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1

Temperature resistance of salmonella in low-water activity whey protein powder as influenced by salt content.  

PubMed

Salmonella can survive in low-water activity (aw) foods for long periods of time. Water activity and the presence of solutes may affect its survival during heating. Low-aw products that contain sodium levels above 0.1 % (wt/wt) and that have been involved in major Salmonella outbreaks include peanut products and salty snacks. Reduced aw protects against thermal inactivation. There is conflicting information regarding the role of salt. The aim of this study was to determine whether NaCl influences the survival of Salmonella in low-aw whey protein powder independent of aw at 70 and 80°C. Whey protein powders of differing NaCl concentrations (0, 8, and 17 % [wt/wt]) were equilibrated to target aw levels 0.23, 0.33, and 0.58. Powders were inoculated with Salmonella, vacuum sealed, and stored at 70 and 80°C for 48 h. Cells were recovered on nonselective differential media. Survival data were fit with the Weibull model, and first decimal reduction times (?) (measured in minutes) and shape factor values (?) were estimated. The influence of temperature, aw, and salinity on Weibull model parameters (? and ?) was analyzed using multiple linear regression. Results showed that aw significantly influenced the survival of Salmonella at both temperatures, increasing resistance at decreasing aw. Sodium chloride did not provide additional protection or inactivation of Salmonella at any temperature beyond that attributed to aw. The Weibull model described the survival kinetics of Salmonella well, with R(2)adj and root mean square error values ranging from 0.59 to 0.97 and 0.27 to 1.07, respectively. Temperature and aw influenced ? values (P < 0.05), whereas no significant differences were found between 70 and 80°C among the different salt concentrations (P > 0.05). ? values were not significantly influenced by temperature, aw, or % NaCl (P > 0.05). This study indicates that information on salt content in food may not help improve predictions on the inactivation kinetics of Salmonella in low-aw protein systems within the aw levels and temperatures studied. PMID:24680075

Farakos, S M Santillana; Hicks, J W; Frank, J F

2014-04-01

2

Salt uptake and water loss in hams with different water contents at the lean surface and at different salting temperatures.  

PubMed

The salt uptake homogeneity is crucial in assuring quality in dry-cured hams. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the water contents at the lean surface before salting and of the temperature during salting on the salt uptake. Pieces of loin stored at 3°C for 3 days before salting absorbed less salt through a surface that has been dried during storage. A group of raw hams were subjected to different pre-salting storage times (0, 3 and 6 days) and another group subjected to different set room temperatures during salting (-1.0, 0.5 and 4.0°C). The duration of storage before salting and the temperature during salting had a negative and a positive effect on the average salt absorption, respectively. The most important effects appeared after 6 days of storage and at 4°C. No significant differences in salt uptake homogeneity were found between storage times and between salting temperatures. PMID:23896138

Garcia-Gil, Núria; Muñoz, Israel; Santos-Garcés, Eva; Arnau, Jacint; Gou, Pere

2014-01-01

3

Adaptational change in proline and water content of Staphylococcus aureus after alteration of environmental salt concentration.  

PubMed Central

Adaptation of Staphylococcus aureus to a change in salinity was studied by estimating the intracellular content of water and proline after alteration of the salt concentration of the culture medium. The intracellular water content of S. aureus cultured in normal broth was 1.70 g/g (dry weight). After transfer to 1.8 M NaCl-containing broth, the water content decreased to 0.80 g/g (dry weight) within 1 min. After changing the salt concentration of the medium, intracellular free proline (assumed to be one of the osmoregulators in S. aureus) increased gradually from 0 to 1,400 mumol/g (dry weight) during 30 min of incubation at 37 degrees C. The water content rose to 0.88 g/g (dry weight) in 30 min. Proline was not taken up at 0 to 4 degrees C, suggesting that the process was one of active transport. The salt tolerance of S. aureus, therefore, appears to occur initially by dehydration of the cell after transfer from a medium of low salinity to one of high salinity and then by accumulation of proline, which carries water into the cell with it.

Koujima, I; Hayashi, H; Tomochika, K; Okabe, A; Kanemasa, Y

1978-01-01

4

Salt Content and Water Budget of The Suez Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water body in the Suez Canal is a combination of waters from differ- ent sources. Hence, its exact hydrographic structure is very difficult to define. Three main water masses are identified along the Canal on account of their salinity values: Levantine water mass I, the Suez Bay water mass II, and the Bitter Lake water mass IV, in addition

SELIM A. MORCOS; GIRGIS F. SOLIMAN

2001-01-01

5

Innovative nondestructive measurements of water activity and the content of salts in low-salt hake minces.  

PubMed

Impedance spectroscopy (IS), low-field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (LF (1)H NMR), chloride titration, ion chromatography, and an ion selective electrode were used to investigate the physicochemical parameters and measure sodium and potassium contents in low-salt brines and fish. Salt solutions (0-3 w/w, %) and model products of minced hake with added NaCl (0.5-3.0 w/w, %), or a mixture of NaCl and KCl (50/50 w/w, %), were analyzed. Good correlation was observed between the sodium content determined by using the ion selective electrode method and ion chromatography (R(2) = 0.97). In both salt solutions and fish minces, the impedance spectroscopy measurements could detect the difference in salt contents in mince with salt contents down to 0.5%. The NMR transversal relaxation time T2 measurements clearly distinguished samples with 0, 0.5, and 1.0-3.0% salt, based on principal component analysis (PCA). Therefore, LF (1)H NMR seems to be a suitable technique for studies of low-salt products. PMID:24617416

Greiff, Kirsti; Fuentes, Ana; Aursand, Ida G; Erikson, Ulf; Masot, Rafael; Alcañiz, Miguel; Barat, Jose M

2014-03-26

6

Measurement of leaf relative water content by infrared reflectance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From basic considerations and Beer's law, a leaf water content index incorporating reflectances of wavelengths from 0.76 to 0.90 microns and from 1.55 to 1.75 microns was developed that relates leaf reflectance to leaf relative water content. For the leaf succulent, Agave deserti, the leaf water content index was not significantly different from the relative water content for either individual leaves or an entire plant. Also, the relative water contents of intact plants of Encelia farinosa and Hilaria rigida in the field were estimated by the leaf water content index; variations in the proportion of living to dead leaf area could cause large errors in the estimate of relative water content. Thus, the leaf water content index may be able to estimate average relative water content of canopies when TM4 and TM5 are measured at a known relative water content and fraction of dead leaf material.

Hunt, E. Raymond, Jr.; Rock, Barrett N.; Nobel, Park S.

1987-01-01

7

Laboratory testing of salt samples for water content/loss of weight on heating, thermal fracture, insoluble residue, and clay and bulk mineralogy: Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of laboratory testing on salt samples from the Palo Duro Basin of the Texas Panhandle. Laboratory specimens were tested to determine water content by loss of weight on heating, temperature of thermal fracture, the amount of insoluble residue, and clay and bulk mineralogy. 7 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

Owen, L.B.; Schwendiman, L.

1987-07-01

8

Water properties in the super-salt-resistive gel probed by NMR and DSC.  

PubMed

The so-called "super-salt-resistive gel", or poly(4-vinylphenol) (P4VPh) hydrogel, of different water contents ( H = 97-51%) was prepared by cross-linking with different amounts of ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether. 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to investigate the dynamic properties of water in the gel samples in terms of the spin-spin relaxation. The T2 values in those hydrogels were analyzed by assuming a two-component system, namely, T 2(long) and T2(short), and their fractions were obtained. In the higher water content region (75% < or = H < or = 97%), T2(long) for P4VPh gel was almost constant or even slightly increased with decreasing temperature. On the other hand, T2(long) for poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) gel (80% < or = H < or = 96%) significantly decreased with decreasing temperature, showing a natural behavior for water mobility in common hydrogels. Water in P4VPh gels of lower water contents ( H = 70% and 51%) also showed intriguing behaviors: the T2 values are much larger than those of gels with higher water contents and decreased with decreasing temperature only in the lower temperature range (<10 degrees C). The fraction of T2(long) values of P4VPh gel showed another contrast to those of PVA gel; the latter decreased with decreasing water content (normal behavior), while in the former gel the highest fraction (ca. 60% at 20 degrees C) was observed for a sample with the lowest water content ( H = 51%). On the other hand, the results of DSC measurements for P4VPh gel were less specific than those of T2 and comparable to those of common hydrogels such as PVA; with decreasing water content, the total amounts of free water and freezable bound water per polymer mass (g/g) decreased, while the amount of nonfreezing water per polymer also decreased. PMID:18537280

Sakai, Yuko; Kuroki, Shigeki; Satoh, Mitsuru

2008-06-01

9

Determination of salt content in various depth of pork chop by electrical impedance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The salt concentration was determined inside of pork chop both by electrical impedance spectroscopy and by a conventional chemical method (according to Mohr). The pork chop in various depths (4 mm, 10 mm, 20 mm and 25 mm) was punctured with two stainless steel electrodes. The length of electrodes was 60 mm, and they were insulated along the length except 1 cm section on the end, so the measurement of impedance was realized in various depths. The magnitude and phase angle of impedance were measured with a HP 4284A and a HP 4285A LCR meters from 30 Hz up to 1 MHz and from 75 kHz up to 30 MHz frequency range, respectively at 1 V voltage. The distance between the electrodes was 1 cm. The impedance magnitude decreased as the salt concentration increased. The magnitude of open-short corrected impedance values at various frequencies (10 kHz, 100 kHz, 125 kHz, 1.1 MHz and 8 MHz) showed a good correlation with salt content determined by chemical procedure. The electrical impedance spectroscopy seems a prospective method for determination the salt concentration inside the meat in various depths during the curing procedure.

Kaltenecker, P.; Szöllösi, D.; Friedrich, L.; Vozáry, E.

2013-04-01

10

Water uptake by salts during the electrolyte processing for thermal batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water uptake of single salts and electrolytes were measured in industrial conditions (dry-room). The water uptake rate ? (g h -1 cm -2) was expressed with respect to the apparent area of contact of the salt with atmosphere of the dry room. The water uptake by potassium-based salts was very low. LiF and LiCl salts were found to behave similarly. For LiBr- and LiI-based salts and mixtures, we pointed out a linear relationship between the water uptake and the elapsed time. Water uptake by magnesium oxide reached a limit after 200 h. This work provides a set of data concerning the rate of water uptake by single salts, salt mixtures and magnesia used in thermal battery electrolytes.

Masset, Patrick; Poinso, Jean-Yves; Poignet, Jean-Claude

11

Effect of salt additive on the formation of microporous poly(vinylidene fluoride) membranes by phase inversion from LiClO 4\\/Water\\/DMF\\/PVDF system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a salt additive, lithium perchlorate, on the morphology and crystal structure of PVDF membranes prepared by wet phase inversion process was studied. The gelation phase boundaries of the quaternary system, LiClO4\\/water\\/DMF\\/PVDF, were determined at 25°C. It was found that the gelation lines shifted up progressively with increasing salt contents in this system. For a salt-free casting dope,

Dar-Jong Lin; Cheng-Liang Chang; Fane-Ming Huang; Liao-Ping Cheng

2003-01-01

12

Control of sea-water intrusion by salt-water pumping: Coast of Oman  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A shallow alluvial coastal aquifer in the Batinah area of Oman, with sea-water intrusion that extends several kilometres inland, has been studied experimentally, analytically and numerically. The water table is proved to have a trough caused by intensive pumping from a fresh groundwater zone and evaporation from the saline phreatic surface. Resistivity traverses perpendicular to the shoreline indicated no fresh groundwater recharge into the sea. Using an analytical Dupuit-Forchheimer model, developed for the plain part of the catchment, explicit expressions for the water table, sharp interface location and stored volume of fresh water are obtained. It is shown that by the pumping of salt water from the intruded part of the aquifer, this intrusion can be mitigated. Different catchment sizes, intensities of fresh groundwater pumping, evaporation rates, water densities, sea level, incident fresh water level in the mountains and hydraulic conductivity are considered. SUTRA code is applied to a hypothetical case of a leaky aquifer with line sinks modeling fresh water withdrawal and evaporation. The numerical code also shows that pumping of saline water can pull the dispersion zone back to the shoreline.

Kacimov, A. R.; Sherif, M. M.; Perret, J. S.; Al-Mushikhi, A.

2009-05-01

13

Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste with High Salt Content by Colloidal Adsorbents - 13274  

SciTech Connect

Treatment processes have been fully developed for most of the liquid radioactive wastes generated during the operation of nuclear power plants. However, a process for radioactive liquid waste with high salt content, such as waste seawater generated from the unexpected accident at nuclear power station, has not been studied extensively. In this study, the adsorption efficiencies of cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) in radioactive liquid waste with high salt content were investigated using several types of zeolite with different particle sizes. Synthesized and commercial zeolites were used for the treatment of simulated seawater containing Cs and Sr, and the reaction kinetics and adsorption capacities of colloidal zeolites were compared with those of bulk zeolites. The experimental results demonstrated that the colloidal adsorbents showed fast adsorption kinetic and high binding capacity for Cs and Sr. Also, the colloidal zeolites could be successfully applied to the static adsorption condition, therefore, an economical benefit might be expected in an actual processes where stirring is not achievable. (authors)

Lee, Keun-Young; Chung, Dong-Yong; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Lee, Eil-Hee; Moon, Jei-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute - KAERI, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute - KAERI, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01

14

Specific ion effects induced by mono-valent salts in like charged aggregates in water.  

PubMed

While salt mediated association between similarly charged poly-electrolytes occurs in a broad range of biological and colloidal systems, the effects of mono-valent salts remains little known experimentally. In this communication we systematically study influences of assorted mono-valent salts on structures of and interactions in two dimensional ordered bundles of charged fibrils assembled in water using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS). By quantitatively analyzing the scattering peak features, we discern two competing effects with opposite influences due to partitioning of salts in the aqueous complex. While electrostatic effects from salts residing between the fibrils suppress attraction between fibrils and expand the bundles, it is compensated by external osmotic pressure from peripheral salts in the aqueous media. The balance between the two effects varies for different salts and gives rise to ion-specific equilibrium behavior as well as structure of ordered bundles in salty water. The specific ions effects in like charged aggregates can be attributed to preferential distribution of ions inside or outside the bundles, correlated to the ranking of ions in Hofmeister series for macromolecules. Unlike conventional studies on Hofmeister effects by thermodynamic measurements relying on modeling for data interpretation, our study is based directly on structural analysis and is model-insensitive. PMID:24828119

Huang, Ningdong; Tao, Jiaojiao; Liu, Jun; Wei, Shenghui; Li, Liangbin; Wu, Ziyu

2014-05-29

15

[Determination of the sulfate ion content in antibiotic sulfate salts by a complexometric titration method].  

PubMed

A possibility of assaying antibiotic sulfates, such as gentamicin, kanamycin, monomycin, neomycin, ristomycin, streptomycin, florimycin and polymyxin M sulfates for sulfate ions by titration with barium chloride in the presence of chlorphosphonaso-III, a metal indicator immediately in the salt solutions or after elimination of the cation by means of ion exchange (sulfocation exchange resins in H+-form) was tested. The procedure was shown to be adequate to the classical weight method. PMID:7469396

Kartseva, V D; Lokshin, G B; Libinson, G S; Kruzhkova, N G

1980-12-01

16

[Simulation of effect of irrigation with reclaimed water on soil water-salt movement by ENVIRO-GRO model].  

PubMed

As the conflict between water supply and demand, wastewater reuse has become an important measure, which can relieve the water shortage in Beijing. In order to promote safe irrigation with reclaimed water and prevent soil salinisation, the dynamic transport of salts in urban soils of Beijing, a city of water shortage, under irrigation of reclaimed water was simulated by ENVIRO-GRO model in this research. The accumulation trends of soil salinity were predicted. Simultaneously, it investigated the effects of different irrigation practices on soil water-salt movement and salt accumulation. Results indicated that annual averages of soil salinity (EC(e)) increased 29.5%, 97.2%, 197.8% respectively, with the higher irrigation, normal irrigation, and low irrigation under equilibrium conditions. Irrigation frequency had little effect on soil salt-water movement, and soil salt accumulation was in a downward trend with low frequency of irrigation. Under equilibrium conditions, annual averages of EC(e) increased 23.7%, 97.2%, 208.5% respectively, with irrigation water salinity (EC(w)) 0.6, 1.2, 2.4 dS x m(-1). Soil salinity increased slightly with EC(w) = 0.6 dS x m(-1), while soil salinization did not appear. Totally, the growth of Blue grass was not influenced by soil salinity under equilibrium conditions with the regular irrigation in Beijing, but mild soil salinization appeared. PMID:23379129

Lü, Si-Dan; Chen, Wei-Ping; Wang, Mei-E

2012-12-01

17

Monitoring soil water content by vertical temperature variations.  

PubMed

The availability of high sensitivity temperature sensors (0.001 K sensitivity platinum resistors), which can be positioned at intervals of a few centimeters along a vertical profile in the unsaturated zone, allows short-term in situ determinations-one day or even less-of the thermal diffusivity. The development of high data storage capabilities also makes this possible over long periods and the relative variations in thermal diffusivity allow the monitoring of the variations in water content. The processing of temperature measurements recorded at different depths is achieved by solving the heat equation, using the finite elements method, with both conductive and convective heat transfers. A first set of measurements has allowed this approach to be validated. Water content variations derived from thermal diffusivity values are in excellent agreement with TDR measurements carried out on the experimental site at Boissy-le-Châtel (Seine et Marne, France). PMID:23834312

Bechkit, Mohamed Amine; Flageul, Sébastien; Guerin, Roger; Tabbagh, Alain

2014-07-01

18

Mobility of Pb in salt marshes recorded by total content and stable isotopic signature.  

PubMed

Total lead and its stable isotopes were analysed in sediment cores, leaves, stem and roots of Sacorconia fruticosa and Spartina maritima sampled from Tagus (contaminated site) and Guadiana (low anthropogenic pressure) salt marshes. Lead concentration in vegetated sediments from the Tagus marsh largely exceeded the levels in non-vegetated sediments. Depth profiles of (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (206)Pb/(208)Pb showed a decrease towards the surface ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.160-1.167) as a result of a higher proportion of pollutant Pb components. In contrast, sediments from Guadiana marsh exhibited low Pb concentrations and an uniform isotopic signature ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.172+/-0.003) with depth. This suggests a homogeneous mixing of mine-derived particles and pre-industrial sediments with minor inputs of anthropogenic Pb. Lead concentrations in roots of plants from the two marshes were higher than in leaves and stems, indicating limited transfer of Pb to aerial parts. A similar Pb isotopic signature was found in roots and in vegetated sediments, indicating that Pb uptake by plants reflects the input in sediments as determined by a significant anthropogenic contribution of Pb at Tagus and by mineralogical Pb phases at Guadiana. The accumulation in roots from Tagus marsh (max. 2870 microg g(-1) in S. fruticosa and max. 1755 microg g(-1) in S. maritima) clearly points to the dominant role of belowground biomass in the cycling of anthropogenic Pb. The fraction of anthropogenic Pb in belowground biomass was estimated based on the signature of anthropogenic Pb components in sediments ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.154). Since no differences exist between Pb signature in roots and upper sediments, the background and anthropogenic levels of Pb in roots were estimated. Interestingly, both background and anthropogenic Pb in roots exhibited a maximum at the same depth, although the proportion of anthropogenic Pb was relatively constant with depth (83+/-4% for S. fruticosa and 74+/-8% for S. maritima). PMID:17320933

Caetano, Miguel; Fonseca, Nuno; Cesário Carlos Vale, Rute

2007-07-15

19

Fructose2,6-bisphosphate contents were increased in response to salt, water and osmotic stress in leaves of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza by differential changes in the activity of the bifunctional enzyme 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase\\/fructose-2,6-bisphosphate 2-phosphatase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steady-state level of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase\\/fructose-2,6-bisphosphate 2-phosphatase (F6P2K\\/F26BPase) transcript has been found to be raised in the mangrove Bruguiera gymnorrhiza treated with 500 mM NaCl for 6 h. In the present study, we assayed both F6P2K\\/F26BPase activity and fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (F26BP) contents in leaves of salt- and water-stressed B. gymnorrhiza. In the plants treated with 500 mM NaCl, no increase in transcript level was observed after

Toshiaki Banzai; Nobutaka Hanagata; Zvy Dubinsky; Isao Karube

2003-01-01

20

Exceptionally fast water desalination at complete salt rejection by pristine graphyne monolayers.  

PubMed

Desalination that produces clean freshwater from seawater holds the promise of solving the global water shortage for drinking, agriculture and industry. However, conventional desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis and thermal distillation involve large amounts of energy consumption, and the semipermeable membranes widely used in reverse osmosis face the challenge to provide a high throughput at high salt rejection. Here we find by comprehensive molecular dynamics simulations and first principles modeling that pristine graphyne, one of the graphene-like one-atom-thick carbon allotropes, can achieve 100% rejection of nearly all ions in seawater including Na(+), Cl(-), Mg(2+), K(+) and Ca(2+), at an exceptionally high water permeability about two orders of magnitude higher than those for commercial state-of-the-art reverse osmosis membranes at a salt rejection of ~98.5%. This complete ion rejection by graphyne, independent of the salt concentration and the operating pressure, is revealed to be originated from the significantly higher energy barriers for ions than for water. This intrinsic specialty of graphyne should provide a new possibility for the efforts to alleviate the global shortage of freshwater and other environmental problems. PMID:24285308

Xue, Minmin; Qiu, Hu; Guo, Wanlin

2013-12-20

21

Comparative physiology of salt and water stress.  

PubMed

Plant responses to salt and water stress have much in common. Salinity reduces the ability of plants to take up water, and this quickly causes reductions in growth rate, along with a suite of metabolic changes identical to those caused by water stress. The initial reduction in shoot growth is probably due to hormonal signals generated by the roots. There may be salt-specific effects that later have an impact on growth; if excessive amounts of salt enter the plant, salt will eventually rise to toxic levels in the older transpiring leaves, causing premature senescence, and reduce the photosynthetic leaf area of the plant to a level that cannot sustain growth. These effects take time to develop. Salt-tolerant plants differ from salt-sensitive ones in having a low rate of Na+ and Cl-- transport to leaves, and the ability to compartmentalize these ions in vacuoles to prevent their build-up in cytoplasm or cell walls and thus avoid salt toxicity. In order to understand the processes that give rise to tolerance of salt, as distinct from tolerance of osmotic stress, and to identify genes that control the transport of salt across membranes, it is important to avoid treatments that induce cell plasmolysis, and to design experiments that distinguish between tolerance of salt and tolerance of water stress. PMID:11841667

Munns, R.

2002-02-01

22

Distill Salt Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, conduct an experiment to make freshwater out of saltwater. First, make saltwater and then seal it and place it in the Sun for a couple of hours or even a whole day. This solar still will distill, or purify, the water. Use this activity to explore water purification and evaporation. This activity guide includes a step-by-step instructional video.

Center, Saint L.

2013-01-17

23

Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark  

PubMed Central

Background A high salt (=NaCl) intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design For the first part of this study, 180 canteen meals were collected from a total of 15 worksites with in-house catering facilities. Duplicate portions of a lunch meal were collected from 12 randomly selected employees at each canteen on two non-consecutive days. For the second part of the study, a total of 250 fast food samples were collected from 52 retail places representing both city (Aarhus) and provincial towns. The canteen meals and fast food samples were analyzed for chloride by potentiometric titration with silver nitrate solution, and the salt content was estimated. Results The salt content in lunch meals in worksite canteens were 3.8±1.8 g per meal and 14.7±5.1 g per 10 MJ for men (n=109), and 2.8±1.2 g per meal and 14.4±6.2 g per 10 MJ for women (n=71). Salt content in fast food ranged from 11.8±2.5 g per 10 MJ (burgers) to 16.3±4.4 g per 10 MJ (sausages) with a mean content of 13.8±3.8 g per 10 MJ. Conclusion Salt content in both fast food and in worksite canteen meals is high and should be decreased.

Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Hansen, Kirsten; Knuthsen, Pia; Saxholt, Erling; Fagt, Sisse

2010-01-01

24

Control of sea-water intrusion by salt-water pumping: Coast of Oman  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shallow alluvial coastal aquifer in the Batinah area of Oman, with sea-water intrusion that extends several kilometres inland, has been studied experimentally, analytically and numerically. The water table is proved to have a trough caused by intensive pumping from a fresh groundwater zone and evaporation from the saline phreatic surface. Resistivity traverses perpendicular to the shoreline indicated no fresh

A. R. Kacimov; M. M. Sherif; J. S. Perret; A. Al-Mushikhi

2009-01-01

25

Salt Water Revival  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners visit the intertidal zone of a rocky coastal site well populated with marine organisms. During a low tide, when many organisms are not covered by water, learners create "waves" and a false "high tide" to trigger animals into action such as opening up their shells or pushing out feathery food-catching extensions.

Science, Lawrence H.

1981-01-01

26

Surface and ground water quality in a restored urban stream affected by road salts  

EPA Science Inventory

In 2001 research began in Minebank Run, MD to examine the impact of restoration on water quality. Our research area was to determine if road salts in the surface and ground waters are detrimental to the stream channel restoration. The upstream reach (UP), above the Baltimore I-...

27

Control of sea-water intrusion by salt-water pumping: Coast of Oman  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shallow alluvial coastal aquifer in the Batinah area of Oman, with sea-water intrusion that extends several kilometres inland,\\u000a has been studied experimentally, analytically and numerically. The water table is proved to have a trough caused by intensive\\u000a pumping from a fresh groundwater zone and evaporation from the saline phreatic surface. Resistivity traverses perpendicular\\u000a to the shoreline indicated no fresh

A. R. Kacimov; M. M. Sherif; J. S. Perret; A. Al-Mushikhi

2009-01-01

28

Mechanisms by which the pregnant ewe can sustain increased salt and water supply to the fetus.  

PubMed Central

1. Nine chronically catheterized pregnant ewes were monitored before, during and after 1 week in which fetal urine was drained continuously, to determine whether they could compensate for the resulting loss of salt and water and increase net supply across the placenta to the fetus. 2. Fetal growth and urine and lung liquid production were not affected by loss of all fetal fluids. 3. When fetal urine was drained, the increase (P less than 0.05) in maternal drinking was greater than the extra amount of fluid lost. Thus, maternal plasma osmolality fell (P less than 0.01). When fetal urine again flowed into the amniotic and allantoic cavities, maternal drinking did not fall significantly and plasma osmolality remained low. Maternal urine flow rate increased (P less than 0.05) and its osmolality fell (P less than 0.02). 4. Maternal food intake increased (P less than 0.005) during fetal urine drainage. 5. Maternal plasma renin activity increased (P less than 0.05), her urinary sodium excretion fell (P less than 0.005) and the Na(+)-K+ ratio in both her urine and faeces decreased (P less than 0.01 and P less than 0.05 respectively) when fetal urine was drained. Maternal urinary and faecal sodium conservation continued after drainage ceased because of continued loss of sodium in lung liquid. 6. It is concluded that the ewe can compensate for inappropriate loss of salt and water from the conceptus.

Gibson, K J; Lumbers, E R

1992-01-01

29

Salt Content Determination for Bentonite Mine Spoil: Saturation Extracts Versus 1:5 Extracts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reliability of estimating salt content in saturated extracts from 1:5 (1spoil:5water) extract levels for bentonite mine spoil was examined by regression analyses. Nine chemical variables were examined that included pH, EC, Ca++, Mg++, Na+, K+, HCO(sub...

M. E. Voorhees D. W. Uresk

2004-01-01

30

Effect of water content on stability of landslides triggered by earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake- triggered landslides are one of the most important natural hazards that often result in serious structural damage and loss of life. They are widely studied by several researchers. However, less attention has been focused on soil water content. Although the effect of water content has been widely studied for rainfall- triggered landslides [1], much less attention has been given to it for stability analysis of earthquake- triggered landslides. We developed a combined hydrology and stability model to investigate effect of soil water content on earthquake-triggered landslides. For this purpose, Bishop's method is used to do the slope stability analysis and Richard's equation is employed to model infiltration. Bishop's method is one the most widely methods used for analyzing stability of slopes [2]. Earthquake acceleration coefficient (EAC) is also considered in the model to analyze the effect of earthquake on slope stability. Also, this model is able to automatically determine geometry of the potential landslide. In this study, slopes with different initial water contents are simulated. First, the simulation is performed in the case of earthquake only with different EACs and water contents. As shown in Fig. 1, initial water content has a significant effect on factor of safety (FS). Greater initial water contents lead to less FS. This impact is more significant when EAC is small. Also, when initial water content is high, landslides can happen even with small earthquake accelerations. Moreover, in this study, effect of water content on geometry of landslides is investigated. For this purpose, different cases of landslides triggered by earthquakes only and both rainfall and earthquake for different initial water contents are simulated. The results show that water content has more significant effect on geometry of landslides triggered by rainfall than those triggered by an earthquake. Finally, effect of water content on landslides triggered by earthquakes during rainfall is investigated. In this study, after different durations of rainfall, an earthquake is applied to the model and the elapsed time in which the FS gets less than one obtains by trial and error. The results for different initial water contents and earthquake acceleration coefficients show that landslides can happen after shorter rainfall duration when water content is greater. If water content is high enough, the landslide occurs even without rainfall. References [1] Ray RL, Jacobs JM, de Alba P. Impact of unsaturated zone soil moisture and groundwater table on slope instability. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 2010, 136(10):1448-1458. [2] Das B. Principles of Foundation Engineering. Stanford, Cengage Learning, 2011. Fig. 1. Effect of initial water content on FS for different EACs

Beyabanaki, S.; Bagtzoglou, A. C.; Anagnostou, E. N.

2013-12-01

31

Visualization by light transmission of oil and water contents in transient two-phase flow fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The difficulty of determining transient fluid contents in a soil-oil-water system is hampering an understanding of the system's flow characteristics. In this paper, we describe a light transmission method (LTM) which can rapidly obtain oil and water contents throughout a large two-dimensional flow field of silica sand. By appropriately coloring the water with 0.005% FD&C blue #1, the hue of the transmitted light is found to be directly related to the water content within the porous media. The hue provides a high resolution measurement of the water and oil contents in transient flow fields (such as unstable flow). Evaluation of the reliability of LTM was assessed by checking the mass balance for a known water injection and its utility in visualizing a whole flow field was exemplified for unstable fingered flow by comparing fluid contents to those obtained with synchrotron X-ray radiation.

Darnault, Christophe J. G.; Throop, James A.; DiCarlo, David A.; Rimmer, Alon; Steenhuis, Tammo S.; Parlange, J.-Yves

1998-06-01

32

When do water-insoluble polyion-surfactant ion complex salts "redissolve" by added excess surfactant?  

PubMed

The redissolution of water-insoluble polyion-surfactant ion complexes by added excess of surfactant has systematically been investigated in experimental and theoretical phase equilibrium studies. A number of stoichiometric polyion-surfactant ion "complex salts" were synthesized and they consisted of akyltrimethylammonium surfactant ions of two different alkyl chain lengths (C(12)TA(+) and C(16)TA(+)) combined with homopolyions of polyacrylate of two different lengths (PA(-)(25) and PA(-)(6000)) or copolyions of acrylate and the slightly hydrophobic nonionic comonomers N-isopropylacrylamide (PA(-)-co-NIPAM) or N,N-dimethylacrylamide (PA(-)-co-DAM). The complex salts were mixed with water and excess alkyltrimethylammonium surfactant with either bromide or acetate counterions (C(n)TABr or C(n)TAAc). Factors promoting efficient redissolution were (i) very short polyions, (ii) a large fraction of NIPAM or DAM comonomers, and (iii) acetate, rather than bromide, as the surfactant counterion. Added C(12)TAAc gave an efficient redissolution of C(12)TAPA(25) but virtually no redissolution of C(12)TAPA(6000). A very efficient redissolution by added C(12)TAAc was obtained for PA(-)-co-NIPAM with 82 mol % of NIPAM. The C(12)TAPA-co-NIPAM/C(12)TAAc/H(2)O ternary phase diagram closely resembled the corresponding diagram for the much-studied pair cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose-(sodium) dodecyl sulfate. The simple Flory-Huggins theory adopted for polyelectrolyte systems successfully reproduced the main features of the experimental phase diagrams for the homopolyion systems, including the effect of the surfactant counterion. The efficient redissolution found for certain copolyion systems was explained by the formation of soluble polyion-surfactant ion complexes carrying an excess of surfactant ions through an additional hydrophobic attraction. PMID:21166446

dos Santos, Salomé; Gustavsson, Charlotte; Gudmundsson, Christian; Linse, Per; Piculell, Lennart

2011-01-18

33

Towards a robust water content determination of freeze-dried samples by near-infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility for determination of the water content in pharmaceutical samples by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been more widely investigated in the past few years. However, many studies claim that changes in sample composition will require the establishment of a new method. The aim of this study was several fold: firstly to investigate validation aspects of water content determination in

Holger Grohganz; Delphine Gildemyn; Erik Skibsted; James M. Flink; Jukka Rantanen

2010-01-01

34

Titanium for Salt Water Service.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Titanium has potential as major material of construction in desalination plants, in condensers and heat exchangers, in view of its excellent corrosion resistance to salt water up to at least 120deg C. The advantages of titanium in such applications are br...

H. S. Gadiyar P. R. Shibad

1980-01-01

35

Electrolysis of Salt Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a hands-on lab activity about the chemical composition and conductivity of water. Working in groups, learners will: conduct an experiment involving the process of electrolysis, prepare an experiment to better understand the process of ion exchange, discuss and research the "softness" and "hardness" of water, and use the periodic table to identify elements and learn their characteristics. Background information, a glossary and more is included. Materials needed for each student group include a 9-volt battery, two electrodes (e.g. copper strips, or two #2 pencils sharpened at both ends), electrical wire and glass beakers or ceramic saucers. This activity is part of the Aquarius Hands-on Laboratory Activities.

36

A SCREENING ASSESSMENT OF THE RELATIVE VULNERABILITY OF COASTAL WATER SUPPLIES TO SALT WATER INTRUSION CAUSED BY SEA LEVEL RISE  

EPA Science Inventory

Sea levels have risen from four to eight inches in the 20th century, and model projections suggest an additional rise of 8 to 15 inches is possible during the 21st century. Rising sea levels can increase the upstream extent of salt water influence in coastal aquifers. In coasta...

37

Hydrogen-transparent metal surfaces produced by use of molten salts with very low oxygen and water activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

One can employ simple thermodynamic principles to predict conditions under which metals will not form hydrogen-blocking surface oxide layers in electrolyte environments. These principles are used to show that very low oxygen and water activities can be produced in some halide-based molten salt systems by the incorporation of alkali hydrides. Under these conditions, some normally very reactive metals will not

Gerhard Deublein; R. A. Huggins

1989-01-01

38

Water Imbibition into Rock as Affected by Sample Shape, Pore, Conductivity, and Antecedent Water Content  

SciTech Connect

Infiltration is often presumed to follow Philip's equation, I = st{sup 1/2}, where I is cumulative infiltration, s is sorptivity, and t is time. This form of the equation is appropriate for short times, and/or for negligible gravitational effects. For a uniform soil, this equation describes a plot of log(mass imbibed) versus log(time), with a slope (imbibition exponent) of 1/2. The equation has also been applied to low-porosity rocks, where the extremely small pores render gravitational forces negligible. Experiments recently performed on a wide variety of rocks produced imbibition exponents from 0.2 to 0.5. Many rock types showed initial imbibition proceeding as I {approx} t{sup 1/4}, then later switched to ''normal'' (t{sup 1/2}) behavior. The distance to the wetting front that corresponds to this cross-over behavior was found to be related to the sample shape: tall thin samples are more likely to exhibit the exponent 1/4, and to cross over to 1/2-type behavior later, while short, squat samples are less likely to display the 1/4-type behavior at all. Additionally, the exponents are sensitive to antecedent water content, with initially wetter samples having smaller values. In this study, we present the experimental data, and provide a consistent and physically-based explanation using percolation theory. The analogy between imbibition and diffusion is used to model imbibition into samples with low pore connectivity, with the exponents and their crossover behavior emerging from a random walk process. All laboratory phenomena--different exponents, crossover behavior, and effects of sample shape and antecedent water content--are reproduced by the model, with similar patterns across experiment and simulation. We conclude both that diffusion is a useful and powerful conceptual model for understanding imbibition, and also that imbibition experiments, being simpler than diffusion measurements, can be used to examine diffusive behavior in rock.

R.P. Ewing

2005-08-29

39

Assessing rooting depths of an Austrian pine stand by inverse modeling soil water content maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rooting depths in a forested stand (0.11 ha) were estimated indirectly by inverse modeling maps of soil water contents from time domain reflectometry (TDR) measurements at 150 points. These maps were described with a calibrated one-dimensional soil water flow model, with specific values for the rooting depth, van Genuchten's [1980] alpha parameter, and throughfall fraction at each point. At about

P. A. D. Musters; W. Bouten

1999-01-01

40

MYCORRHIZAL INFLUENCE ON FRUIT YIELD AND MINERAL CONTENT OF TOMATO GROWN UNDER SALT STRESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) yields are known to decrease for plants grown in saline soils. This study was conducted to determine the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation on fruit yield and mineral content of salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive tomato cultivars grown with varied levels of salt. NaCl and CaCl2were added to soil in the irrigation water in equal molar

Ghazi N. Al-Karaki; R. Hammad

2001-01-01

41

Hot water, fresh beer, and salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the ``hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO2) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO2 so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, ``Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer?'' is answered experimentally.

Crawford, Frank S.

1990-11-01

42

Effects of de-icing salt on ground water characteristics.  

PubMed

The effect of "road salt" on the characteristics of Massachusetts drinking water supplies has been significant and cumulative rather than transient or seasonal. De-icing salt is essentially all sodium chloride. Calcium chloride accounted for only three percent of the total salt used. However, hardness content, as well as sodium ion concentration, has increased greatly in ground waters in the past decade. The changing composition of our water supplies has agricultural, economic, and public health implications. This study attempts to quantify the stoichiometry of these changes in concentration, which are in part due to an ion-exchange mechanism in the soil. PMID:238830

O'Brien, J E; Majewski, J C

1975-01-01

43

Water and salt distribution in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) studied by low-field 1H NMR, 1H and 23Na MRI and light microscopy: effects of raw material quality and brine salting.  

PubMed

The effect of different Atlantic salmon raw materials (prerigor, postrigor and frozen/thawed) on water mobility and salt uptake after brine salting was investigated by using LF 1H NMR T2 relaxation,1H and 23Na MRI and light microscopy. Distributed exponential analysis of the T2 relaxation data revealed two main water pools in all raw materials, T21 and T22, with relaxation times in the range of 20-100 ms and 100-300 ms, respectively. Raw material differences were reflected in the T2 relaxation data. Light microscopy demonstrated structural differences between unsalted and salted raw materials. For prerigor fillets, salting induced a decrease in T21 population coupled with a more open microstructure compared to unsalted fillets, whereas for frozen/thawed fillets, an increase in T21 population coupled with salt-induced swelling of myofibers was observed. The result implies that the T21 population was directly affected by the density of the muscle myofiber lattice. MR imaging revealed significant differences in salt uptake between raw materials, prerigor salted fillets gained least salt (1.3-1.6% NaCl), whereas the frozen/thawed fillets gained most salt (2.7-2.9% NaCl), and obtained the most even salt distribution due to the more open microstructure. This study demonstrates the advantage of LF NMR T2 relaxation and 1H and 23Na MRI as effective tools for understanding of the relationship between the microstructure of fish muscle, its water mobility and its salt uptake. PMID:19090754

Aursand, Ida G; Veliyulin, Emil; Böcker, Ulrike; Ofstad, Ragni; Rustad, Turid; Erikson, Ulf

2009-01-14

44

[Simulation of effects of soil properties and plants on soil water-salt movement with reclaimed water irrigation by ENVIRO-GRO model].  

PubMed

In order to promote safe irrigation with reclaimed water and prevent soil salinisation, the dynamic transport of salts in urban soils of Beijing under irrigation of reclaimed water was simulated by ENVIRO-GRO model in this study. The accumulation trends and profile distribution of soil salinity were predicted. Simultaneously, the effects of different soil properties and plants on soil water-salt movement and salt accumulation were investigated. Results indicated that soil salinity in the profiles reached uniform equilibrium conditions by repeated simulation, with different initial soil salinity. Under the conditions of loam and clay loam soil, salinity in the profiles increased over time until reaching equilibrium conditions, while under the condition of sandy loam soil, salinity in the profiles decreased over time until reaching equilibrium conditions. The saturated soil salinity (EC(e)) under equilibrium conditions followed an order of sandy loam < loam < clay loam. Salt accumulations in Japan euonymus and Chinese pine were less than that in Blue grass. The temporal and spatial distributions of soil salinity were also different in these three types of plants. In addition, the growth of the plants was not influenced by soil salinity (except clay loam), but mild soil salinization occurred under all conditions (except sandy loam). PMID:23379130

Lü, Si-Dan; Chen, Wei-Ping; Wang, Mei-E

2012-12-01

45

The production of gas-phase molecular iodine by the photoenhanced reaction between chlorophyll and iodide at salt water surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sources of iodine species into the atmosphere are of interest because iodine atoms play an important role in the oxidative capacity of the troposphere and the formation of particles. Previous results from our group show that photoreactions between chlorophyll and halide salts at salt water surfaces may be an important source of reactive halogens into the troposphere. The mechanism for

D. I. Reeser; C. George; D. J. Donaldson

2009-01-01

46

In VivoDielectric Analysis of Free Water Content of Biomaterials by Time Domain Reflectometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method ofin vivoanalysis of the free water content in living organisms by dielectric analysis in the time domain is described. Human skin is chosen as an example of living tissue. The cells suitable for the measurement of various layers of human skin and calculation procedures for the waveform reflected from the probe end are described. The approach was confirmed

Satoru Naito; Masato Hoshi; Satoru Mashimo

1997-01-01

47

Entrainment in coupled salt-water oscillators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of coupling between two salt-water oscillators were studied. Two salt-water oscillators were coupled through the window of the partition wall. With an increase of the area of the window, the quasi-periodic mode, the in-phase mode, the bistable mode, and the out-of-phase mode appeared successively. A phase diagram of coupling was obtained in the plane of the area of the window and the diameter of the orifice of the cup. Furthermore, the effect of viscosity on coupling behaviors was investigated. In the boundary region between quasi-periodic coupling and in-phase coupling, the mode coupled with the phase difference of approximately ?/4 was found. The experimental results were reproduced by the numerical simulation using coupled non-linear differential equations.

Miyakawa, Kenji; Yamada, Kazuhiko

1999-03-01

48

Comparison of Water Content-Pressure Head Data Obtained by Equilibrium, Steady State and Unsteady State Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The water content-pressure head relationship for a small, well-confined, rectangular sample of fine sand was obtained under different water flow conditions. Water contents were measured by a gamma system and pressure heads were measured by a tensiometer-p...

G. C. Topp A. Klute D. B. Peters

1966-01-01

49

Quantifying Microbial Utilization of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Salt Marsh Sediments by Using the 13C Content of Bacterial rRNA?  

PubMed Central

Natural remediation of oil spills is catalyzed by complex microbial consortia. Here we took a whole-community approach to investigate bacterial incorporation of petroleum hydrocarbons from a simulated oil spill. We utilized the natural difference in carbon isotopic abundance between a salt marsh ecosystem supported by the 13C-enriched C4 grass Spartina alterniflora and 13C-depleted petroleum to monitor changes in the 13C content of biomass. Magnetic bead capture methods for selective recovery of bacterial RNA were used to monitor the 13C content of bacterial biomass during a 2-week experiment. The data show that by the end of the experiment, up to 26% of bacterial biomass was derived from consumption of the freshly spilled oil. The results contrast with the inertness of a nearby relict spill, which occurred in 1969 in West Falmouth, MA. Sequences of 16S rRNA genes from our experimental samples also were consistent with previous reports suggesting the importance of Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria and Firmicutes in the remineralization of hydrocarbons. The magnetic bead capture approach makes it possible to quantify uptake of petroleum hydrocarbons by microbes in situ. Although employed here at the domain level, RNA capture procedures can be highly specific. The same strategy could be used with genus-level specificity, something which is not currently possible using the 13C content of biomarker lipids.

Pearson, Ann; Kraunz, Kimberly S.; Sessions, Alex L.; Dekas, Anne E.; Leavitt, William D.; Edwards, Katrina J.

2008-01-01

50

Measurement of soil water content and electrical conductivity by time domain reflectometry: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-destructive measurement of soil water content and electrical conductivity has been desired for many years. Recent development of time domain reflectometry (TDR) enables us to simultaneously obtain soil water content and electrical conductivity using a single probe with a minimal disturbance of soil. Research on water and solute transport in porous media using TDR has flourished in the last few

K. Noborio

2001-01-01

51

Phenolic Content and DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity of Yam-containing Surimi Gels Influenced by Salt and Heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors contributing to the loss of phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity of Taiwanese yam, Dioscorea alata Tainung No. 1 (TNG1), in the 20% TNG1-containing pollock surimi gel were investigated. Heating at 90°C for 30 min decreased both the total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity in 50% ethanolic extract from TNG1, but no significant effect was

JING-CHUNG CHEN; JAN-YING YEH; PEI-CHUN CHEN

52

Improvement of water use efficiency in rice by expression of HARDY, an Arabidopsis drought and salt tolerance gene  

PubMed Central

Freshwater is a limited and dwindling global resource; therefore, efficient water use is required for food crops that have high water demands, such as rice, or for the production of sustainable energy biomass. We show here that expression of the Arabidopsis HARDY (HRD) gene in rice improves water use efficiency, the ratio of biomass produced to the water used, by enhancing photosynthetic assimilation and reducing transpiration. These drought-tolerant, low-water-consuming rice plants exhibit increased shoot biomass under well irrigated conditions and an adaptive increase in root biomass under drought stress. The HRD gene, an AP2/ERF-like transcription factor, identified by a gain-of-function Arabidopsis mutant hrd-D having roots with enhanced strength, branching, and cortical cells, exhibits drought resistance and salt tolerance, accompanied by an enhancement in the expression of abiotic stress associated genes. HRD overexpression in Arabidopsis produces thicker leaves with more chloroplast-bearing mesophyll cells, and in rice, there is an increase in leaf biomass and bundle sheath cells that probably contributes to the enhanced photosynthesis assimilation and efficiency. The results exemplify application of a gene identified from the model plant Arabidopsis for the improvement of water use efficiency coincident with drought resistance in the crop plant rice.

Karaba, Aarati; Dixit, Shital; Greco, Raffaella; Aharoni, Asaph; Trijatmiko, Kurniawan R.; Marsch-Martinez, Nayelli; Krishnan, Arjun; Nataraja, Karaba N.; Udayakumar, Makarla; Pereira, Andy

2007-01-01

53

Towards a robust water content determination of freeze-dried samples by near-infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The possibility for determination of the water content in pharmaceutical samples by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been more widely investigated in the past few years. However, many studies claim that changes in sample composition will require the establishment of a new method. The aim of this study was several fold: firstly to investigate validation aspects of water content determination in samples with varying composition and furthermore to see if a model based solely on freeze-dried mannitol-sucrose mixtures can be established that will be able to predict water contents for samples containing proteins, excipients or having a lower density of freeze-dried solids. Samples were measured by NIR, standard normal variate (SNV) corrected and the obtained spectra were compared with the results from a conventional Karl-Fischer titration by means of multivariate analysis, namely principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square regression (PLS). For the overall sample set, a highly linear correlation between the NIR and the Karl-Fischer method with a slope of 1.00, an R(2) value of 0.98 and a root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) of 0.15% were found. In a second step samples solely consisting of mannitol and sucrose mixtures were used to build a calibration set, which resulted in a RMSECV of 0.16%. The prediction of the remaining samples, which included protein or excipient containing samples, as well as lower density samples, resulted in a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.19%. Thus the present study demonstrated, that a general model for the determination of the water content by NIR could be established, within the limits investigated. PMID:20800739

Grohganz, Holger; Gildemyn, Delphine; Skibsted, Erik; Flink, James M; Rantanen, Jukka

2010-08-31

54

Hot water, fresh beer, and salt  

SciTech Connect

In the hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO{sub 2}) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO{sub 2} so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer '' is answered experimentally.

Crawford, F.S. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (USA) Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (USA))

1990-11-01

55

Dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in salt water environment by Corexit 9500A in the presence of natural coastal materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effectiveness of Corexit 9500A for dispersing Louisiana crude oil was evaluated in salt water solutions containing natural materials in relation to salinity and dispersant-to-oil ratio (DOR). Experimental results showed that both salinity and DOR had significant effects on dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in the presence of different natural materials. The natural materials added to the salt water solutions included sea sand (South Beach, Miami, Florida), red mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle), seaweed (Sargassum natans), and sea grass (Halodule wrightii). Dispersant effectiveness (amount of oil dispersed into the water) was reduced significantly with increasing salinity with the minimum effectiveness observed in the salinity range between 30 and 50 ppt in all aqueous samples containing natural materials. When significant amounts of floating oil were present, the partially submerged natural materials enhanced the transfer of oil into the water column, which improved the dispersion effectiveness. However, dispersant effectiveness was significantly reduced when the amount of floating oil was relatively small and could not be released back to the water column. Surface tension may not be an adequate parameter for monitoring the effectiveness of dispersants in salt water environment. When distilled water was used (i.e., zero salinity), surface tension was significantly reduced with increasing dispersant concentration. However, there was no clear trend in the surface tension of the salt water solutions (17-51 ppt) containing crude oil and natural materials with increasing dispersant concentration.

