The colour of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis L.) meat is darker than bovine meat. Since meat colour depends on the concentration of myoglobin (Mb) and its oxidation state, we have determined the main structural and functional properties of buffalo Mb. Buffalo Mb was purified from longissimus dorsi muscles and its molecular mass determined by ESI Q-TOF mass spectrometry. The molecular mass
Roberta Dosi; Antimo Di Maro; Angela Chambery; Giovanni Colonna; Susan Costantini; Giuseppe Geraci; Augusto Parente
The water buffalo is an important domestic animal worldwide, and the local Buffalypso variety was developed in Trinidad to\\u000a have improved beef qualities. Brucellosis was diagnosed in Trinidad and Tobago during 1998 in both cattle and domestic water\\u000a buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) populations. Brucellosis in the latter species is caused by infection with Brucella abortus, similar to bovine brucellosis. Control of
Geoffrey T. Fosgate; Michael D. Diptee; Anil Ramnanan; Abiodun Adewale Adesiyun
An outbreak of an acute disease in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) caused by the ingestion of Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii occurred in the southern region of Brazil. Ten out of 50 buffalo died 24-48 hr after being introduced into a pasture containing abundant amounts of the plant. Factors influencing the ingestion of the plant and consequent toxicosis included hunger, stress caused by shipment, and unfamiliarity with the plant. Clinical signs included serous ocular discharge, incoordination, mild bloat, and muscle trembling. One buffalo was necropsied. Gross findings included dehydration, abundant liquid in the rumen, reddening of the mucosa of forestomachs, abomasum, and intestine, and edema of the wall of the rumen. The main histologic lesions were superficial to full thickness degeneration and necrosis of the stratified epithelium lining the forestomachs, necrosis of the intestinal mucosa, and widespread lymphoid necrosis. A calf (Bos taurus) was fed a single dose of 5 g/kg/body weight of B. megapotamica var. weirii harvested from the same site where the buffalo died. Twenty hours after the administration of the plant this calf died with clinical signs and lesions similar to those observed in the naturally poisoned buffalo. PMID:21908301
Oliveira-Filho, José C; Carmo, Priscila M S; Lucena, Ricardo B; Pierezan, Felipe; Barros, Claudio S L
The water buffalo is an important domestic animal worldwide, and the local Buffalypso variety was developed in Trinidad to have improved beef qualities. Brucellosis was diagnosed in Trinidad and Tobago during 1998 in both cattle and domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) populations. Brucellosis in the latter species is caused by infection with Brucella abortus, similar to bovine brucellosis. Control of brucellosis is of paramount importance to preservation of the genetic diversity of these animals in Trinidad, and this has been complicated by differences in the epidemiology of water buffalo and bovine brucellosis. Some diagnostic tests do not have comparable accuracy between the two species, and the RB51 vaccine does not adequately protect against infection in water buffalo. The water buffalo in Trinidad may also be more resistant to infection than cattle. Development of effective vaccination protocols is key to brucellosis control in Buffalypso in Trinidad, and prohibitions on import of virulent B. abortus strains for vaccine efficacy studies has impeded progress in this area. These Trinidadian strains are of variable virulence; some might be effective for challenge in vaccine efficacy studies, while other, of lower virulence, may be vaccine candidates for use in water buffalo. PMID:21479842
Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Diptee, Michael D; Ramnanan, Anil; Adesiyun, Abiodun Adewale
The smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus is a native benthivore to floodplain lakes in the Yazoo River Basin, USA. Based on evidence from other benthivorous fish studies we hypothesized high biomasses of I. bubalus contribute to poor water quality conditions. We tested this hypothesis in shallow (<1.5 m) 0.05 ha earthen ponds at three stocking biomasses over a 10-week period during the summer of 2012. The most notable results from the permutational multivariate analysis of variance suggest I. bubalus at high and moderate biomasses significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced turbidity and suspended solid levels while decreasing Secchi depth. Our results suggest that effects of I. bubalus on water clarity may have considerable ecological implications in natural habitats such as shallow floodplain lakes. PMID:24526283
Goetz, D; Kröger, R; Miranda, L E
We conducted a molecular epidemiological survey of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from Bubalus bubalis (water buffalo) on two extensive farms (450 km apart) in Victoria, Australia. Faecal samples (n=476) were collected from different age groups of water buffalo at two time points (six months apart) and tested using a PCR-based mutation scanning-targeted sequencing-phylogenetic approach, employing markers within the small subunit of ribosomal RNA (designated pSSU) and triose phosphate isomerase (ptpi) genes. Based on pSSU data, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium bovis and Cryptosporidium genotypes 1, 2 (each 99% similar genetically to Cryptosporidium ryanae) and 3 (99% similar to Cryptosporidium suis) were detected in two (0.4%), one (0.2%), 38 (8.0%), 16 (3.4%) and one (0.2%) of the 476 samples tested, respectively. Using ptpi, Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and E were detected in totals of 56 (11.8%) and six (1.3%) of these samples, respectively. Cryptosporidium was detected on both farms, whereas Giardia was detected only on farm B, and both genera were detected in 1.5% of all samples tested. The study showed that water buffaloes on these farms excreted C. parvum and/or G. duodenalis assemblage A, which are consistent with those found in humans, inferring that these particular pathogens are of zoonotic significance. Future work should focus on investigating, in a temporal and spatial manner, the prevalence and intensity of such infections in water buffaloes in various geographical regions in Australia and in other countries. PMID:23886616
Abeywardena, Harshanie; Jex, Aaron R; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Haydon, Shane R; Stevens, Melita A; Gasser, Robin B
Recently, a coronavirus strain (179/07-11) was isolated from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and the virus which displayed a strict genetic and biological relatedness with bovine coronavirus (BCoV) was referred to as bubaline coronavirus (BuCoV). Here, we report the characterisation of four BuCoVs strains identified in the faeces or intestinal contents of water buffalo calves with acute gastroenteritis. Single BuCoV infections were detected in all but one cases from which two clostridia species were also isolated. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the 5' end of the spike-protein gene showed that three BuCoVs were closely related to the prototype strain 179/07-11, whereas the fourth isolate (339/08-C) displayed a higher genetic identity to recent BCoV reference strains. Three strains adapted to the in vitro grow on human rectal tumour cells were also evaluated for their ability to replicate in a bovine cell line (Madin Darby bovine kidney) and to cause haemagglutination of chicken erythrocytes and all displayed biological properties similar to those already described for the prototype BuCoV. The present report shows that albeit genetically heterogeneous, the different BuCoV strains possess a common biological pattern which is different from most BCoV and BCoV-like isolates. PMID:20483547
Decaro, Nicola; Cirone, Francesco; Mari, Viviana; Nava, Donatella; Tinelli, Antonella; Elia, Gabriella; Di Sarno, Alessandra; Martella, Vito; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Aprea, Giuseppe; Tempesta, Maria; Buonavoglia, Canio
The pharmacokinetics and mammary excretion of moxidectin and eprinomectin were determined in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) following topical administration of 0.5mgkg(-1). Following administration of moxidectin, plasma and milk concentrations of moxidectin increased to reach maximal concentrations (C(max)) of 5.46+/-3.50 and 23.76+/-16.63ngml(-1) at T(max) of 1.20+/-0.33 and 1.87+/-0.77 days in plasma and milk, respectively. The mean residence time (MRT) were similar for plasma and milk (5.27+/-0.45 and 5.87+/-0.80 days, respectively). The AUC value was 5-fold higher in milk (109.68+/-65.01ngdayml(-1)) than in plasma (23.66+/-12.26ngdayml(-1)). The ratio of AUC milk/plasma for moxidectin was 5.04+/-2.13. The moxidectin systemic availability (expressed as plasma AUC values) obtained in buffaloes was in the same range than those reported in cattle. The faster absorption and elimination processes of moxidectin were probably due to a lower storage in fat associated with the fact that animals were in lactation. Nevertheless, due to its high excretion in milk and its high detected maximum concentration in milk which is equivalent or higher to the Maximal Residue Level value (MRL) (40ngml(-1)), its use should be prohibited in lactating buffaloes. Concerning eprinomectin, the C(max) were of 2.74+/-0.89 and 3.40+/-1.68ngml(-1) at T(max) of 1.44+/-0.20 and 1.33+/-0.0.41 days in plasma and milk, respectively. The MRT and the AUC were similar for plasma (3.17+/-0.41 days and 11.43+/-4.01ngdayml(-1)) and milk (2.70+/-0.44 days and 8.49+/-3.33ngdayml(-1)). The ratio of AUC milk/plasma for eprinomectin was 0.76+/-0.16. The AUC value is 20 times lower than that reported in dairy cattle. The very low extent of mammary excretion and the milk levels reported lower than the MRL (20ngml(-1)) supports the permitted use of eprinomectin in lactating water buffaloes. PMID:18774650
Dupuy, Jacques; Sutra, Jean-François; Alvinerie, Michel; Rinaldi, Laura; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Mezzino, Laura; Pennacchio, Saverio; Cringoli, Giuseppe
Asian schistosomiasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease infecting up to a million people and threatening tens of millions more. Control of this disease is hindered by the animal reservoirs of the parasite, in particular the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), which is responsible for significant levels of human transmission. A transmission-blocking vaccine administered to buffaloes is a realistic option which would aid in the control of schistosomiasis. This will however require a better understanding of the immunobiology of schistosomiasis in naturally exposed buffaloes, particularly the immune response to migrating schistosome larvae, which are the likely targets of an anti-schistosome vaccine. To address this need we investigated the immune response at the major sites of larval migration, the skin and the lungs, in previously exposed and re-challenged water buffaloes. In the skin, a strong allergic-type inflammatory response occurred, characterised by leukocyte and eosinophil infiltration including the formation of granulocytic abscesses. Additionally at the local skin site, interleukin-5 transcript levels were elevated, while interleukin-10 levels decreased. In the skin-draining lymph node (LN) a predominant type-2 profile was seen in stimulated cells, while in contrast a type-1 profile was detected in the lung draining LN, and these responses occurred consecutively, reflecting the timing of parasite migration. The intense type-2 immune response at the site of cercarial penetration is significantly different to that seen in naive and permissive animal models such as mice, and suggests a possible mechanism for immunity. Preliminary data also suggest a reduced and delayed immune response occurred in buffaloes given high cercarial challenge doses compared with moderate infections, particularly in the skin. This study offers a deeper understanding into the immunobiology of schistosomiasis in a natural host, which may aid in the future design of more effective vaccines.
McWilliam, Hamish E. G.; Piedrafita, David; Li, Yuesheng; Zheng, Mao; He, Yongkang; Yu, Xinling; McManus, Donald P.; Meeusen, Els N. T.
Background The state of Pará encompasses 26% of Brazilian Amazon where an enormous diversity of arboviruses has been found. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and distribution of hemagglutination-inhibition antibodies against antigens of six Flavivirus (yellow fever virus, Ilheus virus, Saint Louis encephalitis virus, Cacipacore virus, Bussuquara virus and Rocio virus) in water buffaloes in Pará state, Brazil. The prevalence of antibodies in these farm animals is important to determine the circulating arboviruses. Findings All investigated arboviruses were detected in the species studied and our results indicate that water buffaloes are susceptible to Flavivirus infection. Furthermore, there is solid evidence of active circulation of these viruses in the Brazilian Amazon. Conclusions Water buffaloes showed higher prevalence of heterotypic antibody reactions and we hypothesized that they can serve as sentinels to detect the movement of such arboviruses in the Brazilian Amazon.
Trypanosoma evansi infection in the Philippines is frequently reported to affect the country's livestock, particularly, the buffaloes. To assess the prevalence and intraspecific diversity of T. evansi in the country, blood samples from water buffaloes in different geographical regions were collected during an outbreak. T. evansi was detected in all 79 animals tested using PCR targeting the RoTat 1.2 VSG gene. Sequencing of the rDNA complete internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region including the 5.8S subunit showed high similarity (99-100%) between Philippine isolates and known T. evansi isolates in Genbank. Tree construction based on the same region confirmed the close relationship between Philippine and reported Thai isolates as compared to Egyptian isolates separated by relatively small genetic distances, 47 polymorphisms, despite the clustering in four branches. Overall, the results of this study prove genetic diversity within T. evansi species despite previous reports on limited heterogeneity among isolates worldwide. PMID:23377905
Villareal, Marjo V; Mingala, Claro N; Rivera, Windell L
Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), this study aimed to evaluate the regional distribution pattern of some biologically active proteins in the epididymis of Egyptian water buffalo and to determine the structural-functional relationships of the different epididymal structures. Wax-embedded sections from different regions of the epididymal duct from adult, clinically healthy, buffalo bulls were used. Primary antibodies against angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), S-100, galactosyltransferase (GalTase), alpha smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), connexin 43 (Cx43) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were used for immunohistochemical studies. The results showed that, in addition to the well-known principal and basal cells, the epididymal epithelium, similar to that of other species, possessed apical cells and intraepithelial leukocytes. IHC showed that, with the exception of VEGF which reacted negatively, all antibodies used displayed variable reactivity in the different epididymal structures. Apical cells expressed a strong reaction with ACE along the entire length of the duct. The principal cells in the caput epididymis exhibited a distinct reactivity with S-100 and GalTase. The peritubular muscular coat displayed a marked immunostaining for ?-SMA and for Cx43. In conclusion these findings showed a regional-specific distribution pattern, distinct from that in bovine bulls. Some potential functional capacities, especially absorptive and secretory ones, are discussed in relation to the different epididymal regions. PMID:19836061
Alkafafy, Mohamed; Elnasharty, Mohamed; Sayed-Ahmed, Ahmed; Abdrabou, Mohamed
The aim of the present work was to describe the occurrence of antibodies to Neospora caninum in water buffaloes on four ranches located in Corrientes province in the northeast of Argentina. Antibodies against N. caninum were determined in sera of 449 water buffaloes by using an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). A Bayesian logistic regression mixed model was used to
C. M. Campero; A. Pérez; D. P. Moore; G. Crudeli; D. Benitez; M. G. Draghi; D. Cano; J. L. Konrad; A. C. Odeón
The present study evaluated the presence of specific antibodies against Besnoitia besnoiti in cattle and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Egypt. Sera from cattle (n?=?216) and water buffaloes (n?=?133) collected from five different provinces of Egypt (Behera, Alexandria, Assuit, Gharbia, and Matrouh) were analyzed. Testing for B. besnoiti antibodies by PrioCHECK® Besnoitia Ab 2.0 ELISA initially identified 13.75 % (48 out of 349) of individual sera as positive at the manufacturer's suggested cutoff threshold, 15 percent positivity (PP). Statistically significant associations between B. besnoiti prevalence, species, sex, age, and geographical distribution were observed. Seropositive animals were distributed in all of the provinces from which animals were sampled except Gharbia province. Assuit province showed the highest percentage of infection (30.76 %) followed by Matrouh, Alexandria, and Behera provinces (25, 16.29, and 9.6 %, respectively). The highest infection rate of B. besnoiti was significantly higher in cattle (17.13 %) than in water buffaloes (9.02 %). Positive cases were observed in all age categories. While the highest infection rate (17.13 %) was recorded in the age group 5-10 years followed by the age group 1-5 years (15.38 %), and only one positive case (1.58 %) was recorded in the age group less than 1 year. The highest infection rate of B. besnoiti infection was recorded in the female animals (14.95 %) followed by the male animals (8.33). This is the first report on the detection of B. besnoiti in cattle and water buffaloes in Egypt. PMID:24375275
Ashmawy, Karam Imam; Abu-Akkada, Somaia Saif
The aim of the present work was to describe the occurrence of antibodies to Neospora caninum in water buffaloes on four ranches located in Corrientes province in the northeast of Argentina. Antibodies against N. caninum were determined in sera of 449 water buffaloes by using an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). A Bayesian logistic regression mixed model was used to quantify the strength of association between positive serological results to N. caninum and gender, age and category (calf, steer, heifer, cow) as risk factors. Antibody titers were found in 287 (64%) buffaloes. All ranches had seropositive animals. Age was more strongly associated with positive results to N. caninum (OR: 1.4; CI 95%: 0.86-2.22) than gender (OR: 1.02, CI 95%: 0.40-2.59) and category (OR: 0.88, CI 95%: 0.57-0.88). Results suggest a high exposure of water buffaloes to N. caninum by postnatal transmission in these four ranches located in Corrientes province, Argentina. Further studies are needed to quantify the consequences of Neospora-infections in the water buffalo industry. PMID:17950535
Campero, C M; Pérez, A; Moore, D P; Crudeli, G; Benitez, D; Draghi, M G; Cano, D; Konrad, J L; Odeón, A C
The presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in water buffaloes is reported for the first time in South America. The prevalence of STEC ranged from 0 to 64% depending on the farm. STEC isolates exhibiting the genetic profiles stx1stx2ehxA iha saa and stx2ehxA iha saa predominated. Of the 20 distinct serotypes identified, more than 50% corresponded to serotypes associated with human diseases.
Oliveira, Murilo G.; Feitosa Brito, Jose R.; Carvalho, Roberta R.; Guth, Beatriz E. C.; Gomes, Tania A. T.; Vieira, Monica A. M.; Kato, Maria A. M. F.; Ramos, Isabel I.; Vaz, Tania M. I.; Irino, Kinue
A project implemented from 2003–2005 trained women in Chitwan District, Nepal, in hygienic dairy production using a process of social mobilization. The aim of this research was to assess if the prevalence of mastitis in water buffalo in the households of women who were trained was lower one year after training than in untrained households, if the training influenced knowledge and practices for the prevention or control of mastitis, and if these practices and knowledge were associated with a lower prevalence of mastitis. A total of 202 households from Eastern and Western Chitwan District were included in the study. Of these, 60 households had participated in the project and 142 had not. Milk samples were collected from 129 households (33 project households and 96 non-project households). Clinical mastitis was determined using visual inspection of udders and detection of macroscopic clots and flakes in milk. The California Mastitis Test was used to diagnose sub-clinical mastitis from milk samples, and the IDEXX SNAP test to identify the presence of tetracycline residues. The prevalence of mastitis in trained households (39.4%) was 43.78% of that in untrained households (60.4%), lower but not significantly so (p = 0.08, 95% CI 0.17–1.12). Thirteen indicators of knowledge or practice for the control or prevention of mastitis were more likely to occur in trained households, four significantly so (not consuming milk from sick buffalo (p=0.001), using soap to wash hands before milking (p=0.001), discarding milk after antibiotic usage (p=0.01), and choosing appropriate flooring for their livestock (p=0.03)). Trained households that discarded milk from sick buffalo were 2.96 times more likely to have at least one animal with mastitis in the household (p=0.03, 95% CI 1.15–7.65). Trained households that knew to wash buffalos teats after milking were less likely (OR 0.25) to have mastitis in their herd ((p=0.02, 95% CI 0.08–0.80). Of the 138 buffalos tested, only one tested positive for tetracycline residues.
Ng, Linda; Jost, Christine; Robyn, Misha; Dhakal, I.P.; Bett, Bernard; Dhakal, Pramod; Khadkha, Rupak
The pattern of growth and regression of ovarian follicles was monitored once daily for one complete estrous cycle in eight individual water buffaloes by ultrasonographic scanning of the ovaries for an entire interovulatory interval of normal cycle length. One-wave follicular growth was observed in five animals and two-wave follicular growth in three buffaloes during the estrous cycle. The first follicular wave of a two-wave cycle emerged significantly earlier (P < 0.05) than the emergence of the solitary wave of a one-wave cycle. One- and two-wave cycles differed significantly (P < 0.05) with respect to the mean interovulatory interval (21.0 +/- 0.54 days versus 22.7 +/- 0.33 days) and the mean interestrus interval (20.8 +/- 0.58 days versus 22.3 +/- 0.66 days). The overall linear growth rate of the ovulatory follicle was significantly greater (P < 0.01) in a two-wave cycle compared to that of a one-wave cycle (1.17 +/- 0.33 mm/day versus 0.32 +/- 0.01 mm/day). In a one-wave pattern, the growth profile of the solitary dominant follicle was atypical, showing three distinct phases, i.e. growth phase, regression phase and regrowth phase culminating in ovulation. The level of plasma progesterone steadily increased from day 0 of estrous cycle, attained peak level on day 14 and declined thereafter. A slower growth rate of the dominant follicle was observed in the presence of higher plasma progesterone concentration. The present study shows that one-wave follicular growth is a normal phenomenon in suckled water buffaloes. PMID:16046086
Awasthi, M K; Khare, Abhishek; Kavani, F S; Siddiquee, G M; Panchal, M T; Shah, R R
The swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is a multi-purpose animal in agriculture that is challenged by extinction due to low reproductive efficiency. Nuclear transfer (NT) has been used to preserve special breeds of buffalo, as well as to increase the number of animals. However, cloned buffalo embryos have impaired development, as in other species. To understand the chromatin remodeling activities in
T. Suteevun; S. L. Smith; S. Muenthaisong; X. Yang; R. Parnpai; X. C. Tian
This review deals with the behaviour of river buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), in confinement and in extensive conditions, also focusing on the effects of different housing and rearing conditions on their welfare. The behavioural repertoire expressed by buffaloes in extensive and intensive conditions is similar to those displayed by other domestic ruminants. However, through natural selection, buffaloes have also acquired several morphological, physiological and behavioural (i.e. wallowing) adaptations to hot climatic conditions. Buffaloes kept in intensive conditions and having no access to pasture and water for wallowing extend their periods of idling and are less often involved in investigative activities. Confinement is also associated with a reduction of space; however, no specific studies have been carried out to determine the specific requirements of this species. Space restriction can adversely affect various aspects of buffalo welfare, such as health (increased levels of lesions and injuries), social behaviour (increased number of agonistic interactions) and heat dissipation. The buffaloes, originating from tropical areas, are well adapted to large variations in food availability and quality, and to dietetic unbalances. As to human animal relationship, it has been observed that the incidence of stepping and kicking behaviour of buffaloes in the milking parlour is positively correlated with the frequency of oxytocin injections, whereas the frequency of positive stockperson interactions with the animals such as talking quietly, petting and gentle touching are negatively correlated with the number of kicks during milking. Data from farms where both dairy cattle and buffaloes are present show that avoidance distance measured in the pen is lower in buffaloes than in cattle. This may be attributed to the fact that buffaloes are generally recognised to be curious animals. Finally, the effects of different farming practices on animal-related indicators are described. However, these measures should be integrated into a monitoring protocol, such as the Welfare Quality® scheme, to reliably assess buffalo welfare in the current intensive farming conditions. PMID:23803231
Napolitano, F; Pacelli, C; Grasso, F; Braghieri, A; De Rosa, G
More than 40 million households in India depend at least partially on livestock production. Buffaloes are one of the major milk producers in India. The prolactin receptor (PRLR) gene and peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-? coactivator 1-alpha (PPARGC1A) gene are reportedly associated with milk protein and milk fat yields in Bos taurus. In this study, we sequenced the PRLR and PPARGC1A genes in the water buffalo Bubalus bubalis. The PRLR and PPARGC1A genes coded for 581 and 819 amino acids, respectively. The B. bubalis PRLR gene differed from the corresponding Bos taurus at 21 positions and four differences with an additional arginine at position 620 in the PPARGC1A gene were found in the amino acid sequence. All of the changes were confirmed by cDNA sequencing. Twelve buffalo-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in both genes, with five of them being non-synonymous. PMID:22215963
Javed, Ruheena; Gautam, Sanjeev K; Vijh, Ramesh K; Tantia, Madhu S
Background Minisatellites are an integral part of eukaryotic genomes and show variation in the complexity of their organization. Besides their presence in non-coding regions, a small fraction of them are part of the transcriptome, possibly participating in gene regulation, expression and silencing. We studied the minisatellite (TGG)n tagged transcriptome in the water buffalo Bubalus bubalis across various tissues and the spermatozoa, and characterized the genes TSPY1 and COL6A1 discovered in the process. Results Minisatellite associated sequence amplification (MASA) conducted using cDNA and oligonucleotide primer (TGG)5 uncovered 38 different mRNA transcripts from somatic tissues and gonads and 15 from spermatozoa. These mRNA transcripts corresponded to several known and novel genes. The majority of the transcripts showed the highest level of expression either in the testes or spermatozoa with exception of a few showing higher expression levels in the lungs and liver. Transcript SR1, which is expressed in all the somatic tissues and gonads, was found to be similar to the Bos taurus collagen type VI alpha 1 gene (COL6A1). Similarly, SR29, a testis-specific transcript, was found to be similar to the Bos taurus testis-specific Y-encoded protein-1 representing cancer/testis antigen 78 (CT78). Subsequently, full length coding sequences (cds) of these two transcripts were obtained. Quantitative PCR (q-PCR) revealed 182-202 copies of theTSPY1 gene in water buffalo, which localized to the Y chromosome. Conclusions The MASA approach enabled us to identify several genes, including two of clinical significance, without screening an entire cDNA library. Genes identified with TGG repeats are not part of a specific family of proteins and instead are distributed randomly throughout the genome. Genes showing elevated expression in the testes and spermatozoa may prove to be potential candidates for in-depth characterization. Furthermore, their possible involvement in fertility or lack thereof would augment animal biotechnology.
Kumar, Sudhir; Ali, Sher
The objective of this study was to determine the best combined hormonal treatment to utilize in order to obtain a high number of good quality in vivo and in vitro matured oocytes from prepuberal Mediterranean Italian buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis). Transvaginal ultrasound follicular aspiration was employed to recover oocytes from antral follicles. Fifteen barn housed buffalo calves, between 5 and
Giorgio Antonio Presicce; Elena Maria Senatore; Giuseppe De Santis; Romana Stecco; Giuseppina Maria Terzano; Antonio Borghese; Guillermo Javier De Mauro
In order to determine zinc and catalase content of seminal plasma in the buffalo and to study their associations with the semen characteristics, 54 semen samples were collected from 10 buffalo bulls; semen volume and sperm concentration, gross and progressive motility and viability were evaluated, seminal plasma was then harvested by centrifugation and its zinc content was estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometer and its catalase activity determined by using a commercial kit. The zinc content of the seminal plasma (Mean +/- SEM) was recorded as 154.40 +/- 1.74 mg L(-1), while, the mean catalase value was 32.00 +/- 0.42 U mL(-1). The mean zinc values was highly correlated with sperm progressive motility and viability and with catalase values (p = 0.000 for all) and also was associated with gross motility (p = 0.020) and negatively with abnormal morphology (p = 0.049). The catalase values were highly associated with sperm progressive motility, viability and zinc content (p = 0.000 for all) and was associated with sperm gross motility (p = 0.024). For further clarification of these correlations, the samples were categorized in three groups of excellent (Ex, >90% motile, n = 33), good (Go, 80-89% motile, n = 15) and moderate (Mo, <79% motile, n = 6) according to their percentage of sperm motility. The mean progressive motility in Ex group was 92.54 +/- 0.51%, in Go group was 81.66 +/- 0.62% and in Mo group was 71.66 +/- 1.05%. The mean zinc and catalase values were recorded as 161.07 +/- 1.63 mg L(-1) and 33.41 +/- 0.34 U mL(-1) in Ex, 146.70 +/- 1.91 mg L(-1) and 31.01 +/- 0.67 in Go and 136.42 +/- 4.97 mg L(-1) and 26.51 +/- 0.87 U mL(-1) in Mo groups. The mean zinc value in Ex group was highly associated with sperm motility, viability and catalase values, in Go group was associated with catalase values and highly associated with sperm abnormal morphology and in Mo group it was highly associations with catalase values only. The mean catalase value in Ex group, was highly associated with sperm motility and viability, in Go group was associated with zinc content and in Mo groups was highly associated with the zinc content. These results show that seminal plasma zinc and catalase content are correlated with semen characteristics and synergistically act to preserve motility and viability of the spermatozoa after ejaculation. PMID:19579933
Alavi-Shoushtari, S M; Rezai, S Asri; Ansari, M H Kh; Khaki, A
Storage of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull semen in the cryopreserved state is discussed in this article. Fertility rate in buffalo following artificial insemination with frozen-thawed semen is reviewed. To better understand the freezability of bubaline spermatozoa, the available data on biochemical components and the activity of specific enzymes of semen/spermatozoa are given. Moreover, the major factors that may influence the post-thaw viability and fertility of buffalo spermatozoa are examined in detail. In addition, suggestions for improvement in cryogenic procedures for buffalo spermatozoa are also given. PMID:18954384
Andrabi, S M H
Background Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) were first described as placental antigens present in the blood serum of the mother soon after implantation. Here, we describe the purification of several pregnancy-associated glycoproteins from water buffalo placenta (wbPAGs). A specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed for early pregnancy diagnosis in buffalo species. Results Amino-terminal microsequencing of immunoreactive placental proteins allowed the identification of eleven wbPAGs sequences [Swiss-Prot accession numbers: P86369 to P86379]. Three polyclonal antisera (AS#858, AS#859 and AS#860) were raised in rabbits against distinct wbPAG fractions. A new RIA (RIA-860) was developed and used to distinguish between pregnant (n?=?33) and non-pregnant (n?=?26) water buffalo females. Conclusions Our results confirmed the multiplicity of PAG expression in buffalo placenta. In addition, the RIA-860 system was shown to be sensitive, linear, reproducible, accurate and specific in measuring PAG concentrations in buffalo plasma samples from Day 37 of gestation onwards.
Partial mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences reveal two deeply differenti- ated mtDNA lineages in anoa dwarf buffaloes (Bubalus depressicornis) from the studbook herd in European zoos. Three matrilinear lineages of lowland anoas (de- pressicornis type) contributed three rather similar sequence haplotypes, but one remarkably distinct haplotype was observed exclusively in mountain anoas (quar- lesi type) descended from one founder female.
A. Schreiber; I. Seibold; G. Notzold; M. Wink
Characterization of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC) and necrotoxigenic E. coli (NTEC) isolated from diarrhoeic Mediterranean water buffalo calves ( Bubalus bubalis)
Two hundred and twenty Escherichia coli isolates from 314 Mediterranean water buffalo calves less than 4weeks old affected by severe diarrhoea with a lethal outcome were characterized for the presence of the virulence factors LT, ST, Stx1, Stx2, haemolysins, intimin, CNF1, CNF2, CDT-I, CDT-II, CDT-III, CDT-IV, and F17-related fimbriae (F17a, F17b, F17c, F17d). The prevalence of ETEC, STEC and NTEC
G. Borriello; M. G. Lucibelli; E. De Carlo; C. Auriemma; D. Cozza; G. Ascione; F. Scognamiglio; G. Iovane; G. Galiero
The objective of the present study was to characterize the temporal patterns of gene expression for vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) and VEGF receptors during ovarian follicular growth, development and maturation in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Follicles were classified into four groups according to size and the concentration of estradiol-17? (E2) in follicular fluid (FF): Group I (small), 4-6mm diameter, E2>0.5ng/ml of FF; Group II (medium), 7-9mm, E2=0.5-5ng/ml; Group III (large), 10-13mm, E2=5-40ng/ml; Group IV(pre-ovulatory), >13mm, E2>180ng/ml). The mRNAs for FSH receptor (FSHR), LH receptor (LHR) and aromatase (CYP19A1) in theca interna and granulosa layers were also determined, further defining the maturational state of each group. The relative expression of VEGF isoforms (120, 164, and 188 amino acid forms), as determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), increased during follicular development in both the granulosa (P<0.05) and theca layers. Relative amounts of VEGF receptors (VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2) were least in granulosa cell (GC) and theca interna cell (TI) layers of Gp-I follicles. The amount of VEGFR-2 transcripts increased in the granulosa layer throughout development, reaching a maximum in Gp-IV follicles (P<0.05). The relative amount of VEGF isoforms and receptors in follicle lysates, as determined by western blotting, increased throughout follicular maturation to maximum amounts in pre-ovulatory follicles. Immunohistochemistry revealed a clear localization of VEGF isoforms and receptors in both steroidogenic cell types (GC and TI) and of VEGF receptors in the vascular endothelial cells of the thecal blood vessels. The most intense immunofluorescence was evident in pre-ovulatory follicles compared to other smaller follicles. These data provide evidence that the VEGF may contribute to the extensive capillary proliferation associated with the increase in size, selection, and maturation of the pre-ovulatory follicle. This may facilitate follicle maturation by enhancing the supply of nutrients, hormones, and other essential blood-borne signals to the follicle. VEGF may also promote maturation of follicles through recently recognized, non-angiogenic mechanisms. PMID:23375984
Babitha, V; Panda, R P; Yadav, V P; Chouhan, V S; Dangi, S S; Khan, F A; Singh, G; Bag, S; Taru Sharma, G; Silvia, W J; Sarkar, M
Understanding the mechanism of milk fat synthesis and secretion is important for dairy industry, as the nature of the cream fraction influences the manufacturing properties and organoleptic qualities of milk and dairy products. So, there is a need to understand the mechanism of milk fat synthesis and to elucidate the key genes regulating milk fat synthesis by studying the expression of genes involved in milk fat synthesis. Present manuscript reports the expression of genes involved in milk fat synthesis and metabolism in buffalo mammary tissue. The expression of lipogenic genes was studied in lactating and non-lactating mammary tissue of water buffalo by semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR expression analysis. The genes studied were acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), 3 hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH), LIPIN, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBF). The expression of ACACA, BDH, LIPIN, PPARG, LPL, and SREBF was higher in lactating as compared to non-lactating buffalo whereas no difference was found in the expression of SCD between both the stages. PMID:21965031
Yadav, Poonam; Mukesh, Manishi; Kataria, Ranjit Singh; Yadav, Anita; Mohanty, Ashok Kumar; Mishra, Bishnu Prasad
Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) plays an important role in muscle growth and it might be used as a marker for the growth traits selection strategies in farm animals. The objectives of this study were to detect polymorphisms in exon 10 of IGF2 and to determine associations between these polymorphisms and growth traits in Egyptian water buffalo. PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and DNA sequencing methods were used to detect any prospective polymorphism. A novel single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), C287A, was detected. It was a non-synonymous mutation and led to replacement of glutamine (Q) amino acid (aa) by histidine (H) aa. Three different SSCP patterns were observed: AA, AC, and CC, with frequencies of 0.540, 0.325, and 0.135, respectively. Association analyses revealed that the AA individuals had a higher average daily gain (ADG) than other individuals (CC and AC) from birth to 9 months of age. We conclude that the AA genotype in C287A SNP in the exon 10 of the IGF2 gene is associated with the ADG during the age from birth to 9 months and could be used as a potential genetic marker for selection of growth traits in Egyptian buffalo. PMID:24756464
Abo-Al-Ela, Haitham G; El-Magd, Mohammed Abu; El-Nahas, Abeer F; Mansour, Ali A
Twenty-four male 1-year old swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were randomly allocated to 4 groups. One group grazed on guinea grass (GG) and another on guinea grass and the legume Stylosanthes guianensis (GL). The other two groups were kept in pens and fed freshly cut guinea grass and concentrate at an amount of 1.5% (GC1.5) and 2.0% (GC2.0) of body weight, respectively. The effect of the different feeding intensities on carcass characteristics and meat quality were assessed. The mean body weight at slaughter was 398 (±16) kg. Average daily gain was higher in concentrate-supplemented groups (570 and 540 g/d in GC1.5 and GC2.0, respectively) when compared to GG (316 g/d) and GL (354 g/d) (p<0.01). Likewise, the warm carcass weight was higher in GC1.5 and GC2.0 compared to GG and GL. Dressing percentage was 48.1% and 49.5% in GC1.5 and GC2.0 in comparison to 42.9% and 44.8% observed in GG and GL, respectively. Meat of Longissimus throracis from GC1.5 and GC2.0 was redder in color (p<0.01), while water holding capacity (drip and thawing loss) was improved in pasture-fed groups (p<0.05). Protein and fat content of Longissimus thoracis was higher in animals supplemented with concentrate (p<0.01), as was cholesterol content (p<0.05), whereas PUFA:SFA ratio was higher and n-6/n-3 ratio lower (p<0.01) in pasture-fed buffaloes. Results of the present study showed that the supplementation of pasture with concentrate enhances the growth and carcass characteristics of swamp buffaloes expressed in superior dressing percentage, better muscling, and redder meat with a higher content of protein and fat, whereas animals grazing only on pasture had a more favorable fatty acid profile and water holding capacity. In conclusion, the supplementation of concentrate at a rate of about 1.5% of body weight is recommended to improve the performance and carcass quality of buffaloes.
Lambertz, C.; Panprasert, P.; Holtz, W.; Moors, E.; Jaturasitha, S.; Wicke, M.; Gauly, M.
Toxocara vitulorum is a pathogenic nematode from the small intestine of very young buffalo calves. To understand the development of the inflammatory responses in the wall of the gut, samples of tissues were removed from the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of buffalo calves naturally infected with T. vitulorum during the beginning of the infection, at the peak of egg output,
Maria F Neves; Wilma A Starke-Buzetti; Alessandra M. M. G Castro
To evaluate the subpopulation of corticotrophs in developing buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) fetus, recovered pituitary glands (n=6 per group) from late first, second and third gestational female buffalo dams. The corticotrophs were identified by using specific antibodies against proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) through immunohistochemistry. There was a significant (P?0.05) increase of immunoreactive (ir) ir-ACTH cells during late 2nd trimester while, ir-POMC cells were more (P?0.05) at late 3rd trimester of gestation as compared to other age groups. The quantity of co-localized cells for POMC and ACTH was significantly (P?0.05) greater at the end of 1st gestation rather than 2nd and 3rd gestational fetal adenohypophyseal cells. This study is the first to demonstrate co-localization of POMC+ACTH and the affect of gestational age on the expression of these cells in buffalo fetus adenohypophysis. PMID:24704996
Sandhu, M A; Saeed, A A; Khilji, M S; Pasha, R H; Mukhtar, N; Anjum, M S
Viability of in vitro-derived vitrified-warmed preimplantation stage buffalo embryos were assessed in vitro and in vivo. Oocytes were collected from ovaries of slaughtered riverine buffaloes, matured and fertilized in vitro with frozen semen from riverine buffalo bull and cultured on cumulus cell monolayers. Resultant preimplantation stage embryos were cryopreserved by vitrification with ethylene glycol, ficoll and sucrose. Seventy-one frozen embryos were warmed in 0.5M sucrose and were further cultured in vitro for 72 h to assess hatching rate. On the other hand, 95 embryos were transferred non-surgically to riverine buffalo recipients to assess development competence in vivo through detection of pregnancy and birth of live calves. Hatching rate of 83.10% (59/71) was noted among embryos cultured in vitro. Pregnancy rate was 16.36% (9/55) while calving rate was 10.91% (6/55) after transfer of in vitro-derived vitrified-warmed embryos to recipient animals. Six healthy and normal calves with average birth weight of 38.75+/-3.55 kg were born from the transferred embryos. These results indicate the viability of vitrified in vitro-derived buffalo embryos and the potential application of in vitro embryo production and vitrification techniques for production and transport of buffalo embryos from germplasm-rich sources to guarantee genetic improvement in many parts of the world. PMID:15036974
Hufana-Duran, Danilda; Pedro, Prudencio B; Venturina, Hernando V; Hufana, Rogelio D; Salazar, Apolinario L; Duran, Peregrino G; Cruz, Libertado C
The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin C or E) in tris-citric acid buffer (TCA) on post-thaw quality of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa. Split pooled buffalo bull ejaculates were diluted in TCA egg yolk glycerol extender containing either vitamin C (TCAC), vitamin E (TCAE) or without antioxidant (TCAN) at 37°C. Extended
S. M. H. ANDRABI; M. S. ANSARI; N. ULLAH; M. AFZAL
To explore polymorphisms at exon V-VII, encompassing complete TM4 and part of TM3 and TM5 of buffalo SLC11A1 gene, 150 animals belonging to three breeds of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) viz., Murrah, Surti, and Mehsana were genotyped by PCR–RFLP using 5 restriction enzymes (Alu I, Taq I, Rsa I, Sac I, and Bse GI). PCR-RFLP revealed monormorphic restriction pattern among the
Indrajit Ganguly; Arjava Sharma; Abhijit Mitra; Nishant Kumar; Anita Ganguly
Water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is broadly classified into river and swamp categories, but it remains disputed whether these two types were independently domesticated, or if they are the result of a single domestication event. In this study, we sequenced the mitochondrial D-loop region and cytochrome b gene of 217 and 80 buffalo respectively from eight breeds/locations in northern, north-western, central and southern India and compared our results with published Mediterranean and swamp buffalo sequences. Using these data, river and swamp buffalo were distinguished into two distinct clades. Based upon the existing knowledge of cytogenetic, ecological and phenotypic parameters, molecular data and present-day distribution of the river and swamp buffalo, we suggest that these two types were domesticated independently, and that classification of the river and swamp buffalo as two related subspecies is more appropriate. PMID:17459014
Kumar, S; Nagarajan, M; Sandhu, J S; Kumar, N; Behl, V; Nishanth, G
The methylation of DNA at cytosine residues within CpG dinucleotides is associated with transcriptional repression and is implicated in maintaining genomic stability and also the silencing of repetitive elements. These imprinted genes are unique as they are expressed exclusively from one parental allele. The present study was carried out to detect methylation status in H19 gene promoter CTCF III region in three Indian buffalo breeds (Jaffarabadi, Surti and Mehsani) by bisulfite sequencing. Methylation percent in Jaffarabadi, Surti and Mehsani buffaloes were found to be 50.19, 70.85 and 52.24, respectively, with mean incidence of methylation percent in H19 in all three breeds as 57.36. Apart from CpG methylation, unexpected nucleotide conversion (T>C, A>G, G>A) and deletion (A and G) after bisulfite sequencing were also observed. We observed no significant relationships in milk yield and milk fat per cent with methylation pattern in H19 gene in any of the three breeds. PMID:23054415
Tripathi, Ajai K; Solanki, Jitendra V; Joshi, Chaitanya G
Partial mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences reveal two deeply differentiated mtDNA lineages in anoa dwarf buffaloes (Bubalus depressicornis) from the studbook herd in European zoos. Three matrilinear lineages of lowland anoas (depressicornis type) contributed three rather similar sequence haplotypes, but one remarkably distinct haplotype was observed exclusively in mountain anoas (quarlesi type) descended from one founder female. The carriers of the distinctive mtDNA haplotype were also distinguished by several chromosomal and phenotypic peculiarities too. The differentiation between the mtDNA lineages of anoa approached or even surpassed the genetic divergence between some uncontested species of wild cattle. The depth of this haplotype divergence in anoas is discussed against the background of the phylogenetic age of these paleoendemic inhabitants of a predator-free island refugium, Sulawesi, who are among the most plesiomorphic living bovines. The studbook breeding of captive anoas as a safeguard against extinction might profit from such population genetic markers. These cytochrome b gene sequences were unable to resolve the phylogeny of nine bovine taxa robustly, except the divergence of Bubalus, Synceros, Bison, and Bos (sensu lato) genera. PMID:9987926
Schreiber, A; Seibold, I; Nötzold, G; Wink, M
Background Repetitive sequences are the major components of the eukaryotic genomes. Association of these repeats with transcribing sequences and their regulation in buffalo Bubalus bubalis has remained largely unresolved. Results We cloned and sequenced RsaI repeat fragments pDp1, pDp2, pDp3, pDp4 of 1331, 651, 603 and 339 base pairs, respectively from the buffalo, Bubalus bubalis. Upon characterization, these fragments were found to represent retrotransposons and part of some functional genes. The resultant clones showed cross hybridization only with buffalo, cattle, goat and sheep genomic DNA. Real Time PCR, detected ~2 × 104 copies of pDp1, ~ 3000 copies of pDp2 and pDp3 and ~ 1000 of pDp4 in buffalo, cattle, goat and sheep genomes, respectively. RsaI repeats are transcriptionally active in somatic tissues and spermatozoa. Accordingly, pDp1 showed maximum expression in lung, pDp2 and pDp3 both in Kidney, and pDp4 in ovary. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed repeats to be distributed all across the chromosomes. Conclusions The data suggest that RsaI repeats have been incorporated into the exonic regions of various transcribing genes, possibly contributing towards the architecture and evolution of the buffalo and related genomes. Prospects of our present work in the context of comparative and functional genomics are highlighted.
The present research was elucidated on the morphogenesis of mammary gland of buffalo during prenatal development. Total of 16 foetuses ranging from 1.2?cm (34 days) to 108?cm CVRL (curved crown rump length) (317 days) were used for study. The study revealed that mammary line was first observed at 1.2?cm CVRL (34 days), mammary hillock at 1.7?cm (37 days), and mammary bud at 2.6 cm CVRL (41 days) foetuses. Epidermal cone was found at 6.7?cm CVRL (58 days) whereas primary and secondary ducts were observed at 7.4?cm CVRL (62 days) and 15?cm CVRL (96 days), respectively. Connective tissue whorls were reported at 18.2 cm CVRL (110 days) and internal elastic lamina and muscle layers at 24.1?cm CVRL (129 days). Lobules were observed at 29.3 cm CVRL (140 days), rosette of furstenberg at 39.5 cm CVRL (163 days), and keratin plug at 45.5?cm CVRL (176 days) foetus. Primordia of sweat and sebaceous glands around hair follicle were seen at 21.2?cm CVRL (122 days) of foetal life. Differentiation of all the skin layers along with cornification was observed at 69?cm (229 days) in group III foetuses.
Challana, Amit; Gupta, Anuradha; Bansal, Neelam; Uppal, Varinder
The presence of lead (Pb) in milk and its interaction with trace elements is a serious health concern. Present study is aimed at determining Pb and trace element (Fe, Zn and Mg) levels in milk and blood/serum samples of lactating buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) living in a market-area (Group-A) and a dairy-experimental station (Group-B), Hyderabad, India. In addition, kidney and liver function tests were assessed. Fodder, milk and blood Pb levels were significantly (p < 0.01) higher in Group-B. Elevated Pb levels correlated positively with reduced Fe and Zn levels in both serum and milk. A significant (p < 0.01) positive correlation between blood Pb and milk Pb levels was observed. Kidney and liver function markers were significantly higher in Group-B buffaloes. The results suggest that contaminated fodder might be one of the responsible factors for elevated Pb levels. In addition, lower levels of Fe and Zn might have led to bioaccumulation of Pb in blood and milk. PMID:24671305
Shailaja, M; Reddy, Yathapu Srinivasa; Kalakumar, B D P; Brinda, S A; Manohar, Gottimukkula; Kumar, B Dinesh
Lactate dehydrogenase is an enzyme of glycolytic pathway which catalyzes the interconversion of pyruvate and lactate. The present study describes cDNA cloning, E. coli expression and characterization of lactate dehydrogenase B (LDH-B) from the heart ventricles of river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Total RNA was isolated from the heart tissue, a 1005bp cDNA encoding complete polypeptide chain of 334 amino acids was generated by reverse transcriptase reaction and analyzed for nucleotide sequence. The consensus sequence obtained from both strands has shown 84% to 98% homology with that of different mammalian species. The attributed gene was cloned, expressed in BL21 (DE3) RIPL Codon Plus strain of E. coli using pET21a (+) plasmid. The purified recombinant enzyme displayed a KM value of 50 µM for pyruvate, an optimum activity at 35°C and pH 7.0. The enzyme was found as a homotetramer of 140 kDa on FPLC based gel-filtration column. Molecular weight of a subunit of enzyme as determined by mass spectrometric analysis was 36530.21 Da. The present study describes the first ever report about the cDNA sequence and characteristics of recombinant LDH-B from River buffalo. PMID:24299182
Nadeem, Muhammad Shahid; Moran, Jenny; Murtaza, Bibi Nazia; Muhammad, Khushi; Ahmad, Habib
Lower fertility in buffaloes with frozen-thawed semen is attributed to sperm damage that is believed to be due to formation of ice crystals during freeze/thaw process. It was hypothesized that antifreeze proteins in the extender may improve the post thaw quality of buffalo bull sperm. For this purpose, two separate experiments were conducted to evaluate antifreeze proteins III (AFP III) at 0 (control), 0.1, 1 and 10?g/mL (Experiment I) and 0 (control), 0.01, 0.1 and 1?g/mL (Experiment II) for its effect on post thaw quality of buffalo bull semen. Semen was collected from three Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls with artificial vagina (42°C) for three weeks (replicate) per experiment. For each experiment, qualifying ejaculates (6ejaculates/bull) were divided into four aliquots and diluted (at 37°C having 50×10(6)sperm/mL) in tris-citric acid extender containing above mentioned concentrations of AFP III. Diluted semen was cooled to 4°C in 2h, equilibrated for 4h, filled in 0.5mL straws, kept over liquid nitrogen vapors for 10min and plunged in the liquid nitrogen. After 24h of storage, semen straws were thawed at 37°C for 30s to assess sperm progressive motility (SM), plasma membrane integrity (PMI), viability (live sperm with intact acrosome) and normal epical ridge (NAR). In experiment I, improvement (P<0.05) in percentage SM and sperm PMI was recorded in extender containing 0.1?g/mL AFP III compared to control, the higher concentrations (1?g/mL and 10?g/mL) being inefficient. While evaluating the lower concentration (experiment II), 0.01?g/mL of AFP III in the extender it was found to be ineffective to improve semen quality parameters, while 0.1?g/mL AFP III in extender was found better in terms of progressive motility and plasma membrane integrity of buffalo bull semen compared to control. Sperm viability and NAR remained similar (P>0.05) in extenders containing different concentrations of AFP III and control in both of experiments. In conclusion addition of AFP III in the extender at 0.1?g/mL improved the progressive motility and plasma membrane integrity of cryopreserved buffalo bull semen. PMID:24925471
Qadeer, S; Khan, M A; Ansari, M S; Rakha, B A; Ejaz, R; Husna, A U; Ashiq, M; Iqbal, R; Ullah, N; Akhter, S
Background: Leptin, as a 16 kDa adipokine, is a pleiotropic cytokine-like hormone that primarily secreted from adipose tissue. It also involves in the regulation of energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, immunity, lipid and glucose homeostasis, fatty acid oxidation, angiogenesis, puberty and reproduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of in vitro addition of leptin to in vitro maturation (IVM) medium on buffalo oocyte maturation and apoptosis. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, Ovaries from apparently normal reproductive organs of slaughtered adult buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with unknown breeding history were collected from Urmia Abattoir, Urmia, Iran, and were transported immediately to the laboratory in a thermos flask containing sterile normal saline with added antibiotics. Oocytes were aspirated from 2-8 mm visible follicles of the ovaries using an 18-G needle attached to a 10 ml syringe. IVM medium included tissue culture medium-199 (TCM-199), 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 22 µg/ml sodium pyruvate, 0.5 IU/ml ovine follicle-stimulating hormone (oFSH), 0.5 IU/ml ovine luteinizing hormone (oLH), 1 ?g/ml oestradiol, 50 ?g/ml gentamycin, and leptin [0 (control), 10, 50, and 100 ng/ml]. The good quality buffalo oocytes (batches of 10 oocytes) were placed in a culture plate containing six 50 ?l droplets of maturation medium, covered with sterilized mineral oil, and then incubated at 38.5?C with 5% CO2 in air for 24 hours. The maturation of oocytes was evaluated under a stereomicroscope by detecting the first polar body extrusion of oocytes. FITC-Annexin V propidium iodide (PI) staining method was used to detect oocyte apoptosis. Results: From a total of 115 collected ovaries, 1100 oocytes were recovered among which 283 oocyte were suitable for IVM. In the groups of leptin treated with 0 (control), 10, 50 and 100 ng/ml, the percentage of oocytes maturation was 74.65, 83.81, 77.85, and 75.40%, while the percentage of oocytes apoptosis was 9.83, 9.54, 9.93, and 10.42%, respectively. Our results showed that addition of 10 ng/ml leptin to buffalo IVM medium increased oocyte maturation, significantly, as compared with that in control group. However, addition of leptin to IVM medium had no significant influence on buffalo oocyte apoptosis. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that addition of 10 ng/ml leptin to IVM medium of buffalo oocyte can improve oocyte nuclear maturation. Furthermore, we showed that there is no relation between in vitro addition of leptin to buffalo oocyte IVM medium and oocyte apoptos Conclusion: Our findings suggested that addition of 10 ng/ml leptin to IVM medium of buffalo oocyte can improve oocyte nuclear maturation. Furthermore, we showed that there is no relation between in vitro addition of leptin to buffalo oocyte IVM medium and oocyte apoptosis.
