation of pasture with concentrate enhances the growth and carcass characteristics of swamp buffaloes expressed in superior dressing percentage, better muscling, and redder meat with a higher content of protein and fat, whereas animals grazing only on pasture had a more favorable fatty acid profile and water holding capacity. In conclusion, the supplementation of concentrate at a rate of about 1.5% of body weight is recommended to improve the performance and carcass quality of buffaloes. PMID:25049987

  14. Molecular characterisation of three regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA unit and the mitochondrial cox1 gene of Sarcocystis fusiformis from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Gjerde, Bjørn; Hilali, Mosaad; Mawgood, Sahar Abdel

    2015-09-01

    A total of 33 macroscopically visible (3-11 × 1-5 mm) sarcocysts of Sarcocystis fusiformis were excised from the oesophagus of 12 freshly slaughtered water buffalos in Giza, Egypt. Genomic DNA was extracted from the sarcocysts, and all isolates were characterised at the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene through PCR amplification and direct sequencing, whereas a few selected isolates were characterised at the 18S and 28S ribosomal (r) RNA genes and the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of the nuclear rDNA unit following cloning. Among the 33 cox1 sequences (1,038-bp long), there was a total of 13 haplotypes, differing from each other by one to seven substitutions and sharing an identity of 99.3-99.9 %. In comparison, the sequence identity was 98.8-99.0 % among eight complete 18S rRNA gene sequences (1,873-1,879-bp long), 98.1-100 % among 28 complete ITS1 sequences (853-864-bp long) and 97.4-99.6 % among five partial 28S rRNA gene sequences (1,607-1,622 bp). At the three nuclear loci, the intraspecific (and intra-isolate) sequence variation was due to both substitutions and indels, which necessitated cloning of the PCR products before sequencing. Some additional clones of the 18S and 28S rRNA genes were highly divergent from the more typical clones, but the true nature of these aberrant clones could not be determined. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses based on either 18S rRNA gene or cox1 nucleotide sequences, placed S. fusiformis closest to Sarcocystis cafferi from the African buffalo, but only the analyses based on cox1 data separated the two taxa clearly from each other and showed that they were separate species (monophyletic clusters and 93 % sequence identity at cox1 versus interleaved sequences and 98.7-99.1 % sequence identity at the 18S rRNA gene). Two cats experimentally infected with sarcocysts of S. fusiformis started shedding small numbers of sporocysts 8-10 days post-infection (dpi) and were euthanized 15 dpi. Sporocysts isolated from the intestinal mucosa of both cats were identified molecularly as belonging to S. fusiformis through PCR amplification and sequencing of the partial cox1. The two sporocyst-derived cox1 sequences were identical with the most common sarcocyst-derived cox1 haplotype. PMID:26051128

  15. Genome-wide profiling of sperm DNA methylation in relation to buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull fertility.

    PubMed

    Verma, Arpana; Rajput, Sandeep; De, Sachinandan; Kumar, Rakesh; Chakravarty, Atish Kumar; Datta, Tirtha Kumar

    2014-09-15

    The DNA methylation pattern in spermatozoa of buffalo bulls of different fertility status was investigated. Spermatozoa isolated DNA from two groups of buffalo bulls (n = 5), selected based on their artificial insemination-generated conception rate data followed by IVF efficiency, were studied for global methylation changes using a custom-designed 180 K buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) CpG island/promoter microarray. A total of 96 individual genes with another 55 genes covered under CpG islands were found differentially methylated in sperm of high-fertile and subfertile buffalo bulls. Important genes associated with biological processes, cellular components, and functions were identified to be differentially methylated in buffalo bulls with differential fertility status. The identified differentially methylated genes were found to be involved in germ cell development, spermatogenesis, capacitation, and embryonic development. The observations hint that methylation defects of sperm DNA may play a crucial role in determining the fertility of breeding bulls. This growing field of sperm epigenetics will be of great benefit in understanding the graded fertility conditions of breeding bulls in commercial livestock production system. PMID:25023295

  16. Glycome characterization of immunoglobulin G from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) colostrum.

    PubMed

    Bhanu, L S Mamatha; Amano, M; Nishimura, S-I; Aparna, H S

    2015-11-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a major glycoprotein in ruminant colostrum. First day buffalo colostrum protein was purified on Sephadex G-100 and its mass was determined by MALDI-TOF as 147.848 KDa. The PMF data of protein subunits revealed its homology to IgG, which was supported by the identification of peptide sequences LLIYGATSR and VYNEYLPAPIVR corresponding to light and heavy chains of IgG by CID MS/MS analysis. The N-glycan microheterogeneity was established based on chemoselective glycoblotting technique with the identification of high mannose, neutral complex/hybrid and sialylated complex/hybrid glycans. A complete structural assignment of 54 N-linked oligosaccharides were identified and the ratio of sialyl oligosaccharides was found to be higher compared to neutral saccharides. The fucosylation observed in more than 20 oligosaccharides, high mannose and trisialyl oligosaccharides were present in diminutive amount. The high non-fucosyl and sialyl oligosaccharides in buffalo colostrum IgG provide ample scope for its utilization in targeted therapies to elicit effective ADCC and anti-inflammatory responses. PMID:26239923

  17. Lead and trace element levels in milk and blood of buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Hyderabad, India.

    PubMed

    Shailaja, M; Reddy, Yathapu Srinivasa; Kalakumar, B D P; Brinda, S A; Manohar, Gottimukkula; Kumar, B Dinesh

    2014-06-01

    The presence of lead (Pb) in milk and its interaction with trace elements is a serious health concern. Present study is aimed at determining Pb and trace element (Fe, Zn and Mg) levels in milk and blood/serum samples of lactating buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) living in a market-area (Group-A) and a dairy-experimental station (Group-B), Hyderabad, India. In addition, kidney and liver function tests were assessed. Fodder, milk and blood Pb levels were significantly (p < 0.01) higher in Group-B. Elevated Pb levels correlated positively with reduced Fe and Zn levels in both serum and milk. A significant (p < 0.01) positive correlation between blood Pb and milk Pb levels was observed. Kidney and liver function markers were significantly higher in Group-B buffaloes. The results suggest that contaminated fodder might be one of the responsible factors for elevated Pb levels. In addition, lower levels of Fe and Zn might have led to bioaccumulation of Pb in blood and milk. PMID:24671305

  18. Effect of Leptin on In Vitro Nuclear Maturation and Apoptosis of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Oocyte

    PubMed Central

    Khaki1, Amir; Batavani, Rouzali; Najafi, Gholamreza; Tahmasbian, Hamid; Belbasi, Abolfazl; Mokarizadeh, Aram

    2014-01-01

    Background: Leptin, as a 16 kDa adipokine, is a pleiotropic cytokine-like hormone that primarily secreted from adipose tissue. It also involves in the regulation of energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, immunity, lipid and glucose homeostasis, fatty acid oxidation, angiogenesis, puberty and reproduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of in vitro addition of leptin to in vitro maturation (IVM) medium on buffalo oocyte maturation and apoptosis. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, Ovaries from apparently normal reproductive organs of slaughtered adult buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with unknown breeding history were collected from Urmia Abattoir, Urmia, Iran, and were transported immediately to the laboratory in a thermos flask containing sterile normal saline with added antibiotics. Oocytes were aspirated from 2-8 mm visible follicles of the ovaries using an 18-G needle attached to a 10 ml syringe. IVM medium included tissue culture medium-199 (TCM-199), 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 22 µg/ml sodium pyruvate, 0.5 IU/ml ovine follicle-stimulating hormone (oFSH), 0.5 IU/ml ovine luteinizing hormone (oLH), 1 ?g/ml oestradiol, 50 ?g/ml gentamycin, and leptin [0 (control), 10, 50, and 100 ng/ml]. The good quality buffalo oocytes (batches of 10 oocytes) were placed in a culture plate containing six 50 ?l droplets of maturation medium, covered with sterilized mineral oil, and then incubated at 38.5?C with 5% CO2 in air for 24 hours. The maturation of oocytes was evaluated under a stereomicroscope by detecting the first polar body extrusion of oocytes. FITC-Annexin V propidium iodide (PI) staining method was used to detect oocyte apoptosis. Results: From a total of 115 collected ovaries, 1100 oocytes were recovered among which 283 oocyte were suitable for IVM. In the groups of leptin treated with 0 (control), 10, 50 and 100 ng/ml, the percentage of oocytes maturation was 74.65, 83.81, 77.85, and 75.40%, while the percentage of oocytes apoptosis was 9.83, 9.54, 9.93, and 10.42%, respectively. Our results showed that addition of 10 ng/ml leptin to buffalo IVM medium increased oocyte maturation, significantly, as compared with that in control group. However, addition of leptin to IVM medium had no significant influence on buffalo oocyte apoptosis. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that addition of 10 ng/ml leptin to IVM medium of buffalo oocyte can improve oocyte nuclear maturation. Furthermore, we showed that there is no relation between in vitro addition of leptin to buffalo oocyte IVM medium and oocyte apoptos Conclusion: Our findings suggested that addition of 10 ng/ml leptin to IVM medium of buffalo oocyte can improve oocyte nuclear maturation. Furthermore, we showed that there is no relation between in vitro addition of leptin to buffalo oocyte IVM medium and oocyte apoptosis. PMID:24696768

  19. Hormonal dynamics and follicular turnover in prepuberal Mediterranean Italian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Presicce, Giorgio Antonio; Parmeggiani, Albamaria; Senatore, Elena Maria; Stecco, Romana; Barile, Vittoria Lucia; De Mauro, Guillermo Javier; De Santis, Giuseppe; Maria Terzano, Giuseppina

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was the investigation of hormonal and ovarian follicular dynamics in prepuberal buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) bred in Italy. Eleven 5-9-month old buffalo calves ranging in weight from 122 to 270kg, maintained under controlled nutritional and environmental conditions, underwent 50 days of ultrasonographic ovarian follicular monitoring in the months of October-December. Blood sampling for E(2) and FSH determination and ultrasonographic monitoring using a 7.5MHz linear probe and an ALOKA SSD-500 monitor were performed daily. No differences in any of the parameters under study were highlighted when calves were divided into two weight categories (<200 and >200kg) and thus data were pooled. In this study, values are reported as mean+/-S.D. A range of two-six regular follicular waves was reported among calves with an average of 4+/-1.1. Overall interval (days) between wave emergence was 9.9+/-2.8 and largest diameters (mm) of dominant and first subordinate follicles were 8.4+/-1.2 and 4.8+/-0.6, respectively (P<0.05). With the exception of one calf, some minor follicular waves (short waves or SWs; 1.6+/-1), lasting <10 days (6.1+/-1.2) were reported. They were monitored contemporaneously on the ovary contralateral (n=7) or ipsilateral (n=3) to the main follicular wave. Growth rate (mm per day) of dominant follicles (DF) was significantly faster than for corresponding subordinate follicles (SF) and follicles of SWs (1.08+/-0.2 versus 0.79+/-0.1 and 0.83+/-0.1, respectively, P<0.05). The static phase (days) lasted longer in DF compared to SF and SW (5.4+/-1.8 versus 2.4+/-1.2 and 2.6+/-1, respectively, P<0.05). The regressing phase (mm per day) was similar among DF, SF and SW (0.86+/-0.2, 0.94+/-0.2 and 0.84+/-0.1, respectively, P=0.09). Episodic spikes of E(2) and FSH were reported, corresponding to wave development throughout the course of investigation. In conclusion, the majority of buffalo calves displayed a typical pattern of regular follicular development in conjunction with a dynamic trend of ovarian and hypophyseal hormones. Some minor follicle turnover was reported with parallel main follicular waves. PMID:12763162

  20. Histology and ultrastructure of the lymph nodes of the buffalo (Bos bubalus).

    PubMed

    Zidan, M; Pabst, R

    2015-06-01

    Pre-scapular, femoral and mesenteric lymph nodes from five buffalo calves and five buffalo bulls were studied using light and transmission electron microscopy. The nodes were surrounded with a thin capsule of dense connective tissue and smooth muscles. Subcapsular and trabecular lymphatic sinuses were lined with endothelial cells resting on a basement membrane. The cortex was formed by lymphoid follicles and inter-follicular lymphocytes. Primary and secondary follicles were observed. The medulla was made up of medullary cords of lymphocytes separated by lymphatic sinuses. These sinuses were lined with a discontinuous epithelium and interestingly crossed by reticular fibres. High endothelial venules were found in the paracortical area. Several lymphocytes were observed infiltrating the wall of these venules. The lymph nodes of the Egyptian water buffalo showed a typical structure compared with the majority of mammals, with no age-related structural variation. PMID:24810142

  1. Ticks on buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Fabíola do Nascimento; da Cunha, Nathalie Costa; Rangel, Charles Passos; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique

    2012-01-01

    Some tick species have been described parasitizing buffaloes, but reports from Brazil are rare. This study aimed to ascertain the species of ticks that parasitize buffaloes in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Seventeen farm properties were visited between June 2008 and December 2009, and buffaloes were inspected in relation to infestation. The ticks were identified and a semi-structured questionnaire on parasitism and treatment against ticks was filled out through interviews with the owners. The species identified were Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Dermacentornitens and Amblyommacajennense. It was noted that 82.3% (14/17) of the properties visited presented animals infested with ticks, although 76.5% (13/17) had been administering acaricide treatment. Buffaloes in the state of Rio de Janeiro are often parasitized by ticks, especially in the larval and nymph stages. PMID:23070448

  2. Capacitation of frozen thawed buffalo bull (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa with higher heparin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Mehmood, A; Anwar, M; Saqlan Naqvi, S M

    2007-08-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the effect of high heparin concentration on capacitation of buffalo spermatozoa with a short incubation time. Frozen thawed spermatozoa from three buffalo bulls were pooled and treated with either 50, 100 or 200 microg/ml heparin for 30 min. Capacitation was evaluated by acrosome reaction of spermatozoa and in vitro fertilization rate (per cent cleavage rate, per cent cleavage index). Acrosome reaction was induced in heparin treated spermatozoa with calcium ionophore A23187 and staining was carried out with Coomassie G-250 to evaluate the response as compared with control (0 heparin + calcium ionophore). Significantly higher percentage of acrosome reaction (AR) spermatozoa was noted after heparin treatment (36.8-48.2%) as compared with control (8.1% ; p < 0.05) but differences among the three heparin concentrations were non-significant. However, a significantly higher in vitro fertilization rate was recorded in spermatozoa capacitated by 50 and 100 microg/ml heparin (80.4 and 75.9% cleavage rate, respectively) as compared with 200 microg/ml heparin (47.2% cleavage rate; p < 0.001). It is concluded that buffalo spermatozoa capacitated with 50-100 microg/ml heparin had significantly higher ability to improve in vitro fertilization rate in buffalo. PMID:17635774

  3. Collagen-IV supported embryoid bodies formation and differentiation from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Taru Sharma, G.; Dubey, Pawan K.; Verma, Om Prakash; Pratheesh, M.D.; Nath, Amar; Sai Kumar, G.

    2012-08-03

    Graphical abstract: EBs formation, characterization and expression of germinal layers marker genes of in vivo developed teratoma using four different types of extracellular matrices. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV matrix is found cytocompatible for EBs formation and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Established 3D microenvironment for ES cells development and differentiation into three germ layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV may be useful as promising candidate for ES cells based therapeutic applications. -- Abstract: Embryoid bodies (EBs) are used as in vitro model to study early extraembryonic tissue formation and differentiation. In this study, a novel method using three dimensional extracellular matrices for in vitro generation of EBs from buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cells and its differentiation potential by teratoma formation was successfully established. In vitro derived inner cell masses (ICMs) of hatched buffalo blastocyst were cultured on buffalo fetal fibroblast feeder layer for primary cell colony formation. For generation of EBs, pluripotent ES cells were seeded onto four different types of extracellular matrices viz; collagen-IV, laminin, fibronectin and matrigel using undifferentiating ES cell culture medium. After 5 days of culture, ESCs gradually grew into aggregates and formed simple EBs having circular structures. Twenty-six days later, they formed cystic EBs over collagen matrix with higher EBs formation and greater proliferation rate as compared to other extracellular matrices. Studies involving histological observations, fluorescence microscopy and RT-PCR analysis of the in vivo developed teratoma revealed that presence of all the three germ layer derivatives viz. ectoderm (NCAM), mesoderm (Flk-1) and endoderm (AFP). In conclusion, the method described here demonstrates a simple and cost-effective way of generating EBs from buffalo ES cells. Collagen-IV matrix was found cytocompatible as it supported buffalo EBs formation, their subsequent differentiation could prove to be useful as promising candidate for ES cells based therapeutic applications.

  4. Profile of muscle tissue gene expression specific to water buffalo: Comparison with domestic cattle by genome array.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Hongbao; Gui, Linsheng; Wang, Hongcheng; Mei, Chugang; Zhang, Yaran; Xu, Huaichao; Jia, Cunlin; Zan, Linsen

    2016-02-10

    In contrast with the past, the water buffalo is now not only a draft animal, but also an important food source of milk and meat. It is increasingly apparent that the water buffalo have huge potential for meat production, but its breeding needs to be investigated. Regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in the meat quality difference between the buffalo (Bubalus bulabis) and yellow cattle (Bos taurus), 12 chemical-physical characteristics related to the meat quality of longissimus thoracis muscles (LTM) have been compared at the age of 36months. Intramuscular lipid and b* (yellowness) were greater in cattle than the buffalo, whereas a* (redness) was greater in the buffalo. Gene expression profiles were constructed by bovine genome array. A total of 8884 and 10,960 probes were detected in buffalo and cattle, respectively, with 1580 genes being differentially expressed. Over 400 probes were upregulated and nearly 1200 were downregulated in LTM of the buffalo, most being involved in ribosomal RNA (rRNA) processing, cholesterol homeostasis, regulation of transcription, response to hypoxia, and glycolysis. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to validate the microarray data. Enriched GO analyses of highly expressed genes in LTM showed that protein biosynthesis, striated muscle contraction, iron homeostasis, iron transport, glycolysis and glucose metabolism were similar between the buffalo and cattle. High protein content, low fat content and deep meat color of buffalo LTM may be closely associated with the increased expression of genes involved in cholesterol and iron homeostasis, while also reducing the expression of genes involved in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and protein oxidative phosphorylation. These results establish the groundwork for further studies on buffalo meat quality and will be beneficial in improving water buffalo breeding by molecular biotechnology. PMID:26598327

  5. Molecular Identification of Methanogenic Archaea From Surti Buffaloes (Bubalus Bubalis), Reveals More Hydrogenotrophic Methanogens Phylotypes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, K.M.; Pandya, P.R.; Parnerkar, S.; Tripathi, A.K.; Rank, D.N.; Kothari, R.K.; Joshi, C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock are considered to be one of the more potent forms of greenhouses gases contributing to global warming. Many strategies to reduce emissions are targeting the methanogens that inhabit the rumen, but such an approach can only be successful if it targets all the major groups of ruminant methanogens. Therefore, a thorough knowledge of the diversity of these microbes in breeds of buffaloes, as well as in response to geographical location and different diets, is required. Therefore, molecular diversity of rumen methanogens in Surti buffaloes was investigated using 16S rRNA gene libraries prepared from pooled rumen contents from three Surti buffaloes. A total of 171 clones were identified revealing 23 different sequences (phylotypes). Of these 23 sequences, twelve sequences (12 OTUs, 83 clones) and 10 sequences (10 OTUs, 83 clones) were similar to methanogens belonging to the orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanobacteriales, and the remaining 1 phylotype (5 clones) were similar to Methanosarcina barkeri. These unique sequences clustered within a distinct and strongly supported phylogenetic group. Further studies and effective strategies can be made to inhibit the growth of Methanomicrobiales and Methanobacteriales phylotypes to reduce the methane emission from rumen and thus help in preventing global warming. PMID:24031614

  6. In vivo differentiation potential of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cell.

    PubMed

    Verma, Om Prakash; Kumar, Rajesh; Nath, Amar; Sharma, Manjinder; Dubey, Pawan Kumar; Kumar, G Sai; Sharma, G Taru

    2012-06-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) derived from inner cell mass (ICM) of mammalian blastocyst are having indefinite proliferation and differentiation capability for any type of cell lineages. In the present study, ICMs of in vitro-derived buffalo blastocysts were cultured into two different culture systems using buffalo fetal fibroblast as somatic cell support and Matrigel as synthetic support to obtain pluripotent buffalo embryonic stem cell (buESC) colonies. Pluripotency of the ESCs were characterised through pluripotency markers whereas, their differentiation capability was assessed by teratoma assay using immuno-compromised mice. Cumulus ooccyte complexes from slaughter house-derived ovaries were subjected to in vitro maturation, in vitro fertilization and in vitro culture to generate blastocysts. Total 262 blastocysts were derived through IVEP with 11.83 % (31/262) hatching rate. To generate buESCs, 15 ICMs from hatched blastocysts were cultured on mitomycin-C-treated homologous fetal fibroblast feeder layer, whereas the leftover 16 ICMs were cultured on extra-cellular matrix (Matrigel). No significant differences were observed for primary ESCs colony formation between two culture systems. Primary colonies as well as passaged ESCs were characterised by alkaline phosphatase staining, karyotyping and expression of transcription-based stem cell markers, OCT-4 and cell surface antigens SSEA-4 and TRA-1-60. Batch of ESCs found positive for pluripotency markers and showing normal karyotype after fifteenth passage were inoculated into eight immuno-compromised mice through subcutaneous and intramuscular route. Subcutaneous route of inoculation was found to be better than intramuscular route. Developed teratomas were excised surgically and subjected to histological analysis. Histological findings revealed presence of all the three germinal layer derivatives in teratoma sections. Presence of germinal layer derivatives were further confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for the presence of differentiation markers like nerve cell adhesion molecule, fetal liver kinase-1 and alpha-feto protein for ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm, respectively. PMID:22678753

  7. Cellular and functional characterization of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) corpus luteum during the estrous cycle and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Baithalu, Rubina Kumari; Singh, S K; Gupta, Chhavi; Raja, Anuj K; Saxena, Abhishake; Kumar, Yogendra; Singh, R; Agarwal, S K

    2013-08-01

    In the present paper, cellular composition of buffalo corpus luteum (CL) with its functional characterization based on 3?-HSD and progesterone secretory ability at different stages of estrous cycle and pregnancy was studied. Buffalo uteri along with ovaries bearing CL were collected from the local slaughter house. These were classified into different stages of estrous cycle (Stage I, II, III and IV) and pregnancy (Stage I, II and III) based on morphological appearance of CL, surface follicles on the ovary and crown rump length of conceptus. Luteal cell population, progesterone content and steroidogenic properties were studied by dispersion of luteal cells using collagenase type I enzyme, RIA and 3?-HSD activity, respectively. Large luteal cells (LLC) appeared as polyhedral or spherical in shape with a centrally placed large round nucleus and an abundance of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. However, small luteal cells (SLC) appeared to be spindle shaped with an eccentrically placed irregular nucleus and there was paucity of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. The size of SLC (range 12-23?m) and LLC (range 25-55?m) increased (P<0.01) with the advancement of stage of estrous cycle and pregnancy. The mean progesterone concentration per gram and per CL increased (P<0.01) from Stage I to III of estrous cycle with maximum concentration at Stage III of estrous cycle and pregnancy. The progesterone concentration decreased at Stage IV (day 17-20) of estrous cycle coinciding with CL regression. Total luteal cell number (LLC and SLC) also increased (P<0.01) from Stage I to III of estrous cycle and decreased (P<0.05), thereafter, at Stage IV indicating degeneration of luteal cells and regression of the CL. Total luteal cell population during pregnancy also increased (P<0.01) from Stage I to II and thereafter decreased (P>0.05) indicating cessation of mitosis. Increased (P<0.05) large luteal cell numbers from Stage I to III of estrous cycle and pregnancy coincided with the increased progesterone secretion and 3?-HSD activity of CL. Thus, proportionate increases of large compared with small luteal cells were primarily responsible for increased progesterone secretion during the advanced stages of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Total luteal cells and progesterone content per CL during the mid-luteal stage in buffalo as observed in the present study seem to be less than with cattle suggesting inherent luteal deficiency. PMID:23896394

  8. The effects of high temperature and roof modification on physiological responses of swamp buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis) in the tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khongdee, Titaporn; Sripoon, S.; Vajrabukka, C.

    2013-05-01

    The objective of the experiments reported here was to measure the effects of cooling techniques (Modified roof vs Normal roof) on the performance and physiology of 12 young male buffaloes with a similar live weight of 160 kg. The study was conducted at Chainat Agriculture and Technology College, Chainat Province, Thailand. The animals were divided randomly into two groups, each group comprising six buffaloes, and the two groups were studied to evaluate the effects of modified roofing (normal roof fitted with woven polypropylene shade cloth) on the subjects' physiological responses to heat stress under hot humid conditions. The modified roof resulted in lowered heat stress in buffaloes compared to those under a standard roof. The difference was shown by the buffaloes having a significantly lower mean rectal temperature (39.14 ± 0.07 vs 40.00 ± 0.10°C) and plasma cortisol (2.14 ± 0.24 vs 3.38 ± 0.37 ng/ml). The average daily water consumption was significantly lower in the MR group (MR, 29.71 ± 0.86 vs NR, 34.14 ± 1.06 L head -1 day-1), while there was a tendency for the roughage intake to be higher in the MR group compared to that of the NR group (MR, 5.88 ± 0.18 vs NR, 6.44 ± 0.19 kg head-1 -1 day-1; P = 0.0508). It was concluded that roof modification facilitated a reduction in heat load from roof re-radiation, and was an effective means of alleviating thermal stress in young buffaloes.

  9. Genetic Evaluation of Dual-Purpose Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Colombia Using Principal Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Agudelo-Gómez, Divier; Pineda-Sierra, Sebastian; Cerón-Muñoz, Mario Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Genealogy and productive information of 48621 dual-purpose buffaloes born in Colombia between years 1996 and 2014 was used. The following traits were assessed using one-trait models: milk yield at 270 days (MY270), age at first calving (AFC), weaning weight (WW), and weights at the following ages: first year (W12), 18 months (W18), and 2 years (W24). Direct additive genetic and residual random effects were included in all the traits. Maternal permanent environmental and maternal additive genetic effects were included for WW and W12. The fixed effects were: contemporary group (for all traits), sex (for WW, W12, W18, and W24), parity (for WW, W12, and MY270). Age was included as covariate for WW, W12, W18 and W24. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted using the genetic values of 133 breeding males whose breeding-value reliability was higher than 50% for all the traits in order to define the number of principal components (PC) which would explain most of the variation. The highest heritabilities were for W18 and MY270, and the lowest for AFC; with 0.53, 0.23, and 0.17, respectively. The first three PCs represented 66% of the total variance. Correlation of the first PC with meat production traits was higher than 0.73, and it was -0.38 with AFC. Correlations of the second PC with maternal genetic component traits for WW and W12 were above 0.75. The third PC had 0.84 correlation with MY270. PCA is an alternative approach for analyzing traits in dual-purpose buffaloes and reduces the dimension of the traits. PMID:26230093

  10. Genetic Evaluation of Dual-Purpose Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Colombia Using Principal Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Agudelo-Gómez, Divier; Pineda-Sierra, Sebastian; Cerón-Muñoz, Mario Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Genealogy and productive information of 48621 dual-purpose buffaloes born in Colombia between years 1996 and 2014 was used. The following traits were assessed using one-trait models: milk yield at 270 days (MY270), age at first calving (AFC), weaning weight (WW), and weights at the following ages: first year (W12), 18 months (W18), and 2 years (W24). Direct additive genetic and residual random effects were included in all the traits. Maternal permanent environmental and maternal additive genetic effects were included for WW and W12. The fixed effects were: contemporary group (for all traits), sex (for WW, W12, W18, and W24), parity (for WW, W12, and MY270). Age was included as covariate for WW, W12, W18 and W24. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted using the genetic values of 133 breeding males whose breeding-value reliability was higher than 50% for all the traits in order to define the number of principal components (PC) which would explain most of the variation. The highest heritabilities were for W18 and MY270, and the lowest for AFC; with 0.53, 0.23, and 0.17, respectively. The first three PCs represented 66% of the total variance. Correlation of the first PC with meat production traits was higher than 0.73, and it was -0.38 with AFC. Correlations of the second PC with maternal genetic component traits for WW and W12 were above 0.75. The third PC had 0.84 correlation with MY270. PCA is an alternative approach for analyzing traits in dual-purpose buffaloes and reduces the dimension of the traits. PMID:26230093

  11. A rapid method for authentication of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) meat by Alkaline Lysis method of DNA extraction and species specific polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Girish, P S; Haunshi, S; Vaithiyanathan, S; Rajitha, R; Ramakrishna, C

    2013-02-01

    Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) meat is a major item of export from India but export of beef i.e. meat from cattle (Bos indicus) is prohibited. Also, adulteration of buffalo meat with that of beef (meat from cattle) is a common fraudulent practice because of prohibition on cow slaughter in most states of India. Food analysts require precise identification techniques to implement such regulations. In the present study, a method of DNA extraction by Alkaline lysis from meat samples and speciation of buffalo meat using species specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) has been reported. Alkaline lysis technique is a rapid method which involves triturating meat with four volumes of 0.2N NaOH, dilution of resultant liquid extract with eight volumes of 0.2N NaOH, heating the mix 75 °C for 20 min followed by neutralization with eight volumes of 0.04N Tris HCl. Entire procedure of DNA extraction takes less than 30 min and it is economical as it involves less expensive chemicals. Method was successfully applied in animal byproducts also viz., liver, heart and kidney. For authentication of buffalo meat, pair of primers was designed based on mitochondrial D loop gene nucleotide sequence. PCR amplification using the designed primers gave amplicon of size 482 bp in buffalo and no amplification was detected in closely related species viz., cattle, sheep and goat meat samples. Results of the assay were highly repetitive and reliable. An export sample referred by export regulation authorities was also analyzed by using the Alkaline lysis method of DNA extraction and species specific PCR which enabled authentication of meat within 5 h. PMID:24425899

  12. Experimental inoculation of Neospora caninum in pregnant water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Konrad, J L; Moore, D P; Crudeli, G; Caspe, S G; Cano, D B; Leunda, M R; Lischinsky, L; Regidor-Cerrillo, J; Odeón, A C; Ortega-Mora, L M; Echaide, I; Campero, C M

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the pathogenesis of Neospora caninum in experimentally inoculated pregnant water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Twelve Mediterranean female water buffaloes ranging in age from 4 to 14 years old and seronegative to N. caninum by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) were involved. Ten females were intravenously inoculated with 10(8) tachyzoites of NC-1 strain at 70 (n=3) or 90 (n=7) days of pregnancy (dp). Two control animals were inoculated with placebo at 70 and 90 dp, respectively. Serum samples were obtained weekly following inoculation to the end of the experiment. Three animals inoculated at 70 dp were slaughtered at 28 days post inoculation (dpi), three animals inoculated at 90 dp were slaughtered at 28 dpi and the remaining four animals inoculated at 90 dp were slaughtered at 42 dpi. Fetal fluids from cavities and tissue samples were recovered for IFAT and histopathology, immunohistochemistry and PCR, respectively. Genomic DNA from fetal tissues was used for parasite DNA detection and microsatellite genotyping in order to confirm the NC-1 specific-infection. Dams developed specific antibodies one week after the inoculation and serological titers did not decrease significantly to the end of the experiment. No abortions were recorded during the experimental time; however, one fetus from a dam inoculated at 70 dp was not viable at necropsy. Specific antibodies were detected in only two fetuses from dams inoculated at 90 dp that were slaughtered at 42 dpi. No macroscopic changes in the placentas and organs of viable fetuses were observed. Nonsuppurative placentitis was a common microscopic observation in Neospora-inoculated specimens. Microscopic fetal lesions included nonsuppurative peribronchiolar interstitial pneumonia, epicarditis and myocarditis, interstitial nephritis, myositis and periportal hepatitis. Positive IHC results were obtained in two fetuses from dams inoculated at 70 dp and slaughtered at 28 dpi. N. caninum DNA was detected in placentas and fetuses from all inoculated animals. The pattern of amplified microsatellites from placental and fetal tissues resembled the NC-1 strain. Water buffaloes, like cattle, are susceptible to experimental inoculation with N. caninum at early pregnancy. PMID:22244534

  13. Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) term amniotic-membrane-derived cells exhibited mesenchymal stem cells characteristics in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Kaushalya; Kumar, Rajesh; Singh, Jarnail; Gahlawat, S K; Kumar, Dharmendra; Selokar, Naresh Lalaji; Yadav, S P; Gulati, B R; Yadav, P S

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies suggested that placentae amniotic membrane is a valuable source of stem cells in human as well as in livestock species. Advantages of amnion over other sources of stem cells included abundant availability, ethically non-objectionable and non-invasive source. The aim of the present study was the isolation, culture and characterization of amniotic-membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells from term placentae collected postpartum in buffalo. We have observed that both presumptive epithelial-like and fibroblast-like cells were cultured and maintained from term amnion. These cells were shown the positive expression of pluripotency markers (OCT-4, SOX-2, NANOG, TERT), mesenchymal stem cell markers (CD29, CD44, CD105) and negative for haematopoietic marker (CD34) genes at different passages. In addition, these cells were also positive for alkaline phosphatase staining. Stem-ness potential of any stem cells is determined by their potential to differentiate into specific lineages of cell type. In the present study, we have successfully differentiated the amniotic-membrane-derived cells into adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages of cells in vitro. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate that amniotic-membrane-derived cells expressed pluripotent and mesenchymal stem cells markers and have propensity to differentiate into cells of mesenchymal lineage cell type upon directed differentiation in vitro. PMID:26019121

  14. IGF-1 attenuates LPS induced pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Onnureddy, K; Ravinder; Onteru, Suneel Kumar; Singh, Dheer

    2015-03-01

    Interaction between immune and endocrine system is a diverse process influencing cellular function and homeostasis in animals. Negative energy balance (NEB) during postpartum period in dairy animals usually suppresses these systems resulting in reproductive tract infection and infertility. These negative effects could be due to competition among endocrine and immune signaling pathways for common signaling molecules. The present work studied the effect of IGF-1 (50 ng/ml) on LPS (1 ?g/ml) mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-6) and aromatase (CYP19A1) genes' expressions as well as proliferation of buffalo granulosa cells. The crosstalk between LPS and IGF-1 was also demonstrated through studying the activities of downstream signaling molecules (ERK1/2, Akt, NF-?B) by western blot and immunostaining. Gene expression analysis showed that IGF-1 significantly reduced the LPS induced expression of IL-1?, TNF-? and IL-6. LPS alone inhibited the CYP19A1 expression. However, co-treatment with IGF-1 reversed the inhibitory effect of LPS on CYP19A1 expression. LPS alone did not affect granulosa cell proliferation, but co-treatment with IGF-1, and IGF-1 alone enhanced the proliferation. Western blot results demonstrated that LPS caused the nuclear translocation of the NF-?B and increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt maximum at 15 min and 60 min, respectively. Nonetheless, co-treatment with IGF-1 delayed LPS induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (peak at 120 min), while promoting early Akt phosphorylation (peak at 5 min) with no effect on NF-?B translocation. Overall, IGF-1 delayed and reversed the effects of LPS, suggesting that high IGF-1 levels may combat infection during critical periods like NEB in postpartum dairy animals. PMID:25433435

  15. Expression profiling of major heat shock protein genes during different seasons in cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) under tropical climatic condition.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Ashraf, Syma; Goud, T Sridhar; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S V; Yadav, B R; Upadhyay, R C

    2015-07-01

    Heat shock proteins consist of highly conserved stress proteins, expressed in response to stress and play crucial roles in environmental stress tolerance and adaptation. The present study was conducted to identify major types of genes under the HSP70 family and other HSPs and to evaluate their expression pattern in Sahiwal and Tharparkar breeds of zebu cattle (Bos indicus) and Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) with respect to different seasons. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze the transcript variants of three HSP70 family genes (HSPA1A, HSPA1B, and HSPA8) and HSP10, HSP60, HSP90 and HSF1 in each breed. The major finding of this study was the higher abundance of all the studied HSP genes during summer and winter compared to spring season, but the magnitude of increase was higher during summer as compared to winter. HSPA1A and HSPA1B genes showed maximal induction (P<0.001) during summer and winter while HSP60 and HSP10 were found to be the second most abundantly expressed HSPs. The relative mRNA abundance of HSF1 significantly increased (P<0.001) in Murrah buffalo compared to Tharparkar and Sahiwal cattle during summer and winter. Expression pattern of heat shock protein genes indicated that amongst the breeds, the expression was higher in Murrah buffalo compared to Sahiwal and Tharparkar cattle, thereby indicating the more adaptive capacity of later during periods of stress. Hence, this study suggests that heat shock protein genes may be conveniently used as biomarkers for assessing stress response in cattle and buffalo and the expression is species and breed-specific. Furthermore, the variation in expression is associated with heat tolerance and adaptation to different climatic conditions. PMID:25965018

  16. Comparative therapeutic effect of toltrazuril, sulphadimidine and amprolium on Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii given at different times following infection in buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Mohamed M; Radwaan, Mervat E; Moustafa, Abdel Moneim M; Ebeid, Mohamed H

    2008-04-17

    We compared the therapeutic effect of three anticoccidial drugs (toltrazuril, sulphadimidine and amprolium) in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves experimentally infected with Eimeria bovis (E. bovis) and E. zuernii oocysts (3 x 104oocyst/calf). Buffalo calves (1.5-4 month old, 70-kg body weight) were randomly allocated into 3 groups (9 calves each). Group T was experimentally infected with oocysts and treated with toltrazuril (20 mg/kg BW twice orally at a 1-week interval). Group S was experimentally infected with oocysts and treated with sulphadimidine (125 mg/kg injected IM followed by half dose for 4 successive days). Group A was experimentally infected with oocysts and treated with amprolium (50 mg/kg orally for 7 successive days). Each group had three subgroups (three calves/subgroup) to represent timing of the drug administration: 1st day of coccidia infection (FD), onset of clinical signs of coccidiosis (CC), and onset of oocyst shedding into the faeces (OS). Clinical signs, body-weight gain (BWG) and number of oocysts per gram feces (OPG) were monitored daily for 35 days post-infection (DPI). The OPG were reduced (but the BWG was not different) in the T calves compared to S and A calves. Within the same group, treatment from the 1st day of infection reduced the OPG and increased the BWG compared to the later treatment timings. PMID:18262668

  17. Association of microsatellite (GT)n polymorphism at 3'UTR of NRAMP1 with the macrophage function following challenge with Brucella LPS in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Indrajit; Sharma, Arjava; Singh, Rajendra; Deb, Sitnangshu M; Singh, Dhirendra K; Mitra, Abhijit

    2008-05-25

    Brucella abortus is a facultative intracellular pathogen that survives and replicates in host macrophages. Hence, macrophage function plays an important role in influencing natural resistance/susceptibility to intracellular pathogen. The natural resistance associated macrophage protein 1 (NRAMP1; erstwhile referred as Ity/Lsh/Bcg), a transmembrane protein, regulates activity of macrophages against intracellular pathogens. In bovine, natural resistance to brucellosis is significantly associated with (GT)13 allelic variant of microsatellite locus at 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of the NRAMP1 gene. In the present study we screened 65 Murrah breed of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) to identify polymorphism at 3'UTR of NRAMP1 gene and evaluate the association of these polymorphisms with the macrophage function. Four allelic variants (viz., GT13, GT14, GT15 and GT16) were identified. Majority of the buffaloes were of either homozygous (GT)14/(GT)14 or heterozygous (GT)14/(GT)15 with (GT)14 allele occurring most frequently (62%). For association study, non-vaccinated and serologically negative animals were divided into three genotypic groups: group 1 (n=2) comprising animals of homozygous (GT)13 genotype, whereas, group 2 (n=4) and group 3 (n=6) consisted animals of heterozygous [(GT)13/(GT)n, where n not equal 13] and non-(GT)13 [(GT)n/(GT)n, where n not equal 13] genotype, respectively. Macrophages, after maturation, were challenged with Brucella LPS to assay the macrophage function in terms of H2O2 and NO production. The (GT)13 allele, either in homozygoous {(GT)13/(GT)13} or heterozygous {(GT)13/(GT)n, where n=14, 15 or 16}, was significantly (p<0.01) associated with increased production of H2O2 and NO. In this manuscript, for the first time, we have identified (GT)13 allelic variant and demonstrated its significant association with the improved macrophage function in buffalo. PMID:18078724

  18. Association analysis of polymorphism in thyroglobulin gene promoter with milk production traits in riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Dubey, P K; Goyal, S; Mishra, S K; Yadav, A K; Kathiravan, P; Arora, R; Malik, R; Kataria, R S

    2015-09-01

    Polymorphism within the promoter region of bovine thyroglobulin has been reported to be associated with milk and meat quality. In this study, we investigated the genetic variation within thyroglobulin promoter region of swamp and riverine buffaloes using PCR-SSCP technique and sequencing, and also analyzing association of polymorphism with the milk production traits. The study revealed four conformational patterns, A, B, C, and D among 323 buffaloes of two riverine breeds and different swamp populations. The frequency of SSCP variant 'A' was found to be invariably high among all buffalo populations. Variant 'C' was found to be absent in pure swamp population and present with higher frequency among riverine dairy breeds Mehsana and Nili Ravi. Frequency of D variant was observed to be highest in buffalo population, representing riverine and hybrid types. Sequencing of three representative PCR products of each of the SSCP variants, revealed three polymorphic sites responsible, 33C > T, 176G > T and 221C > T, in the buffalo TG promoter region. Further, association studies of SSCP variants with various milk production and milk quality traits indicated significant effect on fat percentage in buffaloes belonging to Mehsana and Nili Ravi dairy breeds. The preliminary results also showed the substantial variations in the distribution of SSCP variants' frequencies across swamp and riverine buffaloes, two distinct populations being reared for meat and milk production, respectively. PMID:26273563

  19. An inter-subspecies cloned buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) obtained by transferring of cryopreserved embryos via somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Yang, B Z; Yang, C Y; Li, R C; Qin, G S; Zhang, X F; Pang, C Y; Chen, M T; Huang, F X; Li, Z; Zheng, H Y; Huang, Y J; Liang, X W

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of cryopreservation of inter-subspecies cloned embryos in buffalo. In our experiment, river buffalo ear fibroblast nucleus was fused into swamp buffalo oocyte cytoplasm. The blastocyst formation rate for nuclear transfer of freshly thawed cells was not different from those of growing cells, confluent or serum-starved cells. A total of 122 cloned blastocysts derived from cryopreserved fibroblasts were cryopreserved and thawed, 37 were survived, the cryosurvival rate was 30.3%. The survived blastocysts were transferred into 15 recipient buffalos. Five of the recipients established pregnancy, but four of them aborted on day 53, 59, 145 and 179 of gestation respectively. One cross-bred buffalo (Murrah × Swamp buffalo (2n = 49) received three embryos delivered a 40.5 kg female calf by natural delivery on day 320 of gestation. Up to now (13-month old), the cloned calf has been growing well with no abnormity observed. These results demonstrated that cryopreservation of inter-subspecies cloned embryos is feasible to produce buffalo offspring. PMID:19788521

  20. A distinct genetic population of Gongylonema pulchrum from water buffaloes in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Makouloutou, Patrice; Rana, Hari Bahadur; Adhikari, Bishunu; Devkota, Bhuminand; Dhakal, Ishwari Prasad; Sato, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    Whole-length esophagi of 111 Murrah cross water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were collected in the Kathmandu and Chitwan districts of Nepal from December 2009 to February 2010. Gullet worms showing a typical epithelium-dwelling character were detected in 13 of 53 (24.5%) buffaloes in Kathmandu and in 5 of 58 (8.6%) buffaloes in Chitwan. The worms' morphology and measurements were identical to those of Gongylonema pulchrum Molin, 1857, except for the length of the left spicules relative to the body length. Scanning electron microscopy did not detect any further morphological differences regarding the collected specimen from Nepal compared with G. pulchrum . The ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA), including internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and 2, and a partial region of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) of mitochondrial DNA of the worms were characterized and compared with those of G. pulchrum collected from cattle, deer, wild boars, and monkeys in Japan and from cattle in Iran. The 18S, 5.8S, and 28S rDNA nucleotide sequences of the buffalo-collected worms had 99.8% (1,779/1,782), 100% (158/158), and 98.3-98.8% (3,494-3,507/3,551) identities, respectively, with those of G. pulchrum from the other host mammals. The ITS regions exhibited higher variations between the buffalo-collected worms and G. pulchrum from the other host mammals (85-88% identity for ITS1 and 56-80% identity for ITS2). The COI also showed lower identities (89.2-90.2%), although only a single amino acid substitution was noted compared with the majority of G. pulchrum samples collected in Japan. Based on these molecular genetic characters in the rDNA and COI mitochondrial DNA, together with a shorter left spicule length relative to body length, the gullet worms isolated from buffaloes in Nepal might belong to a distinct local or buffalo-preferring population of G. pulchrum, although its geographical distribution on the continent and host specificity remain to be clarified. PMID:23421498

  1. Sarcocystis cafferi, n. sp. (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) from the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four species of Sarcocystis are currently recognized in the Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): Sarcocystis fusiformis with macrocysts and cats as definitive hosts, S. buffalonis also with macrocysts and cats as definitive hosts, S. levinei with microcysts and dogs as definitive hosts, and S. dub...

  2. Energy metabolites, lipid variables and lactation performance of periparturient Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) fed on diet supplemented with inorganic chromium.

    PubMed

    Zade, Satish; Mani, Veena; Deka, Rijusmita Sarma; Kumar, Muneendra; Kaur, Harjit; Kewalramani, Neelam J; Tyagi, Amrish Kumar

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of chromium (Cr) supplementation as inorganic Cr (CrCl3·6H2O) on energy balance, lipid peroxidation, and lactation performance in periparturient Murrah buffaloes. Twenty-four multiparous Murrah buffaloes according to lactation, parity, body mass, and expected calving date were divided equally. Experimental buffaloes were randomly assigned to four treatment diets: a control diet and three diets with an inorganic Cr supplementation at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg of Cr/kg dry matter (DM), respectively from 60 days before expected calving date until 60 days of lactation. Milk productions of buffaloes were recorded every day until 60 days in milk. Blood samples were collected at days -60, -45, -30,-21, -15, -7, -3, 0, 7, 15, 21, 30, 45, and 60 days relative to actual calving for determination of plasma glucose, nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), total cholesterol, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and minerals. Adding inorganic Cr to the diet of Murrah buffaloes increased milk yield. Percentage of fat and total solid yield increased significantly through the experiment in the Cr-supplemented group. At the day of calving, buffaloes showed a decrease in dry matter intake (DMI), plasma glucose, and zinc (Zn) and Cr concentrations. In contrast, plasma NEFA, TBARS, and copper (Cu) levels were found highest at the day of calving among all groups. Cr supplementation increased peripheral blood glucose concentration while decreased level of NEFA and TBARS was recorded in Cr-fed buffaloes. Supplemental Cr had no effect on plasma cholesterol, total protein, albumin, and BUN in periparturient period. Dietary Cr supplementation had positive effect on plasma Cr concentration, but the plasma concentration of Cu, Zn, and iron (Fe) was not affected by different dietary Cr level supplementation. The results suggest that dietary inorganic Cr supplementation improved milk yield by reducing negative energy balance and lipid peroxidation in buffaloes during periparturient period. PMID:24833279

  3. Genetic and Phylogenetic Studies of Toll-Like Receptor 5 (TLR5) in River Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) 

    E-print Network

    Jones, Brittany

    2012-08-21

    the genetic and evolutionary profile of Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), which mediates the mammalian innate immune response to bacterial flagellin. This study is comprised of three parts: 1) generating a radiation hybrid (RH) map of river buffalo chromosome 5...

  4. Chromium Supplements in the Feed for Lactating Murrah Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis): Influence on Nutrient Utilization, Lactation Performance, and Metabolic Responses.

