Science.gov

Sample records for water by salt content

  1. Temperature resistance of Salmonella in low-water activity whey protein powder as influenced by salt content.

    PubMed

    Santillana Farakos, S M; Hicks, J W; Frank, J F

    2014-04-01

    Salmonella can survive in low-water activity (a(w)) foods for long periods of time. Water activity and the presence of solutes may affect its survival during heating. Low-a(w) products that contain sodium levels above 0.1 % (wt/wt) and that have been involved in major Salmonella outbreaks include peanut products and salty snacks. Reduced a(w) protects against thermal inactivation. There is conflicting information regarding the role of salt. The aim of this study was to determine whether NaCl influences the survival of Salmonella in low-a(w) whey protein powder independent of a(w) at 70 and 80 °C. Whey protein powders of differing NaCl concentrations (0, 8, and 17 % [wt/wt]) were equilibrated to target a(w) levels 0.23, 0.33, and 0.58. Powders were inoculated with Salmonella, vacuum sealed, and stored at 70 and 80 °C for 48 h. Cells were recovered on nonselective differential media. Survival data were fit with the Weibull model, and first decimal reduction times (?) (measured in minutes) and shape factor values (?) were estimated. The influence of temperature, a(w), and salinity on Weibull model parameters (? and ?) was analyzed using multiple linear regression. Results showed that a(w) significantly influenced the survival of Salmonella at both temperatures, increasing resistance at decreasing a(w). Sodium chloride did not provide additional protection or inactivation of Salmonella at any temperature beyond that attributed to a(w). The Weibull model described the survival kinetics of Salmonella well, with R2 adj and root mean square error values ranging from 0.59 to 0.97 and 0.27 to 1.07, respectively. Temperature and a(w) influenced ? values (P < 0.05), whereas no significant differences were found between 70 and 80 °C among the different salt concentrations (P > 0.05). ? values were not significantly influenced by temperature, a(w), or % NaCl (P > 0.05). This study indicates that information on salt content in food may not help improve predictions on the inactivation kinetics of Salmonella in low-a(w) protein systems within the a(w) levels and temperatures studied. PMID:24680075

  2. Aerosol thermodynamics of potassium salts, double salts, and water content near the eutectic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, James T.; Wexler, Anthony S.; Chan, Chak K.; Chan, Man N.

    2008-05-01

    Water uptake by hygroscopic constituents of atmospheric particles has implications for climate and health. This article focuses on three topics related to calculating particle water uptake. First, an electrodynamic balance (EDB) is used to measure water activity for supersaturated binary KNO3 and KCl solutions. The EDB measurements for KNO3 confirm earlier predictions, while those for KCl confirm earlier measurements. Second, our earlier theory for the variation in mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) with temperature (T) is extended to double salt systems. The MDRH(T) equation for double salt systems reduces to the earlier equation under some conditions, and predictions for two systems are in reasonable agreement with solubility-based calculations. Finally, an approximate treatment of water uptake in the MDRH region (i.e., near the eutectic) is evaluated, and a new approach is developed that accounts for particle composition. The new approach represents predictions of a benchmark model well and eliminates most of the error associated with the earlier method. Although simple treatments of water uptake near the eutectic may introduce error into equilibrium calculations, their use can sometimes be justified based on inherent limitations of aerosol representations in chemistry-transport models. Results of this study can be used to improve calculations of water content in atmospheric aerosol models.

  3. The effects of pre-salting methods on salt and water distribution of heavily salted cod, as analyzed by (1)H and (23)Na MRI, (23)Na NMR, low-field NMR and physicochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Gudjónsdóttir, María; Traoré, Amidou; Jónsson, Ásbjörn; Karlsdóttir, Magnea Gudrún; Arason, Sigurjón

    2015-12-01

    The effect of different pre-salting methods (brine injection with salt with/without polyphosphates, brining and pickling) on the water and salt distribution in dry salted Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) fillets was studied with proton and sodium NMR and MRI methods, supported by physicochemical analysis of salt and water content as well as water holding capacity. The study indicated that double head brine injection with salt and phosphates lead to the least heterogeneous water distribution, while pickle salting had the least heterogeneous salt distribution. Fillets from all treatments contained spots with unsaturated brine, increasing the risk of microbial denaturation of the fillets during storage. Since a homogeneous water and salt distribution was not achieved with the studied pre-salting methods, further optimizations of the salting process, including the pre-salting and dry salting steps, must be made in the future. PMID:26041245

  4. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Yuanyuan; Xiang, Feng; Wang, Hong E-mail: suo@seas.harvard.edu; Chen, Baohong; Zhou, Jinxiong; Suo, Zhigang E-mail: suo@seas.harvard.edu

    2014-10-13

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have been used as highly stretchable transparent electrodes in flexible electronics, but those hydrogels are easy to dry out due to water evaporation. Targeted, we try to enhance water retention capacity of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced water retention capacity in different level. Specially, polyacrylamide hydrogel containing high content of lithium chloride can retain over 70% of its initial water even in environment with relative humidity of only 10% RH. The excellent water retention capacities of these hydrogels will make more applications of hydrogels become possible.

  5. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    E-print Network

    Suo, Zhigang

    Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt 2014; published online 14 October 2014) Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced

  6. Optimizing the salt-induced activation of enzymes in organic solvents: Effects of lyophilization time and water content

    SciTech Connect

    Ru, M.T.; Reimer, J.A.; Clark, D.S.; Dordick, J.S.

    1999-04-20

    The addition of simple inorganic salts to aqueous enzyme solutions prior to lyophilization results in a dramatic activation of the dried powder in organic media relative to enzyme with no added salt. Activation of both the serine protease subtilisin Carlsberg and lipase from Mucor javanicus resulting from lyophilization in the presence of KCl was highly sensitive to the lyophilization time and water content of the sample. Specifically, for a preparation containing 98% (w/w) KCl, 1% (w/w) phosphate buffer, and 1% (w/w) enzyme, varying the lyophilization time showed a direct correlation between water content and activity up to an optimum, beyond which the activity decreased with increasing lyophilization time. The catalytic efficiency in hexane varied as much as 13-fold for subtilisin Carlsberg and 11-fold for lipase depending on the lyophilization time. This dependence was apparently a consequence of including the salt, as a similar result was not observed for the enzyme freeze-dried without KCl. In the case of subtilisin Carlsberg, the salt-induced optimum value of k{sub cat}/K{sub m} for transesterification in hexane was over 20,000-fold higher than that for salt-free enzyme, a substantial improvement over the previously reported enhancement of 3750-fold. As was found previously for pure enzyme, the salt-activated enzyme exhibited greatest activity when lyophilized from a solution of pH equal to the pH for optimal activity in water. The active-site content of the lyophilized enzyme samples also depended upon lyophilization time and inclusion of salt, with opposite trends in this dependence observed for the solvents hexane and tetrahydrofuran. Finally, substrate selectivity experiments suggested that mechanism(s) other than selective partitioning of substrate into the enzyme-salt matrix are responsible for salt-induced activation of enzymes in organic solvents.

  7. Laboratory testing of salt samples for water content/loss of weight on heating, thermal fracture, insoluble residue, and clay and bulk mineralogy: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, L.B.; Schwendiman, L.

    1987-07-01

    This report presents the results of laboratory testing on salt samples from the Palo Duro Basin of the Texas Panhandle. Laboratory specimens were tested to determine water content by loss of weight on heating, temperature of thermal fracture, the amount of insoluble residue, and clay and bulk mineralogy. 7 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Measurement of leaf relative water content by infrared reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, E. Raymond, Jr.; Rock, Barrett N.; Nobel, Park S.

    1987-01-01

    From basic considerations and Beer's law, a leaf water content index incorporating reflectances of wavelengths from 0.76 to 0.90 microns and from 1.55 to 1.75 microns was developed that relates leaf reflectance to leaf relative water content. For the leaf succulent, Agave deserti, the leaf water content index was not significantly different from the relative water content for either individual leaves or an entire plant. Also, the relative water contents of intact plants of Encelia farinosa and Hilaria rigida in the field were estimated by the leaf water content index; variations in the proportion of living to dead leaf area could cause large errors in the estimate of relative water content. Thus, the leaf water content index may be able to estimate average relative water content of canopies when TM4 and TM5 are measured at a known relative water content and fraction of dead leaf material.

  9. Texture, flavor, and sensory quality of buffalo milk Cheddar cheese as influenced by reducing sodium salt content.

    PubMed

    Murtaza, M A; Huma, N; Sameen, A; Murtaza, M S; Mahmood, S; Mueen-ud-Din, G; Meraj, A

    2014-11-01

    The adverse health effects of dietary sodium demand the production of cheese with reduced salt content. The study was aimed to assess the effect of reducing the level of sodium chloride on the texture, flavor, and sensory qualities of Cheddar cheese. Cheddar cheese was manufactured from buffalo milk standardized at 4% fat level by adding sodium chloride at 2.5, 2.0, 1.5, 1.0, and 0.5% (wt/wt of the curd obtained). Cheese samples were ripened at 6 to 8 °C for 180 d and analyzed for chemical composition after 1 wk; for texture and proteolysis after 1, 60, 120, and 180 d; and for volatile flavor compounds and sensory quality after 180 d of ripening. Decreasing the salt level significantly reduced the salt-in-moisture and pH and increased the moisture-in-nonfat-substances and water activity. Cheese hardness, toughness, and crumbliness decreased but proteolysis increased considerably on reducing the sodium content and during cheese ripening. Lowering the salt levels appreciably enhanced the concentration of volatile compounds associated with flavor but negatively affected the sensory perception. We concluded that salt level in cheese can be successfully reduced to a great extent if proteolysis and development of off-flavors resulted by the growth of starter and nonstarter bacteria can be controlled. PMID:25151874

  10. Determination of salt content in various depth of pork chop by electrical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltenecker, P.; Szöllösi, D.; Friedrich, L.; Vozáry, E.

    2013-04-01

    The salt concentration was determined inside of pork chop both by electrical impedance spectroscopy and by a conventional chemical method (according to Mohr). The pork chop in various depths (4 mm, 10 mm, 20 mm and 25 mm) was punctured with two stainless steel electrodes. The length of electrodes was 60 mm, and they were insulated along the length except 1 cm section on the end, so the measurement of impedance was realized in various depths. The magnitude and phase angle of impedance were measured with a HP 4284A and a HP 4285A LCR meters from 30 Hz up to 1 MHz and from 75 kHz up to 30 MHz frequency range, respectively at 1 V voltage. The distance between the electrodes was 1 cm. The impedance magnitude decreased as the salt concentration increased. The magnitude of open-short corrected impedance values at various frequencies (10 kHz, 100 kHz, 125 kHz, 1.1 MHz and 8 MHz) showed a good correlation with salt content determined by chemical procedure. The electrical impedance spectroscopy seems a prospective method for determination the salt concentration inside the meat in various depths during the curing procedure.

  11. Silicon enhanced salt tolerance by improving the root water uptake and decreasing the ion toxicity in cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiwen; Liu, Peng; Chen, Daoqian; Yin, Lina; Li, Hongbing; Deng, Xiping

    2015-01-01

    Although the effects of silicon application on enhancing plant salt tolerance have been widely investigated, the underlying mechanism has remained unclear. In this study, seedlings of cucumber, a medium silicon accumulator plant, grown in 0.83 mM silicon solution for 2 weeks were exposed to 65 mM NaCl solution for another 1 week. The dry weight and shoot/root ratio were reduced by salt stress, but silicon application significantly alleviated these decreases. The chlorophyll concentration, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and leaf water content were higher in plants treated with silicon than in untreated plants under salt stress conditions. Further investigation showed that salt stress decreased root hydraulic conductance (Lp), but that silicon application moderated this salt-induced decrease in Lp. The higher Lp in silicon-treated plants may account for the superior plant water balance. Moreover, silicon application significantly decreased Na+ concentration in the leaves while increasing K+ concentration. Simultaneously, both free and conjugated types of polyamines were maintained at high levels in silicon-treated plants, suggesting that polyamines may be involved in the ion toxicity. Our results indicate that silicon enhances the salt tolerance of cucumber through improving plant water balance by increasing the Lp and reducing Na+ content by increasing polyamine accumulation. PMID:26442072

  12. Glucocorticoids increase salt appetite by promoting water and sodium excretion

    PubMed Central

    Thunhorst, Robert L.; Beltz, Terry G.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2010-01-01

    Glucocorticoids [e.g., corticosterone and dexamethasone (Dex)], when administered systemically, greatly increase water drinking elicited by angiotensin and sodium ingestion in response to mineralocorticoids [e.g., aldosterone and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)], possibly by acting in the brain. In addition, glucocorticoids exert powerful renal actions that could influence water and sodium ingestion by promoting their excretion. To test this, we determined water and sodium intakes, excretions, and balances during injections of Dex and DOCA and their coadministration (DOCA+Dex) at doses commonly employed to stimulate ingestion of water and sodium. In animals having only water to drink, Dex treatment greatly increased water and sodium excretion without affecting water intake, thereby producing negative water and sodium balances. Similar results were observed when Dex was administered together with DOCA. In animals having water and saline solution (0.3 M NaCl) to drink, Dex treatment increased water and sodium excretion, had minimal effects on water and sodium intakes, and was associated with negative water and sodium balances. DOCA treatment progressively increased sodium ingestion, and both water and sodium intakes exceeded their urinary excretion, resulting in positive water and sodium balances. The combination of DOCA+Dex stimulated rapid, large increases in sodium ingestion and positive sodium balances. However, water excretion outpaced total fluid intake, resulting in large, negative water balances. Plasma volume increased during DOCA treatment and did not change during treatment with Dex or DOCA+Dex. We conclude that increased urinary excretion, especially of water, during glucocorticoid treatment may explain the increased ingestion of water and sodium that occurs during coadministration with mineralocorticoids. PMID:17596327

  13. Relative water content of Spruce needles determined by the leaf water content index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, E. Raymond, Jr.; Wong, Sam K. S.; Rock, Barrett N.

    1987-01-01

    Leaf relative water content (RWC) is defined as the volume of water in a leaf divided by the volume at full turgor. Using reflectance factors of wavelengths 0.83 micron and 1.6 microns, a Leaf Water Content Index (LWCI) was derived from the Lambert-Beer Law such that LWCI should equal RWC; LWCI was equal to RWC for Picea pungens, Picea rubens, Liquidambar styraciflua, and Quercus agrifolia. Algebraic manipulation shows that R(1.6)/R(0.83) termed the Moisture Stress Index (MSI), is near-linearly correlated to RWC and to the Equivalent Water Thickness (EWT). Five species tested so far had the same relationship between MSI and EWT, but EWT is not a measure of plant water status.

  14. Impact of Salt Purity on Interfacial Water Organization Revealed by Conventional and Heterodyne-Detected Vibrational Sum Frequency

    E-print Network

    Impact of Salt Purity on Interfacial Water Organization Revealed by Conventional and Heterodyne of the chosen salts and their solutions. This is true not only for the ACS grade salts but also vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) and heterodyne-detected VSFG (HD-VSFG) spectroscopy that salt

  15. Water purification using organic salts

    DOEpatents

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  16. Analysis of the juice and water losses in salted and unsalted pork samples heated in water bath. Consequences for the prediction of weight loss by transfer models.

    PubMed

    Bombrun, Laure; Gatellier, Philippe; Portanguen, Stéphane; Kondjoyan, Alain

    2015-01-01

    This study has analyzed the effect of different factors on variation of meat weight due to juice loss, and variation of water content of pork samples heated in a water bath. The weight loss (WL) was influenced by initial water content of raw meat which can be connected to meat pH, muscle type, and by pre-salting. WL was also influenced by sample thickness and by nature of the surrounding fluid. These effects were significant at 50°C and in thinner samples but decreased as meat temperature and sample thickness increased. WL showed no significant difference in response to prior freezing, applying a surface constraint during heating or varying meat salt content from 0.8 to 2.0%. The results were interpreted from literature knowledge on protein denaturation, contraction and, transport phenomena. Reliably predicting WL from water content variation during heating hinges on taking into account the loss of dry matter and the possible effects of meat pH, sample size or surrounding fluid. PMID:25443971

  17. Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste with High Salt Content by Colloidal Adsorbents - 13274

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Keun-Young; Chung, Dong-Yong; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Lee, Eil-Hee; Moon, Jei-Kwon

    2013-07-01

    Treatment processes have been fully developed for most of the liquid radioactive wastes generated during the operation of nuclear power plants. However, a process for radioactive liquid waste with high salt content, such as waste seawater generated from the unexpected accident at nuclear power station, has not been studied extensively. In this study, the adsorption efficiencies of cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) in radioactive liquid waste with high salt content were investigated using several types of zeolite with different particle sizes. Synthesized and commercial zeolites were used for the treatment of simulated seawater containing Cs and Sr, and the reaction kinetics and adsorption capacities of colloidal zeolites were compared with those of bulk zeolites. The experimental results demonstrated that the colloidal adsorbents showed fast adsorption kinetic and high binding capacity for Cs and Sr. Also, the colloidal zeolites could be successfully applied to the static adsorption condition, therefore, an economical benefit might be expected in an actual processes where stirring is not achievable. (authors)

  18. Exceptionally fast water desalination at complete salt rejection by pristine graphyne monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Minmin; Qiu, Hu; Guo, Wanlin

    2013-12-01

    Desalination that produces clean freshwater from seawater holds the promise of solving the global water shortage for drinking, agriculture and industry. However, conventional desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis and thermal distillation involve large amounts of energy consumption, and the semipermeable membranes widely used in reverse osmosis face the challenge to provide a high throughput at high salt rejection. Here we find by comprehensive molecular dynamics simulations and first principles modeling that pristine graphyne, one of the graphene-like one-atom-thick carbon allotropes, can achieve 100% rejection of nearly all ions in seawater including Na+, Cl-, Mg2+, K+ and Ca2+, at an exceptionally high water permeability about two orders of magnitude higher than those for commercial state-of-the-art reverse osmosis membranes at a salt rejection of ˜98.5%. This complete ion rejection by graphyne, independent of the salt concentration and the operating pressure, is revealed to be originated from the significantly higher energy barriers for ions than for water. This intrinsic specialty of graphyne should provide a new possibility for the efforts to alleviate the global shortage of freshwater and other environmental problems.

  19. Monitoring soil water content by vertical temperature variations.

    PubMed

    Bechkit, Mohamed Amine; Flageul, Sébastien; Guerin, Roger; Tabbagh, Alain

    2014-01-01

    The availability of high sensitivity temperature sensors (0.001 K sensitivity platinum resistors), which can be positioned at intervals of a few centimeters along a vertical profile in the unsaturated zone, allows short-term in situ determinations-one day or even less-of the thermal diffusivity. The development of high data storage capabilities also makes this possible over long periods and the relative variations in thermal diffusivity allow the monitoring of the variations in water content. The processing of temperature measurements recorded at different depths is achieved by solving the heat equation, using the finite elements method, with both conductive and convective heat transfers. A first set of measurements has allowed this approach to be validated. Water content variations derived from thermal diffusivity values are in excellent agreement with TDR measurements carried out on the experimental site at Boissy-le-Châtel (Seine et Marne, France). PMID:23834312

  20. Salt, Water, and Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nathan J.

    Good nutrition for athletes demands plenty of water, since water is essential to such vital functions as muscle reactions. Dehydration can result from jet travel as well as from exercise and heat, making it a danger to traveling athletic teams. To avoid dehydration, water needs should be monitored by frequent weighing, and a clean water supply…

  1. Water release and mechanical failure in heated geologic salt

    SciTech Connect

    Hohlfelder, J.J.; Beattie, A.G.; Shefelbine, H.C.

    1982-02-01

    The rate of water release and the acoustic emission rate were measured in heated specimens of geologic salt. These measurements show that changes in thermal power applied to the salt cause increased acoustic emission from the salt. The acoustic emission is caused by the salt's cracking. The salt's cracking enhances its prompt release of water.

  2. Chemosensory function of salt and water transport by the amphibian skin.

    PubMed

    Hillyard, Stanley D; Viborg, A; Nagai, T; Hoff, K vS

    2007-09-01

    Solute and water transport mechanisms of anuran skin mediate chemosensory functions that permit evaluation of ionic and osmotic properties of hydration sources in a manner similar to taste receptors in the mammalian tongue. Histochemical observations demonstrated apparent connections between spinal nerve endings and epithelial cells of the skin and we used neural and behavioral responses as measures of coupling between transport and chemosensation. The inhibition of transcellular Na+ transport by amiloride partially reduced the neural response and the avoidance of hyperosmotic NaCl but not KCl solutions. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) reduced the neural response to hyperosmotic salt solutions, suggesting a chemosensory role for vanilloid receptors in the skin. Avoidance of hyperosmotic salt solutions was reduced by impermeant anions suggesting paracellular conductance is important for chemosensation. The effects of blocking the transcellular and paracellular pathways was additive but did not eliminate the avoidance of osmotically unfavorable solutions by dehydrated toads. The timing of the neural response to deionized water was similar to the onset of water absorption behavior and increased blood flow to the pelvic skin. Water absorption from 50 mM NaCl was greater than from deionized water when toads were fully immersed, but not when contact was limited to the ventral surface. PMID:17267254

  3. Determination of alkyllead salts in water and whole eggs by capillary column gas chromatography with electron capture detection

    SciTech Connect

    Forsyth, D.S.; Marshall, W.D.

    1983-11-01

    Alkyllead salts (R/sub 3/Pb/sup +/ and R/sub 2/Pb/sup 2 +/, R = Methyl or Ethyl) are recovered from water or whole eggs by complexometric extraction with dithizone. The dithizonates are phenylated and speciated by capillary column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The method is sensitive to low parts per billion levels of lead salts in 2.5 g egg homogenate. At these levels methyllead salts (but not ethyllead salts) interact strongly with the sample matrix. Treatment of the matrix with lipases and proteases releases them. 4 figures, 3 tables.

  4. [Determination of trace lead in water samples and salt samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after cloud point extraction].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Luo, Wen-Hong; Li, Hui

    2006-07-01

    A method was developed for the determination of trace lead in water samples and salt samples by GFAAS after cloud point extraction. The parameters of extraction system such as pH, the concentrations of the extractant and the surfactant, and the time for cloud point extraction were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits of lead were 0.000 5 microg x g(-1) for salt, and 0.01 microg x L(-1) for water, respectively. The proposed method was applied to the determination of lead in water samples and salt samples, and satisfactory results were obtained. PMID:17020058

  5. Separation of inorganic salts from supercritical water by cross-flow microfiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Goemans, M.G.E.; Li, L.; Gloyna, E.F.

    1995-04-01

    A cross-flow microfilter capable of operating at elevated temperatures and pressures was evaluated for its ability to remove inorganic salts from supercritical water (SCW). The separation characteristics of molten sodium nitrate were investigated. The overall performance of the cross-flow microfilter and the effects of process variables on the separation efficiency were evaluated. Separation efficiencies up to 85% were observed. An empirical model was developed for the prediction of the filtrate salt concentration and the fluidized cake resistance as a function of the salt solubility and salt flux to the filter. Physical principles governing the separation process were defined.

  6. 46 CFR 45.77 - Salt water freeboard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Salt water freeboard. 45.77 Section 45.77 Shipping COAST... Salt water freeboard. (a) The salt water addition in inches to freeboard applicable to each fresh water mark is obtained by the formula: Addition=?/41T where: ?=displacement in fresh water, in tons of...

  7. 46 CFR 45.77 - Salt water freeboard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Salt water freeboard. 45.77 Section 45.77 Shipping COAST... Salt water freeboard. (a) The salt water addition in inches to freeboard applicable to each fresh water mark is obtained by the formula: Addition=?/41T where: ?=displacement in fresh water, in tons of...

  8. 46 CFR 45.77 - Salt water freeboard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Salt water freeboard. 45.77 Section 45.77 Shipping COAST... Salt water freeboard. (a) The salt water addition in inches to freeboard applicable to each fresh water mark is obtained by the formula: Addition=?/41T where: ?=displacement in fresh water, in tons of...

  9. 46 CFR 45.77 - Salt water freeboard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Salt water freeboard. 45.77 Section 45.77 Shipping COAST... Salt water freeboard. (a) The salt water addition in inches to freeboard applicable to each fresh water mark is obtained by the formula: Addition=?/41T where: ?=displacement in fresh water, in tons of...

  10. Surface and ground water quality in a restored urban stream affected by road salts

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2001 research began in Minebank Run, MD to examine the impact of restoration on water quality. Our research area was to determine if road salts in the surface and ground waters are detrimental to the stream channel restoration. The upstream reach (UP), above the Baltimore I-...

  11. Weakening of rock salt by water during long-term creep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urai, Janos L.; Spiers, Christopher J.; Zwart, Hendrik J.; Lister, Gordon S.

    1986-12-01

    The rheological properties of rock salt are of fundamental importance in predicting the long-term evolution of salt-based radioactive waste repositories and strategic storage caverns, and in modelling the formation of salt diapirs and associated oil traps1,2. The short-term, high-stress rheology of rock salt is well known from laboratory experiments; however, extrapolation to appropriately low stresses fails to predict the rapid flow seen in certain natural structures. Furthermore, experiments have failed to reproduce the recrystallized microstructure of naturally deformed salt. Here we report experiments indicating that the above discrepancies can be explained by taking into account the influence of trace amounts of brine. Trace brine is always present in natural salt but sometimes escapes during experiments. Our tests on dry dilated salt show more or less conventional dislocation creep behaviour, but brine-bearing samples show marked weakening at low strain rates. This is associated with dynamic recrystallization and a change of deformation mechanism to solution transfer creep. Because natural rock salt always contains some brine, these results cast substantial doubt on the validity of presently accepted dislocation creep laws for predicting the long-term rheological behaviour of salt in nature.

  12. 46 CFR 45.77 - Salt water freeboard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Salt water freeboard. 45.77 Section 45.77 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Freeboards § 45.77 Salt water freeboard. (a) The salt water addition in inches to freeboard applicable to each fresh water mark is obtained by the formula:...

  13. 46 CFR 45.77 - Salt water freeboard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Salt water freeboard. 45.77 Section...Freeboards § 45.77 Salt water freeboard. (a) The salt water addition in inches to freeboard applicable to each fresh water mark is obtained by the...

  14. 46 CFR 45.77 - Salt water freeboard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Salt water freeboard. 45.77 Section...Freeboards § 45.77 Salt water freeboard. (a) The salt water addition in inches to freeboard applicable to each fresh water mark is obtained by the...

  15. Water Uptake by Mars Salt Analogs: An Investigation of Stable Aqueous Solutions Using Raman Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuding, Danielle L.

    Liquid water processes that may occur on the surface and near-subsurface of Mars have important implications for the present-day water cycle, habitability, and planetary protection policies. The presence of salts on Mars plays a role in surface-atmosphere interactions as salts enhance the soil's ability to retain water. This thesis explores the phase transitions of water upon interaction with Mars relevant salt analogs. Water uptake and loss properties of a single and complex Mars analog are examined using a Raman microscope equipped with an environmental cell. The effect of the hygroscopic salts on bacterial spores was evaluated with a focus on potential terrestrial contamination on outbound spacecraft and its influence on planetary protection concerns. Calcium perchlorate (Ca(ClO4)2) is a highly deliquescent salt that may exist on the surface of present-day Mars. Here, we quantify the deliquescent relative humidity (DRH) and efflorescent relative humidity (ERH) of Ca(ClO4)2 as a function of temperature (223 K to 273 K) to elucidate its behavior on the surface of Mars. Mars relevant temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions were simulated and deliquescence (solid to aqueous) and efflorescence (aqueous to solid) phase transitions of Ca(ClO4)2 were characterized. Experimental DRH values were compared to a thermodynamic model for three hydration states of Ca(ClO 4)2. Calcium perchlorate was found to supersaturate, with lower ERH values than DRH values. Additionally, we conducted a 17-hour experiment to simulate a subsurface relative humidity and temperature diurnal cycle. This demonstrated that aqueous Ca(ClO4)2 solutions can persist without efflorescing for the majority of a martian sol, up to 17 hours under Mars temperature heating rates and RH conditions. Applying these experimental results to martian surface and subsurface heat and mass transfer models, we find that aqueous Ca(ClO4)2 solutions could persist for most of the martian sol under present-day conditions. To investigate complex brine mixtures, a salt analog, deemed 'Instant Mars,' was developed to closely match the individual cation and anion concentrations as reported by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory instrument at the Phoenix landing site. 'Instant Mars' was developed to fully encompass and closely replicate correct concentrations of magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, perchlorate, chloride, and sulfate ions. Here we use two separate techniques, Raman microscopy and particle levitation, to study the water uptake and loss properties of individual Instant Mars analog particles. Raman microscope experiments reveal that Instant Mars particles can form stable, aqueous solutions at 56 +/- 5% RH at 243 K and persist as a metastable, aqueous solution down to 13 +/- 5% RH. The results presented in this thesis demonstrate that a salt analog that closely replicates in-situ measurements from the Phoenix landing site can take up water vapor from the surrounding environment and transition into a stable, aqueous solution. Furthermore, this aqueous Instant Mars solution can persist as a metastable, supersaturated solution in RH conditions much lower than the deliquescent RH. Finally, laboratory experiments presented here examine the interaction of B. subtilis spores (B-168) with liquid water in Mars relevant temperatures and RH conditions. In addition, Ca(ClO4)2 was mixed with the B. subtilis spores and exposed to the same diurnal cycle conditions to quantify the effects of Ca(ClO4)2 on the spores. A combination of Raman microscopy and an environmental cell allows us to visually and spectrally analyze the changes of the individual B. subtilis spores and Ca(ClO4)2 mixtures as they experience present-day martian diurnal cycle conditions. Results suggest that B-168 spores can survive the arid conditions and martian temperatures, even when exposed to Ca(ClO 4)2 in the crystalline or aqueous phase. The extreme hygroscopic nature of Ca(ClO4)2 allows for direct interaction of B. subtilis spores with liquid water. The results impact the understanding of planetary protectio

  16. Biased Monitoring of Fresh Water-Salt Water Mixing Zone in Coastal Aquifers

    E-print Network

    Gvirtzman, Haim

    Biased Monitoring of Fresh Water-Salt Water Mixing Zone in Coastal Aquifers by Eyal Shalev1, Ariel water-salt water mixing zone in the coastal aquifer of Israel are installed with 10 to 50 m long screens in the aniso- tropic case. In the aquifer, the fresh water-salt water mixing zone fluctuations are dampened

  17. Hydrogen production from salt water by Marine blue green algae and solar radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitsui, A.; Rosner, D.; Kumazawa, S.; Barciela, S.; Phlips, E.

    1985-01-01

    Two marine bluegreen algae, Oscillatoria sp. Miami BG 7 and Synechococcus sp Miami 041511 have been selected as the result of over 10 years continuous and intensive effort of isolation, growth examination, and the screening of hydrogen photoproduction capability in this laboratory. Both strains photoproduced hydrogen for several days at high rates and a quantity of hydrogen was accumulated in a closed vessel. Overall hydrogen donor substance of the hydrogen photoproduction was found to be salt water. Using strain Miami BG 7, a two step method of hydrogen photoproduction from salt water was successfully developed and this was recycled several times over a one month period using both free cells and immobilized cells in both indoor and outdoor under natural sunlight. According to these experiments, a prototype floating hydrogen production system was designed for further development of the biosolar hydrogen production system.

  18. A SCREENING ASSESSMENT OF THE RELATIVE VULNERABILITY OF COASTAL WATER SUPPLIES TO SALT WATER INTRUSION CAUSED BY SEA LEVEL RISE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sea levels have risen from four to eight inches in the 20th century, and model projections suggest an additional rise of 8 to 15 inches is possible during the 21st century. Rising sea levels can increase the upstream extent of salt water influence in coastal aquifers. In coasta...

  19. Effects of storage temperature on tyramine production by Enterococcus faecalis R612Z1 in water-boiled salted ducks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Du, Lihui; Wu, Haihong; Wang, Daoying; Zhu, Yongzhi; Geng, Zhiming; Zhang, Muhan; Xu, Weimin

    2014-10-01

    Tyramine production by Enterococcus faecalis R612Z1 in water-boiled salted ducks was evaluated during storage at different temperatures. The results showed that E. faecalis R612Z1 could produce tyramine in meat samples when the storage temperature was no less than 4°C. The E. faecalis R612Z1 counts of the meat samples reached 10(8) CFU/g on day 7 at 4°C and on day 4 at 10°C. However, the tyramine content of the meat samples stored at 10°C increased to 23.73 ?g/g (on day 10), which was greater than the level in the samples stored at 4°C (7.56 ?g/g). Reverse transcription quantitative PCR detection of the expression level of the tyrDC gene in E. faecalis R612Z1 in the meat samples revealed no significant changes at different storage temperatures. Thus, the changes in tyramine production of E. faecalis R612Z1 may be due to the different enzymatic activities at different storage temperatures. PMID:25285502

  20. Salt in Dutchess Co. Waters Stuart Findlay

    E-print Network

    Berkowitz, Alan R.

    or Groundwater? STREAM · Road salt biggest source ­ others? #12;SOIL CORES HOLD Cl LONGER THAN WATER KincaidSalt in Dutchess Co. Waters Stuart Findlay Vicky Kelly Where are we now? Compared to what? Where be increasing · What else is coming along? #12;Scope for Action · Reduced Salt is in Everyone's Interest

  1. Measuring Snow Water Content

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS hydrologic technician Jim Caldwell uses an aluminum tube and scale to measure snow depth, snow water content and snow density as part of the Maine Cooperative Snow Survey. This survey is conducted throughout Maine in the spring to aid in the evaluation of flood potential by the Maine River Flow...

  2. Soil water depletion by oak trees and the influence of root water uptake on the moisture content spatial statistics

    E-print Network

    Oren, Ram

    Soil water depletion by oak trees and the influence of root water uptake on the moisture content-diameter closed top chamber using a three-dimensional measurement grid of soil moisture and pressure and moisture content spatial perturbations, is comparable to the contribution from soil hydraulic properties

  3. Investigation of iodine concentration in salt, water and soil along the coast of Zhejiang, China*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ying-li; Wang, Ning-jian; Zhu, Lan; Wang, Guo-xing; Wu, Hui; Kuang, Lin; Zhu, Wen-ming

    2005-01-01

    Objective: We aim to describe the environment iodine concentration in salt, water and soil along Zhejiang Province coast in the China foreland. It will be helpful for us to judge whether this area is insufficient in iodine and universal iodized salt is necessary or not. Methods: We collected iodized salt samples, drinking water samples (tap water in the towns, and well water or spring water in the villages), water samples from different sources (ditches, lakes, rivers) and soil samples through random sampling in June, 2005. Salt, water and soil iodine was detected by arsenic-cerium redox method. Statistical analysis was expressed as mean±SEM by Windows SPSS 13.0. Results: (1) The iodine concentration in salt was 27.9±4.33 mg/kg (n=108). (2) Seventy-five water samples were collected. The water iodine value was 0.6~84.8 ?g/L (mean of 11.66 ?g/L). The watershed along the Qiantang River has significantly higher iodine content than the water in Lin’an in mountain area (P<0.01). The iodine content and mean iodine content of tap water, well or spring water and natural water sources were 4.30±2.43 ?g/L (n=34), 23.59±27.74 ?g/L (n=19) and 12.72±10.72 ?g/L (n=22) respectively. This indicated that among environmental water sources, the ditch iodine content was the highest with river water iodine being the lowest (P<0.01). (3) Soil iodine value was 0.11~2.93 mg/kg (mean of 1.32 mg/kg). Though there was no statistical difference of soil iodine in different districts (P=0.131), soil iodine content correlated positively with water iodine content. Conclusion: Iodine concentration in salt accords with national policy of adding iodine in salt. Foreland has more iodine in water than mountain area. The data reflected that water and soil iodine in foreland area was not high, which suggests universal iodized salt should be necessary. Environment iodine has relatively close association with pollution. PMID:16358379

  4. ORGANIC CONTENT OF LAKE WATER By EDWARD A. BIRGE and CHANCEY JUDAY

    E-print Network

    ORGANIC CONTENT OF LAKE WATER .:I- By EDWARD A. BIRGE and CHANCEY JUDAY Wisconsin Geological of several investigations on the quantity and kinds 'of organic matter found in lake water. In these and 2 rivers. It shows the total amount of organic matter con- tained in the water and gives some idea

  5. Understanding the bias between moisture content by oven drying and water content by Karl Fischer titration at moisture equilibrium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple causes of the difference between equilibrium moisture and water content have been found. The errors or biases were traced to the oven drying procedure to determine moisture content. The present paper explains the nature of the biases in oven drying and how it is possible to suppress one ...

  6. Effectiveness of highway-drainage systems in preventing contamination of ground water by road salt, Route 25, southeastern Massachusetts; description of study area, data collection programs, and methodology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, P.E.; Armstrong, D.S.; Granato, G.E.; Stone, V.J.; Smith, K.P.; Provencher, P.L.

    1996-01-01

    Four test sites along a 7-mile section of Route 25 in southeastern Massachusetts, each representing a specific highway-drainage system, were instrumented to determine the effectiveness of the drainage systems in preventing contamination of ground water by road salt. One of the systems discharges highway runoff onsite through local drainpipes. The other systems use trunkline drainpipes through which runoff from highway surfaces, shoulders, and median strips is diverted and discharged into either a local stream or a coastal waterway. Route 25 was completed and opened to traffic in the summer of 1987. Road salt was first applied to the highway in the winter of 1987-88. The study area is on a thick outwash plain composed primarily of sand and gravel. Water-table depths range from 15 to 60 feet below land surface at the four test sites. Ground-water flow is in a general southerly direction, approximately perpendicular to the highway. Streamflow in the study area is controlled primarily by ground-water discharge. Background concentrations of dissolved chloride, sodium, and calcium-the primary constituents of road salt-are similar in ground water and surface water and range from 5 to 20, 5 to 10, and 1 to 5 milligrams per liter, respectively. Data-collection programs were developed for monitoring the application of road salt to the highway, the quantity of road-salt water entering the ground water, diverted through the highway-drainage systems, and entering a local stream. The Massachusetts Highway Department monitored road salt applied to the highway and reported these data to the U.S. Geological Survey. The U.S. Geological Survey designed and operated the ground-water, highway- drainage, and surface-water data-collection programs. A road-salt budget will be calculated for each test site so that the effectiveness of the different highway-drainage systems in preventing contamination of ground water by road salt can be determined.

  7. The water ow regime is characterized by the water ux vector q[m=s] and the water content [m3=m3] satisfying the conservation equation

    E-print Network

    #12;The water ow regime is characterized by the water ux vector q[m=s] and the water content [m3 compared to the water ow, such that a quasi- stationary approach is feasible, describing the reaction. Due to the injection of water at @ " the normal mass ux is given as a convective ux

  8. Water content determination of superdisintegrants by means of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Szakonyi, G; Zelkó, R

    2012-04-01

    Water contents of superdisintegrant pharmaceutical excipients were determined by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy using simple linear regression. Water contents of the investigated three common superdisintegrants (crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium, sodium starch glycolate) varied over a wide range (0-24%, w/w). In the case of crospovidone three different samples from two manufacturers were examined in order to study the effects of different grades on the calibration curves. Water content determinations were based on strong absorption of water between 3700 and 2800 cm?¹, other spectral changes associated with the different compaction of samples on the ATR crystal using the same pressure were followed by the infrared region between 1510 and 1050 cm?¹. The calibration curves were constructed using the ratio of absorbance intensities in the two investigated regions. Using appropriate baseline correction the linearity of the calibration curves was maintained over the entire investigated water content regions and the effect of particle size on the calibration was not significant in the case of crospovidones from the same manufacturer. The described method enables the water content determination of powdered hygroscopic materials containing homogeneously distributed water. PMID:22361662

  9. Improvement of water use efficiency in rice by expression of HARDY, an Arabidopsis drought and salt tolerance gene.

    PubMed

    Karaba, Aarati; Dixit, Shital; Greco, Raffaella; Aharoni, Asaph; Trijatmiko, Kurniawan R; Marsch-Martinez, Nayelli; Krishnan, Arjun; Nataraja, Karaba N; Udayakumar, Makarla; Pereira, Andy

    2007-09-25

    Freshwater is a limited and dwindling global resource; therefore, efficient water use is required for food crops that have high water demands, such as rice, or for the production of sustainable energy biomass. We show here that expression of the Arabidopsis HARDY (HRD) gene in rice improves water use efficiency, the ratio of biomass produced to the water used, by enhancing photosynthetic assimilation and reducing transpiration. These drought-tolerant, low-water-consuming rice plants exhibit increased shoot biomass under well irrigated conditions and an adaptive increase in root biomass under drought stress. The HRD gene, an AP2/ERF-like transcription factor, identified by a gain-of-function Arabidopsis mutant hrd-D having roots with enhanced strength, branching, and cortical cells, exhibits drought resistance and salt tolerance, accompanied by an enhancement in the expression of abiotic stress associated genes. HRD overexpression in Arabidopsis produces thicker leaves with more chloroplast-bearing mesophyll cells, and in rice, there is an increase in leaf biomass and bundle sheath cells that probably contributes to the enhanced photosynthesis assimilation and efficiency. The results exemplify application of a gene identified from the model plant Arabidopsis for the improvement of water use efficiency coincident with drought resistance in the crop plant rice. PMID:17881564

  10. Ion specificity at a low salt concentration in water-methanol mixtures exemplified by a growth of polyelectrolyte multilayer.

    PubMed

    Long, Yunchao; Wang, Tao; Liu, Lvdan; Liu, Guangming; Zhang, Guangzhao

    2013-03-19

    By use of a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), we have investigated the specific ion effect on the growth of poly(sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonate)/poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) multilayer at a salt concentration as low as 2.0 mM in water-methanol mixtures. QCM-D results demonstrate that specific ion effect can be observed in methanol and water-methanol mixtures though it is negligible in water. Moreover, the specific ion effect is amplified as the molar fraction of methanol (xM) increases from 0% to 75% but is weakened again with the further increase of xM from 75% to 100%. Nuclear magnetic resonance measurements reveal that the counterion-polyelectrolyte segment interactions may not account for the observed ion specificity. By extending the Collins' concept of matching water affinities to methanol and water-methanol mixtures, we suggest that the ion-solvent interactions and the resulted counterion-charged group interactions are responsible for the occurrence of the specific ion effect. The conductivity measurements indicate that water and methanol molecules may form complexes, and the change of relative proportion of complexes with the xM causes the amplification or weakening of the specific ion effect. PMID:23425248

  11. Inhibition of peptide acylation in PLGA microspheres with water-soluble divalent cationic salts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Sophocleous, Andreas M; Schwendeman, Steven P

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To test the potential of water-soluble divalent cationic salts to inhibit acylation of octreotide encapsulated in poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-star (PLGA) microspheres. Methods The divalent cationic salts, calcium chloride and manganese chloride, previously shown to disrupt peptide sorption, were introduced in PLGA microspheres prepared by the double emulsion-solvent evaporation method. Peptide stability was monitored by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and identified by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) during microsphere degradation under physiological conditions for four weeks. Microsphere morphology and salt content were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), respectively. Results Addition of divalent cationic salts solely to the organic phase provided marginal acylation inhibition. However, upon addition of the salt inhibitors to both the primary emulsion and the outer water phase resulted in improved drug and salt encapsulation efficiency as well as significantly decreased salt leaching and octreotide acylation. After 28 days, the extent of acylation inhibition afforded by divalent cations was > 58% relative to 13 % for the NaCl control group. Conclusions Divalent cationic salts are suitable class of stabilizers of peptide acylation in PLGA microspheres and this study provides an important formulation approach to maximize stabilizer potency. PMID:19533307

  12. Dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in salt water environment by Corexit 9500A in the presence of natural coastal materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tansel, Berrin; Lee, Mengshan; Berbakov, Jillian; Tansel, Derya Z.; Koklonis, Urpiana

    2014-04-01

    Effectiveness of Corexit 9500A for dispersing Louisiana crude oil was evaluated in salt water solutions containing natural materials in relation to salinity and dispersant-to-oil ratio (DOR). Experimental results showed that both salinity and DOR had significant effects on dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in the presence of different natural materials. The natural materials added to the salt water solutions included sea sand (South Beach, Miami, Florida), red mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle), seaweed (Sargassum natans), and sea grass (Halodule wrightii). Dispersant effectiveness (amount of oil dispersed into the water) was reduced significantly with increasing salinity with the minimum effectiveness observed in the salinity range between 30 and 50 ppt in all aqueous samples containing natural materials. When significant amounts of floating oil were present, the partially submerged natural materials enhanced the transfer of oil into the water column, which improved the dispersion effectiveness. However, dispersant effectiveness was significantly reduced when the amount of floating oil was relatively small and could not be released back to the water column. Surface tension may not be an adequate parameter for monitoring the effectiveness of dispersants in salt water environment. When distilled water was used (i.e., zero salinity), surface tension was significantly reduced with increasing dispersant concentration. However, there was no clear trend in the surface tension of the salt water solutions (17-51 ppt) containing crude oil and natural materials with increasing dispersant concentration.

  13. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, F.S. Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA )

    1990-11-01

    In the hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO{sub 2}) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO{sub 2} so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer '' is answered experimentally.

  14. Measuring vegetation water content by looking at trees blowing in the wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooreman, Bouke; Hut, Rolf; van de Giesen, Nick; Selker, John; Steele-Dunne, Susan

    2013-04-01

    Satellite-based soil moisture measurements have shown a diurnal variation in soil water content in Ghana. Most likely this diurnal variation is due to variation of moisture content in vegetation, as was measured by Friesen et al. Understanding the specifics of this cycle and it's relation with radar backscatter would help improve the estimation of soil moisture from satellites as well as provide a new source of information: vegetation water content (ie. plant water stress) from satellites. To this end, a non-intrusive method is needed to measure the change in time of the water content of vegetation. In this research, we have measured the Eigen-frequency of trees using an accelerometer bolted in the tree trunk. The change in Eigen-frequency over time is related to the change in mass and stiffness which are depended on the water content of the tree. We looked at two driving forces for the tree-mass-spring system. Firstly, trees were pulled back and suddenly released. Eigen-frequencies were easily identified from the oscillation observed. Secondly, the wind was used as a driving force and Eigen-frequencies were estimated in the frequency domain.

  15. Determination of water content by TDR during the infiltration outflow column experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobotkova, M.; Snehota, M.; Klipa, V.

    2012-04-01

    Pore system of some soils may not become fully saturated during ponded infiltration due to air entrapment. Varying entrapped air content then determines quasi-saturated water content of soil and can strongly affect soil quasi-saturated hydraulic conductivity. This study shows changes of quasi-saturated volumetric water content in time measured by time domain reflectometry (TDR) during the infiltration outflow experiment conducted on medium sized soil column in the laboratory. Experiments were conducted on a packed sample of fine quartz sand and on undisturbed soil. The undisturbed soil sample (internal diameter 189 mm and 250 mm height) of sandy loam soil was collected at the experimental site Uhlirska (Jizera Mountains, Czech Republic). Recurrent ponded infiltration experiment, conducted on each sample, consisted of three infiltration runs. The same level of ponding was maintained during each infiltration run at the top of the sample. Water drained freely through the perforated plate at the bottom of the sample. First infiltration run was done into naturally dry soil while subsequent runs were conducted into wet soil. The degassed water was used for the third infiltration run. The apparent dielectric constants were monitored at depths 75, 125 and 175 mm bellow the sample surface using the 7.5 cm long TDR probes connected to Campbell Scientific TDR100 reflectometer via multiplexor. Volumetric water contents in each depth were calculated from apparent dielectric constants using Topp's equation. Additionally, the pulse of potassium bromide was applied repeatedly during the quasi-steady state of each infiltration run, while the bromide breakthrough was monitored both in the effluent (by ion selective electrode) and in the sample by TDR (as changes of electric conductivity). Experimental results showed that in case of homogenously packed sand the quasi-steady state flow rates and water contents were nearly the same during all three infiltration runs. The undisturbed sandy loam sample exhibited drop of the flow rates between the first and second infiltration run and a gradual recovery of flow rates and water contents during the third run. This supports the assumption that air that was trapped in the flow pathways when water infiltrated in wet soil was dissolved in degassed water during the third run. The TDR probes show the dynamics of the quasi-saturated water content changes. This research has been supported by GACR 103/08/1552.

  16. 46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section 45.37 Shipping... Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence... marks under § 45.77 for salt water; and (b) Be marked with the letters “FW” above the fresh water...

  17. 46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section 45.37 Shipping... Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence... marks under § 45.77 for salt water; and (b) Be marked with the letters “FW” above the fresh water...

  18. 46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section 45.37 Shipping... Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence... marks under § 45.77 for salt water; and (b) Be marked with the letters “FW” above the fresh water...

  19. 46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section 45.37 Shipping... Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence... marks under § 45.77 for salt water; and (b) Be marked with the letters “FW” above the fresh water...

  20. 46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section...Line Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence River must...marks under § 45.77 for salt water; and (b) Be marked with the letters “FW” above the fresh water marks and the...

  1. 46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section...Line Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence River must...marks under § 45.77 for salt water; and (b) Be marked with the letters “FW” above the fresh water marks and the...

  2. Temporal stability of soil water contents as affected by weather patterns: a simulation study.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temporal stability of soil water content (TS SWC) is a natural phenomenon that recently attracts attention and finds multiple applications. Large variations in the interannual and interseasonal TS SWC have been encountered among locations studied by various authors. The objective of this work was ...

  3. Domestic Material Content in Molten-Salt Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, Craig; Kurup, Parthiv; Akar, Sertac; Flores, Francisco

    2015-08-26

    This study lists material composition data for two concentrating solar power (CSP) plant designs: a molten-salt power tower and a hypothetical parabolic trough plant, both of which employ a molten salt for the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and thermal storage media. The two designs have equivalent generating and thermal energy storage capacities. The material content of the saltHTF trough plant was approximately 25% lower than a comparably sized conventional oil-HTF parabolic trough plant. The significant reduction in oil, salt, metal, and insulation mass by switching to a salt-HTF design is expected to reduce the capital cost and LCOE for the parabolic trough system.

  4. Assessing water salinity along River Limón and Caño San Miguel irrigation paleochannel (Maracaibo, Venezuela) as affected by the balance of soluble salts in alluvium soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Raquel; Moreno, Juan; Hermosilla, Daphne; Gascó, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The saline degradation of soils that are irrigated with brackish water is worrisome increasing worldwide, and it may further affect the salinity of fresh water in those streams flowing across. The problem that is caused by an increasing concentration of salts that are more soluble than gypsum depends on the quality of irrigation water, climatic aridity, and drainage limitations. All these conditions meet in the alluvium soils of River Limón basin that are crossed by Caño San Miguel irrigation paleochannel. River Limón's regulation by closing Manuelote and Tulé artificial reservoirs has diminished the input of water and sediments from flooding events, which exerted dilutive effects in the past. In addition, the balance of soluble salts in these soils has also registered further net accumulation during those extremely dry years happened before 2006, because the great dilution contribution of ombrogenic dammed water coming from rain has not been enough to compensate salts concentration generated by water evapotranspiration in those irrigated soils of the middle basin, particularly in the absence of superficial runoff and deep drainage. Considering those semi-arid climate conditions prevailing in the area (annual precipitation = 710 mm; potential evapotransporation = 2361 mm), it resulted that water analyses in River Limón showed a ten-fold increased maximum annual salinity concentration (March) along the stream; that is, an electric conductivity (Ce) of 0.37 dS•m-1 (at 25 °C) at Puente Carrasquero pumping station, where water for crop irrigation is subtracted, turns to 34.60 dS•m-1 (at 25 °C) at its base level in Puerto Mara, where it discharges to Lake Maracaibo. In addition, the quality of irrigation water from Caño San Miguel, which aggregates to those coming from River Limón at the pumping station located in Carrasquero just before running through the alluvium of this water stream, resulted pretty irregular. In short, it spanned form C1 to C4 soil salinization risk classes depending on the sampling location and time of the year. In short, the farther away the sampling point from the initial pumping location, the higher the concentration of salts is measured; and these are even ten-fold higher in March, that is, after the end of the dry season, just before new rain dissolves the generated salt efflorescence on the surrounding soil (maximum Ce=9740 dS/m at 25 °C). In conclusion, a balance of salts should be attached to the balance of water required to compensate crop evapotranspiration aiming to achieve a sustainable use of the agrosystem. This salts balance is assessed in terms of the quantity of water that is required to drain soil so that productivity would be retained.

  5. Nitrite toxicity of Litopenaeus vannamei in water containing low concentrations of sea salt or mixed salts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sowers, A.; Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.; Browdy, C.L.; Tomasso, J.R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The uptake, depuration and toxicity of environmental nitrite was characterized in Litopenaeus vannamei exposed in water containing low concentrations of artificial sea salt or mixed salts. In 2 g/L artificial sea salts, nitrite was concentrated in the hemolymph in a dose-dependent and rapid manner (steady-state in about 2 d). When exposed to nitrite in 2 g/L artificial sea salts for 4 d and then moved to a similar environment without added nitrite, complete depuration occurred within a day. Increasing salinity up to 10 g/L decreased uptake of environmental nitrite. Nitrite uptake in environments containing 2 g/L mixed salts (combination of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium chlorides) was similar to or lower than rates in 2 g/L artificial sea salt. Toxicity was inversely related to total dissolved salt and chloride concentrations and was highest in 2 g/L artificial sea salt (96-h medial lethal concentration = 8.4 mg/L nitrite-N). Animals that molted during the experiments did not appear to be more susceptible to nitrite than animals that did not molt. The shallow slope of the curve describing the relationship between toxicity and salinity suggests that management of nitrite toxicity in low-salinity shrimp ponds by addition of more salts may not be practical. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2004.

  6. Salicylic acid improves acclimation to salt stress by stimulating abscisic aldehyde oxidase activity and abscisic acid accumulation, and increases Na+ content in leaves without toxicity symptoms in Solanum lycopersicum L.

    PubMed

    Szepesi, Agnes; Csiszár, Jolán; Gémes, Katalin; Horváth, Edit; Horváth, Ferenc; Simon, Mária L; Tari, Irma

    2009-06-01

    Pre-treatment with 10(-4)M salicylic acid (SA) in hydroponic culture medium provided protection against salinity stress in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Rio Fuego). The effect of 10(-7) or 10(-4)M SA on the water status of plants was examined in relation to the biosynthesis and accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA) in order to reveal the role of SA in the subsequent response to salt stress. Both pre-treatments inhibited the K+(86Rb+) uptake of plants, reduced the K+ content of leaves, and caused a decrease in leaf water potential (psi(w)). Due to the changes in the cellular water status, SA triggered the accumulation of ABA. Since the decrease in psi(w) proved to be transient, the effect of SA on ABA synthesis may also develop via other mechanisms. In spite of osmotic adaptation, the application of 10(-4)M, but not 10(-7)M SA, led to prolonged ABA accumulation and to enhanced activity of aldehyde oxidase (AO1, EC.1.2.3.1.), an enzyme responsible for the conversion of ABA-aldehyde to ABA, both in root and leaf tissues. AO2-AO4 isoforms from the root extracts also exhibited increased activities. The fact that the activities of AO are significantly enhanced both in the leaves and roots of plants exposed to 10(-4)M SA, may indicate a positive feedback regulation of ABA synthesis by ABA in this system. Moreover, during a 100mM NaCl treatment, higher levels of free putrescine or spermine were found in these leaves or roots, respectively, than in the salt-stressed controls, suggesting that polyamines may be implicated in the protection response of the cells. As a result, Na+ could be transported to the leaf mesophyll cells without known symptoms of salt toxicity. PMID:19185387

  7. Iron clad wetlands: Soil iron-sulfur buffering determines coastal wetland response to salt water incursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoepfer, Valerie A.; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Burgin, Amy J.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal freshwater wetland chemistry is rapidly changing due to increased frequency of salt water incursion, a consequence of global change. Seasonal salt water incursion introduces sulfate, which microbially reduces to sulfide. Sulfide binds with reduced iron, producing iron sulfide (FeS), recognizable in wetland soils by its characteristic black color. The objective of this study is to document iron and sulfate reduction rates, as well as product formation (acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and chromium reducible sulfide (CRS)) in a coastal freshwater wetland undergoing seasonal salt water incursion. Understanding iron and sulfur cycling, as well as their reduction products, allows us to calculate the degree of sulfidization (DOS), from which we can estimate how long soil iron will buffer against chemical effects of sea level rise. We show that soil chloride, a direct indicator of the degree of incursion, best predicted iron and sulfate reduction rates. Correlations between soil chloride and iron or sulfur reduction rates were strongest in the surface layer (0-3 cm), indicative of surface water incursion, rather than groundwater intrusion at our site. The interaction between soil moisture and extractable chloride was significantly related to increased AVS, whereas increased soil chloride was a stronger predictor of CRS. The current DOS in this coastal plains wetland is very low, resulting from high soil iron content and relatively small degree of salt water incursion. However, with time and continuous salt water exposure, iron will bind with incoming sulfur, creating FeS complexes, and DOS will increase.

  8. Purple Salt and Tiny Drops of Water in Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    1999-12-01

    Some meteorites, especially those called carbonaceous chondrites, have been greatly affected by reaction with water on the asteroids in which they formed. These reactions, which took place during the first 10 million years of the Solar System's history, formed assorted water-bearing minerals, but nobody has found any of the water that caused the alteration. Nobody, that is, until now. Michael Zolensky and team of scientists from the Johnson Space Center in Houston and Virginia Tech (Blacksburg, Virginia) discovered strikingly purple sodium chloride (table salt) crystals in two meteorites. The salt contains tiny droplets of salt water (with some other elements dissolved in it). The salt is as old as the Solar System, so the water trapped inside the salt is also ancient. It might give us clues to the nature of the water that so pervasively altered carbonaceous chondrites and formed oceans on Europa and perhaps other icy satellites. However, how the salt got into the two meteorites and how it trapped the water remains a mystery - at least for now.

  9. Laboratory experiments of salt water intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crestani, Elena; Camporese, Matteo; Salandin, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The problem of saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers is dealt with by the proper setup of a sand-box device to develop laboratory experiments in a controlled environment. Saline intrusion is a problem of fundamental importance and affects the quality of both surface water and groundwater in coastal areas. In both cases the phenomenon may be linked to anthropogenic (construction of reservoirs, withdrawals, etc.) and/or natural (sea-level excursions, variability of river flows, etc.) changes. In recent years, the escalation of this problem has led to the development of specific projects and studies to identify possible countermeasures, typically consisting of underground barriers. Physical models are fundamental to study the saltwater intrusion problem, since they provide benchmarks for numerical model calibrations and for the evaluation of the effectiveness of solutions to contain the salt wedge. In order to study and describe the evolution of the salt wedge, the effectiveness of underground barriers, and the distance from the coast of a withdrawal that guarantees a continuous supply of fresh water, a physical model has been realized at the University of Padova to represent the terminal part of a coastal aquifer. It consists of a laboratory flume 500 cm long, 30 cm wide and 60 cm high, filled for an height of 45 cm with glass beads with a d50 of 0.6 mm and a uniformity coefficient d60/d10~= 1.5. The material is homogeneous and characterized by a porosity of about 0.37 and by an hydraulic conductivity of about 1.8×10-3 m/s. Upstream from the sand-box, a tank, continuously supplied by a pump, provides fresh water to recharge the aquifer, while the downstream tank, filled with salt water, simulates the sea. The volume of the downstream tank (~= 2 m3) is about five times the upstream one, so that density variations due to the incoming fresh water flow are negligible. The water level in the two tanks is continuously monitored by means of two level probes and is controlled by a couple of spillways placed in both the upstream and downstream tanks, ensuring a constant gradient during the tests. The flow rate spilled from the downstream tank is continuously measured so that it is possible to control the fulfillment of the stationary condition in the system. While we use food dye to mark saltwater to give an easy visual evidence of the salt wedge, the spatio-temporal evolution of the concentration is monitored during the experiment by using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). An electrode system specifically realized to be effective in the flume is used during the experiments to achieve electrical resistance measurements, later converted in concentrations through the calibration of a petrophysical law. The presentation describes the laboratory setup and the data achieved from the developed experiments compared with numerical simulations obtained by the SUTRA software.

  10. Resolving precipitation induced water content profiles by inversion of dispersive GPR data: A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangel, Adam R.; Moysey, Stephen M. J.; van der Kruk, Jan

    2015-06-01

    Surface-based ground-penetrating radar (GPR) measurements have significant potential for monitoring dynamic hydrologic processes at multiple scales in time and space. At early times during infiltration into a soil, the zone above the wetting front may act as a low-velocity waveguide that traps GPR waves, thereby causing dispersion and making interpretation of the data using standard methods difficult. In this work, we show that the dispersion is dependent upon the distribution of water within the waveguide, which is controlled by soil hydrologic properties. Simulations of infiltration were performed by varying the n-parameter of the Mualem-van Genuchten equation using HYDRUS-1D; the associated GPR data were simulated to evaluate the influence of dispersion. We observed a notable decrease in wave dispersion as the sharpness of the wetting front profile decreased. Given the sensitivity of the dispersion effect to the wetting front profile, we also evaluated whether the water content distribution can be determined through inversion of the dispersive GPR data. We found that a global grid search combined with the simplex algorithm was able to estimate the average water content when the wetted zone is divided into 2 layers. This approach was incapable, however, of representing the gradational nature of the water content distribution behind the wetting front. In contrast, the shuffled complex evolution algorithm was able to constrain a piece-wise linear function to closely match the shallow gradational water content profile. In both the layered and piece-wise linear case, the sensitivity of the dispersive data dropped sharply below the wetting front, which in this case was around 20 cm, i.e., twice the average wavelength, for a 900 MHz GPR survey. This study demonstrates that dispersive GPR data has significant potential for capturing the early-time dynamics of infiltration that cannot be obtained with standard GPR analysis approaches.

  11. Certification of the reference material of water content in water saturated 1-octanol by Karl Fischer coulometry, Karl Fischer volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haifeng; Ma, Kang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jia; Sun, Guohua; Li, Hongmei

    2012-10-15

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) of water content are widely used in the calibration and validation of Karl Fischer coulometry and volumetry. In this study, the water content of the water saturated 1-octanol (WSO) CRM was certified by Karl Fischer coulometry, volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (Q NMR). The water content recovery by coulometry was 99.76% with a diaphragm-less electrode and Coulomat AG anolyte. The relative bias between the coulometry and volumetry results was 0.06%. In Q NMR, the water content of WSO is traceable to the International System (SI) of units through the purity of internal standard. The relative bias of water content in WSO between Q NMR and volumetry was 0.50%. The consistency of results for these three independent methods improves the accuracy of the certification of the RM. The certified water content of the WSO CRM was 4.76% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.09%. PMID:23442697

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF CASEIN FILMS MADE BY PRESSURIZED CARBON DIOXIDE: SALT EFFECT ON WATER SOLUBILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Films made from casein, precipitated from skim milk using pressurized carbon dioxide (CO2), have been shown to exhibit unique properties such as water resistance in addition to the apparent environmental benefits that the process bears. To gain insights on the dominating molecular forces that give r...