Tansel, Berrin; Lee, Mengshan; Berbakov, Jillian; Tansel, Derya Z.; Koklonis, Urpiana

2014-04-01

56

Increased cellular activity in rat insular cortex after water and salt ingestion induced by fluid depletion.  

PubMed

Insular cortex (IC) receives inputs from multiple sensory systems, including taste, and from receptors that monitor body electrolyte and fluid balance and blood pressure. This work analyzed metabolic activity of IC cells after water and sodium ingestion induced by sodium depletion. Rats were injected with the diuretic furosemide (10 mg/kg body wt), followed 5 min later by injections of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (5 mg/kg body wt). After 90 min, some rats received water and 0.3 M NaCl to drink for 2 h while others did not. A third group had access to water and saline but was not depleted of fluids. All rats were killed for processing of brain tissue for Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-ir). Nondepleted animals had weak-to-moderate levels of Fos-ir within subregions of IC. Fluid-depleted rats without fluid access had significantly increased Fos-ir in all areas of IC. Levels of Fos-ir were highest in fluid-depleted rats that drank water and sodium. Fos-ir levels were highest in anterior regions of IC and lowest in posterior regions of IC. These results implicate visceral, taste, and/or postingestional factors in the increased metabolic activity of cells in IC. PMID:12505866

Pastuskovas, Cinthia V; Cassell, Martin D; Johnson, Alan Kim; Thunhorst, Robert L

2003-04-01

57

Vitamin (B1, B2, B3 and B6) content and oxidative stability of Gastrocnemius muscle from dry-cured hams elaborated with different nitrifying salt contents and by two ageing times.  

PubMed

The effect of the amount of added nitrate and nitrate plus nitrite to dry-cured hams on the vitamin (B1, B2, B3, B6) content, the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activities and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was assessed in Gastrocnemius muscle at the end of two ripening processes. Five different curing mixtures (Hi-N: 600 KNO3; Lo-N: 150 KNO3; Hi-Mix: 600 KNO3+600 NaNO2; Lo-Mix: 150 KNO3+150 NaNO2; Hi-Mix/Asc: 600 KNO3+600 NaNO2+500 sodium ascorbate, expressed as mg of salts added on surface per kg of fresh ham) were evaluated in dry-cured hams aged for 11.5months (standard process, SP) and 22months (long process, LP). Minor differences in target parameters between the hams due to the process were found. The amount of nitrate when it was added alone or as a mixture of nitrate and nitrite, as well as the ascorbate addition to dry-cured hams did not affect vitamin B1, B2 and B3 contents. The level of vitamin B6 was affected by both the amount and the mixture of salts; the addition of nitrite reduced around 40% the content of vitamin B6, but it was not affected by nitrate or ascorbate. The activity of SOD and CAT decreased with the amount of nitrate and nitrite, while GSHPx and TBARS resulted unaffected. PMID:23811105

Gratacós-Cubarsí, M; Sárraga, C; Castellari, M; Guàrdia, M D; Regueiro, J A García; Arnau, J

2013-11-01

58

The water balance of the urban Salt Lake Valley: a multiple-box model validated by observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A main focus of the recently awarded National Science Foundation (NSF) EPSCoR Track-1 research project "innovative Urban Transitions and Arid-region Hydro-sustainability (iUTAH)" is to quantify the primary components of the water balance for the Wasatch region, and to evaluate their sensitivity to climate change and projected urban development. Building on the multiple-box model that we developed and validated for carbon dioxide (Strong et al 2011), mass balance equations for water in the atmosphere and surface are incorporated into the modeling framework. The model is used to determine how surface fluxes, ground-water transport, biological fluxes, and meteorological processes regulate water cycling within and around the urban Salt Lake Valley. The model is used to evaluate the hypotheses that increased water demand associated with urban growth in Salt Lake Valley will (1) elevate sensitivity to projected climate variability and (2) motivate more attentive management of urban water use and evaporative fluxes.

Stwertka, C.; Strong, C.

2012-12-01

59

Household Salt Iodine Content Estimation with the Use of Rapid Test Kits and Iodometric Titration Methods  

PubMed Central

Background: Universal salt iodization remains the best strategy for controlling iodine deficiency disorders in Nepal. Aims: This study was designed to study the salt types and the household salt iodine content of school aged children in the hilly and the plain districts of eastern Nepal. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on school children of seven randomly chosen schools from four districts, namely, Sunsari, Dhankuta, Sankhuwasabha and Tehrathum of eastern Nepal. The school children were requested to bring two teaspoonfuls (approx. 12-15 g) of the salt which was consumed in their households, in a tightly sealed plastic pouch. The salt types were categorized, and the salt iodine content was estimated by using rapid test kits and iodometric titrations. The association of the salt iodine content of the different districts were tested by using the Chi-square test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values of the rapid test kits were compared with the iodometric titrations. Results: Our study showed that mean±SD values of the salt iodine content in the four districts, namely, Sunsari, Dhankuta, Sankhuwasabha and Tehrathum were 34.2±17.9, 33.2±14.5, 27.4±15.1 and 48.4±15.6 parts per million (ppm). There were 270 (38.2%) households which consumed crystal salt and 437(61.8%) of the households consumed packet salts. Conclusions: Our study recommends a regular monitoring of the salt iodization programs in these regions. More families should be made aware of the need to ensure that each individual consumes iodized salt.

Nepal, Ashwini Kumar; Raj Shakya, Prem; Gelal, Basanta; Lamsal, Madhab; Brodie, David A; Baral, Nirmal

2013-01-01

60

Water, Salt, Phosphorus and Nitrogen Budgets of the Japan Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water, salt, phosphorus and nitrogen budgets of the Japan Sea have been calculated by box model analysis using historical\\u000a data. Average residence time of the Tsushima Warm Current Water in the upper 200 m is 2.1 years and that of the Japan Sea\\u000a Proper Water is 90 years. The salt flux from the Tsushima Strait balances those through the Tsugaru

Tetsuo Yanagi

2002-01-01

61

Biodrying of municipal solid waste with high water content by combined hydrolytic-aerobic technology.  

PubMed

The high water content of municipal solid waste (MSW) will reduce the efficiency of mechanical sorting, consequently unfavorable for beneficial utilization. In this study, a combined hydrolytic-aerobic biodrying technology was introduced to remove water from MSW. The total water removals were proved to depend on the ventilation frequency and the temporal span in the hydrolytic stage. The ventilation frequency of 6 times/d was preferable in the hydrolytic stage. The hydrolytic span should not be prolonged more than 4 d. At this optimal scenario, the final water content was 50.5% reduced from the initial water content of 72.0%, presenting a high water removal efficiency up to 78.5%. A positive correlation was observed between the organics losses and the water losses in both hydrolytic and aerobic stages (R = 0.944, p < 0.01). The evolutions of extracellular enzyme activities were shown to be consistent with the organics losses. PMID:19209645

Zhang, Dongqing; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming; Jin, Taifeng; Han, Jingyao

2008-01-01

62

A liquid–liquid extraction technique for phthalate esters with water-soluble organic solvents by adding inorganic salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  In the presence of inorganic salts, the mixture solution of some water-soluble organic solvents and water can form two clearly\\u000a separated phases. One is the organic solvent rich phase, the other is the water rich phase. In the phase separation process,\\u000a hydrophobic solutes dissolved in the mixture solution such as phthalate esters can be extracted into the organic solvent rich

Yaqi Cai; Yu’e Cai; Yali Shi; Jiemin Liu; Shifen Mou; Yiqiang Lu

2007-01-01

63

Rapid assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll content.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Present techniques of airborne chlorophyll measurement are discussed as an approach to water pollution assessment. The differential radiometer, the chlorophyll correlation radiometer, and an infrared radiometer for water temperature measurements are described as the key components of the equipment. Also covered are flight missions carried out to evaluate the capability of the chlorophyll correlation radiometer in measuring the chlorophyll content in water bodies with widely different levels of nutrients, such as fresh-water lakes of high and low eutrophic levels, marine waters of high and low productivity, and an estuary with a high sediment content. The feasibility and usefulness of these techniques are indicated.

Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

1971-01-01

64

Effect of salts on water-insoluble glucan formation by glucosyltransferase of Streptococcus mutans.  

PubMed Central

The formation of water-insoluble glucan by extracellular glucosyltransferase from Streptococcus mutans 6715 found to be greatly stimulated by various mono- or divalent cations. An enzyme preparation, obtained by ethanol fractionation, was able to catalyze the formation of water-insoluble glucan from sucrose in the presence of monovalent cations above 100mM or divalent cations above 20 mM at neutral pH. As the concentration of monovalent and divalent cations was reduced to below 10 mM and 1 mM, respectively, the formation of insoluble glucan decreased to a negligible amount. High concentrations of these cations were found to stimulate the formation of insoluble glucan in the following ways: (i) it increased the activity of total glucosyltransferase up to 1.6- and 2.7-fold in the absence and presence of a primer dextran, respectively, and (ii) it changed the formation of soluble glucan to insoluble. It was postulated that one of the essential factors for the formation of insoluble glucan would be to keep more than two water-soluble glucan chains close to enzyme aggregates and that such interaction could be enhanced by the presence of high cation concentrations.

Mukasa, H; Shimamura, A; Tsumori, H

1979-01-01

65

Biodrying of municipal solid waste with high water content by combined hydrolytic-aerobic technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high water content of municipal solid waste (MSW) will reduce the efficiency of mechanical sorting, consequently unfavorable for beneficial utilization. In this study, a combined hydrolytic-aerobic biodrying technology was introduced to remove water from MSW. The total water removals were proved to depend on the ventilation frequency and the temporal span in the hydrolytic stage. The ventilation frequency of

Dongqing ZHANG; Pinjing HE; Liming SHAO; Taifeng JIN; Jingyao HAN

2008-01-01

66

Effect of Pre-Dried History and Initial Water Content on Soil Slaking and Desalinization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An efficient and low cost method is required to improve the saline soils. Soil slaking has long been studied from the stand point of stability of aggregates. However, it has not been studied from that of salt removal. The objective of this study is to examine the contribution of slaking to desalinization of soil accompanied by land drying practice. A slaking test was carried out for evaluating the efficiency of slaking and their impacts on salt removal of salinized soil under various water contents. We prepared natural/virgin and air-dried soils to give different intensity of pre-drying. Those soils were resaturated (for air-dry soil) and well-mixed, then dried to different moisture contents (60, 50, 40, 30, 20 and 10% by weight). After 24 hours immersion in water, the soils never slaked at 60 and 50% moisture contents in natural soil whereas 88-89% of the specimens were slaked in air-dry soil under the same moisture contents. The slaking rate was highest under 30% moisture contents in natural soil. In air-dry soil 30 and 20% showed the higher slaking rate in compared to other water contents. The proportion of salt released into equilibrated water after 24 hours immersion was also high at the same water contents. Since the natural soil did not slake until 40%, drying below 30% moisture content will be effective for the removal of salt from these soils.

Shamim, Abul Hasnat Md.; Akae, Takeo

67

Water- and organo-dispersible gold nanoparticles supported by using ammonium salts of hyperbranched polystyrene: preparation and catalysis.  

PubMed

Gold nanoparticles (1 nm in size) stabilized by ammonium salts of hyperbranched polystyrene are prepared. Selection of the R groups provides access to both water- and organo-dispersible gold nanoparticles. The resulting gold nanoparticles are subjected to studies on catalysis in solution, which include reduction of 4-nitrophenol with sodium borohydride, aerobic oxidation of alcohols, and homocoupling of phenylboronic acid. In the reduction of 4-nitrophenol, the catalytic activity is clearly dependent on the size of the gold nanoparticles. For the aerobic oxidation of alcohols, two types of biphasic oxidation are achieved: one is the catalyst dispersing in the aqueous phase, whereas the other is in the organic phase. The catalysts are reusable more than four times without loss of the catalytic activity. Selective synthesis of biphenyl is achieved by the homocoupling of phenylboronic acid catalyzed by organo-dispersible gold nanoparticles. PMID:24115377

Gao, Lei; Nishikata, Takashi; Kojima, Keisuke; Chikama, Katsumi; Nagashima, Hideo

2013-12-01

68

The production of gas-phase molecular iodine by the photoenhanced reaction between chlorophyll and iodide at salt water surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sources of iodine species into the atmosphere are of interest because iodine atoms play an important role in the oxidative capacity of the troposphere and the formation of particles. Previous results from our group show that photoreactions between chlorophyll and halide salts at salt water surfaces may be an important source of reactive halogens into the troposphere. The mechanism for this reaction involves the reduction of photo-produced chlorophyll cations by a halide, producing a halogen atom. Of the halide species studied, iodide is most readily oxidized in aqueous media, and iodine atoms are the least reactive with organics. The production of iodine atoms is thus expected to result in the formation of molecular iodine rather than organoiodide compounds. We have used absorption spectroscopy to measure gas-phase iodine molecules formed during the illumination of iodide-containing solutions with chlorophyll at the surface. This technique has also been used to measure gas-phase iodine produced by reacting gaseous ozone with sodium iodide solutions. The chlorophyll-mediated photoreaction produces small but measurable amounts of gas-phase molecular iodine, confirming this as a potentially important source for iodine into the troposphere.

Reeser, D. I.; George, C.; Donaldson, D. J.

2009-12-01

69

Nitrite toxicity of Litopenaeus vannamei in water containing low concentrations of sea salt or mixed salts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The uptake, depuration and toxicity of environmental nitrite was characterized in Litopenaeus vannamei exposed in water containing low concentrations of artificial sea salt or mixed salts. In 2 g/L artificial sea salts, nitrite was concentrated in the hemolymph in a dose-dependent and rapid manner (steady-state in about 2 d). When exposed to nitrite in 2 g/L artificial sea salts for 4 d and then moved to a similar environment without added nitrite, complete depuration occurred within a day. Increasing salinity up to 10 g/L decreased uptake of environmental nitrite. Nitrite uptake in environments containing 2 g/L mixed salts (combination of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium chlorides) was similar to or lower than rates in 2 g/L artificial sea salt. Toxicity was inversely related to total dissolved salt and chloride concentrations and was highest in 2 g/L artificial sea salt (96-h medial lethal concentration = 8.4 mg/L nitrite-N). Animals that molted during the experiments did not appear to be more susceptible to nitrite than animals that did not molt. The shallow slope of the curve describing the relationship between toxicity and salinity suggests that management of nitrite toxicity in low-salinity shrimp ponds by addition of more salts may not be practical. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2004.

Sowers, A.; Young, S. P.; Isely, J. J.; Browdy, C. L.; Tomasso, Jr. , J. R.

2004-01-01

70

Assessing water salinity along River Limón and Caño San Miguel irrigation paleochannel (Maracaibo, Venezuela) as affected by the balance of soluble salts in alluvium soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The saline degradation of soils that are irrigated with brackish water is worrisome increasing worldwide, and it may further affect the salinity of fresh water in those streams flowing across. The problem that is caused by an increasing concentration of salts that are more soluble than gypsum depends on the quality of irrigation water, climatic aridity, and drainage limitations. All these conditions meet in the alluvium soils of River Limón basin that are crossed by Caño San Miguel irrigation paleochannel. River Limón's regulation by closing Manuelote and Tulé artificial reservoirs has diminished the input of water and sediments from flooding events, which exerted dilutive effects in the past. In addition, the balance of soluble salts in these soils has also registered further net accumulation during those extremely dry years happened before 2006, because the great dilution contribution of ombrogenic dammed water coming from rain has not been enough to compensate salts concentration generated by water evapotranspiration in those irrigated soils of the middle basin, particularly in the absence of superficial runoff and deep drainage. Considering those semi-arid climate conditions prevailing in the area (annual precipitation = 710 mm; potential evapotransporation = 2361 mm), it resulted that water analyses in River Limón showed a ten-fold increased maximum annual salinity concentration (March) along the stream; that is, an electric conductivity (Ce) of 0.37 dS•m-1 (at 25 °C) at Puente Carrasquero pumping station, where water for crop irrigation is subtracted, turns to 34.60 dS•m-1 (at 25 °C) at its base level in Puerto Mara, where it discharges to Lake Maracaibo. In addition, the quality of irrigation water from Caño San Miguel, which aggregates to those coming from River Limón at the pumping station located in Carrasquero just before running through the alluvium of this water stream, resulted pretty irregular. In short, it spanned form C1 to C4 soil salinization risk classes depending on the sampling location and time of the year. In short, the farther away the sampling point from the initial pumping location, the higher the concentration of salts is measured; and these are even ten-fold higher in March, that is, after the end of the dry season, just before new rain dissolves the generated salt efflorescence on the surrounding soil (maximum Ce=9740 dS/m at 25 °C). In conclusion, a balance of salts should be attached to the balance of water required to compensate crop evapotranspiration aiming to achieve a sustainable use of the agrosystem. This salts balance is assessed in terms of the quantity of water that is required to drain soil so that productivity would be retained.

Rodriguez, Raquel; Moreno, Juan; Hermosilla, Daphne; Gascó, Antonio

2013-04-01

71

Swelling of phospholipids by monovalent salt.  

PubMed

Critical to biological processes such as membrane fusion and secretion, ion-lipid interactions at the membrane-water interface still raise many unanswered questions. Using reconstituted phosphatidylcholine membranes, we confirm here that multilamellar vesicles swell in salt solutions, a direct indication that salt modifies the interactions between neighboring membranes. By varying sample histories, and by comparing with data from ion carrier-containing bilayers, we eliminate the possibility that swelling is an equilibration artifact. Although both attractive and repulsive forces could be modified by salt, we show experimentally that swelling is driven primarily by weakening of the van der Waals attraction. To isolate the effect of salt on van der Waals interactions, we focus on high salt concentrations at which any possible electrostatic interactions are screened. By analysis of X-ray diffraction data, we show that salt does not alter membrane structure or bending rigidity, eliminating the possibility that repulsive fluctuation forces change with salt. By measuring changes in interbilayer separation with applied osmotic stress, we have determined, using the standard paradigm for bilayer interactions, that 1 M concentrations of KBr or KCl decrease the van der Waals strength by 50%. By weakening van der Waals attractions, salt increases energy barriers to membrane contact, possibly affecting cellular communication and biological signaling. PMID:16267342

Petrache, Horia I; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Harries, Daniel; Kucerka, Norbert; Nagle, John F; Parsegian, V Adrian

2006-02-01

72

Liquid-glass transition of water/salt mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is known to exhibit a number of anomalous behaviors and to be an exceptionally poor glass-former. However, both features are strongly affected by applying pressure or adding salt. This means that these two parameters have strong influence on physical factors controlling the unusual features of water. By using a water/salt mixture as a model system, we experimentally demonstrate that the glass-forming ability and the fragility of a water/salt mixture are closely related to its equilibrium phase diagram. The key to this link may be frustration between local ordering and global ordering toward the crystal. Relying on the same role of salt as pressure in water anomalies as a breaker of local tetrahedral order, we infer the behavior of water under pressure from that of a water/salt mixture. This scenario not only explains unusual behavior of water-type liquids such as water, Si and Ge under pressure, but also may provide a general explanation on the link between the equilibrium phase diagram, the glass-forming ability, and the fragility of various materials for a wide class of materials.

Kobayashi, Mika; Tanaka, Hajime

2013-02-01

73

Measurement of fluid contents by light transmission in transient three-phase oil-water-air systems in sand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most three-phase flow models lack rigorous validation because very few methods exist that can measure transient fluid contents of the order of seconds of whole flow fields. The objective of this study was to develop a method by which fluid content can be measured rapidly in three-phase systems. The method uses the hue and intensity of light transmitted through a slab chamber to measure fluid contents. The water is colored blue with CuSO4. The light transmitted by high-frequency light bulbs is recorded with a color video camera in red, green, and blue and then converted to hue, saturation, and intensity. Calibration of hue and intensity with water, oil, and air is made using cells filled with different combinations of the three fluids. The results show that hue and water content are uniquely related over a large range of fluid contents. Total liquid content is a function of both hue and light intensity. The air content is obtained by subtracting the liquid content from the porosity. The method was tested with static and transient experiments. Measurements made with the light transmission method (LTM) and synchrotron X rays of the static experiment agreed well. In the transient experiments, fingers were formed by dripping water on the surface in a two-dimensional slab chamber with partially oil-saturated sand. The LTM is able to capture the spatial resolution of the fluid contents and can provide new insights in rapidly changing, three-phase flow systems.

Darnault, C. J. G.; Dicarlo, D. A.; Bauters, T. W. J.; Jacobson, A. R.; Throop, J. A.; Montemagno, C. D.; Parlange, J.-Y.; Steenhuis, T. S.

2001-07-01

74

Water and salt balance of Great Salt Lake, Utah, and simulation of water and salt movement through the causeway  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The water and salt balance of Great Salt Lake primarily depends on the amount of inflow from tributary streams and the conveyance properties of a causeway constructed during 1957-59 that divides the lake into the south and north parts. The conveyance properties of the causeway originally included two culverts, each 15 feet wide, and the permeable rock-fill material.

Wold, Steven R.; Thomas, Blakemore E.; Waddell, K. M.

1997-01-01

75

Simulation of the Corrosion Caused by Water Soluble Salt in Dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dust may cause corrosion in humid environment. Investigation of water solution of dust collected from Beijing and Shanghai showed that SO4-2 and Cl-1 were the major negative ions and Na+1, K+1, Ca+2 dominated the positive ions. Obvious corrosion was formed on the coupon surface when such solution was dropped on. Artificial particles including NaCl, Na2SO4 and CaSO4 are selected to

Xue-Yan Lin

2010-01-01

76

Barium content of benthic foraminifera controlled by bottom-water composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE carbon isotope ratio (delta13C) and cadmium content (Cd\\/Ca) of benthic foraminifera shells have been used to reconstruct deep-water circulation patterns of the glacial oceans1-7. These tracers co-vary with phosphorus in the modern ocean because they are nearly quantitatively regenerated from sinking biological debris in the upper water column. Hence they can be used to reconstruct the distribution of labile

D. Lea; E. Boyle

1989-01-01

77

Insights into protein aggregation by NMR characterization of insoluble SH3 mutants solubilized in salt-free water.  

PubMed

Protein aggregation in vivo has been extensively associated with a large spectrum of human diseases. On the other hand, mechanistic insights into protein aggregation in vitro were incomplete due to the inability in solubilizing insoluble proteins for high-resolution biophysical investigations. However, a new avenue may be opened up by our recent discovery that previously-thought insoluble proteins can in fact be solubilized in salt-free water. Here we use this approach to study the NMR structural and dynamic properties of an insoluble SH3 mutant with a naturally-occurring insertion of Val22 at the tip of the diverging turn. The obtained results reveal: 1) regardless of whether the residue is Val, Ala, Asp or Arg, the insertion will render the first hNck2 SH3 domain to be insoluble in buffers. Nevertheless, all four mutants could be solubilized in salt-free water and appear to be largely unfolded as evident from their CD and NMR HSQC spectra. 2) Comparison of the chemical shift deviations reveals that while in V22-SH3 the second helical region is similarly populated as in the wild-type SH3 at pH 2.0, the first helical region is largely unformed. 3) In V22-SH3, many non-native medium-range NOEs manifest to define non-native helical conformations. In the meanwhile a small group of native-like long-range NOEs still persists, indicating the existence of a rudimentary native-like tertiary topology. 4) Although overall, V22-SH3 has significantly increased backbone motions on the ps-ns time scale, some regions still own restricted backbone motions as revealed by analyzing (15)N relaxation data. Our study not only leads to the establishment of the first high-resolution structural and dynamic picture for an insoluble protein, but also shed more light on the molecular events for the nonhierarchical folding mechanism. Furthermore, a general mechanism is also proposed for in vivo protein aggregation triggered by the genetic mutation and posttranslational modification. PMID:19956763

Liu, Jingxian; Song, Jianxing

2009-01-01

78

Improving Dental Health of DOD Related Persons Assigned to Okinawa by Using Fluoridated Salt in Lieu of Water Fluoridation: A Comparative Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Good oral health is vital to U.S. military and DOD related personnel. Supplemental fluoride may be an effective method of improving oral health by reducing dental caries. Water and salt fluoridation were evaluated as methods to provide mass supplemental f...

E. A. Stokes

1999-01-01

79

Non-invasive quantification of small bowel water content by MRI: a validation study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Substantial water fluxes across the small intestine occur during digestion of food, but so far measuring these has required invasive intubation techniques. This paper describes a non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for measuring small bowel water content which has been validated using naso-duodenal infusion. Eighteen healthy volunteers were intubated, with the tube position being verified by MRI. After a baseline MRI scan, each volunteer had eight 40 ml boluses of a non-absorbable mannitol and saline solution infused into their proximal small bowel with an MRI scan being acquired after each bolus. The MRI sequence used was an adapted magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography sequence. The image data were thresholded to allow for intra- and inter-subject signal variations. The MRI measured volumes were then compared to the known infused volumes. This MRI technique gave excellent images of the small bowel, which closely resemble those obtained using conventional radiology with barium contrast. The mean difference between the measured MRI volumes and infused volumes was 2% with a standard deviation of 10%. The maximum 95% limits of agreement between observers were -15% to +17% while measurements by the same operator on separate occasions differed by only 4%. This new technique can now be applied to study alterations in small bowel fluid absorption and secretion due to gastrointestinal disease or drug intervention.

Hoad, C. L.; Marciani, L.; Foley, S.; Totman, J. J.; Wright, J.; Bush, D.; Cox, E. F.; Campbell, E.; Spiller, R. C.; Gowland, P. A.

2007-12-01

80

Functional Tests in the Study of Water-Salt Exchange and Renal Function in Cosmonauts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The alteration in the water-salt exchange and renal activities of cosmonauts in polonged space flight was studied. The factors influencing these functions are considered. Tabulated results are presented and include the following: (1) electrolyte content, ...

Y. V. Natochin G. I. Kozyrevskaya A. I. Grigoryev

1973-01-01

81

Organic tank safety project: Effect of water partial pressure on the equilibrium water contents of waste samples from Hanford Tank 241-BY-108  

SciTech Connect

Water content plays a crucial role in the strategy developed by Webb et al. to prevent propagating or sustainable chemical reactions in the organic-bearing wastes stored in the 20 Organic Tank Watch List tanks at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. Because of water`s importance in ensuring that the organic-bearing wastes continue to be stored safely, Duke Engineering and Services Hanford commissioned the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to investigate the effect of water partial pressure (P{sub H2O}) on the water content of organic-bearing or representative wastes. Of the various interrelated controlling factors affecting the water content in wastes, P{sub H2O} is the most susceptible to being controlled by the and Hanford Site`s environmental conditions and, if necessary, could be managed to maintain the water content at an acceptable level or could be used to adjust the water content back to an acceptable level. Of the various waste types resulting from weapons production and waste-management operations at the Hanford Site, Webb et al. determined that saltcake wastes are the most likely to require active management to maintain the wastes in a Conditionally Safe condition. A Conditionally Safe waste is one that satisfies the waste classification criteria based on water content alone or a combination of water content and either total organic carbon (TOC) content or waste energetics. To provide information on the behavior of saltcake wastes, two waste samples taken from Tank 241-BY-108 (BY-108) were selected for study, even though BY-108 is not on the Organic Tanks Watch List because of their ready availability and their similarity to some of the organic-bearing saltcakes.

Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

1997-02-01

82

Hyperosmolarity drives hypertension and CKD-water and salt revisited.  

PubMed

An epidemic of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Mesoamerica is providing new insights into the mechanisms by which salt and water might drive hypertension and CKD. Increasingly, evidence suggests that recurrent dehydration and salt loss might be a mechanism that causes CKD, and experimental studies suggest a key role for increased plasma osmolarity in activating both intrarenal (polyol-fructokinase) and extrarenal (vasopressin) pathways that drive renal injury. Thus, we propose that water and salt might influence blood pressure and kidney disease through the timing and combination of their intake, which affect plasma osmolarity as well as intrarenal and extrarenal mechanisms of renal injury. The type of fluid intake might also be important, as fluids containing fructose can trigger activation of these pathways. Future studies should investigate the effects of salt, sugar and fluid intake on plasma osmolarity as a potential pathogenetic mechanism in renal injury and high blood pressure. PMID:24802066

Johnson, Richard J; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Ishimoto, Takuji; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Wesseling, Catharina; Bankir, Lise; Sanchez-Lozada, Laura G

2014-07-01

83

Airborne endotoxin associated with particles of different sizes and affected by water content in handled straw.  

PubMed

High exposures to endotoxin are observed in environments where organic materials are handled and lower exposures are found in e.g. indoor air. Inhaled endotoxin contributes significantly to the induction of airway inflammation and dysfunction. The size of an inhaled particle influences the deposition in the airways and the following health symptoms. The objective is to characterise the distribution of endotoxin on airborne particles of different sizes in straw storage halls with high exposure and in other environments with lower exposure levels to endotoxin. Furthermore we have studied the influence of water content of handled straw on the size distribution of endotoxin containing particles. Total, inhalable, thoracic and respirable endotoxin and particles have each been quantified in aerosols from boiler rooms and straw storage halls at 24 power plants, including 21 biofuel plants. Inhalable, thoracic and respirable endotoxin have been quantified in aerosols from offices and outdoor air. The endotoxin concentration was higher in airborne thoracic dust than in airborne 'total dust'. The median respirable fraction in the straw storage halls, boiler rooms at biofuel plants, boiler rooms at conventional plants, offices and outdoors was respectively 42%, 9%, 19%, 24% and 34%. Thoracic endotoxin per number of thoracic particles was higher than respirable endotoxin per number of respirable particles at the biofuel plants. In straw storage halls the fraction of endotoxin of respirable size was highest on the days with lowest water content in the received straw. Furthermore the exposures to all endotoxin fractions were highest on days with the lowest water content in the received straw. In conclusion the highest exposures and concentrations of endotoxin occur or tend to occur from thoracic dust. A high variation in endotoxin concentrations and in fractions of respirable or thoracic size is found in the different working areas. This is important in the risk assessment and makes attempts to influence the endotoxin exposure a possibility. Water content in straw affected the concentration, exposure level and size distribution of airborne endotoxin. PMID:20362504

Madsen, A M; Nielsen, S H

2010-07-01

84

Effects of salt stress on the growth, physiological responses, and glycoside contents of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of three different NaCl concentrations (60, 90, and 120 mM) on the growth, physiological responses, and steviol glycoside composition of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni for 4 weeks. The results showed that the total dry weight decreased by 40% at 120 mM NaCl but remained the same at 60 and 90 mM NaCl. As salt concentration increased, chlorophyll contents decreased markedly by 10-70%, whereas the increments of the antioxidant enzyme activities were 1.0-1.6, 1.2-1.3, and 2.0-4.0 times, respectively, for superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase. The proline contents in salt-treated plants were 17-42 times higher than that in control. Moreover, leaf possessed significantly higher K(+) content and K(+)/Na(+) ratio than stem and root for all salt treatments. In addition, 90-120 mM NaCl treatment notably decreased the content of rebaudioside A (RA) and stevioside (ST) by 16.2-38.2%, whereas the increment of the ratio of RA/ST of salt-treated plants was 1.1-1.4 times. These results indicate that S. rebaudiana is moderately tolerant to salt stress. Hypohaline soil can be utilized in the plantation of S. rebaudiana and may be profitable for optimizing the steviol glycoside composition. PMID:23711229

Zeng, Jianwei; Chen, Aimeng; Li, Dandan; Yi, Bin; Wu, Wei

2013-06-19

85

Identification of water content in nanocavities  

PubMed Central

A tapered dielectric waveguide that scans, at constant height, a sample containing a viral capsid is studied by combining a lattice gas model to simulate water meniscus formation and a finite difference time domain algorithm for light propagation through the media involved. Our results show different contrasts related to different water contents and different meniscus orientations. We propose this method as a way to study water content and evaporation process in nanocavities being either biological, like viral capsides, or nonbiological, like photonic crystals.

2013-01-01

86

Identification of water content in nanocavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tapered dielectric waveguide that scans, at constant height, a sample containing a viral capsid is studied by combining a lattice gas model to simulate water meniscus formation and a finite difference time domain algorithm for light propagation through the media involved. Our results show different contrasts related to different water contents and different meniscus orientations. We propose this method as a way to study water content and evaporation process in nanocavities being either biological, like viral capsides, or nonbiological, like photonic crystals.

Douas, Maysoun; Marqués, Manuel I.; Serena, Pedro A.

2013-04-01

87

46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section 45...LOAD LINES Load Line Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence River...

2012-10-01

88

46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section 45...LOAD LINES Load Line Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence River...

2011-10-01

89

Polyion-surfactant ion complex salts formed by a random anionic copolyacid at different molar ratios of cationic surfactant: phase behavior with water and n-alcohols.  

PubMed

The presence of acid groups with different pK(a) values in the anionic copolymer poly(4-styrene sulfonic acid-co-maleic acid), P(SS-Ma), allowed the preparation of complex salts with a variable fraction of anionic groups neutralized by cationic surfactant in the copolymer via controlled titration with hexadecyltrimethylammonium hydroxide, C(16)TAOH. Two new complex salts were selected for detailed phase studies, C(16)TA(2)P(SS-Ma) and C(16)TA(3)P(SS-Ma), where both had 100% charged styrene sulfonate groups, but the fraction of charged carboxylate groups on the polyion was 50% or 100%, respectively. These complex salts thus contained both hydrophobic (styrene sulfonate) and hydrophilic (carboxylate) charged groups, and the ratio between the two could be altered by titration. These features were found to have consequences for the phase behavior in water and in ternary mixtures with water and n-alcohols for the two complex salts, which differed compared to complex salts containing homo- or copolyions with only carboxylate or styrene sulfonate charged groups. For both complex salts, binary mixtures with water produced, in the dilute region, two isotropic phases in equilibrium, the bottom (concentrated) one displaying increasing viscosity with increasing concentration. For the complex salt C(16)TA(2)P(SS-Ma), there was evidence of micellar growth to form anisometric aggregates at high concentrations. For the C(16)TA(3)P(SS-Ma) complex salt, this was not observed, and the isotropic phase was followed by a narrow region of cubic phase. In both cases, concentrations above ca. 60 wt % produced a hexagonal phase. For ternary mixtures with n-alcohols, the general trend was that a short-chain alcohol such as n-butanol acted as a cosolvent dissolving the aggregates, whereas with n-decanol, a cosurfactant effect was observed, inducing the formation of lamellar phases. Visual inspection (also between crossed polarizers), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were used in these studies. PMID:22288901

Percebom, Ana Maria; Piculell, Lennart; Loh, Watson

2012-03-01

90

Removal of arsenic from water by Friedel's salt (FS: 3CaO·Al2O3·CaCl2·10H2O).  

PubMed

Low levels of arsenic can be effectively removed from water by adsorption onto various materials and searching for low-cost, high-efficiency new adsorbents has been a hot topic in recent years. In the present study, the performance of Friedel's salt (FS: 3CaO·Al(2)O(3)·CaCl(2)·10H(2)O), a layered double hydroxide (LDHs), as an adsorbent for arsenic removal from aqueous solution was investigated. Friedel's salt was synthesized at lower temperature (50°C) compared to traditional autoclave methods by reaction of calcium chloride with sodium aluminate. Kinetic study revealed that adsorption of arsenate by Friedel's salt was fast in the first 12h and equilibrium was achieved within 48 h. The adsorption kinetics are well described by second-order Lageren equation. The adsorption capacity of the synthesized sorbent for arsenate at pH 4 and 7 calculated from Langmuir adsorption isotherms was 11.85 and 7.80 mg/g, respectively. Phosphate and silicate markedly decreased the removal of arsenate, especially at higher pH, but sulfate was found to suppress arsenate adsorption at lower pH and the adverse effect was disappeared at pH ? 6. Common metal cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) enhanced arsenate adsorption. The results suggest that Friedel's salt is a potential cost-effective adsorbent for arsenate removal in water treatment. PMID:21907487

Zhang, Danni; Jia, Yongfeng; Ma, Jiayu; Li, Zhibao

2011-11-15

91

Effects of water flow rate, salt concentration and water temperature on efficiency of an electrolyzed oxidizing water generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-factor central composite design was adopted to investigate the effects of water flow rate, water temperature and salt concentration on electrolysis efficiency and separation efficiency of an electrolyzed oxidizing water generator. Results indicated that electric potential (7.9–15.7 V) and power consumption (16–120 W) of the electrolysis cell were not affected by water flow rate, water temperature or salt concentration

S. Y. Hsu

2003-01-01

92

Separation & Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process  

SciTech Connect

Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing waste water residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy/rubber matrix for separating and encapsulating waste components from salt laden, arsenic contaminated, amorphous iron hydrate sludges. Such sludges are generated from conventional water purification precipitation/adsorption processes, used to convert aqueous brine streams to semi-solid waste streams, such as ion exchange/membrane separation, and from other precipitative heavy metal removal operations. In this study, epoxy and polystyrene butadiene (PSB) rubber emulsions are mixed together and then combined with a surrogate sludge. The surrogate sludge consists of amorphous iron hydrate with 1 part arsenic fixed to the surface of the hydrate per 10 parts iron mixed with sodium nitrate and chloride salts and water. The resulting emulsion is cured and dried at 80 C to remove water. Microstructure characterization by electron microscopy confirms that the epoxy/PSB matrix surrounds and encapsulates the arsenic laden amorphous iron hydrate phase while allowing the salt to migrate to internal and external surfaces of the sample. Salt extraction studies indicate that the porous nature of the resulting matrix promotes the separation and removal of as much as 90% of the original salt content in only one hours time. Long term leaching studies based on the use of the infinite slab diffusion model reveal no evidence of iron migration or, by inference, arsenic migration, and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficients of the unextracted salt yield leachability indices within regulations for non-hazardous landfill disposal. Because salt is the most mobile species, it is inferred that arsenic leaches from the host material at an even slower rate, making the waste forms amenable to unregulated land disposal options. These result indicate that the environmentally-benign, water-based emulsion processing of epoxy/PSB polymeric hosts show great promise as a separation and fixation technology for treating brine streams from wastewater treatment facilities.

Franks, Carrie J.; Quach, Anh P.; Birnie, Dunbar P.; Ela, Wendell P.; Saez, Avelino E.; Zelinski, Brian J.; Smith, Harry D.; Smith, Gary Lynn L.

2004-12-01

93

Validation of spot-testing kits to determine iodine content in salt.  

PubMed Central

Iodine deficiency disorders are a major public health problem, and salt iodization is the most widely practised intervention for their elimination. For the intervention to be successful and sustainable, it is vital to monitor the iodine content of salt regularly. Iodometric titration, the traditional method for measuring iodine content, has problems related to accessibility and cost. The newer spot-testing kits are inexpensive, require minimal training, and provide immediate results. Using data from surveys to assess the availability of iodized salt in two states in India, Madhya Pradesh and the National Capital Territory of Delhi, we tested the suitability of such a kit in field situations. Salt samples from Delhi were collected from 30 schools, chosen using the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) cluster sampling technique. A single observer made the measurement for iodine content using the kit. Salt samples from Madhya Pradesh were from 30 rural and 30 urban clusters, identified by using census data and the EPI cluster sampling technique. In each cluster, salt samples were collected from 10 randomly selected households and all retailers. The 15 investigators performing the survey estimated the iodine content of salt samples in the field using the kit. All the samples were brought to the central laboratory in Delhi, where iodine content was estimated using iodometric titration as a reference method. The agreement between the kit and titration values decreased as the number of observers increased. Although sensitivity was not much affected by the increase in the number of observers (93.3% for a single observer and 93.9% for multiple observers), specificity decreased sharply (90.4% for a single observer and 40.4% for multiple observers). Due to the low specificity and resulting high numbers of false-positives for the kit when used by multiple observers ("real-life situations"), kits were likely to consistently overestimate the availability of iodized salt. This overestimation could result in complacency. Therefore, we conclude that until a valid alternative is available, the titration method should be used for monitoring the iodine content of salt at all levels, from producer to consumer, to ensure effectiveness of the programme.

Pandav, C. S.; Arora, N. K.; Krishnan, A.; Sankar, R.; Pandav, S.; Karmarkar, M. G.

2000-01-01

94

Evaluating climate change effects on water and salt resources in Salt Lake, Turkey using multitemporal SPOT imagery.  

PubMed

The main goal of this study is to investigate the dimension of climate change effects in Salt Lake and its vicinity in Turkey using satellite remote sensing data. The first stage of the study includes evaluation of the multitemporal climatic data on the Salt Lake Basin Area, Turkey for a period of 35 years (1970-2005). The changes in mean temperature and precipitation are evaluated for the study area by comparing two periods, 1970-1992 and 1993-2005. In the second stage, the effects of climate changes in the Salt Lake are investigated by evaluating water and salt reserve changes through seasonal and multitemporal SPOT imagery collected in 1987 and 2005. The climatic data and remotely sensed and treated satellite images show that water and salt reserve in Salt Lake has decreased between 1987 and 2005 due to drought and uncontrolled water usage. It is suggested that the use of water supplies, especially underground waters, around the Salt Lake should be controlled and the lake should regularly be monitored by current remote sensing data for an effective management of water and salt resources in the region. PMID:19267206

Ekercin, Semih; Ormeci, Cankut

2010-04-01

95

Separation and Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process  

SciTech Connect

Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing wastewater residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by-products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy/rubber matrix for separating and encapsulating waste components from salt laden, arsenic contaminated, amorphous iron hydrate sludges. Such sludges are generated from conventional water purification precipitation/adsorption processes, used to convert aqueous brine streams to semi-solid waste streams, such as ion exchange/membrane separation, and from other precipitative heavy metal removal operations. In this study, epoxy and polystyrene butadiene (PSB) rubber emulsions are mixed together and then combined with a surrogate sludge. The surrogate sludge consists of amorphous iron hydrate with 1 part arsenic fixed to the surface of the hydrate per 10 parts iron mixed with sodium nitrate and chloride salts and water. The resulting emulsion is cured and dried at 80 °C to remove water. Microstructure characterization by electron microscopy confirms that the epoxy/PSB matrix surrounds and encapsulates the arsenic laden amorphous iron hydrate phase while allowing the salt to migrate to internal and external surfaces of the sample. Salt extraction studies indicate that the porous nature of the resulting matrix promotes the separation and removal of as much as 90% of the original salt content in only one hour. Long term leaching studies based on the use of the infinite slab diffusion model reveal no evidence of iron migration or, by inference, arsenic migration, and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficients of the unextracted salt yield leachability indices within regulations for non-hazardous landfill disposal. Because salt is the most mobile species, it is inferred that arsenic leaches from the host material at an even slower rate, making the waste forms amenable to unregulated land disposal options. These results indicate that the environmentally-benign, water-based emulsion processing of epoxy/PSB polymeric hosts show great promise as a separation and fixation technology for treating brine streams from wastewater treatment facilities.

Franks, C.; Quach, A.; Birnie III, D.; Ela, W.; Saez, A.E.; Zelinski, B.; Smith, H.; Smith, G.

2004-01-01

96

IR spectroscopy of aqueous alkali halide solutions: Pure salt-solvated water spectra and hydration numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extrapolation techniques were used to obtain pure salt-solvated water spectra from the attenuated total reflection infrared spectra (ATR-IR) of aqueous solutions of the nine alkali halide salts LiCl, NaCl, KCl, CsCl, NaBr, KBr, NaI, KI, and CsI and the alkaline-earth chloride salt MgCl2. These salts ionize completely in water. The ions by themselves do not absorb in the IR, but

Jean-Joseph Max; Camille Chapados

2001-01-01

97

Elucidating the mechanism by which Gypsum fibrosum, a traditional Chinese medicine, maintains cutaneous water content.  

PubMed

Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) plays an important role in maintaining the normal water content of the skin. Previously, we revealed that the expression of cutaneous AQP3 increased following oral administration of Gypsum fibrosum (main component: CaSO?) to mice. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the mechanism by which Gypsum fibrosum increases the expression of cutaneous AQP3 in a keratinocyte cell line. Gypsum fibrosum or CaSO? was added to keratinocytes, and the expression level of AQP3, the Ca concentration, the activity of protein kinase C (PKC), and the degrees of phosphorylation of both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) were measured. The mRNA and protein expression levels of AQP3 increased significantly 6 h-post addition of Gypsum fibrosum. In keratinocytes treated with Gypsum fibrosum, increases in the concentration of intracellular Ca, PKC activity, and the phosphorylation of ERK and CREB were observed. Pre-treatment with GF109203X, a PKC inhibitor, suppressed the mRNA expression levels of AQP3. Similarly to treatment with Gypsum fibrosum, the addition of CaSO? led to the same observations in keratinocytes. It is hypothesized that Gypsum fibrosum causes an increase in the intracellular Ca concentration, PKC activity, and the phosphorylation levels of ERK and CREB, resulting in increased AQP3 expression in keratinocytes. In addition, it is possible that the effect of Gypsum fibrosum is attributable to CaSO?, based on the results demonstrating that the mechanisms of action of Gypsum fibrosum and CaSO? were nearly identical. PMID:23912684

Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Ogiue, Naoki; Toyoda, Eri; Nakamura, Marina; Kon, Risako; Kusunoki, Yoshiki; Aburada, Takashi; Ishii, Makoto; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Machida, Yoshiaki; Ochiai, Wataru; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

2013-01-01

98

The arsenic content of bottled mineral waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The arsenic levels of 23 mineral waters on sale to the public in the United Kingdom were measured. The arsenic content of most waters was below 1 µg L-1 but the statutory limits of 50 ug L-1 for natural mineral waters and 100 µg L-1 for non-alcoholic beverages were exceeded by the French mineral water, Vichy Célestins (220 ug L-1).

John G. Farmer; Linda R. Johnson

1985-01-01

99

Effect of initial hydrogen content of a titanium alloy on susceptibility to hot salt stress corrosion.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of the initial hydrogen content of a titanium alloy on subsequent resistance to hot salt stress corrosion embrittlement and cracking was investigated. A Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V alloy was tested in four conditions: mill annealed (70 ppm H), duplex annealed (70 ppm H), vacuum annealed to an intermediate (36 ppm H) and a low (9 ppm H) hydrogen level. Material annealed at 650 C (duplex condition) exhibited resistance to hot salt stress corrosion superior to that exhibited by material in the mill annealed condition. Reduction of the alloy hydrogen content from 70 to as low as 9 ppm did not influence resistance to hot salt stress corrosion embrittlement or cracking.

Gray, H. R.

1972-01-01

100

61. VIEW OF SALT RIVER PROJECT WELL DISCHARGING WATER INTO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

61. VIEW OF SALT RIVER PROJECT WELL DISCHARGING WATER INTO THE ARIZONA CANAL NEAR 47TH AVENUE, LOOKING SOUTH Photographer: James Eastwood, July 1990 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

101

Study of Salt Wash Water Toxicity on Wastewater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research effort focused on evaluating the toxicity of the saline waste water generated from washing of Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) deicing trucks and to study the feasibility of discharging it into wastewater treatment plants. Performance of activated sludge treating wastewater under varying levels of salt concentration was studied by measuring the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), activated sludge oxygen

Mostafa F. Hashad; Surabhi Sharma; Loring F. Nies; James E. Alleman

2006-01-01

102

Detection of Plant Water Content with Needle-Type In-Situ Water Content Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A needle-type water content sensor with a polyethersulfone (PES) polymer membrane was developed for the low-invasive, direct in-situ measurement of plant water content (PWC) in prior work. In this paper we demonstrate a measurement of plant water stress that represents the demand for water of the plant and greatly affects its sweetness. We inserted the sensor into a stalk of strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) and soil. The variation in both the plant and the soil water content were successfully detected, which revealed the delay between variation in the plant water stress and soil water content after irrigation. Such delay could only be detected by the proposed sensor that could directly measure the variation of PWC in situ and continuously. The experiments also showed the variation in the signals as a function of detection sites and suggested that the detection sites of plant water stress need to be considered when the sensor is applied to irrigation culture.

Katayanagi, Hitoshi; Miki, Norihisa

103

Effects of water and salt level on rheological properties of ayran, a Turkish yoghurt drink  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ayran is a yoghurt drink traditionally manufactured by mixing yoghurt with water and salt. The effects of different levels of water and salt on the rheological properties and serum separation during storage of traditionally manufactured ayran were investigated. Ayran samples were prepared by the addition of water at levels of 30 or 50g100g?1 and salt at levels of 0, 0.5

Aysel Köksoy; Meral K?l?ç

2003-01-01

104

Profile of iodine content of salt at trader level in the selected districts of India: Part I - Madhya Pradesh.  

