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Prediction of salt and water content in dry-cured hams by computed tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of computed tomography (CT) in meat science is based on the different X-ray attenuations that tissues of different density produce. Processed data generate images (tomograms) where different biological structures may be distinguished. CT is of special interest for the study of the meat curing processes since a high density of salt ions produce a marked increase of CT attenuation

E. Fulladosa; E. Santos-Garcés; P. Picouet; P. Gou



Aerosol thermodynamics of potassium salts, double salts, and water content near the eutectic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water uptake by hygroscopic constituents of atmospheric particles has implications for climate and health. This article focuses on three topics related to calculating particle water uptake. First, an electrodynamic balance (EDB) is used to measure water activity for supersaturated binary KNO 3 and KCl solutions. The EDB measurements for KNO 3 confirm earlier predictions, while those for KCl confirm earlier measurements. Second, our earlier theory for the variation in mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) with temperature ( T) is extended to double salt systems. The MDRH( T) equation for double salt systems reduces to the earlier equation under some conditions, and predictions for two systems are in reasonable agreement with solubility-based calculations. Finally, an approximate treatment of water uptake in the MDRH region (i.e., near the eutectic) is evaluated, and a new approach is developed that accounts for particle composition. The new approach represents predictions of a benchmark model well and eliminates most of the error associated with the earlier method. Although simple treatments of water uptake near the eutectic may introduce error into equilibrium calculations, their use can sometimes be justified based on inherent limitations of aerosol representations in chemistry-transport models. Results of this study can be used to improve calculations of water content in atmospheric aerosol models.

Kelly, James T.; Wexler, Anthony S.; Chan, Chak K.; Chan, Man N.


Salt uptake and water loss in hams with different water contents at the lean surface and at different salting temperatures.  


The salt uptake homogeneity is crucial in assuring quality in dry-cured hams. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the water contents at the lean surface before salting and of the temperature during salting on the salt uptake. Pieces of loin stored at 3°C for 3days before salting absorbed less salt through a surface that has been dried during storage. A group of raw hams were subjected to different pre-salting storage times (0, 3 and 6days) and another group subjected to different set room temperatures during salting (-1.0, 0.5 and 4.0°C). The duration of storage before salting and the temperature during salting had a negative and a positive effect on the average salt absorption, respectively. The most important effects appeared after 6days of storage and at 4°C. No significant differences in salt uptake homogeneity were found between storage times and between salting temperatures. PMID:23896138

Garcia-Gil, Núria; Muñoz, Israel; Santos-Garcés, Eva; Arnau, Jacint; Gou, Pere



Salt Water Desalination by the Freezing Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Investigations of the most important units of the new method of salt water desalination by artificial freezing with the help of liquid hydrocarbons (propane-butane mixture) were conducted. Investigation of contact heat transfer processes indicates that th...

I. M. Rutgaizer S. Seitkurbanov V. I. Petrov



Salt Content and Water Budget of The Suez Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water body in the Suez Canal is a combination of waters from differ- ent sources. Hence, its exact hydrographic structure is very difficult to define. Three main water masses are identified along the Canal on account of their salinity values: Levantine water mass I, the Suez Bay water mass II, and the Bitter Lake water mass IV, in addition




Effects of Salt Concentration Changes During Freezing on the Unfrozen Water Content of Porous Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

By combining equations for salt concentration by water removal from porous bodies with those for freezing point depression in normal solutions, equations are developed for calculating freezing point depression shifts due to the gradual removal of water upon freezing in porous bodies. The same equations can be used for the calculation of shifts in the osmotic potential of the water

Amos Banin; Duwayne M. Anderson



Frozen Salt Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students will investigate what happens to salt water when it freezes. Observations of densities and salt concentration (by measuring conductivity) will be made. These results will be compared with the densities and conductivity conditions found in sea ice cores (columns of frozen sea water taken from the ocean around Antarctica).

Amati Jr., Peter


Laboratory testing of salt samples for water content/loss of weight on heating, thermal fracture, insoluble residue, and clay and bulk mineralogy: Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of laboratory testing on salt samples from the Palo Duro Basin of the Texas Panhandle. Laboratory specimens were tested to determine water content by loss of weight on heating, temperature of thermal fracture, the amount of insoluble residue, and clay and bulk mineralogy. 7 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

Owen, L.B.; Schwendiman, L.



Determination of water content in natural zeolites by reflection method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water content in natural zeolites collected from different site places in Cuba has been determined by neutron reflection method. Results show that it is possible to separate the minerals abundant in zeolite from the surrounding barren rocks. Water content...

L. P. Sarria V. Desdin Garcia V. Freixas Lemus O. Dominguez Ley G. Csikai



Impact of the heat and salt content in the Atlantic on the Western Mediterranean Deep Water masses formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean region is an unique semi-enclosed basin where deep water masses form in the Northwestern basin. Atlantic waters (AW) enters the Mediterranean basin through the strait of Gibraltar with a low salinity and relatively warm water. They are coming from the upper Atlantic ocean and compose the upper layer of water through the strait of Gibraltar. A newly state of the art region climate system model (RCSM) has been developed for the MED-CORDEX initiative and is composed of an atmospheric model: Aladin (50kms), of a Mediterranean sea model: NEMO-MED8 (10 kms) and river routine model: TRIP (50 kms). This RCSM is used to investigate the impact of warm and/or salty Atlantic water entering the Mediterranean sea and their impacts on the Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW) masses formation are examined. A control simulation performed over the period 1990-2008 uses interannual and realistic the near Atlantic water masses to force the Mediterranean sea model. This simulation reproduces correctly the Mediterranean heat and salt content as well as the WMDW mass formation and the associated convective events. In parallel, sensitivity simulations with a constant climatology for the heat and salt content in the near Atlantic are then performed to assess their respective contributions on the WMDW formation. We found that upper heat content anomalies are quickly damped through an increase in latent heat loss, whereas surface salt anomalies are propagating into the Mediterranean basin. The impact on the boyancy loss is very weak, but the stratification in the Northwestern basin is changed in the sensitivity simulation. Thus anomalies in the Atlantic water masses are thus able to influence the WMDW formation processes.

Dubois, C.; Sevault, F.; Somot, S.



Imaging artificial salt water infiltration using electrical resistivity tomography constrained by geostatistical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

? Surface electrical resistivity tomography to image salt water infiltration. ? Borehole-derived variogram used as inversion constraints. ? Significant improvement compared to standard smoothness-constrained imaging. ? Plume scale imaging (200 m). ? Validated results and more reliable TDS content estimates.

Hermans, Thomas; Vandenbohede, Alexander; Lebbe, Luc; Martin, Roland; Kemna, Andreas; Beaujean, Jean; Nguyen, Frederic



Determination of salt content in various depth of pork chop by electrical impedance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The salt concentration was determined inside of pork chop both by electrical impedance spectroscopy and by a conventional chemical method (according to Mohr). The pork chop in various depths (4 mm, 10 mm, 20 mm and 25 mm) was punctured with two stainless steel electrodes. The length of electrodes was 60 mm, and they were insulated along the length except 1 cm section on the end, so the measurement of impedance was realized in various depths. The magnitude and phase angle of impedance were measured with a HP 4284A and a HP 4285A LCR meters from 30 Hz up to 1 MHz and from 75 kHz up to 30 MHz frequency range, respectively at 1 V voltage. The distance between the electrodes was 1 cm. The impedance magnitude decreased as the salt concentration increased. The magnitude of open-short corrected impedance values at various frequencies (10 kHz, 100 kHz, 125 kHz, 1.1 MHz and 8 MHz) showed a good correlation with salt content determined by chemical procedure. The electrical impedance spectroscopy seems a prospective method for determination the salt concentration inside the meat in various depths during the curing procedure.

Kaltenecker, P.; Szöllösi, D.; Friedrich, L.; Vozáry, E.



Determining salt concentrations for equivalent water activity in reduced-sodium cheese by use of a model system.  


The range of sodium chloride (salt)-to-moisture ratio is critical in producing high-quality cheese products. The salt-to-moisture ratio has numerous effects on cheese quality, including controlling water activity (a(w)). Therefore, when attempting to decrease the sodium content of natural cheese it is important to calculate the amount of replacement salts necessary to create the same a(w) as the full-sodium target (when using the same cheese making procedure). Most attempts to decrease sodium using replacement salts have used concentrations too low to create the equivalent a(w) due to the differences in the molecular weight of the replacers compared with salt. This could be because of the desire to minimize off-flavors inherent in the replacement salts, but it complicates the ability to conclude that the replacement salts are the cause of off-flavors such as bitter. The objective of this study was to develop a model system that could be used to measure a(w) directly, without manufacturing cheese, to allow cheese makers to determine the salt and salt replacer concentrations needed to achieve the equivalent a(w) for their existing full-sodium control formulas. All-purpose flour, salt, and salt replacers (potassium chloride, modified potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, and calcium chloride) were blended with butter and water at concentrations that approximated the solids, fat, and moisture contents of typical Cheddar cheese. Salt and salt replacers were applied to the model systems at concentrations predicted by Raoult's law. The a(w) of the model samples was measured on a water activity meter, and concentrations were adjusted using Raoult's law if they differed from those of the full-sodium model. Based on the results determined using the model system, stirred-curd pilot-scale batches of reduced- and full-sodium Cheddar cheese were manufactured in duplicate. Water activity, pH, and gross composition were measured and evaluated statistically by linear mixed model. The model system method accurately determined the concentrations of salt and salt replacer necessary to achieve the same a(w) as the full-sodium control in pilot-scale cheese using different replacement salts. PMID:21854908

Grummer, J; Schoenfuss, T C



Tissue water content in rats measured by desiccation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue water content was determined by desiccation to constant weight at 40°–50°C in 14 tissues from two groups of rats weighing 200–250 and 270–430 g, respectively. The water content (mean ± SE; ml\\/g) was highest in testes (0.861 ± 0.002) and lowest in adipose (0.183 ± 0.017) followed by bone (0.446 ± 0.017) and skin (0.651 ± 0.007). The average

Raquel F. Reinoso; Brian A. Telfer; Malcolm Rowland



Cloud Liquid Water and Ice Content Retrieval by Multiwavelength Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud liquid water and ice content retrieval in precipitating clouds by the differential attenuation method using a dual-wavelength radar, as a function of the wavelength pair, is first discussed. In the presence of non- Rayleigh scatterers, drizzle, or large ice crystals, an ambiguity appears between attenuation and non-Rayleigh scattering. The liquid water estimate is thus biased regardless of which pair

Nicolas Gaussiat; Henri Sauvageot; Anthony J. Illingworth



Body Weight, Carcass Yield, and Intestinal Contents of Broilers Having Sodium and Potassium Salts in the Drinking Water Twenty-Four Hours Before Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of drinking water supplementation with graded increases of Na and K salts on the performance and gut contents of broilers before processing. Birds had no water, tap water, or water supplemented with sodium bicarbonate or potassium chloride in the concentrations of 0.15, 0.30, and 0.45% in the last 12

H. A. Gomes; S. L. Vieira; R. N. Reis; D. M. Freitas; R. Barros; F. V. F. Furtado; P. X. Silva



Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by water and heavy water in the 400-750 nm spectral range  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by liquid water (H2O) and heavy water (D2O) were determined using a hyperspectral absorption and attenuation meter (WET Labs, AC-S). Sodium chloride (NaCl) was used as a proxy for seawater salts. There was no significant temperature (PsiT) or salt (PsiS) dependency of absorption at wavelengths 550 nm, PsiT exhibited peaks at ˜604, 662,

James M. Sullivan; Michael S. Twardowski; J. Ronald V. Zaneveld; Casey M. Moore; Andrew H. Barnard; Percy L. Donaghay; Bruce Rhoades



Salt-Formation by Progressive Evaporation of Brine Waters in the Endurance Crater Basin at Meridiani  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sulfate/chloride vs. Cl and chloride/bromide vs. Br relationships in the salt-assemblages on Meridiani (RAT) rock-rinds indicate that these salts likely formed by progressive evaporative concentration of brine waters filling the Endurance Crater basin

Rao, M. N.; Nyquist, L. E.; Wentworth, S. J.; Garrison, D. H.; Herrin, J. S.



Removal of sea salt hydrate water from seawater-derived samples by dehydration.  


Aerosol particles produced from bubble bursting of natural seawater contain both sea salts and organic components. Depending on the temperature, pressure, and speed of drying, the salt components can form hydrates that bind water, slowing evaporation of the water, particularly if large particles or thick layers of salts undergo drying that is nonuniform and incomplete. The water bound in these salt hydrates interferes with measuring organic hydroxyl and amine functional groups by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy because it absorbs at the same infrared wavelengths. Here, a method for separating the hydrate water in sea salt hydrates using freezing and then heating in warm, dry air (70 °C) is evaluated and compared to other methods, including spectral subtraction. Laboratory-generated sea salt analogs show an efficient removal of 89% of the hydrate water absorption peak height by 24 h of heating at atmospheric pressure. The heating method was also applied to bubbled submicrometer (Sea Sweep), generated bulk (Bubbler), and atomized seawater samples, with efficient removal of 5, 22, and 39 ?g of hydrate water from samples of initial masses of 11, 30, 58 ?g, respectively. The strong spectral similarity between the difference of the initial and dehydrated spectra and the laboratory-generated sea salt hydrate spectrum provided verification of the removal of hydrate water. In contrast, samples of submicrometer atmospheric particles from marine air masses did not have detectable signatures of sea salt hydrate absorbance, likely because their smaller particles and lower filter loadings provided higher surface area to volume ratios and allowed faster and more complete drying. PMID:23181806

Frossard, Amanda A; Russell, Lynn M



Determining salt concentrations for equivalent water activity in reduced-sodium cheese by use of a model system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The range of sodium chloride (salt)-to-moisture ratio is critical in producing high-quality cheese products. The salt-to-moisture ratio has numerous effects on cheese quality, including controlling water activity (aw). Therefore, when attempting to decrease the sodium content of natural cheese it is important to calculate the amount of replacement salts necessary to create the same aw as the full-sodium target (when

J. Grummer; T. C. Schoenfuss



Effect of road deicing salt on the susceptibility of amphibian embryos to infection by water molds.  