Khaki1, Amir; Batavani, Rouzali; Najafi, Gholamreza; Tahmasbian, Hamid; Belbasi, Abolfazl; Mokarizadeh, Aram
We compared the therapeutic effect of three anticoccidial drugs (toltrazuril, sulphadimidine and amprolium) in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves experimentally infected with Eimeria bovis (E. bovis) and E. zuernii oocysts (3×104oocyst\\/calf). Buffalo calves (1.5–4 month old, 70-kg body weight) were randomly allocated into 3 groups (9 calves each). Group T was experimentally infected with oocysts and treated with toltrazuril (20mg\\/kg BW
Mohamed M. Ghanem; Mervat E. Radwaan; Abdel Moneim M. Moustafa; Mohamed H. Ebeid
The present study investigated haematological alterations induced by oral subacute exposure to fenvalerate, nitrate and their combination in the domestic buffalo, Bubalus bubalis. Fenvalerate exposure produced significant declines in haemoglobin (Hb), total leukocyte count (TLC), total erythrocyte count (TEC) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and a corresponding elevation in mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Following oral exposure to sodium nitrate, significant declines in blood Hb, TLC, TEC, MCH and MCHC, and a significant elevation in MCV occurred. Combined exposure to fenvalerate and sodium nitrate produced severe effects with an appreciably more prominent decline in Hb, TLC, TEC and MCHC and a significant elevation in MCV. The percentage of methaemoglobin was observed to follow an elevating trend in animals exposed to sodium nitrate alone (0.69 %-13.8 %) and in combination with fenvalerate (0.75 %-13.7 %). PMID:24687223
Gill, Kamalpreet Kaur; Sandhu, H S; Kaur, Rajdeep
The study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of bypass fat on productive performance and blood biochemical profile of lactating Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Fifteen multiparous buffaloes (2-4 lactation) of early to mid lactation were divided in three homogenous groups T(1) (control), T(2), and T(3) of five each. The animals in T(1) were fed with a basal diet consisting of a concentrate mixture, green sorghum, and wheat straw as per requirements, while the animals in group T(2) and T(3) were fed with same ration supplemented with 0.7 % (100 g/day) and 1.4 % (200 g/day) bypass fat (on dry matter intake (DMI) basis), respectively. The feed intake, milk yield, and milk composition were not influenced by supplemental bypass fat. However, fat-corrected milk (6.5 %) yield was higher (P < 0.05) in T(3) (14.21) than that of T(1) (9.83) and similar with T(2) (11.05). Feed efficiency (milk yield/kg DMI) was higher (P < 0.05) in group T(3) (0.51) than that of T(1) (0.38) and T(2) (0.41) indicating that buffaloes fed with bypass fat which is 1.4 % (200 g/day) of the diet were economically more efficient. The serum cholesterol level was higher (P < 0.01) in bypass fat-supplemented group (T(2) and T(3)) of animals. Serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (good cholesterol) level was more (P < 0.05) than LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol) level with higher dose of bypass fat in T(3) than T(2). It was concluded that bypass fat supplementation with 1.4 % of the diet (200 g/day) increased the fat-corrected milk production and feed efficiency along with serum HDL cholesterol level in lactating Murrah buffaloes. PMID:22373930
Ranjan, Amit; Sahoo, Biswanath; Singh, Vijay Kumar; Srivastava, Susant; Singh, Suresh Pratap; Pattanaik, Ashok Kumar
Twelve of 46 female buffaloes with abdominal disorders were diagnosed with omasal impaction. They had been fed finely chopped machine-prepared straw. They were characterised by anorexia, an absence of defecation, abdominal distension, ruminal hypomotility or atony and a suspension of rumination. Omasal impaction was confirmed upon left flank laparorumenotomy on the basis of the size of the omasum and the consistency of its contents. After ruminal evacuation, a long flexible pipe was introduced through the reticulo-omasal orifice and the omasal contents were flushed back into the rumen with water under moderate pressure. Hyponatraemia, hypochloraemia, hypokalaemia and hypophosphataemia were consistent features in most cases. However, two buffaloes that later died had lower levels of plasma chloride, no reticulo-omasal orifice tone and were in an advanced stage of pregnancy. The level of total protein in peritoneal fluid was higher than normal, but the total white cell count was within the normal range. All the animals started passing faeces 36 to 48 hours after surgery. The presence of reticulo-omasal orifice tone and a plasma chloride level above 75 mmol/l were indicators of a good prognosis. PMID:18310560
Toor, A S; Saini, N S
Mastitis set apart as clinical and sub clinical is a disease complex of dairy cattle, with sub clinical being the most important economically. Of late, laboratories showed interest in developing biochemical markers to diagnose sub clinical mastitis (SCM) in herds. Many workers reported noteworthy alternation of acute phase proteins (APPs) and nitric oxide, (measured as nitrate+nitrite = NOx) in milk due to intra-mammary inflammation. But, the literature on validation of these parameters as indicators of SCM, particularly in riverine milch buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) milk is inadequate. Hence, the present study focused on comparing several APPs viz. ?1- anti trypsin, ?1- acid glycoprotein, fibrinogen and NOx as indicators of SCM in buffalo milk. These components in milk were estimated using standardized analytical protocols. Somatic cell count (SCC) was done microscopically. Microbial culture was done on 5% ovine blood agar. Of the 776 buffaloes (3,096 quarters) sampled, only 347 buffaloes comprising 496 quarters were found positive for SCM i.e. milk culture showed growth in blood agar with SCC?2×105 cells/ml of milk. The cultural examination revealed Gram positive bacteria as the most prevalent etiological agent. It was observed that ?1- anti trypsin and NOx had a highly significant (p<0.01) increase in SCM milk, whereas, the increase of ?1- acid glycoprotein in infected milk was significant (p<0.05). Fibrinogen was below detection level in both healthy and SCM milk. The percent sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated taking bacterial culture examination and SCC?2×105 cells/ml of milk as the benchmark. Udder profile correlation coefficient was also used. Allowing for statistical and epidemiological analysis, it was concluded that ?1- anti trypsin indicates SCM irrespective of etiology, whereas ?1- acid glycoprotein better diagnosed SCM caused by gram positive bacteria. NOx did not prove to be a good indicator of SCM. It is recommended measuring both ?1- anti trypsin and ?1- acid glycoprotein in milk to diagnose SCM in buffalo irrespective of etiology.
Guha, Anirban; Guha, Ruby; Gera, Sandeep
Uterine luminal proteins (ULP) collected from the genital tract of buffalo during the follicular (Group F) and luteal (Group L) phases of the estrous cycle were chromatographed using sephacryl S-200 gel. Five peaks were detected in each group. Different protein concentrations (10 to 200 microg) from Peaks I and V in each group were examined for immunological activity on polymorph nuclear leukocytic cells (PMNL) in vitro. All concentrations except 10 microg of ULP Peak I (< or = 250 kDa) in Group F enhanced phagocytic activity of PMNL. Peak V (56 kDa) in the same group enhanced phagocytic activity of PMNL only at low protein concentrations (10, 20 and 40 microg protein), while at greater concentrations (80, 150 and 200 microg protein) PMNL activity was suppressed. On the other hand, all protein concentrations from Peak 1 (> or = 250 kDa) in Group L suppressed PMNL activity in a dose-dependent manner. Proteins from Peak V (31 kDa) in Group L suppressed PMNL phagocytic activity at all concentrations but not to the same extent as in Peak I. Electrophoretic analysis of Peaks I and V in both groups revealed only 3 detectable protein bands (subunits) in Peak I and 1 detectable subunit in Peak V. Several additional proteins were probably not detected. The molecular weights of the detected subunits in Peaks I and V in Group F were greater than those in Group L as indicated by SDS-PAGE analysis. The results of this study show that ULP collected from buffalo possessed proteins that modulated phagocytic activity of PMNL in vitro. Proteins collected during the follicular phase, especially Peak I, enhanced phagocytic activity of the PMNL, whereas those collected during the luteal phase (Peaks I and V) suppressed activity. Changes in the molecular weights of ULP detected in this experiment may be related to the changes in phagocytic activity of PMNL tested in vitro. PMID:10729036
Ramadan, A A; Hassan, H M
The aim was to establish the capacity of buffalo heifers to adapt their metabolic requirements to a low energy diet. Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) heifers undergoing regular estrous cycles were randomly assigned by age, live weight (LW) and body condition score (BCS) to a high energy group (HE, 5.8 milk forage units (MFU)/day, n=6) or low energy group (LE, 3.6 MFU/day, n=6). Circulating concentrations of metabolic substrates, metabolic hormones and reproductive hormones were determined weekly for 19 weeks. Ovarian follicular characteristics and oocyte parameters were also ascertained weekly. Heifers fed the LE diet had a better dry matter conversion than heifers fed the HE diet and the calculated daily energy provision was negative for heifers fed the LE diet (-0.248 MFU) and positive for heifers fed the HE diet (5.4 MFU). Heifers fed the HE diet had an increase in 50 kg LW over the duration of the study whereas LW remained constant for heifers fed the LE diet. The BCS of heifers fed the HE diet (4.2) was greater (P<0.05) than the BCS for heifers fed the LE diet (3.4). Heifers fed the HE diet had greater (P<0.05) circulating concentrations of metabolic substrates (glucose, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol) and metabolic hormones (insulin, glucagon, leptin and T3) compared with heifers fed the LE diet. There were no significant differences in circulating reproductive hormones between the two groups of heifers. Ovarian follicular characteristics were similar for the two groups of heifers while heifers fed the LE diet tended to have oocytes of reduced quality compared with heifers fed the HE diet. The most notable finding was that heifers fed the LE diet had a negative calculated daily energy provision but were able to maintain LW and reproductive activity. It was concluded that buffalo heifers may potentially have the capacity to undergo metabolic adjustment and reduce their energy requirements when dietary energy is limiting. This adaptive capacity would explain why buffaloes remain productive in environments that are limiting to other ruminants. PMID:20729015
Campanile, G; Baruselli, P S; Vecchio, D; Prandi, A; Neglia, G; Carvalho, N A T; Sales, J N S; Gasparrini, B; D'Occhio, M J
The aim of the present study was to carry out comparative therapeutic effect of moxidectin pour on, doramectin and ivermectin on psoroptes infestation in buffalo. A total of 318 buffalo in 77 small scale herds suspected to have mange mites were examined clinically and parasitologically. Fifty-three (16.66%) buffalo in 25 herds were recorded to be infested; 51 (16.35%) with psoroptic mites, and two (0.31%) with chorioptic mites. Buffalo with psoroptic mites were randomly allocated into three groups (17 buffalo each). First group was treated with moxidectin pour on at a dose rate of 0.5 mg kg(-1). The second group received doramectin (200 microg kg(-1) twice subcutaneously, 14 days apart). The third group received ivermectin (200 microg kg(-1) twice subcutaneously, 14 days apart). Adjunct to each drug, deltamethrin was applied to the surrounding environment twice at a two week interval. Treatment outcomes of 51 buffalo with psoroptic mites showed that moxidectin pour on and doramectin had a significant higher effect on mite count reduction (MANOVA, P < 0.01; Walks' Lambda, P < 0.01) and clinical sum scores (MANOVA, P < 0.05; Walks' Lambda, P < 0.05) compared with injectible ivermectin. On clinical level, the number of clinically recovered buffalo in moxidectin and doramectin treated groups was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of ivermectin treated group. The result of the present study indicated that psoroptic mites are the main cause of mange in buffalo in Lower Egypt. This is the first report that describes the effect of moxidectin in buffalo. Moxidectin is a good alternative and easily applied drug for treatment of psoroptes infestation in buffalo. PMID:19347598
el-Khodery, Sabry A; Ishii, Mitsu; Osman, Salama A; Al-Gaabary, Magdy H
A vast majority of the world buffalo resource is concentrated in tropical and subtropical countries. Apart from heat stress and poor nutritional availability, endometritis is one of the most commonly encountered reproductive problems limiting fertility and consequently productive potential of the species. As demonstrated recently, endometritis impairs growth and follicular fluid composition of the largest follicle in buffalo. In the present study, the effect of endometritis on luteal development, function, nitric oxide (NO), and ascorbic acid was investigated. Reproductive tracts were collected from 90 cyclic buffaloes at an abattoir and grouped into endometritic (n?=?36) or non-endometritic (n?=?54) buffaloes based on physical examination of uterine mucus, white side test, and uterine cytology. Samples with pus-containing mucus, positive reaction on white side test, and/or >5 % neutrophils were considered to be positive for endometritis. Corpora lutea were enucleated, weighed, classified into stages I to IV, and assayed for progesterone (P(4)), NO, and ascorbic acid concentrations. Endometritic buffaloes had lesser (P?0.0001) luteal weight and P(4), NO, and ascorbic acid concentrations than non-endometritic buffaloes. The findings indicated that endometritis impairs corpus luteum development and function in buffalo. Reduced luteal NO and ascorbic acid concentrations during endometritis are novel findings. PMID:23070685
Pande, Megha; Das, Goutam Kumar; Khan, Firdous Ahmad; Sarkar, Mihir; Pathak, Mohan Chandra; Prasad, Jai Kishan; Kumar, Harendra
Pregnancy-Associated Glycoproteins (PAGs) are trophoblastic proteins belonging to the Aspartic proteinase family secreted by different placental cells of many mammalian species. They play a pivotal role in placentogenesis, foetomaternal unit remodeling, and implantation. The identification of the genes encoding those proteins will be helpful to unravel the intricate embryogenomic functions during pregnancy establishment. Considering importance of these proteins, the present study was undertaken to characterize the pregnancy associated glycoprotein-1 gene of buffalo. An 1181 base pairs buffalo Pregnancy-Associated Glycoprotein PAG-1 gene was PCR amplified from the RNA obtained from the fetal cotyledons. BLAST analysis of the buffalo PAG-1 sequence retrieved a total of 20 cattle, 5 goat, and 4 sheep PAG sequences, exhibiting more than 80% similarity. Buffalo PAG-1 gene contained an uninterrupted open reading frame of 1140 base pairs encoding 380 amino acids that possess a 15 amino acid signal peptide and mature peptide of 365 amino acids. The phylogenetic study of the buffalo PAG-1 gene revealed buffalo PAG-1 is more related to cattle, goat, and sheep PAG-1 sequences. By this study characterization of buffalo PAG-1 gene and its evolutionary relationship was deduced for the first time.
A., Jerome; Singh, S. K.; Agarwal, S. K.; Saini, Mohini; Raut, Ashwin
In this study we evaluated the effects of semen extender supplementation with different concentrations of glutathione (GSH) on buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, viability and DNA integrity as well as in vivo fertility. Semen from three Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls was collected, and qualified semen ejaculates (n=18) were split into five aliquots for dilution (37°C; 50×10(6)spermatozoaml(-1)) with experimental tris-citric acid extender containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 mM GSH. Extended semen was cooled to 4°C, equilibrated and filled in French straws. The straws were kept on liquid nitrogen vapors (5 cm above the LN(2) level) for 10 min and plunged in liquid nitrogen for storage. Sperm motility (%), plasma membrane integrity (%), viability (%) and DNA integrity (%) were assessed at 0, 2 and 4h post-thawing (37°C). Extender supplementation with GSH (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mM) increased sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability in a dose dependent manner. Sperm DNA integrity was higher (p<0.05) in all experimental extenders containing GSH when compared to the control extender (0 mM GSH). The in vivo fertility rate of cryopreserved buffalo bull (n=2) spermatozoa was higher (p<0.05) in extender containing 2.0 mM GSH compared to that of control. In summary, tris-citric acid extender supplemented with glutathione improved the freezability of buffalo bull spermatozoa in a dose dependant manner. Moreover, the addition of 2.0 mM GSH to the extender enhanced the in vivo fertility of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa. PMID:23153697
Ansari, Muhammad S; Rakha, Bushra A; Andrabi, Syed M H; Ullah, Nemat; Iqbal, Razia; Holt, William V; Akhter, Shamim
Present study was carried out on forty four apparently healthy Murrah buffaloes of different age groups of both sexes to investigate the effects of sex steroids on cell mediated immunity in vitro. Estrogen inhibited proliferation in mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes from prepubertal but not post pubertal buffaloes of either sex. Estrogen at 100?pg/mL concentration stimulating the proliferation significantly (P < 0.05). in all groups and had higher stimulatory effect in lymphocytes from day 10 than day 0 of estrous cycle. Progesterone inhibited lymphocyte proliferation, and inhibition was directly related to the dose, in all groups of either sex. Testosterone did not inhibit proliferation at any dose level and did not show any consistent and lucid effects on lymphocyte proliferation. Present study revealed that buffalo lymphocytes produce appreciable amounts of NO in culture system after treatment with estradiol. Significantly high levels of NO in culture supernatant were found in prepubertal buffalo calves and least in post pubertal buffaloes, which had an inverse relation with lymphocyte proliferation in presence of estradiol. NO in culture supernatant was high at the lowest dose of progesterone which was proportional to the lymphocyte proliferation when treated with progesterone. No significant difference in NO culture supernatant was observed between different concentrations of testosterone treatment.
Pampori, Zahoor Ahmad; Pandita, Sujata
Background The objective of this study was to establish the buffalo mammary epithelial cell line (BuMEC) and characterize its mammary specific functions. Methodology Buffalo mammary tissue collected from the slaughter house was processed enzymatically to obtain a heterogenous population of cells containing both epithelial and fibroblasts cells. Epithelial cells were purified by selective trypsinization and were grown in a plastic substratum. The purified mammary epithelial cells (MECs) after several passages were characterized for mammary specific functions by immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and western blot. Principal Findings The established buffalo mammary epithelial cell line (BuMEC) exhibited epithelial cell characteristics by immunostaining positively with cytokeratin 18 and negatively with vimentin. The BuMEC maintained the characteristics of its functional differentiation by expression of ?-casein, ?-casein, butyrophilin and lactoferrin. BuMEC had normal growth properties and maintained diploid chromosome number (2n?=?50) before and after cryopreservation. A spontaneously immortalized buffalo mammary epithelial cell line was established after 20 passages and was continuously subcultured for more than 60 passages without senescence. Conclusions We have established a buffalo mammary epithelial cell line that can be used as a model system for studying mammary gland functions.
Anand, Vijay; Dogra, Nilambra; Singh, Surender; Kumar, Sudarshan N.; Jena, Manoj K.; Malakar, Dhruba; Dang, Ajay K.; Mishra, Bishnu P.; Mukhopadhyay, Tapas K.; Kaushik, Jai K.; Mohanty, Ashok K.
Embryoid bodies (EBs) are used as in vitro model to study early extraembryonic tissue formation and differentiation. In this study, a novel method using three dimensional extracellular matrices for in vitro generation of EBs from buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cells and its differentiation potential by teratoma formation was successfully established. In vitro derived inner cell masses (ICMs) of hatched buffalo blastocyst were cultured on buffalo fetal fibroblast feeder layer for primary cell colony formation. For generation of EBs, pluripotent ES cells were seeded onto four different types of extracellular matrices viz; collagen-IV, laminin, fibronectin and matrigel using undifferentiating ES cell culture medium. After 5 days of culture, ESCs gradually grew into aggregates and formed simple EBs having circular structures. Twenty-six days later, they formed cystic EBs over collagen matrix with higher EBs formation and greater proliferation rate as compared to other extracellular matrices. Studies involving histological observations, fluorescence microscopy and RT-PCR analysis of the in vivo developed teratoma revealed that presence of all the three germ layer derivatives viz. ectoderm (NCAM), mesoderm (Flk-1) and endoderm (AFP). In conclusion, the method described here demonstrates a simple and cost-effective way of generating EBs from buffalo ES cells. Collagen-IV matrix was found cytocompatible as it supported buffalo EBs formation, their subsequent differentiation could prove to be useful as promising candidate for ES cells based therapeutic applications. PMID:22749767
Taru Sharma, G; Dubey, Pawan K; Verma, Om Prakash; Pratheesh, M D; Nath, Amar; Sai Kumar, G
Egg yolk is routinely used as a cryoprotectant in semen extenders. However, it may contain cryoprotective antagonists, and there are hygienic risks associated with its use. Proteins of plant origin, like soya-lecithin, lack these hazards. The aim of this study was to use soya-lecithin as a cryoprotectant in extender and to investigate its effects on in vitro quality and in vivo fertility of buffalo semen. Semen from three buffalo bulls was frozen in tris-citric extender containing 5.0%, 10% or 15% soya-lecithin or 20% egg yolk. Sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability were assessed post-dilution, pre-freezing and post-thaw. In Post-dilution and pre-freezing, the values for motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability remained higher (p ? 0.05) in extenders containing 10% soya-lecithin and control compared with extender containing 5% and 15% soya-lecithin. However, motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability were higher (p < 0.05) in extender containing 10% soya-lecithin compared with control and extenders containing 5% and 15% soya-lecithin. Semen from two buffalo bulls was frozen in tris-citric extender containing either 10% soya-lecithin or 20% egg yolk. Higher (p < 0.05) fertility rate was recorded in buffaloes inseminated with semen containing 10% soya-lecithin (56%) compared with 20% egg yolk (41.5%). The results suggest that 10% soya-lecithin in extender improves the freezability and fertility of buffalo bull spermatozoa and can be used as an alternate to egg yolk in cryopreservation of buffalo semen. PMID:22211278
Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Andrabi, S M H; Rakha, B A; Ullah, N; Khalid, M
This study was designed to compare the effect of straw size (0.25 vs. 0.5 ml) and thawing time (30 vs. 60 sec) on the quality of cryopreserved buffalo bull semen. Sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability were higher (p ? 0.05) in 0.25 ml than 0.5 ml straw, thawed at 37°C either for 30 or 60 sec. In conclusion, cryopreservation of buffalo semen in 0.25 ml straw resulted in a higher post-thaw quality. PMID:21455280
Ansari, Muhammad S; Rakha, Bushra A; Andrabi, Syed M H; Akhter, Shamim
The aim of this study was to isolate and subsequently enrich type A spermatogonia from pre-pubertal buffalo testis. Two-step enzymatic digestion was used to isolate spermatogonia from 10 to 14 months pre-pubertal buffalo calves, resulting in maximal release of spermatogonia from the seminiferous tubules. After enzymatic digestion, the type A spermatogonia were subsequently enriched by differential plating and Percoll gradient centrifugation. The identity of type A spermatogonia was determined by light microscopy and further characterised by Dolichos biflorus agglutinin, a specific marker for bovine type A spermatogonia by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. After enzymatic isolation, the cell suspension contained about 27% of type A spermatogonia, which was enriched up to 71% with >70% cell viability. Further flow cytometric analysis showed the presence of THY1+ cells (cells expressing thymocyte differentiation antigen 1), suggesting that THY1 is a conserved marker of the undifferentiated spermatogonial cells in buffalo. The isolation of the enriched type A spermatogonia from buffalo testis opens ways to study the further biochemical characteristics of this important class of germ cells in this species. PMID:22742713
Rafeeqi, T; Kaul, G
The present study was conducted to examine the effect of high heparin concentration on capacitation of buffalo spermatozoa with a short incubation time. Frozen thawed spermatozoa from three buffalo bulls were pooled and treated with either 50, 100 or 200 microg/ml heparin for 30 min. Capacitation was evaluated by acrosome reaction of spermatozoa and in vitro fertilization rate (per cent cleavage rate, per cent cleavage index). Acrosome reaction was induced in heparin treated spermatozoa with calcium ionophore A23187 and staining was carried out with Coomassie G-250 to evaluate the response as compared with control (0 heparin + calcium ionophore). Significantly higher percentage of acrosome reaction (AR) spermatozoa was noted after heparin treatment (36.8-48.2%) as compared with control (8.1% ; p < 0.05) but differences among the three heparin concentrations were non-significant. However, a significantly higher in vitro fertilization rate was recorded in spermatozoa capacitated by 50 and 100 microg/ml heparin (80.4 and 75.9% cleavage rate, respectively) as compared with 200 microg/ml heparin (47.2% cleavage rate; p < 0.001). It is concluded that buffalo spermatozoa capacitated with 50-100 microg/ml heparin had significantly higher ability to improve in vitro fertilization rate in buffalo. PMID:17635774
Mehmood, A; Anwar, M; Saqlan Naqvi, S M
Graphical abstract: EBs formation, characterization and expression of germinal layers marker genes of in vivo developed teratoma using four different types of extracellular matrices. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV matrix is found cytocompatible for EBs formation and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Established 3D microenvironment for ES cells development and differentiation into three germ layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV may be useful as promising candidate for ES cells based therapeutic applications. -- Abstract: Embryoid bodies (EBs) are used as in vitro model to study early extraembryonic tissue formation and differentiation. In this study, a novel method using three dimensional extracellular matrices for in vitro generation of EBs from buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cells and its differentiation potential by teratoma formation was successfully established. In vitro derived inner cell masses (ICMs) of hatched buffalo blastocyst were cultured on buffalo fetal fibroblast feeder layer for primary cell colony formation. For generation of EBs, pluripotent ES cells were seeded onto four different types of extracellular matrices viz; collagen-IV, laminin, fibronectin and matrigel using undifferentiating ES cell culture medium. After 5 days of culture, ESCs gradually grew into aggregates and formed simple EBs having circular structures. Twenty-six days later, they formed cystic EBs over collagen matrix with higher EBs formation and greater proliferation rate as compared to other extracellular matrices. Studies involving histological observations, fluorescence microscopy and RT-PCR analysis of the in vivo developed teratoma revealed that presence of all the three germ layer derivatives viz. ectoderm (NCAM), mesoderm (Flk-1) and endoderm (AFP). In conclusion, the method described here demonstrates a simple and cost-effective way of generating EBs from buffalo ES cells. Collagen-IV matrix was found cytocompatible as it supported buffalo EBs formation, their subsequent differentiation could prove to be useful as promising candidate for ES cells based therapeutic applications.
Taru Sharma, G., E-mail: email@example.com [Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Division of Physiology and Climatology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Bareilly, U.P. (India); Dubey, Pawan K.; Verma, Om Prakash; Pratheesh, M.D.; Nath, Amar; Sai Kumar, G. [Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Division of Physiology and Climatology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Bareilly, U.P. (India)] [Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Division of Physiology and Climatology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Bareilly, U.P. (India)
The use of sexed semen in farm animal production and genetic improvement has been shown to be feasible with variable degree of efficiency in a number of species, and proved to be economically viable in cattle. In the last two decades, various newly developed reproductive technologies applicable in buffaloes have mushroomed. Recently, following the birth of the first buffalo calves using AI with sexed semen, commercial interest to exploit sexing of semen in this species too is aroused. In order to verify the successful adoption of this technology in the buffalo, the present study on the use of sexed semen for AI was carried out and compared with conventional artificial insemination using nonsexed semen. A total of 379 buffalo heifers were used for synchronization of ovulation using the Presynch protocol in the South of Italy. Selected animals at the time of AI were randomly allocated to three different experiment groups: (1) 102 animals subjected to AI in the body of the uterus with sexed semen (SS body); (2) 104 animals subjected to AI in the horn of the uterus with sexed semen (SS horn); and (3) 106 animals subjected to AI in the body of the uterus with conventional nonsexed semen (NSS body). Semen of three buffalo bulls was sexed by a collaborating company and commercially distributed in 0.25 mL straws with a total of 2 million sexed spermatozoa. Pregnancy rates were first assessed at Day 28 following AI, and rechecked at Day 45 by ultrasound. Pregnancy rates were nonsignificantly different between animals inseminated with sexed or nonsexed semen: 80/206 (38.8%) and 40/106 (37.7%), respectively (P = 0.85). However, site of insemination of sexed semen affected pregnancy rate significantly as higher pregnancy rates were obtained when sexed semen was deposited into the body rather than the horn of the uterus: 46/101 (45.5%) and 34/105 (32.3%), respectively (P = 0.05). In conclusion, the use of sexed semen in buffalo heifers gave satisfactory and similar pregnancy rates when compared with conventional nonsexed semen. Deposition of sexed semen into the body of the uterus, however, increased pregnancy rates significantly. PMID:21497388
Campanile, G; Gasparrini, B; Vecchio, D; Neglia, G; Senatore, E M; Bella, A; Presicce, G A; Zicarelli, L
The sonication method produced a quantitatively higher release of buffalo sperm hyaluronidase than the freeze-thaw technique. The released enzyme constituted 10 p. 100 of the total enzymatic activity of the fresh semen. Seminal plasma hyaluronidase activity was not correlated with the motility score of the semen sample. Unlike cattle semen, the seminal plasma enzyme level in buffalo semen stored at 37 degrees C showed a sharp rise, whereas samples stored at 0 degrees C evidenced negligible enzyme leakage. Dilution of semen in citric acid whey (CAW) at 5 or 37 degrees C significantly prevented the enzyme from leaking into the plasma, although more enzyme was released in extended semen when it was exposed to cold treatments. The enzyme was quite stable in both the seminal plasma and the acrosomal preparations during storage when stored at 5 degrees C for prolonged periods. PMID:7349430
Ganguli, N C; Kakar, S S
The kinetics of antibody production against listeriolysin O (ALLO) and the recovery pattern of Listeria monocytogenes from bacteriological samples were studied following oral infection of buffalo calves with 3×109 cells each of pathogenic L. monocytogenes. Antibodies to LLO appeared by 7–10 days post infection (PI), with a shallow peak between days 16 and 36 PI, when tested by indirect plate-ELISA.
S. P. Chaudhari; S. V. S. Malik; G. Banu Rekha; S. B. Barbuddhe
Ghrelin, a novel motilin-related endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagouge receptor, is implicated in various biological functions, including regulation of female reproduction. But the presence of ghrelin and its role in reproductive functions in buffalo, a species with poor reproductive efficiency, is not known. In the present study full-length ghrelin cDNA was isolated from bubaline abomasum, which encodes the entire prepropeptide of 116 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of ghrelin of buffalo showed >95% and 31% identity with that of ruminants (cattle, sheep, and goat) and humans, respectively. Analysis of synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions in the coding region of ghrelin indicated that these sequences of different species have been under purifying selection. The 3995-bp amplicon of ghrelin gene consisting of 4 exons and 3 introns was cloned with genomic DNA from buffalo. Further, ghrelin expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry in bubaline endometrial tissues at different stages of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Our results indicated the persistent expression of ghrelin mRNA and protein in the endometrium during stage I (day 3-5), stage II (day 6-15), and stage III (day 16-21) of the estrous cycle and also during early (~day 30-40) pregnancy. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR experiments indicated the relatively higher expression of ghrelin in the endometrium during stage II (day 6-15) of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy than during stage I (day 3-5) and stage III (day 16-21) of the estrous cycle, but no statistically significant difference in ghrelin expression was observed among stages. To conclude, the results of the present study indicate the persistent expression of ghrelin in the uterine endometrium throughout the estrous cycle and in early pregnancy which might be helpful in determining its role in buffalo reproduction. PMID:23796362
Kandasamy, S; Jain, A; Baviskar, P; Kumar, R; Joshi, P; Agarwal, S K; Mitra, A
An experiment was carried out on 10 advance pregnant Murrah buffaloes to determine the role of hormones in milk secretion around parturition. Experimental animals were administered with a single injection of bromocryptine, @ 100 ?g/kg BW, for 5 days before expected calving, whereas control group buffaloes were injected with placebo injections. Blood samples collected before parturition (-5,-4,-3,-2,-1 days), on day of parturition (day-0) and on day 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10 and 15 post partum were analyzed for growth hormone (GH), insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and prolactin (PRL) by radioimmunassay methods. Milk samples were collected daily for 5 days and on day 10 and 15 after parturition. Milk fat, protein, lactose, citric acid, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and somatic cell counts (SCCs) were determined in milk samples. Bromocryptine treatment significantly (P < 0.01) decreased pre partum PRL and increased GH levels (P < 0.01) on day of parturition in experimental buffaloes without influencing plasma IGF-I level. Milk yield was significantly lower (P < 0.01) in experimental than in control group. Further, effect of bromocryptine on milk yield was only for a week. Milk yield increased (P < 0.01) gradually and was similar to control group on day 15 post partum. Bromocryptine treatment significantly increased milk SCC (P < 0.01) and protein content (P < 0.01) but there was no effect of treatment on fat, lactose, citric acid, glucose, milk and plasma NEFA concentration. It was concluded that prepartum suppression of PRL by bromocryptine impairs milk secretion temporarily in ensuing lactation. The significant rise in GH level before parturition and on day of parturition suggests a role of it in milk secretion of buffaloes. PMID:22444132
Prasad, J; Singh, M
To acquire the fertilizing competence, spermatozoa must undergo a cascade of physiological and biochemical changes collectively defined as capacitation. Compelling evidence signifies that the global increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation is the driving factor for capacitation. In our laboratory, we previously demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) induces capacitation in buffalo sperm and is associated with an increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation. The aim of the present study is to identify the proteins undergo tyrosine phosphorylation during NO induced buffalo sperm capacitation using 2-D immunoblotting and mass spectrometry. The percentage of progressively motile and capacitated sperm was more in presence of l-arginine. Along with known tyrosine phosphoproteins like ATP synthase subunit beta, pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit beta, GST mu 3, F-actin capping protein subunit beta 2, GPD2 and VDAC2, interestingly novel tyrosine phosphoprotein substrates such as actin, serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1-gamma catalytic subunit, and glutamine synthetase were also identified which might be specific to the NO induced signaling and also emphasizes the species specificity with respect to tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins during capacitation. In conclusion, this study forms an essential step in delineating the proteins undergo tyrosine phosphorylation in response to NO induced signaling pathways during capacitation of buffalo sperm. PMID:22035659
Jagan Mohanarao, G; Atreja, S K
Methane emissions from ruminant livestock are considered to be one of the more potent forms of greenhouses gases contributing to global warming. Many strategies to reduce emissions are targeting the methanogens that inhabit the rumen, but such an approach can only be successful if it targets all the major groups of ruminant methanogens. Therefore, a thorough knowledge of the diversity of these microbes in breeds of buffaloes, as well as in response to geographical location and different diets, is required. Therefore, molecular diversity of rumen methanogens in Surti buffaloes was investigated using 16S rRNA gene libraries prepared from pooled rumen contents from three Surti buffaloes. A total of 171 clones were identified revealing 23 different sequences (phylotypes). Of these 23 sequences, twelve sequences (12 OTUs, 83 clones) and 10 sequences (10 OTUs, 83 clones) were similar to methanogens belonging to the orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanobacteriales, and the remaining 1 phylotype (5 clones) were similar to Methanosarcina barkeri. These unique sequences clustered within a distinct and strongly supported phylogenetic group. Further studies and effective strategies can be made to inhibit the growth of Methanomicrobiales and Methanobacteriales phylotypes to reduce the methane emission from rumen and thus help in preventing global warming.
Singh, K.M.; Pandya, P.R.; Parnerkar, S.; Tripathi, A.K.; Rank, D.N.; Kothari, R.K.; Joshi, C.G.
Leptin is supposed to play a crucial role in ovarian luteal dynamics. The present study was aimed to investigate the importance of leptin and its receptors in buffalo corpus luteum (CL) obtained from different stages of the estrous cycle. Real-time RT-PCR (qPCR), western blot and immunohistochemistry techniques were applied to investigate mRNA expression, protein expression and localization of examined factors. Additionally to assess the contribution of leptin in progesterone production the expression profiles of StAR, P450scc and HSD were also investigated. In general, we demonstrated presence of leptin and its receptors in buffalo CL during the estrous cycle. The mRNA levels of leptin and its receptors were significantly up regulated in (P<0.05) in all the stages and highest levels were observed in mid and late luteal stages consistent with in vivo luteinization of buffalo CL and declined coincidental to luteal regression. The expression of StAR, P450scc and HSD factors maintained low in early luteal phase, after that level of expression increased steadily to show a significant rise (P<0.05) in mid luteal phase followed by gradual decline in late luteal phase and regressed CL and this correlates well with the Ob and ObR receptor activity, verifying their key role in progesterone and other steroids production in functional CL. As revealed by immunohistochemistry, leptin protein was localized predominantly in large luteal cells however leptin receptor (Ob-R) was localized in large luteal cells as well as in endothelial cells. It can be concluded from our study that leptin via its autocrine/paracrine effects play a significant role in promoting angiogenesis, steroidogenesis and also acts as key survival factor in bubaline CL. PMID:22959515
Kumar, Lalit; Panda, R P; Hyder, I; Yadav, V P; Sastry, K V H; Sharma, G T; Mahapatra, R K; Bag, S; Bhure, S K; Das, G K; Mitra, A; Sarkar, M
The objective of the present study was to estimate genetic parameters for test-day milk, fat and protein yields and 305-day-yields in Murrah buffaloes. 4,757 complete lactations of Murrah buffaloes were analyzed. Co-variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method. The models included additive direct genetic and permanent environmental effects as random effects, and the fixed effects of contemporary group, milking number and age of the cow at calving as linear and quadratic covariables. Contemporary groups were defined by herd-year-month of test for test-day yields and by herd-year-season of calving for 305-day yields. The heritability estimates obtained by two-trait analysis ranged from 0.15 to 0.24 for milk, 0.16 to 0.23 for protein and 0.13 to 0.22 for fat, yields. Genetic and phenotypic correlations were all positive. The observed population additive genetic variation indicated that selection might be an effective tool in changing population means in milk, fat and protein yields.
The development of new molecular techniques (array CGH, M-FISH, SKY-FISH, etc.) has led to great advancements in the entire field of molecular cytogenetics. However, the application of these methods is still very limited in farm animals. In the present study, we report, for the first time, the production of 13 river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, 2n?=?50) chromosome-specific painting probes, generated via chromosome microdissection and the DOP-PCR procedure. A sequential multicolor-FISH approach is also proposed on the same slide for the rapid identification of river buffalo chromosome/arms, namely, 1p-1q, 2p-2q, 3p-3q, 4p-4q, 5p-5q, 18, X, and Y, using both conventional and late-replicating banded chromosome preparations counterstained by DAPI. The provided 'bank' of chromosome-specific painting probes is useful for any further cytogenetic investigation not only for the buffalo breeds, but also for other species of the family Bovidae, such as cattle, sheep, and goats, for chromosome abnormality diagnosis, and, more generally, for evolutionary studies. PMID:24664789
Pauciullo, Alfredo; Perucatti, Angela; Iannuzzi, Alessandra; Incarnato, Domenico; Genualdo, Viviana; Di Berardino, Dino; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo
Water buffalo are an ancient component of Turkey's domestic livestock resources. Commonly referred to as the Anatolian buffalo the animal is part of the Mediterranean group which includes Syrian, Egyptian and Southeast European animals. Once quite numerous, there have been drastic reductions in their numbers since the 1970s due to intensification of dairy activities, agricultural mechanization and changing consumer preferences. The main areas of distribution are in northwest Turkey in the Marmara and Black Sea Regions. Buffalo are kept in small herds by livestock and mixed crop-livestock farmers. Milk is the main product, meat is largely a by-product of the dairy function and provision of the once-important draught power is now a minor output. Buffalo milk is used to prepare a variety of speciality products but output of both milk and meat is very low in comparison to cattle. Conditions of welfare and health status are not optimal. Internal parasites are a constraint on productivity. Some buffalo are being used for conservation grazing in the Black Sea area to maintain optimal conditions for bird life in a nature reserve. Long neglected by government there are recent activities to establish conservation herds, set up in vitro banks and undertake molecular characterization. More effort is needed by government to promote buffalo production and to engage the general public in conservation of their national heritage. PMID:21870064
Yilmaz, Orhan; Ertugrul, Mehmet; Wilson, Richard Trevor
We compared the therapeutic effect of three anticoccidial drugs (toltrazuril, sulphadimidine and amprolium) in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves experimentally infected with Eimeria bovis (E. bovis) and E. zuernii oocysts (3 x 104oocyst/calf). Buffalo calves (1.5-4 month old, 70-kg body weight) were randomly allocated into 3 groups (9 calves each). Group T was experimentally infected with oocysts and treated with toltrazuril (20 mg/kg BW twice orally at a 1-week interval). Group S was experimentally infected with oocysts and treated with sulphadimidine (125 mg/kg injected IM followed by half dose for 4 successive days). Group A was experimentally infected with oocysts and treated with amprolium (50 mg/kg orally for 7 successive days). Each group had three subgroups (three calves/subgroup) to represent timing of the drug administration: 1st day of coccidia infection (FD), onset of clinical signs of coccidiosis (CC), and onset of oocyst shedding into the faeces (OS). Clinical signs, body-weight gain (BWG) and number of oocysts per gram feces (OPG) were monitored daily for 35 days post-infection (DPI). The OPG were reduced (but the BWG was not different) in the T calves compared to S and A calves. Within the same group, treatment from the 1st day of infection reduced the OPG and increased the BWG compared to the later treatment timings. PMID:18262668
Ghanem, Mohamed M; Radwaan, Mervat E; Moustafa, Abdel Moneim M; Ebeid, Mohamed H
The aim of this study was to determine the benefits of growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) on growth and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) in buffaloes. Twelve Murrah buffalo heifers (Bubalus bubalis) of mean age 24.8 months and mean body weight 302.4kg were divided into two groups (treatment and control) with six animals in each group. The buffaloes were given intravenous injections of bovine GRF (bGRF) at a dose rate of 10microg/100kg body weight or an equal volume of saline at 15-day intervals for a period of 9 months. Plasma growth hormone (GH) responses to bGRF challenge were measured in blood samples collected at 90-day intervals on days 1, 90, 180 and 270 and samples were taken at -60, -30, 0, +10, +20, +30, +60, +120 and +180min relative to bGRF injection. Blood samples were also collected weekly by jugular venepuncture for the quantification of plasma GH. The average growth rate (AGR) and FCE of all animals were recorded at 15-day intervals. Plasma GH concentrations increased (P=0.001) steadily following bGRF challenge, peaking 10-20min after challenge and declining to baseline by 180min. In the treatment group, there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in either the peak heights of the GH response or the area under the curve (AUC) of the GH response after bGRF challenge on any of the four occasions of intensive bleeding. There were overall increases in plasma GH concentrations (P<0.01), AGR (P<0.01) and FCE (P=0.05) in the treatment group compared with the control animals. The study showed that GH responsiveness to administration of bGRF at 15-day intervals over 9 months of treatment remained unchanged in buffalo heifers. Exogenous bGRF treatment for a long period can therefore enhance GH release leading to higher growth rates and better feed conversion efficiency in buffalo heifers. PMID:17113797
Haldar, A; Prakash, B S
The aim of this study was to investigate how Neospora caninum serostatus may be affected by variables such as host species (water buffaloes or cattle) and age in animals cohabiting in the same ranch. A convenience cross-sectional study was performed on four ranches in the Northeast of Argentina, where water buffalo are cohabitating with beef cattle. Blood samples were collected from 1350 female water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and 880 female beef cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus crossbreeds) from four ranches. Calving and weaning percentages at herd level for each ranch were also recorded. N. caninum antibody levels were measured by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) (reciprocal antibody titers ?100). Serological results were classified into 2 categories (0: negative; 1: positive). A logistic regression model was used to describe the relationship between N. caninum serostatus and specie (water buffalo or cattle), age or ranch and their interactions. Likelihood ratio tests were used to assess the significance of the model and their terms. Odds ratios were estimated and 95% profile likelihood (LR) and Wald confidence intervals (CI) obtained. Overall, specific antibody titers were found in 43.3% (584/1350) of water buffaloes and 28.6% (252/880) of cattle. Seropositive water buffaloes and cattle were observed on all ranches. Age was statistically significant (p=0.01) with an overall estimate of logit (log odds) of age of 0.03 for both species. This indicates that for every one year increase in age, the expected change in log odds of being seropositive increased by 0.03. On three of four ranches a water buffalo was 4.48, 1.54 and 2.25 times more likely to be seropositive than cattle for animals of the same age. The N. caninum serostatus was affected by age in the first place, but also by species on at least three of the four ranches. Calving and weaning percentages were higher in water buffaloes than in beef cattle (p<0.05). Even though the low pathogenicity that N. caninum seems to have in water buffaloes, this study reinforces the importance of this specie as maintenance of the disease. PMID:24792747
Moore, D P; Konrad, J L; San Martino, S; Reichel, M P; Cano, D B; Méndez, S; Späth, E J L; Odeón, A C; Crudeli, G; Campero, C M
Whole-length esophagi of 111 Murrah cross water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were collected in the Kathmandu and Chitwan districts of Nepal from December 2009 to February 2010. Gullet worms showing a typical epithelium-dwelling character were detected in 13 of 53 (24.5%) buffaloes in Kathmandu and in 5 of 58 (8.6%) buffaloes in Chitwan. The worms' morphology and measurements were identical to those of Gongylonema pulchrum Molin, 1857, except for the length of the left spicules relative to the body length. Scanning electron microscopy did not detect any further morphological differences regarding the collected specimen from Nepal compared with G. pulchrum . The ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA), including internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and 2, and a partial region of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) of mitochondrial DNA of the worms were characterized and compared with those of G. pulchrum collected from cattle, deer, wild boars, and monkeys in Japan and from cattle in Iran. The 18S, 5.8S, and 28S rDNA nucleotide sequences of the buffalo-collected worms had 99.8% (1,779/1,782), 100% (158/158), and 98.3-98.8% (3,494-3,507/3,551) identities, respectively, with those of G. pulchrum from the other host mammals. The ITS regions exhibited higher variations between the buffalo-collected worms and G. pulchrum from the other host mammals (85-88% identity for ITS1 and 56-80% identity for ITS2). The COI also showed lower identities (89.2-90.2%), although only a single amino acid substitution was noted compared with the majority of G. pulchrum samples collected in Japan. Based on these molecular genetic characters in the rDNA and COI mitochondrial DNA, together with a shorter left spicule length relative to body length, the gullet worms isolated from buffaloes in Nepal might belong to a distinct local or buffalo-preferring population of G. pulchrum, although its geographical distribution on the continent and host specificity remain to be clarified. PMID:23421498
Makouloutou, Patrice; Rana, Hari Bahadur; Adhikari, Bishunu; Devkota, Bhuminand; Dhakal, Ishwari Prasad; Sato, Hiroshi
The present study was conducted primarily to optimize electrofusion conditions for efficient production of zona-free nuclear transfer embryos in buffalos (Bubalus bubalis). We found that 4V AC current for proper triplet alignment and single step fusion method, using a single DC pulse of 3.36 kV/cm for 4-?s duration, produced the most convincing results for efficient reconstitution of zona-free cloned embryos. Lysis rate was very high (84.28 ± 2.59%) when triplets were in physical contact with negative electrode after applying DC current, however, cleavage rate and blastocyst rate were found to be similar when the triplets were not in physical contact with either positive or negative electrodes or when they were in physical contact with the positive electrode. Significant improvement in blastocyst production was observed when the somatic cell faced the positive electrode than when it faced the negative electrode (39.17 ± 2.74% vs. 25.91 ± 2.00%, respectively) during electrofusion. Similarly, the blastocyst rate (52.0 ± 3.4%) was found to be significantly higher when reconstructed embryos were activated 6 h post electrofusion as compared to 0, 2, 4 and 8 h (16.04 ± 6.3%; 18.36 ± 1.4%; 22.44 ± 3.7% and 30.02 ± 4.6%, respectively). This study establishes the application of zona-free nuclear transfer procedures for the production of handmade cloned buffalo embryos through optimization of electrofusion parameters and post fusion holding time for enhancing their preimplantation development. PMID:22541327
Selokar, N L; Shah, R A; Saha, A P; Muzaffar, M; Saini, M; Chauhan, M S; Manik, R S; Palta, P; Singla, S K
Background Salmonellosis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves is a widespread disease characterized by severe gastrointestinal lesions, profuse diarrhea and severe dehydration, occasionally exhibiting a systemic course. Several Salmonella serovars seem to be able to infect water buffalo, but Salmonella isolates collected from this animal species have been poorly characterized. In the present study, the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in water buffalo calves affected by lethal gastroenteritis was assessed, and a polyphasic characterization of isolated strains of S. Typhimurium was performed. Results The microbiological analysis of the intestinal contents obtained from 248 water buffalo calves affected by lethal gastroenteritis exhibited a significant prevalence of Salmonella spp. (25%), characterized by different serovars, most frequently Typhimurium (21%), Muenster (11%), and Give (11%). The 13 S. Typhimurium isolates were all associated with enterocolitis characterized by severe damage of the intestine, and only sporadically isolated with another possible causative agent responsible for gastroenteritis, such as Cryptosporidium spp., Rotavirus or Clostridium perfringens. Other Salmonella isolates were mostly isolated from minor intestinal lesions, and often (78% of cases) isolated with other microorganisms, mainly toxinogenic Escherichia coli (35%), Cryptosporidium spp. (20%) and Rotavirus (10%). The S. Typhimurium strains were characterized by phage typing and further genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of 24 virulence genes. The isolates exhibited nine different phage types and 10 different genetic profiles. Three monophasic S. Typhimurium (B:4,12:i:-) isolates were also found and characterized, displaying three different phage types and three different virulotypes. The molecular characterization was extended to the 7 S. Muenster and 7 S. Give isolates collected, indicating the existence of different virulotypes also within these serovars. Three representative strains of S. Typhimurium were tested in vivo in a mouse model of mixed infection. The most pathogenic strain was characterized by a high number of virulence factors and the presence of the locus agfA, coding for a thin aggregative fimbria. Conclusions These results provide evidence that Salmonella is frequently associated with gastroenteritis in water buffalo calves, particularly S. Typhimurium. Moreover, the variety in the number and distribution of different virulence markers among the collected S. Typhimurium strains suggests that within this serovar there are different pathotypes potentially responsible for different clinical syndromes.