PubMed

Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) are endemic in Madhya Pradesh. Since consuming iodized salt is the best way to prevent IDD, the government of Madhya Pradesh under the National Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Program (NIDDCP) has followed a policy of universal salt iodization (USI) since 1984, under which the state's population receives only iodized salt. However, despite this policy, the prevalence of IDD remains high in Madhya Pradesh. UNICEF-PAMM-MI-WHO-ICCIDD recently recommended monitoring the iodine content of salt at the trader level as a means of assessing the quality of salt being consumed by the population. The authors assessed the iodine content and types of iodized salt being sold by traders in Bastar, Dhar, Indore, Morena, Ratlam, Shahdol, Sidhi, Sihore, and Vidisha districts. From each district, more than 7 salt samples were collected from traders in district and block markets. Analysis of a total 108 salt samples using the standard iodometric titration method found that all samples contained some iodine. 35% of the traders, however, were selling salt containing less than 15 ppm of iodine, below the state government recommended minimum level of salt iodization for the retail level. PMID:12292800

Kapil, U; Singh, C; Mathur, A; Ramachandran, S; Yadav, R

1997-01-01

105

Effects of sugar, salt and water on soybean oil quality during deep-frying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of flour dough components (water, sugar and salt) on soybean oil deterioration during deep-fat frying have been\\u000a investigated. Flour dough sheets made from flour and water were used as the carrier of salt and sugar. Several analyses, including\\u000a acid value, carbonyl value,p-anisidine value, color, dielectric constant, Fritest, total polar compounds and polymer content, were used to evaluate deterioration

Yan-Hwa Chu; Shiuan Luo

1994-01-01

106

APPLICATION OF TOUGH2\\/EWASG TO THE MODELLING OF SALT WATER INJECTION INTO A DEPLETED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR: PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TOUGH2\\/EWASG code is being applied to a numerical study of salt water injection into depleted vapour-dominated geothermal reservoirs. Our study investigates whether the injection of water with a sodium chloride content of 3.3% by weight (similar to that of seawater) for periods of 30 years would lead to conditions of permanent reduction of reservoir permeability, with the consequent negative

Claudio Calore; Alfredo Battistelli

2003-01-01

107

Water, Vapor, and Salt Dynamics in a Hot Repository  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a new model study examining the high temperature nuclear waste disposal concept at Yucca Mountain using MULTIFLUX, an integrated in-drift- and mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic model. The results show that a large amount of vapor flow into the drift is expected during the period of above-boiling temperatures. This phenomenon makes the emplacement drift a water/moisture attractor during the above-boiling temperature operation. The evaporation of the percolation water into the drift gives rise to salt accumulation in the rock wall, especially in the crown of the drift for about 1500 years in the example. The deposited salts over the drift footprint, almost entirely present in the fractures, may enter the drift either by rock fall or by water drippage. During the high temperature operation mode, the barometric pressure variation creates fluctuating relative humidity in the emplacement drift with a time period of approximately 10 days. Potentially wet and dry conditions and condensation on salt-laden drift wall sections may adversely affect the storage environment. Salt accumulations during the above-boiling temperature operation must be sufficiently addressed to fully understand the waste package environment during the thermal period. Until the questions are resolved, a below-boiling repository design is favored where the Alloy-22 will be less susceptible to localized corrosion. (authors)

Bahrami, Davood; Danko, George [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, 1664 N. Virginia St., Reno, NV, 89557 (United States); Walton, John [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University, El Paso, TX, 79968 (United States)

2007-07-01

108

Nature of yeast cells immobilized by radiation polymerization. Activity dependence on the water content of polymer carriers  

SciTech Connect

Higher activity of ethanol production due to higher density of yeast cells was observed in yeast cells immobilized with artificial polymer carriers of higher water content based on methoxypolyethyleneglycol methacrylate and 2-hydroxyethylacrylate. These polymer carriers were prepared by radiation-induced polymerization below 0 degrees C. Yeast cells were immobilized with these carriers by adsorption method during multiplication. Two possible reasons for higher activity were discussed. 10 references.

Fujimura, T.; Kaetsu, I.

1987-02-05

109

Dechlorination of chloroacetanilide herbicides by thiosulfate salts  

PubMed Central

Halogenated organic compounds (XOCs) are among the most widely used synthetic chemicals. Many XOCs are recalcitrant to natural degradation and have become prominent environmental contaminants. One group of such XOCs are the heavily used chloroacetanilide herbicides. We have found that chloroacetanilide herbicides are rapidly dechlorinated in water, sand, and soil by thiosulfate salts under ambient conditions. Structural and kinetics analysis suggests that the reaction occurred by SN2 nucleophilic substitution, in which the chlorine was replaced by thiosulfate and the herbicide was detoxified. Laboratory studies showed that this reaction could be used for removing residues of chloroacetanilide herbicides in water, soil, and sand. Our findings also suggest that some other XOCs may be subject to this reaction. Because common thiosulfate salts are innocuous products (e.g., fertilizers) and the reaction selectively detoxifies XOCs at low thiosulfate levels, this discovery may lead to a new way for safe removal of certain XOCs from the environment.

Gan, Jianying; Wang, Qiquan; Yates, Scott R.; Koskinen, William C.; Jury, William A.

2002-01-01

110

Correlation among cirrus ice content, water vapor and temperature in the TTL as observed by CALIPSO and Aura/MLS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water vapor in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) has a significant radiative cooling effect on the Earth's climate system. As a source for cirrus clouds, however, it can also indirectly produce infrared heating. The amount of water vapor in the TTL is strongly controlled by temperature (correlation r=0.94) with a seasonal cycle of ~1-2 ppm vmr in amplitude at 100 hPa and minimum values in Northern Hemisphere winter (December-January-February, DJF). Studying the A-Train CALIPSO cirrus and MLS water vapor measurements, we find that the cirrus seasonal cycle is highly (r=-0.9) anticorrelated with the water vapor variation in the TTL, showing higher cloud occurrence during DJF. We further investigate the anticorrelation on a regional scale and find that the high anticorrelation occurs generally in the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone). The seasonal cycle of the cirrus ice water content is also highly anticorrelated to water vapor (r=-0.91) and our results support the hypothesis that the total water is roughly constant in the TTL at 100 hPa. Temperature acts as a main regulator for balancing the partition between water vapor and cirrus clouds. Thus, to a large extent, the depleting water vapor in the TTL during DJF is a manifestation of cirrus formation.

Flury, T.; Wu, D. L.; Read, W. G.

2011-09-01

111

Pharmacokinetic interactions induced by content variation of major water-soluble components of Danshen preparation in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:To investigate the pharmacokinetic interactions induced by content variation of the main water-soluble components of Danshen injection in rats.Methods:Intravenous Danshen injection (control) or Danshen injection with danshensu (DSS), protocatechuic aldehyde (PAL), salvianolic acid A (Sal A) or salvianolic acid B (Sal B) were administered to female Sprague Dawley rats . Plasma concentrations of DSS, Sal A, PAL and its oxidative

Bo-bo Chang; Lin Zhang; Wan-wen Cao; Yuan Cao; Wen-liang Yang; Yan Wang; Yuan-cheng Chen; Xiao-quan Liu

2010-01-01

112

Integral Quantification of Soil Water Content at the Intermediate Catchment Scale by Ground Albedo Neutron Sensing (GANS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil water content at the plot or hill-slope scale is an important link between local vadose zone hydrology and catchment hydrology. However, so far only few methods are on the way to close this gap between point measurements and remote sensing. One new measurement methodology for integral quantifications of mean areal soil water content at the intermediate catchment scale is the aboveground sensing of cosmic-ray neutrons, more precisely ground albedo neutron sensing (GANS). Ground albedo natural neutrons, are generated by collisions of secondary cosmic rays with land surface materials (soil, water, biomass, snow, etc). Neutrons measured at the air/ground interface correlate with soil moisture contained in a footprint of ca. 600 m diameter and a depth ranging down to a few decimeters. This correlation is based on the crucial role of hydrogen as neutron moderator compared to others landscape materials. The present study performed ground albedo neutron sensing in different locations in Germany under different vegetative situations (cropped and bare field) and different seasonal conditions (summer, autumn and winter). Ground albedo neutrons were measured at (i) a farmland close to Potsdam (Brandenburg, Germany) cropped with corn in 2010 and sunflowers in 2011, and (ii) a mountainous farmland catchment (Schaefertal, Harz Mountains, Germany) in 2011. In order to test this method, classical soil moisture devices and meteorological data were used for comparison. Moreover, calibration approach, and transferability of calibration parameters to different times and locations are also evaluated. Our observations suggest that GANS can overcome the lack of data for hydrological processes at the intermediate scale. Soil water content from GANS compared quantitatively with mean water content values derived from a network of classical devices (RMSE = 0.02 m3/m3 and r2 = 0.98) in three calibration periods with cropped-field conditions. Then, same calibration parameters corresponded well under different field conditions. Moreover, GANS approach responded well to precipitation events in both experimental sites through summer and autumn, and soil water content estimations were affected by water stored in snow.

Rivera Villarreyes, C. A.; Baroni, G.; Oswald, S. E.

2012-04-01

113

Effects of Soil and Water Content on Methyl Bromide Oxidation by the Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea†  

PubMed Central

Little information exists on the potential of NH3-oxidizing bacteria to cooxidize halogenated hydrocarbons in soil. A study was conducted to examine the cooxidation of methyl bromide (MeBr) by an NH3-oxidizing bacterium, Nitrosomonas europaea, under soil conditions. Soil and its water content modified the availability of NH4+ and MeBr and influenced the relative rates of substrate (NH3) and cosubstrate (MeBr) oxidations. These observations highlight the complexity associated with characterizing soil cooxidative activities when soil and water interact to differentially affect substrate and cosubstrate availabilities.

Duddleston, Khrystyne N.; Bottomley, Peter J.; Porter, Angela; Arp, Daniel J.

2000-01-01

114

Water Content of Stratum Corneum in Vivo.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fresh cuttings of plantar corneum show a much higher water content than would be predicted from the in vitro studies on the minimal water content needed for a natural pliability and texture. A simple noninvasive, quantitative technique for assaying stratu...

K. K. Kraning E. Schibli S. Momii S. Campbell G. F. Odland

1975-01-01

115

Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Soil Water Content Distributions by Neutron Moderation  

SciTech Connect

Contaminant transport through the vadose zone is a complex process controlled largely by interactions between subsurface lithologic features, water flow, and fluid properties. Understanding the processes controlling transport is an important prerequisite to the development and implementation of effective soil and ground water remediation programs. However, difficulties in directly observing and sampling the subsurface can complicate attempts to better describe subsurface transport processes and is mostly responsible for the large amount of uncertainty associated with vadose zone processes. The reduction of the uncertainty has been identified as a site need at Hanford by the STCG and the National Research Council (2000a) and is a key aspect of the site?s science and technology effort.

Ward, Anderson L.; Caldwell, Todd G.; Gee, Glendon W.

2000-10-01

116

Salt-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction with water-miscible organic solvents for the determination of carbonyl compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

A simple and rapid method has been reported for the determination of carbonyl compounds involving reaction with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and extraction of hydrazones with water-miscible organic solvent acetonitrile when the phase separation occurs by addition of ammonium sulphate, a process called salt-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction. The extract was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection at 360 nm. The procedure has been optimized with respect to solvent suitable for extraction, salt for phase separation between water and organic solvent, reaction temperature and reaction time. The method has been validated when a linear dynamic range was obtained between the amount of analyte and peak area of hydrazones in the range 7 microg-15 mg L(-1), the correlation coefficient over 0.9964-0.9991, and the limit of detection in the range 0.58-3.2 microg L(-1). Spiked water samples have been analyzed with adequate accuracy, and application of the method has been demonstrated in the analysis of benzaldehyde formed as oxidation product in pharmaceutical preparation where benzyl alcohol is used as preservative, and for a keto drug dexketoprofen. PMID:19836515

Gupta, Manju; Jain, Archana; Verma, Krishna K

2009-12-15

117

Profile of iodine content of salt at trader level in the selected districts of India: Part II - Haryana.  

PubMed

Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) are endemic in Haryana state. Since consuming iodized salt is the best way to prevent IDD, the government of Haryana under the National Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Program (NIDDCP) has followed a policy of universal salt iodization (USI) since 1986, under which the state's population receives only iodized salt. However, despite this policy, the prevalence of IDD remains high in Haryana. UNICEF-PAMM-MI-WHO-ICCIDD recently recommended monitoring the iodine content of salt at the trader level as a means of assessing the quality of salt being consumed by the population. The authors assessed the iodine content and types of iodized salt being sold by traders in 13 of Haryana's 16 districts. Analysis of a total 117 salt samples from 117 traders using the standard iodometric titration method found all but one sample to contain some iodine. 20% of the traders, however, were selling salt containing less than 15 ppm of iodine, below the state government recommended minimum level of salt iodization for the retail level. PMID:12292802

Kapil, U; Nayar, D; Singh, C

1997-01-01

118

Separation of alcohol-water mixtures using salts  

SciTech Connect

Use of a salt (KF or Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) to induce phase separation of alcohol-water mixtures was investigated in three process flowsheets to compare operating and capital costs with a conventional distillation process. The process feed was the Clostridia fermentation product, composed of 98 wt % water and 2 wt % solvents (70% 1-butanol, 27% 2-propanol, and 3% ethanol). The design basis was 150 x 10/sup 6/ kg/y of solvents. Phase equilibria and tieline data were obtained from literature and experiments. Three separation-process designs were developed and compared by an incremental economic analysis (+-30%) with the conventional separation technique using distillation alone. The cost of salt recovery for recycle was found to be the critical feature. High capital and operating costs make recovery of salt by precipitation uneconomical; however, a separation scheme using multiple-effect evaporation for salt recovery has comparable incremental capital costs ($1.72 x 10/sup 6/ vs $1.76 x 10/sup 6/) and lower incremental operating costs ($2.14 x 10/sup 6//y vs $4.83 x 10/sup 6//y) than the conventional separation process.

Card, J. C.; Farrell, L. M.

1982-04-01

119

Mineral content and biochemical variables of Aloe vera L. under salt stress.  

PubMed

Despite the proven economic importance of Aloe vera, studies of saline stress and its effects on the biochemistry and mineral content in tissues of this plant are scarce. The objective of this study was to grow Aloe under NaCl stress of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM and compare: (1) proline, total protein, and enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP-case) in chlorenchyma and parenchyma tissues, and (2) ion content (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, Fe, P. N, Zn, B, Mn, and Cu) in roots, stems, leaves and sprouts. Proline and PEP-case increased as salinity increased in both parenchyma and chlorenchyma, while total protein increased in parenchyma and decreased in chlorenchyma, although at similar salt concentrations total protein was always higher in chlorenchyma. As salinity increased Na and Cl ions increased in roots, stems, leaves, while K decreased only significantly in sprouts. Salinity increases typically caused mineral content in tissue to decrease, or not change significantly. In roots, as salinity increased Mg decreased, while all other minerals failed to show a specific trend. In stems, the mineral concentrations that changed were Fe and P which increased with salinity while Cu decreased. In leaves, Mg, Mn, N, and B decreased with salinity, while Cu increased. In sprouts, the minerals that decreased with increasing salinity were Mg, Mn, and Cu. Zinc did not exhibit a trend in any of the tissues. The increase in protein, proline and PEP-case activity, as well as the absorption and accumulation of cations under moderate NaCl stress caused osmotic adjustment which kept the plant healthy. These results suggest that Aloe may be a viable crop for soil irrigated with hard water or affected by salinity at least at concentrations used in the present study. PMID:24736276

Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel Víctor; Villegas-Espinoza, Jorge Arnoldo; Hernández-Montiel, Luis Guillermo; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; García-Hernández, José Luis

2014-01-01

120

Heat and Salt Content Variability in the Arctic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic Ocean model simulations have revealed that the Arctic Ocean has a basin wide oscillation with cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation anomalies (Arctic Ocean Oscillation; AOO) which has a prominent decadal variability (Proshutinsky and Johnson, 1997). This study explores how the simulated AOO affects the Arctic Ocean stratification and its relationship to the sea ice cover variations. The simulation uses the Princeton Ocean Model coupled to sea ice (Hakkinen and Mellor, 1992; Hakkinen 1999). The surface forcing is based on NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis and its climatology, of which the latter is used to force the model spin-up phase of 20years. Primary focus is on the fresh water and heat content variability in association with the cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation anomalies, and how the AOO influence is distributed spatially. Competition between ocean dynamics and ice formation/melt on the fresh water anomalies is investigated to test the hypothesis put forward in Proshutinsky et al. (2002).

Hakkinen, S.; Proshutinsky, A.

2003-04-01

121

High-water-content mouldable hydrogels by mixing clay and a dendritic molecular binder.  

PubMed

With the world's focus on reducing our dependency on fossil-fuel energy, the scientific community can investigate new plastic materials that are much less dependent on petroleum than are conventional plastics. Given increasing environmental issues, the idea of replacing plastics with water-based gels, so-called hydrogels, seems reasonable. Here we report that water and clay (2-3 per cent by mass), when mixed with a very small proportion (<0.4 per cent by mass) of organic components, quickly form a transparent hydrogel. This material can be moulded into shape-persistent, free-standing objects owing to its exceptionally great mechanical strength, and rapidly and completely self-heals when damaged. Furthermore, it preserves biologically active proteins for catalysis. So far no other hydrogels, including conventional ones formed by mixing polymeric cations and anions or polysaccharides and borax, have been reported to possess all these features. Notably, this material is formed only by non-covalent forces resulting from the specific design of a telechelic dendritic macromolecule with multiple adhesive termini for binding to clay. PMID:20090750

Wang, Qigang; Mynar, Justin L; Yoshida, Masaru; Lee, Eunji; Lee, Myongsoo; Okuro, Kou; Kinbara, Kazushi; Aida, Takuzo

2010-01-21

122

Prediction of activity coefficients in liquid aerosol particles containing organic compounds, dissolved inorganic salts, and water—Part 3: Organic compounds, water, and ionic constituents by consideration of short-, mid-, and long-range effects using X-UNIFAC.3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-UNIFAC.3, a group contribution method for estimating activity coefficients of neutral and ionic components in liquid mixtures of organic compounds, inorganic salts, and water, is presented here. It is an extended UNIFAC method, in that traditional UNIFAC terms for short-range energetic interaction effects are extended to include ions as mixture components, and are combined with a Debye-Hückel long-range effect term and a second virial coefficient-type mid-range effect term. The method is formulated for application in modeling the formation of liquid aerosol particles consisting of general organic+inorganic salt+water solutions in which phase separation is likely to occur. Existing extended UNIFAC activity coefficient estimation methods can be problematic in modeling phase separation, since they require independent reference state corrections that may introduce significant errors. In X-UNIFAC.3, this problem is avoided by selecting appropriate reference states for all solution components, and imposing additional constraints on method parameters, when necessary, by inclusion of reference state correction terms within the activity coefficient expressions. Interaction parameters in the X-UNIFAC.3 equations are optimized for 12 different chemical groups (CH 3-, -CH 2-, -C|H-, -C||-, -OH, -COOH, H 2O, NH 4+, Na +, Cl -, NO3-, and SO42-) using available data for systems containing multi-functional oxygenated organic compounds and/or inorganic salts that are relevant to atmospheric aerosol applications. Estimations of water activities and mean ionic activity coefficients using X-UNIFAC.3 are compared with those of other extended UNIFAC methods. To demonstrate the use of X-UNIFAC.3 in predicting phase separation, the method is also applied to the butanoic acid+NaCl+water system, for which experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium data is available. The method performs well for aqueous salt solutions with salt concentrations within 30 mol kg -1 and for organic+inorganic salt+water solutions with salt concentrations less than or equal to 10 mol kg -1. Suggestions are proposed for improving the predictive capabilities of the method in future work.

Erdakos, Garnet B.; Chang, Elsa I.; Pankow, James F.; Seinfeld, John H.

123

Molecular dynamics study of salt-solution interface: Solubility and surface charge of salt in water.  

PubMed

The NaCl salt-solution interface often serves as an example of an uncharged surface. However, recent laser-Doppler electrophoresis has shown some evidence that the NaCl crystal is positively charged in its saturated solution. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have investigated the NaCl salt-solution interface system, and calculated the solubility of the salt using the direct method and free energy calculations, which are kinetic and thermodynamic approaches, respectively. The direct method calculation uses a salt-solution combined system. When the system is equilibrated, the concentration in the solution area is the solubility. In the free energy calculation, we separately calculate the chemical potential of NaCl in two systems, the solid and the solution, using thermodynamic integration with MD simulations. When the chemical potential of NaCl in the solution phase is equal to the chemical potential of the solid phase, the concentration of the solution system is the solubility. The advantage of using two different methods is that the computational methods can be mutually verified. We found that a relatively good estimate of the solubility of the system can be obtained through comparison of the two methods. Furthermore, we found using microsecond time-scale MD simulations that the positively charged NaCl surface was induced by a combination of a sodium-rich surface and the orientation of the interfacial water molecules. PMID:24735311

Kobayashi, Kazuya; Liang, Yunfeng; Sakka, Tetsuo; Matsuoka, Toshifumi

2014-04-14

124

Forested wetlands in freshwater and salt-water environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of data from over 50 freshwater and about 50 salt-water sites revealed that freshwater and salt-water forested wetlands exhibit parallel responses to hydrologic factors. Greater ecosystem complexity and productivity are associated with higher hydrologic energy and more fertile con- ditions (riverine > fringe 1 basin > dwarf = scrub). However, structural complexity is greater in freshwater forested wetlands

ARIEL E. LUGO; SANDRA BROWN; MARK M. BRINSON

1988-01-01

125

Identification and Control of Pollution from Salt Water Intrusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains informational guidelines for identifying and evaluating the nature and extent of pollution from salt water intrusion. The intent of these guidelines is to provide a basic framework for assessing salt water intrusion problems and their relationship to the total hydrologic system, and to provide assistance in developing…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

126

Temporal stability of soil water content in a small grassland head water catchment in western Germany observed by a wireless sensor network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil water content plays a key role in soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum process as well as the water, energy and CO2 budgets. The knowledge of spatial variability and temporal stability of soil water content is useful for the development of ground truthing strategies of remote sensing data and hydrological modeling. For this study we employed the wireless sensor network SoilNet developed by the Forschungszentrum Jülich to detect high resolution soil water content pattern of a grassland headwater catchment in Western Germany within the framework of the TERENO initiative. Soil water content was measured using newly developed time domain transmission sensors, which were installed in three depths (5, 20 and 50 cm). The mean relative difference is currently the principal tool for temporal stability analysis, which is computed by the individual measurements of soil water content at different locations in time. Sensor locations with a small mean relative difference provide a good estimation of the areal average of soil water content, whereas a small standard deviation indicates a great tendency of being temporally stable. This study showed that several locations for each depth are temporally stable but no location was found where all depths are equally temporal stable. Soil depth, soil properties such as soil porosity and soil hydraulic conductivity, root water uptake of the growing plants, and the time scale affected the temporal stability at the test site. With increasing soil depth, the standard deviation was decreasing, with a mean of the standard deviation from 1.79% to 0.87%, and a variance of the standard deviation from 0.58% to 0.19% . By increasing the time scale from 1 to 24 hour, the standard deviation was increasing as well, with a mean of the standard deviation from 2.7% to 9.8% and a variance of standard deviation from 1.9% to 5.7%. These findings are of relevance for applications of geospatial surface SWC assimilation in hydrologic modeling when only point-scale observations are available, as well as, remotely sensing surface SWC calibration and validation studies.

Qu, W.; Bogena, H.; Montzka, C.; Vereecken, H.

2012-04-01

127

Projected Impact of Climate Change on the Water and Salt Budgets of the Arctic Ocean by a Global Climate Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The annual flux of freshwater into the Arctic Ocean by the atmosphere and rivers is balanced by the export of sea ice and oceanic freshwater. Two 150-year simulations of a global climate model are used to examine how this balance might change if atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) increase. Relative to the control, the last 50-year period of the GHG experiment indicates that the total inflow of water from the atmosphere and rivers increases by 10% primarily due to an increase in river discharge, the annual sea-ice export decreases by about half, the oceanic liquid water export increases, salinity decreases, sea-ice cover decreases, and the total mass and sea-surface height of the Arctic Ocean increase. The closed, compact, and multi-phased nature of the hydrologic cycle in the Arctic Ocean makes it an ideal test of water budgets that could be included in model intercomparisons.

Miller, James R.; Russell, Gary L.

1996-01-01

128

Estimation of soil water repellency of different particle size fractions in relation with carbon content by different methods.  

PubMed

The water repellency of soils with different texture under different types of plant cover was determined by applying the WDPT and MED methods to both whole samples and the following size fractions: 2-1, 1-0.5, 0.5-0.25, 0.25-0.05 and <0.05 mm. Based on the results, the soils under maize crop and grassland, which were mostly wettable in the whole samples, exhibited water repellency in the finest fraction (<0.05 mm) as a result of its higher organic carbon content. On the other hand, all fractions in the forest soils, which were extremely water repellent, contributed to the overall repellency; in any case, the MED test revealed that the finest fraction was strongly repellent in the forest soils as well. PMID:17289118

Rodríguez-Alleres, María; de Blas, Esther; Benito, Elena

2007-05-25

129

Non-invasive measurement of water content in lung phantom by neutrons: latest improvements to the technique.  

PubMed

The novel technique for measuring the water content in lungs based on the slowing down of fast neutrons has been improved making possible its clinical use on patients. This goal has been reached by performing computer simulations that closely mimic the experimental setup and by acquiring a new set of measurements obtained with a plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be) neutron source provided of an activity suitable to clinical requirements. Finally, accurate radiation dose measurements have been carried out to ensure the acceptability of the technique. PMID:11725890

Campi, F; Dionigi, F

2001-12-01

130

Biomarkers of waterborne copper exposure in the guppy Poecilia vivipara acclimated to salt water.  

PubMed

The responses of a large suite of biochemical and genetic parameters were evaluated in tissues (liver, gills, muscle and erythrocytes) of the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara exposed to waterborne copper in salt water (salinity 24 ppt). Activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase), metallothionein-like protein concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated in liver, gills, and muscle. Comet assay score and nuclear abnormalities and micronucleated cell frequency were analyzed in peripheral erythrocytes. The responses of these parameters were evaluated in fish exposed (96 h) to environmentally relevant copper concentrations (5, 9 and 20 ?g L?¹). In control and copper-exposed fish, no mortality was observed over the experimental period. Almost all biochemical and genetic parameters proved to be affected by waterborne copper exposure. However, the response of catalase activity in liver, ROS, ACAP and LPO in muscle, gills and liver, and DNA damages in erythrocytes clearly showed to be dependent on copper concentration in salt water. Therefore, the use of these parameters could be of relevance in the scope of biomonitoring programs in salt water environments contaminated with copper. PMID:23721848

Machado, Anderson Abel de Souza; Hoff, Mariana Leivas Müller; Klein, Roberta Daniele; Cardozo, Janaina Goulart; Giacomin, Marina Mussoi; Pinho, Grasiela Lopes Leães; Bianchini, Adalto

2013-08-15

131

Determination of liquid water content and dielectric constant in porous media by the capacitive method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A capacitive sensor-based apparatus has been settled to determine the liquid water amount and dielectric constant in consolidated porous media. This technique relies on the dielectric properties of water, air, and mineral substrate. The experimental procedure is described for successively oven-dried samples at 323 K. It allows us to determine the sample dielectric constant as a function of the sample water amount. For limestones from Caen region, an affine relationship is found at 293 K. This is then compared with other empirical soils data and with existing homogeneisation techniques applied to undeformable heterogeneous dielectrics. To cite this article: T. Fen-Chong et al., C. R. Mecanique 332 (2004).

Fen-Chong, Teddy; Fabbri, Antonin; Guilbaud, Jean-Pierre; Coussy, Olivier

2004-08-01

132

Determination of Water Content in Automobile Lubricant Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Improved by Machine Learning Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this paper is to determine the water content of automobile lubricant based on the near-infrared (NIR) spectra collected and to observe whether NIR spectroscopy could be used for predicting water content. Least square support vector machine (LS-SVM), back-propagation neural networks (BPNN) and Gaussian processes regression (GPR) were employed to develop prediction models. There were 150 samples

Zhao Yun; Xu Xing; Jiang Lu-lu; Zhang Yu; Tan Li-hong; He Yong

2010-01-01

133

Discerning total salt contents and surface humidity on building stone with a portable moisture meter (Protimeter) in the region of Petra (Jordan)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water and moisture are some of the main decay agents of building stone and, in general of any stone structure. Several non-invasive methods are used to quantify moisture in building stone, many of them based on the fact that moist stone presents different electrical properties than dry stone. This is the case of resistance-based sensing equipment, such as "Protimeter" portable moisture meters. Although originally designed to measure moisture contents in wood, this sensing equipment is commonly used to measure the so-called "Wood Moisture Equivalent" (WME) in other building materials, such stone and mortar. However, this type of resistance-based sensors pose a degree of uncertainty, as there are other factors that modify electrical properties, such as porosity and salt content. When assessing the overall state of decay of a structure, it might not be crucial, in some cases, to discern between salt and water content: both high moisture levels and high salt content give high WME values, and both are usually related to areas with overall poor state of conservation and/or more prone to decay. However, discerning these two factors is crucial when trying to understand the dynamics of how some decay patterns are formed. This is the case of surface runoff in vertical façades and how it leads to the formation of alveoli and tafoni through salt weathering. Surface runoff and associated salt weathering are among the main decay processes found at the archaeological site of Petra (Jordan) and its understanding is of paramount importance for the conservation of this site. Some "Protimeter" sensors include a capacitance sensor in addition to the usual resistance sensing pins, which allows to measure sub-surface electrical properties. This paper presents results on how the combination of these two measurement modes could be used to discern if high WME values are caused by high surface humidity or by high salt contents in the context of Surface runoff and associated salt weathering. Research funded by AECID (PCI A/032184/10)

Gomez-Heras, M.; Wedekind, W.; Lopez-Arce, P.

2012-04-01

134

Water Dynamics, Ice Stability, and Salts in Victoria Valley Soils, Antarctica: An Instructive Analog for Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typical of many hyper arid soils of the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, soils in Victoria Valley contain ~10% ice (at 0.3 m depth) and ~0.4% salt, mostly calcium and sodium sulfates and chlorides, making them excellent analogs to Martian soils. Vapor diffusion models designed to investigate ground ice dynamics on Mars are not entirely satisfactory because they lead to the unrealistic expectation that soils in Antarctica should be ice free within a 1000 years of being saturated with ice, and yet even ancient soils characteristically contain abundant ice near the surface. Validation of these diffusion models has been limited because of the paucity of field based climate and soil climate data. Moreover the models ignore the significant effects of snow cover, surface melt water and salts on vapor fluxes. To better understand the presence and stability of the shallow subsurface ice we are exploring the effect of snow cover and salts on vapor fluxes. Ice stability was investigated using high-resolution climate and soil temperature data from 2002 to 2005. According to the vapor diffusion model ice sublimates at an average rate of 0.22 mm a-1, corresponding to an ice recession of ~1.3 mm a-1 for soil with 10% ice content. Some of the water vapor is transported to the atmosphere; however, some water vapor accumulates at depth in the soil. Furthermore, snow cover during the summer may substantially reduce annual ice loss. Stable isotopes (?18O & ?D) in ice along a 1.6m vertical soil profile reveal a deuterium excess (-13 to -77 ‰) with the greatest enrichment of heavy isotopes at the top of the ice cement and decreasing with depth to form a concave-down profile. This isotopic profile was interpreted using a quantitative model of H2O transport in perennially frozen soil, including the advection-dispersion of heavy isotope- enriched surface water into the ice-cement. It suggests an average infiltration rate of 0.7 mm a-1 of brine if 2.5% of the H2O present is unfrozen, a quantity supported by salt concentration and the temperature record. According to the solute content and temperature of these soils and phase equilibria, sulfates mostly gypsum (CaSO4 2H2O), and mirabilite (Na2SO4 10H2O) are present in dry and ice rich soils. Dry soils, due to hydration have the potential to store 7.5 mm of water in the top 0.22 m of dry soil. Both the sublimation and advection-dispersion model suggest that summer snow events significantly affect ice stability. More realistic estimates of the effect of snow on the annual sublimation rates require field data on the timing and duration of snow cover, and the formation of snowmelt water and surface recharge of subsurface ice. The abundance of hydrated salts in dry soils and first measurements of contrasting water contents at different humidities strongly suggests that the role of salts in the storage and transport of H2O in cold, dry soils needs to be evaluated. This seems to be even more important as recent investigation on Mars indicate that the hydrological cycle on Mars may have been strongly influenced by dehydration reactions of sulfate salts.

Hagedorn, B.; Sletten, R. S.; Hallet, B.

2006-12-01

135

Soil water content and evaporation determined by thermal parameters obtained from ground-based and remote measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soil water contents from both smooth and rough bare soil were estimated from remotely sensed surface soil and air temperatures. An inverse relationship between two thermal parameters and gravimetric soil water content was found for Avondale loam when its water content was between air-dry and field capacity. These parameters, daily maximum minus minimum surface soil temperature and daily maximum soil minus air temperature, appear to describe the relationship reasonably well. These two parameters also describe relative soil water evaporation (actual/potential). Surface soil temperatures showed good agreement among three measurement techniques: in situ thermocouples, a ground-based infrared radiation thermometer, and the thermal infrared band of an airborne multispectral scanner.

Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B.; Jackson, R. D.; Vedder, J. F.; Blanchard, M. B.; Goettelman, R.

1976-01-01

136

Water-vapor content in the atmosphere of arid zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variation in water-vapor content W in the atmosphere of the arid zone is studied. The seasonal oscillations in W for the arid zone are characterized by changes in the moisture content from 2.3 to 3.6 times during the transition from winter to summer. The summer-fall period is characterized by a well-expressed midday minimum of moisture content. In winter the moisture content monotonically decreases during the day. In spring the water-vapor content has a wide maximum in midday. The water-vapor content in the atmosphere during dust haze increases up to two times.

Abdullaev, S. F.; Maslov, V. A.; Nazarov, B. I.; Salikhov, T. Kh.

2014-03-01

137

24-Epibrassinolide regulates photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content of Cucumis sativus under salt and/or copper stress.  

PubMed

Brassinosteroids have been extensively used to overcome various abiotic stresses. But its role in combined stress of salt and excess copper remains unexplored. Seeds of two cultivars (Rocket and Jumbo) of Cucumis sativus were grown in sand amended with copper (100 mg kg(-1)), and developed seedlings were exposed to salt stress in the form of NaCl (150 mM) at the 30-day stage of growth for 3 days. These seedlings were subsequently sprayed with 0 or 0.01 ?M of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) at the 35-day stage. The plants exposed to NaCl and Cu in combination exhibited a significant decline in fresh and dry mass of plant, chlorophyll content, activities of carbonic anhydrase, net photosynthetic rate and maximum quantum yield of the PSII primary photochemistry followed by NaCl and Cu stress alone, more severely in Jumbo than in Rocket. However, the follow-up treatment with EBL to the stressed and nonstressed plant improved growth, chlorophyll content, carbonic anhydrase activity and photosynthetic efficiency, and further enhanced the activity of various antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and content of proline at the 40-day stage of growth, and the response of the hormone was more effective in Rocket than in Jumbo. The elevated level of antioxidant enzymes as well as proline could have conferred tolerance to the NaCl- and/or Cu-stressed plants resulting in improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activity and proline content were more enhanced in Rocket than in Jumbo cultivar. PMID:23443638

Fariduddin, Q; Khalil, Radwan R A E; Mir, Bilal A; Yusuf, M; Ahmad, A

2013-09-01

138

Surveys of the salt content in UK bread: progress made and further reductions possible  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore the salt reductions made over time in packaged bread sold in the UK, the biggest contributor of salt to the UK diet. Study design Cross-sectional surveys were carried out on the salt content of breads available in UK supermarkets in 2001(40 products), 2006 (138) and 2011 (203). Main outcome measures The primary outcome measure was the change in salt content per 100?g over time. Further measures included the proportion of products meeting salt targets and differences between brands and bread types. Results The average salt level of bread was 1.23±0.19?g/100?g in 2001, 1.05±0.16 in 2006 and 0.98±0.13 in 2011. This shows a reduction in salt/100?g of ?20% between 2001 and 2011. In the 18 products which were surveyed in all 3?years, there was a significant reduction of 17% (p<0.05). Supermarket own brand bread was found to be lower in salt compared with branded bread (0.95?g/100?g compared with 1.04?g/100?g in 2011). The number of products meeting the 2012 targets increased from 28% in 2001 to 71% in 2011 (p<0.001). Conclusions This study shows that the salt content of bread has been progressively reduced over time, contributing to the evidence base that a target-based approach to salt reduction can lead to reductions being made. A wide variation in salt levels was found with many products already meeting the 2012 targets, indicating that further reductions can be made. This requires further progressive lower targets to be set, so that the UK can continue to lead the world in salt reduction and save the maximum number of lives.

Brinsden, Hannah C; He, Feng J; Jenner, Katharine H; MacGregor, Graham A

2013-01-01

139

Extraction of Vanadium from Campo Alegre de Lourdes (BA, Brazil) Fe-Ti-V Ore by Partial Reduction/Magnetic Concentration/Salt Roasting/Hot Water Leaching.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A process under development at COPPE/UFRJ to rocover vanadium from a titaniferous magnetite type ore from Campo Alegre de Lourdes (Bahia, Brazil), throxgh magnetizing roasting/magnetic concentration/salt roasting/hot water leaching, is described. The resu...

E. M. Alcantara T. Ogasawara F. T. Silva E. F. Fontes

1988-01-01

140

Bulk, surface properties and water uptake mechanisms of salt/acid amorphous composite systems.  

PubMed

Developing amorphous pharmaceuticals can be desirable due to advantageous biopharmaceutical properties. Low glass transition temperature (Tg) amorphous drugs can be protected from crystallisation by mixing with high Tg excipients, such as polymers, or with salt forms. However, both polymers and salts can enhance the water uptake. The aim of this study was to formulate physico-chemically stable amorphous materials, by co-processing different proportions of sulfathiazole and its sodium salt to produce an optimum ratio, characterised by the best physical stability and lowest hygroscopicity. Both sulfathiazole and salt amorphised upon spray drying. At room temperature, sulfathiazole crystallised within 1h at <5% relative humidity while the salt deliquesced when exposed to ambient humidity conditions. In the case of composite systems, FTIR spectroscopy, thermal and surface analysis suggested interactions with an acid:salt stoichiometry of 1:2. Increasing proportions of salt raised the Tg, enhancing the storage stability, however this was opposed by an enhanced hygroscopicity. The water uptake mechanism within the different amorphous systems, analysed by fitting the water sorption isotherms with the Young and Nelson equation, was dependent on the ratio employed, with the salt and the acid facilitating absorption and adsorption, respectively. Tuning the properties of amorphous salt/acid composites by optimising the ratio appears potentially promising to improve the physical stability of amorphous formulations. PMID:23948137

Bianco, Stefano; Tewes, Frederic; Tajber, Lidia; Caron, Vincent; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie

2013-11-01

141

Preparation and Characterisation of Titanium Dioxide Produced from Ti-salt Flocculated Sludge in Water Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past few years, titanium salts were investigated as alternative coagulants for the removal of organic matter of different molecular sizes in contaminated water. The flocculation efficiency of Ti-salt was comparable to those of FeCl3 and Al2(SO4)3 salts, commonly used coagulants. Incinerated sludge-TiO2 showed higher surface area and photocatalytic activity than commercially available TiO2. Metal-doped forms were produced by

Hokyong Shon; Yousef Okour; Ibrahim El Saliby; Jun Park; Dong-Lyun Cho; Jong Beom Kim; Hee Ju Park; Jong-Ho Kim

142

Responses of common and successional heathland species to manipulated salt spray and water availability.  

PubMed

Coastal sandplain heathlands are a rare plant community in the northeastern United States. Salt spray and water availability are likely important factors determining heathland distribution. Field surveys and manipulative experiments were performed to examine heathland species' responses to salt spray and water availability. We surveyed field distributions of four typical heathland species: Solidago puberula, Solidago rugosa, Gaylussacia baccata, and Myrica pensylvanica. The distributions of two native tree species, Pinus rigida and Quercus ilicifolia, were also surveyed because they succeed into coastal heathlands with low disturbance frequency. We then manipulated salt spray and water in the field and measured species' water status, necrosis, and growth responses to the treatments. Predawn xylem pressure potential and necrosis were strongly affected by high salt spray and low water availability. Shoot elongation was also limited in S. puberula and S. rugosa grown in high salt, low water treatments. Gaylussacia baccata and Q. ilicifolia were particularly sensitive to high salt spray and low water, suggesting that they might excluded be from areas with those conditions. The interaction between salt spray and water availability could affect the landscape scale and should be incorporated into conservation management plans. PMID:21653348

Griffiths, Megan E; Orians, Colin M

2003-12-01

143

First data on the uranium content in water of the Yenisei River basin in the area affected by the operation of Rosatom plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is devoted to investigating the content of uranium isotopes in water of the Yenisei River and its tributaries within the territories affected by the operation of Rosatom plants (mining chemical combine, and electrochemical plant). Long-term monitoring of the 238U content by mass spectrometry carried out in two institutes of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

A. Ya. Bolsunovskii; A. M. Zhizhaev; A. I. Saprykin; A. G. Degermendzhi; A. I. Rubailo

2011-01-01

144

Breadboard wash water renovation system. [using ferric chloride and ion exchange resins to remove soap and dissolved salts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A total wash water renovation system concept was developed for removing objectionable materials from spacecraft wash water in order to make the water reusable. The breadboard model system described provides for pretreatment with ferric chloride to remove soap by chemical precipitation, carbon adsorption to remove trace dissolved organics, and ion exchange for removal of dissolved salts. The entire system was put into continuous operation and carefully monitored to assess overall efficiency and equipment maintenance problems that could be expected in actual use. In addition, the capacity of the carbon adsorbers and the ion-exchange resin was calculated and taken into consideration in the final evaluation of the system adequacy. The product water produced was well within the Tentative Wash Water Standards with regard to total organic carbon, conductivity, urea content, sodium chloride content, color, odor, and clarity.

1978-01-01

145

Errors in determination of soil water content using time domain reflectometry caused by soil compaction around waveguides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of time domain reflectometry (TDR) in soil hydrology often involves the conversion of TDR-measured dielectric permittivity to water content using universal calibration equations (empirical or physically based). Deviations of soil-specific calibrations from the universal calibrations have been noted and are usually attributed to peculiar composition of soil constituents, such as high content of clay and\\/or organic matter. Although it

Teamrat A. Ghezzehei

2008-01-01

146

High Salt Diets, Bone Strength and Mineral Content of Mature Femur After Skeletal Unloading  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is known that high salt diets increase urinary calcium (Ca) loss, but it is not known whether this effect weakens bone during space flight. The Bone Hormone Lab has studied the effect of high salt diets on Ca balance and whole body Ca in a space flight model (2,8). Neither the strength nor mineral content of the femurs from these studies has been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of high salt diets (HiNa) and skeletal unloading on femoral bone strength and bone mineral content (BMC) in mature rats.

Liang, Michael T. C.

1998-01-01

147

A case of fatal salt water intoxication following an exorcism session.  

PubMed

In response to a recent article published in this review, we present in this paper, an unusual case of fatal salt water intoxication. In this case, we point out three special features, the type of water ingested, the physiopathologic consequences of the ingestion and the very strange context of occurrence. This complex case allows us to point out complications due to salt poisoning and others caused by water intoxication. PMID:10069018

Hédouin, V; Révuelta, E; Bécart, A; Tournel, G; Deveaux, M; Gosset, D

1999-01-01

148

Impact of the analytical blank in the uncertainty evaluation of the copper content in waters by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.  

PubMed

Chemical analysts use analytical blanks in their analyses, but seldom is this source of uncertainty evaluated. Generally, there is great confusion. Although the numerical value of the blank, in some situations, can be negligible, its source of uncertainty cannot be. This article discusses the uncertainty contribution of the analytical blank using a numerical example of the copper content in waters by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicate that the uncertainties of the analytical blank can contribute up to 50% when the blank sample is considered in this analysis, confirming its high impact. This effect can be primarily observed where the analyte concentration approaches the lower range of the analytical curve. Even so, the blank is not always computed. Therefore, the relevance of the analytical blank can be confirmed by uncertainty evaluation. PMID:22649945

de Oliveira, Elcio Cruz; Monteiro, Maria Inês Couto; Pontes, Fernanda Veronesi Marinho; de Almeida, Marcelo Dominguez; Carneiro, Manuel Castro; da Silva, Lílian Irene Dias; Alcover Neto, Arnaldo

2012-01-01

149

Water deficit and salt stress diagnosis through LED induced chlorophyll fluorescence analysis in Jatropha curcas L.  

PubMed

LED induced chlorophyll fluorescence analysis is employed to investigate the effect of water deficit and salt stress upon the growth process of Jatropha curcas L.. Red(Fr) and far-red(FFr) chlorophyll fluorescence around 685 nm and 735 nm, respectively, were observed and examined as a function of the stress intensity(salt concentration and water deficit). The fluorescence ratio Fr/FFr which is a valuable nondestructive and nonintrusive indicator of the chlorophyll content of leaves was exploited to monitor the jatropha plants under stress. The data indicated that salinity plays a minor role in the chlorophyll concentration of leaves for NaCl concentrations in the 25 to 200 mM range. The fluorescence ratio also permitted the detection of damage caused by water deficit in the early stages of the plants growing process. A significant variation of the Fr/FFr ratio was observed in the first 10 days of the experiment, and before signs of visual stress became apparent. The results suggest that the Fr/FFr ratio is an early-warning indicator of water deficit stress. PMID:22051983

Silva, E A; Gouveia-Neto, A S; Oliveira, R A; Moura, D S; Cunha, P C; Costa, E B; Câmara, T J R; Willadino, L G

2012-03-01

150

Movement of Salt and Nitrate in Shallow Groundwater in California's Central Valley - Large Scale Water, Salt, and Nitrate Balance Calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large-scale analysis of salt and nitrate was performed for the shallow groundwater aquifer of the entire California Central Valley floor (about 20,000 square miles). This analysis combined many different platforms of data in order to complete water and mass balance calculations. Groundwater and surface water quality test data were used in combination with mass loading from a watershed model (the Environmental Protection Agency's Watershed Analysis Risk Management Framework, or WARMF), as well as an integrated hydrologic model that simulates the use and movement of water coupled between the landscape, surface water, and groundwater (the U.S. Geological Survey's Central Valley Hydrologic Model, or CVHM). For this analysis, the Central Valley floor was divided into 22 zones, and the movement of shallow groundwater, surface water, salt, and nitrate was simulated in, out, and between the zones on a quarterly basis for a 20-year simulation period. In this analysis, shallow groundwater is defined by an estimate of the vertical distance water will travel from the water table within 20 years. Fluxes of mass from deep ambient groundwater and ambient surface water quality were estimated from measured concentration data. Quantities of mass were acquired for recharge (from WARMF output) or calculated using concentrations and other water budget components. Flow and volume components were extracted by post-processing CVHM output data. This resulted in a transient water, salt, and nitrate budget for each of the 22 zones. Simulated shallow groundwater concentrations were calculated to investigate water quality trends for the Central Valley. Four zones were identified as areas with the highest concentrations of salt (TDS) in the southwestern portion of the Central Valley; and six zones were identified as areas with the highest nitrate concentrations, mostly in the southeastern portion of the Valley. Additional analyses intended to shift from the large-scale balance calculations to a higher resolution analysis of the movement of water, salt, and nitrate was performed as a 'proof of concept' for two focus areas located in Stanislaus/Merced Counties and the Kings Subbasin, using MODPATH and MODPATH-OBS. Particle tracking was employed for both focus areas to observe the movement of water, salt, and nitrate from recharge zones to monitored wells, or on a cell-by-cell/layer-by-layer basis.

Dalgish, B. A.; Boyle, D.; Kretsinger Grabert, V. J.

2013-12-01

151

A Non-Destructive Method for Determining the Distribution of Soil Water Content by Measuring Fast Neutron Transmission Using an NE-213 Organic Scintillator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method of measuring the water content distribution in a soil layer packed in a column, using fast neutron transmission, has been developed. The calibration curve of the water content was obtained from the rate of decrease of fast neutrons per unit of water content. An NE-213 organic scintillator (2'' in diameter × 2'' in length) and Cf-252(273 ?Ci) were used as the fast neutron detector and neutron source respectively. The distribution curve of soil water content obtained by the present method was consistent with that obtained by the destructive drying method. The NE-213 scintillator was superior to other conventional detectors (3He, BF3 counter) in measurement accuracy, spatial resolution and measurement sensitivity. The relative error and sensitivity of the present method are discussed in detail in this report.

Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Wadachi, Yoshiki

1984-08-01

152

Excess Salt Increases Infarct Size Produced by Photothrombotic Distal Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats  

PubMed Central

Cerebral circulation is known to be vulnerable to high salt loading. However, no study has investigated the effects of excess salt on focal ischemic brain injury. After 14 days of salt loading (0.9% saline) or water, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were subjected to photothrombotic middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and infarct volume was determined at 48 h after MCAO: albumin and hemoglobin contents in discrete brain regions were also determined in SHR. Salt loading did not affect blood pressure levels in SHR and WKY. After MCAO, regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), determined with two ways of laser-Doppler flowmetry (one-point measurement or manual scanning), was more steeply decreased in the salt-loaded group than in the control group. In SHR/Izm, infarct volume in the salt-loaded group was 112±27 mm3, which was significantly larger than 77±12 mm3 in the control group (p?=?0.002), while the extents of blood-brain barrier disruption (brain albumin and hemoglobin levels) were not affected by excess salt. In WKY, salt loading did not significantly increase infarct size. These results show the detrimental effects of salt loading on intra-ischemic CBF and subsequent brain infarction produced by phototrhombotic MCAO in hypertensive rats.