Some causative agents of amphibian declines act synergistically to impact individual amphibians and their populations. In particular, pathogenic water molds (aquatic oomycetes) interact with environmental stressors and increase mortality in amphibian embryos. We documented colonization of eggs of three amphibian species, the wood frog (Rana sylvatica), the green frog (Rana clamitans), and the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum), by water molds in the field and examined the interactive effects of road deicing salt and water molds, two known sources of mortality for amphibian embryos, on two species, R. clamitans and A. maculatum in the laboratory. We found that exposure to water molds did not affect embryonic survivorship in either A. maculatum or R. clamitans, regardless of the concentration of road salt to which their eggs were exposed. Road salt decreased survivorship of A. maculatum, but not R. clamitans, and frequency of malformations increased significantly in both species at the highest salinity concentration. The lack of an effect of water molds on survival of embryos and no interaction between road salt and water molds indicates that observations of colonization of these eggs by water molds in the field probably represent a secondary invasion of unfertilized eggs or of embryos that had died of other causes. Given increasing salinization of freshwater habitats on several continents and the global distribution of water molds, our results suggest that some amphibian species may not be susceptible to the combined effects of these factors, permitting amphibian decline researchers to devote their attention to other potential causes. PMID:18976747

Karraker, Nancy E; Ruthig, Gregory R



Clear salt water versus clear pure water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A controlled experiment allows an investigator to conduct the experiment by changing only one single factor while keeping all other variables constant. The factor that was changed in this experiment, called the independent variable, was the type of water used: pure water or salt water.

Nancy Pelaez (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)



Salt content impacts food preferences and intake among children.  


Decreasing dietary sodium intake, which can be achieved by reducing salt content in food, is recommended. Salt contributes to the taste of foods and makes them more enjoyable. Whether a food is liked or disliked is an important determinant of food intake, especially among children. However, the role of salt in children's food acceptance has received little attention. The impact of salt content on children's hedonic rating and intake of two foods was investigated in children. Using a within-subject crossover design, we recruited 75 children (8-11 years) to participate in five lunches in their school cafeteria. The target foods were green beans and pasta. The added salt content was 0, 0.6 or 1.2 g/100 g. The children's intake (g) of all lunch items was measured. The children provided their hedonic rating of the food, a preference ranking and a saltiness ranking in the laboratory. Children could rank the foods according to salt content, and they preferred the two saltier options. A food-specific effect of salt content on intake was observed. Compared to the intermediate level (0.6 g salt/100 g), not adding salt decreased green bean intake (-21%; p?=?0.002), and increasing the salt content increased pasta intake (+24%; p<0.0001). Structural Equation Modeling was used to model the relative weights of the determinants of intake. It showed that the primary driver of food intake was the child's hunger; the second most important factor was the child's hedonic rating of the food, regardless of its salt content, and the last factor was the child's preference for the particular salt content of the food. In conclusion, salt content has a positive and food-specific effect on intake; it impacted food preferences and intake differently in children. Taking into account children's preferences for salt instead of their intake may lead to excessive added salt. PMID:23342052

Bouhlal, Sofia; Chabanet, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Nicklaus, Sophie



Salt Content Impacts Food Preferences and Intake among Children  

PubMed Central

Decreasing dietary sodium intake, which can be achieved by reducing salt content in food, is recommended. Salt contributes to the taste of foods and makes them more enjoyable. Whether a food is liked or disliked is an important determinant of food intake, especially among children. However, the role of salt in children's food acceptance has received little attention. The impact of salt content on children's hedonic rating and intake of two foods was investigated in children. Using a within-subject crossover design, we recruited 75 children (8–11 years) to participate in five lunches in their school cafeteria. The target foods were green beans and pasta. The added salt content was 0, 0.6 or 1.2 g/100 g. The children's intake (g) of all lunch items was measured. The children provided their hedonic rating of the food, a preference ranking and a saltiness ranking in the laboratory. Children could rank the foods according to salt content, and they preferred the two saltier options. A food-specific effect of salt content on intake was observed. Compared to the intermediate level (0.6 g salt/100 g), not adding salt decreased green bean intake (?21%; p?=?0.002), and increasing the salt content increased pasta intake (+24%; p<0.0001). Structural Equation Modeling was used to model the relative weights of the determinants of intake. It showed that the primary driver of food intake was the child's hunger; the second most important factor was the child's hedonic rating of the food, regardless of its salt content, and the last factor was the child's preference for the particular salt content of the food. In conclusion, salt content has a positive and food-specific effect on intake; it impacted food preferences and intake differently in children. Taking into account children's preferences for salt instead of their intake may lead to excessive added salt.

Bouhlal, Sofia; Chabanet, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Nicklaus, Sophie



Effect of water and salt stresses on growth, chlorophyll, mineral ions and organic solutes contents, and enzymes activity in mung bean seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment was made by using different concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG) or salt solutions to decrease the osmotic\\u000a potential of the growth medium to reveal the response of mung bean (Vigna radiata) to water and salt stresses. No germination\\u000a (emergence of the seedling) occurred at medium osmotic potential lower than -1.0 MPa in all treatments. It was found that

M. A. Zayed; I. M. Zeid



The detection of water-wetting in salt-rock by impedance measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical impedance measurement is shown to detect water-wetting in salt at elevated temperature and pressure. The critical wetting temperature (and pressure) is detected by a characteristic fall of in-phase resistivity. Wetting temperatures and pressures obtained by this method are (i) in close agreement with static capsule wetting studies and (ii) sufficiently low to be of concern if nuclear waste is

Alasdair D. L. Skelton; Stephen C. Elphick



Consolidation and volumetric soil-water content of salt marsh soils following habitat modification for mosquito control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The runnelling form of habitat modification for mosquito control in saltmarsh increases tidal frequency, and may affect soil properties such as volumetric soil-water content and consolidation. The effects of habitat modification on soil properties are in turn likely to affect ecological processes. Runnels constructed mechanically to a depth of no more than 0.3 m with smooth, spoon shaped edges linked

M. J. Breitfuss; R. M. Connolly



Determination of small quantities of heavy metals in water-soluble salts and natural water by X-ray fluorescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques for X-ray fluorescence (XRF) determination of heavy metals in natural waters and pure salts combined with preconcentration, are proposed. In these techniques, concentrates are small quantities of aqueous phase. Preconcentration of the said impurities was carried out either by extraction of their carbamate complexes with subsequent re-extraction of these elements in an aqueous phase or by directed crystallisation of

L. P Eksperiandova; Y. N Makarovska; A. B Blank



Effect of Salt Stress on Relative Water Content, Lipid Peroxidation, Polyamines, Amino Acids and Ethylene of Two Wheat Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of two wheat cultivars, Giza 168 and Gimeza 9, to NaCl stress (0-14 dSm-1) was investigated. Changes in relative water content (RWC), polyamines (putrescine, PUT; Sepermidine, Spd; Spermine, Spm), amino acids, ethylene and lipid peroxidation were determined in both cultivars in absence and presence of NaCl. NaCl stress reduced the RWC in both cultivars, the reduction was more



Temporal changes of flavour and texture in cooked bologna type sausages as affected by fat and salt content.  


Temporal changes of flavour (mushroom-like and saltiness) and texture (juiciness) in cooked bologna type sausages with different fat and salt content and containing selected volatile compounds (100 mg kg(-1) of 1-octen-3-ol and 200 mg kg(-1) of 2,6-dimethylpyrazine) were evaluated using time-intensity (TI) method. Preceding the TI study, descriptive profiles of sausages were determined. Release of volatiles was analysed by solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) and an instrumental texture analysis was also performed. Chromatographic results obtained for 1-octen-3-ol were strongly correlated with the intensity perception of the linked odour and flavour (mushroom). Modifications of sausages matrix in terms of fat and salt content differently affected the dynamic perception of mushroom flavour, saltiness and juiciness. NaCl contributed to increasing release of 1-octen-3-ol (salting-out effect) confirmed by SPME analysis as well as the intensity and duration of the related flavour (mushroom) evaluated by TI. Similarly, NaCl increased the temporal perception of both saltines and juiciness of sausages. Increase in fat content led to a higher retention of 1-octen-3-ol (lipophilic compound) and thus to a less intense and shorter duration of mushroom flavour. Moreover, fat contributed to a more intense and a longer juiciness of sausages. These results highlight the feasibility of TI technique to evaluate changes in the temporal flavour and texture perception of sausages caused by modification of matrix composition. PMID:20416801

Ventanas, Sonia; Puolanne, Eero; Tuorila, Hely



Stability of Iodine Content in Iodized Salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodization of consumed salts is mandatory in many countries fighting against to iodine deficiency. In salts iodine stability is affected by storage conditions. In this study, stabilization of iodine in salt has been determined by using Isotope Dilution Analysis. Heating, heating with oxidizing agent, incubation by time were the parameters which have been determined. Iodine loss was 41.16% by heating

F. Z. Biber; P. Ünak; F. Yurt



Salt, Water, and Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Good nutrition for athletes demands plenty of water, since water is essential to such vital functions as muscle reactions. Dehydration can result from jet travel as well as from exercise and heat, making it a danger to traveling athletic teams. To avoid dehydration, water needs should be monitored by frequent weighing, and a clean water supply…

Smith, Nathan J.


Salt, Water, and Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Good nutrition for athletes demands plenty of water, since water is essential to such vital functions as muscle reactions. Dehydration can result from jet travel as well as from exercise and heat, making it a danger to traveling athletic teams. To avoid dehydration, water needs should be monitored by frequent weighing, and a clean water supply…

Smith, Nathan J.


Mobility of Pb in salt marshes recorded by total content and stable isotopic signature.  


Total lead and its stable isotopes were analysed in sediment cores, leaves, stem and roots of Sacorconia fruticosa and Spartina maritima sampled from Tagus (contaminated site) and Guadiana (low anthropogenic pressure) salt marshes. Lead concentration in vegetated sediments from the Tagus marsh largely exceeded the levels in non-vegetated sediments. Depth profiles of (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (206)Pb/(208)Pb showed a decrease towards the surface ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.160-1.167) as a result of a higher proportion of pollutant Pb components. In contrast, sediments from Guadiana marsh exhibited low Pb concentrations and an uniform isotopic signature ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.172+/-0.003) with depth. This suggests a homogeneous mixing of mine-derived particles and pre-industrial sediments with minor inputs of anthropogenic Pb. Lead concentrations in roots of plants from the two marshes were higher than in leaves and stems, indicating limited transfer of Pb to aerial parts. A similar Pb isotopic signature was found in roots and in vegetated sediments, indicating that Pb uptake by plants reflects the input in sediments as determined by a significant anthropogenic contribution of Pb at Tagus and by mineralogical Pb phases at Guadiana. The accumulation in roots from Tagus marsh (max. 2870 microg g(-1) in S. fruticosa and max. 1755 microg g(-1) in S. maritima) clearly points to the dominant role of belowground biomass in the cycling of anthropogenic Pb. The fraction of anthropogenic Pb in belowground biomass was estimated based on the signature of anthropogenic Pb components in sediments ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.154). Since no differences exist between Pb signature in roots and upper sediments, the background and anthropogenic levels of Pb in roots were estimated. Interestingly, both background and anthropogenic Pb in roots exhibited a maximum at the same depth, although the proportion of anthropogenic Pb was relatively constant with depth (83+/-4% for S. fruticosa and 74+/-8% for S. maritima). PMID:17320933

Caetano, Miguel; Fonseca, Nuno; Cesário Carlos Vale, Rute



Water determination in products with high sugar content by infrared drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instead of measuring the real water content, very often drying mass loss is determined. Not only water contributes to this mass loss, but all volatile materials under the applied drying conditions. On the other hand, very tightly bound water may elude detection. The mass loss by drying does therefore not necessarily correspond to the water content of the sample. To

Heinz-Dieter Isengard; Heidrun Präger



Production of tyramine by Enterococcus faecalis strains in water-boiled salted duck.  


The potential to produce biogenic amines was investigated with 15 Lactococcus lactis and 15 Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from water-boiled salted duck. The production of biogenic amines from the isolated strains grown in de Man Rogosa Sharpe broth containing precursor amino acids was determined by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. None of the L. lactis strains produced any biogenic amines, whereas 12 strains of E. faecalis produced tyramine and b -phenylethylamine. PCR assays were used to detect the presence of tyrosine decarboxylase genes in all of the isolated strains. Only the 12 biogenic amine-producing Enterococcus strains had a 924-bp fragment characteristic for the tyrosine decarboxylase gene. The comparison of the amplified partial tyrDC gene sequences of the 12 positive Enterococcus strains revealed 99% similarity within the same species. The tyramine production of the sterilized water-boiled salted duck inoculated with E. faecalis R612Z1 increased significantly during storage. This study reveals that the isolated E. faecalis strains can produce tyramine and ?-phenylethylamine in the medium; however, they can only produce tyramine in water-boiled salted duck. PMID:23643128

Liu, Fang; Du, Lihui; Xu, Weiyan; Wang, Daoying; Zhang, Muhan; Zhu, Yongzhi; Xu, Weimin



Separation of inorganic salts from supercritical water by cross-flow microfiltration  

SciTech Connect

A cross-flow microfilter capable of operating at elevated temperatures and pressures was evaluated for its ability to remove inorganic salts from supercritical water (SCW). The separation characteristics of molten sodium nitrate were investigated. The overall performance of the cross-flow microfilter and the effects of process variables on the separation efficiency were evaluated. Separation efficiencies up to 85% were observed. An empirical model was developed for the prediction of the filtrate salt concentration and the fluidized cake resistance as a function of the salt solubility and salt flux to the filter. Physical principles governing the separation process were defined.