The objective of this study was to evaluate sperm functional attributes in relation to in vitro sperm-zona binding ability and cleavage rate in assessing frozen thawed buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen quality. Frozen-thawed forty-eight ejaculates from eight Surti buffalo bulls (six ejaculates/bull) obtained by artificial vagina were used. Frozen semen from each bull was thawed, pooled, and subjected for sperm functional (six replicates) and in vitro fertilization (four replicates) tests. The progressive forward motility, plasmalemma functional integrity assessed by fluorogenic [6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA), and propidium iodide (PI)], hypoosmotic swelling (HOS), and hypoosmotic swelling-Giemsa (HOS-G) test, mitochondrial membrane potential, sperm nuclear morphology, the number of sperm bound to zona and cleavage rate differed significantly (P<0.05) between bulls. When the animals were grouped based on cleavage rate (group I, >40% cleavage rate, n=5, and group II, <40% cleavage rate, n=3), in vitro fertility parameters and all the sperm functional attributes except sperm nuclear morphology differed significantly (P<0.05). The proportions of sperm with functional plasmalemma in the tail and intact acrosome assessed by HOS-G test (25.33, range: 17.48-40.27) were significantly (P<0.001) lower than the functional plasmalemma in the tail assessed by HOS test (39.80, range: 27.85-54.67). The number of sperm bound to zona had significant correlations with the mitochondrial membrane potential (r=0.90, P<0.01) and plasmalemma integrity (fluorogenic, r=0.74 and HOS, r=0.79, P<0.05) and HOS-G, r=0.87, P<0.01). The cleavage rate had significant (P<0.05) correlations with the mitochondrial membrane potential (r=0.70) and plasmalemma integrity measured by HOS-G test (r=0.68). The present study indicates that these attributes could represent important determinants of buffalo sperm quality influencing cleavage rate. PMID:17576042
Selvaraju, S; Ravindra, J P; Ghosh, J; Gupta, P S P; Suresh, K P
Water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) are susceptible to bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) and a species-specific herpesvirus, bubaline herpesvirus type 1 (BuHV-1). In this study, an attenuated marker BoHV-1 based vaccine against BuHV-1 challenge was evaluated to determine whether it induces protection from viral replication. One group of water buffalo calves was immunized with an attenuated BoHV-1 marker vaccine. A second group was not vaccinated and used as the control. During the post-vaccination period, we monitored the humoral immune response. The efficacy of the vaccine was tested after intranasal challenge of the calves with a BuHV-1 strain. The experiment showed that after vaccination, BuHV-1 replication was significantly reduced by approximately three titer points compared to the controls. The control animals showed high levels of viral shedding and mild signs associated with BuHV-1 infection. Therefore, our study provides evidence for the existence of cross-protection between BoHV-1 and BuHV-1 in buffalo calves. PMID:24985155
Montagnaro, Serena; De Martinis, Claudio; Iovane, Valentina; Ciarcia, Roberto; Damiano, Sara; Nizza, Sandra; De Martino, Luisa; Iovane, Giuseppe; Pagnini, Ugo
The cytochrome P450 aromatase (aromP450) deficient mice are infertile due to an impairment of spermatogenesis associated with a decrease in sperm motility and inability to fertilize oocytes. The sperm analysis showed decreased sperm motility in humans, having Cyp19 gene mutations. Further, in human, it was hypothesized that aromatase could be used as marker of sperm quality, particularly in the acquisition of its motility. However, there is no information regarding the expression of aromP450 in spermatozoa of farm animals including cattle and buffalo. In the present study, the expression of aromP450 in ejaculated buffalo spermatozoa and its relationship with sperm motility of ejaculated spermatozoa was studied by RT-PCR using total RNA isolated from buffalo-ejaculated spermatozoa. The results showed that conventional RT-PCR could not amplify aromatase transcript, while a nested PCR detected the presence of P450arom mRNA in buffalo-ejaculated spermatozoa. RT reaction followed by nested PCR was performed to compare the expression of aromatase transcripts in buffalo-ejaculated spermatozoa of two category semen graded on the basis of mass motility and motile and non-motile spermatozoa separated by swim-up. A higher (P<0.01) expression of aromP450 transcript was found in spermatozoa obtained from the good quality semen (higher mass motility) to that in spermatozoa of poor quality semen (low mass motility). Similarly, higher (P<0.01) expression of aromP450 mRNA was observed in the motile spermatozoa as compared to non-motile spermatozoa separated from good quality semen by swim-up. It is concluded that the present study demonstrates a positive relation between aromatase transcript and mass motility of buffalo-ejaculated spermatozoa, which could be a putative marker for the quality of semen in farm animals, particularly the acquisition of sperm motility. PMID:17851018
Tiwari, Ashutosh; Singh, Dheer; Kumar, O Suneel; Sharma, M K
The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of chromium (Cr) supplementation as inorganic Cr (CrCl3·6H2O) on energy balance, lipid peroxidation, and lactation performance in periparturient Murrah buffaloes. Twenty-four multiparous Murrah buffaloes according to lactation, parity, body mass, and expected calving date were divided equally. Experimental buffaloes were randomly assigned to four treatment diets: a control diet and three diets with an inorganic Cr supplementation at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg of Cr/kg dry matter (DM), respectively from 60 days before expected calving date until 60 days of lactation. Milk productions of buffaloes were recorded every day until 60 days in milk. Blood samples were collected at days -60, -45, -30,-21, -15, -7, -3, 0, 7, 15, 21, 30, 45, and 60 days relative to actual calving for determination of plasma glucose, nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), total cholesterol, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and minerals. Adding inorganic Cr to the diet of Murrah buffaloes increased milk yield. Percentage of fat and total solid yield increased significantly through the experiment in the Cr-supplemented group. At the day of calving, buffaloes showed a decrease in dry matter intake (DMI), plasma glucose, and zinc (Zn) and Cr concentrations. In contrast, plasma NEFA, TBARS, and copper (Cu) levels were found highest at the day of calving among all groups. Cr supplementation increased peripheral blood glucose concentration while decreased level of NEFA and TBARS was recorded in Cr-fed buffaloes. Supplemental Cr had no effect on plasma cholesterol, total protein, albumin, and BUN in periparturient period. Dietary Cr supplementation had positive effect on plasma Cr concentration, but the plasma concentration of Cu, Zn, and iron (Fe) was not affected by different dietary Cr level supplementation. The results suggest that dietary inorganic Cr supplementation improved milk yield by reducing negative energy balance and lipid peroxidation in buffaloes during periparturient period. PMID:24833279
Zade, Satish; Mani, Veena; Deka, Rijusmita Sarma; Kumar, Muneendra; Kaur, Harjit; Kewalramani, Neelam J; Tyagi, Amrish Kumar
The aim was to ascertain whether relationships between corpus luteum (CL) vascularization, CL function, and pregnancy outcome in AI in buffaloes were consistent across the breeding season and transition period to the nonbreeding season in a Mediterranean environment. Stage of the estrous cycle in Italian Mediterranean buffaloes was synchronized using the Ovsynch with timed AI program and buffaloes were mated by AI in both the breeding season (N = 131) and transition period (N = 125). Detailed investigation of CL structure and function was undertaken in 39 buffaloes at each of the respective times using realtime B-mode/color-Doppler ultrasonography on Days 10 and 20 after AI. Progesterone (P4) concentrations were determined by RIA in all buffaloes. Pregnancy rate on Day 45 after AI was greater (P < 0.05) during the breeding season (58.0%) than the transitional period (45.6%) and this was primarily the result of a lower (P < 0.05) late embryonic mortality during the breeding season (7.3%) compared with the transition period (23%). Circulating concentrations of P4 on Days 10 and 20 after AI were greater (P < 0.01) during the breeding season (4.6 ± 0.3 and 3.4 ± 0.2, respectively) than during the transition period (1.6 ± 0.12 and 1.8 ± 0.2, respectively), and this was independent of reproductive status as there was no interaction between pregnancy and season. Corpus luteum time average medium velocity at Day 10 after AI was greater (P < 0.01) during the breeding season (19.3 ± 1.5) than in the transitional period (8.3 ± 0.7). There were positive correlations in pregnant buffaloes between CL time average medium velocity and P4 concentrations on Day 10 (r = 0.722; P < 0.01) and Day 20 (r = 0.446; P < 0.01) after AI. The findings were interpreted to indicate that relationships between CL vascularization, CL function, and pregnancy outcome in AI in buffaloes are consistent across the breeding season and transition period to the nonbreeding season. The distinction between the breeding season and the transition period is the relatively low proportion of buffaloes that have CL function and P4 concentrations required to establish a pregnancy during the transition period, which is manifested in a greater incidence of embryonic mortality. PMID:22979961
Di Francesco, S; Neglia, G; Vecchio, D; Rossi, P; Russo, M; Zicarelli, L; D'Occhio, M J; Campanile, G
Despite low per-animal productivity of ruminants in developing countries, Johne's disease has not been investigated in buffaloes, which are primarily found in these countries. This is due to lack of expertise, diagnostic kits and priority to production diseases like Johne's disease. Presence of pathogenic Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) was investigated by screening of target tissues (mesenteric lymph nodes and
D. Yadav; S. V. Singh; A. V. Singh; I. Sevilla; R. A. Juste; P. K. Singh; J. S. Sohal
In buffaloes, AI with sexed semen is not fully optimized, and the procedure has only been performed using the approach currently in use for cattle. The objective of the present work was to compare the pregnancy rates in Mediterranean Italian buffalo cows inseminated with sexed frozen-thawed semen at 2, 4, 6, and 8 million sperm per dose, using the Ovsynch protocol and conventional AI at a fixed time. Fresh ejaculates from three buffalo bulls were processed according to Beltsville sperm sorting technology, and packaged in 0.25-mL straws with two total concentrations of 2 and 4 million live sorted sperm per straw. After thawing, semen was evaluated for total motility, forward motility, average path velocity, membrane and DNA integrity, and membrane fluidity. Sorting efficiency was estimated using a real time polymerase chain reaction method developed and validated in our laboratory. The artificial inseminations were conducted during the breeding season on 849 Italian Mediterranean buffalo heifers and cows distributed in 13 farms in northern and central Italy. No significant difference in quality parameters was reported between nonsexed and sexed straws produced with 2 and 4 million sperm. Lower pregnancy rate (P < 0.001) was reported when inseminating doses of sexed semen at 2 million were used (53/170; 31.2%), with respect to conventional nonsexed (78/142; 54.9%), and sexed doses at 4, 6, and 8 million spermatozoa (102/205, 49.8%; 84/175, 48.0%; and 74/157, 47.1%, respectively). No differences were evident using conventional doses and sexed semen with sperm numbers equal or higher than 4 million per dose. Pregnancies were not affected by the sire; 39/82 (47.6%), 120/270 (44.4%), and 151/355 (42.5%), respectively, for the three bulls. Variability in pregnancy rates observed in different herds was not significant. Furthermore, no significant difference was reported between pregnancies obtained with sexed semen in heifers and multiparous, respectively, 179/407 (44.0%) and 131/300 (43.7%). The results of the present work indicate that in Mediterranean Italian buffalo the dose of 4 million represents an optimal compromise when using sexed semen with conventional technologies of insemination, together with estrus synchronization, and the minimum number of spermatozoa per dose. In addition, the real time polymerase chain reaction method was optimized and is now available for estimating sorting efficiency in buffalo. PMID:23523175
Gaviraghi, A; Puglisi, R; Balduzzi, D; Severgnini, A; Bornaghi, V; Bongioni, G; Frana, A; Gandini, L M; Lukaj, A; Bonacina, C; Galli, A
The present study was designed to investigate whether gonadotropins [follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)] and buffalo follicular fluid (bFF) supplementation in maturation medium influences the transcript abundance of germ cell marker genes [maternal antigen that embryos require (MATER), Zygote arrest 1 (ZAR1), growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15)] mRNA in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes. Buffalo ovaries were collected from local abattoir, oocytes were aspirated from antral follicles (5-8 mm) and matured in vitro using two different maturation regimens, viz, group A: gonadotropin (FSH and LH) and group B: non-gonadotropin-supplemented maturation medium containing 20% buffalo follicular fluid (bFF). mRNA was isolated from immature (330) and in vitro matured oocytes from both the groups (A, 320; B, 340), and reverse transcribed using Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase. Expression levels of MATER, ZAR1, GDF9, and BMP15 mRNA transcripts were analyzed in oocytes of both maturation groups as well as immature oocytes using real-time PCR. QPCR results showed that GDF9 and BMP15 transcripts were significantly (p<0.05) influenced with gonadotropins and bFF supplementation during in vitro maturation of buffalo oocyte; however, MATER and ZAR1 transcripts were not influenced with gonadotropins and bFF supplementation in vitro. These results indicated that the expression levels of MATER, ZAR1, GDF9, and BMP15 mRNA were varied differentially during in vitro maturation of buffalo oocyte and were found to be gonadotropins (FSH and LH) or bFF dependent for GDF9 and BMP15. PMID:23263936
Nath, Amar; Sharma, Veena; Dubey, Pawan K; Pratheesh, M D; Gade, Nitin E; Saikumar, G; Sharma, G Taru
Background Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) of GACA\\/GATA have been implicated with differentiation of sex-chromosomes and speciation. However,\\u000a the organization of these repeats within genomes and transcriptomes, even in the best characterized organisms including human,\\u000a remains unclear. The main objective of this study was to explore the buffalo transcriptome for its association with GACA\\/GATA\\u000a repeats, and study the structural organization and differential
Jyoti Srivastava; Sanjay Premi; Sudhir Kumar; Sher Ali
Egg yolk-Tris is most commonly used semen extender; however, its use involves hygienic risk, interference with fertility and poor microscopic examination. Therefore, replacement of egg yolk with a plant-based component with protective effects on spermatozoa would be advantageous. In present study, we observed effect of soya milk-based extenders on dilution and liquid preservation of Murrah buffalo bull semen at 5°C up to 72 h in comparison with conventional egg yolk-Tris extender (Ext.1). In experiment one, a total of 32 buffalo semen ejaculates from four animals were extended and preserved at 5°C for 72 h in soya milk-based extender (Ext.2) with different percentages (10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30%) of soya milk for optimization of soya milk concentration. Semen quality was assessed for individual motility, viability, membrane integrity and acrosome integrity at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h of liquid preservation. The results of experiment one indicated that 25% soya milk is an optimum concentration for buffalo bull semen extender preparation. A modified method was used to prepare another soya milk-based extender (Ext.3). In the second experiment, two soya extenders (Ext.2 and 3) with optimized concentration (25%) of soya milk were comparatively assessed with egg yolk-Tris extender (Ext.1) for semen quality parameters at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h of liquid preservation. The individual sperm motility at 0 and 24 h following dilution were found non-significant among extenders. However, after 48 h of dilution, individual motility in Ext.3 was observed significantly (p < 0.05) higher than Ext.1. After 24, 48 and 72 h of dilution sperm membrane integrity in Ext.3 was found significantly (p < 0.05) higher than Ext.1. Overall, comparative evaluation of sperm parameters obtained revealed that Ext.3 containing 25% soya milk can be used as a substitute of egg yolk-based extender for buffalo semen liquid preservation. PMID:22017209
Singh, A K; Singh, V K; Narwade, B M; Mohanty, T K; Atreja, S K
Pharmacokinetics, urinary excretion and plasma protein binding of danofloxacin was investigated in buffalo calves following\\u000a intravenous administration at the dose rate of 1.25 mg\\/kg to select the optimal dosage regimen of danofloxacin. Drug concentrations\\u000a in plasma and urine were measured by microbiological assaying. In vitro plasma protein binding was determined employing the equilibrium dialysis technique. The distribution and elimination of danofloxacin
Ravinder Sappal; Rakesh Kumar Chaudhary; Harpal Singh Sandhu; Pritam Kaur Sidhu
Lipocalins form a widespread class of proteins involved in the transport of weakly soluble vitamins, hormones or hydrophobic molecules. ?-lactoglobulin (BLG-col), a major lipocalin present in whey was purified and characterized from buffalo colostrum. The molecular weight of BLG-col as determined by Liquid chromatography -electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) was 18.257 kDa and the peptide mass fingerprint of the purified protein revealed 67% sequence homology to buffalo milk ?-lg. The N-terminal-IIVTQ and LC-ESI-collision-induced dissociation-Electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analyses of doubly (m/z 1156(+2)) and triply (m/z 546(+3)) charged ion pairs corresponding to VYVEELKPTPEGDLEILLQK (41-60) and TPEVDDEALEKFDK (125-138) sequences confirmed the identity of BLG-col. Using these peptide sequences, the location of a gene encoding for BLG-col was identified on chromosome 11 at 11q28 loci of bovine genome. The unique property of the BLG-col isolated from buffalo colostrum was its strong and specific haemagglutinating activity with 'O' blood of human erythrocytes with 10,309 HAU/mg protein. The cell surface localization of BLG-col on human erythrocytes was confirmed by immunocytochemistry and the specificity of interaction was established by immunoblot analysis of human erythrocyte membrane proteins. Based on these observations, we suggest the presence of lipocalin receptor (70 kDa) on human erythrocyte membrane and the multiple sequence alignment supported structural diversity among lipocalin receptors. PMID:21546361
Chougule, Rohit A; Aparna, Huligerepura S
The aim of this study was to compare the proteome profiles of the chorioamnion and corresponding caruncle for buffalo embryos that had either normal or retarded development on Day 25 after artificial insemination (AI). In experiment 1, embryos that were to subsequently undergo late embryonic mortality had a smaller width on Day 25 after AI than embryos associated with pregnancy on Day 45 after AI. In experiment 2, 25 Italian Mediterranean buffaloes underwent transrectal ultrasonography on Day 25 after AI, and pregnant animals were categorized as one of two groups based on embryonic width: normal embryos (embryonic width > 2.7 mm) and retarded embryos (embryonic width < 2.7 mm). Three buffaloes of each group were slaughtered on Day 27 after AI to collect chorioamnion and caruncle tissues for subsequent proteomic analyses. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometer analysis were used to ascertain the proteomic profiles. To confirm 2D-DIGE-results, three selected proteins were analyzed by Western blot. The proteomic profiles of the chorioamnion of retarded embryos and the corresponding caruncles showed differences in the expression of several proteins compared to normal embryos. In particular, a down-regulation was observed for proteins involved in protein folding (HSP 90-alpha, calreticulin), calcium binding (annexin A1, annexin A2), and coagulation (fibrinogen alpha-chain) (P < 0.05), whereas proteins involved in protease inhibition (alpha-1-antiproteinase, serpin H1, serpin A3-8), DNA and RNA binding (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1 and K), chromosome segregation (serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A), cytoskeletal organization (ezrin), cell redox homeostasis (amine oxidase-A), and hemoglobin binding (haptoglobin) were up-regulated (P < 0.05). PMID:23575152
Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Gasparrini, Bianca; Neglia, Gianluca; Vecchio, Domenico; Strazzullo, Maria; Giovane, Alfonso; Servillo, Luigi; Zicarelli, Luigi; D'Occhio, Michael J; Campanile, Giuseppe
The prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi was investigated in 1,250 Nili-Ravi buffaloes of mixed age and sex by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the first time in Pakistan. DNA of the trypanosomes was isolated with TRIREAGENT®. The assay was employed using primers ESAG 6/7, specific for a 237-bp fragment from T. evansi genomic DNA. The samples were screened for the presence of T. evansi also by stained thin smear. Forty-four (3.5%) samples were positive by microscopy, while 97 (7.7%) samples were identified by PCR, indicating the high sensitivity of PCR for surveying the disease in epidemiological studies. PMID:20680446
Shahzad, Waseem; Munir, Rashid; Khan, Mohammad S; Ahmad, Mansur D; Ijaz, Mohammad; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Iqbal, Mohammad
A study was undertaken to assess the ability of spermatozoa from 6 buffalo bulls, at different levels of heparin and sperm concentrations, to achieve an acceptable level of fertilization in vitro. Frozen-thawed spermatozoa, 3 dosages of heparin (0, 10 and 100 ug/ml) in the presence and absence of penicillamine, hypotaurine and epinephrine (PHE), and 4 sperm concentrations (1 x 10(6), 2 x 10(6), 3 x 10(6) and 4 x 10(6) /ml) were studied using 3202 buffalo oocytes. The mean proportions of fertilized oocytes in the group treated with 10 ug/ml of heparin were significantly higher (P<0.05) with the semen of Bulls A, B and C (44.7 to 64.3%) than in medium devoid of heparin. An increase in the dosage of heparin from 10 ug/ml to 100 ug/ml reduced the overall fertilization rate. However, optimal fertilization (30.9%) at 100 ug/ml heparin was observed for semen from Bull D. Bulls E and F yielded the lowest fertilization rate (9.6 and 14.2%, respectively) at the above mentioned heparin dosage. Analysis of sperm density revealed that a concentration of 2 x 10(6) spermatozoa yielded optimal fertilization rates in vitro. Higher sperm concentrations (3 x 10(6) or 4 x 10(6)) resulted in higher oocyte penetration rates but gave rise to polyspermy. PMID:16727261
Totey, S M; Pawshe, C H; Singh, G P
This paper aimed to study the dynamics of early embryonic development, in terms of redistribution of cytoskeleton (microtubules, actin microfilaments) and chromatin configurations during the first cell cycle in swamp buffalo embryos. Oocytes were matured and fertilized in vitro, and they were fixed at various time points after IVF. At 6 h after IVF, 44.4% matured oocytes were penetrated by spermatozoa. Partial ZP digestion, however, did not improve fertilization rate compared to control (P > .05). At 12?h after IVF, the fertilized oocytes progressed to the second meiotic division and formed the female pronucleus simultaneously with the paternal chromatin continued to decondense. A sperm aster was observed radiating from the base of the decondensing sperm head. At 18?h after IVF, most presumptive zygotes had reached the pronuclear stage. The sperm aster was concurrently enlarged to assist the migration and apposition of pronuclei. Cell cleavage was facilitated by microfilaments and firstly observed by 30?h after IVF. In conclusion, the cytoskeleton actively involves with the process of fertilization and cleavage in swamp buffalo oocytes. The centrosomal material is paternally inherited. Fertilization failure is predominantly caused by poor sperm penetration. However, partial digestion of ZP did not improve fertilization rate.
Chankitisakul, Vibuntita; Tharasanit, Theerawat; Tasripoo, Kriengsak; Techakumphu, Mongkol
The onset of pregnancy may be associated with hormonal changes and decline in milk yield of buffaloes. To investigate this, forty lactating buffaloes from 1st to 23rd weeks post-conception were selected. The animals were assigned to three treatments: PRT, PRS, NPRT and three milk yielding groups HMY, 66 to 75 l/week, n = 12; MMY, 56 to 65 l/week, n = 16; LMY, 46 to 55 l/week, n = 12). Milk samples were collected on alternate weeks and analyzed with ultrasonic milk analyzer. EIA was used for milk progesterone concentrations. Group means were compared and correlation analysis was conducted. Progesterone concentrations increased in almost similar pattern with the advancing weeks post-conception. The high and low yielder showed greater progesterone concentrations in the supplemented than the animals on traditional ration (P < 0.001). Progesterone concentrations correlated positively with fat (%), negatively with milk yield, protein (%) and lactose (%). Decline in milk yield became drastic when progesterone concentrations rose above 6.44 ng/ml. The pregnant animals on traditional ration exhibited a sharper decline in milk yield with the increasing progesterone concentrations as compared to pregnant animals with supplemented ration. It is concluded that concentrates supplementation induced a raise in progesterone levels. Progesterone concentrations and milk yield showed an inverse relationship. PMID:19107569
Khan, Sarzamin; Qureshi, Muhammad Subhan; Ahmad, Nazir; Amjed, Muhammad; Younas, Muhammad; Rahman, Altafur
The aim of this work was to evaluate whether providing a support of cumulus cells during IVF of buffalo denuded oocytes submitted to vitrification-warming enhances their fertilizing ability. In vitro matured denuded oocytes were vitrified by Cryotop in 20% EG + 20% of DMSO and 0.5 M sucrose and warmed into decreasing concentrations of sucrose (1.25 M-0.3M). Oocytes that survived vitrification were fertilized: 1) in the absence of a somatic support (DOs); 2) in the presence of bovine cumulus cells in suspension (DOs+susp); 3) on a bovine cumulus monolayer (DOs+monol); and 4) with intact bovine COCs in a 1:1 ratio (DOs+COCs). In vitro matured oocytes were fertilized and cultured to the blastocyst stage as a control. An increased cleavage rate was obtained from DOs+COCs (60.9%) compared to DOs, DOs+susp (43.6 and 38.4, respectively; P < 0.01) and DOs+monol (47.5%; P < 0.05). Interestingly, cleavage rate of DOs+COCs was similar to that of fresh control oocytes (67.8%). However, development to blastocysts significantly decreased in all vitrification groups compared to the control (P < 0.01). In conclusion the co-culture with intact COCs during IVF completely restores fertilizing capability of buffalo denuded vitrified oocytes, without improving blastocyst development. PMID:20615538
Attanasio, Laura; De Rosa, Anna; De Blasi, Marina; Neglia, Gianluca; Zicarelli, Luigi; Campanile, Giuseppe; Gasparrini, Bianca
This paper aimed to study the dynamics of early embryonic development, in terms of redistribution of cytoskeleton (microtubules, actin microfilaments) and chromatin configurations during the first cell cycle in swamp buffalo embryos. Oocytes were matured and fertilized in vitro, and they were fixed at various time points after IVF. At 6 h after IVF, 44.4% matured oocytes were penetrated by spermatozoa. Partial ZP digestion, however, did not improve fertilization rate compared to control (P > .05). At 12?h after IVF, the fertilized oocytes progressed to the second meiotic division and formed the female pronucleus simultaneously with the paternal chromatin continued to decondense. A sperm aster was observed radiating from the base of the decondensing sperm head. At 18?h after IVF, most presumptive zygotes had reached the pronuclear stage. The sperm aster was concurrently enlarged to assist the migration and apposition of pronuclei. Cell cleavage was facilitated by microfilaments and firstly observed by 30?h after IVF. In conclusion, the cytoskeleton actively involves with the process of fertilization and cleavage in swamp buffalo oocytes. The centrosomal material is paternally inherited. Fertilization failure is predominantly caused by poor sperm penetration. However, partial digestion of ZP did not improve fertilization rate. PMID:21234419
Chankitisakul, Vibuntita; Tharasanit, Theerawat; Tasripoo, Kriengsak; Techakumphu, Mongkol
The gene responsible for coding the leptin hormone has been associated with productive and reproductive traits in cattle. In dairy cattle, different polymorphisms found in the leptin gene have been associated with several traits of economic interest, such as energy balance, milk yield and composition, live weight, fertility and dry matter consumption. The aim of this study was to detect genetic variability in the leptin gene of buffaloes and to test possible associations with milk yield, fat and protein percentages, age at first calving and first calving interval. Three genotypes (AA, AG and GG) were identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, which presented genotypic frequencies of 0.30, 0.54 and 0.16, respectively. The allele frequencies were 0.57 for the A allele and 0.43 for the G allele. No significant effects were found in the present study, but there is an indicative that leptin gene affects lipid metabolism. PMID:23661024
Zetouni, Larissa; de Camargo, Gregório Miguel Ferreira; da Silva Fonseca, Patrícia Dias; Gil, Fernanda Maria Monsalves; Lugo, Naudin Alejandro Hurtado; Aspilcueta-Borquis, Rusbel Raul; Cervini, Marcelo; Tonhati, Humberto
The aim of this research was to analyse the composition of oviduct fluid (ODF) in buffalo cows at different oestrous cycle phases to fulfil the requirements of buffalo embryos in vitro. ODF was collected by chronic cannulation from three cows that were synchronized by administering a synthetic prostaglandin. Based on hormonal profiles, the pre-ovulatory, ovulatory, post-ovulatory and luteal phases of the oestrous cycle were defined. The volume of ODF produced (ml/24 h) was influenced by the oestrous cycle, with values (mean ± SE) around ovulation (1.0 ± 0.2) greater (p < 0.05) than in both the luteal (0.4 ± 0.1) and the post-ovulatory phases (0.5 ± 0.1), but not different from the intermediate values in the pre-ovulatory phase (0.8 ± 0.2). Among cycle phases, no differences were found in sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium concentrations (130.0 ± 1.1, 5.1 ± 0.3, 2.8 ± 0.1 and 0.59 ± 0.04 mmol/l respectively). Interestingly, the chloride secretion (?m/24 h) was higher (p < 0.05) at ovulation (150.2 ± 16.5) than during both the luteal (73.7 ± 22.0) and the post-ovulatory phases (63.7 ± 11.2), with intermediate values in the pre-ovulatory phase (113.4 ± 23.5). Glucose concentration (mmol/l) was higher (p = 0.056) in the pre-ovulatory phase (0.06 ± 0.02) than in the luteal (0.02 ± 0.01) and post-ovulatory (0.02 ± 0.01) phases but not different from values in the ovulatory phase (0.04 ± 0.02). Concentrations of pyruvate and lactate among oestrous cycle phases were similar (0.08 ± 0.01 and 1.0 ± 0.1 mmol/l respectively). The total quantity of phospholipids (?mol/24 h) was greater (p < 0.05) at ovulation (0.21 ± 0.02) compared with the luteal, pre-ovulatory and post-ovulatory phases of the cycle (0.09 ± 0.02, 0.13 ± 0.02 and 0.09 ± 0.01 respectively). No differences were found in either the protein concentration (1.8 ± 0.3 mg/ml) or the quantity of proteins secreted in 24 h (1.8 ± 0.4 mg) among oestrous cycle phases. In conclusion, this study provides the first characterization of buffalo ODF during the oestrous cycle, showing species-specific differences that may be useful for developing suitable media for buffalo in vitro embryo production. PMID:19761531
Vecchio, D; Neglia, G; Di Palo, R; Campanile, G; Balestrieri, M L; Giovane, A; Killian, G; Zicarelli, L; Gasparrini, B
Twenty-four ejaculates from six (four ejaculates each) Surti buffalo bulls aged 4-8 years were used to assess various attributes of spermatozoa influencing the zona-binding and zona-penetration tests. Ejaculates from each bulls were subjected to in vitro sperm--zona binding and sperm--zona penetration tests (four replicates per bull) using immature buffalo oocytes. The average number of spermatozoa bound per oocyte was 27.79 +/- 5.90. The average number of spermatozoa penetrated per oocyte was 3.35 +/- 0.64. The average number of zona-bound and -penetrated spermatozoa differed significantly between animals. Significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed between the plasmalemma integrity as assessed by eosin--nigrosin stain and hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test. Furthermore, the percentage of cells positive for the HOS test, i.e. functional membrane integrity (51.25 +/- 2.32) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than hypo-osmotic swelling-Giemsa (HOS-G) test, i.e. the subpopulation of spermatozoa positive for functional membrane and acrosomal integrities (42.87 +/- 4.56). The HOS test had significant correlations with plasmalemma integrity as measured by the vital stain, eosin--nigrosin (r = 0.85, p < 0.05). The HOS-G test also had significant correlation with plasmalemma integrity measured by vital stains such as eosin--nigrosin (r = 0.90, p < 0.05) and fluorogenic stains [carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) and propidium iodide (PI); r = 0.92, p < 0.01] and HOS test (r = 0.93), acrosomal integrity (r = 0.86, p < 0.05) and mitochondrial membrane potential (r = 0.99, p < 0.01). The plasmalemma integrity (fluorogenic stain), functional membrane integrity (HOS test), subpopulation of spermatozoa positive for functional membrane and acrosomal integrities (HOS-G test) and mitochondrial membrane potential had significant (p < 0.05) correlation with sperm zona binding and penetration. The present study indicates that these parameters could represent important determinants of sperm quality influencing zona binding and penetration. PMID:18673329
Selvaraju, S; Ghosh, J; Ravindra, J P
Twelve buffalo bulls of Murrah breed, selected on the basis of their conception rates, were classified into low-, moderate- and high-fertility groups. Frozen semen was thawed and treated with 200 microM platelet activating factor (PAF) for 15 min at 37 degrees C and 5% CO2. In both treated and control (no PAF) semen samples (five replicates per bull), the following were assessed: motility, acrosome reaction (AR) evaluation (for 10 replicates of each bull), and zona-free hamster oocyte penetration test--to determine aspects of fertilization in vitro, viz., sperm attached per ovum (SA/O), fertilization percent (FP), fertilization index (FI), and polyspermic ova (PO). There was an effect of group (P < 0.01) on all parameters; all except motility were increased by PAF treatment. However, the group X treatment interaction was not significant for any parameter. The overall mean values of motility, AR, SA/O, FP, FI, and PO, for controls, treated spermatozoa and (net change) were: 42.89 +/- 0.85, 36.65 +/- 0.85, (-6.24); 28.94 +/- 0.46, 61.44 +/- 0.58, (32.50); 126 +/- 2, 145 +/- 2, (19); 74.21 +/- 1.59, 89.11 +/- 1.18, (14.90); 0.79 +/- 0.02, 1.10 +/- 0.03, (0.31) and 5.22 +/- 1.22, 21.69 +/- 1.88, (16.47)%, respectively. In conclusion, PAF significantly increased the AR and other aspects of fertilization, despite a small reduction in motility. PMID:15763101
Kumar, Subodh; Sharma, Arjava
Two species of buffalo fish, smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) and bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus), were collected from a contaminated (multiple metals and organic chemicals) Mississippi River Basin ecosystem, Devil's Swamp and a control site, Tunica Swamp, both near Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA. The buffalo fish were examined for general health and histopathological effects. This research consists of an analysis of
Arunthavarani Thiyagarajah; William R. Hartley; Sharee E. Major; Michael W. Broxson
Endocrine changes, timing of ovulation, ovarian follicular growth and efficacy of a novel protocol (Estradoublesynch) for synchronization of ovulation and timed artificial insemination in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).
Experiments were conducted to investigate (1) ovarian follicular growth, timing of ovulation and associated endocrine changes (progesterone, estrogen, and LH) in cycling, and (2) efficacy in terms of pregnancy rate in cycling and anestrus Murrah buffaloes subjected to the Estradoublesynch protocol (prostaglandin F2? [PGF2?] 0, GnRH 2, PGF2? 9, estradiol benzoate, EB 10). Twelve cycling buffaloes were subjected to the Estradoublesynch protocol and observed for ovulation, follicle size, and endocrine changes after EB treatment. Ovulation occurred in 12 of 12 buffaloes (100%) at 48.5 ± 1.6 hours (range, 38.0-56.0) after EB treatment. Plasma LH, total estrogen, and progesterone concentrations were determined in intensive blood samples collected after EB treatment. Peak LH concentration of 34.2 ± 7.7 ng/mL (range, 17.8-178.5) occurred at 18.3 ± 0.8 hours (range, 14.0-22.0) after EB treatment. Peak total estrogen of 50.8 ± 6.9 pg/mL (range, 32.3-82.7) occurred 5.7 ± 1.0 hours (range, 2.0-14.0) after EB treatment. Follicle size was gradually increased from second PGF2? injection (9.7 ± 0.3 mm; range, 8.0-12.0) until ovulation was detected (12.9 ± 0.4 mm; range, 11.0-15.0). Fourteen cycling and 11 anestrus buffaloes were subjected to the Estradoublesynch protocol, with timed artificial insemination (TAI) 48 and 60 hours after EB treatment, and 58 cycling buffaloes were inseminated after spontaneous estrus (control group). Pregnancy rates were 62% for TAI of cycling buffaloes, 64% for anestrus buffaloes, and 34.5% for control group. Our observations demonstrated that the Estradoublesynch protocol followed by TAI satisfactory enhanced pregnancy rates in both cycling and anestrus buffaloes. PMID:24125725
Mirmahmoudi, R; Souri, M; Prakash, B S
The aim of the present study was to explore the prevalence and potential risk factors associated with infestation by Psoroptes spp. mites in buffalo at smallholder farms in the Nile Delta region, Egypt. A total of 318 out of 1234 buffalo in 77 small scale herds were examined. The age of buffalo varied from three months to seven years. In all, 53 (16.66%) buffalo were recorded to be infested; 51 (16.35%) with Psoroptes spp. mites and two cases (0.31%) with Chorioptes spp. mites. Multivariate logistic regression was performed for significant risk factors at univariate analysis on both animal and herd level. The results of multivariate analysis showed that, on the animal level, the prevalence was affected by animal age (P < 0.01; OR: 0.71; CI 95%: 0.441-1.11), season (P < 0.01; OR: 1.20; CI 95%:0.541-1.15), indoor management (P < 0.001; OR: 6.625; CI 95%:2.489 -17.631) and rearing with other animals (P < 0.01; OR: 2.22; CI 95%:1.340 -7.132). However, on the herd level, the prevalence was affected by indoor rearing (P < 0.05; OR: 22.4; CI 95%:2.75-16.431), mixed rearing with other animal species (P < 0.05; OR: 4.5; CI 95%:1.66-7.941), and season (P < 0.01; OR: 2.3; CI 95%:0.575-2.426). Clinically, mild skin lesions with mild pruritus were significantly prevalent in buffalo with the infestation by Psoroptes spp. mites (P < 0.001), where 33/51 cases showed mild lesions. Also, psoroptic mites had significant association with inappitence (P < 0.001). The result of the present study indicates that Psoroptes spp. mites are the most prevalent in buffalo in the Nile Delta Region, Egypt. Moreover, recognition of risk factors associated with mange mites in buffalo may enable the practitioner to establish the most appropriate control measures. PMID:19688306
El-Khodery, Sabry A; Osman, Salama A; Ishii, Mitsuo; Al-Gaabary, Magdy H
Changes in uterine proteins during different reproductive states and their functional significance though known in other species have not been established in buffaloes. An attempt has been made to unravel the changes in composition of buffalo uterine secretion with growth and regression of corpora-lutea during early, mid and late luteal and follicular phase of estrous cycle using gel filtration and electrophoresis techniques. Also the phosphatases activities in luteal phase uterine secretions have been studied. Gel filtration chromatography analysis revealed a protein peak in void volume of the column, the intensity of which was more in all the luteal phase samples than follicular phase samples. Alkaline phosphatase was also found eluted in the void volume. The other three uterus-specific peaks (Peaks V-VII) were detected below 13.7 kd molecular weight. There were at least five peaks of acid phosphatases activity in chromatogram. Silver staining of SDS-PAGE gel detected as many as 40 protein bands in the uterine fluid of which nine proteins were glycoproteins. Molecular weight (MW) comparison revealed the major protein band at 66 kd which could be serum albumin. Comparison of uterine proteins with serum protein bands revealed a 93.5 kd glycoprotein in buffalo serum that did not appear in uterine fluid and at least 11 uterus-specific protein bands (506, 470, 241, 114, 49, 38, 33, 26, 19.2, 16, and 14.3 kd). The 38 and 19.2 kd bands were luteal-stage specific. Intense periodic acid Schiff's (PAS) stained bands in uterine proteins compared to serum indicated glycosylation process in endometrial epithelial cells. The study suggested that buffalo uterine secretion contained mainly serum and several uterus-specific proteins of which few were luteal phase specific. Further study on characterizing the unique or most abundant proteins and defining their role in uterine functions would help to address the cause of low reproduction rate in buffaloes. PMID:16213013
Chandra Roy, Sudhir; Uma Suganthi, R; Ghosh, Jyotirmoy
Humoral immune response of water buffalo naturally infected with Toxocara vitulorum was monitored using three different antigens of this parasite in serum and colostrum of buffalo cows and calves. Soluble extract (Ex) and excretory\\/secretory (ES) larval antigens and perienteric fluid antigen (Pe) of adult T. vitulorum were used to measure the antibody levels by an indirect ELISA. Serum of 7–12
E. M de Souza; W. A Starke-Buzetti; F. P Ferreira; M. F Neves; R. Z Machado
Gene expression analysis unravels the complex changes or relations at transcriptomic level. To nullify all type of errors that can be incorporated during any stage of RNA extraction into cDNA synthesis and for reliable results, the data obtained from qPCR have to be normalized using the appropriate/suitable housekeeping genes (HKGs). Unfortunately, till date, no such HKG has been reported for bubaline mammary gland. The objective of the present study was thus to identify and validate the potential HKGs for the gene expression studies in buffalo mammary gland. Mammary tissues from twelve buffaloes during different physiological stages: pre-pubertal (heifer), lactation and involution were obtained for the present study. A total of 16 potential HKGs (GAPDH, ?-actin, UXT, ?2M, A2M, RPl4, RPS9, RPS15A, RPS18, RPS23, HMBS, HPRT1, GTP, EEF1A1, UB1 and RPL22) from different functional classes were evaluated. The analysis revealed that the expression of EEF1A1, RPl4, ?2M and RPS15A was most consistent across different physiological stages of buffalo mammary gland. On the other hand, ?-actin, A2M, RPL22 and GAPDH were the least stable genes making them unsuitable as HKGs. Based on our analysis, we recommend the use of EEF1A1, RPl4, ?2M and RPS15A genes as suitable HKGs for accurate normalization of gene expression data in bubaline mammary gland. PMID:23363300
Aggarwal, J; Sharma, A; Kishore, A; Mishra, B P; Yadav, A; Mohanty, A; Sodhi, M; Kataria, R S; Malakar, D; Mukesh, M
Delayed pubertal development and low fertility of Bos indicus x Bos taurus crossbred male cattle and domestic buffaloes is hardly understood hence, a sensitive enzymeimmunoassay (EIA) was developed using the second antibody-coating technique and testosterone-3-O-carboxymethyloxime-horseradish peroxidase conjugate as a label for determination of testosterone in blood plasma. The EIA was validated by standard criteria. Blood samples were collected by venipuncture from growing male cattle (Karan Fries and Sahiwal) and buffalo (Murrah) and testosterone was estimated using the EIA procedure. Plasma testosterone concentrations increased significantly (P < 0.05) with advancing age. Testosterone concentrations were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in Sahiwal males in comparison to Karan Fries males. The low testosterone levels in crossbred than Sahiwal could imply that crossbred males have either not stabilized genetically or not adapted well in Indian climatic conditions resulting in poor libido and poor semen quality. The low testosterone levels in Murrah buffalo males may be the possible reason for delayed maturity in this species. The direct, sensitive EIA validated for estimating the plasma testosterone concentration was reliable for studying the testosterone profile in blood plasma of males. The results suggest that there could be a requirement for higher testosterone secretion by males during early stages of growth for attaining early sexual maturity. PMID:20213223
Gulia, S; Sarkar, M; Kumar, Vijay; Meyer, H H D; Prakash, B S
Evaluation of Milk Trace Elements, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Alkaline Phosphatase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity of Subclinical Mastitis as and Indicator of Subclinical Mastitis in Riverine Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)
Mastitis is a highly morbid disease that requires detection at the subclinical stage. Tropical countries like India mainly depend on milch buffaloes for milk. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the trace minerals viz. copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn) and enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in riverine buffalo milk can be used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis (SCM) with the aim of developing suitable diagnostic kit for SCM. Trace elements and enzyme activity in milk were estimated with Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer, GBC 932 plus and biochemical methods, respectively. Somatic cell count (SCC) was done microscopically. The cultural examination revealed Gram positive bacteria as the most prevalent etiological agent. A statistically significant (p<0.01) increase in SCC, Fe, Zn, Co and LDH occurred in SCM milk containing gram positive bacterial agents only. ALP was found to be elevated in milk infected by both gram positive and negative bacteria. The percent sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated taking bacterial culture examination and SCC?2×105 cells/ml of milk as the benchmark. Only ALP and Zn, the former being superior, were found to be suitable for diagnosis of SCM irrespective of etiological agents. LDH, Co and Fe can be introduced in the screening programs where Gram positive bacteria are omnipresent. It is recommended that both ALP and Zn be measured together in milk to diagnose buffalo SCM, irrespective of etiology.
Guha, Anirban; Gera, Sandeep; Sharma, Anshu
In the present study, expression level of various ATP-binding cassette (ABC) viz., ABCA1, ABCA7, ABCG1, ABCG2, and ABCG5; associated transcription factors viz., SREBF1, LXR? (NR1H3), PPARA, and Solute Carriers (SLC); or Glucose transporters (GLUT) viz., SLC2A1(GLUT1), SLC2A4 (GLUT4), SLC2A8 (GLUT8), and SLC2A12 (GLUT12) superfamily of transporters were compared across physiological stages of buffalo mammary gland. The relative expression of ABCA1, and ABCG1 was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in mammary gland of heifer followed by involution and lactation stages. Similarly, ABCA7 gene expression was highest in heifer mammary gland followed by lactation and involution stages. ABCG2 gene expression was significantly (p < 0.05) high in lactating mammary gland in comparison to involution and heifer stages. On the other hand, ABCG5 gene expression was highest in involuting mammary gland followed by lactation and involution stages. Additionally, the expression of LXR? SREBF1, and PPARA which are known to regulate some of the ABC tranporters were also analyzed. The expression of LXR? gene was high in involuting as compared to lactating mammary gland. In contrast, SREBF1 and PPARA expression was significantly (p < 0.05) high in lactating mammary gland. Among the several SLC transporters studied, SLC2A1, SLC2A4, and SLC2A8 showed significant (p < 0.05) higher expression during lactation stage, whereas SLC2A12 expression was greater during heifer stage suggesting SLC2A1, SLC2A4, and SLC2A8 to be the major transporters associated with glucose uptake in buffalo mammary gland. The expression profile of (lactoferrin) LTF, known to be expressed at high level in mammary gland during involution was also studied. As expected, its expression was significantly (p < 0.05) higher during involution in comparison to lactating mammary gland.in buffaloes as well. The inclusion of LTF as a control gene further provided the confidence in the buffalo mammary gland expression data generated in the present study. This study thus helped to provide information about the distinct expression pattern of various transporters and their regulators in buffalo mammary gland during different physiological states. PMID:24669870
Sharma, Ankita; Aggarwal, Jigyasa; Sodhi, Monika; Kishore, Amit; Mishra, B P; Mohanty, A K; Kataria, R S; Kaushik, Jai K; Mukesh, Manishi
The objective of this study was to use pedigree analysis to evaluate the population structure and genetic variability in the Murrah dairy breed of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Brazil. Pedigree analysis was performed on 5,061 animals born between 1972 and 2002. The effective number of founders (fe) was 60, representing 6.32 % of the potential number of founders. The effective number of ancestors (fa) was 36 and the genetic contribution of the 17 most influent ancestors explained 50 % of the genetic variability in the population. The ratio fe/fa (effective number of founders/effective number of ancestors), which expresses the effect of population bottlenecks, was 1.66. Completeness level for the whole pedigree was 76.8, 49.2, 27.7, and 12.8 % for, respectively, the first, second, third, and fourth known parental generations. The average inbreeding values for the whole analyzed pedigree and for inbreed animals were, respectively, 1.28 and 7.64 %. The average relatedness coefficient between individuals of the population was estimated to be 2.05 %-the highest individual coefficient was 10.31 %. The actual inbreeding and average relatedness coefficient are probably higher than estimated due to low levels of pedigree completeness. Moreover, the inbreeding coefficient increased with the addition of each generation to the pedigree, indicating that incomplete pedigrees tend to underestimate the level of inbreeding. Introduction of new sires with the lowest possible average relatedness coefficient and the use of appropriate mating strategies are recommended to keep inbreeding at acceptable levels and increase the genetic variability in this economically important species, which has relatively low numbers compared to other commercial cattle breeds. The inclusion of additional parameters, such as effective number of founders, effective number of ancestors, and fe/fa ratio, provides better resolution as compared to the inclusion of inbreeding coefficient and may help breeders and farmers adopt better precautionary measures against inbreeding depression and other deleterious genetic effects. PMID:22535150
Malhado, Carlos Henrique Mendes; Malhado, Ana Claudia Mendes; Carneiro, Paulo Luiz Souza; Ramos, Alcides Amorim; Ambrosini, Diego Pagung; Pala, Akin
Pregnancy-specific protein B (PSPB), progesterone and some biochemical attributes concentrations in the fetal fluids and serum and its relationship with fetal and placental characteristics of Iraqi riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).
This study was carried out to demonstrate the pregnancy-specific protein B (PSPB), progesterone and some biochemical parameters concentrations in amniotic fluid, allantoic fluid and fetal serum collected from slaughtered Iraqi riverine pregnant buffaloes at three different months of gestation (6th, 7th and 8th). Ten out of 22 adult buffaloes of 4.6 ± 0.97 years old were used in this study. The buffaloes were mated naturally by monitoring the estrus cycles via appearance of vaginal fluids and mounting by bulls. Pregnancy was checked for these buffaloes by non-returning to estrus for three estrus cycles and assured by rectal palpation on day 61 post-mating (PM). Buffaloes were slaughtered at three different periods of gestation (three at 6th month, four at 7th month and three at 8th month of gestation) to verify the progesterone and PSPB as well as some blood attributes levels (glucose, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, globulins and albumin: globulins ratio) in amniotic fluid (AF), allantoic fluid (LF) and fetal serum (FS). Progesterone was higher (P<0.01) in LF at the 8th month of gestation and lower in FS during the 7th and 8th months of pregnancy. PSPB concentrations were greater in FS (6th and 8th months in particular) than in both AF and LF. The overall mean of cholesterol concentration was higher in FS (P<0.05) followed by AF and LF that had the lowest concentration. The FS exhibited higher total protein during the three gestation periods. Most of fetal and placental measurements increased as the pregnancy advanced. In conclusion, these results described, for the first time, the PSPB and progesterone concentrations and blood characteristics in fetal fluids and serum in water riverine buffaloes during different stages of pregnancy. Progesterone concentrations were greater in allantoic fluid than in other fluids. In contrast, PSPB and other blood attributes were higher in fetal serum than other fluids of Iraqi riverine buffaloes. These findings reflect the changes in hormones, proteins and other metabolites during different gestation periods. PMID:22325967
Abdulkareem, T A; Eidan, S M; Ishak, M A; Al-Sharifi, S A M; Alnimer, M A; Passavant, C W; Branen, J R; Sasser, R G
Abstract In this study, we describe the production of buffalo parthenogenetic blastocysts and subsequent isolation of parthenogenetic embryonic stem cell (PGESC)-like cells. PGESC colonies exhibited dome-shaped morphology and were clearly distinguishable from the feeder layer cells. Different stages of development of parthenogenetic embryos and derived embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like cells expressed key ESC-specific markers, including OCT-4, NANOG, SOX-2, FOXD3, REX-1, STAT-3, TELOMERASE, NUCLEOSTEMIN, and cMYC. Immunofluorescence-based studies revealed that the PGESCs were positive for surface-based pluripotent markers, viz., SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA 1-80, TRA 1-60, CD-9, and CD-90 and exhibited high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. PGEC cell-like cells formed embryoid body (EB)-like structures in hanging drop cultures and when cultured for extended period of time spontaneously differentiated into derivatives of three embryonic germ layers as confirmed by RT-PCR for ectodermal (CYTOKERATIN8, NF-68), mesodermal (MSX1, BMP-4, ASA), and endodermal markers (AFP, HNF-4, GATA-4). Differentiation of PGESCs toward the neuronal lineage was successfully directed by supplementation of serum-containing media with retinoic acid. Our results indicate that the isolated ESC-like cells from parthenogenetic blastocyst hold properties of ESCs and express markers of pluripotency. The pluripotency markers were also expressed by early cleavage-stage of buffalo embryos.
Singh, Karn P.; Kaushik, Ramakant; Garg, Veena; Sharma, Ruchi; George, Aman; Singh, Manoj K.; Manik, Radhey S.; Palta, Prabhat; Singla, Suresh K.