    PubMed

    Deka, Rijusmita Sarma; Mani, Veena; Kumar, Muneendra; Shiwajirao, Zade Satish; Kaur, Harjit

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of inorganic chromium (Cr) on nutrient intake, nutrient utilization, milk mineral contents, and blood biochemical in lactating Murrah buffaloes. Twenty-four multifarious Murrah buffaloes were blocked into four groups having six animals in each group and fed for 150 days post-partum. Feeding regimen was same in all the groups except that treatment groups were supplemented with 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg inorganic Cr/kg dry matter (DM) in the four respective groups. Group fed on basal diet supplemented with 0.0 mg Cr/kg DM served as a control. Adding inorganic Cr to the diet of lactating buffaloes increased feed intake, milk yield, and nutrient digestibility. Nitrogen (N) and Cr balance were significantly increased (P?buffaloes did not show any effect on blood hemoglobin (Hb), while plasma concentration of progesterone and antioxidant status was increased (P?buffaloes improved nutrient intake, nutrient utilization, and lactation performance. PMID:26013395

  5. Clinical outcomes and molecular genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk samples of dairy primiparous Mediterranean buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Guccione, J; Cosandey, A; Pesce, A; Di Loria, A; Pascale, M; Piantedosi, D; Steiner, A; Graber, H U; Ciaramella, P

    2014-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogens causing mastitis in dairy cows and in Mediterranean buffaloes. Genotype B (GTB) is contagious in dairy cows and may occur in up to 87% of cows of a dairy herd. It was the aim of this study to evaluate genotypes present, clinical outcomes, and prevalence of Staph. aureus in milk samples of primiparous Mediterranean dairy buffaloes. Two hundred composite milk samples originating from 40 primiparous buffaloes were collected from May to June 2012, at d 10, 30, 60, 90, and 150 d in milk (DIM) to perform somatic cell counts and bacteriological cultures. Daily milk yields were recorded. Before parturition until 40 to 50 DIM, all primiparous animals were housed separated from the pluriparous animals. Milking was performed in the same milking parlor, but the primiparous animals were milked first. After 50 DIM, the primiparous were mixed with the pluriparous animals, including the milking procedure. Individual quarter samples were collected from each animal, and aliquots of 1 mL were mixed and used for molecular identification and genotyping of Staph. aureus. The identification of Staph. aureus was performed verifying the presence of nuc gene by nuc gene PCR. All the nuc-positive isolates were subjected to genotype analysis by means of PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region and analyzed by a miniaturized electrophoresis system. Of all 200 composite samples, 41 (20.5%) were positive for Staph. aureus, and no genotype other than GTB was identified. The prevalence of samples positive for Staph. aureus was 0% at 10 DIM and increased to a maximum of 22/40 (55%) at 90 DIM. During the period of interest, 14 buffaloes tested positive for Staph. aureus once, 6 were positive twice, and 5 were positive 3 times, whereas 15 animals were negative at every sampling. At 90 and 150 DIM, 7 (17.5%) and 3 buffaloes (7.5%), respectively, showed clinical mastitis (CM), and only 1 (2.5%) showed CM at both samplings. At 60, 90, and 150 DIM, 1 buffalo was found with subclinical mastitis at each sampling. At 30, 60, 90, and 150 DIM, 2.5 (1/40), 22.5 (9/40), 35 (14/40), and 10% (4/40) were considered affected by intramammary infection, respectively. Buffaloes with CM caused by Staph. aureus had statistically significantly higher mean somatic cell count values (6.06 ± 0.29, Log10 cells/mL ± standard deviation) and statistically significantly lower mean daily milk yields (7.15 ± 1.49, liters/animal per day) than healthy animals (4.69 ± 0.23 and 13.87 ± 2.64, respectively), buffaloes with IMI (4.82 ± 0.23 and 11.16 ± 1.80, respectively), or with subclinical mastitis (5.47 ± 0.10 and 10.33 ± 0.68, respectively). Based on our knowledge, this is the first time that Staph. aureus GTB has been identified in milk samples of dairy Mediterranean buffaloes. PMID:25459906

  6. Short communication: Variable number of tandem repeat polymorphisms in DGAT1 gene of buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) is associated with milk constituents.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, D F; de Souza, G F P; Aspilcueta-Borquis, R R; Araujo Neto, F R; de Camargo, G M F; Hurtado-Lugo, N A; Scalez, D C B; de Freitas, A C; Albuquerque, L G; Tonhati, H

    2015-05-01

    The diacylglycerol-O-transferase 1 gene is a positional and functional candidate for milk composition traits. The objective of this study was to evaluate the segregation of the variable number of tandem repeat polymorphisms in the regulatory region of diacylglycerol-O-transferase 1 gene in a water buffalo herd, and to assess the association of this mutation with milk production traits. For this purpose, 196 Murrah buffalo cows were genotyped by PCR. The association of the marker with total milk, fat, and protein yields at 305 d of lactation, milk fat and protein percentage, and somatic cell scores were evaluated by single-trait analyses using a generalized mixed model. Two segregating alleles were identified in the population. The allele with 2 repeats affected fat percentage favorably. The present results suggest that this polymorphism is an interesting marker to include in the genetic evaluation of buffaloes. PMID:25726116

  7. Phenotypic Characterization and Multivariate Analysis to Explain Body Conformation in Lesser Known Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from North India

    PubMed Central

    Vohra, V.; Niranjan, S. K.; Mishra, A. K.; Jamuna, V.; Chopra, A.; Sharma, Neelesh; Jeong, Dong Kee

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic characterization and body biometric in 13 traits (height at withers, body length, chest girth, paunch girth, ear length, tail length, length of tail up to switch, face length, face width, horn length, circumference of horn at base, distances between pin bone and hip bone) were recorded in 233 adult Gojri buffaloes from Punjab and Himachal Pradesh states of India. Traits were analysed by using varimax rotated principal component analysis (PCA) with Kaiser Normalization to explain body conformation. PCA revealed four components which explained about 70.9% of the total variation. First component described the general body conformation and explained 31.5% of total variation. It was represented by significant positive high loading of height at wither, body length, heart girth, face length and face width. The communality ranged from 0.83 (hip bone distance) to 0.45 (horn length) and unique factors ranged from 0.16 to 0.55 for all these 13 different biometric traits. Present study suggests that first principal component can be used in the evaluation and comparison of body conformation in buffaloes and thus provides an opportunity to distinguish between early and late maturing to adult, based on a small group of biometric traits to explain body conformation in adult buffaloes. PMID:25656215

  8. Activation and Inhibition of The Wnt3A Signaling Pathway in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryonic Stem Cells: Effects of WNT3A, Bio and Dkk1

    PubMed Central

    Zandi, Mohammad; Shah, Syed Mohamad; Muzaffar, Musharifa; Kumar Singh, Manoj; Palta, Prabhat; Kumar Singla, Suresh; Sham Manik, Radhey; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background This research studies the effects of activation and inhibition of Wnt3A signaling pathway in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem (ES) cell-like cells. Materials and Methods To carry on this experimental study, the effects of activation and inhibition of Wnt3A signaling in buffalo ES cell-like cells were examined using Bio (0.5 mM) combined with WNT3A (200 ng/ml), as an activator, and Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1, 250 ng/ml), as an inhibitor, of the pathway. ES cells were cultured up to three weeks in ES cell medium without fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), but in the presence of Bio, WNT3A, Bio+WNT3A and Dkk1. The effects of these supplements were measured on the mean area of ES cell colonies and on the expression levels of a number of important genes related to pluripotency (Oct4, Nanog, Sox2 and c-Myc) and the Wnt pathway (?-catenin). ES cell colonies cultured in ES cell medium that contained optimized quantities of LIF and FGF-2 were used as the control. Data were collected for week-1 and week-3 treated cultures. In addition, WNT3A-transfected ES cells were compared with the respective mock-transfected colonies, either alone or in combination with Dkk1 for expression of ?-catenin and the pluripotency-related genes. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, and statistical significance was accepted at P<0.05. Results Among various examined concentrations of Bio (0.5-5 mM), the optimum effect was observed at the 0.5 mM dose as indicated by colony area and expressions of pluripotency-related genes at both weeks-1 and -3 culture periods. At this concentration,the expressions of Nanog, Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc and ?-catenin genes were nonsignificantly higher compared to the controls. Expressions of these genes were highest in the Bio+WNT3A treated group, followed by the WNT3A and Bio-supplemented groups, and lowest in the Dkk1-treated group. The WNT-transfected colonies showed higher expressions compared to both mock and Dkk1-treated mock transfected colonies. Conclusion WNT3A functions to maintain the pluripotency of ES cell-like cells both as an exogenous growth factor as well as an endogenously expressed gene. It complements the absence of FGF-2 and LIF, otherwise propounded essential for buffalo ES cell culture. WNT3A antagonizes the inhibitory effects of Dkk1 and acts in combination with its activator, Bio, to activate the Wnt signaling pathway. PMID:26644860

  9. Metagenomic analysis of virulence-associated and antibiotic resistance genes of microbes in rumen of Indian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Singh, K M; Jakhesara, S J; Koringa, P G; Rank, D N; Joshi, C G

    2012-10-10

    A major research goal in rumen microbial ecology is to understand the relationship between community composition and its function, particularly involved in fermentation process is of a potential interest. The buffalo rumen microbiota impacts human food safety as well as animal health. Although the bacteria of bovine rumen have been well characterized, techniques have been lacking to correlate total community structure with gene function. We applied 454 next generations sequencing technology to characterize general microbial diversity present in buffalo rumen metagenome and also identified the repertoire of microbial genes present, including genes associated with antibiotic resistance and bacterial virulence. Results suggest that over six percent (6.44%) of the sequences from our buffalo rumen pool sample could be categorized as virulence genes and genes associated with resistance to antibiotic and toxic compounds (RATC), which is a higher proportion of virulence genes reported from metagenome samples of chicken cecum (5.39%), cow rumen (4.43%) and Sargasso sea (2.95%). However, it was lower than the proportion found in cow milk (11.33%) cattle faeces (8.4%), Antarctic marine derived lake (8.45%), human fecal (7.7%) and farm soil (7.79%). The dynamic nature of metagenomic data, together with the large number of RATC classes observed in samples from widely different ecologies indicates that metagenomic data can be used to track potential targets and relative amounts of antibiotic resistance genes in individual animals. In addition, these data can be also used to generate antibiotic resistance gene profiles to facilitate an understanding of the ecology of the microbial communities in each habitat as well as the epidemiology of antibiotic resistant gene transport between and among habitats. PMID:22850272

  10. Effect of treatment with recombinant bovine somatotropin on responses to superovulatory treatment in swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Songsasen, N; Yiengvisavakul, V; Buntaracha, B; Pharee, S; Apimeteetumrong, M; Sukwongs, Y

    1999-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of treatment with recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST) on the response to superovulatory treatment in swamp buffalo. Estrous cycles of 16 buffalo cows were synchronized by intravaginal administration of progesterone and estradiol benzoate, and the cows were then randomly divided into 2 groups. The rBST-treated group received 250 mg of a sustained-release formula of rBST on Day 4 after progesterone implantation, whereas the control group did not receive rBST. Both groups were then given a superovulatory regimen of twice daily injections of FSH for 3.5 d (total dose of 260 mg, i.m.), between Days 9 and 11 after administration of progesterone. The cows were bred naturally 1 d after the last FSH injection, then 6 d after breeding they were slaughtered, and their reproductive tracts were removed. The numbers of corpora lutea (CL) and follicles were recorded, and embryos were flushed out of the uterine horns. There were no significant differences between the rBST-treated and control cows for the mean numbers (+/- SEM) of CL (6.0 +/- 2.2 vs 4.3 +/- 1.1), follicles (15.9 +/- 4.1 vs 19.8 +/- 2.9), or total embryos recovered per collection (4.5 +/- 1.6 vs 2.3 +/- 1.0). However, there were significant differences between rBST-treated and control cows for the numbers of transferable embryos per collection (3.0 +/- 1.0 vs 0.8 +/- 0.3; P < or = 0.05) and the overall proportion of transferable embryos (75 vs 33%; P < or = 0.01). The results of this study show that pretreatment of swamp buffalo with rBST significantly increases the production of transferable embryos in response to superovulation. PMID:10734373

  11. Effect of additional chromium supplementation on health status, metabolic responses, and performance traits in periparturient Murrah Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Deka, Rijusmita Sarma; Mani, Veena; Kumar, Muneendra; Zade, Shiwajirao Satish; Upadhaya, Ramesh Chand; Kaur, Harjit

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of inorganic chromium (Cr) on body condition, metabolic responses, lactation performance, and reproductive parameters in periparturient Murrah buffaloes. Twenty-four multiparous advanced pregnant Murrah buffaloes were randomly assigned to four treatment diets. Feeding regimen was the same in all the groups, except that the animals in the four respective groups were additionally supplemented with 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg of Cr/kg dry matter (DM) from day 60 prepartum to 150 days postpartum. Dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production were recorded every day, while body condition score (BCS) and whole blood samples were collected at days -60, -45, -30, -15, -7, -3, 0, 3, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 relative to actual calving. As the days to calving advanced, DMI, plasma glucose, insulin, leptin, and Cr levels decreased (P?buffaloes. These results could be interpreted as an improvement in the body condition, metabolic response, milk yield, efficiency of milk production and nutrient utilization, and reproductive performance of peripartum Murrah buffaloes. PMID:25388756

  12. Potential risk factors associated with ill-thrift in buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis) raised at smallholder farms in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohamed A; El-Khodery, Sabry A; El-Said, Waleed E

    2015-07-01

    Failure to grow (ill-thrift) in calves has a negative effect on animal production and health. The present study was carried out from November, 2009 to May, 2013 to investigate the risk factors of ill-thrift in buffalo calves. A total of 344 calves at 78 smallholder farms were selected randomly. A questionnaire was designed to include managemental, nutritional and disease risk factors. Serum selenium, copper, zinc, iron, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium were measured. Data were subjected to logistic regression analysis and results were expressed as p value, odds ratio (OR) and confidence interval (CI). Fifty-five calves (15.9%) showed ill-thrift. On animal level, the final multivariate logistic regression model showed a significant association between ill-thrift and early weaning (p < 0.01; OR: 45.755; CI: 4.35-480.25), diarrhea (p < 0.05; OR: 41.315; CI: 1.710-998.0), indoor management (p < 0.05; OR: 63.56; CI: 2.701-14.96) and low serum phosphorus (p < 0.01; 292.0; CI: 5.256-16.23). On farm level, inadequate mineral supplementation (p < 0.001; OR: 18.62; CI: 3.89-88.9) and irregular use of anthelmintics (p < 0.05; OR: 7.95; CI: 1.53-41.23) were the potential factors. Clinically, ill-thrift calves were more likely to have alopecia (p < 0.01), recumbency (p < 0.01), emaciation (p < 0.001), hypothermia (p < 0.01), inappetance (p < 0.001), lacrimation (p < 0.001), hypomotile rumen (p < 0.001), and pale mucous membrane (p < 0.001). The results of the present study indicate that ill-thrift in buffalo calves could occur as a result of interaction between management errors and disease factors. Identification of the risk factors associated with ill-thrift may provide useful information, which assist to construct the suitable preventive measures. PMID:26199751

  13. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) induces buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cell differentiation into germ cells.

    PubMed

    Shah, Syed Mohmad; Saini, Neha; Ashraf, Syma; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Manik, Radhey Sham; Singla, Suresh Kumar; Palta, Prabhat; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) stimulation on differentiation of buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cells into germ lineage cells. ES cells were subjected to in vitro differentiation in floating and adherent cultures, under different BMP4 concentrations (20, 50 and 100 ngml(-1)) for different culture intervals (4, 8 and 14 days). qPCR analysis revealed that BMP4 at a concentration of 50-100 ngml(-1) for a culture period of 14 days led to maximum induction of germ lineage genes like DAZL, VASA, PLZF (PGC-specific); SYCP3, MLH1, TNP1/2 and PRM2 (Meiotic genes); BOULE and TEKT1 (Spermatocyte markers); GDF9, ZP2 and 3 (Oocyte markers). The expression levels of all the genes were significantly higher under BMP4 differentiation as compared to BMP4 + NOGGIN and spontaneously differentiated cultures. Immunocytochemical analysis of embryoid bodies (EBs) and monolayer adherent cultures revealed expression of PGC- (c-KIT, DAZL and VASA); Meiotic- (SYCP3, MLH1 and PROTAMINE1); Spermatocyte- (ACROSIN and HAPRIN); and Oocyte- markers (GDF9 and ZP4). Western blotting was positive for VASA, GDF9 and ZP4. Oocyte-like structures (OLS) obtained in monolayer differentiated cultures harbored a big nucleus and a ZP4 coat. They showed embryonic development and progressed through 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell and blastocyst-like structures. Global DNA methylation analysis showed significantly (p < 0.05) decreased levels of 5-methyl-2-deoxycytidine in EBs obtained in optimum differentiation medium. The expression of meiotic markers coupled with expression of spermatocyte and oocyte markers is an indication of post-meiotic progression into spermatogenesis and oogenesis, respectively. PMID:26529649

  14. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) NOD1 and NOD2 Receptors and Their Functional Role in In-Vitro Cellular Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Brahma, Biswajit; Kumar, Sushil; De, Bidhan Chandra; Mishra, Purusottam; Patra, Mahesh Chandra; Gaur, Deepak; Chopra, Meenu; Gautam, Devika; Mahanty, Sourav; Malik, Hrudananda; Malakar, Dhruba; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; De, Sachinandan

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are innate immune receptors that recognize bacterial cell wall components and initiate host immune response. Structure and function of NLRs have been well studied in human and mice, but little information exists on genetic composition and role of these receptors in innate immune system of water buffalo—a species known for its exceptional disease resistance. Here, a comparative study on the functional domains of NOD1 and NOD2 was performed across different species. The NOD mediated in-vitro cellular responses were studied in buffalo peripheral blood mononuclear cells, resident macrophages, mammary epithelial, and fibroblast cells. Buffalo NOD1 (buNOD1) and buNOD2 showed conserved domain architectures as found in other mammals. The domains of buNOD1 and buNOD2 showed analogy in secondary and tertiary conformations. Constitutive expressions of NODs were ubiquitous in different tissues. Following treatment with NOD agonists, peripheral lymphocytes showed an IFN-? response along-with production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Alveolar macrophages and mammary epithelial cells showed NOD mediated in-vitro immune response through NF-?B dependent pathway. Fibroblasts showed pro-inflammatory cytokine response following agonist treatment. Our study demonstrates that both immune and non-immune cells could generate NOD-mediated responses to pathogens though the type and magnitude of response depend on the cell types. The structural basis of ligand recognition by buffalo NODs and knowledge of immune response by different cell types could be useful for development of non-infective innate immune modulators and next generation anti-inflammatory compounds. PMID:25786158

  15. Assessment of intracellular Ca2+, cAMP and 1,2-diacylglycerol in cryopreserved buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa on supplementation of taurine and trehalose in the extender.

    PubMed

    Singh, V K; Atreja, S K; Kumar, R; Chhillar, S; Singh, A K

    2012-08-01

    In mammalian spermatozoa, intracellular calcium plays a major role in sperm functions like motility and capacitation. Cryopreservation-induced modifications to sperm membrane result in an influx of intracellular calcium affecting calcium-dependent intracellular signalling pathways. Intracellular calcium activates adenyl cyclase to produce cAMP that activates phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2) ) and phospholipase C (PLC) generating lysophosphatidyl choline, 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) and IP(3) , acting as intracellular secondary messengers required for sperm capacitation. Present study was designed to determine levels of intracellular calcium, cAMP and DAG in fresh and frozen-thawed buffalo spermatozoa cryopreserved in the presence and absence of taurine or trehalose. A total number of nine ejaculates from three randomly chosen buffalo bulls were cryopreserved in Tris-based egg yolk extender and thawed in warm water at 37°C. The cAMP was measured by enzyme immuno assay, and intracellular calcium was quantified using fluorescent dye FURA 2-AM. Total lipid was extracted from spermatozoa, and DAG was estimated using thin layer chromatography followed by spectrophotometric analysis. Intracellular calcium, cAMP and DAG levels in spermatozoa were significantly (p < 0.01) increased following cryopreservation as compared to fresh ejaculate. Addition of taurine or trehalose to the freezing medium significantly decreased (p < 0.01) the levels of intracellular calcium and cAMP in frozen-thawed spermatozoa. 1,2-diacylglycerol content was also decreased significantly (p < 0.01) in spermatozoa cryopreserved in presence of additives. Moreover, significant (p < 0.01) improvement in post-thaw motility, viability and membrane integrity of spermatozoa on addition of taurine or trehalose clearly indicated the reduced level of capacitation-like changes in buffalo spermatozoa. PMID:21988572

  16. Multilocus phylogeographical analysis of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) genotypes from sympatric cattle and water buffalo populations supports

    E-print Network

    Tyler, Charles

    and water buffalo populations supports evolutionary host constraint and close phylogenetic relationships in Brazil found at least four genotypes infecting cattle (Bos taurus), but only one in water buffalo from water buffalo and 28 from cattle from four separate loca- tions in Brazil and Venezuela. Multigene

  17. Malignant Catarrhal Fever: An Emerging Disease in the African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Pfitzer, S; Last, R; Espie, I; van Vuuren, M

    2015-06-01

    Within the tribe Bovini in the subfamily Bovinae, the water buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis), American bison (Bison bison), European bison (Bubalus bonasus) and yak (Bos grunniens) are recognized as species highly susceptible to malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). In contrast, the lack of reports describing clinical MCF in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) whether free ranging or captive has led to a perception that African buffaloes are resistant to MCF. During the last decade, several cases of MCF in African buffaloes were confirmed in South Africa and experience with seven of these cases is described in this report. Detection of viral nucleic acid in blood or tissues was successful in six African buffaloes that suffered from clinical signs compatible with MCF. Four were positive for infection with ovine herpesvirus type 2 (the causative virus of sheep-associated MCF), and two were positive for alcelaphine herpesvirus type 1 (causative virus of wildebeest-associated MCF). Histopathological examination of tissue samples from all the animals yielded typical lesions that were consistent with those described for MCF in domestic cattle. Developments in the management of African buffaloes translocated from their traditional habitats have likely contributed to the identification of another susceptible host in the subfamily Bovinae. PMID:23957274

  18. Effects of trichostatin A on In vitro development and DNA methylation level of the satellite I region of swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) cloned embryos.

    PubMed

    Srirattana, Kanokwan; Ketudat-Cairns, Mariena; Nagai, Takashi; Kaneda, Masahiro; Parnpai, Rangsun

    2014-01-01

    Trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, has been widely used to improve the cloning efficiency in several species. This brings our attention to investigation of the effects of TSA on developmental potential of swamp buffalo cloned embryos. Swamp buffalo cloned embryos were produced by electrical pulse fusion of male swamp buffalo fibroblasts with swamp buffalo enucleated oocytes. After fusion, reconstructed oocytes were treated with 0, 25 or 50 nM TSA for 10 h. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the rates of fusion (82-85%), cleavage (79-84%) and development to the 8-cell stage (59-65%) among treatment groups. The highest developmental rates to the morula and blastocyst stages of embryos were found in the 25 nM TSA-treated group (42.7 and 30.1%, respectively). We also analyzed the DNA methylation level in the satellite I region of donor cells and in in vitro fertilized (IVF) and cloned embryos using the bisulfite DNA sequencing method. The results indicated that the DNA methylation levels in cloned embryos were significantly higher than those of IVF embryos but approximately similar to those of donor cells. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the methylation level among TSA-treated and untreated cloned embryos. Thus, TSA treatments at 25 nM for 10 h could enhance the in vitro developmental potential of swamp buffalo cloned embryos, but no beneficial effect on the DNA methylation level was observed. PMID:24909601

  19. Impact of buserelin acetate or hCG administration on day 12 post-ovulation on subsequent luteal profile and conception rate in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Pandey, A K; Ghuman, S P S; Dhaliwal, G S; Kumar, Ajeet; Agarwal, S K

    2013-01-30

    The present study investigated the impact of gonadotropic hormone administration on day 12 post-ovulation on subsequent luteal profile and conception rate in buffaloes. All the buffaloes (n=48) were estrus synchronized by a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin F(2?) (PGF(2?)), administered 11 days apart, followed by insemination during mid to late estrus. To examine the effect of mid-luteal phase hormonal treatment, buffaloes were randomly divided into control (normal saline, n=14), d12-BA (buserelin acetate, 20?g, n=17) and d12-hCG (hCG, 3000IU, n=17) groups. Ovaries were scanned on the day of induced estrus to measure the preovulatory follicle (POF) diameter and on days 5, 12, 16 and 21 post-ovulation to examine the alterations in corpus luteum (CL) diameter. On the day of each sonography, blood samples were collected for the estimation of plasma progesterone. In treatment groups, luteal profile (CL diameter and plasma progesterone) on day 16-21 post-ovulation was better (P<0.05) as well as first service conception rate was higher (52.9% in each treatment group vs. 28.6%, P>0.05) compared to controls. All the pregnant buffaloes exhibited higher (P<0.05) plasma progesterone on various post-ovulation days than their respective non-pregnant counterparts. Treatment-induced accessory corpus luteum (ACL) formation was observed in 58.8 per cent and 70.6 per cent buffaloes of d12-BA and d12-hCG group, respectively, that also had higher (P<0.05) plasma progesterone compared to controls. Compared to the spontaneous CL, the diameter of ACL was less (P<0.05) in the treatment groups. In conclusion, buserelin acetate and hCG administration on day 12 post-ovulation leads to accessory CL formation, improves luteal profile and consequently increases conception rate in buffaloes. PMID:23201300

  20. Dietary Inorganic Chromium in Summer-Exposed Buffalo Calves (Bubalus bubalis): Effects on Biomarkers of Heat Stress, Immune Status, and Endocrine Variables.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Muneendra; Kaur, Harjit; Deka, Rijusmita Sarma; Mani, Veena; Tyagi, Amrish Kumar; Chandra, Gulab

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of inorganic chromium (Cr) on heat stress, immune response, and hormonal variation in Murrah buffalo calves during the summer season. Twenty-four growing Murrah buffalo calves were randomly allocated into four treatments for a period of 120 days. Feeding regimen was same in all the groups, except the buffalo calves in treatment groups were additionally supplemented with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg of inorganic Cr/kg dry matter. Buffalo calves were monitored daily for physiological variables and dry matter intake (DMI) and fortnightly for body weight change. Blood samples were collected at day 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, and 120 and analyzed for heat shock protein 70 (Hsp 70), lymphocyte proliferation, neutrophil phagocytic activity, immunoglobulin, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, insulin, cortisol and thyroid hormones, and Cr levels. Dietary Cr supplementation did not have any effect on DMI, growth performance, and physiological variables. However, lymphocyte proliferation, neutrophil phagocytic activity, plasma immunoglobulin, FRAP value, and plasma Cr concentration increased significantly (P?buffalo calves did not show any effect on plasma levels of thyroid hormone, while concentration of insulin, cortisol, and Hsp 70 decreased (P?buffalo calves reared under high ambient temperature improved heat tolerance, immune status without affecting nutrient intake, and growth performance. PMID:25762098

  1. Reproductive cycles of buffalo.

    PubMed

    Perera, B M A O

    2011-04-01

    The domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) has an important role in the agricultural economy of many developing countries in Asia, providing milk, meat and draught power. It is also used in some Mediterranean and Latin American countries as a source of milk and meat for specialized markets. Although the buffalo can adapt to harsh environments and live on poor quality forage, reproductive efficiency is often compromised by such conditions, resulting in late sexual maturity, long postpartum anoestrus, poor expression of oestrus, poor conception rates and long calving intervals. The age at puberty is influenced by genotype, nutrition, management and climate, and under favourable conditions occurs at 15-18 months in river buffalo and 21-24 months in swamp buffalo. The ovaries are smaller than in cattle and contain fewer primordial follicles. Buffalo are capable of breeding throughout the year, but in many countries a seasonal pattern of ovarian activity occurs. This is attributed in tropical regions to changes in rainfall resulting in feed availability or to temperature stress resulting in elevated prolactin secretion, and in temperate regions to changes in photoperiod and melatonin secretion. The mean length of the oestrous cycle is 21 days, with greater variation than observed in cattle. The signs of oestrus in buffalo are less overt than in cattle and homosexual behaviour between females is rare. The duration of oestrus is 5-27 h, with ovulation occurring 24-48 h (mean 34 h) after the onset of oestrus. The hormonal changes occurring in peripheral circulation are similar to those observed in cattle, but the peak concentrations of progesterone and oestradiol-17? are less. The number of follicular waves during an oestrous cycle varies from one to three and influences the length of the luteal phase as well as the inter-ovulatory interval. Under optimal conditions, dairy types managed with limited or no suckling resume oestrus cyclicity by 30-60 days after calving, while swamp types with free suckling do so at 60-90 days. However, in many farming systems prolonged postpartum anoestrus is a major problem, and the causes include poor nutrition and body condition, and stress due to harsh climates and improper management. Synchronization of time or induction of oestrus can be done using the same regimens as applied in cattle, using various combinations of prostaglandins, progesterone releasing devices, GnRH and eCG, but success rate is poor when treatment is done during the periods of marginal breeding activity or seasonal anoestrus. PMID:20869822

  2. Genetic diversity in Trypanosoma theileri from Sri Lankan cattle and water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Naoaki; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Fukushi, Shintaro; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Tuvshintulga, Bumduuren; Kothalawala, Hemal; Silva, Seekkuge Susil Priyantha; Igarashi, Ikuo; Inoue, Noboru

    2015-01-30

    Trypanosoma theileri is a hemoprotozoan parasite that infects various ruminant species. We investigated the epidemiology of this parasite among cattle and water buffalo populations bred in Sri Lanka, using a diagnostic PCR assay based on the cathepsin L-like protein (CATL) gene. Blood DNA samples sourced from cattle (n=316) and water buffaloes (n=320) bred in different geographical areas of Sri Lanka were PCR screened for T. theileri. Parasite DNA was detected in cattle and water buffaloes alike in all the sampling locations. The overall T. theileri-positive rate was higher in water buffaloes (15.9%) than in cattle (7.6%). Subsequently, PCR amplicons were sequenced and the partial CATL sequences were phylogenetically analyzed. The identity values for the CATL gene were 89.6-99.7% among the cattle-derived sequences, compared with values of 90.7-100% for the buffalo-derived sequences. However, the cattle-derived sequences shared 88.2-100% identity values with those from buffaloes. In the phylogenetic tree, the Sri Lankan CATL gene sequences fell into two major clades (TthI and TthII), both of which contain CATL sequences from several other countries. Although most of the CATL sequences from Sri Lankan cattle and buffaloes clustered independently, two buffalo-derived sequences were observed to be closely related to those of the Sri Lankan cattle. Furthermore, a Sri Lankan buffalo sequence clustered with CATL gene sequences from Brazilian buffalo and Thai cattle. In addition to reporting the first PCR-based survey of T. theileri among Sri Lankan-bred cattle and water buffaloes, the present study found that some of the CATL gene fragments sourced from water buffaloes shared similarity with those determined from cattle in this country. PMID:25554063

  3. Impact of buserelin acetate or hCG administration on day 5 post-ovulation on subsequent luteal profile and conception rate in Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Pandey, A K; Dhaliwal, G S; Ghuman, S P S; Agarwal, S K

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed to establish the impact of buserelin acetate or hCG administration on day 5 post-ovulation on subsequent luteal profile and conception rate in buffalo. The buffalo (n=45) were subjected to an estrous synchronization protocol (synthetic analog of PGF2? administered, through intramuscular route, 11 days apart), followed by artificial insemination (AI) during mid to late estrus. On day 5 post-ovulation, buffalo were administered (i.m.) normal saline (Control, n=14), buserelin acetate (20?g, d5-BA, n=14) or human chorionic gonadotropin (3000IU, d5-hCG, n=17). Ovarian ultrasonography was conducted on the day of induced estrus and on days 0, 5, 12, 16 and 21 post-ovulation to assess preovulatory follicle or corpus luteum (CL) diameter. Also, on these days, jugular vein blood sampling was conducted for the estimation of plasma progesterone. First service conception rate was greater (?(2)=5.18, P>0.05) in d5-BA and d5-hCG groups (71.4% and 47.1%, respectively) as compared to control (28.6%). Both treatment groups had a greater (P<0.05) CL diameter and plasma progesterone during the post-treatment period in comparison to that control treatment group. Treatment-induced accessory CL formation was observed in 92.9% and 76.5% buffalo of d5-BA and d5-hCG groups, respectively. In conclusion, buserelin acetate and hCG administration on day 5 post-ovulation leads to accessory CL formation that may have a role in enhancing conception rate. PMID:26471839

  4. Analysis of genetic variations across regulatory and coding regions of kappa-casein gene of Indian native cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Kishore, Amit; Mukesh, M; Sobti, R C; Kataria, R S; Mishra, B P; Sodhi, Monika

    2014-12-01

    The promoter region of kappa-casein (?-CN) gene in Indian native cattle and buffalo breeds was sequenced and analyzed for nucleotide variations. Sequence comparison across breeds of Indian cattle revealed a total of 7 variations in the promoter region, of which - 515 G/T, - 427 C/T, - 385 C/T, - 283 A/G and - 251 C/T were located within consensus binding sites for octamer-binding protein (OCT1)/pregnancy specific mammary nuclear factor (PMF), activator protein-2 (AP2), hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF-1) and GAL4 transcription factors (TFs), respectively. These variations might be involved in gain or loss of potential transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). Unlike the other 4 variants, the - 283 (A/G) variant located within HNF-1 TFBS was specific to Indian cattle as this change has not been observed in the Bos taurus sequence. Other TFBSs viz., MGF, TBP, NF-1, milk box and C/EBP were conserved across species. For the Indian native buffalo breeds, only 3 changes were identified in the promoter region; - 305 (A/C), - 160 (T/C) and - 141 (A/G) and most of the TFBSs were found to be conserved. However, deletion of two adjacent nucleotides located in and around binding site for C/EBP TF was identified in buffalo when compared with promoter sequence of bovine ?-CN. For ?-CN of Indian native cattle, a strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed for variations 515 G/T, - 427 C/T and - 385 C/T in the promoter region; and for variations at codons 136 and 148 of exon-IV. Further, among intragenic haplotypes, variation - 427 C/T was found to be in LD with variations at codons 136 and 148. The information generated in the present work provides comprehensive characterization of ?-CN gene promoter and coding regions in Indian cattle and buffaloes and reported variations could become important candidates for carrying out further research in dairy traits. PMID:25606460

  5. Analysis of genetic variations across regulatory and coding regions of kappa-casein gene of Indian native cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Amit; Mukesh, M.; Sobti, R.C.; Kataria, R.S.; Mishra, B.P.; Sodhi, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The promoter region of kappa-casein (?-CN) gene in Indian native cattle and buffalo breeds was sequenced and analyzed for nucleotide variations. Sequence comparison across breeds of Indian cattle revealed a total of 7 variations in the promoter region, of which ? 515 G/T, ? 427 C/T, ? 385 C/T, ? 283 A/G and ? 251 C/T were located within consensus binding sites for octamer-binding protein (OCT1)/pregnancy specific mammary nuclear factor (PMF), activator protein-2 (AP2), hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF-1) and GAL4 transcription factors (TFs), respectively. These variations might be involved in gain or loss of potential transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). Unlike the other 4 variants, the ? 283 (A/G) variant located within HNF-1 TFBS was specific to Indian cattle as this change has not been observed in the Bos taurus sequence. Other TFBSs viz., MGF, TBP, NF-1, milk box and C/EBP were conserved across species. For the Indian native buffalo breeds, only 3 changes were identified in the promoter region; ? 305 (A/C), ? 160 (T/C) and ? 141 (A/G) and most of the TFBSs were found to be conserved. However, deletion of two adjacent nucleotides located in and around binding site for C/EBP TF was identified in buffalo when compared with promoter sequence of bovine ?-CN. For ?-CN of Indian native cattle, a strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed for variations 515 G/T, ? 427 C/T and ? 385 C/T in the promoter region; and for variations at codons 136 and 148 of exon-IV. Further, among intragenic haplotypes, variation ? 427 C/T was found to be in LD with variations at codons 136 and 148. The information generated in the present work provides comprehensive characterization of ?-CN gene promoter and coding regions in Indian cattle and buffaloes and reported variations could become important candidates for carrying out further research in dairy traits. PMID:25606460

  6. Comparison of the tuberculin test, histopathological examination, and bacterial culture for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Albernaz, Tatiane Teles; Oliveira, Carlos Magno Chaves; Lima, Danillo Henrique da Silva; da Silva e Silva, Natália; Cardoso, Douglas Pinheiro; Lopes, Cinthia Távora Albuquerque; Brito, Marilene de Farias; da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2015-08-01

    Tuberculosis is a disease with a great zoonotic potential. It is considered a major obstacle to cattle production and is responsible for severe losses in several production systems. A comparative cervical test (CCT) was performed in 1140 buffaloes from different mesoregions of the state of Pará, Brazil, with the aim of comparing the sensitivity and specificity of CCT with histopathological examination and bacterial culture. Of the animals tested using CCT, 4.65% (53/1140) were positive, 2.98% (34/1140) were inconclusive, and 92.36% (1053/1140) were negative. Among the 168 sacrificed animals, 33 were positive, 18 were inconclusive, and 117 were negative by CCT, and samples from the sacrificed animals were collected for histopathological examination and bacterial culture. A qualitative evaluation of the tuberculin test was performed by comparing the test results with the histopathological and bacteriological results. The latter two tests yielded a prevalence of 4.16%, a sensitivity of 71.43%, and a specificity of 82.61%. Based on these results, we concluded that CCT yielded satisfactory results and can be applied in diagnostic studies in buffaloes. The prevalence rate obtained using three distinct diagnostic methods suggests that Mycobacterium bovis was present in a few animals in the population evaluated. PMID:25958174

  7. Molecular characterization and expression of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) DEAD-box family VASA gene and mRNA transcript variants isolated from testis tissue.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Ramakant; Singh, Karn Pratap; Bahuguna, Vivek; Rameshbabu, K; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Manik, Radhey Shyam; Palta, Prabhat; Singla, Suresh Kumar; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh

    2015-11-01

    VASA is a member of the DEAD-box protein family that plays an indispensable role in mammalian spermatogenesis, particularly during meiosis. In the present study, we isolated, sequenced, and characterized VASA gene in buffalo testis. Here, we demonstrated that VASA mRNA is expressed as multiple isoforms and uses four alternative transcriptional start sites (TSSs) and four different polyadenylation sites. The TSSs identified by 5'-RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM-5'-RACE) were positioned at 48, 53, 85, and 88 nucleotides upstream relative to the translation initiation codon. 3'-RACE experiment revealed the presence of tandem polyadenylation signals, which lead to the expression of at least four different 3'-untranslated regions (209, 233, 239 and 605 nucleotides). The full-length coding region of VASA was 2190 bp, which encodes a 729 amino acid (aa) protein containing nine consensus regions of the DEAD box protein family. VASA variants are highly expressed in testis of adult buffalo. We found five variants, one full length VASA (729 aa) and four splice variants VASA 2, 4, 5, 6 (683, 685, 679, 703 aa). The expression level of VASA 1 was significantly higher than rest of all (P < 0.05) except VASA 6. The relative ratio for VASA 1:2:4:5:6 was 100:1.0:1.6:0.9:48. PMID:26127001

  8. Buffalo Grass as a Means of Water Use Reduction on the UC Davis Campus Call, Siew, Wada, Ware ESM 121 Water Science and Management

    E-print Network

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    Buffalo Grass as a Means of Water Use Reduction on the UC Davis Campus Call, Siew, Wada, Ware ESM 121 Water Science and Management Buffalo Grass as a Means of Water Use Reduction on the UC Davis if the replacement of turf grass with UC Verde Buffalo Grass could substantially reduce the water use

  9. Amnion Epithelial Cells of Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) Term Placenta Expressed Embryonic Stem Cells Markers and Differentiated into Cells of Neurogenic Lineage In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, K; Selokar, N L; Gahlawat, S K; Kumar, Dharmendra; Kumar, Pawan; Yadav, P S

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the present study was the isolation, culture, and characterization of amniotic membrane-derived epithelial cells (AE) from term placenta collected postpartum in buffalo. We found that cultured cells were of polygonal in shape, resistance to trypsin digestion and expressed cytokeratin-18 indicating that they were of epithelial origin. These cells have negative expression of mesenchymal stem cell markers (CD29, CD44, and CD105) and positive for pluripotency marker (OCT4) genes indicated that cultured cells were not contaminated with mesenchymal stem cells. Immunofluorescence staining with pluripotent stem cell surface markers, SSEA-1, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81 indicated that these cells may retain pluripotent stem cell characteristics even after long period of differentiation. Differentiation potential of these cells was determined by their potential to differentiate into cells of neurogenic lineages using retinoic acid. In conclusion, we demonstrate that AE cells expressed pluripotent stem cell markers and have propensity to differentiate into cells of neurogenic lineage upon directed differentiation in vitro. PMID:26670951

  10. Handmade Cloned Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryos Produced from Somatic Cells Isolated from Milk and Ear Skin Differ in Their Developmental Competence, Epigenetic Status, and Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Jyotsana, Basanti; Sahare, Amol A; Raja, Anuj K; Singh, Karn P; Singla, Suresh K; Chauhan, Manmohan S; Manik, Radhey S; Palta, Prabhat

    2015-10-01

    We compared the cloning efficiency of buffalo embryos produced by handmade cloning (HMC) using ear skin- and milk-derived donor cells. The blastocyst rate was lower (p??milk-derived blastocysts and that of NANOG was (p? milk-derived?>?skin-derived blastocysts. The expression level of all these genes, except NANOG, was lower (p?

  11. Genetic characterization of Babesia and Theileria parasites in water buffaloes in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Fukushi, Shintaro; Hayashida, Kyoko; Kothalawala, Hemal; Silva, Seekkuge Susil Priyantha; Vimalakumar, Singarayar Caniciyas; Kanagaratnam, Ratnam; Meewewa, Asela Sanjeewa; Suthaharan, Kalpana; Puvirajan, Thamotharampillai; de Silva, Weligodage Kumarawansa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2014-02-24

    Water buffaloes are thought to be the reservoir hosts for several hemoprotozoan parasites that infect cattle. In the present study, we surveyed Sri Lankan bred water buffaloes for infections with Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis using parasite-specific PCR assays. When 320 blood-derived DNA samples from water buffaloes reared in three different districts (Polonnaruwa, Mannar, and Mullaitivu) of Sri Lanka were PCR screened, B. bovis, B. bigemina, and T. orientalis were detected. While T. orientalis was the predominant parasite (82.5%), low PCR-positive rates were observed for B. bovis (1.9%) and B. bigemina (1.6%). Amplicons of the gene sequences of the Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 (RAP-1) of B. bovis, the Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA-1) of B. bigemina, and the Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) of T. orientalis were compared with those characterized previously in Sri Lankan cattle. While the B. bigemina AMA-1 sequences from water buffaloes shared high identity values with those from cattle, B. bovis RAP-1 sequences from water buffaloes diverged genetically from those of cattle. For T. orientalis, none of the MPSP sequence types reported previously in Sri Lankan cattle (types 1, 3, 5, and 7) were detected in the water buffaloes, and the MPSP sequences analyzed in the present study belonged to types N1 or N2. In summary, in addition to reporting the first PCR-based survey of Babesia and Theileria parasites in water buffaloes in Sri Lanka, the present study found that the predominant variants of water buffalo-derived B. bovis RAP-1 and T. orientalis MPSP sequences were different from those previously described from cattle in this country. PMID:24365246

  12. Separation and quantification of water buffalo milk protein fractions and genetic variants by RP-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, Valentina; Giantin, Mery; Rostellato, Roberta; Dacasto, Mauro; Carnier, Paolo

    2013-01-15

    A RP-HPLC method, developed for the separation and quantification of the most common genetic variants of bovine milk proteins, was successfully applied to the analysis of water buffalo milk. All the most common buffalo casein and whey proteins fractions, as well as their genetic variants, were detected and separated simultaneously in 40 min. Purified buffalo proteins were used as calibration standards and a total of 536 individual milk samples were analysed for protein composition. ?(S1)-, ?(S2)-, ??-, and ?-casein were 32.2%, 15.8%, 36.5%, and 15.5%, respectively, of total casein content, whereas content of ?-Lactoglobulin was approximately 1.3 times as high as that of ?-Lactalbumin. The existence of a polymorphism of ?-casein was demonstrated in Mediterranean water buffalo and ?(S1)- and ?-casein genetic variants were successfully detected by RP-HPLC. PMID:23122071

  13. Molecular prevalence of different genotypes of Theileria orientalis detected from cattle and water buffaloes in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Altangerel, Khukhuu; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Inpankaew, Tawin; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Ueno, Akio; Xuan, Xuenan; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2011-12-01

    Here we report on an epidemiological study regarding the molecular prevalence of different genotypes of Theileria orientalis present among domestic cattle and water buffalo populations bred in Thailand. A phylogenetic analysis based on the parasitic gene encoding a major piroplasm surface protein revealed the presence of 5 genotypes (Types 1, 3, 5, 7, and N-3) in cattle and 7 genotypes (Types 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, N-2, and N-3) in water buffaloes. Types 4, 7, and N-3 of T. orientalis were reported for the first time in water buffaloes. The previously reported C and Thai types from Thailand clustered as types 7 and 6, respectively, in the present analysis. Great similarities were observed among nucleotide sequences of isolates of the same genotype from cattle and water buffaloes, and, therefore, water buffaloes were considered to serve as a reservoir for these genotypes of T. orientalis in Thailand. In conclusion, T. orientalis parasites circulating in Thailand are more diverse in their genetic characters than previously anticipated. PMID:21671722

  14. Toll-like receptor responses to Peste des petits ruminants virus in goats and water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Dhanasekaran, Sakthivel; Biswas, Moanaro; Vignesh, Ambothi R; Ramya, R; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar; Tirumurugaan, Krishnaswamy G; Raja, Angamuthu; Kataria, Ranjit S; Parida, Satya; Elankumaran, Subbiah; Subbiah, Elankumaran

    2014-01-01

    Ovine rinderpest or goat plague is an economically important and contagious viral disease of sheep and goats, caused by the Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Differences in susceptibility to goat plague among different breeds and water buffalo exist. The host innate immune system discriminates between pathogen associated molecular patterns and self antigens through surveillance receptors known as Toll like receptors (TLR). We investigated the role of TLR and cytokines in differential susceptibility of goat breeds and water buffalo to PPRV. We examined the replication of PPRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of Indian domestic goats and water buffalo and demonstrated that the levels of TLR3 and TLR7 and downstream signalling molecules correlation with susceptibility vs resistance. Naturally susceptible goat breeds, Barbari and Tellichery, had dampened innate immune responses to PPRV and increased viral loads with lower basal expression levels of TLR 3/7. Upon stimulation of PBMC with synthetic TLR3 and TLR7 agonists or PPRV, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were found to be significantly higher while immunosuppressive interleukin (IL) 10 levels were lower in PPRV resistant Kanni and Salem Black breeds and water buffalo at transcriptional level, correlating with reduced viralloads in infected PBMC. Water buffalo produced higher levels of interferon (IFN) ? in comparison with goats at transcriptional and translational levels. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with human IFN? resulted in reduction of PPRV replication, confirming the role of IFN? in limiting PPRV replication. Treatment with IRS66, a TLR7 antagonist, resulted in the reduction of IFN? levels, with increased PPRV replication confirming the role of TLR7. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of TLR7 of these goat breeds did not show any marked nucleotide differences that might account for susceptibility vs resistance to PPRV. Analyzing other host genetic factors might provide further insights on susceptibility to PPRV and genetic polymorphisms in the host. PMID:25369126

  15. Toll-Like Receptor Responses to Peste des petits ruminants Virus in Goats and Water Buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Dhanasekaran, Sakthivel; Biswas, Moanaro; Vignesh, Ambothi R.; Ramya, R.; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar; Tirumurugaan, Krishnaswamy G.; Raja, Angamuthu; Kataria, Ranjit S.; Parida, Satya; Subbiah, Elankumaran

    2014-01-01

    Ovine rinderpest or goat plague is an economically important and contagious viral disease of sheep and goats, caused by the Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Differences in susceptibility to goat plague among different breeds and water buffalo exist. The host innate immune system discriminates between pathogen associated molecular patterns and self antigens through surveillance receptors known as Toll like receptors (TLR). We investigated the role of TLR and cytokines in differential susceptibility of goat breeds and water buffalo to PPRV. We examined the replication of PPRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of Indian domestic goats and water buffalo and demonstrated that the levels of TLR3 and TLR7 and downstream signalling molecules correlation with susceptibility vs resistance. Naturally susceptible goat breeds, Barbari and Tellichery, had dampened innate immune responses to PPRV and increased viral loads with lower basal expression levels of TLR 3/7. Upon stimulation of PBMC with synthetic TLR3 and TLR7 agonists or PPRV, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were found to be significantly higher while immunosuppressive interleukin (IL) 10 levels were lower in PPRV resistant Kanni and Salem Black breeds and water buffalo at transcriptional level, correlating with reduced viralloads in infected PBMC. Water buffalo produced higher levels of interferon (IFN) ? in comparison with goats at transcriptional and translational levels. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with human IFN? resulted in reduction of PPRV replication, confirming the role of IFN? in limiting PPRV replication. Treatment with IRS66, a TLR7 antagonist, resulted in the reduction of IFN? levels, with increased PPRV replication confirming the role of TLR7. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of TLR7 of these goat breeds did not show any marked nucleotide differences that might account for susceptibility vs resistance to PPRV. Analyzing other host genetic factors might provide further insights on susceptibility to PPRV and genetic polymorphisms in the host. PMID:25369126

  16. Molecular update on cystic echinococcosis in cattle and water buffaloes of southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, L; Maurelli, M P; Capuano, F; Perugini, A G; Veneziano, V; Cringoli, S

    2008-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE)--caused by the larval stage (hydatid cyst) of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus--is one of the most widespread zoonoses of veterinary and medical importance. Molecular techniques have allowed the identification of 10 different genotypes (G1-G10) of the parasite. The present paper is an update regarding the E. granulosus genotypes infecting water buffaloes and cattle bred in the Campania region of southern Italy. The molecular study was performed on 30 hydatid cysts (11 from water buffaloes and 19 from cattle). Two different mitochondrial DNA genes, namely the cytochrome c oxidase subunits 1 and the 12S ribosomal DNA (12S rDNA) were used as genetic markers. Three different genotypes of E. granulosus were unequivocally identified, i.e. the G1 (common sheep), G2 (Tasmanian sheep) and G3 (buffalo) genotypes, as well as some G1 and G2 variants. It should be noted that the present study demonstrated for the first time: (i) the presence of the G2 genotype in water buffaloes from a Mediterranean area; and (ii) the fact that the analysed portion of the 12S rDNA gene can not discriminate between the G2 and G3 genotypes of E. granulosus. The finding of the G1, G2 and G3 genotypes in large ruminants from southern Italy is of epidemiological relevance and immediate public health importance because of their recognized infectivity in humans. PMID:18234031

  17. Concentration of Fluoride in Cow’s and Buffalo’s Milk in Relation to Varying Levels of Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water of Mathura City in India– A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nidhi; Meena, Komal; Moon, Ninad Joshirao; Kumar, Puneet; Kaur, Ravneet

    2015-01-01

    Aim To estimate fluoride concentration in drinking water, cow’s milk and buffalo’s milk and to correlate the concentration of fluoride in cow’s milk and buffalo’s milk with varying levels of fluoride concentration in drinking water. Materials and Methods Ten households having both cows and buffalo's were selected by convenience in each of the 3 zones (below optimum fluoride <0.7 ppm (parts per million), optimum fluoride 0.7-1.2 ppm and above optimum fluoride areas > 1.2 ppm). From these selected households, 200 ml of fresh milk of both cows and buffaloes was collected along with 200 ml of drinking water for estimation of fluoride concentration by using a fluoride ion selective electrode method. The data was analysed using SPSS, version 11.5 for windows. Results The mean fluoride concentration of drinking water, cow’s milk and buffalo’s milk in three different fluoride zones was 0.89±0.39, 0.09±0.07, 0.09±0.08 respectively. Pearson’s correlation found a statistically significant correlation between fluoride concentrations in cow’s and buffalo’s milk with varying levels of fluoride concentration in drinking water in zone B and zone C. However, this correlation was not statistically significant in zone A. Conclusion With an increase in fluoride concentration in drinking water there was an increase in concentration of fluoride in cow’s and buffalo’s milk. We conclude that this association is seen in conjunction to not only a single factor but rather due to culmination of several other aspects. So, there is a need to elucidate the other factors that might be contributing to this increase and dental fluorosis. PMID:26155499

  18. [Analysis and identification of water soluble components of water buffalo horn].

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Duan, Jin-ao; Wu, Hao; Liu, Pei; Shang, Er-xin; Qian, Da-wei

    2015-05-01

    This study is to analyze and identify the water soluble components of water buffalo horn (Bubali Cornu, WBH), and also establish a method for investigating these components. Shotgun proteomic analysis identified proteins in WBH aqueous extraction: keratin, collagen, desmoglein, etc. Ultrafiltration and LC-MS/MS were used to separate and identify the peptides in WBH aqueous extract, as a result, identified peptides were mainly derived from nonspecific degradation products of keratin and collagen, which including C-terminal peptides and non C-terminal peptides. Hypoxanthine, uridine, guanosine, and adenosine were identified by comparing with the standards. The strategy in present study could be used in analyzing water soluble components of animal horn derived TCM. It provides a reference for investigation of the material basis of animal horn derived TCM. PMID:26234143

  19. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Smallmouth Buffalo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Twomey, Katie

    1982-01-01

    This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the Smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability (HIS) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.

  20. Water buffalo genome characterization by the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip.

    PubMed

    Borquis, R R A; Baldi, F; de Camargo, G M F; Cardoso, D F; Santos, D J A; Lugo, N H; Sargolzaei, M; Schenkel, F S; Albuquerque, L G; Tonhati, H

    2014-01-01

    To define the best strategies for genomic association studies and genomic selection, it is necessary to determine the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and the genetic structure of the study population. The current study evaluated the transference of genomic information contained in the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip from cattle to buffaloes, and assessed the extent of the LD in buffaloes. Of the 688,593 bovine single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that were successfully genotyped from the 384 buffalo samples, only 16,580 markers were polymorphic, and had minor allele frequencies greater than 0.05. A total of 16,580 polymorphic SNPs were identified, which were uniformly distributed throughout the autosomes, because the density and mean distance between markers were similar for all autosomes. The average minor allele frequency for the 16,580 SNPs was 0.23. The overall mean LD for pairs of adjacent markers was 0.29 and 0.71, when measured as for r2 and |D'|, respectively. The 16,580 polymorphic SNPs were matched to Bos taurus chromosome in the current bovine genome assembly (Btau 4.2), and could be utilized in association studies. In conclusion, the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip contains approximately 16,580 polymorphic markers for the water buffalo, which are broadly distributed across the genome. These data could be used in genomic association and genomic selection studies; however, it might be necessary to develop a panel with specific SNP markers for water buffaloes. PMID:25036164

  1. Genetic variations in merozoite surface antigen genes of Babesia bovis detected in Vietnamese cattle and water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Naoaki; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Tuvshintulga, Bumduuren; Hayashida, Kyoko; Igarashi, Ikuo; Inoue, Noboru; Long, Phung Thang; Lan, Dinh Thi Bich

    2015-03-01

    The genes that encode merozoite surface antigens (MSAs) in Babesia bovis are genetically diverse. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity of B. bovis MSA-1, MSA-2b, and MSA-2c genes in Vietnamese cattle and water buffaloes. Blood DNA samples from 258 cattle and 49 water buffaloes reared in the Thua Thien Hue province of Vietnam were screened with a B. bovis-specific diagnostic PCR assay. The B. bovis-positive DNA samples (23 cattle and 16 water buffaloes) were then subjected to PCR assays to amplify the MSA-1, MSA-2b, and MSA-2c genes. Sequencing analyses showed that the Vietnamese MSA-1 and MSA-2b sequences are genetically diverse, whereas MSA-2c is relatively conserved. The nucleotide identity values for these MSA gene sequences were similar in the cattle and water buffaloes. Consistent with the sequencing data, the Vietnamese MSA-1 and MSA-2b sequences were dispersed across several clades in the corresponding phylogenetic trees, whereas the MSA-2c sequences occurred in a single clade. Cattle- and water-buffalo-derived sequences also often clustered together on the phylogenetic trees. The Vietnamese MSA-1, MSA-2b, and MSA-2c sequences were then screened for recombination with automated methods. Of the seven recombination events detected, five and two were associated with the MSA-2b and MSA-2c recombinant sequences, respectively, whereas no MSA-1 recombinants were detected among the sequences analyzed. Recombination between the sequences derived from cattle and water buffaloes was very common, and the resultant recombinant sequences were found in both host animals. These data indicate that the genetic diversity of the MSA sequences does not differ between cattle and water buffaloes in Vietnam. They also suggest that recombination between the B. bovis MSA sequences in both cattle and water buffaloes might contribute to the genetic variation in these genes in Vietnam. PMID:25575442

  2. Underway view from port side in the Buffalo River with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Underway view from port side in the Buffalo River with water cannons spraying. City of Buffalo in background. TC - Fireboat EDWARD M. COTTER, Moored on the Buffalo River at 155 Ohio Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  3. The utility of polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of lumpy skin disease in cattle and water buffaloes in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Sharawi, S S A; Abd El-Rahim, I H A

    2011-12-01

    An outbreak of lumpy skin disease (LSD) occurred among cattle and water buffaloes in Egypt in 2006. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) were compared. Eight of ten (80%) tissue specimens from diseased cattle were positive with AGPT while 100% were positive with PCR. Of ten tissue specimens from diseased water buffaloes, 70% were positive with AGPT while 100% were positive with PCR. Ten milk samples were obtained from diseased water buffaloes; PCR detected nucleic acid of LSD virus (LSDV) in 50% while AGPT failed to detect LSDV antigen. Water buffaloes are susceptible to LSDV infection. The clinical signs of LSD were less severe in water buffaloes, but the virus was excreted in their milk. Diagnosis of LSD outbreaks by PCR will facilitate rapid application of control measures. Mass vaccination should be applied in both cattle and water buffaloes in Egypt using an effective specific vaccine against LSD, such as the attenuated Neethling strain vaccine or a recombinant vaccine. PMID:22435194

  4. Morphologic and Genotypic Characterization of Psoroptes Mites from Water Buffaloes in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Said; Abd El Wahab, Taher; El Naby Metwaly, Abd; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Species delimitation of Psoroptes spp. and identity of the parasite in water buffaloes remain poorly defined. In this study, Psoroptes infestation on three water buffalo farms in Egypt was examined based on morphometric characteristics, especially the opisthosomal setae of adult male mites. Clinical investigations showed that 28% (196/700) of the sampled animals had mange infestation. Microscopic examinations of 80 skin scrapings indicated the occurrence of Psoroptes mites in 17 (21.3%) samples, Sarcoptes mites in 27 (33.7%) samples, and the concurrence of both in 36 (45.0%) samples. Morphologically, the Psoroptes parasite was identified as Psoroptes natalensis. DNA sequence analysis of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) in 11 representative samples confirmed the diagnosis and suggested the presence of a distinct variety of Psoroptes natalensis in Egypt. PMID:26517834

  5. 77 FR 39408 - Safety Zone; Buffalo July 4th Fireworks, Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ...This zone will encompass all waters of Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY within a 1680 foot radius...4th Fireworks, Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY. (a) Location. This zone will encompass all waters of Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY within a 1680 foot...

  6. Schistosoma japonicum: An ultraviolet-attenuated cercarial vaccine applicable in the field for water buffaloes

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Y.E.; Jiang, C.F.; Han, J.J.; Li, Y.L.; Ruppel, A. )

    1990-07-01

    Water buffaloes were vaccinated three times with 10,000 Schistosoma japonicum cercariae irradiated with ultraviolet (uv) light at a dose of 400 microW x min/cm2. The irradiation was performed with cheap, simple, and portable equipment in a rural area of Hubei Province (People's Republic of China). A challenge infection of 1000 untreated cercariae was given to six vaccinated and six naive control buffaloes, while two vaccinated animals were not challenged. The experiment was terminated 6 weeks after the challenge. Control animals had lost body weight and harbored a mean of 110 worms and 37 eggs per gram of liver. The vaccinated animals gained weight after the challenge and developed 89% resistance to infection with S. japonicum. Since schistosomiasis japonica is nowadays transmitted in China predominantly by domestic livestock, a uv-attenuated cercarial vaccine for bovines may contribute to the control of this disease.