Yao, Hiroshi; Nabika, Toru

2014-01-01

153

Clay mineralogy and cation exchange capacity of Brazilian soils from water contents determined by thermal analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clay size fraction of subtropical soils is dominated by kaolinite, gibbsite, iron oxides, and small amounts of 2:1 clay minerals. Among these minerals, it is more difficult to quantify the presence of the 2:1 clay minerals where kaolinite is the dominant clay mineral present. Thermal analyses of 56 size clay size fractions, free of iron oxides, developed on magmatic

Antonio Carlos S Costa; Jerry M Bigham; Cássio A Tormena; José Carlos Pintro

2004-01-01

154

Impact of Salt and Water on Protein Structural Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is known as the lubricant of life. Without water, most proteins would lose their biological functions. Extensive studies have been carried out on how high concentration salts (dissolved in water) alter the stability and solubility of proteins. Such effects are thought to be mediated via salt-water interactions and water-protein interactions. This classic research field is known as the Hofmeister Series. We report the effects of Hofmeister Salts on the structural dynamics of proteins. Photoactive yellow protein (PYP), a bacterial blue light photoreceptor protein, is employed as a model system in this study. Time-resolved FTIR spectroscopic techniques allow us to probe the structural changes in proteins. Our data reveal that high concentration salt solutions alter the proton transfer pathway and suppress conformational changes in PYP upon photo-excitation. This study opens up a new dimension in the field of Hofmeister series. Further theoretical and experimental studies are needed in order to understand the dynamic properties of salt-water interactions and water-protein interactions.

Thubagere, Anu; Kelemen, Lorand; Nie, Beining; Kaledhonkar, Sandip; Xie, Aihua

2008-03-01

155

Hydrogeology and Simulated Ground-Water Flow in the Salt Pond Region of Southern Rhode Island  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Salt Pond region of southern Rhode Island extends from Westerly to Narragansett Bay and forms the natural boundary between the Atlantic Ocean and the shallow, highly permeable freshwater aquifer of the South Coastal Basin. Large inputs of fresh ground water coupled with the low flushing rates to the open ocean make the salt ponds particularly susceptible to eutrophication and bacterial contamination. Ground-water discharge to the salt ponds is an important though poorly quantified source of contaminants, such as dissolved nutrients. A ground-water-flow model was developed and used to delineate the watersheds to the salt ponds, including the areas that contribute ground water directly to the ponds and the areas that contribute ground water to streams that flow into ponds. The model also was used to calculate ground-water fluxes to these coastal areas for long-term average conditions. As part of the modeling analysis, adjustments were made to model input parameters to assess potential uncertainties in model-calculated watershed delineations and in ground-water discharge to the salt ponds. The results of the simulations indicate that flow to the salt ponds is affected primarily by the ease with which water is transmitted through a glacial moraine deposit near the regional ground-water divide, and by the specified recharge rate used in the model simulations. The distribution of the total freshwater flow between direct ground-water discharge and ground-water-derived surface-water (streamflow) discharge to the salt ponds is affected primarily by simulated stream characteristics, including the streambed-aquifer connection and the stream stage. The simulated position of the ground-water divide and, therefore, the model-calculated watershed delineations for the salt ponds, were affected only by changes in the transmissivity of the glacial moraine. Selected changes in other simulated hydraulic parameters had substantial effects on total freshwater discharge and the distribution of direct ground-water discharge and ground-water-derived surface-water (streamflow) discharge to the salt ponds, but still provided a reasonable match to the hydrologic data available for model calibration. To reduce the uncertainty in predictions of watershed areas and ground-water discharge to the salt ponds, additional hydrogeologic data would be required to constrain the model input parameters that have the greatest effect on the simulation results.

Masterson, John P.; Sorenson, Jason R.; Stone, Janet R.; Moran, S. Bradley; Hougham, Andrea

2007-01-01

156

Assessment of drinking water radioactivity content by liquid scintillation counting: set up of high sensitivity and emergency procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our institute, different procedures have been developed to measure the radioactivity content of drinking water both in normal and in emergency situations, such as those arising from accidental and terrorist events. A single radiometric technique, namely low level liquid scintillation counting (LSC), has been used. In emergency situations a gross activity screening is carried out without any sample treatment

R. Rusconi; A. Azzellino; S. Bellinzona; M. Forte; R. Gallini; G. Sgorbati

2004-01-01

157

On chlorine salts: Their detection, stability and implications for water on Mars and Europa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chlorine salts (e.g. chlorides, chlorates and perchlorates) are an important factor in the stability of water on the surfaces of planetary bodies. Here we have shown that perchlorate and chlorate salts will lower the freezing point of water, allowing it to be liquid down to ~204 K. These salts will also slow down the evaporation rate, extending the lifetime of the liquid water solution. Chlorine salts have been detected on Mars, which has significant implications for the stability of water and hence its habitability. To study their effects on the stability of water on planetary surfaces, we need to first locate where these chlorine salts exist; this is typically done by remote sensing. To date, only anhydrous chlorides have been remotely detected, mostly due to the lack of hydrated chlorine salts in the spectral libraries used to identify features. To address this deficit, we measured reflectance spectra for numerous chlorine salts. Hydration bands were most common in near-infrared spectra, with band depth and width increasing with increasing hydration state. In the mid-infrared, oxychlorine salts exhibit spectral features due to Cl-O vibrations. We also investigated the spectral features of these salts at low temperature (80 K) to compare with remote sensing data of the outer satellites, specifically Europa. At low temperature, water bands become narrower and shallower than their room temperature counterparts. We show that chlorine salts do possess distinct spectral features that should allow for their detection by remote sensing, though care must be taken to acquire laboratory spectra of all hydrated phases at the relevant conditions (e.g. temperature, pressure) for the planetary body being studied.

Hanley, Jennifer

158

Genetic analysis of physiological components of salt tolerance conferred by Solanum rootstocks. What is the rootstock doing for the scion?  

PubMed

Grafting desirable crop varieties on stress-tolerant rootstocks provides an opportunity to increase crop salt tolerance. Here, a commercial hybrid tomato variety was grafted on two populations of recombinant inbred lines developed from a salt-sensitive genotype of Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme, as female parent, and two salt-tolerant lines, as male parents, from S. pimpinellifolium, the P population, and S. cheesmaniae, the C population, to identify an easy screening method for identifying rootstocks conferring salt tolerance in terms of fruit yield. Potential physiological components of salt tolerance were assessed in the scion: leaf biomass, [Na(+)], nutrition, water relations and xylem ABA concentration. A significant correlation between scion fruit yield and scion leaf fresh weight, water potential or the ABA concentration was found in the C population under salinity, but the only detected QTL did not support this relationship. The rootstocks of the P population clearly affected seven traits related to the sodium, phosphorous and copper concentrations and water content of the scion leaf, showing heritability estimates around 0.4 or higher. According to heritability estimates in the P population, up to five QTLs were detected per trait. QTLs contributing over 15% to the total variance were found for P and Cu concentrations and water content of the scion leaf, and the proportion of fresh root weight. Correlation and QTL analysis suggests that rootstock-mediated improvement of fruit yield in the P population under salinity is mainly explained by the rootstock's ability to minimise perturbations in scion water status. PMID:20180091

Asins, M J; Bolarín, M C; Pérez-Alfocea, F; Estañ, M T; Martínez-Andújar, C; Albacete, A; Villalta, I; Bernet, G P; Dodd, Ian C; Carbonell, E A

2010-06-01

159

Sorption of hydrophobic pesticides on a Mediterranean soil affected by wastewater, dissolved organic matter and salts.  

PubMed

Irrigation with treated wastewaters as an alternative in countries with severe water shortage may influence the sorption of pesticides and their environmental effects, as wastewater contains higher concentrations of suspended and dissolved organic matter and inorganic compounds than freshwater. We have examined the sorption behaviour of three highly hydrophobic pesticides (the herbicide pendimethalin and the insecticides ?-cypermethrin and deltamethrin) on a Mediterranean agricultural soil using the batch equilibration method. We considered wastewater, extracts from urban sewage sludge with different dissolved organic carbon contents, and inorganic salt solutions, using Milli Q water as a control. All pesticides were strongly retained by soil although some sorption occurred on the walls of the laboratory containers, especially when wastewater and inorganic salt solutions were used. The calculation of distribution constants by measuring pesticide concentrations in soil and solution indicated that pendimethalin sorption was not affected whereas ?-cypermethrin and deltamethrin retention were significantly enhanced (ca. 5 and 2 times, respectively) when wastewater or salt solutions were employed. We therefore conclude that the increased sorption of the two pesticides caused by wastewater cannot be only the result of its dissolved organic carbon content, but also of the simultaneous presence of inorganic salts in the solution. PMID:20980092

Rodríguez-Liébana, José A; Mingorance, Ma Dolores; Peña, Aránzazu

2011-03-01

160

ALUMINUM BIOAVAILABILITY FROM DRINKING WATER IS VERY LOW AND IS NOT APPRECIABLY INFLUENCED BY STOMACH CONTENTS OR WATER HARDNESS. (R825357)  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives were to estimate aluminum (Al) oral bioavailability under conditions that model its consumption in drinking water, and to test the hypotheses that stomach contents and co-administration of the major components of hard water affect Al absorption. Rats received intra...

161

Characterization of Cloud Water-Content Distribution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of realistic cloud parameterizations for climate models requires accurate characterizations of subgrid distributions of thermodynamic variables. To this end, a software tool was developed to characterize cloud water-content distributions in climate-model sub-grid scales. This software characterizes distributions of cloud water content with respect to cloud phase, cloud type, precipitation occurrence, and geo-location using CloudSat radar measurements. It uses a statistical method called maximum likelihood estimation to estimate the probability density function of the cloud water content.

Lee, Seungwon

2010-01-01

162

Boron carbon nitride nanostructures from salt melts: tunable water-soluble phosphors.  

PubMed

A simple, high yield, chemical process is developed to fabricate layered h-BN nanosheets and BCNO nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. 5 nm at 700 °C. The use of the eutectic LiCl/KCl salt melt medium enhances the kinetics of the reaction between sodium borohydride and urea or guanidine as well as the dispersion of the nanoparticles in water. The carbon content can be tuned from 0 to 50 mol % by adjusting the reactant ratio, thus providing precise control of the light emission of the particles in the range 440-528 nm while reaching a quantum yield of 26%. Because of their green synthesis, low toxicity, small size, and stability against aggregation in water, the as-obtained photoluminescent BCNO nanoparticles show promise for diagnostics and optoelectronics. PMID:21506566

Lei, Weiwei; Portehault, David; Dimova, Rumiana; Antonietti, Markus

2011-05-11

163

Narrowly size-distributed cobalt salt containing poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) particles by inverse miniemulsion.  

PubMed

Cobalt-containing hybrid particles have been prepared through the encapsulation of cobalt tetrafluoroborate hexahydrate (CoTFB) via inverse miniemulsion polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). We systematically varied the amount and type of cosolvent (water, methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol), apolar continuous phase (cyclohexane, isooctane, isopar M, hexadecane), amount of cobalt salt, and molecular weight of the polymeric surfactant. The influence of those parameters on the particle size, size distribution, and particle morphology were investigated. Narrowly size-distributed hybrid particles with good colloidal stability could be obtained in a wide range of cobalt content between 5.7 and 22.6 wt % salt relative to the monomer. The addition of a cosolvent such as water not only promotes the loading of metal salt but also has a positive influence on narrowing the particle size distribution. We assume that generally narrowly size-distributed particles can be obtained for a large variety of combinations of polar/apolar phase by adjusting the balance between osmotic and Laplace pressure via the solubility of the metal salt in the continuous phase and lowering the interfacial tension by adjusting the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value of the surfactant. The results show a significant advantage of the inverse miniemulsion over the direct system with respect to the variability and total amount of metal salt without losing the narrow particle size distribution and colloidal stability. PMID:20112941

Cao, Zhihai; Wang, Zhuo; Herrmann, Christine; Ziener, Ulrich; Landfester, Katharina

2010-05-18

164

Prediction of activity coefficients in liquid aerosol particles containing organic compounds, dissolved inorganic salts, and water—Part 1: Organic compounds and water by consideration of short- and long-range effects using X-UNIFAC.1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The semi-empirical group contribution method (GCM) of Kikic et al. [Chem. Eng. Sci. 46 (1991) 2775-2780] for estimating activity coefficient ( ?) values of neutral organic compounds and water in solutions composed of organic compounds, dissolved inorganic salts, and water is adapted for application to atmospheric particulate matter (PM). It is assumed that ? values are determined by a combination of short- and long-range interactions. The ? expression involves conventional UNIFAC terms and a Debye-Hückel term, with the former computed using group-group interaction parameters. Organic-organic interaction parameters are assigned the values from the UNIFAC-LLE model of Magnussen et al. [Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Design Develop. 20 (1981) 331-339]. Forty interaction parameters (ion-solvent group and anion-cation) were obtained from Kikic et al. [Chem. Eng. Sci. 46 (1991) 2775-2780], Achard et al. [Fluid Phase Equilibria 98 (1994) 71-89], and Ming and Russell [Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. J. 48 (2002) 1331-1348]. Twenty additional interaction parameters (ion-solvent group) are estimated based on 879 UNIQUAC-fitted ? values for organic compounds and water. The fitted ? values are based on liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data for a range of ternary and quaternary organic/inorganic salt/water mixtures at 293-308 K. The UNIQUAC fits are analogous to those described by Fredenslund et al. [Vapor-Liquid Equilibria Using UNIFAC: A Group-Contribution Method, Elsevier Scientific Publishing, New York, 1977]. The LLE mixture compositions range from primarily organic solutions to primarily aqueous solutions with maximum ionic strengths of ˜5 mol kg -1. The groups characteristic of organic compounds found in atmospheric PM considered here include: CH 3-, -CH 2-, -CH|-, -C||-, -OH, -CH 2CO-, and -COOH. These are: single bonded carbon with three, two, one, and zero hydrogens, respectively, hydroxyl, -CH 2-carbonyl, and carboxyl, respectively. The inorganic salts represented in the mixture data include NaCl, NaNO 3, Na 2SO 4, (NH 4) 2SO 4, and CaCl 2 so that the cations and anions considered include Na +, NH 4+, and Ca 2+, and Cl -, NO3-, and SO42-, respectively. The method predicts the UNIQUAC-fitted ? values for all datasets with an average error of ˜20%. In an application of the method, ? values are predicted in an aerosol PM phase containing four oxidation products (from ?-pinene/O 3) and water, without and with 1 and 2 mol kg -1 dissolved (NH 4) 2SO 4. The presence of the dissolved salt can cause significant increases in the ? values of the oxidation products considered, reflecting a potential "salting-out" effect for (NH 4) 2SO 4 on the oxidation products considered. Results indicate an important role played by dissolved salts in affecting the thermodynamic properties of atmospheric organic PM and the utility of X-UNIFAC.1 as a tool for evaluating those effects.

Erdakos, Garnet B.; Asher, William E.; Seinfeld, John H.; Pankow, James F.

165

A Tolerant Behavior in Salt-Sensitive Tomato Plants can be Mimicked by Chemical Stimuli  

PubMed Central

Lycopersicon esculentum plants exhibit increased salt stress tolerance following treatment with adipic acid monoethylester and 1,3-diaminepropane (DAAME), known as an inducer of resistance against biotic stress in tomato and pepper. For an efficient water and nutrient uptake, plants should adapt their water potential to compensate a decrease in water soil potential produced by salt stress. DAAME-treated plants showed a faster and stronger water potential reduction and an enhanced proline accumulation. Salinity-induced oxidative stress was also ameliorated by DAAME treatments. Oxidative membrane damage and ethylene emission were both reduced in DAAME-treated plants. This effect is probably a consequence of an increase of both non-enzymatic antioxidant activity as well as peroxidase activity. DAAME-mediated tolerance resulted in an unaltered photosynthetic rate and a stimulation of the decrease in transpiration under stress conditions without a cost in growth due to salt stress. The reduction in transpiration rate was concomitant with a reduction in phytotoxic Na+ and Cl? accumulation under saline stress. Interestingly, the ABA deficient tomato mutant sitiens was insensitive to DAAME-induced tolerance following NaCl stress exposure. Additionally, DAAME treatments increased the ABA content of leaves, therefore, an intact ABA signalling pathway seems to be important to express DAAME-induced salt tolerance. Here, we show a possibility of enhance tomato stress tolerance by chemical induction of the major plant defences against salt stress. DAAME-induced tolerance against salt stress could be complementary to or share elements with induced resistance against biotic stress. This might be the reason for the observed wide spectrum of effectiveness of this compound.

Flors, Victor; Paradis, Mercedes; Garcia-Andrade, Javier; Cerezo, Miguel; Gonzalez-Bosch, Carmen

2007-01-01

166

Water Content of the Oceanic Lithosphere at Hawaii from FTIR Analysis of Peridotite Xenoliths  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although water in the mantle is mostly present as trace H dissolved in minerals, it has a large influence on its melting and rheological properties. The water content of the mantle lithosphere beneath continents is better constrained by abundant mantle xenolith data than beneath oceans where it is mainly inferred from MORB glass analysis. Using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, we determined the water content of olivine (Ol), clinopyroxene (Cpx) and orthopyroxene (Opx) in spinel peridotite xenoliths from Salt Lake Crater, Oahu, Hawaii, which are thought to represent fragments of the Pacific oceanic lithosphere that was refertilized by alkalic Hawaiian melts. Only Ol exhibits H diffusion profiles, evidence of limited H loss during xenolith transport to the surface. Water concentrations (Ol: 9-28 ppm H2O, Cpx: 246-566 ppm H2O, Opx: 116-224 ppm H2O) are within the range of those from continental settings but higher than those from Gakkel ridge abyssal peridotites. The Opx H2O contents are similar to those of abyssal peridotites from Atlantic ridge Leg 153 (170-230 ppm) but higher than those from Leg 209 (10- 14 ppm). The calculated bulk peridotite water contents (94 to 144 ppm H2O) are in agreement with MORB mantle source water estimates and lower than estimates for the source of Hawaiian rejuvenated volcanism (approx 540 ppm H2O) . The water content of Cpx and most Opx correlates negatively with spinel Cr#, and positively with pyroxene Al and HREE contents. This is qualitatively consistent with the partitioning of H into the melt during partial melting, but the water contents are too high for the degree of melting these peridotites experienced. Melts in equilibrium with xenolith minerals have H2O/Ce ratios similar to those of OIB

Peslier, Anne H.; Bizmis, Michael

2013-01-01

167

Water structure in aqueous solutions of alkali halide salts: FTIR spectroscopy of the OD stretching band  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water structure making\\/breaking studies in solutions of five alkali halide salts (KF, KI, NaI, CsF and CsCl) in 4 wt% D2O in H2O mixtures have been performed by FTIR analysis of the OD stretching band in the full solubility range. The proposed method gives a microscopic picture of the water structure making\\/breaking character of the salts in terms of the

Z. S. Nickolov; J. D. Miller

2005-01-01

168

Hypothalamic activity during altered salt and water balance in the snake Bothrops jararaca  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of water and salt overload on the activities of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei and the adjacent periventricular\\u000a zone of the hypothalamus of the snake Bothrops jararaca were investigated by measurements of Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-ir). Both water and salt overload resulted in changes\\u000a in body mass, plasma osmolality, and plasma concentrations of sodium, potassium, and chloride. Hyper-osmolality increased

Leonardo Zambotti-Villela; Camila Eduardo Marinho; Rafaela Fadoni Alponti; Paulo Flavio Silveira

2008-01-01

169

Solar Still Part I: Salt Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The water cycle is the process that moves water around Earth. In this video segment, adapted from a ZOOM television broadcast, cast members use a homemade solar still to mimic the natural processes of evaporation and condensation, separating pure water from a saltwater mixture. The segment is three minutes thirty-two seconds in length.

170

Correcting the errors from variable sea salt retention and water of hydration in loss on ignition analysis: Implications for studies of estuarine and coastal waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard technique of determining the concentrations of total suspended solids (TSSs), particulate inorganic matter (PIM), and particulate organic matter (POM) by filtration with glass fiber filters is subject to an error or bias from sea salt plus water of hydration retention, when applied to saline waters. The sea salt plus water of hydration retention by the filters occurs even

Robert H. Stavn; Hans J. Rick; Alexander V. Falster

2009-01-01

171

Effect of dissolved inorganic salts on the isothermal vapor–liquid equilibrium of the propionic acid–water mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propionic acid–water is one of the minimum boiling point azeotropic binary mixtures. Alteration of the vapor–liquid equilibrium (VLE) by addition of inorganic salts is of interest, since it allows bypassing the azeotropic point due to salt-in and salt-out effects. The effect of NaCl, NH4Cl, CaCl2, and AlCl3 at salt concentrations of 1 m and the effect of NaCl molality (0.5–3

Fawzi Banat; Sameer Al-Asheh; Jana Simandl

2002-01-01

172

Bromide content of sea-salt aerosol particles collected over the Indian Ocean during INDOEX 1999  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bromide can be depleted from sea-salt aerosol particles in the marine boundary layer (MBL) and converted to reactive gas-phase species like Br, BrO, and HOBr, which affect ozone chemistry. Air pollution can enhance the bromine release from sea-salt aerosols and thus inject additional bromine into the MBL. During the winter monsoon the northern Indian Ocean is strongly affected by air pollution from the Indian subcontinent and Asia. As part of the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), aerosol particles were sampled with stacked filter units (SFU) on the NCAR Hercules C-130 aircraft during February-March 1999. We determined the vertical and latitudinal distribution of the major inorganic aerosol components (NH4+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-) and the Br- content of the coarse aerosol to examine the role of the bromine release on the gas-phase chemistry in the marine boundary layer over the tropical Indian Ocean. The aerosol mass and composition varied significantly with air mass origin and sampling location. In the northern part of the Indian Ocean (5°-15°N, 66°-73°E), high concentrations of pollution-derived inorganic species were found in the marine boundary layer extending from the sea surface to about 1.2 km above sea level. In this layer, the average mass concentration of all aerosol species detected by our technique was comparable to pollution levels observed in industrialized regions. In the Southern Hemisphere (1°-9°S, 66°- 73°E), the aerosol concentrations rapidly declined to remote background levels. A chloride loss from the coarse aerosol particles was observed in parallel to the latitudinal gradient of the non sea salt SO42- burden. In most of the samples, Br- was depleted from the sea-salt aerosols. However, we found an enrichment in bromide in aerosols affected by air masses originating over strong pollution sources in India (Bombay, Calcutta). In these cases the additional pollution-derived Br from organo-halogen additives in petrol outweighs the release of sea-salt bromine.

Gabriel, R.; von Glasow, R.; Sander, R.; Andreae, M. O.; Crutzen, P. J.

2002-10-01

173

Effects of soil water content on soil respiration in forests and cattle pastures of eastern Amazonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of soil water content on efflux of CO2 from soils has been described by linear, logarithmic, quadratic, and parabolic functions of soil water expressed as matric potential, gravimetric and volumetric water content, water holding capacity, water-filled pore space, precipitation indices, and depth to water table. The effects of temperature and water content are often statistically confounded. The objectives

Eric A. Davidson; Louis V. Verchot; J. Henrique Cattânio; Ilse L. Ackerman; J. E. M. Carvalho

2000-01-01

174

First data on the uranium content in water of the Yenisei River basin in the area affected by the operation of Rosatom plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is devoted to investigating the content of uranium isotopes in water of the Yenisei River and its tributaries within\\u000a the territories affected by the operation of Rosatom plants (mining chemical combine, and electrochemical plant). Long-term\\u000a monitoring of the 238U content by mass spectrometry carried out in two institutes of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

A. Ya. Bolsunovskii; A. M. Zhizhaev; A. I. Saprykin; A. G. Degermendzhi; A. I. Rubailo

2011-01-01

175

Effect of Calcium and Potassium Nutrition on Yield, Ion Content, and Salt Tolerance of Brassica campestris (rapa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

When plants encounter salinity, growth is reduced initially by water stress and subsequently by toxic levels of ions and by interference with nutrient acquisition and translocation. Calcium (Ca) in particular seems to have an important role in salt tolerance and there are reports of a beneficial effect of increasing Ca availability. Higher potassium (K) concentrations in plants may also improve

R. P. Collins; P. J. C. Harris; M. J. Bateman; J. Henderson

2008-01-01

176

Evaluation of trace metal content by ICP-MS using closed vessel microwave digestion in fresh water fish.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to investigate trace metal levels of different varieties of fresh water fish using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer after microwave digestion (MD-ICPMS). Fish samples were collected from the outlets of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The trace metal content in different varieties of analyzed fish were ranged from 0.24 to 1.68?mg/kg for Chromium in Cyprinus carpio and Masto symbollon, 0.20 to 7.52?mg/kg for Manganese in Labeo rohita and Masto symbollon, 0.006 to 0.07?mg/kg for Cobalt in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, 0.31 to 2.24?mg/kg for Copper in Labeo rohita and Penaeus monodon, 3.25 to 14.56?mg/kg for Zinc in Cyprinus carpio and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and 0.01 to 2.05?mg/kg for Selenium in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, respectively. Proximate composition data for the different fishes were also tabulated. Since the available data for different trace elements for fish is scanty, here an effort is made to present a precise data for the same as estimated on ICP-MS. Results were in accordance with recommended daily intake allowance by WHO/FAO. PMID:24744789

Jarapala, Sreenivasa Rao; Kandlakunta, Bhaskarachary; Thingnganing, Longvah

2014-01-01

177

Evaluation of Trace Metal Content by ICP-MS Using Closed Vessel Microwave Digestion in Fresh Water Fish  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study was to investigate trace metal levels of different varieties of fresh water fish using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer after microwave digestion (MD-ICPMS). Fish samples were collected from the outlets of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The trace metal content in different varieties of analyzed fish were ranged from 0.24 to 1.68?mg/kg for Chromium in Cyprinus carpio and Masto symbollon, 0.20 to 7.52?mg/kg for Manganese in Labeo rohita and Masto symbollon, 0.006 to 0.07?mg/kg for Cobalt in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, 0.31 to 2.24?mg/kg for Copper in Labeo rohita and Penaeus monodon, 3.25 to 14.56?mg/kg for Zinc in Cyprinus carpio and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and 0.01 to 2.05?mg/kg for Selenium in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, respectively. Proximate composition data for the different fishes were also tabulated. Since the available data for different trace elements for fish is scanty, here an effort is made to present a precise data for the same as estimated on ICP-MS. Results were in accordance with recommended daily intake allowance by WHO/FAO.

Jarapala, Sreenivasa Rao; Kandlakunta, Bhaskarachary; Thingnganing, Longvah

2014-01-01

178

Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (p<0.05) linear relationships were found between the ultrasonic velocity and the salt (R2 = 0.975) and moisture (R2 = 0.863) contents. In addition, the change of the ultrasonic velocity with the increase of the salt content showed a good agreement with the Kinsler equation. Therefore, low intensity ultrasound emerges as a potential technique to monitor, in a non destructive way, the meat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

García-Pérez, J. V.; De Prados, M.; Pérez-Muelas, N.; Cárcel, J. A.; Benedito, J.

2012-12-01

179

Geophysical surveys for monitoring coastal salt water intrusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical surveys have been exploited in a coastal forest reserve, at the mouth of the river Bradano in South Italy (Basilicata, southern Italy, N 40°22', E 16°51'), to investigate the subsurface saltwater contamination. Forest Reserve of Metapontum is a wood of artificial formation planted to protect fruit and vegetable cultivations from salt sea-wind; in particular it is constituted by a back dune pine forest mainly composed of Aleppo Pine trees (Pinus halepensis) and domestic pine trees (Pinus pinea). Two separate geophysical field campaigns, one executed in 2006 and a second executed in 2008, were performed in the forest reserve; in particular, electrical resistivity tomographies, resistivity and ground penetrating radar maps were elaborated and analyzed. In addition, chemical and physical analyses on soil and waters samples were performed in order to confirm and integrate geophysical data. The analyses carried out allowed an accurate characterization of salt intrusion phenomenon: the spatial extension and depth of the saline wedge were estimated. Primary and secondary salinity of the Metapontum forest reserve soil occurred because of high water-table and the evapo-transpiration rate which was much higher than the rainfall rate; these, of course, are linked to natural factors such as climate, natural drainage patterns, topographic features, geological structure and distance to the sea. Naturally, since poor land management, like the construction of river dams, indiscriminate extraction of inert from riverbeds that subtract supplies sedimentary, the alteration of the natural water balance, plays an important role in this process. The obtained results highlighted that integrated geophysical surveys gave a precious contribute for better evaluating marine intrusion wedge in coastal aquifers and providing a rapid, non-invasive and low cost tool for coastal monitoring.

Loperte, A.; Satriani, A.; Simoniello, T.; Imbrenda, V.; Lapenna, V.

2009-04-01

180

The Transport of Salt and Water across Isolated Rat Ileum  

PubMed Central

The flows of sodium, potassium, and chloride under electrical and chemical gradients and of salt and water in the presence of osmotic pressure gradients are described by phenomenological equations based on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. The aim was to give the simplest possible description, that is to postulate the least number of active transport processes and the least number of separate pathways across the intestine. On this basis, the results were consistent with the following picture of the intestine: Two channels exist across this tissue, one allowing only passive transport of ions and the other only active. In the passive channel, the predominant resistance to ion flow is friction with the water in the channel. The electroosmotic flow indicates that the passive channel is lined with negative fixed charged groups having a surface charge density of 3000 esu cm-2. The values of the ion-water frictional coefficients, and the relationship between ionic concentrations and flows indicate that the passive channel is extracellular. The active channel behaves as two membranes in series, the first membrane being semipermeable but allowing active transport of sodium, and the second membrane being similar to the passive channel. Friction with the ions in the second "membrane" is the predominant resistance to water flow.

Clarkson, T. W.

1967-01-01

181

Effect of initial hydrogen content of a titanium alloy on susceptibility to hot-salt stress-corrosion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V alloy was tested in four conditions: mill annealed (70 ppM H), duplex annealed (70 ppM H), vacuum annealed to an intermediate (36 ppM) and a low (9 ppM H) hydrogen level. Material annealed at 650 C (duplex condition) exhibited resistance to hot-salt stress corrosion superior to that exhibited by material in the mill-annealed condition. Reduction of the alloy hydrogen content from 70 to as low as 9 ppM did not influence resistance to hot-salt stress corrosion embrittlement or cracking.

Gray, H. R.

1971-01-01

182

Water and Salt Regimes of Soils: Modeling and Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mathematical models describing the migration of moisture and salts in the soil layers are presented in this book. The region between the exposed surface and the water-confining stratum, the aeration and total saturation zones have been examined, and the i...

E. A. Sokolenko

1984-01-01

183

Reactions of nitrate salts with ammonia in supercritical water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactions involving nitrate salts and ammonia were investigated in supercritical water at temperatures from 450 to 530 C and pressures near 300 bar. Reaction products included nitrite, nitrogen gas, and nitrous oxide. Observed reaction rates and product distributions provided evidence for a free-radical reaction mechanism with NOâ, NO, and NHâ· as the primary reactive species at supercritical conditions. In the

Philip C. Dell'Orco; Earnest F. Gloyna; Steven J. Buelow

1997-01-01

184

Salt-water Fish-Types in Fresh Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

MR. HARDMAN'S observations on the occurrence of ``sea-fish in fresh-water rivers'' (NATURE, vol. xxix. pp. 452-53) are not by any means unique, as he has supposed. On the contrary, cases similar to those he has recorded are so frequent as to justify him in believing that ``some caution must be observed in the classification of strata as fresh-water or marine

Theo. Gill

1884-01-01

185

Effect of Inorganic Salts on Ternary Equilibrium Data of Propionic Acid-Water-Solvents Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium (LLE) data were obtained for the pseudo-ternary systems of propionic acid (PA) + water + solvents (methyl isopropyl ketone and methyl isobutyl ketone) + salts (NaCl and KCl) at 25-26°C in order to study the effect of salts on extraction equilibrium of these systems by comparing with the same systems without salt. Mutual solubility curves, tie-line data, distribution coefficient, selectivity diagrams and separation factor data were determined for these systems. The salting-out effect was investigated by using inorganic salts NaCl or KCl at two concentrations of each salt within their solubility limits. The results obtained in these experiments showed that the salts NaCl and KCl significantly affect the solubility of PA in the organic solvents, as well as the distribution coefficients and separation factors for PA by changing their equilibrium composition and the selectivity of the solvents while the region of heterogeneity increases as compared to the same system of without salt. The thermodynamic consistency of the equilibrium tie-line data was ascertained by Othmer-Tobias plots as well as by Hand plots.

Roy, Bhupesh C.; Awual, M. R.; Goto, M.

186

Carbon Balance and Water Relations of Sorghum Exposed to Salt and Water Stress 1  

PubMed Central

The daily (24 hour) changes in carbon balance, water loss, and leaf area of whole sorghum plants (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, cv BTX616) were measured under controlled environment conditions typical of warm, humid, sunny days. Plants were either (a) irrigated frequently with nutrient solution (osmotic potential ?0.08 kilojoules per kilogram = ?0.8 bar), (b) not irrigated for 15 days, (c) irrigated frequently with moderately saline nutrient (80 millimoles NaCl + 20 millimoles CaCl2·2H2O per kilogram water, osmotic potential ?0.56 kilojoules per kilogram), or (d) preirrigated with saline nutrient and then not irrigated for 22 days. Under frequent irrigation, salt reduced leaf expansion and carbon gain, but water use efficiency was increased since the water loss rate was reduced more than the carbon gain. Water stress developed more slowly in the salinized plants and they were able to adjust osmotically by a greater amount. Leaf expansion and carbon gain continued down to lower leaf water potentials. Some additional metabolic cost associated with salt stress was detected, but under water stress this was balanced by the reduced cost of storing photosynthate rather than converting it to new biomass. Reirrigation produced a burst of respiration associated with renewed synthesis of biomass from stored photosynthate. It is concluded that although irrigation of sorghum with moderately saline water inhibits plant growth in comparison with irrigation with nonsaline water, it also inhibits water loss and allows a greater degree of osmotic adjustment, so that the plants are able to continue growing longer and reach lower leaf water potentials between irrigations.

Richardson, Steven G.; McCree, Keith J.

1985-01-01

187

Carbon balance and water relations of sorghum exposed to salt and water stress.  

PubMed

The daily (24 hour) changes in carbon balance, water loss, and leaf area of whole sorghum plants (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, cv BTX616) were measured under controlled environment conditions typical of warm, humid, sunny days. Plants were either (a) irrigated frequently with nutrient solution (osmotic potential -0.08 kilojoules per kilogram = -0.8 bar), (b) not irrigated for 15 days, (c) irrigated frequently with moderately saline nutrient (80 millimoles NaCl + 20 millimoles CaCl(2).2H(2)O per kilogram water, osmotic potential -0.56 kilojoules per kilogram), or (d) preirrigated with saline nutrient and then not irrigated for 22 days.Under frequent irrigation, salt reduced leaf expansion and carbon gain, but water use efficiency was increased since the water loss rate was reduced more than the carbon gain. Water stress developed more slowly in the salinized plants and they were able to adjust osmotically by a greater amount. Leaf expansion and carbon gain continued down to lower leaf water potentials.Some additional metabolic cost associated with salt stress was detected, but under water stress this was balanced by the reduced cost of storing photosynthate rather than converting it to new biomass. Reirrigation produced a burst of respiration associated with renewed synthesis of biomass from stored photosynthate.It is concluded that although irrigation of sorghum with moderately saline water inhibits plant growth in comparison with irrigation with nonsaline water, it also inhibits water loss and allows a greater degree of osmotic adjustment, so that the plants are able to continue growing longer and reach lower leaf water potentials between irrigations. PMID:16664521

Richardson, S G; McCree, K J

1985-12-01

188

Spatial and temporal evolution of a microseismic swarm induced by water injection in the Arkema-Vauvert salt field (southern France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates a microseismic swarm induced by injection operations in the Arkema-Vauvert salt field. The seismic activity in this field is monitored only by two permanent 3-component stations deployed in two wells. This study focuses on a period of 21 months (2004 January-2005 September) during which 1214 seismic events are located. The seismic activity is divided into three periods correlating with the water injection operations, highlighting a migration of the seismicity toward a thrust fault connecting the injection well and the production well. A waveform analysis reveals S-wave anisotropy, and focal mechanisms are computed using P, Sv and Sh amplitudes manually measured on anisotropy-corrected seismograms. First, synthetic resolution tests assess the reliability of the focal mechanisms determination from the two 3-component stations deployed in the field. Synthetic data are generated for 1056 earthquakes with various focal mechanisms and are perturbed with noise. The results indicate that the type of focal mechanism is correctly retrieved for 74 per cent of the synthetic earthquakes, but the uncertainties of the strike and rake are significant (from 15 to 45?). Next, the focal mechanisms are computed for 532 real earthquakes. The solutions primarily correspond to a dip-slip/thrust fault type with subvertical NE-SW and subhorizontal N-S to NW-SE nodal planes. Correlations between the focal mechanisms and the spatio-temporal distribution of the seismic activity are noteworthy. The study shows it is possible to reliably retrieve double-couple focal mechanisms for some faulting geometries with two 3-component seismological stations. However, the reliability of the focal mechanism retrieval depends on the station configuration. Therefore, the addition of further stations would improve the results.

Godano, Maxime; Bardainne, Thomas; Regnier, Marc; Deschamps, Anne; Valette, Marc

2012-01-01

189

Hypothalamic control of water and salt intake and excretion.  

PubMed

This article provides a personal and historical review of research concerning the hypothalamic control of water and salt intake and excretion. The following major points will be considered: 1. Electrical, osmotic, cholinergic, alpha-adrenergic and peptidergic stimulation of the hypothalamus. 2. Determination of the pathways involved in these neuroendocrine responses. 3. The participation of ANP in the control of thirst and salt excretion. 4. The participation of the brain ANPergic neuronal system in ANP release. 5. The role of hypothalamic ANPergic neurons and of sinoaortic and renal baroreceptors in the regulation of volume expansion-induced release of ANP. 6. Effects of the brain ANP system on other hormones. PMID:8087092

McCann, S M; Gutkowska, J; Franci, C R; Favaretto, A L; Antunes-Rodrigues, J

1994-04-01

190

Estimating Subsurface Structure and Water Content by GPR Data Inversion Based on FDTD Forward Modeling and Automatic Feature Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple common offset surface ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements are evaluated to retrieve subsurface geometrical parameters together with the corresponding soil water content. We developed an inversion scheme which is intermediate between (i) inverting of picked reflectors using ray-tracing and (ii) full waveform inversion. This scheme is based on an regularized structural parameterization of the subsurface together with forward predictions of GPR measurements obtained from FDTD simulations. The scheme consists of three steps: 1. Measured and predicted signals are convolved with an estimate of the wavelet's envelope. 2. significant features are detected automatically in both signals and their timing as well as their amplitude are determined. 3. The parameterization of the subsurface architecture and of the layers' material properties are adjusted in the least-squares sense. The capability of this method to determine complex geometrical features and soil water content is shown with synthetic as well as real datasets. Measurements were conducted at the ASSESS-GPR site, an artificial testbed (20 m*4 m* 2m) with high resolution ground-truth.

Buchner, J. S.; Wollschlaeger, U.; Kühne, A.; Bogda, F.; Roth, K.

2011-12-01

191

Salt-water-freshwater transient upconing - An implicit boundary-element solution  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The boundary-element method is used to solve the set of partial differential equations describing the flow of salt water and fresh water separated by a sharp interface in the vertical plane. In order to improve the accuracy and stability of the numerical solution, a new implicit scheme was developed for calculating the motion of the interface. The performance of this scheme was tested by means of numerical simulation. The numerical results are compared to experimental results for a salt-water upconing under a drain problem. ?? 1985.

Kemblowski, M.

1985-01-01

192

Geophysical methods to support correct water sampling locations for salt dilution gauging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve water management design, particularly in irrigation areas, it is important to evaluate the baseline state of the water resources, including canal discharge. Discharge measurements, using salt dilution gauging, are a traditional and well-documented technique. The complete mixing of salt used for dilution gauging is required for reliable measurements; this condition is difficult to test or verify and, if not fulfilled, is the largest source of uncertainty in the discharge calculation. In this paper, a geophysical technique (FERT, Fast Electrical Resistivity Tomography) is proposed for imaging the distribution of the salt plume used for dilution gauging at every point along a sampling cross-section. In this way, it is possible to check whether complete mixing has occurred. If the mixing is not complete, the image created by FERT can also provide guidance for selecting water-sampling locations in the sampling cross-section. A water multi-sampling system prototype for the simultaneous sampling of canal water at different points within the cross-section, aimed to potentially take into account concentration variability, is also proposed and tested. Preliminary results of a single test with salt dilution gauging and FERT in a real case are reported. The results show that imaging the passage of the salt plume is possible by means of geophysical controls and that this can potentially help in the selection of water sampling points.

Comina, C.; Lasagna, M.; De Luca, D. A.; Sambuelli, L.

2014-05-01

193

Microwave-assisted synthesis of indole- and azaindole-derivatives in water via cycloisomerization of 2-alkynylanilines and alkynylpyridinamines promoted by amines or catalytic amounts of neutral or basic salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient methodology is described and exploited for the preparation of differently substituted indoles and azaindoles via microwave-assisted cycloisomerization in water of 2-alkynylanilines and alkynylpyridinamines, which is promoted by catalytic amounts of neutral or basic salts or by stoichiometric weak organic bases. Good to high yields in the cyclization can be achieved for a variety of 2-amino(hetero)aryl alkynes. Reactions are

Adriano Carpita; Arianna Ribecai; Paolo Stabile

2010-01-01

194

Offshore Stratigraphic Controls on Salt-Water Intrusion in Los Angeles Area Coastal Aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground water is a major component of the water supply for the ~10 million residents of Los Angeles County. Ground water pumping, linked to population growth since the early 1900's, caused water levels to decline, reversed seaward hydraulic gradients in some coastal aquifers, and resulted in salt water intrusion. United States Geological Survey geologists and hydrologists are working cooperatively with local water agencies to (1) understand and model the process of salt-water intrusion in this siliciclastic, structurally complex basin, and (2) identify potential pathways for the salt-water intrusion. We collected over 2000 trackline-km of single- and multi-channel intermediate- and high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles (60 to 5000 Hz) from the Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor complex and the adjacent San Pedro shelf to develop a 3-dimensional stratigraphic model of the coastal aquifer system. These data define stratal geometries, paleo-channels, and fault traces in the offshore that are potential pathways of salt-water intrusion. The offshore seismic-reflection profiles correlate with onshore geophysical and borehole data collected from four nearby drill sites that were cored continuously to depths ranging to 400 meters. These core holes provide detailed 1-dimensional reference sections that furnish stratigraphic, age, and facies control for the seismic-reflection profiles. The coastal aquifer system is described using sequence stratigraphic concepts as units deposited during eustatic sea level fluctuations during the Pleistocene to Recent. Seismic-reflection profiles identify sequence boundaries, and hence aquifer and aquitard units, by the truncation and onlap of reflectors. If and where the sequences crop out on the sea floor provides a potential pathway for intrusion. The youngest unit, the Gaspur aquifer, is intruded with salt water and consists of at least two flat-lying sequences, each marked by basal gravelly sands deposited by the ancestral Los Angeles River as part of a broad channel complex. Salt water migrates up the Gaspur channel and into the underlying Gage aquifer that is comprised mostly of shallow marine and tidal sands, silts, and clays. Beneath the Gage, the Pleistocene San Pedro Formation consists of an aggradational set of marine-deltaic sands that thicken offshore and develop clinoform beds infilling the Palos Verdes basin. How these units are connected hydraulically controls the flow of salt water. We are incorporating the offshore seismic and onshore core data in a regional groundwater flow simulation model for the Los Angeles basin and in a transport model emphasizing salt-water intrusion.

Edwards, B. D.; Ponti, D. J.; Ehman, K. D.; Tinsley, J. C.; Reichard, E. G.

2002-12-01

195

Rise and fall of road salt contamination of water-supply springs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A storage pile of de-icing agent consisting principally of sodium chloride was placed in the recharge area of two springs, and remained there for 2 years. Water flow is through fractures in rocks with low matrix permeability, along a hydraulic gradient developed along fracture zones. Salt contamination in the springs was noticed about 1 year after the salt was placed. When the salt was removed 1 year later, chloride concentrations in the springs exceeded 500 mg/L. Monitoring for the following 5 years showed salt contamination rising for the first year, but receding to normal background after 5 years. Chloride to sodium ratios of the spring waters indicated that some sodium was initially sequestered, probably by ion exchange on clay minerals, in the early part of the monitoring period, and released during the latter part; thereby extending the period of contamination.

Werner, Eberhard; Dipretoro, Richard S.

2006-12-01

196

Mg-Sulfate Salts as Possible Water Reservoirs in Martian Regolith  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron spectrometer data from the Mars Odyssey orbiter provide evidence of high water-equivalent hydrogen abundance in some near-equatorial locations on Mars. In broad regions shallow (<1 m) regolith appears to have water abundances of up to ˜13 wt%. Water ice is predicted to be unstable at the present time at all depths below the surface in these equatorial regions. If present in hydrous silicate minerals such as clays or zeolites, which may contain water in abundances of ˜10-20% at Martian surface conditions, the Odyssey data require a regolith very enriched in hydrous silicates - an unlikely proposition. Viking X-ray fluorescence data and alteration assemblages in martian meteorites suggest the presence of sulfate salts in martian regolith. Viking data from excavated duricrust indicate that Mg and S are correlated and that ˜10% of an Mg-sulfate salt is a likely cementing agent. However, the range of possible Mg sulfates is large. Epsomite (7-hydrate, 51% water) and hexahydrite (6-hydrate, 47% water) are the most hydrated; both form structures of isolated SO4 tetrahedra with isolated octahedral sites consisting of Mg coordinated by six H2O molecules (epsomite has an extra H2O in addition to the six required to coordinate with Mg). Pentahydrite (5-hydrate, 43% water) has infinite chains of alternating SO4 tetrahedra and Mg octahedra, with 4/5 of the water forming apices in octahedral sites. Starkeyite (4-hydrate, 37% water) has clusters of two SO4 tetrahedra and two Mg octahedra, linked only by hydrogen bonds. The Mg-sulfate sanderite (2-hydrate, 23% water) is rare and has poorly known structure. Kieserite (1-hydrate, 13% water) is relatively common in evaporite deposits and has a framework structure of infinite tetrahedral-octahedral chains cross-linked by hydrogen bonds. The stability of Mg-sulfate hydrates under martian near-surface conditions depends on their structures; those with excess water beyond that required to form the octahedral Mg site (e.g., epsomite, pentahydrite) lose that excess readily. Experiments with epsomite and hexahydrite indicate great sensitivity to environmental conditions; epsomite is not stable at 295 K at relative humidity (RH) values less than about 55%, below which hexahydrite is the observed phase. More importantly, hexahydrite - with all water coordinated to Mg in octahedral sites - is unstable at pressures less than ˜20 mtorr. X-ray diffraction analysis of hexahydrite held at 20 mtorr for six hours shows that structural degradation is slow at 100 K but becomes obvious in 1 hour at 273 K. Thermogravimetric analysis of this amorphous solid shows that it contains ˜26% H2O (compared with 47% in crystalline hexahydrite), and its observed macroscopic expansion behavior suggests that it can reversibly hydrate and dehydrate. Although neither epsomite nor hexahydrite is likely to be stable near the surface of Mars, their amorphous derivatives or crystalline forms of the lower hydrates might be present (preliminary thermogravimetric data indicate that kieserite is likely to be stable). However, the limited rehydration of structurally degraded hexahydrite indicates that unrealistically large amounts ( ˜50%) would be required in the upper meter of regolith to account for the higher water contents ( ˜13%) suggested for some martian equatorial regions; even larger amounts of kieserite ( ˜100%) would be required. A more important role for sulfates may be in the formation of a low-permeability salt crust that could restrict dewatering of underlying soil horizons.

Vaniman, D. T.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Carey, J. W.; Feldman, W. C.

2003-12-01

197

Fluid-Loading Solutions and Plasma Volume: Astro-Ade and Salt Tablets with Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fluid loading with salt and water is a countermeasure used after space flight to restore body fluids. However, gastrointestinal side effects have been frequently reported in persons taking similar quantities of salt and water in ground-based studies. The ...

S. M. Fortney L. Seinmann J. A. Young C. N. Hoskin L. H. Barrows

1994-01-01

198

Salt rejection and water flux through a tubular pervaporative polymer membrane designed for irrigation applications.  

PubMed

The performance of a hydrophilic polyester tubular pervaporative membrane in treating high-salinity water for irrigation was investigated. The membrane was filled with contaminated water and placed in air, soil or sand media. When this occurs water diffuses through the tube, trapping salts within the tube. Sorption and permeation tests and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to assess salt rejection and permeate flux through the tubular membrane when surrounded by deionized water, air, top soil or silver sand. Mean water uptake by the membrane was 0.5 L x m(-2) at room temperature and the water diffusion coefficient was 3.8 x 10(-4) cm2 x s(-1). The permeate flux across the membrane was 7.9 x 10(-3) L(m(-2) x h(-1)) in sand and 5.6 x 10(-2) in air. The rejection of sodium chloride by the tubular membrane in sand was 99.8% or above under all tested conditions. However, when the tube was filled with sodium chloride solution and placed in deionized water, salt was observed to permeate the membrane. SEM images confirmed that variable amounts of sodium chloride crystals were retained inside the membrane walls. These results support the potential application of such a tubular pervaporative membrane for irrigation applications using saline waters; however there may be reduced salt rejection under waterlogged soil conditions. PMID:24191465

Sule, May; Jiang, Jing; Templeton, Michael; Huth, Emily; Brant, Jonathan; Bond, Tom

2013-01-01

199

High water content hydrogel with super high refractive index.  