In recent years increasing attention has been paid to the cytogenetic control of Italian Mediterranean river buffalo (BBU) bulls authorized as sires which are registered in the stud book. Chromosome abnormalities described in this species are mainly numerical and affecting sex chromosomes. During routine cytogenetic analyses performed on young Italian Mediterranean river buffalo bulls in the progeny test, 1 animal was found to be carrier of a never before reported translocation t(1p;18) originated by fission of BBU1 and subsequent centric fusion of BBU1p with BBU18 as demonstrated by both R-banding and FISH-mapping techniques using specific molecular markers of BBU1p (DEFB1) and BBU18 (GPI). According to sperm analyses the semen characteristics were in physiological ranges, but the calf crop percentage was only 48.77% instead of 70-80%. Cytogenetic analyses performed on 50 offspring (36 females and 14 males) showed that 15 of them (30%) were carriers of the same translocation. PMID:22986410
Albarella, S; Ciotola, F; Coletta, A; Genualdo, V; Iannuzzi, L; Peretti, V
Cells are blessed with a group of stress protector molecules known as heat shock proteins (HSPs), amongst them HSP70, encoded by HSPA-1A gene, is most abundant and highly conserved protein. Variety of stresses hampers the developmental competence of embryos under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Present work was designed to study the quantitative expression of HSPA-1A mRNA in immature oocytes (IMO), matured oocytes (MO), in vitro produced (IVP) and in vivo-derived (IVD) buffalo embryos to assess the level of stress to which embryos are exposed under in vivo and in vitro culture conditions. Further, HSPA-1A gene sequence was analysed to determine its homology with other mammalian sequences. The mRNA expression analysis was carried out on 72 oocytes (40 IMO; 32 MO), 76 IVP and 55 IVD buffalo embryos. Expression of HSPA-1A was found in oocytes and throughout the developmental stages of embryos examined irrespective of the embryo source; however, higher (p < 0.05) expression was observed in 8-16 cell, morula and blastocyst stages of IVP embryos as compared to IVD embryos. Phylogenetic analysis of bubaline HSPA-1A revealed that it shares 91-98% identity with other mammalian sequences. It can be concluded that higher level of HSPA-1A mRNA in IVP embryos in comparison with in vivo-derived embryos is an indicator of cellular stress in IVP system. This study suggests need for further optimization of in vitro culture system in which HSPA-1A gene could be used as a stress biomarker during pre-implantation development. PMID:22463675
Sharma, G T; Nath, A; Prasad, S; Singhal, S; Singh, N; Gade, N E; Dubey, P K; Saikumar, G
For investigating the effects of physiologically relevant heat shock, buffalo oocytes/embryos were cultured at 38.5°C (control) or were exposed to 39.5°C (Group II) or 40.5°C (Group III) for 2 h once every day throughout in vitro maturation (IVM), fertilization (IVF) and culture (IVC). Percentage of oocytes that developed to 8-cell, 16-cell or blastocyst stage was lower (p < 0.05) and the number of apoptotic nuclei was higher (p < 0.05) for Group III > Group II > controls. At both 8-16-cell and blastocyst stages, relative mRNA abundance of stress-related genes HSP 70.1 and HSP 70.2 and pro-apoptotic genes CASPASE-3, BID and BAX was higher (p < 0.05) in Groups III and II than that in controls with the exception of stress-related gene HSF1. Expression level of anti-apoptotic genes BCL-XL and MCL-1 was also higher (p < 0.05) in Groups III and II than that in controls at both 8-16-cell and blastocyst stages. Among the genes related to embryonic development, at 8-16-cell stage, the expression level of GDF9 was higher (p < 0.05) in Group III than that in controls, whereas that of GLUT1, ZAR1 and BMP15 was not significantly different among the three groups. At the blastocyst stage, relative mRNA abundance of GLUT1 and GDF9 was higher (p < 0.05) in Group II than that in controls, whereas that of ZAR-1 and BMP15 was not affected. The results of this study demonstrate that exposure of buffalo oocytes and embryos to elevated temperatures for duration of time that is physiologically relevant severely compromises their developmental competence, increases apoptosis and affects stress-, apoptosis- and development-related genes. PMID:23581430
Yadav, A; Singh, K P; Singh, M K; Saini, N; Palta, P; Manik, R S; Singla, S K; Upadhyay, R C; Chauhan, M S
Endometritis is one of the leading causes of infertility in the cattle and buffalo and innate immune mechanism plays an important role in clearing the infection. In this regard, endometrial expression and function of Toll Like Receptors (TLR) are focus of investigation in the recent years. In this study, we report the transcriptional profiles of TLR4 and 5 in the buffalo endometrium during the follicular, early, mid and late luteal phases of estrous cycle and 'subclinical and clinical endometritis' and also at true anestrus (n?=?10 for each stage) using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR as they are the ligands for the lipopolysaccharide and flagellin components of E.coli, the most common cause of postpartum endometritis. We found a significant positive correlation between TLR4 and 5 in all the groups (r?=?0.696-0.803; P?0.05) except late luteal phase (r?=?0.522; P?>?0.05). Chi-square analysis showed that the qualitative expression of endometrial TLR4 and 5 transcripts was significantly associated with the phase of estrous cycle and also with uterine infection (P?0.05). Further, using true anestrus category as a calibrator group, relative quantitation of TLR4 and 5 revealed that the transcriptional expression of TLR4 and 5 genes were highly upregulated (24.6-83.3 folds) during endometritis conditions and moderately upregulated during mid-luteal phase (6.8-16.2) of the estrous cycle (P?0.05). The results suggested a role of progesterone in the expression of TLR4 and 5. PMID:24531997
Ajevar, Ganesan; Muthu, Sankar; Sarkar, Mihir; Kumar, Harendra; Das, Goutam Kumar; Krishnaswamy, Narayanan
The expression pattern of glucose metabolism genes (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase [G6PDH], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], and pyruvate dehydrogenase [PDH]) were studied in buffalo in vitro-matured oocytes and in vitro-produced embryos cultured under different glucose concentrations (0 mM, 1.5 mM, 5.6 mM, and 10 mM) during in vitro maturation of oocytes and culture of IVF produced embryos. The expression of the genes varied significantly over the cleavage stages under different glucose concentrations. Developmental rate of embryos was highest under a constant glucose level (5.6 mM) throughout during maturation of oocytes and embryo culture. Expression pattern of glucose metabolism genes under optimum glucose level (5.6 mM) indicated that glycolysis is the major pathway of glucose metabolism during oocyte maturation and early embryonic stages (pre-maternal to zygotic transition [MZT]) and shifts to oxidative phosphorylation during post-MZT stages in buffalo embryos. Higher glucose level (10 mM) caused abrupt changes in gene expression and resulted in shifting toward anaerobic metabolism of glucose during post-MZT stages. This resulted in decreased development rate of embryos during post-MZT stages. High expression of LDH and PDH in the control groups (0 mM glucose) indicated that in absence of glucose, embryos try to use available pyruvate and lactate sources, but succumb to handle the post-MZT energy requirement, resulting to poor development rate. Expression pattern of G6PDH during oocyte maturation as well early embryonic development was found predictive of quality and development competence of oocytes/ embryos. PMID:23992643
Kumar, Parveen; Rajput, Sandeep; Verma, Arpana; De, Sachinandan; Datta, Tirtha Kumar
The objectives of this study were to determine the individual and herd-level prevalence and genotype of Cryptosporidium and to identify putative risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium spp. infections in water buffaloes in northeast Thailand. Fecal samples from 600 water buffaloes of 287 farms in six provinces were collected and tested using DMSO-modified acid-fast staining and polymerase chain reaction. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium infections in buffaloes was 5.7 and 8.7% among individual animals and herds, respectively. The provinces with highest infected Cryptosporidium were located in the Sakon Nakhon Basin in the northern part of the region. In addition, higher herd prevalence was observed among farms with more than five buffaloes (30%) than those with five or less animals (16.2%). Thirty (88.2%) of the 34 Cryptosporidium-positive samples were Cryptosporidium parvum and four (11.8%) were Cryptosporidium ryanae. PMID:24233462
Inpankaew, Tawin; Jiyipong, Tawisa; Wongpanit, Kannika; Pinyopanuwat, Nongnuch; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Kengradomkij, Chanya; Xuan, Xuenan; Igarashi, Ikuo; Xiao, Lihua; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn
A RP-HPLC method, developed for the separation and quantification of the most common genetic variants of bovine milk proteins, was successfully applied to the analysis of water buffalo milk. All the most common buffalo casein and whey proteins fractions, as well as their genetic variants, were detected and separated simultaneously in 40 min. Purified buffalo proteins were used as calibration standards and a total of 536 individual milk samples were analysed for protein composition. ?(S1)-, ?(S2)-, ??-, and ?-casein were 32.2%, 15.8%, 36.5%, and 15.5%, respectively, of total casein content, whereas content of ?-Lactoglobulin was approximately 1.3 times as high as that of ?-Lactalbumin. The existence of a polymorphism of ?-casein was demonstrated in Mediterranean water buffalo and ?(S1)- and ?-casein genetic variants were successfully detected by RP-HPLC. PMID:23122071
Bonfatti, Valentina; Giantin, Mery; Rostellato, Roberta; Dacasto, Mauro; Carnier, Paolo
High roughage diet causes more methane emissions; however, the total methanogen abundance is not influenced by roughage proportion. Technologies to reduce methane emissions are lacking, and development of inhibitors and vaccines that mitigate rumen-derived methane by targeting methanogens relies on present knowledge of the methanogens. In this work, we have investigated molecular diversity of rumen methanogens of Surti buffalo. DNA from rumen fluid was extracted, and 16S rRNA encoding genes were amplified using methanogen specific primer to generate 16S rDNA clone libraries. Seventy-six clones were randomly selected and analysed by RFLP resulting in 21 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). BLAST analysis with available sequences in database revealed sequences of 13 OTUs (55 clones) showing similarity with Methanomicrobium sp, 3 OTUs (15 clones) with Methanobrevibacter sp. The remaining 5 OTUs (6 clones) belonged to uncultured archaea. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that methanogenic communities found in the library were clustered in the order of Methanomicrobiales (18 OTUs) and Methanobacteriales (3 OTUs). The population of Methanomicrobiales, Methanobacteriales, and Methanococcales were also observed, accounting for 1.94%, 0.72%, and 0.47% of total archaea, respectively.
Singh, K. M.; Tripathi, A. K.; Pandya, P. R.; Parnerkar, S.; Kothari, R. K.; Joshi, C. G.
Water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and Bali cattle (Bos sondaicus) occupy production niches in much of the developing world's agricultural systems which in the developed world are occupied by Bos indicus and Bos taurus. Both the former species are better-adapted to these environments and systems. Both depend on population survival strategies different from each other's and from those of B. indicus and B. taurus. Water buffalo rely on longevity and late sexual maturity, while Bali cattle rely on high conception rates and sacrifice of juveniles when the population is under stress. Knowledge of these different strategies will help in formulation of management strategies for maximising nett reproductive rates. This paper briefly describes each species, reviews its survival strategies and summarises the available data on the reproductive characteristics of each. PMID:1304664
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) discriminate microbial pathogens and induce T-cell responses of appropriate effector phenotype accordingly. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), in part, mediate this microbial recognition and differentiation while the development of T-cell effector functions critically depends on the release of Th1- or Th2- type cytokines. In the present study, buffalo PBMCs were stimulated under in vitro culture conditions by Bacillus subtilis cell wall petidoglycan, a TLR2 ligand, in a dose-and time- dependent manner. The expression of TLR2 as well as the subsequent differential induction of the Th1 and Th2 type cytokines was measured. Stimulation was analyzed across five doses of peptidoglycan (10 ?/ml, 20 ?g/ml, 30 ?g/ml, 40 ?g/ml and 50 ?g/ml) for 3 h, 12 h, 24 h and 36 h incubation periods. We observed the induction of TLR2 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner and the peptidoglycan induced tolerance beyond 30 ?g/ml dose at all incubation periods. The correlation between peptidoglycan stimulation and TLR2 induction was found positive at all doses and for all incubation periods. Increased production of all the cytokines was observed at low doses for 3 h incubation, but the expression of IL-4 was relatively higher than IL-12 at the higher antigen doses, indicating tailoring towards Th2 response. At 12 h incubation, there was a pronounced decrease in IL-4 and IL-10 expression relative to IL-12 in a dose- dependent manner, indicating skewing to Th1 polarization. The expression of IL-12 was highest for all doses across all the incubation intervals at 24 h incubation, indicating Th1 polarization. The relative expression of TNF-? and IFN-? was also higher while that of IL-4 and IL-10 showed a decrease. For 36 h incubation, at low doses, relative increase in the expression of IL-4 and IL-10 was observed which decreased at higher doses, as did the expression of all other cytokines. The exhaustion of cytokine production at 36 h indicated that PBMCs became refractory to further stimulation. It can be concluded from this study that the cytokine response to sPGN initially was of Th2 type which skews, more pronouncedly, to Th1 type with time till the cells become refractory to further stimulation.
Shah, Syed M.; Ravi Kumar, G. V. P. P. S.; Brah, G. S.; Santra, Lakshman; Pawar, Hitesh
We investigated the use of duck egg yolk (DEY), Guinea fowl egg yolk (GFEY) and Indian indigenous hen (Desi) egg yolk (IDEY) in extender for improving the post-thaw quality of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa, and compared it with commercial hen egg yolk (CHEY; control). For this purpose, two consecutive ejaculates of semen from each of two Nili–Ravi buffalo bulls
S. M. H. Andrabi; M. S. Ansari; N. Ullah; M. Anwar; A. Mehmood; S. Akhter
Government agencies responsible for pest animal management often assume that their views and assumptions about the benefits of control are widely shared, especially if these pests are exotics. This was certainly the case when tens of thousands of feral Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) were to be culled in Australia's Kakadu National Park as part of a national Brucellosis and Tuberculosis Eradication Campaign (BTEC). Implementation of the campaign sparked considerable dispute between officials and aboriginal and non-aboriginal interests about the risks posed by buffalo relative to their value as a potential resource. Drawing upon a variety of written and oral sources relating to the era of buffalo control in Kakadu, this paper critically analyzes the way in which detriment caused by buffalo was appraised and managed under the BTEC program. In particular, the paper focuses the ways in which the BTEC program affected aboriginal people in Kakadu, who view buffalo as a source of customary and economic benefit as well as a source of change on their lands. The paper then considers what lessons can be learned from the BTEC for the development of sensible feral management objectives and strategies. It is argued that effective management of feral animals such as buffalo will require environmental managers to engage with local people and involve them in the definition and management of pest animal damage and methods of control. PMID:14986894
Robinson, Cathy J; Whitehead, Peter
Although the largest buffalo herd in the occident is in the north region of Brazil, few studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of selected parasitic diseases in buffalo herd. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil. A total of 4796 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and simultaneously analyzed by the IFAT and ELISA. The serological prevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 41.3% and 55.5% in ELISA and 35.7% and 48.8% in IFAT, respectively. The overall prevalence of A. marginale, B. bovis, and B. bigemina was 63%, 25%, and 21% by ELISA and 50.0%, 22.5%, and 18.8% by IFAT, respectively. This study shows valuable information regarding the serological survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil which will likely be very beneficial for the management and control programs of this disease.
da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; dos Santos, Priscilla Nunes; de Santana Castro, Gustavo Nunes; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Barbosa, Jose Diomedes
Toxocara vitulorum, a parasite of the small intestine of cattle and water buffaloes, is mainly acquired by calves via the colostrum\\/milk from infected cows. To understand the development of immune responses in calves, antibody levels to a soluble extract antigen (Ex) from T. vitulorum infective larvae were measured by an indirect ELISA with sera of 15 buffalo calves, which were
W. A Starke-Buzetti; R. Z Machado; M. C Zocoller-Seno
NEVES, M.F.; STARKE-BUZETTI, W.A. (Populational alteration of cells in the intestinal intraepithelial layer and morphological changes of the intestinal wall elicited by Toxocara vitulorum infection in buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis)). Alteração populacional de células na camada intraepitelial e alterações morfológicas da parede intestinal causada pela infecção por Toxocara vitulorum em bezerros búfalos (Bubalus Bubalis). Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, v.
MARIA FRANCISCA NEVES; WILMA A. STARKE-BUZETTI
This study was undertaken in order to evaluate the effect of oocyte source (live animals and abattoir ovaries) on subsequent embryo development in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Cow ovaries were also collected as oocyte donors for in vitro embryo production (IVEP).Three hundred thirty-eight oocytes were recovered by ovum pick up (OPU, Group A) from 8 pluriparous buffalo cows, while 1127 and
Gianluca Neglia; Bianca Gasparrini; Viviana Caracciolo di Brienza; Rossella Di Palo; Giuseppe Campanile; Giorgio Antonio Presicce; Luigi Zicarelli
We cloned and sequenced a 1378 bp BamHI satellite DNA fraction from the water buffalo Bubalus bubalis and have studied its expression in different tissues. The GC-rich sequences of the resultant contig pDS5 crosshybridize only with bovid DNA and are not conserved evolutionarily. Typing of buffalo genomic DNA using pDS5 with several restriction enzymes revealed multilocus monomorphic bands. Similar typing of cattle, buffalo, goat, sheep, and gaur genomic DNA revealed variations in copy number and allele length giving rise to species-specific band patterns. Expression study of pDS5 in bubaline samples by RNA slot-blot, Northern blot, and RT-PCR showed various levels of signal in all the somatic tissues and germline cells except heart. A GenBank database search revealed homology of pDS5 sequences in the 5' region from nt 1-1261 with collagen gene. An AluI typing analysis of DNA from bubaline semen samples showed consistent loss of two bands. The presence of corresponding bands in somatic tissues suggests a sequence modulation within the pDS5 array in meiocytes during spermatogenesis, which is restored in the somatic cells after fertilization. Modulation of the satellite-tagged transcribing sequence in the meiocytes may be a mechanism of its inactivation. PMID:11747610
Chattopadhyay, M; Gangadharan, S; Kapur, V; Azfer, M A; Prakash, B; Ali, S
The present paper reports the results of a cross-sectional survey aimed at obtaining up-to-date information on the spatial distribution of different groups and\\/or species of helminths in water buffaloes from central Italy. Geographical information systems (GIS) and spatial analysis were used to plan the sampling procedures, to display the results as maps and to detect spatial clusters of helminths in
Laura Rinaldi; Vincenzo Musella; Vincenzo Veneziano; Renato U. Condoleo; Giuseppe Cringoli
Cornu Bubali (water buffalo horn, WBH) has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for thousands of years. In the present study, three peptides with antioxidant properties were purified from aqueous extract of Cornu Bubali (water buffalo horn, WBH) by consecutive chromatographic methods including gel filtration chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The sequences of the three peptides were identified to be Gln-Tyr-Asp-Gln-Gly-Val (WBH-1, 708Da), Tyr-Glu-Asp-Cys-Thr-Asp-Cys-Gly-Asn (WBH-2, 1018Da) and Ala-Ala-Asp-Asn-Ala-Asn-Glu-Leu-Phe-Pro-Pro-Asn (WBH-3, 1271Da) by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-LIFT-TOF/TOF MS). The antioxidant activity of these peptides was tested using 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay directly. Methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay were also used to evaluate the protection of peptides against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) induced injury. The results showed that these peptides could reduce the DPPH radical and protect rat cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (rCMECs) against H(2)O(2)-induced injury, thus demonstrating that these peptides had antioxidant activity. These results suggest that WBH-1, WBH-2 and WBH-3, isolated from the aqueous extract of water buffalo horn are natural antioxidants and may contribute to the efficacy of WBH. PMID:20206218
Liu, Rui; Wang, Min; Duan, Jin-Ao; Guo, Jian-Ming; Tang, Yu-Ping
The lousicidal and repellent effects of five essential oils were investigated for the first time against the buffalo louse, Haematopinus tuberculatus, and flies infesting water buffaloes in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt.For the in vitro studies, filter paper contact bioassays were used to test the oils and their lethal activities were compared with that of d-phenothrin. Four minutes post-treatment, the median lethal
Hanem F. Khater; Mohamed Y. Ramadan; Reham S. El-Madawy
Water buffaloes were vaccinated three times with 10,000 Schistosoma japonicum cercariae irradiated with ultraviolet (uv) light at a dose of 400 microW x min/cm2. The irradiation was performed with cheap, simple, and portable equipment in a rural area of Hubei Province (People's Republic of China). A challenge infection of 1000 untreated cercariae was given to six vaccinated and six naive control buffaloes, while two vaccinated animals were not challenged. The experiment was terminated 6 weeks after the challenge. Control animals had lost body weight and harbored a mean of 110 worms and 37 eggs per gram of liver. The vaccinated animals gained weight after the challenge and developed 89% resistance to infection with S. japonicum. Since schistosomiasis japonica is nowadays transmitted in China predominantly by domestic livestock, a uv-attenuated cercarial vaccine for bovines may contribute to the control of this disease.
Shi, Y.E.; Jiang, C.F.; Han, J.J.; Li, Y.L.; Ruppel, A. (Tongii Medical Univ., Wuhan, Hubei Province (China))
The ongoing global spread of "exotic" farm animals, such as water buffaloes, which carry their native sets of viruses, may bear unknown risks for the animals, into whose ecological niches the former are introduced and vice versa. Here, we report on the occurrence of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) on Swiss farms, where "exotic" water buffaloes were kept together with "native" animals, i.e. cattle, sheep, and goats. In the first farm with 56 water buffaloes, eight cases of MCF due to ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) were noted, whereas additional ten water buffaloes were subclinically infected with either OvHV-2 or caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2). On the second farm, 13 water buffaloes were infected with CpHV-2 and two of those succumbed to MCF. In neither farm, any of the two viruses were detected in cattle, but the Macaviruses were present at high prevalence among their original host species, sheep and goats, respectively. On the third farm, sheep were kept well separated from water buffaloes and OvHV-2 was not transmitted to the buffaloes, despite of high prevalence of the virus among the sheep. Macavirus DNA was frequently detected in the nasal secretions of virus-positive animals and in one instance OvHV-2 was transmitted vertically to an unborn water buffalo calf. Thus, water buffaloes seem to be more susceptible than cattle to infection with either Macavirus; however, MCF did not develop as frequently. Therefore, water buffaloes seem to represent an interesting intermediate-type host for Macaviruses. Consequently, water buffaloes in their native, tropic environments may be vulnerable and endangered to viruses that originate from seemingly healthy, imported sheep and goats. PMID:24386255
Stahel, Anina B J; Baggenstos, Rhea; Engels, Monika; Friess, Martina; Ackermann, Mathias
Studies were conducted at the Livestock Farm Rakh Ghulama District, Bhakhar, in an arid region of Pakistan to determine the translocation of sodium (Na) from soil, forage, feed and water on which the animals (buffaloes) were fed. Samples of feed, water, forage, soil and animal's blood, milk, urine and faeces were collected and analyzed for Na+ during summer and winter
M. Yasin Ashraf; Ameer Khan
Purpose To optimize In vitro maturation (IVM) of quality oocytes for embryo production through IVF and SCNT.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Buffalo oocytes were in vitro matured in the presence of the pokeweed lectin (Phytolacca americana), a potent lymphocyte mitogen. Lectin was supplemented\\u000a in TCM + 10% FBS at the doses of 0, 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 40 ?g\\/ml and cumulus expansion and
Alok Pandey; Neelam Gupta; S. C. Gupta
Embryonic stem (ES) cells de- rived from mammalian embryos have the ability to form any terminally differentiated cell of the body. We herein describe production of parthenogenetic buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) blastocysts and subsequent isolation of an ES cell line. Established parthenogenetic ES (PGES) cells exhibited diploid karyotype and high telomerase activity. PGES cells showed remarkable long-term proliferative capacity providing the
Hathaitip Sritanaudomchai; Kanok Pavasuthipaisit; Yindee Kitiyanant; Piengchai Kupradinun; Shoukhrat Mitalipov; Thanit Kusamran
Serum samples from 200 dairy cattle and 200 beef water buffaloes were collected in southern Vietnam during May to September 1995. The sera were analysed for antibodies to Neospora caninum by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the indirect fluorescent antibody test, and for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by the direct agglutination test. Significant levels of N. caninum antibodies were detected
L. T. T Huong; B.-L Ljungström; A Uggla; C Björkman
The report includes four papers titled, 'Feeding Dairy Cattle Economically', 'Feeding of Buffaloes', 'Green Feeding to Cross-Bred Cows and Buffaloes for Milk Production' and 'Silage Making'. Subjects covered are protein, water and minerals, roughage, meta...
V. D. Mudgal S. P. Arora C. K. Kurar
Differential expression dynamics of Growth differentiation factor9 (GDF9) and Bone morphogenetic factor15 (BMP15) mRNA transcripts during in vitro maturation of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) cumulus-oocyte complexes.
The present study has evaluated the association of growth differentiation factor9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein15 (BMP15) mRNA expression in cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) of buffalo ovary during in vitro maturation (IVM). GDF9 and BMP15 are expressed specifically in mammalian oocytes and also participate in cumulus-oocyte crosstalk. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) technique was applied to investigate the relative abundance (RA) of GDF9 and BMP15 mRNA transcripts throughout the IVM process. Relative mRNA expression pattern of these specific genes were assessed in oocytes and cumulus cells at 0, 6, 12 and 24 h of in vitro culture. Our results revealed that RA of GDF9 during different hours of IVM showed significant reduction between 0 h and 24 h of maturation in oocytes and BMP15 transcript increased significantly (P<0.05) between 6 h and 12 h and decreased again between 12 h and 24. In cumulus cells, GDF9 remained stable during IVM upto 12 h of maturation and decreased significantly between 12 h and 24 h of maturation. Conversely, significant reduction of BMP15 was observed between 0 h and 6 h, stayed stable upto 12 h and became undetectable at 24 h of maturation. In conclusion, these two genes were differentially expressed during the period of oocyte maturation process and notably, BMP15 expression pattern is associated specifically with the period of cumulus cell expansion. PMID:23724366
Kathirvel, Muralidharan; Soundian, Eswari; Kumanan, Vijayarani
Objective To determine the prevalence rate of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk in Iran. Methods From September 2010 to December 2011 a total of 260 bulk milk samples including 85 bovine, 37 camel, 34 water buffalo, 56 ovine and 48 caprine bulk milk samples were collected from commercial dairy herds, in Fars and Khuzestan provinces, Iran and were evaluated for the presence of Listeria species using cultural method and the PCR assay. Results Using cultural method, 19 samples (7.3%) were positive for Listeria spp. The highest prevalence of Listeria was found in raw water buffalo milk (11.8%), followed by raw bovine milk (10.6%), raw ovine milk (7.1%), and raw caprine milk (4.2%) samples. All 37 camel milk samples from 20 camel breeding farms were negative for Listeria spp. The overall prevalence of Listeria was 7.3%, in which Listeria innocua was the most recovered species (4.2%); the remaining isolates were Listeria monocytogenes (1.9%), Listeria ivanovii (0.08%) and Listeria seeligari (0.04%). The PCR assay could identify 8 Listeria-contaminated milk samples that were negative using the cultural method. Conclusions The results presented in this study indicate the potential risk of infection with Listeria in people consuming raw and unpasteurized milk.
Rahimi, Ebrahim; Momtaz, Hassan; Behzadnia, Asma; Baghbadorani, Zeinab Torki
Water buffalo and yellow cattle are the two of the most important natural reservoir hosts for Schistosoma japonicum in endemic areas of China, although their susceptibility differs, with water buffalo being less conducive to the growth and development of S. japonicum. Results from the current study show that the general morphology and ultrastructure of adult schistosomes derived from the two hosts also differed. Using high-throughput microarray technology, we also compared the gene expression profiles of adult schistosomes derived from the two hosts. We identified genes that were differentially expressed in worms from the two natural hosts. Further analysis revealed that genes associated with protein kinase and phosphatase, the stimulus response, and lipid and nucleotide metabolism were overexpressed, whereas genes associated with reproduction, anatomical structure morphogenesis and multifunctional motif were underexpressed in schistosomes from water buffalo. These differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in nucleotide, energy, lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, transcription, transport and signaling pathway. This suggests that they are key molecules affecting the survival and development of schistosomes in different natural host species. The results of this study add to current understanding of the interplay between parasites and their natural hosts, and provide valuable information for the screening of vaccine candidates or new drug targets against schistosomiasis in the natural reservoir hosts in endemic areas.
Yang, Jianmei; Feng, Xingang; Fu, Zhiqiang; Yuan, Chunxiu; Hong, Yang; Shi, Yaojun; Zhang, Min; Liu, Jinming; Li, Hao; Lu, Ke; Lin, Jiaojiao
Water buffalo industry has become a profitable activity worldwide, including the Northeast of Argentina (NEA). However, research on diseases affecting this species is scarce. The aim of the present study was to detect antibodies against Brucella abortus, Leptospira spp., Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, and Sarcocystis spp. in 500 water buffalo cows from five ranches (100 animals each) in the NEA. Serum samples were tested for B. abortus by fluorescence polarization assay, Leptospira spp. by microagglutination test, and N. caninum, T. gondii, and Sarcocystis spp. by indirect fluorescent antibody tests. Overall, the proportion of seropositive animals was 6.4, 22.2, 42.2, 25.4, and 50.8 % for brucellosis, leptospirosis, neosporosis, toxoplasmosis, and sarcocystosis, respectively. The proportion of seropositive animals for all diseases was statistically different among herds (p?0.05). Statistical differences were also detected among age groups for brucellosis and neosporosis (p?0.05). The detection of specific antibodies to B. abortus, Leptospira spp., and several Apicomplexa protozoans in water buffaloes in the NEA is reported in this study. PMID:23765549
Konrad, José L; Campero, Lucía M; Caspe, Gastón S; Brihuega, Bibiana; Draghi, Graciela; Moore, Dadin P; Crudeli, Gustavo A; Venturini, María C; Campero, Carlos M
BLAD is an autosomal recessive genetic disease that affects Holstein-Friesian (HF) cattle worldwide. It is a disease characterized by a reduced expression of the adhesion molecules on neutrophils. The disease is caused by a mutation that replaces adenine at 383 with guanine, which causes an amino acid change from aspartic acid to glycine. Blood samples and a few semen samples were collected from 1250 phenotypically normal individuals, including HF (N=377), HF crossbred (N=334), Jersey (105), other breeds of cattle (N=160) and water buffalo Bubalus bubalis (N=274) belonging to various artificial insemination stations, bull mother farms (BMFs) and embryo transfer (ET) centres across the country. PCR-RFLP was performed to detect a point mutation in CD18, surface molecules of neutrophils. The results indicate that out of 1250 cattle and buffaloes tested for BLAD, 13 HF purebreds out of 377 and 10 HF crossbreds out of 334 appear to be BLAD carriers. In the HF and HF crossbred population, the percentage of BLAD carriers was estimated as 3.23%. The condition is alarming as the mutant gene has already entered the HF crossbred cattle population and therefore, the population of HF and its crossbreds needs regular screening to avoid the risk of spreading BLAD in the breeding cattle population of India. PMID:17495349
Patel, Rajesh K; Singh, Krishna M; Soni, Kalpesh J; Chauhan, Jenabhai B; Sambasiva Rao, Krothapalli R S
The lousicidal and repellent effects of five essential oils were investigated for the first time against the buffalo louse, Haematopinus tuberculatus, and flies infesting water buffaloes in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt. For the in vitro studies, filter paper contact bioassays were used to test the oils and their lethal activities were compared with that of d-phenothrin. Four minutes post-treatment, the median lethal concentration, LC50, values were 2.74, 7.28, 12.35, 18.67 and 22.79% for camphor (Cinnamomum camphora), onion (Allium cepa), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) and rosemary oils (Rosmarinus officinalis), respectively, whereas for d-phenothrin, it was 1.17%. The lethal time (50) (LT50) values were 0.89, 2.75, 15.39, 21.32, 11.60 and 1.94 min after treatment with 7.5% camphor, onion, peppermint, chamomile, rosemary and d-phenothrin, respectively. All the materials used except rosemary, which was not applied, were ovicidal to the eggs of H. tuberculatus. Despite the results of the in vitro assays, the in vivo treatments revealed that the pediculicidal activity was more pronounced with oils. All treated lice were killed after 0.5-2 min, whereas with d-phenothrin, 100% mortality was reached only after 120 min. The number of lice infesting buffaloes was significantly reduced 3, 6, 4, 6 and 9 days after treatment with camphor, peppermint, chamomile, onion, and d-phenothrin, respectively. Moreover, the oils and d-phenothrin significantly repelled flies, Musca domestica, Stomoxys calcitrans, Haematobia irritans and Hippobosca equina, for 6 and 3 days post-treatment, respectively. No adverse effects were noted on either animals or pour-on operators after exposure to the applied materials. Consequently, some Egyptian essential oils show potential for the development of new, speedy and safe lousicides and insect repellents for controlling lice and flies which infest water buffaloes. PMID:19596520
Khater, Hanem F; Ramadan, Mohamed Y; El-Madawy, Reham S
This study was designed to determine effect of various plant protein sources in high-quality feed block (HQFB) on feed intake,\\u000a rumen fermentation, and microbial population in swamp buffalo. Four rumen-fistulated swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were randomly assigned according to a 4?×?4 Latin square design. Four kinds of plant protein sources (coarse rice bran (CRB),\\u000a cassava hay (CH), Phaseolus calcaratus hay,
Suban Foiklang; Metha Wanapat; Wetchasit Toburan
The diameter of the preovulatory follicle (POF) and its effects on subsequent corpus luteum (CL) size and conception were studied in 38 lactating indigenous cycling buffaloes in the Mymensingh district of Bangladesh. Body condition score (BCS) at estrus was estimated for the buffaloes. The buffaloes were synchronized with two injections of a synthetic analogue of PGF2? administered 11 days apart. Transrectal ultrasonography was carried out at estrus and on days 5, 9, 12 and 16 post ovulation to determine the POF and successive CL size. Pregnancy was confirmed by ultrasound examination on day 40-45 post ovulation. Twenty one (55.3%) buffaloes were diagnosed as pregnant. The conception rates of thin (BCS ?2.0), good (BCS 2.5-3.5) and fat (BCS glt;3.5) buffaloes were 7.7, 88.2 and 62.5% (?² = 19.54; P<0.05), respectively. The mean diameter of the POF at estrus was larger (P<0.01) in buffaloes that ultimately were diagnosed as pregnant compared with their nonpregnant counterparts (13.7 ± 0.3 vs. 11.2 ± 0.5 mm, respectively). The conception rates of buffaloes having small (9 to ? 12 mm), medium (>12 to ?14 mm) and large (>14 to 16 mm) POFs at estrus were 9.1, 70.0 and 85.7% (?² = 13.87, P<0.01), respectively. On day 5 post ovulation, CL size was positively correlated (CL: r=.74, P<0.01) with POF diameter. Retrospective analysis revealed that on day 5 post ovulation, the pregnant buffaloes had higher (P<0.01) post ovulation CL sizes than their nonpregnant counterparts (15.6 vs. 11.8 mm). Similarly, on day 9 post ovulation, the difference in CL size (14.3 vs. 13.6 mm) between pregnant and nonpregnant buffaloes was significant (P<0.05). In conclusion, the diameter of the POF in buffaloes has a positive impact on the size of the post ovulation CL and conception. PMID:22156378
Rahman, Md Saidur; Shohag, Abu Said; Kamal, Md Mostofa; Bari, Farida Yeasmin; Shamsuddin, Mohammed
The aim of this work was to study the yeast populations and the main hygienic-sanitary microbial indicators in water buffalo mozzarella produced and commercialized in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Forty-two water buffalo mozzarella samples were purchased from retail outlets in Belo Horizonte. In addition, five samples of consecutive starter cultures, curd before acidification, acidified curd and mozzarella were collected at an industry in the city of Oliveira. Only three of the five water samples analyzed were suitable for consumption according to Brazilian sanitary standards. Four milk samples were highly contaminated with fecal coliforms, and did not meet the minimal hygienic-sanitary standards according to Brazilian regulations. Only one sample of buffalo muzzarela purchased from retail outlets exceeded the limit for coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Eleven samples showed counts of thermotolerant coliforms higher than 5 × 103 CFU.g?1, but still lower than the maximum permitted by the Brazilian laws. Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were not isolated. Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida lusitaniae and C. parapsilosis were the prevalent yeast species isolated from cheese. Among samples from the production stages, the acidified curd presented the highest numbers of yeasts, with C. catenulata being the most frequent species isolated. Some opportunistic yeast species such as C. guilliermondii, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. lusitaniae, C. catenulata, C. rugosa and C. krusei occurred in the mozzarella cheese samples analyzed. The mozzarella cheese presented a low microbial load as compared to other cheese already studied, and the yeast biota included species typical of cheese and also opportunistic pathogens.
Facchin, Susanne; Barbosa, Anne C.; Carmo, Luiz S.; Silva, Maria Crisolita C.; Oliveira, Afonso L.; Morais, Paula B.; Rosa, Carlos A.
The aim of this work was to study the yeast populations and the main hygienic-sanitary microbial indicators in water buffalo mozzarella produced and commercialized in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Forty-two water buffalo mozzarella samples were purchased from retail outlets in Belo Horizonte. In addition, five samples of consecutive starter cultures, curd before acidification, acidified curd and mozzarella were collected at an industry in the city of Oliveira. Only three of the five water samples analyzed were suitable for consumption according to Brazilian sanitary standards. Four milk samples were highly contaminated with fecal coliforms, and did not meet the minimal hygienic-sanitary standards according to Brazilian regulations. Only one sample of buffalo muzzarela purchased from retail outlets exceeded the limit for coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Eleven samples showed counts of thermotolerant coliforms higher than 5 × 10(3) CFU.g(-1), but still lower than the maximum permitted by the Brazilian laws. Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were not isolated. Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida lusitaniae and C. parapsilosis were the prevalent yeast species isolated from cheese. Among samples from the production stages, the acidified curd presented the highest numbers of yeasts, with C. catenulata being the most frequent species isolated. Some opportunistic yeast species such as C. guilliermondii, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. lusitaniae, C. catenulata, C. rugosa and C. krusei occurred in the mozzarella cheese samples analyzed. The mozzarella cheese presented a low microbial load as compared to other cheese already studied, and the yeast biota included species typical of cheese and also opportunistic pathogens. PMID:24516436
Facchin, Susanne; Barbosa, Anne C; Carmo, Luiz S; Silva, Maria Crisolita C; Oliveira, Afonso L; Morais, Paula B; Rosa, Carlos A
The virulence of three Trypanosoma evansi isolates in Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao water buffaloes was compared determining the mortality rate, parasitemia level, clinical signs, and lesions on mice. A total of 51 inbred Balb/c mice (5-6 weeks old) were used and divided into two sets. Set A had three groups corresponding to three trypanosomes isolates (Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao) with seven mice each whose parasitemia level, clinical signs, and lesions were noted at necropsy. Set B had three groups corresponding to the three isolates with ten mice each whose mortality was monitored. Each infected mouse was inoculated with 0.2 ml of T. evansi intraperitoneally and blood was examined under high power magnification. Their parasitemia level was determined using "Rapid Matching Method". Dead mice were subjected to necropsy and the lungs, liver, spleen, brain and heart were subjected to histopathological processing. Results showed that the mortality rate was highest at Day 3 for the Visayas isolates (70%), while at Day 5 for Luzon (90%) and Mindanao (70%) isolates. The parasitemia level of Visayas isolates (1×10(8.7)) reached the earliest peak at Day 4 while Luzon isolates (1×10(9)) at Day 6 and Mindanao isolates (1×10(8.7)) at Day 8. Statistical analysis using Least significant difference (LSD) revealed significant difference among treatment means at Days 2 and 4. All of the affected mice showed rough hair coat, decreased body weight, and decreased packed cell volume. The most obvious gross lesions observed were pale liver with petechiations and pale muscles. Histopathological examination revealed depletion of the red pulp and extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen. Congestion, intralesional trypanosomes in blood vessel and extramedullary hematopoiesis were observed in the liver. In the lungs non-specific lesions observed were pulmonary edema, congestion and hemosiderosis. PMID:22154978
Verdillo, John Christian M; Lazaro, Jonathan V; Abes, Nancy S; Mingala, Claro N
Background Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is an autosomal recessive hereditary pigmentation disorder affecting humans and several other animal species. Oculocutaneous albinism was studied in a herd of Murrah buffalo to determine the clinical presentation and genetic basis of albinism in this species. Results Clinical examinations and pedigree analysis were performed in an affected herd, and wild-type and OCA tyrosinase mRNA sequences were obtained. The main clinical findings were photophobia and a lack of pigmentation of the hair, skin, horns, hooves, mucosa, and iris. The results of segregation analysis suggest that this disease is acquired through recessive inheritance. In the OCA buffalo, a single-base substitution was detected at nucleotide 1,431 (G to A), which leads to the conversion of tryptophan into a stop codon at residue 477. Conclusion This premature stop codon produces an inactive protein, which is responsible for the OCA buffalo phenotype. These findings will be useful for future studies of albinism in buffalo and as a possible model to study diseases caused by a premature stop codon.
The present study was undertaken to find out the association of certain risk factors with the positive SCCIT (single comparative cervical intradermal tuberculin) test in water buffaloes at Faisalabad and Okara, Pakistan. Seventy-six herds (697 buffaloes) at Faisalabad and 56 (395 buffaloes) at Okara were included in the study. The buffaloes were screened through SCCIT Test. Positive reaction to SCCIT test was recorded in 14% of herds and in 3% of buffaloes. The herds positive for this test were 18% when herds with less than 10 animals were excluded from the analysis and these were 19% when herds with less than 10 buffaloes were excluded. The results of logistic analysis (crude and adjusted) revealed the association of lactating status of buffaloes (OR=1.8) and the presence of cattle at the farm (OR=2-4) with positive SCCIT test. After controlling for the farm, the risk of a positive skin test was 1.5 times higher if we change the location of the animal. Similarly, the controlled analysis (for the farm, breed and other variables) revealed an increased risk (OR=1.1) of a positive skin test with the increase in cattle at the farm. The breed controlled stratified analysis showed the association of a number of cattle at the farm with a positive skin test. It can be concluded from the study that the prevalence of tuberculosis on the basis of a positive skin test is higher at herd level and lower at animal level. Further the risk of a positive skin test is higher when cattle are present at the farm. PMID:20412784
Javed, M Tariq; Shahid, A Latif; Farooqi, Farooq A; Akhtar, M; Cardenas, Gabriel A; Wasiq, M; Cagiola, Monica
Seasonal fluctuations in water availability cause predictable changes in the profitability of habitats in tropical ecosystems, and animals evolve adaptive behavioural and spatial responses to these fluctuations. However, stochastic changes in the distribution and abundance of surface water between years can alter resource availability at a landscape scale, causing shifts in animal behaviour. In the Okavango Delta, Botswana, a flood-pulsed ecosystem, the volume of water entering the system doubled between 2008 and 2009, creating a sudden change in the landscape. We used African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) to test the hypotheses that seasonal habitat selection would be related to water availability, that increased floodwater levels would decrease forage abundance and affect habitat selection, and that this would decrease buffalo resting time, reduce reproductive success and decrease body condition. Buffalo selected contrasting seasonal habitats, using habitats far from permanent water during the rainy season and seasonally-flooded habitats close to permanent water during the early and late flood seasons. The 2009 water increase reduced forage availability in seasonally-flooded habitats, removing a resource buffer used by the buffalo during the late flood season, when resources were most limited. In response, buffalo used drier habitats in 2009, although there was no significant change in the time spent moving or resting, or daily distance moved. While their reproductive success decreased in 2009, body condition increased. A protracted period of high water levels could prove detrimental to herbivores, especially to smaller-bodied species that require high quality forage. Stochastic annual fluctuations in water levels, predicted to increase as a result of anthropogenically-induced climate change, are likely to have substantial impacts on the functioning of water-driven tropical ecosystems, affecting environmental conditions within protected areas. Buffer zones around critical seasonal resources are essential to allow animals to engage in compensatory behavioural and spatial mechanisms in response to changing environmental conditions.
Bennitt, Emily; Bonyongo, Mpaphi Casper; Harris, Stephen
Seasonal fluctuations in water availability cause predictable changes in the profitability of habitats in tropical ecosystems, and animals evolve adaptive behavioural and spatial responses to these fluctuations. However, stochastic changes in the distribution and abundance of surface water between years can alter resource availability at a landscape scale, causing shifts in animal behaviour. In the Okavango Delta, Botswana, a flood-pulsed ecosystem, the volume of water entering the system doubled between 2008 and 2009, creating a sudden change in the landscape. We used African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) to test the hypotheses that seasonal habitat selection would be related to water availability, that increased floodwater levels would decrease forage abundance and affect habitat selection, and that this would decrease buffalo resting time, reduce reproductive success and decrease body condition. Buffalo selected contrasting seasonal habitats, using habitats far from permanent water during the rainy season and seasonally-flooded habitats close to permanent water during the early and late flood seasons. The 2009 water increase reduced forage availability in seasonally-flooded habitats, removing a resource buffer used by the buffalo during the late flood season, when resources were most limited. In response, buffalo used drier habitats in 2009, although there was no significant change in the time spent moving or resting, or daily distance moved. While their reproductive success decreased in 2009, body condition increased. A protracted period of high water levels could prove detrimental to herbivores, especially to smaller-bodied species that require high quality forage. Stochastic annual fluctuations in water levels, predicted to increase as a result of anthropogenically-induced climate change, are likely to have substantial impacts on the functioning of water-driven tropical ecosystems, affecting environmental conditions within protected areas. Buffer zones around critical seasonal resources are essential to allow animals to engage in compensatory behavioural and spatial mechanisms in response to changing environmental conditions. PMID:24983377
Bennitt, Emily; Bonyongo, Mpaphi Casper; Harris, Stephen
Background Water buffalo and goats are natural hosts for S. japonicum in endemic areas of China. The susceptibility of these two hosts to schistosome infection is different, as water buffalo are less conducive to S. japonicum growth and development. To identify genes that may affect schistosome development and survival, we compared gene expression profiles of schistosomes derived from these two natural hosts using high-throughput microarray technology. Results The worm recovery rate was lower and the length and width of worms from water buffalo were smaller compared to those from goats following S. japonicum infection for 7 weeks. Besides obvious morphological difference between the schistosomes derived from the two hosts, differences were also observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Microarray analysis showed differentially expressed gene patterns for parasites from the two hosts, which revealed that genes related to lipid and nucleotide metabolism, as well as protein folding, sorting, and degradation were upregulated, while others associated with signal transduction, endocrine function, development, immune function, endocytosis, and amino acid/carbohydrate/glycan metabolism were downregulated in schistosomes from water buffalo. KEGG pathway analysis deduced that the differentially expressed genes mainly involved lipid metabolism, the MAPK and ErbB signaling pathways, progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, dorso-ventral axis formation, reproduction, and endocytosis, etc. Conclusion The microarray gene analysis in schistosomes derived from water buffalo and goats provide a useful platform to disclose differences determining S. japonicum host compatibility to better understand the interplay between natural hosts and parasites, and identify schistosome target genes associated with susceptibility to screen vaccine candidates.
Yang, Jianmei; Hong, Yang; Yuan, Chunxiu; Fu, Zhiqiang; Shi, Yaojun; Zhang, Min; Shen, Liuhong; Han, Yanhui; Zhu, Chuangang; Li, Hao; Lu, Ke; Liu, Jinming; Feng, Xingang; Lin, Jiaojiao
For people attending our fall conference or summer workshop, we've prepared a list of some of the many things to see and do in and around Buffalo (and just across the border in Canada - Please Note: Travel across the border now requires a passport, for everyone).
The effect of vitamins A, D3, E, and H supplementation on oxidative stress indices in Indian water buffaloes suffering from subclinical mastitis was investigated. Changes in the total oxidant capacity (TOC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), nitric oxide (NO), and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in milk were evaluated before and after the supplementation of vitamins A, D3, E, and H. The buffaloes suffering from subclinical mastitis revealed remarkable alterations in the milk oxidants/antioxidants balance shifted towards oxidative status. The buffaloes with subclinical mastitis revealed significantly (P ? 0.01) higher TOC, NO contents, and CAT activity, while TAC content and GSH-Px activity were significantly (P ? 0.01) lower in comparison with the healthy controls. However, SOD activity did not show any significant change. Supplementation of vitamins A, D3, E, and H to these animals revealed significant (P ? 0.01) reduction in TOC, NO, and CAT, while a significant (P ? 0.01) increase in TAC and GSH-Px activity was also evident. From the present study, it may be concluded that supplementation of these vitamins can help ameliorate the altered milk oxidants/antioxidants balance towards normalcy and, thus, ensue recovery from subclinical mastitis in the Indian water buffaloes. PMID:23239221
Dimri, Umesh; Sharma, Mahesh Chandra; Singh, Shanker K; Kumar, Pankaj; Jhambh, Ricky; Singh, Bishwambhar; Bandhyopadhyay, Samiran; Verma, Med Ram
Water buffalo has been studied in relation to the exclusive use of its milk for the manufacture of high-quality dairy products. Buffalo milk presents physicochemical features different from that of other ruminant species, such as a higher content of fatty acids and proteins. We report here a detailed proteomic analysis of buffalo skim milk, whey and milk fat globule membrane fractions. Notwithstanding the poor information available on buffalo genome, identification of protein isoforms corresponding to 72 genes was achieved by a combined approach based on 2-DE/MALDI-TOF PMF and 1-DE/muLC-ESI-IT-MS-MS. Major protein components, i.e. alpha(Sl)-, alpha(S2)-, beta-, kappa-caseins, alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin, were characterized for PTM, providing a scientific basis to coagulation/cheese making processes used in dairy productions. Minor proteins detected emphasized the multiple functions of milk, which besides affording nutrition to the newborn through its major components, also promotes development and digestive tract protection in the neonate, and ensures optimal mammary gland function in the mother. Defense against pathogens is guaranteed by an arsenal of antimicrobial/immunomodulatory proteins, which are directly released in milk or occur on the surface of secreted milk-lipid droplets. Proteins associated with cell signaling or membrane/protein trafficking functions were also identified, providing putative insights into major secretory pathways in mammary epithelial cells. PMID:18668696
D'Ambrosio, Chiara; Arena, Simona; Salzano, Anna Maria; Renzone, Giovanni; Ledda, Luigi; Scaloni, Andrea
Background The genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia has important implications for investigating their epidemiology and underpins their control. We undertook the first molecular epidemiological survey of domestic bovids in selected regions of Sri Lanka to establish whether they excreted Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia with zoonotic potential. Methods Faecal samples were collected from dairy calves (n?=?340; Bos taurus; < 3 months of age; weekly sampling for six weeks) and water buffaloes (n?=?297; Bubalus bubalis; <6 months and ?6 months of age; one sampling) from seven different farms in Sri Lanka. Genomic DNAs were extracted from individual faecal samples and then tested for the presence of parasite DNA using a PCR-based mutation scanning-targeted sequencing-phylogenetic approach, employing genetic markers within the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA and 60 kDa glycoprotein genes (designated pSSU and pgp60, respectively) for Cryptosporidium, and within the triose phosphate isomerise (ptpi) gene for Giardia. Results Based on pSSU sequence data, C. bovis, C. ryanae and six new genotypes that were genetically similar but not identical to C. andersoni (n?=?1), C. bovis (n?=?1), C. ryanae (n?=?3) and C. suis (n?=?1) were recorded in cattle. For pSSU, two other, new genotypes were defined in water buffalo, which were genetically most similar to Cryptosporidium genotypes recorded previously in this host species in other countries including Australia. Consistent with the findings for pSSU, no species or genotypes of Cryptosporidium with zoonotic potential were detected using pgp60. Based on ptpi sequence data, G. duodenalis assemblages A and E were detected in four and 137 samples from cattle, respectively, and assemblage E in two samples from water buffaloes. Conclusions The present study showed that C. parvum, the most commonly reported zoonotic species of Cryptosporidium recognised in bovine calves globally, was not detected in any of the samples from pre-weaned calves tested in the present study. However, eight new genotypes were recorded. Future studies of different host species in various regions are required to investigate the molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis in Sri Lanka and neighbouring countries in South Asia.