Goemans, M.G.E.; Li, L.; Gloyna, E.F. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)



Distill Salt Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, conduct an experiment to make freshwater out of saltwater. First, make saltwater and then seal it and place it in the Sun for a couple of hours or even a whole day. This solar still will distill, or purify, the water. Use this activity to explore water purification and evaporation. This activity guide includes a step-by-step instructional video.

Center, Saint L.



Quantifying water and salt fluxes in a lowland polder catchment dominated by boil seepage: a probabilistic end-member mixing approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upward saline groundwater seepage is leading to surface water salinization of low-lying polders in the Netherlands. Identifying measures to reduce the salt content requires a thorough understanding and quantification of the dominant sources water and salt on a daily basis. However, as in most balance studies, there are large uncertainties about the contribution of groundwater seepage. Taking these into account,

P. G. B. de Louw; Y. van der Velde; S. E. A. T. M. van der Zee



Quantifying water and salt fluxes in a lowland polder catchment dominated by boil seepage: a probabilistic end-member mixing approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upward saline groundwater seepage is leading to surface water salinization of deep lying polders in the Netherlands. Identifying measures to reduce the salt content requires a thorough understanding and quantification of the dominant sources of water and salt on a daily basis. However, as in most balance studies, there are large uncertainties in the contribution from groundwater seepage. Taking these

P. G. B. de Louw; Y. van der Velde; S. E. A. T. M. van der Zee



Influence of temperature on soil water content measured by ECH2O-TE sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of temperature on water content value measured by ECH2O-TE sensors. The influence of temperature on measured soil water content values was clearly demonstrated. Soil water content values measured during the day apparently oscillated with oscillating soil temperatures. Average daily temperature and soil water content were calculated for selected periods. Regression relationships between deviations of soil temperature and soil water content from their daily average values were evaluated. Correlation between the soil water content and temperature deviations increase with the soil depth due to the lower influence of rainfall and evaporation at the soil surface on measured soil water content values in deeper soil layers eg soil water content oscillation was controlled mostly by oscillating temperature. The guideline values of linear regression equations (R2>0.8) were very similar, close to value 0.002 and the intercept values were equal to zero. The equation for recalculation of measured soil water content values at given temperature to reference soil water content for reference soil temperature, was propozed on the basis of this analysis.

Ko?árek, M.; Kodešová, R.



[Development of salt concentrates for mineralization of recycled water aboard the space station].  


Recycled water can be brought up to the potable grade by adding minimal quantities of three soluble concentrates with the maximal content of inorganic salts. The authors present results of 3-year storage of potable water mineralized with makeup concentrates and analysis of potable water prepared with the use of the salt concentrates stored over this period of time. A water mineralization unit has been designed based on the principle of cyclic duty to produce physiologically healthy potable water with a preset salt content. PMID:17193977

Skliar, E F; Amiragov, M S; Bobe, L S; Gavrilov, L I; Kurochkin, M G; Solntseva, D P; Krasnov, M S; Skuratov, V M


Changes in glycine betaine and related enzyme contents in Amaranthus tricolor under salt stress.  


The glycine betaine (GB) and related enzymes contents, i.e., choline monooxygenase (CMO) and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH), of seeds, roots, stems, cotyledons, leaves, and flowers in Amaranthus tricolor under salt stress were determined. GB content varied significantly among different organs. GB content in the leaves was higher at the beginning of unfolding stage and decreased during maturation and senescence. GB content in the roots was very low through the life of plant. GB content in the roots, stems, leaves and flowers increased by exposure to NaCl 300 mmol/L, except in the cotyledon where it was low and remained unchanged under salt stress. Induction of GB increase by salt stress was greater in mature and old leaves than in younger leaves. CMO protein content was low in the all organs, but that in stems and leaves was significantly increased by the addition of NaCl 300 mmol/L, and was concomitant with the accumulation of GB in their tissues. BADH protein was detected in all organs. But, the levels of BADH protein did not always vary among different organs as a result of salt stress. The effect of salt stress on BADH protein content was small and in consistent in mature and old leaves. Seeds after being soaked in water for 24 h were unable to synthesize GB. When the seeds started to germinate after being in water for 48 h, they showed an ability to synthesize GB under salt stress. This was accompanied with an increase in their CMO protein content, whereas their BADH protein level did not change. The present results indicate that CMO protein is important to GB synthesis when A. tricolor is under salt stress. PMID:15627702

Wang, Yu-Mei; Meng, Yu-Ling; Nii, Naosuke



Water dynamics and salt-activation of enzymes in organic media: Mechanistic implications revealed by NMR spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Deuterium spin relaxation was used to examine the motion of enzyme-bound water on subtilisin Carlsberg colyophilized with inorganic salts for activation in different organic solvents. Spectral editing was used to ensure that the relaxation times were associated with relatively mobile deuterons, which were contributed almost entirely by D2O rather than hydrogen–deuteron exchange on the protein. The results indicate that the timescale of motion for residual water molecules on the biocatalyst, (?c)D2O, in hexane decreased from 65 ns (salt-free) to 0.58 ns (98% CsF) as (kcat/KM)app of the biocatalyst preparation increased from 0.092 s?1·M?1 (salt-free) to 1,140 s?1·M?1 (98% CsF). A similar effect was apparent in acetone; the timescale decreased from 24 ns (salt-free) to 2.87 ns (98% KF), with a corresponding increase in (kcat/KM)app of 0.140 s?1·M?1 (salt-free) to 12.8 s?1·M?1 (98% KF). Although a global correlation between water mobility and enzyme activity was not evident, linear correlations between ln[(kcat/KM)app] and (?c)D2O were obtained for salt-activated enzyme preparations in both hexane and acetone. Furthermore, a direct correlation was evident between (kcat/KM)app and the total amount of mobile water per mass of enzyme. These results suggest that increases in enzyme-bound water mobility mediated by the presence of salt act as a molecular lubricant and enhance enzyme flexibility in a manner functionally similar to temperature. Greater flexibility may permit a larger degree of local transition-state mobility, reflected by a more positive entropy of activation, for the salt-activated enzyme compared with the salt-free enzyme. This increased mobility may contribute to the dramatic increases in biocatalyst activity.

Eppler, Ross K.; Komor, Russell S.; Huynh, Joyce; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Reimer, Jeffrey A.; Clark, Douglas S.



Surface and ground water quality in a restored urban stream affected by road salts  

EPA Science Inventory

In 2001 research began in Minebank Run, MD to examine the impact of restoration on water quality. Our research area was to determine if road salts in the surface and ground waters are detrimental to the stream channel restoration. The upstream reach (UP), above the Baltimore I-...


Salt Water Revival  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners visit the intertidal zone of a rocky coastal site well populated with marine organisms. During a low tide, when many organisms are not covered by water, learners create "waves" and a false "high tide" to trigger animals into action such as opening up their shells or pushing out feathery food-catching extensions.

Science, Lawrence H.



Heavy Metal Contents of Vegetables Irrigated by Sewage\\/Tubewell Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study was conducted to find the effect of sewage\\/tube well water irrigation on the accumulated concentration of heavy metal contents in okra fruit and spinach leaves. Three adjacent fields were selected for each crop and separately irrigated by sewage water, tube well water and mixture of sewage and tube well water. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and spinach (Spinacea oleracea)



Effect of Chloramphenicol on the Uptake of Salts and Water by Intact Castor Oil Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE antibiotic chloramphenicol has been found to inhibit accumulation of salt by slices of red beet tissue and carrot tissue without significantly affecting respiration1. This supports the hypothesis that the mechanism of salt uptake is closely related to protein synthesis put forward by Steward and Millar2, as chloramphenicol is a specific inhibitor of protein synthesis.

D. J. F. Bowling



Patterns of three-liquid-phase behavior illustated by alcohol-hydrocarbon-water-salt mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten salts were each dissolved in water and the solutions mixed with equal volumes of one of six hydrocarbons and one of ten monohydric alcohols. The resulting multiphase mixtures were examined for the number of coexisting liquid phases and, in some cases, for the partitioning of alcohol among them. Several unusual patterns of phase behavior have been observed. For example,

B. M. Knickerbocker; C. V. Pesheck; H. T. Davis; L. E. Scriven



Evaluating Surface-Soil Water Content by Measuring Reflectance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water's property to absorb certain wavelengths in the near infrared was the basis for developing a reflectometer to measure reflectance of near-infrared radiation from a soil surface. The reflectometer's essential elements include: source of infrared radiation, optical system, integrating sphere, detector, light chopper, amplifier, and meter system. The radiation from an incandescent lamp was filtered with narrow-band pass filter, chopped




Thermal properties of ration components as affected by moisture content and water activity during freezing.  


Beef roast with vegetables is an example of a meal, ready-to-eat (MRE) ration entrée. It is a mixture of meat, potato, mushroom, and carrot with a gravy sauce. The thermal properties of each component were characterized in terms of freezing point, latent heat, freezable and unfreezable water contents, and enthalpy during freezing using differential scanning calorimetry. Freezing and thawing curves and the effect of freezing and thawing cycles on thermal properties were also evaluated. The freezing points of beef, potato, mushroom, and sauce were all in the range of -5.1 to -5.6 degrees C, but moisture content, water activity, latent heat, freezable and unfreezable water contents, and enthalpy varied among these components. Freezing temperature greatly affected the unfrozen water fraction. The unfreezable water content (unfrozen water fraction at -50 degrees C) of ration components was in the range of 8.2% to 9.7%. The freezing and thawing curves of vegetables with sauce differed from those of beef but took similar time to freeze or thaw. Freezing and thawing cycles did not greatly affect the thermal properties of each component. Freezing point and latent heat were reduced by decreasing moisture content and water activity of each component. Water activity was proportionally linear to freezing point at a(w) > 0.88, and moisture content was proportionally linear to freezable water content in all ration components. Water was not available for freezing when moisture content was reduced to 28.8% or less. This study indicates that moisture content and water activity are critical factors affecting thermal behavior of ration components during freezing. PMID:19021797

Li, J; Chinachoti, P; Wang, D; Hallberg, L M; Sun, X S



Effect of salt and urban water samples on bacterivory by the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila.  


The effect of road salt on the eating of bacteria or bacterivory by the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila, was followed in non-nutrient Osterhout's solution with Escherichia coli expressing green fluorescent protein. Bacterivory was impaired at between 0.025 and 0.050% w/v but the ciliates appeared to have normal morphologies and motilities, whereas at above 0.1%, bacterivory was blocked and many ciliates died. By contrast, E. coli remained viable, suggesting salt could alter predator-prey relationships in microbial communities. In nutrient medium, salt was not toxic and the ciliates grew. After growth in salt, ciliates consumed bacteria in 0.2% salt, indicating the salt acclimation of bacterivory. Bacteria and ciliates were added to urban creek samples to compare their capacity to support exogenous bacterivory. Even though samples were collected weekly for a year and be expected to have fluctuating salt levels as a result of deicing, all creek samples supported a similar level of bacterivory. PMID:19786315

St Denis, C H; Pinheiro, M D O; Power, M E; Bols, Niels C



In situ measurements of the solubilities of salt-water systems by a fiber sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel fiber sensor for measuring solid solubilities of salt-water systems in situ is described. The sensor consists of a diode laser as light source, three couplers, two sensing fiber ends with protective cladding, and two photodetectors. The measurement principle is based on relative Fresnel reflective intensity. This method enabled us to observe in situ transitional process of the equilibration of a solid-liquid system with a small quantity of specimens. By the relatively simple technique, fast determination of the solid solubility is possible. We applied this method to measure a temperature dependence of the solubility of potassium chloride in water in situ and compared with the previous data obtained by other techniques. The measured result has the long-term standard deviation of the concentration of 0.1%, and agrees with the data obtained by the classical method within the error of +/-1%. This method is precise and sample saving and is suitable to measure the solubilities of rare and expensive materials.

Tan, Chun Hua; Huang, Xu Guang; Shi, Yu Ping



Degradation of Water Quality Related to Mobilization of Salts Caused by Land-Use Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unsaturated zones under natural ecosystems in semiarid regions contain a reservoir of salts that can be mobilized by increased recharge related to land-use change. Subsurface profiles of water-extractable chloride, fluoride, nitrate + nitrite, phosphate, and sulfate were measured in natural (6 profiles) and agricultural ecosystems (19 profiles) in the central and southern High Plains. Natural grasslands and shrublands contain large inventories of chloride (200 to 27,000 kg/ha), and sulfate (900 to 80,000 kg/ha) and low inventories of fluoride (280 to 1000 kg/ha), nitrate + nitrite nitrogen (80 to 375 kg/ha), and phosphate (3 to 42 kg/ha). Profiles of chloride and sulfate in general follow similar trends and reflect evapotranspiration of atmospherically deposited salts in most cases. Large local peaks in sulfate represent geologic sources (gypsum). Phosphate levels are generally highest near the land surface and below detection limits at greater depths. Fluoride and nitrate profiles are not correlated with chloride or sulfate profiles and suggest other sources or processes. Increased recharge under rain-fed agriculture has mobilized salts to different extents. Chloride is most mobile and chloride inventories beneath rain-fed areas range from 30 to 27,000 kg/ha depending on the profile depth and degree of flushing. Sulfate is also mobilized, though generally to a lesser extent than chloride. Residual sulfate concentrations average 50 times greater than chloride concentrations (range 2 to 250 times) in chloride- flushed profile sections. The transition from low to high sulfate lags that of chloride by 0.3 to 4.3 m. In contrast, fluoride is generally not mobilized by increased recharge beneath rain-fed agriculture and inventories are similar to natural ecosystems. Phosphate remains near the land surface and is relatively immobile. Nitrate + nitrite nitrogen inventories are much higher beneath rain-fed agriculture (155 to 2050 kg/ha) and reflect addition of nitrate fertilizers. In a 32,000 km2 area of the southern-most region of the southern High Plains, where aquifer saturated thickness averages only 15 m and TDS is generally > 500 mg/L, mobilization of all chloride and sulfate stored in the unsaturated zone would result in an average increase of at least 800 mg/L TDS, with local increases exceeding 2000 mg/L. Similarly, mobilization of all nitrate + nitrite nitrogen would result in an average increase of approximately 12 mg/L and locally by up to 40 mg/L.