  7. Molecular characterization of T-cell immunoglobulin mucin domain-3 and Galectin-9 genes of swamp- and riverine-type water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Duran, P L H; Padiernos, R B C; Abella, E A; Konnai, S; Mingala, C N

    2015-12-01

    Molecular characterization of T-cell immunoglobulin mucin domain-3 (TIM-3) and Galectin-9 (GAL-9) genes of swamp- and riverine-type water buffaloes was conducted to compare these genes with other species; determine the unique characteristic specific in water buffalo; and provide baseline information for the assessment of disease progression in buffalo species. TIM-3 and GAL-9 genes were amplified, purified, sequenced and characterized. The sequence result of TIM-3 in both types of water buffaloes contained 843 nucleotides encoding to 280 amino acids while GAL-9 of swamp-type and riverine-type water buffaloes contained 1023 and 972 nucleotides encoding to 340 and 323 amino acids, respectively. Meanwhile, the nucleotide and amino sequence of TIM-3 in water buffalo were 83-98% and 94-97% identical with other artiodactyl species, respectively. On the other hand, GAL-9 nucleotide and amino acid sequence in water buffalo were 85-98% and 76-96% identical with other artiodactyl species. The tyrosine-kinase phosphorylation motif and potential glycosylation sites were conserved within the tribe Bovinae. It is imperative to have further studies in the assessment of the role of these genes in disease progression in water buffalo during chronic infection. The study is the first report that describes the genetic characteristic of TIM-3 and GAL-9 genes in water buffalo. PMID:26441033

  8. Molecular and serological prevalence of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; André, Marcos Rogério; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; de Albuquerque Lopes, Cinthia Távora; da Silva Lima, Danillo Henrique; de Andrade, Stefano Juliano Tavares; Oliveira, Carlos Magno Chaves; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2013-11-01

    Bovine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused mainly by Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina, which are associated to considerable economic losses in cattle herds worldwide. Approximately 60% of buffalo herds in South America are located in Northern Brazil. Little is known about the impact of babesiosis on buffalo herds in Brazil. The present work aimed to verify the occurrence of B. bovis and B. bigemina in 542 water buffaloes in the state of Pará, Northern Brazil, using molecular and serological techniques. The percentage of seropositive animals for B. bovis and B. bigemina was 41.2% and 19.0%, respectively, by ELISA. B. bovis and B. bigemina DNA were detected in 15 and 16% of sampled buffaloes, respectively. A high correlation (Kappa index of 0.9) between serological and molecular tests suggests that the combination of the utilized techniques in the present study is suitable for babesiosis diagnosis in an endemic unstable area. Significantly difference of positivity for serological and molecular assays was verified to localities and reproductive status of sampled animals, but not between buffalo breeds. The immune status of sampled buffaloes associated to the circulation of babesiosis agents in sampled population suggests that the studied area is at risk to clinical babesiosis outbreaks. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that this region can be classified as endemically unstable. PMID:23790545

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging and computer tomography of brain lesions in water buffaloes and cattle stunned with handguns or captive bolts.

    PubMed

    Schwenk, Barbara K; Lechner, Isabel; Ross, Steffen G; Gascho, Dominic; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Glardon, Matthieu; Stoffel, Michael H

    2016-03-01

    Owing to the demand for genuine mozzarella, some 330 water buffaloes are being slaughtered every year in Switzerland albeit a stunning procedure meeting animal welfare and occupational safety requirements remains to be established. To provide a basis for improvements, we sized anatomical specifics in water buffaloes and cattle and we assessed brain lesions after stunning with captive bolts or handguns by diagnostic imaging. In water buffaloes and cattle, the median distance from the frontal skin surface to the inner bone table was 74.0mm (56.0-100.0mm) vs 36.6mm (29.3-44.3mm) and from skin to the thalamus 144.8mm (117.1-172.0mm) vs 102.0 (101.0-121.0mm), respectively. Consequently, customary captive bolt stunners may be inadequate. Free bullets are potentially suitable for stunning buffaloes but involve occupational safety hazards. The results of the present study shall be used to develop a device allowing effective and safe stunning of water buffaloes. PMID:26610289

  10. Combining Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Knowledge to Assess and Manage Feral Water Buffalo Impacts on Perennial Freshwater Springs of the Aboriginal-Owned Arnhem Plateau, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ens, Emilie-Jane; Cooke, Peter; Nadjamerrek, Ray; Namundja, Seraine; Garlngarr, Victor; Yibarbuk, Dean

    2010-04-01

    Aboriginal land managers have observed that feral Asian water buffalo ( Bubalis bubalis Lydekker) are threatening the ecological and cultural integrity of perennial freshwater sources in Arnhem Land, Australia. Here we present collaborative research between the Aboriginal Rangers from Warddeken Land Management Limited and Western scientists which quantified the ground-level impacts of buffalo on seven perennial freshwater springs of the Arnhem Plateau. A secondary aim was to build the capacity of Aboriginal Rangers to self-monitor and evaluate the ecological outcomes of their land management activities. Sites with high buffalo abundance had significantly different ground, ground cover, and water quality attributes compared to sites with low buffalo abundance. The low buffalo abundance sites were characterized by tall herbaceous vegetation and flat ground, whereas wallows, bare ground, and short ungrazed grasses were indicators of sites with high buffalo abundance. Water turbidity was greater when buffalo abundance was high. The newly acquired monitoring skills and derived indicators of buffalo damage will be used by Aboriginal Rangers to assess the ecological outcomes of their future buffalo control efforts on the Arnhem Plateau.

  11. A signature protein-based method to distinguish Mediterranean water buffalo and foreign breed milk.

    PubMed

    Caira, Simonetta; Pinto, Gabriella; Balteanu, Valentin A; Chianese, Lina; Addeo, Francesco

    2013-11-01

    A novel genetic variant at the ?s1-casein locus of water buffalo (WB), 8-residue shorter than its wild-type has been found and sequenced. The internal deletion of the peptide E(35)KVNELsT(42) was confirmed by the isolation of the junction peptide. The 8-residue deletion mutant has a molecular weight that is 919 Da less than that of the wild-type. The novel isoform with a unique f35-42 deletion could be the result of the skipping of exon 6, generating an exon 6-deleted variant of ?s1-casein. The wild-type and its shortened ?s1-casein forms were found to co-exist in many individual milk samples. In contrast, the 8-residue, internally deleted ?s1-casein variant did not occur in water buffaloes of the Mediterranean breed reared in Italy. Wild-type ?s1-casein has 6 to 8 phosphate groups (P) while the internally deleted form 6 and 7P per molecule. PMID:23768399

  12. Co-culture of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) preantral follicles with antral follicles: a comparative study of developmental competence of oocytes derived from in vivo developed and in vitro cultured antral follicles.

    PubMed

    Sharma, G Taru; Dubey, Pawan K; Nath, Amar; Saikumar, G

    2013-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine whether the presence of antral follicles (AFs) affects the survival, growth and steroidogenesis of preantral follicles (PFs) and compare the maturation and developmental competence of buffalo oocytes derived from in vivo developed and in vitro cultured AFs. Two experiments were carried out. In experiment I, PFs (200-250 ?m) were isolated and cultured with or without AFs (3-5 mm) in TCM-199 medium that contained 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 1% insulin transferin selenium (ITS), 20 ng/ml epidermal growth factor (EGF), 0.5 ?g/ml follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and 100 ng/ml insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I. In experiment II, in vitro developmental competence was compared for the cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) recovered from in vivo developed and in vitro cultured AFs. Survival, growth, development of antrum, accumulation of estradiol and progesterone was (P < 0.05) higher when PFs were co-cultured with AFs. Developmental competence of both types of follicular oocytes did not differ significantly in terms of maturation and cleavage rate, but morula and blastocyst production rate were (P < 0.05) higher with in vivo developed AFs as compared with the in vitro cultured antral follicular oocytes. In conclusion, co-culture of PFs with AFs supports long-term survival and growth of buffalo PFs and this co-culture system plays a dual role for in vitro production of embryos as well as understanding the relationship between developing PFs and AFs. PMID:22251772

  13. Stream habitat and water-quality information for sites in the Buffalo River Basin and nearby basins of Arkansas, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James C.

    2004-01-01

    The Buffalo River lies in north-central Arkansas and is a tributary of the White River. Stream-habitat and water-quality information are presented for 52 sites in the Buffalo River Basin and adjacent areas of the White River Basin. The information was collected during the summers of 2001 and 2002 to supplement fish community sampling during the same time period.

  14. 76 FR 20530 - Safety Zone; Boom Days, Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ...zone will encompass all waters of the NFTA small boat...Dive and part of the Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo...Boom Days Fireworks, Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY. (a) Location...all U.S. navigable waters of the Niagara...

  15. Phylogenetic analysis and comparison between cow and buffalo (including Egyptian buffaloes) mitochondrial displacement-loop regions.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Hassan A I; El-Hefnawi, Mahmoud M

    2008-08-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis has been used extensively for phylogenetic analysis studies and systematics. The displacement loop (D-loop) region inside the mtDNA is a non-coding part whose analysis can indicate variations between closely related populations. This paper reports for the first time the characterization and analysis of the complete sequence of the D-loop region from Egyptian buffaloes and analysis in conjunction with previously published Indian and European Bubalus bubalis and Bos sub-tribe sequences. In the entire D-loop of the Egyptian buffaloes, we identified four haplotypes and nine polymorphic sites from the nine sequenced D-loop regions--while in the studied set of buffaloes we identified 28 polymorphic sites in the entire D-loop, and 49 polymorphic sites in the case of cows. Alignment between buffaloes and cows to evaluate the characteristics of the D-loop region showed that the second region of the conserved sequence block (CSB2) is apparently the most variable region in the D-loop between cows and buffaloes, with four insertions in all buffaloes and two substitutions, followed by the second region of the extended termination associated sequence (ETAS2) with a substitution rate of 1/10. The Egyptian buffaloes were shown to be closest to the Italian counterparts, exemplifying the closeness of ethnicity and the history of civilization of that region. PMID:19462514

  16. Molecular epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of diverse bovine astroviruses associated with diarrhea in cattle and water buffalo calves in China

    PubMed Central

    ALFRED, Niyokwishimira; LIU, Huan; LI, Mu Lan; HONG, Shao Feng; TANG, Hai Bo; WEI, Zu Zhang; CHEN, Ying; LI, Fa Kai; ZHONG, Yi Zhi; HUANG, Wei Jian

    2015-01-01

    Astroviruses are the principal causative agents of gastroenteritis in humans and have been associated with diarrhea in other mammals as well as birds. However, astroviral infection of animals had been poorly studied. In the present study, 211 rectal swabs collected from cattle and water buffalo calves with mild to severe diarrhea were tested for bovine astrovirus (BAstV) by RT-PCR. Results: 92/211 (43.6%) samples were positive for BAstV, at a rate of 46.10% (71/154) in cattle and 36.84% (21/57) in water buffalo. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial and full-length of 25 ORF2 amino acid sequences obtained in this study classified the Guangxi BAstVs isolates into five subgroups under the genus of Mamastrovirus, genotype MAstV33, which suggested that the water buffalo was a new host of this genogroup that previously included only cattle and roe deer. Despite the origin of the host, the Guangxi BAstV isolates were closely related to the BAstV Hong Kong isolates (B18/HK and B76-2/HK), but highly divergent from the BAstV NeuroS1 isolate previously associated with neurologic disease in cattle in the U.S.A. Nucleotide sequence-based characterization of the ORF1b/ORF2 junction and corresponding overlapping regions showed distinctive properties, which may be common to BAstVs. Our results suggested that cattle and water buffalo are prone to infection of closely related astroviruses, which probably evolved from the same ancestor. The current study described astroviruses in water buffalo for the first time and is thus far among the largest epidemiological investigations of BAstV infection in cattle conducted in China. PMID:25716289

  17. Molecular epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of diverse bovine astroviruses associated with diarrhea in cattle and water buffalo calves in China.

    PubMed

    Alfred, Niyokwishimira; Liu, Huan; Li, Mu Lan; Hong, Shao Feng; Tang, Hai Bo; Wei, Zu Zhang; Chen, Ying; Li, Fa Kai; Zhong, Yi Zhi; Huang, Wei Jian

    2015-06-01

    Astroviruses are the principal causative agents of gastroenteritis in humans and have been associated with diarrhea in other mammals as well as birds. However, astroviral infection of animals had been poorly studied. In the present study, 211 rectal swabs collected from cattle and water buffalo calves with mild to severe diarrhea were tested for bovine astrovirus (BAstV) by RT-PCR. Results: 92/211 (43.6%) samples were positive for BAstV, at a rate of 46.10% (71/154) in cattle and 36.84% (21/57) in water buffalo. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial and full-length of 25 ORF2 amino acid sequences obtained in this study classified the Guangxi BAstVs isolates into five subgroups under the genus of Mamastrovirus, genotype MAstV33, which suggested that the water buffalo was a new host of this genogroup that previously included only cattle and roe deer. Despite the origin of the host, the Guangxi BAstV isolates were closely related to the BAstV Hong Kong isolates (B18/HK and B76-2/HK), but highly divergent from the BAstV NeuroS1 isolate previously associated with neurologic disease in cattle in the U.S.A. Nucleotide sequence-based characterization of the ORF1b/ORF2 junction and corresponding overlapping regions showed distinctive properties, which may be common to BAstVs. Our results suggested that cattle and water buffalo are prone to infection of closely related astroviruses, which probably evolved from the same ancestor. The current study described astroviruses in water buffalo for the first time and is thus far among the largest epidemiological investigations of BAstV infection in cattle conducted in China. PMID:25716289

  18. 33 CFR 117.773 - Buffalo River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buffalo River. 117.773 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...New York § 117.773 Buffalo River. (a) The...

  19. 33 CFR 117.773 - Buffalo River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buffalo River. 117.773 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...New York § 117.773 Buffalo River. (a) The...

  20. 33 CFR 117.773 - Buffalo River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo River. 117.773 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...New York § 117.773 Buffalo River. (a) The...

  1. 33 CFR 117.773 - Buffalo River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buffalo River. 117.773 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...New York § 117.773 Buffalo River. (a) The...

  2. 33 CFR 117.773 - Buffalo River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buffalo River. 117.773 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...New York § 117.773 Buffalo River. (a) The...

  3. Establishment of Trophectoderm Cell Lines from Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryos of Different Sources and Examination of In Vitro Developmental Competence, Quality, Epigenetic Status and Gene Expression in Cloned Embryos Derived from Them

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Sushil Kumar; Sandhu, Anjit; Singh, Karn Pratap; Singla, Suresh Kumar; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh; Manik, Radheysham; Palta, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Despite being successfully used to produce live offspring in many species, somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) has had a limited applicability due to very low (>1%) live birth rate because of a high incidence of pregnancy failure, which is mainly due to placental dysfunction. Since this may be due to abnormalities in the trophectoderm (TE) cell lineage, TE cells can be a model to understand the placental growth disorders seen after NT. We isolated and characterized buffalo TE cells from blastocysts produced by in vitro fertilization (TE-IVF) and Hand-made cloning (TE-HMC), and compared their growth characteristics and gene expression, and developed a feeder-free culture system for their long-term culture. The TE-IVF cells were then used as donor cells to produce HMC embryos following which their developmental competence, quality, epigenetic status and gene expression were compared with those of HMC embryos produced using fetal or adult fibroblasts as donor cells. We found that although TE-HMC and TE-IVF cells have a similar capability to grow in culture, significant differences exist in gene expression levels between them and between IVF and HMC embryos from which they are derived, which may have a role in the placental abnormalities associated with NT pregnancies. Although TE cells can be used as donor cells for producing HMC blastocysts, their developmental competence and quality is lower than that of blastocysts produced from fetal or adult fibroblasts. The epigenetic status and expression level of many important genes is different in HMC blastocysts produced using TE cells or fetal or adult fibroblasts or those produced by IVF. PMID:26053554

  4. Incidence of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk using cultural method and the PCR assay

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Momtaz, Hassan; Behzadnia, Asma; Baghbadorani, Zeinab Torki

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence rate of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk in Iran. Methods From September 2010 to December 2011 a total of 260 bulk milk samples including 85 bovine, 37 camel, 34 water buffalo, 56 ovine and 48 caprine bulk milk samples were collected from commercial dairy herds, in Fars and Khuzestan provinces, Iran and were evaluated for the presence of Listeria species using cultural method and the PCR assay. Results Using cultural method, 19 samples (7.3%) were positive for Listeria spp. The highest prevalence of Listeria was found in raw water buffalo milk (11.8%), followed by raw bovine milk (10.6%), raw ovine milk (7.1%), and raw caprine milk (4.2%) samples. All 37 camel milk samples from 20 camel breeding farms were negative for Listeria spp. The overall prevalence of Listeria was 7.3%, in which Listeria innocua was the most recovered species (4.2%); the remaining isolates were Listeria monocytogenes (1.9%), Listeria ivanovii (0.08%) and Listeria seeligari (0.04%). The PCR assay could identify 8 Listeria-contaminated milk samples that were negative using the cultural method. Conclusions The results presented in this study indicate the potential risk of infection with Listeria in people consuming raw and unpasteurized milk.

  5. Hydrologic and water-quality characteristics for Bear Creek near Silver Hill, Arkansas, and selected Buffalo River sites, 1999-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, Joel M.; Green, W. Reed

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe and compare the hydrologic and water-quality characteristics of Bear Creek near Silver Hill, Arkansas, to two sites on the Buffalo River upstream from the confluence of Bear Creek, to a site on Calf Creek, a smaller tributary to the Buffalo River, to selected undeveloped sites across the Nation, and to a developed site in Arkansas. A better understanding of the hydrology and water quality of Bear Creek is of interest to many, including the National Park Service, which administers the Buffalo National River, to evaluate its effects on the hydrology and water quality of the Buffalo River. The streamflow at Bear Creek near Silver Hill varied seasonally and annually from January 1999 to March 2004. The mean annual streamflow at Bear Creek for calendar years 1999 to 2003 was 86.0 cubic feet per second. The highest annual mean streamflow occurred in 2002 (158 cubic feet per second) and the lowest annual mean streamflow occurred in 1999 (56.4 cubic feet per second). The mean annual streamflow for calendar years 1999 to 2003 at the Buffalo River near Boxley and Buffalo River near St. Joe was 102 and 881 cubic feet per second, respectively. Concentrations of nitrogen measured for Bear Creek generally were greater than concentrations measured at the two Buffalo River sites and were similar to concentrations measured at Calf Creek. Concentrations of phosphorus measured at Bear Creek generally were greater than concentrations measured at the two Buffalo River sites and were similar to concentrations measured at Calf Creek. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations generally were greater at Bear Creek than concentrations measured at the Buffalo River and similar to concentrations at Calf Creek. Bear Creek had significantly greater suspended-sediment concentrations than the Buffalo River near Boxley and the Buffalo River near St. Joe and similar concentrations to Calf Creek. Nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, and suspended-sediment loads at Bear Creek and two Buffalo River sites varied because of differences in land use and contributing drainage area for each site. In general, the Buffalo River near St. Joe had the greatest annual loads of nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, and suspended sediment. The Buffalo River near Boxley had the least annual nutrient and suspended-sediment loads amongthe three sites. Buffalo River near Boxley had lesser annual loads than the other two sites probably because of the higher percentage of forested land in the basin and smaller contributing drainage area. Mean annual nutrient, dissolved organic carbon, and suspended- sediment yields computed for Bear Creek were greater than yields computed for both of the Buffalo River sites. Bear Creek had greater median annual nutrient yields than selected undeveloped basins across the Nation and less median annual nutrient yields than the Illinois River south of Siloam Springs, Arkansas, which is representative of a developed basin. Bear Creek had greater median annual flow-weighted nutrient concentrations than the Buffalo River near St. Joe, the Buffalo River near Boxley, and selected undeveloped sites across the Nation. Bear Creek had less median flow-weighted nutrient concentrations than the Illinois River.

  6. Genetic diversity in the prion protein gene (PRNP) of domestic cattle and water buffaloes in Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Leo; Heriyanto, Agus; Thongchai, Chalermchaikit; Hanh, Tran Thi; Horiuchi, Motohiro; Ishihara, Kanako; Tamura, Yutaka; Muramatsu, Yasukazu

    2014-07-01

    There has been an accumulation of information on frequencies of insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms within the bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) and on the number of octapeptide repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding region of bovine PRNP related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility. We investigated the frequencies of 23-bp indel polymorphism in the promoter region (23indel) and 12-bp indel polymorphism in intron 1 region (12indel), octapeptide repeat polymorphisms and SNPs in the bovine PRNP of cattle and water buffaloes in Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand. The frequency of the deletion allele in the 23indel site was significantly low in cattle of Indonesia and Thailand and water buffaloes. The deletion allele frequency in the 12indel site was significantly low in all of the cattle and buffaloes categorized in each subgroup. In both indel sites, the deletion allele has been reported to be associated with susceptibility to classical BSE. In some Indonesian local cattle breeds, the frequency of the allele with 5 octapeptide repeats was significantly high despite the fact that the allele with 6 octapeptide repeats has been reported to be most frequent in many breeds of cattle. Four SNPs observed in Indonesian local cattle have not been reported for domestic cattle. This study provided information on PRNP of livestock in these Southeast Asian countries. PMID:24705506

  7. Diagnostic value of the recombinant tandem repeat antigen TeGM6-4r for surra in water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thu-Thuy; Zhou, Mo; Ruttayaporn, Ngasaman; Nguyen, Quoc Doanh; Nguyen, Viet Khong; Goto, Yasuyuki; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro; Inoue, Noboru

    2014-03-17

    Trypanosoma evansi infection, or surra, is currently affecting various species of animals, especially water buffaloes. Since diagnosis is an important aspect of surra control, development of novel diagnostic antigens is of interest to implement and improve the currently utilized methods. Our study evaluated the tandem repeat antigen TeGM6-4r in T. evansi antibody detection in water buffaloes. TeGM6-4r-based ELISA was performed with 20 positive and 8 negative controls and 484 field samples from water buffaloes in Northern Vietnam. To examine cross-reactivity, sera from Japanese cattle that had been experimentally infected with Theileria orientalis (n=10), Babesia bovis (n=3), Babesia bigemina (n=7) and Trypanosoma theileri (n=59) were included in the study. The sensitivity of the test was 80%. TeGM6-4r did not react with Theileria or Babesia infected sera, however it showed cross reactivity with 11/59 T. theileri infected samples. The reference test, CATT/T. evansi also reacted with 3/59 T. theileri infected sera. The lysate antigen-based ELISA reacted with 4/59 T. theileri, 9/10 Theileria and 3/10 Babesia infected sera. In contrast, TeGM6-4r-based ELISA was 86.3% sensitive and 58.3% specific in the screening of field samples. The average seroprevalence of T. evansi infection among water buffaloes in Northern Vietnam was 27.1% by CATT/T. evansi and 53.7% by TeGM6-4r. Seroprevalence in the five surveyed provinces ranged from 17.4% to 39.8% in the reference test, and 47.3% to 67.3% in the recombinant antigen based test. The finding indicated that the disease is still widely endemic in the area and that surveillance programs need to be carried out regularly to better control surra. We proposed TeGM6-4r as a useful serodiagnostic antigen for the detection and epidemiological surveillance of T. evansi infection among water buffaloes. PMID:24524896

  8. Lousicidal, ovicidal and repellent efficacy of some essential oils against lice and flies infesting water buffaloes in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Khater, Hanem F; Ramadan, Mohamed Y; El-Madawy, Reham S

    2009-10-14

    The lousicidal and repellent effects of five essential oils were investigated for the first time against the buffalo louse, Haematopinus tuberculatus, and flies infesting water buffaloes in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt. For the in vitro studies, filter paper contact bioassays were used to test the oils and their lethal activities were compared with that of d-phenothrin. Four minutes post-treatment, the median lethal concentration, LC50, values were 2.74, 7.28, 12.35, 18.67 and 22.79% for camphor (Cinnamomum camphora), onion (Allium cepa), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) and rosemary oils (Rosmarinus officinalis), respectively, whereas for d-phenothrin, it was 1.17%. The lethal time (50) (LT50) values were 0.89, 2.75, 15.39, 21.32, 11.60 and 1.94 min after treatment with 7.5% camphor, onion, peppermint, chamomile, rosemary and d-phenothrin, respectively. All the materials used except rosemary, which was not applied, were ovicidal to the eggs of H. tuberculatus. Despite the results of the in vitro assays, the in vivo treatments revealed that the pediculicidal activity was more pronounced with oils. All treated lice were killed after 0.5-2 min, whereas with d-phenothrin, 100% mortality was reached only after 120 min. The number of lice infesting buffaloes was significantly reduced 3, 6, 4, 6 and 9 days after treatment with camphor, peppermint, chamomile, onion, and d-phenothrin, respectively. Moreover, the oils and d-phenothrin significantly repelled flies, Musca domestica, Stomoxys calcitrans, Haematobia irritans and Hippobosca equina, for 6 and 3 days post-treatment, respectively. No adverse effects were noted on either animals or pour-on operators after exposure to the applied materials. Consequently, some Egyptian essential oils show potential for the development of new, speedy and safe lousicides and insect repellents for controlling lice and flies which infest water buffaloes. PMID:19596520

  9. Base flow, water quality, and streamflow gain and loss of the Buffalo River, Arkansas, and selected tributaries, July and August 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moix, Matthew W.; Galloway, Joel M.

    2005-01-01

    A study of the Buffalo National River in north-central Arkansas was conducted between July 28-30 and August 13-15, 2003, to characterize the base-flow and water-quality characteristics and streamflow gain and loss in the Buffalo River. The study was separated into two time periods because of a precipitation event that occurred on the afternoon of July 30 causing appreciable storm runoff. Streamflow was separated to identify base-flow and surface-runoff components using the Base Flow Index hydrograph separation computer program. Base-flow separation analyses indicated annual variability in streamflow throughout the Buffalo River Basin. Based upon these analyses, total and base flow were below average for the mainstem of the river and Richland Creek during the 2003 water year. Waterquality samples were collected from 25 surface-water sites on the Buffalo River and selected tributaries. Most nutrient concentrations for the mainstem of the Buffalo River were near or below the minimum reporting level and were less than the median flow-weighted concentration for relatively undeveloped stream basins in the United States. Streamflow measurement data were collected at 44 locations along the mainstem of the Buffalo River and at points of inflow (prior to confluence with the mainstem) to identify gaining and losing reaches. Seven gaining and five losing reaches were identified for the Buffalo River. Additionally, surface flow on the mainstem of the Buffalo River was diverted to subsurface flow on the mainstem at two locations (river miles 73.6 and 131.6) where the mainstem was found to be dry. Reaches throughout the length of the river had calculated gains or losses that were less than the sum of measurement errors for the respective reaches of river.

  10. Localization of IGF proteins in various stages of ovarian follicular development and modulatory role of IGF-I on granulosa cell steroid production in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Singh, Jai; Paul, A; Thakur, N; Yadav, V P; Panda, R P; Bhure, S K; Sarkar, M

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine the expression of insulin like growth factor (IGF) genes in the bubaline ovarian follicles and modulatory role of IGF-I on progesterone production from granulosa cells (GC) of pre-ovulatory follicle in vitro. According to size, follicles were classified into four groups: GI (small), GII (medium), GIII (large) and GIV (preovulatory). All IGF genes were expressed in both GC and theca interna (TI) cells. The relative expression of IGF-I and IGF receptor I (IGFR-I) genes increased with follicle size and was greatest in the pre-ovulatory follicle (P<0.05). Expression of IGF-II and IGFR-II genes was minimal in GC but was readily detected in TI cells. In TI cells, the gene expression was greater in medium and large as compared to small and pre-ovulatory follicles. The expression of all binding protein (IGFBP) genes was detected in both GC and TI cells. Expression of IGFBP-3 gene increased with follicle size and was greatest in pre-ovulatory follicles (P<0.05). The expression of IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-4 was less in pre-ovulatory follicles but expression of IGFBP-5 and IGFBP-6 genes were greater at this stage. The GC culture was conducted for three time durations and with three doses of IGF-I. Expression of steroidogenic genes (StAR, CYP11A1, HSD3B) and progesterone concentration were increased in a dose and time dependent fashion. The present study, therefore, provided evidence of an autocrine/paracrine role of IGFs in follicular development and a stimulatory role of IGF1 in steroid production in GC of preovulatory follicles in the bubaline species. PMID:25951771

  11. 33 CFR 117.773 - Buffalo River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo River. 117.773 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.773 Buffalo River. (a) The draw of the Michigan Avenue bridge, mile 1.3, at Buffalo, shall operate as follows: (1) From March 22 through...

  12. Hydrologic and Water-Quality Characteristics for Calf Creek Near Silber Hill, Arkansas and Selected Buffalo River Sites, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, Joel M.; Green, W. Reed

    2004-01-01

    The Buffalo River and its tributary, Calf Creek, are in the White River Basin in the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province in north-central Arkansas. A better understanding of the hydrology and water quality of Calf Creek is of interest to many, including the National Park Service, which administers the Buffalo National River, to evaluate its effect on the hydrology and water quality of the Buffalo River. The streamflow and water-quality characteristics of Calf Creek near Silver Hill, Arkansas, were compared to two sites on the Buffalo River upstream (near Boxley, Arkansas) and downstream (near St. Joe, Arkansas) from the confluence of Calf Creek for calendar years 2001 and 2002. Annual and seasonal loads were estimated for Calf Creek for nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, and suspended sediment and compared with loads at sites on the Buffalo River. Flow-weighted concentrations and yields were computed from estimated annual loads for comparison with other developed and undeveloped basins. Streamflow varied annually and seasonally at the three sites. The Buffalo River near St. Joe had the largest annual mean streamflow (805 to 1,360 cubic feet per second for 2001 and 2002) compared to the Buffalo River near Boxley (106 and 152 cubic feet per second for 2001 and 2002) and Calf Creek (39 and 80 cubic feet per second for 2001 and 2002). Concentrations of nutrients, suspended sediment, and fecal indicator bacteria generally were greater in samples from Calf Creek than in samples collected from both Buffalo River sites. Bacteria and suspended-sediment concentrations were greater in samples collected during high-flow events at all three sites. The Buffalo River near Boxley had the lowest concentrations for nutrients, suspended sediment, and fecal indicator bacteria. Estimated annual loads of the nutrients, suspended sediment, and organic carbon for 2001 and 2002 demonstrated substantial variability between the three sites and through time. Estimated loads for nutrients at the Buffalo River near St. Joe were 7 to 27 times the median loads estimated for Calf Creek and suspended sediment loads were as much as 120 times greater. Dissolved organic carbon loads were 16 to 20 times greater at the Buffalo River near St. Joe than for Calf Creek. The Buffalo River near Boxley had the smallest annual loads for all constituents except for suspended sediment, which were slightly greater than suspended sediment loads estimated for Calf Creek. Higher loads would be expected at the Buffalo River near St. Joe because of the larger basin area and larger volume of streamflow. Likewise, estimated loads for all three sites were greater during seasons that had greater streamflow than during seasons with more frequent periods of base-flow conditions. The highest daily loads occurred in the fall and winter of 2001 and the winter and spring of 2002.Flow-weighted concentrations generally were higher for Calf Creek than concentrations for the two sites on the Buffalo River and for typical flow-weighted concentrations found in undeveloped basins. However, the flow-weighted concentrations were lower than concentrations in a developed basin. Annual yields calculated for Calf Creek were higher than the two sites on the Buffalo River and sites that are representative of undeveloped basins but lower than a site representative of a developed basin. The Buffalo River near Boxley had yields that were less than the yields typical of undeveloped basins.

  13. Yunsheng Xu e-mail: yunsheng@acsu.buffalo.edu

    E-print Network

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    Yunsheng Xu e-mail: yunsheng@acsu.buffalo.edu Xiangcheng Luo D. D. L. Chung e-mail: ddlchung@acsu.buffalo.edu Composite Materials Research Laboratory, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260 as that given by solder. Water is almost as effective as sodium silicate without filler, but the thermal contact

  14. Development of an Indirect ELISA Using Different Fragments of Recombinant Ncgra7 for Detection of Neospora caninum Infection in Cattle and Water Buffalo

    PubMed Central

    HAMIDINEJAT, Hossein; SEIFI ABAD SHAPOURI, Massoud Reza; NAMAVARI, Mohammad Mehdi; SHAYAN, Parviz; KEFAYAT, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dense granules are immunodominant proteins for the standardization of immunodiagnostic procedures to detect neosporosis. In the presented study different fragment of a dense-granule protein was evaluated for serodiagnosis of Neospora caninum in cattle and water buffalo. Methods: NcGRA7, from N. caninum tachyzoites was amplified. PCR product and pMAL-c2X plasmid were digested with EcoR1 restriction enzyme and expressed in Escherichia coli to evaluate its competence for detection of anti- N. caninum antibodies with ELISA in comparison with commercial IDEXX ELISA. Furthermore, 230 sera of presumably healthy cattle and water buffaloes (108 cattle and 122 water buffaloes) were analyzed by both tests to determine the agreement of these two procedures. Results: Sensitivities and specificities of NcGRA7-based ELISA were 94.64% and 90.38% respectively using sera of cattle, but were 98.57% and 86.54% in the case of buffaloes respectively. A good correlation between the results of IDEXX ELISA and ELISA based on recombinant NcGRA7 for detecting N. caninum antibodies was appeared. Analyzing by Mc Nemar?s showed that NcGRA7-based ELISA has acceptable capability to differentiate the positive results in comparison with IDEXX ELISA. Conclusion: NcGRA7-based ELISA considering utilized new fragment of genomic DNA is a good tool for serodiagnosis of anti- N. caninum antibodies for screening and epidemiological purposes on cattle herd and water buffaloes as well. PMID:25904948

  15. Yeasts and hygienic-sanitary microbial indicators in water buffalo mozzarella produced and commercialized in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Facchin, Susanne; Barbosa, Anne C; Carmo, Luiz S; Silva, Maria Crisolita C; Oliveira, Afonso L; Morais, Paula B; Rosa, Carlos A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the yeast populations and the main hygienic-sanitary microbial indicators in water buffalo mozzarella produced and commercialized in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Forty-two water buffalo mozzarella samples were purchased from retail outlets in Belo Horizonte. In addition, five samples of consecutive starter cultures, curd before acidification, acidified curd and mozzarella were collected at an industry in the city of Oliveira. Only three of the five water samples analyzed were suitable for consumption according to Brazilian sanitary standards. Four milk samples were highly contaminated with fecal coliforms, and did not meet the minimal hygienic-sanitary standards according to Brazilian regulations. Only one sample of buffalo muzzarela purchased from retail outlets exceeded the limit for coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Eleven samples showed counts of thermotolerant coliforms higher than 5 × 10(3) CFU.g(-1), but still lower than the maximum permitted by the Brazilian laws. Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were not isolated. Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida lusitaniae and C. parapsilosis were the prevalent yeast species isolated from cheese. Among samples from the production stages, the acidified curd presented the highest numbers of yeasts, with C. catenulata being the most frequent species isolated. Some opportunistic yeast species such as C. guilliermondii, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. lusitaniae, C. catenulata, C. rugosa and C. krusei occurred in the mozzarella cheese samples analyzed. The mozzarella cheese presented a low microbial load as compared to other cheese already studied, and the yeast biota included species typical of cheese and also opportunistic pathogens. PMID:24516436

  16. Yeasts and hygienic-sanitary microbial indicators in water buffalo mozzarella produced and commercialized in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Facchin, Susanne; Barbosa, Anne C.; Carmo, Luiz S.; Silva, Maria Crisolita C.; Oliveira, Afonso L.; Morais, Paula B.; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the yeast populations and the main hygienic-sanitary microbial indicators in water buffalo mozzarella produced and commercialized in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Forty-two water buffalo mozzarella samples were purchased from retail outlets in Belo Horizonte. In addition, five samples of consecutive starter cultures, curd before acidification, acidified curd and mozzarella were collected at an industry in the city of Oliveira. Only three of the five water samples analyzed were suitable for consumption according to Brazilian sanitary standards. Four milk samples were highly contaminated with fecal coliforms, and did not meet the minimal hygienic-sanitary standards according to Brazilian regulations. Only one sample of buffalo muzzarela purchased from retail outlets exceeded the limit for coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Eleven samples showed counts of thermotolerant coliforms higher than 5 × 103 CFU.g?1, but still lower than the maximum permitted by the Brazilian laws. Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were not isolated. Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida lusitaniae and C. parapsilosis were the prevalent yeast species isolated from cheese. Among samples from the production stages, the acidified curd presented the highest numbers of yeasts, with C. catenulata being the most frequent species isolated. Some opportunistic yeast species such as C. guilliermondii, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. lusitaniae, C. catenulata, C. rugosa and C. krusei occurred in the mozzarella cheese samples analyzed. The mozzarella cheese presented a low microbial load as compared to other cheese already studied, and the yeast biota included species typical of cheese and also opportunistic pathogens. PMID:24516436

  17. Bioconcentration of some macrominerals in soil, forage and buffalo hair continuum: A case study on pasture irrigated with sewage water

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zafar Iqbal; Ahmad, Kafeel; Ashraf, Iqra; Gondal, Sumaira; Sher, Muhammad; Hayat, Zafar; Laudadio, Vito; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the bioaccumulation of some macrominerals in grazing buffaloes fed forage irrigated with sewage water or canal water. In particular, the transfer of sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) from soil to plant and in turn to animals was evaluated under sub-tropical environmental conditions. Samples of soil, forage and buffalo hair were collected and digested by wet method. Sodium and K concentrations were significantly higher in the soil but lower in the forages; however, Mg and Ca concentrations in both soil and forages were higher. The correlation between soil, forage and hair showed an imbalanced flow of Na, Mg and K and a balanced flow of Ca from soil to forage and then to animals. Based on the findings, the highest rates of transfer of minerals were found for sewage water treatment, whereas lowest rates were found for canal water treatment, except for Na. As the transfer of minerals depends on their bioavailability, the highest values may be due to the high rates of mineral uptake by plants. Thus, the high transfer rate of some elements by plants could become toxic in future causing detrimental effect to grazing livestock. PMID:25972745

  18. Bioconcentration of some macrominerals in soil, forage and buffalo hair continuum: A case study on pasture irrigated with sewage water.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zafar Iqbal; Ahmad, Kafeel; Ashraf, Iqra; Gondal, Sumaira; Sher, Muhammad; Hayat, Zafar; Laudadio, Vito; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2015-05-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the bioaccumulation of some macrominerals in grazing buffaloes fed forage irrigated with sewage water or canal water. In particular, the transfer of sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) from soil to plant and in turn to animals was evaluated under sub-tropical environmental conditions. Samples of soil, forage and buffalo hair were collected and digested by wet method. Sodium and K concentrations were significantly higher in the soil but lower in the forages; however, Mg and Ca concentrations in both soil and forages were higher. The correlation between soil, forage and hair showed an imbalanced flow of Na, Mg and K and a balanced flow of Ca from soil to forage and then to animals. Based on the findings, the highest rates of transfer of minerals were found for sewage water treatment, whereas lowest rates were found for canal water treatment, except for Na. As the transfer of minerals depends on their bioavailability, the highest values may be due to the high rates of mineral uptake by plants. Thus, the high transfer rate of some elements by plants could become toxic in future causing detrimental effect to grazing livestock. PMID:25972745

  19. Effect of aging on the characteristics of meat from water buffalo grown in the Delta del Paraná region of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Irurueta, Martín; Cadoppi, Armando; Langman, Leandro; Grigioni, Gabriela; Carduza, Fernando

    2008-07-01

    Fifteen crossbreed water buffalos were selected from a farm in Delta del Paraná, Entre Ríos Province, Argentina. Animals were castrated males 20-24 months old reaching final live weights of 400-420kg. They were predominantly of Mediterranean and Murrah breeds and were feed in naturally grown pastures. Tenderness and chewiness increased with postmortem aging (p<0.05). Aging did not affect flavour and odour scores, even though certain off-flavours and off-odours were reported. Changes in colour with aging were similar to those seen in beef. PMID:22062913

  20. A nonsense mutation in the tyrosinase gene causes albinism in water buffalo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is an autosomal recessive hereditary pigmentation disorder affecting humans and several other animal species. Oculocutaneous albinism was studied in a herd of Murrah buffalo to determine the clinical presentation and genetic basis of albinism in this species. Results Clinical examinations and pedigree analysis were performed in an affected herd, and wild-type and OCA tyrosinase mRNA sequences were obtained. The main clinical findings were photophobia and a lack of pigmentation of the hair, skin, horns, hooves, mucosa, and iris. The results of segregation analysis suggest that this disease is acquired through recessive inheritance. In the OCA buffalo, a single-base substitution was detected at nucleotide 1,431 (G to A), which leads to the conversion of tryptophan into a stop codon at residue 477. Conclusion This premature stop codon produces an inactive protein, which is responsible for the OCA buffalo phenotype. These findings will be useful for future studies of albinism in buffalo and as a possible model to study diseases caused by a premature stop codon. PMID:22817390

  1. Comparative Analysis of Transcriptional Profiles of Adult Schistosoma japonicum from Different Laboratory Animals and the Natural Host, Water Buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chuang; Hou, Nan; Chen, Qijun

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is one of the most widely distributed parasitic diseases in the world. Schistosoma japonicum, a zoonotic parasite with a wide range of mammalian hosts, is one of the major pathogens of this disease. Although numerous studies on schistosomiasis japonica have been performed using laboratory animal models, systematic comparative analysis of whole-genome expression profiles in parasites from different laboratory animals and nature mammalian hosts is lacking to date. Methodology/Principal Findings Adult schistosomes were obtained from laboratory animals BALB/c mice, C57BL/6 mice, New Zealand white rabbits and the natural host, water buffaloes. The gene expression profiles of schistosomes from these animals were obtained and compared by genome-wide oligonucleotide microarray analysis. The results revealed that the gene expression profiles of schistosomes from different laboratory animals and buffaloes were highly consistent (r>0.98) genome-wide. Meanwhile, a total of 450 genes were identified to be differentially expressed in schistosomes which can be clustered into six groups. Pathway analysis revealed that these genes were mainly involved in multiple signal transduction pathways, amino acid, energy, nucleotide and lipid metabolism. We also identified a group of 1,540 abundantly and stably expressed gene products in adult worms, including a panel of 179 Schistosoma- or Platyhelminthes-specific genes that may be essential for parasitism and may be regarded as novel potential anti-parasite intervention targets for future research. Conclusions/Significance This study provides a comprehensive database of gene expression profiles of schistosomes derived from different laboratory animals and water buffaloes. An expanded number of genes potentially affecting the development of schistosomes in different animals were identified. These findings lay the foundation for schistosomiasis research in different laboratory animals and natural hosts at the transcriptional level and provide a valuable resource for screening anti-schistosomal intervention targets. PMID:26285138

  2. Habitat Selection by African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Response to Landscape-Level Fluctuations in Water Availability on Two Temporal Scales

    PubMed Central

    Bennitt, Emily; Bonyongo, Mpaphi Casper; Harris, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal fluctuations in water availability cause predictable changes in the profitability of habitats in tropical ecosystems, and animals evolve adaptive behavioural and spatial responses to these fluctuations. However, stochastic changes in the distribution and abundance of surface water between years can alter resource availability at a landscape scale, causing shifts in animal behaviour. In the Okavango Delta, Botswana, a flood-pulsed ecosystem, the volume of water entering the system doubled between 2008 and 2009, creating a sudden change in the landscape. We used African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) to test the hypotheses that seasonal habitat selection would be related to water availability, that increased floodwater levels would decrease forage abundance and affect habitat selection, and that this would decrease buffalo resting time, reduce reproductive success and decrease body condition. Buffalo selected contrasting seasonal habitats, using habitats far from permanent water during the rainy season and seasonally-flooded habitats close to permanent water during the early and late flood seasons. The 2009 water increase reduced forage availability in seasonally-flooded habitats, removing a resource buffer used by the buffalo during the late flood season, when resources were most limited. In response, buffalo used drier habitats in 2009, although there was no significant change in the time spent moving or resting, or daily distance moved. While their reproductive success decreased in 2009, body condition increased. A protracted period of high water levels could prove detrimental to herbivores, especially to smaller-bodied species that require high quality forage. Stochastic annual fluctuations in water levels, predicted to increase as a result of anthropogenically-induced climate change, are likely to have substantial impacts on the functioning of water-driven tropical ecosystems, affecting environmental conditions within protected areas. Buffer zones around critical seasonal resources are essential to allow animals to engage in compensatory behavioural and spatial mechanisms in response to changing environmental conditions. PMID:24983377

  3. 75 FR 61099 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ...Marine safety, Navigation (water), Reporting and record keeping...Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. * * * * * (b...contact the Captain of Port Buffalo at telephone number (716...Guard, Captain of the Port Buffalo. [FR Doc. 2010-24774...

  4. Microarray Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles of Schistosoma japonicum Derived from Less-Susceptible Host Water Buffalo and Susceptible Host Goat

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianmei; Hong, Yang; Yuan, Chunxiu; Fu, Zhiqiang; Shi, Yaojun; Zhang, Min; Shen, Liuhong; Han, Yanhui; Zhu, Chuangang; Li, Hao; Lu, Ke; Liu, Jinming; Feng, Xingang; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2013-01-01

    Background Water buffalo and goats are natural hosts for S. japonicum in endemic areas of China. The susceptibility of these two hosts to schistosome infection is different, as water buffalo are less conducive to S. japonicum growth and development. To identify genes that may affect schistosome development and survival, we compared gene expression profiles of schistosomes derived from these two natural hosts using high-throughput microarray technology. Results The worm recovery rate was lower and the length and width of worms from water buffalo were smaller compared to those from goats following S. japonicum infection for 7 weeks. Besides obvious morphological difference between the schistosomes derived from the two hosts, differences were also observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Microarray analysis showed differentially expressed gene patterns for parasites from the two hosts, which revealed that genes related to lipid and nucleotide metabolism, as well as protein folding, sorting, and degradation were upregulated, while others associated with signal transduction, endocrine function, development, immune function, endocytosis, and amino acid/carbohydrate/glycan metabolism were downregulated in schistosomes from water buffalo. KEGG pathway analysis deduced that the differentially expressed genes mainly involved lipid metabolism, the MAPK and ErbB signaling pathways, progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, dorso-ventral axis formation, reproduction, and endocytosis, etc. Conclusion The microarray gene analysis in schistosomes derived from water buffalo and goats provide a useful platform to disclose differences determining S. japonicum host compatibility to better understand the interplay between natural hosts and parasites, and identify schistosome target genes associated with susceptibility to screen vaccine candidates. PMID:23940568

  5. First cloned swamp buffalo produced from adult ear fibroblast cell.

    PubMed

    Tasripoo, K; Suthikrai, W; Sophon, S; Jintana, R; Nualchuen, W; Usawang, S; Bintvihok, A; Techakumphu, M; Srisakwattana, K

    2014-07-01

    The world's first cloned swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) derived from adult ear skin fibroblast has been reported. Donor fibroblast cells were produced from biopsies taken from adult male ear skin and in vitro matured oocytes obtained from a slaughterhouse were used as cytoplasts. A total of 39 blastocysts and 19 morulae fresh embryos were transferred into 12 recipient buffaloes. Progesterone assays indicated establishment of pregnancy in 10 of the 12 buffaloes (83.3%) after 45 days, with six animals still pregnant at 3 months. One recipient maintained pregnancy to term and naturally delivered a 40 kg male calf after 326 days of gestation. DNA analysis showed that the cloned calf was genetically identical to the donor cells. Genotype analyses, using 12 buffalo microsatellite markers, confirmed that the cloned calf was derived from the donor cell lines. In conclusion, the present study reports, for the first time, the establishment of pregnancy and birth of the first cloned Thai swamp buffalo derived from adult ear skin fibroblast cells. PMID:24804579

  6. First molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from bovines (Bos taurus and Bubalus bubalis) in Sri Lanka: unexpected absence of C. parvum from pre-weaned calves

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia has important implications for investigating their epidemiology and underpins their control. We undertook the first molecular epidemiological survey of domestic bovids in selected regions of Sri Lanka to establish whether they excreted Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia with zoonotic potential. Methods Faecal samples were collected from dairy calves (n?=?340; Bos taurus; < 3 months of age; weekly sampling for six weeks) and water buffaloes (n?=?297; Bubalus bubalis; <6 months and ?6 months of age; one sampling) from seven different farms in Sri Lanka. Genomic DNAs were extracted from individual faecal samples and then tested for the presence of parasite DNA using a PCR-based mutation scanning-targeted sequencing-phylogenetic approach, employing genetic markers within the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA and 60 kDa glycoprotein genes (designated pSSU and pgp60, respectively) for Cryptosporidium, and within the triose phosphate isomerise (ptpi) gene for Giardia. Results Based on pSSU sequence data, C. bovis, C. ryanae and six new genotypes that were genetically similar but not identical to C. andersoni (n?=?1), C. bovis (n?=?1), C. ryanae (n?=?3) and C. suis (n?=?1) were recorded in cattle. For pSSU, two other, new genotypes were defined in water buffalo, which were genetically most similar to Cryptosporidium genotypes recorded previously in this host species in other countries including Australia. Consistent with the findings for pSSU, no species or genotypes of Cryptosporidium with zoonotic potential were detected using pgp60. Based on ptpi sequence data, G. duodenalis assemblages A and E were detected in four and 137 samples from cattle, respectively, and assemblage E in two samples from water buffaloes. Conclusions The present study showed that C. parvum, the most commonly reported zoonotic species of Cryptosporidium recognised in bovine calves globally, was not detected in any of the samples from pre-weaned calves tested in the present study. However, eight new genotypes were recorded. Future studies of different host species in various regions are required to investigate the molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis in Sri Lanka and neighbouring countries in South Asia. PMID:24559043

  7. Research Article Range and Habitat Selection of African Buffalo

    E-print Network

    Getz, Wayne M.

    found that buffalo selected areas within 1 km of water sources, and an isopleth analysis using the new a comparison of buffalo response to water availability in a smaller reserve and important informationResearch Article Range and Habitat Selection of African Buffalo in South Africa SADIE J. RYAN,1

  8. 33 CFR 117.955 - Buffalo Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Bayou. 117.955 Section 117.955 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of...

  9. 33 CFR 117.955 - Buffalo Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buffalo Bayou. 117.955 Section 117.955 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of...

  10. 33 CFR 117.955 - Buffalo Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buffalo Bayou. 117.955 Section 117.955 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of...

  11. 33 CFR 117.955 - Buffalo Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buffalo Bayou. 117.955 Section 117.955 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of...

  12. 33 CFR 117.955 - Buffalo Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buffalo Bayou. 117.955 Section 117.955 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of...

  13. Comparative analysis of the river buffalo somatostatin gene.

    PubMed

    Stafuzza, N B; Borges, M M; Amaral, M E J

    2014-01-01

    The somatostatin protein plays a crucial role in the regulation of multiple biological functions, such as growth, fat deposition, and nutrient absorption in vertebrates. Polymorphisms in the somatostatin gene have been associated with growth traits in livestock species, including cattle and goat. In this study, we conducted complete molecular characterization of the somatostatin gene in Bubalus bubalis (Murrah breed) by sequencing a Murrah BAC clone spanning 72,489 base pairs (bp) in length. The buffalo somatostatin gene contains 1481 bp organized into a 5'-untranslated region (135 bp), exon 1 (139 bp), intron 1 (839 bp), exon 2 (212 bp), and 3'UTR (156 bp). Comparative analysis between the buffalo somatostatin DNA coding sequence and the amino acid sequence with other bovids (cattle, goat, and sheep), horse, pig, human, rodents (mouse and rat), and chicken. Identity varied from 83-99% on the DNA sequence level and 88-100% on the protein level. In addition, a comparison of gene sequences between Murrah and Mediterranean breeds revealed 6 potential single-nucleotide polymorphisms (1 in exon 1 and 5 in intron 1), which were validated in different buffalo populations. This comparative analysis provides basic information for future studies of different buffalo herds using the position candidate gene approach, quantitative trait loci analysis, and polymorphisms associated with growth traits. PMID:25501213

  14. 33 CFR 110.84b - Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84b Section 110... REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.84b Buffalo, N.Y. The area within the Port of Buffalo known as Port of Buffalo Small Boat Harbor commencing at a point on shore at latitude 42°51?05? N., longitude...