  13. Characterizing and Exploring the Formation Mechanism of Salt Deposition by Reusing Advanced-softened, Silica-rich, Oilfield-produced Water (ASOW) in Superheated Steam Pipeline.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bin; Xu, Ying; Lin, Senmin; Dai, Xiaohu

    2015-01-01

    To dispose of large volumes of oilfield-produced water, an environmentally friendly method that reuses advanced-softened, silica-rich, oilfield-produced water (ASOW) as feedwater was implemented via a 10-month pilot-scale test in oilfield. However, salt deposition detrimental to the efficiency and security of steam injection system was generated in superheated steam pipeline. To evaluate the method, the characteristics and formation mechanism of the deposition were explored. The silicon content and total hardness of the ASOW were 272.20?mg/L and 0.018?mg/L, respectively. Morphology and composition of the deposition were determined by scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Na2Si2O5, Na2CO3 and trace silanes were identified in the deposition. In addition, the solubility of the deposition was about 99%, suggesting that it is very different from traditional scaling. The results of a simulation experiment and thermal analysis system (TGA and TG-FTIR) proved that Na2CO3 and Si(OH)4 (gas) are involved in the formation of Na2Si2O5, which is ascribed mainly to the temperature difference between the superheated steam and the pipe wall. These findings provide an important reference for improving the reuse of ASOW and reducing its deposition. PMID:26608736

  14. Characterizing and Exploring the Formation Mechanism of Salt Deposition by Reusing Advanced-softened, Silica-rich, Oilfield-produced Water (ASOW) in Superheated Steam Pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Bin; Xu, Ying; Lin, Senmin; Dai, Xiaohu

    2015-01-01

    To dispose of large volumes of oilfield-produced water, an environmentally friendly method that reuses advanced-softened, silica-rich, oilfield-produced water (ASOW) as feedwater was implemented via a 10-month pilot-scale test in oilfield. However, salt deposition detrimental to the efficiency and security of steam injection system was generated in superheated steam pipeline. To evaluate the method, the characteristics and formation mechanism of the deposition were explored. The silicon content and total hardness of the ASOW were 272.20?mg/L and 0.018?mg/L, respectively. Morphology and composition of the deposition were determined by scanning electron microscope–energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), inductively coupled plasma–mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Na2Si2O5, Na2CO3 and trace silanes were identified in the deposition. In addition, the solubility of the deposition was about 99%, suggesting that it is very different from traditional scaling. The results of a simulation experiment and thermal analysis system (TGA and TG-FTIR) proved that Na2CO3 and Si(OH)4 (gas) are involved in the formation of Na2Si2O5, which is ascribed mainly to the temperature difference between the superheated steam and the pipe wall. These findings provide an important reference for improving the reuse of ASOW and reducing its deposition. PMID:26608736

  15. Water in the Oceanic Lithosphere: Salt Lake Crater Xenoliths, Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, Anne H.; Bizimis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Water can be present in nominally anhydrous minerals of peridotites in the form of hydrogen bonded to structural oxygen. Such water in the oceanic upper mantle could have a significant effect on its physical and chemical properties. However, the water content of the MORB source has been inferred indirectly from the compositions of basalts. Direct determinations on abyssal peridotites are scarce because they have been heavily hydrothermally altered. Here we present the first water analyses of minerals from spinel peridotite xenoliths of Salt Lake Crater, Oahu, Hawaii, which are exceptionally fresh. These peridotites are thought to represent fragments of the Pacific oceanic lithosphere that was refertilized by alkalic Hawaiian melts. A few have unradiogenic Os and radiogenic Hf isotopes and may be fragments of an ancient (2 Ga) depleted and recycled lithosphere. Water contents in olivine (Ol), orthopyroxene (Opx), and clinopyroxene (Cpx) were determined by FTIR spectrometry. Preliminary H_{2}O contents show ranges of 8-10 ppm for Ol, 151-277 ppm for Opx, and 337-603 ppm for Cpx. Reconstructed bulk rock H_{2}O contents range from 88-131 ppm overlapping estimates for the MORB source. Water contents between Ol minerals of the same xenolith are heterogeneous and individual OH infrared bands vary within a mineral with lower 3230 cm^{-1} and higher 3650-3400 cm^{-1} band heights from core to edge. This observation suggests disturbance of the hydrogen in Ol likely occurring during xenolith entrainment to the surface. Pyroxene water contents are higher than most water contents in pyroxenes from continental peridotite xenoliths and higher than those of abyssal peridotites. Cpx water contents decrease with increasing degree of depletion (e.g. increasing Fo in Ol and Cr# in spinel) consistent with an incompatible behavior of water. However Cpx water contents also show a positive correlation with LREE/HREE ratios and LREE concentrations consistent with refertilization. Opx water contents increase with increasing degree of depletion and decrease with LREE/HREE ratios which is inconsistent with the incompatible behavior of H. Calculated water contents of melts in equilibrium with Cpx or Opx range from 1.4 to 3.8 wt % which is higher than that of all Hawaiian lavas. Calculated melts in equilibrium with Cpx and Opx have variable but mostly high H_{2}O/Ce ratios (194 to 1146) consistent with those of rejuvenated stage lavas from Niihau and the South Arch volcanic field, but unlike the drier shield building stage tholeiites. Whether the high water contents recorded in Salt Lake Crater xenoliths were acquired before and/or during interaction of the oceanic lithosphere with the Hawaiian plume will be discussed.

  16. Supporting Information to "Impact of Salt Purity on Interfacial Water Organization Revealed by Conventional and

    E-print Network

    grade stock RamanIntensity(10 4 arb.unit) Raman Shift (cm -1 ) a R 2 = 0.999 Concentration(M) Raman Intensity (arb.unit) Figure S1. (a) Raman spectra of 0.4 M, 0.7 M, 1.0 M, 1.3 M, 1.6 M Na2SO4, as well neat water VSFGIntensity(arb.unit) Wavenumber (cm -1 ) Figure S2. Conventional VSFG spectra in the CH

  17. Caffeine dimerization: effects of sugar, salts, and water structure.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Seishi

    2015-10-01

    Sugars and salts strongly affect the dimerization of caffeine in water. Such a change of dimerization, considered to be crucial for bitter taste suppression, has long been rationalized by the change of "water structure" induced by the additives; "kosmotropic" (water structure enhancing) salts and sugars promote dimerization, whereas "chaotropic" (water structure breaking) salts suppress dimerization. Based on statistical thermodynamics, here we challenge this consensus; we combine the rigorous Kirkwood-Buff theory of solution with the classical isodesmic model of caffeine association. Instead of the change of water structure, we show that the enhancement of caffeine dimerization is due to the exclusion of additives from caffeine, and that the weakening of dimerization is due to the binding of additives on caffeine. PMID:26222923

  18. Field Devices for Monitoring Soil Water Content

    E-print Network

    . Professor, Soil and Water Science Dept. Univ. of Florida for The Irrigation Water Management Program Team Devices for Monitoring Soil Water Content" by Rafael Muñoz-Carpena, Univ. of Florida, Bulletin 343SR-IWM-2 Field Devices for Monitoring Soil Water Content by Rafael Muñoz-Carpena1 , Sanjay Shukla1

  19. Exploring the use of Low-intensity Ultrasonics as a Tool for Assessing the Salt Content in Pork Meat Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Pérez, J. V.; de Prados, M.; Martínez-Escrivá, G.; González, R.; Mulet, A.; Benedito, J.

    Meat industry demands non-destructive techniques for the control of the salting process to achieve a homogeneous final salt content in salted meat products. The feasibility of using low-intensity ultrasound for characterizing the salting process of pork meat products was evaluated. The ultrasonic velocity (V) and time of flight (TF) were measured by through-transmission and pulse-echo methods, respectively, in salted meat products. Salting involved an increase of the V in meat muscles and a decrease of the time of flight in whole hams. Measuring the V before and after salting, the salt content could be estimated. Moreover, online monitoring of the salting process by computing the TF could be considered a reliable tool for quality control purposes.

  20. Rapid assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll content.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Present techniques of airborne chlorophyll measurement are discussed as an approach to water pollution assessment. The differential radiometer, the chlorophyll correlation radiometer, and an infrared radiometer for water temperature measurements are described as the key components of the equipment. Also covered are flight missions carried out to evaluate the capability of the chlorophyll correlation radiometer in measuring the chlorophyll content in water bodies with widely different levels of nutrients, such as fresh-water lakes of high and low eutrophic levels, marine waters of high and low productivity, and an estuary with a high sediment content. The feasibility and usefulness of these techniques are indicated.

  1. GmWRKY53, a water- and salt-inducible soybean gene for rapid dissection of regulatory elements in BY-2 cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Prateek; Rabara, Roel C.; Lin, Jun; Rushton, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Drought is the major cause of crop losses worldwide. Water stress-inducible promoters are important for understanding the mechanisms of water stress responses in crop plants. Here we utilized tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) Bright Yellow 2 (BY-2) cell system in presence of polyethylene glycol, salt and phytohormones. Extension of the system to 85 mM NaCl led to inducibility of up to 10-fold with the water stress and salt responsive soybean GmWRKY53 promoter. Upon ABA and JA treatment fold inducibility was up to 5-fold and 14-fold, respectively. Thus, we hypothesize that GmWRKY53 could be used as potential model candidate for dissecting drought regulatory elements as well as understanding crosstalk utilizing a rapid heterologous system of BY-2 culture. PMID:23511199

  2. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of drinking water salt deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soktoev, B. R.; Rikhvanov, L. P.; Matveenko, I. A.

    2015-11-01

    The article presents the research results on the features of element and mineral composition of salt deposits (limescale) formed in household conditions in heat exchanging equipment. The major part of limescale is represented by two species of calcium carbonate - calcite and aragonite. We have shown that high concentrations of chemical elements in the limescale promote the formation of their own mineral forms (sulphates, silicates, native forms) in salt deposits. Detecting such mineral formations suggests the salt deposits of drinking water to be a long-term storage media which can be used in the course of eco-geochemical and metallogenic studies.

  3. Hyperosmolarity drives hypertension and CKD--water and salt revisited.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Richard J; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Ishimoto, Takuji; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Wesseling, Catharina; Bankir, Lise; Sanchez-Lozada, Laura G

    2014-07-01

    An epidemic of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Mesoamerica is providing new insights into the mechanisms by which salt and water might drive hypertension and CKD. Increasingly, evidence suggests that recurrent dehydration and salt loss might be a mechanism that causes CKD, and experimental studies suggest a key role for increased plasma osmolarity in activating both intrarenal (polyol-fructokinase) and extrarenal (vasopressin) pathways that drive renal injury. Thus, we propose that water and salt might influence blood pressure and kidney disease through the timing and combination of their intake, which affect plasma osmolarity as well as intrarenal and extrarenal mechanisms of renal injury. The type of fluid intake might also be important, as fluids containing fructose can trigger activation of these pathways. Future studies should investigate the effects of salt, sugar and fluid intake on plasma osmolarity as a potential pathogenetic mechanism in renal injury and high blood pressure. PMID:24802066

  4. WATER, SALT AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of synchrotron based research for understanding the fate of contaminants in water, soil, and atmosphere is proving to be beneficial for scientists and regulators. Drawing the connection of a contaminated site to knowledge of metal speciation provides direct eviden...

  5. 46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section 45...LOAD LINES Load Line Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence River...

  6. 46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section 45...LOAD LINES Load Line Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence River...

  7. 46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section 45...LOAD LINES Load Line Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence River...

  8. Mobilization of arsenic, lead, and mercury under conditions of sea water intrusion and road deicing salt application.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongbing; Alexander, John; Gove, Brita; Koch, Manfred

    2015-09-01

    Water geochemistry data from complexly designed salt-solution injection experiments in the laboratory, coastal aquifers of Bangladesh and Italy, taken from the literature, and two salted watersheds of New Jersey, US were collected and analyzed to study the geochemical mechanisms that mobilize As, Pb, and Hg under varied salting conditions. Overall, increased NaCl-concentrations in aquifers and soil are found to increase the release of Pb and Hg into the water. Reducing environments and possible soil dispersion by hydrated Na(+) are found to lead to an increase of As-concentration in water. However, the application of a pure NaCl salt solution in the column injection experiment was found to release less As, Pb, and Hg initially from the soil and delay their concentration increase, when compared to the application of CaCl2 and NaCl mixed salts (at 6:4 weight ratio). The concentration correlation dendrogram statistical analyses of the experimental and field data suggest that the release of As, Hg, and Pb into groundwater and the soil solution depends not only on the salt level and content, but also on the redox condition, dissolved organic matter contents, competitiveness of other ions for exchange sites, and source minerals. With the ongoing over-exploration of coastal aquifers from increased pumping, continued sea-level rise, and increased winter deicing salt applications in salted watersheds of many inland regions, the results of this study will help understand the complex relation between the concentrations of As, Pb, and Hg and increased salt level in a coastal aquifer and in soils of a salted watershed. PMID:26210297

  9. Separation & Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, Carrie J.; Quach, Anh P.; Birnie, Dunbar P.; Ela, Wendell P.; Saez, Avelino E.; Zelinski, Brian J.; Smith, Harry D.; Smith, Gary Lynn L.

    2004-12-01

    Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing waste water residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy/rubber matrix for separating and encapsulating waste components from salt laden, arsenic contaminated, amorphous iron hydrate sludges. Such sludges are generated from conventional water purification precipitation/adsorption processes, used to convert aqueous brine streams to semi-solid waste streams, such as ion exchange/membrane separation, and from other precipitative heavy metal removal operations. In this study, epoxy and polystyrene butadiene (PSB) rubber emulsions are mixed together and then combined with a surrogate sludge. The surrogate sludge consists of amorphous iron hydrate with 1 part arsenic fixed to the surface of the hydrate per 10 parts iron mixed with sodium nitrate and chloride salts and water. The resulting emulsion is cured and dried at 80 C to remove water. Microstructure characterization by electron microscopy confirms that the epoxy/PSB matrix surrounds and encapsulates the arsenic laden amorphous iron hydrate phase while allowing the salt to migrate to internal and external surfaces of the sample. Salt extraction studies indicate that the porous nature of the resulting matrix promotes the separation and removal of as much as 90% of the original salt content in only one hours time. Long term leaching studies based on the use of the infinite slab diffusion model reveal no evidence of iron migration or, by inference, arsenic migration, and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficients of the unextracted salt yield leachability indices within regulations for non-hazardous landfill disposal. Because salt is the most mobile species, it is inferred that arsenic leaches from the host material at an even slower rate, making the waste forms amenable to unregulated land disposal options. These result indicate that the environmentally-benign, water-based emulsion processing of epoxy/PSB polymeric hosts show great promise as a separation and fixation technology for treating brine streams from wastewater treatment facilities.

  10. Measurement of fluid contents by light transmission in transient three-phase oil-water-air systems in sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darnault, C. J. G.; Dicarlo, D. A.; Bauters, T. W. J.; Jacobson, A. R.; Throop, J. A.; Montemagno, C. D.; Parlange, J.-Y.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2001-07-01

    Most three-phase flow models lack rigorous validation because very few methods exist that can measure transient fluid contents of the order of seconds of whole flow fields. The objective of this study was to develop a method by which fluid content can be measured rapidly in three-phase systems. The method uses the hue and intensity of light transmitted through a slab chamber to measure fluid contents. The water is colored blue with CuSO4. The light transmitted by high-frequency light bulbs is recorded with a color video camera in red, green, and blue and then converted to hue, saturation, and intensity. Calibration of hue and intensity with water, oil, and air is made using cells filled with different combinations of the three fluids. The results show that hue and water content are uniquely related over a large range of fluid contents. Total liquid content is a function of both hue and light intensity. The air content is obtained by subtracting the liquid content from the porosity. The method was tested with static and transient experiments. Measurements made with the light transmission method (LTM) and synchrotron X rays of the static experiment agreed well. In the transient experiments, fingers were formed by dripping water on the surface in a two-dimensional slab chamber with partially oil-saturated sand. The LTM is able to capture the spatial resolution of the fluid contents and can provide new insights in rapidly changing, three-phase flow systems.

  11. Separation and Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, C.; Quach, A.; Birnie III, D.; Ela, W.; Saez, A.E.; Zelinski, B.; Smith, H.; Smith, G.

    2004-01-01

    Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing wastewater residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by-products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy/rubber matrix for separating and encapsulating waste components from salt laden, arsenic contaminated, amorphous iron hydrate sludges. Such sludges are generated from conventional water purification precipitation/adsorption processes, used to convert aqueous brine streams to semi-solid waste streams, such as ion exchange/membrane separation, and from other precipitative heavy metal removal operations. In this study, epoxy and polystyrene butadiene (PSB) rubber emulsions are mixed together and then combined with a surrogate sludge. The surrogate sludge consists of amorphous iron hydrate with 1 part arsenic fixed to the surface of the hydrate per 10 parts iron mixed with sodium nitrate and chloride salts and water. The resulting emulsion is cured and dried at 80 °C to remove water. Microstructure characterization by electron microscopy confirms that the epoxy/PSB matrix surrounds and encapsulates the arsenic laden amorphous iron hydrate phase while allowing the salt to migrate to internal and external surfaces of the sample. Salt extraction studies indicate that the porous nature of the resulting matrix promotes the separation and removal of as much as 90% of the original salt content in only one hour. Long term leaching studies based on the use of the infinite slab diffusion model reveal no evidence of iron migration or, by inference, arsenic migration, and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficients of the unextracted salt yield leachability indices within regulations for non-hazardous landfill disposal. Because salt is the most mobile species, it is inferred that arsenic leaches from the host material at an even slower rate, making the waste forms amenable to unregulated land disposal options. These results indicate that the environmentally-benign, water-based emulsion processing of epoxy/PSB polymeric hosts show great promise as a separation and fixation technology for treating brine streams from wastewater treatment facilities.

  12. Highly Effective Pt-Based Water–Gas Shift Catalysts by Surface Modification with Alkali Hydroxide Salts

    PubMed Central

    Kusche, Matthias; Bustillo, Karen; Agel, Friederike; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we describe an economical and convenient method to improve the performance of Pt/alumina catalysts for the water–gas shift reaction through surface modification of the catalysts with alkali hydroxides according to the solid catalyst with ionic liquid layer approach. The results are in agreement with our findings reported earlier for methanol steam reforming. This report indicates that alkali doping of the catalyst plays an important role in the observed catalyst activation. In addition, the basic and hygroscopic nature of the salt coating contributes to a significant improvement in the performance of the catalyst. During the reaction, a partly liquid film of alkali hydroxide forms on the alumina surface, which increases the availability of H2O at the catalytically active sites. Kinetic studies reveal a negligible effect of the KOH coating on the rate dependence of CO and H2O partial pressures. TEM studies indicate an agglomeration of the active Pt clusters during catalyst preparation; restructuring of Pt nanoparticles occurs under reaction conditions, which leads to a highly active and stable system over 240?h time on stream. Excessive pore fillings with KOH introduce a mass transfer barrier as indicated in a volcano-shaped curve of activity versus salt loading. The optimum KOH loading was found to be 7.5?wt?%. PMID:26413174

  13. The Effect of Salt Water on Rice. 

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1909-01-01

    NO. izz. June, 1909. THE EFFECT OF SALT WATE ON RICE, LAPS, Che Postoffice College Station, 1 --- Texas. TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT S I'ATIONS. OFFICERS. GOVERNING BOARD. (Board of Directors A. and M. College... sati To carr: me needs n eight ounce bott r glass, a i two so11 (1) Silver Nitra )lye 130.6 ystalized 2 ounces distilled water or (1i;solve 8.b grams in 1000 cc. water. (2) Potassium Chromate. Dissolve 19 grains in 4 ounces tlistil r 1 gm. in 100...

  14. Impact of metamorphic reactions limited by water content on MCC formation and exhumation along detachment faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezri, Leila; Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Wolf, Sylvie; Burov, Evgenii

    2015-04-01

    Metamorphic phase changes impact both the buoyancy (volume forces) and the rheology (surface forces) of rocks. As such, they play an important dynamic control on the tectonic processes. It is generally assumed that phase changes are mostly controlled by pressure and temperature conditions. Yet, this supposes some assumptions on the amount of water available in the system. In geodynamic community, it is systematically assumed that water is always available in sufficient quantities to minimize Gibbs energy for given P,T conditions and a constant chemical composition. So that, as a matter of fact, the influence of water on the system is completely neglected. Yet, many petrological studies point out that water, as a limiting reactant, is responsible for the lack of retrograde metamorphic reactions observed in the rocks exhumed in typical MCC contexts. In order to study the impact of fluid content on the structure of metamorphic core complexes, we have implemented fluid transport and water limited thermodynamic for phase transition, in a thermomechanical code. We describe a parametrisation of Darcy flow that is able to capture source/sink and transport aspects of fluids at the scale of the whole crust with a minimum of complexity. Using this model, phase transitions are controlled by pressure temperature and the local amount of free fluid that comes from both external meteoric and local dehydration sources. The numerical experiments imply a strong positive feedback between the asymmetry of the tectonic structures and the depth of penetration of meteoric fluid. Bending stress pattern in asymmetric detachment zone indeed drives the penetration of meteoric fluids to greater depth, where they can in turn lubricate the deep ductile part of the detachment. However, thermal weakening and/or slow re-equilibration of the protolith rocks at depth with time tends to decrease the asymmetry of structure, changing the orientation of the bending stress and to shut down the activity of asymmetric detachments in favor of spreading structures which forms double-domes.

  15. Determination of salt content in hot takeaway meals in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Jaworowska, Agnieszka; Blackham, Toni; Stevenson, Leonard; Davies, Ian G

    2012-10-01

    High sodium intake is associated with negative health outcomes, including an independent correlation with high blood pressure which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. A high proportion of sodium intake in the UK is from processed and out of the home food; this includes takeaway food which is increasing in popularity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate salt levels in popular hot takeaway meals. A total of 411 samples of 23 different types of takeaway meals were analysed. Obtained results show the salt content in these kinds of foods is alarmingly high. Comparing medians (interquartile range) for different meal categories, Pizzas contained the highest salt content per portion (9.45 g (6.97-12.83)), followed by Chinese meals (8.07 g (5.47-10.99 g)), Kebabs (6.21 g (4.01-8.35)) and Indian meals (4.73 g (3.61-6.10)). In addition, significant differences in the salt content between meals within the same category were reported. To enable the consumer to meet the UK's target salt intake, a significant reduction in the salt content of hot takeaway meals should be considered. PMID:22772043

  16. New parametric implementation of metamorphic reactions limited by water content, impact on exhumation along detachment faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezri, L.; Le Pourhiet, L.; Wolf, S.; Burov, E.

    2015-11-01

    Metamorphic phase changes have a strong impact on the physical and mechanical properties of rocks including buoyancy (body forces) and rheology (interface forces). As such, they exert important dynamic control on tectonic processes. It is generally assumed that phase changes are mainly controlled by pressure (P) and temperature (T) conditions. Yet, in reality, whatever the PT conditions are, phase changes cannot take place without an adequate amount of the main reactant - water. In present day geodynamic models, the influence of water content is neglected. It is generally assumed that water is always available in quantities sufficient for thermodynamic reactions to take place at minimal Gibbs energy for given P and T conditions and a constant chemical composition. If this assumption was correct, no high-grade metamorphic rocks could to be found on the Earth's surface, since they would be retro-morphed to low-grade state during their exhumation. Indeed, petrologic studies point out that water, as a limiting reactant, is responsible for the lack of retrograde metamorphic reactions observed in the rocks exhumed in typical MCC contexts. In order to study the impact of fluid content on the structure of metamorphic core complexes, we have coupled a geodynamic thermo-mechanical code Flamar with a fluid-transport and water-limited thermodynamic phase transition algorithm. We have introduced a new parameterization of Darcy flow that is able to capture source/sink and transport aspects of fluid transport at the scale of the whole crust with a minimum of complexity. Within this model, phase transitions are controlled by pressure temperature and the local amount of free fluid that comes from both external (meteoric) and local (dehydration) sources. The numerical experiments suggest a strong positive feedback between the asymmetry of the tectonic structures and the depth of penetration of meteoric fluids. In particular, bending-stress distribution in asymmetric detachment zones drives the penetration of meteoric fluids to greater depths. However, thermal weakening and/or slow re-equilibration of the protolith rocks at depth tend to decrease the asymmetry of structure, changing the orientation of the bending stresses and reduce the activity of asymmetric detachments in favor of spreading structures, which results in the formation of double-domes.

  17. Numerical Simulation of Soil Water Content in the Unsaturated Zone Using Constraints Provided by Geophysical Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Z.; Rubin, Y.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2002-12-01

    Soil moisture distribution and variation in the vadose zone is important for agricultural, engineering and contaminant studies. Conventional sampling techniques for estimating soil water moisture content are costly, time consuming, invasive, and typically recover information at a single point in space and time only. Geophysical techniques have the potential to provide dense and accurate information about subsurface soil moisture. However, these data still provide information about water content at the time of measurement only, and geophysical data acquisition is sometimes hindered by cultural or site conditions. For example, although both surface and crosshole GPR techniques have been successfully applied for providing soil moisture information over space and time, the penetration distance of the GPR signal is limited in soils having high electrical conductivity, sometimes inhibiting moisture profiling through the entire vadose zone. In this study, we investigate the potential of coupling geophysical measurements with numerical modeling to provide information about soil moisture variations in space and over time. Such an approach was undertaken to permit estimation of soil moisture throughout the root zone even under difficult GPR data acquisition conditions, and also to yield insight into the dynamics of soil water distribution, including both state variables and fluxes. In this study, surface and crosshole geophysical measurements provide initial and boundary soil moisture conditions to a numerical simulator (TOUGH2-EOS9) based on Richard­_s Equation. Simulations were run using information available from various geophysical techniques collected at a naturally heterogeneous agricultural field site, including surface GPR, crosshole GPR, neutron probe, and TDR measurements. Information about soil heterogeneity was obtained using borehole soil textural information, and meteorological water flux boundary conditions were obtained using rain gauges, sap flow meters and also from a nearby CIMIS weather station. Hydraulic conductivity, one of the most difficult field variables to measure, can be satisfactorily estimated using a stochastic inverse modeling approach. Comparison of soil moisture measurements (collected throughout a year at a field site near Napa, CA) with the various simulations suggested that the approach was able to capture the natural evolution of the vadose zone soil moisture profile at several locations throughout the heterogeneous site. These results illustrate that improvement in the understanding of water cycling and its interaction with ecosystems can be obtained by coupling hydrological theory and measurements available from geophysical and meteorological techniques.

  18. 61. VIEW OF SALT RIVER PROJECT WELL DISCHARGING WATER INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. VIEW OF SALT RIVER PROJECT WELL DISCHARGING WATER INTO THE ARIZONA CANAL NEAR 47TH AVENUE, LOOKING SOUTH Photographer: James Eastwood, July 1990 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. MANAGEMENT OF GROUNDWATER IN SALT WATER INGRESS COASTAL AQUIFERS

    E-print Network

    Kumar, C.P.

    MANAGEMENT OF GROUNDWATER IN SALT WATER INGRESS COASTAL AQUIFERS C. P. Kumar Scientist `E1 dealing with exploitation, restoration and management of fresh groundwater in coastal aquifers, the key is disturbed by groundwater withdrawals and other human activities that lower groundwater levels, reduce fresh

  20. HIGH PERMEABILITY MEMBRANES FOR THE DEHYDRATION OF LOW WATER CONTENT ETHANOL BY PERVAPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Energy efficient dehydration of low water content ethanol is a challenge for the sustainable production of fuel-grade ethanol. Pervaporative membrane dehydration using a recently developed hydrophilic polymer membrane formulation consisting of a cross-linked mixture of poly(allyl...

  1. Brines formed by multi-salt deliquescence

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, S; Rard, J; Alai, M; Staggs, K

    2005-11-04

    The FY05 Waste Package Environment testing program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory focused on determining the temperature, relative humidity, and solution compositions of brines formed due to the deliquescence of NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures. Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of these brines is important because they define conditions under which brines may react with waste canister surfaces. Boiling point experiments show that NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures form brines that transform to hydrous melts that do not truly 'dry out' until temperatures exceed 300 and 400 C, respectively. Thus a conducting solution is present for these salt assemblages over the thermal history of the repository. The corresponding brines form at lower relative humidity at higher temperatures. The NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has a mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.8% at 180 C. Similarly, the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. The KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture salts also absorb some water (but do not appear to deliquesce) at 180 C and thus may also contribute to the transfer of electrons at interface between dust and the waste package surface. There is no experimental evidence to suggest that these brines will degas and form less deliquescent salt assemblages. Ammonium present in atmospheric and tunnel dust (as the chloride, nitrate, or sulfate) will readily decompose in the initial heating phase of the repository, and will affect subsequent behavior of the remaining salt mixture only through the removal of a stoichiometric equivalent of one or more anions. Although K-Na-NO{sub 3}-Cl brines form at high temperature and low relative humidity, these brines are dominated by nitrate, which is known to inhibit corrosion at lower temperature. Nitrate to chloride ratios of the NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture are about NO{sub 3}:Cl = 19:1. The role of nitrate on corrosion at higher temperatures is addressed in a companion report (Dixit et al., 2005).

  2. Effects of salt stress on the growth, physiological responses, and glycoside contents of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jianwei; Chen, Aimeng; Li, Dandan; Yi, Bin; Wu, Wei

    2013-06-19

    This study examined the effects of three different NaCl concentrations (60, 90, and 120 mM) on the growth, physiological responses, and steviol glycoside composition of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni for 4 weeks. The results showed that the total dry weight decreased by 40% at 120 mM NaCl but remained the same at 60 and 90 mM NaCl. As salt concentration increased, chlorophyll contents decreased markedly by 10-70%, whereas the increments of the antioxidant enzyme activities were 1.0-1.6, 1.2-1.3, and 2.0-4.0 times, respectively, for superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase. The proline contents in salt-treated plants were 17-42 times higher than that in control. Moreover, leaf possessed significantly higher K? content and K?/Na? ratio than stem and root for all salt treatments. In addition, 90-120 mM NaCl treatment notably decreased the content of rebaudioside A (RA) and stevioside (ST) by 16.2-38.2%, whereas the increment of the ratio of RA/ST of salt-treated plants was 1.1-1.4 times. These results indicate that S. rebaudiana is moderately tolerant to salt stress. Hypohaline soil can be utilized in the plantation of S. rebaudiana and may be profitable for optimizing the steviol glycoside composition. PMID:23711229

  3. Cardiac content of brain natriuretic peptide in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Yokota, Naoto; Aburaya, Masahito; Yamamoto, Yoshitaka; Kato, Johji; Kitamura, Kazuo; Kida, Osamu; Eto, Tanenao; Kangawa, Kenji; Tanaka, Kenjiro ); Minamino, Naoto; Matsuo, Hisayuki )

    1991-01-01

    The cardiac content of immunoreactive rat brain natriuretic peptide (ir-rBNP) in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The atrial content of ir-rBNP was significantly lower in the DOCA-salt group than in the control group. However, the ventricular content of ir-rBNP was markedly increased in the DOCA-salt group as compared to the other groups. Ir-rBNP level in the atria was negatively correlated with blood pressure, while that in the ventricle was positively correlated with blood pressure. A significant correlation was observed between tissue levels of ir-rBNP and ir-rat atrial natriuretic peptide (rANP) both in atrium and ventricle. These results raise the possibility that rBNP as well as rANP functions as a cardiac hormone, the production of which probably changes in response to increased of body fluid and blood pressure.

  4. Protein, casein, and micellar salts in milk: current content and historical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bijl, E; van Valenberg, H J F; Huppertz, T; van Hooijdonk, A C M

    2013-09-01

    The protein and fat content of Dutch bulk milk has been monitored since the 1950s and has increased considerably, by 11 and 20%, respectively, whereas milk yield has more than doubled. The change in protein and fat content of milk is advantageous for the dairy industry, as these are the 2 most economically valuable constituents of milk. Increases in protein and fat content of milk have allowed increases in the yield of various products such as cheese and butter. However, for cheese and other applications where casein micelles play a crucial role in structure and stability, it is not only casein content, but also the properties of the casein micelles that determine processability. Of particular importance herein is the salt partition in milk, but it is unknown whether increased protein content has affected the milk salts and their distribution between casein micelles and milk serum. It was, therefore, the objective of this research to determine the salt composition and protein content for individual cow milk and bulk milk over a period of 1 yr and to compare these data to results obtained during the 1930s, 1950s, and 1960s in the last century. Calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and phosphorus content were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and inorganic phosphate, citrate, chloride, and sulfate content by anion-exchange chromatography in bulk milk and milk ultracentrifugate. In addition, ionic calcium and ionic magnesium concentration were determined by the Donnan membrane technique. We concluded that historical increase in milk yield and protein content in milk have resulted in correlated changes in casein content and the micellar salt fraction of milk. In addition, the essential nutrients, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus in milk have increased the past 75yr; therefore, the nutritional value of milk has improved. PMID:23849643

  5. Effects of water turbidity and salt concentration levels on penetration of solar radiation under water

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Seyed-Yagoobi, J. )

    1994-05-01

    Two large, outdoor tanks were constructed in order to investigate the effects of water turbidity and salt concentration levels at various depths of water on penetration of solar radiation. These experiments were followed by a laboratory investigation that measured spectral transmittance and the extinction coefficient of water at different salt concentrations and turbidity levels. Both the outdoor and laboratory results indicate that the salt concentration level does not significantly affect solar radiation penetration. However, water clarity, quantified in terms of the turbidity level, plays a critical role on the magnitude of the solar radiation penetration, with the effect of turbidity on penetration increasing with the depth of water. A best-fit model is developed that gives the solar radiation penetration as a function of turbidity level and depth of water.

  6. Dynamics of Confined Water Molecules in Aqueous Salt Hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Werhahn, Jasper C.; Pandelov, S.; Yoo, Soohaeng; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Iglev, H.

    2011-04-01

    The unusual properties of water are largely dictated by the dynamics of the H bond network. A single water molecule has more H bonding sites than atoms, hence new experimental and theoretical investigations about this peculiar liquid have not ceased to appear. Confinement of water to nanodroplets or small molecular clusters drastically changes many of the liquid’s properties. Such confined water plays a major role in the solvation of macro molecules such as proteins and can even be essential to their properties. Despite the vast results available on bulk and confined water, discussions about the correlation between spectral and structural properties continue to this day. The fast relaxation of the OH stretching vibration in bulk water, and the variance of sample geometries in the experiments on confined water obfuscate definite interpretation of the spectroscopic results in terms of structural parameters. We present first time-resolved investigations on a new model system that is ideally suited to overcome many of the problems faced in spectroscopical investigation of the H bond network of water. Aqueous hydrates of inorganic salts provide water molecules in a crystal grid, that enables unambiguous correlations of spectroscopic and structural features. Furthermore, the confined water clusters are well isolated from each other in the crystal matrix, so different degrees of confinement can be achieved by selection of the appropriate salt.

  7. 46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section 45.37 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Load Line Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence River must— (a) Be marked with the summer...

  8. Water, Vapor, and Salt Dynamics in a Hot Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Bahrami, Davood; Danko, George; Walton, John

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a new model study examining the high temperature nuclear waste disposal concept at Yucca Mountain using MULTIFLUX, an integrated in-drift- and mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic model. The results show that a large amount of vapor flow into the drift is expected during the period of above-boiling temperatures. This phenomenon makes the emplacement drift a water/moisture attractor during the above-boiling temperature operation. The evaporation of the percolation water into the drift gives rise to salt accumulation in the rock wall, especially in the crown of the drift for about 1500 years in the example. The deposited salts over the drift footprint, almost entirely present in the fractures, may enter the drift either by rock fall or by water drippage. During the high temperature operation mode, the barometric pressure variation creates fluctuating relative humidity in the emplacement drift with a time period of approximately 10 days. Potentially wet and dry conditions and condensation on salt-laden drift wall sections may adversely affect the storage environment. Salt accumulations during the above-boiling temperature operation must be sufficiently addressed to fully understand the waste package environment during the thermal period. Until the questions are resolved, a below-boiling repository design is favored where the Alloy-22 will be less susceptible to localized corrosion. (authors)

  9. Validation of spot-testing kits to determine iodine content in salt.

    PubMed Central

    Pandav, C. S.; Arora, N. K.; Krishnan, A.; Sankar, R.; Pandav, S.; Karmarkar, M. G.

    2000-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are a major public health problem, and salt iodization is the most widely practised intervention for their elimination. For the intervention to be successful and sustainable, it is vital to monitor the iodine content of salt regularly. Iodometric titration, the traditional method for measuring iodine content, has problems related to accessibility and cost. The newer spot-testing kits are inexpensive, require minimal training, and provide immediate results. Using data from surveys to assess the availability of iodized salt in two states in India, Madhya Pradesh and the National Capital Territory of Delhi, we tested the suitability of such a kit in field situations. Salt samples from Delhi were collected from 30 schools, chosen using the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) cluster sampling technique. A single observer made the measurement for iodine content using the kit. Salt samples from Madhya Pradesh were from 30 rural and 30 urban clusters, identified by using census data and the EPI cluster sampling technique. In each cluster, salt samples were collected from 10 randomly selected households and all retailers. The 15 investigators performing the survey estimated the iodine content of salt samples in the field using the kit. All the samples were brought to the central laboratory in Delhi, where iodine content was estimated using iodometric titration as a reference method. The agreement between the kit and titration values decreased as the number of observers increased. Although sensitivity was not much affected by the increase in the number of observers (93.3% for a single observer and 93.9% for multiple observers), specificity decreased sharply (90.4% for a single observer and 40.4% for multiple observers). Due to the low specificity and resulting high numbers of false-positives for the kit when used by multiple observers ("real-life situations"), kits were likely to consistently overestimate the availability of iodized salt. This overestimation could result in complacency. Therefore, we conclude that until a valid alternative is available, the titration method should be used for monitoring the iodine content of salt at all levels, from producer to consumer, to ensure effectiveness of the programme. PMID:10994281

  10. Water Content of Earth's Continental Mantle Is Controlled by the Circulation of Fluids or Melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, Anne; Woodland, Alan B.; Bell, David R.; Lazarov, Marina; Lapen, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    A key mission of the ARES Directorate at JSC is to constrain models of the formation and geological history of terrestrial planets. Water is a crucial parameter to be measured with the aim to determine its amount and distribution in the interior of Earth, Mars, and the Moon. Most of that "water" is not liquid water per se, but rather hydrogen dissolved as a trace element in the minerals of the rocks at depth. Even so, the middle layer of differentiated planets, the mantle, occupies such a large volume and mass of each planet that when it is added at the planetary scale, oceans worth of water could be stored in its interior. The mantle is where magmas originate. Moreover, on Earth, the mantle is where the boundary between tectonic plates and the underlying asthenosphere is located. Even if mantle rocks in Earth typically contain less than 200 ppm H2O, such small quantities have tremendous influence on how easily they melt (i.e., the more water there is, the more magma is produced) and deform (the more water there is, the less viscous they are). These two properties alone emphasize that to understand the distribution of volcanism and the mechanism of plate tectonics, the water content of the mantle must be determined - Earth being a template to which all other terrestrial planets can be compared.

  11. Effects of carbon dioxide, water supply, and seasonality on terpene content and emission by Rosmarinus officinalis

    SciTech Connect

    Penuelas, J.; Llusia, J.

    1997-04-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis L. plants were grown under carbon dioxide concentrations of 350 and 700 {mu}mol (atmospheric CO{sub 2} and elevated CO{sub 2}) and under two levels of irrigation (high water and low water) from October 1, 1994 to May 31, 1996. Elevated CO{sub 2} led on increasingly larger monthly growth rates than the atmospheric CO{sub 2} treatments. The increase was 9.5% in spring 1995, 23% in summer 1995, and 53% in spring 1996 in the high-water treatments, whereas in low-water treatments the growth response to elevated CO{sub 2} was constrained until the second year spring, when there was a 47% increase. The terpene concentrations was slightly larger in the elevated CO{sub 2} treatments than in atmospheric CO{sub 2} treatments and reached a maximum 37% difference in spring 1996. There was no significant effect of water treatment, likely as a result of a mild low water treatment for a Mediterranean plant. Terpene concentrations increased throughout the period of study, indicating possible age effects. The most abundant terpenes were {alpha}-pinene, cineole, camphor, borneol, and verbenone, which represented about 75% of the total. No significant differences were found in the terpene composition of the plants in the different treatments or seasons. The emission of volatile terpenes was much larger in spring (about 75 {mu}g/dry wt/hr) than in autumn (about 10 {mu}g/dry wt/hr), partly because of higher temperature and partly because of seasonal effect, but no significant differences was found because of CO{sub 2} or water treatment. The main terpene emitted was {alpha}-pinene, which represented about 50% of the total. There was no clear correlation between content and emission, either quantitatively or qualitatively. More volatile terpenes were proportionally more important in the total emission than in total content and in autumn than in spring.

  12. Salt Appetite Is Reduced by a Single Experience of Drinking Hypertonic Saline in the Adult Rat

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Michael P.; Greenwood, Mingkwan; Paton, Julian F. R.; Murphy, David

    2014-01-01

    Salt appetite, the primordial instinct to favorably ingest salty substances, represents a vital evolutionary important drive to successfully maintain body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. This innate instinct was shown here in Sprague-Dawley rats by increased ingestion of isotonic saline (IS) over water in fluid intake tests. However, this appetitive stimulus was fundamentally transformed into a powerfully aversive one by increasing the salt content of drinking fluid from IS to hypertonic saline (2% w/v NaCl, HS) in intake tests. Rats ingested HS similar to IS when given no choice in one-bottle tests and previous studies have indicated that this may modify salt appetite. We thus investigated if a single 24 h experience of ingesting IS or HS, dehydration (DH) or 4% high salt food (HSD) altered salt preference. Here we show that 24 h of ingesting IS and HS solutions, but not DH or HSD, robustly transformed salt appetite in rats when tested 7 days and 35 days later. Using two-bottle tests rats previously exposed to IS preferred neither IS or water, whereas rats exposed to HS showed aversion to IS. Responses to sweet solutions (1% sucrose) were not different in two-bottle tests with water, suggesting that salt was the primary aversive taste pathway recruited in this model. Inducing thirst by subcutaneous administration of angiotensin II did not overcome this salt aversion. We hypothesised that this behavior results from altered gene expression in brain structures important in thirst and salt appetite. Thus we also report here lasting changes in mRNAs for markers of neuronal activity, peptide hormones and neuronal plasticity in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus following rehydration after both DH and HS. These results indicate that a single experience of drinking HS is a memorable one, with long-term changes in gene expression accompanying this aversion to salty solutions. PMID:25111786

  13. Improved tolerance to salt and water stress in Drosophila melanogaster cells conferred by late embryogenesis abundant protein.

    PubMed

    Marunde, Matthew R; Samarajeewa, Dilini A; Anderson, John; Li, Shumin; Hand, Steven C; Menze, Michael A

    2013-04-01

    Mechanisms that govern anhydrobiosis involve the accumulation of highly hydrophilic macromolecules, such as late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins. Group 1 LEA proteins comprised of 181 (AfLEA1.1) and 197 (AfLEA1.3) amino acids were cloned from embryos of Artemia franciscana and expressed in Drosophila melanogaster cells (Kc167). Confocal microscopy revealed a construct composed of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and AfLEA1.3 accumulates in the mitochondria (AfLEA1.3-GFP), while AfLEA1.1-GFP was found in the cytoplasm. In the presence of mixed substrates, oxygen consumption was statistically identical for permeabilized Kc167 control and Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells. Acute titrations of permeabilized cells with NaCl up to 500 mM led to successive drops in oxygen flux, which were significantly ameliorated by 18% in Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells compared to Kc167 controls. Mitochondria were isolated from both cell types and resuspended in a sucrose-based buffer solution. The purified mitochondria from Kc167 control cells showed significantly larger reductions in respiratory capacities after one freeze-thaw cycle (-80°C) compared to mitochondria isolated from Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells. When cultured in the presence of a non-permeant osmolyte (50-200 mM sucrose) cells expressing AfLEA1.3 showed significantly improved viability (10-15%) during this hyperosmotic challenge as compared to Kc167 controls. Furthermore, Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells survived desiccation by convective air drying in presence of 200 mM extracellular trehalose to lower final moisture contents than did control Kc167 cells (0.36 g H2O/g DW vs.1.02 g H2O/g DW). Thus, AfLEA1.3 exerts a protective influence on mitochondrial function and increases viability of Kc167 cells during water stress. PMID:23376561

  14. Results of water quality sampling near Richton, Cypress Creek and Lampton Salt Domes, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandl, L.A.; Spiers, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    In the Mississippi salt basin in southern Mississippi, chemical quality studies of surface water and ground water have been made to determine present water-quality conditions near three salt domes being studied by the Department of Energy as potential repositories for radioactive wastes. Chloride concentrations in excess of 60 milligrams per liter in surface water and ground water in Perry County indicate that contamination could be occurring from industrial wastes, oil test wells, or dissolution of Richton or Cypress Creek domes. (USGS)

  15. Water vapor content in the polar atmosphere measured by Lyman-alpha/OH fluorescence method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwasaka, Y.; Saitoh, S.; Ono, A.

    1985-01-01

    The water vapor of the polar stratosphere possibly plays an important role in various aeronomical processes; for example, OH radical formation through photodissociation of H2O, formation of water cluster ions, radiative energy transfer in the lower stratosphere, condensation onto particulate matter, and so on. In addition to these, it has been speculated, from the viewpoint of global transport and/or budget of water vapor, that the polar stratosphere functions as an active sink. STANFORD (1973) emphasized the existence of the stratospheric Cist cloud in the polar stratosphere which brought a large loss rate of stratospheric water vapor through a so-called freeze-out of cloud particles from the stratosphere into the troposphere. However, these geophysically interesting problems unfortunately remain to be solved, owing to the lack of measurements on water vapor distribution and its temporal variation in the polar stratosphere. The water vapor content measured at Syowa Station (69.00 deg S, 39.35 deg E), Antarctica using a balloon-borne hygrometer (Lyman - alpha/OH fluorescence type) is discussed.

  16. Errors in determination of soil water content using time-domain reflectometry caused by soil compaction around wave guides

    SciTech Connect

    Ghezzehei, T.A.

    2008-05-29

    Application of time domain reflectometry (TDR) in soil hydrology often involves the conversion of TDR-measured dielectric permittivity to water content using universal calibration equations (empirical or physically based). Deviations of soil-specific calibrations from the universal calibrations have been noted and are usually attributed to peculiar composition of soil constituents, such as high content of clay and/or organic matter. Although it is recognized that soil disturbance by TDR waveguides may have impact on measurement errors, to our knowledge, there has not been any quantification of this effect. In this paper, we introduce a method that estimates this error by combining two models: one that describes soil compaction around cylindrical objects and another that translates change in bulk density to evolution of soil water retention characteristics. Our analysis indicates that the compaction pattern depends on the mechanical properties of the soil at the time of installation. The relative error in water content measurement depends on the compaction pattern as well as the water content and water retention properties of the soil. Illustrative calculations based on measured soil mechanical and hydrologic properties from the literature indicate that the measurement errors of using a standard three-prong TDR waveguide could be up to 10%. We also show that the error scales linearly with the ratio of rod radius to the interradius spacing.

  17. Potentials and problems of sustainable irrigation with water high in salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Gal, Alon

    2015-04-01

    Water scarcity and need to expand agricultural productivity have led to ever growing utilization of poor quality water for irrigation of crops. Almost in all cases, marginal or alternative water sources for irrigation contain relatively high concentrations of dissolved salts. When salts are present, irrigation water management, especially in the dry regions where water requirements are highest, must consider leaching in addition to crop evapotranspiration requirements. Leaching requirements for agronomic success are calculable and functions of climate, soil, and very critically, of crop sensitivity and the actual salinity of the irrigation water. The more sensitive the crop and more saline the water, the higher the agronomic cost and the greater the quantitative need for leaching. Israel is a forerunner in large-scale utilization of poor quality water for irrigation and can be used as a case study looking at long term repercussions of policy alternatively encouraging irrigation with recycled water or brackish groundwater. In cases studied in desert conditions of Israel, as much of half of the water applied to crops including bell peppers in greenhouses and date palms is actually used to leach salts from the root zone. The excess water used to leach salts and maintain agronomic and economic success when irrigating with water containing salts can become an environmental hazard, especially in dry areas where natural drainage is non-existent. The leachate often contains not only salts but also agrochemicals including nutrients, and natural contaminants can be picked up and transported as well. This leachate passes beyond the root zone and eventually reaches ground or surface water resources. This, together with evidence of ongoing increases in sodium content of fresh produce and increased SAR levels of soils, suggest that the current policy and practice in Israel of utilization of high amounts of low quality irrigation water is inherently non- sustainable. Current trends and technologies allowing economically feasible desalination at large scales present a sustainable alternative where salts are removed from water prior to irrigation.

  18. Projected Impact of Climate Change on the Water and Salt Budgets of the Arctic Ocean by a Global Climate Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James R.; Russell, Gary L.

    1996-01-01

    The annual flux of freshwater into the Arctic Ocean by the atmosphere and rivers is balanced by the export of sea ice and oceanic freshwater. Two 150-year simulations of a global climate model are used to examine how this balance might change if atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) increase. Relative to the control, the last 50-year period of the GHG experiment indicates that the total inflow of water from the atmosphere and rivers increases by 10% primarily due to an increase in river discharge, the annual sea-ice export decreases by about half, the oceanic liquid water export increases, salinity decreases, sea-ice cover decreases, and the total mass and sea-surface height of the Arctic Ocean increase. The closed, compact, and multi-phased nature of the hydrologic cycle in the Arctic Ocean makes it an ideal test of water budgets that could be included in model intercomparisons.

  19. Identification and Control of Pollution from Salt Water Intrusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This document contains informational guidelines for identifying and evaluating the nature and extent of pollution from salt water intrusion. The intent of these guidelines is to provide a basic framework for assessing salt water intrusion problems and their relationship to the total hydrologic system, and to provide assistance in developing…

  20. Molecular dynamics study of salt–solution interface: Solubility and surface charge of salt in water

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Kazuya; Liang, Yunfeng E-mail: matsuoka@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Matsuoka, Toshifumi E-mail: matsuoka@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Sakka, Tetsuo

    2014-04-14

    The NaCl salt–solution interface often serves as an example of an uncharged surface. However, recent laser-Doppler electrophoresis has shown some evidence that the NaCl crystal is positively charged in its saturated solution. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have investigated the NaCl salt–solution interface system, and calculated the solubility of the salt using the direct method and free energy calculations, which are kinetic and thermodynamic approaches, respectively. The direct method calculation uses a salt–solution combined system. When the system is equilibrated, the concentration in the solution area is the solubility. In the free energy calculation, we separately calculate the chemical potential of NaCl in two systems, the solid and the solution, using thermodynamic integration with MD simulations. When the chemical potential of NaCl in the solution phase is equal to the chemical potential of the solid phase, the concentration of the solution system is the solubility. The advantage of using two different methods is that the computational methods can be mutually verified. We found that a relatively good estimate of the solubility of the system can be obtained through comparison of the two methods. Furthermore, we found using microsecond time-scale MD simulations that the positively charged NaCl surface was induced by a combination of a sodium-rich surface and the orientation of the interfacial water molecules.

  1. Fertilizer Facts: April 1997, Number 14 Safflower Seed Yield and Oil Content as Affected by Water and N

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Fertilizer Facts: April 1997, Number 14 Safflower Seed Yield and Oil Content as Affected by Water. Research Center Montana State University Safflower is a broadleaf, annual oil seed crop. It is adapted, and foots (residue from oil refining). Safflower is grown as an alternative crop to small grain rotations

  2. Effect of a beating process, as a means of reducing salt content in Chinese-style meatballs (kung-wan): a dynamic rheological and Raman spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Zhuang-Li; Wang, Peng; Xu, Xing-Lian; Zhu, Chao-Zhi; Zou, Yu-Feng; Li, Ke; Zhou, Guang-Hong

    2014-02-01

    Chopping and beating processes were used as meat-cutting methods in preparing kung-wan to produce low-salt products while retaining or improving the emulsion stability, sensory evaluation, and physico-chemical properties of the standard high-salt formulation. Increased salt content improved emulsion stability and dynamic rheology. However, 3% salt content decreased the overall acceptance of kung-wan. Compared with the chopping process, beating resulted in higher emulsion stability, overall acceptance, and ?-sheet content (P<0.05). Additionally, the beating process formed more compact and continuous structures at the same salt content. Kung-wan produced by beating with 1% and 2% salt had similar emulsion stabilities, sensory evaluation, and secondary structures (P>0.05). Therefore, this process allows reduction of salt content, suggesting that the kung-wan produced in this manner is healthier and has better texture. PMID:24200556

  3. The estimation of total petroleum hydrocarbons content in waste water by IR spectrometry with multivariate calibrations.

    PubMed

    Vershinin, Viacheslav I; Petrov, Sergey V

    2016-02-01

    Alkanes, cycloalkanes and arenes have rather different sensitivities to IR-spectrometric determination, leading to high relative uncertainty (?c) for the total petroleum hydrocarbon index (TPH) in natural and waste waters. Another source of TPH uncertainty is the mismatch of group composition of the hydrocarbon mixture in the sample and in the standard substance used for one-dimensional calibration. Increasing the number of wavelengths and using of multivariate calibrations permit the reduction of ?c to <10% rel. These calibrations may be constructed from IR-spectra and findings of extracts from aqueous solutions with known content of hydrocarbons. The method takes into account the losses of hydrocarbons during sample preparation. The accuracy of TPH estimations for this method is much better than for standard methods based on one-dimensional calibration with Simard mixture. This new method is useful in produced waste water analysis. PMID:26653437

  4. Renal excretion of water in men under hypokinesia and physical exercise with fluid and salt supplementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Federenko, Youri F.; Togawa, Mitsui N.

    It has been suggested that under hypokinesia (reduced number of steps/day) and intensive physical exercise, the intensification of fluid excretion in men is apparently caused as a result of the inability of the body to retain optimum amounts of water. Thus, to evaluate this hypothesis, studies were performed with the use of fluid and sodium chloride (NaCl) supplements on 12 highly trained physically healthy male volunteers aged 19-24 years under 364 days of hypokinesis (HK) and a set of intensive physical exercises (PE). They were divided into two groups with 6 volunteers per group. The first group of subjects were submitted to HK and took daily fluid and salt supplements in very small doses and the second group of volunteers were subjected to intensive PE and fluid-salt supplements. For the simulation of the hypokinetic effect, both groups of subjects were kept under an average of 4000 steps/day. During the prehypokinetic period of 60 days and under the hypokinetic period of 364 days water consumed and eliminated in urine by the men, water content in blood, plasma volume, rate of glomerular filtration, renal blood flow, osmotic concentration of urine and blood were measured. Under HK, the rate of renal excretion of water increased considerably in both groups. The additional fluid and salt intake failed to normalize water balance adequately under HK and PE. It was concluded that negative water balance evidently resulted not from shortage of water in the diet but from the inability of the body to retain optimum amounts of fluid under HK and a set of intensive PEs.

  5. Profiling soil water content sensor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A waveguide-on-access-tube (WOAT) sensor system based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) principles was developed to sense soil water content and bulk electrical conductivity in 20-cm (8 inch) deep layers from the soil surface to depths of 3 m (10 ft) (patent No. 13/404,491 pending). A Cooperative R...

  6. Detection of Plant Water Content with Needle-Type In-Situ Water Content Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayanagi, Hitoshi; Miki, Norihisa

    A needle-type water content sensor with a polyethersulfone (PES) polymer membrane was developed for the low-invasive, direct in-situ measurement of plant water content (PWC) in prior work. In this paper we demonstrate a measurement of plant water stress that represents the demand for water of the plant and greatly affects its sweetness. We inserted the sensor into a stalk of strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) and soil. The variation in both the plant and the soil water content were successfully detected, which revealed the delay between variation in the plant water stress and soil water content after irrigation. Such delay could only be detected by the proposed sensor that could directly measure the variation of PWC in situ and continuously. The experiments also showed the variation in the signals as a function of detection sites and suggested that the detection sites of plant water stress need to be considered when the sensor is applied to irrigation culture.

  7. The SALT NORM : a quantitative chemical-mineralogical characterization of natural waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodine, Marc W., Jr.; Jones, Blair F.

    1986-01-01

    The new computer program SNORM calculates the salt norm from the chemical composition of a natural water. The salt norm is the quantitative ideal equilibrium assemblage that would crystallize if the water evaporated to dryness at 25 C and 1 bar pressure under atmospheric partial pressure of CO2. SNORM proportions solute concentrations to achieve charge balance. It quantitatively distributes the 18 acceptable solutes into normative salts that are assigned from 63 possible normative salts to allow only stable associations based on the Gibbs Phase Rule, available free energy values, and observed low-temperature mineral associations. Although most natural water compositions represent multiple solute origins, results from SNORM identify three major categories: meteoric or weathering waters that are characterized by normative alkali-bearing sulfate and carbonate salts: connate marine-like waters that are chloride-rich with a halite-bischofite-carnallite-kieserite-anhydrite association; and diagenetic waters that are frequently of marine origin but yield normative salts, such as Ca-bearing chlorides (antarcticite and tachyhydrite) and sylvite, which suggest solute alteration by secondary mineral reactions. The solute source or reaction process within each of the above categories is commonly indicated by the presence or absence of diagnostic normative salts and their relative abundance in the normative salt assemblage. For example, salt norms: (1) may identify lithologic source; (2) may identify the relative roles of carbonic and sulfuric acid hydrolysis in the evolution of weathering waters; (3) may identify the origin of connate water from normal marine, hypersaline, or evaporite salt resolution processes; and (4) may distinguish between dolomitization and silicate hydrolysis or exchange for the origin of diagenetic waters. (Author 's abstract)

  8. The chemistry of salt-affected soils and waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of the chemistry of salt affected soils and waters is necessary for management of irrigation in arid and semi-arid regions. In this chapter we review the origin of salts in the landscape, the major chemical reactions necessary for prediction of the soil solution composition, and the use of...

  9. On the salt-induced activation of lyophilized enzymes in organic solvents: Effect of salt kosmotropicity on enzyme activity

    SciTech Connect

    Ru, M.T.; Hirokane, S.Y.; Lo, A.S.; Dordick, J.S.; Reimer, J.A.; Clark, D.S.

    2000-03-01

    The dramatic activation of enzymes in nonaqueous media upon co-lyophilization with simple inorganic salts has been investigated as a function of the Jones-Dole B coefficient, a thermodynamic parameter for characterizing the salt's affinity for water and its chaotropic (water-structure breaking) or kosmotropic (water-structure making) character. In general, the water content, active-site content, and transesterification activity of freeze-dried subtilisin Carlsberg preparations containing >96% w/w salt increased with increasing kosmotropicity of the activating salt. Degrees of activation relative to the salt-free enzyme ranged from 33-fold for chaotropic sodium iodide to 2,480-fold for kosmotropic sodium acetate. Exceptions to the general trend can be explained by the mechanical properties and freezing characteristics of the salts undergoing lyophilization. The profound activating effect can thus be attributed in part to the stabilizing (salting-out) effect of kosmotropic salts and the phenomenon of preferential hydration.

  10. Effect of chloride content of molten nitrate salt on corrosion of A516 carbon steel.

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, Robert W.; Clift, W. Miles

    2010-11-01

    The corrosion behavior of A516 carbon steel was evaluated to determine the effect of the dissolved chloride content in molten binary Solar Salt. Corrosion tests were conducted in a molten salt consisting of a 60-40 weight ratio of NaNO{sub 3} and KNO{sub 3} at 400{sup o}C and 450{sup o}C for up to 800 hours. Chloride concentrations of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% were investigated to determine the effect on corrosion of this impurity, which can be present in comparable amounts in commercial grades of the constituent salts. Corrosion rates were determined by descaled weight losses, corrosion morphology was examined by metallographic sectioning, and the types of corrosion products were determined by x-ray diffraction. Corrosion proceeded by uniform surface scaling and no pitting or intergranular corrosion was observed. Corrosion rates increased significantly as the concentration of dissolved chloride in the molten salt increased. The adherence of surface scales, and thus their protective properties, was degraded by dissolved chloride, fostering more rapid corrosion. Magnetite was the only corrosion product formed on the carbon steel specimens, regardless of chloride content or temperature.

  11. Bulk, surface properties and water uptake mechanisms of salt/acid amorphous composite systems.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Stefano; Tewes, Frederic; Tajber, Lidia; Caron, Vincent; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie

    2013-11-01

    Developing amorphous pharmaceuticals can be desirable due to advantageous biopharmaceutical properties. Low glass transition temperature (Tg) amorphous drugs can be protected from crystallisation by mixing with high Tg excipients, such as polymers, or with salt forms. However, both polymers and salts can enhance the water uptake. The aim of this study was to formulate physico-chemically stable amorphous materials, by co-processing different proportions of sulfathiazole and its sodium salt to produce an optimum ratio, characterised by the best physical stability and lowest hygroscopicity. Both sulfathiazole and salt amorphised upon spray drying. At room temperature, sulfathiazole crystallised within 1h at <5% relative humidity while the salt deliquesced when exposed to ambient humidity conditions. In the case of composite systems, FTIR spectroscopy, thermal and surface analysis suggested interactions with an acid:salt stoichiometry of 1:2. Increasing proportions of salt raised the Tg, enhancing the storage stability, however this was opposed by an enhanced hygroscopicity. The water uptake mechanism within the different amorphous systems, analysed by fitting the water sorption isotherms with the Young and Nelson equation, was dependent on the ratio employed, with the salt and the acid facilitating absorption and adsorption, respectively. Tuning the properties of amorphous salt/acid composites by optimising the ratio appears potentially promising to improve the physical stability of amorphous formulations. PMID:23948137

  12. Breadboard wash water renovation system. [using ferric chloride and ion exchange resins to remove soap and dissolved salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A total wash water renovation system concept was developed for removing objectionable materials from spacecraft wash water in order to make the water reusable. The breadboard model system described provides for pretreatment with ferric chloride to remove soap by chemical precipitation, carbon adsorption to remove trace dissolved organics, and ion exchange for removal of dissolved salts. The entire system was put into continuous operation and carefully monitored to assess overall efficiency and equipment maintenance problems that could be expected in actual use. In addition, the capacity of the carbon adsorbers and the ion-exchange resin was calculated and taken into consideration in the final evaluation of the system adequacy. The product water produced was well within the Tentative Wash Water Standards with regard to total organic carbon, conductivity, urea content, sodium chloride content, color, odor, and clarity.