Buffalo are an economically important source for meat and milk production, especially in Brazil. However, important aspects of their biology remain unknown thus far. Herein, we describe the reproductive characteristics of male Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) raised under extensive management conditions by applying biometrics associated with testicular weight. We analyzed seven males, divided into two groups: G1, which consisted of four 18-month-old animals, and G2, which consisted of three 24-month-old animals. Testicular development occurs slowly in Murrah buffalo, suggesting a delay of sexual maturity. The biometric testicular parameters analyzed were scrotal circumference, testicular weight, testicular length, testicular width, testicular thickness and testicular circumference. Our data indicate strong correlations between SC, age and body weight, and additional significant relationships were identified between body weight, age and other testicular parameters. Thus, these parameters are suitable indicators when selecting bulls for breeding purposes. PMID:22986925
da Luz, Patrícia Aparecida Cardoso; Santos, Paulo Ramos da Silva; Andrighetto, Cristiana; Jorge, André Mendes; de Assis Neto, Antônio Chaves
First owned and managed by a group of local physicians, then operated as a municipal hospital, and now a division of a private, multi-hospital group, Buffalo Memorial Hospital's growth has mirrored that of the rural Minnesota community it serves. From 1918 to 1951, the hospital was located in 12 rooms above the local drugstore . Then, as a city-operated hospital, it occupied a free standing building in the center of town. During the next 25 years, two additions were required to meet the growing demand for health care services in Wright count. In 1977, shortly after the hospital became a division of Health Central, plans were initiated to replace the over-crowded facility with a completely new hospital. In October 1980, Buffalo Memorial Hospital moved into its new home--a sprawling single story, energy efficient building. Now renovated, the old hospital provides housing for senior citizens. PMID:10266603
We have developed the methodologies for typing and family studies to establish the modes of inheritance of water buffalo red cell acid phosphatase (Acp), protease inhibitor (Pi), and group-specific component (Gc) on isoelectric focusing and albumin (Alb), red cell a-esterase-3 (Est-3), and catalase (Cat) on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Family studies showed that Pi, Gc, Alb, and Cat are coded by
S. G. Tan; J. S. F. Barker; O. S. Selvaraj; T. K. Mukherjee; Y. F. Wong
A method to detect fraudulent addition of bovine milk in water buffalo Mozzarella cheese by gradient high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), relying on the measurement of quantity ratios within ?-lactoglobulin protein family, is described. Analyses were performed on raw milk, cheese matrix and cheese governing liquid using a C4 column and UV detection. This work demonstrated that bovine milk addition during
Giuseppe Enne; Danijela Elez; Fabio Fondrini; Ivan Bonizzi; Maria Feligini; Riccardo Aleandri
Natural whey cultures (NWC) (n = 29) used for traditional water-buffalo Mozzarella cheese manufacture and arising from different geographical areas of production were characterized and grouped on the basis of their capability to develop neutral volatile compounds and according to their microbial diversity as revealed by molecular analysis. The flavoring properties of NWC were studied in dairy microcosms resembling the specific technological procedure used in the traditional water-buffalo Mozzarella cheese-making. Neutral volatile compounds were identified by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC)-mass spectrometry analysis while information on the microbial diversity occurring in the NWC was retrieved by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of 16S rDNA after direct DNA extraction. Neoformation volatile substances (n = 27) were found; 23 were identified and some of them recognized as odor-conferring molecules. Eight different bands, referable to eight microbial species, were obtained by PCR-DGGE analysis of the NWC. Statistical analyses were applied to PCR-DGGE and HRGC data. Interestingly, the flavoring capabilities and the microbial diversity of the NWC proved to be closely linked and both related to the geographical origin of the NWC. These results suggested a possible use of the molecular characterization of the dairy products to support the traceability criteria of typical dairy products like water-buffalo Mozzarella cheese. PMID:12647955
Mauriello, G; Moio, L; Genovese, A; Ercolini, D
Alternative diagnostic tools and interesting epidemiological assumptions were associated with an outbreak of Johne's disease. In a buffalo herd infected with paratuberculosis, seven clinically affected animals and 21 animals with anti-Mycobacterium avium ELISA reactions were identified. Total herd included 203 buffaloes. Most lesions were comparable to those described in buffaloes and cattle affected by Johne's disease. Water buffalo behaviors such as communal nursing and allosuckling may be additional risk factors for this disease. Detection of positive Ziehl-Neelsen staining and anti-M. avium immunolabeling in rectal biopsies from one buffalo with paratuberculosis are highlighted as auxiliary diagnostic tools for Johne's disease in live animals. PMID:22528538
Dalto, André Cabrera; Bandarra, Paulo Mota; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti; Boabaid, Fabiana Marques; de Bitencourt, Ana Paula Gobbi; Gomes, Marcos Pereira; Chies, José; Driemeier, David; da Cruz, Cláudio Estêvão Farias
Hereditary myotonia caused by mutations in CLCN1 has been previously described in humans, goats, dogs, mice and horses. The goal of this study was to characterize the clinical, morphological and genetic features of hereditary myotonia in Murrah buffalo. Clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed on affected and normal animals. CLCN1 cDNA and the relevant genomic region from normal and affected animals were sequenced. The affected animals exhibited muscle hypertrophy and stiffness. Myotonic discharges were observed during EMG, and dystrophic changes were not present in skeletal muscle biopsies; the last 43 nucleotides of exon-3 of the CLCN1 mRNA were deleted. Cloning of the genomic fragment revealed that the exclusion of this exonic sequence was caused by aberrant splicing, which was associated with the presence of a synonymous SNP in exon-3 (c.396C>T). The mutant allele triggered the efficient use of an ectopic 5' splice donor site located at nucleotides 90-91 of exon-3. The predicted impact of this aberrant splicing event is the alteration of the CLCN1 translational reading frame, which results in the incorporation of 24 unrelated amino acids followed by a premature stop codon. PMID:23339992
Borges, Alexandre S; Barbosa, José D; Resende, Luiz Antônio L; Mota, Lígia S L S; Amorim, Rogério M; Carvalho, Thaís L; Garcia, José F; Oliveira-Filho, José P; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Souza, Jorge Estefano S; Winand, Nena J
Water buffalo (WB) is an important domestic animal in Vietnam. This study utilized a card agglutination test to investigate seroprevalence of surra in WB population. Sera were collected from 585 WB from 4 different regions in Cao Bang and Thai Nguyen Provinces. Among them, 131 samples (22.4%) were positive for surra. The highest prevalence (24.6%) was found among 3 to 5 years old WB. Buffaloes less than 3 years old had the lowest prevalence (15.6%). Among 27 abortion cases, 9 WB (33.3%) were surra positive. For treatment of surra, Berenil® demonstrated a 100% cure rate, while that of Trypamidium® was only 40%. Our findings suggest that the current control strategy has not succeeded in reducing prevalence of surra in Vietnam. PMID:23665513
Nguyen, Quoc Doanh; Nguyen, Thu-Thuy; Pham, Quang Phuc; LE, Ngoc My; Nguyen, Giang Thanh T; Inoue, Noboru
Abstract In domestic animals of the family Bovidae, sex preselection of offspring has been demanded for convenience of milk/beef production and animal breeding. Development of the nonsurgical embryo transfer technique and sexing methods of preimplantation embryos made it possible. Sexing based on detection of Y chromosome-specific DNA sequences is considered the most reliable method to date. PCR enables amplification of a target sequence from a small number of blastomeres. However, it requires technical skill and is time consuming. Furthermore, PCR has the risk of false positives because of DNA contamination during handling of the PCR products in duplicate PCR procedures and/or electrophoresis. Therefore, for embryo sexing to become widely used in the cattle embryo transfer industry, a simple, rapid and precise sexing method needs to be developed. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel DNA amplification method, and the reaction is carried out under isothermal conditions (range, 60 to 65 C) using DNA polymerase with strand displacement activity. When the target DNA is amplified by LAMP, a white precipitate derived from magnesium pyrophosphate (a by-product of the LAMP reaction) is observed. It is noteworthy that LAMP does not need special reagents or electrophoresis to detect the amplified DNA. This review describes the development and application of an embryo sexing method using LAMP in cattle and water buffaloes.
HIRAYAMA, Hiroki; KAGEYAMA, Soichi; MORIYASU, Satoru; SAWAI, Ken; MINAMIHASHI, Akira
A series of synthetic oligonucleotide probes were developed as markers for genetic analysis and molecular systematics of Bubalus bubalis and other eutherian mammals. A very high level of heterozygosity (approximately 95%) was observed in the bubaline genome, with an overall band-sharing probability of 2.08 x 10(-11) using (TGG)6 and Hinf I probe-enzyme combination. Breed affiliation studies on different buffalo breeds, viz. Toda, Surti, Mehsana, and Murrah, revealed that the semiwild Toda breed belonged to a distinct group. The desired genotypes in each successive generation in an actual breeding program were also identified by employing a DNA fingerprinting approach using these markers. Estimation of genetic distances by calculating the mean allelic frequencies at (CA)n, (TGG)n, and (GGAT)n repeat loci between buffalo and other related animals such as horse (order Perisodactyla), rabbits (order Lagomorpha, (pigs, cattle, goat, and sheep (order Artiodactyla) revealed that with respect to the genetic distance coefficient (GDC), goat (caprine) was closer to buffalo (GDC = 0.0005) than sheep (ovine) (GDC = 0.0007). The genetic distance between horse and buffalo was calculated to be 0.4085, indicating that compared to other animals, horse was distantly related to buffalo. The understanding of overall allelic variations and breed affiliation of the bubaline genome will contribute to the propagation and conservation of the desired germ plasm and better management of this species. PMID:9115646
John, M V; Ali, S
The Buffalo Public Schools have developed magnet schools to aid desegregation plans and to provide for different student needs and learning styles. The Academic Challenge Center is designed to meet concerns about declining reading and math scores. The Buffalo Traditional School emphasizes traditional learning styles and puts a high priority on…
Reville, Eugene T.
Human enteric viruses (HEntVs) are a major cause of water-related diseases. The prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV), rotaviruses (RoV) and enteroviruses (EnV) in Buffalo River waters was assessed quantitatively over a period of 12 months (August 2010 to July 2011). Seventy-two samples were collected from six sites, including three dams, and concentrated using the adsorption-elution method. Viral RNA was extracted using a commercial kit, and the viruses were quantified by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR). Two or more viruses were detected in 12.5% of the samples. HAV was detected in 43.1% of the samples and in significantly (p < 0.05) varying concentrations of 1.5 × 101–1.9 × 105 genome copies/L compared to RoV and EnV, while RoVs were detected in 13.9% of samples, with concentrations ranging from 2.5 × 101–2.1 × 103 genome copies/L, and EnV were detected in 9.7% of the samples, with concentrations ranging from 1.3 × 101–8.6 × 101 genome copies/L. Only HAV was detected at all the sites, with the Bridle Drift Dam recording significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations. The presence of enteric viruses in Buffalo River may constitute public health risks and the incidence of HAV at all the sites could reflect both the epidemiological status of hepatitis A and HAV persistence in the water environments.
Chigor, Vincent Nnamdigadi; Okoh, Anthony Ifeanyi
Buffalo meat was subjected to two cooking methods viz. broiling and pressure cooking and two storage procedures viz. refrigerated (4 °C) storage for six days and frozen (-10 °C) storage for 90 days. Changes in lipid oxidation and development of cholesterol oxidation products were studied in raw as well as cooked meat samples. Total lipid, phospholipid, cholesterol, free fatty acid, glycolipid and glyceride contents increased significantly on cooking of meat but did not show any significant changes during either refrigerated or frozen storage except for free fatty acid content which showed an increase. The TBA values also increased during storage but not to the extent of indicating rancidity. Cholesterol oxidation products separated by thin layer chromatography were: cholestanetriol, 7-?-hydroxycholesterol, 19-hydroxycholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, cholesterol-?-epoxide, cholesterol-?-epoxide and an unidentified fraction. All these fractions, except for the unidentified fraction, increased on cooking and storage. The cholesterol-?-epoxide fraction was resistant to changes. Changes in broiled meat were more pronounced compared to pressure cooked meat. Frozen storage did not prevent the development of cholesterol oxidation products in buffalo meat. PMID:22060572
Rao, V K; Kowale, B N; Babu, N P; Bisht, G S
Interspecies hybridization of bovids occurs between domestic cattle and at least three other species; American bison (Bison bison), yak (Bos grunniens) and banteng (Bos banteng). Birth of a cattlexbuffalo (Bubalus bubalis) hybrid has reportedly occurred in Russia and in China, but these reports were not authenticated. Such hybrids could be important in improving livestock production and management of diseases that impede production in tropical Africa. This study investigated hybridization between cattle and its closest African wild bovid relative, the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer). In an attempt to produce cattlexbuffalo hybrid embryos in vitro, matured cattle oocytes were subjected to a standard in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure with either homologous cattle (n=1166 oocytes) or heterologous African buffalo (n=1202 oocytes) frozen-thawed epididymal sperm. After IVF, 67.2% of the oocytes inseminated with the homologous cattle sperm cleaved. In contrast, fertilization with buffalo sperm resulted in only a 4.6% cleavage rate. The cleavage intervals were also slower in hybrid embryos than in the IVF-derived cattle embryos. Of the cleaved homologous cattle embryos 52.2% progressed to the morula stage compared with 12.7% for the buffalo hybrid embryos. No hybrid embryos developed beyond the early morula stage, while 40.1% of the cleaved cattlexcattle embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Transfer of buffalo hybrid IVF embryos to domestic cattle surrogates resulted in no pregnancies at 60 days post-transfer. This study indicates that interspecies fertilization of cattle oocytes with African buffalo epididymal sperm can occur in vitro, and that a barrier to hybridization occurs in the early stages of embryonic development. Chromosomal disparity is likely the cause of the fertilization abnormalities, abnormal development and subsequent arrest impairing the formation of hybrid embryos beyond the early morula stage. Transfer of the buffalo hybrid embryos did not rescue the embryos from development arrest. PMID:19118889
Owiny, O D; Barry, D M; Agaba, M; Godke, R A
Mitochondrial DNA sequence is highly conserved within species. Gene 12S rRNA is able to endure degeneration and high temperature, which allows identification of feedstuff, fresh meat, processed meat, and traceability. In the present study, three unique restriction sites were detected in the fragments of mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene regions amplified with universal primer, which were able to distinguish Bos grunniens, Bos. taurus, and Bubalus in fresh meat and processed meat mixture. The fragment of yak was digested to 134 bp and 318 bp, scalper 134 bp and 318 bp, and buffalo 86 bp and 367 bp. The specific locus and digestion were verified by sequencing analysis. There was no difference between PCR amplification products from various treatments at different temperatures (i.e., 100, 120, 140, 160, and 180). However, the sig-nal was weak at 120 and above. This method is simple, fast and cheap in identification of fresh meat and processed meat. PMID:18779150
Chen, Dong; Bai, Fan; Zhou, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Xiang-Yu; Wu, Deng-Jun
Test day (TD) records of milk production traits (milk yield, fat, and protein percentages) of 534 Italian buffalo cows were analyzed with a mixed linear model in order to estimate lactation curves pertaining to different ages at calving and different seasons of calving. Milk yield lactation curves of younger animals were lower than those of older animals until 20 wk from parturition. No effect of age at calving could be observed for fat and protein percentages. Season of calving affected milk yield only in the first phase of lactation, with the lowest production levels for summer calvings; no effect could be observed on fat and protein contents. Average correlations among TD measures within lactation were 0.59, 0.31, and 0.36 for milk yield, fat, and protein percentages, respectively. Five standard linear functions of time were able to reconstruct the average lactation curves. Goodness of fit was satisfactory for all models considered, although only the five-parameter model was flexible enough to fit all the three traits considered with excellent results. PMID:12086067
Catillo, G; Macciotta, N P P; Carretta, A; Cappio-Borlino, A
Background Papillomaviruses (PVs) are highly epitheliotropic as they usually establish productive infections within squamous epithelia of the skin, the anogenital tract and the oral cavity. In this study, early (E) and late (L) protein expression of bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2) in the urothelium of the urinary bladder is described in cows and water buffaloes suffering from naturally occurring papillomavirus-associated urothelial bladder tumors. Methods and Findings E5 protein, the major oncoprotein of the BPV-2, was detected in all tumors. L1 DNA was amplified by PCR, cloned and sequenced and confirmed to be L1 DNA. The major capsid protein, L1, believed to be only expressed in productive papillomavirus infection was detected by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical investigations confirmed the presence of L1 protein both in the cytoplasm and nuclei of cells of the neoplastic urothelium. Finally, the early protein E2, required for viral DNA replication and known to be a pivotal factor for both productive and persistent infection, was detected by Western blot and immunohistochemically. Electron microscopic investigations detected electron dense particles, the shape and size of which are consistent with submicroscopic features of viral particles, in nuclei of neoplastic urothelium. Conclusion This study shows that both active and productive infections by BPV-2 in the urothelium of the bovine and bubaline urinary bladder can occur in vivo.
Roperto, Sante; Russo, Valeria; Ozkul, Ayhan; Corteggio, Annunziata; Sepici-Dincel, Aylin; Catoi, Cornel; Esposito, Iolanda; Riccardi, Marita G.; Urraro, Chiara; Luca, Roberta; Ceccarelli, Dora M.; Longo, Michele; Roperto, Franco
At 1050 Gallery, Block 12, two centrifugal pumps, Buffalo Pumps, Buffalo, NY, driven by Allis Chalmers motors (size 3 HSO, head 230, 120 cpm, 1750, rpm, Impulse dia. 15) installed in the 1960s and used for water-cooling system for 230-kv cable; the cables have been removed and the pumps are not currently used. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA
1. Photocopy of photograph (from the Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society) Photographer unknown 1859 GENERAL VIEW FROM THE SOUTHEAST - Buffalo Lighthouse, Buffalo Harbor, Buffalo River & Lake Erie, Buffalo, Erie County, NY
2. Photocopy of photograph (from Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society) Photographer unknown 1928 GENERAL VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST - Buffalo Lighthouse, Buffalo Harbor, Buffalo River & Lake Erie, Buffalo, Erie County, NY
Relative susceptibility to fluoride (F) toxicosis in the form of osteo-dental fluorosis was observed in an observational survey of 2,747 mature and 887 immature domestic animals of diverse species living in areas with naturally fluoridated (>1.5 ppm F) drinking water. These animals included buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), cattle (Bos taurus), camels (Camelus dromedarius), donkeys (Equus asinus), horses (Equus caballus), goats (Capra hircus), and sheep (Ovis aries). Of these mature and immature animals, 899 (32.7 %) and 322 (36.3 %) showed evidence of dental fluorosis with varying grades, respectively. Their incisor teeth were stained with light to deep brownish color. On clinical examination, 31.2 % mature and 10.7 % immature animals revealed periosteal exostoses, intermittent lameness, and stiffness of tendons in the legs as signs of skeletal fluorosis. The maximum susceptibility to fluoride toxicosis was found in bovines (buffaloes and cattle) followed by equines (donkeys and horses), flocks (goats and sheep), and camelids (camels). The bovine calves were found to be more sensitive and highly susceptible to F toxicosis and revealed the maximum prevalence (92.2 %) of dental fluorosis. This indicates that bovine calves are less tolerant and give early sign of F poisoning (dental fluorosis) and therefore, they can be considered as bio-indicators for fluoridated water as well as for endemicity of osteo-dental fluorosis. Causes for variation in susceptibility to F toxicosis (fluorosis) in various species of domestic animal are also discussed. PMID:24671615
Choubisa, S L
The Buffalo River drains a 446-square-mile (1,155-sq-km) watershed in western New York State and discharges into Lake Erie at the city of Buffalo. The Buffalo River has been classified by the State of New York as a fishing and fish survival stream, but municipal and industrial discharges have degraded the water quality and resulted in a fish advisory for the
E. C. Fleming; D. E. Averett; M. G. Channell; B. D. Perry
During June through September 2001 and 2002, extensive fish community sampling was conducted at 29 sites within the boundaries of Buffalo National River. Samples were collected using backpack, tote barge, and boat electrofishing equipment. Kick seining also was used at all sites. To supplement these results, samples were collected in 2003 from less typical habitats and during other seasons of the year. Ten supplemental samples were collected from the Buffalo River and five samples were collected from tributaries of the Buffalo River. During the 3 years of sampling, 66 species of fish were collected or observed from the 42 sampling sites. Stonerollers, duskystripe shiners, longear sunfish, and rainbow darters were among the more abundant fish species at most sites. Each of these species is common and abundant throughout much of the Ozark Plateaus in creeks and small rivers. Other species (for example, banded sculpin, southern redbelly dace, orangethroat darter, and Ozark minnow) were among the more abundant species at other sites. These species prefer small- to medium-sized, springfed streams or small creeks. A preliminary list of species expected to occur at Buffalo National River provided by the National Park Service incorrectly listed 47 species because of incorrect species range or habitat requirements. Upon revising this list, the inventory yielded 66 of the 78 species (85 percent). Twelve additional species not collected in 2001-2003 may occur at Buffalo National River for two primary reasons--because the species had been collected previously at the park, or because the park occurs within the known species range and habitats found at the park are suitable for the species. Although no fish species collected from Buffalo National River are federally-listed threatened or endangered species, several species collected at Buffalo National River may be of special interest to National Park Service managers and others. Ten species are endemic to the Ozark Plateaus area and most of these ten are restricted to the White River Basin. For some species the Buffalo River is a population stronghold. The yoke darter and Ozark bass are especially abundant in the Buffalo River. In Arkansas, the Ozark shiner is most abundant in the Buffalo River and, although populations of Ozark shiners are declining in Arkansas, this is not typically the case in the Buffalo River. Data from 2001-2003 indicate that gilt darters currently (2005) are less common in the Buffalo River than during the 1970's. Populations of channel catfish (and any other fish species whose movements are inhibited by the cold water temperatures of the White River) may continue to decline without remedial efforts.
Petersen, James C.; Justus, B. G.
The potential to use a GnRH agonist bioimplant and injection of exogenous LH to control the time of ovulation in a multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) protocol was examined in buffalo. Mixed-parity buffalo (Bubalus bubalis; 4-15-year-old; 529 +/- 13 kg LW) were randomly assigned to one of five groups (n = 6): Group 1, conventional MOET protocol; Group 2, conventional MOET with 12 h delay in injection of PGF2alpha; Group 3, implanted with GnRH agonist to block the preovulatory surge release of LH; Group 4, implanted with GnRH agonist and injected with exogenous LH (Lutropin, 25 mg) 24 h after 4 days of superstimulation with FSH; Group 5, implanted with GnRH agonist and injected with LH 36 h after superstimulation with FSH. Ovarian follicular growth in all buffaloes was stimulated by treatment with FSH (Folltropin-V, 200 mg) administered over 4 days, and was monitored by ovarian ultrasonography. At the time of estrus, the number of follicles >8 mm was greater (P < 0.05) for buffaloes in Group 2 (12.8) than for buffaloes in Groups 1(8.5), 3 (7.3), 4 (6.1) and 5 (6.8), which did not differ. All buffaloes were mated by Al after spontaneous (Groups 1-3) or induced (Groups 4 and 5) ovulation. The respective number of buffalo that ovulated, number of corpora lutea, ovulation rate (%), and embryos + oocytes recovered were: Group 1 (2, 1.8 +/- 1.6, 18.0 +/- 13.6, 0.2 +/- 0.2); Group 2 (4,6.1 +/- 2.9, 40.5 +/- 17.5, 3.7 +/- 2.1); Group 3 (0, 0, 0, 0); Group4 (6, 4.3 +/- 1.2, 69.3 +/- 14.2, 2.0 +/- 0.9); and Group 5 (1, 2.5 +/- 2.5, 15.5 +/- 15.5, 2.1 +/- 2.1). All buffaloes in Group 4 ovulated after injection of LH and had a relatively high ovulation rate (69%) and embryo recovery (46%). It has been shown that the GnRH agonist-LH protocol can be used to improve the efficiency of MOET in buffalo. PMID:12472135
Carvalho, Nelcio A T; Baruselli, Pietro S; Zicarelli, Luigi; Madureira, Edward H; Visintin, Jose A; D'Occhio, Michael J
Toxocara vitulorum, a nematode parasite in the small intestine of cattle and water buffaloes, causes high morbidity and mortality of 1–3 months old buffalo calves. This research evaluated the specific perieneteric antigens (Pe) reactivity of anti-T. vitulorum-Pe antibody (Tv-Pe-Ab) in both immune sera and colostrum from buffalo cows immediately post-partum from buffalo cows. The presence of Tv-Pe-Ab in sera of
Fabiano P. Ferreira; Wilma A. Starke-Buzetti
...USCG-2011-0132] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Boom Days, Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo...Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY for the Boom Days Fireworks. This zone is intended...Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY during the Boom Days Fireworks on April 16, 2011....
The New Mexico Solar Energy Institute at NMSU has conducted a two-year investigation into the technical and economic feasibility of using the buffalo gourd plant as an energy feedstock in eastern New Mexico. The New Mexico buffalo gourd project conducted field planting trials to determine optimum planting density, fertilizer levels, and irrigation regime. Starchy roots produced by the field plantings were evaluated as an ethanol feedstock at both laboratory and pilot scale. These studies indicate that buffalo gourd is well suited for root production in eastern New Mexico. Current cultivars of buffalo gourd can be most efficiently produced under dry land farming conditions with little, if any, supplemental fertilizer. Traditional plant breeding techniques can be profitably employed on the buffalo gourd to breed a size and shape of root more easily harvested by existing farm machinery. Because of its sensitivity to root rot, buffalo gourd must be grown in well drained soils. Finally, buffalo gourd has been shown to be an excellent feedstock for ethanol production provided necessary pre-fermentation processing (chopping of roots) is performed correctly. A model was created to determine the economic feasibility of growing buffalo gourd in eastern New Mexico. It was determined that the net return to a farmer in eastern New Mexico can be higher planting buffalo gourd than many traditionally grown crops because of buffalo gourd's low water and fertilizer requirements. The model further indicates that net return is heavily influenced by root yield. Continued research is needed to optimize buffalo gourd root yield, as well as root size and shape, disease resistance, etc. A clearly defined R and D agenda and commercialization strategy is presented and discussed. Buffalo gourd has been demonstrated to have high potential as an alternative feedstock for ethanol production in eastern New Mexico. 128 refs., 9 figs., 28 tabs.
Although buffaloes and cattle are ruminants, their digestive capabilities and rumen microbial compositions are considered to be different. The purpose of this study was to compare the rumen microbial ecology of crossbred water buffaloes and cattle that were fed the same diet. Cattle exhibited a higher fermentation rate than buffaloes. Methane production and methanogen density were lower in buffaloes. Phylogenetic analysis of Fibrobacter succinogenes-specific 16S ribosomal RNA gene clone library showed that the diversity of groups within a species was significantly different (P < 0.05) between buffalo and cattle and most of the clones were affiliated with group 2 of the species. Population densities of F.succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus and R. flavefaciens were higher until 6 h post-feeding in cattle; however, buffaloes exhibited different traits. The population of anaerobic fungi decreased at 3 h in cattle compared to buffaloes and was similar at 0 h and 6 h. The diversity profiles of bacteria and fungi were similar in the two species. The present study showed that the profiles of the fermentation process, microbial population and diversity were similar in crossbred water buffaloes and crossbred cattle. PMID:23216542
Lwin, Khin-Ohnmar; Kondo, Makoto; Ban-Tokuda, Tomomi; Lapitan, Rosalina M; Del-Barrio, Arnel N; Fujihara, Tsutomu; Matsui, Hiroki
ABSTRACT The effect of treatment for anestrus in buffaloes with a PGF2? or GnRH injection and vitamin-mineral (Vit-M) supplementation for 1 to 2 months and some factors influencing the treatment effect were studied. In anestrus buffaloes with CL, an injection of PGF2? tended to show higher estrus detection and pregnancy rates within 17 days after treatment than Vit-M supplementation (P<0.10). In those with inactive ovaries, effect of GnRH and Vit-M did not differ. Body condition score of the animals before treatment affected pregnancy rate within 17 days after treatment (P<0.05). Pregnancy rate within 4 months after treatment was adversely influenced by low serum concentrations of calcium (P<0.01) and gastrointestinal parasitic infection before treatment (P<0.05).
DEVKOTA, Bhuminand; NAKAO, Toshihiko; KOBAYASHI, Kosaku; SATO, Hiroshi; SAH, Shyam Kishor; SINGH, Dinesh Kumar; DHAKAL, Ishwori Prasad; YAMAGISHI, Norio
In this activity, learners explore the Great Plains. They use a large outline map (see related activity "If I Lived in a Forest") to trace the location of the Plains region and examine the types of natural resources available. They play "Name of the Game" as they learn about the importance of the buffalo and other animals to Native Americans of the Plains. This activity is featured on p.21-23 of the "One With the Earth: Native Americans and the Natural World" multidisciplinary unit of study for kindergarten through third grade.
Indianapolis, The C.
In this activity, learners explore the Great Plains. They use a large outline map (see related activity "If I Lived in a Forest") to trace the location of the Plains region and examine the types of natural resources available. They play "Name of the Game" as they learn about the importance of the buffalo and other animals to Native Americans of the Plains. This activity is featured on p.21-23 of the "One With the Earth: Native Americans and the Natural World" multidisciplinary unit of study for kindergarten through third grade.
Indianapolis, The C.
...Buffalo July 4th Fireworks, Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY AGENCY: Coast...temporary safety zone on Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY. This safety...vessels from a portion of Lake Erie during the Buffalo July 4th...Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The Coast...
Fifty river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, 2n?=?50) cows reared in two different provinces of Campania (southern Italy) underwent cytogenetic investigations to ascertain possible differences in their chromosome stability. One group (Caserta province) was under legal sequestration due to the presence in the milk mass of higher mean values of dioxins [21.79 pg/g of fat as sum of polychloro-dibenzo-dioxins (PCDDs), polychloro-dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (DL-PCBs)] than both those permitted (6.0 pg/g of fat as WHO-TEQ) and those (1.3 pg/g of fat as WHO-TEQ) observed in the control group raised in Salerno province. Two types of peripheral blood cell cultures were performed: without (normal cultures for the chromosome abnormality (CA) test: chromatid breaks, chromosome breaks, fragments) and with the addition of BrdU for the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test). The CA test revealed a significantly (P?0.01) higher chromosome fragility in the exposed cows compared to the control. Indeed, mean values of CA/cell were 1.26?±?1.15 in exposed cows and 0.37?±?0.71 in the control. Mean SCE was higher in exposed cows (8.50?±?3.35) than that (8.29?±?3.51) found in the control but the difference was not significant. Comparison within the same group of cows at first (FL) and multiple (ML) lactations revealed significantly (P?0.01) higher mean values of CA/cell in exposed ML-cows vs FL-cows while no statistical differences were found between ML-cows and FL-cows in the control farm. By contrast, significantly (P?0.01) higher mean values of SCE were found in both groups of FL-cows versus ML-cows. Comparisons with other previous studied species (sheep and cattle) were also performed. PMID:22415351
Genualdo, V; Perucatti, A; Iannuzzi, A; Di Meo, G P; Spagnuolo, S M; Caputi-Jambrenghi, A; Coletta, A; Vonghia, G; Iannuzzi, L
Three groups of young buffalo in captivity were infected by exposing them to similar buffalo in the acute stages of infection induced by needle inoculation with SAT 1 or 2 viruses. Clear foot lesions developed in most of the buffalo from which the relevant virus types were re-isolated. During the first week following infection virus was found in blood, nasal secretions, saliva, preputial secretions and faeces. Air samples collected in the immediate vicinity of acutely infected buffalo were also found to contain virus. However, the regularity of virus detection as well as the quantity of virus in buffalo specimens was generally lower than for cattle infected with viruses of the same type. Conversely, virus was detected in the nasal secretions or saliva of 3 buffalo up to 4 weeks after infection, a situation which has not been encountered in cattle. Susceptible cattle and impala (Aepyceros melampus) were penned together with or in the immediate vicinity of infected buffalo and shared feeding and watering facilities with the buffalo. The pattern of transmission which emerged indicated that transfer of these viruses from buffalo to other species probably occurs only in the acute stages of infection and where there is direct physical contact between the species. PMID:3014419
Gainaru, M D; Thomson, G R; Bengis, R G; Esterhuysen, J J; Bruce, W; Pini, A
In the present study, we cloned and characterized the buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) OCT4 ortholog expressed in embryonic stem cell (ESC) like cells and its promoter region. The 5'- and 3'-RACE experiments were conducted to analyze the transcription initiation site and regulatory regions. The comparative analysis of buffalo OCT4 promoter with other mammalian orthologs revealed high conservation. Among the regulatory regions highest similarity was observed between buffalo, bovine and sheep. Interestingly, buffalo OCT4 promoter exhibited a 78 bp deletion between two proximal enhancers (PE-1A and PE-1B) when compared to other mammalian orthologs. 5'-RACE revealed four different transcription start sites for OCT4 gene. As far as we know there is no previous report regarding multiple transcription initiation sites for OCT4 gene in any species. In addition, we identified expression of four pseudogenes in buffalo ESC-like cells. Among the multiple transcripts characterized, we found four cDNA clones (1083 bp) derived from ESC-like cells sharing 96.9-99.3% sequence homology with the parent gene and having the capacity of encoding 139, 206, 206 and 324 amino acid long truncated proteins. Multiple pseudogenes have been proposed for OCT4 which might contribute to the false detection of this gene during expression studies. However, only few of them were reported to be transcribed and none were reported to be translated in stem cells. Western blot analysis of OCT4 protein using ESC-like cells revealed multiple bands, indicating that some of the hypothetical pseudogenes are being translated. These novel pseudogenes or their protein products may have some important regulatory functions. PMID:22019428
Singh, Natwar; George, Aman; Sharma, Ruchi; Singla, Suresh K; Palta, Prabhat; Manik, Radhaysham; Chauhan, Manmohan S; Singh, Dheer
A G- and R-banding comparison of cattle (Bos taurus, 2n = 60), goat (Capra hircus, 2n = 60) and sheep (Ovis aries, 2n = 54) chromosomes at the 450 band level was made. The study revealed a large number of banding homologies among the autosomes of the three species and resolved some ambiguities in arranging some of their small disputed acrocentrics by direct and indirect comparisons with some bovid marker chromosomes. A loss of the subcentromeric G-positive band in sheep chromosome 2g was observed when the G-banding patterns of sheep 2q and homologous cattle and goat chromosome 2 were compared. The chromosomal divergences among cattle, goat and river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, 2n = 50) sex chromosomes are shown to have occurred by pericentric and paracentric inversions with a loss (or acquisition of constitutive heterochromatin. PMID:7551543
Iannuzzi, L; Di Meo, G P
The results of an emission inventory of air pollutant sources in the Buffalo, New York Metropolitan Area is presented. The objectives of the study were to determine the total quantities of the various air pollutants emitted and to estimate their seasonal ...
G. M. Duggan J. C. Fensterstock
The Buffalo River discharges into Lake Erie near the upper end of the Niagara River. The lower 9.2 km of the river has been designated as a Great Lakes Area of Concern due to environmental problems associated with poor water quality, degraded riparian and river habitat, and contaminated sediments. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers maintains a navigational channel at a depth of 6.7 m below mean lake level by periodic dredging. In 2011, extensive dredging took place within the upper portions of the river to remove some of the most contaminated sediments. This dredging resulted in both widening and deepening of the channel. The Buffalo River's gradient is low and current velocities generally are <10 cm/sec. The low flow conditions coupled with the orientation of the river allows Lake Erie waters to enter the Buffalo River reversing its flow. The largest episodic lake-driven flow reversals were found during strong westerly wind events that setup an elevated water level at the eastern (Buffalo) end of the lake. Lower amplitude flow reversals could also be associated with subsequent Lake Erie surface seiches or other phenomena. They also occur during times when no seiche conditions are present. The interaction between river flow and reverse (lake-driven) flow was investigated using Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs), temperature sensors, and water level recorders deployed for the past five years at various locations in the lower 9 km of the river. The collected data record the periodic reversals associated with Lake Erie seiches, but also reveal an oscillation within the river. This 'river seiche' has a period of ~2 hours and occurs continuously, persisting even during high flow events and during times of strong lake-driven flow reversals. To better understand the characteristics and behavior of this 'river oscillation', time-series plots and Fourier power spectra were produced from the ADCP data. These data show that the magnitude of the oscillation is on the order of 5-10 cm s-1. There are three coherent spectral peaks with significant power above the noise. These peaks have periods centered on 1.8, 2.0 and 2.2 hours. Our preliminary conjecture is that the oscillation is similar to a forced resonance in a closed basin.
Perez, A. S.; Sabato, J. S.; Singer, J.; Manley, T.
The principal objective of this study was to derive an improved procedure for cryopreservation of swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa. Experiments were conducted to determine effects of cooling rate, intermediate plunge temperature and warming rate on motility and acrosome integrity of spermatozoa. Spermatozoa were obtained from three bulls (three ejaculates/bull) and were subjected to nine cooling conditions before being frozen in liquid nitrogen: cooling at 10, 20, or 30 degrees C/min each to -40, -80, or -120 degrees C before being plunged into liquid nitrogen. The spermatozoa frozen under a given condition were then thawed either at 1000 or 200 degrees C/min. Cooling rate, intermediate temperature and warming rate significantly affected survival of spermatozoa obtained from the three bulls. Cooling spermatozoa from 4 to -120 degrees C either at 20 or 30 degrees C/min yielded better progressive motility compared to other cooling conditions (50 versus 30%). Rapid warming was superior to slow warming. In an additional study, motility and fertility of spermatozoa frozen after being cooled to -120 degrees C at 20 degrees C and 30 degrees C/min and those frozen by a standard protocol used routinely for semen processing were assessed. Progressive motility of cryopreserved spermatozoa cooled at 20 degrees C and 30 degrees C/min was 40%, while that of spermatozoa cryopreserved using a standard protocol was 25%. A total of 178 buffalo cows were inseminated with cryopreserved spermatozoa obtained from one bull, and their pregnancy status was assessed 60 days later by rectal palpation. Out of the 60, 26 (43%) and 23 of 58 (40%) cows inseminated with sperm cooled at 20 and 30 degrees C/min, respectively, became pregnant, whereas 17 of 60 (28%) cows inseminated with sperm frozen by a standard protocol became pregnant. This study demonstrates that an effective cryopreservation procedure for buffalo spermatozoa can be derived by systematic examination of various cryobiological factors. PMID:11408115
Sukhato, P; Thongsodseang, S; Utha, A; Songsasen, N
Seminal plasma immunoglobulins of normospermic fertile Indian buffalo bulls were investigated using rabbit antibuffalo immunoglobulin (polyvalent) serum, rabbit antibuffalo IgG and IgM serums, gel diffusion, and immunoelectrophoretic analysis. Immunoglobulin G was the predominant immunoglobulin in the seminal plasma of the buffalo. Strong antigenic cross reactions were observed between the seminal plasma IgG molecules of the buffalo and cattle, indicating the structural homology of seminal plasma IgG of these two species. These observations are in accordance with the close taxonomic and phylogenetic relationship between buffalo and cattle in the evolution of ruminant species. PMID:6442848
Kulkarni, B A
Created as part of the larger Rocky Mountain Online Archive, this collection contains a clutch of letters written by William F. "Buffalo Bill" Cody to one George T. Beck. Beck was a Wyoming sheep rancher, oil land developer, and the last president of the Council of the Territory of Wyoming before it became a state in 1890. He was also trained as a mining engineer and was president of the Shoshone Irrigation Company. Most of the letters here concern Cody's interest in this company and its water project. Visitors can read the letters, look over the collection summary, and view a brief biography of Cody and Beck. It's a very interesting look into a lesser-known side of this American icon, one that reveals his intense interest in this rather involved business venture.
To further probe into whether swamp buffaloes were domesticated once or multiple times in China, this survey examined the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Control Region (D-loop) diversity of 471 individuals representing 22 populations of 455 Chinese swamp buffaloes and 16 river buffaloes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Chinese swamp buffaloes could be divided into two distinct lineages, A and B, which were defined previously. Of the two lineages, lineage A was predominant across all populations. For predominant lineage A, Southwestern buffalo populations possess the highest genetic diversity among the three hypothesized domestication centers (Southeastern, Central, and Southwestern China), suggesting Southwestern China as the most likely location for the domestication of lineage A. However, a complex pattern of diversity is detected for the lineage B, preventing the unambiguous pinpointing of the exact place of domestication center and suggesting the presence of a long-term, strong gene flow among swamp buffalo populations caused by extensive migrations of buffaloes and frequent human movements along the Yangtze River throughout history. Our current study suggests that Southwestern China is the most likely domestication center for lineage A, and may have been a primary center of swamp buffalo domestication. More archaeological and genetic evidence is needed to show the process of domestication.
Xie, Wen-Mei; Xu, Ping; Chang, Ti-Cheng; Liu, Li; Cheng, Feng; Zhang, Run-Feng; Lan, Xian-Yong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chu-Zhao
Cystic echinococcosis is a significant parasitic disease in Iran, where a variety of animals act as intermediate hosts. In this study, 25 isolates of Echinococcus granulosus obtained from water buffalo from various parts of Iran were characterized on the basis of the morphology of the metacestode and the adult worm. The characteristics of protoscoleces from the different studied areas were nearly similar. They showed 2 rows of alternating large and small hooks and their shapes were smooth in outline. In contrast to the protoscoleces, the adult rostellar hooks showed a rough outline. The results showed that the total length, the blade lengths of the large and small hooks and the number of hooks are almost similar to those isolated from sheep but significantly different from those isolated from camels. The growth rates of adult E. granulosus (total worm length, segmentation and maturation) of buffalo origin, at 35 and 41 days post-infection of dogs, were nearly comparable to the common sheep strain. The form of the strobila and the morphology of the reproductive system were also similar to those of sheep origin. This suggests that the common sheep strain (G1) of E. granulosus may also use buffaloes as its intermediate host. PMID:21996421
Hosseini, Seyed Hossein; Pour, Arash Amin; Shayan, Parviz
Polioencephalomalacia was induced in eight buffalo calves, 6-12 months old, by drenching amprolium (300 mg/kg body weight per day) for 29-55 days. Four buffalo calves of the same age group were drenched with tap water only and served as control. Blood samples were collected at different intervals during amprolium administration until the onset of clinical signs. Cerebrospinal fluid was also collected prior to amprolium administration and at the onset of clinical signs. A significant progressive decrease in erythrocyte transketolase (TK) activity and an increase in the percent of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) effect were observed in amprolium-fed calves during amprolium administration until the onset of clinical signs. There was a significant increase in blood lactate and blood pyruvate concentrations and a significant decrease in lactate/pyruvate ratio at the onset of clinical signs. Serum electrolyte (Na, Ca, P, Mg) concentrations showed no significant changes. However, the serum potassium concentration had decreased significantly at the onset of signs. The cerebrospinal fluid analyses revealed a significant increase in lactate and pyruvate concentrations and lactate/pyruvate ratio in amprolium-fed calves. The electrolytes (Na, K, Ca, P and Mg) of cerebrospinal fluid did not show any change. It is concluded that oral administration of amprolium (300 mg/kg body weight daily) for 4-6 weeks produces biochemical changes characteristic of polioencephalomalacia in buffalo calves. PMID:7817642
Tanwar, R K; Malik, K S; Gahlot, A K
Four Thai - rumen fistulated male swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), about four years old with 400±20 kg liveweight, were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to receive dietary treatments. The treatments were: ground corn cob (GCC) replacement for cassava chip (CC) in concentrate at 0% (T1); GCC replacement at 33% (T2); GCC replacement at 67% (T3); and GCC replacement at 100% (T4), respectively. During the experiment, concentrate was offered at 0.5% BW while 5% urea-treated rice straw was given at ad libitum. The result revealed that there was no effect of GCC replacement on DMI among treatments. In addition, digestibilities of DM, OM and CP were not different while aNDF linearly increased with an increasing level of GCC replacement. However, GCC replacement did not affect rumen fermentation such as ruminal pH, NH3-N and VFA concentration; except C3 proportion which was the highest at 33% replacement while the lowest was at 100% replacement. All replacements of GCC resulted in similar protozoal and bacterial populations and microbial protein synthesis (MPS). Purine derivatives (PD) concentration in urine and PD to creatinine (PDC) index were varied with time of urination and among treatments at 0 to 8 and 8 to 16 h post feeding and higher values were shown among the GCC replacement groups. However at 16 to 24 h-post feeding, it was untraceable. In addition, creatinine concentration was similar among all treatments at every sampling time. Based on the above results, GCC can be used as an energy source for swamp buffalo fed with rice straw. Spot sampling of urine can be used for purine derivatives determination.
Wanapat, M.; Pilajun, R.; Kang, S.; Setyaningsih, K.; Setyawan, A. R.
Antioxidant capacity of oil soluble and water dispersible carnosic acid (CA) extracted from dried rosemary leaves using HPLC was evaluated at two different dosages (22.5 ppm vs 130 ppm) in raw and cooked ground buffalo meat patties and chicken patties. Irrespective of total phenolic content, CA extracts reduced (p<0.05) the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) by 39%-47% and 37%-40% in cooked buffalo meat and chicken patties at lower dosage (22.5 ppm) relative to control samples. However, at higher dosage (130 ppm) the TBARS values were reduced (p<0.05) by 86%-96% and 78%-87% in cooked buffalo meat and chicken patties compared to controls. The CA extracts were also effective in inhibiting (p<0.05) peroxide value and free fatty acids in cooked buffalo meat and chicken patties. The CA extracts when used at higher dosage, were also effective in stabilizing raw buffalo meat color. PMID:23743029
Naveena, B M; Vaithiyanathan, S; Muthukumar, M; Sen, A R; Kumar, Y Praveen; Kiran, M; Shaju, V A; Chandran, K Ramesh
The report documents the findings of an analytical review of functions and program operations of all city of Buffalo, New York, agencies providing human services programs, as well as major county and private sector agencies concerned with social services....
OVERVIEW OF AMERICAN BRASS BUFFALO PLANT FROM ROOF OF STRAND ANNEALING TOWER, INCLUDING ORIGINAL BRASS MILL (1906-7,1911) TUBE MILL (1915), COPPER MILL (1921). - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY
OVERVIEW OF AMERICAN BRASS BUFFALO PLANT FROM ROOF OF STRAND ANNEALING TOWER, INCLUDING CASTING SHOP AND BAG HOUSE (CENTER-LEFT) AND PORTION OF REROLL BAY (R). VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY
The appearance and incidence of sperm abnormalities was studied in 115 ejaculates, collected periodically over 1 year covering all seasons from five mature, healthy swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls reared under tropical conditions and serving as the current source of semen for artificial insemination (AI) in Thailand. Light microscopy of stained smears was used to investigate sperm head shape morphology, while unstained wet smears were used to examine other sperm abnormalities. The most commonly found morphological aberrations were pear-shaped spermatozoa, knobbed acrosomes, proximal cytoplasmic droplets, simple bent tails and coiled tails under the head, whose ultrastructure (scanning electron microscopy) corresponded to what has been found in other species of bovidae, including varieties of buffalo. The mean prevalence (as least squares mean +/- SEM) of sperm abnormalities was low (below 15%), corresponding to healthy spermiograms. The younger bulls (<10 years old, n = 3) had less abnormalities than the older ones (10.1 +/- 0.6% versus 14.1 +/- 0.8%, P < 0.001, n = 2), including abnormalities of sperm head shape (1.1 +/- 0.3% versus 3.6 +/- 0.3, P < 0.001), acrosome defects with knobbed acrosomes (1.1 +/- 0.2% versus 1.2 +/- 0.3%, P < 0.001), spermatozoa with proximal cytoplasmic droplets (2.7 +/- 0.1% versus 1.4 +/- 0.2%, P < 0.001), defective mid-pieces (0.2 +/- 0.1% versus 0.3 +/- 0.1%) and abnormal sperm tails (3.1 +/- 0.3% versus 5.7 +/- 0.4%, P < 0.001). The within-bull effect of the year solely affected the incidence of pear-shaped spermatozoa while the incidences of abnormal contour, variable size of sperm head shapes, abnormal mid-piece and simple bent tail among bulls were affected by ejaculate (week of collection). Interaction between age and ejaculate affected only the prevalence of spermatozoa with proximal cytoplasmic droplets. In conclusion, the types of defects encountered were similar to those found in other bovidae, with a very low prevalence over the year the AI sires were followed through. PMID:17493162
Koonjaenak, S; Chanatinart, V; Ekwall, H; Rodriguez-Martinez, H
RAW COPPER SLABS USED IN CASTING OPERATIONS AT BUFFALO PLANT OF AMERICAN BRASS COMPANY. MATERIALS STORAGE FOR THE CAST SHOP NOW OCCUPIES A PORTION OF THE ORIGINAL BRASS MILL BUILT BY THE BUFFALO COPPER AND BRASS ROLLING MILL IN 1906-07 AND EXPANDED IN 1911. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY
In 1987, Frank and Deborah Popper, a planner/geographer team from Rutgers University, proposed the Buffalo Commons. If implemented, the Buffalo Commons would have preserved a large area of the Great Plains, including land in ten states, in a national park to be used by exiting Native American reservations, and for the reintroduction of buffalo.
Umberger, Mary L.
The Great Lakes National Program Office of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated the Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) program to address concerns of environmental degradation at 43 Areas of Concern in the Great Lakes. In our first report (Passino-Reader et al. 1992), we developed a generic approach for baseline hazard evaluation of aquatic life in the Great Lakes Areas of Concern. In this report, we demonstrate the application of the generic approach to the Buffalo River (New York) Area of Concern. Using available historical data on residues in sediments, water, and biota, we evaluated exposure for 41 contaminants from the Buffalo River for eight taxa of fish and invertebrates representing the major trophic levels in the Buffalo River. By comparing exposure concentrations with reference toxicities, we calculated risk to the eight receptor organisms for typical and worst cases of exposure to the 41 contaminants. For mixtures of the contaminants present at the Buffalo River, primarily metals and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, we compared sediment concentrations with effects range-low (EL-R) values as reference values for toxicity of mixtures to estimate risk to aquatic biota.
Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Hickey, James P.
The City of Buffalo was incorporated in 1832. It is the second largest city in New York State, encompassing a land area of 42 square miles. The City is located in Erie County in Western New York State on the eastern shore of Lake Erie.
A total of 71 lactating and nonlactating buffalo-cows of the Murrah breed and F(1)-F(3) crossbreds of Murrah x Bulgarian buffalo were used for a year as donors of embryos after a preliminary treatment for superovulation induction with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) or follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in combination with prostaglandin F-2 alpha analog (PGF-2 alpha) according to general application procedures in cows. From 36 to 72 h following prostaglandin injection, the buffalo-cows were checked with the help of a teaser bull for detection of estrus. The animals in estrus were inseminated twice either naturally or artificially with frozen semen. Nonsurgical flushing of the uterine horns was done in 45 of the buffalo-cows between 108 and 162 h after the onset of estrus. After slaughter the uterine horns and oviducts of the other 26 animals were flushed separately between 74 and 108 h after the beginning of estrus. Seven late morulae and eight hatched blastocysts were recovered between 114 and 116 h from the onset of estrus as a result of nonsurgical flushing. All of the 40 embryos recovered after 117 h were in the hatched blastocyst stage. As a result of flushing the oviducts and the uterine horns of slaughtered donors between 74 and 100 h, eggs were obtained only from the oviducts, while flushing conducted between 102 and 108 yielded eggs from both the oviducts and the uterine horns. PMID:16726357
Karaivanov, C; Vlahov, K; Petrov, M; Kacheva, D; Stojanova, M; Alexiev, A; Polihronov, O; Danev, A
Discusses the Special Collections at the State University of New York at Buffalo and the role of Charles Abbott in their development. His interest and a serendipitous lack of funds have created an unusual collection containing a Twentieth Century Poetry Collection, James Joyce holographs, and rare book collections. (CHC)
The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a large wild bovid which until recently ranged across all but the driest parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and their local range being limited to about 20 km from surface water. They are of high ecological value due to their important role as bulk feeders in the grazing hierarchy. They also have high economic value, because they are one of the sought after 'Big Five' in the eco-tourism industry. In Africa, buffaloes have been recognised for some time as an important role player in the maintenance and transmission of a variety of economically important livestock diseases at the wildlife and/or livestock interface. These include African strains of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), Corridor disease (theileriosis), bovine tuberculosis and bovine brucellosis. For a number of other diseases of veterinary importance, African buffaloes may also serve as amplifier or incidental host, whereby infection with the causative pathogens may cause severe clinical signs such as death or abortion as in the case of anthrax and Rift Valley fever, or remain mild or subclinical for example heartwater. The long term health implications of most of those infections on the buffalo at a population level is usually limited, and they do not pose a threat on the population's survival. Because of their ability to harbour and transmit important diseases to livestock, their sustainable future in ecotourism, trade and transfrontier conservation projects become complex and costly and reliable diagnostic tools are required to monitor these infections in buffalo populations. PMID:23327373
Michel, Anita L; Bengis, Roy G
This paper summarizes a recent study on the in vitro cultivation of Babesia from buffaloes. Buffalo Babesia parasites were cultured many times by the microaerophilous stationary phase (MASP) method of Levy and Ristic (1980) with some modifications. The culture-derived Babesia organisms were similar to forms seen in the blood of infected buffaloes and the pathogenicity of these organisms was unchanged. Factors influencing the in vitro cultivation are discussed in detail. PMID:9512743
Zhao, J; Liu, Z; Yao, B; Ma, L
Buffalo ferritin has been isolated and purified from liver using conventional biochemical techniques such as thermal denaturation, ammonium sulphate fractionation, Sephacryl S?300 gel filtration and DEAE?blue gel affinity chromatography. Native gel?electrophoresis of affinity?purified ferritin followed by iron staining showed a single band corresponding to rat liver ferritin. The yield and the iron content of purified ferritin were 10.7 mg per
S. S. Shavali; S. Suryakala; R. B. Sashidhar; V. Deshpande
The US Air Force has sited a radar transmitter at Buffalo Flat, near Christmas Valley, Oregon. This report discusses the environmental impacts of providing the electrical service for the installation. A 115 kV power transmission line will be built between LaPine and Buffalo Flat. Route alternatives as well as design alternatives are discussed. (ACR)
United States. Bonneville Power Administration.