Reedy, R. C.; Scanlon, B. R.; Tachovsky, J. A.; Kurtzman, D. J.



Monitoring of Water Content And Frozen State by using Millimeter Wave Absorption Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, we built an experimental setup for measuring the water content in plants and food, and for determining the water/ice state of a sample. The setup consists of a 35 GHz Gunn oscillator producing about 10 mW of output power, two horn antennas and a power meter. We have checked that the absorption of a leaf is directly proportional to its water content, and we could show how changes of the water content depend on photosynthesis, by intermittent illumination with a white fluorescent lamp. In another direction of research, we verified that the difference in the absorption coefficients for water and ice is significant, and we could discriminate and monitor the frozen state of water and food material. All these experiments demonstrate the possibility of applying millimeter waves to fields such as botany, agriculture, and food industry.

Mizuno, Maya; Shindo, Kenji; Ogawa, Yuichi; Otani, Chiko; Kawase, Kodo


Water Imbibition into Rock as Affected by Sample Shape, Pore, Conductivity, and Antecedent Water Content  

SciTech Connect

Infiltration is often presumed to follow Philip's equation, I = st{sup 1/2}, where I is cumulative infiltration, s is sorptivity, and t is time. This form of the equation is appropriate for short times, and/or for negligible gravitational effects. For a uniform soil, this equation describes a plot of log(mass imbibed) versus log(time), with a slope (imbibition exponent) of 1/2. The equation has also been applied to low-porosity rocks, where the extremely small pores render gravitational forces negligible. Experiments recently performed on a wide variety of rocks produced imbibition exponents from 0.2 to 0.5. Many rock types showed initial imbibition proceeding as I {approx} t{sup 1/4}, then later switched to ''normal'' (t{sup 1/2}) behavior. The distance to the wetting front that corresponds to this cross-over behavior was found to be related to the sample shape: tall thin samples are more likely to exhibit the exponent 1/4, and to cross over to 1/2-type behavior later, while short, squat samples are less likely to display the 1/4-type behavior at all. Additionally, the exponents are sensitive to antecedent water content, with initially wetter samples having smaller values. In this study, we present the experimental data, and provide a consistent and physically-based explanation using percolation theory. The analogy between imbibition and diffusion is used to model imbibition into samples with low pore connectivity, with the exponents and their crossover behavior emerging from a random walk process. All laboratory phenomena--different exponents, crossover behavior, and effects of sample shape and antecedent water content--are reproduced by the model, with similar patterns across experiment and simulation. We conclude both that diffusion is a useful and powerful conceptual model for understanding imbibition, and also that imbibition experiments, being simpler than diffusion measurements, can be used to examine diffusive behavior in rock.

R.P. Ewing



Bioremoval of hexavalent chromium from water by a salt tolerant bacterium, Exiguobacterium sp. GS1.  


Pollution of terrestrial surfaces and aquatic systems by hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), is a worldwide public health problem. A chromium resistant bacterial isolate identified as Exiguobacterium sp. GS1 by 16S rRNA gene sequencing displayed high rate of removal of Cr(VI) from water. Exiguobacterium sp. GS1 is 99% identical to Exiguobacterium acetylicum. The isolate significantly removed Cr(VI) at both high and low concentrations (1-200 microg mL(-1)) within 12 h. The Michaelis-Menten K ( m ) and V (max) for Cr(VI) bioremoval were calculated to be 141.92 microg mL(-1) and 13.22 microg mL(-1) h(-1), respectively. Growth of Exiguobacterium sp. GS1 was indifferent at 1-75 microg mL(-1) Cr(VI) in 12 h. At initial concentration of 8,000 microg L(-1), Exiguobacterium sp. GS1 displayed rapid bioremoval of Cr(VI) with over 50% bioremoval in 3 h and 91% bioremoval in 8 h. Kinetic analysis of Cr(VI) bioremoval rate revealed zero-order in 8 h. Exiguobacterium sp. GS1 grew and significantly reduced Cr(VI) in cultures containing 1-9% salt indicating high salt tolerance. Similarly the isolate substantially reduced Cr(VI) over a wide range of temperature (18-45 degrees C) and initial pH (6.0-9.0). The T (opt) and initial pH(opt) were 35-40 degrees C and 7-8, respectively. Exiguobacterium sp. GS1 displayed a great potential for bioremediation of Cr(VI) in diverse complex environments. PMID:18663504

Okeke, Benedict C




EPA Science Inventory

Sea levels have risen from four to eight inches in the 20th century, and model projections suggest an additional rise of 8 to 15 inches is possible during the 21st century. Rising sea levels can increase the upstream extent of salt water influence in coastal aquifers. In coasta...


Protoplast Water Content of Bacterial Spores Determined by Buoyant Density Sedimentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Protoplast wet densities (1.315 to 1.400 g/ml), determined by buoyant density sedimentation in Metrizamide gradients, were correlated inversely with the protoplast water contents (26.4 to 55.0 of water/100 g of wet protoplast) of nine diverse types of pur...

J. A. Lindsay T. C. Beaman P. Gerhardt



Measuring vegetation water content by looking at trees blowing in the wind  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite-based soil moisture measurements have shown a diurnal variation in soil water content in Ghana. Most likely this diurnal variation is due to variation of moisture content in vegetation, as was measured by Friesen et al. Understanding the specifics of this cycle and it's relation with radar backscatter would help improve the estimation of soil moisture from satellites as well as provide a new source of information: vegetation water content (ie. plant water stress) from satellites. To this end, a non-intrusive method is needed to measure the change in time of the water content of vegetation. In this research, we have measured the Eigen-frequency of trees using an accelerometer bolted in the tree trunk. The change in Eigen-frequency over time is related to the change in mass and stiffness which are depended on the water content of the tree. We looked at two driving forces for the tree-mass-spring system. Firstly, trees were pulled back and suddenly released. Eigen-frequencies were easily identified from the oscillation observed. Secondly, the wind was used as a driving force and Eigen-frequencies were estimated in the frequency domain.

Kooreman, Bouke; Hut, Rolf; van de Giesen, Nick; Selker, John; Steele-Dunne, Susan



Determination of water content by TDR during the infiltration outflow column experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pore system of some soils may not become fully saturated during ponded infiltration due to air entrapment. Varying entrapped air content then determines quasi-saturated water content of soil and can strongly affect soil quasi-saturated hydraulic conductivity. This study shows changes of quasi-saturated volumetric water content in time measured by time domain reflectometry (TDR) during the infiltration outflow experiment conducted on medium sized soil column in the laboratory. Experiments were conducted on a packed sample of fine quartz sand and on undisturbed soil. The undisturbed soil sample (internal diameter 189 mm and 250 mm height) of sandy loam soil was collected at the experimental site Uhlirska (Jizera Mountains, Czech Republic). Recurrent ponded infiltration experiment, conducted on each sample, consisted of three infiltration runs. The same level of ponding was maintained during each infiltration run at the top of the sample. Water drained freely through the perforated plate at the bottom of the sample. First infiltration run was done into naturally dry soil while subsequent runs were conducted into wet soil. The degassed water was used for the third infiltration run. The apparent dielectric constants were monitored at depths 75, 125 and 175 mm bellow the sample surface using the 7.5 cm long TDR probes connected to Campbell Scientific TDR100 reflectometer via multiplexor. Volumetric water contents in each depth were calculated from apparent dielectric constants using Topp's equation. Additionally, the pulse of potassium bromide was applied repeatedly during the quasi-steady state of each infiltration run, while the bromide breakthrough was monitored both in the effluent (by ion selective electrode) and in the sample by TDR (as changes of electric conductivity). Experimental results showed that in case of homogenously packed sand the quasi-steady state flow rates and water contents were nearly the same during all three infiltration runs. The undisturbed sandy loam sample exhibited drop of the flow rates between the first and second infiltration run and a gradual recovery of flow rates and water contents during the third run. This supports the assumption that air that was trapped in the flow pathways when water infiltrated in wet soil was dissolved in degassed water during the third run. The TDR probes show the dynamics of the quasi-saturated water content changes. This research has been supported by GACR 103/08/1552.

Sobotkova, M.; Snehota, M.; Klipa, V.



Effect of salt and urban water samples on bacterivory by the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of road salt on the eating of bacteria or bacterivory by the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila, was followed in non-nutrient Osterhout's solution with Escherichia coli expressing green fluorescent protein. Bacterivory was impaired at between 0.025 and 0.050% w\\/v but the ciliates appeared to have normal morphologies and motilities, whereas at above 0.1%, bacterivory was blocked and many ciliates died.

C. H. St Denis; M. D. O. Pinheiro; M. E. Power; Niels C. Bols



Altered specificity of lactococcal proteinase p(i) (lactocepin I) in humectant systems reflecting the water activity and salt content of cheddar cheese.  


By using various humectant systems, the specificity of hydrolysis of alpha(s1)-, beta-, and kappa-caseins by the cell envelope-associated proteinase (lactocepin; EC with type P(1) specificity (i.e., lactocepin I) from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis BN1 was investigated at water activities (a(w)) and salt concentrations reflecting those in cheddar type cheese. In the presence of polyethylene glycol 20000 (PEG 20000)-NaCl (a(w) = 0.95), hydrolysis of beta-casein resulted in production of the peptides comprising residues 1 to 6 and 47 to 52, which are characteristic of type P(III) enzyme activity (lactocepin III) in buffer. The fragment comprising residues 1 through 166, inclusive (fragment 1-166), which is typical of lactocepin I activity in buffer systems, was not produced. Similarly, peptide 152-160 from kappa-casein, which is usually produced in aqueous buffers exclusively by lactocepin III, was a major product of lactocepin I. Most of the specificity differences obtained in the presence of PEG 20000-NaCl were also obtained in the presence of PEG 20000 alone (a(w) = 0.99). In addition, alpha(s1)-casein, which normally is resistant to lactocepin I activity, was rapidly hydrolyzed in the presence of PEG 20000 alone. Hydrolysis of casein in the presence of PEG 300-NaCl or glycerol-NaCl (both having an a(w) of 0.95) was generally as expected for lactocepin I activity except that beta-casein peptide 47-52 and kappa-casein fragment 1-160 were produced; both of these are normally formed by lactocepin III in buffer. The differences in lactocepin specificity obtained in the humectant systems can be attributed to a combination of a(w) and humectant hydrophobicity, both of which are parameters that are potentially relevant to the cheese-ripening environment. PMID:16349501

Reid, J R; Coolbear, T



[Effects of salting, cut type, and initial simmering temperature on protein and fat contents of meat broths: I. Beef].  


A 2 x 2 x 4 factorial design was used to study variation of protein and fat contents in beef broths as affected by cut type (flank, shank), salt treatments (addition of salt to the medium, no salt), and initial temperatures of simmering (25, 70, 75, and 100 degrees C). Flank portions yielded slightly more protein (0.29 g/100 mL) and had three-fold less fat (0.39 g/mL) than those of shank (0.25 and 1.12 g/mL, respectively) (P < 0.05). No linear relationship of temperature and amount of extractable components was observed, but it was clear that the greatest protein extraction was accomplished when meat was immersed in cooking water at boiling point (P < 0.05). In general, salting of water reduced fat content of beef broths. However, a significant Salting x Cut type interaction showed this effect was only present in shanks (P < 0.05). Conversely, the reducing effect (P < 0.05) of salting on amount of protein extracted from flank was not observed in shanks. Based on these data, we conclude that larger amounts of protein and less fat could be transferred from meat pieces to the medium by immersing beef in salted water at the boiling point. PMID:9673698

Gotera-Prado, Z; Quintero, J B; Huerta-Leidenz, N; Prado Gotera, Z



Soil water depletion by oak trees and the influence of root water uptake on the moisture content spatial statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The space-time statistical structure of soil water uptake by oak trees was investigated in a 3.1-m-diameter closed top chamber using a three-dimensional measurement grid of soil moisture and pressure, and measurements of tree transpiration. Using the time domain reflectometry (TDR) measured moisture content, resistance block measured soil water pressure, and a compact constant head permeameter measured saturated hydraulic conductivity, the

Gabriel Katul; Philip Todd; Diane Pataki; Zbigniew J. Kabala; Ram Oren



Solution mining water soluble salts at high temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subterranean formations of water soluble salt deposits are solution mined by introducing into the formation an aqueous solvent having a temperature substantially above the temperature of the deposit thereby heating the deposit and dissolving the soluble salts, and withdrawing from the deposit an aqueous solution enriched in the dissolved salts. An aqueous solvent, having a temperature lower than the temperature




Comparison of Water Content-Pressure Head Data Obtained by Equilibrium, Steady State and Unsteady State Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The water content-pressure head relationship for a small, well-confined, rectangular sample of fine sand was obtained under different water flow conditions. Water contents were measured by a gamma system and pressure heads were measured by a tensiometer-p...