  13. Responses of common and successional heathland species to manipulated salt spray and water availability.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Megan E; Orians, Colin M

    2003-12-01

    Coastal sandplain heathlands are a rare plant community in the northeastern United States. Salt spray and water availability are likely important factors determining heathland distribution. Field surveys and manipulative experiments were performed to examine heathland species' responses to salt spray and water availability. We surveyed field distributions of four typical heathland species: Solidago puberula, Solidago rugosa, Gaylussacia baccata, and Myrica pensylvanica. The distributions of two native tree species, Pinus rigida and Quercus ilicifolia, were also surveyed because they succeed into coastal heathlands with low disturbance frequency. We then manipulated salt spray and water in the field and measured species' water status, necrosis, and growth responses to the treatments. Predawn xylem pressure potential and necrosis were strongly affected by high salt spray and low water availability. Shoot elongation was also limited in S. puberula and S. rugosa grown in high salt, low water treatments. Gaylussacia baccata and Q. ilicifolia were particularly sensitive to high salt spray and low water, suggesting that they might excluded be from areas with those conditions. The interaction between salt spray and water availability could affect the landscape scale and should be incorporated into conservation management plans. PMID:21653348

  14. 4. VIEW TO NORTHEAST, SKINNER SALT ROASTERS, SAMPLING BUILDING, WATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW TO NORTHEAST, SKINNER SALT ROASTERS, SAMPLING BUILDING, WATER TOWER, AND OFFICE BUILDING. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  15. Content of toxic and essential metals in recrystallized and washed table salt in Shiraz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Table salt is the most commonly used food additive. Since most of the salt consumed in Iran comes from mines, contamination with heavy metals is a health concern. The commonest salt purification method in Iran is washing with water. But recently, some industries have turned to recrystallization method. The present study aimed to determine the level of essential and non-essential heavy metals in the table salt refined with recrystallization and washing methods. Methods Thirty eight pre-packed salt samples were directly collected from retail market in Shiraz (22 samples refined with recrystallization method and 16 with washing method). The level of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, nickel and cobalt was determined using Voltammetric method. Daily intakes of lead and cadmium as well as their weekly intakes were calculated. Results The levels of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, nickel and cobalt in recrystallized samples were 0. 30 ± 0.26, 0.02 ± 0.02, 0.11 ± 0.06, 0.34 ± 0.22, 0.15 ± 0.19 and 0.008 ± 0.007 ?g/g, respectively, and also 0.37 ± 0.27, 0.017 ± 0.021, 0.19 ± 0.18, 0.37 ± 0.20, 0.13 ± 0.23 and 0.037 ± 0.06 ?g/g in washed salt samples. The calculated weekly intake of lead and cadmium was 0.216 and 0.014 ?g/kg, respectively for the recrystallized and 0.2653 and 0.0119 ?g/kg for the washed salts. Conclusion All values for toxic metals were lower than the permitted maximum for human consumption as prescribed by Codex and Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. Only 0.8652-1.0612% of lead and 0.17-0.2% of cadmium PTWIs are received via salt consumption weekly. PMID:24398299

  16. Mineral Content and Biochemical Variables of Aloe vera L. under Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel Víctor; Villegas-Espinoza, Jorge Arnoldo; Hernández-Montiel, Luis Guillermo; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; García-Hernández, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Despite the proven economic importance of Aloe vera, studies of saline stress and its effects on the biochemistry and mineral content in tissues of this plant are scarce. The objective of this study was to grow Aloe under NaCl stress of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM and compare: (1) proline, total protein, and enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP-case) in chlorenchyma and parenchyma tissues, and (2) ion content (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, Fe, P. N, Zn, B, Mn, and Cu) in roots, stems, leaves and sprouts. Proline and PEP-case increased as salinity increased in both parenchyma and chlorenchyma, while total protein increased in parenchyma and decreased in chlorenchyma, although at similar salt concentrations total protein was always higher in chlorenchyma. As salinity increased Na and Cl ions increased in roots, stems, leaves, while K decreased only significantly in sprouts. Salinity increases typically caused mineral content in tissue to decrease, or not change significantly. In roots, as salinity increased Mg decreased, while all other minerals failed to show a specific trend. In stems, the mineral concentrations that changed were Fe and P which increased with salinity while Cu decreased. In leaves, Mg, Mn, N, and B decreased with salinity, while Cu increased. In sprouts, the minerals that decreased with increasing salinity were Mg, Mn, and Cu. Zinc did not exhibit a trend in any of the tissues. The increase in protein, proline and PEP-case activity, as well as the absorption and accumulation of cations under moderate NaCl stress caused osmotic adjustment which kept the plant healthy. These results suggest that Aloe may be a viable crop for soil irrigated with hard water or affected by salinity at least at concentrations used in the present study. PMID:24736276

  17. Movement of Salt and Nitrate in Shallow Groundwater in California's Central Valley - Large Scale Water, Salt, and Nitrate Balance Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalgish, B. A.; Boyle, D.; Kretsinger Grabert, V. J.

    2013-12-01

    A large-scale analysis of salt and nitrate was performed for the shallow groundwater aquifer of the entire California Central Valley floor (about 20,000 square miles). This analysis combined many different platforms of data in order to complete water and mass balance calculations. Groundwater and surface water quality test data were used in combination with mass loading from a watershed model (the Environmental Protection Agency's Watershed Analysis Risk Management Framework, or WARMF), as well as an integrated hydrologic model that simulates the use and movement of water coupled between the landscape, surface water, and groundwater (the U.S. Geological Survey's Central Valley Hydrologic Model, or CVHM). For this analysis, the Central Valley floor was divided into 22 zones, and the movement of shallow groundwater, surface water, salt, and nitrate was simulated in, out, and between the zones on a quarterly basis for a 20-year simulation period. In this analysis, shallow groundwater is defined by an estimate of the vertical distance water will travel from the water table within 20 years. Fluxes of mass from deep ambient groundwater and ambient surface water quality were estimated from measured concentration data. Quantities of mass were acquired for recharge (from WARMF output) or calculated using concentrations and other water budget components. Flow and volume components were extracted by post-processing CVHM output data. This resulted in a transient water, salt, and nitrate budget for each of the 22 zones. Simulated shallow groundwater concentrations were calculated to investigate water quality trends for the Central Valley. Four zones were identified as areas with the highest concentrations of salt (TDS) in the southwestern portion of the Central Valley; and six zones were identified as areas with the highest nitrate concentrations, mostly in the southeastern portion of the Valley. Additional analyses intended to shift from the large-scale balance calculations to a higher resolution analysis of the movement of water, salt, and nitrate was performed as a 'proof of concept' for two focus areas located in Stanislaus/Merced Counties and the Kings Subbasin, using MODPATH and MODPATH-OBS. Particle tracking was employed for both focus areas to observe the movement of water, salt, and nitrate from recharge zones to monitored wells, or on a cell-by-cell/layer-by-layer basis.

  18. Salt stress increases content and size of glutenin macropolymers in wheat grain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaxiang; Shi, Zhiqiang; Tian, Youjia; Zhou, Qin; Cai, Jian; Dai, Tingbo; Cao, Weixing; Pu, Hanchun; Jiang, Dong

    2016-04-15

    Addition of salt solution in making wheat dough improves viscoelasticity. However, the effect of native salt fortification on dough quality is unclear. Here, wheat plants were subjected to post-anthesis salt stress to modify salt ion content in grains. The contents of Na(+) and K(+), high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), glutenin macropolyers (GMP) and amino acids in mature grains were measured. As NaCl concentration in soil increased, grain yield decreased while Na(+) and K(+) contents increased. The contents of amino acids, HMW-GS and GMP in grains also increased, especially when NaCl concentration exceeded 0.45%. Fraction of GMP larger than 10?m was also increased. Na(+) and K(+) contents were significantly positively correlated to GMP and total HMW-GS contents, and to large GMP fraction. PMID:26616983

  19. Salt content of school meals and comparison of perception related to sodium intake in elementary, middle, and high schools.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sohyun; Park, Seoyun; Kim, Jin Nam; Han, Sung Nim; Jeong, Soo Bin; Kim, Hye-Kyeong

    2013-02-01

    Excessive sodium intake leading to hypertension, stroke, and stomach cancer is mainly caused by excess use of salt in cooking. This study was performed to estimate the salt content in school meals and to compare differences in perceptions related to sodium intake between students and staffs working for school meal service. We collected 382 dishes for food from 24 schools (9 elementary, 7 middle, 8 high schools) in Gyeonggi-do and salt content was calculated from salinity and weight of individual food. The average salt content from elementary, middle, and high school meals were 2.44 g, 3.96 g, and 5.87 g, respectively. The amount of salt provided from the school lunch alone was over 80% of the recommended daily salt intake by WHO. Noodles, stews, sauces, and soups were major sources of salt intake at dish group level, while the most salty dishes were sauces, kimchies, and stir-fried foods. Dietary knowledge and attitude related to sodium intake and consumption frequency of the salty dishes were surveyed with questionnaire in 798 students and 256 staffs working for school meal service. Compared with the staffs, the students perceived school meals salty and the proportions of students who thought school meals were salty increased with going up from elementary to high schools (P < 0.001). Among the students, middle and high school students showed significant propensity for the preference to one-dish meal, processed foods, eating much broth and dipping sauce or seasoning compared with the elementary students, although they had higher nutrition knowledge scores. These results proposed that monitoring salt content of school meals and consideration on the contents and education methods in school are needed to lower sodium intake. PMID:23424102

  20. Anomalous water diffusion in salt solutions

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yun; Hassanali, Ali A.; Parrinello, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of water exhibits anomalous behavior in the presence of different electrolytes. Recent experiments [Kim JS, Wu Z, Morrow AR, Yethiraj A, Yethiraj A (2012) J Phys Chem B 116(39):12007–12013] have found that the self-diffusion of water can either be enhanced or suppressed around CsI and NaCl, respectively, relative to that of neat water. Here we show that unlike classical empirical potentials, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations successfully reproduce the qualitative trends observed experimentally. These types of phenomena have often been rationalized in terms of the “structure-making” or “structure-breaking” effects of different ions on the solvent, although the microscopic origins of these features have remained elusive. Rather than disrupting the network in a significant manner, the electrolytes studied here cause rather subtle changes in both structural and dynamical properties of water. In particular, we show that water in the ab initio molecular dynamics simulations is characterized by dynamic heterogeneity, which turns out to be critical in reproducing the experimental trends. PMID:24522111

  1. Microwave remote sensing of soil water content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cihlar, J.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1975-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing of soils to determine water content was considered. A layered water balance model was developed for determining soil water content in the upper zone (top 30 cm), while soil moisture at greater depths and near the surface during the diurnal cycle was studied using experimental measurements. Soil temperature was investigated by means of a simulation model. Based on both models, moisture and temperature profiles of a hypothetical soil were generated and used to compute microwave soil parameters for a clear summer day. The results suggest that, (1) soil moisture in the upper zone can be predicted on a daily basis for 1 cm depth increments, (2) soil temperature presents no problem if surface temperature can be measured with infrared radiometers, and (3) the microwave response of a bare soil is determined primarily by the moisture at and near the surface. An algorithm is proposed for monitoring large areas which combines the water balance and microwave methods.

  2. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Pérez, J. V.; De Prados, M.; Pérez-Muelas, N.; Cárcel, J. A.; Benedito, J.

    2012-12-01

    Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (p<0.05) linear relationships were found between the ultrasonic velocity and the salt (R2 = 0.975) and moisture (R2 = 0.863) contents. In addition, the change of the ultrasonic velocity with the increase of the salt content showed a good agreement with the Kinsler equation. Therefore, low intensity ultrasound emerges as a potential technique to monitor, in a non destructive way, the meat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

  3. Water content reflectometer calibration and field use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Automated soil water content can be used to help determine upward water movement from a shallow water table. Apparent permittivity determined from dielectric probes is related to more than soil water content for soils high in smectite clays. The purpose of this study was to calibrate and use CS616 w...

  4. The association of octadecyl-end-capped poly-(sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonates) in water and salt solutions: A study by fluorescence spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizusaki, M.; Morishima, Y.; Raju, B. B.; Winnik, F. M.

    Steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) have been used to study the aggregation in aqueous solutions of poly-(2-acrylamido)-2-methylpropanesulfonic acids, sodium salt mono-endcapped with either N,N-di-n-octadecyl or N-4-[(1-pyrenyl)butyl]-N-n-octadecyl which were prepared by free radical polymerization of 2-(acrylamido)-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS) initiated with the azo compounds, 4,4'-azobis{cyano-N,N-di-n-octadecyl}pentanamide and 4,4'-azobis{cyano-N,N-[4-(1-pyrenyl)butyl]-n-octadecyl}pentanamide, respectively. Both techniques indicate the occurrence of multimolecular aggregates in solutions of the polymers in water and in 0.2 M NaCl. The concentration range for aggregation is about 1-14 mmol AMPS l^{-1} (0.5-2.7 g l^{-1}) in 0.2 M NaCl and the enthalpy of micellization, estimated from ITC data, is 100 J [mol AMPS]^{-1}. The accessibility of the chromophores to neutral molecules and to cationic species was assessed by quenching of fluorescence with nitromethane and thallium nitrate, respectively. The association of the mono-endcapped polymers is compared to that of PAMPS derivatives carrying hydrophobic groups randomly attached along the chain.

  5. SELECTION OF VEGETATED HABITAT BY BROWN SHRIMp, PENAEUS AZTECUS, IN A GALVESTON BAY SALT MARSH

    E-print Network

    SELECTION OF VEGETATED HABITAT BY BROWN SHRIMp, PENAEUS AZTECUS, IN A GALVESTON BAY SALT MARSH Ro. Penaeu8 aztecu8. in vegetated and nonvegetated habitats ofa Galveston West Bay salt marsh were compared reticulation in salt marsh macrostructure, relatively low tidal range. and seasonal periods of high water

  6. Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.

    2016-01-01

    Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of < 1 ppm in urKREEP. Using these data, predict that the bulk water content of the magma ocean would have <10 ppm. In contrast, estimate water contents of 320 ppm for the bulk Moon and 1.4 wt % for urKREEP from plagioclase in ferroan anorthosites. Results and interpretation: NanoSIMS data from granitic clasts from Apollo sample 15405,78 show that alkali feldspar, a common mineral in K-enriched rocks, can have approx. 20 ppm of water, which implies magmatic water contents of approx. 1 wt % in the high-silica magmas. This estimate is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. However, the Cl and F contents of apatite in chemically similar rocks suggest that these melts also had high Cl/F ratios, which leads to spuriously low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was likely very significant in the evolution of the lunar mantle. Conclusions: Lunar granites crystallized between 4.3-3.8 Ga from relatively wet melts that degassed upon crystallization. The formation of these granites likely removed significant amounts of water from some mantle source regions, e.g. later mare basalts predicting derivation from a mantle with <10 ppm water. However, this would have been a heterogeneous pro-cess based on K distribution. Thus some, if not most of the mantle may not have been devolatilized by this process; as seen by water in volcanic glasses and melt inclusions.

  7. Investigation of indigenous water, salt and soil for solar ponds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E.

    1983-01-01

    The existence of salt-gradient solar ponds in nature is a strong indication that the successful exploitation of this phenomenon must account adequately for the influences of the local setting. Sun, weather and other general factors are treated elsewhere. This paper deals with water, salt, and soil. A general methodology for evaluating and, where feasible, adjusting the effects of these elements is under development. Eight essential solar pond characteristics have been identified, along with a variety of their dependencies upon properties of water, salt and soil. The comprehensive methodology, when fully developed, will include laboratory investigation in such diverse areas as brine physical chemistry, light transmission, water treatment, brine-soil interactions, sealants, and others. With the Salton Sea solar pond investigation as an example, some methods under development will be described.

  8. Investigation of indigenous water, salt and soil for solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, H.E.

    1983-08-01

    The existence of salt-gradient solar ponds in nature is a strong indication that the successful exploitation of this phenomenon must account adequately for the influences of the local setting. Sun, weather and other general factors are treated elsewhere. This paper deals with water, salt, and soil. A general methodology for evaluating and, where feasible, adjusting the effects of these elements is under development. Eight essential solar pond characteristics have been identified, along with a variety of their dependencies upon properties of water, salt and soil. The comprehensive methodology, when fully developed, will include laboratory investigation in such diverse areas as brine physical chemistry, light transmission, water treatment, brinesoil interactions, sealants, and others. With the Salton Sea solar pond investigation as an example, some methods under development are described.

  9. Soil water content and evaporation determined by thermal parameters obtained from ground-based and remote measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B.; Jackson, R. D.; Vedder, J. F.; Blanchard, M. B.; Goettelman, R.

    1976-01-01

    Soil water contents from both smooth and rough bare soil were estimated from remotely sensed surface soil and air temperatures. An inverse relationship between two thermal parameters and gravimetric soil water content was found for Avondale loam when its water content was between air-dry and field capacity. These parameters, daily maximum minus minimum surface soil temperature and daily maximum soil minus air temperature, appear to describe the relationship reasonably well. These two parameters also describe relative soil water evaporation (actual/potential). Surface soil temperatures showed good agreement among three measurement techniques: in situ thermocouples, a ground-based infrared radiation thermometer, and the thermal infrared band of an airborne multispectral scanner.

  10. Surveys of the salt content in UK bread: progress made and further reductions possible

    PubMed Central

    Brinsden, Hannah C; He, Feng J; Jenner, Katharine H; MacGregor, Graham A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To explore the salt reductions made over time in packaged bread sold in the UK, the biggest contributor of salt to the UK diet. Study design Cross-sectional surveys were carried out on the salt content of breads available in UK supermarkets in 2001(40 products), 2006 (138) and 2011 (203). Main outcome measures The primary outcome measure was the change in salt content per 100?g over time. Further measures included the proportion of products meeting salt targets and differences between brands and bread types. Results The average salt level of bread was 1.23±0.19?g/100?g in 2001, 1.05±0.16 in 2006 and 0.98±0.13 in 2011. This shows a reduction in salt/100?g of ?20% between 2001 and 2011. In the 18 products which were surveyed in all 3?years, there was a significant reduction of 17% (p<0.05). Supermarket own brand bread was found to be lower in salt compared with branded bread (0.95?g/100?g compared with 1.04?g/100?g in 2011). The number of products meeting the 2012 targets increased from 28% in 2001 to 71% in 2011 (p<0.001). Conclusions This study shows that the salt content of bread has been progressively reduced over time, contributing to the evidence base that a target-based approach to salt reduction can lead to reductions being made. A wide variation in salt levels was found with many products already meeting the 2012 targets, indicating that further reductions can be made. This requires further progressive lower targets to be set, so that the UK can continue to lead the world in salt reduction and save the maximum number of lives. PMID:23794567

  11. Water, salt water and alkaline solution uptake in epoxy thin films

    E-print Network

    Scott, P.; Lees, Janet M.

    2013-05-10

    type and temperature, are explored. Experimental results, where the solution uptake in desiccated (D) or undesiccated (U) thin films of a commercially available epoxy matrix subjected to water (W), salt water (SW), or alkali concrete pore solution (CPS...

  12. Moisture content, processing yield, and surface color of broiler carcasses chilled by water, air, or evaporative air.

    PubMed

    Jeong, J Y; Janardhanan, K K; Booren, A M; Karcher, D M; Kang, I

    2011-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of water chilling (WC), air chilling (AC), and evaporative air chilling (EAC) on the moisture content, processing yield, surface color, and visual appearance of broiler carcasses. For the WC treatment, 1 group of birds was hard scalded and submersed into ice slush, whereas for AC, 1 group of birds was soft scalded and exposed to blowing air (1.0 m/s at 0°C) and for EAC, or 1 group of birds was soft scalded and exposed to blowing air and a cold water spray (every 5 min). During chilling, carcass temperature was reduced most effectively by WC (55 min), followed by EAC (120 min) and AC (155 min). After chilling, both WC and EAC carcasses picked up moisture at 4.6 and 1.0% of their weights, respectively, whereas AC carcasses lost 1.5% of their weight. On cutting at 5 h postmortem, WC carcasses showed the highest (2.5%), EAC showed the second highest (0.4%), and AC showed the least (0.3%) moisture loss. After 24 h of storage, almost 83% of the absorbed water in the WC carcass parts was released as purge, whereas EAC and AC carcasses maintained weights close to the prechilled weights. In an instrumental color evaluation and a visual evaluation by panelists, AC carcasses showed a darker appearance, a more yellow color, and more surface discoloration compared with WC or EAC carcasses. PMID:21325243

  13. High Salt Diets, Bone Strength and Mineral Content of Mature Femur After Skeletal Unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Michael T. C.

    1998-01-01

    It is known that high salt diets increase urinary calcium (Ca) loss, but it is not known whether this effect weakens bone during space flight. The Bone Hormone Lab has studied the effect of high salt diets on Ca balance and whole body Ca in a space flight model (2,8). Neither the strength nor mineral content of the femurs from these studies has been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of high salt diets (HiNa) and skeletal unloading on femoral bone strength and bone mineral content (BMC) in mature rats.

  14. Correlation among Cirrus Ice Content, Water Vapor and Temperature in the TTL as Observed by CALIPSO and Aura-MLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flury, T.; Wu, D. L.; Read, W. G.

    2012-01-01

    Water vapor in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) has a local radiative cooling effect. As a source for ice in cirrus clouds, however, it can also indirectly produce infrared heating. Using NASA A-Train satellite measurements of CALIPSO and Aura/MLS we calculated the correlation of water vapor, ice water content and temperature in the TTL. We find that temperature strongly controls water vapor (correlation r =0.94) and cirrus clouds at 100 hPa (r = -0.91). Moreover we observe that the cirrus seasonal cycle is highly (r =-0.9) anticorrelated with the water vapor variation in the TTL, showing higher cloud occurrence during December-January-February. We further investigate the anticorrelation on a regional scale and find that the strong anticorrelation occurs generally in the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone). The seasonal cycle of the cirrus ice water content is also highly anticorrelated to water vapor (r = -0.91) and our results support the hypothesis that the total water at 100 hPa is roughly constant. Temperature acts as a main regulator for balancing the partition between water vapor and cirrus clouds. Thus, to a large extent, the depleting water vapor in the TTL during DJF is a manifestation of cirrus formation.

  15. WATER LEVEL AND OXYGEN DELIVERY/UTILIZATION IN POROUS SALT MARSH SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasing terrestrial nutrient inputs to coastal waters is a global water quality issue worldwide, and salt marshes may provide a valuable nutrient buffer, either by direct removal or by smoothing out pulse inputs between sources and sensitive estuarine habitats. A major challen...

  16. [Estimation of vegetation water content from Landsat 8 OLI data].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xing-ming; Ding, Yan-ling; Zhao, Kai; Jiang, Tao; Li, Xiao-feng; Zhang, Shi-yi; Li, Yang-yang; Wu, Li-li; Sun, Jian; Ren, Jian-hua; Zhang, Xuan-xuan

    2014-12-01

    The present paper aims to analyze the capabilities and limitations for retrieving vegetation water content from Landsat8 OLI (Operational Land Imager) sensor-new generation of earth observation program. First, the effect of soil background on canopy reflectance and the sensitive band to vegetation water content were analyzed based on simulated dataset from ProSail model. Then, based on vegetation water indices from Landsat8 OLI and field vegetation water content during June 1 2013 to August 14 2013, the best vegetation water index for estimating vegetation water content was found through comparing 12 different indices. The results show that: (1) red, near infrared and two shortwave infrared bands of OLI sensor are sensitive to the change in vegetation water content, and near infrared band is the most sensitive one; (2) At low vegetation coverage, solar radiation reflected by soil background will reach to spectral sensor and influence the relationship between vegetation water index and vegetation water content, and simulation results from ProSail model also show that soil background reflectance has a significant impact on vegetation canopy reflectance in both wet and dry soil conditions, so the optimized soil adjusted vegetation index (OSAVI) was used in this paper to remove the effect of soil background on vegetation water index and improve its relationship with vegetation water content; (3) for the 12 vegetation water indices, the relationship between MSI2 and vegetation water content is the best with the R-square of 0.948 and the average error of vegetation water content is 0.52 kg · m(-2); (4) it is difficult to estimate vegetation water content from vegetation water indices when vegetation water content is larger than 2 kg · m(-2) due to spectral saturation of these indices. PMID:25881444

  17. 46 CFR 46.10-45 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. 46.10-45 Section...subdivision load lines in salt water. (a) Passenger vessels...shall not submerge in salt water the subdivision load line...voyages may be marked with fresh water load lines. A...

  18. 46 CFR 46.10-45 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. 46.10-45 Section...subdivision load lines in salt water. (a) Passenger vessels...shall not submerge in salt water the subdivision load line...voyages may be marked with fresh water load lines. A...

  19. NITRATE RELEASE BY SALT MARSH PLANTS: AN OVERLOOKED NUTRIENT FLUX MECHANISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salt marshes provide water purification as an important ecosystem service in part by storing, transforming and releasing nutrients. This service can be quantified by measuring nutrient fluxes between marshes and surface waters. Many processes drive these fluxes, including photosy...

  20. Geophysical methods to support correct water sampling locations for salt dilution gauging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comina, C.; Lasagna, M.; De Luca, D. A.; Sambuelli, L.

    2014-05-01

    To improve water management design, particularly in irrigation areas, it is important to evaluate the baseline state of the water resources, including canal discharge. Discharge measurements, using salt dilution gauging, are a traditional and well-documented technique. The complete mixing of salt used for dilution gauging is required for reliable measurements; this condition is difficult to test or verify and, if not fulfilled, is the largest source of uncertainty in the discharge calculation. In this paper, a geophysical technique (FERT, Fast Electrical Resistivity Tomography) is proposed for imaging the distribution of the salt plume used for dilution gauging at every point along a sampling cross-section. In this way, it is possible to check whether complete mixing has occurred. If the mixing is not complete, the image created by FERT can also provide guidance for selecting water-sampling locations in the sampling cross-section. A water multi-sampling system prototype for the simultaneous sampling of canal water at different points within the cross-section, aimed to potentially take into account concentration variability, is also proposed and tested. Preliminary results of a single test with salt dilution gauging and FERT in a real case are reported. The results show that imaging the passage of the salt plume is possible by means of geophysical controls and that this can potentially help in the selection of water sampling points.

  1. Electromyogram as a measure of heavy metal toxicity in fresh water and salt water mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Kidder, G.W. III |; McCoy, A.A. |

    1996-02-01

    The response of bivalves to heavy metals and other toxins has usually been determined by observing valve position. Since mussels close their valves to avoid noxious stimuli, experimental delivery of chemicals ins uncertain. To obtain constant results plastic spacers can be employed to hold the valves apart. This obviates valve position as an index of response and some other method is required. Electromyography of intact mussels is one such index, giving a simple, effective, and quantitative measurement of activity. Experiments are reported in this article on the effects of added mercury on salt water and fresh water species.

  2. Enhancement of cyanobacterial salt tolerance by combined nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Reddy, B R; Apte, S K; Thomas, J

    1989-01-01

    Presence of certain nitrogenous compounds in the growth medium significantly enhanced the salt tolerance of the fresh-water cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain L-31 as well as the brackish water cyanobacterium Anabaena torulosa. Among these, nitrate, ammonium, and glutamine were most effective followed by glutamate and aspartate. These nitrogenous compounds also inhibited Na(+) influx in both Anabaena spp. with the same order of effectiveness as that observed for protection against salt stress. The inhibition of Na(+) influx on addition of the nitrogenous substances was rapid; nitrate and ammonium inhibited Na(+) influx competitively. Proline and glycine did not affect Na(+) influx and also had no influence on the salt tolerance of either Anabaena sp. The observed protection was not consequent to a stimulatory effect of combined nitrogen on growth per se. Uptake of NO(3) (-) and NH(4) (+) increased during salt stress but was not correlated with growth. Intracellular levels of NO(3) (-) and NH(4) (+) were found to be inadequate to constitute a major component of the internal osmoticum. The results suggest that inhibition of Na(+) influx by combined nitrogen is a major mechanism for protection of cyanobacteria against salt stress. PMID:16666516

  3. Water Content of the Oceanic Lithosphere at Hawaii from FTIR Analysis of Peridotite Xenoliths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, Anne H.; Bizmis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Although water in the mantle is mostly present as trace H dissolved in minerals, it has a large influence on its melting and rheological properties. The water content of the mantle lithosphere beneath continents is better constrained by abundant mantle xenolith data than beneath oceans where it is mainly inferred from MORB glass analysis. Using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, we determined the water content of olivine (Ol), clinopyroxene (Cpx) and orthopyroxene (Opx) in spinel peridotite xenoliths from Salt Lake Crater, Oahu, Hawaii, which are thought to represent fragments of the Pacific oceanic lithosphere that was refertilized by alkalic Hawaiian melts. Only Ol exhibits H diffusion profiles, evidence of limited H loss during xenolith transport to the surface. Water concentrations (Ol: 9-28 ppm H2O, Cpx: 246-566 ppm H2O, Opx: 116-224 ppm H2O) are within the range of those from continental settings but higher than those from Gakkel ridge abyssal peridotites. The Opx H2O contents are similar to those of abyssal peridotites from Atlantic ridge Leg 153 (170-230 ppm) but higher than those from Leg 209 (10- 14 ppm). The calculated bulk peridotite water contents (94 to 144 ppm H2O) are in agreement with MORB mantle source water estimates and lower than estimates for the source of Hawaiian rejuvenated volcanism (approx 540 ppm H2O) . The water content of Cpx and most Opx correlates negatively with spinel Cr#, and positively with pyroxene Al and HREE contents. This is qualitatively consistent with the partitioning of H into the melt during partial melting, but the water contents are too high for the degree of melting these peridotites experienced. Melts in equilibrium with xenolith minerals have H2O/Ce ratios similar to those of OIB

  4. ALUMINUM BIOAVAILABILITY FROM DRINKING WATER IS VERY LOW AND IS NOT APPRECIABLY INFLUENCED BY STOMACH CONTENTS OR WATER HARDNESS. (R825357)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives were to estimate aluminum (Al) oral bioavailability under conditions that model its consumption in drinking water, and to test the hypotheses that stomach contents and co-administration of the major components of hard water affect Al absorption. Rats received intra...

  5. Surfactant Adsorption at the Salt/Water Interface: Comparing the Conformation and Interfacial Water Structure for Selected Surfactants

    E-print Network

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    Surfactant Adsorption at the Salt/Water Interface: Comparing the Conformation and Interfacial Water in situ spectroscopic measurements monitoring the adsorption of a series of carboxylate surfactants onto, by the ability to form strongly hydrophobic surfaces on the solid phase. The adsorption density and structuring

  6. Modeling of salt-water migration through spod-podzolic soils under the field and laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronzhina, Tatiana

    2013-04-01

    The assessment of highly mineralized water influence on soils is an important issue in the contemporary world. Various regions with different conditions are exposed to salt-affected soils forming. Salinization of soils is a complex process of the chemical and physical properties changes. Therefore the chain of the laboratory and field experiments should be done in order to assess the main factors promoting highly mineralized water migration. In addition to it modelling is a good way to understand and evaluate main chemical and physical transformations in soils. The chain of experiments was done to assess salt water movement in spod-podzolic soils under field and laboratory conditions. The main goals were to evaluate the rate of salt water movement through soils and to estimate velocity of the desalinization process. Field experiment was conducted on spod-podzolic soils of Kaliningrad region. There were 4 sites measuring 20*25 cm watering with salt water in amount of 5 liters per each area. The mineralization of the solution was 100 g/l. In addition to the salt affected sites, 2 non polluted grounds were assessed too. Soils samples were collected in the period of 1 week, 1 month, 3 month and 1 year after the spill had been done. The samples were taken each 10 cm 110 cm deep and in double repeatability. Main chemical and physical parameters, such as volume water content, pH, conductivity, amount of calcium ion, magnesium, sodium, and chlorite in soils etc. were measured in each sample. The second experiment was conducted to evaluate the rate of soils solutions transformation under the laboratory conditions. Organic horizon was taken from the field and was stuffed in columns with 1.0 g/cm3 density. There were 16 columns with 4 cm diameter. 14 columns were showered with salt water with the same mineralization as in the field experiment. The amount of salt water injected in columns was 104 mm per one sample which is equal to the salt water volume spilled per one area in the previous experiment. Also there were 2 columns as a verification variant contained pure soil. Each column was washed off with different amount of distilled water. The total volume of the pure solution was equal to the mean amount of the annual precipitation in the region of the field experiment. The main physical and chemical properties were measured in soils samples as well in the first experiment. In addition to it the complex assessment of soil's water were made. The experiments revealed the fast rate of salinization-desalinization processes in spod-podzolic soils of the coniferous areas in Kaliningrad region. The maximum values of conductivity were observed at the end of 1 week period and made up more than 2000 mSm/cm in top soils horizons. Furthermore the desalinization of the soils took place in both field and laboratory experiments a year after the spill. The reported study was partially supported by RFBR, research project No 12-05-31088 mol_a.

  7. How Do Changes to the Railroad Causeway in Utah's Great Salt Lake Affect Water and Salt Flow?

    PubMed

    White, James S; Null, Sarah E; Tarboton, David G

    2015-01-01

    Managing terminal lake elevation and salinity are emerging problems worldwide. We contribute to terminal lake management research by quantitatively assessing water and salt flow for Utah's Great Salt Lake. In 1959, Union Pacific Railroad constructed a rock-filled causeway across the Great Salt Lake, separating the lake into a north and south arm. Flow between the two arms was limited to two 4.6 meter wide rectangular culverts installed during construction, an 88 meter opening (referred to locally as a breach) installed in 1984, and the semi porous material of the causeway. A salinity gradient developed between the two arms of the lake over time because the south arm receives approximately 95% of the incoming streamflow entering Great Salt Lake. The north arm is often at, or near, salinity saturation, averaging 317 g/L since 1966, while the south is considerably less saline, averaging 142 g/L since 1966. Ecological and industrial uses of the lake are dependent on long-term salinity remaining within physiological and economic thresholds, although optimal salinity varies for the ecosystem and between diverse stakeholders. In 2013, Union Pacific Railroad closed causeway culverts amid structural safety concerns and proposed to replace them with a bridge, offering four different bridge designs. As of summer 2015, no bridge design has been decided upon. We investigated the effect that each of the proposed bridge designs would have on north and south arm Great Salt Lake elevation and salinity by updating and applying US Geological Survey's Great Salt Lake Fortran Model. Overall, we found that salinity is sensitive to bridge size and depth, with larger designs increasing salinity in the south arm and decreasing salinity in the north arm. This research illustrates that flow modifications within terminal lakes cannot be separated from lake salinity, ecology, management, and economic uses. PMID:26641101

  8. How Do Changes to the Railroad Causeway in Utah’s Great Salt Lake Affect Water and Salt Flow?

    PubMed Central

    White, James S.; Null, Sarah E.; Tarboton, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Managing terminal lake elevation and salinity are emerging problems worldwide. We contribute to terminal lake management research by quantitatively assessing water and salt flow for Utah’s Great Salt Lake. In 1959, Union Pacific Railroad constructed a rock-filled causeway across the Great Salt Lake, separating the lake into a north and south arm. Flow between the two arms was limited to two 4.6 meter wide rectangular culverts installed during construction, an 88 meter opening (referred to locally as a breach) installed in 1984, and the semi porous material of the causeway. A salinity gradient developed between the two arms of the lake over time because the south arm receives approximately 95% of the incoming streamflow entering Great Salt Lake. The north arm is often at, or near, salinity saturation, averaging 317 g/L since 1966, while the south is considerably less saline, averaging 142 g/L since 1966. Ecological and industrial uses of the lake are dependent on long-term salinity remaining within physiological and economic thresholds, although optimal salinity varies for the ecosystem and between diverse stakeholders. In 2013, Union Pacific Railroad closed causeway culverts amid structural safety concerns and proposed to replace them with a bridge, offering four different bridge designs. As of summer 2015, no bridge design has been decided upon. We investigated the effect that each of the proposed bridge designs would have on north and south arm Great Salt Lake elevation and salinity by updating and applying US Geological Survey’s Great Salt Lake Fortran Model. Overall, we found that salinity is sensitive to bridge size and depth, with larger designs increasing salinity in the south arm and decreasing salinity in the north arm. This research illustrates that flow modifications within terminal lakes cannot be separated from lake salinity, ecology, management, and economic uses. PMID:26641101

  9. Extraction of metal salts by mixtures of water-immiscible amines and organic acids (acid-base couple extractants); 1: A review of distribution and spectroscopic data and of proposed extraction mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Eyal, A.M.; Bressler, E.; Bloch, R.; Hazan, B. . School of Applied Science and Technology)

    1994-05-01

    Distribution data and extraction mechanisms are reviewed for metal salt extraction by mixtures of water immiscible amines and organic acids in a diluent. Some new results from this laboratory were included to widen the scope of extractant components, provide more data on extraction of transition metal sulfates from concentrated solutions, and study the mutual effects of extraction and aqueous-phase acidity. An effort was made to present a matrix of the affecting parameters (extracted salt and extractant characteristics, aqueous-phase concentration and acidity, organic-phase concentration, temperature, etc.) and the distribution data (capacity and extraction selectivity and stoichiometry, the shape of the distribution curve, and water coextraction). This data provides the tools required for tailoring extractants for many hydrometallurgical and waste management processes. In addition, it provides the basis for analysis of the mechanisms involved and of the species present in the organic phase.

  10. Effect of calcium in brine on salt diffusion and water distribution of Mozzarella cheese during brining.

    PubMed

    Luo, J; Pan, T; Guo, H Y; Ren, F Z

    2013-02-01

    A soft, pasty, high-moisture surface defect occurs with progressive brining of Mozzarella cheese. Addition of calcium is traditionally used to prevent this defect but the underlying mechanism is not clear. Mozzarella cheese was formed into a cylinder inside brine on its plane surface to ensure semi-infinite, unidirectional mass transfer and placed into brine containing 0, 0.1, or 0.25% (wt/wt) calcium chloride. To monitor the effect on cheese composition of calcium in brine, we measured calcium and water contents of the cheese during brining. The extent of calcium loss from the cheese decreased significantly with the addition of calcium. Addition of calcium to a final concentration of 0.25% decreased the loss of calcium from 94.13 to 18.22% from the outside region of the cheese after 30 d, and the water content of the cheese was decreased from 67.8 to 48.8%. To further elucidate the effect of calcium in brine, the Boltzmann method was used to determine the effective diffusion coefficient value, and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance was used to measure the cheese transversal relaxation time. The migration of calcium interfered with salt diffusion. At the end of brining, the amount of water bound to the protein of the cheese significantly increased. Addition of calcium to a final concentration of 0.25% diminished the proportion of bound water by 20.96%. In conclusion, addition of calcium hinders the diffusion of sodium and modifies the distribution of water in Mozzarella cheese during brining. PMID:23200478

  11. Xylem water content and wood density in spruce and oak trees detected by high-resolution computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Fromm, J H; Sautter, I; Matthies, D; Kremer, J; Schumacher, P; Ganter, C

    2001-10-01

    Elucidation of the mechanisms involved in long-distance water transport in trees requires knowledge of the water distribution within the sapwood and heartwood of the stem as well as of the earlywood and latewood of an annual ring. X-ray computed tomography is a powerful tool for measuring density distributions and water contents in the xylem with high spatial resolution. Ten- to 20-year-old spruce (Picea abies L. KARST.) and oak (Quercus robur) trees grown in the field were used throughout the experiments. Stem and branch discs were collected from different tree heights, immediately deep frozen, and used for the tomographic determinations of spatial water distributions. Results are presented for single-tree individuals, demonstrating heartwood and sapwood distribution throughout their entire length as well as the water relations in single annual rings of both types of wood. Tree rings of the sapwood show steep water gradients from latewood to earlywood, whereas those of the heartwood reflect water deficiency in both species. Although only the latest two annual rings of the ringporous species are generally assumed to transport water, we found similar amounts of water and no tyloses in all rings of the oak sapwood, which indicates that at least water storage is important in the whole sapwood. PMID:11598217

  12. Freezing avoidance by supercooling in Olea europaea cultivars: the role of apoplastic water, solute content and cell wall rigidity.

    PubMed

    Arias, Nadia S; Bucci, Sandra J; Scholz, Fabian G; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2015-10-01

    Plants can avoid freezing damage by preventing extracellular ice formation below the equilibrium freezing temperature (supercooling). We used Olea europaea cultivars to assess which traits contribute to avoid ice nucleation at sub-zero temperatures. Seasonal leaf water relations, non-structural carbohydrates, nitrogen and tissue damage and ice nucleation temperatures in different plant parts were determined in five cultivars growing in the Patagonian cold desert. Ice seeding in roots occurred at higher temperatures than in stems and leaves. Leaves of cold acclimated cultivars supercooled down to -13?°C, substantially lower than the minimum air temperatures observed in the study site. During winter, leaf ice nucleation and leaf freezing damage (LT50 ) occurred at similar temperatures, typical of plant tissues that supercool. Higher leaf density and cell wall rigidity were observed during winter, consistent with a substantial acclimation to sub-zero temperatures. Larger supercooling capacity and lower LT50 were observed in cold-acclimated cultivars with higher osmotically active solute content, higher tissue elastic adjustments and lower apoplastic water. Irreversible leaf damage was only observed in laboratory experiments at very low temperatures, but not in the field. A comparative analysis of closely related plants avoids phylogenetic independence bias in a comparative study of adaptations to survive low temperatures. PMID:25737264

  13. 46 CFR 46.10-45 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. 46... in salt water. (a) Passenger vessels required to be marked with subdivision load lines, engaged on foreign and coastwise voyages other than the Great Lakes voyages, shall not submerge in salt water...

  14. 46 CFR 46.10-45 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. 46... in salt water. (a) Passenger vessels required to be marked with subdivision load lines, engaged on foreign and coastwise voyages other than the Great Lakes voyages, shall not submerge in salt water...

  15. Water Dynamics in Salt Solutions Studied with Ultrafast Two-Dimensional Infrared (2D IR)

    E-print Network

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Water Dynamics in Salt Solutions Studied with Ultrafast Two-Dimensional Infrared (2D IR. Many of these species are charged. In the ocean, water interacts with dissolved salts. In biological systems, water interacts with dissolved salts as well as charged amino acids, the zwitterionic head groups

  16. 46 CFR 46.10-45 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. 46... in salt water. (a) Passenger vessels required to be marked with subdivision load lines, engaged on foreign and coastwise voyages other than the Great Lakes voyages, shall not submerge in salt water...

  17. 46 CFR 46.10-45 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. 46... in salt water. (a) Passenger vessels required to be marked with subdivision load lines, engaged on foreign and coastwise voyages other than the Great Lakes voyages, shall not submerge in salt water...

  18. The impact of the absence of aliphatic glucosinolates on water transport under salt stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Ballesta, Mcarmen; Moreno-Fernández, Diego A.; Castejón, Diego; Ochando, Cristina; Morandini, Piero A.; Carvajal, Micaela

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Brassicaceae are known for their contents of nutrients and health-promoting phytochemicals, including glucosinolates. Exposure to salinity increases the levels of several of these compounds, but their role in abiotic stress response is unclear. The effect of aliphatic glucosinolates on plant water balance and growth under salt stress, involving aquaporins, was investigated by means of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants impaired in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis, which is controlled by two transcription factors: Myb28 and Myb29. The double mutant myb28myb29, completely lacking aliphatic glucosinolates, was compared to wild type Col-0 (WT) and the single mutant myb28. A greater reduction in the hydraulic conductivity of myb28myb29 was observed under salt stress, when compared to the WT and myb28; this correlated with the abundance of both PIP1 and PIP2 aquaporin subfamilies. Also, changes in root architecture in response to salinity were genotype dependent. Treatment with NaCl altered glucosinolates biosynthesis in a similar way in WT and the single mutant and differently in the double mutant. The results indicate that short-chain aliphatic glucosinolates may contribute to water saving under salt stress. PMID:26236322

  19. A comparison of the coupled fresh water-salt water flow and the Ghyben-Herzberg sharp interface approaches to modeling of transient behavior in coastal aquifer systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Essaid, H.I.

    1986-01-01

    A quasi-three dimensional finite difference model which simulates coupled, fresh water and salt water flow, separated by a sharp interface, is used to investigate the effects of storage characteristics, transmissivity, boundary conditions and anisotropy on the transient responses of such flow systems. The magnitude and duration of the departure of aquifer response from the behavior predicted using the Ghyben-Herzberg, one-fluid approach is a function of the ease with which flow can be induced in the salt water region. In many common hydrogeologic settings short-term fresh water head responses, and transitional responses between short-term and long-term, can only be realistically reproduced by including the effects of salt water flow on the dynamics of coastal flow systems. The coupled fresh water-salt water flow modeling approach is able to reproduce the observed annual fresh water head response of the Waialae aquifer of southeastern Oahu, Hawaii. ?? 1986.

  20. ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY The effects of tree establishment on water and salt dynamics

    E-print Network

    Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

    ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY The effects of tree establishment on water and salt dynamics in naturally salt an imprint on salt accumulation and distribution patterns. We explored how the conversion of native grasslands to oak plantations affected the abundance and distribution of salts on soils and groundwater

  1. High pressure processing alters water distribution enabling the production of reduced-fat and reduced-salt pork sausages.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huijuan; Han, Minyi; Bai, Yun; Han, Yanqing; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2015-04-01

    High pressure processing (HPP) was used to explore novel methods for modifying the textural properties of pork sausages with reduced-salt, reduced-fat and no fat replacement additions. A 2×7 factorial design was set up, incorporating two pressure levels (0.1 or 200 MPa) and seven fat levels (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30%). Sausages treated at 200 MPa exhibited improved tenderness at all fat levels compared with 0.1 MPa treated samples, and the shear force of sausages treated at 200 MPa with 15 or 20% fat content was similar to the 0.1 MPa treated sausages with 30% fat. HPP significantly changed the P? peak ratio of the four water components in raw sausages, resulting in improved textural properties of emulsion-type sausages with reduced-fat and reduced-salt. Significant correlations were found between pH, color, shear force and water proportions. The scanning and transmission micrographs revealed the formation of smaller fat globules and an improved network structure in the pressure treated sausages. In conclusion, there is potential to manufacture sausages with reduced-fat and reduced-salt by using HPP to maintain textural qualities. PMID:25553411

  2. Salt-induced counterion condensation and related phenomena in sodium carboxymethylcellulose-sodium halide-methanol-water quaternary systems.

    PubMed

    Das, Bijan; Chatterjee, Amritendu

    2015-05-28

    Polyion-counterion interactions in sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) in methanol-water media have been investigated conductometrically with reference to their variations with polyelectrolyte concentration, relative permittivity and the type and concentration of added electrolytes. The specific conductance data in polyelectrolyte-salt solutions were analyzed using an equation recently developed by us following the scaling description for the configuration of a polyion chain according to Dobrynin et al. Excellent quantitative agreement between the experimental results and those obtained with the new equation developed was observed. The results demonstrate that approximately 43-59% of the counterions remain free and that there has been a suppression of counterion dissociation in the presence of a salt in any given mixed solvent medium, the extent of which increases with increasing salt concentration. NaCl was found to be slightly more efficient than NaBr in suppressing the counterion-condensation in NaCMC-methanol-water systems. An increase in the amount of methanol in the media causes a reduction in the fraction of free counterions. The results further demonstrate that the monomer units experience more frictional resistance as the methanol content of the mixture increases or as the concentration of the added electrolytes increases. The results were discussed in terms of various interactions prevailing in these systems. PMID:25925504

  3. Enrichment of fluoride in groundwater under the impact of saline water intrusion at the salt lake area of Yuncheng basin, northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xubo; Wang, Yanxin; Li, Yilian; Guo, Qinghai

    2007-12-01

    Long-term intake of high-fluoride groundwater causes endemic fluorosis. This study, for the first time, discovered that the salt lake water intrusion into neighboring shallow aquifers might result in elevation of fluoride content of the groundwater. Two cross-sections along the groundwater flow paths were selected to study the geochemical processes controlling fluoride concentration in Yuncheng basin, northern China. There are two major reasons for the observed elevation of fluoride content: one is the direct contribution of the saline water; the other is the undersaturation of the groundwater with respect to fluorite due to salt water intrusion, which appears to be more important reason. The processes of the fluorine activity reduction and the change of Na/Ca ratio in groundwater induced by the intrusion of saline water favor further dissolution of fluorine-bearing mineral, and it was modeled using PHREEQC. With the increase in Na concentration (by adding NaCl or Na2SO4 as Na source, calcium content kept invariable), the increase of NaF concentration was rapid at first and then became slower; and the concentrations of HF, HF{2/-}, CaF+, and MgF+ were continuously decreasing. The geochemical conditions in the study area are advantageous to the complexation of F- with Na+ and the decline of saturation index of CaF2, regardless of the water type (Cl-Na or SO4-Na type water).

  4. Automated image analysis for experimental investigations of salt water intrusion in coastal aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, G.; Hamill, G. A.; Ahmed, Ashraf A.

    2015-11-01

    A novel methodology has been developed to quantify important salt water intrusion parameters in a sandbox experiment using image analysis. Existing methods found in the literature are based mainly on visual observations, which are subjective, labour intensive and limit the temporal and spatial resolutions that can be analysed. A robust error analysis was undertaken to determine the optimum methodology to convert image light intensity to concentration. Results showed that defining a relationship on a pixel-wise basis provided the most accurate image to concentration conversion and allowed quantification of the width of the mixing zone between salt water and freshwater. A high image sample rate was used to investigate the transient dynamics of salt water intrusion, which rendered analysis by visual observation unsuitable. This paper presents the methodologies developed to minimise human input, promote autonomy, provide high resolution image to concentration conversion, and allow the quantification of intrusion parameters under transient conditions.

  5. Effect of initial hydrogen content of a titanium alloy on susceptibility to hot-salt stress-corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, H. R.

    1971-01-01

    The Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V alloy was tested in four conditions: mill annealed (70 ppM H), duplex annealed (70 ppM H), vacuum annealed to an intermediate (36 ppM) and a low (9 ppM H) hydrogen level. Material annealed at 650 C (duplex condition) exhibited resistance to hot-salt stress corrosion superior to that exhibited by material in the mill-annealed condition. Reduction of the alloy hydrogen content from 70 to as low as 9 ppM did not influence resistance to hot-salt stress corrosion embrittlement or cracking.

  6. Salting the landscapes in Transbaikalia: natural and technogenic factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peryazeva, E. G.; Plyusnin, A. M.; Chinavlev, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    Salting the soils, surface and subsurface waters is widespread in Transbaikalia. Hearths of salting occur within intermountain depressions of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic age both in the steppe arid and forest humid landscapes. Total water mineralization reaches 80 g/dm3 in lakes and 4-5 g/dm3 in subsurface waters. The waters belong to hydrocarbonate sodium and sulfate sodium types by chemical composition. The soda type of waters is widely spread through the whole area. Sulfate waters are found in several hearths of salting. Deposition of salts takes place in some lakes. Mirabilite and soda depositions are most commonly observed in muds of salt lakes. Deposition of salts occurs both as a result of evaporative concentrating and during freezing out the solvent. In the winter period, efflorescences of salts, where decawater soda is main mineral, are observed on ice surface. Solonchaks are spread in areas of shallow ground waters (1-2m). Soil salting is most intense in the lower parts of depressions, where surface of ground waters is at depth 0.5-1.0m. In soil cover of solonchaks, salt horizon is of various thicknesses, and it has various morphological forms of occurrence, i.e. as thick deposits of salts on soil surface and salting the surficial horizons. The soil has low alkaline reaction of medium and is characterized by high content of exchangeable bases with significant content of exchangeable sodium in the absorbing complex. Total amount of salts varies from 0.7 to 1.3%. Their maximal quantity (3.1%) is confined to the surficial layer. Sulfate-sodium type of salting is noted in the solonchak upper horizons and sulfate-magnesium-calcium one in the lower ones (Ubugunov et al, 2009). Formation of salting hearths is associated with natural and technogenic conditions. The Mesozoic depressions of Transbaikalia are characterized by intense volcanism. Covers of alkaline and moderately alkaline basalts that are enriched in potassium, sodium, carbon dioxide, fluorine, chlorine, sulphur, strontium, lithium, molybdenum, nickel, and vanadium are widely spread there. Geochemical habit of basalts largely determines chemical compositions of waters and mineral formations in hearths of salting. Unloading the fissure-vein waters that evacuate solute from the Jurassic-Cretaceous volcanogenic-sedimentary deposits greatly effects chemical composition in some hearths of salting. Irrigation systems in many intermountain depressions influence the salting hearth formation. The associated secondary salting occurs as spots in the areas, where ground water surface reaches foot of loams during irrigation. Salting the landscapes takes out big areas of fertile lands from agricultural use, threatens with breakdowns at enterprises of thermal energetic that consume water as heat carrier.

  7. Characterization of Cloud Water-Content Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seungwon

    2010-01-01

    The development of realistic cloud parameterizations for climate models requires accurate characterizations of subgrid distributions of thermodynamic variables. To this end, a software tool was developed to characterize cloud water-content distributions in climate-model sub-grid scales. This software characterizes distributions of cloud water content with respect to cloud phase, cloud type, precipitation occurrence, and geo-location using CloudSat radar measurements. It uses a statistical method called maximum likelihood estimation to estimate the probability density function of the cloud water content.

  8. Estimating the vegetation water content using a radar vegetation index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation water content is an important biophysical parameter. Here, the Radar Vegetation Index (RVI) based on polarimetric backscatter observations was evaluated for estimating vegetation water content. Analysis utilized a data set obtained by a ground-based multi-frequency polarimetric scatterome...

  9. Water and chlorine content in the Martian soil along the first 1900 m of the Curiosity rover traverse as estimated by the DAN instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Sanin, A. B.; Starr, R. D.; Lisov, D. I.; Kuzmin, R. O.; Behar, A.; Boynton, W. V.; Hardgrove, C.; Harshman, K.; Jun, I.; Milliken, R. E.; Mischna, M. A.; Moersch, J. E.; Tate, C. G.

    2014-07-01

    The presence of hydrated phases in the soil and near-surface bedrock of Gale Crater is thought to be direct evidence for water-rock interaction in the crater in the ancient past. Layered sediments over the Gale Crater floor are thought to have formed in past epochs due to sediment transport, accumulation, and cementation through interaction with fluids, and the observed strata of water-bearing minerals record the history of these episodes. The first data analysis of the Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) investigation on board the Curiosity rover is presented for 154 individual points of active mode measurements along 1900 m of the traverse over the first 361 Martian solar days in Gale crater. It is found that a model of constant water content within subsurface should be rejected for practically all tested points, whereas a two-layer model with different water contents in each layer is supported by the data. A so-called direct two-layer model (water content increasing with depth) yields acceptable fits for odometry ranges between 0 and 455 m and beyond 638 m. The mean water (H2O) abundances of the top and bottom layers vary from 1.5 to 1.7 wt % and from 2.2 to 3.3 wt %, respectively, while at some tested spots the water content is estimated to be as high as ~5 wt %. The data for odometry range 455-638 m support an inverse two-layer model (water content decreasing with depth), with an estimated mean water abundance of 2.1 ± 0.1 wt % and 1.4 ± 0.04 wt % in the top and bottom layers, respectively.

  10. Design of Thermally Responsive Polymeric Hydrogels for Brackish Water Desalination: Effect of Architecture on Swelling, Deswelling, and Salt Rejection.

    PubMed

    Ali, Wael; Gebert, Beate; Hennecke, Tobias; Graf, Karlheinz; Ulbricht, Mathias; Gutmann, Jochen S

    2015-07-29

    In this work, we explore the ability of utilizing hydrogels synthesized from a temperature-sensitive polymer and a polyelectrolyte to desalinate salt water by means of reversible thermally induced absorption and desorption. Thus, the influence of the macromolecular architecture on the swelling/deswelling behavior for such hydrogels was investigated by tailor-made network structures. To this end, a series of chemically cross-linked polymeric hydrogels were synthesized via free radical-initiated copolymerization of sodium acrylate (SA) with the thermoresponsive comonomer N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) by realizing different structural types. In particular, two different polyNIPAAm macromonomers, either with one acrylate function at the chain end or with additional acrylate functions as side groups were synthesized by controlled polymerization and subsequent polymer-analogous reaction and then used as building blocks. The rheological behaviors of hydrogels and their estimated mesh sizes are discussed. The performance of the hydrogels in terms of swelling and deswelling in both deionized water (DI) and brackish water (2 g/L NaCl) was measured as a function of cross-linking degree and particle size. The salt content could be reduced by 23% in one cycle by using the best performing material. PMID:26090770

  11. Water-quality assessment of the Great Salt Lake basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming; environmental setting and study design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baskin, Robert L.; Waddell, K.M.; Thiros, S.A.; Giddings, E.M.; Hadley, H.K.; Stephens, D.W.; Gerner, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    The Great Salt Lake Basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming is one of 51 study units in the United States where the status and trends of water quality, and the factors controlling water quality, are being studied by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The 14,500-square-mile Great Salt Lake Basins study unit encompasses three major river systems that enter Great Salt Lake: the Bear, the Weber, and the Utah Lake/Jordan River systems. The environmental setting of the study unit includes natural and human-related factors that potentially influence the physical, chemical, and/or biological quality of the surface- and ground-water resources. Surface- and ground-water components of the planned assessment activities are designed to evaluate the sources of natural and human-related factors that affect the water quality in the Great Salt Lake Basins study unit.

  12. Salicylic Acid Alleviates the Adverse Effects of Salt Stress in Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii Seedlings by Activating Photosynthesis and Enhancing Antioxidant Systems

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xuhua; Tang, Hui; Shen, Chaohua; Wu, Jiasheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Salt stress is a major factor limiting plant growth and productivity. Salicylic acid (SA) has been shown to ameliorate the adverse effects of environmental stress on plants. To investigate the protective role of SA in ameliorating salt stress on Torreya grandis (T. grandis) trees, a pot experiment was conducted to analyze the biomass, relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll content, net photosynthesis (Pn), gas exchange parameters, relative leakage conductivity (REC), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) of T. grandis under 0.2% and 0.4% NaCl conditions with and without SA. Methodology/Principal Findings The exposure of T. grandis seedlings to salt conditions resulted in reduced growth rates, which were associated with decreases in RWC and Pn and increases in REC and MDA content. The foliar application of SA effectively increased the chlorophyll (chl (a+b)) content, RWC, net CO2 assimilation rates (Pn), and proline content, enhanced the activities of SOD, CAT and POD, and minimized the increases in the REC and MDA content. These changes increased the capacity of T. grandis in acclimating to salt stress and thus increased the shoot and root dry matter. However, when the plants were under 0% and 0.2% NaCl stress, the dry mass of the shoots and roots did not differ significantly between SA-treated plants and control plants. Conclusions SA induced the salt tolerance and increased the biomass of T. grandis cv. by enhancing the chlorophyll content and activity of antioxidative enzymes, activating the photosynthetic process, and alleviating membrane injury. A better understanding about the effect of salt stress in T. grandis is vital, in order gain knowledge over expanding the plantations to various regions and also for the recovery of T. grandis species in the future. PMID:25302987

  13. Evaluation of Trace Metal Content by ICP-MS Using Closed Vessel Microwave Digestion in Fresh Water Fish

    PubMed Central

    Jarapala, Sreenivasa Rao; Kandlakunta, Bhaskarachary; Thingnganing, Longvah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate trace metal levels of different varieties of fresh water fish using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer after microwave digestion (MD-ICPMS). Fish samples were collected from the outlets of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The trace metal content in different varieties of analyzed fish were ranged from 0.24 to 1.68?mg/kg for Chromium in Cyprinus carpio and Masto symbollon, 0.20 to 7.52?mg/kg for Manganese in Labeo rohita and Masto symbollon, 0.006 to 0.07?mg/kg for Cobalt in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, 0.31 to 2.24?mg/kg for Copper in Labeo rohita and Penaeus monodon, 3.25 to 14.56?mg/kg for Zinc in Cyprinus carpio and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and 0.01 to 2.05?mg/kg for Selenium in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, respectively. Proximate composition data for the different fishes were also tabulated. Since the available data for different trace elements for fish is scanty, here an effort is made to present a precise data for the same as estimated on ICP-MS. Results were in accordance with recommended daily intake allowance by WHO/FAO. PMID:24744789

  14. A simple method for locating the fresh water-salt water interface using pressure data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kue-Young; Chon, Chul-Min; Park, Ki-Hwa

    2007-01-01

    Salt water intrusion is a key issue in dealing with exploitation, restoration, and management of fresh ground water in coastal aquifers. Constant monitoring of the fresh water-salt water interface is necessary for proper management of ground water resources. This study presents a simple method to estimate the depth of the fresh water-salt water interface in coastal aquifers using two sets of pressure data obtained from the fresh and saline zones within a single borehole. This method uses the density difference between fresh water and saline water and can practically be used at coastal aquifers that have a relatively sharp fresh water-salt water interface with a thin transition zone. The proposed method was applied to data collected from a coastal aquifer on Jeju Island, Korea, to estimate the variations in the depth of the interface. The interface varied with daily tidal fluctuations and heavy rainfall in the rainy season. The estimated depth of the interface showed a good agreement with the measured electrical conductivity profile. PMID:17973750

  15. Quantum Calculations on Salt Bridges with Water: Potentials, Structure, and Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Sing; Green, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Salt bridges are electrostatic links between acidic and basic amino acids in a protein; quantum calculations are used here to determine the energetics and other properties of one form of these species, in the presence of water molecules. The acidic groups are carboxylic acids (aspartic and glutamic acids); proteins have two bases with pK above physiological pH: one, arginine, with a guanidinium basic group, the other lysine, which is a primary amine. Only arginine is modeled here, by ethyl guanidinium, while propionic acid is used as a model for either carboxylic acid. The salt bridges are accompanied by 0-12 water molecules; for each of the 13 systems, the energy-bond distance relation, natural bond orbitals (NBO), frequency calculations allowing thermodynamic corrections to room temperature, and dielectric constant dependence, were all calculated. The water molecules were found to arrange themselves in hydrogen bonded rings anchored to the oxygens of the salt bridge components. This was not surprising in itself, but it was found that the rings lead to a periodicity in the energy, and to a 'water addition' rule. The latter shows that the initial rings, with four oxygen atoms, become five member rings when an additional water molecule becomes available, with the additional water filling in at the bond with the lowest Wiberg index, as calculated using NBO. The dielectric constant dependence is the expected hyperbola, and the fit of the energy to the inverse dielectric constant is determined. There is an energy periodicity related to ring formation upon addition of water molecules. When 10 water molecules have been added, all spaces near the salt bridge are filled, completing the first hydration shell, and a second shell starts to form. The potentials associated with salt bridges depend on their hydration, and potentials assigned without regard to local hydration are likely to cause errors as large as or larger than kBT, thus suggesting a serious problem if these potentials are used in Molecular Dynamics simulations.