  15. Clinical and molecular study of a new form of hereditary myotonia in Murrah water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Borges, Alexandre S; Barbosa, José D; Resende, Luiz Antônio L; Mota, Lígia S L S; Amorim, Rogério M; Carvalho, Thaís L; Garcia, José F; Oliveira-Filho, José P; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Souza, Jorge Estefano S; Winand, Nena J

    2013-03-01

    Hereditary myotonia caused by mutations in CLCN1 has been previously described in humans, goats, dogs, mice and horses. The goal of this study was to characterize the clinical, morphological and genetic features of hereditary myotonia in Murrah buffalo. Clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed on affected and normal animals. CLCN1 cDNA and the relevant genomic region from normal and affected animals were sequenced. The affected animals exhibited muscle hypertrophy and stiffness. Myotonic discharges were observed during EMG, and dystrophic changes were not present in skeletal muscle biopsies; the last 43 nucleotides of exon-3 of the CLCN1 mRNA were deleted. Cloning of the genomic fragment revealed that the exclusion of this exonic sequence was caused by aberrant splicing, which was associated with the presence of a synonymous SNP in exon-3 (c.396C>T). The mutant allele triggered the efficient use of an ectopic 5' splice donor site located at nucleotides 90-91 of exon-3. The predicted impact of this aberrant splicing event is the alteration of the CLCN1 translational reading frame, which results in the incorporation of 24 unrelated amino acids followed by a premature stop codon. PMID:23339992

  16. Molecular and seroepidemiological survey of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina infections in cattle and water buffaloes in the central region of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Luo, Yuzi; Cao, Shinuo; Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Lan, Dinh Thi Bich; Long, Phung Thang; Yu, Longzheng; Zhou, Mo; Gong, Haiyan; Zhang, Houshuang; Zhou, Jinlin; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, a total of 137 blood samples were collected from cattle and water buffaloes in central region of Vietnam and tested using nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) to determine the molecular and serological prevalence of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina. In cattle, the prevalence of B. bovis and B. bigemina was 21.3% and 16.0% by nPCR, 73.4% and 42.6% by ELISA and 60.6% and 59.6% by IFAT, respectively, whereas those of water buffalos were 23.3% and 0% by nPCR, 37.2% and 9.3% by ELISA and 27.9% and 18.6% by IFAT, respectively. IFAT and ELISA detected a higher number of infected cattle and water buffaloes than nPCR totally. Statistically significant differences in the prevalence of the two infections were observed on the basis of age. Overall, the current data suggest high incidence of B. bovis and B. bigemina infections in the central region of Vietnam, which is needed to develop comprehensive approach to the modern surveillance, diagnosis and control of bovine babesiosis. PMID:25382466

  17. Molecular and serological prevalence of Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis in cattle and water buffalos under small-scale dairy farming in Beheira and Faiyum Provinces, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Hany M; Adjou Moumouni, Paul F; Mohammed-Geba, Khaled; Sheir, Sherin K; Hashem, Ihab S Y; Cao, Shinuo; Terkawi, Mohamad A; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2013-11-15

    In order to determine the molecular and serological prevalence of Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis, a total of 247 blood samples were collected from cattle and water buffalos in Beheira and Faiyum Provinces in Egypt and examined by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In cattle, the prevalence of B. bigemina and B. bovis was 5.30% and 3.97% by nPCR and 10.60% and 9.27% by ELISA, respectively, whereas those of water buffalos were 10.42% and 4.17% by nPCR and 15.63% and 11.46% by ELISA, respectively. Statistically significant differences in the prevalence of the two infections were observed on the basis of age and health status. Sequencing analysis revealed two genotypes for B. bovis spherical body protein-4. In conclusion, the current data provide valuable information regarding the epidemiology of B. bigemina and B. bovis infections in cattle and water buffalos from Egypt, which can be employed in developing future strategies for disease management and control. PMID:24075417

  18. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma evansi infection in water buffaloes from the mountainous region of North Vietnam and effectiveness of trypanocidal drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Quoc Doanh; Nguyen, Thu-Thuy; Pham, Quang Phuc; LE, Ngoc My; Nguyen, Giang Thanh T; Inoue, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    Water buffalo (WB) is an important domestic animal in Vietnam. This study utilized a card agglutination test to investigate seroprevalence of surra in WB population. Sera were collected from 585 WB from 4 different regions in Cao Bang and Thai Nguyen Provinces. Among them, 131 samples (22.4%) were positive for surra. The highest prevalence (24.6%) was found among 3 to 5 years old WB. Buffaloes less than 3 years old had the lowest prevalence (15.6%). Among 27 abortion cases, 9 WB (33.3%) were surra positive. For treatment of surra, Berenil® demonstrated a 100% cure rate, while that of Trypamidium® was only 40%. Our findings suggest that the current control strategy has not succeeded in reducing prevalence of surra in Vietnam. PMID:23665513

  19. Evaluation of thermal comfort, physiological, hematological, and seminal features of buffalo bulls in an artificial insemination station in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Barros, Daniel Vale; Silva, Lilian Kátia Ximenes; de Brito Lourenço, José; da Silva, Aluizio Otávio Almeida; E Silva, André Guimarães Maciel; Franco, Irving Montanar; Oliveira, Carlos Magno Chaves; Tholon, Patrícia; Martorano, Lucieta Guerreiro; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the variation over time in thermal comfort indices and the behavior of physiological parameters related to thermolysis, blood parameters, and semen in natura of buffalo bulls reared in tropical climate. The study was carried out in an artificial insemination station under a humid tropical climate (Afi according to Köppen). Ten water buffalo bulls (Bubalus bubalis) were used during the 5 months (April to August) of study. The environmental Temperature Humidity Index (THId) and the pen microclimate Temperature Humidity Index (THIp) were calculated. Every 25 days, respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), rectal temperature (RT), and Benezra's thermal comfort index (BTCI) were assessed in the morning and in the afternoon. A blood assay was performed every month, while semen was collected weekly. THIp did not vary over the months (P?>?0.05) and was higher in the afternoon than in the morning (77.7?±?2.6 versus 81.8?±?2.1, P??0.05) but within the physiological limits. RT varied between the periods of the day and decreased over the months, being the lowest in August (37.8?±?0.7 °C), time-impacted hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, hemoglobin levels, and spermatic gross motility and vigor (P?buffalo bulls reared under a humid tropical climate may have variations in thermal comfort during the hotter periods but are able to efficiently activate thermoregulatory mechanisms and maintain homeothermy, hence preserving their physiological and seminal parameters at normal levels. PMID:25801015

  20. Embryo Sexing and Sex Chromosomal Chimerism Analysis by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification in Cattle and Water Buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    HIRAYAMA, Hiroki; KAGEYAMA, Soichi; MORIYASU, Satoru; SAWAI, Ken; MINAMIHASHI, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In domestic animals of the family Bovidae, sex preselection of offspring has been demanded for convenience of milk/beef production and animal breeding. Development of the nonsurgical embryo transfer technique and sexing methods of preimplantation embryos made it possible. Sexing based on detection of Y chromosome-specific DNA sequences is considered the most reliable method to date. PCR enables amplification of a target sequence from a small number of blastomeres. However, it requires technical skill and is time consuming. Furthermore, PCR has the risk of false positives because of DNA contamination during handling of the PCR products in duplicate PCR procedures and/or electrophoresis. Therefore, for embryo sexing to become widely used in the cattle embryo transfer industry, a simple, rapid and precise sexing method needs to be developed. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel DNA amplification method, and the reaction is carried out under isothermal conditions (range, 60 to 65 C) using DNA polymerase with strand displacement activity. When the target DNA is amplified by LAMP, a white precipitate derived from magnesium pyrophosphate (a by-product of the LAMP reaction) is observed. It is noteworthy that LAMP does not need special reagents or electrophoresis to detect the amplified DNA. This review describes the development and application of an embryo sexing method using LAMP in cattle and water buffaloes. PMID:23965599

  1. 33 CFR 162.165 - Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buffalo and Rochester Harbors...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...REGULATIONS § 162.165 Buffalo and Rochester...

  2. 33 CFR 162.165 - Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buffalo and Rochester Harbors...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...REGULATIONS § 162.165 Buffalo and Rochester...

  3. 33 CFR 162.165 - Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buffalo and Rochester Harbors...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...REGULATIONS § 162.165 Buffalo and Rochester...

  4. 33 CFR 162.165 - Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buffalo and Rochester Harbors...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...REGULATIONS § 162.165 Buffalo and Rochester...

  5. 33 CFR 162.165 - Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo and Rochester Harbors...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...REGULATIONS § 162.165 Buffalo and Rochester...

  6. Genetic diversity analysis of buffalo fatty acid synthase (FASN) gene and its differential expression among bovines.

    PubMed

    Niranjan, S K; Goyal, S; Dubey, P K; Kumari, N; Mishra, S K; Mukesh, M; Kataria, R S

    2016-01-10

    Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN) gene seems to be structurally and functionally different in bovines in view of their distinctive fatty acid synthesis process. Structural variation and differential expression of FASN gene is reported in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), a bovine species close to cattle, in this study. Amino acid sequence and phylogenetic analysis of functionally important thioesterase (TE) domain of FASN revealed its conserved nature across mammals. Amino acid residues at TE domain, responsible for substrate binding and processing, were found to be invariant in all the mammalian species. A total of seven polymorphic nucleotide sites, including two in coding region of TE domain were identified across the 10 buffalo populations of riverine and swamp types. G and C alleles were found almost fixed at g18996 and g19056 loci, respectively in riverine buffaloes. Principal component analysis of three SNPs (g18433, g18996 and g19056) revealed distinct classification of riverine and swamp buffalo populations. Reverse Transcription-PCR amplification of mRNA corresponding to exon 8-10 region of buffalo FASN helped in identification of two transcript variants; one transcript of 565 nucleotides and another alternate transcript of 207 nucleotides, seems to have arisen through alternative splicing. Both the transcripts were found to be expressed in most of the vital tissues of buffalo with the highest expression in mammary gland. Semi-quantitative and real-time expression analysis across 13 different buffalo tissues revealed its highest expression in lactating mammary gland. When compared, expression of FASN was also found to be higher in liver, adipose and skeletal muscle of buffalo tissues, than cattle. However, the FASN expression was highest in adipose among the three tissues in both the species. Results indicate structural and functional distinctiveness of bovine FASN. Presence of alternate splicing in buffalo FASN also seems to be a unique phenomenon to the bovines, probably associated with mRNA based regulation of the biological functions of FASN in these species. PMID:26376068

  7. The prion protein gene polymorphisms associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility differ significantly between cattle and buffalo.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Du, Yanli; Chen, Shunmei; Qing, Lili; Wang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Jingfei; Wu, Dongdong; Zhang, Yaping

    2015-12-01

    Prion protein, encoded by the prion protein gene (PRNP), plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Several polymorphisms within the PRNP are known to be associated with influencing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility in cattle, namely two insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms (a 23-bp indel in the putative promoter and a 12-bp indel in intron 1), the number of octapeptide repeats (octarepeats) present in coding sequence (CDS) and amino acid polymorphisms. The domestic buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, are a ruminant involved in various aspects of agriculture. It is of interest to ask whether the PRNP polymorphisms differ between cattle and buffalo. In this study, we analyzed the previously reported polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo breeds, and compared these polymorphisms in cattle with BSE, healthy cattle and buffalo by pooling data from the literature. Our analysis revealed three significant findings in buffalo: 1) extraordinarily low deletion allele frequencies of the 23- and 12-bp indel polymorphisms; 2) significantly low allelic frequencies of six octarepeats in CDS and 3) the presence of S4R, A16V, P54S, G108S, V123M, S154N and F257L substitutions in buffalo CDSs. Sequence alignments comparing the buffalo coding sequence to other species were analyzed using the McDonald-Kreitman test to reveal five groups (Bison bonasus, Bos indicus, Bos gaurus, Boselaphus tragocamelus, Syncerus caffer caffer) with significantly divergent non-synonymous substitutions from buffalo, suggesting potential divergence of buffalo PRNP and others. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of PRNP polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo. Our findings have provided evidence that buffaloes have a unique genetic background in the PRNP gene in comparison with cattle. PMID:26319996

  8. The buffalo wars

    E-print Network

    Nasr, Susan L

    2006-01-01

    The wandering buffalo of Yellowstone National Park are the subject of a heated debate in the western United States. The animals carry a disease called brucellosis, which infects both buffalo and cattle and has economic ...

  9. 78 FR 11798 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ...U.S. navigable waters under the jurisdiction...Captain of the Port Buffalo (73 FR 28704...impact on navigable waters. Furthermore, the...Captain of the Port Buffalo. 2. Impact on Small...Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Safety...Location. All U.S. waters of the Saint...

  10. 78 FR 23850 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ...U.S. navigable waters under the jurisdiction...Captain of the Port Buffalo (73 FR 28704...impact on navigable waters. Furthermore, the...Captain of the Port Buffalo. 2. Impact on Small...Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Safety...Location. All U.S. waters of the Saint...

  11. Decline of Year-Class Strength of Buffalo Fishes in Lake Sakakawea,

    E-print Network

    , and reproduction of buffalo fishes under reservoir conditions is controlled by fluctuating water levels and quality are not uniformly available each year. Quality of spawning beds also is related to water levels, because buffalo and smallmouth buffalo reproduction i:-. closely related to water levels. The year-classes produced before

  12. 33 CFR 3.45-10 - Sector Buffalo Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sector Buffalo Marine Inspection... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Ninth Coast Guard District § 3.45-10 Sector Buffalo Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Buffalo's office is located in Buffalo, NY. The boundaries of...

  13. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage...

  14. Searching for copy number variations in the buffalo genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water buffalo are economically important animals in many regions of the world, especially in developing countries. The International Water Buffalo Consortium will sequence an Italian inbred female (33-fold coverage) to build the genome assembly and additional individuals to screen for SNPs. Based on...

  15. 78 FR 7808 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Buffalo Valley...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ...controlled by Newmont. The Buffalo Valley Mine Project is in conformance...process ponds; borrow pit; storm water pond and diversion ditches...media) stockpiles; powerline; water supply well; and exploration. The Buffalo Valley Mine Road is a...

  16. 77 FR 41914 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ...in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard...life and property on navigable waters during this event. During...of the Captain of the Port Buffalo. DATES: The regulations in...Division, Coast Guard Sector Buffalo, 1 Fuhrmann Blvd.,...

  17. 78 FR 45059 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ...in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard...life and property on navigable waters during this event. During...of the Captain of the Port Buffalo. DATES: The regulations in...Division, Coast Guard Sector Buffalo, 1 Fuhrmann Blvd.,...

  18. 78 FR 41846 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ...in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard...in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. This action is necessary...life and property on navigable waters during this event. During...of the Captain of the Port Buffalo. DATES: The regulations...

  19. 33 CFR 165.911 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Port Buffalo Zone. 165.911 Section 165.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Location. The following are security zones: (1) Nine... Port Buffalo. (2) Persons or vessels desiring to transit the area of the Nine Mile Point...

  20. Thermal Band Characterization of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper. [Buffalo, New York and water temperature in Lake Erie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, J. C.; Barker, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    A quick look monitor in the spacecraft control center was used to measure the TM Band 6 shutter background and the 34.7 C internal blackbody signal on over 50 dates. Comparison of relative internal gains between the four channels to prelaunch values showed changes over 9 months of up to 5%, while 512 x 512 subsections of the original 10 daytime scenes showed scene counts that ranged from 135 down to 62. A night scene of the Buffalo area was used to determine channel gain relative to the mean and to discern a systematic along scan pattern in a difference between forward and reverse scan counts of up to 0.5. A corrected digital image was produced and individual gains and offsets were calculated for the four channels. At satellite radiance was determine and noise equivalent temperature difference was calculated. The calibration data and the Buffalo scene, with the corrections and estimates of the atmospheric transmission and radiance, were used to make a temperature estimate for an area of Lake Erie of 21 C to 27 C. Local records of the temperature showed 21 C.

  1. TEMPERATURE AND CONDUCTIVITY MODELING FOR THE BUFFALO RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A hydrodynamic and water quality transport study of the Buffalo River has been conducted. sing a two-dimensional (laterally averaged) model and incorporating appropriate specification of boundary conditions, we simulated the transport of river water temperature and conductivity f...

  2. Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University at Buffalo

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University at Buffalo S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f N e w Y o r k MAE Seminar Series Nanoengineered Surfaces for Efficiency Enhancements in Energy and Water Energy, Water, Agriculture, Transportation, Electronics Cooling, Buildings, etc. Over the years

  3. Mass spectrometry detection of fraudulent use of cow whey in water buffalo, sheep, or goat Italian ricotta cheese.

    PubMed

    Camerini, Serena; Montepeloso, Emanuela; Casella, Marialuisa; Crescenzi, Marco; Marianella, Rosa Maria; Fuselli, Fabio

    2016-04-15

    Ricotta cheese is a typical Italian product, made with whey from various species, including cow, buffalo, sheep, and goat. Ricotta cheese nominally manufactured from the last three species may be fraudulently produced using the comparatively cheaper cow whey. Exposing such food frauds requires a reliable analytical method. Despite the extensive similarities shared by whey proteins of the four species, a mass spectrometry-based analytical method was developed that exploits three species-specific peptides derived from ?-lactoglobulin and ?-lactalbumin. This method can detect as little as 0.5% bovine whey in ricotta cheese from the other three species. Furthermore, a tight correlation was found (R(2)>0.99) between cow whey percentages and mass spectrometry measurements throughout the 1-50% range. Thus, this method can be used for forensic detection of ricotta cheese adulteration and, if properly validated, to provide quantitative evaluations. PMID:26675863

  4. 33 CFR 3.45-10 - Sector Buffalo Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01...2014-07-01 false Sector Buffalo Marine Inspection...office is located in Buffalo, NY. The boundaries of Sector Buffalo's Marine Inspection...include all navigable waters of the United States and contiguous...

  5. 33 CFR 3.45-10 - Sector Buffalo Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01...2012-07-01 false Sector Buffalo Marine Inspection...office is located in Buffalo, NY. The boundaries of Sector Buffalo's Marine Inspection...include all navigable waters of the United States and contiguous...

  6. 33 CFR 3.45-10 - Sector Buffalo Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01...2010-07-01 false Sector Buffalo Marine Inspection...office is located in Buffalo, NY. The boundaries of Sector Buffalo's Marine Inspection...include all navigable waters of the United States and contiguous...

  7. 33 CFR 3.45-10 - Sector Buffalo Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01...2013-07-01 false Sector Buffalo Marine Inspection...office is located in Buffalo, NY. The boundaries of Sector Buffalo's Marine Inspection...include all navigable waters of the United States and contiguous...

  8. 33 CFR 3.45-10 - Sector Buffalo Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01...2011-07-01 false Sector Buffalo Marine Inspection...office is located in Buffalo, NY. The boundaries of Sector Buffalo's Marine Inspection...include all navigable waters of the United States and contiguous...

  9. A duplex PCR-based assay for simultaneous detection of Trypanosoma evansi and Theileria annulata infections in water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Sudan, Vikrant; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Parashar, Rahul; Shanker, Daya

    2015-06-01

    Trypanosomosis and bovine tropical theileriosis are important vector-borne protozoan diseases imposing some of the serious constraints on the health and productivity of domestic cattle in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Following recovery from primary infection of both these conditions, animals become persistent carriers and act as reservoirs of infection thereby playing a critical role in disease epidemiology. The present study describes development and evaluation of duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for simultaneous detection of Trypanosoma evansi and Theileria annulata in buffaloes. Following in silico screening for candidate target genes representing each of the pathogens, an optimized duplex PCR assay was established using TBR F/R and TAMS F/R as primer sets encoding for products of 164 and 721 bp for T. evansi and T. annulata, respectively. The results were compared and correlated with conventional Giemsa-stained thin blood smear examination and the single PCR assay. The duplex PCR detected each pathogen with the same level of sensitivity, irrespective of whether its DNA was amplified in isolation or together with DNA of another pathogen. Moreover, single and duplex PCRs were able to detect each species with equal sensitivity in serially diluted DNA representing mixtures of T. evansi and T. annulata, and no evidence of nonspecific amplification from nontarget species was observed. The developed assay may be seen as a good tool for epidemiological studies aiming at assessing the burden of dual infections and improving control of the associated diseases in endemic regions. PMID:25846571

  10. Effects of In Vitro Zinc Sulphate Additive to The Semen Extender on Water Buffalo (Bubalusbubalis) Spermatozoa before and after Freezing

    PubMed Central

    Dorostkar, Kamran; Alavi Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Khaki, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of in vitro zinc sulphate additive to semen extender on sperm parameters (progressive motility, viability, membrane integrity and DNA stability) after cryopreservation. Materials and Methods In this Prospective longitudinal laboratory study, semen samples of 5 buffalo bulls of 3-5 years old were collected at 5 different occasions from Iran, Urmia during summer and autumn 2011, 25 samples were used in each treatment. Sperm progressive motility, viability and abnormal morphology were measured before and at 0.5 (T0), 1(T1) and 2(T2) hours after diluting semen(1:10 v/v) in Tris-citric acid based extender (without egg yolk and glycerol) at 37?C containing none (control group), 0.072, 0.144, 0.288, 0.576 and 1.152 mg/L zinc sulphate to investigate dose and time effects. Next, a Tris-citric acid-egg yolk-glycerol extender (20% egg yolk and 7% glycerol) containing the same amount of zinc sulphate was prepared, diluted semen (1:10 v/v) was cooled and kept into a refrigerated chamber (4?C) for 4 hours to equilibrate. Sperm progressive motility, viability, abnormal morphology, membrane integrity and DNA damage were estimated.The equilibrated semen was loaded in 0.5 ml French straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Later, the frozen semen was thawed and the same parameters as well as total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the frozen-thawed semen were determined. Results The results showed that zinc sulphate additive at the rate of 0.288 mg/L gave a higher protection of sperm progressive motility (53.7 ± 1.8% vs. 40.5 ± 1.7%), viability (70.8 ± 1.8% vs. 60.1 ± 1.5%), membrane integrity (67.3 ± 1.6% vs. 56.6 ± 1.7%), DNA stability (10.1 ± 0.47% vs. 11.8 ± 0.33% damaged DNA) through the process of dilution, equilibration and freeze-thawing and caused a higher TAC level (81 ± 3.3% vs. 63 ± 3.2 µmol/L) after freez-thawing compared to the control group. Adding 0.576 and 1.152 mg/L zinc sulphate, however, was deleterious to the sperm and significantly reduced the studied sperm parameters. Conclusion Adding 0.288 mg/L zinc sulphate to the extender, compared to the control group, gives a better sperm preservation upon freezing processes which in turn, may results in higher semen fertility. But, addition of higher zinc sulphate concentrations (0.576 and 1.152 mg/L) are detrimental to buffalo spermatozoa. PMID:25379162

  11. Bovine calves as ideal bio-indicators for fluoridated drinking water and endemic osteo-dental fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Choubisa, S L

    2014-07-01

    Relative susceptibility to fluoride (F) toxicosis in the form of osteo-dental fluorosis was observed in an observational survey of 2,747 mature and 887 immature domestic animals of diverse species living in areas with naturally fluoridated (>1.5 ppm F) drinking water. These animals included buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), cattle (Bos taurus), camels (Camelus dromedarius), donkeys (Equus asinus), horses (Equus caballus), goats (Capra hircus), and sheep (Ovis aries). Of these mature and immature animals, 899 (32.7 %) and 322 (36.3 %) showed evidence of dental fluorosis with varying grades, respectively. Their incisor teeth were stained with light to deep brownish color. On clinical examination, 31.2 % mature and 10.7 % immature animals revealed periosteal exostoses, intermittent lameness, and stiffness of tendons in the legs as signs of skeletal fluorosis. The maximum susceptibility to fluoride toxicosis was found in bovines (buffaloes and cattle) followed by equines (donkeys and horses), flocks (goats and sheep), and camelids (camels). The bovine calves were found to be more sensitive and highly susceptible to F toxicosis and revealed the maximum prevalence (92.2 %) of dental fluorosis. This indicates that bovine calves are less tolerant and give early sign of F poisoning (dental fluorosis) and therefore, they can be considered as bio-indicators for fluoridated water as well as for endemicity of osteo-dental fluorosis. Causes for variation in susceptibility to F toxicosis (fluorosis) in various species of domestic animal are also discussed. PMID:24671615

  12. OPTIXcell improves the postthaw quality and fertility of buffalo bull sperm.

    PubMed

    Ansari, M S; Rakha, B A; Akhter, S; Ashiq, M

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the liposome-containing, animal protein-free, commercially available OPTIXcell extender with the Tris-citric-egg yolk extender for postthaw quality and fertility of buffalo semen. Semen was collected from five adult Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls of similar age group with an artificial vagina (at 42 °C) for 3 weeks (replicates). Semen ejaculates from each buffalo bull were divided into two aliquots and diluted (at 37 °C having 50 × 10(6) spermatozoa/mL) in the OPTIXcell or Tris-citric-egg yolk (control) extender. Diluted semen was cooled to 4 °C in 2 hours, equilibrated for 4 hours, and filled in 0.5-mL straws. The semen straws were kept over liquid nitrogen vapors (5 cm) for 10 minutes. The straws were then plunged and stored in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C). After 24 hours of storage, the semen straws were thawed at 37 °C for 30 seconds to assess postthaw quality. Percentages of sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, viability, and acrosomal integrity were improved (P < 0.05) in the OPTIXcell extender compared to the Tris-citric-egg yolk extender. Values for DNA integrity (%) did not differ in the OPTIXcell and Tris-citric-egg yolk extenders. The overall conception rate in buffaloes was improved (P < 0.05) with semen cryopreserved in the OPTIXcell extender (59.5%) compared to semen cryopreserved in the Tris-citric-egg yolk extender (41.5%). It is concluded that the liposome-containing commercially available OPTIXcell extender is more efficient to conserve postthaw quality and resulted in higher fertility rate of buffalo in the field. PMID:26522702

  13. 75 FR 40726 - Safety Zones: Annual Events Requiring Safety Zones in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ...in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard...in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone from July 2, 2010 through...life and property on navigable waters during these events. During...of the Captain of the Port Buffalo. DATES: This notice...

  14. 77 FR 64126 - Notice of Proposed Withdrawal of Public Land for the Buffalo Bill Dam and Reservoir Modification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ...developed recreation site in the Buffalo Bill Dam and Reservoir Modification...of a Master Plan for the Buffalo Bill State Park and the Buffalo Bill Dam and Reservoir Modification...values that need protection. No water rights would be needed to...

  15. DID A HEADLINE CATCH YOUR EYE? Go online at www.buffalo.edu/progress for links to each story

    E-print Network

    Sachs, Frederick

    DESIGNED A WATER PURIFIER THAT COULD SAVE MILLIONS OF LIVES P.7 ACCELERATED BUFFALO'S ECONOMIC RESURGENCE P#12;{ 2 } DID A HEADLINE CATCH YOUR EYE? Go online at www.buffalo.edu/progress for links to each story you see here, and experience a year in the life at UB. AT THE UNIVERSITY AT BUFFALO, our

  16. 78 FR 7808 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Buffalo Valley...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... soil (growth media) stockpiles; powerline; water supply well; and exploration. The Buffalo Valley Mine... Buffalo Valley Mine Project, Lander and Humboldt Counties, NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior... Impact Statement (EIS) to analyze and disclose impacts associated with the Buffalo Valley Mine Project,...

  17. 33 CFR 165.911 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01...Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. 165.911 ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Location...Plants. The navigable waters of Lake Ontario bounded by the...

  18. 33 CFR 165.911 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01...Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. 165.911 ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Location...Plants. The navigable waters of Lake Ontario bounded by the...

  19. 33 CFR 165.911 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01...Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. 165.911 ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Location...Plants. The navigable waters of Lake Ontario bounded by the...

  20. 33 CFR 165.911 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01...Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. 165.911 ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Location...Plants. The navigable waters of Lake Ontario bounded by the...

  1. 33 CFR 165.911 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01...Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. 165.911 ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Location...Plants. The navigable waters of Lake Ontario bounded by the...

  2. At 1050 Gallery, Block 12, two centrifugal pumps, Buffalo Pumps, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    At 1050 Gallery, Block 12, two centrifugal pumps, Buffalo Pumps, Buffalo, NY, driven by Allis Chalmers motors (size 3 HSO, head 230, 120 cpm, 1750, rpm, Impulse dia. 15) installed in the 1960s and used for water-cooling system for 230-kv cable; the cables have been removed and the pumps are not currently used. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  3. Generation of a Novel Bacteriophage Library Displaying scFv Antibody Fragments from the Natural Buffalo Host to Identify Antigens from Adult Schistosoma japonicum for Diagnostic Development

    PubMed Central

    Hosking, Christopher G.; McWilliam, Hamish E. G.; Driguez, Patrick; Piedrafita, David; Li, Yuesheng; McManus, Donald P.; Ilag, Leodevico L.; Meeusen, Els N. T.; de Veer, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The development of effective diagnostic tools will be essential in the continuing fight to reduce schistosome infection; however, the diagnostic tests available to date are generally laborious and difficult to implement in current parasite control strategies. We generated a series of single-chain antibody Fv domain (scFv) phage display libraries from the portal lymph node of field exposed water buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, 11–12 days post challenge with Schistosoma japonicum cercariae. The selected scFv-phages showed clear enrichment towards adult schistosomes and excretory-secretory (ES) proteins by immunofluorescence, ELISA and western blot analysis. The enriched libraries were used to probe a schistosome specific protein microarray resulting in the recognition of a number of proteins, five of which were specific to schistosomes, with RNA expression predominantly in the adult life-stage based on interrogation of schistosome expressed sequence tags (EST). As the libraries were enriched by panning against ES products, these antigens may be excreted or secreted into the host vasculature and hence may make good targets for a diagnostic assay. Further selection of the scFv library against infected mouse sera identified five soluble scFv clones that could selectively recognise soluble whole adult preparations (SWAP) relative to an irrelevant protein control (ovalbumin). Furthermore, two of the identified scFv clones also selectively recognised SWAP proteins when spiked into naïve mouse sera. These host B-cell derived scFvs that specifically bind to schistosome protein preparations will be valuable reagents for further development of a cost effective point-of-care diagnostic test. PMID:26684756

  4. Generation of a Novel Bacteriophage Library Displaying scFv Antibody Fragments from the Natural Buffalo Host to Identify Antigens from Adult Schistosoma japonicum for Diagnostic Development.

    PubMed

    Hosking, Christopher G; McWilliam, Hamish E G; Driguez, Patrick; Piedrafita, David; Li, Yuesheng; McManus, Donald P; Ilag, Leodevico L; Meeusen, Els N T; Veer, Michael J de

    2015-12-01

    The development of effective diagnostic tools will be essential in the continuing fight to reduce schistosome infection; however, the diagnostic tests available to date are generally laborious and difficult to implement in current parasite control strategies. We generated a series of single-chain antibody Fv domain (scFv) phage display libraries from the portal lymph node of field exposed water buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, 11-12 days post challenge with Schistosoma japonicum cercariae. The selected scFv-phages showed clear enrichment towards adult schistosomes and excretory-secretory (ES) proteins by immunofluorescence, ELISA and western blot analysis. The enriched libraries were used to probe a schistosome specific protein microarray resulting in the recognition of a number of proteins, five of which were specific to schistosomes, with RNA expression predominantly in the adult life-stage based on interrogation of schistosome expressed sequence tags (EST). As the libraries were enriched by panning against ES products, these antigens may be excreted or secreted into the host vasculature and hence may make good targets for a diagnostic assay. Further selection of the scFv library against infected mouse sera identified five soluble scFv clones that could selectively recognise soluble whole adult preparations (SWAP) relative to an irrelevant protein control (ovalbumin). Furthermore, two of the identified scFv clones also selectively recognised SWAP proteins when spiked into naïve mouse sera. These host B-cell derived scFvs that specifically bind to schistosome protein preparations will be valuable reagents for further development of a cost effective point-of-care diagnostic test. PMID:26684756

  5. Water quality in Reedy Fork and Buffalo Creek basins in the Greensboro area, North Carolina, 1986-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davenport, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Water and bottom-sediment samples were collected from April 1986 through September 1987 at 19 sites in Guilford County and the City of Greensboro, North Carolina. Sampling locations included 13 stream sites, two lakes that supply the City of Greensboro with drinking water, two City of Greensboro finished drinking-water filtration plants, and effluent from the two municipal wastewater plants prior to outfall into receiving streams. Water sampling consisted of six surveys during various stages of steady ground-water flow at all sites and high-flow-event sampling during two storms at six sites. Bottom-sediment samples were collected at three sites during two routine sampling surveys. A summary of nearly 22, 000 separate chemical or physical analyses of water samples or bottom sediment is presented and discussed as individual values, ranges of values, or median values with respect to the locations of sampling sites, streamflow conditions, or other information bearing on water-quality conditions under discussion. The results include discussions of general water-quality indicators; major ion, nutrient, and trace-element concentrations; acid and base/neutral extractable organic compounds; volatile organic compounds; and organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides detected at each sampling site. Loadings of selected constituents are also estimated on a yearly and daily basis. The quality of the raw and finished water, municipal effluents, and streams in the Greensboro area are characterized by using State and Federal water-quality standards. Inorganic constituents most commonly found in excess of standards were iron, copper, zinc, arsenic, phosphorus, manganese, cyanide, and mercury. Relatively few organic compounds were detected; however, those consistently reported were phthalate, thihalomethane, organophosphorus pesticide, benzol, and phenolic compounds. Selected inorganic, physical, and total organic carbon data are used in a Wilcoxon test for two independent variables to statistically compare water-quality characteristics in selected rural, semideveloped and urban basins. During low-flow sampling, the constituents that differed significantly among all sites were calcium, magnesium, and chloride. During low flows, concentrations of orthophosphate, fluoride, sulfate, and TOC differed at the urban site from the rural and semideveloped and urban sites. There were no significant differences among sites in concentrations of sodium, suspended sediment, nickel, zinc, copper, and mercury during low flows. The Wilcoxon test performed on high-flow data indicated that concentrations of TOC, chloride, sulfate, suspended sediment, and nickel were not significantly different among the sites.

  6. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01...Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. 162.175 ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the...

  7. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01...Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. 162.175 ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the...

  8. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01...Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. 162.175 ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the...

  9. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01...Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. 162.175 ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the...

  10. 77 FR 65011 - Buffalo Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Randall County, TX; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ...continue the CCP process for the Buffalo Lake NWR. We started this process...33693; June 19, 1998). The Buffalo Lake NWR, which consists of...infrastructure. The Aquifer receding due water source, like the to human activity...filters to insure no Ogallala water is used. Lakebed...

  11. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01...Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. 162.175 ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the...

  12. 33 CFR 207.580 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.580 Section 207.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.580 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.;...

  13. The fishes of Buffalo National River, Arkansas, 2001-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James C.; Justus, B.G.

    2005-01-01

    During June through September 2001 and 2002, extensive fish community sampling was conducted at 29 sites within the boundaries of Buffalo National River. Samples were collected using backpack, tote barge, and boat electrofishing equipment. Kick seining also was used at all sites. To supplement these results, samples were collected in 2003 from less typical habitats and during other seasons of the year. Ten supplemental samples were collected from the Buffalo River and five samples were collected from tributaries of the Buffalo River. During the 3 years of sampling, 66 species of fish were collected or observed from the 42 sampling sites. Stonerollers, duskystripe shiners, longear sunfish, and rainbow darters were among the more abundant fish species at most sites. Each of these species is common and abundant throughout much of the Ozark Plateaus in creeks and small rivers. Other species (for example, banded sculpin, southern redbelly dace, orangethroat darter, and Ozark minnow) were among the more abundant species at other sites. These species prefer small- to medium-sized, springfed streams or small creeks. A preliminary list of species expected to occur at Buffalo National River provided by the National Park Service incorrectly listed 47 species because of incorrect species range or habitat requirements. Upon revising this list, the inventory yielded 66 of the 78 species (85 percent). Twelve additional species not collected in 2001-2003 may occur at Buffalo National River for two primary reasons--because the species had been collected previously at the park, or because the park occurs within the known species range and habitats found at the park are suitable for the species. Although no fish species collected from Buffalo National River are federally-listed threatened or endangered species, several species collected at Buffalo National River may be of special interest to National Park Service managers and others. Ten species are endemic to the Ozark Plateaus area and most of these ten are restricted to the White River Basin. For some species the Buffalo River is a population stronghold. The yoke darter and Ozark bass are especially abundant in the Buffalo River. In Arkansas, the Ozark shiner is most abundant in the Buffalo River and, although populations of Ozark shiners are declining in Arkansas, this is not typically the case in the Buffalo River. Data from 2001-2003 indicate that gilt darters currently (2005) are less common in the Buffalo River than during the 1970's. Populations of channel catfish (and any other fish species whose movements are inhibited by the cold water temperatures of the White River) may continue to decline without remedial efforts.

  14. Actin Polymerization: An Event Regulated by Tyrosine Phosphorylation During Buffalo Sperm Capacitation.

    PubMed

    Naresh, S; Atreja, S K

    2015-12-01

    In the female reproductive tract, the spermatozoa undergo a series of physiological and biochemical changes, prior to gaining the ability to fertilize, that result to capacitation. However, the actin polymerization and protein tyrosine phosphorylation are the two necessary steps for capacitation. In this study, we have demonstrated the actin polymerization and established the correlation between protein tyrosine phosphorylation and actin reorganization during in vitro capacitation in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa. Indirect immunofluorescence and Western blot techniques were used to detect actin polymerization and tyrosine phosphorylation. The time-dependent fluorimetric studies revealed that the actin polymerization starts from the tail region and progressed towards the head region of spermatozoa during capacitation. The lysophosphatidyl choline (LPC)-induced acrosome reaction (AR) stimulated quick actin depolymerization. The inhibitor cytochalasin D (CD) blocked the in vitro capacitation by inhibiting the actin polymerization. In addition, we also performed different inhibitor (Genistein, H-89, PD9809 and GF-109) and enhancer (dbcAMP, H2 O2 and vanadate) studies on actin tyrosine phosphorylation and actin polymerization. The inhibitors of tyrosine phosphorylation inhibit actin tyrosine phosphorylation and polymerization, whereas enhancers of tyrosine phosphorylation stimulate F-actin formation and tyrosine phosphorylation. These observations suggest that the tyrosine phosphorylation regulates the actin polymerization, and both are coupled processes during capacitation of buffalo spermatozoa. PMID:26514336

  15. 33 CFR 165.939 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01...the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. 165.939 ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Safety...Location. All U.S. waters of the Saint Lawrence...

  16. 33 CFR 165.939 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01...the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. 165.939 ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Safety...i) Location. All waters of the St. Lawrence...

  17. 33 CFR 165.939 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01...the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. 165.939 ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Safety...Location. All U.S. waters of the Saint Lawrence...

  18. 33 CFR 165.939 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01...the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. 165.939 ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Safety...i) Location. All waters of the St. Lawrence...

  19. 33 CFR 165.939 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01...the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. 165.939 ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Safety...i) Location. All waters of the St. Lawrence...

  20. PUZZLING POWERS: THE PROBLEM OF FIT NEIL E. WILLIAMS (University at Buffalo)

    E-print Network

    Williams, Neil E.

    PUZZLING POWERS: THE PROBLEM OF FIT NEIL E. WILLIAMS (University at Buffalo) in The Metaphysics' for one another. If the salt is to manifest its solubility in the water, the water must likewise manifest

  1. Technical and economical feasibility of buffalo gourd as a novel energy crop: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, B.

    1988-02-01

    The New Mexico Solar Energy Institute at NMSU has conducted a two-year investigation into the technical and economic feasibility of using the buffalo gourd plant as an energy feedstock in eastern New Mexico. The New Mexico buffalo gourd project conducted field planting trials to determine optimum planting density, fertilizer levels, and irrigation regime. Starchy roots produced by the field plantings were evaluated as an ethanol feedstock at both laboratory and pilot scale. These studies indicate that buffalo gourd is well suited for root production in eastern New Mexico. Current cultivars of buffalo gourd can be most efficiently produced under dry land farming conditions with little, if any, supplemental fertilizer. Traditional plant breeding techniques can be profitably employed on the buffalo gourd to breed a size and shape of root more easily harvested by existing farm machinery. Because of its sensitivity to root rot, buffalo gourd must be grown in well drained soils. Finally, buffalo gourd has been shown to be an excellent feedstock for ethanol production provided necessary pre-fermentation processing (chopping of roots) is performed correctly. A model was created to determine the economic feasibility of growing buffalo gourd in eastern New Mexico. It was determined that the net return to a farmer in eastern New Mexico can be higher planting buffalo gourd than many traditionally grown crops because of buffalo gourd's low water and fertilizer requirements. The model further indicates that net return is heavily influenced by root yield. Continued research is needed to optimize buffalo gourd root yield, as well as root size and shape, disease resistance, etc. A clearly defined R and D agenda and commercialization strategy is presented and discussed. Buffalo gourd has been demonstrated to have high potential as an alternative feedstock for ethanol production in eastern New Mexico. 128 refs., 9 figs., 28 tabs.

  2. Anthelmintic Effect of Biocompatible Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on Gigantocotyle explanatum, a Neglected Parasite of Indian Water Buffalo.

    PubMed

    Khan, Yasir Akhtar; Singh, Braj Raj; Ullah, Rizwan; Shoeb, Mohd; Naqvi, Alim H; Abidi, Syed M A

    2015-01-01

    Helminth parasites of veterinary importance cause huge revenue losses to agrarian economy worldwide. With the emergence of drug resistance against the current formulations, there is a need to focus on the alternative approaches in order to control this menace. In the present study, biocompatible zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were used to see their in vitro effect on the biliary amphistomes, Gigantocotyle explanatum, infecting Bubalus bubalis because these nanoparticles are involved in generation of free radicals that induce oxidative stress, resulting in disruption of cellular machinery. The ZnO NPs were synthesized by using egg albumin as a biotemplate and subsequently characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Diffraction and Spectrophotometrical, which showed that ZnO NPs were highly purified wurtzite type polycrystals, with a mean size of 16.7 nm. When the parasites were treated with lower concentrations (0.004% and 0.008%) of the ZnO NPs, the worms mounted a protective response by stimulating the antioxidant system but the treatment of G. explanatum with 0.012% ZnO NPs produced significant inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p< 0.05) and glutathione S- transferase (GST) (p<0.01), while the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation marker, was significantly (p< 0.01) elevated. SEM and histopathology revealed pronounced tegumental damage showing the disruption of surface papillae and the annulations, particularly in the posterior region near acetabulum. The under expression of a number of polypeptides, loss of worm motility in a time dependent manner, further reflect strong anthelmintic potential of ZnO NPs. It can be concluded that the anthelmintic effect might be due to the production of reactive oxygen species that target a variety of macromolecules such as nucleic acid, protein and lipids which are involved in different cellular processes. PMID:26177503

  3. Anthelmintic Effect of Biocompatible Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on Gigantocotyle explanatum, a Neglected Parasite of Indian Water Buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Yasir Akhtar; Singh, Braj Raj; Ullah, Rizwan; Shoeb, Mohd; Naqvi, Alim H.; Abidi, Syed M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Helminth parasites of veterinary importance cause huge revenue losses to agrarian economy worldwide. With the emergence of drug resistance against the current formulations, there is a need to focus on the alternative approaches in order to control this menace. In the present study, biocompatible zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were used to see their in vitro effect on the biliary amphistomes, Gigantocotyle explanatum, infecting Bubalus bubalis because these nanoparticles are involved in generation of free radicals that induce oxidative stress, resulting in disruption of cellular machinery. The ZnO NPs were synthesized by using egg albumin as a biotemplate and subsequently characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Diffraction and Spectrophotometrical, which showed that ZnO NPs were highly purified wurtzite type polycrystals, with a mean size of 16.7 nm. When the parasites were treated with lower concentrations (0.004% and 0.008%) of the ZnO NPs, the worms mounted a protective response by stimulating the antioxidant system but the treatment of G. explanatum with 0.012% ZnO NPs produced significant inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p< 0.05) and glutathione S- transferase (GST) (p<0.01), while the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation marker, was significantly (p< 0.01) elevated. SEM and histopathology revealed pronounced tegumental damage showing the disruption of surface papillae and the annulations, particularly in the posterior region near acetabulum. The under expression of a number of polypeptides, loss of worm motility in a time dependent manner, further reflect strong anthelmintic potential of ZnO NPs. It can be concluded that the anthelmintic effect might be due to the production of reactive oxygen species that target a variety of macromolecules such as nucleic acid, protein and lipids which are involved in different cellular processes. PMID:26177503

  4. 76 FR 60962 - Noise Exposure Map Update for Buffalo Niagara International Airport, Buffalo, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Update for Buffalo Niagara International Airport, Buffalo, NY AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation... Frontier Transportation Authority (NFTA), for Buffalo Niagara International Airport, under the...

  5. 33 CFR 110.84 - Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01...opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84 Section... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. An area...

  6. 33 CFR 110.84 - Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01...opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84 Section... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. An area...

  7. 33 CFR 110.84 - Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01...opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84 Section... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. An area...

  8. 33 CFR 110.84 - Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01...opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84 Section... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. An area...

  9. 33 CFR 110.84 - Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01...opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84 Section... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. An area...

  10. UPPER BUFFALO WILDERNESS AND BUFFALO ADDITION ROADLESS AREA, ARKANSAS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mary H.; Armstrong, Michelle K.

    1984-01-01

    The Upper Buffalo Wilderness and Buffalo Addition Roadless Area covers about 19 sq mi in the Ozark National Forest, Newton County, Arkansas. No metal-bearing minerals were observed during geologic mapping, and analyses for zinc and lead contents in surface rock and sediment samples from the study area are not anomalous. Exploratory drilling into the Boone Formation and (or) the Everton Formation will be necessary to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of zinc and lead in the study area.

  11. Improving smallholder food security through investigations of carcass composition and beef marketing of buffalo and cattle in northern Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Nampanya, Sonevilay; Khounsy, Syseng; Phonvisay, Aloun; Bush, Russell David; Windsor, Peter Andrew

    2015-04-01

    This study determined the carcass composition of Lao indigenous buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos indicus), then examined trends in bovine meat marketing following review of records of beef production and prices in the two major cities of Luang Prabang (LPB) and Xieng Khoung (XK) provinces in northern Laos. Samples from 41 buffalo and 81 cattle (n?=?122) were collected from animals slaughtered in May-June 2014, with live weights, carcass weights and other carcass-related variables collected. The animals were classified into four age cohort groups (<2, 2-<4, 4-6 and >6 years) with quantitative and dichotomous qualitative traits determined. There were significant differences in buffalo and cattle predicted mean carcass weights between age classification categories (p?=?0.003 and 0.001) but not in dressing percentages (p?=?0.1 and 0.1). The carcass weight of buffalo was 104 (±23.1)-176 (±12.0)?kg compared to 65 (±8.7)-84 (±6.5)?kg of cattle, with dressing percentages of 37-40 and 39-42 %, respectively. Despite an average bovine meat price increase of 42-48 % between 2011 and 2013, there was a reduction in the numbers of large ruminants slaughtered in the surveyed cities of LPB (11 %) and XK (7 %), with bovine meat availability per person of 5.2-6.6 kg (LPB) and 3.0-3.8 kg (XK). Improving the sustainability of the bovine meat supply in Laos requires a systems approach involving improvements to animal health and production, livestock marketing, plus the critical development of improved slaughterhouse facilities enabling a meat-processing sector to emerge. This development pathway is of particular importance for building the capacity of Laos to reduce food insecurity and alleviate the poverty of its largely rural smallholder community. PMID:25700673

  12. Evaluation of neutron exposure conditions for the Buffalo Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lippincott, E.P.; Kellogg, L.S.; McElroy, W.N.; Baldwin, C.A.

    1984-04-01

    The light water test reactor at the Nuclear Science and Technology Facility of the State University of New York at Buffalo is currently being used to irradiate specimens in in-core positions for NRC-sponsored metallurgical tests. It is important that the neutron exposures for these Buffalo tests be consistent with those determined for related irradiations in the BSR and ORR reactor at ORNL. Therefore, HEDL National Reactor Dosimetry Center dosimetry procedures and ORNL calculational procedures were used for an evaluation of typical test conditions.

  13. Comparative studies confirm natural infections of buffaloes by Sarcocystis cruzi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controversy exists concerning whether cattle and water buffalo sustain infections with cysts distinct arrays species in the genus Sarcocystis. In particular, morphologically similar parasites have been alternately ascribed to S. cruzi or to S. levinei, depending on their occurrence in cattle and wa...

  14. 76 FR 20530 - Safety Zone; Boom Days, Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Boom Days, Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo... temporary safety zone in the Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY for the Boom Days Fireworks. This zone is intended to restrict vessels from Doug's Dive, the NFTA small boat harbor and a portion of the...

  15. Buffalo river dredging demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Averett, D.E.; Zappi, P.A.; Tatem, H.E.; Gibson, A.C.; Tominey, E.A.

    1996-02-01

    The Corps of Engineers Buffalo District conducted a demonstration of equipment for dredging contaminated sediments. Several thousand cubic yards of sediment were removed from outside the Buffalo River Federal navigation channel limits using three dredge types: (1) open bucket, (2) enclosed bucket, and (3) submersible pump. The effectiveness of a silt screen deployed downstream of the dredge to reduce suspended sediment transport was also evaluated. Extensive sediment and water column monitoring and sampling were conducted during the 2-week demonstration as part of the effort to determine sediment resuspension rates and contaminant releases associated with the dredging operations. Water column samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, total organic carbon, PCBs, PAHs, metals, ammonia, and pH. A water column bioassay test using Daphnia magna was also performed to assess toxicity effects of the dredging operation. Results of this study were used to assess and refine techniques and laboratory tests that have been previously developed by the Corps of Engineers to predict sediment resuspension rates and contaminant releases. In another phase of the study, the Bureau of Mines demonstrated the use of polyelectrolytes for rapid removal of suspended solids from a dilute dredged material slurry.

  16. Sequence analysis and genetic variability of stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) gene in the Italian Mediterranean river buffalo.

    PubMed

    Pauciullo, A; Cosenza, G; D'Avino, A; Colimoro, L; Nicodemo, D; Coletta, A; Feligini, M; Marchitelli, C; Di Berardino, D; Ramunno, L

    2010-12-01

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) plays a key metabolic role by changing the saturated FA content of ruminant milk and meat. In this study we characterized for the first time the stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene in river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and investigated its genetic variability. On a total of 78 buffaloes, 15 SNPs were detected and 6 of them were preliminarily genotyped. In particular, the g.133A>C SNP was found to create a new consensus site for the SP1 binding site, thus generating a new tandem repeat in the promoter region. A preliminary association study with the milk fatty acid content showed that the C allele significantly affects the total desaturation index (P<0.01). Linkage disequilibrium analysis allowed identification of 7 haplotypes and 4 tag SNPs. Such polymorphisms could represent useful genetic markers for association studies with fatty acid composition, but further studies are needed to evaluate their potential use to improve the nutritional quality of the dairy products. PMID:20691778

  17. Technical and economical feasibility of buffalo gourd as a novel energy crop. Final report, 14 November 1983-31 December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, B.

    1988-02-01

    The New Mexico Solar Energy Institute has conducted a two-year investigation into the technical and economic feasibility of using the buffalo gourd plant as an energy feedstock in eastern New Mexico. The studies indicate that buffalo gourd is well suited for root production in eastern NM. Buffalo gourd has been shown to be an excellent feedstock for ethanol production provided necessary pre-fermentation processing (chopping of roots) is performed correctly. A model was created to determine the economic feasibility of growing buffalo gourd in eastern NM. It was determined that the net return to a farmer in eastern NM can be higher planting buffalo gourd than many traditionally grown crops because of buffalo gourd's low water and fertilizer requirements. A clearly defined RandD agenda and commercialization strategy is presented and discussed. Buffalo gourd has been demonstrated to have high potential as an alternative feedstock for ethanol production in eastern NM.

  18. 33 CFR 165.939 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Register as practicable, in accordance with 33 CFR 165.7(a). Such means of notification may also... Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. 165.939 Section 165.939 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.939 Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo...

  19. Characteristics and Behavior of a Two-Hour Oscillation in the Buffalo River, Buffalo, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, A. S.; Sabato, J. S.; Singer, J.; Manley, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Buffalo River discharges into Lake Erie near the upper end of the Niagara River. The lower 9.2 km of the river has been designated as a Great Lakes Area of Concern due to environmental problems associated with poor water quality, degraded riparian and river habitat, and contaminated sediments. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers maintains a navigational channel at a depth of 6.7 m below mean lake level by periodic dredging. In 2011, extensive dredging took place within the upper portions of the river to remove some of the most contaminated sediments. This dredging resulted in both widening and deepening of the channel. The Buffalo River's gradient is low and current velocities generally are <10 cm/sec. The low flow conditions coupled with the orientation of the river allows Lake Erie waters to enter the Buffalo River reversing its flow. The largest episodic lake-driven flow reversals were found during strong westerly wind events that setup an elevated water level at the eastern (Buffalo) end of the lake. Lower amplitude flow reversals could also be associated with subsequent Lake Erie surface seiches or other phenomena. They also occur during times when no seiche conditions are present. The interaction between river flow and reverse (lake-driven) flow was investigated using Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs), temperature sensors, and water level recorders deployed for the past five years at various locations in the lower 9 km of the river. The collected data record the periodic reversals associated with Lake Erie seiches, but also reveal an oscillation within the river. This 'river seiche' has a period of ~2 hours and occurs continuously, persisting even during high flow events and during times of strong lake-driven flow reversals. To better understand the characteristics and behavior of this 'river oscillation', time-series plots and Fourier power spectra were produced from the ADCP data. These data show that the magnitude of the oscillation is on the order of 5-10 cm s-1. There are three coherent spectral peaks with significant power above the noise. These peaks have periods centered on 1.8, 2.0 and 2.2 hours. Our preliminary conjecture is that the oscillation is similar to a forced resonance in a closed basin.

  20. Isolation, characterization and functional analysis of full length p53 cDNA from Bubalus bubalis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Minu; Aggarwal, Suruchi; Mohanty, Ashok K; Mukhopadhyay, Tapas

    2015-09-01

    p53 plays a pivotal role in maintaining the genomic integrity of the cell and has an important role in cellular transformation. We isolated and cloned a full length p53 cDNA (Bp53) from water buffalo in expression vectors designed to generate tagged proteins with FLAG or GFP. Bp53 was found to be 1161 nucleotide long and codes for 386 amino acid residues with 79% homology with human p53 containing 393 amino acids. Although Bp53 has some inherent differences in amino acid composition in different functional domains as compared to human p53 but the total electrostatic charge of amino acids has been maintained. Bp53 cDNA was transiently transfected in a p53 null human NSCLC cell line and as expected, it was predominantly localized in the nucleus. Besides, Bp53 effectively transactivates a number of target genes similar to human p53 and exerts most of its anti-tumorigenic potential in culture as observed in clonogenic and cell viability assays. Like human p53 mutants, core domain mutant version of Bp53 was found to be mis-localized to cytoplasm with diminished tumor suppressor activity. However, Bp53 appeared to be more sensitive to mdm2 mediated degradation and as a result, this protein was less stable as compared to human p53. For the first time we have characterized a functionally efficient wild-type p53 from buffalo having lower stability than human p53 and thus, buffalo p53 could be used as a model system for further insight to the molecular basis of wild-type p53 instability. PMID:26003295

  1. PHYLOGEOGRAPHIC PATTERNS IN LARGE RIVER ECOSYSTEMS: GENETIC STRUCTURE OF SMALLMOUTH BUFFALO (ICTIOBUS BUBALUS) IN THE OHIO RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genetic studies on populations of large river fishes provide a potentially useful but underutilized research and assessment tool. Population genetic research on freshwater systems has provided meaningful insight into stock structure, hybridization issues, and gene flow/migration...