G. C. Topp A. Klute D. B. Peters



Diurnal Hysteresis Between Soil CO2 and Soil Temperature is Controlled by Soil Water Content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil temperature plays an important role in many model representations of soil CO2 production and transport. However, interactions among environmental variables such as temperature and soil moisture may introduce uncertainty into these models. Among the sources of uncertainty in models of soil CO2 production and transport is daily hysteresis between soil CO2 flux and soil temperature. We quantified the degree to which hysteresis between soil [CO2] and soil temperature is controlled by soil water content in a montane conifer forest, and how this nonlinearity impacts estimates of soil CO2 efflux. Based on chamber measurements at our site, a developed Q10 relationship overestimates CO2 flux by 42 g C m-2 (19%) for the entire growing season due to its inability to account for the daily cycle of soil [CO2], the variability of soil moisture, and moisture-dependent diffusive transport of CO2 through the soil column. Only under late- season dry conditions is the Q10 relationship able to predict CO2 flux. We found that at high levels of soil water content, hysteresis imposes organized, daily variability in the relationship between soil [CO2] and soil temperature, and at low levels of soil water content, hysteresis is minimized. Our results demonstrate that diurnal hysteresis between soil [CO2] and soil temperature is due mostly to the balance (or imbalance in wet soils) between production and diffusion. The seasonality in soil moisture controls the transition from an imbalanced system (where diurnal hysteresis is observed) to a balanced system (no diurnal hysteresis observed). The magnitude of hysteresis in the soil [CO2] - soil temperature relationship is an important indicator of the existence of concomitant, yet independent, autotrophic and heterotrophic soil [CO2] processes. As such, the role of soil water content in controlling the relationship between soil [CO2] and soil temperature should be considered when modeling the dynamics of carbon cycling in ecosystems with strong seasonality in soil water content.

McGlynn, B. L.; Riveros-Iregui, D. A.; Emanuel, R. E.; Muth, D. J.; Epstein, H. E.; Welsch, D. L.; Pacific, V. J.; Wraith, J. M.



Measurement of soil water content and electrical conductivity by time domain reflectometry: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-destructive measurement of soil water content and electrical conductivity has been desired for many years. Recent development of time domain reflectometry (TDR) enables us to simultaneously obtain soil water content and electrical conductivity using a single probe with a minimal disturbance of soil. Research on water and solute transport in porous media using TDR has flourished in the last few

K. Noborio



Application of the SAFES (systematic approach to food engineering systems) methodology to the sorption of water by salted proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the meat industry there are some processes like drying or storage of salted meat products in which the knowledge of water sorption phenomena in salted proteins could be very useful. The sorption and desorption of most salted products is a singular process with three differentiated steps: aw<0.75, aw=0.75 and aw>0.75. SAFES methodology allows the analysis of different elements in

C. Chenoll; N. Betoret; P. J. Fito



Modelling the effects of land-use change on water and salt delivery from a catchment affected by dryland salinity in south-east Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive framework for the assessment of water and salt balance for large catchments affected by dryland salinity is applied to the Boorowa River catchment (1550 km2), located in south-eastern Australia. The framework comprised two models, each focusing on a different aspect and operating on a different scale. A quasi-physical semi-distributed model CATSALT was used to estimate runoff and salt fluxes from different source areas within the catchment. The effects of land use, climate, topography, soils and geology are included. A groundwater model FLOWTUBE was used to estimate the long-term effects of land-use change on groundwater discharge. Unlike conventional salinity studies that focus on groundwater alone, this study makes use of a new approach to explore surface and groundwater interactions with salt stores and the stream.Land-use change scenarios based on increased perennial pasture and tree-cover content of the vegetation, aimed at high leakage and saline discharge areas, are investigated. Likely downstream impacts of the reduction in flow and salt export are estimated.The water balance model was able to simulate both the daily observed stream flow and salt load at the catchment outlet for high and low flow conditions satisfactorily. Mean leakage rate of about 23.2 mm year-1 under current land use for the Boorowa catchment was estimated. The corresponding mean runoff and salt export from the catchment were 89 382 ML year-1 and 38 938 t year-1, respectively. Investigation of various land-use change scenarios indicates that changing annual pastures and cropping areas to perennial pastures is not likely to result in substantial improvement of water quality in the Boorowa River. A land-use change of about 20% tree-cover, specifically targeting high recharge and the saline discharge areas, would be needed to decrease stream salinity by 150 ?S cm-1 from its current level. Stream salinity reductions of about 20 ?S cm-1 in the main Lachlan River downstream of the confluence of the Boorowa River is predicted. The FLOWTUBE modelling within the Boorowa River catchment indicated that discharge areas under increased recharge conditions could re-equilibrate in around 20 years for the catchment, and around 15 years for individual hillslopes.

Vaze, Jai; Barnett, Paul; Beale, Geoffrey; Dawes, Warrick; Evans, Ray; Tuteja, Narendra Kumar; Murphy, Brian; Geeves, Guy; Miller, Michelle



Quantifying water and salt fluxes in a lowland polder catchment dominated by boil seepage: a probabilistic end-member mixing approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upward saline groundwater seepage is leading to surface water salinization of low-lying polders in the Netherlands. Identifying measures to reduce the salt content requires a thorough understanding and quantification of the dominant sources water and salt on a daily basis. However, as in most balance studies, there are large uncertainties about the contribution of groundwater seepage. Taking these into account, we applied a probabilistic (GLUE) end-member mixing approach to simulate two years of daily to weekly observations of discharge, salt loads and salt concentrations of water pumped out of an artificially drained polder catchment area. We were then able to assess the contribution of the different sources to the water and salt balance of the polder and the uncertainties in their quantification. Our modelling approach demonstrates the need to distinguish preferential from diffuse seepage. Preferential seepage via boils contributes, on average, 66% to the total salt load and only about 15% to the total water flux into the polder and therefore forms the main salinization pathway. With the model we were able to calculate the effect of future changes on surface water salinity and to assess the uncertainty in our predictions. Furthermore, we analyzed the parameters sensitivity and uncertainty to determine for which parameter the quality of field measurements should be improved to the reduce model input and output uncertainty. High frequency measurements of polder water discharge and weighted concentration at the outlet of the catchment area appear to be essential for obtaining reliable simulations of water and salt fluxes and for allotting these to the different sources.

de Louw, P. G. B.; van der Velde, Y.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.



Quantifying water and salt fluxes in a lowland polder catchment dominated by boil seepage: a probabilistic end-member mixing approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upward saline groundwater seepage is leading to surface water salinization of deep lying polders in the Netherlands. Identifying measures to reduce the salt content requires a thorough understanding and quantification of the dominant sources of water and salt on a daily basis. However, as in most balance studies, there are large uncertainties in the contribution from groundwater seepage. Taking these into account, we applied a probabilistic (GLUE) end-member mixing approach to simulate two years of daily to weekly observations of discharge, salt loads and salt concentration of water pumped out of an artificially drained polder catchment area. We were then able to assess the contribution from the different sources to the water and salt balance of the polder and uncertainties in their quantification. Our modelling approach demonstrates the need to distinguish preferential from diffuse seepage. Preferential seepage via boils contributes, on average, 66 % to the total salt load and only about 15 % to the total water flux into the polder and therefore forms the main salinization pathway. With the model we were able to calculate the effect of future changes on surface water salinity and to assess the uncertainty in our predictions. Furthermore, we analyzed the parameter sensitivity and uncertainty to determine for which parameter the quality of field measurements should be improved to reduce model input and output uncertainty. High frequency measurements of polder water discharge and weighted concentration at the outlet of the catchment area appear to be essential for obtaining reliable simulations of water and salt fluxes and for allotting these to the different sources.

de Louw, P. G. B.; van der Velde, Y.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.



The effects of tree establishment on water and salt dynamics in naturally salt-affected grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants, by influencing water fluxes across the ecosystem–vadose zone–aquifer continuum, can leave an imprint on salt accumulation\\u000a and distribution patterns. We explored how the conversion of native grasslands to oak plantations affected the abundance and\\u000a distribution of salts on soils and groundwater through changes in the water balance in naturally salt-affected landscapes\\u000a of Hortobagy (Hungary), a region where artificial drainage

Marcelo D. Nosetto; Esteban G. Jobbágy; Tibor Tóth; Carlos M. Di Bella



Interaction of water activity and bicarbonate salts in the inhibition of growth and mycotoxin production by Fusarium and Aspergillus species of importance to corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined effects of water activity (aw) and ammonium\\/sodium bicarbonate on growth and mycotoxin production in corn by Fusarium and Aspergillus species were investigated. Interaction was observed between the salts and aw on the colony growth rates and lag phase durations of all isolates. Growth stimulation at low salt levels was observed only for the Fusarium isolates as the fastest

S. Samapundo; F. Devlieghere; B. De Meulenaer; Y. Lamboni; D. Osei-Nimoh; J. M. Debevere



Composition of Irrigation Water Salinity Affects Growth Characteristics and Uptake of Selenium and Salt Ions by Soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of irrigation waters differing in salt composition on growth characteristics, salt ion and selenium (Se) accumulation, and distribution in plant components of the soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) cultivar “Manokin.” Plants were grown in sand cultures and irrigated with isoosmotic solutions containing (1) Cl as the dominant anion, or (2) a

D. Wang; C. M. Grieve; D. L. Suarez




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of irrigation waters differing in salt composition on growth characteristics, salt ion and selenium (Se) accumulation and distribution in plant components of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) cultivar 'Manokin'. Plants were grown in sand culture...


Soil structures produced by tillage as affected by soil water content and the physical quality of soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tillage experiments were carried out in order to study the effect of water content on the aggregate size distribution produced by tillage, and to investigate the relationship between the soil structures produced by tillage and Dexter's index of soil physical quality, S. Tillage with a mouldboard plough was done on four different soils over a range of naturally occurring water

Thomas Keller; Johan Arvidsson; Anthony R. Dexter



Improving Estimates of Subsurface Water Content by Accounting for Saturation-Related Anisotropy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground-penetrating radar tomographic methods are commonly used to obtain EM wave velocities in the subsurface, which are then transformed into estimates of soil water content using rock physics relationships. In most cases, velocity anisotropy is not accounted for in this process. That is, the earth is usually represented as a collection of isotropic, constant-velocity cells during the tomographic inversion of radar travel time data, and anisotropy information is not used when transforming velocities to water content. In cases where velocity anisotropy in the subsurface is significant, however, the inversion of travel time data under an isotropic assumption can result in serious artifacts; false heterogeneity can be produced because we attempt to fit an anisotropic medium with a series of isotropic cells. Further, not providing anisotropy information in the transformation from velocity to water content results in greater uncertainty in the water content values obtained. By accounting for velocity anisotropy in both the tomographic inversion and rock physics steps, we can improve estimates of subsurface water content obtained from radar tomographic data. A material consisting of thin isotropic layers is equivalent, in the long wavelength limit, to a homogeneous but anisotropic medium. Numerical modeling of 1-D coarse/fine layered systems under the assumptions of effective medium theory and capillary equilibrium indicates that, in the saturated zone, velocity anisotropy is likely unimportant because changes in velocity between layers result largely from porosity differences, which are minor. In the vadose zone, however, significant velocity anisotropy can result in layered systems due to the strong dependence of dielectric properties on saturation, and the pronounced saturation heterogeneity that can exist. As the overall saturation in the vadose zone decreases, fine-grained layers preferentially retain water while coarse-grained layers preferentially drain; this enhances the velocity contrast between the layers. Here, we investigate these results in the field through the anisotropic inversion of crosswell radar data collected near Abbotsford, British Columbia. We wish to examine under which circumstances it is important to account for velocity anisotropy in the tomographic determination of water content. Using an anisotropic, 1.5-D inversion code that incorporates ray tracing to determine ray paths from source to receiver, we compare velocity anisotropy in the vadose zone with that in the saturated zone.

Irving, J.; Knight, R.



Effects of salts on dry matter yield and nitrogen and phosphorus contents of rice plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of different kinds and concentrations of salts on dry matter yield and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) contents of rice plants under greenhouse conditions were determined for two silt loam soils, one from southern Ohio (Clermont) and one from Arkansas (Crowley). Yield and N and P contents tended to be enhanced by low salt concentration but to be

Hamadi Lam; E. O. McLean



Effect of salinity on water relations of wild barley plants differing in salt tolerance  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Certain lines of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) are more tolerant of salinity than others. The physiological basis of this difference is examined in a comparative study of a saline-tolerant and saline-intolerant line that emphasizes plant water relations. Methodology Effects of salt-treatment (75 mM maximum) extending from a few hours to 3 weeks were quantified in 8-day-old seedlings of a saline-sensitive wild barley line (‘T-1’) and a less saline-sensitive line (‘20-45’). Plants were grown in nutrient culture. Levels of mRNA of the HtPIP2;4 aquaporin (AQP) gene were determined together with a range of physiological responses including root hydraulic conductivity, osmotic potential of root xylem sap, transpiration, leaf relative water content, root water content, leaf water potential, leaf sap osmolality, leaf length, leaf area and chlorophyll content. Principal results Salt treatment inhibited transpiration and hydraulic conductivity more in salt-tolerant ‘20-45’ plants than in salt-sensitive ‘T-1’. In ‘20-45’, the effect was paralleled by a fast (within a few hours) and persistent (3 days) down-regulation of aquaporin. In salt-sensitive ‘T-1’ plants, aquaporin down-regulation was delayed for up to 24 h. Greater tolerance in ‘20-45’ plants was characterized by less inhibition of leaf area, root fresh weight, leaf water content and chlorophyll concentration. Leaf water potentials were similar in both lines. Conclusions (i) Decline in hydraulic conductivity in salt-treated barley plants is important for stomatal closure, (ii) lowered transpiration rate is beneficial for salt tolerance, at least at the seedling stage and (iii) changes in AQP expression are implicated in the control of whole plant hydraulic conductivity and the regulation of shoot water relations.