  16. Transpiring wall supercritical water oxidation reactor salt deposition studies

    SciTech Connect

    Haroldsen, B.L.; Mills, B.E.; Ariizumi, D.Y.; Brown, B.G.

    1996-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has teamed with Foster Wheeler Development Corp. and GenCorp, Aerojet to develop and evaluate a new supercritical water oxidation reactor design using a transpiring wall liner. In the design, pure water is injected through small pores in the liner wall to form a protective boundary layer that inhibits salt deposition and corrosion, effects that interfere with system performance. The concept was tested at Sandia on a laboratory-scale transpiring wall reactor that is a 1/4 scale model of a prototype plant being designed for the Army to destroy colored smoke and dye at Pine Bluff Arsenal in Arkansas. During the tests, a single-phase pressurized solution of sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) was heated to supercritical conditions, causing the salt to precipitate out as a fine solid. On-line diagnostics and post-test observation allowed us to characterize reactor performance at different flow and temperature conditions. Tests with and without the protective boundary layer demonstrated that wall transpiration provides significant protection against salt deposition. Confirmation tests were run with one of the dyes that will be processed in the Pine Bluff facility. The experimental techniques, results, and conclusions are discussed.

  17. Hydrology of the Bonneville Salt Flats, northwestern Utah, and simulation of ground-water flow and solute transport in the shallow-brine aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, James L.; Kipp, Kenneth L.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the hydrologic system of the Bonneville Salt Flats with emphasis on the mechanisms of solute transport. Variable-density, three-dimensional computer simulations of the near-surface part of the ground-water system were done to quantify both the transport of salt dissolved in subsurface brine that leaves the salt-crust area and the salt dissolved and precipitated on the land surface. The study was designed to define the hydrology of the brine ground-water system and the natural and anthropogenic processes causing salt loss, and where feasible, to quantify these processes. Specific areas of study include the transport of salt in solution by ground-water flow and the transport of salt in solution by wind-driven ponds and the subsequent salt precipitation on the surface of the playa upon evaporation or seepage into the subsurface. In addition, hydraulic and chemical changes in the hydrologic system since previous studies were documented.

  18. Increased Cerebral Water Content in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Ana Sofia; Gras, Vincent; Tiffin-Richards, Frances; Mirzazade, Shahram; Holschbach, Bernhard; Frank, Rolf Dario; Vassiliadou, Athina; Krüger, Thilo; Eitner, Frank; Gross, Theresa; Schulz, Jörg Bernhard; Floege, Jürgen; Shah, Nadim Jon

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available on the impact of hemodialysis on cerebral water homeostasis and its distribution in chronic kidney disease. We used a neuropsychological test battery, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a novel technique for quantitative measurement of localized water content using 3T MRI to investigate ten hemodialysis patients (HD) on a dialysis-free day and after hemodialysis (2.4±2.2 hours), and a matched healthy control group with the same time interval. Neuropsychological testing revealed mainly attentional and executive cognitive dysfunction in HD. Voxel-based-morphometry showed only marginal alterations in the right inferior medial temporal lobe white matter in HD compared to controls. Marked increases in global brain water content were found in the white matter, specifically in parietal areas, in HD patients compared to controls. Although the global water content in the gray matter did not differ between the two groups, regional increases of brain water content in particular in parieto-temporal gray matter areas were observed in HD patients. No relevant brain hydration changes were revealed before and after hemodialysis. Whereas longer duration of dialysis vintage was associated with increased water content in parieto-temporal-occipital regions, lower intradialytic weight changes were negatively correlated with brain water content in these areas in HD patients. Worse cognitive performance on an attention task correlated with increased hydration in frontal white matter. In conclusion, long-term HD is associated with altered brain tissue water homeostasis mainly in parietal white matter regions, whereas the attentional domain in the cognitive dysfunction profile in HD could be linked to increased frontal white matter water content. PMID:25826269

  19. Modeling salt precipitation from brines on Mars: Evaporation versus freezing origin for soil salts

    E-print Network

    Winglee, Robert M.

    they are among the most hygroscopic salts known (Gough et al., 2011), and can depress the freezing point of water found that $1.3 wt.% H2O is held in hydrated salts if WCL solutions freeze. Given minimum water contentsModeling salt precipitation from brines on Mars: Evaporation versus freezing origin for soil salts

  20. Natural Salt Pollution and Water Supply Reliability in the Brazos River Basin 

    E-print Network

    Wurbs, Ralph A.; Karama, Awes S.; Saleh, Ishtiaque; Ganze, C. Keith

    1993-01-01

    is groundwater emissions in an area of the upper basin consisting of the Salt Fork Brazos River watershed and portions of the adjacent Double Mountain Fork Brazos River and North Croton Creek watersheds. High salt concentrations significantly affect water...

  1. Geologic appraisal of Paradox basin salt deposits for water emplacement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hite, R.J.; Lohman, Stanley William

    1973-01-01

    Thick salt deposits of Middle Pennsylvanian age are present in an area of 12,000 square miles in the Paradox basin of southeast Utah and southwest Colorado. The deposits are in the Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation. The greatest thickness of this evaporite sequence is in a troughlike depression adjacent to the Uncompahgre uplift on the northeast side of the basin. The salt deposits consist of a cyclical sequence of thick halite units separated by thin units of black shale, dolomite, and anhydrite. Many halite units are several hundred feet thick and locally contain economically valuable potash deposits. Over much of the Paradox basin the salt deposits occur at depths of more than 5,000 feet. Only in a series of salt anticlines located along the northeastern side of the basin do the salt deposits rise to relatively shallow depths. The salt anticlines can be divided geographically and structurally into five major systems. Each system consists of a long undulating welt of thickened salt over which younger rocks are arched in anticlinal form. Locally there are areas along the axes of the anticlines where the Paradox Member was never covered by younger sediments. This allowed large-scale migration of Paradox strata toward and up through these holes in the sediment cover forming diapiric anticlines. The central or salt-bearing cores of tthe anticlines range in thickness from about 2,500 to 14,000 feet. Structure in the central core of the salt anticlines is the result of both regional-compression and flowage of the Paradox Member into the anticlines from adjacent synclines. Structure in the central cores of the salt anticlines ranges from relatively undeformed beds to complexly folded and faulted masses, in which stratigraphic continuity is undemonstrable. The presence of thick cap rock .over many of the salt anticlines is evidence of removal of large volumes of halite by groundwater. Available geologic and hydrologic information suggests that this is a relatively slow process and that any waste-storage or disposal sites in these structures should remain dry for hundreds of thousands of years. Trace to commercial quantities of oil and gas are found in all of the black shale-dolomite-anhydrite interbeds of the Paradox Member. These hydrocarbons constitute a definite hazard in the construction and operation of underground waste-storage or disposal facilities. However, many individual halite beds are of. sufficient thickness that a protective seal of halite can be left between the openings and the gassy beds. A total of 12 different, localities were considered to be potential waste-storage or disposal sites in the Paradox basin. Two Sharer dome and Salt Valley anticline, were considered to have the most favorable characteristics.

  2. Geophysical methods to support correct water sampling locations for salt dilution gauging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comina, C.; Lasagna, M.; De Luca, D. A.; Sambuelli, L.

    2014-08-01

    To improve water management design, particularly in irrigation areas, it is important to evaluate the baseline state of the water resources, including canal discharge. Salt dilution gauging is a traditional and well-documented technique in this respect. The complete mixing of salt used for dilution gauging is required; this condition is difficult to test or verify and, if not fulfilled, is the largest source of uncertainty in the discharge calculation. In this paper, a geophysical technique (FERT, fast electrical resistivity tomography) is proposed for imaging the distribution of the salt plume used for dilution gauging at every point along a sampling cross section. With this imaging, complete mixing can be verified. If the mixing is not complete, the image created by FERT can also provide a possible guidance for selecting water-sampling locations in the sampling cross section. A water multi-sampling system prototype aimed to potentially take into account concentration variability is also proposed and tested. The results reported in the paper show that FERT provides a three-dimensional image of the dissolved salt plume and that this can potentially help in the selection of water sampling points.

  3. MFR PAPER 1255 Use of Salt (NaCI) Water to Reduce Mortality of Chinook Salmon

    E-print Network

    MFR PAPER 1255 Use of Salt (NaCI) Water to Reduce Mortality of Chinook Salmon Smolts, Oncorhynchus salmon and trout by capturing them at an upriver dam, transporting them around a series of dams gairdneri. However, the mortality of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, immediately following

  4. Conversion of an Aziridine to an Oxazolidinone Using a Salt and Carbon Dioxide in Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Justin R.; Lieberman, Deborah L.; Hancock, Matthew T.; Pinhas, Allan R.

    2005-01-01

    A convenient, inexpensive, environment friendly, and regioselective conversion of an aziridine to an oxazolidinone is developed by using iodide salt and CO[2] in water. A description is provided, on the way in which this series of experiments will show students how to change experimental conditions to obtain mainly one desired regiosomer of a…

  5. Generating Electric Fields in PDMS Microfluidic Devices with Salt Water Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Sciambi, Adam; Abate, Adam R.

    2014-01-01

    Droplet merging and sorting in microfluidic devices usually rely on electric fields generated by solid metal electrodes. We show that simpler and more reliable salt water electrodes, despite their lower conductivity, can perform the same droplet manipulations at the same voltages. PMID:24671446

  6. Single Location Doublet Well to Reduce Salt-Water Encroachment: Phase I-Numerical Simulation 

    E-print Network

    Reddell, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    C. E. Jacob received patents in 1965 for a single location well doublet that would produce fresh water overlying salt-water without upconing of the heavier salt-water and pollution of the fresh water zone. No known evaluation of the concept...

  7. The MODIS Vegetation Canopy Water Content product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustin, S. L.; Riano, D.; Trombetti, M.

    2008-12-01

    Vegetation water stress drives wildfire behavior and risk, having important implications for biogeochemical cycling in natural ecosystems, agriculture, and forestry. Water stress limits plant transpiration and carbon gain. The regulation of photosynthesis creates close linkages between the carbon, water, and energy cycles and through metabolism to the nitrogen cycle. We generated systematic weekly CWC estimated for the USA from 2000-2006. MODIS measures the sunlit reflectance of the vegetation in the visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared. Radiative transfer models, such as PROSPECT-SAILH, determine how sunlight interacts with plant and soil materials. These models can be applied over a range of scales and ecosystem types. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were used to optimize the inversion of these models to determine vegetation water content. We carried out multi-scale validation of the product using field data, airborne and satellite cross-calibration. An Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) of the product is under evaluation by NASA. The CWC product inputs are 1) The MODIS Terra/Aqua surface reflectance product (MOD09A1/MYD09A1) 2) The MODIS land cover map product (MOD12Q1) reclassified to grassland, shrub-land and forest canopies; 3) An ANN trained with PROSPECT-SAILH; 4) A calibration file for each land cover type. The output is an ENVI file with the CWC values. The code is written in Matlab environment and is being adapted to read not only the 8 day MODIS composites, but also daily surface reflectance data. We plan to incorporate the cloud and snow mask and generate as output a geotiff file. Vegetation water content estimates will help predicting linkages between biogeochemical cycles, which will enable further understanding of feedbacks to atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. It will also serve to estimate primary productivity of the biosphere; monitor/assess natural vegetation health related to drought, pollution or diseases; improve irrigation scheduling by reducing over-watering and under-watering. These estimates will also allow researchers to identify wildfire behavior/risk: drives ignition probability and burning efficiency; to be used as an indicator of soil moisture and Leaf Area Index.

  8. UPCONING OF A SALT-WATER/FRESH-WATER INTERFACE BELOW A PUMPING WELL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analytical solutions for the upconing of an abrupt salt-water/fresh-water interface beneath a pumping well and for the concentration profile across a moving interface are developed for two types of upconing problems. The first considers the position of the interface and the salin...

  9. Phenomenological Description of Active Transport of Salt and Water

    PubMed Central

    Hoshiko, T.; Lindley, Barry D.

    1967-01-01

    The phenomenological definition of active transport by Kedem and the methods of Kedem and Katchalsky have been used to obtain practical equations describing active transport in the single salt and bi-ionic systems. Procedures were devised to evaluate the required set of 10 coefficients for the single salt case and 15 for the bi-ionic. Three of these coefficients are unusual. They express the effects of active transport, i.e. of entrainment between metabolism and the conventional transport flows: active salt transport coefficient, a volume pump coefficient, and an electrogenicity coefficient. In the bi-ionic case a new passive coefficient, ?, was used to express the linkage between the fluxes of the two salts. However, if primary active transport involves only one ion, for example in the bi-ionic case, 12 coefficients suffice and certain relations can be predicted between the practical coefficients. Particular types of primary active transport could be identified by this means. The relation of active transport to membrane electrogenesis was also examined and the flux ratio equation was rederived in terms of the practical coefficients. Applications to specific parallel and series membrane systems have been analyzed. PMID:11526855

  10. Modeling of Dense Water Production and Salt Transport from Alaskan Coastal Polynyas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorini, Sergio R.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    2000-01-01

    The main significance of this paper is that a realistic, three-dimensional, high-resolution primitive equation model has been developed to study the effects of dense water formation in Arctic coastal polynyas. The model includes realistic ambient stratification, realistic bottom topography, and is forced by time-variant surface heat flux, surface salt flux, and time-dependent coastal flow. The salt and heat fluxes, and the surface ice drift, are derived from satellite observations (SSM/I and NSCAT sensors). The model is used to study the stratification, salt transport, and circulation in the vicinity of Barrow Canyon during the 1996/97 winter season. The coastal flow (Alaska coastal current), which is an extension of the Bering Sea throughflow, is formulated in the model using the wind-transport regression. The results show that for the 1996/97 winter the northeastward coastal current exports 13% to 26% of the salt produced by coastal polynyas upstream of Barrow Canyon in 20 to 30 days. The salt export occurs more rapidly during less persistent polynyas. The inclusion of ice-water stress in the model makes the coastal current slightly weaker and much wider due to the combined effects of surface drag and offshore Ekman transport.

  11. Estimation of water turnover rates of captive West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) held in fresh and salt water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, R. M.; Worthy, G. A.; Byers, F. M.

    1999-01-01

    The ability of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) to move between fresh and salt water raises the question of whether manatees drink salt water. Water turnover rates were estimated in captive West Indian manatees using the deuterium oxide dilution technique. Rates were quantified in animals using four experimental treatments: (1) held in fresh water and fed lettuce (N=4), (2) held in salt water and fed lettuce (N=2), (3) acutely exposed to salt water and fed lettuce (N=4), and (4) chronically exposed to salt water with limited access to fresh water and fed sea grass (N=5). Animals held in fresh water had the highest turnover rates (145+/-12 ml kg-1 day-1) (mean +/- s.e.m.). Animals acutely exposed to salt water decreased their turnover rate significantly when moved into salt water (from 124+/-15 to 65+/-15 ml kg-1 day-1) and subsequently increased their turnover rate upon re-entry to fresh water (146+/-19 ml kg-1 day-1). Manatees chronically exposed to salt water had significantly lower turnover rates (21+/-3 ml kg-1 day-1) compared with animals held in salt water and fed lettuce (45+/-3 ml kg-1 day-1). Manatees chronically exposed to salt water and fed sea grass had very low turnover rates compared with manatees held in salt water and fed lettuce, which is consistent with a lack of mariposia. Manatees in fresh water drank large volumes of water, which may make them susceptible to hyponatremia if access to a source of Na+ is not provided.

  12. Mineralogical and Anthropogenic Controls of Stream Water Chemistry in Salted Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, H.; Alexander, J.; Gove, B.; Chakowski, N.; Husch, J.

    2013-12-01

    Analyses of major cation and anion concentrations in stream water and soil solutions from two salted (regular applications of winter road deicing salt) watersheds located in the northeastern United States indicate that both mineralogical and anthropogenic factors are important in controlling water chemistry. The relatively stable concentrations of calcium and magnesium, as well as their possible weathering paths identified by mass-balance models, indicate that the weathering of feldspars and the dissolution of carbonates are the primary sources for these two cations in the small, salted Centennial Lake Watershed (CLW, 1.95 km 2). However, the relatively stable and lower concentrations of sodium and chloride in soil solutions, and their fluctuating and higher concentrations in stream water from the CLW, indicate that road deicing salt is the primary source for these ions in stream water. Furthermore, positive correlations between calcium and sulfur concentrations and magnesium and sulfur concentrations in soil solutions, as well as positive correlations between sulfur and iron concentrations in soil compositions, indicate that both the dissolution of gypsum and the oxidation of pyrite into hematite are the primary sources of sulfate in the CLW. Analyses of water chemistry from the related and much larger Delaware River Watershed (DRW, 17560 km 2) show that sodium and chloride concentrations have increased steadily due to the regular application of winter deicing salt over the 68 years for which data are available. The more rapid increase of stream water chloride concentrations, relative to the increase in sodium, also results in the steady decline of Na+/Cl-molar ratios in the DRW over that time. In addition, the reduction of sulfate and increase of bicarbonate concentration since 1980 in DRW stream water may be attributed to the decline of sulfate levels in atmospheric deposition resulting from enhanced national and state environmental regulations and a shift in local economic activity away from heavy industry. There also are more periods of low silica stream water concentrations in the DRW than in the past, perhaps as a result of recent increases in summer water temperatures due to global climate change. The combined results of this study illustrate the many changing anthropogenic factors that can control stream water chemistry in salted watersheds and that these factors need to be taken into account when considering future water quality regulations and policy.

  13. Hygroscopic behavior of atmospherically relevant water-soluble carboxylic salts and their influence on the water uptake of ammonium sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z. J.; Nowak, A.; Poulain, L.; Herrmann, H.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2011-12-01

    The hygroscopic behavior of atmospherically relevant water-soluble carboxylic salts and their effects on ammonium sulfate were investigated using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA). No hygroscopic growth is observed for disodium oxalate, while ammonium oxalate shows slight growth (growth factor = 1.05 at 90%). The growth factors at 90% RH for sodium acetate, disodium malonate, disodium succinate, disodium tartrate, diammonium tartrate, sodium pyruvate, disodium maleate, and humic acid sodium salt are 1.79, 1.78, 1.69, 1.54, 1.29, 1.70, 1.78, and 1.19, respectively. The hygroscopic growth of mixtures of organic salts with ammonium sulfate, which are prepared as surrogates of atmospheric aerosols, was determined. A clear shift in deliquescence relative humidity to lower RH with increasing organic mass fraction was observed for these mixtures. Above 80% RH, the contribution to water uptake by the organic salts was close to that of ammonium sulfate for the majority of investigated compounds. The observed hygroscopic growth of the mixed particles at RH above the deliquescence relative humidity of ammonium sulfate agreed well with that predicted using the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) mixing rule. Mixtures of ammonium sulfate with organic salts are more hygroscopic than mixtures with organic acids, indicating that neutralization by gas-phase ammonia and/or association with cations of dicarbonxylic acids may enhance the hygroscopicity of the atmospheric particles.

  14. Water content and structure in malignant and benign skin tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gniadecka, M.; Nielsen, O. F.; Wulf, H. C.

    2003-12-01

    Analysis of the low frequency region of Raman spectra enables determination of water structure. It has been previously demonstrated by various techniques that water content and possibly also the water structure is altered in some malignant tumours. To further elucidate possible change in water structure in tumours we performed NIR FT Raman spectroscopy on biopsies from selected benign and malignant skin tumours (benign: seborrheic keratosis, pigmented nevi; malignant: malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma). We did not observe any differences in water content between malignant and benign skin tumours with an exception of seborrheic keratosis, in which the water content was decreased. Increase in the tetrahedral (free) water was found in malignant skin tumours and sun-damaged skin relative to normal young skin and benign skin tumours. This finding may add to the understanding of molecular alterations in cancer.

  15. Effect of cooking on the chemical composition of low-salt, low-fat Wakame/olive oil added beef patties with special reference to fatty acid content.

    PubMed

    López-López, I; Cofrades, S; Cañeque, V; Díaz, M T; López, O; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2011-09-01

    Changes in chemical composition, with special reference to fatty acids, as affected by cooking, were studied in low-salt (0.5%)/low-fat patties (10%) with added Wakame (3%) and partial or total replacement of pork backfat with olive oil-in-water emulsion. The addition of Wakame and olive oil-in-water emulsion improved (P < 0.05) the binding properties and the cooking retention values of moisture, fat, fatty acids and ash, which were close to 100%. Partial and total replacement of animal fat with olive oil-in-water emulsion reduced (P < 0.05) saturated fatty acids (SFAs), while total replacement also reduced (P < 0.05) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFAs) contents. The fatty acid concentration in cooked patties was affected by product formulation. Unlike the case of all animal fat patties, when olive oil was added the cooking process increased (P < 0.05) SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and PUFA n-3 (linolenic acid) and n-6 (linoleic acid) contents. Cooked formulated patties with seaweed and partial or total replacement of pork backfat by oil-in-water emulsion and with seaweed added were less calorie-dense and had lower SFAs levels, while samples with olive oil had higher MUFAs levels. PMID:21497025

  16. Consumer Control of Salt Marshes Driven by Human Disturbance

    E-print Network

    Bertness, Mark D.

    Essay Consumer Control of Salt Marshes Driven by Human Disturbance MARK D. BERTNESS AND BRIAN R.S.A. Abstract: Salt marsh ecosystems are widely considered to be controlled exclusively by bottom­up forces, but there is mounting evidence that human disturbances are triggering consumer control in western Atlantic salt marshes

  17. Physiological and molecular characterization of the enhanced salt tolerance induced by low-dose gamma irradiation in Arabidopsis seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Wencai; Zhang, Liang; Xu, Hangbo; Wang, Lin; Jiao, Zhen

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • 50-Gy gamma irradiation markedly promotes the seedling growth under salt stress in Arabidopsis. • The contents of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and MDA are obviously reduced by low-dose gamma irradiation under salt stress. • Low-dose gamma irradiation stimulates the activities of antioxidant enzymes under salt stress. • Proline accumulation is required for the low-gamma-ray-induced salt tolerance. • Low gamma rays differentially regulate the expression of genes related to salt stress. - Abstract: It has been established that gamma rays at low doses stimulate the tolerance to salt stress in plants. However, our knowledge regarding the molecular mechanism underlying the enhanced salt tolerance remains limited. In this study, we found that 50-Gy gamma irradiation presented maximal beneficial effects on germination index and root length in response to salt stress in Arabidopsis seedlings. The contents of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and MDA in irradiated seedlings under salt stress were significantly lower than those of controls. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and proline levels in the irradiated seedlings were markedly increased compared with the controls. Furthermore, transcriptional expression analysis of selected genes revealed that some components of salt stress signaling pathways were stimulated by low-dose gamma irradiation under salt stress. Our results suggest that gamma irradiation at low doses alleviates the salt stress probably by modulating the physiological responses as well as stimulating the stress signal transduction in Arabidopsis seedlings.

  18. Salt hydrates for in situ water activity control have acid-base effects on enzymes in nonaqueous media.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Nuno; Harper, Neil; Halling, Peter J; Barreiros, Susana

    2003-06-30

    Salt hydrates very frequently are utilized as in situ water activity buffers in reaction mixtures of enzymes in nonaqueous media. In addition to buffering water activity, there is evidence that salt hydrates also often affect initial rates in other ways. This has been generally overlooked or thought to be related to water transfer effects. Here we show that salt hydrates can have important acid-base effects on enzymes in nonaqueous media. We performed transesterification reactions in n-hexane and in supercritical ethane catalyzed by cross-linked crystals of subtilisin, differing in the method used to set a(W), and confirmed that the presence of salt hydrate pairs significantly affected the catalytic performance of the enzyme. However, in the presence of a solid-state acid-base buffer, salt hydrates had no effect on enzymatic activity. Direct evidence for the acid-base effects of salt hydrates was obtained by testing their effect on the protonation state of an organo-soluble H(+)/Na(+) indicator. The four salt hydrate pairs tested affected the indicator to very different extents. By promoting the exchange of H(+) for Na(+), salt hydrates will tend to affect the ionization state of acidic residues in the protein and, hence, enzymatic activity. In fact, salt hydrates were able to affect the pH memory of subtilisin lyophilized from different aqueous pHs, bringing about up to 20-fold enhancements and up to 5-fold decreases in catalytic activity. The possibility of such acid-base effects need to be considered in all experiments using salt hydrates to control water activity. PMID:12701146

  19. The Effects of Uca pugnax on Pore Water Biogeochemistry in a Spartina alterniflora Salt Marsh

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Deborah

    The Effects of Uca pugnax on Pore Water Biogeochemistry in a Spartina alterniflora Salt Marsh studies have focused on their role in the ecology of salt marshes. As a result of their burrowing activity at the m2 scale, eight locations along a tidal inundation gradient within a salt marsh were examined, each

  20. Wetting and evaporation of salt-water nanodroplets: A molecular dynamics investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Borg, Matthew K.; Sefiane, Khellil; Reese, Jason M.

    2015-11-01

    We employ molecular dynamics simulations to study the wetting and evaporation of salt-water nanodroplets on platinum surfaces. Our results show that the contact angle of the droplets increases with the salt concentration. To verify this, a second simulation system of a thin salt-water film on a platinum surface is used to calculate the various surface tensions. We find that both the solid-liquid and liquid-vapor surface tensions increase with salt concentration and as a result these cause an increase in the contact angle. However, the evaporation rate of salt-water droplets decreases as the salt concentration increases, due to the hydration of salt ions. When the water molecules have all evaporated from the droplet, two forms of salt crystals are deposited, clump and ringlike, depending on the solid-liquid interaction strength and the evaporation rate. To form salt crystals in a ring, it is crucial that there is a pinned stage in the evaporation process, during which salt ions can move from the center to the rim of the droplets. With a stronger solid-liquid interaction strength, a slower evaporation rate, and a higher salt concentration, a complete salt crystal ring can be deposited on the surface.

  1. Reducing the content of alloying elements in high-speed steel during heating in salt baths

    SciTech Connect

    Kandalovskii, I.F.; Dobler, V.I.; Kirillov, F.F.

    1986-01-01

    Barium chloride salt baths are primarily used for the high-temperature quench heating of a tool formed from high-speed steels. If the barium chloride melt should have a decarbonizing effect on the surface components that are heated in it, the authors maintain that it may also affect the content of alloying elements in the surface layers of high-speed-steel components that are heated in it. Commercial salt baths with a rectifier -- chemically pure magnesium fluoride -was used for the investigation. Cooling was accomplished in a caustic melt. Analysis of the results of investigation of the molybdenum, tungsten, and cobalt distributions in steel R9M4K8 as well as the tungsten and cobalt distributions in steel R9K5 indicated that the cobalt content does not diminish on heating to 1230/sup 0/C. A decrease in molybdenum content occurs in the surface layers during the quench heating of a tool formed from high-speed tungsten-molybdenum steel in a barium chloride salt bath after the required heating time, while a decrease in the tungsten content takes place with more prolonged hold times. It is shown to be possible to reduce or completely eliminate loss of alloying elements in the surface layers of a high-speedsteel tool during heat treatment when magnesium fluoride in combination with silicon carbide additives is used as a rectifier.

  2. Direct solvation of glycoproteins by salts in spider silk glues enhances adhesion and helps to explain the evolution of modern spider orb webs.

    PubMed

    Sahni, Vasav; Miyoshi, Toshikazu; Chen, Kelley; Jain, Dharamdeep; Blamires, Sean J; Blackledge, Todd A; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2014-04-14

    The evolutionary origin of modern viscid silk orb webs from ancient cribellate silk ancestors is associated with a 95% increase in diversity of orb-weaving spiders, and their dominance as predators of flying insects, yet the transition's mechanistic basis is an evolutionary puzzle. Ancient cribellate silk is a dry adhesive that functions through van der Waals interactions. Viscid threads adhere more effectively than cribellate threads because of the high extensibility of their axial silk fibers, recruitment of multiple glue droplets, and firm adhesion of the viscid glue droplets. Viscid silk's extensibility is permitted by the glue's high water content, so that organic and inorganic salts present in viscid glue droplets play an essential role in contributing to adhesion by sequestering the atmospheric water that plasticizes the axial silk fibers. Here, we provide direct molecular and macro-scale evidence to show that salts also cause adhesion by directly solvating the glycoproteins, regardless of water content, thus imparting viscoelasticity and allowing the glue droplets to establish good contact. This "dual role" of salts, plasticizing the axial silk indirectly through water sequestration and directly solvating the glycoproteins, provides a crucial link to the evolutionary transition from cribellate silk to viscid silk. In addition, salts also provide a simple mechanism for adhering even at the extremes of relative humidity, a feat eluding most synthetic adhesives. PMID:24588057

  3. Aldicarb and carbofuran transport in a Hapludalf influenced by differential antecedent soil water content and irrigation delay.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, H V; Anderson, S H; Goyne, K W; Gantzer, C J

    2009-01-01

    Pesticide use in agroecosystems can adversely impact groundwater quality via chemical leaching through soils. Few studies have investigated the effects of antecedent soil water content (SWC) and timing of initial irrigation (TII) after chemical application on pesticide transport and degradation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of antecedent soil water content (wet vs dry) and timing of initial irrigation (0h Delay vs 24h Delay) on aldicarb [(EZ)-2-methyl-2-(methylthio)propionaldehyde O-methylcarbamoyloxime] and carbofuran [2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate] transport and degradation parameters at a field site with Menfro silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Hapludalf) soils. Aldicarb and carbofuran were applied to plots near field capacity (wet) or near permanent wilting point (dry). Half of the dry and wet plots received irrigation water immediately after chemical application and the remaining plots were irrigated after a 24h Delay. The transport and degradation parameters were estimated using the method of moments. Statistical significance determined for SWC included averages across TII levels, and significance determined for TII included averages across SWC levels. For the dry treatment, aldicarb was detected 0.10 m deeper (P<0.01) on two of the four sampling dates and carbofuran was detected at least 0.10 m deeper (P<0.05) on all of the sampling dates compared to the wet treatment. Pore water velocity was found to be higher (P<0.10) in the dry vs wet treatments on three of four dates for aldicarb and two of four dates for carbofuran. Retardation coefficients for both pesticides showed similar evidence of reduced values for the dry vs wet treatments. These results indicate deeper pesticide movement in the initially dry treatment. For aldicarb and carbofuran, estimated values of the degradation rate were approximately 40-49% lower in the initially dry plots compared to the initially wet plots, respectively. When the initial irrigation was delayed for 24h, irrespective of antecedent moisture conditions, a 30% reduction in aldicarb degradation occurred. This study illustrates the deeper transport of pesticides and their increased persistence when applied to initially dry soils. PMID:18926555

  4. Concentration and precipitation of NaCl and KCl from salt cake leach solutions by electrodialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sreenivasarao, K; Patsiogiannis, F.; Hryn, J.N.

    1997-02-09

    Electrodialysis was investigated for cost-effective recovery of salt from salt cake leach solutions. (Salt cake is a waste stream generated by the aluminum industry during treatment of aluminum drosses and scrap.) We used a pilot-scale electrodialysis stack of 5 membrane pairs, each with an effective area of 0.02 m{sup 2}. The diluate stream contained synthetic NaCl, KCl,mixtures of NaCl and KCl, and actual salt cake leach solutions (mainly NaCl and KCl, with small amounts of MgCl{sub 2}). We concentrated and precipitated NaCl and KCl salts from the concentrate steam when the initial diluate stream concentration was 21.5 to 28.8 wt% NaCl and KCl. We found that water transferring through the membranes was a significant factor in overall efficiency of salt recovery by electrodialysis.

  5. Effect of a counterion on the glass transition temperature (T(g)') during lyophilization of ganciclovir salt forms.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Lokesh; Baheti, Ankit; Bansal, Arvind K

    2011-02-01

    This manuscript deals with the effect of a counterion on the glass transition temperature for lyophilization of ganciclovir salts. Salt forms of ganciclovir, namely, sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium salts, were prepared by an in situ technique and analyzed by modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) for the determination of the critical process parameter for lyophilization. Nonionized ganciclovir and its salt forms showed a glass transition (T(g)') in the reversing MDSC signal, confirming their amorphous nature. T(g)' of the nonionized ganciclovir and ganciclovir sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium salts followed the order: sodium salt (-34.94°C) > nonionized ganciclovir (-40.15°C) > potassium salt (-46.23°C) > rubidium salt (-49.95°C) > cesium salt (-53.62°C). The analysis of the freezable water content for ganciclovir and its salts showed the trend: pure water > nonionized ganciclovir > potassium salt ? sodium salt > rubidium salt > cesium salt. This showed that a majority of water in the salts is present as an unfrozen fraction, thus leading to a lowering of T(g)' because of the plasticizing effect of unfrozen water. Density functional theory (DFT) further suggested a positive contribution of the strength of intra- and intermolecular force of interactions to the T(g)' value, with a higher intramolecular and intermolecular force of interaction leading to a higher T(g)'. PMID:21133416

  6. Changes in water content and distribution in Quercus ilex leaves during progressive drought assessed by in vivo 1H magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Drought is a common stressor in many regions of the world and current climatic global circulation models predict further increases in warming and drought in the coming decades in several of these regions, such as the Mediterranean basin. The changes in leaf water content, distribution and dynamics in plant tissues under different soil water availabilities are not well known. In order to fill this gap, in the present report we describe our study withholding the irrigation of the seedlings of Quercus ilex, the dominant tree species in the evergreen forests of many areas of the Mediterranean Basin. We have monitored the gradual changes in water content in the different leaf areas, in vivo and non-invasively, by 1H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using proton density weighted (?w) images and spin-spin relaxation time (T2) maps. Results ?w images showed that the distal leaf area lost water faster than the basal area and that after four weeks of similar losses, the water reduction was greater in leaf veins than in leaf parenchyma areas and also in distal than in basal leaf area. There was a similar tendency in all different areas and tissues, of increasing T2 values during the drought period. This indicates an increase in the dynamics of free water, suggesting a decrease of cell membranes permeability. Conclusions The results indicate a non homogeneous leaf response to stress with a differentiated capacity to mobilize water between its different parts and tissues. This study shows that the MRI technique can be a useful tool to follow non-intrusively the in vivo water content changes in the different parts of the leaves during drought stress. It opens up new possibilities to better characterize the associated physiological changes and provides important information about the different responses of the different leaf areas what should be taken into account when conducting physiological and metabolic drought stress studies in different parts of the leaves during drought stress. PMID:20735815

  7. Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water

    DOEpatents

    Tsai, Shih-Perng (Naperville, IL)

    1997-01-01

    A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid.

  8. Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water

    DOEpatents

    Tsai, S.P.

    1997-07-08

    A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants-containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid. 6 figs.

  9. Influences of Salinity Variations on Pore-water Flow in Salt Marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, C.; Jin, G.; Xin, P.; Li, L.

    2013-12-01

    Salt marshes are important wetlands at the ocean-land interface with various ecological functions, serving as essential habitats for intertidal fauna, affecting the productivity of coastal waters through nutrient exchange, moderating the greenhouse gas emission and global warming. They are influenced by various physical and biogeochemical processes, among which the pore-water flow and associated solute transport processes play an important role in determining the material exchange between marsh soils and coastal water. Previous studies have examined such processes under the solo or combined effects of tidal fluctuation, evapotranspiration, stratigraphy, inland freshwater input, and topography. However, these investigations have neglected the spatial and temporal salinity variations in surface water and pore-water, which commonly exist in salt marshes due to the impacts of tidal inundation, precipitation and evapotranspiration. The density contrast between the surface water and pore-water may lead to significant modifications of the pore-water flow. Based on results from laboratory experiments and numerical simulations, we will demonstrate that: (1) under upward salinity gradients, flow instabilities in the form of fingers occur once the salinity contrast reaches a certain level, whereas under downward salinity gradients the system is stable; (2) because of the strong tidally-induced advective process occurring near the creek, both the number and size of fingers change gradually from the near-creek zone to the marsh interior; and (3) both upward and downward salinity gradients enhance the exchange between the surface water and pore-water in the marsh sediments. Keywords: Salt marshes; density effect; salinity gradient; pore-water flow; fingers. Instabilities under upward salinity gradient Stable system under downward salinity gradient

  10. Effects of subfornical organ extracts on salt-water balance in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summy-Long, J. Y.; Crawford, I. L.; Severs, W. B.

    1976-01-01

    The subfornical organ (SFO) is a circumventricular structure located at the junction of the lamina terminalis and the tela choroidea of the third cerebral ventricle. SFO is histologically regarded as a neurosecretory structure, although the physiological effects or biochemical nature of such secretions are not yet ascertained. Results are presented for an experimental study designed to determine whether SFO extracts alter parameters associated with salt-water balance in the rat. The data obtained support the conclusion that SFO contains some water-soluble substance(s), easily released by incubation, dialyzable and heat stable, which influences the salt-water balance after injection into ventricular cerebrospinal fluid. Whether other brain tissues or plasma contains the same or similar material is not yet convincingly established. The observation that one or more active constituents are easily released from SFO upon incubation in potassium-enriched medium may be of value.

  11. Fluorescence and DOC contents of estuarine pore waters from colonized and non-colonized sediments: effects of sampling preservation.

    PubMed

    Otero, M; Mendonça, A; Válega, M; Santos, E B H; Pereira, E; Esteves, V I; Duarte, A

    2007-02-01

    The influence of the colonization of salt marsh sediments with Halimione portulacoides was evaluated by analysing the fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in sediment pore waters from a salt marsh at different depths. Cores of sediments at colonized and non-colonized sites were collected from a coastal lagoon (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal). The DOC content of extracted pore waters was determined and characterized by synchronous molecular fluorescence (Deltalambda=60nm) and UV-visible spectroscopies. The common practice of freezing sediment cores for further and later chemical investigation was shown not to be an appropriate methodology of sample preservation. On the contrary, freezing of extracted and filtered pore water seemed not to affect either the DOC content or the fluorescence properties of pore waters. Two types of fluorescent substances were found in the pore waters spectra; one corresponding to humic-like substances and another one resembling proteins. However, major differences were found in the spectra of pore waters depending on both depth and the presence/absence of vegetation colonization. PMID:17140624

  12. Effect of moisture content of concrete on water uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Rucker-Gramm, P.; Beddoe, R.E.

    2010-01-15

    The penetration of water and non-polar hexane in Portland cement mortar prisms with different initial moisture contents was investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR). The amount of water in gel pores strongly affects the penetration of water in much larger capillary pores. Water penetration is reduced by the self-sealing effect as characterized by non-sq roott dependence of capillary uptake and penetration depth. This is explained by the ongoing redistribution of water from capillaries into gel pores which results in internal swelling and loss of continuity of the capillary pore system; a correlation was observed between the amount of redistributed water and departure from sq roott behaviour. A descriptive model is used to explain the dependence of water uptake and penetration on moisture content. For increasing initial moisture contents up to a critical value equivalent to equilibrium with a relative humidity between 65 and 80%, less penetrating water is able to redistribute. Thus more penetrating water is in larger capillaries with less viscous resistance; uptake and penetration depth increase. Above the critical initial moisture content, uptake and penetration depth decrease towards zero. This is explained by (a) an overall reduction in capillary pressure because transport takes places in fewer and larger pores and (b) an increase in viscous resistance due to the connection of penetrating capillary water with pores already containing water. Less capillary pore space is available for transport. The surface region of concrete placed in contact with water is not instantaneously saturated. Water content increases with time depending on the degree of surface saturation. A new transition coefficient for capillary suction gamma is defined for the calculation of surface flux.

  13. Water content reflectometer calibration, field versus laboratory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For soils with large amounts of high-charge clays, site-specific calibrations for the newer permittivity probes that operate at lower frequencies, often have higher permittivity values than factory calibrations. The purpose of this study was to determine site-specific calibration of water content re...

  14. Water contents and OH speciation in pyroxenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bégaudeau, K.; Morizet, Y.; Mercier, J.

    2010-12-01

    Nominally anhydrous minerals such as pyroxene contain trace amounts of hydrogen which reside in structural defects. Dissolved water (hydroxyls species OH) plays a crucial role in modifying the physical and chemical properties of the Earth’s mantle and attests a significant water reservoir inside. For a series of natural clino- and orthopyroxenes (cpx and opx) from large suite mantle xenoliths, we investigated the total water (H2Otot) in pyroxenes using micro-FTIR so as to constrain the OH dissolution mechanisms. Samples studied have been brought up either by 1) alkaline basalts magmas, Mont Briançon, Maar de Borée , Barges (France), Dreiser Weiher (Germany), San Carlos (Arizona), Black Rock Sumitt (Nevada), Kilbourne Hole (New Mexico), or by 2) kimberlite magmas, Letseng-la-Terae (South Africa). Crystal chemistry from the different xenoliths was determined by microprobe analyses. Pyroxenes have high Mg number (about 0.9) and spinels contain 0.19 Fe3+/Fetot. Equilibrium P, T conditions were determined by geothermobarometry. P-T conditions were estimated between 700 and 1400°C and between 0.5 and 6.3 GPa. Polarized FTIR spectra acquired on natural cpx and opx are consistent with previous studies, showing the main absorption bands attributed to OH species in the region between 3000-3800 cm-1. H2Otot was estimated by the Beer-Lambert law using the calibration of Libowitzky and Rossman (1997) and gives about 300 ppm and 100 ppm H2O for cpx and opx, respectively. Partionning coefficient between cpx and opx is estimated to 2.1, similar to those from literature data on pyroxenes of alkali-basalt and kimberlitic xenoliths. The H2Otot does not show significant correlation with crystal chemistry, therefore contrasting with previous studies. However, we observe a good linear correlation between the cpx/opx water content and the physical conditions (P, T and fO2 determined from Fe3+/Fetot in spinel) recorded by the mantle xenoliths: ppm H2Ocpx=522.89-119.38*P-0.195*T+484.19*(Fe3+/Fetot) and ppm H2Oopx=193.14+3.18*P-6.22*T-178.78*(Fe3+/Fetot).The derived linear equations suggest a strong influence of the Fe3+/Fetot in the water dissolution mechanism in agreement with recent work.

  15. Measuring the Dark Matter Content of Galaxies with SALT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bixel, Alex; Sellwood, Jerry; Mitchell, Carl

    2016-01-01

    In order to test the predictions of galaxy formation models, we seek to measure the detailed dark matter distributions of spiral galaxies. The best way to accomplish this is through measurements of the Doppler shift of the H? line, through which we can produce detailed velocity maps and rotational models of a galaxy. Since the gas flows in rough centrifugal balance, we can use the rotational models to estimate the central gravitational attraction and therefore the mass distribution. As an example, we present a rotational velocity model fitted to an H? velocity map of the spiral galaxy NGC 908, and find that the fitted systemic velocity gives good agreement with previous measurements in the literature. In the future, this method can be used to determine the rotation curves of the nineteen nearby galaxies for which we have or plan to collect interferometric data; we are currently working to produce similar results for the galaxy NGC 7606.This research has been supported by NSF grant PHY-1263280.

  16. Progress report on studies of salt-water encroachment on Long Island, New York, 1953

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lusczynski, N.J.; Upson, J.E.

    1954-01-01

    Nearly all the water used on Long Island, N. Y., is derived by wells from the thick and extensive water-bearing formations that underlie and compose the entire island. The unconsolidated deposits, consisting of sand, gravel, and clay, range in thickness from a few feet in northern Queens County to more than 2,000 feet in southern Suffolk County. Four main and relatively distinct aquifers, all interconnected hydraulically to a greater or lesser degree, have been recognized and delineated at least in a general way. They are, from younger to older, the upper Pleistocene deposits, in which the ground water is mainly unconfined, and three formations in which the water is generally confined - the Jameco gravel, of Pleistocene age, and the Magothy (?) formation and the Lloyd sand member of the Rartian formation, both of Lake Cretaceous age. Except for some artificial recharge, these aquifers are replenished entirely by infiltration of precipitation. Under natural conditions, the fresh water moves into and through the formations, discharging into the sea. With the growth of population on Long Island and the continuously increasing use of water over the years, not only has the infiltration of precipitation been seriously impeded at places, but the withdrawals from the ground-water reservoir have increased markedly. These factors have upset the natural balance between the fresh surface and ground water of the island and the surrounding sea water, and with increased use of water will do so more and more, thus leading to salt-water encroachment. In a sense, the whole problem of utilization of ground water on Long Island is one of determining how much ground water can be withdrawn without serious salt-water encroachment.

  17. Rebar corrosion monitoring in concrete structure under salt water enviroment using fiber Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yuheng; Liu, Tiegen; Jiang, Junfeng; Liu, Kun; Wang, Shuang; He, Pan; Yan, Jinlin

    2015-08-01

    Monitoring corrosion of steel reinforcing bars is critical for the durability and safety of reinforced concrete structures. Corrosion sensors based on fiber optic have proved to exhibit meaningful benefits compared with the conventional electric ones. In recent years, Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) has been used as a new kind of sensing element in an attempt to directly monitor the corrosion in concrete structure due to its remarkable advantages. In this paper, we present a novel kind of FBG based rebar corrosion monitoring sensor. The rebar corrosion is detected by volume expansion of the corroded rebar by transferring it to the axial strain of FBG when concrete structure is soaked in salt water. An accelerated salt water corrosion test was performed. The experiment results showed the corrosion can be monitored effectively and the corrosion rate is obtained by volume loss rate of rebar.

  18. Proteins induced by salt stress in tomato germinating seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Torres-Shumann, S.; Godoy, J.A.; del Pozo, O.; Pintor-Toro, J.A. )

    1989-04-01

    Salt effects on protein synthesis in tomato germinating seeds were investigated by two-dimensional polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis of proteins labeled in vivo with ({sup 35}S)-Methionine. Seeds germinating in NaCl were analyzed at three germination stages (4mm long radicals, 15mm long radicles and expanding cotyledons) and compared to those germinating in water. At the first germination stage several basic proteins of M.W. 13Kd, 16Kd, 17Kd and 18Kd were detected in only salt germinating seeds. Other basic proteins of M.W. 12Kd, 50Kd and 54Kd were salt-induced at the second and third stage of germination. One 14Kd acid protein is observed in every assayed stage and shows several phosphorylated forms. The levels of expression of these proteins are directly correlated to assayed NaCl concentrations. All of these proteins, except 17Kd, are also induced by abscisic acid (ABA) in the same germination stages. A cooperative effect on the synthesis of these proteins is observed when both ABA and NaCl are present.

  19. Low salt petroleum produced water reuse: a farming alternative outside the food chain.

    PubMed

    Rambeau, O; de Lafond, R Morales; Baldoni, P; Gosselin, J P; Baccou, J C

    2004-01-01

    Oil and gas production gives rise to water production depending on the state of maturation of the Field. This means large volumes of water available. Today, this water is partly re-injected into the reservoir. Totalfinaelf's sustainable contribution to preserve water resources is to propose an alternative utilization: the reuse of produced waters from petroleum activities, outside the food chain. The aim of the first part of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing low-salt water (<20 g/l) cleaned of hydrocarbons, for agricultural or forest irrigation. Rudimentary technologies such as artificial wetlands were tested to remove hydrocarbon substances and preliminary tests were performed with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and hemp (Cannabis sativa). Among the species tested in real conditions (greenhouse), hemp was affected by saline water whereas the results obtained for cotton were representative of the average worldwide production. These results validate the reuse of low-salt produced water in climatic conditions with expected temperatures of up to 37 degrees C in summer and 25 degrees C in winter. Following these results, field pilots are planned. Further research is planned to focus, taking into account local needs and environmental and production constraints. PMID:15344784

  20. Sensitivity of probabilistic MCO water content estimates to key assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-02-25

    Sensitivity of probabilistic multi-canister overpack (MCO) water content estimates to key assumptions is evaluated with emphasis on the largest non-cladding film-contributors, water borne by particulates adhering to damage sites, and water borne by canister particulate. Calculations considered different choices of damage state degree of independence, different choices of percentile for reference high inputs, three types of input probability density function (pdfs): triangular, log-normal, and Weibull, and the number of scrap baskets in an MCO.

  1. 46 CFR 46.10-45 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. 46.10-45 Section 46.10-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES SUBDIVISION LOAD LINES FOR PASSENGER VESSELS Administration § 46.10-45 Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. (a) Passenger...

  2. Molecular dynamics simulations of the effects of salts on the aggregation properties of benzene in water.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P. E.

    2003-07-16

    The specific aims of the project were: to provide an atomic level description of the interactions between benzene, water and ions in solutions. To determine the degree of association between two benzene molecules in aqueous and salt solutions. To investigate the structure and dynamics of the interface between benzene and water or salt solution.

  3. Comparison of measured changes in seasonal soil water content by rainfed maize-bean intercrop and component cropping systems in a semi-arid region of southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogindo, H. O.; Walker, S.

    Seasonal water content fluctuation within the effective root zone was monitored during the growing season for a maize-bean intercrop (IMB), sole maize (SM) and sole bean (SB) in Free State Province, Republic of South Africa. Comparisons were undertaken for progressive depths of extraction 0-300 mm; 300-600 mm and 600-900 mm respectively. These enabled the understanding of water extraction behavior of the cropping systems within the different soil layers including the topsoil surface normally influenced by soil surface evaporation. Additive intercrops have been known to conserve water, largely due to the early high leaf area index and the higher total leaf area. In this study, the combined effect of the intercrop components seemed to lower the total water demand by the intercrop compared to the sole crops. During the two seasons (2000/2001 and 2001/2002) the drained upper limit (DUL) and crop lower limits (CLL) were determined. The maize-bean intercrop, sole maize and sole bean had CLL of 141 mm/m, 149 mm/m and 159 mm/m respectively. The DUL was 262 mm/m for the site and therefore the potential plant extractable soil water for the cropping systems were: 121 mm/m (IMB); 114 mm/m (SM) and 103 mm/m (SB). Overall, the intercrop did not have significantly different total soil water extraction during both seasons, although it was additive, showing that it had higher water to biomass conversion.

  4. [Coupling relationship between water and salt of waters ecosystems in arid zone: a case study in Xinjiang Tarim River basin].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ranghui; Fan, Zili; Ma, Yingjie

    2002-02-01

    The pollution of waters ecosystems is caused by natural and artificial factors in Tarim River. Temporal and spatial variation of surface runoff is the main reason for changes of coupling relationship between water and salt. In the end of 1950s, mineralization degree was less than 1.0 g.L-1 from the upper reaches to the lower reaches of Tetema Lake in Tarim River. At present, only in July, August and October, mineralization degree is less than 1.0 g.L-1. During the other months, mineralization degree is more than 3.0 g.L-1 in Alaer Lake. In Qiala (the lower reaches of Tarim River), mineralization degree is more than 1.0 g.L-1 except in March. Moreover, mineralization degree is about 5.0 g.L-1 in July and December. It is showed that annual water quality belongs to the fifth seriously polluted water in Alaer, Xinquman and Yingbazha. Meanwhile, annual water quality in Qiala belongs to the fourth polluted water. In a word, water quality state and hydrological chemistry component are the most obviously indicator for coupling relationship between water and salt in Tarim River. PMID:11993128

  5. Impacts of Natural Salt Pollution on Water Supply Capabilities of River/Reservoir Systems 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Chi Hun

    2011-08-08

    Salinity is a major determinant of where and how water resources are used worldwide. Natural salt pollution severely constrains the beneficial use of large amounts of water in Texas and neighboring states. High salinity ...

  6. Mechanisms of water-salt metabolism disturbances in dogs subjected to six month hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korolkov, V. I.; Kovalenko, Y. A.; Krotov, V. P.; Ilyushko, N. A.; Kondratyeva, V. A.; Kondratyev, Y. I.

    1980-01-01

    Water-salt metabolism in dogs during prolonged restricted motor activity (hypokinesia) was investigated. It was found that hydration occurred and fluid was redistributed between the extra- and intra-cellular sectors. Also, electrolyte excretion rose, and magnetism and calcium metabolism changed significantly. It is concluded that the forces caused by muscle strain proper (which was decreased under conditions of hypokinesia) influence the state of bone metabolism.

  7. The water, deuterium, gas and uranium content of tektites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.

    1958-01-01

    The water content, deuterium concentration of the water, total gas and uranium contents were determined on tektite samples and other glass samples from Texas, Australia, Philippine Islands, Java, French Indo-China, Czechoslovakia, Libyan Desert, Billiton Island, Thailand, French West Africa, Peru, and New Mexico. The water content ranges from 0.24 per cent for the Peru tektite, to 0.0002 per cent for a moldavite. The majority of the tektites have less than 0.05 per cent water, and average 0.005 per cent H2O by weight. No other gases were detected, the lower detection limit being about 1 p.p.m. by weight. The deuterium content of the water in tektites is in the same range as that in terrestrial waters, and varies from 0.010 mole per cent to 0.0166 mole per cent deuterium. The uranium content is about from 1 to 3 p.p.m. The possible origin of tektites is discussed. The experimental data presented favour their being originally terrestrial, but produced by some catastrophic event. An extra-terrestrial source is not ruled out. ?? 1958.

  8. Soil water content inverse profiling from single TDR waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, R.

    2006-02-01

    An inverse procedure for the estimation of soil water content profiles along TDR probes is presented. A TDR metallic probe is considered as a transmission line, for which relevant partial derivatives equations apply. The direct problem consists in the integration of transmission line equations, providing V( x, t) along the line. To this aim, the unit length parameters of the transmission line must be known. In particular, unit length capacitance C( x) and transverse conductance G( x) depend on water content distribution along the probe ?( x) through relative permittivity ?r( x) and bulk soil electrical conductivity ?( x), respectively. The inverse procedure consists in finding the water content distribution, and the relevant unit length parameters, giving rise to the best fit between the numerically simulated voltage V(x¯,t) at the beginning of the line and the experimental voltage trace V(x¯,t) measured by a cable tester. In order to reduce the ill-posedness of the inverse problem, unknown water content profiles are expressed by means of a four parameters functional form. The search for the best fitting parameters vector is carried out with a genetic algorithm. The proposed inverse procedure is successfully applied to the determination of vertical water content profiles along a soil sample in the laboratory by means of a single three rods metallic TDR probe. Water content profiles estimated either in steady flow conditions, or during controlled infiltration-evaporation transients are compared with independent water content measurements carried out by means of horizontal TDR probes at various depths, showing in all cases good agreement.

  9. Renal Effects and Underlying Molecular Mechanisms of Long-Term Salt Content Diets in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Rebeca Caldeira Machado; Vassallo, Paula Frizera; Crajoinas, Renato de Oliveira; Oliveira, Marilene Luzia; Martins, Flávia Letícia; Nogueira, Breno Valentim; Motta-Santos, Daisy; Araújo, Isabella Binotti; Forechi, Ludimila; Girardi, Adriana Castello Costa; Santos, Robson Augusto Souza; Mill, José Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    Several evidences have shown that salt excess is an important determinant of cardiovascular and renal derangement in hypertension. The present study aimed to investigate the renal effects of chronic high or low salt intake in the context of hypertension and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying such effects. To this end, newly weaned male SHR were fed with diets only differing in NaCl content: normal salt (NS: 0.3%), low salt (LS: 0.03%), and high salt diet (HS: 3%) until 7 months of age. Analysis of renal function, morphology, and evaluation of the expression of the main molecular components involved in the renal handling of albumin, including podocyte slit-diaphragm proteins and proximal tubule endocytic receptors were performed. The relationship between diets and the balance of the renal angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 enzymes was also examined. HS produced glomerular hypertrophy and decreased ACE2 and nephrin expressions, loss of morphological integrity of the podocyte processes, and increased proteinuria, characterized by loss of albumin and high molecular weight proteins. Conversely, severe hypertension was attenuated and renal dysfunction was prevented by LS since proteinuria was much lower than in the NS SHRs. This was associated with a decrease in kidney ACE/ACE2 protein and activity ratio and increased cubilin renal expression. Taken together, these results suggest that LS attenuates hypertension progression in SHRs and preserves renal function. The mechanisms partially explaining these findings include modulation of the intrarenal ACE/ACE2 balance and the increased cubilin expression. Importantly, HS worsens hypertensive kidney injury and decreases the expression nephrin, a key component of the slit diaphragm. PMID:26495970

  10. Simultaneous measurement of unfrozen water content and ice content in frozen soil using gamma ray attenuation and TDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaohai; Zhou, Jian; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang; Stauffer, Fritz

    2014-12-01

    The freezing temperature of water in soil is not constant but varies over a range determined by soil texture. Consequently, the amounts of unfrozen water and ice change with temperature in frozen soil, which in turn affects hydraulic, thermal, and mechanical properties of frozen soil. In this paper, an Am-241 gamma ray source and time-domain reflectometry (TDR) were combined to measure unfrozen water content and ice content in frozen soil simultaneously. The gamma ray attenuation was used to determine total water content. The TDR was used to determine the dielectric constant of the frozen soil. Based on a four-phase mixing model, the amount of unfrozen water content in the frozen soil could be determined. The ice content was inferred by the difference between total water content and unfrozen water content. The gamma ray attenuation and the TDR were both calibrated by a gravimetric method. Water contents measured by gamma ray attenuation and TDR in an unfrozen silt column under infiltration were compared and showed that the two methods have the same accuracy and response to changes of water content. Unidirectional column freezing experiments were performed to apply the combined method of gamma ray attenuation and TDR for measuring unfrozen water content and ice content. The measurement error of the gamma ray attenuation and TDR was around 0.02 and 0.01 m3/m3, respectively. The overestimation of unfrozen water in frozen soil by TDR alone was quantified and found to depend on the amount of ice content. The higher the ice content, the larger the overestimation. The study confirmed that the combined method could accurately determine unfrozen water content and ice content in frozen soil. The results of soil column freezing experiments indicate that total water content distribution is affected by available pore space and the freezing front advance rate. It was found that there is similarity between the soil water characteristic and the soil freezing characteristic of variably saturated soil. Unfrozen water content is independent of total water content and affected only by temperature when the freezing point is reached.

  11. Experimental investigation of radiative-acoustic effects in the water by the thermodynamical conditions of Dumand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golubnichy, P. I.; Korchikov, S. D.; Nikolsky, S. I.; Yakovlev, V. I.

    1985-01-01

    The value of the sound pulse produced by a high energy neutrino, if the thermoacoustical mechanism of sound generation takes place, is proportional to the density of energy absorbed, the coefficient of thermal expansion, the sound velocity, and the specific heat all of which depend on temperature, pressure and the salt content of the water.

  12. Salt leaching leads to drier soils in disturbed semiarid woodlands of central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Marchesini, Victoria A; Fernández, R J; Jobbágy, E G

    2013-04-01

    Disturbances in semiarid environments have revealed a strong connection between water, salt and vegetation dynamics highlighting how the alteration of water fluxes can drive salt redistribution process and long-term environmental degradation. Here, we explore to what extent the reciprocal effect, that of salt redistribution on water fluxes, may play a role in dictating environmental changes following disturbance in dry woodlands. We assessed salt and water dynamics comparing soil-solution electrical conductivity, chloride concentration, soil water content (SWC) and soil matric and osmotic water potential (?m, ?os) between disturbed and undisturbed areas. A large pool of salts and chlorides present in undisturbed areas was absent in disturbed plots, suggesting deep leaching. Unexpectedly, this was associated with slight but consistently lower SWC in disturbed versus undisturbed situations during two growing seasons. The apparent paradox of increased leaching but diminishing SWC after disturbance can be explained by the effect of native salt lowering ?os enough to prevent full soil drying. Under disturbed conditions, the onset of deep drainage and salt leaching would raise ?os allowing a decline of ?m and SWC. Soil water storage seems to be modulated by the presence (under natural conditions) and partial leaching (following selective shrub disturbance) of large salt pools. This counterintuitive effect of disturbances may be important in semiarid regions where deep soil salt accumulation is a common feature. Our results highlight the importance of water-salt-vegetation coupling for the understanding and management of these systems. PMID:23015213

  13. Dependence of seismoelectric amplitudes on water content - a field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strahser, M. H. P.; Matthey, P.-D.; Jouniaux, L.; Sailhac, P.

    2009-04-01

    In porous saturated media, seismic compressional waves can cause seismoelectric and seismoelectromagnetic signals through electrokinetic coupling. It has been observed that these measureable signals also occur in partially saturated media, but the theory is largely unknown for these circumstances. Seismoelectromagnetic tomography is expected to combine the sensitivity of electrical properties to water-content and permeability, to the high spatial resolution of seismic surveys. A better understanding of the physical processes and a reliable quantification of the conversion between seismic and electric energy are necessary and need to take into account the effect of water-content, especially for shallow subsurface investigations. In order to quantify seismoelectric signals with changing water content, we repeated seismoelectric and seismic measurements on the same profile in the Vosges Mountains during several months. The electrical resistivity was also monitored to take into account the water-content variations. We show that an exponential relation can be established between the seismoelectric amplitudes normalized with the seismic amplitudes and the resistivity which in turn is related to the saturation: Increasing resistivity (decreasing water content) leads to decreasing normalized seismoelectric amplitudes. These results imply that the electrokinetic coefficient should increase with water-saturation, as measured in laboratory, but not predicted by theory. This work was funded by CNRS and Université Louis Pasteur de Strasbourg.