PubMed

Transparent, high water content (>65%), and cytocompatible hydrogels, which also possess super high refractive indices (RI?>?1.5), are needed for ophthalmological applications. Most hydrogels can achieve either high RI or high water content but not both in the same system because water is a low RI material. Here, high water content/high RI hydrogels fabricated through elevated-temperature UV polymerization of an aqueous solution of acrylamide (AM) and methacrylamide (MAM) with tri(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (TEDA) crosslinker are reported. By varying the AM:MAM ratios (2:8 to 8:2) and crosslinker density (5 to 11?mol %), it is discovered that high water content (66%) AM:MAM copolymer hydrogels exhibiting anomalously high refractive indices (1.53); they are also colorless, transparent (99.4%), and cytocompatible with human keratinocytes. PMID:23881874

Zhou, Chuncai; Heath, Daniel E; Sharif, Abdul Rahim Mohamed; Rayatpisheh, Shahrzad; Oh, Bernice H L; Rong, Xu; Beuerman, Roger; Chan-Park, Mary B

2013-11-01

200

The effects of water content and Mn-fiber surface conditions on 224 Ra measurement by 220 Rn emanation  

Microsoft Academic Search

224Ra (half-life, t1\\/2=3.64 days) has been used widely as a tracer. Its activity in natural waters can be measured by the 220Rn emanation method [Rama, Todd, J.F., Butts J.L., and Moore, W.S., 1987. A new method for the rapid measurements of 224Ra in natural waters. Mar. Chem., 22, 43–54.]. The measurement efficiency of 220Rn is affected by Mn-fiber surface conditions

Yin Sun; T. Torgersen

1998-01-01

201

Waste to energy by industrially integrated supercritical water gasification – Effects of alkali salts in residual by-products from the pulp and paper industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is a method by which biomass can be converted into a hydrogen-rich gas product. Wet industrial waste streams, which contain both organic and inorganic material, are well suited for treatment by SCWG. In this study, the gasification of two streams of biomass resulting from the pulp and paper industry, black liquor and paper sludge, has been investigated.

I. Rönnlund; L. Myréen; K. Lundqvist; J. Ahlbeck; T. Westerlund

2011-01-01

202

Enhancement of Cyanobacterial Salt Tolerance by Combined Nitrogen 1  

PubMed Central

Presence of certain nitrogenous compounds in the growth medium significantly enhanced the salt tolerance of the fresh-water cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain L-31 as well as the brackish water cyanobacterium Anabaena torulosa. Among these, nitrate, ammonium, and glutamine were most effective followed by glutamate and aspartate. These nitrogenous compounds also inhibited Na+ influx in both Anabaena spp. with the same order of effectiveness as that observed for protection against salt stress. The inhibition of Na+ influx on addition of the nitrogenous substances was rapid; nitrate and ammonium inhibited Na+ influx competitively. Proline and glycine did not affect Na+ influx and also had no influence on the salt tolerance of either Anabaena sp. The observed protection was not consequent to a stimulatory effect of combined nitrogen on growth per se. Uptake of NO3? and NH4+ increased during salt stress but was not correlated with growth. Intracellular levels of NO3? and NH4+ were found to be inadequate to constitute a major component of the internal osmoticum. The results suggest that inhibition of Na+ influx by combined nitrogen is a major mechanism for protection of cyanobacteria against salt stress.

Reddy, Bontha R.; Apte, Shree K.; Thomas, Joseph

1989-01-01

203

Modeling of salt-water migration through spod-podzolic soils under the field and laboratory conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assessment of highly mineralized water influence on soils is an important issue in the contemporary world. Various regions with different conditions are exposed to salt-affected soils forming. Salinization of soils is a complex process of the chemical and physical properties changes. Therefore the chain of the laboratory and field experiments should be done in order to assess the main factors promoting highly mineralized water migration. In addition to it modelling is a good way to understand and evaluate main chemical and physical transformations in soils. The chain of experiments was done to assess salt water movement in spod-podzolic soils under field and laboratory conditions. The main goals were to evaluate the rate of salt water movement through soils and to estimate velocity of the desalinization process. Field experiment was conducted on spod-podzolic soils of Kaliningrad region. There were 4 sites measuring 20*25 cm watering with salt water in amount of 5 liters per each area. The mineralization of the solution was 100 g/l. In addition to the salt affected sites, 2 non polluted grounds were assessed too. Soils samples were collected in the period of 1 week, 1 month, 3 month and 1 year after the spill had been done. The samples were taken each 10 cm 110 cm deep and in double repeatability. Main chemical and physical parameters, such as volume water content, pH, conductivity, amount of calcium ion, magnesium, sodium, and chlorite in soils etc. were measured in each sample. The second experiment was conducted to evaluate the rate of soils solutions transformation under the laboratory conditions. Organic horizon was taken from the field and was stuffed in columns with 1.0 g/cm3 density. There were 16 columns with 4 cm diameter. 14 columns were showered with salt water with the same mineralization as in the field experiment. The amount of salt water injected in columns was 104 mm per one sample which is equal to the salt water volume spilled per one area in the previous experiment. Also there were 2 columns as a verification variant contained pure soil. Each column was washed off with different amount of distilled water. The total volume of the pure solution was equal to the mean amount of the annual precipitation in the region of the field experiment. The main physical and chemical properties were measured in soils samples as well in the first experiment. In addition to it the complex assessment of soil's water were made. The experiments revealed the fast rate of salinization-desalinization processes in spod-podzolic soils of the coniferous areas in Kaliningrad region. The maximum values of conductivity were observed at the end of 1 week period and made up more than 2000 mSm/cm in top soils horizons. Furthermore the desalinization of the soils took place in both field and laboratory experiments a year after the spill. The reported study was partially supported by RFBR, research project No 12-05-31088 mol_a.

Ronzhina, Tatiana

2013-04-01

204

Corrosion of aluminides by molten nitrate salt  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion of titanium-, iron-, and nickel-based aluminides by a highly aggressive, oxidizing NaNO{sub 3}(-KNO{sub 3})-Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} has been studied at 650{degree}C. It was shown that weight changes could be used to effectively evaluate corrosion behavior in the subject nitrate salt environments provided these data were combined with salt analyses and microstructural examinations. The studies indicated that the corrosion of relatively resistant aluminides by these nitrate salts proceeded by oxidation and a slow release from an aluminum-rich product layer into the salt at rates lower than that associated with many other types of metallic materials. The overall corrosion process and resulting rate depended on the particular aluminide being exposed. In order to minimize corrosion of nickel or iron aluminides, it was necessary to have aluminum concentrations in excess of 30 at. %. However, even at a concentration of 50 at. % Al, the corrosion resistance of TiAl was inferior to that of Ni{sub 3}Al and Fe{sub 3}Al. At higher aluminum concentrations, iron, nickel, and iron-nickel aluminides exhibited quite similar weight changes, indicative of the principal role of aluminum in controlling the corrosion process in NaNO{sub 3}(-KNO{sub 3})-Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} salts. 20 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Tortorelli, P.F.; Bishop, P.S.

1990-01-01

205

Metasomatic control of water contents in the Kaapvaal cratonic mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water and trace element contents were measured by FTIR and laser ablation-ICPMS on minerals from peridotite xenoliths in kimberlites of the Kaapvaal craton from Finsch, Kimberley, Jagersfontein (South Africa), Letseng-La-Terae, and Liqhobong (Lesotho) mines. The peridotites record a wide range of pressure, temperature, oxygen fugacity, and metasomatic events. Correlations between water content or OH vibration bands with major, minor and trace elements in pyroxene and garnet precludes disturbance during xenolith entrainment by the host kimberlite magma and indicate preservation of mantle water contents. Clinopyroxene water contents (150-400 ppm H2O, by weight) correlate with those of orthopyroxene (40-250 ppm). Olivines (Peslier et al., 2008, 2010) and garnets have 0-86 and 0-20 ppm H2O, respectively. Relations in individual xenolith suites between the amount of water and that of incompatible elements Ti, Na, Fe3+ and rare earths in minerals suggests that metasomatism by oxidizing melts controls the water content of olivine, pyroxene and garnet. At pressures ?5.5 GPa, hydrous, alkaline, siliceous fluids or melts metasomatized Liqhobong and Kimberley peridotites, producing high water contents in their olivine, pyroxenes and garnet. At higher pressures, the percolation of ultramafic melts reacting with peridotite resulted in co-variation of Ca, Ti and water at the edge of garnets at Jagersfontein, and the overall crystallization of garnet with lower water contents than those in the original peridotites. The upward migration of these ultramafic melts through the lithospheric mantle also increased the water content of olivines with decreasing pressure at Finsch Mine. H2O/Ce ratios of melts in equilibrium with Kaapvaal peridotites range from 100 to 20,000 and the larger values may indicate metasomatism in subduction zone settings. Metasomatic events in Kaapvaal peridotites are thought to have occurred from the Archean to the Mesozoic. However, circumstantial evidence suggest that the metasomatic events responsible for setting the water contents may date from the Archean at Kimberley and from the Proterozoic at Jagersfontein. Combined water with Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotopic data at Finsch (Lazarov et al., in press-a) and with Ar-Ar phlogopite ages at Liqhobong (Hopp et al., 2008) indicates that water addition by metasomatic melts occurred in the Proterozoic. Water contents of mantle minerals in Kaapvaal xenoliths measured here have been preserved since that time and can consequently be used in modelling viscosity and longevity of cratonic roots since at least the mid-Proterozoic.

Peslier, A. H.; Woodland, A. B.; Bell, D. R.; Lazarov, M.; Lapen, T. J.

2012-11-01

206

Characterization of protein hydrolysis and odor-active compounds of fish sauce inoculated with Virgibacillus sp. SK37 under reduced salt content.  

PubMed

The effect of Virgibacillus sp. SK37, together with reduced salt content, on fish sauce quality, particularly free amino acids and odor-active compounds, was investigated. Virgibacillus sp. SK37 was inoculated with an approximate viable count of 5 log CFU/mL in samples with varied amounts of solar salt, for example, 10, 15, and 20% of total weight. Eighteen selected odorants were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA), and their odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated. Samples prepared using 10% salt underwent spoilage after 7 days of fermentation. The viable count of Virgibacillus sp. SK37 was found over 3 months in the samples containing 15 and 20% salt. However, acceleration of protein hydrolysis was not pronounced in inoculated samples at both 15 and 20% salt. Virgibacillus sp. SK37, together with salt contents reduced to 15-20%, appeared to increase the content of 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, acetic acid, and 2-methylpropanoic acid. However, only aldehydes were found to have an effect on the overall aroma of fish sauce based on high OAVs, suggesting that the inoculation of samples with Virgibacillus sp. SK37 under reduced salt contents of 15-20% likely contributed to stronger malty or dark chocolate notes. PMID:23768048

Lapsongphon, Nawaporn; Cadwallader, Keith R; Rodtong, Sureelak; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

2013-07-10

207

Effect of Foliar Salicylic Acid Applications on Growth, Chlorophyll, and Mineral Content of Cucumber Grown Under Salt Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of foliar salicylic acid (SA) applications on growth, chlorophyll, and mineral content of cucumber grown under salt stress. The study was conducted in pot experiments under greenhouse conditions. Cucumber seedlings were treated with foliar SA applications at different concentrations (0.0, 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mM). Salinity treatments were established by

Ertan Yildirim; Metin Turan; Ismail Guvenc

2008-01-01

208

First data on the uranium content in water of the Yenisei River basin in the area affected by the operation of Rosatom plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is devoted to investigating the content of uranium isotopes in water of the Yenisei River and its tributaries within the territories affected by the operation of Rosatom plants (mining chemical combine, and electrochemical plant). Long-term monitoring of the 238U content by mass spectrometry carried out in two institutes of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences first revealed the multiple excess of 238U over the background content in different areas of the Yenisei River basin, such as the region of the Yenisei River near the effluents of the mining and chemical combine (MCC), and the territories of the Bol'shaya Tel' and Kan rivers. In these regions, the 238U content in water reaches 2.1-4.0 ?g/l, which exceeds its content upstream from the MCC (0.3-0.6 ?g/l) by almost an order of magnitude. The studies of the isotopic composition of uranium in water samples, which were carried out at the Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, showed the presence of a technogenic isotope of uranium 236U in the samples from the Bolshaya Tel' River and revealed the deviation of the isotope ratio 238U/235U (167 ± 3 and 177 ± 3) from the equilibrium natural ratio (238U/235U = 138). These facts attest to the technogenic origin of part of the uranium in water of the Bol'shaya Tel' River connected with the activity of MCC. The excess uranium content in the Kan River requires additional studies to ascertain the fraction of uranium of technogenic origin connected with the activity of the electrochemical plant (ECP) (Fig. 1, Table 4).

Bolsunovskii, A. Ya.; Zhizhaev, A. M.; Saprykin, A. I.; Degermendzhi, A. G.; Rubailo, A. I.

2011-07-01

209

Destroying Gadofullerene Aggregates by Salt Addition in Aqueous Solution of Gd@C60(OH)x and Gd@C60[C(COOH2)]10  

PubMed Central

A combined proton relaxivity and dynamic light scattering study has shown that aggregates formed in aqueous solution of water-soluble gadofullerenes can be disrupted by addition of salts. The salt content of fullerene-based materials will strongly influence properties related to aggregation phenomena, therefore their behavior in biological or medical applications. In particular, the relaxivity of gadofullerenes decreases dramatically with phosphate addition. Moreover, real biological fluids present a rather high salt concentration which will have consequences on fullerene aggregation and influence fullerene-based drug delivery.

Laus, Sabrina; Sitharaman, Balaji; Toth, Eva; Bolskar, Robert D.; Helm, Lothar; Asokan, Subashini; Wong, Michael S.; Wilson, Lon J.

2008-01-01

210

46 CFR 46.10-45 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. 46.10-45 Section 46.10-45...Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. (a) Passenger vessels required...Great Lakes voyages, shall not submerge in salt water the subdivision load line...

2011-10-01

211

Important observations and parameters for a salt water intrusion model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sensitivity analysis with a density-dependent ground water flow simulator can provide insight and understanding of salt water intrusion calibration problems far beyond what is possible through intuitive analysis alone. Five simple experimental simulations presented here demonstrate this point. Results show that dispersivity is a very important parameter for reproducing a steady-state distribution of hydraulic head, salinity, and flow in the transition zone between fresh water and salt water in a coastal aquifer system. When estimating dispersivity, the following conclusions can be drawn about the data types and locations considered. (1) The "toe" of the transition zone is the most effective location for hydraulic head and salinity observations. (2) Areas near the coastline where submarine ground water discharge occurs are the most effective locations for flow observations. (3) Salinity observations are more effective than hydraulic head observations. (4) The importance of flow observations aligned perpendicular to the shoreline varies dramatically depending on distance seaward from the shoreline. Extreme parameter correlation can prohibit unique estimation of permeability parameters such as hydraulic conductivity and flow parameters such as recharge in a density-dependent ground water flow model when using hydraulic head and salinity observations. Adding flow observations perpendicular to the shoreline in areas where ground water is exchanged with the ocean body can reduce the correlation, potentially resulting in unique estimates of these parameter values. Results are expected to be directly applicable to many complex situations, and have implications for model development whether or not formal optimization methods are used in model calibration.

Shoemaker, W. B.

2004-01-01

212

Effect of moisture content of concrete on water uptake  

SciTech Connect

The penetration of water and non-polar hexane in Portland cement mortar prisms with different initial moisture contents was investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR). The amount of water in gel pores strongly affects the penetration of water in much larger capillary pores. Water penetration is reduced by the self-sealing effect as characterized by non-sq roott dependence of capillary uptake and penetration depth. This is explained by the ongoing redistribution of water from capillaries into gel pores which results in internal swelling and loss of continuity of the capillary pore system; a correlation was observed between the amount of redistributed water and departure from sq roott behaviour. A descriptive model is used to explain the dependence of water uptake and penetration on moisture content. For increasing initial moisture contents up to a critical value equivalent to equilibrium with a relative humidity between 65 and 80%, less penetrating water is able to redistribute. Thus more penetrating water is in larger capillaries with less viscous resistance; uptake and penetration depth increase. Above the critical initial moisture content, uptake and penetration depth decrease towards zero. This is explained by (a) an overall reduction in capillary pressure because transport takes places in fewer and larger pores and (b) an increase in viscous resistance due to the connection of penetrating capillary water with pores already containing water. Less capillary pore space is available for transport. The surface region of concrete placed in contact with water is not instantaneously saturated. Water content increases with time depending on the degree of surface saturation. A new transition coefficient for capillary suction gamma is defined for the calculation of surface flux.

Rucker-Gramm, P. [Concrete Concepts Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH Brandes, Lay, Rucker, Fraunhoferstrasse 30b, 80469 Muenchen (Germany); Beddoe, R.E., E-mail: Beddoe@cbm.bv.tum.d [Centre for Building Materials, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Baumbachstr. 7, 81245 Muenchen (Germany)

2010-01-15

213

Experimental techniques to determine salt formation and deposition in supercritical water oxidation reactors  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) is an emerging technology for destroying aqueous organic waste. Feed material, containing organic waste at concentrations typically less than 10 wt % in water, is pressurized and heated to conditions above water`s critical point where the ability of water to dissolve hydrocarbons and other organic chemicals is greatly enhanced. An oxidizer, is then added to the feed. Given adequate residence time and reaction temperature, the SCWO process rapidly produces innocuous combustion products. Organic carbon and nitrogen in the feed emerge as CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}; metals, heteroatoms, and halides appear in the effluent as inorganic salts and acids. The oxidation of organic material containing heteroatoms, such as sulfur or phosphorous, forms acid anions. In the presence of metal ions, salts are formed and precipitate out of the supercritical fluid. In a tubular configured reactor, these salts agglomerate, adhere to the reactor wall, and eventually interfere by causing a flow restriction in the reactor leading to an increase in pressure. This rapid precipitation is due to an extreme drop in salt solubility that occurs as the feed stream becomes supercritical. To design a system that can accommodate the formation of these salts, it is important to understand the deposition process quantitatively. A phenomenological model is developed in this paper to predict the time that reactor pressure begins to rise as a function of the fluid axial temperature profile and effective solubility curve. The experimental techniques used to generate effective solubility curves for one salt of interest, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, are described, and data is generated for comparison. Good correlation between the model and experiment is shown. An operational technique is also discussed that allows the deposited salt to be redissolved in a single phase and removed from the affected portion of the reactor. This technique is demonstrated experimentally.

Chan, J.P.C.; LaJeunesse, C.A.; Rice, S.F.

1994-08-01

214

A Non-Destructive Method for Determining the Distribution of Soil Water Content by Measuring Fast Neutron Transmission Using an NE213 Organic Scintillator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of measuring the water content distribution in a soil layer packed in a column, using fast neutron transmission, has been developed. The calibration curve of the water content was obtained from the rate of decrease of fast neutrons per unit of water content. An NE-213 organic scintillator (2'' in diameter × 2'' in length) and Cf-252(273 muCi) were

Toshihiko Ohnuki; Tadatoshi Yamamoto; Yoshiki Wadachi

1984-01-01

215

A comparison of the coupled fresh water-salt water flow and the Ghyben-Herzberg sharp interface approaches to modeling of transient behavior in coastal aquifer systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A quasi-three dimensional finite difference model which simulates coupled, fresh water and salt water flow, separated by a sharp interface, is used to investigate the effects of storage characteristics, transmissivity, boundary conditions and anisotropy on the transient responses of such flow systems. The magnitude and duration of the departure of aquifer response from the behavior predicted using the Ghyben-Herzberg, one-fluid approach is a function of the ease with which flow can be induced in the salt water region. In many common hydrogeologic settings short-term fresh water head responses, and transitional responses between short-term and long-term, can only be realistically reproduced by including the effects of salt water flow on the dynamics of coastal flow systems. The coupled fresh water-salt water flow modeling approach is able to reproduce the observed annual fresh water head response of the Waialae aquifer of southeastern Oahu, Hawaii. ?? 1986.

Essaid, H. I.

1986-01-01

216

Peptide salt bridge stability: from gas phase via microhydration to bulk water simulations.  

PubMed

The salt bridge formation and stability in the terminated lysine-glutamate dipeptide is investigated in water clusters of increasing size up to the limit of bulk water. Proton transfer dynamics between the acidic and basic side chains is described by DFT-based Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations. While the desolvated peptide prefers to be in its neutral state, already the addition of a single water molecule can trigger proton transfer from the glutamate side chain to the lysine side chain, leading to a zwitterionic salt bridge state. Upon adding more water molecules we find that stabilization of the zwitterionic state critically depends on the number of hydrogen bonds between side chain termini, the water molecules, and the peptidic backbone. Employing classical molecular dynamics simulations for larger clusters, we observed that the salt bridge is weakened upon additional hydration. Consequently, long-lived solvent shared ion pairs are observed for about 30 water molecules while solvent separated ion pairs are found when at least 40 or more water molecules hydrate the dipeptide. These results have implications for the formation and stability of salt bridges at partially dehydrated surfaces of aqueous proteins. PMID:23163393

Pluha?ová, Eva; Marsalek, Ondrej; Schmidt, Burkhard; Jungwirth, Pavel

2012-11-14

217

Peptide salt bridge stability: From gas phase via microhydration to bulk water simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The salt bridge formation and stability in the terminated lysine-glutamate dipeptide is investigated in water clusters of increasing size up to the limit of bulk water. Proton transfer dynamics between the acidic and basic side chains is described by DFT-based Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations. While the desolvated peptide prefers to be in its neutral state, already the addition of a single water molecule can trigger proton transfer from the glutamate side chain to the lysine side chain, leading to a zwitterionic salt bridge state. Upon adding more water molecules we find that stabilization of the zwitterionic state critically depends on the number of hydrogen bonds between side chain termini, the water molecules, and the peptidic backbone. Employing classical molecular dynamics simulations for larger clusters, we observed that the salt bridge is weakened upon additional hydration. Consequently, long-lived solvent shared ion pairs are observed for about 30 water molecules while solvent separated ion pairs are found when at least 40 or more water molecules hydrate the dipeptide. These results have implications for the formation and stability of salt bridges at partially dehydrated surfaces of aqueous proteins.

Pluha?ová, Eva; Marsalek, Ondrej; Schmidt, Burkhard; Jungwirth, Pavel

2012-11-01

218

Biodegradable and biocompatible inorganic–organic hybrid materials: 4. Effect of acid content and water content on the incorporation of aliphatic polyesters into silica by the sol-gel process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of poly ?-caprolactone (PCL) incorporation into silica networks prepared by the sol-gel process depends on the HCl:tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) molar ratio and the H2O:TEOS molar ratio, as well. The PCL incorporation increases with the concentration of the acid used as the catalyst. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) indicates that increasing the acid concentration or decreasing the water content results in

D. Tian; S. Blacher; R. Jerome

1999-01-01

219

Changes in water content and distribution in Quercus ilex leaves during progressive drought assessed by in vivo 1H magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

Background Drought is a common stressor in many regions of the world and current climatic global circulation models predict further increases in warming and drought in the coming decades in several of these regions, such as the Mediterranean basin. The changes in leaf water content, distribution and dynamics in plant tissues under different soil water availabilities are not well known. In order to fill this gap, in the present report we describe our study withholding the irrigation of the seedlings of Quercus ilex, the dominant tree species in the evergreen forests of many areas of the Mediterranean Basin. We have monitored the gradual changes in water content in the different leaf areas, in vivo and non-invasively, by 1H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using proton density weighted (?w) images and spin-spin relaxation time (T2) maps. Results ?w images showed that the distal leaf area lost water faster than the basal area and that after four weeks of similar losses, the water reduction was greater in leaf veins than in leaf parenchyma areas and also in distal than in basal leaf area. There was a similar tendency in all different areas and tissues, of increasing T2 values during the drought period. This indicates an increase in the dynamics of free water, suggesting a decrease of cell membranes permeability. Conclusions The results indicate a non homogeneous leaf response to stress with a differentiated capacity to mobilize water between its different parts and tissues. This study shows that the MRI technique can be a useful tool to follow non-intrusively the in vivo water content changes in the different parts of the leaves during drought stress. It opens up new possibilities to better characterize the associated physiological changes and provides important information about the different responses of the different leaf areas what should be taken into account when conducting physiological and metabolic drought stress studies in different parts of the leaves during drought stress.

2010-01-01

220

Determination of water content in powdered milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of the water content in foodstuff is one of the most frequently performed analyses in the food industry (Isengard, 2001). In dried milk IDF method 26A in which the sample is dried at 102.0±2.0 °C in a standard air drying oven has been used for many years as reference method. The method exhibits excellent repeatability but reproducibility is

Christoph Reh; Shrinivasa N. Bhat; Stephane Berrut

2004-01-01

221

Remote Sensing of Leaf Water Content in the Near Infrared.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A stochastic leaf radiation model was used to predict leaf spectral reflectance as a function of leaf water content for a dicot leaf. Simulated spectral reflectances, corresponding to different leaf water contents or equivalent water thicknesses, were ana...

C. J. Tucker

1979-01-01

222

Gross alpha determination in salt rich water samples using an extraction chromatographic resin and LSC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of an extraction chromatographic resin to the determination of the gross alpha activity of drinking water\\u000a samples with volumes greater than 100 ml and of salt rich aqueous samples, like mineral, waste or sea waters was tested. Alpha-emitters\\u000a are extracted from the water sample onto the resin, the gross alpha activity is then determined by direct measurement of

S. Happel; M. Beyermann; P. Letessier; A. Bombard; A. H. Thakkar; E. P. Horwitz

2008-01-01

223

Chemical quality of ground water in Salt Lake Valley, Utah, 1969-85  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1979-84, 35 wells completed in the principal aquifer in the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, that had been sampled during 1962-67 were resampled to determine if water quality changes had occurred. The dissolved solids concentrations of the water from 13 of the wells has increased by more than 10% since 1962-67. Much of the ground water between the mouth of

K. M. Waddell; R. L. Seiler; D. K. Solomon

1986-01-01

224

PIXE measurements of drinking water of Salt Lake, Calcutta, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of the trace elemental concentration in drinking water from Salt Lake City, a residential locality in Calcutta, India, was carried out using the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. Samples were collected from overhead tanks, where drinking water is stored for supply to all parts of this residential area. A chelating agent (NaDDTC) was used for the pre-concentration of the trace elements. A large number of elements, namely Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Ba, Tl and Pb were detected and the results are discussed.

Sudarshan, M.; Dutta, R. K.; Vijayan, V.; Chintalapudi, S. N.

2000-08-01

225

Prediction of activity coefficients in liquid aerosol particles containing organic compounds, dissolved inorganic salts, and water—Part 3: Organic compounds, water, and ionic constituents by consideration of short-, mid-, and long-range effects using X-UNIFAC.3  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-UNIFAC.3, a group contribution method for estimating activity coefficients of neutral and ionic components in liquid mixtures of organic compounds, inorganic salts, and water, is presented here. It is an extended UNIFAC method, in that traditional UNIFAC terms for short-range energetic interaction effects are extended to include ions as mixture components, and are combined with a Debye–Hückel long-range effect term

Garnet B. Erdakos; Elsa I. Chang; James F. Pankow; John H. Seinfeld

2006-01-01

226

Calcium and bromide contents of natural waters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The linear relation observed in a log Ca++ versus log Br - plot for subsurface Cl- waters is attributed to ultrafiltration by shale of sea water and fresh water that have passed through sedimentary rocks since their formation. Reactions between these solutions and sedimentary minerals, particularly dolomitization, must have contributed additional Ca+ + to solution.

Anderson, R. J.; Graf, D. L.; Jones, B. F.

1966-01-01

227

Transpiring wall supercritical water oxidation reactor salt deposition studies  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has teamed with Foster Wheeler Development Corp. and GenCorp, Aerojet to develop and evaluate a new supercritical water oxidation reactor design using a transpiring wall liner. In the design, pure water is injected through small pores in the liner wall to form a protective boundary layer that inhibits salt deposition and corrosion, effects that interfere with system performance. The concept was tested at Sandia on a laboratory-scale transpiring wall reactor that is a 1/4 scale model of a prototype plant being designed for the Army to destroy colored smoke and dye at Pine Bluff Arsenal in Arkansas. During the tests, a single-phase pressurized solution of sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) was heated to supercritical conditions, causing the salt to precipitate out as a fine solid. On-line diagnostics and post-test observation allowed us to characterize reactor performance at different flow and temperature conditions. Tests with and without the protective boundary layer demonstrated that wall transpiration provides significant protection against salt deposition. Confirmation tests were run with one of the dyes that will be processed in the Pine Bluff facility. The experimental techniques, results, and conclusions are discussed.

Haroldsen, B.L.; Mills, B.E.; Ariizumi, D.Y.; Brown, B.G. [and others

1996-09-01

228

Quantum Calculations on Salt Bridges with Water: Potentials, Structure, and Properties  

SciTech Connect

Salt bridges are electrostatic links between acidic and basic amino acids in a protein; quantum calculations are used here to determine the energetics and other properties of one form of these species, in the presence of water molecules. The acidic groups are carboxylic acids (aspartic and glutamic acids); proteins have two bases with pK above physiological pH: one, arginine, with a guanidinium basic group, the other lysine, which is a primary amine. Only arginine is modeled here, by ethyl guanidinium, while propionic acid is used as a model for either carboxylic acid. The salt bridges are accompanied by 0-12 water molecules; for each of the 13 systems, the energy-bond distance relation, natural bond orbitals (NBO), frequency calculations allowing thermodynamic corrections to room temperature, and dielectric constant dependence, were all calculated. The water molecules were found to arrange themselves in hydrogen bonded rings anchored to the oxygens of the salt bridge components. This was not surprising in itself, but it was found that the rings lead to a periodicity in the energy, and to a 'water addition' rule. The latter shows that the initial rings, with four oxygen atoms, become five member rings when an additional water molecule becomes available, with the additional water filling in at the bond with the lowest Wiberg index, as calculated using NBO. The dielectric constant dependence is the expected hyperbola, and the fit of the energy to the inverse dielectric constant is determined. There is an energy periodicity related to ring formation upon addition of water molecules. When 10 water molecules have been added, all spaces near the salt bridge are filled, completing the first hydration shell, and a second shell starts to form. The potentials associated with salt bridges depend on their hydration, and potentials assigned without regard to local hydration are likely to cause errors as large as or larger than kBT, thus suggesting a serious problem if these potentials are used in Molecular Dynamics simulations.

Liao, Sing; Green, Michael E.

2011-01-01

229

Water-quality assessment of the Great Salt Lake basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming; environmental setting and study design  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Great Salt Lake Basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming is one of 51 study units in the United States where the status and trends of water quality, and the factors controlling water quality, are being studied by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The 14,500-square-mile Great Salt Lake Basins study unit encompasses three major river systems that enter Great Salt Lake: the Bear, the Weber, and the Utah Lake/Jordan River systems. The environmental setting of the study unit includes natural and human-related factors that potentially influence the physical, chemical, and/or biological quality of the surface- and ground-water resources. Surface- and ground-water components of the planned assessment activities are designed to evaluate the sources of natural and human-related factors that affect the water quality in the Great Salt Lake Basins study unit.

Baskin, Robert L.; Waddell, K. M.; Thiros, S. A.; Giddings, E. M.; Hadley, H. K.; Stephens, D. W.; Gerner, S. J.

2002-01-01

230

Geologic appraisal of Paradox basin salt deposits for water emplacement  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thick salt deposits of Middle Pennsylvanian age are present in an area of 12,000 square miles in the Paradox basin of southeast Utah and southwest Colorado. The deposits are in the Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation. The greatest thickness of this evaporite sequence is in a troughlike depression adjacent to the Uncompahgre uplift on the northeast side of the basin. The salt deposits consist of a cyclical sequence of thick halite units separated by thin units of black shale, dolomite, and anhydrite. Many halite units are several hundred feet thick and locally contain economically valuable potash deposits. Over much of the Paradox basin the salt deposits occur at depths of more than 5,000 feet. Only in a series of salt anticlines located along the northeastern side of the basin do the salt deposits rise to relatively shallow depths. The salt anticlines can be divided geographically and structurally into five major systems. Each system consists of a long undulating welt of thickened salt over which younger rocks are arched in anticlinal form. Locally there are areas along the axes of the anticlines where the Paradox Member was never covered by younger sediments. This allowed large-scale migration of Paradox strata toward and up through these holes in the sediment cover forming diapiric anticlines. The central or salt-bearing cores of tthe anticlines range in thickness from about 2,500 to 14,000 feet. Structure in the central core of the salt anticlines is the result of both regional-compression and flowage of the Paradox Member into the anticlines from adjacent synclines. Structure in the central cores of the salt anticlines ranges from relatively undeformed beds to complexly folded and faulted masses, in which stratigraphic continuity is undemonstrable. The presence of thick cap rock .over many of the salt anticlines is evidence of removal of large volumes of halite by groundwater. Available geologic and hydrologic information suggests that this is a relatively slow process and that any waste-storage or disposal sites in these structures should remain dry for hundreds of thousands of years. Trace to commercial quantities of oil and gas are found in all of the black shale-dolomite-anhydrite interbeds of the Paradox Member. These hydrocarbons constitute a definite hazard in the construction and operation of underground waste-storage or disposal facilities. However, many individual halite beds are of. sufficient thickness that a protective seal of halite can be left between the openings and the gassy beds. A total of 12 different, localities were considered to be potential waste-storage or disposal sites in the Paradox basin. Two Sharer dome and Salt Valley anticline, were considered to have the most favorable characteristics.

Hite, R. J.; Lohman, Stanley William

1973-01-01

231

Field Measurement of Suction, Water Content, and Water Permeability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a review of techniques for field measurement of suction, water content, and water hydraulic conductivity\\u000a (permeability). Main problems in the use of field tensiometers are addressed and hints on how to improve tensiometer performance\\u000a are given. Advantages and limitations of instruments for indirect measurement of suction including electrical conductivity\\u000a sensors, thermal conductivity sensors, dielectric permittivity sensors, filter

Alessandro Tarantino; Andrew M. Ridley; David G. Toll

2008-01-01

232

Long-range periodic structure induced by coupling of the solvation effect and concentration fluctuation in water and 3-methylpyridine with salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments were performed on mixtures of 3-methylpyridine, D2O, and salts to investigate concentration fluctuations and structures in the vicinity of the critical point. The temperature-dependence of the SANS profile of a mixture without salt showed critical phenomena that were consistent with 3D-Ising behavior. On the other hand, the SANS profiles with salt added mixtures could not

K. Sadakane; H. Seto; M. Nagao

2006-01-01

233

Inhibition of bacterial adherence to a high-water-content polymer by a water-soluble, nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory drug.  

PubMed

Deposition and aggregation of lachrymal proteins on the contact lens surface can promote bacterial adherence. Lysozyme is the major tear protein and is also mainly responsible for the formation of protein deposits on contact lenses. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) prevent protein aggregation. The effect of a water-soluble NSAID drug on bacterial adherence to high-water-content/ionic disposable contact lenses was examined in a radiolabeling study. Dose-related inhibition of adherence of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa on both pretreated lenses and after adding the drug to the medium was investigated. When the drug was added to the media, maximal inhibition of S. aureus adherence was observed in trypticase soy broth (59-98% at the lower and higher drug concentrations, respectively); inhibition progressively decreased in calf aqueous humor (48-75%), lysozyme (34-63%), and saline (12-20%) solutions. Inhibition of adherence varied with the three bacterial species; it was maximal with S. aureus, intermediate with S. epidermidis, and minimal with P. aeruginosa. When lenses were pretreated with the drug, consistent, and even higher, inhibitory effects were observed. The results suggest that water-soluble NSAIDs could be used in preventive treatments for conjunctivae and corneal infections in contact lens wearers, and may provide a clue as to which compounds might inhibit protein interaction and bacterial adhesion. PMID:9740000

Arciola, C R; Montanaro, L; Caramazza, R; Sassoli, V; Cavedagna, D

1998-10-01

234

The water cycles of water-soluble organic salts of atmospheric importance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the water cycles of nine water-soluble organic salts of atmospheric interest were studied using an electrodynamic balance (EDB) at 25°C. Sodium formate, sodium acetate, sodium succinate, sodium pyruvate and sodium methanesulfonate (Na-MSA) particles crystallize as the relative humidity (RH) decreases and they deliquesce as the RH increases. Sodium oxalate and ammonium oxalate form supersaturated particles at low RH before crystallization but they do not deliquesce even at RH=90%. Sodium malonate and sodium maleate particles neither crystallize nor deliquesce. These two salts absorb and evaporate water reversibly without hysteresis. In most cases, the solid states of single particles resulting from the crystallization of supersaturated droplets do not form the most thermodynamically stable state found in bulk studies. Sodium formate, sodium oxalate, ammonium oxalate, sodium succinate, sodium pyruvate and Na-MSA form anhydrous particles after crystallization. Sodium acetate forms particles with a water/salt molar ratio of 0.5 after crystallization. In salts with several hydrated states including sodium formate and sodium acetate, the particles deliquesce at the lowest deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) of the hydrates. Except sodium oxalate and ammonium oxalate, all the salts studied here are as hygroscopic as typical inorganic hygroscopic aerosols. The hygroscopic organic salts have a growth factor of 1.76-2.18 from RH=10-90%, comparable to that of typical hygroscopic inorganic salts such as NaCl and (NH 4) 2SO 4. Further study of other atmospheric water-soluble organic compounds and their mixtures with inorganic salts is needed to explain the field observations of the hygroscopic growth of ambient aerosols.

Peng, Changgeng; Chan, Chak K.

235

Salting the landscapes in Transbaikalia: natural and technogenic factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salting the soils, surface and subsurface waters is widespread in Transbaikalia. Hearths of salting occur within intermountain depressions of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic age both in the steppe arid and forest humid landscapes. Total water mineralization reaches 80 g/dm3 in lakes and 4-5 g/dm3 in subsurface waters. The waters belong to hydrocarbonate sodium and sulfate sodium types by chemical composition. The soda type of waters is widely spread through the whole area. Sulfate waters are found in several hearths of salting. Deposition of salts takes place in some lakes. Mirabilite and soda depositions are most commonly observed in muds of salt lakes. Deposition of salts occurs both as a result of evaporative concentrating and during freezing out the solvent. In the winter period, efflorescences of salts, where decawater soda is main mineral, are observed on ice surface. Solonchaks are spread in areas of shallow ground waters (1-2m). Soil salting is most intense in the lower parts of depressions, where surface of ground waters is at depth 0.5-1.0m. In soil cover of solonchaks, salt horizon is of various thicknesses, and it has various morphological forms of occurrence, i.e. as thick deposits of salts on soil surface and salting the surficial horizons. The soil has low alkaline reaction of medium and is characterized by high content of exchangeable bases with significant content of exchangeable sodium in the absorbing complex. Total amount of salts varies from 0.7 to 1.3%. Their maximal quantity (3.1%) is confined to the surficial layer. Sulfate-sodium type of salting is noted in the solonchak upper horizons and sulfate-magnesium-calcium one in the lower ones (Ubugunov et al, 2009). Formation of salting hearths is associated with natural and technogenic conditions. The Mesozoic depressions of Transbaikalia are characterized by intense volcanism. Covers of alkaline and moderately alkaline basalts that are enriched in potassium, sodium, carbon dioxide, fluorine, chlorine, sulphur, strontium, lithium, molybdenum, nickel, and vanadium are widely spread there. Geochemical habit of basalts largely determines chemical compositions of waters and mineral formations in hearths of salting. Unloading the fissure-vein waters that evacuate solute from the Jurassic-Cretaceous volcanogenic-sedimentary deposits greatly effects chemical composition in some hearths of salting. Irrigation systems in many intermountain depressions influence the salting hearth formation. The associated secondary salting occurs as spots in the areas, where ground water surface reaches foot of loams during irrigation. Salting the landscapes takes out big areas of fertile lands from agricultural use, threatens with breakdowns at enterprises of thermal energetic that consume water as heat carrier.

Peryazeva, E. G.; Plyusnin, A. M.; Chinavlev, A. M.

2010-05-01

236

[Near infrared spectroscopy study on water content in turbine oil].  

PubMed

Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with successive projections algorithm (SPA) was investigated for determination of water content in turbine oil. Through the 57 samples of different water content in turbine oil scanned applying near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, with the water content in the turbine oil of 0-0.156%, different pretreatment methods such as the original spectra, first derivative spectra and differential polynomial least squares fitting algorithm Savitzky-Golay (SG), and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were applied for the extraction of effective wavelengths, the correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used as the model evaluation indices, accordingly water content in turbine oil was investigated. The results indicated that the original spectra with different water content in turbine oil were pretreated by the performance of first derivative + SG pretreatments, then the selected effective wavelengths were used as the inputs of least square support vector machine (LS-SVM). A total of 16 variables selected by SPA were employed to construct the model of SPA and least square support vector machine (SPA-LS-SVM). There is 9 as The correlation coefficient was 0.975 9 and the root of mean square error of validation set was 2.655 8 x 10(-3) using the model, and it is feasible to determine the water content in oil using near infrared spectroscopy and SPA-LS-SVM, and an excellent prediction precision was obtained. This study supplied a new and alternative approach to the further application of near infrared spectroscopy in on-line monitoring of contamination such as water content in oil. PMID:24555360

Chen, Bin; Liu, Ge; Zhang, Xian-Ming

2013-11-01

237

Comparison of measured changes in seasonal soil water content by rainfed maize-bean intercrop and component cropping systems in a semi-arid region of southern Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal water content fluctuation within the effective root zone was monitored during the growing season for a maize-bean intercrop (IMB), sole maize (SM) and sole bean (SB) in Free State Province, Republic of South Africa. Comparisons were undertaken for progressive depths of extraction 0-300 mm; 300-600 mm and 600-900 mm respectively. These enabled the understanding of water extraction behavior of the cropping systems within the different soil layers including the topsoil surface normally influenced by soil surface evaporation. Additive intercrops have been known to conserve water, largely due to the early high leaf area index and the higher total leaf area. In this study, the combined effect of the intercrop components seemed to lower the total water demand by the intercrop compared to the sole crops. During the two seasons (2000/2001 and 2001/2002) the drained upper limit (DUL) and crop lower limits (CLL) were determined. The maize-bean intercrop, sole maize and sole bean had CLL of 141 mm/m, 149 mm/m and 159 mm/m respectively. The DUL was 262 mm/m for the site and therefore the potential plant extractable soil water for the cropping systems were: 121 mm/m (IMB); 114 mm/m (SM) and 103 mm/m (SB). Overall, the intercrop did not have significantly different total soil water extraction during both seasons, although it was additive, showing that it had higher water to biomass conversion.

Ogindo, H. O.; Walker, S.

238

Generating electric fields in PDMS microfluidic devices with salt water electrodes.  

PubMed

Droplet merging and sorting in microfluidic devices usually rely on electric fields generated by solid metal electrodes. We show that simpler and more reliable salt water electrodes, despite their lower conductivity, can perform the same droplet manipulations at the same voltages. PMID:24671446

Sciambi, Adam; Abate, Adam R

2014-08-01

239

Efficient chemical and visible-light-driven water oxidation using nickel complexes and salts as precatalysts.  

PubMed

Chemical and visible-light-driven water oxidation catalyzed by a number of Ni complexes and salts have been investigated at pH 7-9 in borate buffer. For chemical oxidation, [Ru(bpy)3](3+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) was used as the oxidant, with turnover numbers (TONs) >65 and a maximum turnover frequency (TOFmax) >0.9 s(-1). Notably, simple Ni salts such as Ni(NO3 )2 are more active than Ni complexes that bear multidentate N-donor ligands. The Ni complexes and salts are also active catalysts for visible-light-driven water oxidation that uses [Ru(bpy)3](2+) as the photosensitizer and S2 O8 (2-) as the sacrificial oxidant; a TON>1200 was obtained at pH 8.5 by using Ni(NO3)2 as the catalyst. Dynamic light scattering measurements revealed the formation of nanoparticles in chemical and visible-light-driven water oxidation by the Ni catalysts. These nanoparticles aggregated during water oxidation to form submicron particles that were isolated and shown to be partially reduced ?-NiOOH by various techniques, which include SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XRD, and IR spectroscopy. These results suggest that the Ni complexes and salts act as precatalysts that decompose under oxidative conditions to form an active nickel oxide catalyst. The nature of this active oxide catalyst is discussed. PMID:24155063

Chen, Gui; Chen, Lingjing; Ng, Siu-Mui; Lau, Tai-Chu

2014-01-01

240

Brief migration of the grass puffer, Takifugu niphobles , to fresh water from salt water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The grass puffer, Takifugu niphobles, is a peripheral freshwater fish often seen in brackish water. In the Sai River, Miyazu, Japan, we found that the grass puffer\\u000a migrate to fresh water from salt water in June and July. Most of the grass puffer stayed in fresh water for 3.6 h on average\\u000a and returned to the sea during the day. A

Akira Kato; Yukio Maeno; Shigehisa Hirose

2010-01-01

241

Hydrology of the Bonneville Salt Flats, northwestern Utah, and simulation of ground-water flow and solute transport in the shallow-brine aquifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the hydrologic system of the Bonneville Salt Flats with emphasis on the mechanisms of solute transport. Variable-density, three-dimensional computer simulations of the near-surface part of the ground-water system were done to quantify both the transport of salt dissolved in subsurface brine that leaves the salt-crust area and the salt dissolved and precipitated on the land surface. The study was designed to define the hydrology of the brine ground-water system and the natural and anthropogenic processes causing salt loss, and where feasible, to quantify these processes. Specific areas of study include the transport of salt in solution by ground-water flow and the transport of salt in solution by wind-driven ponds and the subsequent salt precipitation on the surface of the playa upon evaporation or seepage into the subsurface. In addition, hydraulic and chemical changes in the hydrologic system since previous studies were documented.

Mason, James L.; Kipp, Kenneth L., Jr.

1998-01-01

242

Salt Tracer and Area-Velocity Water Discharge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students spend a 50-minute class (or longer) measuring water discharge of a local stream. They use two different techniques: the traditional area-velocity method and a salt-tracer method. In the classroom, each student using Excel or Kaleidagraph to calculate discharge from field measurements. They summarize their results in an essay, and assess differences between the two techniques and potential sources of error. Designed for a geomorphology course Designed for an introductory geology course Addresses student fear of quantitative aspect and/or inadequate quantitative skills

Riihimaki, Catherine

243

Modeling dense water production and salt transport from Alaskan coastal polynyas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional primitive equation model was used to assess the effects of dense water formation from winter (1996/1997) polynyas on the ambient stratification, salt transport, and circulation in the vicinity of Barrow Canyon. The model, which includes ambient stratification and bottom topography, is forced by time-varying surface heat flux, surface salt flux, and coastal flow. The influence of sea ice drift on the circulation and salt transport is also analyzed by prescribing ice water stress at the sea surface. The surface fluxes and ice drift are derived from satellite observations (Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and NASA scatterometer (NSCAT) sensors). The coastal flow (Alaska coastal current), which is an extension of the Bering Sea throughflow, is formulated in the model by using a wind-transport regression. One set of experiments was forced by strong and persistent polynyas, simulated by 20-day averaged heat and salt fluxes originating from the largest events. In this set of experiments both strong and weak steady coastal currents were imposed. The amount of salt exported from the generation area depended on the strength of the current. Another set of experiments was forced by weaker and less persistent polynyas using time-varying forcing. The experiments with time-varying polynya forcing were conducted with two ambient vertical stratifications, one representing fall conditions and one representing winter conditions. The amount of salt retained on the shelf was found to be quite sensitive to the initial stratification. Weaker vertical stratification promotes a deeper mixed layer, which develops 20 times faster than the horizontal advective timescale of the coastal current, thus increasing the residence time of the salt generated by the polynya on the shelf. The time-varying northeastward coastal current, combined with the offshore Ekman transport, can export 29-73% of the salt produced by polynyas upstream of Barrow Canyon, depending upon the ambient vertical stratification. The inclusion of ice water stress in the model makes the coastal current much wider due to the resulting offshore Ekman transport and also doubles the amount of salt exported.

Signorini, Sergio R.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

2002-09-01

244

Dissolved VOC concentrations and salt contents affecting air-sweat equilibrium partition of hydrophilic and hydrophobic VOCs.  