Study was carried out to evaluate the heat stability and quality characteristics of buffalo colostrum during its transition to normal milk. A total of 140 postpartum milk samples of 20 buffaloes (in seven postpartum milking) were collected to observe the heat stability at boiling temperature during transition period. Gradual change (coagulation\\/precipitation) was observed up to sixth postpartum milking when heated
H. H. Arain; M. Khaskheli; M. A. Arain; A. H. Soomro; A. H. Nizamani
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the presence of intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy buffaloes and to examine the relationships among IMI, somatic cell counts (SCC), and milk production traits. Two farms in northern Italy were visited monthly for a complete milking season. Quarter-based milk samples were collected at each visit from 46 buffaloes. A total of 1,912 samples were assessed in this experiment. Samples were cultured for bacterial presence and were tested for SCC and percentages of milk protein and fat. In addition, daily milk yield was recorded from each buffalo. Prevalence of IMI was large; 63% of quarters were infected. No buffalo remained free from IMI throughout the course of the study. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most common pathogen (66% of positive samples). The SCC was distinctly greater in infected quarters; 100% of quarters with SCC >200,000 cell/mL had IMI, whereas 98% of quarters with SCC below this threshold were uninfected. The somatic cell scores (SCS) in these buffaloes were much lower than those commonly observed in dairy cattle. The mean SCS from quarters with IMI was only 2.93. The highest SCS was observed in quarters infected by streptococci. No drastic decrease in milk yield was observed among infected buffaloes relative to healthy contemporaries. The relatively low SCS and lack of a strong effect on milk yield provide evidence to discourage antibiotic treatment of buffaloes for subclinical IMI during lactation. PMID:16507694
Moroni, P; Sgoifo Rossi, C; Pisoni, G; Bronzo, V; Castiglioni, B; Boettcher, P J
WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. A BOEING 737-200 HAS BEEN TOWED IN FOR AN OVERNIGHT (BALANCE) CHECK. THE TAIL DOCK STANDS ARE IN POSITION AT THE REAR OF THE AIRCRAFT TO FACILITATE INSPECTION. MAINTENANCE CREWS PERFORM NIGHTLY SERVICE ON UP TO 6 AIRCRAFT. THE NORMAL SEQUENCE OF 12 ROUTINE CHECKS COVERS SEVEN BASIC AREAS: INTERIOR, EXTERIOR, WINGS, LANDING GEAR, TAIL, AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), AND ENGINES. THE WORK FORCE CONSISTS OF 5 INSPECTORS, 3 LEAD MECHANICS, AND 24 MECHANICS; NIGHTLY SCHEDULES ARE COORDINATED BY A PLANNER. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY
India possesses a total buffalo population of 105 million out of which 26.1% inhabit Uttar Pradesh. The buffalo of Uttar Pradesh are described as nondescript or local buffaloes. Currently, there is no report about the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationship and matrilineal genetic structure of these buffaloes. To determine the origin and genetic diversity of UP buffaloes, we sequenced and analysed the mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequences in 259 samples from entire Uttar Pradesh. One hundred nine haplotypes were identified in UP buffaloes that were defined by 96 polymorphic sites. We implemented neutrality tests to assess signatures of recent historical demographic events like Tajima’s D test and Fu’s Fs test. The phylogenetic studies revealed that there was no geographic differentiation and UP buffaloes had a single maternal lineage while buffaloes of Eastern UP were distinctive from rest of the UP buffaloes.
Joshi, Jyoti; Salar, R. K.; Banerjee, Priyanka; S, Upasna; Tantia, M. S.; Vijh, R. K.
Population genetics and phylogeography of the African buffalo ( Syncerus caffer ) are inferred from genetic diversity at mitochondrial D-loop hypervariable region I sequences and a Y-chromosomal microsatellite. Three buffalo subspecies from different parts of Africa are included. Nucleotide diversity of the subspecies Cape buffalo at hypervariable region I is high, with little differentiation between populations. A mutation rate of
Hooft van W. F; A. F. Groen; H. H. T. Prins
The effect of subzero temperatures on the electrophoretic pattern of seminal plasma protein of cattle and buffalo was studied. The profiles of the seminal proteins of these two closely related species differed considerably. Cattle had 11 proteins in the anodic system (pH 8.6) and none in the cathodic system (pH 4.3), while buffalo have 19 in the anodic system (pH 8.6) and 2 proteins in the cathodic system (pH 4.3). Freezing of semen at -5 degrees C for 24 h caused aggregation of seminal proteins in both species. A higher aggregation and loss of proteins were observed when freezing was done in liquid nitrogen at -196 degrees C. The effect was more pronounced in buffalo than in cattle. Loss of more seminal plasma proteins due to cryoinjury in buffalo semen may account for its poorer freezability than that of cattle semen. PMID:16726543
Muer, S K; Roy, S B; Mohan, G; Dhoble, R L
During the 1983 federal fiscal year, the Department of Labor awarded grants to organizations in six areas to implement one-year demonstration programs aimed at assisting the readjustment of dislocated workers. These areas were Alameda County, CA; Buffalo,...
W. Corson S. Long R. Maynard
Development of suitable selective marker for buffalo spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), optimization of long-term IVC conditions, and their pluripotent retention capacity in buffaloes can be of prime importance in selective genetic modifications of this species. In the present study, we identified CDH1 as a specific marker for buffalo SSCs and revealed that it existed in two protein isoforms (large [135 kDa] and small [90 kDa] subunits) in the buffalo testis; furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CDH1 expression was present in spermatogonia but absent in the somatic cells of 4-month-old buffalo testis. After 7 days of enrichment, expression of CDH1 was also detectable in IVC colonies (?53% enrichment efficiency by Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)). For long-term culture of SSCs, proliferation studies with different factors showed that combination of 20 ng/mL GDNF, 10 ng/mL FGF2, and 1000 U/mL LIF could significantly promote number of colonies (?two folds) and proliferation of buffalo SSCs (?three folds) compared with those of control or single-treatment groups; furthermore, addition of these combination growth factors significantly upregulated the messenger RNA level of spermatogonial-specific and pluripotency-related markers (BCL6B, GFRA1, and POU5F1), whereas downregulated receptor tyrosine kinase (KIT). For confirmation of their stem cell potential, Dolichos biflorus agglutinin-stained cells were identified in the basal membrane of seminiferous tubules of xenotransplanted mice testis. These findings indicate the identification of a new buffalo SSCs marker; furthermore, it may help in establishing long-term culture that would assist in genetic modification of these buffaloes. PMID:24703765
Yu, Xue; Riaz, Hasan; Dong, Ping; Chong, Zhenlu; Luo, Xuan; Liang, Aixin; Yang, Liguo
This Website, created and maintained by the University at Buffalo Libraries, offers extensive links to full-text, online versions of popular government documents on such topics as aging, the Census, employment, consumer information, copyrights, domestic violence, health, education, the environment, home safety, parenting, small businesses, social security, taxes, travel, and wildlife. Some of the sections are updated more recently than others, but all of them are still actively maintained and provide HTML or .pdf versions of the kinds of government documents that ordinary citizens may actually want to consult. Another portion of the site contains extensive materials taken from the library's Love Canal Collection. This section provides background information on the Love Canal contamination which occurred in the 1970s and the controversy over its effects on the surrounding populace as well as numerous pertinent documents, including EPA analyses, court opinions, reports by interfaith advocates for government and industry action, and much more.
It's often difficult to find high-quality and well-curated lists of materials related to geography and cartography online. However, this collection created by David J. Bertuca, the subject librarian for geography at the University of Buffalo Libraries, serves as a rich trove of resources. The items here are divided into over a dozen headings, including Government Resources and Map Collections. Each area contains at least ten offerings with BertucaÃ¢ÂÂs own salient commentary on the contents of each site, tool, collection, or application. The Selected Blogs feature is a real treat as it includes links to the fun and informative worlds of Google Maps Mania and Strange Maps. Visitors can also contact Bertuca directly to suggest links or to inquire about other resources.
Two Clinical Pharmacokinetics Laboratories at Buffalo are described: one at the Millard Fillmore Hospital and the other at the Buffalo Children's Hospital. Their research efforts are reviewed and their scientific contributions to clinical therapeutics and pharmaceutical research are noted. (LBH)
Koup, Jeffrey R.
Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) are considered to be an important reservoir for various tick-borne haemoparasites of veterinary importance. In this study we have compared the haemoparasite carrier prevalence in buffalo from four geographically isolated national parks in Uganda [Lake Mburo National Park (LMNP), Queen Elizabeth National Park (QENP), Murchison Falls National Park (MFNP) and Kidepo Valley National Park (KVNP)]. Differences were seen in haemoparasite prevalence in buffalo from the four national parks. All the buffalo sampled in LMNP were carriers of Theileria parva however, buffalo from MFNP and KVNP, which are both located in the north of Uganda, were negative for T. parva. Interestingly, 95% of buffalo in the northern part of QENP were T. parva positive, however all buffalo sampled in the south of the park were negative. A high multiplicity of infection was recorded in all the buffalo found to be carrying T. parva, with evidence of at least nine parasite genotypes in some animals. Most of the buffalo sampled in all four national parks were carriers of T. mutans and T. velifera, however none were carriers of T. taurotragi, Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Ehrlichia bovis or Ehrlichia ruminantium. All the buffalo sampled from LMNP were positive for T. buffeli and T. sp. (buffalo) however, buffalo from the parks in the north of the country (KVNP and MFNP) were negative for these haemoparasites. Anaplasma centrale and Anaplasma marginale were circulating in buffalo from all four national parks. T. parva gene pools from two geographically separated populations of buffalo in two of the national parks in Uganda (LMNP and QENP) were compared. The T. parva populations in the two national parks were distinct, indicating that there was limited gene flow between the populations. The results presented highlight the complexity of tick-borne pathogen infections in buffalo and the significant role that buffalo may play as reservoir hosts for veterinary haemoparasites that have the potential to cause severe disease in domestic cattle. PMID:21074945
Oura, C A L; Tait, A; Asiimwe, B; Lubega, G W; Weir, W
A comprehensive review is presented of the nutrient composition for buffalo, mare, and dromedary camel milks at the level of breed, and species-level data for yak, mithun, musk ox, donkey, Bactrian camel, llama, alpaca, reindeer and moose milks. Average values of nutrients were calculated and compared. Interspecies values (g 100 g(-1) ) were 0.7-16.1 for total fat, 1.6-10.5 for protein, 2.6-6.6 for lactose, and 67.9-90.8 for water. Reindeer and moose milks had the highest fat and protein concentrations and the lowest lactose contents. Mare and donkey milks had the lowest protein and fat contents, in addition to showing the most appropriate fatty acid profile for human nutrition. Dromedary camel milk was most similar to cow milk in proximate composition. Moose milk was the richest in minerals, having values as high as 358 mg 100 g(-1) for calcium, 158 mg 100 g(-1) for sodium and 150 mg 100 g(-1) for phosphorus. Interbreed differences of 4 g 100 g(-1) were observed in total fat in buffalo, yak, mare and dromedary camel milks. Large interbreed differences were also present in the mineral contents in mare, buffalo and dromedary camel milks. By bringing together these compositional data, we hope to usefully widen the biodiversity knowledge base, which may contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of milk from underutilized dairy breeds and species, and to improved food and nutrition security, particularly in developing countries. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:22083874
Medhammar, Elinor; Wijesinha-Bettoni, Ramani; Stadlmayr, Barbara; Nilsson, Emma; Charrondiere, Ute Ruth; Burlingame, Barbara
Buffalo meat steaks dipped in either (1) distilled water (control), (2) lactic acid (LA), (3) LA+clove oil (clove), or (4) LA+clove+vitamin C (Vit C) were displayed at 4±1°C, illuminated by a standard fluorescent lamp. The pH, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), instrumental colour (CIE L(?), a(?), b(?)), aerobic plate counts (APC), psychrotrophic counts (PPC), coliform counts and sensory colour and odour were determined up to 12th day of display at 3 days interval. Results showed that, all the treatments have significantly (P<0.05) reduced the TBARS values compared to control. Among treatments, use of LA+clove has exhibited significantly (P<0.05) lowest TBARS values throughout display period than others. Buffalo meat steaks treated with either LA+clove or LA+clove+Vit C had significantly (P<0.05) lower APC, PPC and coliform counts than control or LA treated samples. LA+clove+Vit C treated samples maintained significantly (P<0.05) higher a(?) and b(?) values during display as well as improvement in sensory colour and odour than others. Treatment with either LA+clove or LA+clove+Vit C extended the display life of buffalo meat steaks at 4±1°C. There appears to be a significant advantage to using LA+clove or LA+clove+Vit C over LA alone. PMID:22062853
Naveena, B M; Muthukumar, M; Sen, A R; Babji, Y; Murthy, T R K
Peroxysome proliferator activated receptor coactivator-1 gene (PPARGC1A) is a positional and functional candidate gene for milk fat yield. It has key role in energy, fat and glucose metabolism. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Exon-8 of PPARGC1A are reported to be associated with milk fat yield in dairy cattle. In the present investigation PPARGC1A was partially amplified (around 767bp) by designing gene specific primer and confirm by sequencing the amplicon and its comparison with the PPARGC1A gene of bovine. Comparative study of PPARGC1A among different breeds of buffaloes reveals different level of mutations with respect to its gene sequence 0.013-1.69% and protein sequence 0.42% to 2.99%, Similarly the protein structures modeled from their sequences were compared by structural superposition that shows variations (RMSD) from 0.736 to 1.507. Furthermore, the sequences were used to generate a dendrogram. It reveals that Murrah and reference are very close to each other, similarly Toda, Bhadawari and Surti are closely related, whereas Pandharpuri is separated from both the cluster. Especially the variations are more at the binding site of this protein that may be the cause that different breeds have different percentage of milk fat. Further study is underway to detect polymorphism and associate them with milk fat related traits in buffalo.
Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Ravinder; Beniwal, Vikas; Kala, Sheo Narain; Mishra, Anamika; Raut, Ashwin Ashok; Naik, Pradeep Kumar; Chhokar, Vinod
Peroxysome proliferator activated receptor coactivator-1 gene (PPARGC1A) is a positional and functional candidate gene for milk fat yield. It has key role in energy, fat and glucose metabolism. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Exon-8 of PPARGC1A are reported to be associated with milk fat yield in dairy cattle. In the present investigation PPARGC1A was partially amplified (around 767bp) by designing gene specific primer and confirm by sequencing the amplicon and its comparison with the PPARGC1A gene of bovine. Comparative study of PPARGC1A among different breeds of buffaloes reveals different level of mutations with respect to its gene sequence 0.013-1.69% and protein sequence 0.42% to 2.99%, Similarly the protein structures modeled from their sequences were compared by structural superposition that shows variations (RMSD) from 0.736 to 1.507. Furthermore, the sequences were used to generate a dendrogram. It reveals that Murrah and reference are very close to each other, similarly Toda, Bhadawari and Surti are closely related, whereas Pandharpuri is separated from both the cluster. Especially the variations are more at the binding site of this protein that may be the cause that different breeds have different percentage of milk fat. Further study is underway to detect polymorphism and associate them with milk fat related traits in buffalo. PMID:22829739
Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Ravinder; Beniwal, Vikas; Kala, Sheo Narain; Mishra, Anamika; Raut, Ashwin Ashok; Naik, Pradeep Kumar; Chhokar, Vinod
The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Eastern Great Lakes Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Buffalo Coastal Zone.
This paper examines the phenomenon of Buffalo Bill's Wild West show which toured Europe on a number of occasions between 1887 and 1906 and in particular the central role of the native American (Indian) performers. The Wild West combined both realism and an emerging mythology to present a moral narrative of the triumph of civilisation, and the settlement of the
Sixteen lactating buffaloes weighed 600 kg in average and in mid-lactation period, were selected according to its lactation season (2 and 3 lactation seasons) and milk yield to study the effect of replacing nd rd whole clover and\\/or a part of concentrate feed mixture (CFM) with whole corn silage without or with some additives (yeast culture or chelated minerals) in
M. A. Hanafy; M. A. Ali; M. H. Abd El-Gawad; M. S. Farghaly; H. M. El-Banna
The study is part of the economic adjustment strategy developed for government planners and private industry to create new jobs and stimulate economic growth in Buffalo and Erie County. The report contains a development plan for area A of the Waterfront R...
Scientific basis on the quality changes of traditional keema will boost and sustain meat production and utilization in buffalo abundant countries. A programme was undertaken to determine the influence of age and gender on the quality of buffalo meat keema at refrigerator storage (4?±?1 °C). Buffalo meat keema was evaluated by analyzing the changes in physicochemical, microbiological and sensory attributes. The product characteristics and acceptability of keema were better in spent buffalo group than young male group. The values of pH, TBARS, total aerobic mesophils, coliforms, Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus aureus, anaerobic and psychrophilic counts of buffalo meat keema increased but appearance, flavour, juiciness, tenderness, connective tissue residue and overall acceptability scores decreased with progressing refrigerated storage. The shelf life of refrigerated buffalo meat keema was 18 days with an overall acceptability score ranging from extremely acceptable to moderately acceptable. PMID:24426018
Kandeepan, G; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Kondaiah, N; Mendiratta, S K; Rajkumar, R S
The aim was to determine the factors that contribute to embryonic mortality in buffaloes mated by AI during a period of increasing day length which corresponds to a natural decline in reproductive activity. Italian Mediterranean buffalo cows (n=243) showing regular estrous cycles were synchronized using the Ovsynch-TAI program and mated by AI at 16 and 40 h after the second injection of GnRH. Blood samples were collected on Days 10 and 20 after the first AI and assayed for progesterone (P4). Pregnancy diagnosis was undertaken on Days 26 and 40 after the first AI using rectal ultrasonography. Buffaloes with a conceptus on Day 26 but not on Day 40 were judged to have undergone embryonic mortality and for these animals uterine fluid was recovered by flushing and analysed for common infectious agents. Estrus synchronization was achieved in 86% of buffaloes and the pregnancy rate on Day 40 was 34%. Embryonic mortality between Days 26 and 40 occurred in 45% of buffaloes and was associated with the presence of significant infectious agents in only 10 buffaloes (8%). Concentrations of P4 on Day 10 after AI were higher (P<0.05) in buffaloes that established a pregnancy than in buffaloes that showed embryonic mortality that was not associated with infectious agents. Similarly, on Day 20 after AI P4 concentrations were higher (P<0.01) in pregnant buffaloes compared with non-pregnant buffaloes and buffaloes that had embryonic mortality. It is concluded that a reduced capacity for P4 secretion can explain around 50% of embryonic mortalities in buffaloes synchronised and mated by AI during a period of low reproductive activity and that other as yet unidentified factors also have a significant effect on embryonic survival. PMID:15826694
Campanile, Giuseppe; Neglia, Gianluca; Gasparrini, Bianca; Galiero, Giorgio; Prandi, Alberto; Di Palo, Rossella; D'Occhio, Michael J; Zicarelli, Luigi
This review brings together information on ovarian physiology in buffaloes including folliculogenesis, ovulation, and the development and function of the corpus luteum. Features of embryonic development are also considered. The buffalo is classified as a short-day breeder but in equatorial zones can show oestrous cycles throughout the year provided that nutrition is adequate to maintain reproductive function. In sub-tropical zones and at higher latitudes, day length is often the major determinant of reproductive function including the occurrence of regular oestrous cycles, duration of oestrus, and the period to resumption of ovulation postpartum. Indeed, at higher latitudes buffaloes that give birth during the period of increasing day length may not show a resumption of ovulation until the following period of decreasing day length. This can have a major impact on the productive value of buffaloes and requires the development and utilisation of practical and effective assisted breeding technology for out-of-season breeding in buffaloes. Embryonic development in buffaloes occurs at a faster rate than in cattle and this has implications for the earlier establishment and functionality of the corpus luteum in buffaloes. It would appear that the interrelationships between the development of the early conceptus, corpus luteum function, uterine preparation, and maternal recognition of pregnancy, are more closely time-bound in buffaloes compared with cattle. The phase of embryonic attachment would seem to be a critical period for determining the reproductive outcome in buffaloes. PMID:20430540
Campanile, Giuseppe; Baruselli, Pietro Sampaio; Neglia, Gianluca; Vecchio, Domenico; Gasparrini, Bianca; Gimenes, Lindsay U; Zicarelli, Luigi; D'Occhio, Michael J
As part of the planning effort for combined sewer overflow (CSO) abatement, a combination of sampling and mathematical modeling was used to characterize both CSO and receiving water quality in the city of Buffalo, NY. Samples collected during storm events showed that while CSOs within the city boundary are a source of fecal coliform to the Buffalo River, higher concentrations
Kim N. Irvine; Mary F. Perrelli; Greg McCorkhill; Jim Caruso
The efficacy of ketamine and bupivacaine in enhancing the epidural analgesia induced by medetomidine was evaluated in 10 buffalo calves utilized repeatedly after a gap of 10 days so that each drug combination was tested in 4 randomly selected animals. In group A, medetomidine (15 µg\\/kg), in group B ketamine (2.0 mg\\/kg), in group C bupivacaine (0.125 mg\\/kg), in group
V. Singh; Amarpal; P. Kinjavdekar; H. P. Aithal; K. Pratap
The Little Buffalo Basin field, in NW. Wyoming on the SW. side of the Big Horn Basin, is a N.-S. asymmetric anticline 3-1\\/2 miles long, 1-1\\/2 mile wide, with about 1,000 ft of structural closure. Oil was discovered in 1943 in the Pennsylvanian Tensleep. Cumulative production has been over 30 million bbl of oil from the 1,500 acres. Reservoir energy
J. A. McCaleb; W. R. Emmett; K. W. Beaver
Four, 3-year old, rumen fistulated swamp buffalo bulls were randomly assigned in a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to received four dietary treatments; factor A=2 sources of energy (cassava chip and corn cobs), factor B=2 levels of urea in concentrate mixture (15 and 30g\\/kg). During the experiment, concentrate was offered at 5g\\/kg BW while 50g\\/kg urea-treated
M. Wanapat; R. Pilajun; P. Kongmun
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are primordial, uncommitted cells postulated to give rise to the array of more specialized cells of the central nervous system (CNS). NSCs can self-renew and give rise to neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. NSCs are found in the CNS of mammalian organisms, and represent a promising resource for both fundamental research and CNS repair. Animal models of CNS damage have highlighted the potential benefit of NSC-based approaches. Present study described that buffalo neural stem cells (Bu-NSCs) were isolated and expanded rapidly from buffalo fetal brain in adherent culture. They were capable of multidifferentiation into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Bu-NSCs were morphologically homogeneous and possessed high proliferation ability. The population doubled every 128.16 h. Normal buffalo karyotype was unchanged throughout the in vitro culture period. Together, we have isolated and cultured Bu-NSC from fetal brain that showed self-renewal, rapid proliferation and ability to differentiate into cells of nervous system. The availability of such cells may hold great interest for basic and applied neuroscience. PMID:24094244
Kumar, Kuldeep; Singh, Renu; Kumar, Manish; Agarwal, Pranjali; Mahapatra, P S; Kumar, Ajay; Malakar, Dhruba; Bag, Sadhan
Serum electrolytes, minerals, blood biochemical and plasma enzymes were studied in heat exposed buffalo heifers supplemented with yeast powder in feed to alleviate the adverse effects of heat stress. Eighteen healthy Murrah buffalo heifers (270-280) kg were divided into three groups. Animals of group I were kept in shed and served as control, while group II and group III were exposed in a psychrometric chamber at 40°C for 4 hrs daily for 16 days continuously. The animals in group III were also supplemented with yeast powder at 10 g per animal per day. The serum sodium, potassium and chloride levels decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in group II and their levels tended to be maintained in group III. Serum calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, glucose and total cholesterol concentration decreased (P < 0.05) significantly whereas total protein increased in group II due to heat stress. The levels of these minerals tended to be normal in group III. The plasma concentration of SGOT and SGPT increased significantly (P < 0.05), whereas the concentration of plasma alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase decreased due to thermal exposure. The levels of these enzymes tended to be normal in group III. The results indicated significant deviations in blood biochemical due to thermal stress and their levels tended to be normal in yeast supplemented group of buffalo heifers. PMID:22415403
Singh, Shiv Pratap; Hooda, Om Kanwar; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Singh, Sohanvir
Lincomycin 10 mg kg(-1), IV in buffalo calves followed two-compartment open model with high distribution rate constant ? (11.2?±?0.42 h(-1)) and K 12/K 21 ratio (4.40?±?0.10). Distribution half-life was 0.06?±?0.01 h and AUC was 41.6?±?1.73 ?g mL(-1) h. Large Vdarea (1.15?±?0.03 L kg(-1)) indicated good distribution of lincomycin in various body fluids and tissues. Peak plasma level of lincomycin (71.8?±?1.83 ?g mL(-1)) was observed at 1 min as expected by IV route. The elimination half-life and MRT of lincomycin were short (3.30?±?0.08 and 4.32?±?0.11 h, respectively). Lincomycin 10 mg kg(-1) IV at 12-h interval would be sufficient to maintain T?>?MIC above 60 % for bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) values ?1.6 ?g mL(-1). Favourable pharmacokinetic profile in buffalo calves and a convenient dosing interval suggest that lincomycin may be an appropriate antibacterial in buffalo species for gram-positive and anaerobic bacterial pathogens susceptible to lincomycin. PMID:24792222
Sreeshitha Gouri, Sreedharan; Venkatachalam, Dinakaran; Dumka, Vinod Kumar
Buffalo Bayou is the major stream that drains the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area. The U.S. Geological Survey has provided specific conductance, temperature, and dissolved oxygen data to the City of Houston for three sites along a 7.7-mile reach of Buffalo Bayou since 1986. Summary statistics and graphical comparisons of the data show substantial variability in the properties during 1986-91. Specific conductance ranged from about 100 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius at each of the three sites to 17,100 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius at the most downstream site, at the headwaters of the Houston Ship Channel. Water temperatures ranged from 5 to 33 degrees Celsius. Temperatures were very similar at the two upstream sites and slightly warmer at the most downstream site. Dissolved oxygen ranged from zero at the most downstream site to 11.7 milligrams per liter at the most upstream site.
Brown, D. W.; Paul, E. M.
Buffalo/Mna rats spontaneously develop a focal segmental glomerulosclerosis with a histological pattern similar to the human disease. In this study, we investigated the potential of recurrence of the disease by transplantation of normal kidneys into Buffalo/Mna recipients. Kidneys from healthy LEW.1W rats were grafted into proteinuric 6-month-old Buffalo/Mna rats without or with specific tolerance induction following donor-specific transfusion (DST) aimed at controlling host anti-donor immune responses. The inverse combination was carried out to determine whether a proteinuric Buffalo/Mna kidney can recover its permselectivity in a normal environment. As a control, LEW.1W kidneys were grafted into Wistar Furth recipients. After transplantation without DST, recurrence of proteinuria in LEW.1W kidneys appeared at approximately 10 days, possibly associated with rejection of the graft. In the same combination with DST, proteinuria occurred after 20 days, and the attendant glomerular damage suggested that the initial kidney disease had recurred. Transplanted control animals remained free of proteinuria. In the opposite combination, the proteinuria and the lesions of Buffalo/Mna kidneys regressed after transplantation into healthy LEW.1W rats. The recurrence of proteinuria after transplantation in Buffalo/Mna and the remission of lesions in Buffalo/Mna kidneys transplanted into normal hosts suggests that Buffalo/Mna rats express circulating albuminuric factors, which may be relevant to the relapse of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in humans.
Le Berre, Ludmilla; Godfrin, Yann; Gunther, Eberhard; Buzelin, Francoise; Perretto, Sabine; Smit, Helga; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Usal, Claire; Cuturi, Cristina; Soulillou, Jean-Paul; Dantal, Jacques
Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) are considered to be an important reservoir for various tick-borne haemoparasites of veterinary importance. In this study we have compared the haemoparasite carrier prevalence in buffalo from four geographically isolated national parks in Uganda [Lake Mburo National Park (LMNP), Queen Elizabeth National Park (QENP), Murchison Falls National Park (MFNP) and Kidepo Valley National Park (KVNP)]. Differences
C. A. L. Oura; A. Tait; B. Asiimwe; G. W. Lubega; W. Weir
Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a chronic, highly infectious disease that affects humans, cattle and numerous species of wildlife. In developing countries such as South Africa, the existence of extensive wildlife-human-livestock interfaces poses a significant risk of Mycobacterium bovis transmission between these groups, and has far-reaching ecological, economic and public health impacts. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), acts as a maintenance host for Mycobacterium bovis, and maintains and transmits the disease within the buffalo and to other species. In this study we aimed to investigate genetic susceptibility of buffalo for Mycobacterium bovis infection. Samples from 868 African buffalo of the Cape buffalo subspecies were used in this study. SNPs (n?=?69), with predicted functional consequences in genes related to the immune system, were genotyped in this buffalo population by competitive allele-specific SNP genotyping. Case-control association testing and statistical analyses identified three SNPs associated with BTB status in buffalo. These SNPs, SNP41, SNP137 and SNP144, are located in the SLC7A13, DMBT1 and IL1? genes, respectively. SNP137 remained significantly associated after permutation testing. The three genetic polymorphisms identified are located in promising candidate genes for further exploration into genetic susceptibility to BTB in buffalo and other bovids, such as the domestic cow. These polymorphisms/genes may also hold potential for marker-assisted breeding programmes, with the aim of breeding more BTB-resistant animals and herds within both the national parks and the private sector.
le Roex, Nikki; Koets, Ad P.; van Helden, Paul D.; Hoal, Eileen G.
We report molecular cloning and single nucleotide polymorphism detection of the buffalo DGAT1 gene. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT1) is considered the key enzyme in controlling the rate of synthesis of triglycerides. The DGAT1 gene was recently identified as a strong functional candidate gene affecting milk yield and composition in cattle. A full-length buffalo DGAT1 genomic DNA was amplified by iterative PCR based on homolog cloning. The buffalo DGAT1 gene comprises 17 exons and spans approximately 8.3 kb. The genomic structures of DGAT1 are highly conserved among mammal species. The deduced protein of buffalo DGAT1 contains 489 amino acids, showing high-sequence similarity with mammal homologs. Through PCR-SSCP analysis and sequencing, seven polymorphic positions were detected in the complete genomic region of buffalo DGAT1, and their frequencies were observed from a collection of 117 buffalo. The SNP (C/T) detected at position 11785 in exon 17 creates a substitution change for the amino acid sequence, resulting in an Ala residue (GCG) transition to a Val residue (GTG) in position 484 of buffalo DGAT1 protein. Information provided in this study will be useful in further studies to determine the role DGAT1 plays in the regulation of milk fat synthesis and quality improvement for milk in buffalo. PMID:17592768
Yuan, Jing; Zhou, Jun; Deng, Xuemei; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Ning
Domestic buffaloes are divided into two group based on cytogenetic characteristics and habitats: the “river buffaloes” with 2n = 50 and the “swamp buffaloes”, 2n = 48. Nevertheless, their hybrids are viable, fertile and identified by a 2n = 49. In order to have a better characterization of these different cytotypes of buffaloes, and considering that NOR-bearing chromosomes are involved in the rearrangements responsible for the karyotypic differences, we applied silver staining (Ag-NOR) and performed fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments using 18S rDNA as probe. Metaphases were obtained through blood lymphocyte culture of 21 individuals, including river, swamp and hybrid cytotypes. Ag-NOR staining revealed active NORs on six chromosome pairs (3p, 4p, 6, 21, 23, 24) in the river buffaloes, whereas the swamp buffaloes presented only five NOR-bearing pairs (4p, 6, 20, 22, 23). The F1 cross-breed had 11 chromosomes with active NORs, indicating expression of both parental chromosomes. FISH analysis confirmed the numerical divergence identified with Ag-NOR. This result is explained by the loss of the NOR located on chromosome 4p in the river buffalo, which is involved in the tandem fusion with chromosome 9 in this subspecies. A comparison with the ancestral cattle karyotype suggests that the NOR found on the 3p of the river buffalo may have originated from a duplication of ribosomal genes, resulting in the formation of new NOR sites in this subspecies.
Degrandi, Tiago Marafiga; Pita, Sebastian; Panzera, Yanina; de Oliveira, Edivaldo Herculano C.; Marques, Jose Ribamar Felipe; Figueiro, Marivaldo Rodrigues; Marques, Larissa Coelho; Vinade, Lucia; Gunski, Ricardo Jose; Garnero, Analia Del Valle
A study was undertaken to determine the effects of oviductal proteins obtained from various stages of the estrous cycle on spermatozoa characteristics in buffaloes. Oviducts were collected from apparently healthy buffalo genital tracts (nonluteal and luteal stage of estrous cycle) and separated into isthmus and ampulla. Each segment of oviduct (nonluteal and luteal) was flushed with PBS (pH 7.4). The
A. Kumaresan; M. R. Ansari; Abhishek Garg
Eight apparently healthy male buffalo calves of 6 to 12 months of age were drenched with amprolium (300 mg/kg body weight) till the development of clinical signs. Four buffalo calves of the same age group were drenched with tap water only and these served as controls. Amprolium drenched calves were allowed to die after the onset of clinical signs and control calves were euthanised after the death of amprolium fed calves. Tissues were collected for histopathological studies. Formalin fixed brain slices were examined for autofluorescence with the help of ultraviolet light at 365 nm. Gross and histopathological changes were mainly confined to the brain in amprolium fed calves. Gross lesions included congestion and haemorrhages in the meninges. The cerebral gyri were swollen with yellowish discolouration of cerebral cortex. Microscopic changes in the brain were limited to gray matter structures of cerebral and cerebellar cortex, caudal colliculi of mid brain and thalamus. There was shrinkage of neurons, perivascular and pericellular edema, necrosis of neurons, satellitosis, glial nodule and gliosis. Blood vessel walls were thickened due to hypertrophy and hyperplasia of endothelial and adventitial cells. In the cerebellar cortex, there was degeneration of Purkinje cells. The caudal colliculi of mid brain showed bilateral malacia. In the necrotic areas, neuropils were fragmented, edematous and hypercellular due to increased number of microglial cells and there was neocapillary formation. Subcortical gray matter of the thalamus showed necrosis of neurons, gliosis with formation of glial nodule. Formalin-fixed brain slices of amprolium fed calves showed disseminated areas of greenish yellow autofluorescence in the cerebral cortex when viewed under ultraviolet light at 365 nm. PMID:8451904
Tanwar, R K; Malik, K S; Sadana, J R
Cypermethrin, a type II synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, @ 0.5mg/kg/day for 14 consecutive weeks produced mild signs of toxicity in buffalo calves. Significant changes were observed in various antioxidant parameters in blood. There was a marked increase in the extent of lipid peroxidation (33.9%) and enzymic activity of glutathione peroxidase (6.7%), superoxide dismutase (35.0%), catalase (43.7%), glutathione-S-transferase (64.4%), glutathione reductase (36.7%) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (32.1%). A significant decrease in blood glutathione (16.7%), total antioxidant activity (45.4%) and vitamin E (40.8%) was observed and no significant effect was found on blood selenium levels. However, the extent of lipid peroxidation (42%) and the depletion of glutathione (28.8%) was greater after dermal sub-acute toxicity of cypermethrin (0.25%) for 14 consecutive days. Similarly, it was observed that the incline in the enzymic activity of glutathione peroxidase (29.7%), superoxide dismutase (38.3%) and glutathione reductase (38.3%) was higher in dermally cypermethrin exposed animals. Thus, the present investigation contemplates that oxidative stress is the important mechanisms involved in cypermethrin-induced toxicity and the oxidative insult produced by dermal route is more severe as compared to oral intoxication. PMID:23623842
Kaur, Rajdeep; Dar, Shabir Ahmad
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering Americas Land Initiative, selected the Buffalo Reuse Authority brownfield site for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laborat...
G. Mosey, J. O. Roberts
The effects of surface water withdrawal on habitat availability and quality were investigated in one lacustrine (Mossy Lake) and various river habitats in the Yazoo River Basin during the summer and fall of 1984 for the following fishes: bigmouth buffalo ...
K. J. Killgore A. C. Miller
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects exerted by the content of casein and whey protein fractions on variation of pH, rennet-coagulation time (RCT), curd-firming time (K20), and curd firmness of Mediterranean buffalo individual milk. Measures of milk protein composition and assessment of genotypes at CSN1S1 and CSN3 were obtained by reversed-phase HPLC analysis of 621 individual milk samples. Increased content of ?S1-casein (CN) was associated with delayed coagulation onset and increased K20, whereas average pH, RCT, and K20 decreased when ?-CN content increased. Milk with low ?-CN content exhibited low pH and RCT relative to milk with high content of ?-CN. Increased content of glycosylated ?-CN was associated with unfavorable effects on RCT. Effects of milk protein composition on curd firmness were less important than those on pH, RCT, and K20. Likely, this occurred as a consequence of the very short RCT of buffalo milk, which guaranteed a complete strengthening of the curd even in the restricted 31 min time of analysis of coagulation properties and for samples initially showing soft curds. Effects of CSN1S1-CSN3 genotypes on coagulation properties were not to be entirely ascribed to existing variation in milk protein composition associated with polymorphisms at CSN1S1 and CSN3 genes. Although the role of detailed milk protein composition in variation of cheese yield needs to be further investigated, findings of this study suggest that modification of the relative content of specific CN fractions can relevantly influence the behavior of buffalo milk during processing. PMID:23684020
Bonfatti, V; Gervaso, M; Rostellato, R; Coletta, A; Carnier, P
Five plants are described that could be grown commercially under arid conditions. Once the most valuable component has been obtained from each plant (rubber from guayule; seed oil from jojoba, buffalo gourd, and bladderpod; and resin from gumweed), the remaining material holds potential for useful products as well as fuel. It is difficult to realize the full potential of arid land plants, however, because of the complexities of developing the necessary agricultural and industrial infrastructure simultaneously. To do so, multicompany efforts or cooperative efforts between government and the private sector will be required.
The study was conducted on 18 lactating Murrah buffaloes in 83.72 +/- 14.75 days after calving. Group I buffaloes were not injected with oxytocin and served as control. Buffaloes of Group II were injected with oxytocin @ 2.5 IU per 0.5 ml intramuscularly at the hip region for a period of 1 month while Group III buffaloes received injection of oxytocin @ 5.0 IU per ml intramuscularly at the hip region for a period of 1 month. Milk samples from three groups of buffaloes were collected after oxytocin injections at 15 days interval on 0, 15, 30 and 45 days. Blood samples were collected in heparinized tubes at 0, 15, 30 and 45 days of experiment from all three groups of buffaloes. There was no significant change in cisternal, alveolar and total milk yield by exogenous oxytocin administration. Fat % in cisternal, alveolar and total milk decreased significantly (P < 0.01) by 11.8% and 21.3% in groups II and III buffaloes, respectively. Protein % increased significantly (P < 0.01) in group III. A significant increase was observed in somatic cell counts of milk by 5.36% and 6.22% in groups II and III, respectively as compared to control group. PMID:17966274
Bidarimath, Mallikarjun; Aggarwal, Anjali
The relationship of body condition score (BCS) and blood urea and ammonia to pregnancy outcome was examined in Italian Mediterranean Buffalo cows mated by AI. The study was conducted on 150 buffaloes at 145 +/- 83 days in milk that were fed a diet comprising 14.8% crude protein, 0.9 milk forage units.kg-1 dry matter and a non-structural carbohydrate/crude protein ratio of 2.14. The stage of the oestrous cycle was synchronised by the Ovsynch-TAI programme and blood urea and ammonia levels were assessed on the day of AI. Energy corrected milk (ECM) production and BCS were recorded bi-weekly. The pregnancy risk was 46.7% and was slightly lower in buffaloes with BCS < 6.0 and BCS > 7.5. There were no significant differences in ECM, urea and ammonia between pregnant and non-pregnant buffaloes. However, pregnancy outcome was higher (P = 0.02) in buffaloes with blood urea < 6.83 mmol.L-1. The likelihood of pregnancy for buffaloes with low urea blood level was 2.6 greater than for high urea level and exposure to a high urea level lowered the probability of pregnancy by about 0.25. The findings indicate that buffaloes are similar to cattle and increased blood levels of urea are associated with reduced fertility when animals are mated by AI. PMID:16438915
Campanile, Giuseppe; Neglia, Gianluca; Di Palo, Rossella; Gasparrini, Bianca; Pacelli, Corrado; D'Occhio, Michael J; Zicarelli, Luigi
Milk from buffalo, cow, goat and camel species was collected in Ismailia in Egypt. Aflatoxin (AFM(1)) levels were lower than previous surveys, and were influenced by feeding practices. Cows and buffaloes are fed prepared rations and had highest incidence of AFM(1). Camels forage freely on available pasture and had lowest AFM(1) in their milk. Goats are fed a combination of prepared ration as a supplement to pasture grazing. Most milks (80%, 74%, 66% and 52% of the camel, goat, cow and buffalo milks, respectively) were below the European Union maximum of AFM(1) <50 ng/L and all milk samples were <500 ng/L. PMID:19710995
Motawee, Mahmoud M; Bauer, Johann; McMahon, Donald J
We report 2 cases of Thelazia rhodesii infection in the African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, in Zambia. African buffalo calves were captured from the livestock and wildlife interface area of the Kafue basin in the dry season of August 2005 for the purpose to translocate to game ranches. At capture, calves (n=48) were examined for the presence of eye infections by gently manipulating the orbital membranes to check for eye-worms in the conjunctival sacs and corneal surfaces. Two (4.3%) were infected and the mean infection burden per infected eye was 5.3 worms (n=3). The mean length of the worms was 16.4 mm (95% CI; 14.7-18.2 mm) and the diameter 0.41 mm (95% CI; 0.38-0.45 mm). The surface cuticle was made of transverse striations which gave the worms a characteristic serrated appearance. Although the calves showed signs of kerato-conjunctivitis, the major pathological change observed was corneal opacity. The calves were kept in quarantine and were examined thrice at 30 days interval. At each interval, they were treated with 200 µg/kg ivermectin, and then translocated to game ranches. Given that the disease has been reported in cattle and Kafue lechwe (Kobus lechwe kafuensis) in the area, there is a need for a comprehensive study which aims at determining the disease dynamics and transmission patterns of thelaziasis between wildlife and livestock in the Kafue basin.
Chembensofu, Mweelwa; Siamudaala, Victor M.; Munyeme, Musso; Matandiko, Wigganson
Strict control measures apply to movement of buffalo in South Africa including testing for Theileria parva, the causative agent of Corridor disease in cattle. The official test is a real-time hybridization PCR assay that amplifies the 18S rRNA V4 hyper-variable region of T. parva, T. sp. (buffalo) and T. sp. (bougasvlei). Mixed infections with the latter organisms affect diagnostic sensitivity due to PCR suppression. While the incidence of mixed infections in the Corridor disease endemic region of South Africa is significant, little information is available on the specific distribution and prevalence of T. sp. (buffalo) and T. sp. (bougasvlei). Specific real-time PCR assays were developed and a total of 1211 samples known to harbour these parasites were screened. Both parasites are widely distributed in southern Africa and the incidence of mixed infections with T. parva within the endemic region is similar (?25-50%). However, a significant discrepancy exists in regard to mixed infections of T. sp. (buffalo) and T. sp. (bougasvlei) (?10%). Evidence for speciation between T. sp. (buffalo) and T. sp. (bougasvlei) is supported by phylogenetic analysis of the COI gene, and their designation as different species. This suggests mutual exclusion of parasites and the possibility of hybrid sterility in cases of mixed infections. PMID:24229841
Pienaar, Ronel; Latif, Abdalla A; Thekisoe, Oriel M M; Mans, Ben J
The aim in this study was to investigate corpus luteum function and embryonic loss in buffaloes mated by artificial inseminations (AI) during the transitional period from breeding to non-breeding season. The study was carried out using 288 multiparous Italian Mediterranean Buffalo cows at 110?±?4?days in milk. The buffaloes were mated by AI after synchronization of ovulation by the Ovsynch-TAI protocol 25?days after AI buffaloes underwent trans-rectal ultrasonography to assess embryonic development. Pregnancy diagnosis was confirmed on Days 45 and 70 after AI by rectal palpation. Buffaloes pregnant on Day 25 but not on Day 45 were considered to have undergone late embryonic mortality (LEM), whilst buffaloes pregnant on Day 45 but not on Day 70 were considered to have undergone foetal mortality (FM). Corpus luteum size and blood flow were determined by real-time B-mode/colour-Doppler on day 10 after AI in 122 buffaloes. The resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) were recorded at the time. Milk samples were collected on Days 10, 20 and 25 after AI in all inseminated buffaloes for the assay of whey P4 concentrations. Data were analysed by anova. Pregnancy rate on Day 25 after AI was 48.6% (140/288) and declined to 35.4% (102/288) and 30.6% (88/288) by Day 45 and Day 70 respectively. The incidences of LEM and FM were respectively 27.1% (38/140) and 13.7% (14/102). Pregnant buffaloes had greater (p?0.01) whey concentrations of P4 from Day 20 onwards than buffaloes which showed LEM, whilst P4 in buffaloes that showed FM did not differ from the other two groups on Day 10 and Day 20. Corpus luteum blood flow on Day 10 after AI showed higher RI (p?0.05) and PI (p?=?0.07) values in buffaloes that subsequently were not pregnant on Day 25 compared with pregnant buffaloes. Buffaloes that were not pregnant on Day 45 also had a higher (p?=?0.02) RI value on Day 10 than pregnant buffaloes, whilst PI values on Day 10 did not differ for the two groups of buffaloes. It was concluded that blood flow to the corpus luteum on Day 10 after AI influences corpus luteum function as judged by P4 secretion and also embryonic development and attachment in buffaloes. PMID:19473308
Russo, M; Vecchio, D; Neglia, G; Pacelli, C; Prandi, A; Gasparrini, B; Zicarelli, L; D'Occhio, M J; Campanile, G
Terrestrial habitat management at Buffalo National River (BNR) represents a unique opportunity to mesh the objectives of cultural resource management, natural resource management, and public use in a single plan. The enabling legislation for BNR requires ...
One hundred randomly-collected buffaloes (Syncerus caffer (Sparrman, 1779)) were autopsied, and tissues and parasites were collected for histopathological studies and unidentification. Blood smears were prepared from 92 animals, of which 97 per cent prove...
P. A. Basson R. M. McCully S. P. Kruger J. W. Niekerk E. Young
...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLWYP07000; L16100000.DU0000...Availability of the Draft Buffalo Resource Management Plan Amendment for the Fortification...Assessment, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...
The study is part of the economic adjustment strategy developed for government planner and private industry to create new jobs and stimulate economic growth in Buffalo and Erie County. The report evaluates the present tourism industry for potential growth...
The sperm properties and the libido were investigated in four Murrahs, three Surtis, and one local buffalo over a period of four months. As regards their libido, no specific features were found for the different breeds. The volume of the ejaculates and the concentration of the sperms were highest in the Murrah buffaloes, but they also exhibited the highest proportion of dead sperms in the first ejaculate. The local buffalo bull had a greater ejaculate than the Surti bulls but its sperm concentration was smaller and the proportion of dead and/or abnormal sperms was higher. Comparing the first and the second ejaculate, significant differences were found as regards the proportion of dead sperms and the motility in Murrah bulls, the sperm concentration and the proportion of dead sperms in Surti bulls, and proportion of abnormal sperms in the local buffalo bull. PMID:7342961
Rajamahendran, R; Manickavadivale, S
Seminal plasma proteins of the Indian buffalo and cattle were immunologically investigated using rabbit antibuffalo seminal plasma serum, rabbit anticattle seminal plasma serum (unabsorbed and absorbed), gel diffusion, and immunoelectrophoretic analysis. At least 9-12 and 7-10 different proteins, respectively, were present in the seminal plasma of the buffalo and cattle. Albumin and IgG were identified in both the species. At least 4-6 seminal plasma proteins of the buffalo and cattle were antigenically similar to their blood serum proteins. Using absorbed rabbit antibuffalo seminal plasma serum and rabbit anticattle seminal plasma serum, at least 6-7 and 5-6 seminal plasma specific proteins, respectively, were observed in the buffalo and cattle seminal plasma. Antigenically these proteins were different from the blood serum proteins of these two species. The origin and biological significance of seminal plasma proteins are discussed. PMID:2415074
Kulkarni, B A
Faecal samples were collected from 500 cattle and 385 buffaloes belonging to backyard farmers from 24 villages in the province of Bukidnon, Mindanao, the Philippines. Strongyle nematode infections were studied on these samples by faecal egg counts and infective larvae differentiation. The effects of animal species and age on the prevalence and intensity of infections were studied. The overall prevalence of strongyle infection was 53% for cattle and 28% for buffaloes. The prevalence decreased with increasing age in both animal species. Faecal egg counts were significantly lower in buffaloes than in cattle. Adult animals had lower egg counts than calves. This age effect was most pronounced in buffaloes. Six genera of strongyle nematodes were identified from the faecal cultures in both animal species, Mecistocirrus, Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Cooperia, Bunostomum and Oesophagostomum. The distribution of larvae did not vary much with age. PMID:10729653
Van Aken, D; Dargantes, A; Valdez, L; Flores, A; Dorny, P; Vercruysse, J
The Center for Immunology at the University of Buffalo provides a viable resource for educating medical students in immunology until a department of immunology can be developed within the medical school. (HS)
Rose, Noel R.; Bogazzi, Pierluigi E.
Cholangiomas and cholangiocarcinomas were observed in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from the Buffalo and Niagara Rivers (NY) and Old Woman Creek (OH). ignificant increases in serum BUN, uric acid, triglycerides inorganic phosphate, ALT, LDL, calcium and iron and ...
A survey of small, medium and large size dairy farms was conducted in the peri-urban areas of District Rahim Yar Khan, Pakistan. Forty-eight dairy farms owned by 16 farmers from each category were selected randomly to study the status of health care and management of buffalo calves. The results showed that the mortality rate in buffalo calves was 79.51%. None
S. AHMAD; M. YAQOOB; N. HASHMI
This study was performed for the purpose of investigating the prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. in buffaloes in Beni-Suef Governorate, Egypt. Both macroscopic (Sarcocystis fusiformis) and microscopic (Sarcocystis levinei) cysts were recognized, and were differentiated by their morphological features and location in the tissues. Of 379 buffaloes\\u000a examined in abattoirs in Beni-Suef, 299 were found to be infected, with an overall
Khaled Mohamed El-Dakhly; Khaled A. El-Nesr; El-Shaymaa El-Nahass; Akihiro Hirata; Hiroki Sakai; Tokuma Yanai
Kaur, S. and Kakkar, V.K. 1995. Feeding urea through surface licking in the growing buffalo (Bos bubalis) calves. J. Appl. Anim Res., 8: 129–136A new device, called portable feeder with revolving surface, for the gradual intake of urea-molasses mixture, was compared with urea-molasses-mineral block (uromin-lick) and urea containing concentrate mixture in Murrah buffalo calves. The different groups of calves were
Sukhvir Kaur; V. K. Kakkar
The primer pair was designed based on mitochondrial d-loop gene for detection of adulteration of buffalo meat in admixed meat and meat products by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)\\u000a assay. Amplification of 537-bp DNA fragments was observed from buffalo, without any cross-reaction with cattle, sheep, goat,\\u000a pig, and chicken. The amplification was further confirmed by BamHI restriction enzymes. No adverse effect
B. G. Mane; S. K. Mendiratta; A. K. Tiwari; K. N. Bhilegaokar
We report molecular cloning and single nucleotide polymorphism detection of the buffalo DGAT1 gene. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT1) is considered the key enzyme in controlling the rate of synthesis of triglycerides.\\u000a The DGAT1 gene was recently identified as a strong functional candidate gene affecting milk yield and composition in cattle. A full-length\\u000a buffalo DGAT1 genomic DNA was amplified by iterative PCR
Jing Yuan; Jun Zhou; Xuemei Deng; Xiaoxiang Hu; Ning Li
The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of buffaloes to automatic milking, examining the relationships between milking interval, milk production, and milking time for this species. A total of 7,550 milking records from an average of 40 buffaloes milked by an automatic milking system (AMS) were analyzed during a 3-mo experimental period at a commercial farm with Italian Mediterranean buffaloes in southern Italy. Date and time of animal identification, milk yield, milking duration, milking interval, and average milk flow rate were determined for each milking. The results were also used to predict the maximum number of milkings per day and the optimal number of buffaloes per AMS for different levels of milk production. The average interval period between 2 consecutive milkings was 10.3 h [standard deviation (SD) 3.3]. Overall, 3.4 and 25.7% of the milkings had an interval of ?6 h or >12 h, respectively. Milking duration averaged 8.3 min per buffalo per milking (SD 2.7). The average milk flow rate was 1.3kg/min (SD 0.5) at a milk yield of 2.8kg per milking (SD 1.4). Assuming that the milking station is occupied 80% of the time, the number of milkings ranged from 136 to 152 per day and the optimal number of buffaloes per AMS ranged from 59 to 66 when the production level increased from 2 to 5kg of milk per milking. Automatic milking systems are suitable for buffalo, opening new options for the management of dairy buffalo farms. PMID:24393174
Caria, M; Tangorra, F M; Leonardi, S; Bronzo, V; Murgia, L; Pazzona, A
A study was undertaken to find out the effect of addition of oviductal proteins on sperm functions and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels in buffaloes. Oviductal flushings were collected from apparently healthy buffalo genital tracts (nonluteal and luteal stage of estrous cycle), centrifuged (3000rpm; 30min), filtered (0.2?m) and frozen at ?20°C. The proteins in pooled nonluteal and luteal oviductal fluid were
A. Kumaresan; M. R. Ansari; Abhishek Garg; Meena Kataria
American buffalos have been studied for their hemoglobin and transferrin types, which show no detectable polymorphism (Braend and Stormont, 1963; Stormont, 1964). This report summarizes new data on erythrocytic glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) in this species. Blood samples were collected in ACD vacutainer tubes from 45 male and 41 female buffalos from the Wichita Mountains Wildlife
S. N. Naik; D. E. Anderson
Cystic echinococcosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus is considered to be an important parasitic infection in livestock. In the present study, which aimed to determine the epidemiology of hydatidosis in buffalo in Iran, slaughterhouses of West Azerbaijan (Urmia), East Azerbaijan (Tabriz), Ardabil (Ardabil), Gilan (Rasht and Hashtpar) and Khuzestan (Ahvaz) were inspected. Age, sex and infected organs were recorded separately, and the observed cysts were examined for fertility and viability. Our results showed that 344 (9%) of 3832 inspected buffaloes were infected with hydatid cysts. The maximum and minimum infection rates occurred in Khuzestan (9.9%) and Ardabil (8%) provinces, respectively. There was no significant difference in the rate of infection in all provinces. Of 344 infected buffaloes, the rate of fertility was 7.3% and the rate of viability in fertile cysts was 78.75%. Hydatid cysts were more prevalent in female compared with male buffaloes (P < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between the age and number of infected hosts in all provinces except East Azerbaijan. The prevalence of infection in lungs was significantly higher than that in the livers of buffaloes in the provinces studied (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the fertility of hydatid cysts in buffaloes was low, as previously demonstrated in cattle, and this animal may play a minor role in the epidemiology of hydatidosis in Iran. PMID:21923975
Pour, A Amin; Hosseini, S H; Shayan, P
A comparative study on the prevalence of Anaplasma parasite was conducted on ticks carrying buffaloes and cattle. Five hundred blood samples of both animals (250 of each) were collected during February, March and April. Thin blood smears on glass slides were made, fixed in 100% methyl alcohol and examined. Microscopic examination revealed that 205 (41%) animals had Anaplasma parasites, out of which 89, 44 and 72 animals had Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma centrale and mixed infection respectively. Infected buffaloes and cattle were 75 and 130 respectively. The infection in female was 53 and 92 in buffaloes and cattle respectively. Twenty-two and 92 blood samples of male were found positive in buffaloes and cattle respectively. Comparative study revealed that the cattle were 26.82% more susceptible than buffaloes. The parasite prevailing percentage in female of both animals was slightly higher than that of the male. This investigation was aimed at studying the comparative prevalence of Anaplasma parasite in tick carrying buffaloes and cattle.