  14. Water in urban planning, Salt Creek Basin, Illinois water management as related to alternative land-use practices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spieker, Andrew Maute

    1970-01-01

    Water management can be an integral part of urban comprehensive planning in a large metropolitan area. Water both imposes constraints on land use and offers opportunities for coordinated land and water management. Salt Creek basin in Cook and Du Page Counties of the Chicago metropolitan area is typical of rapidly developing suburban areas and has been selected to illustrate some of these constraints and opportunities and to suggest the effects of alternative solutions. The present study concentrates on the related problems of ground-water recharge, water quality, management of flood plains, and flood-control measures. Salt Creek basin has a drainage area of 150 square miles. It is in flat to. gently rolling terrain, underlain by glacial drift as much as 200 feet thick which covers a dolomite aquifer. In 1964, the population of the basin was about 400,000, and 40 percent of the land was in urban development. The population is expected to number 550,000 to 650,000 by 1990, and most of the land will be taken by urban development. Salt Creek is a sluggish stream, typical of small drainage channels in the headwaters area of northeastern Illinois. Low flows of 15 to 25 cubic feet per second in the lower part of the basin consist largely of sewage effluent. Nearly all the public water supplies in the basin depend on ground water. Of the total pumpage of 27.5 million gallons per day, 17.5 million gallons per day is pumped from the deep (Cambrian-Ordovician) aquifers and 10 million gallons per day is pumped from the shallow (Silurian dolomite and glacial drift) aquifers. The potential yield of the shallow aquifers, particularly glacial drift in the northern part of the basin, far exceeds present use. The largest concentration of pumpage from the shallow ,aquifers is in the Hinsdale-La Grange area. Salt Creek serves as an important source of recharge to these supplies, particularly just east of Hinsdale. The entire reach of Salt Creek south and east of Elmhurst can be regarded as an area of potential recharge to the shallow aquifers. Preservation of the effectiveness of these potential recharge areas should be considered in land-use planning. Salt Creek is polluted in times of both low and high flow. Most communities in the basin in Du Page County discharge their treated sewage into the creek, whereas those in Cook County transfer their sewage to plants of the Metropolitan Sanitary District outside the basin. During periods of high runoff, combined storm runoff and overflow from sanitary sewers enter the creek. Such polluted water detracts from the stream's esthetic and recreational potential and poses a threat to ground-water supplies owing to induced recharge of polluted water to shallow aquifers. Alternative approaches .to the pollution problem include improvement of the degree of sewage treatment, detention and treatment of storm runoff, dilution of sewage through flow augmentation, or transfer of sewage from the basin to a central treatment plant. To result in an enhanced environment, the streambed would have to be cleansed of accumulated sludge deposits. The overbank flooding in Salt Creek basin every 2 to 3 years presents problems because of encroachments and developments on the flood plains. Flood plains in an urban area can be managed by identifying them, by recognizing that either their natural storage capacity or equivalent artificial capacity is needed to accommodate floods, and by planning land use accordingly. Examples of effective floodplain management include (1) preservation of greenbelts or regional parks along stream courses, (2) use of flood plains for recreation, parking lots. or other low-intensity uses, (3) use of flood-proofed commercial buildings, and (4) provision for compensatory storage to replace natural storage capacity. Results of poor flood-plain management include uncontrolled residential development and encroachment by fill into natural storage areas where no compensatory storage has been

  15. Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Fedorov, V.V.; Downing, D.J.

    1999-04-01

    Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt.

  16. MzPIP2;1: An Aquaporin Involved in Radial Water Movement in Both Water Uptake and Transportation, Altered the Drought and Salt Tolerance of Transgenic Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Qiong; Feng, Chao; Gao, Yinan; Zheng, Xiaodong; Zhao, Yu; Wang, Zhi; Kong, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background Plants are unavoidably subjected to various abiotic stressors, including high salinity, drought and low temperature, which results in water deficit and even death. Water uptake and transportation play a critical role in response to these stresses. Many aquaporin proteins, localized at different tissues, function in various transmembrane water movements. We targeted at the key aquaporin in charge of both water uptake in roots and radial water transportation from vascular tissues through the whole plant. Results The MzPIP2;1 gene encoding a plasma membrane intrinsic protein was cloned from salt-tolerant apple rootstock Malus zumi Mats. The GUS gene was driven by MzPIP2;1 promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis. It indicated that MzPIP2;1 might function in the epidermal and vascular cells of roots, parenchyma cells around vessels through the stems and vascular tissues of leaves. The ectopically expressed MzPIP2;1 conferred the transgenic Arabidopsis plants enhanced tolerance to slight salt and drought stresses, but sensitive to moderate salt stress, which was indicated by root length, lateral root number, fresh weight and K+/Na+ ratio. In addition, the possible key cis-elements in response to salt, drought and cold stresses were isolated by the promoter deletion experiment. Conclusion The MzPIP2;1 protein, as a PIP2 aquaporins subgroup member, involved in radial water movement, controls water absorption and usage efficiency and alters transgenic plants drought and salt tolerance. PMID:26562158

  17. Diversity of the predominant spoilage bacteria in water-boiled salted duck during storage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Wang, Daoying; Du, Lihui; Zhu, Yongzhi; Xu, Weimin

    2010-06-01

    The spoilage microbiota in water-boiled salted duck during storage at 4 degrees C was determined using culture-dependent and independent methods. Analysis of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) patterns of PCR amplicons targeting the V3 region of the 16S rDNA and sequencing of the bands allowed profiling of the microbiota present in the duck. Community DNA extracts were prepared directly from water-boiled salted duck and from culturable bacterial fractions harvested from both MRS and PCA media. The spoilage bacteria mainly consisted of Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Macrococcus caseolyticus, Weissella, Halomonas sp. or Cobetia sp., and Exiguobacterium sp. based on sequencing and homology search of the DGGE bands. It appeared that both the bacterial counts and diversity increased during storage time. By plating method, bacterial counts in MRS agar increased from 10(4) to 10(8) CFU/g from day 1 to 10, while total bacterial counts in PCA agar reached 10(9) CFU/g after 10 d. Total of 14 strains isolated from PCA and MRS agar were identified as M. caseolyticus (2), S. saprophyticus (7), S. sciuri (1), W. paramesenteroides (2), and W. confusa (2) by 16S rDNA sequencing. The identification of the spoilage-related microbiota is helpful to better understand the bacteria ecology in water-boiled salted duck and may lead to the discovery of appropriate preservation strategies. PMID:20629890

  18. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J.; Heslop, M.; Wernly, K.

    1999-04-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible {sup 238}Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and NaAsO{sub 2} or Na{sub 3}AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the {sup 238}Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox.

  19. Calibrating a salt water intrusion model with time-domain electromagnetic data.

    PubMed

    Herckenrath, Daan; Odlum, Nick; Nenna, Vanessa; Knight, Rosemary; Auken, Esben; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Salt water intrusion models are commonly used to support groundwater resource management in coastal aquifers. Concentration data used for model calibration are often sparse and limited in spatial extent. With airborne and ground-based electromagnetic surveys, electrical resistivity models can be obtained to provide high-resolution three-dimensional models of subsurface resistivity variations that can be related to geology and salt concentrations on a regional scale. Several previous studies have calibrated salt water intrusion models with geophysical data, but are typically limited to the use of the inverted electrical resistivity models without considering the measured geophysical data directly. This induces a number of errors related to inconsistent scales between the geophysical and hydrologic models and the applied regularization constraints in the geophysical inversion. To overcome these errors, we perform a coupled hydrogeophysical inversion (CHI) in which we use a salt water intrusion model to interpret the geophysical data and guide the geophysical inversion. We refer to this methodology as a Coupled Hydrogeophysical Inversion-State (CHI-S), in which simulated salt concentrations are transformed to an electrical resistivity model, after which a geophysical forward response is calculated and compared with the measured geophysical data. This approach was applied for a field site in Santa Cruz County, California, where a time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) dataset was collected. For this location, a simple two-dimensional cross-sectional salt water intrusion model was developed, for which we estimated five uniform aquifer properties, incorporating the porosity that was also part of the employed petrophysical relationship. In addition, one geophysical parameter was estimated. The six parameters could be resolved well by fitting more than 300 apparent resistivities that were comprised by the TDEM dataset. Except for three sounding locations, all the TDEM data could be fitted close to a root-mean-square error of 1. Possible explanations for the poor fit of these soundings are the assumption of spatial uniformity, fixed boundary conditions and the neglecting of 3D effects in the groundwater model and the TDEM forward responses. PMID:22891736

  20. Corrosion of Mullite by Molten Salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Lee, Kang N.; Yoshio, Tetsuo

    1996-01-01

    The interaction of molten salts of different Na2O activities and mullite is examined with furnace and burner tests. The more-acidic molten salts form small amounts of Al2O3; the more-basic molten salts form various Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2 compounds. The results are interpreted using the Na2O-Al203-SiO2 ternary phase diagram, and some possible diffusion paths are discussed. The generally higher melting points of Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2 compounds lead to better behavior of mullite in molten salts, as compared to SiO2-protected ceramics such as SiC. Mullite-coated SiC is discussed, and the corrosion behavior is evaluated.

  1. Ground Water Chemistry Evolution Under Unsaturated Zone Sulfate Salt Dissolution in a Great Basin Lacustrine Aquifer, Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohm, B.; Thomas, J.; Dahan, O.; Ralston, J.; McKay, A.

    2006-12-01

    Sulfate and chloride ions in combination with stable isotopes of water turned out to be a powerful tool to decipher the complex aquifer geochemistry in the Fernley Basin aquifer system, in the western Great Basin of the Western United States. The results permitted identifying the underlying hydrologic processes and conceptualizing a three-dimensional model of basin geochemistry. The primary causes of high total dissolved solids (TDS) in this lacustrine sediment aquifer system are dissolution of unsaturated zone Na-SO4 salts by infiltrating irrigation water. By irrigating an area of 2,185 hectares between 0.5 and 1.3 million metric tons of salts were washed into the underlying aquifer, increasing aquifer TDS from pre-irrigation values of about 600 mg/l to more than 5000 mg/l. Irrigation also raised the ground water table which adds to unsaturated zone salt dissolution. The high TDS ground water eventually discharges into the Truckee River, which is the only source of surface water for Pyramid Lake, a large hydrologically closed lake. At present most of the unsaturated zone salts beneath the irrigated areas have been dissolved. About 25 years' worth of water quality records from nine municipal wells show that the historically high TDS ground water is now gradually diluted by continued application of low TDS irrigation water. Due to the complex interaction of salt dissolution, mixing and dilution, the Fernley aquifer system is now characterized by three water types: 1) about 150 mg/l TDS mixed-cation- HCO3 river water; 2) 500 to 3000 mg/l TDS Na-Cl water and 3) 250 to 5000 mg/l TDS Na-SO4 water. Mixing of these three water types results in wide ranges of ground water chemistry. Mixing was identified between low TDS river water and high TDS Na-SO4 ground waters, and Na-SO4 and Na-Cl ground waters. Deep well samples from the central part of the basin indicate that the pre-irrigation ambient Na-Cl ground water type at depth has been mixed with Na-SO4 water in the upper 200 m of the aquifer, which is now discharging north into the Truckee River. A smaller source of high TDS water is ambient Na-Cl ground water flowing through a fault zone into the Truckee River at the northeastern basin periphery. Discharge of these two high TDS ground water sources are evident in the Truckee River's water chemistry during the low streamflow season.

  2. Calcium and bromide contents of natural waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, R.J.; Graf, D.L.; Jones, B.F.

    1966-01-01

    The linear relation observed in a log Ca++ versus log Br - plot for subsurface Cl- waters is attributed to ultrafiltration by shale of sea water and fresh water that have passed through sedimentary rocks since their formation. Reactions between these solutions and sedimentary minerals, particularly dolomitization, must have contributed additional Ca+ + to solution.

  3. Salt-Ice Grains from Enceladus' Plumes: Frozen Samples of Subsurface Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postberg, Frank; Kempf, S.; Schmidt, J.; Brilliantov, N.; Beinsen, A.; Abel, B.; Buck, U.; Srama, R.

    2009-09-01

    Compositional measurements by Cassini's dust detector (CDA) of ice particles emitted from Saturn's active moon Enceladus into the E ring are presented. Our detection of sodium salts within the grains provides evidence for mineral enriched liquid water deep below the moon's icy surface (Postberg et al., Nature 2009). In nearly all particles we found sodium (Na) in varying concentrations. Most spectra also show potassium (K) in lower abundance. In particles that are particularly sodium rich, sodium salts (like NaCl and NaHCO3) are identified as Na bearing components. This is only plausible if the plume source is liquid water that is or has been linked to an ocean in contact with the rocky material of Enceladus' core. The abundance of minerals as well as the inferred basic pH of those grains exhibit a compelling similarity with the predicted composition of an Enceladus ocean (Zolotov, GRL 2007). The Na-rich ice particles expelled through the plumes into the E ring are frozen droplets of a salt-water reservoir possibly still in contact with a large ocean. Together with recent measurement of Enceladian plume vapor by Cassini-INMS (Waite et al., Nature 2009) and Earth bound spectroscopy (Schneider et al., Nature 2009), a detailed compositional picture of both gas and solid phases of the plume is at hand for the first time. The results provide strict constraints for plume models which have to include gas and grain production as well as their subsequent ejection into the E ring. The observations now produce a consistent picture of plume mechanics based on evaporation of liquid water as the main plume driver but also involving other processes. Violently erupting geysers from water in the cracks close to the surface can be ruled out, whereas large evaporating water surfaces deep below the ice crust provide the most plausible scenarios.

  4. Development of Bile Salt-Resistant Leuconostoc citreum by Expression of Bile Salt Hydrolase Gene.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seung Kee; Lee, Soo Jin; Shin, So-Yeon; Moon, Jin Seok; Li, Ling; Joo, Wooha; Kang, Dae-Kyung; Han, Nam Soo

    2015-12-28

    Probiotic bacteria must have not only tolerance against bile salt but also no genes for antibiotic resistance. Leuconostoc citreum is a dominant lactic acid bacterium in various fermented foods, but it is not regarded as a probiotic because it lacks bile salt resistance. Therefore, we aimed to construct a bile salt-resistant L. citreum strain by transforming it with a bile salt hydrolase gene (bsh). We obtained the 1,001 bp bsh gene from the chromosomal DNA of Lactobacillus plantarum and subcloned it into the pCB4170 vector under a constitutive P710 promoter. The resulting vector, pCB4170BSH was transformed into L. citreum CB2567 by electroporation, and bile saltresistant transformants were selected. Upon incubation with glycodeoxycholic acid sodium salt (GDCA), the L. citreum transformants grew and formed colonies, successfully transcribed the bsh gene, and expressed the BSH enzyme. The recombinant strain grew in up to 0.3% (w/v) GDCA, conditions unsuitable for the host strain. In in vitro digestion conditions of 10 mM bile salt, the transformant was over 67.6% viable, whereas only 0.8% of the host strain survived. PMID:26282688

  5. Biased monitoring of fresh water-salt water mixing zone in coastal aquifers.

    PubMed

    Shalev, Eyal; Lazar, Ariel; Wollman, Stuart; Kington, Shushanna; Yechieli, Yoseph; Gvirtzman, Haim

    2009-01-01

    In coastal aquifers, significant vertical hydraulic gradients are formed where fresh water and underlying salt water discharge together upward to the seafloor. Monitoring boreholes may act as "short circuits" along these vertical gradients, connecting between the higher and the lower hydraulic head zones. When a sea tide is introduced, the fluctuations of both the water table and the depth of the mixing zone are also biased due to this effect. This problem is intensified in places of long-screen monitoring boreholes, which are common in many places in the world. For example, all approximately 500 boreholes of the fresh water-salt water mixing zone in the coastal aquifer of Israel are installed with 10 to 50 m long screens. We present field measurements of these fluctuations, along with a three-dimensional numerical model. We find that the in-well fluctuation magnitude of the mixing zone is an order of magnitude larger than that in the porous media of the actual aquifer. The primary parameters that affect the magnitude of this bias are the anisotropy of the aquifer conductivity and the borehole hydraulic parameters. With no sea tide, borehole interference is higher for the anisotropic case because the vertical hydraulic gradients are high. When tides are introduced, the amplitude of the mixing zone fluctuation is higher for the isotropic case because the overall effective hydraulic conductivity is greater than the conductivity in the anisotropic case. In the aquifer, the fresh water-salt water mixing zone fluctuations are dampened, and tens of meters inland from the shoreline, the fluctuations are on the order of few centimeters. PMID:18823401

  6. Calcium Carbonate Precipitation/Dissolution in Salt Water - Fresh Water Mixing Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkowitz, B.; Singurindy, O.; Lowell, R. P.

    2001-12-01

    Mineral precipitation and dissolution in subsurface environments can have a dramatic effect on the permeability and porosity of formations and hence exert a feedback on the fluid flow. Many parameters influence mineral precipitation and dissolution, but the one addressed here concerns precipitation or dissolution that arises from mixing of saturated solutions with different salinities (or temperatures). This effect arises because the solubility of a mineral in solution depends non-linearly on salinity (or temperature). Examples include calcite precipitation and/or dissolution resulting from mixing of fresh and saline waters in coastal carbonate formations, or the precipitation of anhydrite (CaSO4) upon mixing of hydrothermal solutions with seawater. The present preliminary study focuses on flow, precipitation and dissolution along a salt water-fresh water interface in a porous medium. Emphasis is placed on the quantitative evolution of the flow field in both time and space, under different flow regimes and chemical compositions. Flow experiments were performed in a 2D flow cell packed with 1 mm diameter glass beads. Salt water and fresh water, both saturated with CaCO3, were injected simultaneously at equal flow rates at two inlets. The effluent acid from the outlets was collected and analyzed for Ca2+ concentration, in order to calculate precipitated/dissolved calcium carbonate (based on molar volume of the component) during the experiments. The equilibrium concentration of dissolved calcium carbonate in salt water was found to be higher than in fresh water. Calcium carbonate tended to precipitate in the mixing zone because the resulting mixture became supersaturated. The precipitation rate of calcium carbonate, and the forms of precipitation and subsequent dissolution, are highly dependent on the flow rate, the chemical composition of the injected fluids, and the salinity gradient.

  7. Salts on Europa's surface detected by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCord, T.B.; Hansen, G.B.; Fanale, F.P.; Carlson, R.W.; Matson, D.L.; Johnson, T.V.; Smythe, W.D.; Crowley, J.K.; Martin, P.D.; Ocampo, A.; Hibbitts, C.A.; Granahan, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Reflectance spectra in the 1- to 2.5-micrometer wavelength region of the surface of Europa obtained by Galileo's Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer exhibit distorted water absorption bands that indicate the presence of hydrated minerals. The laboratory spectra of hydrated salt minerals such as magnesium sulfates and sodium carbonates and mixtures of these minerals provide a close match to the Europa spectra. The distorted bands are only observed in the optically darker areas of Europa, including the lineaments, and may represent evaporite deposits formed by water, rich in dissolved salts, reaching the surface from a water-rich layer underlying an ice crust.

  8. Estimation of salt water upconing using a steady-state solution for partial completion of a pumped well.

    PubMed

    Garabedian, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    A new steady-state analytical solution to the two-dimensional radial-flow equation was developed for drawdown (head) conditions in an aquifer with constant transmissivity, no-flow conditions at the top and bottom, constant head conditions at a known radial distance, and a partially completed pumping well. The solution was evaluated for accuracy by comparison to numerical simulations using MODFLOW. The solution was then used to estimate the rise of the salt water-fresh water interface (upconing) that occurs under a pumping well, and to calculate the critical pumping rate at which the interface becomes unstable, allowing salt water to enter the pumping well. The analysis of salt water-fresh water interface rise assumed no significant effect on upconing by recharge; this assumption was tested and supported using results from a new steady-state analytical solution developed for recharge under two-dimensional radial-flow conditions. The upconing analysis results were evaluated for accuracy by comparison to those from numerical simulations using SEAWAT for salt water-fresh water interface positions under mild pumping conditions. The results from the equation were also compared with those of a published numerical sharp-interface model applied to a case on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. This comparison indicates that estimating the interface rise and maximum allowable pumping rate using the analytical method will likely be less conservative than the maximum allowable pumping rate and maximum stable interface rise from a numerical sharp-interface model. PMID:23336341

  9. Water, salt, and heat exchange through the Kinburn Strait of the Dnieper-Bug Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkovskaya, R. Ya.; Demidov, A. N.

    2014-09-01

    Based on the multiannual observations (1965-2011), the diurnal, seasonal, and annual variabilities of the water, salt, and heat exchange rates in the Kinburn Strait of the Dnieper-Bug Estuary are studied. A method for calculation of the water, salt, and heat exchange rates through the strait is proposed, and the respective values are specified to be used for solving the practical problems related to efficient use of the water resources in this near-mouth region.

  10. The mechanism of sulforaphene degradation to different water contents.

    PubMed

    Tian, Guifang; Li, Yuan; Cheng, Li; Yuan, Qipeng; Tang, Pingwah; Kuang, Pengqun; Hu, Jing

    2016-03-01

    Sulforaphene extracted from radish seeds was strongly associated with cancer prevention. However, sulforaphene was unstable in aqueous medium and at high temperature. This instability impairs many useful applications of sulforaphene. In this paper, the stability of sulforaphene (purity above 95%) during storage at -20°C, 4°C and 26°C was studied. The degradation product was purified by preparative HPLC and identified by ESI/MS, NMR ((1)H and (13)C NMR) and FTIR spectroscopy. The degradation pathway of sulforaphene was presented. Furthermore, we found that the degradation rate of sulforaphene was closely related to the water content of sulforaphene sample. The higher the water content was, the faster the sulforaphene sample degraded. A mathematical model was developed to predict the degradation constant at various water contents. It provided a guideline for industry to improve the stability of sulforaphene during preparation, application and storage. PMID:26471648

  11. Comparison of Vegetation Water Content Estimates from Windsat and Modis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Retrieval of soil moisture content from microwave sensors also returns an estimate of vegetation water content. Remotely sensed indices from optical sensors can be used to estimate canopy water content. For corn and soybean in central Iowa, there are allometric relationships between canopy water c...

  12. Remodeled salt appetite in rat offspring by perinatal exposure to nicotine.

    PubMed

    Hui, Pengpeng; Rui, Can; Liu, Yujuan; Xu, Feichao; Wu, Jiawei; Wu, Lei; Chen, Yu; Liao, Jiawei; Mao, Caiping; Xu, Zhice

    2009-04-01

    To determine the effect of perinatal exposure to nicotine on water intake and salt appetite related to renin-angiotensin system in the offspring, maternal rats during perinatal period [gestation (G) or gestation plus lactation (G+L)] were subcutaneously administrated with nicotine. Four months after birth, intake of 1.8% NaCl and water was measured following 24h water deprivation in the adult offspring, and angiotensin receptors in the brain were determined. There was no change of blood Na(+) and K(+) concentrations following exposure to nicotine either during pregnancy or pregnancy plus lactation. To the offspring following perinatal exposure to nicotine, their salt appetite was significantly increased (during the first 2h and 24h testing periods) by 24h water deprivation. In the forebrain of the offspring with history of perinatal exposure to nicotine, expression of angiotensin AT(1) and AT(2) subtype was reduced. The results showed that spontaneous salt appetite was not changed by using nicotine during perinatal periods, while stimulated salt intake could be affected by exposure to nicotine in fetal origins, and the changed behavior (water and salt intake) by perinatal nicotine was associated with the remodeled expression of AT(1) and AT(2) receptors in the forebrain of the offspring. PMID:19162104

  13. Effects of halobacteria and selected chemicals on radiation transmission in salt water

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Seyed-Yagoobi, J. )

    1994-05-01

    The spectral transmittance of halobacteria and selected chemicals in deionized water with several concentration levels are measured to determine their effects on solar radiation transmission in salt water. The total transmittance at the range of measured wavelength is calculated. The experimental data indicate that presence of halobacteria significantly affects solar transmission in salt water, and hydrochloric acid may be considered as the best candidate among the selected chemicals resulting from its superior demonstration in radiation transmission. The results of this study are applicable to outdoor salt-gradient solar ponds.

  14. Sodium Content of Community Water Supplies in California

    PubMed Central

    Steinkamp, Ruth C.; Young, Clarence L.; Nyhus, Dolores; Greenberg, Arnold E.

    1968-01-01

    The amount of sodium ion in water used for ingestion may be critical in effective use of a low sodium dietary regimen. Waters containing not over 20 mg of sodium per liter are provided for in the sodium restricted diets set forth by the American Heart Association. For diets containing more than 500 mg of sodium a day, waters of greater sodium content may be used if proper dietary adjustments are made. While assessment of the long-term average sodium content of a community water supply is difficult, the determined values for sodium lend to classification within range categories. The larger community water supplies in California are presented within several range categories of sodium content. The more commonly used water softeners add sodium to water. The sodium-restricted patient should be cautioned against their use. Similar consideration should probably be given to water supplies of retirement communities where the potential for disorders requiring sodium restriction is greater than in the general population. PMID:5673988

  15. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan describes planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in Salt Lake City, Utah. This plan identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for routine monitoring of ground water, sediments, and surface waters at monitoring stations on the site.

  16. Chloride dynamics in a restored urban stream and the influence of road salts on water quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the connection between road salts and water quality is essential to assess the implications for human health and ecosystem services from these widely used de-icers. Preliminary analysis identified a probable connection between road salt application and a stream wat...

  17. Effect of water turbidity on thermal performance of a salt-gradient solar pond

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Seyed-Yagoobi, J.

    1995-05-01

    The effect of water turbidity on the thermal performance of a salt-gradient solar pond is studied using a one-dimensional theoretical model. The theoretical model uses an empirical correlation that includes the effect of water turbidity on solar radiation penetration in water. The correlation is based on a uniform turbidity distribution in water; however, the correlation is extended to include a non-uniform turbidity distribution with respect to depth of water. The results indicate that water clarity plays a significant role on thermal performance for salt gradient solar ponds. 24 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Geomicrobiology and hopanoid content of sulfidic subsurface vent biofilms, Little Salt Spring, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, E.; Schaperdoth, I.; Albrecht, H.; Freeman, K. H.; Macalady, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Sulfide-rich, oxygen-poor environments are widespread in the subsurface and were prevalent at the earth's surface during critical intervals in the geologic past. Modern microbial communities in sulfidic niches have the potential to shed light on the biogeochemistry and biosignatures of anoxia and euxinia in earth history. Caves and sinkholes provide rare windows into microbially-dominated, sulfidic subsurface environments that are otherwise difficult and expensive to access. Little Salt Spring (Sarasota County, Florida) is a cover-collapse sinkhole lake with oxic surface water and anoxic, sulfidic bottom water (Alvarez Zarikian 2005). The site is famous for excellent preservation of human and animal archaeological remains (Clausen 1979), and its microbiology has never been investigated. Abundant white biofilms develop seasonally at a warm vent that feeds into the anoxic bottom water at 73 m depth below the water surface. The biofilms are of interest both as potential sources of biomarker compounds and because of their likely role in sulfuric acid production and limestone dissolution (speleogenesis). Biofilm samples were collected by expert science divers and investigated using microscopy, nucleic acid, and lipid analytical methods. Microscopy of the live biofilm revealed clusters of microbial filaments with holdfasts and dendritic, sulfur-rich colonial structures similar to those described in the 1960s for Thiobacterium, a sulfur-oxidizing genus with undetermined phylogeny. A 16S rDNA library constructed from the biofilm was split into three main phylotypes, with multiple clones representing (1) a Betaproteobacterial clade with no cultivated representatives, (2) filamentous Epsilonproteobacteria, and (3) a major bacterial lineage without named isolates (OP11/OD2). A full cycle rRNA approach is currently underway to link 16S rDNA phylotypes with specific populations in the biofilm. We confirmed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) that abundant filamentous cells with holdfasts are Epsilonproteobacteria. Additional FISH experiments will target the Betaproteobacterial and OP11/OD2 phylotypes retrieved by cloning. Based on HPLC-MS analyses, the biofilm contains at least 5 membrane hopanoid structures distinct from the suite of hopanoids present in sinking organic particles from the photic zone of the sinkhole. Future efforts will be aimed at linking hopanoid structures to specific sulfur-oxidizing populations and to geochemical parameters such as sulfide and oxygen concentrations. References Alvarez Zarikian,C. A., P. K. Swart, J. A. Gifford, P. L. Blackwelder, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 225, 134 (2005). Clausen, C. J., A. D. Cohen, C. Emiliani, J. A. Holman, J. J. Stipp, Science 203, 609 (1979).

  19. Numerical modeling of water flow and salt transport in bare saline soil subjected to evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Xiaolong; Boufadel, Michel C.

    2015-05-01

    A numerical study, based on a density-dependent variably saturated groundwater flow model MARUN, was conducted to investigate subsurface flow and salt transport in bare saline aquifers subjected to evaporation, which was simulated using the bulk aerodynamic formulation. As evaporation was assumed to depend on the pore moisture, the evaporation flux evolved gradually causing a gradual increase in the pore salinity. This is in contrast to prior studies where the high salinity was imposed instantaneously on the ground surface. Key factors likely affecting subsurface hydrodynamics were investigated, including saturated hydraulic conductivity, capillary drive, relative humidity in the air, and surrounding groundwater replenishment. The simulations showed two temporal regimes where the first consists of rapid evaporation for a duration of hours followed by slow evaporation, until evaporation ceases. In the absence of surrounding groundwater replenishment, evaporation-induced density gradient generated an upward water flow initially, and then the flow decreased at which time a high density salt "finger" formed and propagated downwards. Capillary properties and atmospheric condition had significant impacts on subsurface moisture distribution and salt migration in response to the evaporation. The results also suggested that the presence of subsurface water replenishment to the evaporation zone tended to produce a steady evaporation rate at the ground surface.

  20. Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans, a halotolerant plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, improves yield and content of secondary metabolites in Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell under primary and secondary salt stress.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Nidhi; Yadav, Deepti; Barnawal, Deepti; Maji, Deepamala; Kalra, Alok

    2013-02-01

    Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri), an integral component of Indian Ayurvedic medicine system, is facing a threat of extinction owing to the depletion of its natural populations. The present study investigates the prospective of exploitation of halotolerant plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in utilising the salt stressed soils for cultivation of B. monnieri. The effects of two salt tolerant PGPR, Bacillus pumilus (STR2) and Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans (STR36) on the growth and content of bacoside-A, an important pharmaceutical compound in B. monnieri, were investigated under primary and secondary salinity conditions. The herb yields of un-inoculated plants decreased by 48 % under secondary salinization and 60 % under primary salinization than the non salinised plants. Among the rhizobacteria treated plants, E. oxidotolerans recorded 109 and 138 %, higher herb yield than non-inoculated plants subjected to primary and secondary salinity respectively. E. oxidotolerans inoculated plants recorded 36 and 76 % higher bacoside-A content under primary and secondary salinity respectively. Higher levels of proline content and considerably lower levels of lipid peroxidation were noticed when the plants were inoculated with PGPR under all salinity regimes. From the results of this investigation, it can be concluded that, the treatments with salt tolerant PGPR can be a useful strategy in the enhancement of biomass yield and saponin contents in B. monnieri, as besides being an eco-friendly approach; it can also be instrumental in cultivation of B. monnieri in salt stressed environments. PMID:23085953

  1. [Determination of tracer gas contents in sediment pore water of gas hydrate area by two-dimensional gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hu; Yang, Qunhui; Ji, Fuwu; Zhou, Huaiyang; Xue, Xiang

    2011-01-01

    A two-dimensional gas chromatographic instrument was established by the capillary flow technology (Deans Switch) and two columns (PoraPLOT Q and Molsieve 5A) and three detectors (pulsed discharge helium ionization detector, flame photometric detector and thermal conductivity detector). The instrument can be used to measure tracer gases simultaneously including hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. The detection limits of the hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide were 0.51, 0.17, 82 and 0.08 micromol/mol, and the calibration curves presented good linear relationships in the range of 2-1030, 0.6-501, 120-10500 and 0.2- 49.1 micromol/mol, respectively. The relative standard deviations were less than 10% for the measurements of ten standard gases. By this method, the tracer gases in the sediment pore water of gas hydrate area in South China Sea had been detected. This method is simple, sensitive, and suitable for on-board detection. Compared with the usual methods for measuring tracer gases, the amount of a sample necessary is reduced greatly. It is useful for the survey of gas hydrate and hydrothermal resources below sea floor and for the research of dissolved gases in the ocean. PMID:21574403

  2. Ice crystallization in ultrafine water-salt aerosols: nucleation, ice-solution equilibrium, and internal structure.

    PubMed

    Hudait, Arpa; Molinero, Valeria

    2014-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have a strong influence on Earth's climate. Elucidating the physical state and internal structure of atmospheric aqueous aerosols is essential to predict their gas and water uptake, and the locus and rate of atmospherically important heterogeneous reactions. Ultrafine aerosols with sizes between 3 and 15 nm have been detected in large numbers in the troposphere and tropopause. Nanoscopic aerosols arising from bubble bursting of natural and artificial seawater have been identified in laboratory and field experiments. The internal structure and phase state of these aerosols, however, cannot yet be determined in experiments. Here we use molecular simulations to investigate the phase behavior and internal structure of liquid, vitrified, and crystallized water-salt ultrafine aerosols with radii from 2.5 to 9.5 nm and with up to 10% moles of ions. We find that both ice crystallization and vitrification of the nanodroplets lead to demixing of pure water from the solutions. Vitrification of aqueous nanodroplets yields nanodomains of pure low-density amorphous ice in coexistence with vitrified solute rich aqueous glass. The melting temperature of ice in the aerosols decreases monotonically with an increase of solute fraction and decrease of radius. The simulations reveal that nucleation of ice occurs homogeneously at the subsurface of the water-salt nanoparticles. Subsequent ice growth yields phase-segregated, internally mixed, aerosols with two phases in equilibrium: a concentrated water-salt amorphous mixture and a spherical cap-like ice nanophase. The surface of the crystallized aerosols is heterogeneous, with ice and solution exposed to the vapor. Free energy calculations indicate that as the concentration of salt in the particles, the advance of the crystallization, or the size of the particles increase, the stability of the spherical cap structure increases with respect to the alternative structure in which a core of ice is fully surrounded by solution. We predict that micrometer-sized particles and nanoparticles have the same equilibrium internal structure. The variation of liquid-vapor surface tension with solute concentration is a key factor in determining whether a solution-embedded ice core or vapor-exposed ice cap is the equilibrium structure of the aerosols. In agreement with experiments, we predict that the structure of mixed-phase HNO3-water particles, representative of polar stratospheric clouds, consists of an ice core surrounded by freeze-concentrated solution. The results of this work are important to determine the phase state and internal structure of sea spray ultrafine aerosols and other mixed-phase particles under atmospherically relevant conditions. PMID:24820354

  3. Comparison of the Mineral Content of Tap Water and Bottled Waters

    PubMed Central

    Azoulay, Arik; Garzon, Philippe; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Because of growing concern that constituents of drinking water may have adverse health effects, consumption of tap water in North America has decreased and consumption of bottled water has increased. Our objectives were to 1) determine whether North American tap water contains clinically important levels of calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), and sodium (Na+) and 2) determine whether differences in mineral content of tap water and commercially available bottled waters are clinically important. DESIGN We obtained mineral analysis reports from municipal water authorities of 21 major North American cities. Mineral content of tap water was compared with published data regarding commercially available bottled waters and with dietary reference intakes (DRIs). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Mineral levels varied among tap water sources in North America and among bottled waters. European bottled waters generally contained higher mineral levels than North American tap water sources and North American bottled waters. For half of the tap water sources we examined, adults may fulfill between 8% and 16% of their Ca2+ DRI and between 6% and 31% of their Mg2+ DRI by drinking 2 liters per day. One liter of most moderate mineralization European bottled waters contained between 20% and 58% of the Ca2+ DRI and between 16% and 41% of the Mg2+ DRI in adults. High mineralization bottled waters often contained up to half of the maximum recommended daily intake of Na+. CONCLUSION Drinking water sources available to North Americans may contain high levels of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+ and may provide clinically important portions of the recommended dietary intake of these minerals. Physicians should encourage patients to check the mineral content of their drinking water, whether tap or bottled, and choose water most appropriate for their needs. PMID:11318912

  4. Isolation and characterization of a lipolytic bacterium capable of growing in a low-water-content oil-water emulsion.

    PubMed Central

    Shabtai, Y

    1991-01-01

    A unique lipolytic bacterium was isolated in a selective growth system consisting of 99% triglycerides and a 1% water phase. The bacterium, termed Pseudomonas aeruginosa YS-7, was able to grow in an environment of low water content and could also survive amphipathic, osmotic, and matrical water stress in a triglyceride-rich culture. The isolated strain was identified as P. aeruginosa on the basis of standard physiological, biochemical, and serological assays. The strain is a gram-negative motile rod, aerobic, pigment forming, and capable of growing at 42 degrees C. It is highly tolerant of high concentrations of the cationic detergent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and of the fatty acid salts derived from bacterial hydrolysis of the oil. Growth of the bacterium in a pure culture in a 99% triglyceride medium lasted until most of the water was evaporated or consumed. Growth was accompanied by triglyceride hydrolysis, which continued to occur even after growth saturation until the water was totally depleted. No loss of viability was observed when the culture was maintained under water-depleted conditions for an additional 40 h. A second cycle of bacterial growth and triglyceride hydrolysis was immediately initiated upon the addition of 1% (vol/vol) water to the culture. Lipase activity was stable regardless of changes in culture conditions. The isolated strain is uniquely resistant to severe water stress in a triglyceride-rich medium or under cold acetone precipitation compared with 12 other microbial strains, including bacteria and yeasts. Among these 12, only the lipolytic strains grew in the 99% triglyceride medium, but they reached a cell mass fourfold smaller than that of P. aeruginosa YS-7.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:1908210

  5. Response to "comments on field calibration of water content refectometers"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication is a response to comments on a recent paper, “Field calibration of water content reflectometers”, by Chandler, Seyfried and McNamara, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 2004) we published. In that paper we presented a method for field calibration of a relatively inexpensive so...

  6. Stomach contents of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Scottish waters

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Graham

    Stomach contents of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Scottish waters M.B. Santos*P , G bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) stranded and by-caught around Scotland (UK) between 1990 and 1999¢nus), and also cephalopods. INTRODUCTION Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus, Montagu 1821) have a wide

  7. Oscillations in a Linearly Stratified Salt Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heavers, Richard M.

    2007-04-01

    Our physics students like to watch a ball bouncing underwater. They do this by dropping a weighted plastic ball into a 1000-ml cylinder filled with a linearly stratified salt-water solution at room temperature. The ball oscillates and comes to rest at about mid-depth. Its motion is analogous to the damped vertical oscillations of a mass hanging from a spring. Our apparatus for producing precise linear salt gradients is simple, inexpensive (cost about 50), and is easy to use. A refractometer is used to measure salt content (or density) of samples taken at various depths. Here we specify fresh- and salt-water volumes for making density gradients suitable for a class demonstration or a three-hour laboratory class.

  8. Potential water-quality effects from iron cyanide anticaking agents in road salt

    SciTech Connect

    Paschka, M.G.; Ghosh, R.S.; Dzombak, D.A.

    1999-10-01

    Water-soluble iron cyanide compounds are widely used as anticaking agents in road salt, which creates potential contamination of surface and groundwater with these compounds when the salt dissolves and is washed off roads in runoff. This paper presents a summary of available information on iron cyanide use in road salt and its potential effects on water quality. Also, estimates of total cyanide concentrations in snow-melt runoff from roadways are presented as simple mass-balance calculations. Although available information does not indicate a widespread problem, it also is clear that the water-quality effects of cyanide in road salt have not been examined much. Considering the large, and increasing, volume of road salt used for deicing, studies are needed to determine levels of total and free cyanide in surface and groundwater adjacent to salt storage facilities and along roads with open drainage ditches. Results could be combined with current knowledge of the fate and transport of cyanide to assess water-quality effects of iron cyanide anticaking agents used in road salt.

  9. RAPID METHOD FOR DETERMINING WATER CONTENT IN OYSTER TISSUE By THOMAS C. CARVER, JR., Pishery Biologist (Research) I

    E-print Network

    the valves X 1000. To dry the meat, Engle (1958) used 72 hours ex- posure at 90° C. in a convection-type oven. FISHERY BULLETIN: VOLUME 65, NO.3 tubes is to provide an atmosphere free of moisture. A 10 g. sample of homogenized oyster tissue is covered with toluene and heated to 100° C. for 45 minutes. The water vapor

  10. On the hydrophilicity of polyzwitterion poly (N,N-dimethyl-N-(3-(methacrylamido)propyl)ammoniopropane sulfonate) in water, deuterated water, and aqueous salt solutions.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Viet; Laschewsky, André; Zehm, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    A series of zwitterionic model polymers with defined molar masses up to 150,000?Da and defined end groups are prepared from sulfobetaine monomer N,N-dimethyl-N-(3-(methacrylamido)propyl)ammoniopropanesulfonate (SPP). Polymers are synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT) using a functional chain transfer agent labeled with a fluorescent probe. Their upper critical solution temperature-type coil-to-globule phase transition in water, deuterated water, and various salt solutions is studied by turbidimetry. Cloud points increase with polyzwitterion concentration and molar mass, being considerably higher in D2O than in H2O. Moreover, cloud points are strongly affected by the amount and nature of added salts. Typically, they increase with increasing salt concentration up to a maximum value, whereas further addition of salt lowers the cloud points again, mostly down to below freezing point. The different salting-in and salting-out effects of the studied anions can be correlated with the Hofmeister series. In physiological sodium chloride solution and in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), the cloud point is suppressed even for high molar mass samples. Accordingly, SPP-polymers behave strongly hydrophilic under most conditions encountered in biomedical applications. However, the direct transfer of results from model studies in D2O, using, e.g. (1)H NMR or neutron scattering techniques, to 'normal' systems in H2O is not obvious. PMID:25058808

  11. Salt tectonics on Venus

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.A.; Amsbury, D.

    1986-05-01

    The discovery of a surprisingly high deuterium/hydrogen ratio on Venus immediately led to the speculation that Venus may have once had a volume of surface water comparable to that of the terrestrial oceans. The authors propose that the evaporation of this putative ocean may have yielded residual salt deposits that formed various terrain features depicted in Venera 15 and 16 radar images. By analogy with models for the total evaporation of the terrestrial oceans, evaporite deposits on Venus should be at least tens to hundreds of meters thick. From photogeologic evidence and in-situ chemical analyses, it appears that the salt plains were later buried by lava flows. On Earth, salt diapirism leads to the formation of salt domes, anticlines, and elongated salt intrusions - features having dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 km. Due to the rapid erosion of salt by water, surface evaporite landforms are only common in dry regions such as the Zagros Mountains of Iran, where salt plugs and glaciers exist. Venus is far drier than Iran; extruded salt should be preserved, although the high surface temperature (470/sup 0/C) would probably stimulate rapid salt flow. Venus possesses a variety of circular landforms, tens to hundreds of kilometers wide, which could be either megasalt domes or salt intrusions colonizing impact craters. Additionally, arcurate bands seen in the Maxwell area of Venus could be salt intrusions formed in a region of tectonic stress. These large structures may not be salt features; nonetheless, salt features should exist on Venus.

  12. The influence of road salts on water quality in a restored urban stream (Columbus, OH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the connection between road salts and water quality is essential to assess the implications for human health and ecosystem services. To assess the effects of the restoration on water quality, surface and ground water have been monitored at Minebank Run, MD since 20...

  13. Effect of water in salt repositories. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baes, C.F. Jr.; Gilpatrick, L.O.; Kitts, F.G.; Bronstein, H.R.; Shor, A.J.

    1983-09-01

    Additional results confirm that during most of the consolidation of polycrystalline salt in brine, the previously proposed rate expression applies. The final consolidation, however, proceeds at a lower rate than predicted. The presence of clay hastens the consolidation process but does not greatly affect the previously observed relationship between permeability and void fraction. Studies of the migration of brine within polycrystalline salt specimens under stress indicate that the principal effect is the exclusion of brine as a result of consolidation, a process that evidently can proceed to completion. No clear effect of a temperature gradient could be identified. A previously reported linear increase with time of the reciprocal permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine was confirmed, though the rate of increase appears more nearly proportional to the product of sigma ..delta..P rather than sigma ..delta..P/sup 2/ (sigma is the uniaxial stress normal to the interface and ..delta..P is the hydraulic pressure drop). The new results suggest that a limiting permeability may be reached. A model for the permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine is developed that is reasonably consistent with the present results and may be used to predict the permeability of bedded salt. More measurements are needed, however, to choose between two limiting forms of the model.

  14. Removal of Cd2+ from water by Friedel's salt (FS: 3CaO x A12O3 x CaCI2 x 10H2O): sorption characteristics and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juanjuan; Zhao, He; Cao, Hongbin; Li, Heping; Li, Zhibao

    2013-09-01

    The development of low-cost and efficient new mineral adsorbents has been a hot topic in recent years. In this study, Friedel's salt (FS: 3CaO x A12O3 x CaCl2 x10H2O), a hexagonal layered inorganic absorbent, was synthesized to remove Cd2+ from water. The adsorption process was simulated by Langmuir and Freundlich models. The adsorption mechanism was further analyzed with TEM, XRD, FT-IR analysis and monitoring of metal cations released and solution pH variation. The results indicated the adsorbent FS had an outstanding ability for Cd(II) adsorption. The maximum adsorption capacity of the FS for Cd(II) removal can reach up to 671.14 mg/g. The nearly equal numbers of Cd2+ adsorbed and Ca2+ released demonstrated that ion-exchange (both surface and inner) of the FS for Cd(II) played an important role during the adsorption process. Furthermore, the surface of the FS after adsorption was microscopically disintegrated while the inner lamellar structure was almost unchanged. The behavior of Cd(II) adsorption by FS was significantly affected by surface reactions. The mechanisms of Cd2+ adsorption by the FS mainly included surface complexation and surface precipitation. In the present study, the adsorption process was fitted better by the Langmuir isotherm model (R2 = 0.9999) than the Freundlich isotherm model (R2 = 0.8122). Finally, due to the high capacity for ion-exchange on the FS surface, FS is a promising layered inorganic adsorbent for the removal of Cd(II) from water. PMID:24520713

  15. Water Calibration Measurements for Neutron Radiography: Application to Water Content Quantification in Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Misun; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Voisin, Sophie; Cheng, Chu-lin; Perfect, Edmund; Horita, Juske; Warren, Jeffrey

    2013-04-01

    Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 2 mm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector / scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media.

  16. Performance evaluation of TDT soil water content and watermark soil water potential sensors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the performance of digitized Time Domain Transmissometry (TDT) soil water content sensors (Acclima, Inc., Meridian, ID) and resistance-based soil water potential sensors (Watermark 200, Irrometer Company, Inc., Riverside, CA) in two soils. The evaluation was performed by compar...

  17. Salts and nutrients present in regenerated waters induce changes in water relations, antioxidative metabolism, ion accumulation and restricted ion uptake in Myrtus communis L. plants.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Motos, José R; Alvarez, Sara; Barba-Espín, Gregorio; Hernández, José A; Sánchez-Blanco, María J

    2014-12-01

    The use of reclaimed water (RW) constitutes a valuable strategy for the efficient management of water and nutrients in landscaping. However, RW may contain levels of toxic ions, affecting plant production or quality, a very important aspect for ornamental plants. The present paper evaluates the effect of different quality RWs on physiological and biochemical parameters and the recovery capacity in Myrtus communis L. plants. M. communis plants were submitted to 3 irrigation treatments with RW from different sources (22 weeks): RW1 (1.7 dS m(-1)), RW2 (4.0 dS m(-1)) and RW3 (8.0 dS m(-1)) and one control (C, 0.8 dS m(-1)). During a recovery period of 11 weeks, all plants were irrigated with the control water. The RW treatments did not negatively affect plant growth, while RW2 even led to an increase in biomass. After recovery,only plants irrigated with RW3 showed some negative effects on growth, which was related to a decrease in the net photosynthesis rate, higher Na accumulation and a reduction in K levels. An increase in salinity was accompanied by decreases in leaf water potential, relative water content and gas exchange parameters, and increases in Na and Cl uptake. Plants accumulated Na in roots and restricted its translocation to the aerial part. The highest salinity levels produced oxidative stress, as seen from the rise in electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation. The use of regenerated water together with carefully managed drainage practices, which avoid the accumulation of salt by the substrate, will provide economic and environmental benefits. PMID:25394799

  18. 46 CFR 45.77 - Salt water freeboard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    (b) When the displacement at the summer load waterline cannot be certified, the addition in inches to the minimum freeboard in fresh water may be obtained by multiplying 0.25 by the summer draught in feet measured from the top of the keel to the center of the load line...

  19. Salt tolerance underlies the cryptic invasion of North American salt marshes by an introduced haplotype of the common reed Phragmites australis (Poaceae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vasquez, E.A.; Glenn, E.P.; Brown, J.J.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Nelson, S.G.

    2005-01-01

    A distinct, non-native haplotype of the common reed Phragmites australis has become invasive in Atlantic coastal Spartina marshes. We compared the salt tolerance and other growth characteristics of the invasive M haplotype with 2 native haplotypes (F and AC) in greenhouse experiments. The M haplotype retained 50% of its growth potential up to 0.4 M NaCl, whereas the F and AC haplotypes did not grow above 0.1 M NaCl. The M haplotype produced more shoots per gram of rhizome tissue and had higher relative growth rates than the native haplotypes on both freshwater and saline water treatments. The M haplotype also differed from the native haplotypes in shoot water content and the biometrics of shoots and rhizomes. The results offer an explanation for how the M haplotype is able to spread in coastal salt marshes and support the conclusion of DNA analyses that the M haplotype is a distinct ecotype of P. australis.

  20. Salt tolerant plants increase nitrogen removal from biofiltration systems affected by saline stormwater.

    PubMed

    Szota, Christopher; Farrell, Claire; Livesley, Stephen J; Fletcher, Tim D

    2015-10-15

    Biofiltration systems are used in urban areas to reduce the concentration and load of nutrient pollutants and heavy metals entering waterways through stormwater runoff. Biofilters can, however be exposed to salt water, through intrusion of seawater in coastal areas which could decrease their ability to intercept and retain pollutants. We measured the effect of adding saline stormwater on pollutant removal by six monocotyledonous species with different levels of salt-tolerance. Carex appressa, Carex bichenoviana, Ficinia nodosa, Gahnia filum, Juncus kraussii and Juncus usitatus were exposed to six concentrations of saline stormwater, equivalent to electrical conductivity readings of: 0.09, 2.3, 5.5, 10.4, 20.0 and 37.6 mS cm(-1). Salt-sensitive species: C. appressa, C. bichenoviana and J. usitatus did not survive ?10.4 mS cm(-1), removing their ability to take up nitrogen (N). Salt-tolerant species, such as F. nodosa and J. kraussii, maintained N-removal even at the highest salt concentration. However, their levels of water stress and stomatal conductance suggest that N-removal would not be sustained at concentrations ?10.4 mS cm(-1). Increasing salt concentration indirectly increased phosphorus (P) removal, by converting dissolved forms of P to particulate forms which were retained by filter media. Salt concentrations ?10 mS cm(-1) also reduced removal efficiency of zinc, manganese and cadmium, but increased removal of iron and lead, regardless of plant species. Our results suggest that biofiltration systems exposed to saline stormwater ?10 mS cm(-1) can only maintain N-removal when planted with salt-tolerant species, while P removal and immobilisation of heavy metals is less affected by species selection. PMID:26150068

  1. Lorentz Force on Sodium and Chlorine Ions in a Salt Water Solution Flow under a Transverse Magnetic Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Luca, R.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that, by applying elementary concepts in electromagnetism and electrochemistry to a system consisting of salt water flowing in a thin rectangular pipe at an average velocity v[subscript A] under the influence of a transverse magnetic field B[subscript 0], an electromotive force generator can be conceived. In fact, the Lorentz force…

  2. Maxwell-Wagner relaxation in common minerals and a desert soil at low water contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcone, Steven A.; Boitnott, Ginger E.

    2012-06-01

    Penetration of 100- to 1000-MHz ground-penetrating radar (GPR) signals is virtually non-existent in arid and desert soils despite their low water content and moderate conductivity, the latter of which cannot explain the loss. Under the hypothesis that strong dielectric relaxation supplements DC conductivity to cause high intrinsic attenuation rates, we compared the complex permittivity of a desert soil sample with that of controlled samples of quartz, feldspars, calcite, coarse and crystallite gypsum, kaolinite and montmorillonite. The soil had 80% quartz, 10% feldspars and 10% gypsum by weight, with the latter composed of crystallites and crustations. All samples had 4-7% volumetric water content. We measured permittivity most accurately from 1.6 MHz to 4 GHz with Fourier Transform time domain reflectometry, and used grain sizes less than 53 ?m. All samples show low-frequency dispersion with the soil, gypsum crystallites and montmorillonite having the strongest below 100 MHz, the highest attenuation rates, and conductivity values unable to account for these rates. The soil rate exceeded 100 dB m- 1 by 1 GHz. Through modeling we find that a broadened relaxation centered from 2 to 16 MHz sufficiently supplements losses caused by conductivity and free water relaxation to account for loss rates in all our samples, and accounts for low-frequency dispersion below 1 GHz. We interpret the relaxation to be of the Maxwell-Wagner (MW) type because of the 2- to 16-MHz values, relaxation broadening, the lack of salt, clay and magnetic minerals, and insufficient surface area to support adsorbed water. The likely MW dipolar soil inclusions within the predominantly quartz matrix were gypsum particles coated with water containing ions dissolved from the gypsum, and the conducting water layers themselves. The inclusions for the monomineralic soils were likely ionized partially or completely water-filled interstices, and partially filled galleries for the montmorillonite. The low water content may be necessary to help isolate these inclusions. For our common, low conductivity minerals, the MW contributions to attenuation rates are significant above 10 MHz, whereas they are significant above about 100 MHz for the more conductive minerals and soil.

  3. Fluid-loading solutions and plasma volume: Astro-ade and salt tablets with water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortney, Suzanne M.; Seinmann, Laura; Young, Joan A.; Hoskin, Cherylynn N.; Barrows, Linda H.

    1994-01-01

    Fluid loading with salt and water is a countermeasure used after space flight to restore body fluids. However, gastrointestinal side effects have been frequently reported in persons taking similar quantities of salt and water in ground-based studies. The effectiveness of the Shuttle fluid-loading countermeasure (8 gms salt, 0.97 liters of water) was compared to Astro-ade (an isotonic electrolyte solution), to maintain plasma volume (PV) during 4.5 hrs of resting fluid restriction. Three groups of healthy men (n=6) were studied: a Control Group (no drinking), an Astro-ade Group, and a Salt Tablet Group. Changes in PV after drinking were calculated from hematocrit and hemoglobin values. Both the Salt Tablet and Astro-ade Groups maintained PV at 2-3 hours after ingestion compared to the Control Group, which had a 6 percent decline. Side effects (thirst, stomach cramping, and diarrhea) were noted in at least one subject in both the Astro-ade and Salt Tablet Groups. Nausea and vomiting were reported in one subject in the Salt Tablet Group. It was concluded that Astro-ade may be offered as an alternate fluid-loading countermeasure but further work is needed to develop a solution that is more palatable and has fewer side effects.

  4. Grain orientation in high Tc superconductors by molten salt powder synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Sudhakar; Schulze, Walter A.

    1991-01-01

    The molten salt or the flux method is used to fabricate a grain oriented YBa2Cu3O(7-x) (123) superconductor. Here we suggest a two-stage approach in using the 'green phase', Y2BaCuO5 (211), as seed crystals in the formation of YBa2Cu3O(7-x). The process uses Y2BaCuO5 formed by molten salt synthesis. The Y2BaCuO5 phase was observed to be stable in water and in most of the salt systems. Salt processing can form a small quantity of anisotropic particles of Y2BaCuO5. This material can form the 123 phase when tape cast and sintered in the presence of the required levels of Ba and Cu.

  5. Fracture of porous materials induced by crystallization of salt

    E-print Network

    Katzoff, Golda Y

    2006-01-01

    The penetration of salt into porous materials is known to have deleterious effects, often resulting in fracture. The damage process begins with a saline solution penetrating the porous network by way of capillary action. ...

  6. Salt Marsh Sediment Biogeochemical Response to the Deep Water Horizon BP Oil Spill (Skiff Island, LA, and Cat Island, Marsh Point, and Salt Pan Island, MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guthrie, C. L.; McNeal, K. S.; Mishra, D. R.; Blakeney, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    The large scale impact of the Deep Water Horizon BP Oil Spill on biological communities can be better predicted by developing an understanding of how carbon loading from the spill is affecting the microbial and biological communities of salt marshes along the Mississippi and Louisiana Gulf Coast. Sediment biogeochemical processes that degrade enriched carbon pools through sulfate reduction are primarily responsible for the biological breakdown of spilled hydrocarbons (Shin et al., 2000). Determination of sulfide concentration in contaminated areas, therefore, allows for an assessment of the oil spill impact on salt marsh at Skiff Island, LA, and Marsh Point, Cat Island, and Salt Pan Island, MS. As a result of carbon loading, porewater hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentrations are expected to show an increase in the largely anoxic wetland sediment, making the sediment more toxic and inhospitable to marsh vegetation (Alber et al., 2008). High sulfide levels due to carbon loading in hydrocarbon contaminated salt marshes cause microbial activity to increase at the plant rhizospere, leading to plant browning and die back (Eldridge and Morse 2000). Preliminary analysis of the Marsh Point study area was conducted in Fall 2010. Sediment cores indicated that sulfate reducing bacteria are significantly more active in contaminated sediments, producing sulfide concentrations 20x higher than in non-contaminated sediments. The difference in the sediment biogeochemistry between the contaminated site and non-contaminated site at Marsh Point, MS indicated that the effects of hydrocarbon contamination on sulfur cycling in salt marshes should be more spatially explored. In Fall 2011, the study was expanded to include Skiff Island, LA, and Cat Island, and Salt Pan Island, MS in addition to Marsh Point, MS. Sediment electrode profiles (H2S, O2, pH, and Eh), degree of hydrocarbon contamination (GC), grain size analysis, microbial community substrate level carbon utilization profiles, and total organic carbon results will be presented on these four locations in order to explore the potential sedimentary geochemical processes impacting salt marsh dieback, which may be enhanced as a result of the Deep Water Horizon BP Oil Spill.

  7. PHOSPHORUS CONTENT OF WATERS ALONG THE WEST COAST OF FLORIDA

    E-print Network

    PHOSPHORUS CONTENT OF WATERS ALONG THE WEST COAST OF FLORIDA Marine Biological Laboratory WOODS PHOSPHORUS CONTENT OF WATERS ALONG THF WEST COAST OF FLORIDA Herbert Wo Graham, Fishery Biologist, John Mo, 195U #12;ABSTRACT The distribution of inorganic and total phosphorus in the waters along the west

  8. Progress In Methods Of Measuring The Free Water Content Of Snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisk, David J.

    1983-09-01

    Providing ground truth for the backscatter and absorption effects of a snow cover on electromagnetic waves has long been a problem. One characteristic of the snow cover which has been particularly difficult to measure is its free, or liquid, water content - the fraction of the snow's volume which exists in the liquid state. Five methods which have been used for measuring this parameter are described and their merits and deficiencies discussed. Two of the methods are calorimetric, measuring the free water content as a function of the heat added to or removed from a snow sample while completely melting or freezing it. The third uses the freezing point depression observed on adding a salt solution to a snow sample to calculate the snow's free water content. In the fourth procedure, a snow sample is completely dissolved in ethyl or methyl alcohol. The corresponding decrease in temperature is inversely related to the free water content of the snow. The final technique is electronic: above a certain frequency, the electrical capacitance of snow is related to its density and free water content. With accurate calibration, devices which measure snow capacitance are likely to be the simplest and fastest means of providing free water measurements.

  9. Remote sensing of leaf, canopy and vegetation water contents for satellite climate data records

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foliar water content is a dynamic quantity depending on water losses from transpiration and water uptake from the soil. Absorption of shortwave radiation by water is determined by various frequency overtones of fundamental bending and stretching molecular transitions. Leaf water potential and rela...

  10. The influence of the hydrophobic agent, catalyst, solvent and water content on the wetting properties of the silica films prepared by one-step sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramezani, Maedeh; Vaezi, Mohammad Reza; Kazemzadeh, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we used one-step sol-gel process to prepare the hydrophobic silica films on the glass substrate from the ethyltriethoxysilane (ETES) as a precursor and iso-octyltrimethoxysilane (Iso-OTMS) as a hydrophobic agent. In order to study the effect of the hydrophobic agent on the water repellent properties of the silica films, the alcosol was prepared by keeping constant the molar ratio of ETES:EtOH:H2O at 1:36.2:6.3, with 6 M ammonium hydroxide and Iso-OTMS/ETES molar ratio varied from 0.2 to 1.4. Also, we investigated the influence of the other sol-gel reaction parameters, such as catalyst, solvent and water content and their effect on the morphology and hydrophobic properties of the silica films. The results revealed that by altering the molar ratio of NH4OH, EtOH and H2O, different sizes of silica nanoparticles from 41.24 to 86.16 nm were obtained. The silica films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images, contact angle measurement (CA) and percentage of optical transmission.