PubMed

Workers have frequently disregarded long-term dermal exposure to low concentration of gaseous volatile organic compounds (VOCs). To assess dermal exposure risk to gaseous VOCs, equilibrium partitioning coefficients (p(c)) at the air-sweat interface on human skin surface must be examined. This study analyzed the p(c) values of hydrophilic iso-propanol (IPA), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), and hydrophobic benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m-xylene, and p-xylene (BTEXs) at the air-water and air-sweat interfaces at 27-47 degrees C. The hydrophilic VOCs were dissolved in pure water and artificial human sweat liquors at approximately 10-125 mg/L, and hydrophobic VOCs were at approximately 0.55 mg/L. According to experimental results, the dissolved VOC concentration and salt contents simultaneously have a co-effect on p(c) during human dermal exposure to gaseous VOCs. The salt effect resulted in increase of p(c) for hydrophilic and hydrophobic VOCs, and the dissolved VOC concentration effect resulted in a reduction in p(c), which is dominant for hydrophilic compounds of high concentrations of aqueous VOCs. The p(c) data were utilized for further assessment of risk due to dermal exposure to VOCs. PMID:18161563

Cheng, Wen-Hsi

2008-01-01

245

Body water content of extremely preterm infants at birth  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Preterm birth is often associated with impaired growth. Small for gestational age status confers additional risk.?AIM—To determine the body water content of appropriately grown (AGA) and small for gestational age (SGA) preterm infants in order to provide a baseline for longitudinal studies of growth after preterm birth.?METHODS—All infants born at the Hammersmith and Queen Charlotte's Hospitals between 25 and 30 weeks gestational age were eligible for entry into the study. Informed parental consent was obtained as soon after delivery as possible, after which the extracellular fluid content was determined by bromide dilution and total body water by H218O dilution.?RESULTS—Forty two preterm infants were studied. SGA infants had a significantly higher body water content than AGA infants (906 (833-954) and 844 (637-958) ml/kg respectively; median (range); p = 0.019). There were no differences in extracellular and intracellular fluid volumes, nor in the ratio of extracellular to intracellular fluid. Estimates of relative adiposity suggest a body fat content of about 7% in AGA infants, assuming negligible fat content in SGA infants and lean body tissue hydration to be equivalent in the two groups.?CONCLUSIONS—Novel values for the body water composition of the SGA preterm infant at 25-30 weeks gestation are presented. The data do not support the view that SGA infants have extracellular dehydration, nor is their regulation of body water impaired.??

Hartnoll, G.; Betremieux, P.; Modi, N.

2000-01-01

246

Auto Detection For High Level Water Content For Oil Well  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Auto detection of high level water content for oil well is a system that measures the percentage of water in crude oil. This paper aims to discuss an auto detection system for measuring the content of water level in crude oil which is applicable for offshore and onshore oil operations. Data regarding water level content from wells can be determined by using automation thus, well with high water level can be determined immediately whether to be closed or not from operations. Theoretically the system measures the percentage of two- fluid mixture where the fluids have different electrical conductivities which are water and crude oil. The system made use of grid sensor which is a grid pattern like of horizontal and vertical wires. When water occupies the space at the intersection of vertical and horizontal wires, an electrical signal is detected which proved that water completed the circuit path in the system. The electrical signals are counted whereas the percentage of water is determined from the total electrical signals detected over electrical signals provided. Simulation of the system using the MultiSIM showed that the system provided the desired result.

Janier, Josefina Barnachea; Jumaludin, Zainul Arifin B.

2010-06-01

247

Thermal energy storage by encapsulated Glauber's salt in a liquid fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect

Glauber's salt is a promising phase change thermal energy storage compound because of its low price, suitable phase change temperature (32.4/sup 0/C), high latent heat (3.665 x 10/sup 5/kJ/m/sup 3/) and the availability of a suitable nucleating agent (Borax). However, segregation due to incongruent melting is a serious problem associated with Glauber's salt. Mechanical mixing in devices like rotating drums has been shown in the past to prevent segregation, but these devices often have a very low heat transfer area per unit storage area. Encapsulation of Glauber's salt in small particles increases the heat transfer area per unit storage volume enormously and helps alleviate the segregation problem. Mechanical mixing of the capsules and their contents is also much easier and more efficient than mixing the entire storage volume. In this study, a mixture consisting of 96% Glauber's salt and 4% Borax was encapsulated in 25 mm diameter hollow polypropylene spheres with 5% air space in each sphere to increse the mixing efficiency. Agitation and heat transfer were provided by fluidizing the spherical capsules with water in a pilot-plant-scale (340 mm diameter, 1.37 m free height) column. The instrumentation of the system was capable of supplying data for accurate and detailed energy balances. A closed water recirculation system allowed the superficial velocity to be varied without changing the heat input or output from the system. The capsules were tested for impermeability in water and in air for a period of one year and proved to be completely impermeable.

Sozen, Z.Z.; Grace, J.R.; Pinder, K.L.

1983-12-01

248

Salts drive controllable multilayered upright assembly of amyloid-like peptides at mica/water interface  

PubMed Central

Surface-assisted self-assembly of amyloid-like peptides has received considerable interest in both amyloidosis research and nanotechnology in recent years. Despite extensive studies, some controlling factors, such as salts, are still not well understood, even though it is known that some salts can promote peptide self-assemblies through the so-called “salting-out” effect. However, they are usually noncontrollable, disordered, amorphous aggregates. Here, we show via a combined experimental and theoretical approach that a conserved consensus peptide NH2-VGGAVVAGV-CONH2 (GAV-9) (from representative amyloidogenic proteins) can self-assemble into highly ordered, multilayered nanofilaments, with surprising all-upright conformations, under high-salt concentrations. Our atomic force microscopy images also demonstrate that the vertical stacking of multiple layers is highly controllable by tuning the ionic strength, such as from 0 mM (monolayer) to 100 mM (mainly double layer), and to 250 mM MgCl2 (double, triple, quadruple, and quintuple layers). Our atomistic molecular dynamics simulations then reveal that these individual layers have very different internal nanostructures, with parallel ?-sheets in the first monolayer but antiparallel ?-sheets in the subsequent upper layers due to their different microenvironment. Further studies show that the growth of multilayered, all-upright nanostructures is a common phenomenon for GAV-9 at the mica/water interface, under a variety of salt types and a wide range of salt concentrations.

Dai, Bin; Kang, Seung-gu; Huynh, Tien; Lei, Haozhi; Castelli, Matteo; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Ruhong

2013-01-01

249

Salts drive controllable multilayered upright assembly of amyloid-like peptides at mica/water interface.  

PubMed

Surface-assisted self-assembly of amyloid-like peptides has received considerable interest in both amyloidosis research and nanotechnology in recent years. Despite extensive studies, some controlling factors, such as salts, are still not well understood, even though it is known that some salts can promote peptide self-assemblies through the so-called "salting-out" effect. However, they are usually noncontrollable, disordered, amorphous aggregates. Here, we show via a combined experimental and theoretical approach that a conserved consensus peptide NH2-VGGAVVAGV-CONH2 (GAV-9) (from representative amyloidogenic proteins) can self-assemble into highly ordered, multilayered nanofilaments, with surprising all-upright conformations, under high-salt concentrations. Our atomic force microscopy images also demonstrate that the vertical stacking of multiple layers is highly controllable by tuning the ionic strength, such as from 0 mM (monolayer) to 100 mM (mainly double layer), and to 250 mM MgCl2 (double, triple, quadruple, and quintuple layers). Our atomistic molecular dynamics simulations then reveal that these individual layers have very different internal nanostructures, with parallel ?-sheets in the first monolayer but antiparallel ?-sheets in the subsequent upper layers due to their different microenvironment. Further studies show that the growth of multilayered, all-upright nanostructures is a common phenomenon for GAV-9 at the mica/water interface, under a variety of salt types and a wide range of salt concentrations. PMID:23650355

Dai, Bin; Kang, Seung-gu; Huynh, Tien; Lei, Haozhi; Castelli, Matteo; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Ruhong

2013-05-21

250

Modeling of Dense Water Production and Salt Transport from Alaskan Coastal Polynyas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main significance of this paper is that a realistic, three-dimensional, high-resolution primitive equation model has been developed to study the effects of dense water formation in Arctic coastal polynyas. The model includes realistic ambient stratification, realistic bottom topography, and is forced by time-variant surface heat flux, surface salt flux, and time-dependent coastal flow. The salt and heat fluxes, and the surface ice drift, are derived from satellite observations (SSM/I and NSCAT sensors). The model is used to study the stratification, salt transport, and circulation in the vicinity of Barrow Canyon during the 1996/97 winter season. The coastal flow (Alaska coastal current), which is an extension of the Bering Sea throughflow, is formulated in the model using the wind-transport regression. The results show that for the 1996/97 winter the northeastward coastal current exports 13% to 26% of the salt produced by coastal polynyas upstream of Barrow Canyon in 20 to 30 days. The salt export occurs more rapidly during less persistent polynyas. The inclusion of ice-water stress in the model makes the coastal current slightly weaker and much wider due to the combined effects of surface drag and offshore Ekman transport.

Signorini, Sergio R.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

2000-01-01

251

Mineralogical and Anthropogenic Controls of Stream Water Chemistry in Salted Watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyses of major cation and anion concentrations in stream water and soil solutions from two salted (regular applications of winter road deicing salt) watersheds located in the northeastern United States indicate that both mineralogical and anthropogenic factors are important in controlling water chemistry. The relatively stable concentrations of calcium and magnesium, as well as their possible weathering paths identified by mass-balance models, indicate that the weathering of feldspars and the dissolution of carbonates are the primary sources for these two cations in the small, salted Centennial Lake Watershed (CLW, 1.95 km 2). However, the relatively stable and lower concentrations of sodium and chloride in soil solutions, and their fluctuating and higher concentrations in stream water from the CLW, indicate that road deicing salt is the primary source for these ions in stream water. Furthermore, positive correlations between calcium and sulfur concentrations and magnesium and sulfur concentrations in soil solutions, as well as positive correlations between sulfur and iron concentrations in soil compositions, indicate that both the dissolution of gypsum and the oxidation of pyrite into hematite are the primary sources of sulfate in the CLW. Analyses of water chemistry from the related and much larger Delaware River Watershed (DRW, 17560 km 2) show that sodium and chloride concentrations have increased steadily due to the regular application of winter deicing salt over the 68 years for which data are available. The more rapid increase of stream water chloride concentrations, relative to the increase in sodium, also results in the steady decline of Na+/Cl-molar ratios in the DRW over that time. In addition, the reduction of sulfate and increase of bicarbonate concentration since 1980 in DRW stream water may be attributed to the decline of sulfate levels in atmospheric deposition resulting from enhanced national and state environmental regulations and a shift in local economic activity away from heavy industry. There also are more periods of low silica stream water concentrations in the DRW than in the past, perhaps as a result of recent increases in summer water temperatures due to global climate change. The combined results of this study illustrate the many changing anthropogenic factors that can control stream water chemistry in salted watersheds and that these factors need to be taken into account when considering future water quality regulations and policy.

Sun, H.; Alexander, J.; Gove, B.; Chakowski, N.; Husch, J.

2013-12-01

252

Inhibition of Peptide Acylation in PLGA Microspheres with Water-soluble Divalent Cationic Salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To test the potential of water-soluble divalent cationic salts to inhibit acylation of octreotide encapsulated in poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic\\u000a acid)-star (PLGA) microspheres.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The divalent cationic salts, calcium chloride and manganese chloride, previously shown to disrupt peptide sorption, were introduced\\u000a in PLGA microspheres prepared by the double emulsion-solvent evaporation method. Peptide stability was monitored by reversed-phase\\u000a high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and identified

Ying Zhang; Andreas M. Sophocleous; Steven P. Schwendeman

2009-01-01

253

Estimation of water turnover rates of captive West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) held in fresh and salt water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) to move between fresh and salt water raises the question of whether manatees drink salt water. Water turnover rates were estimated in captive West Indian manatees using the deuterium oxide dilution technique. Rates were quantified in animals using four experimental treatments: (1) held in fresh water and fed lettuce (N=4), (2) held in salt water and fed lettuce (N=2), (3) acutely exposed to salt water and fed lettuce (N=4), and (4) chronically exposed to salt water with limited access to fresh water and fed sea grass (N=5). Animals held in fresh water had the highest turnover rates (145+/-12 ml kg-1 day-1) (mean +/- s.e.m.). Animals acutely exposed to salt water decreased their turnover rate significantly when moved into salt water (from 124+/-15 to 65+/-15 ml kg-1 day-1) and subsequently increased their turnover rate upon re-entry to fresh water (146+/-19 ml kg-1 day-1). Manatees chronically exposed to salt water had significantly lower turnover rates (21+/-3 ml kg-1 day-1) compared with animals held in salt water and fed lettuce (45+/-3 ml kg-1 day-1). Manatees chronically exposed to salt water and fed sea grass had very low turnover rates compared with manatees held in salt water and fed lettuce, which is consistent with a lack of mariposia. Manatees in fresh water drank large volumes of water, which may make them susceptible to hyponatremia if access to a source of Na+ is not provided.

Ortiz, R. M.; Worthy, G. A.; Byers, F. M.

1999-01-01

254

[Endogenous hormone contents and their habitat differentia of Reaumuria trigyna and R. soongorica in different salt habitats].  

PubMed

By means of Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), this paper analyzed the contents of endogenous hormones ABA, IAA, ZR, and GA3 in Reaumuria trigyna and its related congener R. soongorica from four different salt habitats. In the identical habitats, the contents of growth-promoting hormones IAA, ZR, and GA3 in R. trigyna were lower than those in R. soongorica, while the content of growth-suppressing hormone ABA was in contrary, which could be one of the main reasons that R. trigyna had a weaker ecological adaptability than R. soongorica. The (IAA+ZR+GA3) /ABA in wild R. trigyna varied with habitats, being saline soil > non-salinized soil > heavy solonchack, which was consistent with the density and coverage of R. trigyna population being the largest on saline soil and followed by on non-salinized soil and heavy solonchack, and suggested that R. trigyna having lived in saline habitat for a long time developed a corresponding inherent adaptation mechanism, and that the integrative regulation of endogenous hormones under salt stress played a key role for the growth and development of R. trigyna. PMID:21608246

Shi, Song-Li; Wang, Ying-Chun; Zhou, Jian-Hua; Zhou, Hong-Bing

2011-02-01

255

Effects of potassium lactate and high pressure on transglutaminase restructured dry-cured hams with reduced salt content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten raw hams (from 5 carcasses) were boned and salted either with salt reduction (15g\\/kg NaCl) or salt reduction with addition of potassium lactate (15g\\/kg NaCl and 39.74g\\/kg of a 60% K-lactate solution). Subsequently, the ham pieces were assembled together with transglutaminase, vacuum packed into water-permeable plastic bags and kept at 3°C and 85% RH until reaching above 30% weight

E. Fulladosa; X. Serra; P. Gou; J. Arnau

2009-01-01

256

Regional differences in water content, collagen content, and collagen degradation in the cervix of nonpregnant cows.  

PubMed

The cow could be a suitable model for studies concerning functional changes of the cervix. However, as in many species, the bovine cervix becomes softer in texture during the follicular phase of the estrous cycle compared to the luteal phase. In the present study, we explored if changes in the collagen network take place that could be responsible for this phenomenon and if regional differences in water content, collagen content, and collagen degradation along the cross-sectional and longitudinal axes of the cervix were present. Two groups of nonpregnant animals with different progesterone status were studied. One group (n = 11) was under high progesterone influence, and the other group (n = 12) was under low progesterone influence. The water content was derived from the weight of the samples before and after lyophilization. The collagen content and the ratio of collagenous to noncollagenous proteins (hydroxyproline:proline ratio) were determined by performing amino acid analysis on hydrolyzed samples using high-performance liquid chromatography. Collagen denaturation was quantified with a colorimetric assay by determining the amount of hydroxyproline released from samples treated with alpha-chymotrypsine. The water content of the superficial layer of the submucosa was always significantly (P < 0.01) higher than the water content of the deep layer in the vaginal, mid, and uterine segments, but this was unrelated to the progesterone status of the animals. No effect of the tissue layers or of the progesterone status of the animals on the collagen content was observed, but an effect of segment was noted. The collagen content (mug/mg dry wt) in the vaginal segment of the cervix was significantly higher than in the mid (P < 0.05) and the uterine (P < 0.01) segments. The hydroxyproline:proline ratio showed the same pattern as the collagen content. The percentage of collagen denaturation in the superficial layer was always significantly (P < 0.01) higher than that in the deep layer, but no effect of the progesterone status or of the segment along the longitudinal axis was seen. It is concluded that regional differences in collagen biochemistry are present in the cervix of nonpregnant cows, which may account for the difference in firmness of different parts along the circular or the longitudinal axis of the cervix. However, differences in texture of the cervix between the two groups of cows could not be explained by differences in the collagen content, percentage of collagen denaturation, or water content. PMID:12855607

Breeveld-Dwarkasing, V N A; de Boer-Brouwer, M; te Koppele, J M; Bank, R A; van der Weijden, G C; Taverne, M A M; van Dissel-Emiliani, F M F

2003-11-01

257

Critical water contents of hydrophobic soils in New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil water repellency is an important problem for pasture farming in New Zealand which causes low infiltration rates and increased surface runoff. However, the real extent of this issue is not yet evaluated. Water repellency is thought to appear on dry soils, when the water content falls below a critical limit. The main objectives of this study was 1) to investigate the effects of different amounts of infiltration water on hydrophobicity of three selected soils under grassland in the North island of New Zealand, and 2) to determine the critical water content for ten sites with five different soil types. In April 2011 undisturbed and disturbed soil samples from a brown, gley and organic soil have been taken from sites around Mount Taranaki. Soil water repellency was determined using the Water Droplet Penetration Time Test (WDPT) and the Molarity of Ethanol Droplet Test (MED). During the lab experiment four amounts of water were applied to the 270 cm³ samples: 400, 800, 1600 and 2400 mL . One test was performed with cold and one with hot (80 °C) water. Each test was replicated four times. In the leachate the amount of dissolved organic carbon was analyzed. The experiments showed that only for the brown soil water repellency decreased significantly with increasing amount of infiltration water whereas for gley soils no correlation was found. Gley soil had initially a lower degree of hydrophobicity compared to the other soils. Possibly due to the higher bulk density of these soils, the carbon compounds directly surrounding the soil particles wre rearranged rather than leached. No clear pattern could be obtained for organic soils. This may be explained by the high initial carbon content of more than 20%. It may take a much greater amount of infiltration to affect hydrophobicity. The critical contact angle of investigated soils above which water repellency is moderately persistent, was 93.8°. In May 2012 ten more sites were sampled and five soil types were investigated with respect to the critical water content. Soil hydrophobicity was again tested during 4 wetting and drying cycles on 3 replicates each of disturbed and undisturbed soil samples. The tests confirmed that water repellency does not exist at high water contents. It generally starts to appear at a certain limit, increases rapidly up to a peak value and finally decreases slowly when the water content approaches 0. Critical water contents were very high in the first wetting cycle and stabilized at a rather constant level during the 2nd, 3rd and 4th wetting cycle. This phenomenon may be due to inhomogeneous water distributions within the field moist soil samples in the 1st wetting cycle and it was thus chosen to take the critical moisture content from the 2nd wetting cycle for further purposes. We found relatively broad transition zones where soils were found to be both hydrophilic and hydrophobic. Critical water contents or rather transition zones were found to differ significantly between the various soil orders and showed values between 0.34 (m³/m³) for recent soil and 0.44(m³/m³) for organic soil.

Landl, Magdalena; Holzinger, Ursula; Singh, Ranvir; Klik, Andreas

2013-04-01

258

Sodium Content of Community Water Supplies in California  

PubMed Central

The amount of sodium ion in water used for ingestion may be critical in effective use of a low sodium dietary regimen. Waters containing not over 20 mg of sodium per liter are provided for in the sodium restricted diets set forth by the American Heart Association. For diets containing more than 500 mg of sodium a day, waters of greater sodium content may be used if proper dietary adjustments are made. While assessment of the long-term average sodium content of a community water supply is difficult, the determined values for sodium lend to classification within range categories. The larger community water supplies in California are presented within several range categories of sodium content. The more commonly used water softeners add sodium to water. The sodium-restricted patient should be cautioned against their use. Similar consideration should probably be given to water supplies of retirement communities where the potential for disorders requiring sodium restriction is greater than in the general population.

Steinkamp, Ruth C.; Young, Clarence L.; Nyhus, Dolores; Greenberg, Arnold E.

1968-01-01

259

[Application study of the thermal infrared emissivity spectra in the estimation of salt content of saline soil].  

PubMed

Studying of soil salinization is of great significance for agricultural production in arid area oasis, thermal infrared remote sensing technology provides a new technology and method in this field. Authors used Fourier transform infrared spectrometer to measure the oasis saline soil in field, employed iterative spectrally smooth temperature/emissivity separation algorithm (ISSTES) to separate temperature and emissivity, and acquired the thermal infrared emissivity data of the saline soil. Through researching the emissivity spectral feature of saline soil, and concluded that soil emissivity will reduce with the increasing of salt content from 8 to 13 microm, so emissivity spectra is more sensitive to salt factor from 8 to 9.5 microm. Then, analyzed the correlation between original emissivity spectra and its first derivative, second derivative and normalized ratio with salt content, the result showed that they have a negative correlation relationship between soil emissivity and salt content, and the correlation between emissivity first derivative and salt content is highest, reach to 0.724 2, the corresponding bands are from 8.370 745-8.390 880 microm. Finally, established the quadratic function regression model, its determination coefficient is 0.741 4, and root mean square error is 0.235 5, the result explained that the approach of using thermal infrared emissivity to retrieve the salt content of saline soil is feasible. PMID:23387157

Xia, Jun; Tashpolat, Tiyip; Mamat, Sawut; Zhang, Fei; Han, Gui-Hong

2012-11-01

260

Inter-annual and Seasonal Variation of UT/LS Cloud Ice Water Content in the Asian Monsoon as Observed by CALIPSO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) project has recently included a new cloud ice water content product in the V3.01 data release. CALIPSO ice water content (IWC) is parameterized from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) cloud extinction measurements. The parameterization is derived from in-situ cloud probe measurements from a variety of aircraft field campaigns. CALIOP extinction retrievals are most accurate in the highest level of bright clouds where the backscatter signal to noise ratio is largest. Therefore, CALIPSO is ideally suited for characterization of cloud IWC in the climate-sensitive upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) between 10-18 km, including the Tropical Tropopause layer (TTL). The CALIOP lidar has been operational since June, 2006, providing 4 years of global UT/LS IWC measurements. The straightforward nature of the extinction-based CALIPSO IWC parameterization is ideal for assessing regional distributions and temporal variability in UT/LS cirrus cloud ice water content. Currently much scientific interest is focused on the TTL in the Asian Monsoon and Western Pacific as a major global source of energy, water and anthropogenic particles and gases to the lowermost stratosphere. Two major upcoming NASA aircraft field missions will study this region - the Earth Venture Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX) and the Southeast Asia Composition, Cloud, Climate Coupling Regional Study (SEAC4RS). CALIPSO IWC measurements in the UT/LS over the past 4 years can inform the planning of these missions, and provide a context for understanding the seasonal and inter-annual variation in cirrus clouds associated with the monsoon cycle and related deep convection. In this paper we present both maps and statistics of the regional distribution and seasonal cycle of ice water content in the UT/LS as measured by CALIPSO in the Asian Monsoon and Pacific region from August 2006 - August 2010. In addition to presenting IWC and its associated uncertainties measured by CALIOP, we also compare our measurements with other IWC observations and estimate the IWC accuracy.

Avery, M.; Winker, D. M.; Heymsfield, A.; Young, S.; Vaughan, M.; Getzewich, B.; Hu, Y.; Kar, J.; Trepte, C. R.; Crawford, J. H.; Jensen, E. J.

2010-12-01

261

Corrosion of Mullite by Molten Salts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The interaction of molten salts of different Na2O activities and mullite is examined with furnace and burner tests. The more-acidic molten salts form small amounts of Al2O3; the more-basic molten salts form various Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2 compounds. The results a...

N. S. Jacobson K. N. Lee T. Yoshio

1996-01-01

262

Observation of salt effects on hydration water of lysozyme in aqueous solution using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy was used to investigate the salt effect of ammonium sulfate on the dynamics of hydration water of lysozyme in aqueous solution. The absorption coefficient of lysozyme aqueous solutions containing salt was subtracted by that of the water and ammonium sulfate contained in the lysozyme solution. The results revealed that ammonium sulfate increases the absorption coefficient of the hydration water, which indicates that the dynamics of the hydration water becomes faster and/or the number of hydration water molecules decreases with increasing ammonium sulfate concentration.

Aoki, Katsuyoshi; Shiraki, Kentaro; Hattori, Toshiaki

2013-10-01

263

SBUV Trends in PMC Ice Water Content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlapping data sets from SBUV and SBUV/2 instruments can be combined to create a long-term record of polar mesospheric cloud (PMC, also known as noctilucent clouds) behavior. We have previously used these data to examine multi-decade trends in PMC occurrence frequency and albedo. In this presentation, we extend our analysis to consider zonally and seasonally averaged PMC ice water content (IWC). We use a set of parameterized relationships between mid-UV PMC albedo and scattering angle derived from WACCM-CARMA simulations to determine IWC from SBUV PMC observations at 252 nm. This procedure incorporates an adjustment for the fact that the SBUV/2 data are sensitive to only a portion of the total IWC. We will show results using SBUV/2 data from 1979 to the most recent Northern Hemisphere PMC season in 2010, and compare our results with previous work (e.g. Stevens et al. [2007], Baumgarten et al. [2008]).

Deland, M. T.; Thomas, G. E.; Shettle, E. P.; Olivero, J. J.

2010-12-01

264

[Comparative study on hyperspectral inversion accuracy of soil salt content and electrical conductivity].  

PubMed

The objective of the present article is to ascertain the mechanism of hyperspectral remote sensing monitoring for soil salinization, which is of great importance for improving the accuracy of hyperspectral remote sensing monitoring. Paddy soils in Wensu, Hetian and Baicheng counties of the southern Xinjiang were selected. Hyperspectral data of soils were obtained. Soil salt content (S(t)) an electrical conductivity of 1:5 soil-to-water extracts (EC(1:5)) were determined. Relationships between S(t) and EC(1:5) were studied. Correlations between hyperspectral indices and S(t), and EC(1:5) were analyzed. The inversion accuracy of S(t) using hyperspectral technique was compared with that of EC(1:5). Results showed that: significant (p<0.01) relationships were found between S(t) and EC(1:5) for soils in Wensu and Hetian counties, and correlation coefficients were 0.86 and 0.45, respectively; there was no significant relationship between S(t) and EC(1:5) for soils in Baicheng county. Therefore, the correlations between S(t) and EC(1:5) varied with studied sites. S(t) and EC(1:5) were significantly related with spectral reflectance, first derivative reflectance and continuum-removed reflectance, respectively; but correlation coefficients between S(t) and spectral indices were higher than those between EC(1:5) and spectral indices, which was obvious in some sensitive bands for soil salinization such as 660, 35, 1229, 1414, 1721, 1738, 1772, 2309 nm, and so on. Prediction equations of St and EC(1:5) were established using multivariate linear regression, principal component regression and partial least-squares regression methods, respectively. Coefficients of determination, determination coefficients of prediction, and relative analytical errors of these equations were analyzed. Coefficients of determination and relative analytical errors of equations between S(t) and spectral indices were higher than those of equations between EC(1:5) and spectral indices. Therefore, the responses of high spectral information to St were more sensitive than those of high spectral information to EC(1:5). Accuracy of St predicted from high spectral data was higher than that of EC(1:5) estimated from high spectral data. The results of this study can provide a theoretical basis to improve hyperspectral remote sensing monitoring accuracy of soil salinization. PMID:24822430

Peng, Jie; Wang, Jia-Qiang; Xiang, Hong-Ying; Teng, Hong-Fen; Liu, Wei-Yang; Chi, Chun-Ming; Niu, Jian-Long; Guo, Yan; Shi, Zhou

2014-02-01

265

Investigation of iodine concentration in salt, water and soil along the coast of Zhejiang, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We aim to describe the environment iodine concentration in salt, water and soil along Zhejiang Province coast in\\u000a the China foreland. It will be helpful for us to judge whether this area is insufficient in iodine and universal iodized salt\\u000a is necessary or not. Methods: We collected iodized salt samples, drinking water samples (tap water in the towns, and

Ying-li Lu; Ning-jian Wang; Lan Zhu; Guo-xing Wang; Hui Wu; Lin Kuang; Wen-ming Zhu

2005-01-01

266

A rheological investigation of the self-assembly and adsorption behavior of a surfactant salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of a surfactant salt obtained by neutralizing oleic acid with an ethoxylated stearylamine were determined in blends of water and propylene glycol. The adsorption of this surfactant salt onto the surface of a commercial TiO2 dispersed in blends of water and propylene glycol was studied using a rheometer. At low propylene glycol content the dispersions exhibited Newtonian behavior,

Genhai G. Liang; Brian S. Hawkett; Roger I. Tanner

2005-01-01

267

[Determination of tracer gas contents in sediment pore water of gas hydrate area by two-dimensional gas chromatography].  

PubMed

A two-dimensional gas chromatographic instrument was established by the capillary flow technology (Deans Switch) and two columns (PoraPLOT Q and Molsieve 5A) and three detectors (pulsed discharge helium ionization detector, flame photometric detector and thermal conductivity detector). The instrument can be used to measure tracer gases simultaneously including hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. The detection limits of the hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide were 0.51, 0.17, 82 and 0.08 micromol/mol, and the calibration curves presented good linear relationships in the range of 2-1030, 0.6-501, 120-10500 and 0.2- 49.1 micromol/mol, respectively. The relative standard deviations were less than 10% for the measurements of ten standard gases. By this method, the tracer gases in the sediment pore water of gas hydrate area in South China Sea had been detected. This method is simple, sensitive, and suitable for on-board detection. Compared with the usual methods for measuring tracer gases, the amount of a sample necessary is reduced greatly. It is useful for the survey of gas hydrate and hydrothermal resources below sea floor and for the research of dissolved gases in the ocean. PMID:21574403

Wang, Hu; Yang, Qunhui; Ji, Fuwu; Zhou, Huaiyang; Xue, Xiang

2011-01-01

268

Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water  

DOEpatents

A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid.

Tsai, Shih-Perng (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01

269

Realisation of a test facility for the ITER ICRH antenna plug-in by means of a mock-up with salted water load  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the use of a mock-up operated at higher frequency it is possible to measure with good accuracy the rf characteristics of an ICRH antenna, the plasma loading being simulated by a water tank in front of it. This concept has motivated the construction of the mock-up of the antenna array foreseen for ITER.

A. Messiaen; P. Dumortier; R. Koch; P. Lamalle; F. Louche; J. L. Martini; M. Vervier

2005-01-01

270

Stratocumulus Liquid Water Content from Dual-Wavelength Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique is described to retrieve stratocumulus liquid water content (LWC) using the differential attenuation measured by vertically pointing radars at 35 GHz and 94 GHz. Millimeter-wave attenuation is proportional to LWC and increases with frequency, so LWC can be derived without the need to make any assumptions on the nature of the droplet size distribution. There is also no

ROBIN J. HOGAN; NICOLAS GAUSSIAT; ANTHONY J. ILLINGWORTH

2004-01-01

271

Water and the Many Faces of Salt at the MER Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detections of salt-forming elements at previous landing sites have been extended in multiple examples for soils, outcrops, and light and dark rocks at the Meridiani Planum and Gusev Crater rover sites. A general theme of widespread S and Cl and now even Br occurrences is emerging for the planet. Mars Exploration Rover (MER) surface explorations and Mars Express orbital measurements are discovering exposures of very high sulfate concentrations in certain locations. Implicated cations for sulfates include Mg, Ca and Fe. Odyssey observations from orbit show planet-wide abundances of Cl, albeit with intriguing variations. These abundances and their patterns reinforce the evidence for mobilization of soluble salts under aqueous influence, but likewise place significant constraints on the volumes and nature of the interactions of various hydrologic forms of liquid water in the history of the observable martian surface. Physicochemical conditions of diverse weathering regimes may have affected the formation and most certainly the redistribution and diagenetic modification of salt deposits on Mars. Supplementing the abundant geomorphologic evidence for episodic activity by H2O, salt concentrations provide direct evidence for standing bodies of liquid H2O. Future detailed characterization of such salt deposits could establish temperature and saline concentration parameters at times of deposition or alteration, and hence clarify the climate regimes for corresponding times in martian history. Funding support for MER science and mission operations is provided by NASA/JPL.

Clark, B. C.; Athena Science

2004-11-01

272

Surface tension measurements show that chaotropic salting-in denaturants are not just water-structure breakers.  

PubMed Central

Since the salting-in agents guanidinium chloride, urea, and lithium perchlorate increase the surface tension of water, the salting-in phenomenon does not reflect easier cavity formation in water. Therefore, these salting-in agents must be directly contributing to the solvation of a solute such as benzene in water, probably by a direct solvation interaction. The increased surface-tension effects do not overbalance these solvation effects since they are smaller than the large surface-tension increases with lithium chloride, a typical salting-out agent. The salting-in agent tetra-n-butylammonium chloride differs in that it lowers the surface tension of water. Thus, it probably contributes both to easier cavity formation and to direct solvation of the substrate. The previous findings that most salting-in agents switch to become salting-out agents in other polar solvents such as ethylene glycol and formamide but that tetra-n-butylammonium chloride does not switch in these solvents can be understood in terms of relative polarities.

Breslow, R; Guo, T

1990-01-01

273

Concentration and precipitation of NaCl and KCl from salt cake leach solutions by electrodialysis  

SciTech Connect

Electrodialysis was investigated for cost-effective recovery of salt from salt cake leach solutions. (Salt cake is a waste stream generated by the aluminum industry during treatment of aluminum drosses and scrap.) We used a pilot-scale electrodialysis stack of 5 membrane pairs, each with an effective area of 0.02 m{sup 2}. The diluate stream contained synthetic NaCl, KCl,mixtures of NaCl and KCl, and actual salt cake leach solutions (mainly NaCl and KCl, with small amounts of MgCl{sub 2}). We concentrated and precipitated NaCl and KCl salts from the concentrate steam when the initial diluate stream concentration was 21.5 to 28.8 wt% NaCl and KCl. We found that water transferring through the membranes was a significant factor in overall efficiency of salt recovery by electrodialysis.

Sreenivasarao, K; Patsiogiannis, F.; Hryn, J.N.

1997-02-09

274

[Exploring dream contents by neuroimaging].  

PubMed

Dreaming is a subjective experience during sleep that is often accompanied by vivid perceptual and emotional contents. Because of its fundamentally subjective nature, the objective study of dream contents has been challenging. However, since the discovery of rapid eye movements during sleep, scientific knowledge on the relationship between dreaming and physiological measures including brain activity has accumulated. Recent advances in neuroimaging analysis methods have made it possible to uncover direct links between specific dream contents and brain activity patterns. In this review, we first give a historical overview on dream researches with a focus on the neurophysiological and behavioral signatures of dreaming. We then discuss our recent study in which visual dream contents were predicted, or decoded, from brain activity during sleep onset periods using machine learning-based pattern recognition of functional MRI data. We suggest that advanced analytical tools combined with neural and behavioral databases will reveal the relevance of spontaneous brain activity during sleep to waking experiences. PMID:24748094

Horikawa, Tomoyasu; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

2014-04-01

275

[Natural water contents and endemic goiter--a review].  

PubMed

A review is given of literature which considers water as the cause of endemic goitre irrespective of its iodine content and which incriminates goitrogenic substances in the water. There are evident connections between the geogenic origin of the water and the incidence of goitre insofar as water from shallow wells from phyllite, gneiss and slate was linked to an elevated goitre incidence as compared to water from igneous rock or from deeper wells with limestone underground. Water which caused goitre was often found to be grossly polluted. So far, nitrate, humic acids and some of their degradation products have been clearly identified to be goitrogenic. Experimental studies by the author emphasize the importance of nitrate as well as of humic acids and their derivatives as waterborne goitrogens. PMID:7727020

Seffner, W

1995-01-01

276

Direct solvation of glycoproteins by salts in spider silk glues enhances adhesion and helps to explain the evolution of modern spider orb webs.  

PubMed

The evolutionary origin of modern viscid silk orb webs from ancient cribellate silk ancestors is associated with a 95% increase in diversity of orb-weaving spiders, and their dominance as predators of flying insects, yet the transition's mechanistic basis is an evolutionary puzzle. Ancient cribellate silk is a dry adhesive that functions through van der Waals interactions. Viscid threads adhere more effectively than cribellate threads because of the high extensibility of their axial silk fibers, recruitment of multiple glue droplets, and firm adhesion of the viscid glue droplets. Viscid silk's extensibility is permitted by the glue's high water content, so that organic and inorganic salts present in viscid glue droplets play an essential role in contributing to adhesion by sequestering the atmospheric water that plasticizes the axial silk fibers. Here, we provide direct molecular and macro-scale evidence to show that salts also cause adhesion by directly solvating the glycoproteins, regardless of water content, thus imparting viscoelasticity and allowing the glue droplets to establish good contact. This "dual role" of salts, plasticizing the axial silk indirectly through water sequestration and directly solvating the glycoproteins, provides a crucial link to the evolutionary transition from cribellate silk to viscid silk. In addition, salts also provide a simple mechanism for adhering even at the extremes of relative humidity, a feat eluding most synthetic adhesives. PMID:24588057

Sahni, Vasav; Miyoshi, Toshikazu; Chen, Kelley; Jain, Dharamdeep; Blamires, Sean J; Blackledge, Todd A; Dhinojwala, Ali

2014-04-14

277

UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah  

SciTech Connect

Surface remedial action was completed at the Salt Lake City, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in the fall of 1987. Results of water sampling for the years 1992 to 1994 indicate that site-related ground water contamination occurs in the shallow unconfined aquifer (the uppermost aquifer). With respect to background ground water quality, contaminated ground water in the shallow, unconfined aquifer has elevated levels of chloride, sodium, sulfate, total dissolved solids, and uranium. No contamination associated with the former tailings pile occurs in levels exceeding background in ground water in the deeper confined aquifer. This document provides the water sampling and analysis plan for ground water monitoring at the former uranium processing site in Salt Lake City, Utah (otherwise known as the ``Vitro`` site, named after the Vitro Chemical Company that operated the mill). All contaminated materials removed from the processing site were relocated and stabilized in a disposal cell near Clive, Utah, some 85 miles west of the Vitro site (known as the ``Clive`` disposal site). No ground water monitoring is being performed at the Clive disposal site, since concurrence of the remedial action plan by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and completion of the disposal cell occurred before the US Environmental Protection Agency issued draft ground water standards in 1987 (52 FR 36000) for cleanup, stabilization, and control of residual radioactive materials at the disposal site. In addition, the likelihood of post-closure impact on the ground water is minimal to nonexistent, due to the naturally poor quality of the ground water. Water sampling activities planned for calendar year 1994 consist of sampling ground water from nine monitor wells to assess the migration of contamination within the shallow unconfined aquifer and sampling ground water from two existing monitor wells to assess ground water quality in the confined aquifer.

Not Available

1994-06-01

278

Deuterium in water vapor evaporated from a coastal salt marsh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric water vapor was sampled simultaneously at two heights in the atmospheric surface layer above a coastal salt marsh near New Haven, Connecticut, during June 11-27, 1997. The water vapor samples were analyzed for their mixing ratio, Q, and deuterium isotope ratio, ?D. The observed ?D varied in the range of -145 to -89 per mil and was positively correlated with Q, reflecting the influence of in-cloud condensation and surface evapotranspiration processes at a regional scale. Both Q and ?D were, in general, lower at the upper level, indicating an upward transport of H216O and HD16O. The Craig-Gordon model reproduced reasonably well the combined effects of equilibrium and kinetic fractionations and atmospheric demand on the evaporation process. Transpiration of the marsh plants, Spartina patens (Ait.), was a minor component (11%) of the total evapotranspiration during the experimental period. We also suggest that the relationship between ?D and salinity, S, of the marsh surface water can be used to infer the isotope flux ratio. More data, however, are needed to verify this mass balance approach.

He, Hui; Lee, Xuhui; Smith, Ronald B.

2001-06-01

279

Protection of Lactobacillus acidophilus from bile salts in a model intestinal juice by incorporation into the inner-water phase of a W\\/O\\/W emulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria have been paid increasing attention as a probiotics, but their viability is affected by the various digestive processes of their host such as the acidic stomach solution and bile acids. The protection of Lactobacillus acidophilus JCM 1132 against the cytotoxic bile acids was examined by incorporating the bacteria in the inner-water phase of a W\\/O\\/W emulsion. Sodium

Motohiro Shima; Takefumi Matsuo; Masatsugu Yamashita; Shuji Adachi

2009-01-01

280

Recreational runners with patellofemoral pain exhibit elevated patella water content.  

PubMed

Increased bone water content resulting from repetitive patellofemoral joint overloading has been suggested to be a possible mechanism underlying patellofemoral pain (PFP). To date, it remains unknown whether persons with PFP exhibit elevated bone water content. The purpose of this study was to determine whether recreational runners with PFP exhibit elevated patella water content when compared to pain-free controls. Ten female recreational runners with a diagnosis of PFP (22 to 39years of age) and 10 gender, age, weight, height, and activity matched controls underwent chemical-shift-encoded water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify patella water content (i.e., water-signal fraction). Differences in bone water content of the total patella, lateral aspect of the patella, and medial aspect of the patella were compared between groups using independent t tests. Compared with the control group, the PFP group demonstrated significantly greater total patella bone water content (15.4±3.5% vs. 10.3±2.1%; P=0.001), lateral patella water content (17.2±4.2% vs. 11.5±2.5%; P=0.002), and medial patella water content (13.2±2.7% vs. 8.4±2.3%; P<0.001). The higher patella water content observed in female runners with PFP is suggestive of venous engorgement and elevated extracellular fluid. In turn, this may lead to an increase in intraosseous pressure and pain. PMID:24906520

Ho, Kai-Yu; Hu, Houchun H; Colletti, Patrick M; Powers, Christopher M

2014-09-01

281

Accuracy of bottled drinking water label content.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy of the concentration of fluoride (F), calcium (Ca), pH, and total dissolved solids (TDS) levels mentioned on the labels of the various brands of bottled drinking water available in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Twenty-one different brands of locally produced non-carbonated (still water) bottled drinking water were collected from the supermarkets of Riyadh. The concentration of F, Ca, TDS, and pH values were noted from the labels of the bottles. The samples were analyzed for concentrations in the laboratory using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean level of F, Ca, and pH were found as 0.86 ppm, 38.47 ppm, and 7.5, respectively, which were significantly higher than the mean concentration of these elements reported in the labels. Whereas, the mean TDS concentration was found 118.87 ppm, which was significantly lower than the mean reported on the labels. In tropical countries like Saudi Arabia, the appropriate level of F concentration in drinking water as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) should be 0.6-0.7 ppm. Since the level of F was found to be significantly higher than the WHO recommended level, the children exposed to this level could develop objectionable fluorosis. The other findings, like pH value, concentrations of Ca, and TDS, were in the range recommended by the WHO and Saudi standard limits and therefore should have no obvious significant health implications. PMID:19475483

Khan, Nazeer B; Chohan, Arham N

2010-07-01

282

Comparison of the Mineral Content of Tap Water and Bottled Waters  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Because of growing concern that constituents of drinking water may have adverse health effects, consumption of tap water in North America has decreased and consumption of bottled water has increased. Our objectives were to 1) determine whether North American tap water contains clinically important levels of calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), and sodium (Na+) and 2) determine whether differences in mineral content of tap water and commercially available bottled waters are clinically important. DESIGN We obtained mineral analysis reports from municipal water authorities of 21 major North American cities. Mineral content of tap water was compared with published data regarding commercially available bottled waters and with dietary reference intakes (DRIs). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Mineral levels varied among tap water sources in North America and among bottled waters. European bottled waters generally contained higher mineral levels than North American tap water sources and North American bottled waters. For half of the tap water sources we examined, adults may fulfill between 8% and 16% of their Ca2+ DRI and between 6% and 31% of their Mg2+ DRI by drinking 2 liters per day. One liter of most moderate mineralization European bottled waters contained between 20% and 58% of the Ca2+ DRI and between 16% and 41% of the Mg2+ DRI in adults. High mineralization bottled waters often contained up to half of the maximum recommended daily intake of Na+. CONCLUSION Drinking water sources available to North Americans may contain high levels of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+ and may provide clinically important portions of the recommended dietary intake of these minerals. Physicians should encourage patients to check the mineral content of their drinking water, whether tap or bottled, and choose water most appropriate for their needs.

Azoulay, Arik; Garzon, Philippe; Eisenberg, Mark J

2001-01-01

283

Water Quality in the Great Salt Lake Basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, 1998-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains the major findings of a 1998-2001 assessment of water quality in the Great Salt Lake Basins. It is one of a series of reports by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program that present major findings in 51 major river basins and aquifer systems across the Nation. In these reports, water quality is discussed in terms of local, State, and regional issues. Conditions in a particular basin or aquifer system are compared to conditions found elsewhere and to selected national benchmarks, such as those for drinking-water quality and the protection of aquatic organisms. This report is intended for individuals working with water-resource issues in Federal, State, or local agencies, universities, public interest groups, or in the private sector. The information will be useful in addressing a number of current issues, such as the effects of agricultural and urban land use on water quality, human health, drinking water, source-water protection, hypoxia and excessive growth of algae and plants, pesticide registration, and monitoring and sampling strategies. This report is also for individuals who wish to know more about the quality of streams and ground water in areas near where they live, and how that water quality compares to water quality in other areas across the Nation. The water-quality conditions in the Great Salt Lake Basins summarized in this report are discussed in detail in other reports that can be accessed at http://ut.water.usgs.gov. Detailed technical information, data and analyses, collection and analytical methodology, models, graphs, and maps that support the findings presented in this report in addition to reports in this series from other basins can be accessed at the national NAWQA Web site http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa.

Waddell, Kidd M.; Gerner, Steven J.; Thiros, Susan A.; Giddings, Elise M.; Baskin, Robert L.; Cederberg, Jay R.; Albano, Christine M.

2004-01-01

284

Molecular dynamics simulations of the effects of salts on the aggregation properties of benzene in water.  

SciTech Connect

The specific aims of the project were: to provide an atomic level description of the interactions between benzene, water and ions in solutions. To determine the degree of association between two benzene molecules in aqueous and salt solutions. To investigate the structure and dynamics of the interface between benzene and water or salt solution.

Smith, P. E.

2003-07-16

285

Water repellency and critical soil water content in a dune sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessments of water repellency of soils are commonly made on air-dried or oven-dried samples, without considering the soil water content. The objectives of this study were to examine the spatial and temporal variability of soil water content, actual water repellency over short distances, and the variations in critical soil water contents. Between 22 April and 23 November 1999, numerous samples

Louis W. Dekker; Stefan H. Doerr; Klaas Oostindie; Apostolos K. Ziogas; Coen J. Ritsema

2001-01-01

286

Proteins induced by salt stress in tomato germinating seeds  

SciTech Connect

Salt effects on protein synthesis in tomato germinating seeds were investigated by two-dimensional polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis of proteins labeled in vivo with ({sup 35}S)-Methionine. Seeds germinating in NaCl were analyzed at three germination stages (4mm long radicals, 15mm long radicles and expanding cotyledons) and compared to those germinating in water. At the first germination stage several basic proteins of M.W. 13Kd, 16Kd, 17Kd and 18Kd were detected in only salt germinating seeds. Other basic proteins of M.W. 12Kd, 50Kd and 54Kd were salt-induced at the second and third stage of germination. One 14Kd acid protein is observed in every assayed stage and shows several phosphorylated forms. The levels of expression of these proteins are directly correlated to assayed NaCl concentrations. All of these proteins, except 17Kd, are also induced by abscisic acid (ABA) in the same germination stages. A cooperative effect on the synthesis of these proteins is observed when both ABA and NaCl are present.

Torres-Shumann, S.; Godoy, J.A.; del Pozo, O.; Pintor-Toro, J.A. (Instituto Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia, Sevilla (Spain))

1989-04-01

287

Fast physical drying, high water and salt resistant coatings from non-drying vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports fast physical drying, high water and salt resistances of coating materials from non-drying palm oleic acid. Short oil-length alkyd was synthesized and copolymerized with methyl methacrylate. Three copolymers of the alkyd and methyl methacrylate with different alkyd\\/MMA ratios were prepared via free radical polymerization. The copolymers were characterized by FTIR and H NMR spectroscopy, and glass transition

Shahla Ataei; Rosiyah Yahya; Seng Neon Gan

2011-01-01

288

Growth, Water Relations, and Accumulation of Organic and Inorganic Solutes in Roots of Maize Seedlings during Salt Stress.  

PubMed

Seedlings of maize (Zea mays L. cv Pioneer 3906), hydroponically grown in the dark, were exposed to NaCl either gradually (salt acclimation) or in one step (salt shock). In the salt-acclimation treatment, root extension was indistinguishable from that of unsalinized controls for at least 6 d at concentrations up to 100 mM NaCl. By contrast, salt shock rapidly inhibited extension, followed by a gradual recovery, so that by 24 h extension rates were the same as for controls, even at 150 mM NaCl. Salt shock caused a rapid decrease in root water and solute potentials for the apical zones, and the estimated turgor potential showed only a small decline; similar but more gradual changes occurred with salt acclimation. The 5-bar decrease in root solute potential with salt shock (150 mM NaCl) during the initial 10 min of exposure could not be accounted for by dehydration, indicating that substantial osmotic adjustment occurred rapidly. Changes in concentration of inorganic solutes (Na+, K+, and Cl-) and organic solutes (proline, sucrose, fructose, and glucose) were measured during salt shock. The contribution of these solutes to changes in root solute potential with salinization was estimated. PMID:12223650

Rodriguez, H. G.; Roberts, JKM.; Jordan, W. R.; Drew, M. C.