  2. Hydrogeology of the Buffalo aquifer, Clay and Wilkin Counties, West-Central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Buffalo aquifer is the principal source of ground-water supplies in the Moorhead, Minnesota area. The aquifer is an elongate deposit of sand and gravel, which locally contains water under confined conditions. Although the Buffalo aquifer contains about 270 billion gallons of water in storage, only 120 billion gallons could be withdrawn. Largest well yields occur along the deep trough in the center of the aquifer. Induced streambed infiltration may be possible in certain areas where the stream overlies the aquifer and where the intervening lake sediments are thin or absent. A numerical model constructed for aquifer evaluation has shown that a considerable amount of ground water is discharged through the confining bed to the stream or leaves the area as underflow to the west. Water from the Buffalo aquifer generally is very hard and of the calcium bicarbonate type. The average discharge of the Buffalo River for the base period 1946-78 ranges from 0.229 cubic foot per second per square mile near Hawley to 0.108 cubic foot per second per square mile at Sabin. Surface water in the Buffalo River drainage system is dominantly a calcium bicarbonate type similar to ground water of the area, especially at low flow in the upper reaches of the tributaries. (USGS)

  3. University at Buffalo (SUNY) Department of Industrial Engineering Scheduling Theory

    E-print Network

    Nagi, Rakesh

    University at Buffalo (SUNY) Department of Industrial Engineering IE 661 Scheduling Theory Chapter 2 Rakesh Nagi Department of Industrial Engineering University at Buffalo (SUNY) #12;University at Buffalo (SUNY) Department of Industrial Engineering Chapter 2: Deterministic Models Preliminaries

  4. University at Buffalo (SUNY) Department of Industrial Engineering Scheduling Theory

    E-print Network

    Nagi, Rakesh

    University at Buffalo (SUNY) Department of Industrial Engineering IE 661 Scheduling Theory Chapter 1 Rakesh Nagi Department of Industrial Engineering University at Buffalo (SUNY) #12;University at Buffalo (SUNY) Department of Industrial Engineering Chapter 1: Introduction Role of Scheduling Allocation

  5. 33 CFR 207.590 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.590 Section 207.590 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.590 Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.;...

  6. An Evaluation of the Impact of the Niagara River Ice Boom on the Air Temperature Regime at Buffalo, New York.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Frank H.; Assel, Raymond A.; Gaskill, Daniel W.

    1982-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the Niagara River ice boom has prolonged the Lake Erie ice cover at Buffalo, New York, resulting in significant changes in the spring warm-up of Lake Erie and longer, colder winters in the area. Statistical analysis of Buffalo air temperatures compared with those for Lockport, NY does not reveal statistically significant cooling in the climate at Buffalo related to the operation of the ice boom. However, because of the distance of the airport (where the temperature gage is located) from the shore zone, the possibility of a localized effect of small magnitude within the vicinity of the ice boom cannot be ruled out. A comparison of the water temperature at the Buffalo intake as recorded in pre- and post-boom years also indicates that the ice boom has not had an impact on the timing of the spring rise in Lake Erie water temperature at Buffalo. Analysis of winter temperature trends since 1898 shows that the winter severity at Buffalo follows a general pattern characteristic not only of the region around the eastern end of Lake Erie but also of the Great Lakes Region as a whole. Winters have become colder since the installation of the ice boom, but these colder winters are part of a general climatic trend toward more severe winters beginning in 1958. Thus, there is no evidence to suggest that the ice boom has increased winter severity or duration at Buffalo relative to other areas around the Great Lakes.

  7. Phylogeography and Domestication of Chinese Swamp Buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wen-Mei; Xu, Ping; Chang, Ti-Cheng; Liu, Li; Cheng, Feng; Zhang, Run-Feng; Lan, Xian-Yong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chu-Zhao

    2013-01-01

    To further probe into whether swamp buffaloes were domesticated once or multiple times in China, this survey examined the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Control Region (D-loop) diversity of 471 individuals representing 22 populations of 455 Chinese swamp buffaloes and 16 river buffaloes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Chinese swamp buffaloes could be divided into two distinct lineages, A and B, which were defined previously. Of the two lineages, lineage A was predominant across all populations. For predominant lineage A, Southwestern buffalo populations possess the highest genetic diversity among the three hypothesized domestication centers (Southeastern, Central, and Southwestern China), suggesting Southwestern China as the most likely location for the domestication of lineage A. However, a complex pattern of diversity is detected for the lineage B, preventing the unambiguous pinpointing of the exact place of domestication center and suggesting the presence of a long-term, strong gene flow among swamp buffalo populations caused by extensive migrations of buffaloes and frequent human movements along the Yangtze River throughout history. Our current study suggests that Southwestern China is the most likely domestication center for lineage A, and may have been a primary center of swamp buffalo domestication. More archaeological and genetic evidence is needed to show the process of domestication. PMID:23437167

  8. Hydrologic characteristics of Bear Creek near Silver Hill and Buffalo River near St. Joe, Arkansas, 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Jim C.; Haggard, Brian E.; Green, W. Reed

    2002-01-01

    The Buffalo River and its tributary Bear Creek are in the White River Basin in the Ozark Plateaus in north-central Arkansas. Analysis of streamflow measurements and water-quality samples at a site on Bear Creek and a site on the Buffalo River in Searcy County, Arkansas, quantify differences between the two sites during calendar years 1999 and 2000. Streamflow and water quality also vary seasonally at each site. Mean annual streamflow was substantially larger at the Buffalo River site (836 and 719 cubic feet per second in 1999 and 2000) than at the Bear Creek site (56 and 63 cubic feet per second). However, during times of low flow, discharge of Bear Creek comprises a larger proportion of the flow of the Buffalo River. Concentrations of nutrients, fecal-indicator bacteria, dissolved organic carbon, and suspended sediment generally were greater in samples from Bear Creek than in samples from the Buffalo River. Statistically significant differences were detected in concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate, total nitrogen, dissolved phosphorus, orthophosphorus, total phosphorus, fecal coliform bacteria, and suspended sediment. Loads varied between sites, hydrologic conditions, seasons, and years. Loads were substantially higher for the Buffalo River than for Bear Creek (as would be expected because of the Buffalo?s higher streamflow). Loads contributed by surface runoff usually comprised more than 85 percent of the annual load. Constituent yields (loads divided by drainage area) were much more similar between sites than were loads. Flow-weighted concentrations and dissolved constituent yields generally were greater for Bear Creek than yields for the Buffalo River and flowweighted concentrations yields were higher than typical flow-weighted concentrations and yields in undeveloped basins, but lower than flow-weighted concentrations and yields at a site in a more developed basin.

  9. Effect of Ground Corn Cob Replacement for Cassava Chip on Feed Intake, Rumen Fermentation and Urinary Derivatives in Swamp Buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Wanapat, M.; Pilajun, R.; Kang, S.; Setyaningsih, K.; Setyawan, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Four Thai - rumen fistulated male swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), about four years old with 400±20 kg liveweight, were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to receive dietary treatments. The treatments were: ground corn cob (GCC) replacement for cassava chip (CC) in concentrate at 0% (T1); GCC replacement at 33% (T2); GCC replacement at 67% (T3); and GCC replacement at 100% (T4), respectively. During the experiment, concentrate was offered at 0.5% BW while 5% urea-treated rice straw was given at ad libitum. The result revealed that there was no effect of GCC replacement on DMI among treatments. In addition, digestibilities of DM, OM and CP were not different while aNDF linearly increased with an increasing level of GCC replacement. However, GCC replacement did not affect rumen fermentation such as ruminal pH, NH3-N and VFA concentration; except C3 proportion which was the highest at 33% replacement while the lowest was at 100% replacement. All replacements of GCC resulted in similar protozoal and bacterial populations and microbial protein synthesis (MPS). Purine derivatives (PD) concentration in urine and PD to creatinine (PDC) index were varied with time of urination and among treatments at 0 to 8 and 8 to 16 h post feeding and higher values were shown among the GCC replacement groups. However at 16 to 24 h-post feeding, it was untraceable. In addition, creatinine concentration was similar among all treatments at every sampling time. Based on the above results, GCC can be used as an energy source for swamp buffalo fed with rice straw. Spot sampling of urine can be used for purine derivatives determination. PMID:25049671

  10. Lake Erie Seiches and Their Impact on Hydrodynamics and Sediment Transport in the Buffalo River, Buffalo, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, J.; Manley, T.; McLaren, P.; Manley, P.; Atkinson, J. F.; Hughes, W.; Klawinski, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Buffalo River discharges into Lake Erie near the upper end of the Niagara River. The lower 9.2 km of the river has been designated as a Great Lakes Area of Concern due to beneficial use impairments associated with poor water quality, degraded riparian and river habitat, and contaminated sediments. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers maintains a navigational channel at a depth of 6.7 m below mean lake level by dredging every 2-3 years. Its low gradient and current velocities that often are <10 cm/sec allow Lake Erie waters to enter the Buffalo River reversing flow. These estuarine-like conditions can occur during low flow periods in the river when water levels at the eastern end of Lake Erie rise in response to seiches when persistent winds transport water from west to east increasing water elevation at the Buffalo (eastern) end of the lake. To better understand the interaction between the downriver and upriver (lake-driven) flow, Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs), temperature sensors, and water level recorders have been deployed in the lower 9 km of the river. To map the river and document changes in bottom morphology side-scan sonar surveys have been conducted. Sediment trend analysis (STA) and numerical modeling complement and augment field observations. Changes in grain size distributions derived from the STA show two distinct flow regimes existing in the river with sediments deposited around the mouth of the river re-entrained and transported upriver. Results from numerical modeling using a particle-tracking component also show a similar pattern. Where the two flow regimes intersect, sedimentary furrows have been mapped using side-scan sonar and confirmed by divers. ADCP findings document periodic high flow events in the river related to heavy rainfalls and snow melt as well as the propagation of Lake Erie seiches upriver as far as 9 km. The water level data agree well with ADCP data obtained in the river. The river also exhibits its own seiche with period of ~ 2.0 hours. The hydrodynamics and sediment transport patterns in the Buffalo River reveal a complex pattern. Studying the river is timely as a large-scale sediment remediation project currently is underway that will modify the channel morphology as a consequence of environmental dredging within and outside the navigational channel.

  11. www.buffalo.edu Introduction Implementation

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    www.buffalo.edu Introduction Implementation Fig 2: Course methodology Conclusion Acknowledgements for teaching mechanisms and robotics to experiential approach. Very little instructional support required approach ­ Program Symbolic Computation software (like Maple) to obtain Dynamic Matrices. E.g. Dynamic

  12. Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University at Buffalo

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    , electronic journals and books, properties data, and dissertations. In addition, we will take a look at the UB at Buffalo Libraries with a particular emphasis on the availability and use of electronic research databases

  13. Using Cross-Evaluation to Evaluate Interactive QA 548 Baldy Hall, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260. E-mail: sun3@buffalo.edu

    E-print Network

    Using Cross-Evaluation to Evaluate Interactive QA Systems Ying Sun 548 Baldy Hall, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260. E-mail: sun3@buffalo.edu Paul B. Kantor 4 Huntington St., Rutgers, Scholtz, & Sun 2006; Kelly, Kantor, Morse, Scholtz, & Sun, 2009). We will focus on the X-EVAL method

  14. Diversity, Antimicrobial Action and Structure-Activity Relationship of Buffalo Cathelicidins

    PubMed Central

    Brahma, Biswajit; Patra, Mahesh Chandra; Karri, Satyanagalakshmi; Chopra, Meenu; Mishra, Purusottam; De, Bidhan Chandra; Kumar, Sushil; Mahanty, Sourav; Thakur, Kiran; Poluri, Krishna Mohan; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; De, Sachinandan

    2015-01-01

    Cathelicidins are an ancient class of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with broad spectrum bactericidal activities. In this study, we investigated the diversity and biological activity of cathelicidins of buffalo, a species known for its disease resistance. A series of new homologs of cathelicidin4 (CATHL4), which were structurally diverse in their antimicrobial domain, was identified in buffalo. AMPs of newly identified buffalo CATHL4s (buCATHL4s) displayed potent antimicrobial activity against selected Gram positive (G+) and Gram negative (G-) bacteria. These peptides were prompt to disrupt the membrane integrity of bacteria and induced specific changes such as blebing, budding, and pore like structure formation on bacterial membrane. The peptides assumed different secondary structure conformations in aqueous and membrane-mimicking environments. Simulation studies suggested that the amphipathic design of buCATHL4 was crucial for water permeation following membrane disruption. A great diversity, broad-spectrum antimicrobial action, and ability to induce an inflammatory response indicated the pleiotropic role of cathelicidins in innate immunity of buffalo. This study suggests short buffalo cathelicidin peptides with potent bactericidal properties and low cytotoxicity have potential translational applications for the development of novel antibiotics and antimicrobial peptidomimetics. PMID:26675301

  15. Thermal comfort indices of female Murrah buffaloes reared in the Eastern Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Jamile Andréa Rodrigues; de Araújo, Airton Alencar; Lourenço Júnior, José de Brito; dos Santos, Núbia de Fátima Alves; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto; de Oliveira, Raimundo Parente

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to develop new and more specific thermal comfort indices for buffaloes reared in the Amazon region. Twenty female Murrah buffaloes were studied for a year. The animals were fed in pasture with drinking water and mineral supplementation ad libitum. The following parameters were measured twice a week in the morning (7 AM) and afternoon (1 PM): air temperature (AT), relative air humidity (RH), dew point temperature (DPT), wet bulb temperature (WBT), black globe temperature (BGT), rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR), and body surface temperature (BST). The temperature and humidity index (THI), globe temperature and humidity index (GTHI), Benezra's comfort index (BTCI), and Ibéria's heat tolerance index (IHTI) were calculated so they could be compared to the new indices. Multivariate regression analyses were carried out using the canonical correlation model, and all indices were correlated with the physiological and climatic variables. Three pairs of indices (general, effective, and practical) were determined comprising the buffalo comfort climatic condition index (BCCCI) and the buffalo environmental comfort index (BECI). The indices were validated and a great agreement was found among the BCCCIs (general, effective, and practical), with 98.3 % between general and effective a.nd 92.6 % between general and practical. A significant correlation ( P < 0.01) was found between the new indices and the physiological and climatic variables, which indicated that these may be used in pairs to diagnose thermal stress in buffaloes reared in the Amazon.

  16. Evaluation of solidification/stabilization technology for Buffalo River sediment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, E.C.; Averett, D.E.; Channell, M.G.; Perry, B.D.

    1991-05-01

    The Buffalo River drains a 446-square-mile (1,155-sq-km) watershed in western New York State and discharges into Lake Erie at the city of Buffalo. The Buffalo River has been classified by the State of New York as a fishing and fish survival stream, but municipal and industrial discharges have degraded the water quality and resulted in a fish advisory for the river. Under the Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediment Program, the US Environmental Protection Agency asked the US Army Corps of Engineers to evaluate solidification/stabilization (S/S) for potential treatment of the contaminated sediments in the Buffalo River. An evaluation of S/S technology was conducted on the bench-scale level on Buffalo River sediment to determine whether physical and chemical properties of the sediment would be improved. Based on analyses of the untreated sediment, five metals were selected for evaluation: chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc. Initial screening tests (ISTs) were conducted on the sediments to narrow the range of binder-to-soil ratios (BSRs) to be prepared in the detailed evaluation.

  17. Thermal comfort indices of female Murrah buffaloes reared in the Eastern Amazon.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jamile Andréa Rodrigues; de Araújo, Airton Alencar; Lourenço Júnior, José de Brito; dos Santos, Núbia de Fátima Alves; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto; de Oliveira, Raimundo Parente

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to develop new and more specific thermal comfort indices for buffaloes reared in the Amazon region. Twenty female Murrah buffaloes were studied for a year. The animals were fed in pasture with drinking water and mineral supplementation ad libitum. The following parameters were measured twice a week in the morning (7 AM) and afternoon (1 PM): air temperature (AT), relative air humidity (RH), dew point temperature (DPT), wet bulb temperature (WBT), black globe temperature (BGT), rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR), and body surface temperature (BST). The temperature and humidity index (THI), globe temperature and humidity index (GTHI), Benezra's comfort index (BTCI), and Ibéria's heat tolerance index (IHTI) were calculated so they could be compared to the new indices. Multivariate regression analyses were carried out using the canonical correlation model, and all indices were correlated with the physiological and climatic variables. Three pairs of indices (general, effective, and practical) were determined comprising the buffalo comfort climatic condition index (BCCCI) and the buffalo environmental comfort index (BECI). The indices were validated and a great agreement was found among the BCCCIs (general, effective, and practical), with 98.3 % between general and effective a.nd 92.6 % between general and practical. A significant correlation (P?buffaloes reared in the Amazon. PMID:26041385

  18. 77 FR 39408 - Safety Zone; Buffalo July 4th Fireworks, Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Buffalo July 4th Fireworks, Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  19. SEROLOGICAL SURVEY OF ANTIBODIES TO TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN SHEEP, CATTLE, AND BUFFALOES IN PUNJAB, INDIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sera from 186 sheep, 83 cattle, and 103 water buffaloes from Punjab, India were evaluated for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using a commercial ELISA kit. This study was planned using a 2-stage random sampling procedure employing sampling software ‘survey toolbox’. In the first step, villages were...

  20. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed 6 miles per hour. Note: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock...

  1. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed 6 miles per hour. Note: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock...

  2. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed 6 miles per hour. Note: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock...

  3. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed 6 miles per hour. Note: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock...

  4. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed 6 miles per hour. Note: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock...

  5. 33 CFR 162.165 - Buffalo and Rochester Harbors, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo and Rochester Harbors... SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.165...

  6. Study on the inter-subspecies nuclear transfer of river buffalo somatic cell nuclei into swamp buffalo oocyte cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Yang, C Y; Li, R C; Pang, C Y; Yang, B Z; Qin, G S; Chen, M T; Zhang, X F; Huang, F X; Zheng, H Y; Huang, Y J; Liang, X W

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of inter-subspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) of river buffalo (50 chromosomes) somatic cell nuclei into swamp buffalo (48 chromosomes) oocyte cytoplasm. The enucleated swamp buffalo oocytes were fused with four different types of river buffalo cells: freshly thawed ear fibroblasts, serum-starved ear fibroblasts, cumulus cells and ear fibroblasts from a cloned buffalo calf. As a result, the developmental competence of embryos reconstructed with freshly thawed ear fibroblasts was the poorest (P<0.01), while those of the other three types were not different from each other. Furthermore, the efficiency of swamp-swamp buffalo, swamp-river buffalo and bovine-buffalo SCNT were also compared. The results showed that the blastocyst rate of swamp-river reconstructed embryos was not different from swamp-swamp embryos, while significantly higher than that of bovine-buffalo embryos (P<0.01). A total of thirty cloned blastocysts derived from freshly thawed ear fibroblasts were transferred into thirteen recipient buffaloes, four recipients established pregnancy, while three of them aborted on Days 65, 75 and 90 of gestation, respectively. One cross-bred buffalo (Murrah x swamp, 49 chromosomes) receiving three embryos delivered a 39 kg female calf on Day 335 of gestation. These results indicate that the inter-subspecies SCNT is feasible to produce swamp-river buffalo embryos, and these can develop to full term and result in live buffalo calves. PMID:20621244

  7. OVERVIEW OF AMERICAN BRASS BUFFALO PLANT FROM ROOF OF STRAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF AMERICAN BRASS BUFFALO PLANT FROM ROOF OF STRAND ANNEALING TOWER, INCLUDING ORIGINAL BRASS MILL (1906-7,1911) TUBE MILL (1915), COPPER MILL (1921). - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  8. OVERVIEW OF AMERICAN BRASS BUFFALO PLANT FROM ROOF OF STRAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF AMERICAN BRASS BUFFALO PLANT FROM ROOF OF STRAND ANNEALING TOWER, INCLUDING CASTING SHOP AND BAG HOUSE (CENTER-LEFT) AND PORTION OF REROLL BAY (R). VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  9. RAW COPPER SLABS USED IN CASTING OPERATIONS AT BUFFALO PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RAW COPPER SLABS USED IN CASTING OPERATIONS AT BUFFALO PLANT OF AMERICAN BRASS COMPANY. MATERIALS STORAGE FOR THE CAST SHOP NOW OCCUPIES A PORTION OF THE ORIGINAL BRASS MILL BUILT BY THE BUFFALO COPPER AND BRASS ROLLING MILL IN 1906-07 AND EXPANDED IN 1911. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  10. University at Buffalo (SUNY) Department of Industrial Engineering Scheduling Theory

    E-print Network

    Nagi, Rakesh

    1 University at Buffalo (SUNY) Department of Industrial Engineering IE 661 Scheduling Theory Course Introduction Rakesh Nagi Department of Industrial Engineering University at Buffalo (SUNY) #12;2 University at Buffalo (SUNY) Department of Industrial Engineering About the course This graduate level course covers

  11. Casting the Buffalo Commons: A Rhetorical Analysis of Print Media Coverage of the Buffalo Commons Proposal for the Great Plains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umberger, Mary L.

    2002-01-01

    In 1987, Frank and Deborah Popper, a planner/geographer team from Rutgers University, proposed the Buffalo Commons. If implemented, the Buffalo Commons would have preserved a large area of the Great Plains, including land in ten states, in a national park to be used by exiting Native American reservations, and for the reintroduction of buffalo.

  12. Affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Misk, N.A.; Misk, T.N.; Semieka, M.A.; Ahmed, A.F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine different affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes with special reference to diagnosis and treatment. The study was carried out on 39 buffaloes suffering from different affections of the salivary ducts. The recorded affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes include; ectasia of the parotid duct (21 cases), parotid duct fistula (15 cases) and sialocele (3 cases). Each case was subjected to full study including case history, clinical examination, diagnosis, and treatment whenever possible. Exploratory puncture and radiography were used for confirmation of diagnosis. Intraoral marsupialization was performed for treatment of parotid duct ectasia. Salivary fistula was corrected by one of two successful techniques; the first by reconstruction of the parotid duct and the second by ligation of the parotid duct just caudal to the fistula opening. Sialoceles were corrected by removal of the mandibular salivary gland of the affected side.

  13. Carbohydrate biofuels III: Consumptive-use and root yield of buffalo gourd

    SciTech Connect

    Smeal, D.; Gregory, E.J.; Tomko, J.

    1995-11-01

    Biofuel provided by the dried roots of the wild buffalo gourd, Cucurbita foetidissima, represents a potential, cleaner-burning alternative to other biofuels (i.e. wood and coal) currently used for cooking and heating on the Navajo Indian Reservation. However, no information is available regarding the plant`s water requirements for growth and viable root production on the Colorado Plateau in northwestern New Mexico where the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project is located. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between buffalo gourd root production and evapotranspiration under variable irrigation as provided by a line-source design. Total dry root yields ranged from 1.6 Mg ha{sup -1} (5.1 tons/acre), and increased linearly within an irrigation treatment range of 371 to 927 nm (14.6 to 36.5 in.), respectively. Peak average daily water-use of buffalo gourd providing maximum root yield was 8.6 mm (0.34 in.) and occurred in late July to early August. Results of this study indicate that buffalo gourd can be successfully grown in northwestern New Mexico when irrigated. Other observations during this study suggest that planting rates for optimum root production need to be established.

  14. Haemato-biochemical and oxidative status of buffaloes naturally infected with Trypanosoma evansi.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vijay; Nigam, Rajesh; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Sudan, Vikrant; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Yadav, Pramod Kumar

    2015-09-15

    Blood samples were collected from 05 clinically healthy and 10 adult female water buffaloes naturally infected with Trypanosoma evansi. Confirmation of disease free and infected status of buffaloes was made on clinical signs, observation of T. evansi parasites in the blood smear and duplex PCR based assay. Blood samples were evaluated for levels of haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), differential leucocytes count (DLC), lipid peroxidation (LPO), calcium, phosphorous, magnesium sodium and potassium and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The results of the study revealed substantial decrease in levels of Hb, PCV and increase in LPO, SOD, CAT and AST in infected animals compared to healthy animals. However other haematological and biochemical indices did not show significant variations in infected and healthy buffaloes. The enhanced erythrocytic oxidation and reduction of hematological indices, suggests that the enhanced oxidation of the erythrocytes may be a contributory factor in erythrocytic destruction and progression of the anaemia in T. evansi infection in water buffaloes. PMID:26242833

  15. 76 FR 60962 - Noise Exposure Map Update for Buffalo Niagara International Airport, Buffalo, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ...Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Update for Buffalo Niagara International...determination that the updated noise exposure maps submitted by the Niagara Frontier Transportation...FAA's determination on the noise exposure maps is September 20, 2011. FOR FURTHER...

  16. Haff Disease: Rhabdomyolysis After Eating Buffalo Fish

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Linda L.; Bies, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Haff disease, rhabdomyolysis after ingesting certain types of fish, was first reported in 1924 in Europe. There have been a limited number of cases reported in the United States. We present the case of a patient who presents with symptoms of rhabdomyolysis after eating cooked buffalo fish purchased at a suburban grocery market. PMID:25247039

  17. Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University at Buffalo

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    to address key technologies in Space Situational Awareness (SSA). UB aims to study spectrometric optical conference papers and 2 journal papers in areas related to space situational awareness and satellite attitude Y o r k MAE Seminar Series University at Buffalo Nanosatellite Mission: A Space Based Optical

  18. Haff disease: rhabdomyolysis after eating buffalo fish.

    PubMed

    Herman, Linda L; Bies, Christine

    2014-09-01

    Haff disease, rhabdomyolysis after ingesting certain types of fish, was first reported in 1924 in Europe. There have been a limited number of cases reported in the United States. We present the case of a patient who presents with symptoms of rhabdomyolysis after eating cooked buffalo fish purchased at a suburban grocery market. PMID:25247039

  19. Effect of pour-on alphacypermethrin on feed intake, body condition score, milk yield, pregnancy rates, and calving-to-conception interval in buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Bifulco, G; Veneziano, V; Cimmino, R; Esposito, L; Auletta, L; Varricchio, E; Balestrieri, A; Claps, S; Campanile, G; Neglia, G

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy of alphacypermethrin (ACYP) on pediculosis due to Haematopinus tuberculatus and to evaluate the influence of the treatment on productive and reproductive performance in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) reared in an intensive system. The trial was performed on 56 pluriparous buffaloes at 86.8 ± 8.1 d in milk. The animals underwent individual louse count and were divided into 2 homogenous groups according to louse count, age, number of lactations, days in milk, live BW, BCS, pregnancy status, and milk yield. Group A (n = 28) was treated by a pour-on formulation of ACYP, and Group S (n = 28) was treated by pour-on saline solution. Individual louse counts were performed weekly on 10 buffaloes in each group. Feed intake was recorded daily and the total mixed ration, individual ingredients, and orts were analyzed to calculate DM ingestion. Individual milk yield was recorded daily and milk samples were analyzed at the beginning of the trial, after 4 wk, and at the end of the trial to assess milk composition. Individual BCS was also evaluated simultaneously. Finally, the animals underwent synchronization of ovulation starting 4 wk after treatment and the pregnancy rate and the calving-conception interval were evaluated. Data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney test and ANOVA for repeated measures. The infestation was constant in Group S, whereas no lice were present in Group A throughout the study. Daily DMI was similar in the 2 groups (16.7 ± 0.4 vs. 16.3 ± 0.3 kg/d in Group A vs. Group S, respectively), although buffaloes in Group A showed higher (P < 0.05) BCS score at the end of the trial (7.39 ± 0.1 vs. 7.14 ± 0.1 in Group A vs. Group S, respectively). The average milk yield/buffalo was higher (P < 0.05) in Group A compared to Group S (10.58 ± 0.1 vs. 10.39 ± 0.1 kg in Group A vs. Group S, respectively) and this was mainly due to the higher milk production recorded in buffaloes at less than 75 d in milk (11.81 ± 0.1 vs. 11.45 ± 0.1 kg in Group A vs. Group S, respectively). Despite of a similar fertility rate (90.5 vs. 80.9% in Group A vs. Group S, respectively), a lower (P < 0.05) calving-conception interval was recorded in Group A compared to Group S (118 ± 16 vs. 177 ± 16 d in Group A vs. Group S, respectively). In addition to the pour-on treatment against pediculosis, productive and reproductive performance were also improved. This represents a significant improvement in dairy buffalo herd management. PMID:26020206

  20. Baseline risk assessment for aquatic life for the Buffalo River, New York, Area of Concern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Hickey, James P.

    1995-01-01

    The Great Lakes National Program Office of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated the Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) program to address concerns of environmental degradation at 43 Areas of Concern in the Great Lakes. In our first report (Passino-Reader et al. 1992), we developed a generic approach for baseline hazard evaluation of aquatic life in the Great Lakes Areas of Concern. In this report, we demonstrate the application of the generic approach to the Buffalo River (New York) Area of Concern. Using available historical data on residues in sediments, water, and biota, we evaluated exposure for 41 contaminants from the Buffalo River for eight taxa of fish and invertebrates representing the major trophic levels in the Buffalo River. By comparing exposure concentrations with reference toxicities, we calculated risk to the eight receptor organisms for typical and worst cases of exposure to the 41 contaminants. For mixtures of the contaminants present at the Buffalo River, primarily metals and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, we compared sediment concentrations with effects range-low (EL-R) values as reference values for toxicity of mixtures to estimate risk to aquatic biota.

  1. Evaluation of the effectiveness of using alfalfa and buffalo grass for remediation of trichloroethylene from groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Caravello, V.

    1998-06-03

    Phytoremediation is receiving increasing attention due to the potential for vegetation to play a significant role in bioremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater. The purpose of this research was to conduct a pilot study to determine if buffalo grass would enhance the remediation of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE). A mass-balance experiment was designed and executed to determine the extent of TCE remediation/degradation occurring through buffalo grass. Measurements for TCE in air, water, and soil were completed for three treatments: (1) buffalo grass, (2) alfalfa, and (3) soil following challenge with a water-TCE mixture. In total, 267 air samples, 43 water samples, 85 soil samples, and 40 vegetative samples were collected and analyzed. The analysis identified two important facts. First, there were no significant differences detected between TCE concentrations in soil, water, and air between groups. Second, there is a significant difference in the amount of the TCE-water mixture consumed in chambers with plants versus chambers without plants. The mass balance of the experiment was not achieved due to unaccountable losses of TCE from the chambers. The major loss mechanism for TCE appears to be from the breakthrough of air sampling media during the experiment. Thus, the data are insufficient to determine if remediation occurred via plants or by preferential pathways through the soil. Future experiments should be designed to include daily monitoring of the aquifer, humidity tolerant air sampling protocol, and relief from the build-up of humidity and transpiration inside the chambers.

  2. 36. Photocopy of photograph (Buffalo CourierExpress article file #Z733B9268, print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photocopy of photograph (Buffalo Courier-Express article file #Z733-B9268, print in possession of Ciminilli Construction, Buffalo, N.Y.), photographer unknown, 1938 GENERAL RENOVATIONS - Cyclorama Building, 369 Franklin Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  3. The African buffalo: a villain for inter-species spread of infectious diseases in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Michel, Anita L; Bengis, Roy G

    2012-01-01

    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a large wild bovid which until recently ranged across all but the driest parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and their local range being limited to about 20 km from surface water. They are of high ecological value due to their important role as bulk feeders in the grazing hierarchy. They also have high economic value, because they are one of the sought after 'Big Five' in the eco-tourism industry. In Africa, buffaloes have been recognised for some time as an important role player in the maintenance and transmission of a variety of economically important livestock diseases at the wildlife and/or livestock interface. These include African strains of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), Corridor disease (theileriosis), bovine tuberculosis and bovine brucellosis. For a number of other diseases of veterinary importance, African buffaloes may also serve as amplifier or incidental host, whereby infection with the causative pathogens may cause severe clinical signs such as death or abortion as in the case of anthrax and Rift Valley fever, or remain mild or subclinical for example heartwater. The long term health implications of most of those infections on the buffalo at a population level is usually limited, and they do not pose a threat on the population's survival. Because of their ability to harbour and transmit important diseases to livestock, their sustainable future in ecotourism, trade and transfrontier conservation projects become complex and costly and reliable diagnostic tools are required to monitor these infections in buffalo populations. PMID:23327373

  4. The flood of December 1982 and the 100- and 500-year flood on the Buffalo River, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neely, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    Flood profiles, peak discharges, and stages were determined for the December 1982, the 100-year, and the 500-year floods at 17 sites along the Buffalo River, Arkansas. Typical synthetic stage hydrographs for the 100- and 500-year floods were determined for each site. Flow duration data for gaging stations at St. Joe and Rush are shown. The average velocity of the water for the 100- and 500-year floods is shown for each site. Approximate flood boundaries delineating the 100- and 500-year floods are shown for Ponca, Steel Creek, Pruitt, St. Joe, and Buffalo Point. (Author 's abstract)

  5. A Review of Recent Developments in Buffalo Reproduction — A Review

    PubMed Central

    Warriach, H. M.; McGill, D. M.; Bush, R. D.; Wynn, P. C.; Chohan, K. R.

    2015-01-01

    The buffalo is an important livestock resource in several countries of South Asia and the Mediterranean regions. However, reproductive efficiency is compromised due to known problems of biological and management origins, such as lack of animal selection and poor nutrition. Under optimal conditions puberty is attained at 15 to 18 months in river buffalo, 21 to 24 months in swamp buffalo and is influenced by genotype, nutrition, management and climate. However, under field conditions these values deteriorate up to a significant extant. To improve reproductive efficiency, several protocols of oestrus and ovulation synchronization have been adopted from their use in commercial cattle production. These protocols yield encouraging pregnancy rates of (30% to 50%), which are comparable to those achieved in buffaloes bred at natural oestrus. The use of sexed semen in buffalo heifers also showed promising pregnancy rates (50%) when compared with conventional non-sexed semen. Assisted reproductive technologies have been transferred and adapted to buffalo but the efficiency of these technologies are low. However, these latest technologies offer the opportunity to accelerate the genetic gain in the buffalo industry after improving the technology and reducing its cost. Most buffaloes are kept under the small holder farming system in developing countries. Hence, future research should focus on simple, adoptable and impact- oriented approaches which identify the factors determining low fertility and oestrus behaviour in this species. Furthermore, role of kisspeptin needs to be explored in buffalo. PMID:25656203

  6. A review of recent developments in buffalo reproduction - a review.

    PubMed

    Warriach, H M; McGill, D M; Bush, R D; Wynn, P C; Chohan, K R

    2015-03-01

    The buffalo is an important livestock resource in several countries of South Asia and the Mediterranean regions. However, reproductive efficiency is compromised due to known problems of biological and management origins, such as lack of animal selection and poor nutrition. Under optimal conditions puberty is attained at 15 to 18 months in river buffalo, 21 to 24 months in swamp buffalo and is influenced by genotype, nutrition, management and climate. However, under field conditions these values deteriorate up to a significant extant. To improve reproductive efficiency, several protocols of oestrus and ovulation synchronization have been adopted from their use in commercial cattle production. These protocols yield encouraging pregnancy rates of (30% to 50%), which are comparable to those achieved in buffaloes bred at natural oestrus. The use of sexed semen in buffalo heifers also showed promising pregnancy rates (50%) when compared with conventional non-sexed semen. Assisted reproductive technologies have been transferred and adapted to buffalo but the efficiency of these technologies are low. However, these latest technologies offer the opportunity to accelerate the genetic gain in the buffalo industry after improving the technology and reducing its cost. Most buffaloes are kept under the small holder farming system in developing countries. Hence, future research should focus on simple, adoptable and impact- oriented approaches which identify the factors determining low fertility and oestrus behaviour in this species. Furthermore, role of kisspeptin needs to be explored in buffalo. PMID:25656203

  7. 33 CFR 110.84 - Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Black Rock Channel opposite foot... Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. An area extending northwesterly between Black Rock Channel and Bird Island Pier opposite the foot of Porter Avenue, bounded as follows: Beginning...

  8. 33 CFR 110.84 - Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black Rock Channel opposite foot... Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. An area extending northwesterly between Black Rock Channel and Bird Island Pier opposite the foot of Porter Avenue, bounded as follows: Beginning...

  9. 33 CFR 110.84 - Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Black Rock Channel opposite foot... Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. An area extending northwesterly between Black Rock Channel and Bird Island Pier opposite the foot of Porter Avenue, bounded as follows: Beginning...

  10. 33 CFR 110.84 - Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Black Rock Channel opposite foot... Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. An area extending northwesterly between Black Rock Channel and Bird Island Pier opposite the foot of Porter Avenue, bounded as follows: Beginning...

  11. 33 CFR 110.84 - Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Black Rock Channel opposite foot... Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. An area extending northwesterly between Black Rock Channel and Bird Island Pier opposite the foot of Porter Avenue, bounded as follows: Beginning...

  12. Presented at the Eighteenth USCOLD Annual Meeting and Lecture, Buffalo, New York, August 8-14, 1998

    E-print Network

    Bowles, David S.

    Presented at the Eighteenth USCOLD Annual Meeting and Lecture, Buffalo, New York, August 8-14, 1998 and Environmental Engineering, Utah Water Research Laboratory, College of Engineering, Utah State University, Logan for government and private owners and regulators in the U.S. and Australia. 1 Professor of Civil

  13. ANALYSIS OF BANK STABILITY AND POTENTIAL LOADINGS FROM STREAMBANKS ALONG THE SOUTH BRANCH OF THE BUFFALO RIVER, MN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The South Branch of the Buffalo River is part of the larger Red River Basin, MN. In 1996 the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) performed water quality assessments for selected rivers and lakes in the Red River Basin, with impairment of streams primarily being found to be caused by high level...

  14. 33 CFR 165.939 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... zones in this section will be enforced by all appropriate means In keeping with 33 CFR 165.7(a), such... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks... Guard District § 165.939 Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo...

  15. 33 CFR 165.939 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Federal Register as practicable, in accordance with 33 CFR 165.7(a). Such means of notification may also... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks... Guard District § 165.939 Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo...

  16. 33 CFR 165.939 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Register as practicable, in accordance with 33 CFR 165.7(a). Such means of notification may also... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks... Guard District § 165.939 Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo...

  17. Buffalo district heating system design and construction

    SciTech Connect

    Oliker, I.

    1987-11-01

    This report addresses the introduction of district heating in Buffalo, NY from feasibility study to implementation. The reemergence of district heating in the US and associated advantages are reviewed. Advanced piping technology which has enabled district heating to compete economically with alternative technologies is summarized. Identification and analysis of the customer heat load considered in downtown Buffalo for the pilot system and future expansion is discussed. Various options for initiating construction of a district heating system were considered as exemplified by the configuration for the pilot system which was selected to serve five downtown buildings. A conceptual plan is presented which permits the system to expand in an economically viable manner. The report concludes with an economic analysis which simulates the operation and expansion of the system. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Influence of heat stress on the cortisol and oxidant-antioxidants balance during oestrous phase in buffalo-cows (Bubalus bubalis): thermo-protective role of antioxidant treatment.

    PubMed

    Megahed, G A; Anwar, M M; Wasfy, S I; Hammadeh, M E

    2008-12-01

    In the present study, the effect of heat stress, which is commonly observed in the animals of Upper Egypt area in summer, as well as the effect of antioxidant treatment as a thermo-protective was examined. In this study, the animals (n = 120) were divided into winter group (n = 40, bred during winter) and summer group (n = 80, bred during summer) as well as, animals in the summer group were divided into first subgroup animals (n = 40) and injected with Viteselen intramuscularly (15 ml) twice weekly for 10 weeks and second subgroup animals (n = 40) were not treated (as control). Serum levels of progesterone (P4), oestradiol (E2), cortisol, superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidase (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) were measured. The pregnancy rate of all animals was detected rectally. The levels of oestradiol and the activity of the antioxidant SOD were decreased in serum of animals in behavioural oestrus during summer as compared with those in winter. During the same time period the levels of oxidants such as LPO and NO were increased in the serum of animals again in the phase of oestrus. In another group of animals treated by intramuscular injection with 15 ml viteselen (antioxidant) twice weekly for 6 weeks during hot months, the activities of serum SOD showed an increase and the levels of oxidants and cortisol decreased. Moreover, the levels of oestradiol were increased during the oestrous behaviour. The pregnancy rate was decreased in animals under heat stress and the pregnancy rate was enhanced dramatically when these animals received antioxidants during the heat stress. This means that the heat-stress in Upper Egypt may affect the fertility of animals and pregnancy rate and this effect may be through an increased production of free radicals and decreased production of antioxidants as well as increased levels of cortisol. Treatment of animals or supplementation with antioxidants before the beginning of months of heat-stress and also during the stress period may correct the infertility due to heat-stress through the decrease in cortisol secretion and a decrease in the oxidative stress. These results resulted in an increase in pregnancy rate in treated animals. PMID:18673331

  19. "Just Following the Buffalo": Origins of a Montana Metis Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Martha Harroun

    2006-01-01

    By 1879 the vast buffalo herds were all but gone from the Great Plains. Many of the remaining animals had moved south from the Milk River of northern Montana and Alberta into the Judith Basin of central Montana. In these rich grasslands, for a few more years, life went on as it had for centuries. Following the buffalo came many Indian bands, as…

  20. 36 CFR 7.35 - Buffalo National River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo National River. 7.35 Section 7.35 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.35 Buffalo National River. (a) Fishing. (1)...

  1. 78 FR 45059 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Buffalo Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: At various... zone without the permission of the Captain of the Port Buffalo. DATES: The regulations in 33 CFR 165... Buffalo, 1 Fuhrmann Blvd., Buffalo, NY 14203; Coast Guard telephone 716-843-9343, email...

  2. 77 FR 41914 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... Buffalo Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: At various... zone without the permission of the Captain of the Port Buffalo. DATES: The regulations in 33 CFR 165... email Waterways Management Division, Coast Guard Sector Buffalo, 1 Fuhrmann Blvd., Buffalo, NY...

  3. 77 FR 20871 - Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration... announce the location, date, time, and agenda for the next meeting of the Region II Buffalo District... announces the meeting of the Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council. The Region II Buffalo...

  4. 75 FR 57056 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Buffalo Resource Management Plan Amendment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Assessment (RMPA/EA) for the Buffalo Field Office (BFO) and by this notice is announcing the opening of the... Buffalo Field Office, 1425 Fort Street, Buffalo, Wyoming 82834. Copies of the Draft RMPA/EA are available in the Buffalo Field Office at the above address and at the following location: Bureau of...

  5. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Bigmouth Buffalo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Elizabeth A.

    1983-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for Bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus), a freshwater fish. The models are scaled to produce an indices of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for freshwater areas of the continental United States. Other habitat suitability models found in the literature are also included. Habitat suitability indices (HSI's) are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  6. Behaviour-Related Scalar Habitat Use by Cape Buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer)

    PubMed Central

    Bennitt, Emily; Bonyongo, Mpaphi Casper; Harris, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Studies of habitat use by animals must consider behavioural resource requirements at different scales, which could influence the functional value of different sites. Using Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana, we tested the hypotheses that behaviour affected use between and within habitats, hereafter referred to as macro- and microhabitats, respectively. We fitted GPS-enabled collars to fifteen buffalo and used the distances and turning angles between consecutive fixes to cluster the resulting data into resting, grazing, walking and relocating behaviours. Distance to water and six vegetation characteristic variables were recorded in sites used for each behaviour, except for relocating, which occurred too infrequently. We used multilevel binomial and multinomial logistic regressions to identify variables that characterised seasonally-preferred macrohabitats and microhabitats used for different behaviours. Our results showed that macrohabitat use was linked to behaviour, although this was least apparent during the rainy season, when resources were most abundant. Behaviour-related microhabitat use was less significant, but variation in forage characteristics could predict some behaviour within all macrohabitats. The variables predicting behaviour were not consistent, but resting and grazing sites were more readily identifiable than walking sites. These results highlight the significance of resting, as well as foraging, site availability in buffalo spatial processes. Our results emphasise the importance of considering several behaviours and scales in studies of habitat use to understand the links between environmental resources and animal behavioural and spatial ecology. PMID:26673623

  7. Molecular characterization of Anaplasma marginale in ticks naturally feeding on buffaloes.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2015-10-01

    Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent pathogen transmitted by ticks in cattle in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. However, the tick species involved in the transmission of A. marginale in buffaloes in Brazil have not been identified. The objective of the present study was to determine the presence of A. marginale in ticks parasitizing water buffaloes. A total of 200 samples of Rhipicephalus microplus, Dermacentor nitens, Amblyomma cajennense, and Amblyomma maculatum were collected and tested by conventional and quantitative PCR for the presence of the msp1a and msp5 genes. In the present study, 35 ticks (17.5%) were positive for A. marginale DNA by qPCR analysis. The positive ticks belonged to four different species: R. microplus (22.2%), A. cajennense (13.8%), A. maculatum (16.0%), and D. nitens (10.0%). Individuals of the three developmental stages (larvae, nymphs, and adults) of R. microplus and A. cajennense were found to be positive for A. marginale, only nymphs and adults of A. maculatum were found to be positive, and finally, only adults of D. nitens were positive for A. marginale. Our results suggest that R. microplus, A. cajennense, A. maculatum, and D. nitens ticks may be involved in the transmission of A. marginale in buffaloes. However, while A. marginale PCR positive ticks were recorded, this does not indicate vector competence; only that the ticks may contain a blood meal from an infected host. Additionally, the results show that the strains of A. marginale from buffaloes and cattle are phylogenetically related. PMID:26209411

  8. WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. A BOEING 737-200 HAS BEEN TOWED IN FOR AN OVERNIGHT (BALANCE) CHECK. THE TAIL DOCK STANDS ARE IN POSITION AT THE REAR OF THE AIRCRAFT TO FACILITATE INSPECTION. MAINTENANCE CREWS PERFORM NIGHTLY SERVICE ON UP TO 6 AIRCRAFT. THE NORMAL SEQUENCE OF 12 ROUTINE CHECKS COVERS SEVEN BASIC AREAS: INTERIOR, EXTERIOR, WINGS, LANDING GEAR, TAIL, AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), AND ENGINES. THE WORK FORCE CONSISTS OF 5 INSPECTORS, 3 LEAD MECHANICS, AND 24 MECHANICS; NIGHTLY SCHEDULES ARE COORDINATED BY A PLANNER. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  9. Pharmacokinetic behaviour of fenbendazole in buffalo and cattle.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, P K

    1994-02-01

    Concentrations of fenbendazole and of drug metabolites in plasma were measured in buffalo and cross-bred cattle after single intraruminal administration at two different doses. Plasma concentrations of the parent compound fenbendazole and the two metabolites, viz. oxfendazole and fenbendazole sulfone, were much lower in buffalo compared with cattle, at a dose of 7.5 mg/kg body weight as indicated by lower area under concentration curve and concentration maximum. At a dose of 15 mg/kg body weight there were corresponding increases in plasma metabolite concentrations in cattle. However, buffaloes did not show a similar corresponding increase. PMID:8196087

  10. Kinetic disposition of triclabendazole in buffalo compared to cattle.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, P K

    1995-10-01

    Concentrations of triclabendazole sulfoxide and its sulfone metabolite in plasma were measured in buffalo and cross-bred cattle after single intraruminal administration of triclabendazole at two different doses. Plasma concentrations of both metabolites were significantly lower in buffalo than cattle at both doses, which resulted in a smaller area under the concentration-time curve, a lower concentration maximum and a lower relative bioavailability. Thus, the recommended doses of 12 mg/kg body weight for the treatment of bubaline fascioliasis may not be valid for buffalo because of the substantially lower uptake of the drug in this species. PMID:8587156

  11. Metaphylactic treatment strategies with toltrazuril and diclazuril and growth performance of buffalo calves exposed to a natural eimeria infection.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Antonio; Rinaldi, Laura; Cappelli, Giovanna; Saratsis, Anastasios; Nisoli, Lucio; Cringoli, Giuseppe

    2015-09-15

    Five controlled field trials were conducted in southern Italy to evaluate the effect of metaphylactic treatment strategies of toltrazuril and diclazuril for the control of coccidiosis in water buffaloes naturally infected by Eimeria spp. The 5 farms were divided into two types (A and B) according to their management system (individual or collective breeding of buffalo calves). In the farms of type A (no. 3), the buffalo calves were bred in individual boxes from the birth to the 7th/8th week of age and then transferred to concrete based pens; in the farms of type B (no. 2) the calves were bred in groups on concrete based pens from the birth. On each farm, 36 calves aged 5 weeks were divided at random into three similar groups of 12. One group was treated with toltrazuril (TOL), the second group was treated with diclazuril (DIC) and the third group was remained as untreated control group (CONT). On each farm the calves were weighed weekly and clinically examined. In the 5 buffalo farms the average oocyst excretion decreased significantly in both the treated groups (TOL and DIC), however the TOL groups had significantly low counts than the DIC groups. The body-weight gains recorded fortnightly were significantly higher in the TOL groups (range=5.4-8.1 kg) compared to the DIC (range=1.7-3.1 kg). PMID:26215929

  12. Genetic Variation and Phylogenetic Relationships of Indian Buffaloes of Uttar Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Jyoti; Salar, R. K.; Banerjee, Priyanka; S, Upasna; Tantia, M. S.; Vijh, R. K.

    2013-01-01

    India possesses a total buffalo population of 105 million out of which 26.1% inhabit Uttar Pradesh. The buffalo of Uttar Pradesh are described as nondescript or local buffaloes. Currently, there is no report about the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationship and matrilineal genetic structure of these buffaloes. To determine the origin and genetic diversity of UP buffaloes, we sequenced and analysed the mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequences in 259 samples from entire Uttar Pradesh. One hundred nine haplotypes were identified in UP buffaloes that were defined by 96 polymorphic sites. We implemented neutrality tests to assess signatures of recent historical demographic events like Tajima’s D test and Fu’s Fs test. The phylogenetic studies revealed that there was no geographic differentiation and UP buffaloes had a single maternal lineage while buffaloes of Eastern UP were distinctive from rest of the UP buffaloes. PMID:25049904

  13. Molecular Dynamics Studies on the Buffalo Prion Protein

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jiapu

    2015-01-01

    It was reported that buffalo is a low susceptibility species resisting to TSEs (Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies) (same as rabbits, horses and dogs). TSEs, also called prion diseases, are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases that affect a wide variety of species (in humans prion diseases are (v)CJDs, GSS, FFI, and kulu etc). It was reported that buffalo is a low susceptibility species resisting to prion diseases (as rabbits, dogs, horses). In molecular structures, these neurodegenerative diseases are caused by the conversion from a soluble normal cellular prion protein, predominantly with alpha-helices, into insoluble abnormally folded infectious prions, rich in beta-sheets. This paper studies the molecular structure and structural dynamics of buffalo prion protein, in order to find out the reason why buffaloes are resistant to prion diseases. We first did molecular modeling a homology structure constructed by one mutation at residue 143 from the Nuclear Magnetic Resonanc...

  14. Flood characteristics of the Buffalo River at Tyler Bend, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neely, Braxtel L.

    1987-01-01

    The Buffalo River is located in the Ozark Mountains in north-central Arkansas. Tyler Bend is on the Buffalo River about 1.5 miles upstream from U.S. Highway 65. The National Park Service is developing several recreational park sites along this scenic river. The magnitude, frequency, duration and velocities of floods are primary factors needed for establishing guidelines for developing facilities and managing park sites. The Park Service plans to develop park facilities at Tyler Bend and needs flood information at this site. This report provides information on the 100-, 75-, 50-, 30-, 20-, 10-, and 5-year floods on the Buffalo River at Tyler Bend. It was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service and is based on data collected during the December 1982 flood, gaging station data for the Buffalo River near St. Joe, Arkansas and a Statewide flood-frequency report. (Lantz-PTT)

  15. Kinetics of Methane Production from Swine Manure and Buffalo Manure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chen; Cao, Weixing; Liu, Ronghou

    2015-10-01

    The degradation kinetics of swine and buffalo manure for methane production was investigated. Six kinetic models were employed to describe the corresponding experimental data. These models were evaluated by two statistical measurements, which were root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) and Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The results showed that the logistic and Fitzhugh models could predict the experimental data very well for the digestion of swine and buffalo manure, respectively. The predicted methane yield potential for swine and buffalo manure was 487.9 and 340.4 mL CH4/g volatile solid (VS), respectively, which was close to experimental values, when the digestion temperature was 36 ± 1 °C in the biochemical methane potential assays. Besides, the rate constant revealed that swine manure had a much faster methane production rate than buffalo manure. PMID:26277191

  16. INDUSTRIAL WASTE AND PRETREATMENT IN THE BUFFALO MUNICIPAL SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The requirements and affects of the combined treatment of industrial and domestic wastewaters were investigated for the Buffalo Sewer Authority's sewerage system. A comprehensive industrial waste survey was performed to obtain the required background information on industrial dis...

  17. BUFFALO PEAKS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedlund, D.C.; Wood, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Field investigations were conducted to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Buffalo Peaks Wilderness Study Area, Colorado. On the basis of this study there is a probable mineral-resource potential for silver vein and bedding replacement deposits along the Weston Pass fault zone, for hydrothermal vein-type uranium deposits in the vicinity of the Parkdale iron pit, and for gold vein deposits in the parts of the Granite and Four Mile districts that are within the wilderness study area. A probable barite resource potential occurs at Rough and Tumbling Creek and near Spring Creek on the east side of the study area. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources.

  18. A field study on artificial insemination of swamp and crossbred buffaloes with sexed semen from river buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yangqing; Liao, Yanqiong; Zhang, Ming; Yang, Bingzhuang; Liang, Xianwei; Yang, Xiaogan; Lu, Shengsheng; Wu, Zhuyue; Xu, Huiyan; Liang, Yunbin; Lu, Kehuan

    2015-10-01

    Sex preselection by flow sorting of X- and Y-sperm has been proven to be an efficient and economically feasible strategy for use in Holstein dairy cow breeding, and previous reports have demonstrated the feasibility of altering the sex ratio in buffalo species by using sexed semen in either artificial insemination or IVF. However, because buffalo reproductive physiology and farm management are different from Holsteins, factors involved in artificial insemination by sexed semen need to be further addressed before being applied in buffalo breeding at village-level husbandry. In this study, a total of 4521 swamp or crossbred (F1 or F2) buffaloes with natural estrus were inseminated with X-sorted sperm from river buffaloes, resulting in a 48.5% (2194 of 4521) pregnancy rate and 87.6% (1895 of 2163) sex accuracy in the derived calves. The pregnancy rate obtained with sexed semen from Murrah bulls was higher than that of Nili-Ravi, 52.5% (895 of 1706) versus 46.1% (1299 of 2815; P < 0.01), respectively. Also, significant variations were seen in pregnancy rates from inseminations performed in different seasons (P < 0.01) and by different technicians (P < 0.01). In contrast to Holsteins, no difference was seen in the pregnancy rate between heifers and parous buffalo cows, and buffalo cows with different genetic backgrounds (swamp type, crossbred F1 and F2) showed similar fertility after insemination with sexed semen. The findings in the present study under field conditions pave the way for application of sexing technology to buffalo breeding under village-level husbandry and diverse genetic backgrounds. PMID:26149075

  19. Buffalo gourd: potential as a fuel resource on semi-arid lands

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.G.; Morgan, R.P.; Shultz, E.B. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Buffalo gourd, (Cucurbita foetidissima), is a wild, hot-dry-land plant native to the semi-arid regions of North America. Its triglyceride oil and fermentable starch make it a potential biomass energy source. These products, along with the seed meal and foliage, also offer the potential for cultivation in semi-arid regions of the developing world as a food and feed source. Alternatively, the plant may help to maintain economic vitality in regions such as the Texas High Plains, where declining water supplies threaten present irrigation practices. Technical feasibility, impacts, commercialization requirements, and research needs are discussed.