Vysotskaya, Lidia; Hedley, Peter E.; Sharipova, Guzel; Veselov, Dmitry; Kudoyarova, Guzel; Morris, Jennifer; Jones, Hamlyn G.



Fighting scale in salt water lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary is presented of methods employed to eliminate scale in the mammoth East Texas Salt Water Disposal Co.'s system. This complex system has disposed of nearly 3 billion bbl of salt water and currently handles over 417,000 bbl daily throughout 455 miles of gathering and distribution lines. The current program to control and remove scale deposition is a combination



Evaluation of water content by spatially resolved transverse relaxation times of human articular cartilage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-invasive assessment of cartilage properties, specifically water content, could prove helpful in the diagnosis of early degenerative joint diseases. Transverse relaxation times T2 of human articular cartilage (34 cartilage slices of three donors) were measured on a pixel-by-pixel basis in a clinical whole body MR system in vitro. In vivo feasibility to measure quantitative T2 maps was shown for human

S Lüssea; H Claassen; T Gehrke; J Hassenpflug; M Schünke; M Heller; C.-C Glüer



New copolyimide membranes with high siloxane content designed to remove polar organics from water by pervaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The syntheses of oligodimethylsiloxane film forming materials and their organoselective properties for the removal of ethanol and phenol from water by pervaporation are reported. Two series of segmented polydimethylsiloxane-imide (PSI) copolymers were synthesized from ?,?-(bisaminopropyl) dimethylsiloxane oligomers (ODMS) and aromatic dianhydrides (PMDA, 6FDA); synthesized PSI were obtained with a high content of siloxane block, i.e. up to 94wt.%. To improve

M Krea; D Roizard; N Moulai-Mostefa; D Sacco



Effect of road deicing salt on the susceptibility of amphibian embryos to infection by water molds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some causative agents of amphibian declines act synergistically to impact individual amphibians and their populations. In particular, pathogenic water molds (aquatic oomycetes) interact with environmental stressors and increase mortality in amphibian embryos. We documented colonization of eggs of three amphibian species, the wood frog (Rana sylvatica), the green frog (Rana clamitans), and the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum), by water molds

Nancy E. Karraker; Gregory R. Ruthig



Determination of uranium and thorium in solar salts by neutron activation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranium and thorium contents of solar salts were measured by neutron activation analysis. In advance of neutron irradiation, U and Th were concentrated and separated from some interfering elements by neutralization in which they were precipitated with aluminium hydroxide from solutions obtained by dissolving the salts in water or dilute nitric acid solution. The uranium and thorium concentrations determined were

K. Ogiwara; T. OSSAKA; M. Mukaida; T. Honda



Effect of salt on the phase behavior of the ternary system water-phenol-sodium dodecyl sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed study of the effects of varying temperature and salt concentration on the phase behavior of the water-pentanol-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) system is presented. By addition of salt the lamellar phase extends well into the water-rich region and occurs at water contents exceeding 95%. The isotropic mixtures close in composition to the more dilute lamellar phase strongly scatter light

G. Guerin; A. M. Bellocq



Polyelectrolyte-macroion complexation in 1:1 and 3:1 salt contents: a Brownian dynamics study.  


On the basis of the coarse-grained model, we performed Brownian dynamics simulations to investigate behavior of the polyelectrolyte (PE)-macroion complexations in 1:1 and 3:1 salt contents. Our simulation results show that in 3:1 salt content there exists a critical salt concentration (CSC), which is determined by the charge stoichiometry, for the breakup of the PE-macroion complexations. Beyond the CSC concentration, an obvious depletion appears in the macroion-macroion and macroion-PE interactions, which is absent in 1:1 salt content. Both the mobilities of macroions and PEs increase monotonically with increasing the salt concentration in 1:1 and 3:1 salt contents. And the mobility in 3:1 salt content is always larger than that in corresponding 1:1 salt content, which is due to the fact that in 3:1 salt content the PE-macroion complexations are looser than those in 1:1 salt content. Moreover, we observed the collapse and re-expansion of PE chains with the increase of the salt concentration in the PEs-macroions systems of 3:1 salt content, which is due to the charge inversion of PE chains induced by the adsorption of trivalent cations. In addition, we also explored the effects of salt concentration and the length and charge density of PE chains. Our simulation results show that the effects of the length and charge density of PE chains in both salt contents on the radial distribution functions (RDFs) between macroions and between a macroion and a PE segment are similar to these in salt free solution basically. However, we observed an interesting phenomenon that the gyration radius of PE chains in the system of 3:1 salt content is not affected significantly by its charge density, while that in 1:1 salt content increases monotonically. PMID:19053684

Yang, Juan; Ni, Ran; Cao, Dapeng; Wang, Wenchuan



Boiling of Water Droplets Containing Dissolved Salts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted experiments on the effect of dissolving three different salts (sodium chloride, sodium sulphate and magnesium sulphate) in water droplets boiling on a hot stainless steel surface. Substrate temperatures were varied from 100^oC to 300^oC. We photographed droplets as they evaporated, and recorded their evaporation time. At surface temperatures that were too low to initiate nucleate boiling, all three salts were found to reduce the evaporation rate since they lower the vapor pressure of water. In the nucleate boiling regime, sodium sulphate and magnesium sulphate enhanced heat transfer because they prevented coalescence of vapor bubbles and produced foaming in the droplet, significantly reducing droplet lifetime. The ability of salts to prevent coalescence is linked to their ionic strength: electric charge accumulated on the surfaces of bubbles produces a repulsive force, preventing them from approaching each other. Sodium chloride, which has a low ionic strength, had little effect on droplet evaporation. Low concentrations (<0.3 mol/liter) of magnesium sulphate enhanced droplet boiling by promoting foaming. However high concentrations (>0.3 mol/liter) reduce droplet evaporation rates by increasing the vapour pressure of water.

Cui, Qiang; Chandra, Sanjeev; McCahan, Susan



Certification of the reference material of water content in water saturated 1-octanol by Karl Fischer coulometry, Karl Fischer volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance.  


Certified reference materials (CRMs) of water content are widely used in the calibration and validation of Karl Fischer coulometry and volumetry. In this study, the water content of the water saturated 1-octanol (WSO) CRM was certified by Karl Fischer coulometry, volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (Q NMR). The water content recovery by coulometry was 99.76% with a diaphragm-less electrode and Coulomat AG anolyte. The relative bias between the coulometry and volumetry results was 0.06%. In Q NMR, the water content of WSO is traceable to the International System (SI) of units through the purity of internal standard. The relative bias of water content in WSO between Q NMR and volumetry was 0.50%. The consistency of results for these three independent methods improves the accuracy of the certification of the RM. The certified water content of the WSO CRM was 4.76% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.09%. PMID:23442697

Wang, Haifeng; Ma, Kang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jia; Sun, Guohua; Li, Hongmei



Quantifying Microbial Utilization of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Salt Marsh Sediments by Using the 13C Content of Bacterial rRNA?  

PubMed Central

Natural remediation of oil spills is catalyzed by complex microbial consortia. Here we took a whole-community approach to investigate bacterial incorporation of petroleum hydrocarbons from a simulated oil spill. We utilized the natural difference in carbon isotopic abundance between a salt marsh ecosystem supported by the 13C-enriched C4 grass Spartina alterniflora and 13C-depleted petroleum to monitor changes in the 13C content of biomass. Magnetic bead capture methods for selective recovery of bacterial RNA were used to monitor the 13C content of bacterial biomass during a 2-week experiment. The data show that by the end of the experiment, up to 26% of bacterial biomass was derived from consumption of the freshly spilled oil. The results contrast with the inertness of a nearby relict spill, which occurred in 1969 in West Falmouth, MA. Sequences of 16S rRNA genes from our experimental samples also were consistent with previous reports suggesting the importance of Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria and Firmicutes in the remineralization of hydrocarbons. The magnetic bead capture approach makes it possible to quantify uptake of petroleum hydrocarbons by microbes in situ. Although employed here at the domain level, RNA capture procedures can be highly specific. The same strategy could be used with genus-level specificity, something which is not currently possible using the 13C content of biomarker lipids.

Pearson, Ann; Kraunz, Kimberly S.; Sessions, Alex L.; Dekas, Anne E.; Leavitt, William D.; Edwards, Katrina J.



Biodrying of municipal solid waste with high water content by combined hydrolytic-aerobic technology.  


The high water content of municipal solid waste (MSW) will reduce the efficiency of mechanical sorting, consequently unfavorable for beneficial utilization. In this study, a combined hydrolytic-aerobic biodrying technology was introduced to remove water from MSW. The total water removals were proved to depend on the ventilation frequency and the temporal span in the hydrolytic stage. The ventilation frequency of 6 times/d was preferable in the hydrolytic stage. The hydrolytic span should not be prolonged more than 4 d. At this optimal scenario, the final water content was 50.5% reduced from the initial water content of 72.0%, presenting a high water removal efficiency up to 78.5%. A positive correlation was observed between the organics losses and the water losses in both hydrolytic and aerobic stages (R = 0.944, p < 0.01). The evolutions of extracellular enzyme activities were shown to be consistent with the organics losses. PMID:19209645

Zhang, Dongqing; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming; Jin, Taifeng; Han, Jingyao



72: Measuring Soil Water Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major advances in the measurement of soil water content have arisen from electromagnetic (EM) methods that have developed rapidly in the last 20years. Estimates of water content from EM measurements make use of the large relative permittivity of water compared to other soil components. Time domain reflectometry (TDR) and capacitance approaches use \\



Ion specificity at a low salt concentration in water-methanol mixtures exemplified by a growth of polyelectrolyte multilayer.  


By use of a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), we have investigated the specific ion effect on the growth of poly(sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonate)/poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) multilayer at a salt concentration as low as 2.0 mM in water-methanol mixtures. QCM-D results demonstrate that specific ion effect can be observed in methanol and water-methanol mixtures though it is negligible in water. Moreover, the specific ion effect is amplified as the molar fraction of methanol (xM) increases from 0% to 75% but is weakened again with the further increase of xM from 75% to 100%. Nuclear magnetic resonance measurements reveal that the counterion-polyelectrolyte segment interactions may not account for the observed ion specificity. By extending the Collins' concept of matching water affinities to methanol and water-methanol mixtures, we suggest that the ion-solvent interactions and the resulted counterion-charged group interactions are responsible for the occurrence of the specific ion effect. The conductivity measurements indicate that water and methanol molecules may form complexes, and the change of relative proportion of complexes with the xM causes the amplification or weakening of the specific ion effect. PMID:23425248

Long, Yunchao; Wang, Tao; Liu, Lvdan; Liu, Guangming; Zhang, Guangzhao



Phenolic Content and DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity of Yam-containing Surimi Gels Influenced by Salt and Heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors contributing to the loss of phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity of Taiwanese yam, Dioscorea alata Tainung No. 1 (TNG1), in the 20% TNG1-containing pollock surimi gel were investigated. Heating at 90°C for 30 min decreased both the total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity in 50% ethanolic extract from TNG1, but no significant effect was



Magnesium sulphate salts and the history of water on Mars.  


Recent reports of approximately 30 wt% of sulphate within saline sediments on Mars--probably occurring in hydrated form--suggest a role for sulphates in accounting for equatorial H2O observed in a global survey by the Odyssey spacecraft. Among salt hydrates likely to be present, those of the MgSO4*nH2O series have many hydration states. Here we report the exposure of several of these phases to varied temperature, pressure and humidity to constrain their possible H2O contents under martian surface conditions. We found that crystalline structure and H2O content are dependent on temperature-pressure history, that an amorphous hydrated phase with slow dehydration kinetics forms at <1% relative humidity, and that equilibrium calculations may not reflect the true H2O-bearing potential of martian soils. Mg sulphate salts can retain sufficient H2O to explain a portion of the Odyssey observations. Because phases in the MgSO4*nH2O system are sensitive to temperature and humidity, they can reveal much about the history of water on Mars. However, their ease of transformation implies that salt hydrates collected on Mars will not be returned to Earth unmodified, and that accurate in situ analysis is imperative. PMID:15470421

Vaniman, David T; Bish, David L; Chipera, Steve J; Fialips, Claire I; Carey, J William; Feldman, William C



Effect of Pre-Dried History and Initial Water Content on Soil Slaking and Desalinization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An efficient and low cost method is required to improve the saline soils. Soil slaking has long been studied from the stand point of stability of aggregates. However, it has not been studied from that of salt removal. The objective of this study is to examine the contribution of slaking to desalinization of soil accompanied by land drying practice. A slaking test was carried out for evaluating the efficiency of slaking and their impacts on salt removal of salinized soil under various water contents. We prepared natural/virgin and air-dried soils to give different intensity of pre-drying. Those soils were resaturated (for air-dry soil) and well-mixed, then dried to different moisture contents (60, 50, 40, 30, 20 and 10% by weight). After 24 hours immersion in water, the soils never slaked at 60 and 50% moisture contents in natural soil whereas 88-89% of the specimens were slaked in air-dry soil under the same moisture contents. The slaking rate was highest under 30% moisture contents in natural soil. In air-dry soil 30 and 20% showed the higher slaking rate in compared to other water contents. The proportion of salt released into equilibrated water after 24 hours immersion was also high at the same water contents. Since the natural soil did not slake until 40%, drying below 30% moisture content will be effective for the removal of salt from these soils.