1997-03-01

289

Growth, Water Relations, and Accumulation of Organic and Inorganic Solutes in Roots of Maize Seedlings during Salt Stress.  

PubMed Central

Seedlings of maize (Zea mays L. cv Pioneer 3906), hydroponically grown in the dark, were exposed to NaCl either gradually (salt acclimation) or in one step (salt shock). In the salt-acclimation treatment, root extension was indistinguishable from that of unsalinized controls for at least 6 d at concentrations up to 100 mM NaCl. By contrast, salt shock rapidly inhibited extension, followed by a gradual recovery, so that by 24 h extension rates were the same as for controls, even at 150 mM NaCl. Salt shock caused a rapid decrease in root water and solute potentials for the apical zones, and the estimated turgor potential showed only a small decline; similar but more gradual changes occurred with salt acclimation. The 5-bar decrease in root solute potential with salt shock (150 mM NaCl) during the initial 10 min of exposure could not be accounted for by dehydration, indicating that substantial osmotic adjustment occurred rapidly. Changes in concentration of inorganic solutes (Na+, K+, and Cl-) and organic solutes (proline, sucrose, fructose, and glucose) were measured during salt shock. The contribution of these solutes to changes in root solute potential with salinization was estimated.

Rodriguez, H. G.; Roberts, JKM.; Jordan, W. R.; Drew, M. C.

1997-01-01

290

Development of a site-specific standard for selenium in open waters of Great Salt Lake, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Great Salt Lake is a unique terminal lake located adjacent to Salt Lake City, Utah. Beneficial uses of Great Salt Lake are protected through application of a narrative clause in the state water quality standards. The Utah Division of Water Quality initiated a process in 2004 to develop a site-specific water quality standard for selenium for open waters of Great

Harry M. Ohlendorf; Jeff DenBleyker; William O. Moellmer; Theron Miller

2009-01-01

291

Separation & Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing waste water residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy\\/rubber matrix

Carrie J. Franks; Anh P. Quach; Dunbar P. Birnie; Wendell P. Ela; Avelino E. Saez; Brian J. Zelinski; Harry D. Smith; Gary Lynn L. Smith

2004-01-01

292

Determination of D/sub 2/O Contents of Water at Low Levels by Mass Spectrometry: Water-Hydrogen Isotope Equilibration Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A simple analytical method for the determination of D/sub 2/O concentration of water at low levels (below 10 mol%) is established. Hydrogen gas is brought into isotope equilibrium with samples of water in the presence of hydrophobic platinum catalyst. Iso...

K. Watanabe M. Ouchi

1987-01-01

293

Salt intrusion model for high-water slack, low-water slack, and mean tide on spread sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A steady-state model is presented which can calculate the low-water slack and mean tidal salt intrusion from the calibrated high-water slack salt intrusion. A relation is presented between the dispersion coefficients at high-water slack, at low-water slack, and at mean tide. The model has been adapted for use on spread sheet, which makes the model accessible for anyone who has basic knowledge of computers.

Savenije, Hubert H. G.

1989-05-01

294

Diversity of the predominant spoilage bacteria in water-boiled salted duck during storage.  

PubMed

The spoilage microbiota in water-boiled salted duck during storage at 4 degrees C was determined using culture-dependent and independent methods. Analysis of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) patterns of PCR amplicons targeting the V3 region of the 16S rDNA and sequencing of the bands allowed profiling of the microbiota present in the duck. Community DNA extracts were prepared directly from water-boiled salted duck and from culturable bacterial fractions harvested from both MRS and PCA media. The spoilage bacteria mainly consisted of Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Macrococcus caseolyticus, Weissella, Halomonas sp. or Cobetia sp., and Exiguobacterium sp. based on sequencing and homology search of the DGGE bands. It appeared that both the bacterial counts and diversity increased during storage time. By plating method, bacterial counts in MRS agar increased from 10(4) to 10(8) CFU/g from day 1 to 10, while total bacterial counts in PCA agar reached 10(9) CFU/g after 10 d. Total of 14 strains isolated from PCA and MRS agar were identified as M. caseolyticus (2), S. saprophyticus (7), S. sciuri (1), W. paramesenteroides (2), and W. confusa (2) by 16S rDNA sequencing. The identification of the spoilage-related microbiota is helpful to better understand the bacteria ecology in water-boiled salted duck and may lead to the discovery of appropriate preservation strategies. PMID:20629890

Liu, Fang; Wang, Daoying; Du, Lihui; Zhu, Yongzhi; Xu, Weimin

2010-06-01

295

Effects of flow rate, temperature and salt concentration on chemical and physical properties of electrolyzed oxidizing water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study adopted a three-factor-three-level factorial design to study the effects of water flow rate, salt concentration and water temperature on pH, oxidation–reduction potential (ORP), total residual chlorine, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity and salinity of electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW). Results indicated that pH and dissolved oxygen concentration were not affected by these processing factors. Increasing water flow rate decreased total

Shun-Yao Hsu

2005-01-01

296

Spatial Averaging of Water Content by Time Domain Reflectometry: Implications for Twin Rod Probes with and without Dielectric Coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The averaging of apparent relative dielectric permittivities by time domain reflectometry (TDK) is examined for properties varying along TDK waveguides and in the plane perpendicular to a TDR probe. A square root averaging model with uniform weighting factors describes the measured apparent relative dielectric permittivity for axially varying materials; variations in the transverse plane are described by an inverse averaging

P. A. Ferré; D. L. Rudolph; R. G. Kachanoski

1996-01-01

297

ESTIMATING SOIL WATER CONTENT USING COKRIGING  

EPA Science Inventory

Using cokriging, estimates and estimation variances of the gravimetric moisture content (GMC) were made using one and two additional random functions: the bare soil surface temperature and the percent sand content. Various measures of the differences and quality of the estimates ...

298

Effect of beating processing, as a means of reducing salt content in frankfurters: A physico-chemical and Raman spectroscopic study.  

PubMed

Structural changes, L(?)-value, cooking yield changes and textural properties of pork frankfurters containing 1% or 2% salt, produced by the two methods were studied by Raman spectroscopy and texture profile analysis. Increasing salt content from 1% to 2% increased the L(?)-value, cooking yield and hardness, and decreased (p<0.05) the C-H stretching and CH2 and CH3 bending vibrations, but did not affect the changes of secondary structures, tryptophan or tyrosine residues. Compared with the chopping, the beating increased L(?)-value, cooking yield and hardness of the frankfurters in both salt concentrations. It also resulted in an increase in ?-sheets, accompanied by a significant (p<0.05) decrease in ?-helix content, a greater exposure of tyrosine residues to the polar environment and a decrease in the CH stretching and CH2 and CH3 bending vibrations. The results showed that the beating process enabled lowering of the salt content while improving the L(?)-value, cooking yield and hardness of the frankfurters. PMID:24960638

Kang, Zhuang-Li; Wang, Peng; Xu, Xing-Lian; Zhu, Chao-Zhi; Li, Ke; Zhou, Guang-Hong

2014-10-01

299

Microbially mediated CH 4 consumption and N 2 O emission is affected by elevated CO 2 , soil water content, and composition of semi-arid grassland species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated CO2 affects plant productivity, but also water availability and plant species composition in semi-arid grasslands, thereby potentially\\u000a causing complex effects on CH4 consumption and N2O emission. We studied the effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration (400 vs 780 ?L L?1), water content (15 vs 20% gravimetric soil moisture), and composition of semi-arid grassland species (perennial grasses\\u000a Bouteloua gracilis, Hesperostipa comata, and

Feike A. Dijkstra; Jack A. Morgan; Daniel R. LeCain; Ronald F. Follett

2010-01-01

300

Changes in water content and distribution in Quercus ilex leaves during progressive drought assessed by in vivo 1 H magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Drought is a common stressor in many regions of the world and current climatic global circulation models predict further increases\\u000a in warming and drought in the coming decades in several of these regions, such as the Mediterranean basin. The changes in\\u000a leaf water content, distribution and dynamics in plant tissues under different soil water availabilities are not well known.\\u000a In

Jordi Sardans; Josep Peñuelas; Silvia Lope-Piedrafita

2010-01-01

301

Influence of water and thermal history on ion transport in lithium salt-succinonitrile plastic crystalline electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Important issues of water and thermal history affecting ion transport in a representative plastic crystalline lithium salt electrolyte: succinonitrile (SN)–lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) are discussed here. Ionic conductivity of electrolytes with high lithium salt amounts (~1M) in SN at a particular temperature is known to be influenced both by the trans–gauche isomerism and ion association (solvation), the two most important intrinsic

Supti Das; Aninda J. Bhattacharyya

2010-01-01

302

Extraction of metal salts by mixtures of water-immiscible amines and organic acids (acid-base couple extractants); 2: Theoretical treatment and analysis  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive discussion is provided for the complex system obtained on equilibrating an aqueous solution of a salt with an acid-base couple (ABC) extractant. These extractants were analyzed as a combination of a liquid cation exchanger and a liquid anion exchanger operating concurrently. The effect of the amine on the organic acid activity and the effect of the acid on the amine activity were compared to those of mineral bases and acids on single active component extractants. The available distribution and spectroscopic data, summarized in the previous article, are discussed.

Eyal, A.M.; Bressler, E. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)); Kogan, L. (Israel Mining Industry, Haifa (Israel))

1994-05-01

303

Maxwell-Wagner relaxation in common minerals and a desert soil at low water contents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Penetration of 100- to 1000-MHz ground-penetrating radar (GPR) signals is virtually non-existent in arid and desert soils despite their low water content and moderate conductivity, the latter of which cannot explain the loss. Under the hypothesis that strong dielectric relaxation supplements DC conductivity to cause high intrinsic attenuation rates, we compared the complex permittivity of a desert soil sample with that of controlled samples of quartz, feldspars, calcite, coarse and crystallite gypsum, kaolinite and montmorillonite. The soil had 80% quartz, 10% feldspars and 10% gypsum by weight, with the latter composed of crystallites and crustations. All samples had 4-7% volumetric water content. We measured permittivity most accurately from 1.6 MHz to 4 GHz with Fourier Transform time domain reflectometry, and used grain sizes less than 53 ?m. All samples show low-frequency dispersion with the soil, gypsum crystallites and montmorillonite having the strongest below 100 MHz, the highest attenuation rates, and conductivity values unable to account for these rates. The soil rate exceeded 100 dB m- 1 by 1 GHz. Through modeling we find that a broadened relaxation centered from 2 to 16 MHz sufficiently supplements losses caused by conductivity and free water relaxation to account for loss rates in all our samples, and accounts for low-frequency dispersion below 1 GHz. We interpret the relaxation to be of the Maxwell-Wagner (MW) type because of the 2- to 16-MHz values, relaxation broadening, the lack of salt, clay and magnetic minerals, and insufficient surface area to support adsorbed water. The likely MW dipolar soil inclusions within the predominantly quartz matrix were gypsum particles coated with water containing ions dissolved from the gypsum, and the conducting water layers themselves. The inclusions for the monomineralic soils were likely ionized partially or completely water-filled interstices, and partially filled galleries for the montmorillonite. The low water content may be necessary to help isolate these inclusions. For our common, low conductivity minerals, the MW contributions to attenuation rates are significant above 10 MHz, whereas they are significant above about 100 MHz for the more conductive minerals and soil.

Arcone, Steven A.; Boitnott, Ginger E.

2012-06-01

304

Calibrating a salt water intrusion model with time-domain electromagnetic data.  

PubMed

Salt water intrusion models are commonly used to support groundwater resource management in coastal aquifers. Concentration data used for model calibration are often sparse and limited in spatial extent. With airborne and ground-based electromagnetic surveys, electrical resistivity models can be obtained to provide high-resolution three-dimensional models of subsurface resistivity variations that can be related to geology and salt concentrations on a regional scale. Several previous studies have calibrated salt water intrusion models with geophysical data, but are typically limited to the use of the inverted electrical resistivity models without considering the measured geophysical data directly. This induces a number of errors related to inconsistent scales between the geophysical and hydrologic models and the applied regularization constraints in the geophysical inversion. To overcome these errors, we perform a coupled hydrogeophysical inversion (CHI) in which we use a salt water intrusion model to interpret the geophysical data and guide the geophysical inversion. We refer to this methodology as a Coupled Hydrogeophysical Inversion-State (CHI-S), in which simulated salt concentrations are transformed to an electrical resistivity model, after which a geophysical forward response is calculated and compared with the measured geophysical data. This approach was applied for a field site in Santa Cruz County, California, where a time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) dataset was collected. For this location, a simple two-dimensional cross-sectional salt water intrusion model was developed, for which we estimated five uniform aquifer properties, incorporating the porosity that was also part of the employed petrophysical relationship. In addition, one geophysical parameter was estimated. The six parameters could be resolved well by fitting more than 300 apparent resistivities that were comprised by the TDEM dataset. Except for three sounding locations, all the TDEM data could be fitted close to a root-mean-square error of 1. Possible explanations for the poor fit of these soundings are the assumption of spatial uniformity, fixed boundary conditions and the neglecting of 3D effects in the groundwater model and the TDEM forward responses. PMID:22891736

Herckenrath, Daan; Odlum, Nick; Nenna, Vanessa; Knight, Rosemary; Auken, Esben; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

2013-01-01

305

Prediction of activity coefficients in liquid aerosol particles containing organic compounds, dissolved inorganic salts, and water—Part 2: Consideration of phase separation effects by an X-UNIFAC model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermodynamic model is presented for predicting the formation of particulate matter (PM) within an aerosol that contains organic compounds, inorganic salts, and water. Neutral components are allowed to partition from the gas phase to the PM, with the latter potentially composed of both a primarily aqueous (?) liquid phase and a primarily organic (?) liquid phase. Partitioning is allowed

Elsa I. Chang; James F. Pankow

2006-01-01

306

Water content in high dimensional defects in the Earth's Mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth is a wet planet, where water is recycled from the mantle to the surface and back again. The mantle is generally too hot for the stability of hydrous minerals and too cold to store water within significant melt sheets. Therefore, the current paradigm in geosciences is that water resides within point defects in nominally anhydrous minerals such as olivine, pyroxene and garnet. We present here the first high-resolution synchrotron based FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) maps of water within olivine (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 in higher dimensional defect structures than point defects. Analyses were performed on micrometer size mineral inclusions and fully embedded nanometre size cracks within olivine. We find that within single olivine grains, there is a strong variation of water content at all length scales, principally controlled by 2-dimensional defects such as grain boundaries and cracks. The findings have two major ramifications: 1) it throws new light on the role of water in defects within the mantle, there appears to be a critical interplay between mineral water reservoirs from point defects into 2-dimensional defects; 2) it suggests that there is more water in the mantle than previously thought. High dimension defects provide a new mantle reservoir of water.

Sommer, H.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.; Gasharova, B.; Siret, D.

2006-12-01

307

Sugar and water contents of honey with dielectric property sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dielectric properties of pure yellow locust, jujube and rape flower honey and their water-adulterated products with water content from 18% to 42.6% were measured with open-ended coaxial-line probe technology and a network analyzer from 10 to 4500MHz at 25°C. Dielectric constants of pure honeys and water-added honey samples decreased monotonically with increasing frequency, and increased with increasing water content.

Wenchuan Guo; Xinhua Zhu; Yi Liu; Hong Zhuang

2010-01-01

308

Inverse modeling of GPR signal for estimating soil water content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a large variety of environmental and agricultural applications, the use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) for identifying soil water content is a matter of concern. However, the current state of technology still needs improvements and new developments. Research has focused on the development of an integrated inverse modeling approach including GPR design, GPR signal forward modeling, and GPR signal inversion to estimate simultaneously the depth dependent dielectric constant and electrical conductivity of the shallow subsurface. We propose to use as radar system a stepped frequency continuous wave radar with an ultrawide band dielectric filled TEM horn antenna used in monostatic mode. This configuration is appropriate for real time mapping and allows for a more realistic forward modeling of the radar-antenna-soil system. Forward modeling was based on the exact solution of Maxwell's equations and inversion was formulated by the classical least square problem. Given the inherent complex topography of the objective functions to optimize in electromagnetic inversion problems, we used for the inversion the recently developed global multilevel coordinate search algorithm that we combine sequentially with the local Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm. We applied the method in laboratory conditions on tank filled with sand subject to different water content levels considering a homogeneous water profile. The inverse estimation of the soil dielectric constant was remarkably well in accordance with each water content level and the corresponding theoretical values of the dielectric constant for the sand. Comparison of GPR measurements with estimations from time domain reflectometry (TDR) were also well in close agreement.

Lambot, S.; van den Bosch, I.; Slob, E. C.; Stockbroeckx, B.; Scheers, B.; Vanclooster, M.

2003-04-01

309

Lecithin Protects against Plasma Membrane Disruption by Bile Salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction.Detergent disruption of epithelial plasma membranes by bile salts may contribute to pathogenesis of cholestasis and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Bile, despite containing high concentrations of bile salts, normally is not toxic to biliary or intestinal epithelia. We hypothesize that lecithin in bile may protect cell membranes from disruption by bile salts.Methods.We studied the interactions of taurine conjugates of ursodeoxycholate (TUDCA),

P. K. Narain; E. J. DeMaria; D. M. Heuman

1998-01-01

310

Determination of water content using mass spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mass spectrometer is used to measure small quantities of water present in different materials. System has been applied in measuring water and gases desorbed from microcircuitry insulation, can also be used with foods, polymeric materials, and organic solvents.

Wood, G. M.; Upchurch, B. T.; Hughes, D. B.

1975-01-01

311

Regulation of Plasma Endothelin by Salt in Salt-Sensitive Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Salt dependency of blood pressure (BP) characterizes most models of experimental hypertension in which endothelins play a significant vasoconstrictor role. Despite this, there are no data on the regulation of plasma endothelin by salt balance in human hypertension. Methods and Results—Plasma endothelin was measured in 47 patients with essential hypertension. Endothelin, catecholamine, and plasma renin activity (PRA) responses to 24-hour

Fernando Elijovich; Cheryl L. Laffer; Elias Amador; Haralambos Gavras; Margaret R. Bresnahan; Ernesto L. Schiffrin

2010-01-01

312

Water Content of Basalt Erupted on the ocean floor  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Deep sea pillow basalts dredged from the ocean floor show that vesicularity changes with composition as well as with depth. Alkalic basalts are more vesicular than tholeiitic basalts erupted at the same depth. The vesicularity data, when related to experimentally determined solubility of water in basalt, indicate that K-poor oceanic tholeiites originally contained about 0.25 percent water, Hawaiian tholeiites of intermediate K-content, about 0.5 percent water, and alkali-rich basalts, about 0.9 percent water. Analyses of fresh basalt pillows show a systematic increase of H2O+ as the rocks become more alkalic. K-poor oceanic tholeiites contain 0.06-0.42 percent H2O+, Hawaiian tholeiites, 0.31-0.60 percent H2O+, and alkali rich basalts 0.49-0.98 percent H2O+. The contents of K2O, P2O5, F, and Cl increase directly with an increase in H2O+ content such that at 1.0 weight percent H2O+, K2O is 1.58 percent, P2O5 is 0.55 percent, F is 0.07 percent, and Cl is 0.1 percent. The measured weight percent of deuterium on the rim of one Hawaiian pillow is -6.0 (relative to SMOW); this value, which is similar to other indications of magmatic water, suggests that no appreciable sea water was absorbed by the pillow during or subsequent to eruption on the ocean floor. Concentrations of volatile constituents in the alkali basalt melts relative to tholeiitic melts can be explained by varying degrees of partial melting of mantle material or by fractional crystallization of a magma batch. ?? 1970 Springer-Verlag.

Moore, J. G.

1970-01-01

313

Salt marsh-atmosphere exchange of energy, water vapor, and carbon dioxide: Effects of tidal flooding and biophysical controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The degree to which short-duration, transient floods modify wetland-atmosphere exchange of energy, water vapor, and carbon dioxide (CO2) is poorly documented despite the significance of flooding in many wetlands. This study explored the effects of transient floods on salt marsh-atmosphere linkages. Eddy flux, micrometeorological, and other field data collected during two tidal phases (daytime versus nighttime high tides) quantified the salt marsh radiation budget, surface energy balance, and CO2 flux. Analysis contrasted flooded and nonflooded and day and night effects. The salt marsh surface energy balance was similar to that of a heating-dominated sparse crop during nonflooded periods but similar to that of an evaporative cooling-dominated, well-watered grassy lawn during flooding. Observed increases in latent heat flux and decreases in net ecosystem exchange during flooding were proportional to flood depth and duration, with complete CO2 flux suppression occurring above some flood height less than the canopy height. Flood-induced changes in the salt marsh energy balance were dominated by changes in sensible heat flux, soil heat flux, and surface water heat storage. Parameters suitable for predicting the salt marsh surface energy balance were obtained by calibrating common models (e.g., Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor, and pan coefficient). Biophysical controls on salt marsh-atmosphere exchange were identified following calibration of models describing the coupling of canopy photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in the salt marsh. The effects of flooding on salt marsh-atmosphere exchange are temporary but strongly affect the marsh water, carbon, and energy balance despite their short duration.

Moffett, Kevan B.; Wolf, Adam; Berry, Joe A.; Gorelick, Steven M.

2010-10-01

314

Tamarisk Water Flux Patterns Before, During and After Episodic Defoliation by the Salt Cedar Leaf Beetle on the Colorado Plateau, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tamarisk (Tamarix) species are among the most successful plant invaders in the western United States, and has had significant impacts on watershed hydrology and water resources. Accordingly, local, state and federal agencies have undertaken considerable efforts to eradicate tamarisk and restore riparian habitats to pre-invasion status. A biological control - the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda elongata) - was released in the summer of 2004 at several locations in eastern Utah, USA to control the spread and impact of tamarisk within the Colorado River watershed. Beginning in April of 2008, sap flux techniques were used to monitor changes in transpiration fluxes in response to canopy defoliation by the beetle. Specifically we installed modified (10 mm length) heat dissipation probes into the main stem of 20 mature tamarisk trees within a single stand on the Colorado Plateau. In July, the saltcedar leaf beetle reduced the total leaf area to near 0% of pre-beetle invasion status. Consequently, sap flux declined by up to 80% compared to pre-beetle invasion fluxes. By mid-August, refoliation of the canopy occurred, and sap flux rates returned to pre- defoliation status. Sap flux rates prior to defoliation were modeled against atmospheric vapor pressure deficit in order to predict the amount of water salvage from defoliation. Sap flux from June 1 through September 1 was on average 36% lower than predicted values. Combined with scaling techniques, the heat dissipation approach shows a high potential for monitoring changes in watershed hydrology in response to tamarisk defoliation by the saltcedar leaf beetle. Nevertheless, tamarisk sap flux studies with heat dissipation probes presents several challenges, including, narrow sapwood depth, low flux rates in response to defoliation, and large thermal gradients that are inevitable in warm climates (particularly after defoliation removes canopy shading). We will present results from ongoing research to address these potential pitfalls.

Hultine, K. R.; Nagler, P. L.; Dennison, P. E.

2008-12-01

315

Modification of the effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on intracranial pressure, brain water, and electrolyte content by indomethacin.  

PubMed

Albino rabbits with experimental brain oedema produced by a combined cryogenic left hemisphere and a metabolic 6-aminonicotinamide lesion were given indomethacin (20 mg/kg) fifteen minutes prior to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment (1 g/kg bolus). Intracranial pressure (ICP), systolic arterial pressure (SAP), central venous pressure (CVP), and EEG were continuously measured while the animals were being mechanically ventilated at a constant PaCO2 (38-42 torr). At the end of the run, brain H2O and electrolytes were measured. There was no significant reduction in ICP at 5 minutes and 15 minutes after DMSO. This was strikingly different to what occurred when DMSO alone was administered, when a significant reduction was noted (p less than 0.05). At 30 minutes there was a reduction in ICP in both the DMSO and the DMSO/indomethacin groups, but in the former it was 50% of the pretreatment values while in the latter it was only 24%. Because indomethacin is a proven prostaglandin inhibitor, these results suggest that these substances may play a role in the mechanism of action of DMSO. PMID:6858725

Tung, H; James, H E; Laurin, R; Marshall, L F

1983-01-01

316

Both water intoxication and osmotic BBB disruption increase brain water content in rats.  

PubMed

Our previous experiments revealed that water intoxication and osmotic BBB disruption in the rat allow penetration of high-molecular substances into the brain and that resulting changes in the internal environment of the CNS lead to pathological development, such as the loss of integrity of myelin. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the previously described phenomena are associated with increased water content in the brain. To answer the question following methods were used: a) water intoxication: intraperitoneal administration of distilled water, b) osmotic BBB disruption: application of mannitol (20 %) selectively into the internal carotid artery, c) brain wet weight was measured after decapitation, and subsequently (after six days in thermostat set at 86 °C) the dry weight were estimated d) in animals with 20 % and 30 % hyperhydration the degree of myelin deterioration was estimated e) animal locomotor activity was tested by continuous behavior tracking and analysis. Brain water content after water intoxication and following the administration of mannitol was higher than in the control group. Different degrees of hyperhydration led to different levels of brain water content and to different degrees of myelin impairment. Hyperhydration corresponding to 20 % of the body weight brought about lower locomotor activity. Increased water content in the brain after the BBB osmotic disruption is surprising because this method is frequently used in the clinical practice. PMID:24329706

Kozler, P; Riljak, V; Pokorný, J

2013-12-12

317

Effects of water content on the actuation performance of ionic polymer-metal composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an experiment on the effects of water content on the actuation performance of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs). Specifically, Nafion 117 sandwiched by platinum electrodes was actuated by AC voltage for 2 h. Because the water molecules in Nafion 117 evaporated into the air, the change of the actuation performance of IMPCs with decreasing water content was investigated. The actuation mechanism of IPMCs under different initial water contents with different applied voltages was also discussed. The largest deformation of IPMCs was obtained under a water content of ~ 70%. The displacement amplitude of IPMCs required 100-900 s to reach the maximum value under different applied voltages and initial water contents. A linear relation between the peak value of the current and the water content at 3 Vpp driving voltage has also been observed.

Yeh, Cheng-Chia; Shih, Wen-Pin

2010-12-01

318

Effect of salt on boiling heat transfer of ammonia-water mixture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nucleate pool boiling heat transfer coefficients were determined experimentally for NH3-H2O, NH3-H2O-LiNO3 and NH3-H2O-LiBr mixtures. Both the salts were effective in increasing the heat transfer coefficient of NH3-H2O mixture. A concentration of 10 mass% of the salts in water, produced the greatest enhancement in heat transfer coefficient at all the range of pressure, heat flux and ammonia concentration studied in this investigation. The experiments indicated that ammonia concentration also has the impact on the augmentation of heat transfer coefficient in NH3-H2O binary mixture by the addition of salts. For the solution of ammonia mass fraction 0.30, high concentration of LiBr gives the highest heat transfer coefficient, for ammonia mass fraction of 0.25, high concentration of LiNO3 gives the maximum heat transfer coefficient, for ammonia mass fraction of 0.15, both the salts are equally effective in increasing the heat transfer coefficient.

Sathyabhama, A.

2012-03-01

319

Effect of hydrotropic salts on phase relationships involving hydrocarbons, water, and alcohols  

SciTech Connect

Hydrotropic salts, which can increase the solubility of organic materials in aqueous solutions, are useful to tertiary oil recovery. We have examined effects on solubility of hydrocarbons in water (with and without alcohols) through addition of inorganic hydrotropic salts, such as perchlorates, thiocyanates, and iodides - high in the usual Hofmeister series - and of organic salts such as short chain alkyl benzene sulfonates and other salts based on substituted benzene derivatives. Although the inorganic salts are relatively ineffective in increasing solubility of hydrocarbons in water, many of the organic salts are excellent hydrotropic agents for hydrocarbons. We have examined the phase relationships for several series of aromatic salts such as sulfonates, carboxylates and hydroxycarboxylates, as a function of alkyl-carbon substitution in three-component (hydrocarbon, salt, water) and in four-component (hydrocarbon, salt, alcohol, water) systems. We have also examined miscibility relationships for a given hydrotropic salt as the chain length of alkanes and alkyl benzenes is systematically varied. While miscibilities decrease with increase in chain length of the hydrocarbon, the hydrotropic properties in these systems increase rapidly with the number of alkyl carbons on the benzene ring of the salts and they are relatively insensitive to the type of charged group (sulfonate vs carboxylate) attached to the benzene ring. However, there were significant increases in hydrotropy as one goes from equally substituted sulfonates or carboxylates to salicylates. A number of salts have been identified which have much greater hydrotropic properties for hydrocarbons than such well-known hydrotropic materials as toluene and xylene sulfonates.

Ho, P.C.; Kraus, K.A.

1980-01-01

320

Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings  

SciTech Connect

Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt.

Spence, R.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Fedorov, V.V.; Downing, D.J.

1999-04-01

321

Effects of mineral content of bovine drinking water: does iron content affect milk quality?  

PubMed

The composition of water given to dairy cattle is often ignored, yet water is a very important nutrient and plays a major role in milk synthesis. The objective of this study was to study effects of elevated levels of iron in bovine drinking water on milk quality. Ferrous lactate treatments corresponding to 0, 2, 5, and 12.5mg/kg drinking water concentrations were delivered through the abomasum at 10 L/d to 4 lactating dairy cows over 4 periods (1 wk infusion/period) in a Latin square design. On d 6 of infusion, milk was collected, processed (homogenized, pasteurized), and analyzed. Mineral content (Fe, Cu, P, Ca) was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Oxidative stability of whole processed milk was measured by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay for malondialdehyde (MDA) and sensory analysis (triangle test) within 72 h of processing and after 7d of storage (4°C). Significant sensory differences between processed milks from cows receiving iron and the control infusion were observed. No differences in TBARS (1.46±0.04 mg of MDA/kg) or mineral content (0.22±0.01 mg/kg Fe) were observed. A 2-way interaction (iron treatment by cow) for Ca, Cu, and Fe concentrations was seen. While iron added directly to milk causes changes in oxidation of milk, high levels of iron given to cattle have subtle effects that initially may not be obvious. PMID:24140329

Mann, G R; Duncan, S E; Knowlton, K F; Dietrich, A D; O'Keefe, S F

2013-12-01

322

Use of salt hydrate pairs to control water activity for enzyme catalysis in ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Salt hydrate pairs were used to control water activity in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate. It was shown that salt hydrate pairs behave essentially the same in ionic liquids as they do in organic solvents as long as they do not dissolve. Initial rate-water activity profiles were prepared for the immobilized Candida antarctica lipase catalyzed synthesis of 2-ethylhexyl methacrylate. The ability to use salt hydrate pairs for the control of water activity in ionic liquids should allow for improved comparison of enzyme activity and specificity in ionic liquids and conventional solvents. PMID:12790674

Berberich, Jason A; Kaar, Joel L; Russell, Alan J

2003-01-01

323

Ecosystem-groundwater interactions under changing land uses: Linking water, salts, and carbon across central Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although most ecosystems display a one-way connection with groundwater based on the regulation of deep water drainage (recharge), this link can become reciprocal when the saturated zone is shallow and plants take up groundwater (discharge). In what context is the reciprocal link most likely? How is it affected by land use changes? Has it consequences on salt and carbon cycling? We examine these questions across a precipitation gradient in the Pampas and Espinal of Argentina focusing on three vegetation change situations (mean annual rainfall): afforestation of humid (900-1300 mm) and subhumid grassland (700-900 mm/yr of rainfall), annual cultivation of subhumid grasslands (700-800 mm/yr), and annual cultivation of semiarid forests (500-700 mm). Humid and subhumid grasslands have shallow (< 5 m deep) groundwater tables that are poorly consumed by grasses but highly used by planted trees, as evidenced by satellite canopy temperatures, soil moisture and water table level records, and sapflow measurements. Groundwater contributions enhance carbon uptake in plantations compared to grasslands as suggested by aboveground biomass measurements and satellite vegetation indexes from sites with and without access to groundwater. Where rainfall is <1100 mm, grassland afforestation switches water fluxes to groundwater from positive (net recharge) to negative (net discharge) causing a salt accumulation process in soils and groundwater that is ultimately limited by the tolerance to salinity of tree species. Cultivation with corn and soybean can lead to groundwater consumption in the driest belt of subhumid grassland. Up to five-fold yield increases in lowlands vs. uplands during the driest years indicate a dramatic impact of groundwater use on carbon uptake and groundwater salinization suggests a recharge-to- discharge switch. In dry forests groundwater is not accessible (> 15 m deep) and recharge under natural conditions is null. The establishment of crops, however, triggers the onset of recharge, as evidenced by vadose zones getting wetter and leached of atmospheric chloride. Cropping may cause water table raises leading to a two-way coupling of ecosystems and groundwater in the future, as it has been documented for similar settings in Australia and the Sahel. In the Pampas land use change interacts with groundwater consumption leading to higher carbon uptake (humid and subhumid grasslands) and salt accumulation (subhumid grasslands). In the Espinal (semiarid forest) land use change currently involves a one-way effect on groundwater recharge that may switch to a reciprocal connection if regional water table raises occur. Neglecting the role of groundwater in flat sedimentary plains can obscure our understanding of carbon and salt cycling and curtail our attempts to sustain soil and water resources under changing land uses.

Jobbagy, E. G.; Nosetto, M. D.; Santoni, C. S.; Jackson, R. B.

2007-05-01

324

Computational and experimental platform for understanding and optimizing water flux and salt rejection in nanoporous membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affordable clean water is both a global and a national security issue as lack of it can cause death, disease, and international tension. Furthermore, efficient water filtration reduces the demand for energy, another national issue. The best current solution to clean water lies in reverse osmosis (RO) membranes that remove salts from water with applied pressure, but widely used polymeric

Rempe; Susan B

2010-01-01

325

Chloride dynamics in a restored urban stream and the influence of road salts on water quality  

EPA Science Inventory

Understanding the connection between road salts and water quality is essential to assess the implications for human health and ecosystem services from these widely used de-icers. Preliminary analysis identified a probable connection between road salt application and a stream wat...

326

Nasal Salt Excretion and the Possible Function of the Cloaca in Water Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secretion of concentrated salt solutions from the nasal region was observed in several terrestrial birds and reptiles. In the secreted fluid potassium usually exceeded sodium concentrations, with chloride and bicarbonate as the major anions. It is suggested that the extrarenal excretion of salts is related to the reabsorption of water in the cloaca, that it is necessary for the production

Knut Schmidt-Nielson; Arieh Borut; Ping Lee; Eugene Crawford Jr.

1963-01-01

327

Water Content and Water Balance Regulation in Female Ixodid Ticks (Acarina, Ixodidae) During and after Engorgement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Characteristic changes in water content and integument permeability of ticks occur during their feeding. Both the permeability and water content are maximal at the stage of slow feeding while both of them decrease simultaneously at the stage of rapid feed...

V. N. Belozerov

1967-01-01

328

Regulation of plasma membrane aquaporins by inoculation with a Bacillus megaterium strain in maize (Zea mays L.) plants under unstressed and salt-stressed conditions.  

PubMed

It is documented that some plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) enhance plant salt tolerance. However, as to how PGPR may influence two crucial components of plant salt tolerance such as, root hydraulic characteristics and aquaporin regulation has been almost unexplored. Here, maize (Zea mays L.) plants were inoculated with a Bacillus megaterium strain previously isolated from a degraded soil and characterized as PGPR. Inoculated plants were found to exhibit higher root hydraulic conductance (L) values under both unstressed and salt-stressed conditions. These higher L values in inoculated plants correlated with higher plasma membrane type two (PIP2) aquaporin amount in their roots under salt-stressed conditions. Also, ZmPIP1;1 protein amount under salt-stressed conditions was higher in inoculated leaves than in non-inoculated ones. Hence, the different regulation of PIP aquaporin expression and abundance by the inoculation with the B. megaterium strain could be one of the causes of the different salt response in terms of root growth, necrotic leaf area, leaf relative water content and L by the inoculation treatment. PMID:20499084

Marulanda, Adriana; Azcón, Rosario; Chaumont, François; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel; Aroca, Ricardo

2010-07-01

329

Effect of water content on the water repellency for hydrophobized sands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alternative earthen covers such as capillary barriers (CBs) and evapotranspirative covers are recognized as useful technical and low-cost solutions for limiting water infiltration and controlling seepage flow at solid waste landfills in semi-arid and arid regions. However, their application to the landfills at wet regions seems to be matter of concern due to loss of their impending capability under high precipitation. One of the possible techniques to enhance the impermeable properties of CBs is to alter soil grain surfaces to be water-repellent by mixing/coating hydrophobic agents (HAs). In order to examine a potential use of model sands hydrophobized with locally available and environmental-friendly HAs such as oleic acid (OA) and stearic acid (SA) for hydrophobic CBs. In the present study, we first characterized the effect of water content on the degree of water repellency (WR) for hydrophobized sands and volcanic ash soil at different depth. Secondly, the time dependency of the contact angle in hydrophobized sands and volcanic ash soils at different water content was evaluated. Further, the effects of hydrophobic organic matter contents on the WR of hydrophobized sands were investigated by horizontal infiltration test. We investigated the degree of WR as functions of volumetric water content (?) of a volcanic ash soil samples from different depth and water adjusted hydrophobized sand samples with different ratio of HAs by using sessile drop method (SDM). The initial contact angle (?i) measured from SDM decreased gradually with increasing water content in OA and SA coated samples. Measured ?i values for volcanic ash soils increased with increasing water content and reached a peak values of 111.7o at ?= 0.325 cm3 cm-3, where-after ?i gradually decreased. Each test sample exhibited sharp decrease in contact angle with time at higher water content. Sorptivity values for oleic acid coated samples decreased with increasing HA content and reached the minimum value of 0.068 cm s-1/2 at 1 g HA kg-1 sand, and then gradually increased.

Subedi, S.; Kawamoto, K.; Kuroda, T.; Moldrup, P.; Komatsu, T.

2011-12-01

330

Manufacturing Nanosized Fenofibrate by Salt Assisted Milling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The aim of this study is to develop a new process for manufacturing a nano-sized form of the popular cholesterol-reducing\\u000a drug fenofibrate which can be implemented on industrial scale with minimal changes of currently used production schemes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Salt-assisted milling was used to reduce particle size of commercial fenofibrate from micron-sized particles to nanometer\\u000a domains.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  The optimal parameters for the salt

Vadym N. Mochalin; Adarsh Sagar; Shruti Gour; Yury Gogotsi

2009-01-01

331

Stratum corneum in vivo water content from TEWL-measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a new pilot-study on the possibility of finding in vivo absolute water content of the stratum corneum (SC) non-invasively. The method is based on measurements of trans-epidermal-water-loss (TEWL) after an occlusion process of the SC. Based on the desorption curves from the occluded skin, estimates of absolute water content of the SC can be made

Gorm Krogh Johnsen; Anne Berit Haugsnes; Orjan G. Martinsen; Sverre Grimnes

2008-01-01

332

[Fluoride in children saliva with its natural low intake in cases of fluoridated salt or water consumption].  

PubMed

Fluoride content dynamics in whole saliva in 3 groups of 5-6 year old children before and after meal. All children lived in the region with lov F-0,2 ppm in water, used fluoridated toothpaste and went to kindergartens. Children from group A (n=10) did not have other sources of F, group B children (n=10) drink one glass a day of F-water (1 ppm), participants from group C (n=11) eat F-salt 250+/-100 ppm. The F in saliva samples gathered prior to and following meal was determined. Before the meal children saliva in group A contains 0,058 ppm F, in group B - 0,078 ppm F, in group C - 0,074 ppm F. Saliva of group A children shows the increase of F after the meal (0,067 ppm), F decreases lower the starting point after the 5th minute (0,056 ppm) and restores to normal by minute 40. Group B showed the decrease of F right after the meal, lasting to minute 20 (0,060 ppm), than a small increase followed (0,063 ppm), and finally the restoration to normal by minute 50. In group C immediate raise of F (0,085 ppm) was noticed, by minute 10 - some decline (0,076 ppm), from minute 20 F rises to level 0,090 ppm, after that it is decreasing slowly, but by minute 60 remains higher tan the starting point (0, 076 ppm). Thus, F-salt use allows to raise a basic level of F, and also to positively change F dynamics in oral fluid during the risk period (after the meal intake). PMID:19156108

Popruzhenko, T V; Terekhova, T N

2008-01-01

333

[Total water content in cardiac patients].  

PubMed

In the present study total body water was determined in a group of cardiac patients, using titriated water. The study was performed in a service of internal medicine of an important hospital in Mexico City. Of the 30 patients originally evaluated, only 23 could be considered cardiacs; of these 47.83% had an excess of water, 39.13% had a normal amount and 13.04% were dehidrated. The patients belonged to both sexes and their ages were anywhere between 14 and 82 years. Very often, other aliments or conditions were present which had a bearing on the total body water. The test is innocuous and the bother to the patient is minimal constituting a valuable auxiliary to the clinician. PMID:548957

Eberstadt, P L; Coo, J J; Reyes Chavez, L; Granados Ordoñez, A; Quintela Salinas, G; Calderón Martínez, F

1979-01-01

334

A three dimensional two-phase debris flow model: Reduction to one free model parameter by linking rheology to grain size distribution and water content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attempts to model debris flow material either as a granular or as a viscous matter can not account for the wide range of debris flow processes, leading to the development of two-phase models with one phase accounting for the fluid and the other for the grains. Within this group of models, depth-averaged approaches are wide-spread, but since the rheology of true material is sensitive to pressure and shear gradient, three dimensional simulations are necessary to predict flows in complex geometries. Phase interaction can be modelled by solving the Navier-Stokes equation system for each phase and linking the phases with drag force models. However, this is a numerically expensive way that introduces a number of free parameters because too little is known about drag of non-spherical grains in non-Newtonian fluids. The approach proposed here solves one phase-averaged Navier-stokes equation system by applying the Volume of Fluid method, while still allowing to account for the sensitivity of the local rheology to pressure and shear in dependency to phase concentrations. One phase with a Herschel-Bulkley rheology represents the interstitial fluid and can mix with a second phase with the Coulomb-viscoplastic rheology of Pudasaini (Birte et al. 2013) that represents the gravel. A third phase is kept separate and represents the air. This setup allows modelling key properties of debris flow processes like run out or impact in high detail. By linking the Herschel Bulkley parameters to water content, clay mineral proportion and grain size distribution (Kaitna et al. 2007, Yu et al. 2013), and the parameters of the Coulomb-viscoplastic rheology to the angle of repose of the gravel, a reduction to one free model parameter was achieved. The resulting model is tested with laboratory experiments for its capability to reproduce the sensitivity of debris flow material to water content and channel curvature. Existing large scale flume experiments are used to corroborate the model and demonstrate its sensitivity to smooth or rough channel bed conditions, and a simulation of a large scale debris flow breaker is presented to show its applicability for practical problems.

von Boetticher, Albrecht; McArdell, Brian; Rickenmann, Dieter; Hübl, Johannes; Scheidl, Christian

2014-05-01

335

Load diversion by embedding in crushed salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The semihydrostatic model permits the analytical calculation of the pressure distribution in a vertical cylindrical borehole filled with waste packages and crushed salt. The pressure components depend on the axial and radial coordinates. Two test stands of CFRP with different wall roughnesses were erected for the experimental verification of the model. The sensors manufactured for measuring the radial and axial

W. Feuser; H. Vijgen; E. Barnert

1999-01-01

336

Does water content or flow rate control colloid transport in unsaturated porous media?  

PubMed

Mobile colloids can play an important role in contaminant transport in soils: many contaminants exist in colloidal form, and colloids can facilitate transport of otherwise immobile contaminants. In unsaturated soils, colloid transport is, among other factors, affected by water content and flow rate. Our objective was to determine whether water content or flow rate is more important for colloid transport. We passed negatively charged polystyrene colloids (220 nm diameter) through unsaturated sand-filled columns under steady-state flow at different water contents (effective water saturations Se ranging from 0.1 to 1.0, with Se = (? - ?r)/(?s - ?r)) and flow rates (pore water velocities v of 5 and 10 cm/min). Water content was the dominant factor in our experiments. Colloid transport decreased with decreasing water content, and below a critical water content (Se < 0.1), colloid transport was inhibited, and colloids were strained in water films. Pendular ring and water film thickness calculations indicated that colloids can move only when pendular rings are interconnected. The flow rate affected retention of colloids in the secondary energy minimum, with less colloids being trapped when the flow rate increased. These results confirm the importance of both water content and flow rate for colloid transport in unsaturated porous media and highlight the dominant role of water content. PMID:24588072

Knappenberger, Thorsten; Flury, Markus; Mattson, Earl D; Harsh, James B

2014-04-01

337

Prediction of cavity growth by solution of salt around boreholes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model is developed to simulate the process of salt dissolution in a salt formation. The calibration of this model using Detroit Mine data is done systematically by the method of nonlinear regression. The brine concentrations calculated from the regression fit the measured data from Detroit Mine experiment within 10 percent. Because the Detroit data includes periods when the

R. H. Snow; D. S. Chang

1975-01-01

338

Salt Tolerance in Crop Plants Monitored by Chlorophyll Fluorescence In Vivo  

PubMed Central

The potential of measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence in vivo to detect cellular responses to salinity and degrees of salt stress in leaves was investigated for three crop plants. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) (salt tolerant), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) (moderately salt tolerant), and bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L. cv Canadian Wonder) (salt intolerant) were grown in pots and watered with mineral nutrient solution containing 100 millimolar NaCl. The fast rise in variable chlorophyll fluorescence yield that is correlated with photoreduction of photosystem II acceptors increased in leaves of sugar beet plants treated with salt suggesting stimulation of photosystem II activity relative to photosystem I. In sunflower, this fast rise was depressed by approximately 25% and the subsequent slow rate of quenching of the chlorophyll fluorescence was stimulated. These differences were more marked in the older mature leaves indicating an increasing gradient of salt response down the plant. The salt effect in vivo was reversible since chloroplasts isolated from mature leaves of salt-treated and control sunflower plants gave similar photosystem II activities. Unlike in sugar beet and sunflower, leaves of salt-treated bean progressively lost chlorophyll. The rate of slow quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence decreased indicating development of a partial block after photosystem II and possible initial stimulation of photosystem II activity. With further loss of chlorophyll photosystem II activity declined. It was concluded that measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence in vivo can provide a rapid means of detecting salt stress in leaves, including instances where photosynthesis is reduced in the absence of visible symptoms. The possible application to screening for salt tolerance is discussed.

Smillie, Robert M.; Nott, Robyn

1982-01-01

339

Understanding of sodium content labeled on food packages by Japanese people.  

PubMed

Salt reduction is one of the most important lifestyle modifications for the prevention of hypertension. The health promotion law regulates the labeling of the nutrient content of food in Japan and, the level of sodium, not salt (sodium chloride), has to be printed on the labels of manufactured foods. In order to control their salt intake, consumers need to apply a conversion factor to the sodium levels listed on the labels to obtain the salt equivalent. However, it is not known whether people have the knowledge appropriate for making the conversion. We carried out a questionnaire survey at the 7th National Shokuiku (food education) Conference in 2012, asking subjects to determine the salt equivalent of 1000?mg of sodium on food labels. We also asked about the target values of salt reduction in grams in the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese 2010 (DRI2010) and the Guidelines for Management of Hypertension 2009 by the Japanese Society of Hypertension (JSH2009). We analyzed the data from 683 respondents (169 men and 514 women); only 13.3% of respondents gave a correct answer for the salt equivalent of 1000?mg of sodium (2.50-2.60?g), whereas 61.8 and 40.4% of respondents chose the correct target values for salt reduction according to DRI2010 and JSH2009, respectively. In conclusion, few people could convert sodium content to salt, which suggested difficulty in using food labels to control their salt intake. Salt content in grams, not sodium content, should be labeled on food packages for effective salt reduction and prevention of hypertension. PMID:24173359

Okuda, Nagako; Nishi, Nobuo; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Yoshimura, Eiichi; Horie, Saki; Nakanishi, Tomoko; Sato, Yoko; Takimoto, Hidemi

2014-05-01

340

Variation of O 18 content of waters from natural sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of marine water and fresh water samples were examined for the relative O 18 \\/O 16 ratio, and the variation of this ratio was determined to a precision of ± 0.1%. In the case of surface marine waters, for a range of salinity of 29.40%., the O 16 content varies over a range of approximately 6%. The low

S. Epstein; T. Mayeda

1953-01-01

341

Vegetation water content estimation using Hyperion hyperspectral data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper used water related vegetation indices calculated from Hyperion image to make water content mapping. The study area is located in Zhangye city, Gansu province in Heihe River Basin of China. Hyperion hyperspectral data was acquired on September 10, 2007. Using Hyperion reflectance of 35 plots, the relationships between vegetation indices and Equivalent Water Thickness (EWT) were calculated. R2

Jinguo Yuan; Kaijun Sun; Zheng Niu

2010-01-01

342

Ice crystallization in ultrafine water-salt aerosols: nucleation, ice-solution equilibrium, and internal structure.  