  11. Vertical Profiles of Soil Water Content as Influenced by Environmental Factors in a Small Catchment on the Hilly-Gully Loess Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bing; Wen, Fenxiang; Wu, Jiangtao; Wang, Xiaojun; Hu, Yani

    2014-01-01

    Characterization of soil water content (SWC) profiles at catchment scale has profound implications for understanding hydrological processes of the terrestrial water cycle, thereby contributing to sustainable water management and ecological restoration in arid and semi-arid regions. This study described the vertical profiles of SWC at the small catchment scale on the hilly and gully Loess Plateau in Northeast China, and evaluated the influences of selected environmental factors (land-use type, topography and landform) on average SWC within 300 cm depth. Soils were sampled from 101 points across a small catchment before and after the rainy season. Cluster analysis showed that soil profiles with high-level SWC in a stable trend (from top to bottom) were most commonly present in the catchment, especially in the gully related to terrace. Woodland soil profiles had low-level SWC with vertical variations in a descending or stable trend. Most abandoned farmland and grassland soil profiles had medium-level SWC with vertical variations in varying trends. No soil profiles had low-level SWC with vertical variations in an ascending trend. Multi-regression analysis showed that average SWC was significantly affected by land-use type in different soil layers (0–20, 20–160, and 160–300 cm), generally in descending order of terrace, abandoned farmland, grassland, and woodland. There was a significant negative correlation between average SWC and gradient along the whole profile (P<0.05). Landform significantly affected SWC in the surface soil layer (0–20 cm) before the rainy season but throughout the whole profile after the rainy season, with lower levels on the ridge than in the gully. Altitude only strongly affected SWC after the rainy season. The results indicated that land-use type, gradient, landform, and altitude should be considered in spatial SWC estimation and sustainable water management in these small catchments on the Loess Plateau as well as in other complex terrains with similar settings. PMID:25313829

  12. Vertical profiles of soil water content as influenced by environmental factors in a small catchment on the hilly-gully Loess Plateau.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Wen, Fenxiang; Wu, Jiangtao; Wang, Xiaojun; Hu, Yani

    2014-01-01

    Characterization of soil water content (SWC) profiles at catchment scale has profound implications for understanding hydrological processes of the terrestrial water cycle, thereby contributing to sustainable water management and ecological restoration in arid and semi-arid regions. This study described the vertical profiles of SWC at the small catchment scale on the hilly and gully Loess Plateau in Northeast China, and evaluated the influences of selected environmental factors (land-use type, topography and landform) on average SWC within 300 cm depth. Soils were sampled from 101 points across a small catchment before and after the rainy season. Cluster analysis showed that soil profiles with high-level SWC in a stable trend (from top to bottom) were most commonly present in the catchment, especially in the gully related to terrace. Woodland soil profiles had low-level SWC with vertical variations in a descending or stable trend. Most abandoned farmland and grassland soil profiles had medium-level SWC with vertical variations in varying trends. No soil profiles had low-level SWC with vertical variations in an ascending trend. Multi-regression analysis showed that average SWC was significantly affected by land-use type in different soil layers (0-20, 20-160, and 160-300 cm), generally in descending order of terrace, abandoned farmland, grassland, and woodland. There was a significant negative correlation between average SWC and gradient along the whole profile (P<0.05). Landform significantly affected SWC in the surface soil layer (0-20 cm) before the rainy season but throughout the whole profile after the rainy season, with lower levels on the ridge than in the gully. Altitude only strongly affected SWC after the rainy season. The results indicated that land-use type, gradient, landform, and altitude should be considered in spatial SWC estimation and sustainable water management in these small catchments on the Loess Plateau as well as in other complex terrains with similar settings. PMID:25313829

  13. The effect of ultrasonic salting on protein and water-protein interactions in meat.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, C K; Allen, P; Morin, C; Lyng, J G

    2014-03-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of power ultrasound (US) treatment (4.2, 11 or 19 W cm(-2) for 10, 25 or 40 min) on water-protein interactions during the salting of pork. All US treatments increased the protein extraction above that of the control (p<0.001), with the exception of 4.2 W cm(-2) for 10 and 25 min. Differential scanning calorimetry indicated myosin denaturation at the surface of the sample treated with the highest power (19 W cm(-2), 40 min). There was no effect on water binding capacity assessed by centrifuge, however, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance T21 relaxation was increased by 19 W cm(-2) (p<0.05). No changes to the meat matrix were evident by light microscopy. Findings indicate that US salting could be a surface phenomenon which can accelerate mass transfer and extract protein but denature myosin at high power inputs. Potential could exist for US to enhance conventional curing techniques. PMID:24206713

  14. Salting out the polar polymorph: Analysis by alchemical solvent transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, Nathan; Dahal, Yuba Raj; Schmit, Jeremy D.; Peters, Baron

    2014-01-01

    We computationally examine how adding NaCl to an aqueous solution with ?- and ?-glycine nuclei alters the structure and interfacial energy of the nuclei. The polar ?-glycine nucleus in pure aqueous solution develops a melted layer of amorphous glycine around the nucleus. When NaCl is added, a double layer is formed that stabilizes the polar glycine polymorph and eliminates the surface melted layer. In contrast, the non-polar ?-glycine nucleus is largely unaffected by the addition of NaCl. To quantify the stabilizing effect of NaCl on ?-glycine nuclei, we alchemically transform the aqueous glycine solution into a brine solution of glycine. The alchemical transformation is performed both with and without a nucleus in solution and for nuclei of ?-glycine and ?-glycine polymorphs. The calculations show that adding 80 mg/ml NaCl reduces the interfacial free energy of a ?-glycine nucleus by 7.7 mJ/m2 and increases the interfacial free energy of an ?-glycine nucleus by 3.1 mJ/m2. Both results are consistent with experimental reports on nucleation rates which suggest: J(?, brine) < J(?, brine) < J(?, water). For ?-glycine nuclei, Debye-Hückel theory qualitatively, but not quantitatively, captures the effect of salt addition. Only the alchemical solvent transformation approach can predict the results for both polar and non-polar polymorphs. The results suggest a general "salting out" strategy for obtaining polar polymorphs and also a general approach to computationally estimate the effects of solvent additives on interfacial free energies for nucleation.

  15. Hydrogen Sulfide Regulates Salt Tolerance in Rice by Maintaining Na+/K+ Balance, Mineral Homeostasis and Oxidative Metabolism Under Excessive Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Mostofa, Mohammad G.; Saegusa, Daisuke; Fujita, Masayuki; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2015-01-01

    Being a salt sensitive crop, rice growth and development are frequently affected by soil salinity. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recently explored as an important priming agent regulating diverse physiological processes of plant growth and development. Despite its enormous prospects in plant systems, the role of H2S in plant stress tolerance is still elusive. Here, a combined pharmacological, physiological and biochemical approach was executed aiming to examine the possible mechanism of H2S in enhancement of rice salt stress tolerance. We showed that pretreating rice plants with H2S donor sodium bisulfide (NaHS) clearly improved, but application of H2S scavenger hypotaurine with NaHS decreased growth and biomass-related parameters under salt stress. NaHS-pretreated salt-stressed plants exhibited increased chlorophyll, carotenoid and soluble protein contents, as well as suppressed accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), contributing to oxidative damage protection. The protective mechanism of H2S against oxidative stress was correlated with the elevated levels of ascorbic acid, glutathione, redox states, and the enhanced activities of ROS- and methylglyoxal-detoxifying enzymes. Notably, the ability to decrease the uptake of Na+ and the Na+/K+ ratio, as well as to balance mineral contents indicated a role of H2S in ion homeostasis under salt stress. Altogether, our results highlight that modulation of the level of endogenous H2S genetically or exogenously could be employed to attain better growth and development of rice, and perhaps other crops, under salt stress. Furthermore, our study reveals the importance of the implication of gasotransmitters like H2S for the management of salt stress, thus assisting rice plants to adapt to adverse environmental changes.

  16. NOTES ON THE DISSOLVED CONTENT OF WATER IN ITS EFFECT UPON FISHES

    E-print Network

    that supports fish life, and that water can be too pure for fishes. The law is probably of wide application.. NOTES ON THE DISSOLVED CONTENT OF WATER IN ITS EFFECT UPON FISHES· JJ. By M. C. Marsh United at Washington. U. S. A.· September 22 to 26. 1908 #12;CONTENTS. Page. Natural impurities in water u n u _ _ u

  17. Increasing the collected energy and reducing the water requirements in salt-gradient solar ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, F. I.; Ruskowitz, J. A.; Tyler, S. W.; Childress, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    Salt-gradient solar ponds are low-cost, large-scale solar collectors with integrated storage that can be used as an energy source in many thermal systems. For instance, solar ponds have proven to be a promising solution to drive thermal desalination in arid zones. However, in zones with limited water availability, where evaporation constrains the use of solar ponds in areas with the greatest potential for solar energy development, evaporation losses at the surface of the pond constrain their use. Therefore, evaporation represents a significant challenge for development of these low-cost solar systems in arid settings. In this investigation, different transparent floating elements were tested to suppress evaporation: flat discs, hemispheres, and a continuous cover. Flat discs were the most effective evaporation suppression element. Evaporation decreased from 4.8 to 2.5 mm/day when 88% of the pond was covered with the flat discs. In addition, the highest temperature increased from 34 to 43°C and the heat content increased from 179 to 220 MJ (a 22% increase). Reduced evaporative losses at the surface of the pond resulted in lower conductive losses from the storage zone and increased the collected energy. The magnitude of evaporation reduction observed in this work is important as it allows solar pond operation in locations with limited water supply for replenishment. The increase in stored heat allows more energy to be withdrawn from the pond for use in external applications, which significantly improves the thermal efficiencies of solar ponds.

  18. Calculating salt loads to Great Salt Lake and the associated uncertainties for water year 2013; updating a 48 year old standard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shope, Christopher L.; Angeroth, Cory E.

    2015-01-01

    Effective management of surface waters requires a robust understanding of spatiotemporal constituent loadings from upstream sources and the uncertainty associated with these estimates. We compared the total dissolved solids loading into the Great Salt Lake (GSL) for water year 2013 with estimates of previously sampled periods in the early 1960s.We also provide updated results on GSL loading, quantitatively bounded by sampling uncertainties, which are useful for current and future management efforts. Our statistical loading results were more accurate than those from simple regression models. Our results indicate that TDS loading to the GSL in water year 2013 was 14.6 million metric tons with uncertainty ranging from 2.8 to 46.3 million metric tons, which varies greatly from previous regression estimates for water year 1964 of 2.7 million metric tons. Results also indicate that locations with increased sampling frequency are correlated with decreasing confidence intervals. Because time is incorporated into the LOADEST models, discrepancies are largely expected to be a function of temporally lagged salt storage delivery to the GSL associated with terrestrial and in-stream processes. By incorporating temporally variable estimates and statistically derived uncertainty of these estimates,we have provided quantifiable variability in the annual estimates of dissolved solids loading into the GSL. Further, our results support the need for increased monitoring of dissolved solids loading into saline lakes like the GSL by demonstrating the uncertainty associated with different levels of sampling frequency.

  19. Calculating salt loads to Great Salt Lake and the associated uncertainties for water year 2013; updating a 48 year old standard.

    PubMed

    Shope, Christopher L; Angeroth, Cory E

    2015-12-01

    Effective management of surface waters requires a robust understanding of spatiotemporal constituent loadings from upstream sources and the uncertainty associated with these estimates. We compared the total dissolved solids loading into the Great Salt Lake (GSL) for water year 2013 with estimates of previously sampled periods in the early 1960s. We also provide updated results on GSL loading, quantitatively bounded by sampling uncertainties, which are useful for current and future management efforts. Our statistical loading results were more accurate than those from simple regression models. Our results indicate that TDS loading to the GSL in water year 2013 was 14.6 million metric tons with uncertainty ranging from 2.8 to 46.3 million metric tons, which varies greatly from previous regression estimates for water year 1964 of 2.7 million metric tons. Results also indicate that locations with increased sampling frequency are correlated with decreasing confidence intervals. Because time is incorporated into the LOADEST models, discrepancies are largely expected to be a function of temporally lagged salt storage delivery to the GSL associated with terrestrial and in-stream processes. By incorporating temporally variable estimates and statistically derived uncertainty of these estimates, we have provided quantifiable variability in the annual estimates of dissolved solids loading into the GSL. Further, our results support the need for increased monitoring of dissolved solids loading into saline lakes like the GSL by demonstrating the uncertainty associated with different levels of sampling frequency. PMID:26231769

  20. Pure water injection into porous rock with superheated steam and salt in a solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montegrossi, G.; Tsypkin, G.; Calore, C.

    2012-04-01

    Most of geothermal fields require injection of fluid into the hot rock to maintain pressure and productivity. The presence of solid salt in porous space may cause an unexpected change in the characteristics of the reservoir and produced fluids, and dramatically affect the profitability of the project. We consider an injection problem of pure water into high temperature geothermal reservoir, saturated with superheated vapour and solid salt. Pure water moves away from injection point and dissolves solid salt. When salty water reaches the low-pressure hot domain, water evaporation occurs and, consequently, salt precipitates. We develop a simplified analytical model of the process and derive the similarity solutions for a 1-D semi-infinite reservoir. These solutions are multi-valued and describe the reduction in permeability and porosity due to salt precipitation at the leading boiling front. If the parameters of the system exceed critical values, then similarity solution ceases to exist. We identify this mathematical behaviour with reservoir sealing in the physical system. The TOUGH2-EWASG code has been used to verify this hypothesis and investigate the precipitate formation for an idealized bounded 1-D geothermal system of a length of 500 m with water injection at one extreme and fluid extraction at the other one. Both boundaries are kept at constant pressure and temperature. The result for the semi-infinite numerical model show that the monotonic grow of the solid salt saturation to reach asymptotic similarity solution generally occurs over a very large length starting from the injection point. Reservoir sealing occurs if solid salt at the initial state occupies a considerable part of the porous space. Numerical experiments for the bounded 500 m system demonstrate that a small amount of salt is enough to get reservoir sealing. Generally, salt tend to accumulate near the production well, and salt plug forms at the elements adjacent to the extraction point. This type of simulation studies can be applied to Hot Dry Rock systems to investigate the effects of dissolution/precipitation of solid salt, if present in the system, on the feasibility of the project.

  1. Physiological and molecular mechanisms of salt and water homeostasis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Choe, Keith P

    2013-08-01

    Intracellular salt and water homeostasis is essential for all cellular life. Extracellular salt and water homeostasis is also important for multicellular organisms. Many fundamental mechanisms of compensation for osmotic perturbations are well defined and conserved. Alternatively, molecular mechanisms of detecting salt and water imbalances and regulating compensatory responses are generally poorly defined for animals. Throughout the last century, researchers studying vertebrates and vertebrate cells made critical contributions to our understanding of osmoregulation, especially mechanisms of salt and water transport and organic osmolyte accumulation. Researchers have more recently started using invertebrate model organisms with defined genomes and well-established methods of genetic manipulation to begin defining the genes and integrated regulatory networks that respond to osmotic stress. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is well suited to these studies. Here, I introduce osmoregulatory mechanisms in this model, discuss experimental advantages and limitations, and review important findings. Key discoveries include defining genetic mechanisms of osmolarity sensing in neurons, identifying protein damage as a sensor and principle determinant of hypertonic stress resistance, and identification of a putative sensor for hypertonic stress associated with the extracellular matrix. Many of these processes and pathways are conserved and, therefore, provide new insights into salt and water homeostasis in other animals, including mammals. PMID:23739341

  2. Capacitive deionization coupled with microbial fuel cells to desalinate low-concentration salt water.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lulu; Yang, Xufei; Liang, Peng; Wang, Lei; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Wei, Jincheng; Huang, Xia

    2012-04-01

    A new technology (CDI-MFC) that combined capacitive deionization (CDI) and microbial fuel cell (MFC) was developed to treat low-concentration salt water with NaCl concentration of 60mg/L. The water desalination rate was 35.6mg/(Lh), meanwhile the charge efficiency was 21.8%. Two desorption modes were investigated: discharging (DC) mode and short circuit (SC) mode. The desalination rate in the DC mode was 200.6±3.1mg/(Lh), 47.8% higher than that in the SC mode [135.7±15.3mg/(Lh)]. The average current in the DC mode was also much higher than that of the SC mode. The energy stored in the CDI cell has been reused to enhance the electron production of MFC by the discharging desorption mode (DC mode), which offers an approach to recover the electrostatic energy in the CDI cell. PMID:22364771

  3. Accuracy of bottled drinking water label content.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nazeer B; Chohan, Arham N

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy of the concentration of fluoride (F), calcium (Ca), pH, and total dissolved solids (TDS) levels mentioned on the labels of the various brands of bottled drinking water available in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Twenty-one different brands of locally produced non-carbonated (still water) bottled drinking water were collected from the supermarkets of Riyadh. The concentration of F, Ca, TDS, and pH values were noted from the labels of the bottles. The samples were analyzed for concentrations in the laboratory using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean level of F, Ca, and pH were found as 0.86 ppm, 38.47 ppm, and 7.5, respectively, which were significantly higher than the mean concentration of these elements reported in the labels. Whereas, the mean TDS concentration was found 118.87 ppm, which was significantly lower than the mean reported on the labels. In tropical countries like Saudi Arabia, the appropriate level of F concentration in drinking water as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) should be 0.6-0.7 ppm. Since the level of F was found to be significantly higher than the WHO recommended level, the children exposed to this level could develop objectionable fluorosis. The other findings, like pH value, concentrations of Ca, and TDS, were in the range recommended by the WHO and Saudi standard limits and therefore should have no obvious significant health implications. PMID:19475483

  4. ATTACHMENT OF ESCHERICHIA COLI TO SOIL AGGREGATES AS AFFECTED BY AGGREGATE WATER CONTENT AND PRESENCE OF MANURE COLLOIDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many soils contain relatively large structural units that do not slack when soil is being wetted. Soil aggregates, obtained from dry soil samples by sieving, present a model media to study the interactions of intact soils with dissolved or suspended contaminants. Land-applied manures may contain var...

  5. Experimental Study on Hydrothermal Plume Dynamics in a Stratified Salt Water Tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; He, Z.; Jiang, H.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrothermal plumes are generated by high temperature hydrothermal venting systems occurred at many places along the mid-ocean ridges. The understanding of interaction between plumes and surrounding seawater are important since plumes transport significant heat and chemicals from the lithosphere to the ocean. This paper presents an experimental study on plume generation, mixing, entrainment and rising in a stratified salt water tank. The two-tank method is first improved to produce a stable linear stratification in the tank. A series of plume experiments using different orifice diameters and fluxes are then carried out to evaluate the characteristics of plumes. The stratification of salt water is measured and buoyancy frequency is calculated to provide the background information. The plume shape, flow field, rise height, and buoyancy flux are analyzed using image processing methods. The results show that the established experimental system is capable of providing stable linear stratifications for laboratory studies of hydrothermal plumes. The measured plume shapes and rise heights are in good agreement with available empirical formulae in the literature.

  6. Differentiation of the water content of tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Audeh, C.A.

    1988-08-01

    Three primary techniques have been used to accomplish separating the bitumen from the sand: (a) flotation, (b) solvent and solvent-assisted extraction and (c) direct coking. Of these hot water flotation followed by some solvent treatment became commercial in Canada in 1973. In this process the operating mechanism of separation is: (a) mixing the hot water with the tar sand to heat the bitumen so as to make it less viscous and more mobile; (b) separating the sand from the tar as a result of the decrease in viscosity and increase in mobility; (c) formation of globules from the separated tar which eventually form a froth and float to the top of the water. The overall operating mechanism of the solvent-assisted process is the same as that of the hot water process. However, viscosity reduction which brings about mobility increase is effected by the solvent. Also, for a tar sand with bitumen that is denser than water, the solvent also reduces the density of the separated bitumen and allows it to float. It has been suggested that the success of such recovery processes is contingent upon the presence of a thin film of water around the sand particles. Although the presence of this film of water is important, its existence has only been inferred and its quantity has not been determined. In this study the water content of a tar sand is differentiated by a procedure that removes extraneous water selectively and leaves the intrinsic water intact. Fines in the bitumen-free sand contain a significant amount of clay which contains a third type of water, water of hydration.

  7. Water Content of Basalt Erupted on the ocean floor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, J.G.

    1970-01-01

    Deep sea pillow basalts dredged from the ocean floor show that vesicularity changes with composition as well as with depth. Alkalic basalts are more vesicular than tholeiitic basalts erupted at the same depth. The vesicularity data, when related to experimentally determined solubility of water in basalt, indicate that K-poor oceanic tholeiites originally contained about 0.25 percent water, Hawaiian tholeiites of intermediate K-content, about 0.5 percent water, and alkali-rich basalts, about 0.9 percent water. Analyses of fresh basalt pillows show a systematic increase of H2O+ as the rocks become more alkalic. K-poor oceanic tholeiites contain 0.06-0.42 percent H2O+, Hawaiian tholeiites, 0.31-0.60 percent H2O+, and alkali rich basalts 0.49-0.98 percent H2O+. The contents of K2O, P2O5, F, and Cl increase directly with an increase in H2O+ content such that at 1.0 weight percent H2O+, K2O is 1.58 percent, P2O5 is 0.55 percent, F is 0.07 percent, and Cl is 0.1 percent. The measured weight percent of deuterium on the rim of one Hawaiian pillow is -6.0 (relative to SMOW); this value, which is similar to other indications of magmatic water, suggests that no appreciable sea water was absorbed by the pillow during or subsequent to eruption on the ocean floor. Concentrations of volatile constituents in the alkali basalt melts relative to tholeiitic melts can be explained by varying degrees of partial melting of mantle material or by fractional crystallization of a magma batch. ?? 1970 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Preparation of Al-La Master Alloy by Thermite Reaction in NaF-NaCl-KCl Molten Salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Poknam; Li, Hyonmo; Kim, Wenjae; Wang, Zhaowen; Liu, Fengguo

    2015-05-01

    A NaF-NaCl-KCl ternary system containing La2O3 was investigated for the preparation of Al-La master alloy by the thermite reaction method. The solubility of La2O3 in NaF-NaCl-KCl molten salt was determined by the method of isothermal solution saturation. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used to consider the content of La2O3 in molten salt and the supernatant composition of molten salt after dissolution of La2O3, respectively. The results showed that the content of NaF had a positive influence on the solubility of La2O3 in NaF-NaCl-KCl molten salts, and the solubility of La2O3 could reach 8.71 wt.% in molten salts of 50 wt.%NaF-50 wt.% (44 wt.%NaCl + 56 wt.%KCl). The XRD pattern of cooling molten salt indicated the formation of LaOF in molten salt, which was probably obtained by the reaction between NaF and La2O3. The kinetic study showed that the thermite reaction was in accord with a first-order reaction model. The main influence factors on La content in the Al-La master alloy product, including molten salt composition, amount of Al, concentration of La2O3, stirring, reduction time and temperature, were investigated by single-factor experimentation. The content of La in the Al-La master alloy could be reached to 10.1 wt.%.

  9. Linkage of EcoRI Dissociation from its Specific DNA Recognition Site to Water Activity, Salt Concentration,

    E-print Network

    Rau, Don C.

    constants on water activity, salt concentration, and pH in order to distinguish the contributions is still not well understood. While it is generally conceded that hydration water likely plays an important the sensitivity of a free energy difference to salt activity or pH, respectively. Water activity can be varied

  10. The salt and lipid composition of model cheeses modifies in-mouth flavour release and perception related to the free sodium ion content.

    PubMed

    Boisard, Lauriane; Andriot, Isabelle; Martin, Christophe; Septier, Chantal; Boissard, Vanessa; Salles, Christian; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2014-02-15

    Reducing salt and lipid levels in foodstuffs without any effect on acceptability is a major challenge, particularly because of their interactions with other ingredients. This study used a multimodal approach to understand the effects of changes to the composition of model cheeses (20/28, 24/24, 28/20 lipid/protein ratios, 0% and 1% added NaCl) on sodium ion mobility ((23)Na NMR), in-mouth sodium release and flavour perception. An increase in the salt content decreased cheese firmness and perceived hardness, and increased sodium ion mobility, in vivo sodium release and both saltiness and aroma perception. With the same amount of salt, a lower lipid/protein ratio increased the firmness of the cheeses, perceived hardness, and decreased sodium ion mobility, in vivo sodium release, saltiness and aroma perception. These findings suggest on one hand that it could be possible to increase saltiness perception by varying cheese composition, thus inducing differences in sodium ion mobility and in free sodium ion concentration, leading to differences in in-mouth sodium release and saltiness perception, and on the other hand that the reformulation of foods in line with health guidelines needs to take account of both salt content and the lipid/protein ratio. PMID:24128499

  11. Effects of salinity variations on pore water flow in salt marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chengji; Jin, Guangqiu; Xin, Pei; Kong, Jun; Li, Ling

    2015-06-01

    Spatial and temporal salinity variations in surface water and pore water commonly exist in salt marshes under the combined influence of tidal inundation, precipitation, evapotranspiration, and inland freshwater input. Laboratory experiments and numerical simulations were conducted to investigate how density gradients associated with salinity variations affect pore water flow in the salt marsh system. The results showed that upward salinity (density) gradients could lead to flow instability and the formation of salt fingers. These fingers, varying in size with the distance from the creek, modified significantly the pore water flow field, especially in the marsh interior. While the flow instability enhanced local salt transport and mixing considerably, the net effect was small, causing only a slight increase in the overall mass exchange across the marsh surface. In contrast, downward salinity gradients exerted less influence on the pore water flow in the marsh soil and slightly weakened the surface water and groundwater exchange across the marsh surface. Numerical simulations revealed similar density effects on pore water flow at the field scale under realistic conditions. These findings have important implications for studies of marsh soil conditions concerning plant growth as well as nutrient exchange between the marsh and coastal marine system.

  12. Does Water Content or Flow Rate Control Colloid Transport in Unsaturated Porous Media?

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsten Knappenberger; Markus Flury; Earl D. Mattson; James B. Harsh

    2014-03-01

    Mobile colloids can play an important role in contaminant transport in soils: many contaminants exist in colloidal form, and colloids can facilitate transport of otherwise immobile contaminants. In unsaturated soils, colloid transport is, among other factors, affected by water content and flow rate. Our objective was to determine whether water content or flow rate is more important for colloid transport. We passed negatively charged polystyrene colloids (220 nm diameter) through unsaturated sand-filled columns under steady-state flow at different water contents (effective water saturations Se ranging from 0.1 to 1.0, with Se = (? – ?r)/(?s – ?r)) and flow rates (pore water velocities v of 5 and 10 cm/min). Water content was the dominant factor in our experiments. Colloid transport decreased with decreasing water content, and below a critical water content (Se < 0.1), colloid transport was inhibited, and colloids were strained in water films. Pendular ring and water film thickness calculations indicated that colloids can move only when pendular rings are interconnected. The flow rate affected retention of colloids in the secondary energy minimum, with less colloids being trapped when the flow rate increased. These results confirm the importance of both water content and flow rate for colloid transport in unsaturated porous media and highlight the dominant role of water content.

  13. Electrodialysis technology for salt recovery from aluminum salt cake

    SciTech Connect

    Hryn, J. N.; Krumdick, G.; Graziano, D.; Sreenivasarao, K.

    2000-02-02

    Electrodialysis technology for recovering salt from aluminum salt cake is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Salt cake, a slag-like aluminum-industry waste stream, contains aluminum metal, salt (NaCl and KCl), and nonmetallics (primarily aluminum oxide). Salt cake can be recycled by digesting with water and filtering to recover the metal and oxide values. A major obstacle to widespread salt cake recycling is the cost of recovering salt from the process brine. Electrodialysis technology developed at Argonne appears to be a cost-effective approach to handling the salt brines, compared to evaporation or disposal. In Argonne's technology, the salt brine is concentrated until salt crystals are precipitated in the electrodialysis stack; the crystals are recovered downstream. The technology is being evaluated on the pilot scale using Eurodia's EUR 40-76-5 stack.

  14. A modeling study of water and salt exchange for a micro-tidal, stratified northern Gulf of Mexico estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Choong-Ki; Park, Kyeong

    2012-08-01

    A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model is applied to the Mobile Bay system to study water and salt exchange with the northern Gulf of Mexico via Main Pass (MP) and eastern Mississippi Sound via Pass-aux-Herons (PaH). On average, more water leaves the Bay through MP than through PaH, and the Bay gains salt through MP and loses about the same amount through PaH. However, the volume discharge rate Qf and salt transport rate FS vary greatly in response to wind and river discharge with the range of variation 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than the corresponding mean. Stratification plays a key role for salt transport through MP. During periods of large river discharge, the landward shear dispersive transport FE peaking during equatorial tides and the landward tidal oscillatory transport FT peaking during tropic tides, respectively, balance the seaward advective transport QfS0. During periods of relatively weak stratification, FS at MP is almost entirely determined by QfS0 and its variability is well correlated with north-south (along-estuary) wind, associated with the barotropic (water level) adjustment. At the shallow, weakly stratified PaH, FS is almost identical to QfS0, and Qf is well correlated with east-west wind, with the correlation becoming stronger during the dry period.

  15. Sulfide variation in the pore and surface waters of artificial salt-marsh ditches and a natural tidal creek

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, J.R.; Shaffer, J.; Kain, T.; Stahl, R.; Crossman, R. )

    1992-09-01

    Pore and surface water sulfide variation near artificial ditches and a natural creek are examined in salt marshes bordering the Indian River Lagoon in east-central Florida. Pore water sulfide concentrations ranged from 0 [mu]g-at l[sup [minus]1] to 1,640 [mu]g-at l[sup [minus]1]. On average, the natural creek had the lowest sulfide concentrations (mean < 1.0 [mu]g-at l[sup [minus]1]) and the perimeter ditch of a managed salt marsh impoundment the highest (436.5 [mu]g-at l[sup [minus]1]). There was a trend of increasing sulfide concentration in the summer, and sharp peaks in late fall-early winter which correspond with peak litter input into the sediments. Significant differences in sulfide concentration between sites are attributed to differences in water flow and in organic matter content. Delaying the seasonal opening of culverts (which connect impounded marshes with the lagoon) until lagoon water levels rise in fall may prevent massive fish kills that have been associated with high sulfide levels in the impoundment perimeter ditches. 35 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Remote Sensing of Vegetation Water Content using Shortwave Infrared Reflectances

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation water content is an important biophysical parameter for estimation of soil moisture from microwave radiometers. The Soil Moisture Experiments in 2004 (SMEX04) and 2005 (SMEX05) had an objective of developing and testing algorithms for a vegetation water content data product using shortwav...

  17. Remote sensing of soil water content at large scales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil water content at the near surface is a critical parameter for understanding land surface atmosphere interactions, influencing surface energy balances. Using microwave radiometry, an accurate global map of surface soil water content can be generated on a near daily basis. The accuracy of the p...

  18. Salting-out phenomenon and 1-octanol/water partition coefficient of metalaxyl pesticide.

    PubMed

    Saab, J; Bassil, G; Abou Naccoul, R; Stephan, J; Mokbel, I; Jose, J

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we present the effect of inorganic cations such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ on the salting-out phenomenon of metalaxyl from pure water to aqueous salt solutions. Moreover the 1-octanol/water partition coefficient in pure water is presented. To accomplish this, aqueous solubility of metalaxyl was determined in pure water, in different salt solution (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2), and at different concentration level ranging from 0.01 to 1.5 M. The 1-octanol/water partition coefficient was determined using the static shake-flask method. Solubility was determined using dynamic saturation method for pure water in the range of 298.15-325.15 K and at 298.15 K for different salt solutions. The solubility value in pure water for studied interval was found constant (m=3.118×10(-2) mol kg(-1)). Solubility values were used to calculate the standard molar Gibbs free energy of dissolution (?solG°) and transfer (?trG°) at 298.15 K. The values of ?trG° from pure to all studied aqueous salt solutions did not exceed 2 kJ mol(-1), the value of ?solG° of dissolution is 18.5 ±0.72 kJ mol(-1). The 1-octanol/water partition coefficient in pure water log Ko/w is equal to 1.69. The obtained results confirm the classification of the neutral metalaxyl as a slightly hydrophobic molecule. PMID:21094973

  19. Partitioning of Total Dissolved Salts, Boron and Selenium in Pariette Wetland Water, Sediments and Benthic Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, A. R.; Jones, C. P.; Vasudeva, P.; Powelson, D.; Grossl, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Pariette Wetlands located in the Uinta Basin, UT, were developed by the BLM in part to mitigate salinity associated with irrigation drainage and runoff from flowing to the Green River, a tributary of the Colorado River. The wetlands are fed by runoff from upstream agricultural irrigation, and natural subsurface and overland flow through the Uintah formation, which is seleniferous, and saline. Concentrations of Total Dissolved Salts (TDS), boron (B) and selenium (Se) in the wetlands exceed the total maximum daily loads developed to meet the US EPA's water quality planning and management regulations (40CFR 130). This is of concern because the wetlands are home to populations of migratory birds, waterfowl, raptors, and numerous small mammals. A mass balance of the Se concentrations of water flowing into and out of the wetlands indicates that 80% of the Se is stored or lost within the system. Additional data suggest that the majority of the Se is associated with the sediments. Little information is available regarding the TDS and B. Therefore we will determine the whether B and other salts are accumulating in the wetland systems, and if so where. We sampled water, sediment, benthic organisms, and wetland plants, in 4 of the 23 ponds from the flood control inlet to water flowing out to the Green River. Sediments were collected at 3 depths (0-2 cm, 2-7 cm, and 7+ cm) at 3-4 locations within each pond including the inlet, outlet and at least one site near a major wetland plant community. Benthic organisms were sampled from the 0-2 cm and 2-7 cm sediment layers. Sediment and organism samples were digested with HNO3 and HClO4 prior to analysis of total Se by HGAAS. Hot water extractable B and DPTA extractable B were analyzed by ICP-AES. TDS was estimated from EC in the sediment and organisms extracts and direct analysis in the water. Preliminary results found that Se in the sediments decreases with depth. Se concentrations in the benthic organisms is approximately 4 times higher than in the associated sediments. Data from this study will contribute to a water quality risk assessment to the wetland fish and birds.

  20. Effect of salts on the solubility of ionic liquids in water: experimental and electrolyte Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory.

    PubMed

    Neves, Catarina M S S; Held, Christoph; Mohammad, Sultan; Schleinitz, Miko; Coutinho, João A P; Freire, Mara G

    2015-11-25

    Due to scarce available experimental data, as well as due to the absence of predictive models, the influence of salts on the solubility of ionic liquids (ILs) in water is still poorly understood. To this end, this work addresses the solubility of the IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C4C1im][NTf2]), at 298.15 K and 0.1 MPa, in aqueous salt solutions (from 0.1 to 1.5 mol kg(-1)). At salt molalities higher than 0.2 mol kg(-1), all salts caused salting-out of [C4C1im][NTf2] from aqueous solution with their strength decreasing in the following order: Al2(SO4)3 > ZnSO4 > K3C6H5O7 > KNaC4H4O6 > K3PO4 > Mg(CH3CO2)2 > K2HPO4 > MgSO4 > KH2PO4 > KCH3CO2. Some of these salts lead however to the salting-in of [C4C1im][NTf2] in aqueous medium at salt molalities lower than 0.2 mol kg(-1). To attempt the development of a model able to describe the salt effects, comprising both the salting-in and salting-out phenomena observed, the electrolyte Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (ePC-SAFT) was applied using ion-specific parameters. The gathered experimental data was modelled using ePC-SAFT parameters complemented by fitting a single binary parameter between K(+) and the IL-ions to the IL solubility in K3PO4 aqueous solutions. Based on this approach, the description of anion-specific salting-out effects of the remaining potassium salts was found to be in good agreement with experimental data. Remarkably, ePC-SAFT is even able to predict the salting-in effect induced by K2HPO4, based on the single K(+)/IL-ions binary parameter which was fitted to an exclusively salting-out effect promoted by K3PO4. Finally, ePC-SAFT was applied to predict the influence of other sodium salts on the [C4C1im][NTf2] solubility in water, with experimental data taken from literature, leading to an excellent description of the liquid-liquid phase behaviour. PMID:26575280

  1. Computational and experimental platform for understanding and optimizing water flux and salt rejection in nanoporous membranes.

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, Susan B.

    2010-09-01

    Affordable clean water is both a global and a national security issue as lack of it can cause death, disease, and international tension. Furthermore, efficient water filtration reduces the demand for energy, another national issue. The best current solution to clean water lies in reverse osmosis (RO) membranes that remove salts from water with applied pressure, but widely used polymeric membrane technology is energy intensive and produces water depleted in useful electrolytes. Furthermore incremental improvements, based on engineering solutions rather than new materials, have yielded only modest gains in performance over the last 25 years. We have pursued a creative and innovative new approach to membrane design and development for cheap desalination membranes by approaching the problem at the molecular level of pore design. Our inspiration comes from natural biological channels, which permit faster water transport than current reverse osmosis membranes and selectively pass healthy ions. Aiming for an order-of-magnitude improvement over mature polymer technology carries significant inherent risks. The success of our fundamental research effort lies in our exploiting, extending, and integrating recent advances by our team in theory, modeling, nano-fabrication and platform development. A combined theoretical and experimental platform has been developed to understand the interplay between water flux and ion rejection in precisely-defined nano-channels. Our innovative functionalization of solid state nanoporous membranes with organic protein-mimetic polymers achieves 3-fold improvement in water flux over commercial RO membranes and has yielded a pending patent and industrial interest. Our success has generated useful contributions to energy storage, nanoscience, and membrane technology research and development important for national health and prosperity.

  2. Efficiency improvement of heat exchangers by the rational choice of the range of frequencies of electromagnetic water treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runov, D. M.; Laptev, A. G.

    2015-05-01

    The electromagnetic water treatment is considered as one of the reagentless methods to reduce the scaling and to improve the cooling efficiency of high-temperature gas flows. It is achieved by the rational choice of the frequency range under laboratory conditions. The choice is made by the lowest particle size distribution of the precipitated particles. The time analysis of the content of hardness salts in the treated water is carried out at the input to and output of the heat exchanger.

  3. Improving the performance of ammonia-water absorption cycles using salt additives and membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, O.M.; Barnett, S.M.; Balamuru, V.G.

    1997-12-31

    This paper proposes a new design of an ammonia-water absorption refrigeration cycle for low-temperature heat sources such as solar energy and waste heat. The proposed cycle uses a salt additive to shift the chemical equilibrium toward more effective separation of ammonia molecules from aqueous solution (i.e., salting out). Since salt additives can affect all aspects of the absorption cycle, membranes have been chosen to control the flow of ions in the cycle and limit their effects to the generation side. This paper describes an absorption cycle that uses membrane separation processes, such as reverse osmosis, dialysis, and electrodialysis. To optimize the performance of the cycle, however, the membranes and salts must be carefully chosen.

  4. Geoelectrical and hydrochemical investigations for characterizing the salt water intrusion in the Khanasser valley, northern Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfahani, Jamal; Abou Zakhem, Boulos

    2013-04-01

    An integrated approach of geoelectrical and hydrochemical investigation surveys was proposed for indicating contact regions between saline and fresh groundwater in the Khanasser valley region, northern Syria. The qualitative and quantitative interpretations of 34 vertical electrical soundings (VES) enable to characterize the salt water intrusion laterally and vertically. The established iso-apparent resistivity maps for different AB/2 spacings obviously indicate the presence of a lowresistivity (less than 4 Ohm·m) zone related to the salt water intrusion in the Quaternary and Paleogene deposits. The different hydrochemical and geophysical parameters, such as electrical resistivity, total dissolved solids (TDS) and major ions concentrations used to characterize the salt water intrusion gave almost similar results in locating and mapping the different boundaries of the groundwater salinity. The proposed approach is useful for mapping the interface between different groundwater qualities, and can be therefore used to successfully characterize the salt water intrusion phenomenon in other semi-arid regions. The application of such an approach is a powerful tool and can be used for water resource management in the water scarce areas.

  5. Salt stabilizer for preventing chlorine depletion and increasing shelf-life of potable water - A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, E. J.; Edgerley, R. H.

    1971-01-01

    Proposed concept, based on law of mass action uses addition of salt to increase chlorine ions produced in sodium hydrochlorite solutions, thereby increasing solution shelf-life. This technique is not costly. Usefulness will be determined by acceptability of salt in product undergoing long shelf-life.

  6. Mineralogical study of stream waters and efflorescent salts in Sierra Minera, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria luz; Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Hernandez, Carmen; Hernandez-Cordoba, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Trace elements contained in the residues from mining and metallurgical operations are often dispersed by wind and/or water after their disposal. These areas have severe erosion problems caused by water run-off in which soil and mine spoil texture, landscape topography and regional and microclimate play an important role. Water pollution by dissolved metals in mining areas has mainly been associated with the oxidation of sulphide-bearing minerals exposed to weathering conditions, resulting in low quality effluents of acidic pH and containing a high level of dissolved metals. The studied area, Sierra Minera, is close to the mining region of La Unión (Murcia, SE Spain). This area constituted an important mining centre for more than 2500 years, ceasing activity in 1991. The ore deposits of this zone have iron, lead and zinc as the main metal components. Studied area showed a lot of contaminations sources, formed by mining steriles, waste piles and foundry residues. As a consequence of the long period of mining activity, large volumes of wastes were generated during the mineral concentration and smelting processes. Historically, these wastes were dumped into watercourses, filling riverbeds and contaminating their surroundings. 40 sediment samples were collected from the area affected by mining exploitations, and at increasing distances from the contamination sources in 4 zones In addition, 36 surficial water samples were collected after a rain episode The Zn and Fe content was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The Pb and Cd content was determined by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The As content was measured by atomic fluorescence spectrometry using an automated continuous flow hydride generation spectrometer and Al content was determined by ICP-MS. Mineralogical composition of the samples was made by X Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis using Cu-K? radiation with a PW3040 Philips Diffractometer. Zone A: Water sample collected in A5 is strongly influenced by a tailing dump, and showed high trace element contents. In addition, is influenced by the sea water and then showed high bromide, chloride, sodium and magnesium content, together with a basic pH.The DRX results of evaporate water showed that halite, hexahydrite and gypsum are present: halite corroborates the sea influence and gypsum and hexahydrite the importance of soluble sulphates. A9 water showed acid pH and high trace elements content; is influenced by the tailing dump and also by waters from El Beal gully watercourse, transporting materials from Sierra Minera Waters affected by secondary contamination are influenced by mining wastes, the sea water and also are affected by agricultural activities (nitrate content). These waters have been mixed with carbonate materials, present in the zone increasing the pH. Some elements have precipitated, such as Cu and Pb, while Cd, Zn and As are soluble. The DRX analysis in the evaporate if A14 showed that halite and gypsum are present: halite confirms the seawater influence and gypsum the relationship between calcium and sulphates A2 and A6 waters are affected by tertiary contamination and showed basic pH, soluble carbonates and lower trace element content. Only Zn, Cd and Al are present. Zone B: All waters are strongly affected by mining activities and showed: acid pH, high trace element content and high content of soluble sulphates. The evaporate of B8 and B12 showed the presence of soluble sulphates: gypsum, halite, bianchite, paracoquimbite, halotrichite and siderotil in B8; gypsum, bianchite, paracoquimbite and coquimbite in B12; gypsum, hexahydrite, carnalite, bianchite, copiapite and sideroti in B10 and polihalite, gypsum, bianchite, coquimbite and paracoquimbite in B14. All the sampling points collected in Zone C are affected by primary contamination, because there are a lot of tailing dumps and sampling points are located close to them. C1 showed high trace element content because is a reception point of a lot of tailing dumps. Water samples from C3 to C8 also had

  7. Binding Enthalpy Calculations for a Neutral Host-Guest Pair Yield Widely Divergent Salt Effects across Water Models.

    PubMed

    Gao, Kaifu; Yin, Jian; Henriksen, Niel M; Fenley, Andrew T; Gilson, Michael K

    2015-10-13

    Dissolved salts are a part of the physiological milieu and can significantly influence the kinetics and thermodynamics of various biomolecular processes, such as binding and catalysis; thus, it is important for molecular simulations to reliably describe their effects. The present study uses a simple, nonionized host-guest model system to study the sensitivity of computed binding enthalpies to the choice of water and salt models. Molecular dynamics simulations of a cucurbit[7]uril host with a neutral guest molecule show striking differences in the salt dependency of the binding enthalpy across four water models, TIP3P, SPC/E, TIP4P-Ew, and OPC, with additional sensitivity to the choice of parameters for sodium and chloride. In particular, although all of the models predict that binding will be less exothermic with increasing NaCl concentration, the strength of this effect varies by 7 kcal/mol across models. The differences appear to result primarily from differences in the number of sodium ions displaced from the host upon binding the guest rather than from differences in the enthalpy associated with this displacement, and it is the electrostatic energy that contributes most to the changes in enthalpy with increasing salt concentration. That a high sensitivity of salt affecting the choice of water model, as observed for the present host-guest system despite it being nonionized, raises issues regarding the selection and adjustment of water models for use with biological macromolecules, especially as these typically possess multiple ionized groups that can interact relatively strongly with ions in solution. PMID:26574247

  8. ESTIMATING SOIL WATER CONTENT USING COKRIGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using cokriging, estimates and estimation variances of the gravimetric moisture content (GMC) were made using one and two additional random functions: the bare soil surface temperature and the percent sand content. Various measures of the differences and quality of the estimates ...

  9. Corrosion of SiC by Molten Salt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Smialek, James L.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced ceramic materials considered for wide range of applications as in gas turbine engines and heat exchangers. In such applications, materials may be in corrosive environments that include molten salts. Very corrosive to alloys. In order to determine extent of problem for ceramic materials, corrosion of SiC by molten salts studied in both jet fuel burners and laboratory furnaces. Surface of silicon carbide corroded by exposure to flame seeded with 4 parts per million of sodium. Strength of silicon carbide decreased by corrosion in flame and tube-furnace tests.

  10. Polder Effects on Sediment-to-Soil Conversion: Water Table, Residual Available Water Capacity, and Salt Stress Interdependence

    PubMed Central

    Radimy, Raymond Tojo; Dudoignon, Patrick; Hillaireau, Jean Michel; Deboute, Elise

    2013-01-01

    The French Atlantic marshlands, reclaimed since the Middle Age, have been successively used for extensive grazing and more recently for cereal cultivation from 1970. The soils have acquired specific properties which have been induced by the successive reclaiming and drainage works and by the response of the clay dominant primary sediments, that is, structure, moisture, and salinity profiles. Based on the whole survey of the Marais Poitevin and Marais de Rochefort and in order to explain the mechanisms of marsh soil behavior, the work focuses on two typical spots: an undrained grassland since at least 1964 and a drained cereal cultivated field. The structure-hydromechanical profiles relationships have been established thanks to the clay matrix shrinkage curve. They are confronted to the hydraulic functioning including the fresh-to-salt water transfers and to the recording of tensiometer profiles. The CE1/5 profiles supply the water geochemical and geophysical data by their better accuracy. Associated to the available water capacity calculation they allow the representation of the parallel evolution of the residual available water capacity profiles and salinity profiles according to the plant growing and rooting from the mesophile systems of grassland to the hygrophile systems of drained fields. PMID:23990758

  11. Preliminary assestment of lint cotton water content in gin-drying temperature studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior studies to measure total water (free and bound) in lint cotton by Karl Fischer Titration showed the method is more accurate and precise than moisture content by standard oven drying. The objective of the current study was to compare the moisture and total water contents from five cultivars de...

  12. SEQUESTERING AGENTS FOR METAL IMMOBILIZATION APPLICATION TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVE CAPS IN FRESH AND SALT WATER SEDIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, A; Michael Paller, M

    2006-11-17

    This research evaluated the removal of inorganic contaminants by a variety of amendments and mixtures of amendments in fresh and salt water. A series of removal and retention batch experiments was conducted to identify the best treatment for metal removal. Metal removal by the amendments was evaluated by calculating the partition coefficient and percent removal. Retention of metals by the amendments was evaluated in retention (desorption) studies in which residue from the removal studies was extracted with 1 M MgCl{sub 2} solution. The results indicated that phosphate amendments, some organoclays (e.g., OCB-750), and the biopolymer, chitosan, are very effective in removal and retention of metals in both fresh and salt water. These amendments are being evaluated further as components in the development of active caps for sediment remediation.

  13. 21 CFR 101.61 - Nutrient content claims for the sodium content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ii) The food contains no ingredient that is sodium chloride or is generally understood by consumers to...term “salt” is not synonymous with “sodium.” Salt refers to sodium chloride. However, references to salt content such as...

  14. 9 CFR 317.361 - Nutrient content claims for the sodium content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...The product contains no ingredient that is sodium chloride or is generally understood by consumers to...term “salt” is not synonymous with “sodium.” Salt refers to sodium chloride. However, references to salt content such as...

  15. 9 CFR 381.461 - Nutrient content claims for the sodium content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...The product contains no ingredient that is sodium chloride or is generally understood by consumers to...term “salt” is not synonymous with “sodium.” Salt refers to sodium chloride. However, references to salt content such as...

  16. 9 CFR 317.361 - Nutrient content claims for the sodium content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...The product contains no ingredient that is sodium chloride or is generally understood by consumers to...term “salt” is not synonymous with “sodium.” Salt refers to sodium chloride. However, references to salt content such as...

  17. 9 CFR 381.461 - Nutrient content claims for the sodium content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...The product contains no ingredient that is sodium chloride or is generally understood by consumers to...term “salt” is not synonymous with “sodium.” Salt refers to sodium chloride. However, references to salt content such as...

  18. 9 CFR 317.361 - Nutrient content claims for the sodium content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...The product contains no ingredient that is sodium chloride or is generally understood by consumers to...term “salt” is not synonymous with “sodium.” Salt refers to sodium chloride. However, references to salt content such as...

  19. 21 CFR 101.61 - Nutrient content claims for the sodium content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...ii) The food contains no ingredient that is sodium chloride or is generally understood by consumers to...term “salt” is not synonymous with “sodium.” Salt refers to sodium chloride. However, references to salt content such as...

  20. 21 CFR 101.61 - Nutrient content claims for the sodium content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ii) The food contains no ingredient that is sodium chloride or is generally understood by consumers to...term “salt” is not synonymous with “sodium.” Salt refers to sodium chloride. However, references to salt content such as...

  1. 21 CFR 101.61 - Nutrient content claims for the sodium content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ii) The food contains no ingredient that is sodium chloride or is generally understood by consumers to...term “salt” is not synonymous with “sodium.” Salt refers to sodium chloride. However, references to salt content such as...

  2. 9 CFR 381.461 - Nutrient content claims for the sodium content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...The product contains no ingredient that is sodium chloride or is generally understood by consumers to...term “salt” is not synonymous with “sodium.” Salt refers to sodium chloride. However, references to salt content such as...

  3. 21 CFR 101.61 - Nutrient content claims for the sodium content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ii) The food contains no ingredient that is sodium chloride or is generally understood by consumers to...term “salt” is not synonymous with “sodium.” Salt refers to sodium chloride. However, references to salt content such as...

  4. A route to explain water anomalies from results on an aqueous solution of salt

    E-print Network

    D. Corradini; M. Rovere; P. Gallo

    2010-03-26

    In this paper we investigate the possibility to detect the hypothesized liquid-liquid critical point of water in supercooled aqueous solutions of salts. Molecular dynamics computer simulations are conducted on bulk TIP4P water and on an aqueous solution of sodium chloride in TIP4P water, with concentration c = 0.67 mol/kg. The liquid-liquid critical point is found both in the bulk and in the solution. Its position in the thermodynamic plane shifts to higher temperature and lower pressure for the solution. Comparison with available experimental data allowed us to produce the phase diagrams of both bulk water and the aqueous solution as measurable in experiments. Given the position of the liquid-liquid critical point in the solution as obtained from our simulations, the experimental determination of the hypothesized liquid-liquid critical point of water in aqueous solutions of salts appears possible.

  5. Water transfer in soil at low water content. Is the local equilibrium assumption still appropriate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouedraogo, F.; Cherblanc, F.; Naon, B.; Bénet, J.-C.

    2013-06-01

    The dynamics of water content in the superficial layers of soils is critical in the modelling of land-surface processes. In arid regions, vapour flux contributes significantly to the global water mass balance. To account for it in theoretical descriptions, most of the models proposed in the literature rely on the local equilibrium assumption that constrains the vapour pressure to remain at its equilibrium value. It implicitly amounts to consider an instantaneous phase change. Recent works underlined a retardation time and a decrease in phase change rate as the water content gets lower. Therefore, the objective is to revisit water transport modelling by rejecting the local equilibrium assumption. This requires developing a non-equilibrium model by taking into account the phase change kinetics. To assess the interest of this approach, a natural soil of Burkina-Faso has been experimentally characterized from independent tests and soil column experiments have been carried out. The comparison of experimental drying kinetics and water content profiles with computational predictions confirms the reliability of this description. Liquid/gas non-equilibrium is significant in a limited subsurface zone which defines explicitly the transition from liquid transport in lower layers to vapour transport in upper layers, i.e., the evaporation front. The overall moisture dynamics is governed by the coupling between water transport mechanisms (liquid filtration, vapour diffusion, phase change) that mainly occurs in this transition zone.

  6. The effect of domestic water filters on water fluoride content.

    PubMed

    Ong, Y S; Williams, B; Holt, R

    1996-07-20

    The effect of filtration on water fluoride level was investigated in a study using commercially available filters. Testing was carried out in London (low fluoride), Braintree (optimum fluoride, naturally occurring) and Birmingham (optimum fluoride, artificially adjusted). It was found that none of the filters removed fluoride. In Birmingham, but not in either Braintree or London, there was a small, clinically insignificant increase in fluoride levels with filtration using two of the five filters. It is concluded that the water filtration systems tested will not affect the advantage offered by optimum water fluoride levels. Fluoride dietary supplements should not be prescribed for children living in optimal fluoride areas, irrespective of whether they use household filters. PMID:8791840

  7. Method for excluding salt and other soluble materials from produced water

    DOEpatents

    Phelps, Tommy J. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Tsouris, Costas (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Palumbo, Anthony V. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Riestenberg, David E. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; McCallum, Scott D. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2009-08-04

    A method for reducing the salinity, as well as the hydrocarbon concentration of produced water to levels sufficient to meet surface water discharge standards. Pressure vessel and coflow injection technology developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is used to mix produced water and a gas hydrate forming fluid to form a solid or semi-solid gas hydrate mixture. Salts and solids are excluded from the water that becomes a part of the hydrate cage. A three-step process of dissociation of the hydrate results in purified water suitable for irrigation.

  8. Inorganic and organic sulfur cycling in salt-marsh pore waters

    SciTech Connect

    Luther, G.W. III; Church, T.M.; Scudlark, J.R.; Cosman, M.

    1986-05-09

    Sulfur species in pore waters of the Great Marsh, Delaware, were analyzed seasonally by polarographic methods. The species determined (and their concentrations in micromoles per liter) included inorganic sulfides (less than or equal to3360), polysulfides (less than or equal to326), thiosulfate (less than or equal to104), tetrathionate (less than or equal to302), organic thiols (less than or equal to2411), and organic disulfides (less than or equal to139). Anticipated were bisulfide increases with depth due to sulfate reduction and subsurface sulfate excesses and pH minima, the result of a seasonal redox cycle. Unanticipated was the pervasive presence of thiols (for example, glutathione), particularly during periods of biological production. Salt marshes appear to be unique among marine systems in producing high concentrations of thiols. Polysulfides, thiosulfate, and tetrathionate also exhibited seasonal subsurface maxima. These results suggest a dynamic seasonal cycling of sulfur in salt marshes involving abiological and biological reactions and dissolved and solid sulfur species. The chemosynthetic turnover of pyrite to organic sulfur is a likely pathway for this sulfur cycling. Thus, material, chemical, and energy cycles in wetlands appear to be optimally synergistic.

  9. Soil water content and green water estimations in a small farmed semiarid catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekki, I.; Voltz, M.; Ben Mechlia, N.; Albergel, J.

    2012-04-01

    The main objective of this work is to analyze the spatial and temporal variation of soil water content and green water production over a farmed water harvesting catchment, located in north-eastern Tunisia. The area has a typical Mediterranean climate with a hot dry summer and a cool season, extending from October to April, where rainfall normally meets the water requirements of the usually grown cereals and legumes (500mm). The catchment has an area of 2.6 km2 and comprises at its outlet a dam, which retains the runoff water in a reservoir. Soil water balance measurements were carried out, about weekly, over two successive cropping cycles (2000-2002) on a network of eleven plots of 2 m2 each, representing the main land use and soil types. Soil water store investigations targeted the different individual plots as well as the entire catchment. We used a simple water balance model, where the root zone is considered as a single reservoir, to simulate soil water content variations. Results show a fairly good agreement between the calculated and measured water store for all experimental sites. The model reproduces accurately the soil water content during the beginning of the rainy season but underestimates it during the season when heavy rains occur. On heavy soils, simulated soil moisture was lower than measured values, giving differences as high as 25% between simulated water store amounts and the neutron probe measurement values. For the cereals/legume/pasture based cropping systems, most of rainfall water is stored in the soil and returns to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration. The 0-0.3 m soil layer is most active for water uptake by crops and intermittent replenishment by rainfall during the growing period; whereas drying involves the entire soil profile over the summer season (May-Seeptmber). The available water holding capacity of the soil turned out to be about seven times the storage capacity of the reservoir, showing the order of magnitude of rainfall partitioning between green water and blue water for cropped catchments, under semiarid arid climates.

  10. [Reduction of radioactive cesium content in beef by soaking in seasoning].

    PubMed

    Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko

    2013-01-01

    It is important to obtain information about ways of removing radioactive cesium from foods in order to reduce internal radiation exposure from food and to ensure the safety and security of food. In this study, we investigated the change of radioactive cesium content in beef due to soaking in seasoning. Our results revealed that soaking beef in liquid seasoning (salt concentration: 8-10%) for 24 h or in miso seasoning (salt concentration: about 9%) for 7 days decreased the radioactive cesium content by about 20% and 55%, respectively, compared with that present in beef before soaking. Furthermore, soaking beef in 10% salt solution for 7 days while changing the salt solution every day or every three days decreased the radioactive cesium content by about 75%, compared with that present in beef before soaking. Because the seasoning is usually discarded after soaking, the procedure of soaking beef in seasoning is a useful method of reducing the burden of radioactive cesium. PMID:24025208

  11. The ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde induces water and salt intake via two distinct pathways in the central nervous system of rats.

    PubMed

    Ujihara, Izumi; Hitomi, Suzuro; Ono, Kentaro; Kakinoki, Yasuaki; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Ueta, Yoichi; Inenaga, Kiyotoshi

    2015-12-01

    The sensation of thirst experienced after heavy alcohol drinking is widely regarded as a consequence of ethanol (EtOH)-induced diuresis, but EtOH in high doses actually induces anti-diuresis. The present study was designed to investigate the introduction mechanism of water and salt intake after heavy alcohol drinking, focusing on action of acetaldehyde, a metabolite of EtOH and a toxic substance, using rats. The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) inhibitor cyanamide was used to mimic the effect of prolonged acetaldehyde exposure because acetaldehyde is quickly degraded by ALDH. Systemic administration of a high-dose of EtOH at 2.5 g/kg induced water and salt intake with anti-diuresis. Cyanamide enhanced the fluid intake following EtOH and acetaldehyde administration. Systemic administration of acetaldehyde with cyanamide suppressed blood pressure and increased plasma renin activity. Blockade of central angiotensin receptor AT1R suppressed the acetaldehyde-induced fluid intake and c-Fos expression in the circumventricular organs (CVOs), which form part of dipsogenic mechanism in the brain. In addition, central administration of acetaldehyde together with cyanamide selectively induced water but not salt intake without changes in blood pressure. In electrophysiological recordings from slice preparations, acetaldehyde specifically excited angiotensin-sensitive neurons in the CVO. These results suggest that acetaldehyde evokes the thirst sensation following heavy alcohol drinking, by two distinct and previously unsuspected mechanisms, independent of diuresis. First acetaldehyde indirectly activates AT1R in the dipsogenic centers via the peripheral renin-angiotensin system following the depressor response and induces both water and salt intake. Secondly acetaldehyde directly activates neurons in the dipsogenic centers and induces only water intake. PMID:26298003

  12. Dissipation behavior of organophosphorus pesticides during the cabbage pickling process: residue changes with salt and vinegar content of pickling solution.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuele; Yang, Zhonghua; Shen, Luyao; Liu, Zhenmin; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Diao, Jinling

    2013-03-01

    In this experiment, the behavior of 10 pesticides in three different cabbage pickling treatments has been studied. The brine used for pickling was made up with different salt and vinegar contents to determine the influence of different pickling solutions on pesticide dissipation and distribution. A modified QuECHERS and SPE method was established for the analysis of the pesticides in the cabbage and brine. It was found that different pesticides showed different dissipation patterns and finally represented dissimilar residue levels in the cabbage and brine. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the distinctions of these pesticides between each treatment and proved that salt content and pH value had certain influence on the dissipation and distribution of these pesticides during the pickling process. The data from this experiment would help to control pesticide residues in pickled cabbage and prevent potential risk to human health and environmental safety. PMID:23402557

  13. Flocculation of Clay and Organic Matter in Turbid Salt Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, A. H.; Yin, H.; Zhang, G.; Tan, X.; Furukawa, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Sediment transport and deposition in estuaries and tidal flats are often dominated by the aggregation of clay and organic matter into composite particles or “flocs”. The stability of the flocs is important in determining the distance over which the sediment is transported and the areas to which the sediment is deposited. During floc transport from riverine to oceanic environments, stability is determined by suspended sediment concentrations, sediment types, organic matter type, fluid flow rates and small scale turbulence. In a series of laboratory experiments, interactions between clay sediments and organic matter were evaluated within a flow column that was filled with saline water. The focus of this investigation was on changes in floc size, density and strength as flow velocities and turbulent stresses were altered. Significant changes in the floc shape, consolidation, density and behavior were determined for flow rates and Reynolds numbers that are common to riverine environments. The variability in floc composition was also shown to influence bulk sediment properties: heat transport, acoustic propagation and shear strength, while sediments were entrained in high-density suspensions and low-density deposits.

  14. Proceedings, ASCE World Water and Environmental Resources 2004 Congress, Salt Lake City, June 27-July 1, 10 p.

    E-print Network

    Parker, Gary

    Proceedings, ASCE World Water and Environmental Resources 2004 Congress, Salt Lake City, June 27, ASCE World Water and Environmental Resources 2004 Congress, Salt Lake City, June 27-July 1, 10 p. 2 channel hydraulic computations is well known. However, in morphodynamic modeling, these are often

  15. Access tube devices to monitor soil water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepuder, P.

    2003-04-01

    The Neutron Probe is considered to be one of the best indirect measurement-systems to obtain the soil water content. However, due to health problems and new measuring-techniques, other measurement systems have been developed and placed on the market. The IAEA in special tried hard to find alternatives to the radioactive measurement-techniques. Consequently, the IAEA in co-operation with institutes from Australia, France, Austria, and the USA compared the TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry) and the FDR (Frequency Domain Reflectometry) to the radioactive Neutron Probe. During the period from June 2000 to May 2002 those three measurement-systems were tested in practice at three locations in Lower Austria (sandy, loamy, and clay soil conditions) by the Institute of Hydraulics and Rural Water-Management (University of Agricultural Sciences, Vienna). The used equipment consisted of access tube devices TRIME (TDR), DIVINER 2000 (FDR), and SOLO 40 (radioactive). Once a week, measurements of soil water content were taken every 10 cm down to a depth of 1 m with three replications each. In the course of this experiment, all systems were field-calibrated and compared to standard-calibration. Concerning the practical utilisation the Diviner by Sentek is best to handle. After comparing those three systems for more than two years, the FDR-method has proved to be better in results and handling than TDR. The availability of appropriate measurement systems to determine the soil water content is a basic prerequisite for further descriptions of subsurface flow and solute transport process as well as for agricultural aspects.

  16. Comparison of Vegetation Water Content Estimates From WindSat and MODIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determination of soil moisture content by microwave remote sensing is important for quantifying the global energy, water and biogeochemical cycles. Vegetation water content (VWC, kg m-2) is one of the important parameters for retrieval of soil moisture using passive microwave radiometers. Liquid w...

  17. Carbonhydrate Content and Root Growth in Seeds Germinated Under Salt Stress: Implications for Seed Conditioning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugars and sugar alcohols have well documented roles in salt tolerance in whole plants and maturing seeds. Less is known, however, about possible effects of these compounds during germination. Seeds from mannitol-accumulating salt-tolerant celery [Apium graveloens L. var. dulce (P. Mill.) DC], non...

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance in water solutions of inorganic salts in vitreous and liquid states

    SciTech Connect

    Lundin, A. G. Koryavko, N. A.; Chichikov, S. A.

    2013-05-15

    Peculiarities of the behavior of water solutions of inorganic salts at temperatures of {approx}(120-150) K are examined. At these temperatures the solutions are in the vitreous state. At higher temperatures (up to 240 K) the solutions may be in metastable liquid, crystalline, or usual liquid states.