Shamim, Abul Hasnat Md.; Akae, Takeo


Hot water, fresh beer, and salt  

SciTech Connect

In the hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO{sub 2}) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO{sub 2} so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer '' is answered experimentally.

Crawford, F.S. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (USA) Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (USA))



Bioremoval of hexavalent chromium from water by a salt tolerant bacterium, Exiguobacterium sp. GS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollution of terrestrial surfaces and aquatic systems by hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), is a worldwide public health problem.\\u000a A chromium resistant bacterial isolate identified as Exiguobacterium sp. GS1 by 16S rRNA gene sequencing displayed high rate of removal of Cr(VI) from water. Exiguobacterium sp. GS1 is 99% identical to Exiguobacterium acetylicum. The isolate significantly removed Cr(VI) at both high and low

Benedict C. Okeke



The effects of tree establishment on water and salt dynamics in naturally salt-affected grasslands.  


Plants, by influencing water fluxes across the ecosystem-vadose zone-aquifer continuum, can leave an imprint on salt accumulation and distribution patterns. We explored how the conversion of native grasslands to oak plantations affected the abundance and distribution of salts on soils and groundwater through changes in the water balance in naturally salt-affected landscapes of Hortobagy (Hungary), a region where artificial drainage performed approximately 150 years ago lowered the water table (from -2 to -5 m) decoupling it from the surface ecosystem. Paired soil sampling and detailed soil conductivity transects revealed consistently different salt distribution patterns between grasslands and plantations, with shallow salinity losses and deep salinity gains accompanying tree establishment. Salts accumulated in the upper soil layers during pre-drainage times have remained in drained grasslands but have been flushed away under tree plantations (65 and 83% loss of chloride and sodium, respectively, in the 0 to -0.5 m depth range) as a result of a five- to 25-fold increase in infiltration rates detected under plantations. At greater depth, closer to the current water table level, the salt balance was reversed, with tree plantations gaining 2.5 kg sodium chloride m(-2) down to 6 m depth, resulting from groundwater uptake and salt exclusion by tree roots in the capillary fringe. Diurnal water table fluctuations, detected in a plantation stand but not in the neighbouring grasslands, together with salt mass balances suggest that trees consumed approximately 380 mm groundwater per year, re-establishing the discharge regime and leading to higher salt accumulation rates than those interrupted by regional drainage practices more than a century ago. The strong influences of vegetation changes on water dynamics can have cascading consequences on salt accumulation and distribution, and a broad ecohydrological perspective that explicitly considers vegetation-groundwater links is needed to anticipate and manage them. PMID:17356808

Nosetto, Marcelo D; Jobbágy, Esteban G; Tóth, Tibor; Di Bella, Carlos M



Net radiation — soil heat flux relations as influenced by soil water content variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Net radiation, soil heat flux, incoming and reflected solar radiation, and soil water content were measured during several clear day periods following approximate 10-cm applications of water to loam soils at Phoenix, Arizona, and at Sidney, Montana. The regression of soil heat flux on net radiation changed significantly as the soil dried, with the difference between them being a linear

S. B. Idso; J. K. Aase; R. D. Jackson



Changes in water-extractability of soil inorganic phosphate induced by chloride and sulfate salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background  One of the principal experimental variables which effect the results of phosphorus (P) sorption studies is the ionic composition,\\u000a in addition to both species and concentrations of the contacting solution. In spite of the realization that ionic species,\\u000a concentrations and their compositions effect P sorption and\\/or desorption, most of the salt-related studies are confined to\\u000a Cl? (anion)

Zahoor Ahmad; Faridullah; Haytham El-Sharkawi; Muhammad Irshad; Toshimasa Honna; Sadahiro Yamamoto; Ahmed Salim Al-Busaidi



Removal of arsenic from water by Friedel's salt (FS: 3CaO·Al 2O 3·CaCl 2·10H 2O)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low levels of arsenic can be effectively removed from water by adsorption onto various materials and searching for low-cost, high-efficiency new adsorbents has been a hot topic in recent years. In the present study, the performance of Friedel's salt (FS: 3CaO·Al2O3·CaCl2·10H2O), a layered double hydroxide (LDHs), as an adsorbent for arsenic removal from aqueous solution was investigated. Friedel's salt was

Danni Zhang; Yongfeng Jia; Jiayu Ma; Zhibao Li



Aluminum bioavailability from drinking water is very low and is not appreciably influenced by stomach contents or water hardness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives were to estimate aluminum (Al) oral bioavailability under conditions that model its consumption in drinking water, and to test the hypotheses that stomach contents and co-administration of the major components of hard water affect Al absorption. Rats received intragastric 26Al in the absence and presence of food in the stomach and with or without concomitant calcium (Ca) and

Robert A. Yokel; Susan S. Rhineheimer; Russell D. Brauer; Pankaj Sharma; David Elmore; Patrick J. McNamara



Household Salt Iodine Content Estimation with the Use of Rapid Test Kits and Iodometric Titration Methods  

PubMed Central

Background: Universal salt iodization remains the best strategy for controlling iodine deficiency disorders in Nepal. Aims: This study was designed to study the salt types and the household salt iodine content of school aged children in the hilly and the plain districts of eastern Nepal. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on school children of seven randomly chosen schools from four districts, namely, Sunsari, Dhankuta, Sankhuwasabha and Tehrathum of eastern Nepal. The school children were requested to bring two teaspoonfuls (approx. 12-15 g) of the salt which was consumed in their households, in a tightly sealed plastic pouch. The salt types were categorized, and the salt iodine content was estimated by using rapid test kits and iodometric titrations. The association of the salt iodine content of the different districts were tested by using the Chi-square test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values of the rapid test kits were compared with the iodometric titrations. Results: Our study showed that mean±SD values of the salt iodine content in the four districts, namely, Sunsari, Dhankuta, Sankhuwasabha and Tehrathum were 34.2±17.9, 33.2±14.5, 27.4±15.1 and 48.4±15.6 parts per million (ppm). There were 270 (38.2%) households which consumed crystal salt and 437(61.8%) of the households consumed packet salts. Conclusions: Our study recommends a regular monitoring of the salt iodization programs in these regions. More families should be made aware of the need to ensure that each individual consumes iodized salt.

Nepal, Ashwini Kumar; Raj Shakya, Prem; Gelal, Basanta; Lamsal, Madhab; Brodie, David A; Baral, Nirmal



Effects of water turbidity and salt concentration levels on penetration of solar radiation under water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two large, outdoor tanks were constructed in order to investigate the effects of water turbidity and salt concentration levels at various depths of water on penetration of solar radiation. These experiments were followed by a laboratory investigation that measured spectral transmittance and the extinction coefficient of water at different salt concentrations and turbidity levels. Both the outdoor and laboratory results

J. Wang; J. Seyed-Yagoobi




Microsoft Academic Search

We have modeled laboratory experiments of saltwater intrusion using TOUGH2\\/EOS7. Matching laboratory and simulation results turned out to be quite challenging partly because of numerical dispersion and partly because the experiments were not very well controlled. Specifically, the model is not able to reproduce the transient salt concentration profile observed in the laboratory very well. In order to understand better

Kenzi Karasaki; Kazumasa Ito; Keisuke Maekawa



Microsoft Academic Search

A series of water-related experiments showed that Snowy Plovers do not have any outstanding physiological capabilities for dealing with the potential thermal and osmotic stresses of the Great Salt Plains, Oklahoma. Snowy Plovers and Semipalmated Sandpipers failed to maintain body weight when given 0.3 M NaC1 ad libitum. Killdeer did even more poorly by rapidly losing weight on 0.2 M.



Assessing water salinity along River Limón and Caño San Miguel irrigation paleochannel (Maracaibo, Venezuela) as affected by the balance of soluble salts in alluvium soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The saline degradation of soils that are irrigated with brackish water is worrisome increasing worldwide, and it may further affect the salinity of fresh water in those streams flowing across. The problem that is caused by an increasing concentration of salts that are more soluble than gypsum depends on the quality of irrigation water, climatic aridity, and drainage limitations. All these conditions meet in the alluvium soils of River Limón basin that are crossed by Caño San Miguel irrigation paleochannel. River Limón's regulation by closing Manuelote and Tulé artificial reservoirs has diminished the input of water and sediments from flooding events, which exerted dilutive effects in the past. In addition, the balance of soluble salts in these soils has also registered further net accumulation during those extremely dry years happened before 2006, because the great dilution contribution of ombrogenic dammed water coming from rain has not been enough to compensate salts concentration generated by water evapotranspiration in those irrigated soils of the middle basin, particularly in the absence of superficial runoff and deep drainage. Considering those semi-arid climate conditions prevailing in the area (annual precipitation = 710 mm; potential evapotransporation = 2361 mm), it resulted that water analyses in River Limón showed a ten-fold increased maximum annual salinity concentration (March) along the stream; that is, an electric conductivity (Ce) of 0.37 dS•m-1 (at 25 °C) at Puente Carrasquero pumping station, where water for crop irrigation is subtracted, turns to 34.60 dS•m-1 (at 25 °C) at its base level in Puerto Mara, where it discharges to Lake Maracaibo. In addition, the quality of irrigation water from Caño San Miguel, which aggregates to those coming from River Limón at the pumping station located in Carrasquero just before running through the alluvium of this water stream, resulted pretty irregular. In short, it spanned form C1 to C4 soil salinization risk classes depending on the sampling location and time of the year. In short, the farther away the sampling point from the initial pumping location, the higher the concentration of salts is measured; and these are even ten-fold higher in March, that is, after the end of the dry season, just before new rain dissolves the generated salt efflorescence on the surrounding soil (maximum Ce=9740 dS/m at 25 °C). In conclusion, a balance of salts should be attached to the balance of water required to compensate crop evapotranspiration aiming to achieve a sustainable use of the agrosystem. This salts balance is assessed in terms of the quantity of water that is required to drain soil so that productivity would be retained.

Rodriguez, Raquel; Moreno, Juan; Hermosilla, Daphne; Gascó, Antonio



Current and proposed regulations for salt water disposal wells  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, all aspects of hydrocarbon exploration and production (E & P) activities have drawn closer scrutiny in terms of existing and potential impairment of the environment. In addition to drilling, production, and transportation activities, the USEPA has focused on the nature of E & P generated wastes, and the subsequent management of both hazardous and nonhazardous E & P wastes. Approximately 98% of all of the volume of wastes generated by E & P activities is salt water associated with the recovery of hydrocarbons. By far the majority of this waste is disposed of in class II salt water disposal wells. Due to the tremendous volume of salt water generated, the USEPA continues to reevaluate the federal class II salt water injection well program, offering comments, revising its interpretation of existing regulations, and promulgating new regulations. The purpose of the presentation will be to provide a review of existing class II federal regulations, and to provide an overview of potential or newly promulgated regulations.

Moody, T. [Terra Dynamics, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)



Barium content of benthic foraminifera controlled by bottom-water composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE carbon isotope ratio (delta13C) and cadmium content (Cd\\/Ca) of benthic foraminifera shells have been used to reconstruct deep-water circulation patterns of the glacial oceans1-7. These tracers co-vary with phosphorus in the modern ocean because they are nearly quantitatively regenerated from sinking biological debris in the upper water column. Hence they can be used to reconstruct the distribution of labile

D. Lea; E. Boyle



The effects of pH and salt content on sodium balance in Daphina magna and Acantholeberis curvirostris (Crustacea: Cladocera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Sodium balance has been compared in two cladocerans,Daphnia magna, which commonly frequents alkaline waters of moderate to high salt content, andAcantholeberis curvirostris, which is found in acid peaty waters of low salt content.2.Differences in the affinity for sodium ions exist in different populations ofD. magna. In some populations the uptake mechanisms are half saturated at concentrations of 0.2 mM Na\\/l

W. T. W. Potts; G. Fryer



HA/nylon 6,6 porous scaffolds fabricated by salt-leaching/solvent casting technique: effect of nano-sized filler content on scaffold properties  

PubMed Central

Nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA)/nylon 6,6 composite scaffolds were produced by means of the salt-leaching/solvent casting technique. NaCl with a distinct range size was used with the aim of optimizing the pore network. Composite powders with different n-HA contents (40%, 60%) for scaffold fabrication were synthesized and tested. The composite scaffolds thus obtained were characterized for their microstructure, mechanical stability and strength, and bioactivity. The microstructure of the composite scaffolds possessed a well-developed interconnected porosity with approximate optimal pore size ranging from 200 to 500 ?m, ideal for bone regeneration and vascularization. The mechanical properties of the composite scaffolds were evaluated by compressive strength and modulus tests, and the results confirmed their similarity to cortical bone. To characterize bioactivity, the composite scaffolds were immersed in simulated body fluid for different lengths of time and results monitored by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis to determine formation of an apatite layer on the scaffold surface.

Mehrabanian, Mehran; Nasr-Esfahani, Mojtaba



Thermal Properties of Soils as affected by Density and Water Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal properties dictate the storage and movement of heat in soils and as such influence the temperature and heat flux in soils as a function of time and depth. The ability to monitor soil heat capacity is an important tool in managing the soil temperature regime to affect seed germination and crop growth. The effect of water content and bulk

Nidal H. Abu-Hamdeh



Correlation and prediction of salt effects on vapor–liquid equilibrium in alcohol–water–salt systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modification of the solvation model of Ohe is proposed for the calculation of vapor–liquid equilibria (VLE) in alcohol–water–salt systems. The modified method employs the Bromley equation to calculate the activity of water in salt solutions, and a one-parameter empirical expression to calculate the activity of the alcohol. The single parameter is obtained by fitting ternary alcohol–water–salt data. The method

Tongfan Sun; Kerry R. Bullock; Amyn S. Teja



Airborne endotoxin associated with particles of different sizes and affected by water content in handled straw.  