  20. Liquefaction potential for New Uork state: a preliminary report on sites in Manhattan and Buffalo. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Budhu, M.; Vijayakumar, V.; Giese, R.F.; Baumgras, L.

    1987-08-31

    The chances of a major earthquake occurring in New York in the near future is low. However, New York has experienced and no doubt will continue to experience moderate earthquakes. Catastrophic damage due to structural causes is not likely to occur for non-masonry buildings, but ground failure due to soil liquefaction is possible. It appears from the study that areas that lie adjacent to bodies of water (the Harlem River in Manhattan and Lake Erie in Buffalo) are liable to liquefy.

  1. EFFECT OF RUST ON THE WETTABILITY OF STEEL BY WATER W. Lu and D.D.L. Chung1

    E-print Network

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    EFFECT OF RUST ON THE WETTABILITY OF STEEL BY WATER W. Lu and D.D.L. Chung1 Composite Materials Research Laboratory, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260-4400, USA (Received-carbon steel in water, was found to improve the wettability of steel by water. The advancing contact angle

  2. Fish communities of the Buffalo River Basin and nearby basins of Arkansas and their relation to selected environmental factors, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James C.

    2004-01-01

    The Buffalo River lies in north-central Arkansas and is a tributary of the White River. Most of the length of the Buffalo River lies within the boundaries of Buffalo National River, a unit of the National Park Service; the upper 24 river kilometers lie within the boundary of the Ozark National Forest. Much of the upper and extreme lower parts of the basin on the south side of the Buffalo River is within the Ozark National Forest. During the summers of 2001 and 2002, fish communities were sampled at 52 sites in the study area that included the Buffalo River Basin and selected smaller nearby basins within the White River Basin in north-central Arkansas. Water quality (including nutrient and bacteria concentrations) and several other environmental factors (such as stream size, land use, substrate size, and riparian shading) also were measured. A total of 56 species of fish were collected from sites within the Buffalo River Basin in 2001 and 2002. All 56 species also were collected from within the boundaries of Buffalo National River. Twenty-two species were collected from headwater sites on tributaries of the Buffalo River; 27 species were collected from sites within or immediately adjacent to the Ozark National Forest. The list of species collected from Buffalo National River is similar to the list of species reported by previous investigators. Species richness at sites on the mainstem of the Buffalo River generally increased in a downstream direction. The number of species collected (both years combined) increased from 17 at the most upstream site to 38 near the mouth of the Buffalo River. In 2001 and 2002, a total of 53 species of fish were collected from sites outside the Buffalo River Basin. Several fish community metrics varied among sites in different site categories (mainstem, large tributary, small tributary, headwater, and developed out-of-basin sites). Median relative abundances of stonerollers ranged from about 25 to 55 percent and were highest at headwater and developed out-of-basin sites and lowest at mainstem sites. The relative abundances at the headwater and developed out-of-basin sites were significantly different from the relative abundances at the mainstem sites. Percentages of individuals of algivorous/herbivorous, invertivorous, and piscivorous species at headwater sites were significantly lower than values at mainstem and developed out-of-basin sites. Percentages of individuals of invertivorous species at mainstem sites were significantly higher than values at small tributary, headwater, and developed out-of-basin sites. Percentages of top carnivores at mainstem sites were significantly higher than values at tributary and headwater sites. The numbers of darter, sculpin, plus madtom species at mainstem, large tributary, and developed out-of-basin sites were significantly higher than values at other sites, and the values at small tributary sites and headwater sites were each significantly different from values at the other four types of sites. The number of lithophilic spawning species at large tributary sites was not significantly different from values at mainstem and developed out-of-basin sites, but values for small tributary and headwater sites each were significantly different from values for all other categories. Index of biotic integrity scores varied among the site categories. Scores for mainstem sites were significantly larger than all but large tributary site scores. Scores for headwater sites were significantly smaller than mainstem and large tributary site scores. Several analyses of the data described in this report suggest that drainage area is the most important single factor influencing fish communities of the Buffalo River Basin and nearby basins. Species richness increases with increasing drainage area and some species are restricted to smaller streams while other species are more common in larger streams. Some community metrics also are related to land use and related factors

  3. Structure of the buffalo secretory signalling glycoprotein at 2.8 Å resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Ethayathulla, Abdul S.; Srivastava, Devendra B.; Kumar, Janesh; Saravanan, Kolandaivelu; Bilgrami, Sameeta; Sharma, Sujata; Kaur, Punit; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Singh, Tej P.

    2007-04-01

    The crystal structure of a signalling glycoprotein isolated from buffalo dry secretions (SPB-40) has been determined at 2.8 Å resolution. Two unique residues, Tyr120 and Glu269, found in SPB-40 distort the shape of the sugar-binding groove considerably. The water structure in the groove is also different. The conformations of three flexible loops, His188–His197, Phe202–Arg212 and Tyr244–Pro260, also differ from those found in other structurally similar proteins. The crystal structure of a 40 kDa signalling glycoprotein from buffalo (SPB-40) has been determined at 2.8 Å resolution. SPB-40 acts as a protective signalling factor by binding to viable cells during the early phase of involution, during which extensive tissue remodelling occurs. It was isolated from the dry secretions of Murrah buffalo. It was purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with 19% ethanol as the precipitant. The protein was also cloned and its complete nucleotide and amino-acid sequences were determined. When compared with the sequences of other members of the family, the sequence of SPB-40 revealed two very important mutations in the sugar-binding region, in which Tyr120 changed to Trp120 and Glu269 changed to Trp269. The structure showed a significant distortion in the shape of the sugar-binding groove. The water structure in the groove is also drastically altered. The folding of the protein chain in the flexible region comprising segments His188–His197, Phe202–Arg212 and Tyr244–Pro260 shows large variations when compared with other proteins of the family.

  4. Selectively maintained paleoviruses in Holarctic water fleas reveal an ancient origin for phleboviruses

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Derek

    Selectively maintained paleoviruses in Holarctic water fleas reveal an ancient origin of Biological Sciences, The State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260, USA b A.N. Severtsov fresh- water habitats and has been the subject of multidisciplinary study for over half a century

  5. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE WETTABILITY OF STEEL, CARBON, AND POLYETHYLENE FIBERS BY WATER

    E-print Network

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE WETTABILITY OF STEEL, CARBON, AND POLYETHYLENE FIBERS BY WATER W. Lu, X at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260-4400, USA (Received March 9, 1998; in final form April 10, 1998) ABSTRACT The wettability of fibers by water was found to increase in this order: polyethylene fiber, steel fiber

  6. 76 FR 16294 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Buffalo Bayou, Mile 4.3, Houston, Harris County, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Buffalo Bayou, Mile 4.3... removing the existing drawbridge operation regulation for the drawbridge across Buffalo Bayou, mile 4.3... Buffalo Bayou, mile 4.3, was removed and replaced with a fixed bridge in 1991. The elimination of...

  7. 75 FR 16204 - Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration... announce the location, date, time, and agenda for the next meeting of the Region II Buffalo District...., Appendix 2), SBA announces the meeting of the Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council. The Region...

  8. 78 FR 26416 - Environmental Impact Statement: City of Buffalo, Erie County, New York

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: City of Buffalo, Erie County, New York... proposed highway project in the City of Buffalo, Erie County, New York. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Darrell F. Kaminski, Regional Director, NYSDOT Region 5; 100 Seneca Street, Buffalo, NY 14203,...

  9. 76 FR 59480 - Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration... announce the location, date, time, and agenda for the next meeting of the Region II Buffalo District...., Appendix 2), SBA announces the meeting of the Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council. The Region...

  10. 78 FR 41846 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Buffalo Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: At various... fireworks events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. This action is necessary and intended for the... Buffalo. DATES: The regulations in 33 CFR 165.939 will be enforced on the dates and times listed in...

  11. Disentangling association patterns in fissionfusion societies using African buffalo as an example

    E-print Network

    Getz, Wayne M.

    COMMENTARY Disentangling association patterns in fission­fusion societies using African buffalo of the FDI using data from African buffalo, Syncerus caffer, in the Kruger National Park. The traditional groups are readily identified spatially: in Kruger National Park, African buffalo exist in herds of w200

  12. Ecological cues, gestation length, and birth timing in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer)

    E-print Network

    Getz, Wayne M.

    Ecological cues, gestation length, and birth timing in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) S.J. Ryan and parturition in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and the synchrony of birth timing with resource cues Bovinae indicates that African buffalo have a protracted gestation for their body size, which we suggest

  13. 77 FR 37305 - Navigation and Navigable Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ...Intergovernmental relations, Navigation (water), Reporting and recordkeeping...33 CFR Part 80 Navigation (water), Treaties, Waterways. 33...SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS 0 28. The authority citation...remove the words ``Group Buffalo'', and add, in their...

  14. Information summary, Area of Concern: Buffalo River, New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.R.; Brandon, D.L.; Simmers, J.W.; Tatem, H.E.; Skogerbee, J.G.

    1991-03-01

    The Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO) is carrying out a 5-year study and demonstration project, Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS), with emphasis on removal of toxic pollutants from bottom sediments. Information from the ARCS program is to be used to guide development of Remedial Action Plans for 42 identified Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs). The AOCs are areas where serious impairment of beneficial uses of water or biota (drinking, swimming, fishing, navigation, etc.) is known to exist, or where environmental quality criteria are exceeded to the point that such impairment is likely. Priority consideration was given to five AOCs, including Buffalo River, N.Y. The WES Environmental Lab. reviewed existing data and information for each of these five AOCs. The approach used was to bring together WES scientists who have been conducting research on aspects of contaminant mobility in the aquatic environment to develop a list of information required to evaluate the potential for contaminant mobility. This report summarizes the information obtained for the Buffalo River. Topics include: Fish tissue concentrations, Groundwater, Land use, Metal contamination, Pesticides, Point and nonpoint source discharges, Risk assessment, Spills, Toxicity bioassay, and Water quality.

  15. Ecological implications of bovine tuberculosis in African Buffalo herds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caron, Alex; Cross, Paul C.; Du Toit, J.T.

    2003-01-01

    Following the recent invasion of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) into the Kruger National Park, South Africa, we conducted a study on the maintenance host, African buffalo, to investigate associations between BTB prevalence and calf:cow ratio, age structure, body condition, and endoparasite load. Statistical analyses compared herds of zero, medium (1–40%), and high (>40%) BTB prevalence. To control for ecological variation across the park we collected data in northern, central, and southern regions and restricted some analyses to particular regions of the park. Body condition declined over the course of the 2001 dry season, and buffaloes in the southern region of the park, with the highest BTB prevalence, were in worse condition than buffaloes in the northern region (which receives less annual rainfall but is still virtually BTB-free). Herd-level analyses of the entire park, the south and central regions, and just the southern region all indicated that herds of higher BTB prevalence were in worse condition and lost condition faster through the dry season than herds of lower BTB prevalence. Fecal endoparasite egg counts increased during the dry season and were associated with both decreased body condition and increased BTB prevalence. Although we did not detect any obvious effect of BTB on the age structure of the buffalo population, our findings indicate early symptoms of wider scale BTB-related ecological disturbances: buffalo herds with high BTB prevalence appear more vulnerable to drought (because of a decrease in body condition and an increase in endoparasite load), and because lions selectively kill weak buffaloes their prey base is accumulating a disproportionately high prevalence of BTB, to which lions are susceptible.Rea10.1890/02-5266d More: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs

  16. Occurrence of Chrysomya bezziana in a buffalo in Jammu.

    PubMed

    Katoch, R; Godara, R; Yadav, Anish; Sharma, Shikha; Ahmad, Irshad

    2014-12-01

    Cutaneous myiasis caused by the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, is a commonly occurring infestation of livestock and man in Southeast Asian and African countries. A buffalo, aged five years was presented with traumatic wound in the abnormal growth at the base of tail, housing maggots in it. Based on morphological features, the collected larvae were identified as C. bezziana larvae. The first ever occurrence of C. bezziana in a buffalo from this part of country and its public health significance have been discussed. PMID:25320496

  17. Structure of the buffalo secretory signalling glycoprotein at 2.8?Å resolution

    PubMed Central

    Ethayathulla, Abdul S.; Srivastava, Devendra B.; Kumar, Janesh; Saravanan, Kolandaivelu; Bilgrami, Sameeta; Sharma, Sujata; Kaur, Punit; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Singh, Tej P.

    2007-01-01

    The crystal structure of a 40?kDa signalling glycoprotein from buffalo (SPB-40) has been determined at 2.8?Å resolution. SPB-40 acts as a protective signalling factor by binding to viable cells during the early phase of involution, during which extensive tissue remodelling occurs. It was isolated from the dry secretions of Murrah buffalo. It was purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with 19% ethanol as the precipitant. The protein was also cloned and its complete nucleotide and amino-acid sequences were determined. When compared with the sequences of other members of the family, the sequence of SPB-40 revealed two very important mutations in the sugar-binding region, in which Tyr120 changed to Trp120 and Glu269 changed to Trp269. The structure showed a significant distortion in the shape of the sugar-binding groove. The water structure in the groove is also drastically altered. The folding of the protein chain in the flexible region comprising segments His188–His197, Phe202–Arg212 and Tyr244–Pro260 shows large variations when compared with other proteins of the family. PMID:17401190

  18. Area contingency plan: Eastern Great Lakes. (COTP Buffalo)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-30

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Eastern Great Lakes Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Buffalo Coastal Zone.

  19. AROMATIC AMINES IN AND NEAR THE BUFFALO RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three sediment samples taken from the Buffalo River and two soil samples taken near its bank have been analyzed for 2-propanol-extractable, basic organic compounds by using GC/MS. Eleven aromatic amines related to the commercial production of malachite green and crystal violet we...

  20. Toxicity of Parthenium hysterophorus L. to cattle and buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, T R; Ananth, M; Swamy, M N; Babu, M R; Mangala, A; Rao, P V

    1977-10-15

    Parthenium hysterophorus L., when fed to buffalo bull calves and cross bred bull calves resulted in acute toxicity leading to death. The former animals developed severe dermatitis. Autopsy revealed ulceration of alimentary tract. Extensive pathological changes were noticed in liver, kidney and skin. PMID:908415

  1. Selective breeding: the future of TB management in African buffalo?

    PubMed

    le Roex, N; Berrington, C M; Hoal, E G; van Helden, P D

    2015-09-01

    The high prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in regions of southern African has a negative economic impact on the trade of animals and animal products, represents an ecological threat to biodiversity, and poses a health risk to local communities through the wildlife-cattle-human interface. Test and cull methods may not be logistically feasible in many free-range wildlife systems, and with the presence of co-existing BTB hosts and the limited effectiveness of the BCG vaccine in buffalo, there is a need for alternative methods of BTB management. Selective breeding for increased resistance to BTB in buffalo may be a viable method of BTB management in the future, particularly if genetic information can be incorporated into these schemes. To explore this possibility, we discuss the different strategies that can be employed in selective breeding programmes, and consider the implementation of genetic improvement schemes. We reflect on the suitability of applying this strategy for enhanced BTB resistance in African buffalo, and address the challenges of this approach that must be taken into account. Conclusions and the implications for management are presented. PMID:25985909

  2. Little Blaze and the Buffalo Jump. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roop, Peter

    The reader is one in a series of stories of the Blackfeet Indians which take place when the people were at the height of their power, hunting buffalo north to the North Saskatchewan River, south to the Yellowstone River, east to the Montana-North Dakota border, and west to the Rocky Mountains. The story is about Little Blaze, a young Blackfeet…

  3. ALGORITHMIC CODING THEORY State University of New York at Buffalo

    E-print Network

    Rudra,, Atri

    ALGORITHMIC CODING THEORY Atri Rudra State University of New York at Buffalo 1 Introduction Error-correcting codes (or just codes) are clever ways of representing data so that one can recover the original the most natural and common application of error correcting codes is for communication. For example, when

  4. Comparative evaluation of oral and dermal cypermethrin exposure on antioxidant profile in Bubalus bubalis.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Rajdeep; Dar, Shabir Ahmad

    2013-11-01

    Cypermethrin, a type II synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, @ 0.5mg/kg/day for 14 consecutive weeks produced mild signs of toxicity in buffalo calves. Significant changes were observed in various antioxidant parameters in blood. There was a marked increase in the extent of lipid peroxidation (33.9%) and enzymic activity of glutathione peroxidase (6.7%), superoxide dismutase (35.0%), catalase (43.7%), glutathione-S-transferase (64.4%), glutathione reductase (36.7%) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (32.1%). A significant decrease in blood glutathione (16.7%), total antioxidant activity (45.4%) and vitamin E (40.8%) was observed and no significant effect was found on blood selenium levels. However, the extent of lipid peroxidation (42%) and the depletion of glutathione (28.8%) was greater after dermal sub-acute toxicity of cypermethrin (0.25%) for 14 consecutive days. Similarly, it was observed that the incline in the enzymic activity of glutathione peroxidase (29.7%), superoxide dismutase (38.3%) and glutathione reductase (38.3%) was higher in dermally cypermethrin exposed animals. Thus, the present investigation contemplates that oxidative stress is the important mechanisms involved in cypermethrin-induced toxicity and the oxidative insult produced by dermal route is more severe as compared to oral intoxication. PMID:23623842

  5. Genome Sequences of 11 Brucella abortus Isolates from Persistently Infected Italian Regions.

    PubMed

    Garofolo, Giuliano; Foster, Jeffrey T; Drees, Kevin; Zilli, Katiuscia; Platone, Ilenia; Ancora, Massimo; Cammà, Cesare; De Massis, Fabrizio; Calistri, Paolo; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis, typically caused by Brucella abortus, has been eradicated from much of the developed world. However, the disease remains prevalent in southern Italy, persisting as a public and livestock health concern. We report here the whole-genome sequences of 11 isolates from cattle (Bos taurus) and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) that are representative of the current genetic diversity of B. abortus lineages circulating in Italy. PMID:26679575

  6. Genome Sequences of 11 Brucella abortus Isolates from Persistently Infected Italian Regions

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Jeffrey T.; Drees, Kevin; Zilli, Katiuscia; Platone, Ilenia; Ancora, Massimo; Cammà, Cesare; De Massis, Fabrizio; Calistri, Paolo; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis, typically caused by Brucella abortus, has been eradicated from much of the developed world. However, the disease remains prevalent in southern Italy, persisting as a public and livestock health concern. We report here the whole-genome sequences of 11 isolates from cattle (Bos taurus) and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) that are representative of the current genetic diversity of B. abortus lineages circulating in Italy. PMID:26679575

  7. Writing on Water, A Lightweight Soft-State Tracking Framework for Dense Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    Writing on Water, A Lightweight Soft-State Tracking Framework for Dense Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Xuming Lu Murat Demirbas Computer Science and Engineering Department University at Buffalo, SUNY Email: xuminglu, demirbas@cse.buffalo.edu Abstract-- In a mobile ad hoc network, tracking protocols need to deal

  8. 46 CFR 401.407 - Basic rates and charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port Huron...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port...a) Area 4 (Undesignated Waters): Service Lake Erie (East of Southeast Shoal) Buffalo Six-hour Period $760... (b) Area 5 (Designated Waters): Any point on or in...

  9. 46 CFR 401.407 - Basic rates and charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port Huron...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port...a) Area 4 (Undesignated Waters): Service Lake Erie (East of Southeast Shoal) Buffalo Six-hour period $791... (b) Area 5 (Designated Waters): Any point on or in...

  10. 46 CFR 401.407 - Basic rates and charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port Huron...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port...a) Area 4 (Undesignated Waters): Service Lake Erie (East of Southeast Shoal) Buffalo 6-Hour Period $828... (b) Area 5 (Designated Waters): Any point on or in...

  11. 46 CFR 401.407 - Basic rates and charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port Huron...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to...Area 4 (Undesignated Waters): Service Lake Erie (East ofSoutheast Shoal) Buffalo Six-Hour Period ...b) Area 5 (Designated Waters): Any point on or...

  12. 46 CFR 401.407 - Basic rates and charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port Huron...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port...a) Area 4 (Undesignated Waters): Service Lake Erie (East of Southeast Shoal) Buffalo 6-hour Period $849... (b) Area 5 (Designated Waters): Any point on or in...

  13. The African buffalo parasite Theileria. sp. (buffalo) can infect and immortalize cattle leukocytes and encodes divergent orthologues of Theileria parva antigen genes

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, R.P.; Hemmink, J.D.; Morrison, W.I.; Weir, W.; Toye, P.G.; Sitt, T.; Spooner, P.R.; Musoke, A.J.; Skilton, R.A.; Odongo, D.O.

    2015-01-01

    African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the wildlife reservoir of multiple species within the apicomplexan protozoan genus Theileria, including Theileria parva which causes East coast fever in cattle. A parasite, which has not yet been formally named, known as Theileria sp. (buffalo) has been recognized as a potentially distinct species based on rDNA sequence, since 1993. We demonstrate using reverse line blot (RLB) and sequencing of 18S rDNA genes, that in an area where buffalo and cattle co-graze and there is a heavy tick challenge, T. sp. (buffalo) can frequently be isolated in culture from cattle leukocytes. We also show that T. sp. (buffalo), which is genetically very closely related to T. parva, according to 18s rDNA sequence, has a conserved orthologue of the polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM) that forms the basis of the diagnostic ELISA used for T. parva serological detection. Closely related orthologues of several CD8 T cell target antigen genes are also shared with T. parva. By contrast, orthologues of the T. parva p104 and the p67 sporozoite surface antigens could not be amplified by PCR from T. sp. (buffalo), using conserved primers designed from the corresponding T. parva sequences. Collectively the data re-emphasise doubts regarding the value of rDNA sequence data alone for defining apicomplexan species in the absence of additional data. ‘Deep 454 pyrosequencing’ of DNA from two Theileria sporozoite stabilates prepared from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks fed on buffalo failed to detect T. sp. (buffalo). This strongly suggests that R. appendiculatus may not be a vector for T. sp. (buffalo). Collectively, the data provides further evidence that T. sp. (buffalo). is a distinct species from T. parva. PMID:26543804

  14. The African buffalo parasite Theileria. sp. (buffalo) can infect and immortalize cattle leukocytes and encodes divergent orthologues of Theileria parva antigen genes.

    PubMed

    Bishop, R P; Hemmink, J D; Morrison, W I; Weir, W; Toye, P G; Sitt, T; Spooner, P R; Musoke, A J; Skilton, R A; Odongo, D O

    2015-12-01

    African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the wildlife reservoir of multiple species within the apicomplexan protozoan genus Theileria, including Theileria parva which causes East coast fever in cattle. A parasite, which has not yet been formally named, known as Theileria sp. (buffalo) has been recognized as a potentially distinct species based on rDNA sequence, since 1993. We demonstrate using reverse line blot (RLB) and sequencing of 18S rDNA genes, that in an area where buffalo and cattle co-graze and there is a heavy tick challenge, T. sp. (buffalo) can frequently be isolated in culture from cattle leukocytes. We also show that T. sp. (buffalo), which is genetically very closely related to T. parva, according to 18s rDNA sequence, has a conserved orthologue of the polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM) that forms the basis of the diagnostic ELISA used for T. parva serological detection. Closely related orthologues of several CD8 T cell target antigen genes are also shared with T. parva. By contrast, orthologues of the T. parva p104 and the p67 sporozoite surface antigens could not be amplified by PCR from T. sp. (buffalo), using conserved primers designed from the corresponding T. parva sequences. Collectively the data re-emphasise doubts regarding the value of rDNA sequence data alone for defining apicomplexan species in the absence of additional data. 'Deep 454 pyrosequencing' of DNA from two Theileria sporozoite stabilates prepared from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks fed on buffalo failed to detect T. sp. (buffalo). This strongly suggests that R. appendiculatus may not be a vector for T. sp. (buffalo). Collectively, the data provides further evidence that T. sp. (buffalo). is a distinct species from T. parva. PMID:26543804

  15. Characterization of ?-casein gene in Indian riverine buffalo.

    PubMed

    P V, Vinesh; Brahma, Biswajit; Kaur, Rupinder; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; Goswami, Surender Lal; De, Sachinandan

    2013-09-25

    The study aimed at characterization of buffalo ?-casein gene and its promoter by PCR-SSCP analysis. Complete ?-casein exon VII region analysis revealed two SSCP band patterns, with pattern-I representing predominant allele B (85%) present in homozygous (genotype BB) condition and pattern-II representing a rare allele A1 present in heterozygous condition (genotype A1B). Sequencing of two patterns revealed three nucleotide substitutions at codon 68, 151 and 193 of exon VII. The cDNA sequence of buffalo ?-casein gene indicated three further nucleotide substitutions between allele A1 and B at codon 10, 39, and 41. Analysis of ?-casein proximal promoter region (-350 upstream to +32) revealed four SSCP band patterns. These SSCP patterns corresponded to nucleotide substitutions at seven locations within 382 bp 5' UTR region of ?-casein gene. Haplotype analysis suggested pattern-I of exon VII (wild type) was associated with three types of promoters and pattern-II of exon VII (rare type) corresponded to one exclusive type of promoter. The study suggested two haplotypes of exon VII and four haplotypes of promoter for buffalo ?-casein. PMID:23811487

  16. Nuclear Industry Support Services by the Buffalo Materials Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, L.G. )

    1993-01-01

    The Buffalo Materials Research Center (BMRC) is located on the campus of the State University of New York at Buffalo, Principal facilities within BMRC include a 2-MW PULSTAR, low-enrichment reactor, an electron accelerator, and irradiated materials remote testing facilities. The reactor and the materials testing facilities have been utilized extensively in support of the power reactor community since 1961. This paper briefly highlights the nature and scope of this service. The BMRC is operated for the university by Buffalo Materials Research, Inc., a private for-profit company, which is a subsidiary of Materials Engineering Associates, Inc. (MEA), a Maryland-based materials testing company. A primary mission of MEA has been research on the effects of neutron irradiation on reactor structural materials, including those used for pressure vessel and piping systems. The combined resources of MEA and BMRC have played a pivotal role in the assessment of reactor pressure vessel safety both in the United States and abroad and in the development of new radiation-resistant steels.

  17. 78 FR 73584 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Corporate Family Merger Exemption-Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburgh Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.--Corporate Family Merger Exemption-- Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburgh Company CSX Transportation, Inc. (CSXT) and Buffalo, Rochester and...

  18. Comparative clinicopathological changes in buffalo and cattle following infection by Pasteurella multocida B:2.

    PubMed

    Annas, S; Zamri-Saad, M; Jesse, F F A; Zunita, Z

    2015-11-01

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute, septicaemic disease of cattle and buffalo of Asia and Africa caused by Pasteurella multocida B:2 or E:2. Buffaloes are believed to be more susceptible than cattle. In this study, 9 buffaloes of 8 months old were divided equally into 3 groups (Groups 1, 3, 5). Similarly, 9 cattle of 8 months old were equally divided into 3 groups (Groups 2, 4, 6). Animals of Groups 1 and 2 were inoculated with PBS while Groups 3 and 4 were inoculated subcutaneously with 10(5) cfu/ml of P. multocida B:2. Animals of Groups 5 and 6 were inoculated intranasally with the same inoculum. Both buffaloes and cattle that were inoculated subcutaneously succumbed to the infection at 16 h and 18 h, respectively. Two buffaloes that were inoculated intranasally (Group 5) succumbed at 68 h while the remaining cattle and buffaloes survived the 72-h study period. Endotoxin was detected in the blood of infected cattle (Group 4) and buffaloes (Groups 3 and 5) prior to the detection of P. multocida B:2 in the blood. The endotoxin was detected in the blood of buffaloes of Group 3 and cattle of Group 4 at 0.5 h post-inoculation while buffaloes of Group 5 and cattle of Group 6 at 1.5 h. On the other hand, bacteraemia was detected at 2.5 h in buffaloes of Group 3 and cattle of Group 4 and at 12 h in buffaloes of Group 5 and cattle of Group 6. Affected cattle and buffaloes showed lesions typical of haemorrhagic septicaemia. These included congestion and haemorrhages in the organs of respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts with evidence of acute inflammatory reactions. The severity of gross and histopathology lesions in cattle and buffalo calves that succumbed to the infection showed insignificant (p > 0.05) difference. However, inoculated buffalo and cattle that survived the infection showed significantly (p < 0.05) less severe gross and histopathological changes than those that succumbed. In general, cattle are more resistant to intranasal infection by P. multocida B:2 than buffaloes. PMID:26298001

  19. Outdoor Water Use Conservation through Native Plants Shapiro, Chan, Carson, Tayag Outdoor Water Use Conservation through Native Plants

    E-print Network

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    for regular turfgrass and buffalo grass (developed by UC Davis as a water efficient alternative to turfgrassOutdoor Water Use Conservation through Native Plants Shapiro, Chan, Carson, Tayag Outdoor Water Use, the front lawn is one of the greatest consumers of outdoor water use. Because of population growth, water

  20. 3 CFR 8945 - Proclamation 8945 of March 25, 2013. Establishment of the Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., overseeing Sequoia and General Grant (now Kings Canyon) National Parks while commanding a troop of Buffalo... assigned to the Presidio, Young and his regiment of Buffalo Soldiers were dispatched to Sequoia and General... Army sent the Buffalo Soldiers stationed at the Presidio to manage Yosemite, General Grant, and...

  1. 75 FR 40726 - Safety Zones: Annual Events Requiring Safety Zones in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... the Port Buffalo Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY... Buffalo Zone from July 2, 2010 through July 31, 2010. This action is necessary to protect the safety of... vessel may enter the safety zones without the permission of the Captain of the Port Buffalo. DATES:...

  2. 33 CFR 207.590 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.590 Section 207.590 Navigation and Navigable... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. (a) The term “canal... immediately to the Black Rock Lock, foot of Bridge Street, Buffalo, N.Y., telephone 876-5454. (k) Ferry...

  3. 77 FR 64126 - Notice of Proposed Withdrawal of Public Land for the Buffalo Bill Dam and Reservoir Modification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Withdrawal of Public Land for the Buffalo Bill Dam and... recreational facilities constructed in connection with the Buffalo Bill Dam and Reservoir Modification Project... recreation site in the Buffalo Bill Dam and Reservoir Modification Project area: Sixth Principal Meridian...

  4. 33 CFR 207.590 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.590 Section 207.590 Navigation and Navigable... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. (a) The term “canal... immediately to the Black Rock Lock, foot of Bridge Street, Buffalo, N.Y., telephone 876-5454. (k) Ferry...

  5. 33 CFR 207.590 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.590 Section 207.590 Navigation and Navigable... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. (a) The term “canal... immediately to the Black Rock Lock, foot of Bridge Street, Buffalo, N.Y., telephone 876-5454. (k) Ferry...

  6. 33 CFR 207.590 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.590 Section 207.590 Navigation and Navigable... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. (a) The term “canal... immediately to the Black Rock Lock, foot of Bridge Street, Buffalo, N.Y., telephone 876-5454. (k) Ferry...

  7. Summary statistics and graphical comparisons of specific conductance, temperature, and dissolved oxygen data, Buffalo Bayou, Houston, Texas, April 1986-March 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, D.W.; Paul, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    Buffalo Bayou is the major stream that drains the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area. The U.S. Geological Survey has provided specific conductance, temperature, and dissolved oxygen data to the City of Houston for three sites along a 7.7-mile reach of Buffalo Bayou since 1986. Summary statistics and graphical comparisons of the data show substantial variability in the properties during 1986-91. Specific conductance ranged from about 100 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius at each of the three sites to 17,100 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius at the most downstream site, at the headwaters of the Houston Ship Channel. Water temperatures ranged from 5 to 33 degrees Celsius. Temperatures were very similar at the two upstream sites and slightly warmer at the most downstream site. Dissolved oxygen ranged from zero at the most downstream site to 11.7 milligrams per liter at the most upstream site.

  8. 78 FR 18777 - Establishment of the Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) Billing code 3295-F3 ] TD28MR13.009 [FR Doc. 2013-07404 Filed 3-27..., overseeing Sequoia and General Grant (now Kings Canyon) National Parks while commanding a troop of Buffalo... assigned to the Presidio, Young and his regiment of Buffalo Soldiers were dispatched to Sequoia and...

  9. Karyotypic evolution of ribosomal sites in buffalo subspecies and their crossbreed

    PubMed Central

    Degrandi, Tiago Marafiga; Pita, Sebastian; Panzera, Yanina; de Oliveira, Edivaldo Herculano C.; Marques, José Ribamar Felipe; Figueiró, Marivaldo Rodrigues; Marques, Larissa Coêlho; Vinadé, Lucia; Gunski, Ricardo José; Garnero, Analía Del Valle

    2014-01-01

    Domestic buffaloes are divided into two group based on cytogenetic characteristics and habitats: the “river buffaloes” with 2n = 50 and the “swamp buffaloes”, 2n = 48. Nevertheless, their hybrids are viable, fertile and identified by a 2n = 49. In order to have a better characterization of these different cytotypes of buffaloes, and considering that NOR-bearing chromosomes are involved in the rearrangements responsible for the karyotypic differences, we applied silver staining (Ag-NOR) and performed fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments using 18S rDNA as probe. Metaphases were obtained through blood lymphocyte culture of 21 individuals, including river, swamp and hybrid cytotypes. Ag-NOR staining revealed active NORs on six chromosome pairs (3p, 4p, 6, 21, 23, 24) in the river buffaloes, whereas the swamp buffaloes presented only five NOR-bearing pairs (4p, 6, 20, 22, 23). The F1 cross-breed had 11 chromosomes with active NORs, indicating expression of both parental chromosomes. FISH analysis confirmed the numerical divergence identified with Ag-NOR. This result is explained by the loss of the NOR located on chromosome 4p in the river buffalo, which is involved in the tandem fusion with chromosome 9 in this subspecies. A comparison with the ancestral cattle karyotype suggests that the NOR found on the 3p of the river buffalo may have originated from a duplication of ribosomal genes, resulting in the formation of new NOR sites in this subspecies. PMID:25071402

  10. Return of the Buffalo: The Efforts to Restore Bison to Native Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cournoyer, David

    1996-01-01

    Describes the efforts of the InterTribal Bison Cooperative (ITBC), a nonprofit group founded to help tribes return buffalo to Indian reservations. Describes the cultural and economic motives behind the movement. Indicates that the ITBC has grown to 40 member tribes and utilizes a consensus-building approach to rebuilding buffalo herds. (MAB)

  11. Automation Robotics & Mechatronics (ARM) Lab http://www.eng.buffalo.edu/mechatronics

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    Automation Robotics & Mechatronics (ARM) Lab http://www.eng.buffalo.edu/mechatronics Advisor: Dr://www.eng.buffalo.edu/~gdwhite Motion and Force Control of a Mobile Robot Abstract Goal: The overall goal of this research is to develop a decentralized control method to control the position and environment interaction force of a mobile robot. Look

  12. 75 FR 61099 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone... Buffalo has previously established a security zone in the vicinity of Moses-Saunders Power Dam and the... the Supervisor, Marine Safety Detachment Massena. Discussion of Rule The Captain of the Port...

  13. 78 FR 23850 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... jurisdiction of the Captain of the Port Buffalo (73 FR 28704). Specifically, twenty-six permanent safety zones... the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone in the Federal Register (78 FR 11798). We received 0 comments on...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of...

  14. 77 FR 65011 - Buffalo Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Randall County, TX; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... this process through a notice in the Federal Register (63 FR 33693; June 19, 1998). The Buffalo Lake... FR 33693). Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD) was formally invited to participate in the... Fish and Wildlife Service Buffalo Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Randall County, TX;...

  15. Mechanism of resistance to synthetic pyrethroids in buffalo flies in south-east Queensland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Buffalo fly (Haematobia irritans exigua) and horn fly (Haematobia irritans irritans) cause irritation and production loss in much of the cattle producing area of the world. In Australia losses from buffalo fly were recently estimated at A$78m per year. Control is largely performed by using organoph...

  16. Effect of colostrum and milk on small intestine expression of AQP4 and AQP5 in newborn buffalo calves.

    PubMed

    Squillacioti, C; De Luca, A; Pero, M E; Vassalotti, G; Lombardi, P; Avallone, L; Mirabella, N; Pelagalli, A

    2015-12-01

    Functional studies indicate differences in newborn gastrointestinal morphology and physiology after a meal. Both water and solutes transfer across the intestinal epithelial membrane appear to occur via aquaporins (AQPs). Given that the physiological roles of AQP4 and AQP5 in the developing intestine have not been fully established, the objective of this investigation was to determine their distribution, expression and respective mRNA in the small intestine of colostrums-suckling buffalo calves by using immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis. Results showed different tissue distribution between AQP4 and AQP5 with the presence of the former along the enteric neurons and the latter in the endocrine cells. Moreover, their expression levels were high in the ileum of colostrum-suckling buffalo calves. The data present a link between feeding, intestinal development and water homeostasis, suggesting the involvement of these channel proteins in intestinal permeability and fluid secretion/absorption during this stage of development after birth. PMID:26679810

  17. Long-term trends in liver neoplasms in brown bullhead in the Buffalo River, New York, USA.

    PubMed

    Lauren, Darrel J; Hinton, David; Law, Mac; Sorensen, Mary; Lyndall, Jennifer; Magar, Victor; Nielsen, Mark

    2010-08-01

    The Buffalo River area of concern (AOC) was assigned an impaired status for the fish tumors and other deformities beneficial use impairment category by the New York State Department of Environmental Protection in 1989. This was initially based on an inadequately documented brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) feeding study using river sediment extracts. The presence of liver tumors was subsequently supported by reports of a 19 to 27% prevalence in wild brown bullhead between 1983 and 1988 and a 4.8% prevalence in 1998. However, neither fish size (or age) nor sample locations were given, and histopathological definitions were inconsistent in these previous studies. Therefore, in 2008, we re-evaluated the prevalence of hepatocellular and chloangiocellular tumors (as well as other gross indicators of fish health) in brown bullhead averaging 25 cm in length collected from three reaches of the Buffalo River and recorded our collection sites by global positioning system. Among the 37 fish of appropriate size collected, only three exhibited liver tumors (8%). The tumors were evenly distributed within the three reaches, and only hepatocellular tumors were found. There were no differences in the prevalence of hepatic foci of alteration, body weight, length, or hepatosomatic index among the three reaches, but the conditions factor was significantly lower in fish from reach 2. Natural attenuation of water and sediment quality are the most likely causes for the decrease in liver tumors. The prevalence of liver tumors between 1998 and 2008 in the Buffalo River is similar to that found in recovery-stage AOCs and some Great Lakes reference areas. PMID:20821628

  18. Economic and Technical Feasibility Study of Utility-Scale Wind Generation for the New York Buffalo River and South Buffalo Brownfield Opportunity Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J. O.; Mosey, G.

    2014-04-01

    Through the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the economic and technical feasibility of utilizing contaminated lands in the Buffalo, New York, area for utility-scale wind development is explored. The study found that there is available land, electrical infrastructure, wind resource, and local interest to support a commercial wind project; however, economies of scale and local electrical markets may need further investigation before significant investment is made into developing a wind project at the Buffalo Reuse Authority site.

  19. Enriching membrane cholesterol improves stability and cryosurvival of buffalo spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Rajoriya, J S; Prasad, J K; Ramteke, S S; Perumal, P; Ghosh, S K; Singh, M; Pande, Megha; Srivastava, N

    2016-01-01

    Buffalo spermatozoa are comparatively more susceptible to freezing hazards than cattle spermatozoa. In recent times incubation of spermatozoa with cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrins (CLC) has shown improvements in semen quality in several species. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the incubation level of CLC at which maximum benefit is derived for the buffalo spermatozoa. For the study, 120 million spermatozoa were incubated in 2, 3 and 4mg/mL of CLC (Gr II, III and IV, respectively) and cholesterol and phospholipids content, their ratio, flow cytometric evaluation of plasma membrane integrity (PMI), plasma membrane fluidity and extent of cryoinjury (Chlortetracycline, CTC assay) were compared with an untreated control (Gr I). Additionally the ability of cholesterol-loaded-spermatozoa to undergo induced acrosome reaction (IAR) using ionophore calcium (A23187) was evaluated in frozen-thaw samples. Data show a significant and linear increase (CV=0.88) in cholesterol content of spermatozoa in Gr II, III and IV and a significant decrease in phospholipids content at frozen-thaw stage in Gr IV than Gr III spermatozoa. The study revealed a significant improvement in PMI and significant reduction in plasma membrane fluidity and cryoinjury of CLC treated spermatozoa at progressive stages in three groups compared to control. Nevertheless, spermatozoa of Gr II, III and IV were significantly less responsive to ionophore calcium (A23187) than Gr I. This study shows for the first time that incubation of buffalo bull spermatozoa with CLC (3mg/120×10(6)) prior to processing permits greater numbers of sperm to survive cryopreservation while allowing spermatozoa to capacitate and the acrosome to react to AR inducer ionophore calcium (A23187). PMID:26619942

  20. New crops for arid lands. [Jojoba; Buffalo gourd; Bladderpod; Gumweed

    SciTech Connect

    Hinman, C.W.

    1984-09-28

    Five plants are described that could be grown commercially under arid conditions. Once the most valuable component has been obtained from each plant (rubber from guayule; seed oil from jojoba, buffalo gourd, and bladderpod; and resin from gumweed), the remaining material holds potential for useful products as well as fuel. It is difficult to realize the full potential of arid land plants, however, because of the complexities of developing the necessary agricultural and industrial infrastructure simultaneously. To do so, multicompany efforts or cooperative efforts between government and the private sector will be required.

  1. Sediment chemistries and chironomid deformities in the Buffalo River (NY)

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, K.M.; Diggins, T.P.

    1994-12-31

    The authors examined the surficial sediment chemistry (heavy metals) and the frequency of chironomid (Diptera) larvae mouthpart deformities from multiple PONAR grabs samples at each of 20 sites along the Buffalo River (NY) area of concern (AOC). Because of the potential for patchy invertebrate distribution and high variance in sediment chemistry, repeated spatial and temporal sampling is important to obtain a better integrated picture of contamination in rivers. The findings suggest that the Buffalo River has one of the highest percentages of deformed chironomids in AOC`s of the Great Lakes basin. One river site that was traditionally thought to be a chemical hot spot was less contaminated than another downstream section. At another site, sediment concentrations for V., Mn and AS appeared to be strongly associated with the proximity of combined sewer overflows from a region which is primarily residential. Interestingly, a demonstration project of the US Army Corps of Engineers, during which three types of dredges were used to carefully remove upper sediments from two different short reaches along the river, seemed to have no significant impact on proximate sediment chemistries or biota.

  2. First Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. Infecting Buffalo Calves in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Monally C C; Widmer, Giovanni; Zucatto, Anaiza S; Viol, Milena A; Inácio, Sandra V; Nakamura, Alex A; Coelho, Willian M D; Perri, Silvia H V; Meireles, Marcelo V; Bresciani, Katia D S

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of determining the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp., 222 fecal samples were collected from Murrah buffalo calves aged up to 6 mo. Fecal DNA was genotyped with a nested polymerase chain reaction targeting the 18S rRNA gene and sequencing of the amplified fragment. Nested 18S PCR was positive for 48.2% of the samples. Sequence analysis showed that the most frequent species in these animals was Cryptosporidium ryanae, which was present in buffalo calves as young as 5 d. The zoonotic species Cryptosporidium parvum was detected in one animal. An uncommon Cryptosporidium 18S genotype was found in buffaloes. PMID:25941018

  3. Evaluation of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status on fenvalerate, nitrate and their co-exposure in Bubalus bubalis.

    PubMed

    Gill, Kamalpreet Kaur; Sandhu, Harpal Singh; Kaur, Rajdeep

    2015-09-01

    The toxic effects of pesticides and minerals have been explored in different species, but still there is paucity of information regarding their combined toxicological effects. The present investigation reports oxidative stress induced by oral subacute exposure to fenvalerate (1?mg/kg) and sodium nitrate (20?mg/kg) alone, as well as in combination daily for 21 days in buffalo calves. Fenvalerate exposure produced significant elevation in lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), while it produced significant decline in blood glutathione (GSH) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). No significant alteration was evidenced in nitric oxide (NOx) levels. Oral exposure to sodium nitrate produced significant inclination in LPO and NOx, while on the other hand significant depreciation in SOD and CAT with no significant change in GPx activity. Combined exposure to fenvalerate and sodium nitrate produced severe effects with an appreciably more prominent elevation in extent of LPO and decline in blood GSH levels. PMID:26267048

  4. A preliminary investigation of tuberculosis and other diseases in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kalema-Zikusoka, G; Bengis, R G; Michel, A L; Woodford, M H

    2005-06-01

    A survey to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis and certain other infectious diseases was conducted on 42 free-ranging African buffaloes, (Syncerus caffer) from May to June 1997 in the Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. Using the gamma interferon test, exposure to M. bovis was detected in 21.6% of the buffaloes. One dead buffalo and an emaciated warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) that was euthanased, were necropsied; both had miliary granulomas from which M. bovis was isolated. None of the buffaloes sampled in Sector A of the park, which has no cattle interface, tested positive for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) exposure. The prevalence and distribution of BTB does not appear to have changed significantly since the 1960s, but this may be due to fluxes in the buffalo population. Serological testing for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) demonstrated positive exposure of 57.1% of the buffaloes sampled, with types A, O and SAT 1-3, which is the first known report of FMD antibodies to A and O types in free ranging African buffaloes. Foot-and-mouth disease virus types SAT 1 and SAT 3 were isolated from buffalo probang samples. Two percent of the buffaloes had been exposed to brucellosis. None of the buffaloes tested had antibodies to rinderpest, leptospirosis or Q fever. PMID:16137132

  5. Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  6. The reconsidered river : strategies for connections in post-industrial Buffalo

    E-print Network

    Schmitz, Laura R. (Laura Renée)

    2015-01-01

    This thesis sets out to connect two isolated neighborhoods within the post-industrial city of Buffalo, NY. The design strategy capitalizes on existing opportunities in Silo City, a neighborhood of abandoned grain elevators ...

  7. New Maximum Age of Bigmouth Buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus Craig P. Paukertl

    E-print Network

    exists. The oldest reported bigmouth buffalo was 20 yr (696 mm total length) from a Saskatchewan Lake (3 contain fish older than 20 yr. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Chad McCoy, Regina Attebury, and Terry Malloy helped

  8. Buffalo's Center for Immunology: A New Answer to an Old Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Noel R.; Bogazzi, Pierluigi E.

    1972-01-01

    The Center for Immunology at the University of Buffalo provides a viable resource for educating medical students in immunology until a department of immunology can be developed within the medical school. (HS)

  9. SERUM CHEMISTRY AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATIONS OF BROWN BULLHEADS (AMEIURUS NEBULOSUS) FROM THE BUFFALO AND NIAGARA RIVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cholangiomas and cholangiocarcinomas were observed in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from the Buffalo and Niagara Rivers (NY) and Old Woman Creek (OH). ignificant increases in serum BUN, uric acid, triglycerides inorganic phosphate, ALT, LDL, calcium and iron and ...

  10. Antigenic diversity in Theileria parva in vaccine stabilate and African buffalo 

    E-print Network

    Hemmink, Johanneke Dinie

    2014-07-05

    Theileria parva is a tick-borne intracellular protozoan parasite which infects cattle and African buffalo in Eastern and Southern Africa. Cattle may be immunised against T. parva by the infection and treatment method ...

  11. Biochemical characterization of buffalo liver glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase isoforms.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mahmoud A; Ghazy, Abdel-Hady M; Salem, Ahmed M H; Ghazy, Mohamed A; Abdel-Monsef, Mohammed M

    2015-06-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a key regulatory enzyme involved in the pentose phosphate pathway. This works represents purification of two buffalo liver glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenases (BLG6PD1 and BLG6PD2) using combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation and several chromatographic columns. Both enzymes (BLG6PD1 and BLG6PD2) were homogenous on both native PAGE as well as 12% SDS PAGE with molecular weights of 28 and 66 kDa. The molecular weight of BLG6PD1 and BLG6PD2 native forms were determined to be 28 and 66 kDa by gel filtration; indicating monomeric proteins. The K(m) values for BLG6PD1 and BLG6PD2 estimated to be 0.059 and 0.06 mM of ?-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. The optimum activity of BLG6PD1 and BLG6PD2 were displayed at pH 8.0 and 8.2 with an isoelectric point (pI) of pH 7.7-7.9 and 5.7-5.9. The divalent cations MgCl2, and CoCl2 act as activators, on the other hand, FeCl2, CuCl2 and ZnCl2 are potent inhibitors of BLG6PD1 and BLG6PD2 activity. NADPH inhibited both isoenzymes competitively with Ki values of 0.012 and 0.030 mM. This study describes a reproducible purification scheme of G6PD from the liver of buffalo as a rich source. PMID:25980795

  12. Molecular Characterization of Buffalo Haptoglobin: Sequence Based Structural Comparison Indicates Convergent Evolution Between Ruminants and Human.

    PubMed

    Niranjan, S K; Goyal, S; Dubey, P K; Vohra, V; Singh, S; Kathiravan, P; Kataria, R S

    2016-01-01

    Haptoglobin (Hp) protein has high affinity for hemoglobin (Hb) binding during intravascular hemolysis and scavenges the hemoglobin induced free radicals. Earlier reports indicate about uniqueness of Hp molecule in human and cattle, but in other animals, it is not much studied. In this paper, we characterized buffalo Hp molecule and determined its molecular structure, evolutionary importance, and tissue expression. Comparative analysis and predicted domain structure indicated that the buffalo Hp has an internal duplicated region in ?-chain only similar to an alternate Hp2 allele in human. This duplicated part encoded for an extra complement control protein CCP domain. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that buffalo and other ruminants were found to group together separated from all other non-ruminants, including human. The key amino acid residues involved in Hp and Hb as well as Hp and macrophage scavenger receptor, CD163 interactions in buffalo, depicted a significant variation in comparison to other non-ruminant species. Constitutive expression of Hp was also confirmed across all the vital tissues of buffalo, for the first time. Results revealed that buffalo Hp is both structurally and functionally conserved, having internal duplication in ?-chain similar to human Hp2 and other ruminant species, which might have evolved separately as a convergent evolutionary process. Furthermore, the presence of extra Hp CCP domain possibly in all ruminants may have an effect during dimerization of molecule in these species. PMID:26646629

  13. Feasibility of enzymatic hydrolysis and alcoholic fermentation of starch contained in buffalo gourd (Cucurbita foetidissima) roots

    SciTech Connect

    Scheerens, J.C.; Kopplin, M.J.; Abbas, I.R.; Nelson, J.M.; Gathman, A.C.; Berry, J.W.

    1987-03-01

    The suitability of using annually grown, carrot-sized buffalo gourd (Cucurbita foetidissima) roots as a feedstock for alcoholic fermentation was explored. Roots grown in 1982 and 1983 were slurried, dextrinized and saccharified using Takatherm and Diazyme (commercial enzymes manufactured by Miles Laboratories), and fermented by the action of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These processes were monitored in detail and results were compared with those displayed by controls formulated using potato tubers. The preparation of gourd root slurries with suitable viscosity characteristics for enzymatic digestion required the addition of water (at least 50% by weight) which reduced the proportion of fermentable sugars in the resulting saccharified suspensions. The resulting slurries were well-suited to enzymatic conversion of starch to sugar. Estimates of enzymatic efficiency in gourd root suspensions did not suggest the presence of naturally occurring amylase or glucosidase inhibitors in these plant materials. Saccharified gourd root mashes supported yeast growth well and produced ethanol yields at 82.2-86.5% of the theoretically maximum efficiency. 23 references.

  14. Expression and Localization of Aquaporin-1 Along the Intestine of Colostrum Suckling Buffalo Calves.

    PubMed

    De Luca, A; Vassalotti, G; Pelagalli, A; Pero, M E; Squillacioti, C; Mirabella, N; Lombardi, P; Avallone, L

    2015-10-01

    Aquaporin-1 (AQP1), a six-transmembrane domain protein, belongs to a highly conserved group of proteins called aquaporins known to regulate permeability across cell membranes. Although the role of AQP1 has been extensively studied, its specific activity along the gastrointestinal tract in animals during early postnatal development is poorly known. This study investigates the expression of AQP1 mRNA and protein in the small and large intestine of water buffalo calves after colostrum ingestion using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting, and cellular localization of AQP1 by immunohistochemistry. Our results revealed AQP1 immunoreactivity and the presence of the corresponding mRNA in all the examined tracts of the intestine but with a different cellular localization. Western blotting confirmed the presence of AQP1, with a more intense band in colostrum-suckling animals. These findings offer insights into AQP1 expression in the small and large intestine, suggesting its involvement in osmoregulation in gastrointestinal physiology particularly during the first week after birth in relation to specific maturation of intestinal structures. PMID:25348329

  15. Landing performance of an air cushion landing system installed on a 1/10-scale dynamic model on the C-8 Buffalo airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the landing behavior of a 1/10-scale dynamic model of the C-8 Buffalo airplane equipped with an air-cushion landing system (ACLS) on a variety of surfaces including both calm and rough water and a smooth hard surface. Taxi runs were made on the hard surface over several obstacles. Landings were made with the model at various pitch and roll attitudes and vertical velocities and at one nominal horizontal velocity. Data from the landings include time histories of the trunk and air-cushion pressures and accelerations at selected locations on the model.