PubMed

Atmospheric aerosols have a strong influence on Earth's climate. Elucidating the physical state and internal structure of atmospheric aqueous aerosols is essential to predict their gas and water uptake, and the locus and rate of atmospherically important heterogeneous reactions. Ultrafine aerosols with sizes between 3 and 15 nm have been detected in large numbers in the troposphere and tropopause. Nanoscopic aerosols arising from bubble bursting of natural and artificial seawater have been identified in laboratory and field experiments. The internal structure and phase state of these aerosols, however, cannot yet be determined in experiments. Here we use molecular simulations to investigate the phase behavior and internal structure of liquid, vitrified, and crystallized water-salt ultrafine aerosols with radii from 2.5 to 9.5 nm and with up to 10% moles of ions. We find that both ice crystallization and vitrification of the nanodroplets lead to demixing of pure water from the solutions. Vitrification of aqueous nanodroplets yields nanodomains of pure low-density amorphous ice in coexistence with vitrified solute rich aqueous glass. The melting temperature of ice in the aerosols decreases monotonically with an increase of solute fraction and decrease of radius. The simulations reveal that nucleation of ice occurs homogeneously at the subsurface of the water-salt nanoparticles. Subsequent ice growth yields phase-segregated, internally mixed, aerosols with two phases in equilibrium: a concentrated water-salt amorphous mixture and a spherical cap-like ice nanophase. The surface of the crystallized aerosols is heterogeneous, with ice and solution exposed to the vapor. Free energy calculations indicate that as the concentration of salt in the particles, the advance of the crystallization, or the size of the particles increase, the stability of the spherical cap structure increases with respect to the alternative structure in which a core of ice is fully surrounded by solution. We predict that micrometer-sized particles and nanoparticles have the same equilibrium internal structure. The variation of liquid-vapor surface tension with solute concentration is a key factor in determining whether a solution-embedded ice core or vapor-exposed ice cap is the equilibrium structure of the aerosols. In agreement with experiments, we predict that the structure of mixed-phase HNO3-water particles, representative of polar stratospheric clouds, consists of an ice core surrounded by freeze-concentrated solution. The results of this work are important to determine the phase state and internal structure of sea spray ultrafine aerosols and other mixed-phase particles under atmospherically relevant conditions. PMID:24820354

Hudait, Arpa; Molinero, Valeria

2014-06-01

343

The salt and lipid composition of model cheeses modifies in-mouth flavour release and perception related to the free sodium ion content.  

PubMed

Reducing salt and lipid levels in foodstuffs without any effect on acceptability is a major challenge, particularly because of their interactions with other ingredients. This study used a multimodal approach to understand the effects of changes to the composition of model cheeses (20/28, 24/24, 28/20 lipid/protein ratios, 0% and 1% added NaCl) on sodium ion mobility ((23)Na NMR), in-mouth sodium release and flavour perception. An increase in the salt content decreased cheese firmness and perceived hardness, and increased sodium ion mobility, in vivo sodium release and both saltiness and aroma perception. With the same amount of salt, a lower lipid/protein ratio increased the firmness of the cheeses, perceived hardness, and decreased sodium ion mobility, in vivo sodium release, saltiness and aroma perception. These findings suggest on one hand that it could be possible to increase saltiness perception by varying cheese composition, thus inducing differences in sodium ion mobility and in free sodium ion concentration, leading to differences in in-mouth sodium release and saltiness perception, and on the other hand that the reformulation of foods in line with health guidelines needs to take account of both salt content and the lipid/protein ratio. PMID:24128499

Boisard, Lauriane; Andriot, Isabelle; Martin, Christophe; Septier, Chantal; Boissard, Vanessa; Salles, Christian; Guichard, Elisabeth

2014-02-15

344

Study on the influence of high salts content on fungal treatment of saline wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate in this study an assay of aerobic treatment of wastewaters from the sea-foodprocessing industry with selected strains of white rot fungi. Because the effluent was highly charged with salts, the effect of high salts concentrations on growth and enzyme production for Trametes trogii and Phanerochaete chrysosporium was firstly studied. Results showed that the two selected strains tolerated high

Mariem Ellouze; Fathi Aloui; Sami Sayadi

2010-01-01

345

Ice Particle Impact on Cloud Water Content Instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Determining the total amount of water contained in an icing cloud necessitates the measurement of both the liquid droplets and ice particles. One commonly accepted method for measuring cloud water content utilizes a hot wire sensing element, which is maintained at a constant temperature. In this approach, the cloud water content is equated with the power required to keep the sense element at a constant temperature. This method inherently assumes that impinging cloud particles remain on the sensing element surface long enough to be evaporated. In the case of ice particles, this assumption requires that the particles do not bounce off the surface after impact. Recent tests aimed at characterizing ice particle impact on a thermally heated wing section, have raised questions about the validity of this assumption. Ice particles were observed to bounce off the heated wing section a very high percentage of the time. This result could have implications for Total Water Content sensors which are designed to capture ice particles, and thus do not account for bouncing or breakup of ice particles. Based on these results, a test was conducted to investigate ice particle impact on the sensing elements of the following hot-wire cloud water content probes: (1) Nevzorov Total Water Content (TWC)/Liquid Water Content (LWC) probe, (2) Science Engineering Associates TWC probe, and (3) Particle Measuring Systems King probe. Close-up video imaging was used to study ice particle impact on the sensing element of each probe. The measured water content from each probe was also determined for each cloud condition. This paper will present results from this investigation and attempt to evaluate the significance of ice particle impact on hot-wire cloud water content measurements.

Emery, Edward F.; Miller, Dean R.; Plaskon, Stephen R.; Strapp, Walter; Lillie, Lyle

2004-01-01

346

Determination of the Thermal Properties of Sands as Affected by Water Content, Drainage/Wetting, and Porosity Conditions for Sands With Different Grain Sizes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely recognized that liquid water, water vapor and temperature movement in the subsurface near the land/atmosphere interface are strongly coupled, influencing many agricultural, biological and engineering applications such as irrigation practices, the assessment of contaminant transport and the detection of buried landmines. In these systems, a clear understanding of how variations in water content, soil drainage/wetting history, porosity conditions and grain size affect the soil's thermal behavior is needed, however, the consideration of all factors is rare as very few experimental data showing the effects of these variations are available. In this study, the effect of soil moisture, drainage/wetting history, and porosity on the thermal conductivity of sandy soils with different grain sizes was investigated. For this experimental investigation, several recent sensor based technologies were compiled into a Tempe cell modified to have a network of sampling ports, continuously monitoring water saturation, capillary pressure, temperature, and soil thermal properties. The water table was established at mid elevation of the cell and then lowered slowly. The initially saturated soil sample was subjected to slow drainage, wetting, and secondary drainage cycles. After liquid water drainage ceased, evaporation was induced at the surface to remove soil moisture from the sample to obtain thermal conductivity data below the residual saturation. For the test soils studied, thermal conductivity increased with increasing moisture content, soil density and grain size while thermal conductivity values were similar for soil drying/wetting behavior. Thermal properties measured in this study were then compared with independent estimates made using empirical models from literature. These soils will be used in a proposed set of experiments in intermediate scale test tanks to obtain data to validate methods and modeling tools used for landmine detection.

Smits, K. M.; Sakaki, T.; Limsuwat, A.; Illangasekare, T. H.

2009-05-01

347

Geoelectric resistivity sounding for delineating salt water intrusion in the Abu Zenima area, west Sinai, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A direct current (dc) resistivity geoelectric technique is applied in the Abu Zenima area, West Sinai, Egypt to delineate salt water intrusion from the Gulf of Suez and evaluate the quality and some of the petrophysical parameters of the aquifer. Sixteen Schlumberger vertical electrical soundings (VES) with maximum AB/2 = 3000 m are conducted. The interpretation of the one-dimensional (1D) inversion of the acquired resistivity data could map the fresh to slightly brackish aquifer (true resistivity = 52-71 ? m, thickness = 17-66 m), which floats on denser, more saline, deeper water (<5 ? m). A number of water samples of the fresh aquifer are analysed to determine the total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations (ppm). A good agreement is observed between the resistivity boundaries and the borehole data. The mutual relations between the aquifer layering, the direction of the groundwater flow and the hydrogeophysical conditions of the aquifer are investigated. The geoelectric (Dar-Zarrouk) parameters are determined and interpreted in terms of the hydraulic conductivity, transimissivity, clay content, grain size distribution and potentiality of the aquifer. The integration of the results indicates a high potentiality and a relatively good quality of the fresh to slightly brackish aquifer in the north-eastern part of the study area.

Khalil, Mohamed H.

2006-09-01

348

Water Uptake of Mars Salt Analogs: An Investigation of Stable Aqueous Solutions on Mars Using Raman Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand the formation of briny aqueous solutions on Mars, a salt analog was developed to closely match the cation and anion concentrations as reported by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory aboard the Phoenix Lander. The salt analog contained magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, perchlorate, chloride, sulfate, and carbonate ions. The salt analog was developed to fully encompass the correct anion and cation concentration and is referred to as 'Instant Mars.' Using Raman microscopy, we have studied phase transitions of the analogs in an environmental cell. Phase transitions were monitored using Raman spectroscopy in combination with optical microscopy while samples were in a controlled water vapor and temperature environment. Salt analog solutions were nebulized to generate 20 ?m particles (on average) that were deposited onto a quartz wafer. The particles undergo visual transformations as the relative humidity (RH) is increased and the presence of aqueous phase salts is confirmed by Raman spectra. Perhaps even more interesting is a liquid water phase particle can persist at lower RH values than the humidity at which the aqueous phase first appeared. This hysteresis effect is due to kinetic inhibition of salt nucleation and can result in metastable, supersaturated salt solutions existing at RH values as low as 10%. With measured humidity values at the Phoenix Lander site varying from 0-100% in a diurnal cycle, it seems likely that aqueous, briny solutions can form in Martian environmental conditions. Microscope images illustrating water uptake at 243K of an 'Instant Mars' particle. As the RH increases, a visual change (size and darkness) is apparent.

Nuding, D.; Gough, R. V.; Tolbert, M. A.

2012-12-01

349

Prolonged Raman lasing in size-stabilized salt-water microdroplets on a superhydrophobic surface.  

PubMed

We demonstrate prolonged Raman lasing from individual salt-water microdroplets with 10-20 microm diameters located on a superhydrophobic surface. The mechanism is based on the absorption heating of a 1064 nm cw IR laser and the resonant heating of a 532 nm pulsed, pump laser. A clear hysteresis is observed in the lasing intensity as the droplet size is photothermally tuned by the IR laser, indicating a self-stabilization mechanism due to the resonant absorption of the pump laser. Using this mechanism, Raman lasing near 650 nm is sustained for up to 25 min, approximately 1000 times longer than lasing durations reported in previous studies. PMID:20548364

Karadag, Y; Gündo?an, M; Yüce, M Y; Cankaya, H; Sennaroglu, A; Kiraz, A

2010-06-15

350

Increasing salt tolerance of wheat by mixed ammonium nitrate nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a greenhouse experiment with wheat, sandy loam or clay soils were salinized by additions of 0, 3. or 8 g NaCl\\/3L pot. Ammonium and nitrate nitrogen mixtures in ratios of 0\\/100, 25\\/75 and 50\\/50 together with DCD, a nitrification inhibitor, were applied with irrigation water.Salinity significantly reduced dry matter yields, and N and P content in grain and stover.

A. Shaviv; O. Hazan; P. M. Neumann; J. Hagin

1990-01-01

351

Fluid-loading solutions and plasma volume: Astro-ade and salt tablets with water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluid loading with salt and water is a countermeasure used after space flight to restore body fluids. However, gastrointestinal side effects have been frequently reported in persons taking similar quantities of salt and water in ground-based studies. The effectiveness of the Shuttle fluid-loading countermeasure (8 gms salt, 0.97 liters of water) was compared to Astro-ade (an isotonic electrolyte solution), to maintain plasma volume (PV) during 4.5 hrs of resting fluid restriction. Three groups of healthy men (n=6) were studied: a Control Group (no drinking), an Astro-ade Group, and a Salt Tablet Group. Changes in PV after drinking were calculated from hematocrit and hemoglobin values. Both the Salt Tablet and Astro-ade Groups maintained PV at 2-3 hours after ingestion compared to the Control Group, which had a 6 percent decline. Side effects (thirst, stomach cramping, and diarrhea) were noted in at least one subject in both the Astro-ade and Salt Tablet Groups. Nausea and vomiting were reported in one subject in the Salt Tablet Group. It was concluded that Astro-ade may be offered as an alternate fluid-loading countermeasure but further work is needed to develop a solution that is more palatable and has fewer side effects.

Fortney, Suzanne M.; Seinmann, Laura; Young, Joan A.; Hoskin, Cherylynn N.; Barrows, Linda H.

1994-01-01

352

Salt tectonics on Venus  

SciTech Connect

The discovery of a surprisingly high deuterium/hydrogen ratio on Venus immediately led to the speculation that Venus may have once had a volume of surface water comparable to that of the terrestrial oceans. The authors propose that the evaporation of this putative ocean may have yielded residual salt deposits that formed various terrain features depicted in Venera 15 and 16 radar images. By analogy with models for the total evaporation of the terrestrial oceans, evaporite deposits on Venus should be at least tens to hundreds of meters thick. From photogeologic evidence and in-situ chemical analyses, it appears that the salt plains were later buried by lava flows. On Earth, salt diapirism leads to the formation of salt domes, anticlines, and elongated salt intrusions - features having dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 km. Due to the rapid erosion of salt by water, surface evaporite landforms are only common in dry regions such as the Zagros Mountains of Iran, where salt plugs and glaciers exist. Venus is far drier than Iran; extruded salt should be preserved, although the high surface temperature (470/sup 0/C) would probably stimulate rapid salt flow. Venus possesses a variety of circular landforms, tens to hundreds of kilometers wide, which could be either megasalt domes or salt intrusions colonizing impact craters. Additionally, arcurate bands seen in the Maxwell area of Venus could be salt intrusions formed in a region of tectonic stress. These large structures may not be salt features; nonetheless, salt features should exist on Venus.

Wood, C.A.; Amsbury, D.

1986-05-01

353

Removal of Cd2+ from water by Friedel's salt (FS: 3CaO x A12O3 x CaCI2 x 10H2O): sorption characteristics and mechanisms.  

PubMed

The development of low-cost and efficient new mineral adsorbents has been a hot topic in recent years. In this study, Friedel's salt (FS: 3CaO x A12O3 x CaCl2 x10H2O), a hexagonal layered inorganic absorbent, was synthesized to remove Cd2+ from water. The adsorption process was simulated by Langmuir and Freundlich models. The adsorption mechanism was further analyzed with TEM, XRD, FT-IR analysis and monitoring of metal cations released and solution pH variation. The results indicated the adsorbent FS had an outstanding ability for Cd(II) adsorption. The maximum adsorption capacity of the FS for Cd(II) removal can reach up to 671.14 mg/g. The nearly equal numbers of Cd2+ adsorbed and Ca2+ released demonstrated that ion-exchange (both surface and inner) of the FS for Cd(II) played an important role during the adsorption process. Furthermore, the surface of the FS after adsorption was microscopically disintegrated while the inner lamellar structure was almost unchanged. The behavior of Cd(II) adsorption by FS was significantly affected by surface reactions. The mechanisms of Cd2+ adsorption by the FS mainly included surface complexation and surface precipitation. In the present study, the adsorption process was fitted better by the Langmuir isotherm model (R2 = 0.9999) than the Freundlich isotherm model (R2 = 0.8122). Finally, due to the high capacity for ion-exchange on the FS surface, FS is a promising layered inorganic adsorbent for the removal of Cd(II) from water. PMID:24520713

Zhang, Juanjuan; Zhao, He; Cao, Hongbin; Li, Heping; Li, Zhibao

2013-09-01

354

Screening of genes induced by salt stress from Alfalfa  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alfalfa cDNA library induced by salt stress was constructed by suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH) technology.\\u000a Total RNA from 10-day-old seedlings was used as a “driver,” and total RNA from seedlings induced by salt was used as a “tester”.\\u000a One hundred and nineteen clones identified as positive clones by reverse Northern dot-blotting resulted in 82 uni-ESTs comprised\\u000a of 16 contigs

Houcong Jin; Yan Sun; Qingchuan Yang; Yuehui Chao; Junmei Kang; Hong Jin; Yan Li; Gruber Margaret

2010-01-01

355

Lorentz Force on Sodium and Chlorine Ions in a Salt Water Solution Flow under a Transverse Magnetic Field  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is shown that, by applying elementary concepts in electromagnetism and electrochemistry to a system consisting of salt water flowing in a thin rectangular pipe at an average velocity v[subscript A] under the influence of a transverse magnetic field B[subscript 0], an electromotive force generator can be conceived. In fact, the Lorentz force…

De Luca, R.

2009-01-01

356

THE EFFECTS OF HYPOPHYSECTOMY AND BOVINE PROLACTIN ON SALT FLUXES IN FRESH-WATER-ADAPTED FUNDULUS HETEROCLITUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the characteristics of salt balance in the euryhaline killifish Fundulus heteroclitus have been outlined by us elsewhere (Potts and Evans, 1966) . One of the major features of osmotic regulation in this fish is a marked reduction in the sodium and chloride fluxes on adaptation to fresh water. A similar reduction has been observed in several euryhaline teleosts

W. T. W. POTTS; D. H. EVANS

357

Salt Marsh Sediment Biogeochemical Response to the Deep Water Horizon BP Oil Spill (Skiff Island, LA, and Cat Island, Marsh Point, and Salt Pan Island, MS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large scale impact of the Deep Water Horizon BP Oil Spill on biological communities can be better predicted by developing an understanding of how carbon loading from the spill is affecting the microbial and biological communities of salt marshes along the Mississippi and Louisiana Gulf Coast. Sediment biogeochemical processes that degrade enriched carbon pools through sulfate reduction are primarily responsible for the biological breakdown of spilled hydrocarbons (Shin et al., 2000). Determination of sulfide concentration in contaminated areas, therefore, allows for an assessment of the oil spill impact on salt marsh at Skiff Island, LA, and Marsh Point, Cat Island, and Salt Pan Island, MS. As a result of carbon loading, porewater hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentrations are expected to show an increase in the largely anoxic wetland sediment, making the sediment more toxic and inhospitable to marsh vegetation (Alber et al., 2008). High sulfide levels due to carbon loading in hydrocarbon contaminated salt marshes cause microbial activity to increase at the plant rhizospere, leading to plant browning and die back (Eldridge and Morse 2000). Preliminary analysis of the Marsh Point study area was conducted in Fall 2010. Sediment cores indicated that sulfate reducing bacteria are significantly more active in contaminated sediments, producing sulfide concentrations 20x higher than in non-contaminated sediments. The difference in the sediment biogeochemistry between the contaminated site and non-contaminated site at Marsh Point, MS indicated that the effects of hydrocarbon contamination on sulfur cycling in salt marshes should be more spatially explored. In Fall 2011, the study was expanded to include Skiff Island, LA, and Cat Island, and Salt Pan Island, MS in addition to Marsh Point, MS. Sediment electrode profiles (H2S, O2, pH, and Eh), degree of hydrocarbon contamination (GC), grain size analysis, microbial community substrate level carbon utilization profiles, and total organic carbon results will be presented on these four locations in order to explore the potential sedimentary geochemical processes impacting salt marsh dieback, which may be enhanced as a result of the Deep Water Horizon BP Oil Spill.

Guthrie, C. L.; McNeal, K. S.; Mishra, D. R.; Blakeney, G. A.

2012-12-01

358

Partitioning of Fatty Acids in Oil\\/Water Systems Analyzed by HPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surfactant\\/oil\\/water systems in which the surface-active substance is a mixture of an undissociated fatty acid (FA) and its\\u000a sodium salt soap, exhibit the typical phase behavior and the general emulsion phenomenology produced by a formulation scan.\\u000a The phase behavior transition is induced by changing the FA concentration in the system at a fixed alkaline (NaOH) content\\u000a in water, which results

Bélgica Bravo; Jhoana Sánchez; Ana Cáceres; Gerson Chávez; Fredy Ysambertt; Nelson Márquez; Maria Jaimes; Maria Isabel Briceño; Jean Louis Salager

2008-01-01

359

Measurements of Water Vapor and Total Water on the NASA WB57: Validation and Determination of Cirrus Ice Water Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an instrument that makes accurate in situ measurements of total water. Cloud ice water content is determined using simultaneous water vapor measurements. The total water instrument integrates an aerodynamically shaped inlet and an in-stream heater with photofragment resonance fluorescence detection to quantitatively measure the total water content of ambient air. The air is isokinetically drawn into the instrument

E. M. Weinstock; J. Smith; D. Sayres; J. Pittman; J. Anderson; R. Herman

2003-01-01

360

Fluoride content of municipal water in the United States: what percentage is fluoridated?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, a study was conducted to look at the trace element content of municipal waters sampled around the United States. This was a collaborative project defined by representatives of the Nutrient Data Laboratory and the Food Composition Laboratory of the United States Department of Agriculture. As part of the study, the fluoride content of nationally representative water samples was measured

Nancy J Miller-Ihli; Pamela R Pehrsson; Rena L Cutrifelli; Joanne M Holden

2003-01-01

361

Short communication Fluoride content of municipal water in the United States: what percentage is fluoridated?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, a study was conducted to look at the trace element content of municipal waters sampled around the United States. This was a collaborative project defined by representatives of the Nutrient Data Laboratory and the Food Composition Laboratory of the United States Department of Agriculture. As part of the study, the fluoride content of nationally representative water samples was measured

Nancy J. Miller-Ihli; Pamela R. Pehrsson; Rena L. Cutrifelli; Joanne M. Holden

362

Macrophages regulate salt-dependent volume and blood pressure by a vascular endothelial growth factor-C–dependent buffering mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In salt-sensitive hypertension, the accumulation of Na+ in tissue has been presumed to be accompanied by a commensurate retention of water to maintain the isotonicity of body fluids. We show here that a high-salt diet (HSD) in rats leads to interstitial hypertonic Na+ accumulation in skin, resulting in increased density and hyperplasia of the lymphcapillary network. The mechanisms underlying these

Agnes Machnik; Wolfgang Neuhofer; Jonathan Jantsch; Anke Dahlmann; Tuomas Tammela; Katharina Machura; Joon-Keun Park; Franz-Xaver Beck; Dominik N Müller; Wolfgang Derer; Jennifer Goss; Agata Ziomber; Peter Dietsch; Hubertus Wagner; Nico van Rooijen; Armin Kurtz; Karl F Hilgers; Kari Alitalo; Kai-Uwe Eckardt; Friedrich C Luft; Dontscho Kerjaschki; Jens Titze

2009-01-01

363

An Analysis to the Driving Forces for Water and Salt Absorption in Roots of Maize Seedlings Under Salt Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

When maize seedlings were subjected to salt stress, a decline in root xylem pressure was observed within seconds, followed by a gradual increase in Na+ deposition in the seedlings. The magnitude of xylem pressure response was positively correlated with, but not proportional to the intensity of the stress. A continuous recording of the xylem pressure profile showed that self-regulation of

Jian-jun ZHU; Xin-fu BAI; Qing-mei BU; Xiao-man JIANG

2010-01-01

364

Salicylic acid alleviates decreases in photosynthesis under salt stress by enhancing nitrogen and sulfur assimilation and antioxidant metabolism differentially in two mungbean cultivars.  

PubMed

Salicylic acid (SA) is known to affect photosynthesis under normal conditions and induces tolerance in plants to biotic and abiotic stresses through influencing physiological processes. In this study, physiological processes were compared in salt-tolerant (Pusa Vishal) and salt-sensitive (T44) cultivars of mungbean and examined how much these processes were induced by SA treatment to alleviate decrease in photosynthesis under salt stress. Cultivar T44 accumulated higher leaf Na(+) and Cl(-) content and exhibited greater oxidative stress than Pusa Vishal. Activity of antioxidant enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) was greater in Pusa Vishal than T44. Contrarily, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was greater in T44. The greater accumulation of leaf nitrogen and sulfur through higher activity of their assimilating enzymes, nitrate reductase (NR) and ATP-sulfurylase (ATPS) increased reduced glutathione (GSH) content more conspicuously in Pusa Vishal than T44. Application of 0.5 mM SA increased nitrogen and sulfur assimilation, GSH content and activity of APX and GR. This resulted in the increase in photosynthesis under non-saline condition and alleviated the decrease in photosynthesis under salt stress. It also helped in restricting Na(+) and Cl(-) content in leaf, and maintaining higher efficiency of PSII, photosynthetic N-use efficiency (NUE) and water relations in Pusa Vishal. However, application of 1.0 mM SA resulted in inhibitory effects. The effect of SA was more pronounced in Pusa Vishal than T44. These results indicate that SA application alleviates the salt-induced decrease in photosynthesis mainly through inducing the activity of NR and ATPS, and increasing antioxidant metabolism to a greater extent in Pusa Vishal than T44. PMID:21112120

Nazar, Rahat; Iqbal, Noushina; Syeed, Shabina; Khan, Nafees A

2011-05-15

365

Characterising protein, salt and water interactions with combined vibrational spectroscopic techniques.  

PubMed

In this paper a combination of NIR spectroscopy and FTIR and Raman microspectroscopy was used to elucidate the effects of different salts (NaCl, KCl and MgSO(4)) on structural proteins and their hydration in muscle tissue. Multivariate multi-block technique Consensus Principal Component Analysis enabled integration of different vibrational spectroscopic techniques: macroscopic information obtained by NIR spectroscopy is directly related to microscopic information obtained by FTIR and Raman microspectroscopy. Changes in protein secondary structure observed at different concentrations of salts were linked to changes in protein hydration affinity. The evidence for this was given by connecting the underlying FTIR bands of the amide I region (1700-1600 cm(-1)) and the water region (3500-3000 cm(-1)) with water vibrations obtained by NIR spectroscopy. In addition, Raman microspectroscopy demonstrated that different cations affected structures of aromatic amino acid residues differently, which indicates that cation-? interactions play an important role in determination of the final structure of protein molecules. PMID:23265540

Perisic, Nebojsa; Afseth, Nils Kristian; Ofstad, Ragni; Hassani, Sahar; Kohler, Achim

2013-05-01

366

Survey for Water Content of Fuel Oil in Storage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey has been made of the water content of Navy Special Fuel Oil in various fuel storage tanks in the United States and Pacific Areas as part of a study to determine the contribution of sea water to the slagging problem. The results of this survey sho...

R. M. Roe E. E. Russ

1966-01-01

367

Towards mapping attenuation and water content in the Transition Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mantle transition zone is suggested to play a significant role in water storage due to the high solubility of H2O in transition zone minerals. However, quantifying the water content of the transition zone has proven difficult. Previous investigations of the transition zone using a variety of techniques have identified variations in water content globally, associated melt at 400 km, and variable thickness. The resulting water distribution models indicate substantially different Earth models and subsequent seismic responses. Water enhances attenuation with minimal change to seismic wave speed in the transition zone. Taken in combination with correlated temperature induced wave speed / attenuation reductions, the water content and temperature in the transition zone can be inferred. Using upper mantle seismic phases that propagate within the transition zone, we can isolate the effects of attenuation, or anelasticity, and seismic wave speeds. Synthetic seismograms at high frequency, around 1 Hz, from models with a "wet" transition zone show a distinct amplitude reduction and phase delay. Conversely, models with melt on top of the transition zone produce a delayed, secondary arrival with an upper mantle moveout velocity. These diagnostic arrivals, based on synthetic seismic responses, are best identified at the end of the triplicated 660 km branch. Full modeling of the seismic phases from the transition zone will enable a mapping of water content and temperature, while deciphering how water is distributed and transported throughout the mantle.

Savage, B. K.

2013-12-01

368

Protease stabilization by carboxylic acid salts: Relative efficiencies and mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

s  Kinetic studies are presented on the inhibition of proteolysis by carboxylic acid salts on the synthetic substrate succinyl\\u000a ala-ala-pro-phe-para nitroanilide. The inhibition of proteolysis\\/autodigestion is shown to be the major factor in the stabilization\\u000a of a detergent protease [i.e., Maxatase (subtilisin Carlsberg)] in an unbuilt, liquid, heavy duty laundry formulation. The\\u000a inhibition of autodigestion by a carboxylic acid salt as

Michael C. Crossin

1989-01-01

369

Measurements of water potential and water content in unsaturated crystalline rock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A water desaturation zone develops around a tunnel in water-saturated rock when the evaporative water loss at the rock surface is larger than the water flow from the surrounding saturated region of restricted permeability. We describe the methods with which such water desaturation processes in rock materials can be quantified. The water retention characteristic ? (?) of crystalline rock samples was determined with a pressure membrane apparatus. The negative water potential, identical to the capillary pressure, ?, below the tensiometric range (? < -0.1 MPa) can be measured with thermocouple psychrometers (TP), and the volumetric water contents, ?, by means of time domain reflectometry (TDR). These standard methods were adapted for measuring the water status in a macroscopically unfissured granodiorite with a total porosity of approximately 0.01. The measured water retention curve of granodiorite samples from the Grimsel test site (central Switzerland) exhibits a shape which is typical for bimodal pore size distributions. The measured bimodality is probably an artifact of a large surface ratio of solid/voids. The thermocouples were installed without a metallic screen using the cavity drilled into the granodiorite as a measuring chamber. The water potentials observed in a cylindrical granodiorite monolith ranged between -0.1 and -3.0 MPa; those near the wall in a ventilated tunnel between -0.1 and -2.2 MPa. Two types of three-rod TDR probes were used, one as a depth probe inserted into the rock, the other as a surface probe using three copper stripes attached to the surface for detecting water content changes in the rock-to-air boundary. The TDR signal was smoothed with a low-pass filter, and the signal length determined based on the first derivative of the trace. Despite the low porosity of crystalline rock these standard methods are applicable to describe the unsaturated zone in solid rock and may also be used in other consolidated materials such as concrete.

Schneebeli, Martin; Flühler, Hannes; Gimmi, Thomas; Wydler, Hannes; LäSer, Hans-Peter; Baer, Toni

1995-08-01

370

Oxy-combustion of high water content fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the issues of global warming and the energy crisis arouse extensive concern, more and more research is focused on maximizing energy efficiency and capturing CO2 in power generation. To achieve this, in this research, we propose an unconventional concept of combustion - direct combustion of high water content fuels. Due to the high water content in the fuels, they may not burn under air-fired conditions. Therefore, oxy-combustion is applied. Three applications of this concept in power generation are proposed - direct steam generation for the turbine cycle, staged oxy-combustion with zero flue gas recycle, and oxy-combustion in a low speed diesel-type engine. The proposed processes could provide alternative approaches to directly utilize fuels which intrinsically have high water content. A large amount of energy to remove the water, when the fuels are utilized in a conventional approach, is saved. The properties and difficulty in dewatering high water content fuels (e.g. bioethanol, microalgae and fine coal) are summarized. These fuels include both renewable and fossil fuels. In addition, the technique can also allow for low-cost carbon capture due to oxy-combustion. When renewable fuel is utilized, the whole process can be carbon negative. To validate and evaluate this concept, the research focused on the investigation of the flame stability and characteristics for high water content fuels. My study has demonstrated the feasibility of burning fuels that have been heavily diluted with water in a swirl-stabilized burner. Ethanol and 1-propanol were first tested as the fuels and the flame stability maps were obtained. Flame stability, as characterized by the blow-off limit -- the lowest O2 concentration when a flame could exist under a given oxidizer flow rate, was determined as a function of total oxidizer flow rate, fuel concentration and nozzle type. Furthermore, both the gas temperature contour and the overall ethanol concentration in the droplets along the spray were measured in the chamber for a stable flame. The experimental results indicate significant preferential vaporization of ethanol over water. Modeling results support this observation and indicate that the vaporization process is best described as the distillation limit mode with enhanced mass transfer by convection. Further, the influence of preferential vaporization on flame stability was investigated. A procedure was developed to evaluate the extent of preferential vaporization and subsequent flame stability of a fuel in aqueous solution. Various water soluble fuels were analyzed via this procedure in order to identify a chemical fuel showing strong preferential vaporization. t-Butanol was identified as having excellent physical and chemical properties, indicating stronger preferential vaporization than ethanol. Flame stability tests were run for aqueous solutions of both t-butanol and ethanol under identical flow conditions. Flame stability was characterized by the blow-off limit. In each comparison, the energy contents in the two solutions were kept the same. For the experiments under high swirl flow conditions (100% swirl flow), 12.5 wt% t-butanol has slightly lower blow-off limits than 15 wt% ethanol, and 8.3 wt% t-butanol has much lower blow-off limits than 10 wt% ethanol. For the experiments under a low swirl flow condition (50% swirl/50% axial flow), 12.5 wt% t-butanol has a much lower blow-off limit than 15 wt% ethanol. The time to release the fuel from a droplet was also calculated for both ethanol and t-butanol. For the same size droplet, the time to release t-butanol is much shorter than that of ethanol under the same conditions. Faster release of the fuel from water enhances flame stability, which is consistent with the experimental results. For the oxy-combustion characteristics of low-volatility fuel with high water content, glycerol was chosen as the fuel to study. It is found that self-sustained flame can be obtained for glycerol solution with concentration as high as 60 wt%, when burned in pure O2. However, the flame is lifted far away f

Yi, Fei

371

Occurrence, liquid water content, and fraction of supercooled water clouds from combined CALIOP/IIR/MODIS measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CALIOP depolarization measurements, combined with backscatter intensity measurements, are effective in discriminating between water clouds and ice clouds. The same depolarization measurements can also be used for estimating liquid water content information. Using cloud temperature information from the collocated infrared imaging radiometer measurements and cloud water paths from collocated MODIS measurements, this study compiles global statistics of the occurrence frequency, liquid water content, liquid water path, and their temperature dependence. For clouds with temperatures between -40°C and 0°C, the liquid phase fractions and liquid water paths are significantly higher than the ones from previous studies using passive remote sensing measurements. At midlatitudes, the occurrence of liquid phase clouds at temperatures between -40°C and 0°C depends jointly on both cloud height and cloud temperature. At high latitudes, more than 95% of low-level clouds with temperatures between -40°C and 0°C are water clouds. Supercooled water clouds are mostly observed over ocean near the storm-track regions and high-latitude regions. Supercooled water clouds over land are observed in the Northern Hemisphere over Europe, East Asia, and North America, and these are the supercooled water clouds with highest liquid water contents. The liquid water content of all supercooled water clouds is characterized by a Gamma (?) distribution. The mode values of liquid water content are around 0.06 g/m3 and are independent of cloud temperature. For temperatures warmer than -15°C, mean value of the liquid water content is around 0.14 g/m3. As the temperature decreases, the mean cloud liquid water content also decreases. These results will benefit cloud models and cloud parameterizations used in climate models in improving their ice-phase microphysics parameterizations and the aviation hazard forecast.

Hu, Yongxiang; Rodier, Sharon; Xu, Kuan-Man; Sun, Wenbo; Huang, Jianping; Lin, Bing; Zhai, Pengwang; Josset, Damien

2010-01-01

372

Experimental and Computational Study of a Direct O2-Coupled Wacker Oxidation: Water Dependence in the Absence of Cu Salts  

PubMed Central

The kinetics of the Pd[(–)-sparteine]Cl2 catalyzed oxidation of decene using oxygen as the sole oxidant have been studied in the absence of copper salts and high [Cl-]. Saturation kinetics are observed for [decene] as well as a third order dependence on [water]. A mechanism is proposed involving the dissociation of two chlorides and rate-limiting formation of a three-water hydrogen bridged network and subsequent oxypalladation as supported by computational studies.

Anderson, Brian J.; Keith, John A.; Sigman, Matthew S.

2010-01-01

373

Electrical conductivity of orthopyroxene: Implications for the water content of the asthenosphere  

PubMed Central

Electrical conductivity of minerals is sensitive to water content and hence can be used to infer the water content in the mantle. However, previous studies to infer the water content in the upper mantle were based on pure olivine model of the upper mantle. Influence of other minerals particularly that of orthopyroxene needs to be included to obtain a better estimate of water content in view of the high water solubility in this mineral. Here we report new results of electrical conductivity measurements on orthopyroxene, and apply these results to estimate the water content of the upper mantle of Earth. We found that the electrical conductivity of orthopyroxene is enhanced by the addition of water in a similar way as other minerals such as olivine and pyrope garnet. Using these new results, we calculate the electrical conductivity of pyrolite mantle as a function of water content and temperature incorporating the temperature and water fugacity-dependent hydrogen partitioning. Reported values of asthenosphere conductivity of 4 × 10?2?10?1 S/m corresponds to the water content of 0.01–0.04 wt%, a result in good agreement with the petrological model of the upper mantle.

Dai, Lidong; Karato, Shun-ichiro

2009-01-01

374

Electrical conductivity of orthopyroxene: implications for the water content of the asthenosphere.  

PubMed

Electrical conductivity of minerals is sensitive to water content and hence can be used to infer the water content in the mantle. However, previous studies to infer the water content in the upper mantle were based on pure olivine model of the upper mantle. Influence of other minerals particularly that of orthopyroxene needs to be included to obtain a better estimate of water content in view of the high water solubility in this mineral. Here we report new results of electrical conductivity measurements on orthopyroxene, and apply these results to estimate the water content of the upper mantle of Earth. We found that the electrical conductivity of orthopyroxene is enhanced by the addition of water in a similar way as other minerals such as olivine and pyrope garnet. Using these new results, we calculate the electrical conductivity of pyrolite mantle as a function of water content and temperature incorporating the temperature and water fugacity-dependent hydrogen partitioning. Reported values of asthenosphere conductivity of 4x10(-2)-10(-1) S/m corresponds to the water content of 0.01-0.04 wt%, a result in good agreement with the petrological model of the upper mantle. PMID:20009379

Dai, Lidong; Karato, Shun-ichiro

2009-01-01

375

Water solvation properties: an experimental and theoretical investigation of salt solutions at finite dilution.  

PubMed

Our combined analysis of first-principle simulations and experiments conducted on salt solutions at finite dilution shows that the high frequency range of the infrared spectrum of an aqueous solution of NaCl displays a shift toward higher frequencies of the stretching band with respect to pure water. We ascribe this effect to a lowering of the molecular dipole moments due to a decrease in the dipole moments of molecules belonging to the first and second solvation shells with respect to bulk water. An analysis of the dipole orientation correlations proves that the screening of solutes is dominated by short-range effects. These jointly experimental and theoretical results are corroborated by the good agreement between calculated and measured dielectric constants of our target solution. PMID:19499903

Schmidt, Diedrich A; Scipioni, Roberto; Boero, Mauro

2009-07-01

376

Prediction of activity coefficients in liquid aerosol particles containing organic compounds, dissolved inorganic salts, and water—Part 2: Consideration of phase separation effects by an X-UNIFAC model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermodynamic model is presented for predicting the formation of particulate matter (PM) within an aerosol that contains organic compounds, inorganic salts, and water. Neutral components are allowed to partition from the gas phase to the PM, with the latter potentially composed of both a primarily aqueous ( ?) liquid phase and a primarily organic ( ?) liquid phase. Partitioning is allowed to occur without any artificial restraints: when both ? and ? PM phases are present, ionic constituents are allowed to partition to both. X-UNIFAC.2, an extended UNIFAC method based on Yan et al. (1999. Prediction of vapor-liquid equilibria in mixed-solvent electrolyte systems using the group contribution concept. Fluid Phase Equilibria 162, 97-113), was developed for activity coefficient estimation. X-UNIFAC.2 utilizes the standard UNIFAC terms, a Debye-Hückel term, and a virial equation term that represents the middle-range (MR) contribution to activity coefficient effects. A large number (234) of MR parameters are already available from Yan et al. (1999). Six additional MR parameters were optimized here to enable X-UNIFAC.2 to account for interactions between the carboxylic acid group and Na +, Cl -, and Ca 2+. Predictions of PM formation were made for a hypothetical sabinene/O 3 system with varying amounts of NaCl in the PM. Predictions were also made for the chamber experiments with ?-pinene/O 3 (and CaCl 2 seed) carried out by Cocker et al. (2001. The effect of water on gas-particle partitioning of secondary organic aerosol. Part I. ?-pinene/ozone system. Atmospheric Environment 35, 6049-6072); good agreement between the predicted and chamber-measured PM mass concentrations was achieved.

Chang, Elsa I.; Pankow, James F.

377

Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of water content in the subsurface  

SciTech Connect

Previous theoretical and experimental studies indicated that surface nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has the potential to provide cost-effective water content measurements in the subsurface and is a technology ripe for exploitation in practice. The objectives of this investigation are (a) to test the technique under a wide range of hydrogeological conditions and (b) to generalize existing NMR theories in order to correctly model NMR response from conductive ground and to assess properties of the inverse problem. Twenty-four sites with different hydrogeologic settings were selected in New Mexico and Colorado for testing. The greatest limitation of surface NMR technology appears to be the lack of understanding in which manner the NMR signal is influenced by soil-water factors such as pore size distribution, surface-to-volume ratio, paramagnetic ions dissolved in the ground water, and the presence of ferromagnetic minerals. Although the theoretical basis is found to be sound, several advances need to be made to make surface NMR a viable technology for hydrological investigations. There is a research need to investigate, under controlled laboratory conditions, how the complex factors of soil-water systems affect NMR relaxation times.

J. Hendricks; T. Yao; A. Kearns

1999-01-21

378

The Effects of Tidal Export from Salt Marsh Ditches on Estuarine Water Quality and Plankton Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt marshes are an important transition zone between terrestrial and marine ecosystems, and in their natural state, they\\u000a often function to cycle or trap terrestrially derived nutrients and organic matter. Many US salt marshes were ditched during\\u000a the twentieth century, potentially altering their functionality. The goal of this 4-year study was to assess the impact of\\u000a water from ditches within

Florian Koch; Christopher J. Gobler

2009-01-01

379

Intranasal substituted cathinone "bath salts" psychosis potentially exacerbated by diphenhydramine.  

PubMed

In this report, we describe a case of intranasal "bath salts"-associated psychosis. Symptoms developed during a 3-week binge and were potentially exacerbated by oral diphenhydramine taken for insomnia. The clinical case conference includes expert discussion from 3 disciplines: emergency medicine toxicology, behavioral pharmacology, and addiction medicine. It is hoped that the discussion will provide insight into the clinical aspects and challenges of addressing acute substituted cathinone toxicity, including acute psychosis, a major adverse effect of bath salts consumption. PMID:23732955

Gunderson, Erik W; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Willing, Laura M; Holstege, Christopher P

2013-01-01

380

Microfluid as a mean for piezoresistive strain measurement — a mixture of glycerin with salt water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixture of glycerin with salt water is proposed as a mean for piezoresistive strain measurement. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is conducted for the investigation of the electrical conductive behavior of the mixture confined within a definite volume. The role of glycerin is to increase the viscosity of the mixture, to reduce water loss due to evaporation and to lower

Yin-Nee Cheung; Ching-Hsiang Cheng; Chen Chao; King-Lun Kwok; Mo Yang; Samuel Chun-Lap Lo; Wallace Leung

2008-01-01

381

A case of fatal salt water intoxication following an exorcism session  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to a recent article published in this review [1], we present in this paper, an unusual case of fatal salt water intoxication. In this case, we point out three special features, the type of water ingested, the physiopathologic consequences of the ingestion and the very strange context of occurrence. This complex case allows us to point out complications

Valéry Hédouin; Eric Révuelta; Amme Bécart; Gilles Tournel; Marc Deveaux; Didier Gosset

1999-01-01

382

Detection of Alkylaminium Salts in Particulate Matter by Ion Chromatography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smog chamber experiments were conducted to determine how amines react to form particles, specifically amine salts, in the atmosphere. All of the experiments were performed in a smog chamber at University of California Riverside's College of Engineering Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT). A Particle Into Liquid Sampler Ion Chromatograph (PILS-IC) was used to determine the concentration of the amine salts formed during the experiment. It became apparent that the amines (trimethylamine, diethylamine, and butylamine) behave differently in the presence of oxidants. The oxidants used were N2O5 and hydroxyl, both under varying levels of humidity (0 - 40%). By order of decreasing amount, the amines that produced the highest concentration of amine salts were: diethylamine, butylamine, and trimethylamine. It was also discovered that the hydroxyl radical had a higher tendency to oxidize the carbon side chain of the amine, rather than form the salt as in the case of N2O5.

Praske, E.; Lee, S. A.; Tang, X.; Cocker, D. R.; Silva, P. J.; Purvis-Roberts, K. L.

2012-04-01

383

Global evaluation of CCN formation by direct emission of sea salt and growth of ultrafine sea salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of both the sea-salt emissions and specifically the ultrafine (dry Dp < 0.1 ?m) component of these emissions to global CCN was assessed with a global model of aerosol microphysics. Four sea-salt emissions parameterizations were incorporated into the GISS II-prime general circulation model with the size-resolved aerosol microphysics module, TOMAS. The results of the four simulations were compared to observations of monthly average PM10 sea-salt mass, sea-salt mass size distributions, and marine aerosol number distributions. The agreement of the simulations with the observations varied greatly based on the sea-salt emissions parameterization used, but validation of the parameterizations is limited by uncertainty in the model's wind speeds. The impact of sea-salt aerosols on CCN concentrations was assessed by looking at the percent change in CCN(0.2%) concentrations between a simulation including both sea salt and sulfate and a simulation including sulfate alone. Two of the emissions parameterizations included ultrafine sea-salt particles, and the contribution of the ultrafine particles to CCN(0.2%) formation was assessed by sensitivity studies. Depending on the emissions estimate used, the addition of sea salt increased CCN(0.2%) over the Southern Ocean by 150% to 500%. The highest increases resulted from the simulations that included ultrafine emissions where it was found that the ultrafine sea salt can increase CCN(0.2%) concentrations over both the Southern Ocean and Antarctica by more than 50% relative to the same parameterizations with ultrafine sea salt excluded. The sensitivity of CCN(0.2%) to ultrafine sea-salt emissions enhances the importance of reducing the uncertainty of sea-salt emissions parameterizations and their subsequent treatment in aerosol models.

Pierce, Jeffrey R.; Adams, Peter J.

2006-03-01

384

Capacitive deionization coupled with microbial fuel cells to desalinate low-concentration salt water.  

PubMed

A new technology (CDI-MFC) that combined capacitive deionization (CDI) and microbial fuel cell (MFC) was developed to treat low-concentration salt water with NaCl concentration of 60mg/L. The water desalination rate was 35.6mg/(Lh), meanwhile the charge efficiency was 21.8%. Two desorption modes were investigated: discharging (DC) mode and short circuit (SC) mode. The desalination rate in the DC mode was 200.6±3.1mg/(Lh), 47.8% higher than that in the SC mode [135.7±15.3mg/(Lh)]. The average current in the DC mode was also much higher than that of the SC mode. The energy stored in the CDI cell has been reused to enhance the electron production of MFC by the discharging desorption mode (DC mode), which offers an approach to recover the electrostatic energy in the CDI cell. PMID:22364771

Yuan, Lulu; Yang, Xufei; Liang, Peng; Wang, Lei; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Wei, Jincheng; Huang, Xia

2012-04-01

385

Does road salting induce or ameliorate DOC mobilisation from roadside soils to surface waters in the long term?  

PubMed

Soils down slope of roads have been affected over decades by road salting in the UK uplands. Salt additions to fresh soil facilitate dispersal of organic matter so there is a potential risk of release of DON and DOC to nearby rivers where these run parallel to roads. Over time, however, salting enhances soil pH of naturally acid soils, and thus organic matter degradation through to CO2, thereby, lowering soil organic matter content. In addition any relatively labile organic matter may have already been dispersed. Thus, it is hypothesised that enhanced DOC mobilisation should only be a potential problem if soils not previously exposed to salt become heavily exposed in the future. This paper combines data from field observations and laboratory simulations to elucidate mechanisms controlling organic matter mobilisation processes to determine what controls spatial and temporal trends in DOC concentrations in soil solutions down slope of roads. Organic matter solubilisation is dependent on the degree of road salt exposure soils have had. The laboratory experiment provided evidence that there are two competing effects upon which solubilisation is dependent (a) pH suppression and (b) sodium dispersion. Other organic matter solubility models, if correct, link quite well with the authors "when it's gone, it's gone" hypothesis. PMID:18566904

Green, Sophie M; Machin, Robert; Cresser, Malcolm S

2009-06-01

386

Acid generation upon thermal concentration of natural water: The critical water content and the effects of ionic composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal evaporation of a variety of simulated pore waters from the region of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, produced acidic liquids and gases during the final stages of evaporation. Several simulated pore waters were prepared and then thermally distilled in order to collect and analyze fractions of the evolved vapor. In some cases, distillates collected towards the end of the distillation were highly acidic; in other cases the pH of the distillate remained comparatively unchanged during the course of the distillation. The results suggest that the pH values of the later fractions are determined by the initial composition of the water. Acid production stems from the hydrolysis of magnesium ions, especially at near dryness. Near the end of the distillation, magnesium nitrate and magnesium chloride begin to lose water of hydration, greatly accelerating their thermal decomposition to form acid. Acid formation is promoted further when precipitated calcium carbonate is removed. Specifically, calcium chloride-rich pore waters containing moderate (10-20 ppm) levels of magnesium and nitrate and low levels of bicarbonate produced mixtures of nitric and hydrochloric acid, resulting in a precipitous drop in pH to values of 1 or lower after about 95% of the original volume was distilled. Waters with either l