Rajput, Z.I.; Hu, Song-hua; Arijo, A.G.; Habib, M.; Khalid, M.
The FN-2 family of seminal plasma proteins represents the major protein fraction of bovine seminal plasma. These proteins also constitute the major seminal plasma proteins fraction in horse, goat and bison seminal plasma and are present in pig, rat, mouse, hamster and human seminal plasma. BSP-A1 and BSP-A2, the predominant proteins of the FN-2 family, are collectively termed as PDC-109. Fn-2 proteins play an important role in fertilization, including sperm capacitation and formation of oviductal sperm reservoirs. Significantly, BSP proteins were also shown to have negative effects in the context of sperm storage. No conclusive evidence for the presence of buffalo seminal plasma protein(s) similar to PDC-109 exists. Studies with buffalo seminal plasma indicated that isolation and identification of PDC-109-like protein(s) from buffalo seminal plasma by conventional methods might be difficult. Thus, antibodies raised against PDC-109 isolated, and purified from cattle seminal plasma, were used for investigating the presence of PDC-109-like protein(s) in buffalo seminal plasma. Buffalo seminal plasma proteins were resolved on SDS-PAGE, blotted to nitro cellulose membranes and probed for the presence of PDC-109-like protein(s) using the PDC-109 antisera raised in rabbits. A distinct immunoreactive band well below the 20-kDa regions indicated the presence of PDC-109-like protein(s) in buffalo seminal plasma. PMID:19117702
Harshan, Hiron M; Sankar, Surya; Singh, L P; Singh, Manish Kumar; Sudharani, S; Ansari, M R; Singh, S K; Majumdar, A C; Joshi, P
The study was designed to evaluate the influence of season on semen characteristics and seminal plasma protein profile of buffalo bull semen. Thirty-six ejaculates were collected in three seasons (winter, summer and rainy) from six adult Bhadawari bulls, and semen characteristics were evaluated immediately after collection. The seminal plasma was harvested by centrifugation and protein profiling, and percentage protein fractions were analysed by SDS-PAGE. The significant effect of season was observed on ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, progressive motility, percentage live spermatozoa, hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) and acrosomal integrity. The electrophoretogram of seminal plasma proteins revealed 20 protein bands in winter, 23 bands in rainy and 25 bands in summer seasons, illustrating the significant effect of seasons on seminal plasma proteins. Among these protein bands, 18 bands were observed common in semen samples of all three seasons while protein bands of 46, 55, 58, 144 and 160 kDa were found in rainy and summer seasons. The protein bands of 48 and 60 kDa were observed only in winter season, whereas 184 and 200 kDa were reported in summer season only. The protein fractions (protein%) of common protein bands observed in three seasons revealed a significant effect of season on protein bands of 24.5, 66, 70, 72, 84 and 86 kDa. From the study, it was pertinent that bull seminal plasma contains specific proteins in particular season, which may be associated with some of the semen characteristics, and these proteins could be used as markers of the semen quality of buffalo bulls. PMID:24597848
Sharma, L; Pandey, V; Nigam, R; Singh, P; Saxena, A; Swain, D K
Immune privileged mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into multiple cell types and possess great potential for human and veterinary regenerative therapies. This study was designed with an objective to isolate, expand and characterize buffalo bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) at molecular and cellular level. Buffalo BM-MSCs were isolated by Ficoll density gradient method and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS). These cells were characterized through alkaline phosphatase (AP) staining, colony-forming unit (CFU) assay, mRNA expression analysis (CD 73, CD 90, CD 105, Oct4 and Nanog), immunolocalization along with flow cytometry (Stro 1, CD 73, CD 105, Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog) and in situ hybridization (Oct4 and Sox2). Multilineage differentiation (osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic) was induced in vitro, which was further assessed by specific staining. Buffalo BM-MSCs have the capacity to form plastic adherent clusters of fibroblast-like cells and were successfully maintained up to 16(th) passage. These cells were AP positive, and further CFU assay confirmed their clonogenic property. RT-PCR analysis and protein localization study showed that buffalo BM-MSCs are positive for various cell surface markers and pluripotency markers. Cytoplasmic distribution of mRNA for pluripotency markers in buffalo BM-MSCs and multilineage differentiation were induced in vitro, which was further assessed by specific staining. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of buffalo BM-MSCs, which suggests that MSCs can be derived and expanded from buffalo bone marrow and can be used after characterization as a novel agent for regenerative therapy. PMID:23679988
Gade, N E; Pratheesh, M D; Nath, A; Dubey, P K; Amarpal; Sharma, B; Saikumar, G; Taru Sharma, G
The study was conducted to correlate the periparturient immune status in terms of neutrophil functions and cytokine expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture with impending postpartum reproductive disorders in buffaloes. Forty pregnant buffaloes were observed for occurrence of postpartum reproductive disorders (PRD), i.e., metritis, endometritis and delayed uterine involution etc., during one week prepartum to four weeks postpartum period. A representative number (n = 6) of buffaloes that did not develop any PRD were included in group I (healthy, control), while the animals which experienced PRD were assigned into group II (PRD, n = 8). The blood samples were collected at weekly interval from one week prepartum to four weeks postpartum period considering the day of calving as ‘d 0’. Differential leucocytes counts, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production activity in isolated neutrophils and the mRNA expression profile of cytokines i.e., IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-? in PBMC culture were studied in all the samples. A higher total leucocytes, neutrophil and band cells count along with impaired neutrophil functions i.e., lowered level of production of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide before parturition and during early postpartum period were observed in buffaloes developing PRD. Further, a lower expression of IL-2, IFN-? and IL-4 mRNA in PBMC culture was observed at calving in buffaloes that subsequently developed PRD at later postpartum. Thus, suppression in neutrophil function and cytokine expression at prepartum to early postpartum period predisposes the buffaloes to develop postpartum reproductive disorders. Hence, monitoring of neutrophils function and cytokine expression profile would be effective to predict certain reproductive disorders at late pregnancy or immediately after parturition in buffaloes. In future, this may be a novel approach for determining suitable management and therapeutic decisions for prevention of commonly occurring reproductive disorders in farm animals.
Patra, Manas Kumar; Kumar, Harendra; Nandi, Sukdeb
The objective of this work was to evaluate the possibility of substituting glycerol for ethylene glycol when cryopreserving buffalo semen. Semen of eight buffalo bulls was mixed, pooled, and frozen in one of these four diluents: centrifuged Tris egg yolk glycerol; centrifuged Tris egg yolk ethylene glycol; centrifuged Milk egg yolk glycerol; or centrifuged Milk egg yolk ethylene glycol. Semen
A. A. Swelum; H. A. Mansour; A. A. Elsayed; H. A. Amer
...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y...NAVIGATION REGULATIONS Â§ 207.590 Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y...this section will mean all of the Black Rock Waterway, including Black Rock...
...Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-2409-000] Buffalo Dunes Wind Project, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based...supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Buffalo Dunes Wind Project, LLC's application for market-based rate...
Eco-tourism depending on wildlife is becoming increasingly profitable and landowners are beginning to favor game farming and ecotourism. In these areas, large-scale translocation of wildlife involves a diversity of species and large populations. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is one of the major tourist attractions in Zambia. It accounts for 8.7% and 12.4% of the total animal species hunted in the Game Management Areas and the total hunting revenue earned in Zambia, respectively. It is ecologically an important animal species essential for the purpose of habitat control and facilitating the provision of suitable grazing pastures. However, the rearing of the African buffalo on game ranches has been hampered by its carrier state of the Southern Africa Terroritory (SAT) serotypes of foot and mouth disease virus (FMD). The African buffalo is also known to be a carrier of Theileria parva lawrencei, the causative agent of corridor disease (CD) that continues to have devastating effects on the livestock industry in Zambia. In addition, the importation of buffaloes from countries with populations endemic to bovine tuberculosis is highly restricted. Veterinary regulations in Zambia, strongly advocate against the translocation of buffaloes from protected areas to private ranches for disease control purposes thereby mounting a considerable constraint on the economic and ecological viability of the industry. It is hoped that this review will motivate the relevant government authorities in exploiting ways in which this animal species play a central role in eco-tourism. PMID:16786973
Munang'andu, Hetron M; Munag'andu, Hetron M; Siamudaala, Victor M; Nambota, Andrew; Bwalya, John M; Munyeme, Musso; Mweene, Aaron S; Takada, Ayato; Kida, Hiroshi
To aid in unraveling diverse genetic and biological unknowns, a proteomic approach was used to analyze the whey proteome in cow, yak, buffalo, goat, and camel milk based on the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) techniques. This analysis is the first to produce proteomic data for the milk from the above-mentioned animal species: 211 proteins have been identified and 113 proteins have been categorized according to molecular function, cellular components, and biological processes based on gene ontology annotation. The results of principal component analysis showed significant differences in proteomic patterns among goat, camel, cow, buffalo, and yak milk. Furthermore, 177 differentially expressed proteins were submitted to advanced hierarchical clustering. The resulting clustering pattern included three major sample clusters: (1) cow, buffalo, and yak milk; (2) goat, cow, buffalo, and yak milk; and (3) camel milk. Certain proteins were chosen as characterization traits for a given species: whey acidic protein and quinone oxidoreductase for camel milk, biglycan for goat milk, uncharacterized protein (Accession Number: F1MK50 ) for yak milk, clusterin for buffalo milk, and primary amine oxidase for cow milk. These results help reveal the quantitative milk whey proteome pattern for analyzed species. This provides information for evaluating adulteration of specific specie milk and may provide potential directions for application of specific milk protein production based on physiological differences among animal species. PMID:23464874
Yang, Yongxin; Bu, Dengpan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Sun, Peng; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Lingyun
Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) is a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the final step of triglyceride synthesis. The DGAT1 gene is a strong functional candidate for determining milk fat content in cattle. In this work, we used PCR-SSCP (polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism) and DNA sequencing to examine polymorphism in the region spanning exon 7 to exon 9 of the DGAT1 gene in Murrah and Pandharpuri buffaloes. Three alleles (A, B and C) and four novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the buffalo DGAT1 gene. The frequencies of the alleles differed between the two buffalo breeds, with allele C being present in Murrah but not in Pandharpuri buffalo. The allele variation detected in this work may influence DGAT1 expression and function. The results described here could be useful in examining the association between the DGAT1 gene and milk traits in buffalo. PMID:23055800
Raut, Ashwin A; Kumar, Anil; Kala, Sheo N; Chhokar, Vinod; Rana, Neeraj; Beniwal, Vikas; Jaglan, Sundeep; Samuchiwal, Sachin K; Singh, Jitender K; Mishra, Anamika
Suckling, a common practice in smallholder dairy-farming systems in the developing world, delays the onset of post-partum ovarian activity in dairy buffalo. The present study was designed to assess the effect of suckling on pituitary function in lactating buffaloes 25-35 days post-partum. Six suckled and nine non-suckled buffaloes were challenged intravenously with a bolus injection of GnRH (20microg buserelin acetate; Receptal). Heparinized venous blood samples were collected at 15min intervals for 2h before and up to 4h after GnRH for luteinizing hormone (LH) estimation. Pretreatment basal LH concentrations were similar in the suckled (0.6+/-0.2ng/ml) and the non-suckled (0.5+/-0.1ng/ml) buffaloes. All but one suckled buffaloes released a LH surge, starting 15-60min post-GnRH treatment, which lasted for 180-225min. While one suckled buffalo did not respond to GnRH, the LH response in the remaining suckled buffaloes was significantly less than in the non-suckled buffaloes in terms of peak LH concentrations (14.3+/-2.7ng/ml versus 26.2+/-4.3ng/ml) and area under the LH curve (1575.6+/-197.4mm(2) versus 2108.9+/-323.9mm(2)). The LH response was least in suckled buffaloes challenged with GnRH while in the luteal phase of an oestrus cycle and with plasma progesterone concentration >1ng/ml. In conclusion, suckling suppressed pituitary responsiveness to exogenous GnRH challenge in post-partum buffaloes. PMID:16343826
Singh, Ashwani K; Brar, Parkash S; Nanda, Amarjit S; Prakash, Bukkarao S
Major allergen ?-lactoglobulin exists in many mammalian types of milk except human breast. Buffalo milk also contains this major allergen but the detailed information on its epitopes is not available. The aim of this work was to map and characterize its conformational antigenic epitopes. Sixty mimotopes of buffalo ?-lactoglobulin were produced by biopanning of phage display peptide library and then 2 mimotopes, specific for sera from rabbit 1 and 2, respectively, were predicted to be conformational epitope candidates by the use of DNAStar and web tool of MIMOX. On the basis of bioinformation analysis, 5 conserved amino acid residues PL-ENK were identified in 2 conformational epitope sequences and 7 conformational epitopes were derived from 2 mimotopes by molecular modeling. The result showed that these conformational epitopes were located in the 2 regions on buffalo ?-lactoglobulin and composed of 5 hydrophilic and 2 hydrophobic amino acids. PMID:24689774
Xin, Li; Jinyan, Gao; Shengfa, He; Yuanyuan, Wu; Hongbing, Chen
Cooked buffalo tripe rolls prepared from a combination of buffalo tripe and buffalo meat by using mincing and blade tenderization process were stored at 4?±?1 °C in polyethylene teraphthalate laminated with polythene (PET/PE) pouches under vacuum packaging condition. The samples were evaluated for physico-chemical parameters, microbial quality and sensory attributes at regular intervals of 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. Significant changes were seen in physico-chemical, microbial and sensory characteristics of BTRs during storage at refrigeration temperature (4?±?1 °C) under vacuum packaging condition. All microbial counts were well within the acceptable limits and the products did not show any signs of spoilage. Thus, BTRs prepared by mincing or BT can be best stored up to 28 days at 4?±?1 °C under vacuum packaging. PMID:24966432
Anandh, M Anna; Venkatachalapathy, R T; Radha, K; Lakshmanan, V
In the present study, 560 buffaloes from a private animal farm in Giza Governorate were examined over one year for scabies infestation. The results showed that 466 Buffaloes (83.2%) were infested with two mange mites; Psoroptes natalensis and Sarcoptes scabiei. The highest prevalence rate of infestation was during winter (90.4%), and lowest was in summer (71.4%). The infestation on females was 90.4%, while on males was 80.8%. The mites were predominant on the withers, lumber, back, croup and the external angle of ilium. Buffaloes more than five years old were highly infested than smaller ones, but no mite's infestation were detected in those less than one year. PMID:21634242
Yassin, Mohammad K
Lice infestations are commonly seen in buffaloes, causing damage directly to the animal, i.e., itching, skin lesions, and anemia. In addition, these insects can also be vectors for infectious diseases. The present study describes an outbreak of lice in buffaloes as well as evidence for Haematopinus tuberculatus acting as a vector of anaplasmosis. Lice and blood were collected from 4 young buffaloes (2- to 4-mo-old) and a molecular analysis for the presence of Anaplasma marginale was conducted. DNA of A. marginale was detected in the blood of all 4 animals. Twelve lice were collected and separated in 4 groups, with 3 insects each, to comprise a pool of samples. After DNA extraction and molecular analysis, a positive PCR for A. marginale was found in all pooled samples. These results identify sucking lice as potential vectors of anaplasmosis. However, additional studies are necessary to fully evaluate the vector potential of H. tuberculatus for A. maginale transmission. PMID:23050728
Da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer; Lopes, Leandro Sâmia; Diaz, Jorge Damian Stumpfs; Tonin, Alexandre Alberto; Stefani, Lenita Moura; Araújo, Denise Nunes
The aim of the present study was to estimate the index and individual responses to selection for milk (MY), fat (FY) and protein (PY) yields for different breeding goals for two commercial buffalo milk production systems in São Paulo State characterized by: 1) all milk produced is sold to the industry (MILK) and 2) all milk produced is used in the mozzarella cheese-making process at the farm (MOZZARELLA). The current payment policy is based exclusively on milk volume. The mozzarella price refers to the wholesale selling price. Index responses to selection (IR) were calculated for three different breeding goals (BG): 1) MY exclusively (BG(1)); 2) FY + PY (BG(2)) and 3) MY + FY + PY (BG(3)). IR for the MILK system were 41.79 US dollars (BG(1)), 5.91 US dollars (BG(2)) and 38.22 US dollars (BG(3)). For the MOZZARELLA system, IR were 179.50 US dollars (BG(1)), 262.85 US dollars (BG(2)) and 402.41 US dollars (BG(3)). The results suggest that for the present circumstances, selection for milk components is not advantageous when milk is produced for sale to the industry. However, when mozzarella making is added to the system, the selection for components and milk volume is the most economically beneficial. PMID:17183486
Seno, L O; Cardoso, V L; Tonhati, H
Buffalo milk standardized to solids-not-fat (SNF) to fat ratio of 1.4 was added separately with 0.1% (w/w) each of carrageenan, sodium alginate and carboxymethyl cellulose and then heated, cooled and coagulated to obtain chhana which was converted into sandesh by adding 1.5% (w/w) wheat flour and 25% (w/w) cane sugar followed by heating (40 min/kg chhana). The treated samples of sandesh were compared with control prepared similarly manner but without stabilizer. Addition of stabilizer decreased hardness, fracturability, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness of sandesh and improved sensory body and texture, colour and appearance as well as overall acceptability of the product when compared with control. Textural and sensory properties of different samples of sandesh indicated that the product made by adding carrageenan proved best. Carrageenan at 0.1% produced better results in terms of textural and sensory profile of sandesh as compared to 0, 0.075 and 0.125% (w/w) of carrageenan. PMID:23572814
Sanyal, M K; Pal, S C; Gangopadhyay, S K; Dutta, S K; Ganguli, D; Das, S; Maiti, P
A total of 355 Murrah cross buffaloes, consisting of 23 subclinical and 332 clinical mastitis cases brought to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Chitwan, Nepal from 2002 to 2005, were analyzed to determine the organisms involved, the seasonal occurrence of mastitis, and antibiotic susceptibility of mastitis pathogens. Coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS) such as Staphylococcus albus and S. epidermidis were the predominant organisms associated with subclinical cases, and CNS and Coliforms in clinical cases. The maximum number (16%) of clinical cases of mastitis were observed in the month of July, when temperature and humidity are highest. The incidence of clinical mastitis was higher in animals during 1st calving and during the 1st month of parturition. Resistance to antibiotics was determined for 55, 23 and 149 isolates of Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp. and Coliforms, respectively. In vitro drug sensitivity testing revealed that enrofloxacin had the highest average sensitivity (91%) for all types of bacteria. The effectiveness of other drugs detected were gentamicin (87%), tetracycline (83%) and chloramphenicol (82%). The antibiogram showed that both gentamicin and enrofloxacin are slowly becoming resistant. Mastitis pathogens have developed resistance to ampicillin and penicillin. PMID:18176019
Dhakal, Ishwari Prasad; Dhakal, Pramod; Koshihara, Takahiro; Nagahata, Hajime
The effect of addition of different decorticated legume flours, viz., soya bean, bengal gram, green gram and black gram, on the quality of buffalo meat burger was studied. The burgers consisted of optimized quantities of roasted or unroasted legume flour, spices and common salt. Inclusion of roasted black gram flour registered the highest yield of 95.7%, lowest shrinkage of 5% and lowest fat absorption of 26.6% on frying. Protein content of 18-20% was highest in the soya flour formulation. Free fatty acid (FFA) values (as% oleic) increased from 14.3 to 17.3 in freshly prepared samples (before frying) to 16.0-19.4 in 4 m frozen (-16±2 °C) stored samples and fried samples had about 25% lower FFA values. Formulations with roasted flours registered lower thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values (mg malonaldehyde/kg sample) of 0.6-1.5 as against 0.6-2.1 for unroasted flours before frying. The burgers prepared with any of these binders were organoleptically acceptable even after storage at -16±2 °C for 4 months., However, the burger with black gram dhal (dehulled split legume) flour had better sensory quality attributes compared to other legumes. PMID:22063942
Modi, V K; Mahendrakar, N S; Narasimha Rao, D; Sachindra, N M
Background Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance infecting humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Little is known about the epidemiology and persistence of brucellosis in wildlife in Southern Africa, particularly in Botswana. Methods Archived wildlife samples from Botswana (1995–2000) were screened with the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) and included the African buffalo (247), bushbuck (1), eland (5), elephant (25), gemsbok (1), giraffe (9), hartebeest (12), impala (171), kudu (27), red lechwe (10), reedbuck (1), rhino (2), springbok (5), steenbok (2), warthog (24), waterbuck (1), wildebeest (33), honey badger (1), lion (43), and zebra (21). Human case data were extracted from government annual health reports (1974–2006). Findings Only buffalo (6%, 95% CI 3.04%–8.96%) and giraffe (11%, 95% CI 0–38.43%) were confirmed seropositive on both tests. Seropositive buffalo were widely distributed across the buffalo range where cattle density was low. Human infections were reported in low numbers with most infections (46%) occurring in children (<14 years old) and no cases were reported among people working in the agricultural sector. Conclusions Low seroprevalence of brucellosis in Botswana buffalo in a previous study in 1974 and again in this survey suggests an endemic status of the disease in this species. Buffalo, a preferred source of bush meat, is utilized both legally and illegally in Botswana. Household meat processing practices can provide widespread pathogen exposure risk to family members and the community, identifying an important source of zoonotic pathogen transmission potential. Although brucellosis may be controlled in livestock populations, public health officials need to be alert to the possibility of human infections arising from the use of bush meat. This study illustrates the need for a unified approach in infectious disease research that includes consideration of both domestic and wildlife sources of infection in determining public health risks from zoonotic disease invasions.
Alexander, Kathleen Anne; Blackburn, Jason Kenna; Vandewalle, Mark Eric; Pesapane, Risa; Baipoledi, Eddie Kekgonne; Elzer, Phil H.
This study was performed for the purpose of investigating the prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. in buffaloes in Beni-Suef Governorate, Egypt. Both macroscopic (Sarcocystis fusiformis) and microscopic (Sarcocystis levinei) cysts were recognized, and were differentiated by their morphological features and location in the tissues. Of 379 buffaloes examined in abattoirs in Beni-Suef, 299 were found to be infected, with an overall prevalence of 78.9%. Depending on age, three categorized groups of naturally infected buffaloes were examined: male buffalo calves aged 1.5-2 years, adult females aged 2-5 years, and females older than 5 years. Among these groups, infection rates were 74.5%, 82.3%, and 81.2%, respectively. Organs examined included esophagus, tongue, and heart. Macroscopic cysts were examined by the naked eye through meat inspection in abattoirs, while the pepsin-digestion method and the histological technique were applied to detect microscopic cysts. It has been found that esophagus showed the highest rate of infection among the infected organs, with both macroscopic and microscopic cysts seen in the infected buffaloes. Moreover, results of the pepsin-digestion method proved more accurate than those produced by the histological technique in terms of infection rates for the microscopic cysts. Our findings indicated that infected buffaloes aged 2-5 years showed the highest mixed infection rate (82.3%) for both types of cysts. The high prevalence of microscopic Sarcocystis spp. in Beni-Suef Governorate reflects a significant role played by stray dogs, rather than cats, in the transmission of these parasites. PMID:21461984
El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; El-Nesr, Khaled A; El-Nahass, El-Shaymaa; Hirata, Akihiro; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma
The prevalence and incidence of Trypanosoma evansi infections in village buffaloes in Central Java were estimated using parasitological tests, two antigen-detection ELISAs (2G6 Ag-ELISA and Tr7 Ag-ELISA), an antibody-detection ELISA (IgG ELISA) and a card agglutination test (CATT). Of 2387 village buffaloes tested in five districts, 4 % (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 3 %, 5 %) were positive with the microhaematocrit test (MHCT), 58 % (95 % CI: 56 %, 60 %) were positive with the 2G6 Ag-ELISA and 70 % (95 % CI: 68 %, 72 %) were positive with the Tr7 Ag-ELISA. An increasing prevalence with age was found and the proportion of positive buffaloes was highest in the over 84 months-old age-group (68 %) with the 2G6 Ag-ELISA and in the 37-60 months-old age-group (78 %) with the Tr7 Ag-ELISA. Parasitaemic buffaloes were found in more than half of the villages visited. Corrected village-specific prevalence values obtained with the two Ag-ELISAs ranged from 0% to over 100%, and prevalence differed significantly (P < or = 0.0001) between villages in four of the five districts. Overall, 10% of buffaloes tested in markets were found to be parasitaemic and 39, 56 and 47 % were found positive with the 2G6 Ag-ELISA, IgG ELISA and CATT, respectively. Incidence rates varied according to the test used and ranged from 0.22 (95 % CI: 0.09, 0.44) to 0.44 (95 % CI: 0.24, 0.76), per animal-year at risk, in two villages. The results highlight the importance of using validated diagnostic tests to obtain accurate estimates of prevalence and incidence. These parameters are needed, for example in mathematical models, for the development and evaluation of different control strategies for T. evansi infections in buffaloes. PMID:10722144
Davison, H C; Thrusfield, M V; Husein, A; Muharsini, S; Partoutomo, S; Rae, P; Luckins, A G
The present study examined the effect of delayed treatment with tropic hormones and progesterone (P4) on embryonic mortality in buffaloes. Buffaloes with a conceptus on Day 25 after AI were assigned to the following treatments: Control (n=41), i.m. physiological saline; GnRH agonist (n=36), i.m. 12 microg buserelin acetate; hCG (n=33), i.m. 1500 IU hCG; P4 (n=38), i.m. 341 mg P4 every 4 days on three occasions. Control buffaloes had an embryonic mortality of 41.4% (17/41) between Days 25 and 45, and this was reduced (P<0.01) by treatment with GnRH agonist (11.1%, 4/36), hCG (9.0%, 3/33) and P4 (13.1%, 5/38). On Day 45, buffaloes treated with hCG and which ovulated had greater (P<0.05) concentrations of P(4) in whey (453 +/- 41 pg/ml) than buffaloes in the same treatment that did not ovulate (297 +/- 32 pg/ml). A similar but non-significant trend was observed for buffaloes treated with GnRH agonist. It was concluded from the findings that the treatment of buffaloes on Day 25 after AI with tropic hormones or P4 is beneficial to processes associated with embryonic implantation. PMID:18706685
Campanile, G; Vecchio, D; Di Palo, R; Neglia, G; Gasparrini, B; Prandi, A; Zicarelli, L; D'Occhio, M J
Insulin-induced genes (INSIGs) are recently discovered genes that are involved in the metabolism of cholesterol and lipogenesis in animal tissues. In this study, two INSIG genes (INSIG1 and INSIG2) were isolated and characterized in 11 buffalo. The full-length coding sequence (CDS) of the buffalo INSIG1 consists of 831 bp which encodes a 276 amino acid protein with molecular mass 29.55 kD. And the INSIG2 CDS is 678 bp in length which encodes a 225 amino acid protein with molecular mass 24.87 kD. No polymorphisms were found in the CDSs of the buffalo INSIGs, but seven and two nucleotide differences were found in the CDSs between buffalo and other bovine species. Phylogenetic analyses based on the INSIG amino acid sequences showed that buffalo was grouped with other members in the Bovidae family. Four types of putative modification sites were detected in buffalo INSIG proteins. And two predicted microRNA target sites were found respectively in the CDSs of buffalo INSIG1 and INSIG2. The tissue expression analyses by quantitative PCR (qPCR) revealed that the buffalo INSIG1 was expressed in ten tissues tested. Among these tissues, the liver and mammary gland showed high expression levels. And the INSIG2 was only expressed in the brain, mammary glands, pituitary, abomasum, heart, and liver. Among these tissues, the mammary gland, brain, and pituitary demonstrated a high expression levels. These data provide the primary foundation for further insights into the buffalo INSIG genes. PMID:23860946
Wu, Chunfeng; Liu, Lixian; Huo, Jinlong; Li, Dalin; Yuan, Yueyun; Yuan, Feng; Miao, Yongwang
The aim of present study was to determine the changes of sodium, potassium, chloride, copper, and zinc in serum of Nili-Ravi buffalo during pregnancy and lactation. The study was carried out on 25 Nili-Ravi buffaloes during March 2008 to February 2009 at Buffalo Research Institute, Pattoki, District Kasur. Blood samples were taken from each buffalo during early pregnancy (Phase EP), i.e., between 1 and 3 months gestation, mid pregnancy (Phase MP), i.e., between 4 and 6 months gestation, late pregnancy (Phase LP), i.e., between 7 and 10 months gestation, and during lactation (Phase LT). Serum sodium, potassium, and chloride were determined on a clinical chemistry analyzer whereas copper and zinc were determined on an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean serum sodium, potassium, and chloride concentrations varied non-significantly (P?>?0.05) during pregnancy and lactation. With advancing pregnancy, copper increased and was significantly high (P?0.05) during late pregnancy whereas during lactation copper concentrations dropped significantly (P?0.05). The zinc concentrations increased non-significantly during early and mid pregnancy. There were significant differences (P?0.05) in zinc concentrations during lactation compared with late pregnancy. This study demonstrates that concentrations of serum sodium, potassium, and chloride remain unchanged during pregnancy and lactation whereas serum copper concentrations increased and zinc concentrations decreased with advancing pregnancy because of the demand of the fetus at different periods of pregnancy. PMID:20039149
Akhtar, M Saleem; Farooq, Abdul Asim; Muhammad, Syed Aun; Lodhi, Laeeq Akbar; Hayat, C Sikandar; Aziz, M Mushtaq
A heterogeneity study of the Tensleep reservoir in the Little Buffalo Basin field, Wyo., revealed that extensive cross-bedding, permeability variation, and fracture orientation have influenced and will continue to influence recovery from the reservoir. Well spacing has been reduced from 40 to 20 acres in areas of the field that would not otherwise have been efficiently depleted. The infill development
W. R. Emmett; K. W. Beaver; J. A. McCaleb
An analysis of toxic release inventories (TRI) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-regulated facilities in Buffalo, NY, fails to show evidence of environmental racism. Environmental racism is the disproportionate impact of environmental hazards on people of color communities (Bryant 1995, 6). The data do indicate some evidence of environmental classism, the disproportionate impact of environmental hazards on lower income populations.
ERIC J. KRIEG
Examines the personal life of Oscar Zeta Acosta as revealed in his work "The Autobiography of a Brown Buffalo," tracing Acosta's involvement in the Chicano social movement in Los Angeles in the late 1960s and his development of cultural identity and political consciousness. (DMM)
Padilla, Genaro M.
ANALYSIS OF THE ETHNIC COMPOSITION AND POPULATION MOVEMENTS OF BUFFALO SHOW THAT IT IS A DEMOGRAPHICALLY DECLINING AND HIGHLY SEGREGATED CITY. FOR ANALYTICAL PURPOSES, THE CITY IS DIVIDED INTO THREE MAJOR AREAS--(1) AREA I, HIGH PERCENTAGE NEGRO, (2) AREA II, MIXED POPULATION, AND (3) AREA III, HIGH PERCENTAGE WHITE. SINCE SUBURBS AND A HIGH…
DENTLER, ROBERT A.; WARSHAUER, MARY ELLEN
The pathogenesis of haemorrhagic septicaemia in buffalo infected with Pasteurella multocida is poorly understood. However, the characteristic of sudden onset leading to the rapid death of infected animals is similar to that seen in other clinical conditions known to involve endotoxic shock. The objectives of the work were to assess the contribution of endotoxaemia to the disease's pathogenesis and to
N. U. Horadagoda; J. C. Hodgson; G. M. Moon; T. G. Wijewardana; P. D. Eckersall
Twenty-four buffalo calves, having similar age and initial body weight, were divided into two groups with equal number of calves of both sexes in each group to study the effect of calf starter ration on feed intake and weight gain. Calf starter and conventional dairy rations with crude protein 18% and total digestible nutrients 75-80% along with green fodder were
F. Ahmad; M. A. Jabbar; I. Ahmad; M. Rafique
To assess microbiological quality of buffalo meat trimmings (TT=114) and silver sides (SS=41), samples were collected from four different Indian meat packing plants. The aim of this study was: (i) to evaluate standard plate count (SPC), psychrotrophic count (PTC), Enterococcus feacalis count (EFC), Staphylococcus aureus count (SAC) and Escherichia coli count (ECC) and the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria
A. K. Biswas; N. Kondaiah; K. N. Bheilegaonkar; A. S. R. Anjaneyulu; S. K. Mendiratta; C. Jana; H. Singh; R. R. Kumar
In the last several years, there has been an increasing interest in in vitro embryo production (IVEP) technologies for faster propagation of superior germplasm in buffalo because of the low efficiency of superovulation (SO) and embryo transfer (ET) programs in this species. Although the IVEP efficiency has improved, embryo yield and development to term are still very low. This paper
The American buffalo is a symbol of the American West. It is well established that this American species faced extinction in the late nineteenth century. Many also know that at the turn of the century, President Theodore Roosevelt was a champion for the protection of America’s natural beauty, including its wildlife. As I began my research on Theodore Roosevelt and
A study on butyrophilin (BTN) gene was conducted to detect variability at nucleotide level between cattle and buffalo. Hae III PCR-RFLP was carried out in crossbred cattle and it revealed polymorphism at this locus. Three genotypes namely, AA, BB and AB and two alleles were observed with frequencies 0.78, 0.17, 0.04 and 0.87, 0.13, respectively. The sequences of different cattle, buffalo and sheep breeds have been reported in the EMBL gene bank with accession numbers: AY491468 to AY491475. The nucleotides, which have been substituted from allele A to B, were found to be C to G (71st nucleotide), C to T (86th nucleotide), A to T (217th nucleotide), G to A (258th nucleotide), A to C (371st nucleotide) and C to T (377th nucleotide). The nucleotide substitution at 71st, 86th and 377th position of the fragment were expected to be a silent mutation where as nucleotide changes at 217th, 258th and 371st positions were expected to be substituted by lysine with arginine, valine with isoleucine and leucine with proline in allele B. The differences of nucleotides and amino acids between cattle, buffalo and sheep breeds have been revealed and on the basis of nucleotide as well as protein variability the phylogenetic diagram have been developed indicating closeness between cattle and buffalo. PMID:15621656
Bhattacharya, T K; Misra, S S; Sheikh, Feroz D; Dayal, S; Vohra, V; Kumar, P; Sharma, Arjava
Faecal samples were collected from 500 cattle and 385 buffaloes belonging to backyard farmers from 24 villages in the province of Bukidnon, Mindanao, the Philippines. Strongyle nematode infections were studied on these samples by faecal egg counts and infective larvae differentiation. The effects of animal species and age on the prevalence and intensity of infections were studied. The overall prevalence
D. Van Aken; A. Dargantes; L. Valdez; A. Flores; P. Dorny; J. Vercruysse
The aim of this study was to evaluate possible associations between three SNPs at the oxytocin locus (AM234538: g.28C>T; g.204A>G and g.1627G>T) and two productive traits, milk yield and milkability, in Italian Mediterranean river buffaloes. Effects of parity, calving season and month of production were also evaluated. A total of 41 980 test-day records belonging to 219 lactations of 163 buffalo cows were investigated. The allele call rate was 98·8% and the major allele frequency for all the investigated loci was 0·76. The OXT genotype was significantly associated with milk yield (P=0·029). The TT genotype showed an average daily milk yield approximately 1·7 kg higher than GT buffaloes. Such a difference represents about 23% more milk/d. A large dominance effect (-1·17±0·43 kg) was estimated, whereas the contribution of OXT genotype (r(2)(OXT)) to the total phenotypic variance in milk yield was equal to 0·06. The TT genotype showed higher values also for the milk flow, even though the estimated difference did not reach a level of statistical significance (P=0·07). Such an association, among the first reported for the oxytocin locus in ruminants, should be tested on a population scale and possible effects on milk composition traits should be evaluated in order to supply useful indications for the application of marker-assisted selection programmes in river buffaloes. PMID:22280971
Pauciullo, Alfredo; Cosenza, Gianfranco; Steri, Roberto; Coletta, Angelo; Jemma, Lazzaro; Feligini, Maria; Di Berardino, Dino; Macciotta, Nicolò P P; Ramunno, Luigi
The Expanded Language Arts program aimed to increase the basic language skills of educationally disadvantaged children by decreasing class size and improving instructional materials. Students were drawn from a low income inner-city area of Buffalo and ranged in age from 11 to 19 years (grades 7-12). Fifty percent of the students spoke a Southern…
American Institutes for Research in the Behavioral Sciences, Palo Alto, CA.
The review discusses the roles of serum xanthine oxidase, serum catalase and trypanosome-specific immune responses in the regulation of the level of trypanosome parasitaemic waves in Cape buffalo. q 2001 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
S. J. Black; E. L. Sicard; N. Murphy; D. Nolan
An investigation on behaviour during milking involving 200 buffaloes was carried out to study the effect of climate on milking behaviour for a period of four years. The results obtained were: (1) In extremely docile animals (temperament score I) the mean distribution was least (33.5) in hot-dry summer as compared to winter (39.2) and hot-humid summer. (2) The number of buffaloes milked after oxytocin injections was maximum (11.1%) during the hot-dry summer against other seasons for the temperament score I over temperament scores III and IV, where all buffaloes were milked with oxytocin injections. (3) The mean flow rate was least in hot-dry summer in each temperament score. (4) Milking time was higher in all the temperament scored buffaloes during the hot-dry summer than during the other seasons. It is concluded that as environmental temperature increases, there occurs an increase in thermal stress, the milking behaviour changes and animals become more hostile and excited which leads to a decrease in milk production.
Gangwar, P. C.
An examination of how the updated Eta-12 model, with its higher resolution, improved topography, and upgraded cloud and precipitation package, performed in forecasting the initiation and evolution of the first portion of the Buffalo, NY historic lake effect snow event (24-26 December 2001).
The primary objective of this study was to assess the expression profile and levels of toll-like receptor (TLR) mRNAs in the spleen, lung, mediastinal lymph node (MLN), jejunum, rectum, skin and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of Toda and Murrah buffalos. Spleen and PBMC had increased expression of TLR mRNAs 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9 and 10; lung had increased expression of TLR mRNAs 2, 4, 5, 6 and 8, MLN TLR mRNA 6, 9, 10 and decrease in TLR 3 and 7 mRNAs in skin. No significant differences were observed in the expression levels of any of the TLR mRNA in jejunum and rectum. Toda buffaloes showed significantly higher expression levels of TLR 9 mRNA in MLN, TLR mRNAs 1, 5, 6, 9 and 10 in skin and TLR mRNAs 2, 4, 7 and 9 in PBMC than Murrah buffaloes living in the vicinity. Toda and Murrah buffaloes were inoculated with TLR5 (flagellin) and TLR9 (CpG ODN) ligands in vivo and expression levels of the respective TLRs analyzed 12h later. Following CpG inoculation, Toda buffaloes had significantly higher levels of TLR 9 mRNA expression but not in Murrah. However, flagellin induction did not increase TLR 5 mRNA expression in both these breeds. Histological sections of the skin were made and infiltrating cell clusters were graded and quantified. Following CpG inoculation, Toda buffaloes showed higher numbers of infiltrating grade 1 and grade 3 cell clusters while Murrah showed lower numbers of infiltrating grade 1 cells as compared to mock-inoculated skin sections. Flagellin treatment revealed no significant differences in infiltrating cell clusters in both the breeds. The results have shown differential expression of TLR mRNAs in various tissues between two divergent buffalo breeds with the highest difference in TLR expression profile seen in the skin, the largest portal of entry of pathogens, of Toda. PMID:22521945
Vignesh, A R; Dhanasekaran, S; Raj, G Dhinakar; Balachandran, C; Pazhanivel, N; Sreekumar, C; Tirumurugaan, K G; Raja, A; Kumanan, K
The cellular components of the hepatic inflammatory infiltrate in cattle and buffaloes infected with a single dose of 1000 Fasciola gigantica were analysed by immunohistochemistry and histology. T and B lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils and mast cells were present in the hepatic lesions. It is proposed that both cellular and humoral immune responses were induced in the liver of cattle and buffaloes during infection with F. gigantica probably by antigens released by the developing flukes and by damage caused by the flukes during their migration in the liver. The local T cell response differed between these animals, with the response decreasing after 3 weeks post-infection in cattle in contrast to a gradually increasing response in buffaloes. Difference in the T cell response between cattle and buffaloes may be related to their differences in resistance and resilience to infection with F. gigantica. PMID:15936148
Molina, Elizabeth C; Skerratt, Lee F
Cholangiomas and cholangiocarcinomas were observed in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from the Buffalo and Niagara Rivers (NY) and Old Woman Creek (OH), USA. ignificant increases in serum blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, triglycerides, inorganic phosphate, ALT, LDL,...
Comparative analyses of methanogen diversity in the rumen of crossbred buffalo and cattle fed the same diet in the Philippines was performed by cloning the methyl coenzyme M reductase A (mcrA) gene. The cattle and buffalo libraries consisted of 50 clones each. Comparative analysis of the amino acid sequence revealed that these 2 libraries differed significantly (P < 0.01). The deduced amino acid sequences of the clones were classified into 9 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in buffalo and 11 OTUs in cattle. Sequence similarity between the clones and known cultured methanogens ranged from 86 to 97 % for buffalo and 84 to 99 % for cattle. Methanobrevibacter species were predominant in buffalo (64 % of the clones), and an unknown mcrA was predominant in cattle (52 % of the clones). A large number of clones with low similarity to cultivated methanogens was observed in both buffalo and cattle, suggesting the presence of an unknown methanogen species in their rumen. PMID:23053974
Lwin, Khin-Ohnmar; Matsui, Hiroki; Ban-Tokuda, Tomomi; Kondo, Makoto; Lapitan, Rosalina M; Herrera, Jesus Rommel V; Del-Barrio, Arnel N; Fujihara, Tsutomu
The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of Phaseolus calcaratus hay (PCH) supplementation on the intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, microbial population (bacteria, protozoa, and fungi) and methane production in swamp buffaloes fed on rice straw based diet. Four, 2.5year old rumen fistulated male buffaloes were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design. The treatments were
V. Chanthakhoun; M. Wanapat; C. Wachirapakorn; S. Wanapat
Cytochrome b gene markers have been proved as an efficient and powerful tool for breed characterization and species identification of buffaloes. This study represents the substantial analysis of mitochondrial DNA variation in Pakistani buffalo breeds and provides information about their genetic diversity. In this study partial amplification of cytochrome b gene of 1,061 bp was done and sequencing results showed ten haplotypes. Comparing all fifty samples from two buffalo breeds of Pakistan, fifteen polymorphic sites were observed out of which, twelve codons 42, 71, 118, 120, 199, 235, 269, 297, 318, 327, 350, 355 of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene are monomorphic which translate same amino acids as in the reference protein sequence due to silent mutation while different in DNA sequence. Similarly three codons 163, 246, 337 of mitochondrial cytochrome b are polymorphic and different from the reference sequence with respect to DNA as well as protein sequence. For the further confirmation a panel of nine microsatellite markers was used with high polymorphism information content (PIC). The frequency distribution of these alleles varies from three to eight allele at locus CSSM66 and ILST029 respectively. The results obtained from this study may contribute to the establishment of routine genotyping service of buffalo breeds for buffalo farmers for animal forensic application in case of any dispute. Additionally this study may help for breed characterization and phylogeny of aforementioned breeds of buffalo. PMID:21567199
Saif, Rashid; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Awan, Ali Raza; Nadeem, Asif; Hashmi, Abu-Saeed; Hussain, Tanveer
Dried stoned olive pomace (DSOP) was administered to dairy water buffaloes, and their productive performance and milk composition were analysed. Sixteen pluriparous lactating buffaloes were divided into two uniform groups (control and experimental), taking into consideration the following parameters: milk production (2,192 and 2,102 kg) and duration of lactation (254 and 252 d) of the previous year, distance from calving (51 and 43 d), milk production (9.71 and 10.18 kg/d), body condition score (BCS) (6.44 and 6.31) and weight (617 and 653 kg) at the beginning of the trial. Both diets had the same formulation: second cut alfalfa hay 20%, corn silage 42%, concentrate 38% but the two concentrates differed in their formulation, the experimental one contained 15.50% of DSOP as fed. The employed DSOP showed high amounts of secoiridoids, such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (3,4-DHPEA) (1.2 g/kg DM), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol-elenolic acid di-aldehyde (3,4-DHPEA-EDA) (12.6 g/kg DM), p-hydroxyphenylethanol-elenolic acid di-aldehyde (p-HPEA-EDA) (5.6 g/kg DM) and lignans, which are known to be powerful bioactive compounds. The control diet had an energy-protein content of 0.86 Milk FU/kg DM and 143.3 g/kg DM of crude protein, whereas the experimental diet of 0.87 Milk FU/kg DM and 146.6 g/kg DM of crude protein. Each animal of the two groups received 17 kg DM/d and each buffalo of the experimental group, by way of the concentrate, ingested 1.05 kg DM/d of DSOP. The trial lasted 40 days. No significant difference was found between the BCS (6.41 and 6.53), live weight (625.93 and 662.50 kg) and milk production (9.69 and 10.08 kg/d) of the two groups, as was the case for fat, protein, lactose, pH and coagulating parameters of the two milks. The milk fat of the experimental group had a significantly higher content of total tocopherols (10.45 vs 8.60 ?g/g, p<0.01) and retinol (3.17 vs 2.54 ?g/g, p<0.01). The content of the reactive substances with tiobarbituric acid (TBARs) was significantly lower in the milk fat of the experimental group (12.09 vs 15.05 ?g MDA/g, p<0.01). The acid content of the milk fat of the experimental group had a significantly higher content (p<0.05) of C18:0 and of C18:3?6. LC-MS/MS analysis showed the presence of 3,4-DHPEA (36.0 ?g/L) in the milk of the DSOP-fed buffaloes, while other phenols were not found. DSOP, in the quantity utilized, can be used in the feeding of the lactating buffalo; the dietetic-nutritional characteristics of the milk are improved due to a greater contribution of tocopherols, retinol and the presence of hydroxytyrosol. PMID:25049875
Terramoccia, S; Bartocci, S; Taticchi, A; Di Giovanni, S; Pauselli, M; Mourvaki, E; Urbani, S; Servili, M
Dried stoned olive pomace (DSOP) was administered to dairy water buffaloes, and their productive performance and milk composition were analysed. Sixteen pluriparous lactating buffaloes were divided into two uniform groups (control and experimental), taking into consideration the following parameters: milk production (2,192 and 2,102 kg) and duration of lactation (254 and 252 d) of the previous year, distance from calving (51 and 43 d), milk production (9.71 and 10.18 kg/d), body condition score (BCS) (6.44 and 6.31) and weight (617 and 653 kg) at the beginning of the trial. Both diets had the same formulation: second cut alfalfa hay 20%, corn silage 42%, concentrate 38% but the two concentrates differed in their formulation, the experimental one contained 15.50% of DSOP as fed. The employed DSOP showed high amounts of secoiridoids, such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (3,4-DHPEA) (1.2 g/kg DM), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol-elenolic acid di-aldehyde (3,4-DHPEA-EDA) (12.6 g/kg DM), p-hydroxyphenylethanol-elenolic acid di-aldehyde (p-HPEA-EDA) (5.6 g/kg DM) and lignans, which are known to be powerful bioactive compounds. The control diet had an energy-protein content of 0.86 Milk FU/kg DM and 143.3 g/kg DM of crude protein, whereas the experimental diet of 0.87 Milk FU/kg DM and 146.6 g/kg DM of crude protein. Each animal of the two groups received 17 kg DM/d and each buffalo of the experimental group, by way of the concentrate, ingested 1.05 kg DM/d of DSOP. The trial lasted 40 days. No significant difference was found between the BCS (6.41 and 6.53), live weight (625.93 and 662.50 kg) and milk production (9.69 and 10.08 kg/d) of the two groups, as was the case for fat, protein, lactose, pH and coagulating parameters of the two milks. The milk fat of the experimental group had a significantly higher content of total tocopherols (10.45 vs 8.60 ?g/g, p<0.01) and retinol (3.17 vs 2.54 ?g/g, p<0.01). The content of the reactive substances with tiobarbituric acid (TBARs) was significantly lower in the milk fat of the experimental group (12.09 vs 15.05 ?g MDA/g, p<0.01). The acid content of the milk fat of the experimental group had a significantly higher content (p<0.05) of C18:0 and of C18:3?6. LC-MS/MS analysis showed the presence of 3,4-DHPEA (36.0 ?g/L) in the milk of the DSOP-fed buffaloes, while other phenols were not found. DSOP, in the quantity utilized, can be used in the feeding of the lactating buffalo; the dietetic-nutritional characteristics of the milk are improved due to a greater contribution of tocopherols, retinol and the presence of hydroxytyrosol.