  19. Osmoregulation in marine fish Three distinct strategies for maintaining salt and water

    E-print Network

    Grosell, Martin

    2813 Osmoregulation in marine fish Three distinct strategies for maintaining salt and water balanceCl concentrations at approximately d of ambient levels. (3) The most common strategy is osmoregulation, found in all and extra-renal fluid loss to the hypertonic marine environment in hypo-osmoregulating fish was compensated

  20. View to starboard, starboard engine room, compartment C1; salt water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View to starboard, starboard engine room, compartment C-1; salt water circulating pipe at center. Note annunciator to right of pipe and engine room telegraph at left center. Gage at left top center is a vacuum gage. (060) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. Mixtures of Lecithin and Bile Salt Can Form Highly Viscous Wormlike Micellar Solutions in Water

    E-print Network

    Raghavan, Srinivasa

    , Taiwan § Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park surfactants in water is an important topic for study because of its relevance to physiological processes. Two in bile and involved in digestion. Previous studies on lecithin-bile salt mixtures have reported

  2. Molecular adaptation and salt stress response of Halobacterium salinarum cells revealed by neutron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vauclare, Pierre; Marty, Vincent; Fabiani, Elisa; Martinez, Nicolas; Jasnin, Marion; Gabel, Frank; Peters, Judith; Zaccai, Giuseppe; Franzetti, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    Halobacterium salinarum is an extreme halophile archaeon with an absolute requirement for a multimolar salt environment. It accumulates molar concentrations of KCl in the cytosol to counterbalance the external osmotic pressure imposed by the molar NaCl. As a consequence, cytosolic proteins are permanently exposed to low water activity and highly ionic conditions. In non-adapted systems, such conditions would promote protein aggregation, precipitation, and denaturation. In contrast, in vitro studies showed that proteins from extreme halophilic cells are themselves obligate halophiles. In this paper, adaptation via dynamics to low-salt stress in H. salinarum cells was measured by neutron scattering experiments coupled with microbiological characterization. The molecular dynamic properties of a proteome represent a good indicator for environmental adaptation and the neutron/microbiology approach has been shown to be well tailored to characterize these modifications. In their natural setting, halophilic organisms often have to face important variations in environmental salt concentration. The results showed deleterious effects already occur in the H. salinarum proteome, even when the external salt concentration is still relatively high, suggesting the onset of survival mechanisms quite early when the environmental salt concentration decreases. PMID:26376634

  3. A decision support model to assess vulnerability to salt water intrusion in the great bend prairie aquifer of Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sophocleous, M.; Ma, T.

    1998-01-01

    A relatively simple ground water decision support system (DSS) was developed to assist in identifying salt water vulnerable areas and in developing management policies to prevent salt water intrusion in central Kansas. The DSS is based on a combination of numerical modeling sensitivity analyses, multiple regression analyses, and classification procedures derived from our knowledge of the area. Six ground water salinity models are proposed to evaluate irrigation well permit applications. The choice of model depends on the availability of site-specific data. The DSS takes advantage of GIS database management procedures, and is applied to an actual salt water intrusion problem site in south-central Kansas. This approach can help local ground water management districts make better decisions on protecting ground water use in salt water vulnerable areas.

  4. Effect of water content on partial ternary phase diagram water-in-diesel microemulsion fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukayat, Hastinatun; Badri, Khairiah Haji; Raman, Ismail Ab.; Ramli, Suria

    2014-09-01

    Introduction of water in the fuel gave a significant effect to the reduction of pollutant such as NOx emission. In this work, water/diesel microemulsion fuels were prepared using compositional method by mixing water and diesel in the presence of non-ionic surfactant and co-surfactant. The effects of water composition on the partial ternary phase diagram were studied at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% (w/w). The physical stability of the microemulsion was investigated at 45°C over a period of one month. The optimum formulae obtained were diesel/T80/1-penthanol/water 60:20:15:5 wt% (System 1), 55:20:15:10 wt% (System 2), 50:20:15:15 wt% (System 3) and 45:20:15:20 wt% (System 4). Physicochemical characterizations of optimum formulae were studied. The results showed that water content has a significant effect to the formation of microemulsion, its stability, droplet size and viscosity.

  5. Granular encapsulation of light hydrophobic liquids (LHL) in LHL-salt water systems: Particle induced densification with quartz sand.

    PubMed

    Boglaienko, Daria; Tansel, Berrin; Sukop, Michael C

    2016-02-01

    Addition of granular materials to floating crude oil slicks can be effective in capturing and densifying the floating hydrophobic phase, which settles by gravity. Interaction of light hydrophobic liquids (LHL) with quartz sand was investigated in LHL-salt water systems. The LHLs studied were decane, tetradecane, hexadecane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, and 2-cholorotoluene. Experiments were conducted with fine quartz sand (passing sieve No. 40 with openings 0.425 mm). Each LHL was dyed with few crystals of Sudan IV dye for ease of visual observation. A volume of 0.5 mL of each LHL was added to 100 mL salt water (34 g/L). Addition of one gram of quartz sand to the floating hydrophobic liquid layer resulted in formation of sand-encapsulated globules, which settled due to increased density. All LHLs (except for a few globules of decane) formed globules covered with fine sand particles that were heavy enough to settle by gravity. The encapsulated globules were stable and retained their shape upon settling. Polarity of hydrophobic liquids as the main factor of aggregation with minerals was found to be insufficient to explain LHL aggregation with sand. Contact angle measurements were made by submerging a large quartz crystal with the LHL drop on its surface into salt water. A positive correlation was observed between the wetting angle of LHL and the LHL volume captured (r = 0.75). The dependence of the globule density on globule radius was analyzed in relation to the coverage (%) of globule surface (LHL-salt water interface) by fine quartz particles. PMID:26490430

  6. Assessment of soil electromagnetic parameters and their variation with soil water, salts: a comparison among EMI and TDR measuring methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaali, Nesrine; Coppola, Antonio; Comegna, Alessandro; Dragonetti, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    Numerous studies have analyzed the possibility of the extension of Electromagnetic Induction EMI calibration coefficients determined at field scale, to predict the depth distribution of bulk electrical conductivity ECb within unmonitored sites and/or times, in order to appraise the effect of salts dynamics on soils and plants. However, in the literature, it has been determined that the extension of those EMI calibration coefficients can be awkward since the calibration parameters are highly site-specific because of changes in water content, temperature, root development, soil physical properties, etc... So they can only be used in sites having similar characteristics in terms of EMI. Furthermore there is a difference in the observation windows of EMI sensors and of sensors (Time Domain Reflectometry TDR, Electrical Resistance Tomography ERT, ect...) used for measuring the ECb to be then used for the calibration and validation of the EMI. By consequence the actual variability of the soil salinity will be hidden due to the fact that data coming from EMI and other sensors have different variability patterns and structure, and are then influenced by different noises. The main objectives of this work were: 1) develop a practical and cost-effective technique that uses TDR data as ground-truth data for calibrating and validating of the EMI larger scale sensor, 2) using a Fourier transform FT analysis by applying a specific noise filter to the original data, to find the correlations between the TDR and the EMI data. An experiment was designed by irrigating three transects of green beans, 30 m long each, with three irrigation salinity inputs (1dSm-1, 3dSm-1, 6dSm-1). The irrigation volumes were estimated by measuring soil water content at different depths by using a Diviner 2000. During the experiment, the EM in both the vertical (EMV) and horizontal (EMH) configurations were regularly measured by a Geonics EM38 device. TDR probes were inserted vertically at the soil surface in 24 sites, each corresponding to the central point of an EM38 reading. EM38 and TDR probes were used to measure ECb along 24 m in the central line of each transect during the whole growth season. Soil samples were taken at 1 m distance along each transect for laboratory analyses. The FT analyses allowed separating the original EMI and TDR data signals from noise at different salinity levels, and thus finding better information about the existing correlation.

  7. Remote analysis of high-tritium-content water

    SciTech Connect

    Sigg, R. A.; DiPrete, D. P.; Pak, D. J.; Arrigo, L. M.

    2008-07-15

    Systems to safely analyze for tritium in moisture collected from glovebox atmospheres are being developed for use at Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities. Analysis results will guide whether the material contains sufficient tritium for economical recovery, or whether it should be stabilized for disposal as waste. In order to minimize potential radiation exposures that could occur in handling and diluting high-tritium-content water, SRS sought alternatives to the process laboratory's routine analysis by liquid-scintillation counting. The newer systems determine tritium concentrations by measuring bremsstrahlung radiation induced by low-energy beta interactions. One of the systems determines tritium activity in liquid streams, the other determines tritium activity in water vapor. Topics discussed include counting results obtained by modeling and laboratory testing and corrections that are made for low-energy photon attenuation. (authors)

  8. Sedimentary characteristics and depositional model of a Paleocene-Eocene salt lake in the Jiangling Depression, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaocan; Wang, Chunlian; Liu, Chenglin; Zhang, Zhaochong; Xu, Haiming; Huang, Hua; Xie, Tengxiao; Li, Haonan; Liu, Jinlei

    2015-11-01

    We studied the sedimentary characteristics of a Paleocene-Eocene salt lake in the Jiangling Depression through field core observation, thin section identification, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. On the basis of sedimentary characteristics we have summarized the petrological and mineralogical characteristics of the salt lake and proposed 9 types of grade IV salt rhythms. The deposition shows a desalting to salting order of halite-argillaceous-mudstone-mud dolostonemud anhydrock-glauberite-halite. The relationship among grade IV rhythms, water salinity and climate fluctuations was analyzed. Based on the analysis of the relationship between boron content and mudstone color and by combining the mineralogy and sedimentary environment characteristics, we propose that the early and late Paleocene Shashi Formation in the Jiangling Depression was a paleolacustrine depositional environment with a high salt content, which is a representation of the shallow water salt lake depositional model. The middle Paleocene Shashi Formation and the early Eocene Xingouzui Formation were salt and brackish sedimentary environments with low salt content in a deep paleolake, which represents a deep salt lake depositional model.

  9. An index for plant water deficit based on root-weighted soil water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jianchu; Li, Sen; Zuo, Qiang; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2015-03-01

    Governed by atmospheric demand, soil water conditions and plant characteristics, plant water status is dynamic, complex, and fundamental to efficient agricultural water management. To explore a centralized signal for the evaluation of plant water status based on soil water status, two greenhouse experiments investigating the effect of the relative distribution between soil water and roots on wheat and rice were conducted. Due to the significant offset between the distributions of soil water and roots, wheat receiving subsurface irrigation suffered more from drought than wheat under surface irrigation, even when the arithmetic averaged soil water content (SWC) in the root zone was higher. A significant relationship was found between the plant water deficit index (PWDI) and the root-weighted (rather than the arithmetic) average SWC over root zone. The traditional soil-based approach for the estimation of PWDI was improved by replacing the arithmetic averaged SWC with the root-weighted SWC to take the effect of the relative distribution between soil water and roots into consideration. These results should be beneficial for scheduling irrigation, as well as for evaluating plant water consumption and root density profile.

  10. Ice Particle Impact on Cloud Water Content Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, Edward F.; Miller, Dean R.; Plaskon, Stephen R.; Strapp, Walter; Lillie, Lyle

    2004-01-01

    Determining the total amount of water contained in an icing cloud necessitates the measurement of both the liquid droplets and ice particles. One commonly accepted method for measuring cloud water content utilizes a hot wire sensing element, which is maintained at a constant temperature. In this approach, the cloud water content is equated with the power required to keep the sense element at a constant temperature. This method inherently assumes that impinging cloud particles remain on the sensing element surface long enough to be evaporated. In the case of ice particles, this assumption requires that the particles do not bounce off the surface after impact. Recent tests aimed at characterizing ice particle impact on a thermally heated wing section, have raised questions about the validity of this assumption. Ice particles were observed to bounce off the heated wing section a very high percentage of the time. This result could have implications for Total Water Content sensors which are designed to capture ice particles, and thus do not account for bouncing or breakup of ice particles. Based on these results, a test was conducted to investigate ice particle impact on the sensing elements of the following hot-wire cloud water content probes: (1) Nevzorov Total Water Content (TWC)/Liquid Water Content (LWC) probe, (2) Science Engineering Associates TWC probe, and (3) Particle Measuring Systems King probe. Close-up video imaging was used to study ice particle impact on the sensing element of each probe. The measured water content from each probe was also determined for each cloud condition. This paper will present results from this investigation and attempt to evaluate the significance of ice particle impact on hot-wire cloud water content measurements.

  11. Effect of salts on formation and stability of vitamin E-enriched mini-emulsions produced by spontaneous emulsification.

    PubMed

    Saberi, Amir Hossein; Fang, Yuan; McClements, David Julian

    2014-11-19

    Emulsion-based delivery systems are being utilized to incorporate lipophilic bioactive components into various food, personal care, and pharmaceutical products. This study examined the influence of inorganic salts (NaCl and CaCl2) on the formation, stability, and properties of vitamin E-enriched emulsions prepared by spontaneous emulsification. These emulsions were simply formed by titration of a mixture of vitamin E acetate (VE), carrier oil (MCT), and nonionic surfactant (Tween 80) into an aqueous salt solution with continuous stirring. Salt type and concentration (0-1 N NaCl or 0-0.5 N CaCl2) did not have a significant influence on the initial droplet size of the emulsions. On the other hand, the isothermal and thermal stabilities of the emulsions depended strongly on salt levels. The cloud point of the emulsions decreased with increasing salt concentration, which was attributed to accelerated droplet coalescence in the presence of salts. Dilution (2-6 times) of the emulsions with water appreciably improved their thermal stability by increasing their cloud point, which was mainly attributed to the decrease in aqueous phase salt levels. The isothermal storage stability of the emulsions also depended on salt concentration; however, increasing the salt concentration decreased the rate of droplet growth, which was the opposite of its effect on thermal stability. Potential physicochemical mechanisms for these effects are discussed in terms of the influence of salt ions on van der Waals and electrostatic interactions. This study provides important information about the effect of inorganic salts on the formation and stability of vitamin E emulsions suitable for use in food, personal care, and pharmaceutical products. PMID:25343750

  12. The springs of Lake Pátzcuaro: chemistry, salt-balance, and implications for the water balance of the lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, James L.; Israde-Alcántara, Isabel; Garduno-Monroy, Victor H.; Shanks, Wayne C., III

    2004-01-01

    Lake Pa??tzcuaro, the center of the ancient Tarascan civilization located in the Mexican altiplano west of the city of Morelia, has neither river input nor outflow. The relatively constant lake-salinity over the past centuries indicates the lake is in chemical steady state. Springs of the south shore constitute the primary visible input to the lake, so influx and discharge must be via sub-lacustrine ground water. The authors report on the chemistry and stable isotope composition of the springs, deeming them representative of ground-water input. The springs are dominated by Ca, Mg and Na, whereas the lake is dominated by Na. Combining these results with previously published precipitation/rainfall measurements on the lake, the authors calculate the chemical evolution from spring water to lake water, and also calculate a salt balance of the ground-water-lake system. Comparing Cl and ??18O compositions in the springs and lake water indicates that 75-80% of the spring water is lost evaporatively during evolution toward lake composition. During evaporation Ca and Mg are lost from the water by carbonate precipitation. Each liter of spring water discharging into the lake precipitates about 18.7 mg of CaCO3. Salt balance calculations indicate that ground water input to the lake is 85.9??106 m3/a and ground water discharge from the lake is 23.0??106 m3/a. Thus, the discharge is about 27% of the input, with the rest balanced by evaporation. A calculation of time to reach steady-state ab initio indicates that the Cl concentration of the present day lake would be reached in about 150 a. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Interactions between Pluronics (F127 and F68) and bile salts (NaTDC) in the aqueous phase and the interface of oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Torcello-Gómez, Amelia; Maldonado-Valderrama, Julia; Jódar-Reyes, Ana Belén; Foster, Timothy J

    2013-02-26

    Pluronics are being introduced in food research in order to delay lipid digestion, with the length of hydrophilic and hydrophobic chains playing an important role in the rate of such a process. Since bile salts play a crucial role in the lipid digestion process, the aim of this work is to analyze the interactions between Pluronic F127 or F68 and the bile salt NaTDC when the latter is added at physiological concentrations. These interactions are studied at the Pluronic-covered oil-water interface and in the aqueous phase of Pluronic-stabilized emulsions. This work has been carried out with techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry, interfacial tension, dilatational rheology, and scanning electron microscopy. As a result, Pluronic F127 was shown to be more resistant to displacement by bile salt than F68 at the oil-water interface due to the larger steric hindrance and interfacial coverage provided. In addition, Pluronics have the ability to compete for the oil-water interface and interact in the bulk with the bile salt. Concretely, Pluronic F127 seems to interact with more molecules of bile salt in the bulk, thus hindering their adsorption onto the oil-water interface. As a conclusion, Pluronic F127 affects to a larger extent the ability of bile salt to promote the further cascade of lipolysis in the presence of lipase owing to a combination of interfacial and bulk events. PMID:23383723

  14. Substantiation of causes for damage of water-wall tubes of an external salt compartment of a high-pressure boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, A. I.

    2014-10-01

    The damageability for water-wall tubes of an external salt compartment of a TPE-208 boiler is analyzed. The general cause for tube damage is the intensive underslime corrosion of the inner surface, which is caused by a local increase in the salt concentration in boiler water. The experiment-calculated method showed that continuous bleeding from an external cyclone being the first in water downstream causes a substantial increase in the concentration of salts (more than by a factor of three) and scale-forming agents within a contour of the loop of a distant cyclone in comparison with the variant of bleeding from a loop being the second in water downstream.

  15. Water movement in stony soils: The influence of stoniness on soil water content profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Viliam; Knava, Karol

    2010-05-01

    WATER MOVEMENT IN STONY SOILS: THE INFLUENCE OF STONINESS ON SOIL WATER CONTENT PROFILES Viliam Novák, Karol K?ava Institute of Hydrology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Racianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava 3, Slovakia, e-mail: novak@uh.savba.sk Soils containing rock fragments are widespread over the world, on Europe such soil account for 30%, 60% in Mediterranean region. In comparison to fine earth soils (soil particles are less then 2 mm) stony soils contain rock fragments characterized by the low retention capacity and hydraulic conductivity. So, for stony soils -in comparison to the fine-earth soils - is typical lower hydraulic conductivity and retention capacity, which lead to the decrease decrease of infiltration rate and low water retention. So, water movement and its modeling in stony soil would differ from fine earth (usually agricultural) soil. The aim of this contribution is to demonstrate the differences in water movement in homogeneous soil (fine earth) and stony soil. The influence of different stoniness on soil water content and soil water dynamics was studied too. Windthrow at High Tatra mountains in Slovakia (November 2004) cleared nearly 12 000 ha of 80 year conifers and this event initiated complex research of windthrow impact on the ecosystem. The important part of this study was water movement in impacted area. Specific feature of the soil in this area was moraine soil consisting of fine earth, characterized as silty sand, with the relative stone content up to 0.49, increasing with depth. Associated phenomenon to the forest clearing is the decrease of rain interception and higher undercanopy precipitation. Conifers interception capacity can be three times higher than low canopy interception, and can reach up to 40% of annual precipitation in Central Europe. Stones in the soil are decreasing infiltration rate, but paradoxically increased understorey precipitation and followingly the increased cumulative infiltration led to the increase of the soil water content of the upper 1 meter soil layer up to 53 mm at the end of vegetation period in comparison to the afforested area. Finally, soil water content profiles of stony soil differ from homogeneous ones and contain less water comparing to soil without stones.

  16. Electrical conductivity of orthopyroxene: implications for the water content of the asthenosphere.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lidong; Karato, Shun-ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Electrical conductivity of minerals is sensitive to water content and hence can be used to infer the water content in the mantle. However, previous studies to infer the water content in the upper mantle were based on pure olivine model of the upper mantle. Influence of other minerals particularly that of orthopyroxene needs to be included to obtain a better estimate of water content in view of the high water solubility in this mineral. Here we report new results of electrical conductivity measurements on orthopyroxene, and apply these results to estimate the water content of the upper mantle of Earth. We found that the electrical conductivity of orthopyroxene is enhanced by the addition of water in a similar way as other minerals such as olivine and pyrope garnet. Using these new results, we calculate the electrical conductivity of pyrolite mantle as a function of water content and temperature incorporating the temperature and water fugacity-dependent hydrogen partitioning. Reported values of asthenosphere conductivity of 4x10(-2)-10(-1) S/m corresponds to the water content of 0.01-0.04 wt%, a result in good agreement with the petrological model of the upper mantle. PMID:20009379

  17. Electrical conductivity of orthopyroxene: Implications for the water content of the asthenosphere

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Lidong; Karato, Shun-ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Electrical conductivity of minerals is sensitive to water content and hence can be used to infer the water content in the mantle. However, previous studies to infer the water content in the upper mantle were based on pure olivine model of the upper mantle. Influence of other minerals particularly that of orthopyroxene needs to be included to obtain a better estimate of water content in view of the high water solubility in this mineral. Here we report new results of electrical conductivity measurements on orthopyroxene, and apply these results to estimate the water content of the upper mantle of Earth. We found that the electrical conductivity of orthopyroxene is enhanced by the addition of water in a similar way as other minerals such as olivine and pyrope garnet. Using these new results, we calculate the electrical conductivity of pyrolite mantle as a function of water content and temperature incorporating the temperature and water fugacity-dependent hydrogen partitioning. Reported values of asthenosphere conductivity of 4 × 10?2?10?1 S/m corresponds to the water content of 0.01–0.04 wt%, a result in good agreement with the petrological model of the upper mantle. PMID:20009379

  18. On the Role of Salt in Modifying Local Thickness of Martian Permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travis, B. J.

    2002-12-01

    A previous model of hydrothermal convection in the Martian subsurface (Travis, Rosenberg and Cuzzi, JGR-Planets, in press) indicates that background geothermal heat flux should lead to substantial thinning of the permafrost layer above upwelling convection plumes. That model assumes pure water properties. However, subsurface liquid water is likely to have significant salt content. Salts generally depress the freezing point; e.g., a high salt (NaCl) content can depress water's freezing point by about 20 °C. Further, brine is denser than pure water. These two properties may modify the nature of the predicted hydrothermal circulation, in particular, the amount of thinning of permafrost above upwelling plumes. Two and three dimensional simulations comparing pure water and brine circulation patterns will be presented.

  19. Effect of higher water vapor content on TBC performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pint, Bruce A; Haynes, James A

    2012-01-01

    Coal gasification, or IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle), is one pathway toward cleaner use of coal for power generation with lower emissions. However, when coal-derived synthesis gas (i.e., syngas) is burned in turbines designed for natural gas, turbine manufacturers recommend 'derating,' or lowering the maximum temperature, which lowers the efficiency of the turbine, making electricity from IGCC more expensive. One possible reason for the derating is the higher water vapor contents in the exhaust gas. Water vapor has a detrimental effect on many oxidation-resistant high-temperature materials. In a turbine hot section, Ni-base superalloys are coated with a thermal barrier coating (TBC) allowing the gas temperature to be higher than the superalloy solidus temperature. TBCs have a low thermal conductivity ceramic top coating (typically Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}, or YSZ) and an oxidation-resistant metallic bond coating. For land-based gas turbines, the industry standard is air plasma sprayed (APS) YSZ and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) sprayed NiCoCrAlY bond coatings. To investigate the role of higher water vapor content on TBC performance and possible mitigation strategies, furnace cycling experiments were conducted in dry O{sub 2} and air with 10% (typical with natural gas or jet fuel) or 50 vol% water vapor. Cycle frequency and temperature were accelerated to one hour at 1100 C (with 10 minute cooling to {approx}30 C between each thermal cycle) to induce early failures in coatings that are expected to operate for several years with a metal temperature of {approx}900 C. Coupons (16 mm diameter x 2 mm thick) of commercial second-generation single crystal superalloy CMSX4 were HVOF coated on both sides with {approx}125 {micro}m of Ni-22wt%Co-17Cr-12Al either with 0.7Y or 0.7Y-0.3Hf-0.4Si. One side was then coated with 190-240 {micro}m of APS YSZ. Coatings were cycled until the YSZ top coating spalled. Figure 2 shows the results of the initial phase of experiments. Compared to dry O{sub 2}, the addition of 10% water vapor decreased the lifetime of MCrAlY by {approx}30% for the conventional CMSX4 substrates. Higher average lifetimes were observed with Hf in the bond coating, but a similar decrease in lifetime was observed when water vapor was added. The addition of Y and La to the superalloy substrate did not change the YSZ lifetime with 10% water vapor. However, increasing water vapor content from 10 to 50% did not further decrease the lifetime of either bond coating with the doped superalloy substrate. Thus, these results suggest that higher water vapor contents cannot explain the derating of syngas-fired turbines, and other factors such as sulfur and ash from imperfect syngas cleanup (or upset conditions) need to be explored. Researchers continue to study effects of water vapor on thermally grown alumina scale adhesion and growth rate, and are looking for bond coating compositions more resistant to oxidation in the presence of water vapor.

  20. Soil Water Content Spatial Correlation Estimation Using GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grote, K. R.; Hubbard, S. S.; Rubin, Y.

    2001-12-01

    Spatial correlation estimates of water content in the shallow subsurface are needed as input for stochastic generation of representative vadose zone models. Improved vadose zone characterization is also important for applications such as precision agriculture, environmental monitoring, and optimizing data collection strategies. However, water content in the vadose zone is often highly variable. As such, using only traditional vadose zone sampling techniques, it is difficult to collect accurate point estimates of water content, and it is even more challenging to obtain accurate estimates of spatial correlation. We are investigating the use of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to provide accurate, very high resolution estimates of water content and its spatial correlation in the very shallow subsurface. Using surface GPR groundwave techniques, estimates of shallow water content (~10 to 20 cm below ground surface) can be obtained quickly; these high resolution measurements can then be used to estimate the spatial structure and correlation length of the water content. This concept is being investigated in a five acre field located within the Robert Mondavi vineyards in Napa County, California. At several times during the year, we collected a grid of GPR measurements along selected rows using 10 cm sampling intervals. Using petrophysical relationships, these measurements were converted to water content and then analyzed for spatial and temporal correlation. To calibrate and verify the GPR measurements, we are comparing the GPR-obtained information with data collected at the same site using multispectral remote sensing, time domain reflectometry, electrical resistivity, neutron probe, and soil texture analysis techniques. This presentation will focus on water content spatial correlation estimation and its variation with season using the different measurement techniques. Based on this analysis, we will discuss the spatial support scales associated with the different types of vadose zone measurement techniques, the benefits of incorporating GPR into the spatial correlation estimation procedure, and the practical implementation of these methods for spatial correlation estimation.

  1. Pesticide removal from aqueous solutions by adding salting out agents.

    PubMed

    Moscoso, Fátima; Deive, Francisco J; Esperança, José M S S; Rodríguez, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Phase segregation in aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of four hydrophilic ionic liquids (ILs): 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate (C(n)C?im C?SO?, n = 2 and 4), tributylmethyl phosphonium methylsulfate (P???? C?SO?) and methylpyridinium methylsulfate (C?Py C?SO?) and two high charge density potassium inorganic salts (K?CO? and K?HPO?) were determined by the cloud point method at 298.15 K. The influence of the addition of the selected inorganic salts to aqueous mixtures of ILs was discussed in the light of the Hofmeister series and in terms of molar Gibbs free energy of hydration. The effect of the alkyl chain length of the cation on the methylsulfate-based ILs has been investigated. All the solubility data were satisfactorily correlated to several empirical equations. A pesticide (pentachlorophenol, PCP) extraction process based on the inorganic salt providing a greater salting out effect was tackled. The viability of the proposed process was analyzed in terms of partition coefficients and extraction efficiencies. PMID:24145747

  2. Control of bancroftian filariasis by cooking salt medicated with diethylcarbamazine

    PubMed Central

    Hawking, Frank; Marques, Ruy João

    1967-01-01

    In small-scale pilot trials, filarial infection can usually be reduced to low levels by oral administration of diethylcarbamazine to all the persons concerned; but in mass campaigns it is often difficult to persuade large numbers of people to swallow the tablets. In order to overcome this difficulty the authors propose that the compound be incorporated into cooking salt, as has been done with chloroquine to control malaria. There are many reasons why this method of medication should be more effective against filariasis than it has often been against malaria. Laboratory trials showed that cooking the compound in food did not make it toxic for rats or diminish its antifilarial activity. A pilot trial was carried out at Recife, Brazil, in which 1000 adults received salt containing 0.4% diethylcarbamazine (corresponding to a daily intake of 100 mg/day) for 40 days, and then salt containing 0.1% compound for a year. This medication was simple to administer; it was quite acceptable to the subjects; it caused no untoward effects; and it removed almost all the microfilariae from the blood. Administration of medicated salt (0.3%) for 18 days to another group of 1300 adults was well tolerated and produced a considerable reduction of the microfilarial load; but this short period was insufficient to remove all the microfilariae. The authors recommend that this method of administering diethylcarbamazine to large numbers of people should be investigated further to see if it could be used for mass campaigns to control filariasis. PMID:5301383

  3. DEHYDRATION OF LOW WATER CONTENT ETHANOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pervaporation has emerged as an economically viable alternative technology for the dehydration of organic solvents, removal of organic compounds from water and organic/organic separations. Development of a membrane system with suitable flux and selectivity characteristics plays a...

  4. Acid generation upon thermal concentration of natural water: The critical water content and the effects of ionic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulvirenti, April L.; Needham, Karen M.; Adel-Hadadi, Mohamad A.; Marks, Charles R.; Gorman, Jeffrey A.; Shettel, Donald L.; Barkatt, Aaron

    2009-10-01

    Thermal evaporation of a variety of simulated pore waters from the region of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, produced acidic liquids and gases during the final stages of evaporation. Several simulated pore waters were prepared and then thermally distilled in order to collect and analyze fractions of the evolved vapor. In some cases, distillates collected towards the end of the distillation were highly acidic; in other cases the pH of the distillate remained comparatively unchanged during the course of the distillation. The results suggest that the pH values of the later fractions are determined by the initial composition of the water. Acid production stems from the hydrolysis of magnesium ions, especially at near dryness. Near the end of the distillation, magnesium nitrate and magnesium chloride begin to lose water of hydration, greatly accelerating their thermal decomposition to form acid. Acid formation is promoted further when precipitated calcium carbonate is removed. Specifically, calcium chloride-rich pore waters containing moderate (10-20 ppm) levels of magnesium and nitrate and low levels of bicarbonate produced mixtures of nitric and hydrochloric acid, resulting in a precipitous drop in pH to values of 1 or lower after about 95% of the original volume was distilled. Waters with either low or moderate magnesium content coupled with high levels of bicarbonate produced slightly basic fractions (pH 7-9). If calcium was present in excess of bicarbonate, waters containing moderate levels of magnesium produced acid even in the presence of bicarbonate, due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate. Other salts such as halite and anhydrite promote the segregation of acidic vapors from residual basic solids. The concomitant release of wet acid gas has implications for the integrity of the alloys under consideration for containers at the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. Condensed acid gases at very low pH, especially mixtures of nitric and hydrochloric acid, are capable of corroding even alloys, such as nickel-based Alloy 22, which are considered to be corrosion-resistant under milder conditions.

  5. Lithium in the brines of Fish Lake Valley and Columbus Salt Marsh, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, C.L.; Meier, Allen L.; Downey, H.D.

    1977-01-01

    Analyses of waters-from springs in Nevada have led to the identification of an area containing anomalous amounts of lithium northwest of the Clayton Valley-area. Fish Lake Valley and Columbus Salt Marsh contain waters having, relatively high lithium and potassium concentrations. At least a part of these waters is probably derived from the leaching of Tertiary rocks containing saline minerals. The high-lithium waters at Columbus Salt Marsh could be derived not only by the leaching of rocks with a high soluble lithium ands, potassium content but also by subsurface outflow from Fish Lake Valley.

  6. Electrochemical and physicochemical properties of small phosphonium cation ionic liquid electrolytes with high lithium salt content.

    PubMed

    Girard, G M A; Hilder, M; Zhu, H; Nucciarone, D; Whitbread, K; Zavorine, S; Moser, M; Forsyth, M; MacFarlane, D R; Howlett, P C

    2015-04-14

    Electrolytes of a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), trimethyl(isobutyl)phosphonium (P111i4) bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (FSI) with a wide range of lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) salt concentrations (up to 3.8 mol kg(-1) of salt in the RTIL) were characterised using a combination of techniques including viscosity, conductivity, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). We show that the FSI-based electrolyte containing a high salt concentration (e.g. 1?:?1 salt to IL molar ratio, equivalent to 3.2 mol kg(-1) of LiFSI) displays unusual transport behavior with respect to lithium ion mobility and promising electrochemical behavior, despite an increase in viscosity. These electrolytes could compete with the more traditionally studied nitrogen-based ionic liquids (ILs) in lithium battery applications. PMID:25820549

  7. Water-quality data for aquifers, streams, and lakes in the vicinity of Keechi, Mount Sylvan, Oakwood, and Palestine salt domes, northeast Texas salt-dome basin

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, J.E.; Halasz, S.J.; Liscum, F.

    1980-11-01

    This report contains water-quality data for aquifers, streams, and lakes in the vicinity of Keechi, Mount Sylvan, Oakwood, and Palestine Salt Domes in the northeast Texas salt-dome basin. Water-quality data were compiled for aquifers in the Wilcox Group, the Carrizo Sand, and the Queen City Sand. The data include analyses for dissolved solids, pH, temperature, hardness, calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate. Water-quality and streamflow data were obtained from 63 surface-water sites in the vicinity of the domes. These data include water discharge, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen. Samples were collected at selected sites for analysis of principal and selected minor dissolved constituents.

  8. Water-quality data for aquifers, streams, and lakes in the vicinity of Keechi, Mount Sylvan, Oakwood, and Palestine salt domes, northeast Texas salt-dome basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, Jerry E.; Halasz, Stephen J.; Liscum, Fred

    1980-01-01

    This report contains water-quality data for aquifers, streams, and lakes in the vicinity of Keechi, Mount Sylvan, Oakwood, and Palestine Salt Domes in the northeast Texas salt-dome basin. Water-quality data were compiled for aquifers in the Wilcox Group, the Carrizo Sand, and the Queen City Sand. The data include analyses for dissolved solids, pH, temperature, hardness , calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate. Water-quality and streamflow data were obtained from 63 surface-water sites in the vicinity of the domes. These data include water discharge, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen. Samples were collected at selected sites for analysis of principal and selected minor dissolved constituents. (USGS)

  9. Stratospheric water vapor content evolution during EASOE

    SciTech Connect

    Ovarlez, J.; Overlez, H. )

    1994-06-22

    This paper presents results of stratospheric water vapor measurements made from balloon borne instruments in the arctic winter as a part of EASOE. A frost-point hygrometer allowed measurement of the frost point and air temperature, which allowed the detection of conditions consistent with the formation of polar stratospheric clouds. Such clouds were observed on one occasion when this diagnostic sensed conditions conducive to the formation of such clouds. Outside the polar vortex the average water vapor density was fairly constant, between 4 to 5 ppmv between 16 and 25 km. More variation was observed both above and below these altitudes, and inside the vortex, vertical motion was also observed.

  10. Europa's Ocean Can Be Sustained By Hydrothermal Plumes and Salt Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travis, B. J.; Palguta, J.; Schubert, G.

    2011-12-01

    Data returned by the Galileo spacecraft provide considerable evidence that Jupiter's satellite Europa possesses a liquid ocean beneath its solid, icy outer shell. However, it is not known if that ocean has existed throughout Europa's history. Previous thermal evolution models of Europa suggest that without active tidal dissipative heating (TDH), a global liquid ocean layer would eventually freeze long before the present. However, previous models have not coupled all the various thermal and flow processes that may be operating in Europa. Recently, we have developed a whole-moon numerical model for Europa. This model couples radiogenic heating, thermal diffusion, hydrothermal convection and salt transport in mantle pore water, hydrothermal flow and transport in an ocean layer, parameterized convection in the ice shell, and change of phase between ice and liquid water. Application of our model suggests that, even without TDH active until recently, hydrothermal convection in a salty, rocky mantle can sustain flow in an ocean layer throughout Europa's post-differentiation history. The model thermal history covers three phases: (i) an initial, roughly 0.5 Gyr-long period of radiogenic heating and differentiation, (ii) a long period from 0.5 Gyr to 4 Gyr with continuing radiogenic heating but no TDH (following Yoder, Nature 279: 767-770, 1979), and (iii) a final period covering the last 0.5 Gyr until present day, during which TDH is active. In our model, hydrothermal plumes develop throughout phases II and III, transporting heat and salt from Europa's silicate mantle to its ocean. The outer ice shell thickens over time, growing to about 75 km in depth. When TDH becomes active, the ice shell melts quickly to a thickness of about 10 km, and then stabilizes at roughly 20 to 25 km thickness, leaving an ocean 80 km deep. Parameterized convection in the ice shell is spatially non-uniform and changes over time, reflecting its ties to the evolving deeper ocean-mantle dynamics. A salt-free ocean/salty mantle pore water profile retards hydrothermal plume penetration into the ocean initially, but is homogenized over time, in roughly 50 Myrs, by turbulent diffusion in the ocean and time-dependent flow driven by initial thermal gradients. After homogenization, the uniformly distributed salt concentration is no longer a major factor in controlling plume transport, but does suppress the freezing point of the ocean layer. Salt transport leads to the formation of salt inclusions at the bottom of the ice shell. The presence of salt in the ice shell could strongly influence convection in that layer.

  11. Effect of salt stress in the regulation of anthocyanins and color of hibiscus flowers by digital image analysis.

    PubMed

    Trivellini, Alice; Gordillo, Belén; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco J; Borghesi, Eva; Ferrante, Antonio; Vernieri, Paolo; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; González-Miret, M Lourdes; Heredia, Francisco J

    2014-07-23

    The effect of salt stress (200 mM NaCl for 28 days) on physiological characteristics of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, such as abscisic acid (ABA) content, electrolyte leakage, and photochemical efficiency in leaves, and its influence on biomass production, anthocyanin composition, and color expression of flowers were evaluated. Salinity significantly increased electrolyte leakage and ABA content in leaves and reduced the flower fresh weight. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were lower in salt stress condition, compared to control. Moreover, salt stress negatively affected the content of anthocyanins (mainly cyanidin-3-sophoroside), which resulted in a visually perceptible loss of color. The detailed anthocyanin composition monitored by HPLC-DAD-MS and the color variations by digital image analysis due to salt stress showed that the effect was more noticeable at the basal portion of petals. A forward stepwise multiple regression was performed for predicting the content of anthocyanins from appearance characteristics obtained by image analysis, reaching R-square values up to 0.90. PMID:25005605

  12. A computational assessment of the permeability and salt rejection of carbon nanotube membranes and their application to water desalination.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Michael; Corry, Ben

    2016-02-13

    Membranes made from nanomaterials such as nanotubes and graphene have been suggested to have a range of applications in water filtration and desalination, but determining their suitability for these purposes requires an accurate assessment of the properties of these novel materials. In this study, we use molecular dynamics simulations to determine the permeability and salt rejection capabilities for membranes incorporating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at a range of pore sizes, pressures and concentrations. We include the influence of osmotic gradients and concentration build up and simulate at realistic pressures to improve the reliability of estimated membrane transport properties. We find that salt rejection is highly dependent on the applied hydrostatic pressure, meaning high rejection can be achieved with wider tubes than previously thought; while membrane permeability depends on salt concentration. The ideal size of the CNTs for desalination applications yielding high permeability and high salt rejection is found to be around 1.1?nm diameter. While there are limited energy gains to be achieved in using ultra-permeable CNT membranes in desalination by reverse osmosis, such membranes may allow for smaller plants to be built as is required when size or weight must be minimized. There are diminishing returns in further increasing membrane permeability, so efforts should focus on the fabrication of membranes containing narrow or functionalized CNTs that yield the desired rejection or selection properties rather than trying to optimize pore densities. PMID:26712639

  13. The mineral content of tap water in United States households

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The composition of tap water contributes to dietary intake of minerals. The USDA’s Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) conducted a study of the mineral content of residential tap water, to generate current data for the USDA National Nutrient Database. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper...

  14. Mercury in the air, water and biota at the Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA).

    PubMed

    Peterson, Christianna; Gustin, Mae

    2008-11-01

    The Great Salt Lake, Utah (USA), is the fourth largest terminal lake on Earth and a stop-over location for 35 million birds on the Pacific Flyway. Recently, the Utah Department of Health and Utah Division of Wildlife Resources issued tissue mercury (Hg) consumption advisories for several species of birds that consume the lake's brine shrimp. We hypothesized that the chemistry of the atmosphere above the Great Salt Lake would facilitate atmospheric deposition of Hg to the water. Because little information was available on Hg at the Great Salt Lake, and to begin to test this hypothesis, we measured atmospheric elemental (Hg(0)) and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) concentrations as well as Hg concentrations in water and brine shrimp five times over a ~year. Surrogate surfaces and a dry deposition model were applied to estimate the amount of Hg that could be input to the lake surface, and HYSPLIT model back trajectories were developed to investigate potential sources of RGM to the lake. Atmospheric Hg(0) concentrations were similar to global ambient background values and RGM concentrations were similar to those reported for rural areas. Both Hg(0) and RGM exhibited regular diel variability. Model estimated deposition velocities for RGM to the lake ranged from 0.9 to 3.0 cm s(-1) while that determined for surrogate surfaces ranged from 2.8 to 7.8 cm s(-1). Filtered total and methyl Hg concentrations in Great Salt Lake surface waters were consistent throughout the year (3.6+/-0.8 ng L(-1) and 0.93+/-0.59 ng L(-1), respectively), while brine shrimp concentrations had a statistically significant increase from summer to fall. Data collected and data analyses indicated no direct local or regional source of Hg to the lake and that factors within the Great Salt Lake basin are important in controlling Hg(0) and RGM concentrations. PMID:18706677

  15. Fluoride Content of Bottled Drinking Water in Chennai, Tamilnadu

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Karunya; Rajapandian, K.; Gurunathan, Deepa

    2015-01-01

    Context The optimum level of fluoride in drinking water is 0.7 to 1.2 ppm. Decreased fluoride concentration leads to increased risk of caries and increased concentration can lead to dental or skeletal fluorosis. One crore liters of water is supplied to Chennai and surrounding areas through pouches and bottles which carters about one third of city population. Aim The aim of this study is to determine the fluoride concentration in top 10 bottled waters in Chennai and to check the accuracy of their labelling. Materials and Methods Top selling bottled waters, 6 multinational and 4 Non- multinational brands were selected for the study. Three different batches of each brand were purchased. The labels of the bottled were removed after collecting the details regarding fluoride content. All the bottles were numbered and sent for fluoride content analysis using SPADNS calorimetric method. Results All the brands and batches which were analysed for the study had less than optimal fluoride content and there is a significant variation in fluoride concentration of each brand and among different batches of same brand bottled waters. The range of fluoride level in tested samples was between 0.27 to 0.59. Only one brand’s label had information regarding the fluoride content. Conclusion Standardization of fluoride levels in bottled waters and labelling of fluoride content should become mandatory. PMID:26557612

  16. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. IV. Graph-theoretical analyses of ion aggregate structure and water hydrogen bonding network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2015-09-01

    Ions in high salt solutions form a variety of ion aggregates, from ion pairs to clusters and networks. Their influences on water hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structures have long been of great interest. Recently, we have shown that the morphological structures of ion aggregates can be analyzed by using a spectral graph analysis theory, where each ion cluster or ion network is represented by a properly defined graph with edges and vertices. Here, to further examine the network properties of ion aggregates and water H-bonding networks in high salt solutions, we consider a few representative graph-theoretical descriptors: clustering coefficient, minimum path length, global efficiency, and degree distribution of ion aggregates. From the molecular dynamics trajectories, these graph theoretical properties of ion aggregates and water structures in NaCl and kosmotropic solutions are calculated and shown to be strongly dependent on the two types of ion aggregate structures, i.e., ion cluster and ion network. Ion clusters in high NaCl solutions exhibit typical behaviors of scale free network. The corresponding graph theoretical properties of ion networks in high KSCN solutions are notably different from those of NaCl ion clusters and furthermore they are very similar to those of water hydrogen-bonding network. The present graph-theoretical analysis results indicate that the high solubility limits of KSCN and other ion-network-forming salts might originate from their ability to form a large scale morphological network that can be intertwined with co-existing water H-bonding network. Furthermore, it is shown that the graph-theoretical properties of water H-bonding network structures do not strongly depend on the nature of dissolved ions nor on the morphological structures of ion aggregates, indicating that water's H-bonding interaction and network-forming capability are highly robust. We anticipate that the present graph-theoretical analysis results of high salt solutions would provide important information on the Hofmeister ion effects on water structure.

  17. Oxy-combustion of high water content fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Fei

    As the issues of global warming and the energy crisis arouse extensive concern, more and more research is focused on maximizing energy efficiency and capturing CO2 in power generation. To achieve this, in this research, we propose an unconventional concept of combustion - direct combustion of high water content fuels. Due to the high water content in the fuels, they may not burn under air-fired conditions. Therefore, oxy-combustion is applied. Three applications of this concept in power generation are proposed - direct steam generation for the turbine cycle, staged oxy-combustion with zero flue gas recycle, and oxy-combustion in a low speed diesel-type engine. The proposed processes could provide alternative approaches to directly utilize fuels which intrinsically have high water content. A large amount of energy to remove the water, when the fuels are utilized in a conventional approach, is saved. The properties and difficulty in dewatering high water content fuels (e.g. bioethanol, microalgae and fine coal) are summarized. These fuels include both renewable and fossil fuels. In addition, the technique can also allow for low-cost carbon capture due to oxy-combustion. When renewable fuel is utilized, the whole process can be carbon negative. To validate and evaluate this concept, the research focused on the investigation of the flame stability and characteristics for high water content fuels. My study has demonstrated the feasibility of burning fuels that have been heavily diluted with water in a swirl-stabilized burner. Ethanol and 1-propanol were first tested as the fuels and the flame stability maps were obtained. Flame stability, as characterized by the blow-off limit -- the lowest O2 concentration when a flame could exist under a given oxidizer flow rate, was determined as a function of total oxidizer flow rate, fuel concentration and nozzle type. Furthermore, both the gas temperature contour and the overall ethanol concentration in the droplets along the spray were measured in the chamber for a stable flame. The experimental results indicate significant preferential vaporization of ethanol over water. Modeling results support this observation and indicate that the vaporization process is best described as the distillation limit mode with enhanced mass transfer by convection. Further, the influence of preferential vaporization on flame stability was investigated. A procedure was developed to evaluate the extent of preferential vaporization and subsequent flame stability of a fuel in aqueous solution. Various water soluble fuels were analyzed via this procedure in order to identify a chemical fuel showing strong preferential vaporization. t-Butanol was identified as having excellent physical and chemical properties, indicating stronger preferential vaporization than ethanol. Flame stability tests were run for aqueous solutions of both t-butanol and ethanol under identical flow conditions. Flame stability was characterized by the blow-off limit. In each comparison, the energy contents in the two solutions were kept the same. For the experiments under high swirl flow conditions (100% swirl flow), 12.5 wt% t-butanol has slightly lower blow-off limits than 15 wt% ethanol, and 8.3 wt% t-butanol has much lower blow-off limits than 10 wt% ethanol. For the experiments under a low swirl flow condition (50% swirl/50% axial flow), 12.5 wt% t-butanol has a much lower blow-off limit than 15 wt% ethanol. The time to release the fuel from a droplet was also calculated for both ethanol and t-butanol. For the same size droplet, the time to release t-butanol is much shorter than that of ethanol under the same conditions. Faster release of the fuel from water enhances flame stability, which is consistent with the experimental results. For the oxy-combustion characteristics of low-volatility fuel with high water content, glycerol was chosen as the fuel to study. It is found that self-sustained flame can be obtained for glycerol solution with concentration as high as 60 wt%, when burned in pure O2. However, the flame is lifted far away f

  18. Dryland crop root biomass and carbon and nitrogen contents and their relationships with soil water content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop roots are important C and N inputs for soil C and N sequestration and are essential for water and nutrient uptake. In semiarid regions, root growth, which depends on soil water availability, may influence C and N sequestration. We quantified root biomass and C and N contents of dryland crops i...

  19. Effects of Salt-Drought Stress on Growth and Physiobiochemical Characteristics of Tamarix chinensis Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junhua; Xia, Jiangbao; Fang, Yanming; Li, Tian; Liu, Jingtao

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to clarify the effects of salinity and water intercross stresses on the growth and physiobiochemical characteristics of Tamarix chinensis seedlings by pots culture under the artificial simulated conditions. The growth, activities of SOD, POD, and contents of MDA and osmotic adjusting substances of three years old seedlings of T. chinensis were studied under different salt-drought intercross stress. Results showed that the influence of salt stress on growth was greater than drought stress, the oxidation resistance of SOD and POD weakened gradually with salt and drought stresses intensified, and the content of MDA was higher under severe drought and mild and moderate salt stresses. The proline contents increased with the stress intensified but only significantly higher than control under the intercross stresses of severe salt-severe drought. It implied that T. chinensis could improve its stress resistance by adjusted self-growth and physiobiochemical characteristics, and the intercross compatibility of T. chinensis to salt and drought stresses can enhance the salt resistance under appropriate drought stress, but the dominant factors influencing the physiological biochemical characteristics of T. chinensis were various with the changing of salt-drought intercross stresses gradients. PMID:25140348

  20. Large enhancement of canine taste responses to sugars by salts

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The effects of changed ionic environments on the canine taste responses to sugars were examined by recording the activity of the chorda tympani nerve. a) The responses to various sugars were greatly enhanced by the presence of salts having monovalent cations such as Na+, K+, choline+, or Tris+. The responses to sugars were suppressed by high concentrations of salts. (b) The presence of 100 mM NaCl in fructose solution did not affect the maximal response and changed the Hill constant for the concentration-response relationship from 1.3 to 2.4. (c) CaCl2 greatly enhanced the response to fructose, while MgCl2 exhibited practically no effect. The presence of 20 mM CaCl2 in fructose solution changed the Hill constant from 1.2 to 2.4. (d) CaCl2 suppressed the responses to 0.5 M sugars except for fructose and sucrose and enhanced the responses to all sugars examined at 1 M. In the glucose response, the slope of the concentration-response curve was increased by the presence of CaCl2. Here the curve in the absence of CaCl2 intersected with that in the presence of CaCl2, indicating that CaCl2 suppressed the response to glucose of low concentrations and enhanced that of high concentrations. (e) The enhancement of the sugar responses by salts was not simply explained in terms of ionic permeability at the apical membranes of taste cells. The enhanced and suppressed effects of salts on the sugar responses were interpreted in terms of the cooperativity between receptor molecules for sugars. PMID:2362181

  1. Augmented water binding and low cellular water content in erythrocytes of camel and camelids.

    PubMed Central

    Bogner, P; Csutora, P; Cameron, I L; Wheatley, D N; Miseta, A

    1998-01-01

    We investigated a link between hemoglobin primary structure, hemoglobin hydrophobicity-hydrophilicity, and erythrocyte water content in various mammalian species. Some hemoglobin molecules, particularly those of the camel and camelids, contain more charged amino acid residues and are more hydrophilic than the hemoglobins of human and a number of other mammalian species. To test the in vivo significance of these alterations of hemoglobin primary structure, we determined the osmotically unresponsive erythrocyte water fractions in mannit solutions of various osmolarities at 4 degreesC. Among the species investigated, the size of the osmotically unresponsive erythrocyte water fraction relates in a positive linear way to hemoglobin hydrophilicity. The extreme low total erythrocyte water content of camel erythrocytes (1.1-1.3 g water/g dry mass) may be explained by a comparatively high osmotically unresponsive erythrocyte water fraction. It is proposed that alterations of hemoglobin sequences of camel and camelids may be the part of a natural selection process aimed at protecting these animals against osmotic dehydration in arid environments. PMID:9826628

  2. USE OF LIMITED SOIL PROPERTY DATA AND MODELING TO ESTIMATE ROOT ZONE SOIL WATER CONTENT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modeling root zone soil water content at watershed scales is important for both the strategic and tactical management of water resources, but detailed soil physical and hydraulic property data required by most physically-based soil water models are generally not available over large land areas. Wit...

  3. REMOTE SENS. ENVIRON. 30:43-54 (1989) Detection of Changes in Leaf Water Content

    E-print Network

    Hunt Jr., E. Raymond

    1989-01-01

    REMOTE SENS. ENVIRON. 30:43-54 (1989) Detection of Changes in Leaf Water Content Using Near species with different leaf morphologies. The second objec- tive was to determine how the Moisture Stress of water in leaf cells. Meth- ods for detection of water stress by remote sensing based on plant physiology

  4. Estimation of Fresh Water and Salt Transports in the Northern Indian Ocean Using Aquarius and Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Addezio, J. M.; Bulusu, S.; Murty, V. S. N.; Nyadjro, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Northern Indian Ocean presents a unique dipolar Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) structure with the salty Arabian Sea (AS) on the west and the fresher Bay of Bengal (BoB) on the east. By using a combination of observational data, reanalyses, and model studies, the salinity structure of this dichotomous yet interconnected region is quantified. At the surface, the largest driver of salinity interseasonal variability is caused by the monsoonal winds and their ability to transport volume between the two water masses. Time-depth profiles reveal a rich vertical salinity profile. The AS presents with a mild salinity inversion, with salty waters above fresher ones for the majority of each annual cycle. This vertical gradient is approximately 1 psu between the surface and 200m depth. In the BoB the opposite occurs, where larger volumes of precipitation and river runoff create a lens of freshwater from the surface to approximately 50m depth year around. Salt and freshwater fluxes at the surface show a strong zonal component between the two basins along Sri Lanka twice a year. Within the basins, meridional fluxes dominate especially along the coastal regions where the EICC and WICC flow. Meridional depth-integrated salt, freshwater, and volume transports along a slice of each basin at 6°N reveal the approximate time its takes for each basin to return to equilibrium after strong transports during each monsoonal seasons advect salt and/or freshwater into or out of each respective region.

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of water content in the subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    J. Hendricks; T. Yao; A. Kearns

    1999-01-21

    Previous theoretical and experimental studies indicated that surface nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has the potential to provide cost-effective water content measurements in the subsurface and is a technology ripe for exploitation in practice. The objectives of this investigation are (a) to test the technique under a wide range of hydrogeological conditions and (b) to generalize existing NMR theories in order to correctly model NMR response from conductive ground and to assess properties of the inverse problem. Twenty-four sites with different hydrogeologic settings were selected in New Mexico and Colorado for testing. The greatest limitation of surface NMR technology appears to be the lack of understanding in which manner the NMR signal is influenced by soil-water factors such as pore size distribution, surface-to-volume ratio, paramagnetic ions dissolved in the ground water, and the presence of ferromagnetic minerals. Although the theoretical basis is found to be sound, several advances need to be made to make surface NMR a viable technology for hydrological investigations. There is a research need to investigate, under controlled laboratory conditions, how the complex factors of soil-water systems affect NMR relaxation times.

  6. Inhibition of hot salt corrosion by metallic additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

    1978-01-01

    The effectiveness of several potential fuel additives in reducing the effects of sodium sulfate-induced hot corrosion was evaluated in a cyclic Mach 0.3 burner rig. The potential inhibitors examined were salts of Al, Si, Cr, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca, and Ba. The alloys tested were IN-100, U-700, IN-738, IN-792, Mar M-509, and 304 stainless steel. Each alloy was exposed for 100 cycles of 1 hour each at 900 C in combustion gases doped with the corrodant and inhibitor salts and the extent of attack was determined by measuring maximum metal thickness loss. The most effective and consistent inhibitor additive was Ba (NO3)2 which reduced the hot corrosion attack to nearly that of simple oxidation.

  7. Altered biodistribution of Ga-67 by intramuscular gold salts

    SciTech Connect

    Moult, R.G.; Bekerman, C. )

    1989-11-01

    The authors observed a deviation from the normal scintigraphic pattern of Ga-67 citrate biodistribution. An 8-year-old black girl with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, who had been treated with intramuscular injections of gold salts, had a Ga-67 study as part of her workup. The study demonstrated no hepatic uptake, but showed elevated skeletal and renal activity. This characteristic biodistribution of Ga-67 may be due to inhibition of lysosomal enzymes by gold and/or to accumulation of gold in lysosomes. To study these possibilities, the authors reviewed the mechanisms of Ga-67 localization and gold metabolism. Alteration of the Ga-67 citrate scintigraphic pattern due to earlier treatment with gold salts has not been reported previously.

  8. Proceedings, ASCE World Water and Environmental Resources 2004 Congress, Salt Lake City, June 27-July 1, 10 p.

    E-print Network

    Parker, Gary

    Proceedings, ASCE World Water and Environmental Resources 2004 Congress, Salt Lake City, June 27 Resources 2004 Congress, Salt Lake City, June 27-July 1, 10 p. Page 2 called "Disneylandification" rather and enduring than the issues of aesthetics or public perception is the restoration of lost function to a river

  9. Lipid components and water soluble metabolites in salted and dried tuna (Thunnus thynnus L.) roes.

    PubMed

    Scano, P; Rosa, A; Pisano, M B; Piras, C; Cosentino, S; Dessi', M A

    2013-06-15

    The salted and dried product of tuna roe (bottarga) is a seafood characteristic of the Mediterranean area and exported all over the world. Samples of bottarga from bluefin tunas (Thunnus thynnus, L.) caught in the southwest Mediterranean sea were analysed. The samples were characterised by high content of marine wax esters (55-67 mol% of lipid classes), of docosahexaenoic (22:6 n-3, 25 w%) and oleic (18:1 n-9, 19 w%) fatty acids. Cholesterol was detected as 7-9 w% of lipids. Free fatty acids, index of lipid hydrolysis, represented 32-39 mol% over total fatty acids. Among metabolites, nutrients as taurine, nicotinamide and ?-alanine, were found. The microflora comprised staphylococci, enterococci (2.2 log(10)CFU/g) and lactic acid bacteria (3 log(10) CFU/g). The food-borne pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were not detected. These findings indicate tuna bottarga as valuable source of nutrients. PMID:23497865

  10. Water contents of Roberts Victor xenolithic eclogites: primary and metasomatic controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jin-Xiang; Li, Pei; Griffin, William L.; Xia, Qun-Ke; Gréau, Yoann; Pearson, Norman J.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.

    2014-12-01

    A suite of eclogites from the Roberts Victor kimberlite has been extensively characterized in terms of petrology and geochemical compositions (Gréau et al. in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 75(22):6927-6954, 2011; Huang et al. in Lithos 142-143:161-181, 2012a). In the present study, the water contents of eclogitic garnet and omphacite were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Garnet does not contain measureable OH in any sample. The water content of omphacite in the studied eclogites ranges from 211 to 1,496 ppm. Mantle metasomatism has modified the water content of some of the eclogites, while others retain water contents characteristic of their original environment. The OH contents of the metasomatized eclogites may be mainly controlled by the H2O fugacity and mineral compositions. The OH contents of the non-metasomatized samples are interpreted to be more sensitive to their mantle equilibration temperature, pressure, and the local fugacities of H2O and O2. The calculated water content of the metasomatic medium is similar to that of carbonatitic-kimberlitic melts/fluids. Eclogites contain more water than peridotites recorded in the literature (341 ± 161 vs 122 ± 54 ppm) and represent an important water reservoir in the lithospheric mantle wherever they occur. This is an important parameter to be considered in the interpretation of mantle processes and geophysical data such as seismic wave speeds and electrical conductivity, and in geodynamic modeling.

  11. Quantification of Water Content Across a Cement-clay Interface Using High Resolution Neutron Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafizadeh, A.; Gimmi, T.; Van Loon, L.; Kaestner, A.; Lehmann, E.; Maeder, U. K.; Churakov, S. V.

    In many designs for radioactive waste repositories, cement and clay will come into direct contact. The geochemical contrast between cement and clay will lead to mass fluxes across the interface, which consequently results in alteration of structural and transport properties of both materials that may affect the performance of the multi-barrier system. We present an experimental approach to study cement-clay interactions with a cell to accommodate small samples of cement and clay. The cell design allows both in situ measurement of water content across the sample using neutron radiography and measurement of transport parameters using through-diffusion tracer experiments. The aim of the high-resolution neutron radiography experiments was to monitor changes in water content (porosity) and their spatial extent. Neutron radiographs of several evolving cement-clay interfaces delivered quantitative data which allow resolving local water contents within the sample domain. In the present work we explored the uncertainties of the derived water contents with regard to various input parameters and with regard to the applied image correction procedures. Temporal variation of measurement conditions created absolute uncertainty of the water content in the order of ±0.1 (m3/m3), which could not be fully accounted for by correction procedures. Smaller relative changes in water content between two images can be derived by specific calibrations to two sample regions with different, invariant water contents.

  12. Impact of diurnal variation in vegetation water content on radar backscatter of maize during water stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Emmerik, Tim; Steele-Dunne, Susan; Judge, Jasmeet; van de Giesen, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Microwave emission and backscatter of vegetated surfaces are influenced by vegetation water content (VWC), which varies in response to availability of soil moisture in the root zone. Understanding the influence of diurnal VWC dynamics on radar backscatter will improve soil moisture retrievals using microwave remote sensing, and will provide insight into the potential use for radar to directly monitor vegetation water status. The goal of this research is to investigate the effect of diurnal variation in VWC of an agricultural canopy on backscatter for different radar configurations. Water stress was induced in a corn (Zea mays) canopy near Citra, Florida, between September 1 and October 20, 2013. Diurnal destructive samples from the canopy were collected to determine leaf, stalk and total VWC. Water stress was quantified by calculating the evaporation deficit and measuring the soil water tension. The water-cloud model was used to model the influence of VWC and soil moisture variations on backscatter for a range of frequencies, polarizations and incidence angles. Furthermore, radar backscatter time series was simulated to show the effect of water stress on the diurnal variation in backscatter due to VWC. Results of this study show the very significant effects that VWC dynamics have on radar backscatter. We also highlight the potential for vegetation and soil water status monitoring using microwave remote sensing.

  13. Data assimilation with soil water content sensors and pedotransfer functions in soil water flow modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil water flow models are based on a set of simplified assumptions about the mechanisms, processes, and parameters of water retention and flow. That causes errors in soil water flow model predictions. Soil water content monitoring data can be used to reduce the errors in models. Data assimilation (...

  14. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site Salt Lake City, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Salt Lake City, Utah, evaluates potential public health or environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium ore processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell located at Clive, Utah, in 1987 by the US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate residual ground water contamination at the former uranium processing site, known as the Vitro processing site. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the appropriate remedial action for contaminated ground water at the site.