  16. Identification of functional consequence of a novel selection signature in CYP11b1 gene for milk fat content in Bubalus bubalis

    PubMed Central

    Maryam, J.; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Nadeem, Asif; Yaqub, Tahir; Hashmi, Abu Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Genomic selection for traits of economic importance is an emerging approach carrying tremendous potentials. Many of polygenic traits as milk fat, protein and yield have been characterize at genomic level and important selection signatures have been identified. Cytochrome P450 enzymes are potential loci for affecting many of dairy capabilities. Present study was conducted for genomic dissection of CYP11b1 gene in riverine buffaloes and seven genetic variations were identified. Out of these, one novel polymorphism (p.A313T) was found well associated with milk fat %age. AB genotyped buffaloes were found to have higher milk fat %age (8.9%) for this loci. p.A313T was further validated at larger data set by restriction digestion using CviAII enzyme. Functional consequences of this locus were also predicted by studying three dimensional structure of CYP11b1 protein. For this purpose, 3D protein model was predicted by homology modeling, secondary structural attributes were determined, signal peptide was predicted and a transmembrane helix was also identified. One of polymorphism (p.Y205L) was found in the vicinity of functionally significant F-G loop region, which is the part of protein gets attached to the inner mitochondrial membrane. But this variation could not be associated and needs further investigation. p.A30V, a popular selection marker in cattle, was found in buffaloes as well but could not be associated and might need further confirmation on larger data set. Results of this study illustrate the impending potential of this gene in determining dairy capabilities of buffaloes and might have a role in selection of superior dairy buffaloes. PMID:26629413

  17. Physiological responses and performance of Nili-Ravi buffalo calves under different washing frequency during hot summer months in tropics.

    PubMed

    Das, Kalyan Sundar; Singh, Ghansham; Paul, Shyam S; Malik, Raman; Oberoi, Parminder S; Deb, Sitanshu M

    2011-01-01

    The effect of washing frequency on the physiological responses and performance of buffalo calves was studied in hot summer. Thirty Nili-Ravi calves aged 4-6 months were divided into three uniform groups of ten. The calves of group A, B and C were washed two (9 a.m. and 3 p.m.), three (8 a.m., 12 noon and 4 p.m.) and four (8 a.m., 11 a.m., 2 p.m. and 5 p.m.) times in a day, respectively. They were washed with water for 5 min at a stretch. The mean linear body measurements, body weight, dry matter intake through concentrate, green fodder and physiological responses, i.e. rectal temperature, pulse rate and respiration rate before and after washing under different daily washing frequency were recorded fortnightly. The average daily gain was also calculated. The mean total dry matter intake was increased with the increase frequency of washing. The maximum mean daily body weight gain was recorded in group C followed by group B and A. There were statistically significant (P?buffalo calves to decrease rectal temperature, pulse rate and respiration rate and to increase average feed utilization and daily gain under tropical climate. PMID:20614236

  18. 76 FR 62330 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Alamo, GA; Alton, MO; Boscobel, WI; Buffalo, OK; Cove, AR; Clayton...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Alamo, GA; Alton, MO; Boscobel, WI; Buffalo, OK; Cove..., under Montana, Channel 254C2. h. Remove Buffalo, under Oklahoma, Channel 224C2; Erick, Channel...

  19. 78 FR 59923 - Buffalo Dunes Wind Project, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Buffalo Dunes Wind Project, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding, of Buffalo Dunes Wind Project, LLC's application for...

  20. 77 FR 27487 - License Amendment Request From The State University of New York, University of Buffalo Reactor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires... COMMISSION License Amendment Request From The State University of New York, University of Buffalo Reactor....resource@nrc.gov . The University of Buffalo Decommissioning Plan and License Amendment Request...

  1. http://www.eng.buffalo.edu/undergrad/docs/gened1.pdf Summary of University General Education Requirements

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    http://www.eng.buffalo.edu/undergrad/docs/gened1.pdf Summary of University General Education Skills Workbook: http://library.buffalo.edu/help/instructional/libraryskillsworkbook.html Five or six and Film, GEO 231: U.S. Contemporary Problems, ARC 211: Diversity and Design, AAS 261: African American

  2. Paleoecology of Early eocene strata near Buffalo, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Durkin, T.V.; Rich, F.J.

    1986-08-01

    Palynological investigation has helped illustrate the paleoecology of a vertical section of strata from the Wasatch Formation between the Healy and Walters coal burns near Buffalo, Wyoming. Numerous silicified logs and stumps of cypress and sequoia have been preserved at the site and drew initial attention to it. Flood-basin deposits enclose the trees and include sandstones, siltstones, shale, and coal beds that accumulated as channel, levee, crevasse-splay, and swamp/marsh sediments. Detrital sediments were probably derived from the Bighorn Mountains and accumulated as they were carried into the Powder River basin fluvial system. One hundred five polynomorph taxa have been distinguished, as well as 10 types of fungal spores. Platycarya, Tilia, Sparganium, and Platanus pollen indicate an early Eocene age for the strata. Other pollen, as well as the genera of trees and megafossil remains from a clinker bed several miles from the study area, reinforce the interpretation of a warm-temperature or subtropical climate at the time of deposition. The megafossil assemblage includes pinnae of the aquatic fern Marsilea, never before described from the fossil record. Variations in the species composition of the polynomorph assemblages show that several plant communities existed in succession at the site. These varied from pond or marsh types to mature forests.

  3. Using the local immune response from the natural buffalo host to generate an antibody fragment library that binds the early larval stages of Schistosoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Hosking, Christopher G; Driguez, Patrick; McWilliam, Hamish E G; Ilag, Leodevico L; Gladman, Simon; Li, Yuesheng; Piedrafita, David; McManus, Donald P; Meeusen, Els N T; de Veer, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    Antibodies isolated from the local draining inguinal lymph node of field exposed-water buffaloes following challenge with Schistosoma japonicum cercariae showed high reactivity towards S. japonicum antigen preparations and bound specifically to formaldehyde-fixed S. japonicum schistosomules. Using this specific local immune response we produced a series of single-chain antibody Fv domain libraries from the same lymph nodes. Removal of phage that cross reacted with epitopes on adult parasites yielded a single-chain antibody Fv domain-phage library that specifically bound to whole formaldehyde-fixed and live S. japonicum schistosomules. DNA sequencing indicated clear enrichment of the single-chain antibody Fv domain library for buffalo B-cell complementarity determining regions post-selection for schistosomule binding. This study also revealed that long heavy chain complementarity determining regions appear to be an important factor when selecting for antibody binding fragments against schistosomule proteins. The selected single-chain antibody Fv domain-phage were used to probe a schistosome-specific protein microarray, which resulted in the recognition of many proteins expressed across all schistosome life-cycle stages. Following absorption to adult worms, the single-chain antibody Fv domain-phage library showed significantly reduced binding to most proteins, whilst two proteins (NCBI GenBank accession numbers AY915878 and AY815196) showed increased binding. We have thus developed a unique set of host derived single-chain antibody Fv domains comprising buffalo B-cell variable regions that specifically bind to early S. japonicum life-stages. PMID:26116907

  4. Quality and shelf life of cooked buffalo tripe rolls at refrigerated storage under vacuum packaging condition.

    PubMed

    Anandh, M Anna; Venkatachalapathy, R T; Radha, K; Lakshmanan, V

    2014-07-01

    Cooked buffalo tripe rolls prepared from a combination of buffalo tripe and buffalo meat by using mincing and blade tenderization process were stored at 4?±?1 °C in polyethylene teraphthalate laminated with polythene (PET/PE) pouches under vacuum packaging condition. The samples were evaluated for physico-chemical parameters, microbial quality and sensory attributes at regular intervals of 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. Significant changes were seen in physico-chemical, microbial and sensory characteristics of BTRs during storage at refrigeration temperature (4?±?1 °C) under vacuum packaging condition. All microbial counts were well within the acceptable limits and the products did not show any signs of spoilage. Thus, BTRs prepared by mincing or BT can be best stored up to 28 days at 4?±?1 °C under vacuum packaging. PMID:24966432

  5. Storage stability of smoked buffalo rumen meat product treated with ginger extract.

    PubMed

    Anandh, M Anna; Lakshmanan, V

    2014-06-01

    Smoked buffalo rumen meat products were prepared from 3 times blade tenderized buffalo tripe with 5.0% ginger extract and were subjected to various physico-chemical parameters, microbial profile and sensory quality at 25?±?1 °C under aerobic packaging. All physico-chemical parameters, microbial counts and sensory evaluation score of ginger extract treated buffalo rumen meat product were higher compared to control. pH, moisture content, thiobarbituric acid, tyrosine values, total plate, yeast and mould and staphylococcal counts were increased and extract release volume were decreased significantly with increasing storage period. Throughout the storage period, all microbial counts and sensory evaluation score were within the acceptable limits up to storage period of 15 days at 25?±?1 °C in LDPE pouches under aerobic packaging. PMID:24876655

  6. Determination of thermal process schedule for emulsion type buffalo meat block in retort pouch.

    PubMed

    Devadason, I Prince; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Mendirtta, S K; Murthy, T R K

    2014-11-01

    The process temperature for buffalo met blocks processed in retort pouches calculated based on the heat resistance of Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 in Phosphate buffer saline (PBS- Ph 7.0) as reference medium and in buffalo meat block (pH 6.28) was in the range of 110-121°C. The D values and Z values calculated for C.sporogenes PA 3679 confirmed that the suspension was best suited for conducting thermal resistance studies. The experiment for indirect confirmation of microbial safety of the products involving inoculating the buffalo meat emulsion filled in pouches with C.sporogenes PA 3679 and processed at Fo 12.13 min showed no growth of microorganisms. PMID:26396350

  7. Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis in Cattle and African Buffalo in the Limpopo National Park, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Tanner, M; Inlameia, O; Michel, A; Maxlhuza, G; Pondja, A; Fafetine, J; Macucule, B; Zacarias, M; Manguele, J; Moiane, I C; Marranangumbe, A S; Mulandane, F; Schönfeld, C; Moser, I; van Helden, P; Machado, A

    2015-12-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and brucellosis are prevalent in buffaloes of the Kruger National Park (KNP, South Africa). Both diseases were considered to have no or a very low prevalence in wildlife and livestock in and around the Limpopo National Park (LNP, Mozambique). The same applies for tuberculosis in Gonarezhou National Park (GNP, Zimbabwe), but just recently, BTB was detected in buffaloes in the GNP and fears arose that the disease might also spread to the LNP as a result of the partial removal of the fences between the three parks to form the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park. To assess the status of both diseases in and around LNP, 62 buffaloes were tested for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and bovine brucellosis. The percentage of positive BTB reactors in buffalo was 8.06% using BovidTB Stat-Pak(®) and 0% with BOVIGAM(®) IFN-? test and IDEXX ELISA. The brucellosis seroprevalence in buffalo was found to be 17.72% and 27.42% using Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and ELISA, respectively. In addition, 2445 cattle in and around the LNP were examined for BTB using the single intradermal cervical comparative tuberculin test (SICCT), and an apparent prevalence of 0.98% was found with no significant difference inside (0.5%) and outside (1.3%) the park. This is the first published report on the presence of positive reactors to BTB and bovine brucellosis in buffalo and cattle in and outside the LNP. Monitoring the wildlife-livestock-human interface of zoonotic high-impact diseases such as BTB and brucellosis is of outmost importance for the successful implementation and management of any transfrontier park that aims to improve the livelihoods of the local communities. PMID:24479882

  8. Plasma levels of fenbendazole metabolites in buffalo and cattle after long-term intraruminal administration.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, P K

    1993-12-01

    Plasma metabolite levels were measured in buffalo and cross-bred cattle after daily intraruminal administration of fenbendazole at 0.5 mg/kg body weight. An equilibrium between the absorption of fenbendazole and disposition of its metabolites could be observed between days 3 to 6 and remained almost unchanged thereafter. The buffaloes had a lower uptake of the anthelmintic and lower plasma levels of its metabolites than in cattle. The findings were compared with those obtained after a single intraruminal therapeutic dose of fenbendazole. PMID:8122352

  9. Chitosan-gelatin scaffolds for tissue engineering: physico-chemical properties and biological response of buffalo embryonic stem cells and transfectant of GFP-buffalo embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Thein-Han, W W; Saikhun, J; Pholpramoo, C; Misra, R D K; Kitiyanant, Y

    2009-11-01

    The favorable cellular response of newly developed cell line, buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cells to three-dimensional biodegradable chitosan-gelatin composite scaffolds with regard to stem-cell-based tissue engineering is described. Chitosan-gelatin composites were characterized by a highly porous structure with interconnected pores, and the mechanical properties were significantly enhanced. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction study indicated increased amorphous content in the scaffold on the addition of gelatin to chitosan. To develop a transfectant of green fluorescence protein (GFP)-buffalo ES cell, transfection of GFP plasmid to the cell was carried out via the electroporation procedure. In comparison with pure chitosan, cell spreading and proliferation were greater in highly visualized GFP-expressing cell-chitosan-gelatin scaffold constructs. The relative comparison of biological response involving cell proliferation and viability on the scaffolds suggests that blending of gelatin in chitosan improved cellular efficiency. Studies involving scanning electron and fluorescence microscopy, histological observations and flow cytometer analysis of the constructs implied that the polygonal cells attached to and penetrated the pores, and proliferated well, while maintaining their pluripotency during the culture period for 28days. Chitosan-gelatin scaffolds were cytocompatible with respect to buffalo ES cells. The study underscores for the first time that chitosan-gelatin scaffolds are promising candidates for ES-cell-based tissue engineering. PMID:19460465

  10. 78 FR 11798 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ...The Coast Guard proposes to amend and establish regulations requiring safety zones for firework events that take place annually within the Captain of the Port Zone Buffalo. This proposed rule is intended to amend and establish restrictions on vessel access to designated areas on U.S. navigable waterways during certain fireworks displays. The safety zones amended and established by this......

  11. UNIVERSITY AT BUFFALO: CSE TECHNICAL REPORT 1 ORBIT Mobility Framework and Orbit Based

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    UNIVERSITY AT BUFFALO: CSE TECHNICAL REPORT 1 ORBIT Mobility Framework and Orbit Based Routing (OBR). In this paper, we propose a novel mobility framework called ORBIT. In addition to generating a more practical mobility pattern based on sociological movement of users, ORBIT can also integrate all the work mentioned

  12. Bird mortality associated with wind turbines at the Buffalo Ridge wind resource area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osborn, R.G.; Higgins, K.F.; Usgaard, R.E.; Dieter, C.D.; Neiger, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    Recent technological advances have made wind power a viable source of alternative energy production and the number of windplant facilities has increased in the United States. Construction was completed on a 73 turbine, 25 megawatt windplant on Buffalo Ridge near Lake Benton, Minnesota in Spring 1994. The number of birds killed at existing windplants in California caused concern about the potential impacts of the Buffalo Ridge facility on the avian community. From April 1994 through Dec. 1995 we searched the Buffalo Ridge windplant site for dead birds. Additionally, we evaluated search efficiency, predator scavenging rates and rate of carcass decomposition. During 20 mo of monitoring we found 12 dead birds. Collisions with wind turbines were suspected for 8 of the 12 birds. During observer efficiency trials searchers found 78.8% of carcasses. Scavengers removed 39.5% of carcasses during scavenging trials. All carcasses remained recognizable during 7 d decomposition trials. After correction for biases we estimated that approximately 36 ?? 12 birds (<1 dead bird per turbine) were killed at the Buffalo Ridge windplant in 1 y. Although windplants do not appear to be more detrimental to birds than other man-made structures, proper facility sitting is an important first consideration in order to avoid unnecessary fatalities.

  13. University at Buffalo School of Engineering and Applied Sciences Cell Phone (mobile communication device) Reimbursement Policy

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    University at Buffalo School of Engineering and Applied Sciences Cell Phone (mobile communication device) Reimbursement Policy Effective July 1, 2013 1. University Cell Phones and/or Cell Phone/data plans When an employee's University job duties require use of a cell phone to facilitate University

  14. Request to Import Rodents from Non-Commercial Sources SUNY at Buffalo

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    Request to Import Rodents from Non-Commercial Sources LAF SUNY at Buffalo INSTRUCTIONS: Please serology/parasitology results for the room and/or colony from which the rodents will be exported. Results): What is the current caging system for the rodents? Ventilated microisolators Filter-top cages Open

  15. The effect of seasons on behaviour during milking in buffaloes ( Bos bubalis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangwar, P. C.

    1982-06-01

    An investigation on behaviour during milking involving 200 buffaloes was carried out to study the effect of climate on milking behaviour for a period of four years. The results obtained were: (1) In extremely docile animals (temperament score I) the mean distribution was least (33.5) in hot-dry summer as compared to winter (39.2) and hot-humid summer. (2) The number of buffaloes milked after oxytocin injections was maximum (11.1%) during the hot-dry summer against other seasons for the temperament score I over temperament scores III and IV, where all buffaloes were milked with oxytocin injections. (3) The mean flow rate was least in hot-dry summer in each temperament score. (4) Milking time was higher in all the temperament scored buffaloes during the hot-dry summer than during the other seasons. It is concluded that as environmental temperature increases, there occurs an increase in thermal stress, the milking behaviour changes and animals become more hostile and excited which leads to a decrease in milk production.

  16. FIRST NAME LAST NAME HONORS DEGREE MAJOR CITY ST NATION Theodore Adams MS Forestry BUFFALO WY

    E-print Network

    Vonessen, Nikolaus

    FIRST NAME LAST NAME HONORS DEGREE MAJOR CITY ST NATION Theodore Adams MS Forestry BUFFALO WY Amberson MS Forestry MISSOULA MT Jocelyn Ambo BSBAD Management MISSOULA MT Kayli Anderson * BA Biology MISSOULA MT Pablo Aracena PHD Forestry TALCA CHILE Suzette Archibald-Wilson MS Environmental Studies

  17. Managing Conduct: A Comparative Policy Analysis of Safe Schools Policies in Toronto, Canada and Buffalo, USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Public school districts in Buffalo, USA and Toronto, Canada reviewed their safe schools policies in 2008. Revised Codes of Conduct are compared to earlier versions and each other, and a conceptual policy web is used to understand how local, state/provincial, national, and international influences affect local safe school policies. The comparison…

  18. Exposure of vaccinated and naive cattle to natural challenge from buffalo-derived Theileria parva.

    PubMed

    Sitt, Tatjana; Poole, E Jane; Ndambuki, Gideon; Mwaura, Stephen; Njoroge, Thomas; Omondi, George P; Mutinda, Matthew; Mathenge, Joseph; Prettejohn, Giles; Morrison, W Ivan; Toye, Philip

    2015-08-01

    Integrative management of wildlife and livestock requires a clear understanding of the diseases transmitted between the two populations. The tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria parva causes two distinct diseases in cattle, East Coast fever and Corridor disease, following infection with parasites derived from cattle or buffalo, respectively. In this study, cattle were immunized with a live sporozoite vaccine containing three T.?parva isolates (the Muguga cocktail), which has been used extensively and successfully in the field to protect against cattle-derived T.?parva infection. The cattle were exposed in a natural field challenge site containing buffalo but no other cattle. The vaccine had no effect on the survival outcome in vaccinated animals compared to unvaccinated controls: nine out of the 12 cattle in each group succumbed to T.?parva infection. The vaccine also had no effect on the clinical course of the disease. A combination of clinical and post mortem observations and laboratory analyses confirmed that the animals died of Corridor disease. The results clearly indicate that the Muguga cocktail vaccine does not provide protection against buffalo-derived T.?parva at this site and highlight the need to evaluate the impact of the composition of challenge T.?parva populations on vaccine success in areas where buffalo and cattle are present. PMID:26005635

  19. Library Skills Workbook. Featuring: BISON--Buffalo Information System ONline. 14th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gex, Jeannie L.

    The workbook is designed to give students the basic information needed to conduct effective library research. It helps familiarize students with the Buffalo Information System ONline (BISON), as well as other sources, in print and online, that can be used to search for information. A worksheet is included for students to mark their answers to the…

  20. Bilateral Pneumothoraces Following BiV ICD Placement: A Case of Buffalo Chest Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rali, Aniket S.; Manyam, Harish

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 73 Final Diagnosis: Buffalo chest syndrome Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Bi-ventricular ICD Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Rare disease Background: Contralateral pneumothorax following device implantation on the left side has been reported in a few cases. The majority of contralateral pneumothoraces showed evidence of atrial perforation on computed tomography (CT), echocardiography, or chest x-rays and required lead revision. To the best of our knowledge there is only 1 other reported case of contralateral pneumothorax without evidence of macro-displacement of the atrial lead. In that case the patient experienced a right-sided pneumothorax on day 1 after undergoing repositioning of the atrial lead. Case Report: The current case is unique on several accounts, including timing of the contralateral pneumothorax and no evidence of associated atrial lead perforation on device interrogation or CT imaging. Furthermore, the appearance of contralateral pneumothorax within 8 hours of clamping of the ipsilateral chest tube argues in favor of a pleuro-pleural fistula. Conclusions: The term ‘buffalo chest’ refers to a single pleural space, with no anatomical separation of the 2 hemithoraces, as seen in an American buffalo or bison. We believe this to be a case of buffalo chest syndrome. PMID:26431396

  1. Environmental assessment: Buffalo Bill area 69-kV transmission lines, Cody, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to remove two existing 34.5-kV transmission lines connecting Shoshone Powerplant-Heart Mountain Switchyard-North Cody Substation and replace them with a new 69-kV line. The new 69-kV line would connect the proposed Buffalo Bill Switchyard to North Cody Substation. An abandoned 69-kV line connecting Shoshone Powerplant and Heart Mountain Switchyard would be rebuilt and returned to service between Buffalo Bill Switchyard and Heart Mountain Switchyard. This action is proposed because the existing lines, built between 1922 and 1941, have reached the end of their useful life due to their deteriorated condition. In order to provide for the increased generation of the Shoshone and Buffalo Bill powerplants, the capacity of the existing transmission system into Buffalo Bill Powerplant must be upgraded to prevent overload and inevitable system interruptions. Reliability of service in the area would be improved by replacement of the existing deteriorated lines with new construction. 25 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. TETRACHLORO-9H-CARBAZOLE, A PREVIOUSLY UNRECOGNIZED CONTAMINANT IN SEDIMENTS OF THE BUFFALO RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three sediment samples taken from the Buffalo River, New York, have been analyzed for polychlorinated planar molecules similar in structure to the highly toxic 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Although no TCDD was found, residues of chlorinated dibenzofuran, fluorene, biphenylene, phenanthrene (ant...

  3. Presenter: Automation Robotics & Mechatronics (ARM) Lab http://www.eng.buffalo.edu/mechatronics

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    Presenter: Automation Robotics & Mechatronics (ARM) Lab http://www.eng.buffalo.edu/mechatronics Dr computational models are constructed modularly using ANYBODY software and stored in a parametric library. · Instantiated models from the library facilitate individualization of interactions to each user. · A MATLAB GUI

  4. LACK OF MYOGLOBIN FUNCTION IN THE ISOLATED PERFUSED BUFFALO SCULPIN (ENOPHRYS BISON) HEART

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of myoglobin to cardiac performance and O2 consumption was investigated using an isolated perfused buffalo sculpin (Enophrys bison) heart preparation. ose-response studies at ambient (150 Torr)(l Torr=l33.322 Pa) O2 tensions were conducted as a means of selecting...

  5. Attempted artificaial infection or impala, blue wildebeest, buffalo, kudu, giraffe and warthog with heartwater.

    PubMed

    Gradwell, D V; Van Niekerk, C A; Joubert, D C

    1976-09-01

    Intravenous injection of Cowdria ruminantium infected blood produced no sings of disease in four impala, Aepyceros melampus; three blue wildebeest, Connochaetes taurinus; a buffalo, Syncerus caffer; a kudu, Tragelaphus strepsiceros; a giraffe. Giraffa camelopardalis and a warthog, Phacochoerus aethiopicus. a control sheep injected with the same blood reacted severely and showed typical lesions of heartwater at autopsy. PMID:994140

  6. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: GENERAL MAIL AND VEHICLE MAINTENANCE FACILITY, UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE, BUFFALO, NY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) summarized here was conducted at a U.S.Postal Service (USPS) Facility in Buffalo, NY. The PPOA documented and quantified waste generation at the General Mail Facility (GMF) where mail is processed, and at the Vehicle Maintena...

  7. CSE 455/555 Introduction to Pattern Recognition SUNY at Buffalo

    E-print Network

    Corso, Jason J.

    ) the design and construction and a pattern recognition system and 2) the major approaches in statistical-list@listserv.buffalo.edu for both 455 and 555 students. Student Updates: All updates will be posted to the course website and sent in pattern recognition system design such as the curse of dimensionality. Finally, the student will have

  8. Tuesday, September 08, 2009 Head Node Magic.cse.buffalo.edu

    E-print Network

    Miller, Russ

    Nodes Colosseum (Storage) #12;Network All network connections are Gigabit Ethernet There are two network and a NIC on the private switch. Colosseum also is duo-homed with a NIC on the public switch and a NIC clock at 6.50 Mb/S #12;The Storage Server is colosseum.cse.buffalo.edu. You should only log

  9. News and Views The abundance of eland, buffalo, and wild pigs in Middle and Later

    E-print Network

    News and Views The abundance of eland, buffalo, and wild pigs in Middle and Later Stone Age sites Available online 28 September 2010 Keywords: Middle Stone Age Later Stone Age Stone age hunting Introduction Klein (1979, 1994) reported a contrast in ungulate species frequencies between the Middle Stone Age (MSA

  10. Exposure of vaccinated and naive cattle to natural challenge from buffalo-derived Theileria parva

    PubMed Central

    Sitt, Tatjana; Poole, E. Jane; Ndambuki, Gideon; Mwaura, Stephen; Njoroge, Thomas; Omondi, George P.; Mutinda, Matthew; Mathenge, Joseph; Prettejohn, Giles; Morrison, W. Ivan; Toye, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Integrative management of wildlife and livestock requires a clear understanding of the diseases transmitted between the two populations. The tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria parva causes two distinct diseases in cattle, East Coast fever and Corridor disease, following infection with parasites derived from cattle or buffalo, respectively. In this study, cattle were immunized with a live sporozoite vaccine containing three T.?parva isolates (the Muguga cocktail), which has been used extensively and successfully in the field to protect against cattle-derived T.?parva infection. The cattle were exposed in a natural field challenge site containing buffalo but no other cattle. The vaccine had no effect on the survival outcome in vaccinated animals compared to unvaccinated controls: nine out of the 12 cattle in each group succumbed to T.?parva infection. The vaccine also had no effect on the clinical course of the disease. A combination of clinical and post mortem observations and laboratory analyses confirmed that the animals died of Corridor disease. The results clearly indicate that the Muguga cocktail vaccine does not provide protection against buffalo-derived T.?parva at this site and highlight the need to evaluate the impact of the composition of challenge T.?parva populations on vaccine success in areas where buffalo and cattle are present. PMID:26005635

  11. Selection at the Y Chromosome of the African Buffalo Driven by Rainfall

    E-print Network

    Getz, Wayne M.

    Selection at the Y Chromosome of the African Buffalo Driven by Rainfall Pim van Hooft1,2 *, Barend, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of America Selection coefficients at the mammalian Y chromosome typically intermediate frequencies of DNA sequence variants, acts on the Y chromosome in two populations of African

  12. 76 FR 27182 - Pricing for American Eagle and American Buffalo Bullion Presentation Cases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... United States Mint Pricing for American Eagle and American Buffalo Bullion Presentation Cases AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is..., Associate Director for Sales and Marketing; United States Mint; 801 9th Street NW.; Washington, DC 20220;...

  13. Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lead Poisoning Prevention Training Center (HHLPPTC) Training Tracks Water Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How does lead get into my tap water? Measures taken during the last two decades have ...

  14. Trade-offs of predation and foraging explain sexual segregation in African buffalo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hay, C.T.; Cross, P.C.; Funston, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    1. Many studies have investigated why males and females segregate spatially in sexually dimorphic species. These studies have focused primarily on temperate zone ungulates in areas lacking intact predator communities, and few have directly assessed predation rates in different social environments. 2. Data on the movement, social affiliation, mortality and foraging of radio-collared African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) were collected from 2001-06 in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. 3. The vast majority of mortality events were due to lion (Panthera leo) predation, and the mortality hazard associated with being an adult male buffalo in a male-only 'bachelor' group was almost four times higher than for adult females in mixed herds. The mortality rates of adult males and females within mixed herds were not statistically different. Mortality sites of male and female buffalo were in areas of low visibility similar to those used by bachelor groups, while mixed herds tended to use more open habitats. 4. Males in bachelor groups ate similar or higher quality food (as indexed by percentage faecal nitrogen), and moved almost a third less distance per day compared with mixed herds. As a result, males in bachelor groups gained more body condition than did males in breeding herds. 5. Recent comparative analyses suggest the activity-budget hypothesis as a common underlying cause of social segregation. However, our intensive study, in an area with an intact predator community showed that male and female buffalo segregated by habitat and supported the predation-risk hypothesis. Male African buffalo appear to trade increased predation risk for additional energy gains in bachelor groups, which presumably leads to increased reproductive success. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  15. Trade-offs of predation and foraging explain sexual segregation in African buffalo.

    PubMed

    Hay, C T; Cross, P C; Funston, P J

    2008-09-01

    1. Many studies have investigated why males and females segregate spatially in sexually dimorphic species. These studies have focused primarily on temperate zone ungulates in areas lacking intact predator communities, and few have directly assessed predation rates in different social environments. 2. Data on the movement, social affiliation, mortality and foraging of radio-collared African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) were collected from 2001-06 in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. 3. The vast majority of mortality events were due to lion (Panthera leo) predation, and the mortality hazard associated with being an adult male buffalo in a male-only 'bachelor' group was almost four times higher than for adult females in mixed herds. The mortality rates of adult males and females within mixed herds were not statistically different. Mortality sites of male and female buffalo were in areas of low visibility similar to those used by bachelor groups, while mixed herds tended to use more open habitats. 4. Males in bachelor groups ate similar or higher quality food (as indexed by percentage faecal nitrogen), and moved almost a third less distance per day compared with mixed herds. As a result, males in bachelor groups gained more body condition than did males in breeding herds. 5. Recent comparative analyses suggest the activity-budget hypothesis as a common underlying cause of social segregation. However, our intensive study, in an area with an intact predator community showed that male and female buffalo segregated by habitat and supported the predation-risk hypothesis. Male African buffalo appear to trade increased predation risk for additional energy gains in bachelor groups, which presumably leads to increased reproductive success. PMID:18547347

  16. Sarcocystis cafferi n. sp. (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) from the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Lane, Emily P; van Wilpe, Erna; Suleman, Essa; Reininghaus, Bjorn; Verma, S K; Rosenthal, B M; Mtshali, Moses S

    2014-12-01

    Sarcocystis infections have been reported from the African buffalo ( Syncerus caffer ), but the species have not been named. Here we propose a new name Sarcocystis cafferi from the African buffalo. Histological examination of heart (92), skeletal muscle (36), and tongue (2) sections from 94 buffalos from the Greater Kruger National Park, South Africa, and a review of the literature revealed only 1 species of Sarcocystis in the African buffalo. Macrocysts were up to 12 mm long and 6 mm wide and were located in the neck muscles and overlying connective tissue. They were pale yellow; shaped like a lychee fruit stone or cashew nut; turgid or flaccid and oval to round (not fusiform). By light microscopy (LM) the sarcocyst wall was relatively thin. By scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the sarcocyst wall had a mesh-like structure with irregularly shaped villar protrusions (vp) that were of different sizes and folded over the sarcocyst wall. The entire surfaces of vp were covered with papillomatous structures. By transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the sarcocyst wall was up to 3.6 ?m thick and had highly branched villar protrusions that were up to 3 ?m long. The villar projections contained filamentous tubular structures, most of which were parallel to the long axis of the projections, but some tubules criss-crossed, especially at the base. Granules were absent from these tubules. Longitudinally cut bradyzoites were 12.1 × 2.7 ?m in size, had a long convoluted mitochondrion, and only 2 rhoptries. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene sequences indicated that this Sarcocystis species is very closely related to, but distinct from, Sarcocystis fusiformis and Sarcocystis hirsuta. Thus, morphological findings by LM, SEM, and TEM together with molecular phylogenetic data (from 18S rRNA and cox1) confirm that the Sarcocystis species in the African buffalo is distinct from S. fusiformis and has therefore been named Sarcocystis cafferi. PMID:25026178

  17. 76 FR 6134 - Notice to All Interested Parties of the Termination of the Receivership of 4363, Goldome, Buffalo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION Notice to All Interested Parties of the Termination of the Receivership of 4363, Goldome, Buffalo, NY AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. ACTION: Notice of termination of...

  18. Pyloro-duodenal hernia with formation of enterocutaneous fistula in a buffalo calf following a dog attack

    PubMed Central

    Kamalakar, G.; Prasad, V. Devi; Devaratnam, J.; Ganeshan, A.

    2015-01-01

    A body wall hernia entrapping abomasum and concurrent duodenal fistula in a buffalo calf aged about 8 months, secondary to a dog bite was successfully treated by closure of fistulous orifice and ventro lateral herniorrhaphy. PMID:26623378

  19. In vitro co-culture of bovine embryos using Buffalo Rat Liver Cells, CR1aa and TMC199 

    E-print Network

    Jones, Karen Louise

    1996-01-01

    Seventeen hundred sixty-one in vitro produced bovine potential 1-cell embryos were divided into 12 treatment groups. Embryos were co-cultured with Buffalo Rat Liver Cells (BRLC) in CRlaa, without BRLC in CRlaa or with BRLC ...

  20. SERUM CHEMISTRY AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATIONS OF BROWN BULLHEADS (AMEIRUS NEBULOSUS) FROM THE BUFFALO AND NIAGARA RIVERS, NEW YORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cholangiomas and cholangiocarcinomas were observed in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from the Buffalo and Niagara Rivers (NY) and Old Woman Creek (OH), USA. ignificant increases in serum blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, triglycerides, inorganic phosphate, ALT, LDL,...

  1. Methods for Monitoring Fish Communities of Buffalo National River and Ozark National Scenic Riverways in the Ozark Plateaus of Arkansas and Missouri: Version 1.0

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James C.; Justus, B.G.; Dodd, H.R.; Bowles, D.E.; Morrison, L.W.; Williams, M.H.; Rowell, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    Buffalo National River located in north-central Arkansas, and Ozark National Scenic Riverways, located in southeastern Missouri, are the two largest units of the National Park Service in the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province. The purpose of this report is to provide a protocol that will be used by the National Park Service to sample fish communities and collect related water-quality, habitat, and stream discharge data of Buffalo National River and Ozark National Scenic Riverways to meet inventory and long-term monitoring objectives. The protocol includes (1) a protocol narrative, (2) several standard operating procedures, and (3) supplemental information helpful for implementation of the protocol. The protocol narrative provides background information about the protocol such as the rationale of why a particular resource or resource issue was selected for monitoring, information concerning the resource or resource issue of interest, a description of how monitoring results will inform management decisions, and a discussion of the linkages between this and other monitoring projects. The standard operating procedures cover preparation, training, reach selection, water-quality sampling, fish community sampling, physical habitat collection, measuring stream discharge, equipment maintenance and storage, data management and analysis, reporting, and protocol revision procedures. Much of the information in the standard operating procedures was gathered from existing protocols of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment program or other sources. Supplemental information that would be helpful for implementing the protocol is included. This information includes information on fish species known or suspected to occur in the parks, sample sites, sample design, fish species traits, index of biotic integrity metrics, sampling equipment, and field forms.

  2. Effects of Eucalyptus Crude Oils Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation, Microorganism and Nutrient Digestibility in Swamp Buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Thao, N. T.; Wanapat, M.; Cherdthong, A.; Kang, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) crude oils (EuO) supplementation on voluntary feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics in swamp buffaloes. Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes, body weight (BW) of 420±15.0 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were untreated rice straw (RS) without EuO (T1) and with EuO (T2) supplementation, and 3% urea-treated rice straw (UTRS) without EuO (T3) and with EuO (T4) supplementation. The EuO was supplemented at 2 mL/h/d in respective treatment. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate mixture was offered at 3 g/kg BW while roughage was fed ad libitum. Total dry matter and roughage intake, and apparent digestibilites of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber were improved (p<0.01) by UTRS. There was no effect of EuO supplementation on feed intake and nutrient digestibility. Ruminal pH and temperature were not (p>0.05) affected by either roughage sources or EuO supplementation. However, buffaloes fed UTRS had higher ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen as compared with RS. Total volatile fatty acid and butyrate proportion were similar among treatments, whereas acetate was decreased and propionate molar proportion was increased by EuO supplementation. Feeding UTRS resulted in lower acetate and higher propionate concentration compared to RS. Moreover, supplementation of EuO reduced methane production especially in UTRS treatment. Protozoa populations were reduced by EuO supplementation while fungi zoospores remained the same. Total, amylolytic and cellulolytic bacterial populations were increased (p<0.01) by UTRS; However, EuO supplementation did not affect viable bacteria. Nitrogen intake and in feces were found higher in buffaloes fed UTRS. A positive nitrogen balance (absorption and retention) was in buffaloes fed UTRS. Supplementation of EuO did not affect nitrogen utilization. Both allantoin excretion and absorption and microbial nitrogen supply were increased by UTRS whereas efficiency of microbial protein synthesis was similar in all treatments. Findings of present study suggested that EuO could be used as a feed additive to modify the rumen fermentation in reducing methane production both in RS and UTRS. Feeding UTRS could improve feed intake and efficiency of rumen fermentation in swamp buffaloes. However, more research is warranted to determine the effect of EuO supplementation in production animals. PMID:25049925

  3. Hepatic photosensitization in buffaloes intoxicated by Brachiaria decumbens in Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, C H S; Barbosa, J D; Oliveira, C M C; Bastianetto, E; Melo, M M; Haraguchi, M; Freitas, L G L; Silva, M X; Leite, R C

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the study of hepatogenous photosensitization in buffaloes during two outbreaks provoked by ingestion of Brachiaria decumbens in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Ten young buffaloes in outbreak 1 and seven buffaloes in outbreak 2 were intoxicated by B. decumbens. Nine clinically healthy buffaloes raised under the same conditions as the sick animals served as the control group. All animals were subjected to clinical examination, and serum was collected to measure gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), direct bilirubin (DB), indirect bilirubin (IB) and total bilirubin (TB) as indicators of liver function and urea and creatinine as indicators of renal function. Histopathology of liver fragments from five different animals was carried out. During the outbreaks and every two months for one year, samples of grass from paddocks where the animals got sick were collected for quantitative evaluation of the saponin protodioscin, combined with observations of pasture characteristics and daily rainfall. Clinical signs included apathy, weight loss, restlessness, scar retraction of the ears and intense itching at the skin lesions, mainly on the rump, the tail head, neck and hindlimbs, similar to the signs observed in other ruminants. Only the GGT enzyme presented significantly different (P < 0.01) serum levels between intoxicated animals (n = 17) and healthy animals (n = 9), indicating liver damage in buffaloes bred in B. decumbens pastures. Microscopy of the liver showed foamy macrophages and lesions of liver disease associated with the presence of crystals in the bile ducts, which have also been found in sheep and cattle poisoned by grasses of the genus Brachiaria. During the outbreaks, protodioscin levels were higher than 3%, and shortly after, these levels were reduced to less than 0.80%, suggesting a hepatic injury etiology. The outbreaks took place at the beginning of the rainy season, and there was a positive correlation between saponin and the amount of rainfall, as well as between saponin and the amount of green leaves in the pasture. These findings indicate that the grass was more toxic in this period. This is the first report of photosensitization by B. decumbens in buffalo. PMID:23850427

  4. Use of Dried Stoned Olive Pomace in the Feeding of Lactating Buffaloes: Effect on the Quantity and Quality of the Milk Produced

    PubMed Central

    Terramoccia, S.; Bartocci, S.; Taticchi, A.; Di Giovanni, S.; Pauselli, M.; Mourvaki, E.; Urbani, S.; Servili, M.

    2013-01-01

    Dried stoned olive pomace (DSOP) was administered to dairy water buffaloes, and their productive performance and milk composition were analysed. Sixteen pluriparous lactating buffaloes were divided into two uniform groups (control and experimental), taking into consideration the following parameters: milk production (2,192 and 2,102 kg) and duration of lactation (254 and 252 d) of the previous year, distance from calving (51 and 43 d), milk production (9.71 and 10.18 kg/d), body condition score (BCS) (6.44 and 6.31) and weight (617 and 653 kg) at the beginning of the trial. Both diets had the same formulation: second cut alfalfa hay 20%, corn silage 42%, concentrate 38% but the two concentrates differed in their formulation, the experimental one contained 15.50% of DSOP as fed. The employed DSOP showed high amounts of secoiridoids, such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (3,4-DHPEA) (1.2 g/kg DM), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol-elenolic acid di-aldehyde (3,4-DHPEA-EDA) (12.6 g/kg DM), p-hydroxyphenylethanol-elenolic acid di-aldehyde (p-HPEA-EDA) (5.6 g/kg DM) and lignans, which are known to be powerful bioactive compounds. The control diet had an energy-protein content of 0.86 Milk FU/kg DM and 143.3 g/kg DM of crude protein, whereas the experimental diet of 0.87 Milk FU/kg DM and 146.6 g/kg DM of crude protein. Each animal of the two groups received 17 kg DM/d and each buffalo of the experimental group, by way of the concentrate, ingested 1.05 kg DM/d of DSOP. The trial lasted 40 days. No significant difference was found between the BCS (6.41 and 6.53), live weight (625.93 and 662.50 kg) and milk production (9.69 and 10.08 kg/d) of the two groups, as was the case for fat, protein, lactose, pH and coagulating parameters of the two milks. The milk fat of the experimental group had a significantly higher content of total tocopherols (10.45 vs 8.60 ?g/g, p<0.01) and retinol (3.17 vs 2.54 ?g/g, p<0.01). The content of the reactive substances with tiobarbituric acid (TBARs) was significantly lower in the milk fat of the experimental group (12.09 vs 15.05 ?g MDA/g, p<0.01). The acid content of the milk fat of the experimental group had a significantly higher content (p<0.05) of C18:0 and of C18:3?6. LC-MS/MS analysis showed the presence of 3,4-DHPEA (36.0 ?g/L) in the milk of the DSOP-fed buffaloes, while other phenols were not found. DSOP, in the quantity utilized, can be used in the feeding of the lactating buffalo; the dietetic-nutritional characteristics of the milk are improved due to a greater contribution of tocopherols, retinol and the presence of hydroxytyrosol. PMID:25049875

  5. Prevalence and distribution of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in cattle, African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) and their environments in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Gcebe, N; Rutten, V; van Pittius, N C Gey; Michel, A

    2013-11-01

    It has been hypothesized that a variety of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) species to which livestock and wildlife species are naturally exposed induce broadly cross-reactive anti-mycobacterial immune responses which interfere with current standard diagnostic assays. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria have also been implicated in Mycobacterium bovis-specific immune responsiveness, hence potentially the development of tuberculosis. Cattle and African buffaloes are both maintenance hosts of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in South Africa, yet the effective diagnosis and control in these species may be hampered by adverse effects of NTM. As part of an investigation of the role of NTM in the immune responsiveness of cattle and African buffaloes to NTM, we conducted a countrywide survey to establish the prevalent NTM species and their distribution in the natural environments of these animals. A total of 1123 samples (water, soil, nasal and pharyngeal swabs) were collected for mycobacterium isolation. In addition, NTM isolated from tissue samples between 1991 and 2011 were included in the analysis. Mycobacteria were isolated from 56% of the samples from the countrywide survey. A total of 420 NTM isolates from soil, water, animal tissues and animal-derived swab samples were genotyped with the following results: 302 belonged to 40 known NTM species, 79 were found to be closely related to 23 known NTM species, and 38 isolates were found to be potentially novel species that are not currently listed in the RIDOM and NCBI BLAST databases. The four NTM species or closely related groups most frequently isolated in this survey included Mycobacterium terrae (11.2% of isolates), a group of mycobacteria closely related to Mycobacterium moriokaense (referred to as M. moriokaense-like) (8.1% of isolates), Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum (7.4% of isolates) and Mycobacterium vaccae/M. vanbaalenii (5.2% of isolates). The phylogenetic analysis of the M. moriokaense-like isolates, based on the 16S rRNA sequences, revealed at least eight clusters, possibly associated with eight different NTM species. Our findings provide account of NTM species diversity and associated prevalences in cattle and African buffaloes and their environments in South Africa. The identification of the most prevalent NTM species in this study will allow for a targeted investigation of their effects on host immune responses. PMID:24171852

  6. Texture, flavor, and sensory quality of buffalo milk Cheddar cheese as influenced by reducing sodium salt content.

    PubMed

    Murtaza, M A; Huma, N; Sameen, A; Murtaza, M S; Mahmood, S; Mueen-ud-Din, G; Meraj, A

    2014-11-01

    The adverse health effects of dietary sodium demand the production of cheese with reduced salt content. The study was aimed to assess the effect of reducing the level of sodium chloride on the texture, flavor, and sensory qualities of Cheddar cheese. Cheddar cheese was manufactured from buffalo milk standardized at 4% fat level by adding sodium chloride at 2.5, 2.0, 1.5, 1.0, and 0.5% (wt/wt of the curd obtained). Cheese samples were ripened at 6 to 8 °C for 180 d and analyzed for chemical composition after 1 wk; for texture and proteolysis after 1, 60, 120, and 180 d; and for volatile flavor compounds and sensory quality after 180 d of ripening. Decreasing the salt level significantly reduced the salt-in-moisture and pH and increased the moisture-in-nonfat-substances and water activity. Cheese hardness, toughness, and crumbliness decreased but proteolysis increased considerably on reducing the sodium content and during cheese ripening. Lowering the salt levels appreciably enhanced the concentration of volatile compounds associated with flavor but negatively affected the sensory perception. We concluded that salt level in cheese can be successfully reduced to a great extent if proteolysis and development of off-flavors resulted by the growth of starter and nonstarter bacteria can be controlled. PMID:25151874

  7. Comparison of the principal proteins in bovine, caprine, buffalo, equine and camel milk.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Katharina; O'Connor, Paula M; Huppertz, Thom; Ross, R Paul; Kelly, Alan L

    2012-05-01

    Proteomic analysis of bovine, caprine, buffalo, equine and camel milk highlighted significant interspecies differences. Camel milk was found to be devoid of ?-lactoglobulin, whereas ?-lactoglobulin was the major whey protein in bovine, buffalo, caprine, and equine milk. Five different isoforms of ?-casein were found in camel milk, analogous to the micro-heterogeneity observed for bovine ?-casein. Several spots observed in 2D-electrophoretograms of milk of all species could tentatively be identified as polypeptides arising from the enzymatic hydrolysis of caseins. The understanding gained from the proteomic comparison of these milks may be of relevance both in terms of identifying sources of hypoallergenic alternatives to bovine milk and detection of adulteration of milk samples and products. PMID:22365180

  8. Metabolomics and microbiological profile of Italian mozzarella cheese produced with buffalo and cow milk.

    PubMed

    Pisano, Maria Barbara; Scano, Paola; Murgia, Antonio; Cosentino, Sofia; Caboni, Pierluigi

    2016-02-01

    Italian buffalo mozzarella (BM) cheese metabolite profile and microbial communities were characterised and compared to cow mozzarella (CM). Polar metabolite profiles were studied by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) and results elaborated by multivariate analysis (MVA). BM produced using natural whey starter cultures (NWS) exhibited a higher microbial diversity with less psychrotrophic bacteria. BM samples were higher in threonine, serine, valine, and lower in orotic acid and urea. CM produced with commercial starters (CMS) had the highest count of Streptococcus thermophilus and higher levels of galactose and phenylalanine. CM obtained by direct acidification (CMA) had lower microbial counts and higher levels of urea and sugars. Orotic acid was the only metabolite linked to milk animal origin. Results indicated that this metabolite pool well reflects the different production protocols and microbial complexity of these dairy products. This approach can help to protect the designation of origin of Italian buffalo mozzarella. PMID:26304391

  9. Identification of urinary sex pheromones in female buffaloes and their influence on bull reproductive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Rajanarayanan, S; Archunan, G

    2011-10-01

    The present study was carried out to identify the urinary sex pheromones of buffaloes and their role in relation to bull reproductive behaviour. Urinary samples were collected from 12 buffalo heifers at four different phases of estrous cycles. Fourteen compounds were identified throughout the cycle, which included phenol, ketone, alkane, alcohol, amide, acid and aldehyde. Among the 14 chemical profiles, three compounds were only found on the day of estrus, viz. 1-chlorooctane, 4-methylphenol and 9-octadecenoic acid. Behavioural investigation clearly showed that bulls were attracted and exhibited repeated flehmen behaviour towards the 4-methyl phenol. The bulls displayed penile erection and mounting behaviour while exposed to 9-octadecenoic acid. However, the other compound, 1-chlorooctane, did not influence such sexual behaviours. The present results provide evidence that the estrus-specific urinary volatile compounds appear to be sex pheromones which initiate the bull's reproductive behaviour. PMID:21316068

  10. Efficacy of eprinomectin pour-on against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus on buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Nazir, T; Katoch, R; Godara, R; Yadav, Anish

    2013-10-01

    A trial was conducted on 12 buffaloes naturally infested with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus to evaluate the efficacy of eprinomectin pour-on at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg body weight. A reduction in live tick count by 45.94, 63.96, 81.53, 90.54, 98.19 and 100 % was observed on days 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 and 21 post-treatment, respectively. The reinfestation of ticks was not observed up to 42 days of trial period. On the basis of the present trial of eprinomectin pour-on, it can be recommended for use in dairy buffaloes against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus infestation. PMID:24431562

  11. Integrating association data and disease dynamics: an illustration using African Buffalo in Kruger National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, Paul C.; James O, Lloyd-Smith; Bowers, Justin A.; Hay, Craig T.; Hofmeyr, Markus; Getz, Wayne M.

    2004-01-01

    Recognition is a prerequisite for non-random association amongst individuals. We explore how non-random association patterns (i.e. who spends time with whom) affect disease dynamics. We estimated the amount of time individuals spent together per month using radio-tracking data from African buffalo and incorporated these data into a dynamic social network model. The dynamic nature of the network has a strong influence on simulated disease dynamics particularly for diseases with shorter infectious periods. Cluster analyses of the association data demonstrated that buffalo herds were not as well defined as previously thought. Associations were more tightly clustered in 2002 than 2003, perhaps due to drier conditions in 2003. As a result, diseases may spread faster during drought conditions due to increased population mixing. Association data are often collected but this is the first use of empirical data in a network disease model in a wildlife population.

  12. Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Wherever it comes from, it starts from a watershed. A watershed is the land area that drains into a ... wells and springs). Everything that happens in the watershed, and from the water source to your tap, ...

  13. An epidemiological survey of bovine Babesia and Theileria parasites in cattle, buffaloes, and sheep in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elsify, Ahmed; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Nayel, Mohammed; Salama, Akram; Elkhtam, Ahmed; Rizk, Mohamed; Mosaab, Omar; Sultan, Khaled; Elsayed, Shimaa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2015-02-01

    Cattle, buffaloes, and sheep are the main sources of meat and milk in Egypt, but their productivity is thought to be greatly reduced by hemoprotozoan parasitic diseases. In this study, we analyzed the infection rates of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis, using parasite-specific PCR assays in blood-DNA samples sourced from cattle (n=439), buffaloes (n=50), and sheep (n=105) reared in Menoufia, Behera, Giza, and Sohag provinces of Egypt. In cattle, the positive rates of B. bovis, B. bigemina, T. annulata, and T. orientalis were 3.18%, 7.97%, 9.56%, and 0.68%, respectively. On the other hand, B. bovis and T. orientalis were the only parasites detected in buffaloes and each of these parasites was only found in two individual DNA samples (both 2%), while one (0.95%) and two (1.90%) of the sheep samples were positive for B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively. Sequence analysis showed that the B. bovis Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 and the B. bigemina Apical Membrane Antigen-1 genes were highly conserved among the samples, with 99.3-100% and 95.3-100% sequence identity values, respectively. In contrast, the Egyptian T. annulata merozoite surface antigen-1 gene sequences were relatively diverse (87.8-100% identity values), dispersing themselves across several clades in the phylogenetic tree containing sequences from other countries. Additionally, the T. orientalis Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) gene sequences were classified as types 1 and 2. This is the first report of T. orientalis in Egypt, and of type 2 MPSP in buffaloes. Detection of MPSP type 2, which is considered a relatively virulent genotype, suggests that T. orientalis infection may have veterinary and economic significance in Egypt. In conclusion, the present study, which analyzed multiple species of Babesia and Theileria parasites in different livestock animals, may shed an additional light on the epidemiology of hemoprotozoan parasites in Egypt. PMID:25305419

  14. Blood testosterone levels in Italian Mediterranean buffalo bulls managed in two different breeding conditions.

    PubMed

    Malfatti, A; Barbato, O; Todini, L; Terzano, G M; Debenedetti, A; Borghese, A

    2006-04-01

    In Italian buffalo cows the spontaneous cyclic ovarian activity is mainly high in autumn, while during spring and early summer it is very low. However many farmers separate males from females in the October-February period to obtain births in winter-spring. In order to verify if blood testosterone concentration in adult buffalo bulls is affected by season and by different management of the contact with females, 20 adult buffalo males, bred in central Italy were submitted to monthly blood sampling for 1 year, from September to August. The bulls were kept together with females all the time (group A; n=9) or were held separated from cows from October to February (group B; n=11). The mean (+/-S.E.M.) serum testosterone concentrations were higher in spring and summer than in autumn and winter in group B (2.07+/-0.1 ng/mL versus 0.99+/-0.08 ng/mL, P<0.01) but in group A the seasonal difference was not significant (2.09+/-0.13 versus 1.48+/-0.28). The management of the contact with females affected testosterone values (P<0.01): in the separation period (October-February) the mean serum concentration in group B was lower than in March-September, when the cows were together with the bulls (0.94+/-0.09 ng/mL versus 1.95+/-0.1 ng/mL, P<0.05). This is not true for group A (1.49+/-0.20 ng/mL versus 2.00+/-0.13 ng/mL, NS). It is concluded that contact with females exerted a major stimulus for the testicular androgen secretion in buffalo bulls, even if other seasonal factors (climate, food intake) may affect control of gonadal activity. PMID:16143378

  15. Jia Wang1, Haoguo Hu2, David Schwab1, George Leshkevich1, Dmitry Beletsky2, Nathan Hawley1, and Anne Clites1 To simulate ice and water circulation in Lake Erie over a yearly cycle, a

    E-print Network

    ) at Buffalo. b) GLIM-simulated water level variations with ice (red) and with no ice (green) with comparison, and Anne Clites1 GOAL To simulate ice and water circulation in Lake Erie over a yearly cycle, a Great Lakes impacts of ice cover on lake water temperature and water level variations. Furthermore, a period including

  16. Effects of chemical immobilization on survival of African buffalo in the Kruger National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oosthuizen, W.C.; Cross, P.C.; Bowers, J.A.; Hay, C.; Ebinger, M.R.; Buss, P.; Hofmeyr, M.; Cameron, E.Z.