Terramoccia, S.; Bartocci, S.; Taticchi, A.; Di Giovanni, S.; Pauselli, M.; Mourvaki, E.; Urbani, S.; Servili, M.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) crude oils (EuO) supplementation on voluntary feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics in swamp buffaloes. Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes, body weight (BW) of 420±15.0 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were untreated rice straw (RS) without EuO (T1) and with EuO (T2) supplementation, and 3% urea-treated rice straw (UTRS) without EuO (T3) and with EuO (T4) supplementation. The EuO was supplemented at 2 mL/h/d in respective treatment. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate mixture was offered at 3 g/kg BW while roughage was fed ad libitum. Total dry matter and roughage intake, and apparent digestibilites of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber were improved (p<0.01) by UTRS. There was no effect of EuO supplementation on feed intake and nutrient digestibility. Ruminal pH and temperature were not (p>0.05) affected by either roughage sources or EuO supplementation. However, buffaloes fed UTRS had higher ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen as compared with RS. Total volatile fatty acid and butyrate proportion were similar among treatments, whereas acetate was decreased and propionate molar proportion was increased by EuO supplementation. Feeding UTRS resulted in lower acetate and higher propionate concentration compared to RS. Moreover, supplementation of EuO reduced methane production especially in UTRS treatment. Protozoa populations were reduced by EuO supplementation while fungi zoospores remained the same. Total, amylolytic and cellulolytic bacterial populations were increased (p<0.01) by UTRS; However, EuO supplementation did not affect viable bacteria. Nitrogen intake and in feces were found higher in buffaloes fed UTRS. A positive nitrogen balance (absorption and retention) was in buffaloes fed UTRS. Supplementation of EuO did not affect nitrogen utilization. Both allantoin excretion and absorption and microbial nitrogen supply were increased by UTRS whereas efficiency of microbial protein synthesis was similar in all treatments. Findings of present study suggested that EuO could be used as a feed additive to modify the rumen fermentation in reducing methane production both in RS and UTRS. Feeding UTRS could improve feed intake and efficiency of rumen fermentation in swamp buffaloes. However, more research is warranted to determine the effect of EuO supplementation in production animals.
Thao, N. T.; Wanapat, M.; Cherdthong, A.; Kang, S.
The Hranica Site is a National Priorities List (NPL) site located south of the village of Sarver on Ekastown Road in Buffalo Township, Butler County, Pennsylvania. The site (15 acres) is surrounded by active agricultural areas including field crops and orchards. Between 1966 and 1974, the site was used as drum disposal and waste incineration facility. The landfill accepted industrial and municipal wastes from 1966 to 1974. Following these waste remedial tasks, grading and soil capping were performed. On-site groundwater and soil analyses indicate the presence of several volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds and metals. Human exposure to site-related contaminants may occur through ingestion, dermal contact, or inhalation should the chemicals migrate into the potable water supplies of residential wells. Also, the site workers could become exposed through any remediation activities in the future. Furthermore, a potential exposure may occur through ingestion of contaminated food crops. The site is not being considered for follow-up health activities at this time.
l-Tryptophan-activating enzyme [l-tryptophan–tRNA ligase (AMP), EC 22.214.171.124] of water-buffalo brain was purified to near homogeneity by heat and pH treatments, ammonium sulphate fractionation, column chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, hydroxyapatite and Amberlite CG-50, and gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. The purified enzyme catalyses tryptophanyl-tRNA formation with yeast tRNA, but not with Escherichia coli tRNA. The enzyme exhibits multiple peaks of activity in Sephadex gel filtration with molecular weights corresponding to 155000, 105000 and 50000. However, only one peak of activity with molecular weight of 155000 can be detected when the enzyme is subjected to gel filtration at high concentration. Disc gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate reveals a single band with molecular weight of 55000. The activity of the enzyme is concentration dependent. Different Km and Vmax. values are obtained at different enzyme concentrations. These data suggest that this enzyme may exist in different quaternary structures, each with its own kinetic constants. The enzyme activity is inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate, and is not protected by the presence of the substrates, l-tryptophan, Mg2+, ATP, in any combination.
Liu, C.-C.; Chung, C.-H.; Lee, M.-L.
A trial was conducted on 12 buffaloes naturally infested with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus to evaluate the efficacy of eprinomectin pour-on at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg body weight. A reduction in live tick count by 45.94, 63.96, 81.53, 90.54, 98.19 and 100 % was observed on days 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 and 21 post-treatment, respectively. The reinfestation of ticks was not observed up to 42 days of trial period. On the basis of the present trial of eprinomectin pour-on, it can be recommended for use in dairy buffaloes against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus infestation. PMID:24431562
Nazir, T; Katoch, R; Godara, R; Yadav, Anish
Sixteen Italian Mediterranean Buffalo young bulls were divided into two groups fed isoprotein and isoenergy diets and only differing for protein source of concentrate: faba bean (FB) vs soybean (SB). Animals were slaughtered at 350 kg BW. Meat from FB group showed significantly lower fat, protein, cholesterol and saturated fatty acids than SB group. Significant differences were also found between the three muscles analysed [Longissimus thoracis (LT), Semitendinosus (ST) and Iliopsoas plus Psoas minor (IP)]. ST showed the most favourable fatty acids profile: lower SFA, higher PUFA, MUFA, ?-3, ?-6, CLA and, consequently, lower values for both atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. Results showed that faba bean can be used as a protein source alternative to soybean in the diet of young buffalo bulls for the production of high quality meat. PMID:24018277
Calabrò, S; Cutrignelli, M I; Gonzalez, O J; Chiofalo, B; Grossi, M; Tudisco, R; Panetta, C; Infascelli, F
Analysis of the fatty acids of total and neutral lipids, glycolipids, phospholipids and gangliosides of buffalo spermatozoa and seminal plasma showed that there were high levels of polyunsaturated acids. Neutral lipids were the richest in polyunsaturated acids (55% in spermatozoa and 61% in seminal plasma). The major saturated acid of all the principal classes was stearic acid and the major unsaturated acid was docosahexaenoic acid (22:6omega3) except in the neutral lipids in which it was arachidonic acid (20:4omega6). The major aldehyde was palmitaldehyde (16:0) in buffalo sperm lipids and docosanal (22:0) in seminal plasma. More than 50% of the total aldehydes was contributed by aldehydes with a chain length greater than 18 carbon atoms. PMID:957325
Jain, Y C; Anand, S R
We investigated the relationship between prevalence and severity of clinical signs of Demodex cafferi infection in free-ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and other factors such as age, sex, pregnancy status, and concomitant infections with bovine tuberculosis (BTB), Rift Valley fever (RVF), and brucellosis (BA). Approximately half of 203 buffalo examined in this study had clinical signs of demodicosis (cutaneous nodules); younger age classes had the highest prevalence and severity of lesions (chi(2)=21.4, df=6, P=0.0015). Nodules were generally limited to the head and neck region, but in severe cases were present over the entire animal. We found no significant association between clinical severity of the Demodex infection and gender, pregnancy status, or infection with BTB, RVF, or BA. PMID:19395760
Wolhuter, Julie; Bengis, Roy G; Reilly, Brian K; Cross, Paul C
Serum was separated from blood samples of six healthy buffalo heifers (1–1.5 years) on day 0 (control) and after 1, 7 and 14 days of levamisole (15 mg\\/kg body weight) administered orally. Significant differences were observed among monocytes, ESR (1 h) and of percentage PCV (Packed Cell Volume) after 1 and 7 days of levamisole administration. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV)
Zia-ur-Rahman Æ; M. A. Sandhu; T. Ahmad
To evaluate the effect of sephadex column filtration technique on semen quality of five Holstein bulls and five Egyptian buffalo bulls. Semen was collected biweekly from each eight weeks. Immediately after collection, semen was extended (37oC) and filtered using sephadex column-filtration technique. Semen was evaluated for physical semen characteristics including, percentages of sperm motility, live sperm and sperm abnormality as
The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship of age and body weight to testicular development and to establish norms for breeding soundness evaluations of Murrah buffalo bulls. Testicular measurements of 133 Murrah buffalo bulls of various ages were recorded with a caliper and a tape. Semen was collected twice a week for 5 weeks from groups of bulls which were 25-36 (n=17), 37-48 (n=16), 49-60 (n=14), of >60 (n=10) months of age. After examining volume, sperm concentration, and progressive motility semen was diluted in Tris-citric acid-egg yolk-fructose extender and frozen in 0.5 ml French straws. Testicular measurements of buffalo bulls were lower than those recorded for European breeds of cattle bulls. Nevertheless, like cattle bulls, scrotal circumference was highly correlated with other testicular measurements. Also, it had a significant positive relationship with semen volume and sperm concentration per ejaculate. Average sperm output per week in order of increasing age group was 15.3, 18.2, 19.8 and 23.6 x 10(9). Corresponding values for sperm output per week per gram of testis were 59.1, 45.8, 41.1, 36.2 x 10(6) indicating a reduction in spermatogenesis per unit of testis with advancing age. Compared to European breeds, daily sperm output in Murrah bulls was nearly 45% lower, presumably due to their nearly 40% lower scrotal circumference than Holstein bulls of the same age. These results indicate that in buffalo, as in cattle, scrotal circumference is a useful indicator of potential sperm output and may serve as an important criterion for selecting young bulls as AI sires. PMID:12620577
Pant, H C; Sharma, R K; Patel, S H; Shukla, H R; Mittal, A K; Kasiraj, R; Misra, A K; Prabhakar, J H
The study was conducted to ascertain the epidemiology, together with effects of bovine tuberculosis, on certain haematological parameters and serum proteins at two Livestock Experiment Stations in Pakistan. The results on prevalence of tuberculosis in buffaloes on the basis of comparative intradermal tuberculin test revealed it to be from as high as 8.48% (14\\/165) to as low as 2.45% (4\\/163)
Muhammad Tariq Javed; Mahmood Usman; Muhammad Irfan; Monica Cagiola
Adult male fistulated crossbred cattle and buffalo, four each, were on rations with ratios of nonprotein nitrogen to carbohydrates of 1:45, 1:37.5, and 1:30 and a control of no urea in a 4 x 4 Latin square switchover design. The influence of various test diets on enzymes assimilating ruminal ammonia was eluci- dated to find an optimum ratio of non-
S. K. Bhatia; K. Pradhan; Randhir Singh
In the present study the heat-induced partially deproteinated (0.1–0.2% w\\/v of residual protein after deproteination step) paneer whey (that resembles cottage cheese whey), originated from buffalo milk (containing 3.85–4.95% w\\/v of lactose) was tried for possible rapid lactose recovery, using ‘anti-solvent’ (ethanol). Optimization of various process parameters such as effective ethanol concentration (65–85% v\\/v), pH, temperature, seeding, etc. was carried
R. K. Bund; A. B. Pandit
Selection for genetically superior Murrah buffaloes under Network Project on Buffalo Improvement, India, is presently based on milk yield, and it was observed that even in the absence of any direct selection pressure applied on fertility, there has been a downward trend in fertility associated with the selection for milk yield. The aim of the study was to develop selection indices which include fertility besides milk yield in Murrah buffaloes. Data pertaining to 1,224 lactation records spread over a period of 19 years were recorded and analyzed in the study. The negative association of pregnancy rate (fertility) with a 305-day milk yield (-0.08?±?0.04) and wet average (-0.12?±?0.02) indicated the importance of incorporating fertility trait in the construction of selection index. Four types of selection indices were constructed and evaluated. Two indices were developed using expected producing ability 305-days milk yield (EPAMY) with 6.5 and 4 % fat in milk along with expected fertilizing ability (EFA). The other two indices developed consist of expected producing ability wet average (EPA WA) and EFA. The index involving (EPA WA and EFA) was found to be a more effective selection criterion in our herd, as the accuracy of index was more (0.61), in comparison to the index involving EPA MY and EFA. The robustness of selection index was assessed by increasing the relative economic values of included traits by 25 and 50 %, and accuracy of the index remains almost stable without much change. The developed selection strategy involving EPA WA and EFA should be considered for the genetic evaluation of Murrah buffaloes, as it has a potential for maximizing the lifetime reproduction and production performances of the breed. PMID:24781153
Valsalan, Jamuna; Chakravarty, Atish Kumar; Patil, Chandrashekhar Santosh; Dash, Shakti Kant; Mahajan, Atul Chandrashekhar; Kumar, Vijay; Vohra, Vikas
The present study aimed to ascertain the influence of crude protein (CP) digestibility in the rumen on the quantity and quality of milk production and reproductive performance, blood (BU) and milk (MU) urea, haematological profile and vaginal mucus urea, ammonia and potassium of buffalo cows. Lactating buffaloes (n = 84), 60 days in milk, were randomly subdivided into Group C (control, n = 42) and Group T (fed a diet supplemented with Aspergillus oryzae, n = 42). In three fistulated buffalo, the diet supplemented with Aspergillus oryzae showed a decrease (P < 0.01) in protein digestibility in the rumen (79.3 vs. 45.9%). No differences were registered in productive performance. Nine buffaloes not in oestrus during the dietary treatment (Groups T1 and C1), 30 days in milk, were used to study the haematological profile and to determine milk urea and ammonia in the vaginal mucus. The animals in Group T1 had higher ammonia values in the blood (P < 0.01) but not in the vaginal mucus than Group C1. A relationship was found between MU and BU. MU was influenced by CP intake and dry matter intake. No differences between the treatments were observed in reproductive performance and the conception rate and calving interval were 37.9% and 41.4% (90 trial-day) and 449 and 419 days respectively in Groups T and C. Reproductive performance was not influenced by high levels of BU nor by blood ammonia levels, although the latter were higher in the group fed the diet supplemented with Aspergillus oryzae. PMID:15141439
Campanile, Giuseppe; Di Palo, Rossella; Infascelli, Federico; Gasparrini, Bianca; Neglia, Gianluca; Zicarelli, Fabio; D'Occhio, Michael J
The intensity of heat signs in buffaloes is generally low and the incidence of suboestrus varied from 15 to 73% (Buffalopedia). The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of monitoring the changes in some milk constituents, oestradiol levels and electrical conductivity of vaginal mucus during peri-oestrous period in prediction of the timing of oestrus in buffaloes. Twenty-one Egyptian buffaloes aged 3-9 year, 1st-6th lactations, were examined by oestrous detector and ultrasonographically for monitoring the ovarian and uterine activity for 7 days around the time of standing oestrus. Sodium, potassium, chloride and lactose were assayed in aqueous phase of milk; besides, oestradiol was estimated in serum. Current results declared highly significant acute changes in milk constituents at the time of oestrus characterized by peaking of chloride and sodium levels and lowering of potassium and lactose values. The alternation in milk composition when arranged in decreasing order of magnitude, sodium was the highest (77.78 ± 0.69%), followed by chloride (61.60 ± 1.52%) and potassium (-58.14 ± 10.89%). Concomitantly, milk lactose decreased by 26.07 ± 7.97% compared to baseline levels. Synchronously, vaginal electrical resistance (VER) showed a significant (p < 0.01) decrease, but serum oestradiol 17? levels surged (59.93 ± 7.29 pg/ml) on day of oestrus. Serum oestradiol level was negatively correlated with VER (r = -0.577), potassium (r = -0.661), positively correlated with chloride (r = 0.707) and sodium (r = 0.579) and not correlated with lactose levels. These results for the first time suggested that the changes in constituents of milk during peri-oestrous period may be used as a practical non-invasive indicator for oestrous detection and prediction of ovulation in Egyptian buffaloes. PMID:23374144
Kandiel, M M M; El-Naggar, R A M; Abdel-Ghaffar, A E; Sosa, G A M; Abou El-Roos, N A
The buffalo is probably the last livestock species to have been domesticated, with many genetic, physiological and behavioural\\u000a traits not yet well understood. Molecular markers have been used for characterizing animals and breeds, diagnosing diseases\\u000a and identifying anatomical and physiological anomalies. RFLP studies showed low heterozygosity, but genomic and oligonucleotide\\u000a probes showed species-specific bands useful for identification of carcass or
B. R. Yadav
The present study was undertaken to characterize the presence of histamine H1R using molecular biology tools and unravel the influx and release mechanism(s) involved in calcium signalling cascades in histamine-induced myometrial contraction in buffaloes. The presence of H1R mRNA transcript and immunoreactive membrane protein in buffalo myometrium was confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Further, histamine produced concentration-dependent (1nM-10?M) contraction in buffalo myometrium with a potency of 7.13±0.11. When myometrial strips were pre-incubated either with Ca(2+) free solution or with nifedipine, a L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, dose response curve (DRC) of histamine was significantly (P<0.05) shifted towards right with decline in maximal contraction (Emax). Reduction in Emax of histamine in the presence of nifedipine (55.75±3.10%) was significantly (P<0.001) greater than that in the presence of ruthenium red (93.61±3.43%), a blocker of IP3-gated and RyR-sensitive Ca(2+) channels. Moreover, histamine produced only 26.87±1.99% of the maximum contraction in the presence of both nifedipine and CPA (blocker of sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase). Interestingly, following concurrent exposure to U-73122 (a PL-C inhibitor) and nifedipine, the DRC of histamine was significantly (P<0.05) shifted towards left with increase in maximal contraction (126.30±3.36%). Our findings in buffalo uterus thus suggest that influx of extracellular calcium plays a major role in histamine-induced myometrial contraction, while release of intracellular calcium through calcium-release channels of sarcoplasmic reticulum has a minor role. A possible involvement of non-selective cation channels in histamine-induced myometrial contraction cannot be ruled out, and therefore requires further investigations. PMID:24631173
Sharma, Abhishek; Choudhury, Soumen; Nakade, Udayraj P; Yadav, Rajkumar Singh; Garg, Satish Kumar
The aims of this study were to verify the efficacy of delayed hormonal treatments performed on day 25 post-insemination on pregnancy rate at 45 and 70 days in buffalo. The trial was performed on 385 buffaloes synchronized by the Ovsynch/TAI protocol and submitted to artificial insemination (AI). Twenty-five days after AI, pregnant animals were assigned to four treatments: (1) GnRH agonist (n = 52), 12 microg of buserelin acetate; (2) hCG (n = 51), 1500 IU of human chorionic gonadotrophin; (3) Progesterone (n = 47), 341 mg of P4 intramuscular (im) every 4 days for three times; (4) Control (n = 54), treatment with physiological saline (0.9% NaCl). Milk samples were collected on days 10, 20 and 25 after AI in all buffaloes to determine progesterone concentration in whey by radioimmunoassay method. Statistical analysis was performed by anova. Pregnancy rate on day 25 after AI was 52.9%, but declined to 41.8% by day 45, indicating an embryonic mortality (EM) of 21%. If only control group is considered, the incidence of EM was 38.9%. Pregnant buffaloes had higher (p < 0.01) progesterone concentrations on day 20 and 25 after AI than both non-pregnant buffaloes and buffaloes that showed EM. The treatments on day 25 increased (p < 0.01) pregnancy rate, although in buffaloes with a low whey progesterone concentration on day 20 and 25 after AI (n = 22); all treatments were ineffective to reduce EM. PMID:19090823
Vecchio, D; Neglia, G; Di Palo, R; Prandi, A; Gasparrini, B; Balestrieri, A; D'Occhio, M J; Zicarelli, L; Campanile, G
Leptospirosis, caused by the spirochete bacterium Leptospira spp. is a zoonosis, distributed worldwide and classified as an emerging infectious disease. Fatal outcomes to leptospiral infection do occur and the disease can cause abortion and other reproductive problems in cattle, goats, and pigs. In humans the symptoms range from subclinical infection to acute febrile illness, pulmonary hemorrhage and renal failure. Leptospirosis has never been officially reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) or the World Animal Health Organization in animals or humans in Uganda. However, favorable ecological conditions and suitable animal hosts can be found within the country. A commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) kit was used to screen sera samples from domesticated cattle and African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) at two locations in southwestern Uganda, collected over a 4-year period. Positive samples were found in both cattle and African buffalo samples, from both locations and across the sampling period. Overall seroprevalence was 42.39% in African buffalo and 29.35% in cattle. PMID:24323512
Atherstone, Christine; Picozzi, Kim; Kalema-Zikusoka, Gladys
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) contamination is evaluated in 120 samples of raw milk from cow and buffalo (60 each), collected randomly in the Shush (southwest Iran). Enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) was applied to analyse AFM1 in the samples. AFM1 was detected in 44 (69%) raw cow milk samples with a mean of 55 ng/l at a range of 3.6-419 ng/l) and in 46 (79%) raw buffalo milk samples with a mean of 116 ng/l at a range of 13-423 ng/l. In all samples, the AFM1 concentration was lower than the Iranian national standard and FDA limit of 500 ng/l. According to the European Union and Codex Alimentarius Commission, 18 (28%) and 32 (52%) of cow and buffalo raw milk samples are above the 50 ng/l limit, respectively. Results showed that AFM1 contamination of raw milk could pose a problem for public health, since all age groups, including infants and children, consume this product. PMID:24779974
Kamkar, Abolfazl; Yazdankhah, Samira; Nafchi, Abdolreza Mohammadi; Nejad, Amir Sasan Mozaffari
Two Ag-ELISAs, an IgG-specific antibody detection ELISA (IgG ELISA) and a card agglutination test (CATT) for the detection of Trypanasoma evansi infections in buffaloes in Indonesia, were compared. Diagnostic sensitivity estimates were obtained by testing sera from 139 Indonesian buffaloes which had been found to be infected by parasitological tests. Diagnostic specificity was estimated by testing sera from 263 buffaloes living in Australia. Response-operating characteristic curves were constructed, and optimal ELISA cut-off values, which minimized the number of false-negative and false-positive results, were chosen. The IgG ELISA had the highest sensitivity (89%) and the CATT had the highest specificity (100%). There was a significant difference between the sensitivities (71 and 81%), but not between the specificities (75 and 78%), of the two Ag-ELISAs. The four tests were further compared by calculation of post-test probabilities of infection for positive and negative test results using a range of prevalence values, and likelihood ratios. The results suggested that the CATT was the best test to 'rule-in' infection (i.e. the highest probability of infection in test-positive animals) and the IgG ELISA was the best test to 'rule-out' infection (i.e. the lowest probability of infection in test-negative animals). PMID:10487651
Davison, H C; Thrusfield, M V; Muharsini, S; Husein, A; Partoutomo, S; Rae, P F; Masake, R; Luckins, A G
The objective of the study was to compare the sensory profile of Cheddar cheese prepared from cow and buffalo milk using indigenous and commercial cultures. Commercially available and locally isolated, indigenous starter cultures were used to prepare cow and buffalo milk Cheddar cheese. The cheese was ripened at 4 and 12°C and analyzed for descriptive sensory profile by a panel of 10 assessors after 60 and 120 d of ripening. On evaluation, the mean scores for odor, flavor, and texture attributes obtained for buffalo milk cheese were significantly higher than those obtained for cow milk cheese. For most of the traits, cheese samples prepared from indigenous cultures and ripened at higher temperature received higher descriptive scores compared with those of commercial cultures and ripened at lower degrees. Milk sources highly significantly affected the "creamy" and "sour" traits of odor; the "creamy," "smoky," and "soapy" flavors; and all the texture attributes except "maturity." Starter cultures considerably influenced the production of "acidic," "bitter," "sweet," and "sour" characteristics. The use of elevated ripening temperature showed noticeable effect on all the characteristics except the "creamy" odor and flavor. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis also showed that milk sources, starter cultures, and ripening temperatures significantly influenced the sensory characteristics. PMID:23332853
Murtaza, M A; Rehman, S U; Anjum, F M; Huma, N
Disposition following single intravenous injection (2 mg/kg) and pharmacodynamics of cefquinome were investigated in buffalo calves 6-8 months of age. Drug levels in plasma were estimated by high-performance liquid chromatography. The plasma concentration-time profile following intravenous administration was best described by a two-compartment open model. Rapid distribution of cefquinome was evident from the short distribution half-life (t ½ ? = 0.36 ± 0.01 h), and small apparent volume of distribution (Vd area = 0.31 ± 0.008 L/kg) indicated limited drug distribution in buffalo calves. The values of area under plasma concentration-time curve, elimination half-life (t ½ ? ), total body clearance (ClB), and mean residence time were 32.9 ± 0.56 ?g · h/mL, 3.56 ± 0.05 h, 60.9 ± 1.09 mL/h/kg, and 4.24 ± 0.09 h, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration of cefquinome were 0.035-0.07 and 0.05-0.09 ?g/mL, respectively. A single intravenous injection of 2 mg/kg may be effective to maintain the MIC up to 12 h in buffalo calves against the pathogens for which cefquinome is indicated. PMID:23456794
Dinakaran, Venkatathalam; Dumka, Vinod Kumar; Ranjan, Bibhuti; Balaje, Ramalingam; Sidhu, Pritam Kaur
The use of recombinant bovine growth hormone (rbGH) to increase milk yield in cows is banned in some countries. In others, where it is authorised, it has triggered harsh debates on labelling of dairy products. If many studies have been performed on bovines, there is a lack of information on buffaloes, which are sometimes treated with rbGH and re-present an important economical resource for dairy products in some countries. Analytical methods with legal value for surveillance of rbGH treatments do not yet exist. Research on gene expression biomarkers is one of the most promising approaches to this purpose. For this reason, we treated five buffaloes for 10 weeks with a sustained-release formulation of rbGH and analysed the response of 20 somatotropic axis genes in leucocytes by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Overall changes in gene expression levels were of low magnitude and sometimes affected by the 'time' factor. Only the IGFBP-1 gene showed a significant under-expression (about two-fold; p <0.001) in treated animals. Taken together, these results give evidence that expression analysis of the somatotropic axis genes in leucocytes is little helpful for discrimination of rbGH-treated buffaloes, but do not exclude that another array of genes could provide useful patterns of variation. PMID:22050229
Castigliego, Lorenzo; Li, Xiao-Ning; Armani, Andrea; Razzano, Maria; Mazzi, Marco; Rosati, Remo; Gianfaldoni, Daniela; Guidi, Alessandra
The current study examines the effect of different finishing diets (hay- vs. maize-silage on meal ration) on carcass quality, physical, chemical and sensory properties, and fatty acid profiles of buffalo meat. Twenty male Italian Mediterranean buffaloes (246?±?9.00?kg live weight) were distributed at random into two groups at the beginning of the finishing period (368?±?20 days). The buffaloes were offered two finishing diets: a maize silage (MS) or an alfalfa hay (AH) diet. No significant differences were found between dietary treatments for live and carcass weight. Meat chemical composition was influenced by dietary treatment. A higher fat content was detected in meat from animals finished with MS than AH (P?0.05). Overall, the data indicated differences between the fatty acid profiles of meat as a consequence of different feeding systems. The higher fat deposition in the MS group resulted in meat with a less favorable fatty acid profile (i.e. a lower polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and ?-linolenic fatty acid content) in relation to human health compared with meat from animals fed the AH diet. PMID:24261881
Cifuni, Giulia Francesca; Contò, Michela; Amici, Andrea; Failla, Sebastiana
Capturing, immobilizing, and fitting radiocollars are common practices in studies of large mammals, but success is based on the assumptions that captured animals are representative of the rest of the population and that the capture procedure has negligible effects. We estimated effects of chemical immobilization on mortality rates of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. We used a Cox proportional hazards approach to test for differences in mortality among age, sex, and capture classes of repeatedly captured radiocollared buffalo. Capture variables did not improve model fit and the Cox regression did not indicate increased risk of death for captured individuals up to 90 days postcapture [exp (??) = 1.07]. Estimated confidence intervals, however, span from a halving to a doubling of the mortality rate (95% CI = 0.56-2.02). Therefore, capture did not influence survival of captured individuals using data on 875 captures over a 5-year period. Consequently, long-term research projects on African buffalo involving immobilization, such as associated with research on bovine tuberculosis, should result in minimal capture mortality, but monitoring of possible effects should continue.
Oosthuizen, W. C.; Cross, P. C.; Bowers, J. A.; Hay, C.; Ebinger, M. R.; Buss, P.; Hofmeyr, M.; Cameron, E. Z.
Mechanized milking has become widely used for buffaloes in Italy in recent years, thus improving the management and the productivity of farms. The apparent similarities between buffalo and cattle have often resulted in applying the same milking systems and techniques currently used for dairy cows. Considering the effect of mechanical milking on animal health, productivity, and welfare in intensive livestock farming, this study compares the effects of milking at low vacuum (36 kPa) and medium vacuum (42 kPa) on milk emission characteristics and milking system performance. Individual milk flow curves were registered to analyze milk yield, average flow rate, and milking time, and milking operations were recorded to evaluate the system performances. When using 36 kPa vacuum, a significant increase in milking time and in the lag time before milk ejection occurred, as well as a decrease in average flow rate and residual milk. However, the vacuum level did not influence both milk yield and milk ejection time. As a consequence of decreasing the vacuum level to 36 kPa, the milking system throughput was decreased at most by 5 buffalo/h. PMID:21426964
Caria, M; Murgia, L; Pazzona, A
The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of inbreeding depression on traits of buffaloes from Brazil. Specifically, the traits studied were body weight at 205 and 365 days of age, average daily gain from birth to 205 days (ADG_205), average daily gain between 205 and 365 days (ADG205_365) in Mediterranean buffaloes, and milk yield, lactation length, age of first calving and calving intervals in Murrah buffaloes. Inbreeding effects on the traits were determined by fitting four regression models (linear, quadratic, exponential and Michaelis-Menten) about the errors generated by the animal model. The linear model was only significant (P?0.05) for growth traits (exception of ADG205_365). The exponential and Michaelis-Menten models were significant (P?0.01) for all the studied traits while the quadratic model was not significant (P?>?0.05) for any of the traits. Weight at 205 and 365 days of age decreased 0.25?kg and 0.39?kg per 1% of increase in inbreeding, respectively. The inbred animals (F?=?0.25) produced less milk than non-inbred individuals: 50.4?kg of milk. Moreover, calving interval increased 0.164 days per 1% of increase in inbreeding. Interestingly, inbreeding had a positive effect on age at first calving and lactation length, decreasing age of first calving and increasing lactation length. PMID:23590501
Malhado, Carlos Henrique Mendes; Malhado, Ana Claudia Mendes; Carneiro, Paulo Luiz Souza; Ramos, Alcides Amorim; Carrillo, José Adrián; Pala, Akin
Partial migration (when only some individuals in a population undertake seasonal migrations) is common in many species and geographical contexts. Despite the development of modern statistical methods for analyzing partial migration, there have been no studies on what influences partial migration in tropical environments. We present research on factors affecting partial migration in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in northeastern Namibia. Our dataset is derived from 32 satellite tracking collars, spans 4 years and contains over 35,000 locations. We used remotely sensed data to quantify various factors that buffalo experience in the dry season when making decisions on whether and how far to migrate, including potential man-made and natural barriers, as well as spatial and temporal heterogeneity in environmental conditions. Using an information-theoretic, non-linear regression approach, our analyses showed that buffalo in this area can be divided into 4 migratory classes: migrants, non-migrants, dispersers, and a new class that we call “expanders”. Multimodel inference from least-squares regressions of wet season movements showed that environmental conditions (rainfall, fires, woodland cover, vegetation biomass), distance to the nearest barrier (river, fence, cultivated area) and social factors (age, size of herd at capture) were all important in explaining variation in migratory behaviour. The relative contributions of these variables to partial migration have not previously been assessed for ungulates in the tropics. Understanding the factors driving migratory decisions of wildlife will lead to better-informed conservation and land-use decisions in this area.
Naidoo, Robin; Du Preez, Pierre; Stuart-Hill, Greg; Jago, Mark; Wegmann, Martin
A study was carried out to determine genetic variants of beta-lactoglobulin gene and to explore associations between these and milk composition traits in riverine buffalo. Single strand conformation polymorphism was employed to detect the genetic variants of the gene. Two fragments of this gene i.e. 119 bp of exon I and 400 bp spanning exon IV and intron IV were included in the study. For 119 bp fragment, three alleles namely, A, B and C were observed in all the buffalo breeds whereas four alleles (A, B, C and D) were detected for 400 bp fragment. The frequency distribution of alleles was different in different breeds of buffaloes for both the fragments. For exon I fragment, the milk composition traits such as total SNF, protein, solid, fat and whey protein yield were found to be significantly (P<0.05) associated with genotypes in Murrah and Bhadawari buffalo whereas in Mehsana breed genotypes were significantly (P<0.05) co-related with total SNF, solid and fat yield. Genotypes of 400 bp fragment, only total fat yield in Mehsana buffalo was found to be significantly (P<0.05) associated with genotypes. PMID:16987433
Vohra, Vikas; Kumar Bhattacharya, Tarun; Dayal, Shanker; Kumar, Pushpendra; Sharma, Arjava
Study objective: The aim of this study is to identify risk factors for asthma prevalence and chronic respiratory illnesses in Buffalo's neighbourhoods after previous studies reported increased levels of asthma among residents on Buffalo's west side. Design: Cross sectional surveys. Setting: Buffalo neighbourhoods along a US-Canada border crossing point. Subjects: A systematic random survey of 82% of the 2000 targeted households was conducted between January and August 2002. Main results: A multivariate logistic regression model shows that the risk of persons with asthma and chronic respiratory illnesses is significantly (p?0.05) high among children and young adults living in Buffalo's west side, newer housing units, and of Latino ethnicity. In a separate analysis of the nine risk factors, it was observed that location, gender, age, and race were significant risk factors even after adjusting for age of housing, pets, moulds, animal trigger, and smoking. Conclusions: These findings confirm the hypothesis that a considerable risk of asthma and chronic respiratory illnesses exists particularly among Buffalo's west side residents. Further evaluation of these risk factors is warranted to determine the severity of asthma and the reasons for such a significant disease burden.
Lwebuga-Mukasa, J.; Oyana, T.; Wydro, P.
The present study describes the prevalence of Peste-des-petits-ruminant virus (PPRV) antibodies in cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats carried out during the period 2011 using the serum samples randomly collected from different villages of five states of India. A total of 1,498 serum samples [n = 605 (cattle); n = 432 (buffaloes); n = 173 (sheep); n = 288 (goats)] were collected from 52 districts in five states (Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Maharashtra and Rajasthan) of India and were screened for PPRV-specific antibodies by using PPR monoclonal antibody-based competitive ELISA kit. Analysis of 1,498 samples indicates that an overall seroprevalence of 21.83 % with 11.07 % in cattle, 16.20 % in buffaloes, 45.66 % in sheep and 38.54 % in goats. This report presents the results of PPRV-specific antibodies in situations where the subclinical, inapparent or nonlethal or recovery of infection was suspected in cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats. The presence of PPRV antibodies demonstrate that bovines are exposed to PPRV infection and it implies the importance of cattle and buffaloes as subclinical hosts for the virus besides widespread presence of the disease in sheep and goats. Further, the study showed that the prevalence of PPRV antibodies in apparently healthy livestock under natural situation, 21.83 % of the animals were protected from PPRV re-infection. This inturn help in the implementation of disease control strategies such as vaccination in that particular geographical area. PMID:24426314
Balamurugan, V; Krishnamoorthy, P; Raju, D S N; Rajak, K K; Bhanuprakash, V; Pandey, A B; Gajendragad, M R; Prabhudas, K; Rahman, H
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging biodefense pathogen that poses significant threats to human and livestock health. To date, the interepidemic reservoirs of RVFV are not well defined. In a longitudinal survey of infectious diseases among African buffalo during 2000-2006, 550 buffalo were tested for antibodies against RVFV in 820 capture events in 302 georeferenced locations in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Overall, 115 buffalo (21%) were seropositive. Seroprevalence of RVFV was highest (32%) in the first study year, and decreased progressively in subsequent years, but had no detectable impact on survival. Nine (7%) of 126 resampled, initially seronegative animals seroconverted during periods outside any reported regional RVFV outbreaks. Seroconversions for RVFV were detected in significant temporal clusters during 2001-2003 and in 2004. These findings highlight the potential importance of wildlife as reservoirs for RVFV and interepidemic RVFV transmission in perpetuating regional RVFV transmission risk. Copyright ?? 2011 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
LaBeaud, A. D.; Cross, P. C.; Getz, W. M.; Glinka, A.; King, C. H.
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging biodefense pathogen that poses significant threats to human and livestock health. To date, the interepidemic reservoirs of RVFV are not well defined. In a longitudinal survey of infectious diseases among African buffalo during 2000–2006, 550 buffalo were tested for antibodies against RVFV in 820 capture events in 302 georeferenced locations in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Overall, 115 buffalo (21%) were seropositive. Seroprevalence of RVFV was highest (32%) in the first study year, and decreased progressively in subsequent years, but had no detectable impact on survival. Nine (7%) of 126 resampled, initially seronegative animals seroconverted during periods outside any reported regional RVFV outbreaks. Seroconversions for RVFV were detected in significant temporal clusters during 2001–2003 and in 2004. These findings highlight the potential importance of wildlife as reservoirs for RVFV and interepidemic RVFV transmission in perpetuating regional RVFV transmission risk.
LaBeaud, A. Desiree; Cross, Paul C.; Getz, Wayne M.; Glinka, Allison; King, Charles H.
We use the fire ecology and biogeographical patterns of Callitris intratropica, a fire-sensitive conifer, and the Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), an introduced mega-herbivore, to examine the hypothesis that the continuation of Aboriginal burning and cultural integration of buffalo contribute to greater savanna heterogeneity and diversity in central Arnhem Land (CAL) than Kakadu National Park (KNP). The ‘Stone Country’ of the Arnhem Plateau, extending from KNP to CAL, is a globally renowned social–ecological system, managed for millennia by Bininj-Kunwok Aboriginal clans. Regional species declines have been attributed to the cessation of patchy burning by Aborigines. Whereas the KNP Stone Country is a modern wilderness, managed through prescribed burning and buffalo eradication, CAL remains a stronghold for Aboriginal management where buffalo have been culturally integrated. We surveyed the plant community and the presence of buffalo tracks among intact and fire-damaged C. intratropica groves and the savanna matrix in KNP and CAL. Aerial surveys of C. intratropica grove condition were used to examine the composition of savanna vegetation across the Stone Country. The plant community in intact C. intratropica groves had higher stem counts of shrubs and small trees and higher proportions of fire-sensitive plant species than degraded groves and the savanna matrix. A higher proportion of intact C. intratropica groves in CAL therefore indicated greater gamma diversity and habitat heterogeneity than the KNP Stone Country. Interactions among buffalo, fire, and C. intratropica suggested that buffalo also contributed to these patterns. Our results suggest linkages between ecological and cultural integrity at broad spatial scales across a complex landscape. Buffalo may provide a tool for mitigating destructive fires; however, their interactions require further study. Sustainability in the Stone Country depends upon adaptive management that rehabilitates the coupling of indigenous culture, disturbance, and natural resources.
Trauernicht, Clay; Murphy, Brett P; Tangalin, Natalia; Bowman, David M J S
The aim of the present study was to determine whether ultrasonographic evaluation of the hepatic parenchyma could be used as a diagnostic and prognostic approach in cows and buffaloes with hepatic lipidosis. For this purpose, cows (n=16) and buffaloes (n=10) with fatty infiltration of the liver were examined by ultrasonography. Treated cows and buffaloes were monitored for hepatic changes ultrasonographically, biochemically and histologically. Clinical findings were non-specific and included anorexia, recumbency, muzzle necrosis, and icteric mucosal membranes. Laboratory data revealed neutrophilia, hyper gamma-globulinemia, elevated activities of aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase, and high concentrations of insulin, total bilirubin, non-esterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxyl butyric acid. Laboratory results 7, and 21 days after treatment showed progressive improvement in the chemistry profile. On admission, ultrasonographic examination of the hepatic parenchyma in cows and buffaloes revealed either increased or decreased hepatic echogenicity; histologic examination revealed marked fatty infiltration of the hepatocytes. One week after treatment, the hepatic parenchyma was visualized easily, liver boundaries were clearly imaged, and histologic examination of hepatic specimen showed a moderate degree of fatty infiltration. Three weeks after treatment, the hepatic parenchyma was almost similar to normal, the hepatic and portal blood vessels could be easily imaged, and the histologic picture had greatly improved where the liver resembled the normal organ. Six cows and seven buffaloes made a full recovery while the remaining ten cows and three buffaloes were slaughtered and thoroughly examined postmortem. Ultrasonography showed a good correlation with histologic and laboratory findings. PMID:22708362
Genetic studies concerned with the demographic history of wildlife species can help elucidate the role of climate change and other forces such as human activity in shaping patterns of divergence and distribution. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) declined dramatically during the rinderpest pandemic in the late 1800s, but little is known about the earlier demographic history of the species. We analysed genetic variation at 17 microsatellite loci and a 302-bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region to infer past demographic changes in buffalo populations from East Africa. Two Bayesian coalescent-based methods as well as traditional bottleneck tests were applied to infer detailed dynamics in buffalo demographic history. No clear genetic signature of population declines related to the rinderpest pandemic could be detected. However, Bayesian coalescent modelling detected a strong signal of African buffalo population declines in the order of 75-98%, starting in the mid-Holocene (approximately 3-7000 years ago). The signature of decline was remarkably consistent using two different coalescent-based methods and two types of molecular markers. Exploratory analyses involving various prior assumptions did not seriously affect the magnitude or timing of the inferred population decline. Climate data show that tropical Africa experienced a pronounced transition to a drier climate approximately 4500 years ago, concurrent with the buffalo decline. We therefore propose that the mid-Holocene aridification of East Africa caused a major decline in the effective population size of the buffalo, a species reliant on moist savannah habitat for its existence. PMID:19140976
Heller, R; Lorenzen, E D; Okello, J B A; Masembe, C; Siegismund, H R
The objective of this study was to determine the influence of administration of buffalo dairy products on lipid content and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) incorporation on liver and intestine of mice. Buffalo cheeses were selected according to nutritional properties and CLA content. Cheeses were previously manufactured using as adjunct culture bacteria with probiotic or technological properties. BALB/c mice were fed for 28 days, and then a single dose of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) as oxidant agent was administered before the influence of diet and DMH on antioxidant status in tissues was evaluated. Mice fed buffalo cheese showed the highest body weight gain (P?.05). Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content in foods was very different, but total PUFA incorporation was similar in mouse tissues. CLA was only detected in fat tissues of mice fed dairy products, with cis-9, trans-11 being the major isomer. A higher linolenic (C(18:3)) acid content was found in tissues of mice fed commercial diet (control group), and it was partially replaced by CLA in groups receiving buffalo milk or cheese. Lipoperoxides (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) were higher in tissues of the control group with or without DMH administration, and DMH had a cytotoxic effect on colon cells (P?.05). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities in liver and intestine were similar among animals, with a slight increase of SOD detected after DMH treatment. Consumption of buffalo dairy products did not affect the oxidative status of mice tissues even after DMH application. In the present study, a protective effect of buffalo cheese and milk on intestine cells was determined. PMID:21370968
Van Nieuwenhove, Carina P; Cano, Paola Gauffin; Pérez-Chaia, Adriana B; González, Silvia N
The effect of treatment with a GnRH agonist, hCG or progesterone (P(4)) on corpus luteum function and embryonic mortality was investigated in buffaloes inseminated during mid-winter. Italian Mediterranean buffaloes (n=309) were synchronized using the Ovsynch with timed-AI program and mated by AI at 16 h (Day 0) and 40 h after the second injection of GnRH. On Day 5, buffaloes were randomly assigned to four groups: Control (no treatment, n=69), GnRH agonist (buserelin acetate, 12.6 microg, n=73), hCG (1500 IU, n=75) and P(4) (PRID without E(2) for 10 days, n=77). Progesterone (pg/ml) was determined in milk whey on Days 5, 10, 15 and 20 and pregnancy diagnosis was undertaken on Day 26 by ultrasound and Day 40 by rectal palpation. Treatment with buserelin and hCG increased (p<0.05) P(4) on Day 15 compared with controls (456+/-27, 451+/-24 and 346+/-28 pg/ml, respectively). Buffaloes treated with a PRID had intermediate P(4) concentrations (380+/-23 pg/ml). Embryonic mortality between Days 26 and 40 (22.9%) and pregnancies at Day 40 (48.9%) did not differ between treatments. A higher (p<0.01) P(4) concentration was found on Day 20 in pregnant animals compared with non-pregnant and embryonic mortality buffaloes, which did not differ. In summary, buserelin and hCG increased P(4) concentrations on Day 15 but this was not associated with a reduced incidence of embryonic mortality in buffaloes during mid-winter. PMID:17403533
Campanile, G; Di Palo, R; Neglia, G; Vecchio, D; Gasparrini, B; Prandi, A; Galiero, G; D'Occhio, M J
Background To study the role of African buffalos (Syncerus caffer) in the maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease in Uganda, serum samples were collected from 207 African buffalos, 21 impalas (Aepyceros melampus), 1 giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), 1 common eland (Taurotragus oryx), 7 hartebeests (Alcelaphus buselaphus) and 5 waterbucks (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) from four major National Parks in Uganda between 2005 and 2008. Serum samples were screened to detect antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) non-structural proteins (NSP) using the Ceditest® FMDV NS ELISA. Solid Phase Blocking ELISAs (SPBE) were used to determine the serotype-specificity of antibodies against the seven serotypes of FMDV among the positive samples. Virus isolation and sequencing were undertaken to identify circulating viruses and determine relatedness between them. Results Among the buffalo samples tested, 85% (95% CI = 80-90%) were positive for antibodies against FMDV non-structural proteins while one hartebeest sample out of seven (14.3%; 95% CI = -11.6-40.2%) was the only positive from 35 other wildlife samples from a variety of different species. In the buffalo, high serotype-specific antibody titres (? 80) were found against serotypes O (7/27 samples), SAT 1 (23/29 samples), SAT 2 (18/32 samples) and SAT 3 (16/30 samples). Among the samples titrated for antibodies against the four serotypes O, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3, 17/22 (77%; CI = 59.4-94.6%) had high titres against at least two serotypes. FMDV isolates of serotypes SAT 1 (1 sample) and SAT 2 (2 samples) were obtained from buffalo probang samples collected in Queen Elizabeth National Park (QENP) in 2007. Sequence analysis and comparison of VP1 coding sequences showed that the SAT 1 isolate belonged to topotype IV while the SAT 2 isolates belonged to different lineages within the East African topotype X. Conclusions Consistent detection of high antibody titres in buffalos supports the view that African buffalos play an important role in the maintenance of FMDV infection within National Parks in Uganda. Both SAT 1 and SAT 2 viruses were isolated, and serological data indicate that it is also likely that FMDV serotypes O and SAT 3 may be present in the buffalo population. Detailed studies should be undertaken to define further the role of wildlife in the epidemiology of FMDV in East Africa.
Among patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, a history of chronic inflammation in the mouth (periodontitis, i.e. gum disease) may be associated with an increased risk of tumors positive for human papillomavirus (HPV), according to a report published Online First by Archives of Otolaryngology – Head & Neck Surgery, a JAMA Network publication. Researchers at the University at Buffalo and colleagues evaluated data from 124 patients diagnosed with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx, and larynx between 1999 and 2007 for whom tissue samples and dental records were available. The University at Buffalo is affiliated with the Roswell Park Cancer Institute.
Follicle-stimulating hormone has been widely used to induce superovulation in buffaloes and cows and usually triggers functional and morphologic alterations in the corpus luteum (CL). Several studies have shown that FSH is involved in regulating vascular development and that adequate angiogenesis is essential for normal luteal development. Angiogenesis is regulated by many growth factors, of which vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) have an established central role. Therefore, we have used a combination of in vitro and in vivo studies to assess the effects of FSH on the expression of VEGF and FGF2 and their receptors in buffalo luteal cells. The in vivo model consisted of 12 buffalo cows, divided into control (n = 6) and superovulated (n = 6) groups, and CL samples were collected on day 6 after ovulation. In this model, we analyzed the gene and protein expression of FGF2 and its receptors and the protein expression of VEGFA systems with the use of real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. In the in vitro model, granulosa cells were collected from small follicles (diameter, 4-6 mm) of buffaloes and cultured for 4 d in serum-free medium with or without FSH (10 ng/mL). To induce in vitro luteinization, LH (250 ng/mL) and fetal bovine serum (10%) were added to the medium, and granulosa cells were maintained in culture for 4 d more. The progesterone concentration in the medium was measured at days 4, 5, and 8 after the beginning of cell culture. Cells were collected at day 8 and subjected to real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence for assessment of the expression of FGF2, VEGF, and their receptors. To address the percentage of steroidogenic and growth factor-expressing cells in the culture, flow cytometry was performed. We observed that in superovulated buffalo CL, the FGF2 system mRNA expression was decreased even as protein expression was increased and that the VEGF protein was increased (P < 0.05). In vitro experiments with granulosa cells showed an increase in the mRNA expression of VEGF and FGF2 and its receptors 1 and 2 and protein expression of VEGF, kinase insert domain receptor, FGF receptor 2, and FGF receptor 3 in cells treated with FSH (P < 0.05), in contrast to the in vivo experiments. Moreover, the progesterone production by FSH-treated cells was elevated compared with untreated cells (P < 0.05). Our findings indicate that VEGF, FGF2, and their receptors were differentially regulated by FSH in vitro and in vivo in buffalo luteal cells, which points toward a role of CL environment in modulating cellular answers to gonadotropins. PMID:24209507
Fátima, L A; Evangelista, M C; Silva, R S; Cardoso, A P M; Baruselli, P S; Papa, P C
Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is an exotic disease invading the buffalo population (Syncerus caffer) of the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. We used a sex and age-structured epidemiological model to assess the effectiveness of a vaccination program and define important research directions. The model allows for dispersal between a focal herd and background population and was parameterized with a combination of published data and analyses of over 130 radio-collared buffalo in the central region of the KNP. Radio-tracking data indicated that all sex and age categories move between mixed herds, and males over 8 years old had higher mortality and dispersal rates than any other sex or age category. In part due to the high dispersal rates of buffalo, sensitivity analyses indicate that disease prevalence in the background population accounts for the most variability in the BTB prevalence and quasi-eradication within the focal herd. Vaccination rate and the transmission coefficient were the second and third most important parameters of the sensitivity analyses. Further analyses of the model without dispersal suggest that the amount of vaccination necessary for quasi-eradication (i.e. prevalence 70% of the calf population would have to be vaccinated every year to reduce the prevalence to less than 1%. If the half-life of the vaccine is less than 5 years, even vaccinating every calf for 50 years may not eradicate BTB. Thus, although vaccination provides a means of controlling BTB prevalence it should be combined with other control measures if eradication is the objective.
Cross, P. C.; Getz, W. M.
Persistent buffalo mastitis caused by Staphylococcus spp. gives rise to economic losses and may be resistant to antimicrobial therapy. The aim of the present study was to determine resistance patterns and the presence of mecA, blaZ, and efflux pump in Staphylococcus spp. isolated from cases of mastitis in Brazilian buffalo herds. Susceptibility to antimicrobials was determined by the disk diffusion test and detection of the mecA and blaZ genes by polymerase chain reaction. The efflux pump screening test was performed by growing samples in Muller-Hinton agar containing ethidium bromide. The percentages for resistance to the drugs tested were: 71.8% to penicillin, 49.2% to amoxicillin, 65.8% to oxacillin, 62.3% to cefquinome, 44.7% to cephalonium, 45.2% to ciprofloxacin, 32.6% to enrofloxacin, 58.7% to erythromycin, 42.7% to florfenicol, 34.6% to gentamicin, 35.1% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 8.5% to tetracycline + neomycin + bacitracin, 43.2% to cephalothin, 38.1% to streptomycin, 58.7% to tetracycline, 31.6% to norfloxacin, 45.2% to ceftriaxone, 43.2% to nitrofurantoin, 57.7% to doxycycline, and 53.7% to cephalexin. Simultaneous resistance to 4 or more antimicrobial drug groups was observed in 112 isolates, using the mecA (11) and blaZ (79) genes, and efflux pump (47). It is concluded that Staphylococcus spp. isolates from cases of mastitis in Brazilian buffalo show varying levels of resistance to antibiotics, and caution should be exercised in choosing therapeutics in order to minimize the risk to public health. PMID:21908326
de Medeiros, Elizabeth S; França, Chirles A; Krewer, Carina da C; Peixoto, Renata de M; de Souza, Aldo F; Cavalcante, Marielly B; da Costa, Mateus M; Mota, Rinaldo A
Five plants are described that could be grown commercially under arid conditions. Once the most valuable component has been obtained from each plant (rubber from guayule; seed oil from jojoba, buffalo gourd, and bladderpod; and resin from gumweed), the remaining material holds potential for useful products as well as fuel. It is difficult to realize the full potential or arid land plants, however, because of the complexities of developing the necessary agricultural and industrial infrastructure simultaneously. To do so, multicompany efforts or cooperative efforts between government and the private sector will be required. 20 references.