  15. A dynamic model of the Aral Sea water and salt balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benduhn, François; Renard, Philippe

    2004-06-01

    The Aral Sea is shrinking rapidly since the 1960s mainly because of the diversion of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers for irrigation purposes. Since then, the evaporation became the most important component of the water balance of the Sea and led to a concentration of the remaining salts. In this article, we investigate through a coupled mathematical model of water and salt balance of the Aral Sea, the dynamic evolution of the sea. The water balance considers river inflow, groundwater inflow, atmospheric precipitation and evaporation. The salt balance considers the dominant ions and the chemical precipitation of gypsum, epsomite and mirabilite. The evaporation rates are calculated with a modified Penman equation accounting for the salinity of the lake and using statistical climatic data. With this model, we obtain an estimate of the evaporation flux (between 1100 and more than 1200 mm/year depending on the salinity) larger than earlier estimates. The estimated groundwater discharge into the sea is also larger than earlier estimates and is highly variable from year to year. The last point is that the model is able to simulate rather well the evolution of the salinity until the 1980s, but it does not reproduce accurately the chemical evolution of the lake during the most recent period and needs further improvements.

  16. Temporal stability of soil water content and soil water flux patterns across agricultural fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When an agricultural field is repeatedly surveyed for soil water content, sites often can be spotted where soil is consistently wetter or consistently dryer than average across the study area. Temporal stability presents significant interest for upscaling observed soil water content, improving soil ...

  17. PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Use of a flooded salt marsh habitat by an endangered

    E-print Network

    García-Berthou, Emili

    PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Use of a flooded salt marsh habitat by an endangered cyprinodontid fish by seasonal wetlands (De Szalay & Resh, 2000) with salt marshes dominated by glasswort (Sarcocornia transfers within U.S. salt marshes (Meredith & Lotrich, 1979). Mummichogs (F. heteroclitus) followed

  18. Salt tolerance underlies the cryptic invasion of North American salt marshes by an introduced haplotype of the common reed Phragmites australis (Poaceae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vasquez, E.A.; Glenn, E.P.; Brown, J.J.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Nelson, S.G.

    2005-01-01

    A distinct, non-native haplotype of the common reed Phragmites australis has become invasive in Atlantic coastal Spartina marshes. We compared the salt tolerance and other growth characteristics of the invasive M haplotype with 2 native haplotypes (F and AC) in greenhouse experiments. The M haplotype retained 50% of its growth potential up to 0.4 M NaCl, whereas the F and AC haplotypes did not grow above 0.1 M NaCl. The M haplotype produced more shoots per gram of rhizome tissue and had higher relative growth rates than the native haplotypes on both freshwater and saline water treatments. The M haplotype also differed from the native haplotypes in shoot water content and the biometrics of shoots and rhizomes. The results offer an explanation for how the M haplotype is able to spread in coastal salt marshes and support the conclusion of DNA analyses that the M haplotype is a distinct ecotype of P. australis. ?? Inter-Research 2005.

  19. Development and Evaluation of a Streamflow Forecasting Tool to Improve Seasonal Water Supply Forecasts on the Salt and Verde River Basin, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, S.; Gupta, H. V.; Troch, P. A.; Switanek, M.; Durcik, M.; Dominguez, F.

    2007-12-01

    Researchers at the University of Arizona are conducting research aimed at improving seasonal water supply forecasts in the Salt and Verde River basins to help water managers at Salt River Project (SRP), in Phoenix make better water supply and reservoir operation decisions. The goal of the research is to improve the seasonal water supply forecast through the development, application and testing of a physically based distributed hydrologic model coupled to a regional climate model. The variable infiltration capacity (VIC) model was setup for the headwater basins with the intent to simulate historical observed streamflow at the outlet of Salt and Verde River basins. This model is forced by gridded observed precipitation and temperature data. A multi-objective calibration using the shuffled complex evolution, University of Arizona (SCE-UA) was implemented to calibrate the VIC model incorporating observed climate elasticities of the Salt and Verde River basins. In addition, the impact of climate change on future hydrologic variables of the Salt and Verde will be assessed through the use of future climate projections derived from statistically downscaled data from the coupled climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3). In this poster, results from this calibration procedure and scenarios based on future climate forcing data will be presented.

  20. Collimated neutron probe for soil water content measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klenke, J.M.; Flint, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    A collimated neutron probe was designed to enable mesurements in specific directions from the access tube. To determine the size and shape of soil volume affecting the neutron counts, experiments were conducted to evaluate: 1) the vertical distance of soil above and below the probe that influences neutron counts; 2) the horizontal distance away from the probe into the soil that influences neutron counts; 3) the angle of soil viewed by the probe from the collimator; and 4) the three-dimensional thermal-neutron density field. The vertical distance was ~0.5m, the horizontal distance was ~0.2m, and the angle of soil viewed by the probe from the collimator was ~120??. Thermal neutrons detected from distances or angles larger than these values influence the determination of relative water content by 5% or less. -from Authors

  1. Water content and the conversion of phytochrome regulation of lettuce dormancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vertucci, C. W.; Vertucci, F. A.; Leopold, A. C.

    1987-01-01

    In an effort to determine which biological reactions can occur in relation to the water content of seeds, the regulation of lettuce seed dormancy by red and far red light was determined at various hydration levels. Far red light had an inhibiting effect on germination for seeds at all moisture contents from 4 to 32% water. Germination was progressively stimulated by red light as seed hydration increased from 8 to 15%, and reached a maximum at moisture contents above 18%. Red light was ineffective at moisture contents below 8%. Seeds that had been stimulated by red light and subsequently dried lost the enhanced germinability if stored at moisture contents above 8%. The contrast between the presumed photoconversion of phytochrome far red-absorbing (Pfr) to (Pr) occurring at any moisture content and the reverse reaction occurring only if the seed moisture content is greater than 8% may be explained on the basis of the existence of unstable intermediates in the Pr to Pfr conversion. Our results suggest that the initial photoreaction involved in phytochrome conversion is relatively independent of water content, while the subsequent partial reactions become increasingly facilitated as water content increases from 8 to 18%.

  2. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Salt Point, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Greene, H. Gary; Cochrane, Guy R.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Watt, Janet T.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Lowe, Erik N.; Chinn, John L.

    2015-01-01

    Circulation over the continental shelf in the map area is dominated by the southward-flowing California Current, the eastern limb of the North Pacific Gyre. Associated upwelling brings cool, nutrient-rich

  3. Measurements of Evaporation Kinetics of Pure Water and Salt Solutions

    E-print Network

    Drisdell, Walter

    2010-01-01

    piezoelectric ceramic which acts as a vibrating orifice aerosol generator (Aerosol Generator (VOAG). By driving the piezoelectricpiezoelectric ceramic into our jet apparatus, we were able to run our liquid microjet as a vibrating orifice aerosol generator (

  4. Hygroscopic behavior of atmospherically relevant water-soluble carboxylic salts and their influence on the water uptake of ammonium sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z. J.; Nowak, A.; Poulain, L.; Herrmann, H.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2011-03-01

    The hygroscopic behavior of atmospherically relevant water-soluble carboxylic salts and their effects on ammonium sulfate was investigated using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA). No hygroscopic growth is observed for sodium oxalate, while ammonium oxalate shows slight growth (growth factor = 1.05 at 90%). The growth factors at 90% RH for sodium acetate, sodium malonate, sodium succinate, sodium tartrate, ammonium tartrate, sodium pyruvate, sodium maleate, and humic acid sodium salt are 1.79, 1.78, 1.69, 1.54, 1.29, 1.70, 1.78, and 1.19, respectively. The mixtures of organic salts with ammonium sulfate, which are prepared simulating the atmospheric aerosols, are determined. A clear shift in DRH of mixture to lower RH is observed with increasing organic mass fraction. Above RH = 80%, the humidograms of the different mixtures are quite close to that of pure ammonium sulfate. Köhler theory is used to predict the effective hygroscopicity parameter, ?, for mixtures at 90% RH. The results show that Köhler theory underestimated kappa for mixtures without considering the water solubility of ammonium oxalate. However, if the water solubility of ammonium oxalate is taken into account, the results show a much better agreement with those derived from H-TDMA measurements.

  5. A review of environmental impacts of salts from produced waters on aquatic resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farag, Aïda M.; Harper, David D.

    2014-01-01

    Salts are frequently a major constituent of waste waters produced during oil and gas production. These produced waters or brines must be treated and/or disposed and provide a daily challenge for operators and resource managers. Some elements of salts are regulated with water quality criteria established for the protection of aquatic wildlife, e.g. chloride (Cl?), which has an acute standard of 860 mg/L and a chronic standard of 230 mg/L. However, data for establishing such standards has only recently been studied for other components of produced water, such as bicarbonate (HCO3?), which has acute median lethal concentrations (LC50s) ranging from 699 to > 8000 mg/L and effects on chronic toxicity from 430 to 657 mg/L. While Cl? is an ion of considerable importance in multiple geographical regions, knowledge about the effects of hardness (calcium and magnesium) on its toxicity and about mechanisms of toxicity is not well understood. A multiple-approach design that combines studies of both individuals and populations, conducted both in the laboratory and the field, was used to study toxic effects of bicarbonate (as NaHCO3). This approach allowed interpretations about mechanisms related to growth effects at the individual level that could affect populations in the wild. However, additional mechanistic data for HCO3?, related to the interactions of calcium (Ca2 +) precipitation at the microenvironment of the gill would dramatically increase the scientific knowledge base about how NaHCO3 might affect aquatic life. Studies of the effects of mixtures of multiple salts present in produced waters and more chronic effect studies would give a better picture of the overall potential toxicity of these ions. Organic constituents in hydraulic fracturing fluids, flowback waters, etc. are a concern because of their carcinogenic properties and this paper is not meant to minimize the importance of maintaining vigilance with respect to potential organic contamination.

  6. NMR study on mechanisms of ionic polymer-metal composites deformation with water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zicai; Chen, Hualing; Wang, Yongquan; Luo, Bin; Chang, Longfei; Li, Bo; Chen, Luping

    2011-10-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) exhibit a large dynamic bending deformation under exterior electric field. The states and proportions of water within the IPMCs have great effect on the IPMCs deformation properties. This letter investigates the influence of the proportion changes of different types of water on the deformation, which may disclose the working mechanisms of the IPMCs. We give a deformation trend of IPMCs with the reduction of water content firstly. Then by the method of nuclear magnetic resonance, various water types (water bonded to sulfonates, loosely bound water and free water) of IPMCs and their proportions are investigated in the drying process which corresponds to their different deformation states. It is obtained that the deformation properties of IPMCs depend strongly on their water content and the excess free water is responsible for the relaxation deformation.

  7. Metals removal from spent salts

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Peter C. (Pleasanton, CA); Von Holtz, Erica H. (Livermore, CA); Hipple, David L. (Livermore, CA); Summers, Leslie J. (Livermore, CA); Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing metal contaminants from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents may be added to precipitate the metal oxide and/or the metal as either metal oxide, metal hydroxide, or as a salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as waste or can be immobilized as ceramic pellets. More than about 90% of the metals and mineral residues (ashes) present are removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be spray-dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 1.0 ppm of contaminants.

  8. Actinide removal from spent salts

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Peter C. (Pleasanton, CA); von Holtz, Erica H. (Livermore, CA); Hipple, David L. (Livermore, CA); Summers, Leslie J. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A method for removing actinide contaminants (uranium and thorium) from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents are added to precipitate the thorium as thorium oxide and/or the uranium as either uranium oxide or as a diuranate salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as radioactive waste. About 90% of the thorium and/or uranium present is removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 0.1 ppm of thorium or uranium.

  9. Complex molecular mechanisms underlying seedling salt tolerance in rice revealed by comparative transcriptome and metabolomic profiling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Sheng; Zhao, Xiu-Qin; Li, Min; Huang, Li-Yu; Xu, Jian-Long; Zhang, Fan; Cui, Yan-Ru; Fu, Bin-Ying; Li, Zhi-Kang

    2016-01-01

    To understand the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying seedling salt tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.), the phenotypic, metabolic, and transcriptome responses of two related rice genotypes, IR64 and PL177, with contrasting salt tolerance were characterized under salt stress and salt+abscisic acid (ABA) conditions. PL177 showed significantly less salt damage, lower Na+/K+ ratios in shoots, and Na+ translocation from roots to shoots, attributed largely to better salt exclusion from its roots and salt compartmentation of its shoots. Exogenous ABA was able to enhance the salt tolerance of IR64 by selectively decreasing accumulation of Na+ in its roots and increasing K+ in its shoots. Salt stress induced general and organ-specific increases of many primary metabolites in both rice genotypes, with strong accumulation of several sugars plus proline in shoots and allantoin in roots. This was due primarily to ABA-mediated repression of genes for degradation of these metabolites under salt. In PL177, salt specifically up-regulated genes involved in several pathways underlying salt tolerance, including ABA-mediated cellular lipid and fatty acid metabolic processes and cytoplasmic transport, sequestration by vacuoles, detoxification and cell-wall remodeling in shoots, and oxidation–reduction reactions in roots. Combined genetic and transcriptomic evidence shortlisted relatively few candidate genes for improved salt tolerance in PL177. PMID:26512058

  10. Complex molecular mechanisms underlying seedling salt tolerance in rice revealed by comparative transcriptome and metabolomic profiling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Sheng; Zhao, Xiu-Qin; Li, Min; Huang, Li-Yu; Xu, Jian-Long; Zhang, Fan; Cui, Yan-Ru; Fu, Bin-Ying; Li, Zhi-Kang

    2016-01-01

    To understand the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying seedling salt tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.), the phenotypic, metabolic, and transcriptome responses of two related rice genotypes, IR64 and PL177, with contrasting salt tolerance were characterized under salt stress and salt+abscisic acid (ABA) conditions. PL177 showed significantly less salt damage, lower Na(+)/K(+) ratios in shoots, and Na(+) translocation from roots to shoots, attributed largely to better salt exclusion from its roots and salt compartmentation of its shoots. Exogenous ABA was able to enhance the salt tolerance of IR64 by selectively decreasing accumulation of Na(+) in its roots and increasing K(+) in its shoots. Salt stress induced general and organ-specific increases of many primary metabolites in both rice genotypes, with strong accumulation of several sugars plus proline in shoots and allantoin in roots. This was due primarily to ABA-mediated repression of genes for degradation of these metabolites under salt. In PL177, salt specifically up-regulated genes involved in several pathways underlying salt tolerance, including ABA-mediated cellular lipid and fatty acid metabolic processes and cytoplasmic transport, sequestration by vacuoles, detoxification and cell-wall remodeling in shoots, and oxidation-reduction reactions in roots. Combined genetic and transcriptomic evidence shortlisted relatively few candidate genes for improved salt tolerance in PL177. PMID:26512058

  11. Cloud Water Content Sensor for Sounding Balloons and Small UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bognar, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A lightweight, battery-powered sensor was developed for measuring cloud water content, which is the amount of liquid or solid water present in a cloud, generally expressed as grams of water per cubic meter. This sensor has near-zero power consumption and can be flown on standard sounding balloons and small, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The amount of solid or liquid water is important to the study of atmospheric processes and behavior. Previous sensing techniques relied on strongly heating the incoming air, which requires a major energy input that cannot be achieved on sounding balloons or small UAVs.

  12. Kinetics of Bile Salt Binding to Liposomes Revealed by Carboxyfluorescein Release and

    E-print Network

    Hinow, Peter

    Kinetics of Bile Salt Binding to Liposomes Revealed by Carboxyfluorescein Release and Mathematical by the binding of different bile salts to the leaflets of the lipid bilayer. We find that the permeability of the liposomal bilayer depends on the difference in the concentrations of bile salt in the inner and outer

  13. [Desmopressin effect on water-salt homeostasis and orthostatic tolerance during head-down tilting].

    PubMed

    Larina, I M; Noskov, V B; Nichiporuk, I A; Pastushkova, L Kh; Vasil'eva, G Iu

    2009-01-01

    Effects of desmopressin, a synthetic analog of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), on water-salt metabolism and orthostatic tolerance were evaluated in human subjects during 24-hr HDT (-15 degrees). Consumption of the preparation was found to dampen losses in total body and extracellular liquids and to slow down diuresis as well as establishment of a positive water balance as compared with control series without ADH. In addition, tolerance of the standard standing test improved noticeably. To conclude, desmopressin precluded hypohydration of the tilted subjects and, consequently, prevented loss of orthostatic tolerance. PMID:19462786

  14. An Unprecedented Constraint on Water Content in the Sunlit Lunar Exosphere Seen by Lunar-Based Ultraviolet Telescope of Chang'e-3 Mission

    E-print Network

    Wang, J; Qiu, Y L; Meng, X M; Cai, H B; Cao, L; Deng, J S; Han, X H; Wei, J Y

    2015-01-01

    The content of $\\mathrm{OH/H_2O}$ molecules in the tenuous exosphere of the Moon is still an open issue at present. We here report an unprecedented upper limit of the content of the OH radicals, which is obtained from the in-situ measurements carried out \\rm by the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope, a payload of Chinese Chang'e-3 mission. By analyzing the diffuse background in the images taken by the telescope, the column density and surface concentration of the OH radicals are inferred to be $<10^{11}\\ \\mathrm{cm^{-2}}$ and $<10^{4}\\ \\mathrm{cm^{-3}}$ (by assuming a hydrostatic equilibrium with a scale height of 100km), respectively, by assuming that the recorded background is fully contributed by their resonance fluorescence emission. The resulted concentration is lower than the previously reported value by about two orders of magnitude, and is close to the prediction of the sputtering model. In addition, the same measurements and method allow us to derive a surface concentration of $<10^{2}\\ \\math...

  15. Reflectance spectroscopy for the assessment of soil salt content in soils of the yellow river delta of China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weng, Yongling; Gong, P.; Zhu, Z.

    2008-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the use of reflectance spectroscopy as a rapid and inexpensive tool for soil characterization. In this study, we collected 95 soil samples from the Yellow River Delta of China to investigate the level of soil salinity in relation to soil spectra. Sample plots were selected based on a field investigation and the corresponding soil salinity classification map to maximize variations of saline characteristics in the soil. Spectral reflectances of air-dried soil samples were measured using an Analytical Spectral Device (ASD) spectrometer (350-2500 nm) with an artificial light source. In the Yellow River Delta, the dominant chemical in the saline soil was NaCl and MgCl2. Soil spectra were analysed using two-thirds of the available samples, with the remaining one-third withheld for validation purposes. The analysis indicated that with some preprocessing, the reflectance at 1931-2123 nm and 2153-2254 nm was highly correlated with soil salt content (SSC). In the spectral region of 1931-2123 nm, the correlation R ranged from -0.80 to -0.87. In the region of 2153-2254 nm, the SSC was positively correlated with preprocessed reflectance (0.79-0.88). The preprocessing was done by fitting a convex hull to the reflectance curve and dividing the spectral reflectance by the value of the corresponding convex hull band by band. This process is called continuum removal, and the resulting ratio is called continuum removed reflectance (CR reflectance). However, the SSC did not have a high correlation with the unprocessed reflectance, and the correlation was always negative in the entire spectrum (350-2500 nm) with the strongest negative correlation at 1981 nm (R = -0.63). Moreover, we found a strong correlation (R=0.91) between a soil salinity index (SSI: Constructed using CR reflectance at 2052 nm and 2203 nm) and SSC. We estimated SSC as a function of SSI and SSI' (SSI': Constructed using unprocessed reflectance at 2052 nm and 2203 nm) using univariate regression. Validation of the estimation of SSC was conducted by comparing the estimated SSC with the holdout sample points. The comparison produced an estimated root mean squared error (RMSE) of 0.986 (SSC ranging from 0.06 to 12.30 g kg-1) and R2 of 0.873 for SSC with SSI as independent variable and RMSE of 1.248 and R2 of 0.8 for SSC with SSI' as independent variable. This study showed that a soil salinity index developed for CR reflectance at 2052 nm and 2203 nm on the basis of spectral absorption features of saline soil can be used as a quick and inexpensive method for soil salt-content estimation.

  16. Characterization of Soil Water Content Variability and Soil Texture using GPR Groundwave Techniques

    E-print Network

    Hubbard, Susan

    texture and water content were calculated, and co-kriging of water content estimates and soil textureCharacterization of Soil Water Content Variability and Soil Texture using GPR Groundwave Techniques@ce.berkeley.edu ABSTRACT Accurate characterization of near-surface soil water content is vital for guiding agricultural

  17. Water relations, nutrient content and developmental responses of Euonymus plants irrigated with water of different degrees of salinity and quality.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Bellot, María José; Alvarez, Sara; Castillo, Marco; Bañón, Sebastián; Ortuño, María Fernanda; Sánchez-Blanco, María Jesús

    2013-07-01

    For 20 weeks, the physiological responses of Euonymus japonica plants to different irrigation sources were studied. Four irrigation treatments were applied at 100 % water holding capacity: control (electrical conductivity (EC) <0.9 dS m(-1)); irrigation water normally used in the area (irrigator's water) IW (EC: 1.7 dS m(-1)); NaCl solution, NaCl (EC: 4 dS m(-1)); and wastewater, WW (EC: 4 dS m(-1)). This was followed by a recovery period of 13 weeks, when all the plants were rewatered with the same amount and quality of irrigation water as the control plants. Despite the differences in the chemical properties of the water used, the plants irrigated with NaCl and WW showed similar alterations in growth and size compared with the control even at the end of the recovery period. Leaf number was affected even when the EC of the irrigation water was of 1.7 dS m(-1) (IW), indicating the salt sensitivity of this parameter. Stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthesis (Pn), as well as stem water potential (?stem), were most affected in plants irrigated with the most saline waters (NaCl and WW). At the end of the experiment the above parameters recovered, while IW plants showed similar values to the control. The higher Na(+) and Cl(+) uptake by NaCl and WW plants led them to show osmotic adjustment throughout the experiment. The highest amount of boron found in WW plants did not affect root growth. Wastewater can be used as a water management strategy for ornamental plant production, as long as the water quality is not too saline, since the negative effect of salt on the aesthetic value of plants need to be taken into consideration. PMID:23306649

  18. K-Basins particulate water content, and behavior

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-02-25

    This analysis summarizes the state of knowledge of K-basins spent nuclear fuel oxide (film, particulate or sludge) and its chemically bound water in order to estimate the associated multi-canister overpack (MCO) water inventory and to describe particulate dehydration behavior. This information can be used to evaluate the thermal and chemical history of an MCO and its contents during cold vacuum drying (CVD), shipping, and interim storage.

  19. Spectral Density of Cloud Liquid Water Content at High Frequencies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, H.; Jensen, J. B.; Davis, A. B.; Marshak, A.; Wiscombe, W. J.

    2001-03-01

    Aircraft measurements of liquid water content (LWC) made at sampling frequencies of 1 and 2 kHz with a particle volume monitor (PVM) probe from horizontal traverses in stratocumulus clouds during the Southern Ocean Cloud Experiment and cumulus clouds during the Small Cumulus Microphysics Study are described. The spectral density of the LWC measurements is calculated and compared to the 5/3 scaling law. The effect of PVM sampling noise is found to be small in most cases. Most measurements follow approximately the 5/3 law until cloud scales decrease below about 5 m in length. Below this length LWC variance can exceed that predicted by the 5/3 law. It is suggested that the enhanced LWC variance at small scales is related to entrainment of environmental air into the clouds, which changes primarily the droplet concentration.

  20. Salt Effect on Microstructures in Cationic Gemini Surfactant Solutions as Studied by Dynamic Light Scattering

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianbin

    Salt Effect on Microstructures in Cationic Gemini Surfactant Solutions as Studied by Dynamic Light, C12C12C12(Et) underwent a typical "ordinary-to-extraordinary (o-e) transition" with decreasing salt concentration to zero. At higher salt concentration, a single relaxation mode, corresponding to the diffusion

  1. Enhancement of charged macromolecule capture by nanopores in a salt gradient

    E-print Network

    Levine, Alex J.

    Enhancement of charged macromolecule capture by nanopores in a salt gradient Tom Choua Department. However, recent experiments have shown that salt concentration gradients applied across nanopores can also length, we obtain accurate analytic expressions showing how salt gradients control the local conductivity

  2. Water, salt, and energy balances of the Dead Sea N. G. Lensky, Y. Dvorkin, and V. Lyakhovsky

    E-print Network

    Lyakhovsky, Vladimir

    Water, salt, and energy balances of the Dead Sea N. G. Lensky, Y. Dvorkin, and V. Lyakhovsky estimations for the water balance of the lake are widely variable, reflecting the unknown subsurface water these we calculate the energy and mass balances for the Dead Sea utilizing measured meteorological

  3. Measurement of Water Content in Polymer Electrolyte Membranes using High Resolution Neutron Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, Partha P

    2010-01-01

    Sufficient water content within a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) is necessary for adequate ionic conductivity. Membrane hydration is therefore a fundamental requirement for fuel cell operation. The hydration state of the membrane affects the water transport within, as both the diffusion coefficient and electroosmotic drag depend on the water content. Membrane s water uptake is conventionally measured ex situ by weighing freeswelling samples equilibrated at controlled water activity. In the present study, water profiles in Nafion membranes were measured using high-resolution neutron imaging. The state-of-theart, 13 m resolution neutron detector is capable of resolving water distributions across N1120, N1110 and N117 membranes. It provides a means to measure the water uptake and transport properties of fuel cell membranes in situ.

  4. Measurement of water content in polymer electrolyte membranes using high resolution neutron imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Spernjak, Dusan; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rodney L; Davey, John; Mukherjee, Partha P; Hussey, Daniel S; Jacobson, David

    2010-01-01

    Sufficient water content within a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) is necessary for adequate ionic conductivity. Membrane hydration is therefore a fundamental requirement for fuel cell operation. The hydration state of the membrane affects the water transport within, as both the diffusion coefficient and electro-osmotic drag depend on the water content. Membrane's water uptake is conventionally measured ex situ by weighing free-swelling samples equilibrated at controlled water activity. In the present study, water profiles in Nafion{reg_sign} membranes were measured using the high-resolution neutron imaging. The state-of-the-art, 10 {micro}m resolution neutron detector is capable of resolving water distributions across N1120, N1110 and N117 membranes. It provides a means to measure the water uptake and transport properties of fuel cell membranes in situ.

  5. Purification of contaminated water by filtration through porous glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, T.; Leban, M. I.

    1972-01-01

    Method for purifying water that is contaminated with mineral salts and soluble organic compounds is described. Method consists of high pressure filtration of contaminated water through stabilized porous glass membranes. Procedure for conducting filtration is described. Types of materials by percentage amounts removed from the water are identified.

  6. Effects of salts on oxidative stability of lipids in Tween-20 stabilized oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Cui, Leqi; Cho, Hyung Taek; McClements, D Julian; Decker, Eric A; Park, Yeonhwa

    2016-04-15

    Lipid oxidation in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions is an important factor determining the shelf life of food products. Salts are often present in many types of emulsion based food products. However, there is limited information on influence of salts on lipid oxidation in O/W emulsions. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of sodium and potassium chloride on lipid oxidation in O/W emulsions. Tween 20 stabilized corn O/W emulsions at pH 7.0 were prepared with different concentrations of sodium chloride with or without the metal chelators. NaCl did not cause any changes in emulsion droplet size. NaCl dose-dependently promoted lipid oxidation as measured by the lipid oxidation product, hexanal. Both deferoxamine (DFO) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) reduced lipid oxidation in emulsions with NaCl, with EDTA being more effective. Potassium chloride showed similar impact on lipid oxidation as sodium chloride. These results suggest that salts are able to promote lipid oxidation in emulsions and this effect can be controlled by metal chelators. PMID:26675849

  7. Anthropogenic impacts on the water and salt budgets of St Lucia estuarine lake in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrie, Robynne A.; Stretch, Derek D.

    2011-05-01

    Lake St Lucia in South Africa is part of a UNESCO World Heritage site and a Ramsar wetland of international importance. Like many coastal wetlands worldwide, anthropogenic activities including catchment land-use changes, water diversions/abstractions, and manipulation of the mouth state have significantly affected its functioning over the past century. Questions concerning its sustainability have motivated a re-evaluation of management decisions made in the past and of options for the future. A model for the water and salt budgets has therefore been used to investigate "what if" scenarios in terms of past anthropogenic interventions. In particular, simulations allow us to evaluate the effects of diverting the Mfolozi river from St Lucia on the functioning of the system and on the occurrence of various water level/salinity states that drive the biological functioning of the ecosystem. In the past, when the St Lucia estuary and the Mfolozi river had a combined inlet, the mouth was predominantly open. The lake had relatively stable water levels but variable salinities that increased during dry conditions due to evaporative losses and saltwater inflows from the sea. If the mouth closed, the Mfolozi flow was diverted into the lake which reduced salinities and maintained or increased water levels. Simulations indicate that without a link to the Mfolozi the lake system would naturally have a mainly closed inlet with lower average salinities but more variable water levels. During dry conditions water levels would reduce and result in desiccation of large areas of the lake as has recently occurred. We conclude that the artificial separation of the St Lucia and Mfolozi inlets underpins the most significant impacts on the water & salt budget of the lake and that its reversal is key to the sustainability of the system.

  8. Quantifying the Water Content in the Cathode of Enzyme Fuel Cells via Neutron Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Aaron, D; Borole, Abhijeet P; Hussey , Daniel; Jacobson, David; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2011-01-01

    Neutron imaging was used to study cathode water content over time in a three-dimensional-cathode enzyme fuel cell (EFC). A porous carbon felt cathode allowed air to flow through the electrode. A solution with laccase and a mediator formed an aqueous layer on the electrode surface. Water loss was observed in situ via neutron imaging for varying experimental conditions, including flow rates of hydrogen and air, cathode inlet humidity, volume of enzyme solution, and its composition. Cathode water loss occurred for all experimental conditions, but the loss rate was noticeably reduced when a high-salt-concentration enzyme solution was used in the cathode in conjunction with increased humidity in the air feed stream. Results from neutron imaging and power density analysis were used in analyzing the causes that could contribute to EFC water loss. An increase in temperature due to the exothermic cathode reaction is considered a plausible cause of cathode water loss via evaporation. This is the first reported application of neutron imaging as a technique to study EFC water management. The results suggest that neutron imaging can be employed to provide a better understanding of EFC phenomena and thereby contribute to design and operational improvements of EFCs.

  9. Diverse Microhabitats Experienced by Halomonas variabilis on Salt-Secreting Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Burch, Adrien Y.; Finkel, Omri M.; Cho, Juliana K.; Belkin, Shimshon

    2013-01-01

    The leaf surfaces of the salt-excreting tree Tamarix aphylla harbor a wide diversity of halophilic microorganisms, including Halomonas sp., but little is known of the factors that shape community composition in this extreme habitat. We isolated a strain of Halomonas variabilis from the leaf surface of T. aphylla and used it to determine the heterogeneity of salt concentrations experienced by bacteria in this environment. This halophilic strain was transformed with a proU::gfp reporter gene fusion, the fluorescence of which was responsive to NaCl concentrations up to 200 g liter?1. These bioreporting cells were applied to T. aphylla leaves and were subsequently recovered from dew droplets adhering to the leaf surface. Although cells from within a given dew droplet exhibited similar green fluorescent protein fluorescence, the fluorescence intensity varied between droplets and was correlated with the salt concentration measured in each drop. Growth of H. variabilis was observed in all droplets, regardless of the salt concentration. However, cells found in desiccated microniches between dew drops were low in abundance and generally dead. Other bacteria recovered from T. aphylla displayed higher desiccation tolerance than H. variabilis, both in culture and on inoculated plants, despite having lower osmotic tolerance. Thus, the Tamarix leaf surface can be described as a salty desert with occasional oases where water droplets form under humid conditions. While halotolerant bacteria such as Halomonas grow in high concentrations of salt in such wet microniches, other organisms are better suited to survive desiccation in sites that are not wetted. PMID:23160133

  10. Diverse microhabitats experienced by Halomonas variabilis on salt-secreting leaves.

    PubMed

    Burch, Adrien Y; Finkel, Omri M; Cho, Juliana K; Belkin, Shimshon; Lindow, Steven E

    2013-02-01

    The leaf surfaces of the salt-excreting tree Tamarix aphylla harbor a wide diversity of halophilic microorganisms, including Halomonas sp., but little is known of the factors that shape community composition in this extreme habitat. We isolated a strain of Halomonas variabilis from the leaf surface of T. aphylla and used it to determine the heterogeneity of salt concentrations experienced by bacteria in this environment. This halophilic strain was transformed with a proU::gfp reporter gene fusion, the fluorescence of which was responsive to NaCl concentrations up to 200 g liter(-1). These bioreporting cells were applied to T. aphylla leaves and were subsequently recovered from dew droplets adhering to the leaf surface. Although cells from within a given dew droplet exhibited similar green fluorescent protein fluorescence, the fluorescence intensity varied between droplets and was correlated with the salt concentration measured in each drop. Growth of H. variabilis was observed in all droplets, regardless of the salt concentration. However, cells found in desiccated microniches between dew drops were low in abundance and generally dead. Other bacteria recovered from T. aphylla displayed higher desiccation tolerance than H. variabilis, both in culture and on inoculated plants, despite having lower osmotic tolerance. Thus, the Tamarix leaf surface can be described as a salty desert with occasional oases where water droplets form under humid conditions. While halotolerant bacteria such as Halomonas grow in high concentrations of salt in such wet microniches, other organisms are better suited to survive desiccation in sites that are not wetted. PMID:23160133

  11. Liking, salt taste perception and use of table salt when consuming reduced-salt chicken stews in light of South Africa's new salt regulations.

    PubMed

    De Kock, H L; Zandstra, E H; Sayed, N; Wentzel-Viljoen, E

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of salt reduction on liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt when consuming chicken stew in light of South Africa's new salt recommendations. In total, 432 South-African consumers (aged 35.2 ± 12.3 years) consumed a full portion of a chicken stew meal once at a central location. Four stock cube powders varying in salt content were used to prepare chicken stews: 1) no reduction - 2013 Na level; regular salt level as currently available on the South African market (24473 mg Na/100 g), 2) salt reduction smaller than 2016 level, i.e. 10%-reduced (22025 mg Na/100 g), 3) 2016 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (18000 mg Na/100 g), 4) 2019 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (13000 mg Na/100 g). Consumers were randomly allocated to consume one of the four meals. Liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt and pepper were measured. Chicken stews prepared with reduced-salt stock powders were equally well-liked as chicken stews with the current salt level. Moreover, a gradual reduction of the salt in the chicken stews resulted in a reduced salt intake, up to an average of 19% for the total group compared to the benchmark 2013 Na level stew. However, 19% of consumers compensated by adding salt back to full compensation in some cases. More salt was added with increased reductions of salt in the meals, even to the point of full compensation. Further investigation into the impacts of nutrition communication and education about salt reduction on salt taste perception and use is needed. This research provides new consumer insights on salt use and emphasises the need for consumer-focused behaviour change approaches, in addition to reformulation of products. PMID:26415915

  12. Ethylene sensing by silver(I) salt- impregnated luminescent films

    PubMed Central

    Cintrón, Michael Santiago; Green, Omar; Burstyn, Judith N.

    2012-01-01

    Luminescent oligomers and polymers doped with silver(I) salts were used as optical sensors for ethylene and other gaseous small molecules. Films of poly(vinylphenylketone) (PVPK) or 1,4-bis(methylstyryl)benzene (BMSB) impregnated with AgBF4, AgSbF6 or AgB(C6F5)4 respond to ethylene exposures with a reversible emission quenching that is proportional to the pressure of the gas. Experiments with various analytes revealed that only gases capable of forming coordinate bonds with Ag(I) ions (i.e., ethylene, propylene and ammonia) produced a sensing response. Comparison of the effects of ethylene and tetradeuterioethylene revealed that the emission quenching was due to enhanced vibrational relaxation. The Ag(I) ions are essential to the observed optical response. The oligomer/polymer support enhances the response characteristics of the impregnated salt by promoting separation of Ag(I) from its anion, a separation that improves accessibility of the Ag(I) ion to the gaseous analytes. Salts with large lattice energies, where the anion is not dissociated from Ag(I) in the matrix, fail to sensitize film responses. Photoluminescence experiments with Ag(I)-impregnated BMSB films established that the Ag(I) ions serve to communicate the analyte-binding signal to the support by altering the support-based emission. These experiments demonstrate a sensing paradigm where simultaneous coordination of Ag(I) ions to the support matrix and to a gaseous analyte enables the optical response. PMID:22356278

  13. Results and Conclusions from the NASA Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe 2009 IRT Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew; Brinker, David

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed and tested a Total Water Content Isokinetic Sampling Probe. Since, by its nature, it is not sensitive to cloud water particle phase nor size, it is particularly attractive to support super-cooled large droplet and high ice water content aircraft icing studies. The instrument comprises the Sampling Probe, Sample Flow Control, and Water Vapor Measurement subsystems. Results and conclusions are presented from probe tests in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) during January and February 2009. The use of reference probe heat and the control of air pressure in the water vapor measurement subsystem are discussed. Several run-time error sources were found to produce identifiable signatures that are presented and discussed. Some of the differences between measured Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe and IRT calibration seems to be caused by tunnel humidification and moisture/ice crystal blow around. Droplet size, airspeed, and liquid water content effects also appear to be present in the IRT calibration. Based upon test results, the authors provide recommendations for future Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe development.

  14. WATER CONTENT-TEMPERATURE INTERACTIONS REGULATE SEED AGING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water content and temperature are important factors that influence the duration of seed survival in storage. The interacting effect of these two factors and the consequences on seed longevity is rarely recognized. An experiment to quantify the interaction was begun in 1994, using lettuce (Lactuca s...

  15. A review on temporal stability of soil water contents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temporal stability of soil water content (TS SWC) has been observed across a wide range of soil types, landscapes, climates and scales. A better understanding of TS SWC controls and their interactions needs to be developed. The objective of this work is to develop a comprehensive inventory of publis...

  16. Mapping soil water content on golf course greens with GPR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can be an effective and efficient method for high-resolution mapping of volumetric water content in the sand layer directly beneath the ground surface at a golf course green. This information could potentially be very useful to golf course superintendents for determi...

  17. Vegetation Water Content Retrievals for NAFE06 and CLASIC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation water content (VWC) is a valuable input to many microwave based soil moisture retrieval algorithms. Previous research, both theoretical and experimental, has established that VWC can be estimated using multispectral remote sensing. There are limits on the reliability of these methods that...

  18. SAPWOOD WATER CONTENT IS INSENSITIVE TO CHANGES IN SOIL MOISTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in sapwood water content of large Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) trees were measured throughout the year at two sites: a low elevation (600-m) site where precipitation occurs primarily as rain, and a high elevation (1200-m) site that receives significant snowfall. B...

  19. Aircraft Measurements of Cloud Liquid Water Content using the Forward

    E-print Network

    Delene, David J.

    ) On the Right Wing of the Citation Research Aircraft #12;The beam splitter divides the scattered light onto twoAircraft Measurements of Cloud Liquid Water Content using the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe*DOF*BD*(Tc/Ts) TAS ­ Aircraft True Air Speed (~100 m/s) DOF ­ FSSP Depth of Field (~2.9 mm) BD ­ Laser Beam Diameter

  20. Split-replicates correlation of water content in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The range of water content in a set of cottons equilibrated to moisture equilibrium at standard textile testing conditions is < 0.8 %. This presents a challenge in obtaining accurate test data to calibrate fast sensors. A dozen raw cottons, nine American and three international, were analyzed for ...

  1. Effects of tissue water content on the propagation of laser light during low-level laser therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soogeun; Shin, Sungho; Jeong, Sungho

    2015-05-01

    This work reports that the laser fluence rate inside porcine skin varied notably with the change of tissue water content under the same laser irradiation conditions. The laser fluence rate inside skin tissue samples with varying water content was measured using an optical fiber sensor, while the target was irradiated either by a low-level 635 or 830 nm laser (50 mW/cm2). It was demonstrated that the distribution of laser fluence rate inside the target is strongly affected by tissue water content and its profile is determined by the water content dependency of optical properties at the laser wavelength. PMID:25611979

  2. Effects of tissue water content on the propagation of laser light during low-level laser therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soogeun; Shin, Sungho; Jeong, Sungho

    2015-05-01

    This work reports that the laser fluence rate inside porcine skin varied notably with the change of tissue water content under the same laser irradiation conditions. The laser fluence rate inside skin tissue samples with varying water content was measured using an optical fiber sensor, while the target was irradiated either by a low-level 635 or 830 nm laser (50 mW/cm2). It was demonstrated that the distribution of laser fluence rate inside the target is strongly affected by tissue water content and its profile is determined by the water content dependency of optical properties at the laser wavelength.

  3. Performance Evaluation of Volumetric Water Content and Relative Permittivity Models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In recent years many models have been proposed for measuring soil water content (?) based on the permittivity (?) value. Permittivity is one of the properties used to determine ? in measurements using the electromagnetic method. This method is widely used due to quite substantial differences in values of ? for air, soil, and water, as it allows the ? value to be measured accurately. The performance of six proposed models with one parameter (i.e., permittivity) and five proposed models with two or more parameters (i.e., permittivity, porosity, and dry bulk density of soil) is discussed and evaluated. Secondary data obtained from previous studies are used for comparison to calibrate and evaluate the models. The results show that the models with one parameter proposed by Roth et al. (1992) and Topp et al. (1980) have the greatest R2 data errors, while for the model with two parameters, the model proposed by Malicki et al. (1996) agrees very well with the data compared with other models. PMID:24282382

  4. Source of salts in the Waianae part of the Pearl Harbor aquifer near Barbers Point water tunnel, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eyre, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    The salinity of the water supply of Barbers Point Naval Air Station has increased markedly since 1983. The Naval Air Station obtains its water, about 3 million gal/day, from Barbers Point shaft, a water shaft that taps the Waianae part of the Pearl Harbor aquifer underlying the dry, southeastern flank of the Waianae mountains on the island on Oahu, Hawaii. From 1983 to 1985 the chloride concentration of the water, increased from 220 to 250 mg/L and has remained near that level through 1986. The EPA has established 250 mg/L as the maximum recommended chloride concentration in drinking water because above that level many people can taste the salt. The high chloride concentration in shallow groundwater at all wells in the area indicates that most of the salts in the freshwater lens are contributed by rainfall, sea spray, and irrigation return water. At Barbers Point shaft, pumping may draw a small amount of saltwater from the transition zone and increase the chloride concentration in the pumped water by about 20 mg/L. Salinity of the lens decreases progressively inland in response to recharge from relatively fresher water and in response to an increasing lens thickness with increasing distance from the shoreline. The increase, in 1983, in the chloride concentration of water at the shaft was most probably the result of saltier recharge water reaching the water table, and not the result of increased mixing of underlying saltwater with the freshwater. The chloride concentration of the recharge water has probably increased because, in 1980, the drip method of irrigation began to replace the furrow method on sugarcane fields near the shaft. A mixing-cell model was used to estimate the effect of drip irrigation on the chloride concentration of the groundwater in the vicinity of Barbers Point shaft. The model predicted an increase in chloride concentration of about 50 mg/L. The observed increase was about 30 mg/L and the chloride concentration is presently stable at 245 to 250 mg/L; hence, the chloride concentration is not expected to increase significantly more. (Lantz-PTT)

  5. Magmatic water contents determined through clinopyroxene: Examples from the Western Canary Islands, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, Franz A.; Skogby, Henrik; Troll, Valentin R.; Deegan, Frances M.; Dahren, Börje

    2015-07-01

    Water is a key parameter in magma genesis, magma evolution, and resulting eruption styles, because it controls the density, the viscosity, as well as the melting and crystallization behavior of a melt. The parental water content of a magma is usually measured through melt inclusions in minerals such as olivine, a method which may be hampered, however, by the lack of melt inclusions suitable for analysis, or postentrapment changes in their water content. An alternative way to reconstruct the water content of a magma is to use nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs), such as pyroxene, which take up low concentrations of hydrogen as a function of the magma's water content. During magma degassing and eruption, however, NAMs may dehydrate. We therefore tested a method to reconstruct the water contents of dehydrated clinopyroxene phenocrysts from the Western Canary islands (n = 28) through rehydration experiments followed by infrared and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Employing currently available crystal/melt partitioning data, the results of the experiments were used to calculate parental water contents of 0.71 ± 0.07 to 1.49 ± 0.15 wt % H2O for Western Canary magmas during clinopyroxene crystallization at upper mantle conditions. This H2O range is in agreement with calculated water contents using plagioclase-liquid-hygrometry, and with previously published data for mafic lavas from the Canary Islands and comparable ocean island systems elsewhere. Utilizing NAMs in combination with hydrogen treatment can therefore serve as a proxy for pre-eruptive H2O contents, which we anticipate becoming a useful method applicable to mafic rocks where pyroxene is the main phenocryst phase.

  6. Interaction of aerosol particles composed of protein and salts with water vapor: hygroscopic growth and microstructural rearrangement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, E.; Vlasenko, S.; Niessner, R.; Pöschl, U.

    2003-09-01

    The interaction of aerosol particles in the 100-200 nm size range composed of the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the inorganic salts sodium chloride and ammonium nitrate with water vapor at ambient temperature and pressure (25°C, 1 atm) has been investigated by hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA) experiments complemented by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Köhler theory calculations. BSA was chosen as a well-defined model substance for proteins and other macromolecular compounds, which constitute a large fraction of the water-soluble organic component of air particulate matter. Pure BSA particles exhibited deliquescence and efflorescence transitions at ~35% relative humidity (RH) and a hygroscopic diameter increase by up to ~10% at 95% RH in good agreement with model calculations based on a simple parameterisation of the osmotic coefficient. Pure NaCl particles were converted from near-cubic to near-spherical or polyhedral shape upon interaction with water vapor at relative humidities below the deliquescence threshold (partial surface dissolution and recrystallisation), and the diameters of pure NH4NO3 particles decreased by up to 10% due to chemical decomposition and evaporation. Mixed NaCl-BSA and NH4NO3-BSA particles interacting with water vapor exhibited mobility equivalent diameter reductions of up to 20%, depending on particle generation, conditioning, size, and chemical composition (BSA dry mass fraction 10-90%). These observations can be explained by formation of porous agglomerates (envelope void fractions up to 50%) due to ion-protein interactions and electric charge effects on the one hand, and by compaction of the agglomerate structure due to capillary condensation effects on the other. The size of NH4NO3-BSA particles was apparently also influenced by volatilisation of NH4NO3, but not as much as for pure salt particles, i.e. the protein inhibited the decomposition of NH4NO3 or the evaporation of the decomposition products NH3 and HNO3. The efflorescence threshold of NaCl-BSA particles decreased with increasing BSA dry mass fraction, i.e. the protein inhibited the formation of salt crystals and enhanced the stability of supersaturated solution droplets. The H-TDMA and TEM results indicate that the protein was enriched at the surface of the mixed particles and formed an envelope, which inhibits the access of water vapor to the particle core and leads to kinetic limitations of hygroscopic growth, phase transitions, and microstructural rearrangement processes. Besides these surface and kinetic effects, proteins and comparable organic macromolecules may also influence the thermodynamic properties of the aqueous bulk solution (solubilities, vapor pressures, and chemical equilibria, e.g. for the decomposition and evaporation of NH4NO3. The observed effects should be taken into account in the analysis of data from laboratory experiments and field measurements and in the modelling of aerosol processes involving water vapor and particles with complex composition. They can strongly influence experimental results, and depending on ambient conditions they may also play a significant role in the atmosphere (deliquescence, efflorescence, and CCN activation of particles). In fact, irregular hygroscopic growth curves similar to the ones observed in this study have recently been reported from H-TDMA experiments with water-soluble organics extracted from real air particulate matter and with humic-like substances. The Köhler theory calculations performed with different models demonstrate that the hygroscopic growth of particles composed of inorganic salts and proteins can be efficiently described with a simple volume additivity approach, provided that the correct dry solute mass equivalent diameter and composition are known. A simple parameterisation of the osmotic coefficient has been derived from an osmotic pressure virial equation and appears to be well-suited for proteins and comparable substances. It is fully compatible with traditional volume additivity models for salt mixtur

  7. Total Water Content Measurements with an Isokinetic Sampling Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Miller, Dean R.; Bidwell, Colin S.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a Total Water Content (TWC) Isokinetic Sampling Probe. Since it is not sensitive to cloud water particle phase nor size, it is particularly attractive to support super-cooled large droplet and high ice water content aircraft icing studies. The instrument is comprised of the Sampling Probe, Sample Flow Control, and Water Vapor Measurement subsystems. Analysis and testing have been conducted on the subsystems to ensure their proper function and accuracy. End-to-end bench testing has also been conducted to ensure the reliability of the entire instrument system. A Stokes Number based collection efficiency correction was developed to correct for probe thickness effects. The authors further discuss the need to ensure that no condensation occurs within the instrument plumbing. Instrument measurements compared to facility calibrations from testing in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel are presented and discussed. There appears to be liquid water content and droplet size effects in the differences between the two measurement techniques.

  8. The effect of cations on NO2 production from the photolysis of aqueous thin water films of nitrate salts.

    PubMed

    Richards-Henderson, Nicole K; Anderson, Crisand; Anastasio, Cort; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2015-12-28

    The photochemistry of nitrate ions in bulk aqueous solution is well known, yet recent evidence suggests that the photolysis of nitrate may be more efficient at the air-water interface. Whether and how this surface enhancement is altered by the presence of different cations is not known. In the present studies, thin aqueous films of nitrate salts with different cations were deposited on the walls of a Teflon chamber and irradiated with 311 nm light at 298 K. The films were generated by nebulizing aqueous 0.5 M solutions of the nitrate salts and the generation of gas-phase NO2 was monitored with time. The nitrate salts fall into three groups based on their observed rate of NO2 formation (RNO2): (1) RbNO3 and KNO3, which readily produce NO2 (RNO2 > 3 ppb min(-1)), (2) Ca(NO3)2, which produces NO2 more slowly (RNO2 < 1 ppb min(-1)), and (3) Mg(NO3)2 and NaNO3, which lie between the other two groups. Neither differences in the UV-visible spectra of the nitrate salt solutions nor the results of bulk-phase photolysis studies could explain the differences in the rates of NO2 production between these three groups. These experimental results, combined with some insights from previous molecular dynamic simulations and vibrational sum frequency generation studies, show that cations may impact the concentration of nitrate ions in the interface region, thereby directly impacting the effective quantum yields for nitrate ions. PMID:26577172

  9. Rings, igloos, and pebbles of salt formed by drying saline drops.

    PubMed

    Shin, Bongsu; Moon, Myoung-Woon; Kim, Ho-Young

    2014-11-01

    It is well-known that evaporation of sessile drops with suspended particles like colloids and coffee powders can yield a variety of two-dimensional patterns depending on the particle shapes and internal flow patterns. Here we show that ordered three-dimensional structures can be built via evaporation of saline drops on highly hydrophobic substrates like pristine PP (polypropylene) with micropores and nanostructured low-surface-energy PP. On pristine PP having a high contact angle but a large contact angle hysteresis (CAH) with water, either rings or igloos of salt are formed depending on the salt concentration and evaporation rate. On nanostructured low-surface-energy PP having extreme water repellency with a very low CAH, pebbles of salt are formed regardless of salt concentration and evaporation rate. These observations lead us to conclude that combined effects of solubility, evaporation rate, and mobility of the contact line determine the final three-dimensional shape of the salt precipitate. PMID:25289755

  10. Enhancing the adsorption of ionic liquids onto activated carbon by the addition of inorganic salts

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Catarina M. S. S.; Lemus, Jesús; Freire, Mara G.; Palomar, Jose; Coutinho, João A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Most ionic liquids (ILs) are either water soluble or present a non-negligible miscibility with water that may cause some harmful effects upon their release into the environment. Among other methods, adsorption of ILs onto activated carbon (AC) has shown to be an effective technique to remove these compounds from aqueous solutions. However, this method has proved to be viable only for hydrophobic ILs rather than for the hydrophilic that, being water soluble, have a larger tendency for contamination. In this context, an alternative approach using the salting-out ability of inorganic salts is here proposed to enhance the adsorption of hydrophilic ILs onto activated carbon. The effect of the concentrations of Na2SO4 on the adsorption of five ILs onto AC was investigated. A wide range of ILs that allow the inspection of the IL cation family (imidazolium- and pyridinium-based) and the anion nature (accounting for its hydrophilicity and fluorination) through the adsorption onto AC was studied. In general, it is shown that the use of Na2SO4 enhances the adsorption of ILs onto AC. In particular, this effect is highly relevant when dealing with hydrophilic ILs that are those that are actually poorly removed by AC. In addition, the COnductor like Screening MOdel for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS) was used aiming at complementing the experimental data obtained. This work contributes with the development of novel methods to remove ILs from water streams aiming at creating “greener” processes. PMID:25516713

  11. Time lapse resistivity and water-content changes in shale

    SciTech Connect

    Morriss, S.L.; Chenevert, M.E.; Javalagi, M.I.

    1996-12-31

    An experimental study was made of the change in resistivity as a function of time and distance in a shale sample exposed to a liquid at one end. Two distinct shales were used in the study, Pierre and Wellington. The liquids used included KCl and NaCl solutions as well as deionized water. Resistivity was measured at three distances from the exposed end of the core samples using a six-electrode configuration. Simultaneous measurements of the swelling of the sample were used to calculate water content changes at the same three positions. The mineralogical composition of the shales was determined by x-ray diffraction analysis, resulting in a reasonably good estimate of the amount and type of clay present. Atomic absorption measurements were made on selected samples and the brine to which they were exposed in order to quantify ion movement. The results of this study give some insight into the changes in those properties of a swelling shale which influence resistivity, neutron, and density logs, and the time scale involved in the propagation of those changes away from the wellbore into the formation. While resistivity exhibits the largest relative change of the properties measured, it appears that the depth of investigation of a logging tool must be quite small for the changes to be detectable, for example.

  12. Age- and Gender Dependent Liver Fat Content in a Healthy Normal BMI Population as Quantified by Fat-Water Separating DIXON MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ulbrich, Erika J.; Fischer, Michael A.; Manoliu, Andrei; Marcon, Magda; Luechinger, Roger; Nanz, Daniel; Reiner, Caecilia S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To establish age- and sex-dependent values of magnetic resonance (MR) liver fat-signal fraction (FSF) in healthy volunteers with normal body-mass index (BMI). Methods 2-point mDIXON sequences (repetition time/echo time, 4.2msec/1.2msec, 3.1msec) at 3.0 Tesla MR were acquired in 80 healthy volunteers with normal BMI (18.2 to 25.7 kg/m2) between 20 and 62 years (10 men/10 women per decade). FSF was measured in 5 liver segments (segment II, III, VI, VII, VIII) based on mean signal intensities in regions of interest placed on mDIXON-based water and fat images. Multivariate general linear models were used to test for significant differences between BMI-corrected FSF among age subgroups. Pearson and Spearman correlations between FSF and several body measures were calculated. Results Mean FSF (%) ± standard deviations significantly differed between women (3.91 ± 1.10) and men (4.69 ± 1.38) and varied with age for women/men (p-value: 0.002/0.027): 3.05 ± 0.49/3.74 ± 0.60 (age group 20–29), 3.75 ± 0.66/4.99 ± 1.30 (30–39), 4.76 ± 1.16/5.25 ± 1.97 (40–49) and 4.09 ± 1.26/4.79 ± 0.93 (50–62). FSF differences among age subgroups were significant for women only (p = 0.003). Conclusions MR-based liver fat content is higher in men and peaks in the fifth decade for both genders. PMID:26554709

  13. Post-flight water-salt metabolism in cosmonauts: The long-duration MIR missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, A. I.; Noskov, V. B.; Larina, I. M.

    2009-09-01

    Investigations of 28 MIR crews (60 cosmonauts) after 115- to 438-day missions showed a typically minor increase in ionized calcium and reduction in blood serum potassium independent of mission length. Reasoning from the diminished extracellular space and decreased renal excretion of liquid and main electrolytes, the positive water balance, and activation of antidiuretic and antinatriuretic hormones, most of the cosmonauts returned hypohydrated to the Earth's gravity. These physiological shifts are considered as an adaptive reaction directed towards re-establishment of water-mineral homeostasis and maintenance of orthostatic tolerance at 1 g. In addition, data of pre-flight investigations of healthy subjects in the normal environment can be used as the normal range of water-salt metabolic parameters.

  14. The Role of Fresh Water and Salt Fluxes in Southern Ocean Deep-Ocean Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, V.; Bulusu, S.; Nyadjro, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Southern Ocean plays a major role in global ocean circulation, a system of surface and deep currents, linking all oceans and one of the fundamental determinants of the planet's climate. Because the Southern Ocean around Antarctica is the only location where the ocean can circulate freely all the way around the globe without continental barriers, it's a huge part of the ocean cycle. Despite this recent increase in our understanding of the Southern Ocean system, there is still uncertainty in the fluxes and transport of fresh and salt water within this region. Difficulties arise when studying the fluxes and transports within the Southern Ocean due to lack of research focusing on the following: the sources of freshwater inputs into the Southern Ocean system, the circulation of the ocean, and the vertical stratification. Satellite-derived salinity from the Aquarius salinity mission (September, 2011-present) and Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) Reanalysis (1950-2010) are used to estimate freshwater and salt fluxes. Our results indicate that recent changes in freshwater and salt fluxes are a major component of the deep-ocean warming in the Southern Ocean. In particular, the role of changes in these fluxes in causing surface cooling and increasing deep oceanic storage of heat in the Southern Ocean is investigated.

  15. Monitoring of Water Content in Building Materials Using a Wireless Passive Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Stojanovi?, Goran; Radovanovi?, Milan; Malešev, Mirjana; Radonjanin, Vlastimir

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative design of a wireless, passive LC sensor and its application for monitoring of water content in building materials. The sensor was embedded in test material samples so that the internal water content of the samples could be measured with an antenna by tracking the changes in the sensor’s resonant frequency. Since the dielectric constant of water was much higher compared with that of the test samples, the presence of water in the samples increased the capacitance of the LC circuit, thus decreasing the sensor’s resonant frequency. The sensor is made up of a printed circuit board in one metal layer and water content has been determined for clay brick and autoclaved aerated concrete block, both widely used construction materials. Measurements were conducted at room temperature using a HP-4194A Impedance/Gain-Phase Analyzer instrument. PMID:22399880

  16. Effect of water content and heating temperature on thermal properties of brown rice batter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboukzail, Jehan; Abdullah, Aminah; Ghani, Maaruf Abd

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to assess the effect of water content in the formulation (60%,80%, 100%, 105%, 110%, 120% flour basis) on starch gelatinization of brown rice batter, and to identify the effects of heat treatment at 50°C, 60°C, 70°C, 80°C on starch gelatinization and degree of starch gelatinization of brown rice batter and wheat dough. At 60% water content, there was no gelatinization of brown rice batter, but the batter was gelatinized by increasing the water content to 80%. No significant differences in onset (To) peak (Tp) and endest (Tend) temperature when the water content increased from 80% to 120%; however, enthalpy (?H) decreased when water content grew up. Heat treatment of brown rice batter at 60% water content made brown rice batter gelatinized. Starch gelatinization temperature To, Tend and ?H did not have significant differences when temperature of heat treatment increased from 50°C to 80°C while Tp increased significantly (p<0.05) at 80°C. However, heat treatment had more effect on wheat dough compared to brown rice batter.

  17. Temperature and frequency dependent time-domain reflectometry water content calibrations in fine-textured soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High frequency dielectric measurements of soil water content can exhibit temperature sensitivities inconsistent with that expected for bulk water. These sensitivities are significant in fine-textured soils and controlled by the interaction among the temperature dependencies of the static permittivit...

  18. Tocopherol deficiency reduces sucrose export from salt-stressed potato leaves independently of oxidative stress and symplastic obstruction by callose

    PubMed Central

    Asensi-Fabado, María Amparo; Ammon, Alexandra; Sonnewald, Uwe; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Voll, Lars M.

    2015-01-01

    Tocopherol cyclase, encoded by the gene SUCROSE EXPORT DEFECTIVE1, catalyses the second step in the synthesis of the antioxidant tocopherol. Depletion of SXD1 activity in maize and potato leaves leads to tocopherol deficiency and a ‘sugar export block’ phenotype that comprises massive starch accumulation and obstruction of plasmodesmata in paraveinal tissue by callose. We grew two transgenic StSXD1:RNAi potato lines with severe tocopherol deficiency under moderate light conditions and subjected them to salt stress. After three weeks of salt exposure, we observed a strongly reduced sugar exudation rate and a lack of starch mobilization in leaves of salt-stressed transgenic plants, but not in wild-type plants. However, callose accumulation in the vasculature declined upon salt stress in all genotypes, indicating that callose plugging of plasmodesmata was not the sole cause of the sugar export block phenotype in tocopherol-deficient leaves. Based on comprehensive gene expression analyses, we propose that enhanced responsiveness of SnRK1 target genes in mesophyll cells and altered redox regulation of phloem loading by SUT1 contribute to the attenuation of sucrose export from salt-stressed SXD:RNAi source leaves. Furthermore, we could not find any indication that elevated oxidative stress may have served as a trigger for the salt-induced carbohydrate phenotype of SXD1:RNAi transgenic plants. In leaves of the SXD1:RNAi plants, sodium accumulation was diminished, while proline accumulation and pools of soluble antioxidants were increased. As supported by phytohormone contents, these differences seem to increase longevity and prevent senescence of SXD:RNAi leaves under salt stress. PMID:25428995

  19. Water-surface profile and flood boundaries for the computed 100-year flood, lower Salt River, Lincoln County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Kirk A.; Mason, John P.

    2000-01-01

    The water-surface profile and flood boundaries for the computed 100-year flood were determined for a part of the lower Salt River in Lincoln County, Wyoming. Channel cross-section data were provided by Lincoln County. Cross-section data for bridges and other structures were collected and compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey. Roughness coefficients ranged from 0.034 to 0.100. The 100-year flood was computed using standard methods, ranged from 5,170 to 4,120 cubic feet per second through the study reach, and was adjusted proportional to contributing drainage area. Water-surface elevations were determined by the standard step-backwater method. Flood boundaries were plotted on digital basemaps.

  20. Release rates in a salt repository by diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.; Lee, W.W.L.; Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.

    1988-09-01

    In a recent analysis, we predicted extremely small brine migration velocities after emplacement of waste packages. Therefore it is expected that mass transfer of radioactive species dissolved in the brine is likely to be controlled by molecular diffusion. Here we apply the analytic solutions for the rate of diffusive mass transfer of dissolved species through a porous medium predict radionuclide release from waste packages in salt. This analysis shows that for the parameter values selected here, and for containment times of over 300 years, release rates from individual waste packages in sale can meet the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (USNRC) performance objective for the engineered barrier system. If many waste packages are actually exposed to brine much sooner than 300 years after emplacement, it will be difficult to meet the release rate for /sup 137/Cs, calculated from the USNRC regulation. In this report we present the analytic solutions and some numerical illustrations of the molecular diffusion analysis. We also compare the results with a different type of diffusion analysis in the Environmental Assessments for the potential repository sites in salt. 21 refs., 4 figs.