    2009-01-01

    Capturing, immobilizing, and fitting radiocollars are common practices in studies of large mammals, but success is based on the assumptions that captured animals are representative of the rest of the population and that the capture procedure has negligible effects. We estimated effects of chemical immobilization on mortality rates of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. We used a Cox proportional hazards approach to test for differences in mortality among age, sex, and capture classes of repeatedly captured radiocollared buffalo. Capture variables did not improve model fit and the Cox regression did not indicate increased risk of death for captured individuals up to 90 days postcapture [exp (??) = 1.07]. Estimated confidence intervals, however, span from a halving to a doubling of the mortality rate (95% CI = 0.56-2.02). Therefore, capture did not influence survival of captured individuals using data on 875 captures over a 5-year period. Consequently, long-term research projects on African buffalo involving immobilization, such as associated with research on bovine tuberculosis, should result in minimal capture mortality, but monitoring of possible effects should continue.

  17. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of Theileria annulata in cattle and buffaloes Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    PubMed

    Kundave, V R; Patel, A K; Patel, P V; Hasnani, J J; Joshi, C G

    2014-12-01

    Bovine tropical theileriosis caused by Theileria annulata is a tick-borne disease associated with high morbidity and mortality in the livestock. The conventional method of diagnosis is by the demonstration of the parasite stages by microscopic examination. This method suffers from low sensitivity, making it even more difficult to detect piroplasms in the carriers. PCR based assays are known to be more sensitive. The present study was undertaken to detect and quantify T. annulata in the blood of clinically infected and carrier animals using a quantitative PCR protocol targeting the gene encoding the major merozoite piroplasm surface antigen Tams 1. A total of 116 samples were collected from infected as well as apparently healthy cattle and buffaloes. Of these, 74 samples (63.79%) were positive for T. annulata by real-time PCR, including the 15 samples that were positive by Giemsa staining. The parasite load ranged from 1.39 x 10(6) to 3.35 x 10(9) and 0.35 x 10(6) to 2.83 x 10(7) ml(-1) of blood in cattle and buffalo samples, respectively by qPCR. Our study suggests that real-time PCR assay can be used to detect and quantify the load of T. annulata in the blood of cattle and buffaloes. It also serves as a support to clinical diagnosis and assessment of carrier status in apparently healthy animals. PMID:25776598

  18. Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum seropositivity in buffaloes in Paraiba State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brasil, Arthur Willian de Lima; Parentoni, Roberta Nunes; Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Bezerra, Camila de Sousa; Vilela, Vinicius Longo Ribeiro; Pena, Hilda Fátima de Jesus; Azevedo, Sergio Santos de

    2015-12-01

    The aims of this survey were to determine the frequency of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Neospora caninum antibodies and to identify the risk factors associated with seropositivity among buffaloes in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. This survey included 136 buffaloes belonging to 14 herds. To detect anti-T. gondii and anti-N. caninum antibodies, the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was used. Among the 136 samples analyzed, 17 (12.5%) were positive for anti-T. gondii antibodies with titers ranging from 64 to 1,024, and 26 (19.1%) for anti-N. caninum with titers from 200 to 1,600. Animals seropositive for both T. gondii and N. caninum were found in 10 of the 14 herds (71.4%). Semi-intensive management systems (odds ratio = 2.99) and presence of pigs (odds ratio = 4.33) were identified as risk factors for T. gondii and N. caninum, respectively. It can be suggested that T. gondii and N. caninum are widespread in buffaloes in Paraíba, and that additional surveys are needed in order to ascertain the importance of these agents for this species and for pigs, and the influence of the farming type on occurrences of seropositive animals. PMID:26689181

  19. Somatotropic gene response to recombinant growth hormone treatment in buffalo leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Castigliego, Lorenzo; Li, Xiao-Ning; Armani, Andrea; Razzano, Maria; Mazzi, Marco; Rosati, Remo; Gianfaldoni, Daniela; Guidi, Alessandra

    2011-12-01

    The use of recombinant bovine growth hormone (rbGH) to increase milk yield in cows is banned in some countries. In others, where it is authorised, it has triggered harsh debates on labelling of dairy products. If many studies have been performed on bovines, there is a lack of information on buffaloes, which are sometimes treated with rbGH and re-present an important economical resource for dairy products in some countries. Analytical methods with legal value for surveillance of rbGH treatments do not yet exist. Research on gene expression biomarkers is one of the most promising approaches to this purpose. For this reason, we treated five buffaloes for 10 weeks with a sustained-release formulation of rbGH and analysed the response of 20 somatotropic axis genes in leucocytes by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Overall changes in gene expression levels were of low magnitude and sometimes affected by the 'time' factor. Only the IGFBP-1 gene showed a significant under-expression (about two-fold; p <0.001) in treated animals. Taken together, these results give evidence that expression analysis of the somatotropic axis genes in leucocytes is little helpful for discrimination of rbGH-treated buffaloes, but do not exclude that another array of genes could provide useful patterns of variation. PMID:22050229

  20. Staphylococci in cattle and buffaloes with mastitis in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Ashker, Maged; Gwida, Mayada; Tomaso, Herbert; Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf; El-Gohary, Fatma; Hotzel, Helmut

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to provide the first detailed insight into the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in one modern dairy farm (Gamasa) and several household cows and buffaloes in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt. Eight hundred seventy-two quarter milk samples of 218 dairy cattle and buffaloes with clinical and subclinical mastitis were investigated. Bacteria were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and staphylococci were further characterized by DNA sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and microarray analysis. Staphylococcus aureus was present in 5.6% of all collected samples, whereas methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) represented 24.5% of all identified S. aureus (12/49). Six clonal complexes (CC) of S. aureus were detected. Staphylococcus aureus CC398 (ST291/813)-MSSA (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus) was identified frequently in the Gamasa farm in addition to a few CC5-MRSA-V isolates. However, a small number of different isolates of S. aureus were found in household cattle and buffaloes harboring different CC. The presence of these genotypes of S. aureus in milk might indicate a public health hazard, because all of these CC have previously been isolated from human patients. Thus, a recommendation was given to the owner of the dairy farm to review the hygiene regimen on the farm. In perspective, further investigation regarding S. aureus screening of all lactating cows and personnel on the farm is warranted. PMID:26364099

  1. Evaluation of total mixed ration silage with brewers grains for dairy buffalo in Tarai, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Takashi; Devkota, Naba R; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Hajime

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the effects of total mixed ration (TMR) silage, which contained brewers grain and rice straw as a substitute for conventional concentrate on feed intake and milk production in middle-to-late lactation buffaloes, four multiparous Murrah buffaloes were assigned to a 3?×?3 Latin square design experiment. The TMR silage, which had higher neutral and acid detergent fiber contents and digestibility than concentrate (P?buffaloes might have been due to high TDN intake from supplementary TMR silage. PMID:25780944

  2. Home on the range: factors explaining partial migration of African buffalo in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Robin; Du Preez, Pierre; Stuart-Hill, Greg; Jago, Mark; Wegmann, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Partial migration (when only some individuals in a population undertake seasonal migrations) is common in many species and geographical contexts. Despite the development of modern statistical methods for analyzing partial migration, there have been no studies on what influences partial migration in tropical environments. We present research on factors affecting partial migration in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in northeastern Namibia. Our dataset is derived from 32 satellite tracking collars, spans 4 years and contains over 35,000 locations. We used remotely sensed data to quantify various factors that buffalo experience in the dry season when making decisions on whether and how far to migrate, including potential man-made and natural barriers, as well as spatial and temporal heterogeneity in environmental conditions. Using an information-theoretic, non-linear regression approach, our analyses showed that buffalo in this area can be divided into 4 migratory classes: migrants, non-migrants, dispersers, and a new class that we call "expanders". Multimodel inference from least-squares regressions of wet season movements showed that environmental conditions (rainfall, fires, woodland cover, vegetation biomass), distance to the nearest barrier (river, fence, cultivated area) and social factors (age, size of herd at capture) were all important in explaining variation in migratory behaviour. The relative contributions of these variables to partial migration have not previously been assessed for ungulates in the tropics. Understanding the factors driving migratory decisions of wildlife will lead to better-informed conservation and land-use decisions in this area. PMID:22570722

  3. Effect of oestradiol benzoate on oestrus intensity and pregnancy rate in CIDR treated anoestrus nulliparous and multiparous buffalo.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Muhammad Rizwan; Martins, J P N; Husnain, Ali; Riaz, Umair; Riaz, Hasan; Sattar, Abdul; Javed, Khalid; Ahmad, Nasim

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine if administration of oestradiol benzoate (OEB) after removal of control internal drug releasing device (CIDR) could enhance oestrous intensity and pregnancy rate in anovular nulliparous and multiparous Nili-Ravi buffalo. For this, a total of 298 nulliparous (n=91) and multiparous (n=207) buffaloes received a CIDR on Day 0, and were administered PGF2? on Day 6 followed by removal of CIDR on Day 7. At Day 8, OEB was administered in approximately half of nulliparous (n=45/91) and multiparous (n=100/207) buffalo. All animals were fixed time inseminated 48 and 60h after CIDR removal, respectively. The results showed that administration of OEB but not the parity, improved oestrous intensity (3.15±0.05 vs 2.99±0.05; P=0.0026) compared to those not received OEB, respectively. However, OEB did not affect (46.2 vs 44.1; P=0.8) pregnancy per AI (P/AI). In addition, P/AI was greater (50.7 vs 39.6; P=0.036) in multiparous compared to nulliparous buffalo, respectively. The oestrous intensity (P=0.025) and response to OEB (P=0.0002) was greater in buffalo having a greater body condition (>3.0). Though, non significant, timing of ovulation was more synchronous (62.9±1.8 vs 72.4±3.6h; P>0.05) and ovulation rate was greater (91% vs 64%; P>0.05) in buffalo after OEB administration. It is concluded that administration of OEB in conjunction with the CIDR improves oestrous intensity without affecting P/AI in nulliparous and multiparous anovular buffalo. PMID:26096857

  4. 2/17/2015 NIDIS Drought and Water Assessment http://climate.colostate.edu/~drought/current_assessment.php 1/15

    E-print Network

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    2/17/2015 NIDIS Drought and Water Assessment http://climate.colostate.edu/~drought/current_assessment.php northeast of Steamboat near Buffalo Pass. #12;2/17/2015 NIDIS Drought and Water Assessment http://climate.colostate.edu/~drought/current_assessment.php #12;2/17/2015 NIDIS Drought and Water Assessment http://climate.colostate.edu/~drought/current_assessment.php

  5. Prevalence of Clostridium difficile in raw beef, cow, sheep, goat, camel and buffalo meat in Iran

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Clostridium difficile has been shown to be a nosocomial pathogen associated with diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis in hospitalised patients and the infection is believed to be acquired nosocomially. Recent studies have shown the occurrence of C. difficile in food animals which may act as a source of infection to humans.The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of C. difficile in retail raw beef, cow, sheep, goat, camel and buffalo meat in Iran. Method From April to October 2012, a total of 660 raw meat samples from beef, cow, sheep, goat, camel and buffalo were purchased from 49 butcheries in Isfahan and Khuzestan provinces, Iran, and were evaluated for the presence of C. difficile using a method including selective enrichment in C. difficile broth, subsequent alcohol shock-treatment and plating onto C. difficile selective medium. C. difficile isolates were tested for the presence of toxin genes and were typed using PCR ribotyping. Results In this study, 13 of 660 meat samples (2%) were contaminated with C. difficile. The highest prevalence of C. difficile was found in buffalo meat (9%), followed by goat meat (3.3%), beef meat (1.7%), cow (0.94%) and sheep meat (0.9%). Seven of the 13C. difficile strains (53.9%) were positive for tcdA, tcdB and cdtB toxin genes and were classified as ribotype 078. Four strains (30.8%) were positive tcdA, and tcdB, and one strain (7.7%) was possessed only tcdB. The remaining isolate was non-toxigenic. Susceptibilities of 13C. difficile isolates were determined for 11 antimicrobial drugs using the disk diffusion assay. Resistance to clindamycin, gentamycin, and nalidixic acid was the most common finding. Conclusions To our knowledge, the present study is the first report of the isolation of C. difficile from raw buffalo meat. This study indicates the potential importance of food, including buffalo meat, as a source of transmission of C. difficile to humans. PMID:24499381

  6. Application of the Welfare Quality protocol to dairy buffalo farms: Prevalence and reliability of selected measures.

    PubMed

    De Rosa, G; Grasso, F; Winckler, C; Bilancione, A; Pacelli, C; Masucci, F; Napolitano, F

    2015-10-01

    Within the general aim of developing a Welfare Quality system for monitoring dairy buffalo welfare, this study focused on prevalence and interobserver reliability of the animal-related variables to be included in the scheme. As most of the measures were developed for cattle, the study also aimed to verify their prevalence for buffaloes. Thirty animal-based measures (22 clinical and 8 behavioral measurements) and 20 terms used for qualitative behavior assessment were assessed in 42 loose-housed buffalo farms. All farms were located in central-southern Italy. Two assessors were used (1 male and 1 female). The time needed to record all measures (animal-, resource-, and management-based) was 5.47 ± 0.48 h (mean ± SD). Interobserver reliability of animal-based measures was evaluated using Spearman rank correlation coefficient test (rs). If 0.7 is considered as threshold for high interobserver reliability, all animal-based measures were above this level. In particular, most of the coefficients were above 0.85, with higher values observed for prevalence of animals that can be touched (rs = 0.99) and prevalence of animals with iatrogenic abscess (rs = 0.97), whereas lower coefficients were found for the prevalence of vulvar discharge (rs = 0.74) and dewlap edema (rs = 0.73). Twelve out of the 20 terms used for the qualitative behavior assessment reached a satisfactory interobserver reliability (rs = 0.65). Principal component analysis of qualitative behavior assessment scores was conducted for each assessor. Both principal component 1 and principal component 2 showed high interobserver reliability (rs = 0.80 and 0.79, respectively). In addition, relevant proportions of animals were affected by welfare issues specific to buffaloes, such as overgrown claws (median = 34.1%), withers hygroma (median = 13.3%), and vulvar or uterine prolapse (median = 9.3%). We concluded that most of the investigated measures could be reliably included in the final scheme, which can be used as such to monitor buffalo welfare. However, to inform consumers about the welfare status of the animals, the data should be integrated into a single overall assessment of animal welfare, as already performed in the Welfare Quality project for dairy cattle. PMID:26233458

  7. Echinococcus ortleppi and E. granulosus G1, G2 and G3 genotypes in Italian bovines.

    PubMed

    Casulli, Adriano; Manfredi, Maria Teresa; La Rosa, Giuseppe; Cerbo, Anna Rita Di; Genchi, Claudio; Pozio, Edoardo

    2008-08-01

    To increase the knowledge on Echinococcus genotypes infesting cattle and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) born and bred in Italy, the germinal layer of hydatid cysts was collected from the liver and the lungs of 80 animals slaughtered in 2007. Two mitochondrial genes (the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and the NADH subunit I) were tested by PCR. Four genotypes were identified: G1 (sheep strain), G2 (Tasmanian sheep strain), G3 (buffalo strain), and G5 (cattle strain). Fertile cysts were detected only in the lungs of 4.5% of the total G1 lung cysts, of 9.4% of the total G3 lung cysts, and in the only G5 infected animal. This is the first report of Echinococcus ortleppi (genotype G5) in Italy. PMID:18514422

  8. Estrus induction and fertility rates in response to exogenous hormonal administration in postpartum anestrous and subestrus bovines and buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Honparkhe, M; Singh, Jagir; Dadarwal, D; Dhaliwal, G S; Kumar, Ajeet

    2008-12-01

    A total of 130 animals (82 cattle, 48 buffaloes) with histories of anestrous 60-90 days post-partum and belonging to different agroclimatic zones of Punjab were subjected to rectal palpation and blood samplings at least three times at weekly intervals. The body condition score (BCS) of each animal was also recorded. The animals were divided into two groups; viz., true anestrous (Gp-I) and subestrus (Gp-II) through rectal palpation of ovaries and plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations. Furthermore, the Gp I and II animals were divided into treatment (Gp Ia, 40 cattle and 16 buffaloes; Gp IIa, 12 cattle and 14 buffaloes) and control groups (Gp Ib, 20 cattle and 8 buffaloes; Gp IIb, 10 cattle and 10 buffaloes). True anestrous animals (Gp Ia) were treated with 3 injections of hydroxyprogesterone caproate (750 mg, i.m.) at 72-hr intervals followed by injection of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG; 750 I.U., i.m.) 72 hr after the last progesterone injection. The animals were bred at the first estrus after the induced one. The first service conception rate (FSCR), overall conception rate (OCR), services per conception and pregnancy rate of the true anestrous treated cattle (Gp Ia) were 44.4%, 48.0%, 2.08 and 60.0%, respectively. In the true anestrous control cattle (Gp Ib), only five that were observed to be in estrus failed to conceive. In the anestrous treated buffaloes (Gp Ia), the FSCR, OCR, services per conception and pregnancy rate were 50.0%, 62.5%, 1.6 and 62.5%, respectively. No buffalo amongst true anestrous control (Gp Ib) showed estrus. The subestrus animals (Gp IIa) were administered Prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha); 25 mg Dinoprost, i.m.) and bred at induced estrus. Amongst the Gp IIa animals, all cattle (100%) and twelve buffaloes (85.7%) responded to treatment. Of these animals, the FSCR and pregnancy rate at induced estrus in the cattle were 50.0% each, whereas they were 66.6% and 57.1%, respectively, in the buffaloes. The subestrus control animals (Gp IIb) remained infertile. In summary, the plasma P(4) profile can be used to differentiate true anestrous and subestrus animals and thus to determine a hormonal therapy. Furthermore, fertile estrus can be induced with hormonal therapy in anestrous and subestrus bovines. PMID:19122399

  9. Dry period cooling ameliorates physiological variables and blood acid base balance, improving milk production in murrah buffaloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarif, Ovais; Aggarwal, Anjali

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of evaporative cooling during late gestation on physiological responses, blood gas and acid base balance and subsequent milk production of Murrah buffaloes. To investigate this study sixteen healthy pregnant dry Murrah buffaloes (second to fourth parity) at sixty days prepartum were selected in the months of May to June and divided into two groups of eight animals each. One group of buffaloes (Cooled/CL) was managed under fan and mist cooling system during dry period. Group second buffaloes (Noncooled/NCL) remained as control without provision of cooling during dry period. The physiological responses viz. Rectal temperature (RT), Respiratory rate (RR) and Pulse rate were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in group 2, with the provision of cooling. Skin surface temperature at thorax was significantly lower in cooled group relative to noncooled group. Blood pH and pO2 were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in heat stressed group as compared to the cooled group. pCO2, TCO2, HCO3, SBC, base excess in extracellular fluid (BEecf), base excess in blood (BEb), PCV and Hb were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in cooled group as compared to noncooled group. DMI was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in cooled relative to noncooled animals. Milk yield, FCM, fat yield, lactose yield and total solid yield was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in cooled group of Murrah buffaloes.

  10. Effect of timing of insemination after CIDR removal with or without GnRH on pregnancy rates in Nili-Ravi buffalo.

    PubMed

    Haider, M S; Hassan, M; Khan, A S; Husnain, A; Bilal, M; Pursley, J R; Ahmad, N

    2015-12-01

    There are limited studies available on when to inseminate, if using CIDR or CIDR-GnRH protocols for optimal fertility in buffalo. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the optimum time of AI in relation to CIDR removal with or without GnRH in buffalo. All buffalo (n=201) received CIDR on Day 0, PGF2? on Day 6 and CIDR were removed on Day 7. In 50 of these buffalo GnRH was administered 36h after CIDR removal. Furthermore, CIDR (n=151) and CIDR-GnRH (n=50) were randomly divided to receive timed artificial insemination (TAI), either at 48, 60 or 72h after CIDR removal. Ultrasonography was performed for follicular development and for pregnancy diagnosis. The results revealed that, mean interval to ovulation was shorter (P<0.05) in buffalo receiving CIDR-GnRH than CIDR (68.40±1.73 compared with 76.13±1.66h, respectively). The pregnancy rates were higher (P<0.05) in buffalo inseminated either at 48 (50%) or 60 (59%) than at 72h (18%) in CIDR-GnRH protocol; whereas, in CIDR buffalo pregnancy rates were higher (P<0.05), at 60 (37%) or 72 (40%) than at 48h (10%). In conclusion, the optimal time of AI is between 48-60h in CIDR-GnRH and between 60-72h in CIDR protocol for enhancing fertility in buffalo. PMID:26518606

  11. Serological & molecular diagnostic surveys combined with examining hematological profiles suggest increased levels of infection & hematological response of cattle to babesiosis infections compared to native buffaloes in Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Babesiosis threatens the development of the cattle and buffaloes industries in Egypt and improved control is needed. The main objectives of this study are surveying the presence of bovine babesiosis in distinct selected bovine and buffalo populations in Egypt using novel molecular and pr...

  12. Cultural legacies, fire ecology, and environmental change in the Stone Country of Arnhem Land and Kakadu National Park, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Trauernicht, Clay; Murphy, Brett P; Tangalin, Natalia; Bowman, David M J S

    2013-01-01

    We use the fire ecology and biogeographical patterns of Callitris intratropica, a fire-sensitive conifer, and the Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), an introduced mega-herbivore, to examine the hypothesis that the continuation of Aboriginal burning and cultural integration of buffalo contribute to greater savanna heterogeneity and diversity in central Arnhem Land (CAL) than Kakadu National Park (KNP). The ‘Stone Country’ of the Arnhem Plateau, extending from KNP to CAL, is a globally renowned social–ecological system, managed for millennia by Bininj-Kunwok Aboriginal clans. Regional species declines have been attributed to the cessation of patchy burning by Aborigines. Whereas the KNP Stone Country is a modern wilderness, managed through prescribed burning and buffalo eradication, CAL remains a stronghold for Aboriginal management where buffalo have been culturally integrated. We surveyed the plant community and the presence of buffalo tracks among intact and fire-damaged C. intratropica groves and the savanna matrix in KNP and CAL. Aerial surveys of C. intratropica grove condition were used to examine the composition of savanna vegetation across the Stone Country. The plant community in intact C. intratropica groves had higher stem counts of shrubs and small trees and higher proportions of fire-sensitive plant species than degraded groves and the savanna matrix. A higher proportion of intact C. intratropica groves in CAL therefore indicated greater gamma diversity and habitat heterogeneity than the KNP Stone Country. Interactions among buffalo, fire, and C. intratropica suggested that buffalo also contributed to these patterns. Our results suggest linkages between ecological and cultural integrity at broad spatial scales across a complex landscape. Buffalo may provide a tool for mitigating destructive fires; however, their interactions require further study. Sustainability in the Stone Country depends upon adaptive management that rehabilitates the coupling of indigenous culture, disturbance, and natural resources. PMID:23467505

  13. Effect of rate of addition of starter culture on textural characteristics of buffalo milk Feta type cheese during ripening.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Kanawjia, S K; Kumar, Suryamani; Khatkar, Sunil

    2014-04-01

    The effect of rate of addition of starter culture on textural characteristics of buffalo milk Feta type cheese was investigated during ripening period up to two months. The textural characteristics of buffalo milk Feta type cheese in terms of hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness were analyzed by using textural profile analyzer. The maximum hardness was found with cheese made using 1% culture, while the minimum was found with 2% culture. The cohesiveness and springiness decreased as the level of addition of starter culture increased. The chewiness of cheese also decreased, as the rate of addition of starter culture increased for cheese making. In addition to this, yield, moisture, fat, FDM, protein, salt and S/M of fresh buffalo milk Feta type cheese increased with the increase in rate of addition of starter culture; however, TS of experimental cheeses decreased. PMID:24741179

  14. High Potential Source for Biomass Degradation Enzyme Discovery and Environmental Aspects Revealed through Metagenomics of Indian Buffalo Rumen

    PubMed Central

    Singh, K. M.; Reddy, Bhaskar; Patel, Dishita; Patel, A. K.; Patel, J. B.; Joshi, C. G.

    2014-01-01

    The complex microbiomes of the rumen functions as an effective system for plant cell wall degradation, and biomass utilization provide genetic resource for degrading microbial enzymes that could be used in the production of biofuel. Therefore the buffalo rumen microbiota was surveyed using shot gun sequencing. This metagenomic sequencing generated 3.9?GB of sequences and data were assembled into 137270 contiguous sequences (contigs). We identified potential 2614 contigs encoding biomass degrading enzymes including glycoside hydrolases (GH: 1943 contigs), carbohydrate binding module (CBM: 23 contigs), glycosyl transferase (GT: 373 contigs), carbohydrate esterases (CE: 259 contigs), and polysaccharide lyases (PE: 16 contigs). The hierarchical clustering of buffalo metagenomes demonstrated the similarities and dissimilarity in microbial community structures and functional capacity. This demonstrates that buffalo rumen microbiome was considerably enriched in functional genes involved in polysaccharide degradation with great prospects to obtain new molecules that may be applied in the biofuel industry. PMID:25136572

  15. Rift Valley fever virus infection in African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) herds in rural South Africa: Evidence of interepidemic transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaBeaud, A.D.; Cross, P.C.; Getz, W.M.; Glinka, A.; King, C.H.

    2011-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging biodefense pathogen that poses significant threats to human and livestock health. To date, the interepidemic reservoirs of RVFV are not well defined. In a longitudinal survey of infectious diseases among African buffalo during 2000-2006, 550 buffalo were tested for antibodies against RVFV in 820 capture events in 302 georeferenced locations in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Overall, 115 buffalo (21%) were seropositive. Seroprevalence of RVFV was highest (32%) in the first study year, and decreased progressively in subsequent years, but had no detectable impact on survival. Nine (7%) of 126 resampled, initially seronegative animals seroconverted during periods outside any reported regional RVFV outbreaks. Seroconversions for RVFV were detected in significant temporal clusters during 2001-2003 and in 2004. These findings highlight the potential importance of wildlife as reservoirs for RVFV and interepidemic RVFV transmission in perpetuating regional RVFV transmission risk. Copyright ?? 2011 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. Comparative studies on temperature threshold for heat shock protein 70 induction in young and adult Murrah buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Haque, N; Ludri, A; Hossain, S A; Ashutosh, M

    2012-10-01

    To know the temperature threshold for heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) induction in lymphocytes and to assess physiological changes, if any, in relation to HSP70 induction in young and adult Murrah buffaloes, this study was divided into two parts: I. In vivo study: where assay of HSP70 was performed in blood samples collected from acutely exposed young and adult Murrah buffaloes (n = 6) inside a climatic chamber at 40, 42 and 45 °C for 4 h and thermoneutral temperature (22 °C). Physiological parameters viz., rectal temperature, respiratory rate, pulse rate and skin temperature of different body parts were monitored to assess magnitude of stress in the animals owing to thermal exposure II. For in vitro study, equal numbers of lymphocyte cells were separated from blood collected from young and adult buffaloes and were subjected to four temperature treatments (38, 40, 42 and 45 °C) for 4 h. A significant increase (p < 0.05) in all the physiological parameters in both young and adult buffaloes was observed after exposure to 40, 42 and 45 °C for 4 h as compared to 38 °C. The average plasma HSP70 concentrations (ng/ml) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) at 40, 42 and 45 °C as compared to 38 °C in both young and adult and were higher in young than adult buffaloes at 38 and 45 °C. Heat shock protein 70 level in lymphocyte lysate showed highest concentration after 3-h exposure to all temperatures (40, 42 and 45 °C) in both young and adult buffaloes. The intensity of changes of all physiological parameters was more in young animals than in the adults indicating the greater susceptibility of younger animals to heat stress and was found to be changed at around 40 °C when animals were exposed to different temperatures, indicating the possibility that HSP70 production may be initiated at this temperature which is 2 or 3 °C higher than core body temperature. PMID:21848850

  17. Rift valley Fever in Kruger national park: do buffalo play a role in the inter-epidemic circulation of virus?

    PubMed

    Beechler, B R; Bengis, R; Swanepoel, R; Paweska, J T; Kemp, A; van Vuren, P Jansen; Joubert, J; Ezenwa, V O; Jolles, A E

    2015-02-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic mosquito-borne virus disease of livestock and wild ruminants that has been identified as a risk for international spread. Typically, the disease occurs in geographically limited outbreaks associated with high rainfall events and can cause massive losses of livestock. It is unclear how RVF virus persists during inter-epidemic periods but cryptic cycling of the virus in wildlife populations may play a role. We investigated the role that free-living African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) might play in inter-epidemic circulation of the virus and looked for geographic, age and sex patterns of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infection in African buffalo. Buffalo serum samples were collected (n = 1615) in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, during a period of 1996-2007 and tested for antibodies to RVF. We found that older animals were more likely to be seropositive for anti-RVFV antibody than younger animals, but sex was not correlated with the likelihood of being anti-RVFV antibody positive. We also found geographic variation within KNP; herds in the south were more likely to have acquired anti-RVFV antibody than herds farther north - which could be driven by host or vector ecology. In all years of the study between 1996 and 2007, we found young buffalo (under 2 years of age) that were seropositive for anti-RVFV antibody, with prevalence ranging between 0 and 27% each year, indicating probable circulation. In addition, we also conducted a 4-year longitudinal study on 227 initially RVFV seronegative buffalo to look for evidence of seroconversion outside known RVF outbreaks within our study period (2008-2012). In the longitudinal study, we found five individuals that seroconverted from anti-RVFV antibody negative to anti-RVFV antibody positive, outside of any detected outbreak. Overall, our results provide evidence of long-term undetected circulation of RVFV in the buffalo population. PMID:24330522

  18. In Vitro Culture of Functionally Active Buffalo Hepatocytes Isolated by Using a Simplified Manual Perfusion Method

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Santanu; Bisht, Sonu; Malakar, Dhruba; Mohanty, Ashok K.; Kaushik, Jai K.

    2015-01-01

    Background In farm animals, there is no suitable cell line available to understand liver-specific functions. This has limited our understanding of liver function and metabolism in farm animals. Culturing and maintenance of functionally active hepatocytes is difficult, since they survive no more than few days. Establishing primary culture of hepatocytes can help in studying cellular metabolism, drug toxicity, hepatocyte specific gene function and regulation. Here we provide a simple in vitro method for isolation and short-term culture of functionally active buffalo hepatocytes. Results Buffalo hepatocytes were isolated from caudate lobes by using manual enzymatic perfusion and mechanical disruption of liver tissue. Hepatocyte yield was (5.3±0.66)×107 cells per gram of liver tissue with a viability of 82.3±3.5%. Freshly isolated hepatocytes were spherical with well contrasted border. After 24 hours of seeding onto fibroblast feeder layer and different extracellular matrices like dry collagen, matrigel and sandwich collagen coated plates, hepatocytes formed confluent monolayer with frequent clusters. Cultured hepatocytes exhibited typical cuboidal and polygonal shape with restored cellular polarity. Cells expressed hepatocyte-specific marker genes or proteins like albumin, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4?, glucose-6-phosphatase, tyrosine aminotransferase, cytochromes, cytokeratin and ?1-antitrypsin. Hepatocytes could be immunostained with anti-cytokeratins, anti-albumin and anti ?1-antitrypsin antibodies. Abundant lipid droplets were detected in the cytosol of hepatocytes using oil red stain. In vitro cultured hepatocytes could be grown for five days and maintained for up to nine days on buffalo skin fibroblast feeder layer. Cultured hepatocytes were viable for functional studies. Conclusion We developed a convenient and cost effective technique for hepatocytes isolation for short-term culture that exhibited morphological and functional characteristics of active hepatocytes for studying gene expression, regulation, hepatic genomics and proteomics in farm animals. PMID:25790478

  19. Pan-African Genetic Structure in the African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer): Investigating Intraspecific Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Smitz, Nathalie; Berthouly, Cécile; Cornélis, Daniel; Heller, Rasmus; Van Hooft, Pim; Chardonnet, Philippe; Caron, Alexandre; Prins, Herbert; van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; De Iongh, Hans; Michaux, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) exhibits extreme morphological variability, which has led to controversies about the validity and taxonomic status of the various recognized subspecies. The present study aims to clarify these by inferring the pan-African spatial distribution of genetic diversity, using a comprehensive set of mitochondrial D-loop sequences from across the entire range of the species. All analyses converged on the existence of two distinct lineages, corresponding to a group encompassing West and Central African populations and a group encompassing East and Southern African populations. The former is currently assigned to two to three subspecies (S. c. nanus, S. c. brachyceros, S. c. aequinoctialis) and the latter to a separate subspecies (S. c. caffer). Forty-two per cent of the total amount of genetic diversity is explained by the between-lineage component, with one to seventeen female migrants per generation inferred as consistent with the isolation-with-migration model. The two lineages diverged between 145 000 to 449 000 years ago, with strong indications for a population expansion in both lineages, as revealed by coalescent-based analyses, summary statistics and a star-like topology of the haplotype network for the S. c. caffer lineage. A Bayesian analysis identified the most probable historical migration routes, with the Cape buffalo undertaking successive colonization events from Eastern toward Southern Africa. Furthermore, our analyses indicate that, in the West-Central African lineage, the forest ecophenotype may be a derived form of the savanna ecophenotype and not vice versa, as has previously been proposed. The African buffalo most likely expanded and diverged in the late to middle Pleistocene from an ancestral population located around the current-day Central African Republic, adapting morphologically to colonize new habitats, hence developing the variety of ecophenotypes observed today. PMID:23437100

  20. Novel SNP Discovery in African Buffalo, Syncerus caffer, Using High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    le Roex, Nikki; Noyes, Harry; Brass, Andrew; Bradley, Daniel G.; Kemp, Steven J.; Kay, Suzanne; van Helden, Paul D.; Hoal, Eileen G.

    2012-01-01

    The African buffalo, Syncerus caffer, is one of the most abundant and ecologically important species of megafauna in the savannah ecosystem. It is an important prey species, as well as a host for a vast array of nematodes, pathogens and infectious diseases, such as bovine tuberculosis and corridor disease. Large-scale SNP discovery in this species would greatly facilitate further research into the area of host genetics and disease susceptibility, as well as provide a wealth of sequence information for other conservation and genomics studies. We sequenced pools of Cape buffalo DNA from a total of 9 animals, on an ABI SOLiD4 sequencer. The resulting short reads were mapped to the UMD3.1 Bos taurus genome assembly using both BWA and Bowtie software packages. A mean depth of 2.7× coverage over the mapped regions was obtained. Btau4 gene annotation was added to all SNPs identified within gene regions. Bowtie and BWA identified a maximum of 2,222,665 and 276,847 SNPs within the buffalo respectively, depending on analysis method. A panel of 173 SNPs was validated by fluorescent genotyping in 87 individuals. 27 SNPs failed to amplify, and of the remaining 146 SNPs, 43–54% of the Bowtie SNPs and 57–58% of the BWA SNPs were confirmed as polymorphic. dN/dS ratios found no evidence of positive selection, and although there were genes that appeared to be under negative selection, these were more likely to be slowly evolving house-keeping genes. PMID:23144973

  1. Assessing vaccination as a control strategy in an ongoing epidemic: Bovine tuberculosis in African buffalo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, P.C.; Getz, W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is an exotic disease invading the buffalo population (Syncerus caffer) of the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. We used a sex and age-structured epidemiological model to assess the effectiveness of a vaccination program and define important research directions. The model allows for dispersal between a focal herd and background population and was parameterized with a combination of published data and analyses of over 130 radio-collared buffalo in the central region of the KNP. Radio-tracking data indicated that all sex and age categories move between mixed herds, and males over 8 years old had higher mortality and dispersal rates than any other sex or age category. In part due to the high dispersal rates of buffalo, sensitivity analyses indicate that disease prevalence in the background population accounts for the most variability in the BTB prevalence and quasi-eradication within the focal herd. Vaccination rate and the transmission coefficient were the second and third most important parameters of the sensitivity analyses. Further analyses of the model without dispersal suggest that the amount of vaccination necessary for quasi-eradication (i.e. prevalence 70% of the calf population would have to be vaccinated every year to reduce the prevalence to less than 1%. If the half-life of the vaccine is less than 5 years, even vaccinating every calf for 50 years may not eradicate BTB. Thus, although vaccination provides a means of controlling BTB prevalence it should be combined with other control measures if eradication is the objective.

  2. New crops for arid lands. [Bladderpod, gumweed, guayule, jojoba, and buffalo gourd

    SciTech Connect

    Hinman, C.W.

    1984-09-28

    Five plants are described that could be grown commercially under arid conditions. Once the most valuable component has been obtained from each plant (rubber from guayule; seed oil from jojoba, buffalo gourd, and bladderpod; and resin from gumweed), the remaining material holds potential for useful products as well as fuel. It is difficult to realize the full potential or arid land plants, however, because of the complexities of developing the necessary agricultural and industrial infrastructure simultaneously. To do so, multicompany efforts or cooperative efforts between government and the private sector will be required. 20 references.

  3. Continuous Age-Structured Model for Bovine Tuberculosis in African buffalo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anguelov, R.; Kojouharov, H.

    2009-10-01

    The paper deals with a model of the spread of bovine tuberculosis in the buffalo population in the Kruger National Park in South Africa. The model uses continuous age structure and it is formulated in terms of partial differential equations using eight epidemiological classes (compartments). More precisely, the age density for each class at time t satisfies a one way wave equation, where the age is the space variable. The continuous age model discussed here is derived from a 2006 age groups model by P. C. Cross and W. M. Getz.

  4. Prevalence of the parasitic copepod Haemobaphes intermedius on juvenile buffalo sculpins from Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halpenny, C.M.; Kocan, R.M.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    The parasitic copepod, Haemobaphes intermedius, was detected in 62% of juvenile buffalo sculpins Enophrys bison, a previously unreported host, from the San Juan Islands archipelago in Washington State. Most infestations were characterized by the presence of a single female copepod infestations with multiple H. intermedius occurred either unilaterally or bilaterally in 29% of parasitized individuals. Impaired condition of parasitized hosts was indicated by significantly lower total lengths and weights (34.9 mm; 1.6 g) than in unparasitized cohorts (38.9 mm; 2.1 g). Host specificity was indicated by the failure to detect H. intermedius in 43 sympatric great sculpins Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus from the same location.

  5. Cumberland Mollusk Conservation Program. Activity 6: analysis of water quality factors

    SciTech Connect

    Poppe, W.L.; Fehring, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    This report evaluates and compares water quality data from selected stream reaches within the Tennessee Valley with respect to their adaptability for support of certain mussel fauna. Fifteen sample locations were chosen from the Duck, Clinch, Powell, Buffalo, Elk, and Nolichucky Rivers and from Estill Fork (Paint Rock River) and Copper Creek (Clinch River) areas.

  6. Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Testing of Free-Ranging African Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) Captured for Ex Situ Conservation in the Kafue Basin Ecosystem in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor; Matandiko, Wigganson; Nambota, Andrew; Muma, John Bwalya; Mweene, Aaron Simanyengwe; Munyeme, Musso

    2011-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in some National Parks in Southern Africa, whilst no studies have been conducted on BTB on buffalo populations in Zambia. The increased demand for ecotourism and conservation of the African buffalo on private owned game ranches has prompted the Zambian Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) and private sector in Zambia to generate a herd of "BTB-free buffaloes" for ex situ conservation. In the present study, 86 African buffaloes from four different herds comprising a total of 530 animals were investigated for the presence of BTB for the purpose of generating "BTB free" buffalo for ex-situ conservation. Using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT) the BTB status at both individual animal and herd level was estimated to be 0.0% by the CIDT technique. Compared to Avian reactors only, a prevalence of 5.8% was determined whilst for Bovine-only reactors a prevalence of 0.0% was determined. These results suggest the likelihood of buffalo herds in the Kafue National Park being free of BTB. PMID:21776347

  7. Serological Survey of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Sikombe, T K W; Mweene, A S; Muma, John; Kasanga, C; Sinkala, Y; Banda, F; Mulumba, M; Fana, E M; Mundia, C; Simuunza, M

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) circulating in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) from selected areas in Zambia. Sera and probang samples were collected between 2011 and 2012 and analysed for presence of antibodies against FMDV while probang samples were used to isolate the FMDV by observing cytopathic effect (CPE). Samples with CPE were further analysed using antigen ELISA. High FMD seroprevalence was observed and antibodies to all the three Southern African Territories (SAT) serotypes were detected in four study areas represented as follows: SAT2 was 72.7 percent; SAT1 was 62.6 percent; and SAT3 was 26.2 percent. Mixed infections accounted for 68.6 percent of those that were tested positive. For probang samples, CPE were observed in three of the samples, while the antigen ELISA results showed positivity and for SAT1 (n = 1) and SAT2 (n = 2). It is concluded that FMDV is highly prevalent in Zambian buffaloes which could play an important role in the epidemiology of the disease. Therefore livestock reared at interface with the game parks should be included in all routine FMDV vaccination programmes. PMID:26347208

  8. Metagenomic analysis of buffalo rumen microbiome: Effect of roughage diet on Dormancy and Sporulation genes.

    PubMed

    Singh, K M; Reddy, B; Patel, A K; Panchasara, H; Parmar, N; Patel, A B; Shah, T M; Bhatt, V D; Joshi, C G

    2014-12-01

    Buffalo rumen microbiome experiences a variety of diet stress and represents reservoir of Dormancy and Sporulation genes. However, the information on genomic responses to such conditions is very limited. The Ion Torrent PGM next generation sequencing technology was used to characterize general microbial diversity and the repertoire of microbial genes present, including genes associated with Dormancy and Sporulation in Mehsani buffalo rumen metagenome. The research findings revealed the abundance of bacteria at the domain level and presence of Dormancy and Sporulation genes which were predominantly associated with the Clostridia and Bacilli taxa belonging to the phyla Firmicutes. Genes associated with Sporulation cluster and Sporulation orphans were increased from 50% to 100% roughage treatment, thereby promoting sporulation all along the treatments. The spore germination is observed to be the highest in the 75% roughage treatment both in the liquid and solid rumen fraction samples with respect to the decrease in the values of the genes associated with spore core dehydration, thereby facilitating spore core hydration which is necessary for spore germination. PMID:25606408

  9. Captive breeding of the white rhinoceros, Ceratotherium simum, and the Cape buffalo, Syncerus caffer.

    PubMed

    Skinner, J D; Dott, H M; Matthee, A; Hunt, L

    2006-09-01

    Breeding records of 40 white rhinoceros and 155 Cape buffalo were analysed. Three rhinoceros cows bred in captivity, themselves conceived for the first time at 84, 87 and 95 months of age, respectively. Rhinoceros cows breed throughout the year. There is no evidence of a relationship between calving interval and month of birth. Calving intervals were normally distributed about the mean of 34 months and there were no significant differences between bulls, cows or sex of calf. There was no difference in the sex ratio of calves born to young cows nor older cows. The male:female ratio of the calves was 1:1. Younger cows did not have shorter birth intervals. Although captive Cape buffaloes breed throughout the year, there is a preponderance of births in midsummer. There was some evidence that larger cows produce heavier calves and that season of birth may influence birth weight. Male calves weighed 41.20 +/- 0.68 kg vs 39.00 +/- 0.73 kg (range 24-60 kg) for female calves but this difference was not significant. Calving intervals were normally distributed about the mean of 395 days and the male:female ratio of the calves was 1:1.2. PMID:17058447

  10. Serological Survey of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Sikombe, T. K. W.; Mweene, A. S.; Muma, John; Kasanga, C.; Sinkala, Y.; Banda, F.; Mulumba, M.; Fana, E. M.; Mundia, C.; Simuunza, M.

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) circulating in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) from selected areas in Zambia. Sera and probang samples were collected between 2011 and 2012 and analysed for presence of antibodies against FMDV while probang samples were used to isolate the FMDV by observing cytopathic effect (CPE). Samples with CPE were further analysed using antigen ELISA. High FMD seroprevalence was observed and antibodies to all the three Southern African Territories (SAT) serotypes were detected in four study areas represented as follows: SAT2 was 72.7 percent; SAT1 was 62.6 percent; and SAT3 was 26.2 percent. Mixed infections accounted for 68.6 percent of those that were tested positive. For probang samples, CPE were observed in three of the samples, while the antigen ELISA results showed positivity and for SAT1 (n = 1) and SAT2 (n = 2). It is concluded that FMDV is highly prevalent in Zambian buffaloes which could play an important role in the epidemiology of the disease. Therefore livestock reared at interface with the game parks should be included in all routine FMDV vaccination programmes. PMID:26347208

  11. Study of proteolysis in river buffalo mozzarella cheese using a proteomics approach.

    PubMed

    Petrella, G; Pati, S; Gagliardi, R; Rizzuti, A; Mastrorilli, P; la Gatta, B; Di Luccia, A

    2015-11-01

    The guarantee of the origin and quality of raw material is essential for the protection and valorization of Campana buffalo mozzarella cheese. The risk of utilization of semifinished products and stored milk in substitution for fresh milk is increasing, due to the continuous desire to reduce production costs. A proteomics approach and electrophoresis survey of retail mozzarella cheeses indicated different rates of proteolysis in the production of dairy industries. The use of fresh milk and correct cheesemaking protocol yielded only ?-caseins, which are derived from ?-casein by plasmin, and para-?-casein, which is derived from ?-casein by chymosin. The detection of abnormal hydrolysis resulting in ?- and ?S1-casein fragments, identified by mass spectrometry, indicates the use of stored milk or stored and pressed curd, or the reuse of unsold mozzarella cheese, to produce mozzarella. The formation of ?-caseins and other fragments during a long storage of raw materials at room or refrigeration temperature was ascribed to plasmin (endogenous milk enzyme), whereas formation of ?S1-casein fragments, mainly ?S1-I(6P)- and ?S1-I(7P)-casein during the storage of curd was ascribed to the action of chymosin (exogenous enzyme) from rennet. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE and alkaline urea-PAGE permitted us to evaluate the freshness of the raw materials used in the manufacturing of buffalo mozzarella cheese and to reveal possible inappropriate preservation. PMID:26364106

  12. Protective effects of melatonin against oxidative stress in flow cytometry-sorted buffalo sperm.

    PubMed

    Li, X X; Yang, X G; Lu, Y Q; Lu, S S; Zhang, M; Yao, H I; Meng, L J; Lu, K H

    2012-04-01

    Previous reports of the ability of melatonin to scavenge a variety of toxic oxygen and nitrogen-based reactants suggest that melatonin could be an effective antioxidant for protecting sperm. In this study, flow cytometry and laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy were used to evaluate the effect of melatonin on buffalo sperm quality to optimize sperm sex-sorting procedures. In fresh sperm incubated in the presence or absence of melatonin (10(-4) ?m) for 1, 24, 48 h or 72 h at 27°C, the mitochondrial activity was significantly higher than in a non-melatonin control (p?buffalo sperm from reactive oxygen species induced by staining, sorting and freezing and increases semen quality after the freezing-thawing processes. Furthermore, the results indicate the high potential of the laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy technique for rapid, effective and non-invasive assessment of the quality of sperm cells. PMID:21790800

  13. Disentangling association patterns in fission-fusion societies using African buffalo as an example

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, P.C.; Lloyd-Smith, J. O.; Getz, W.M.

    2005-01-01

    A description of the social network of a population aids us in understanding dispersal, the spread of disease, and genetic structure in that population. Many animal populations can be classified as fission–fusion societies, whereby groups form and separate over time. Examples discussed in the literature include ungulates, primates and cetaceans (Lott and Minta, 1983, Whitehead et al., 1991, Henzi et al., 1997, Christal et al., 1998 and Chilvers and Corkeron, 2002). In this study, we use a heuristic simulation model to illustrate potential problems in applying traditional techniques of association analysis to fission–fusion societies and propose a new index of association: the fission decision index (FDI). We compare the conclusions resulting from traditional methods with those of the FDI using data from African buffalo, Syncerus caffer, in the Kruger National Park. The traditional approach suggested that the buffalo population was spatially and temporally structured into four different ‘herds’ with adult males only peripherally associated with mixed herds. Our FDI method indicated that association decisions of adult males appeared random, but those of other sex and age categories were nonrandom, particularly when we included the fission events associated with adult males. Furthermore, the amount of time that individuals spent together was only weakly correlated with their propensity to remain together during fission events. We conclude with a discussion of the applicability of the FDI to other studies.

  14. Diversity and Fermentation Products of Xylose-Utilizing Yeasts Isolated from Buffalo Feces in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Lorliam, Wanlapa; Akaracharanya, Ancharida; Suzuki, Motofumi; Ohkuma, Moriya; Tanasupawat, Somboon

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-eight xylose-utilizing yeast strains were isolated by enrichment culture from 11 samples of feces from the rectum of Murrah buffalo and Swamp buffalo in Thailand. On the basis of their morphological and biochemical characteristics, including sequence analysis of the D1/D2 region of the large-subunit ribosomal RNA gene (LSU rDNA), they were identified as Candida tropicalis (designated as Group I, 11 isolates), Candida parasilosis (Group II, 2 isolates), Candida mengyuniae (Group III, 2 isolates), Sporopachydermia lactativora (Group IV, 2 isolates), Geotrichum sp. (Group V, 5 isolates) and Trichosporon asahii (Group VI, 6 isolates). All isolates utilized xylose as the sole carbon source but 27 isolates could ferment xylose to ethanol (0.006–0.602 g L?1) and 21 isolates could ferment xylose to xylitol (0.19–22.84 g L?1). Candida tropicalis isolates produced the highest yield of xylitol (74.80%). Their ability to convert xylose to xylitol and ethanol ranged from 15.06 g L?1 to 22.84 g L?1 xylitol and 0.110 g L?1 to 0.602 g L?1 ethanol, respectively. PMID:24005843

  15. Tick infestation patterns in free ranging African buffalo (Syncercus caffer): Effects of host innate immunity and niche segregation among tick species?

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kadie; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Jolles, Anna E.

    2012-01-01

    Ticks are of vast importance to livestock health, and contribute to conflicts between wildlife conservation and agricultural interests; but factors driving tick infestation patterns on wild hosts are not well understood. We studied tick infestation patterns on free-ranging African buffalo (Syncercus caffer), asking (i) is there evidence for niche segregation among tick species?; and (ii) how do host characteristics affect variation in tick abundance among hosts? We identified ticks and estimated tick burdens on 134 adult female buffalo from two herds at Kruger National Park, South Africa. To assess niche segregation, we evaluated attachment site preferences and tested for correlations between abundances of different tick species. To investigate which host factors may drive variability in tick abundance, we measured age, body condition, reproductive and immune status in all hosts, and examined their effects on tick burdens. Two tick species were abundant on buffalo, Amblyomma hebraeum and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi. A. hebraeum were found primarily in the inguinal and axillary regions; R. e. evertsi attached exclusively in the perianal area. Abundances of A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on the host were unrelated. These results suggest spatial niche segregation between A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on the buffalo. Buffalo with stronger innate immunity, and younger buffalo, had fewer ticks. Buffalo with low body condition scores, and pregnant buffalo, had higher tick burdens, but these effects varied between the two herds we sampled. This study is one of the first to link ectoparasite abundance patterns and immunity in a free-ranging mammalian host population. Based on independent abundances of A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on individual buffalo, we would expect no association between the diseases these ticks transmit. Longitudinal studies linking environmental variability with host immunity are needed to understand tick infestation patterns and the dynamics of tick-borne diseases in wildlife. PMID:24533310

  16. Alternatives in the Second-Year Language Courses: A Report for the Departments of Foreign Languages at SUNY/Buffalo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papalia, Anthony; And Others

    A series of discussions among members of the language departments at SUNY/Buffalo was held to examine ways of improving language teaching methodology in the college, particularly at the second-year level. The suggestions resulting from these meetings are offered as a practical response to the decreased enrollment in language courses. The…

  17. Attn: UB Student Health Services Immunization Coordinator Michael Hall, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, NY 14214-8003

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    Attn: UB Student Health Services Immunization Coordinator Michael Hall, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, NY 14214-8003 Phone: 716-829-3316 Fax: 716-829-2564 New Non-Degree Student/Less than 6 credits/Immunization credit hours can request a one semester/term waiver of the immunization requirements. To request

  18. CIVIL RIGHTS, U.S.A. PUBLIC SCHOOLS--CITIES IN THE NORTH AND WEST, 1963, BUFFALO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALEXANDER, GEORGE J.

    A SURVEY TAKEN BY THE NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION REVEALED THAT THE SCHOOLS OF BUFFALO WERE HIGHLY SEGREGATED. OF THE 19 SCHOOLS THAT CONTAINED MORE THAN 30 PERCENT NEGROES AND PUERTO RICANS, 14 HAD OVER 90 PERCENT. THERE WAS NO DIRECTIVE FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AS TO WHAT, IF ANYTHING, OUGHT TO BE DONE ABOUT THESE…

  19. Teaching Poverty with Geographic Visualization and Geographic Information Systems (GIS): A Case Study of East Buffalo and Food Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Jung, Jin-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Although various methods have been used to teach about poverty in the social work classroom (e.g., quantitative, historical, and qualitative), the use of geographic visualization and geographic information systems (GIS) has become a relatively new method. In our analysis of food access on the East Side of Buffalo, New York, we demonstrate the…

  20. A Study of Technical Services Operations in the Libraries of the State University of New York at Buffalo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ronald; And Others

    The technical service procedures of the State University of New York at Buffalo are described. This is part of a series of Technical Reports on Technical Services by the Five Associated University Libraries' (FAUL) Central Systems Group to view the internal operations of each library in comparison with those of other FAUL libraries. The three…