High exposures to endotoxin are observed in environments where organic materials are handled and lower exposures are found in e.g. indoor air. Inhaled endotoxin contributes significantly to the induction of airway inflammation and dysfunction. The size of an inhaled particle influences the deposition in the airways and the following health symptoms. The objective is to characterise the distribution of endotoxin on airborne particles of different sizes in straw storage halls with high exposure and in other environments with lower exposure levels to endotoxin. Furthermore we have studied the influence of water content of handled straw on the size distribution of endotoxin containing particles. Total, inhalable, thoracic and respirable endotoxin and particles have each been quantified in aerosols from boiler rooms and straw storage halls at 24 power plants, including 21 biofuel plants. Inhalable, thoracic and respirable endotoxin have been quantified in aerosols from offices and outdoor air. The endotoxin concentration was higher in airborne thoracic dust than in airborne 'total dust'. The median respirable fraction in the straw storage halls, boiler rooms at biofuel plants, boiler rooms at conventional plants, offices and outdoors was respectively 42%, 9%, 19%, 24% and 34%. Thoracic endotoxin per number of thoracic particles was higher than respirable endotoxin per number of respirable particles at the biofuel plants. In straw storage halls the fraction of endotoxin of respirable size was highest on the days with lowest water content in the received straw. Furthermore the exposures to all endotoxin fractions were highest on days with the lowest water content in the received straw. In conclusion the highest exposures and concentrations of endotoxin occur or tend to occur from thoracic dust. A high variation in endotoxin concentrations and in fractions of respirable or thoracic size is found in the different working areas. This is important in the risk assessment and makes attempts to influence the endotoxin exposure a possibility. Water content in straw affected the concentration, exposure level and size distribution of airborne endotoxin. PMID:20362504

Madsen, A M; Nielsen, S H



Effects of temperature, water content and nitrogen fertilisation on emissions of nitrous oxide by soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrous oxide emissions were measured from several grassland and arable soils in the field, and from two of these soils and a forest soil transferred in large monoliths to a greenhouse. The effects of fertiliser N additions and of soil water content and temperature were investigated. Emissions were in the order grazed grassland>grassland cut for conservation>potatoes>cereal crops, and generally were

K. A Smith; P. E Thomson; H Clayton; I. P Mctaggart; F Conen



Identification of water content in nanocavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tapered dielectric waveguide that scans, at constant height, a sample containing a viral capsid is studied by combining a lattice gas model to simulate water meniscus formation and a finite difference time domain algorithm for light propagation through the media involved. Our results show different contrasts related to different water contents and different meniscus orientations. We propose this method as a way to study water content and evaporation process in nanocavities being either biological, like viral capsides, or nonbiological, like photonic crystals.

Douas, Maysoun; Marqués, Manuel I.; Serena, Pedro A.



Identification of water content in nanocavities  

PubMed Central

A tapered dielectric waveguide that scans, at constant height, a sample containing a viral capsid is studied by combining a lattice gas model to simulate water meniscus formation and a finite difference time domain algorithm for light propagation through the media involved. Our results show different contrasts related to different water contents and different meniscus orientations. We propose this method as a way to study water content and evaporation process in nanocavities being either biological, like viral capsides, or nonbiological, like photonic crystals.



Comparison of intracellular water content measurements by dark-field imaging and EELS in medium voltage TEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the water content at the subcellular level is important to evaluate the intracellular concentration of either diffusible or non-diffusible elements in the physiological state measured by the electron microprobe methods. Water content variations in subcellular compartments are directly related to secretion phenomena and to transmembrane exchange processes, which could be attributed to pathophysiological states. In this paper we will describe in details and compare two local water measurement methods using analytical electron microscopy. The first one is based on darkfield imaging. It is applied on freeze-dried biological cryosections; it allows indirect measurement of the water content at the subcellular level from recorded maps of darkfield intensity. The second method uses electron energy loss spectroscopy. It is applied to hydrated biological cryosections. It is based on the differences that appear in the electron energy loss spectra of macromolecular assemblies and vitrified ice in the 0-30 eV range. By a multiple least squares (MLS) fit between an experimental energy loss spectrum and reference spectra of both frozen-hydrated ice and macromolecular assemblies we can deduce directly the local water concentration in biological cryosections at the subcellular level. These two methods are applied to two test specimens: human erythrocytes in plasma, and baker's yeast (Saccharomyses Cerevisiae) cryosections. We compare the water content measurements obtained by these two methods and discuss their advantages and drawbacks.

Terryn, C.; Michel, J.; Kilian, L.; Bonhomme, P.; Balossier, G.



The solution behavior of poly(vinylpyrrolidone): its clouding in salt solution, solvation by water and isopropanol, and interaction with sodium dodecyl sulfate.  


This article deals with the solution properties of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) in salt and surfactant environment. The cloud point (CP) of PVP has been found to be induced by the salts NaCl, KCl, KBr, Na2SO4, MgSO4, and Na3PO4. On the basis of CP values for a salt at different [PVP], the energetics of the clouding process have been estimated. The effect of the surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), on the salt-induced CP has also been studied, and reduction in CP at low [SDS] and increase in CP at high [SDS] have been observed. The water vapor adsorption of PVP has been determined by isopiestic method. The results display a BET Type III isotherm whose analysis has helped to obtain the monolayer capacity of PVP and formation of multilayer on it. The solvation of PVP in a solution of water and a water-isopropanol mixture has been determined by conductometry from which contribution of the individual components were estimated. The interaction of PVP with SDS in solution led to formation of a complex entity, which has been studied also by conductometry adopting a binding-equilibrium scheme. SDS has been found to undergo two types of binding as monomers in the pre- critical aggregation concentration (CAC) range and as small clusters in the post CAC region. The stoichiometries of binding and binding constant were evaluated. PMID:18307336

Dan, Abhijit; Ghosh, Soumen; Moulik, Satya P



Cooling capacity of molten salts and alkalis containing water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of cooling molten salts and alkalis in austempering and martempering by adding water to the bath at any temperature, which was developed and put into operation at the Gor'kovskii Metallurgical Plant, guarantees: 1) a constant temperature of the bath within limits of ±5°C; 2) constant amount of water in the bath, which increases the cooling capacity four to

V. N. Biryukova



Soil Water Content and Evaporation Determined by Thermal Parameters Obtained From Ground-Based and Remote Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil water contents from both smooth and rough bare soil were estimated from remotely sensed surface soil and air temperatures. We found an inverse relationship between two thermal parameters and gravimetric soil water content for Avondale loam when its water content was between air-dry and field capacity. These parameters, daily maximum minus minimum surface soil temperature and daily maximum soil

R. J. Reginato; S. B. Idso; J. F. Vedder; R. D. Jackson; M. B. Blanchard; R. Goettelman



C-Type Natriuretic Peptide Expression in Olfactory Regions of Rat Brain Is Modulated by Acute Water Deprivation, Salt Loading and Central Angiotensin II  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elucidate the central role of c-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), levels of CNP mRNA in control rat brain were compared with levels following acute water deprivation, salt loading and central administration of angiotensin II (AII), using Northern blot and in situ hybridisation. Rats with water deprivation (WD) had no access to water for 48 h, rats with salt loading (SL)

Vicky A. Cameron; Sarah A. Cumming; Eric A. Espiner; Gary Nicholls; Mark Richards



Determination of salt content in hot takeaway meals in the United Kingdom.  


High sodium intake is associated with negative health outcomes, including an independent correlation with high blood pressure which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. A high proportion of sodium intake in the UK is from processed and out of the home food; this includes takeaway food which is increasing in popularity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate salt levels in popular hot takeaway meals. A total of 411 samples of 23 different types of takeaway meals were analysed. Obtained results show the salt content in these kinds of foods is alarmingly high. Comparing medians (interquartile range) for different meal categories, Pizzas contained the highest salt content per portion (9.45 g (6.97-12.83)), followed by Chinese meals (8.07 g (5.47-10.99 g)), Kebabs (6.21 g (4.01-8.35)) and Indian meals (4.73 g (3.61-6.10)). In addition, significant differences in the salt content between meals within the same category were reported. To enable the consumer to meet the UK's target salt intake, a significant reduction in the salt content of hot takeaway meals should be considered. PMID:22772043

Jaworowska, Agnieszka; Blackham, Toni; Stevenson, Leonard; Davies, Ian G



[Effects of cooking methods on iodine content in iodized salt].  


Effects of cooking methods and variety of foods on the retention of iodine content in food with iodized salt were studied. Vegetables from market and usual cooking methods were selected, including procedures of various cooking methods. The samples were fixed by potassium carbonate, ashed with zinc sulfate at 550 degrees C, then determined by colorimetric method with Ce-As-I catalytical reaction. The different cooking methods had different effects on the retention of iodine, in general, the retention of iodine by stewing of steaming was higher than by stir-frying. The effect of various vegetables on the retention of iodine was also different. The retention of iodine after stir-frying was 84.2%, 56.9%, 44.5%, 36.6% for fruit-bearing vegetables, leafy vegetables, roots and beans. The retention of iodine after stewing was 66.1%, 53.4%, 47.0%, and 43.2% for fruit-bearing vegetables, roots, beans and meat. The stability of organic iodine in food is higher than that of inorganic iodine. PMID:11939033

Shi, L; Zhou, R; Wang, G



Effects of water flow rate, salt concentration and water temperature on efficiency of an electrolyzed oxidizing water generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-factor central composite design was adopted to investigate the effects of water flow rate, water temperature and salt concentration on electrolysis efficiency and separation efficiency of an electrolyzed oxidizing water generator. Results indicated that electric potential (7.9–15.7 V) and power consumption (16–120 W) of the electrolysis cell were not affected by water flow rate, water temperature or salt concentration

S. Y. Hsu



Salt effect in vapor-liquid equilibria: correlation of alcohol-, water-, salt systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isobaric data of Johnson and Furter for the systems methanol-water, ethanol-water, and l-propanol water, each saturated with a variety of common inorganic salts, can be effectively correlated by means of the van Laar, the Wilson or the Renon equations if pseudo-activity coefficients for the volatile components are computed using a modified reference fugacity for the liquid phase. This reference

R. W. Rousseau; D. L. Ashcraft; E. M. Schoenborn





Experiments were directed toward estimation of the magnitude of error incurred by the presumption of idealized osmometric behavior in the author's recent studies of monosaccharide transport through the human erythrocyte membrane. Thick suspensions of washed cells in isotonic buffered balanced salt medium were mixed in fixed proportions with varying dilutions of a concentrate of either (a) the mixed chlorides of the medium, or (b) glucose in the isotonic medium, and the resultant freezing point and hematocrit values determined. The form of the responses in the tonicity and the cell volume, as functions of the variable dilution of sugar or salts, conformed consistently with relations derived from the classical van't Hoff-Boyle-Mariotte pressure-volume relation. However, the effective cell water contents appeared substantially less than the weight lost in conventional drying, and varied somewhat according to the index used: expressed as grams of H(2)O per milliliter of cells at isotonic volume, the cell water implied by the hematocrit behavior was 0.614 +/- 0.015 (SD); by the salt tonicity response, 0.565 +/- 0.027; by the immediate glucose tonicity response, 0.562 +/- 0.044; and by the equilibrium glucose tonicities, 0.589 +/- 0.043. Olmstead's reports of gross deviation from the van't Hoff relation, in the rabbit red cell's responses to tonicity displacement, are attributed primarily to a systematic aberration in his method of data analysis, the observations themselves agreeing substantially with the present findings. PMID:14100971




The Osmotically Functional Water Content of the Human Erythrocyte  

PubMed Central

Experiments were directed toward estimation of the magnitude of error incurred by the presumption of idealized osmometric behavior in the author's recent studies of monosaccharide transport through the human erythrocyte membrane. Thick suspensions of washed cells in isotonic buffered balanced salt medium were mixed in fixed proportions with varying dilutions of a concentrate of either (a) the mixed chlorides of the medium, or (b) glucose in the isotonic medium, and the resultant freezing point and hematocrit values determined. The form of the responses in the tonicity and the cell volume, as functions of the variable dilution of sugar or salts, conformed consistently with relations derived from the classical van't Hoff-Boyle-Mariotte pressure-volume relation. However, the effective cell water contents appeared substantially less than the weight lost in conventional drying, and varied somewhat according to the index used: expressed as grams of H2O per milliliter of cells at isotonic volume, the cell water implied by the hematocrit behavior was 0.614 ± 0.015 (SD); by the salt tonicity response, 0.565 ± 0.027; by the immediate glucose tonicity response, 0.562 ± 0.044; and by the equilibrium glucose tonicities, 0.589 ± 0.043. Olmstead's reports of gross deviation from the van't Hoff relation, in the rabbit red cell's responses to tonicity displacement, are attributed primarily to a systematic aberration in his method of data analysis, the observations themselves agreeing substantially with the present findings.

LeFevre, Paul G.



Investigation of the Formation of Chlorination By-Products in Water Rich in Bromide and Organic Matter Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bench-scale chlorination experiments with river water rich in bromide and organic matter content were performed in order to investigate the behavior and speciation of the chlorination by-products, especially the brominated ones, which are considered more harmful to human health than their chlorinated analogues. The analysis of the compounds was performed by means of gas chromatography. Statistical treatment of the results

Anastasia D. Nikolaou



Errors in determination of soil water content using time domain reflectometry caused by soil compaction around waveguides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of time domain reflectometry (TDR) in soil hydrology often involves the conversion of TDR-measured dielectric permittivity to water content using universal calibration equations (empirical or physically based). Deviations of soil-specific calibrations from the universal calibrations have been noted and are usually attributed to peculiar composition of soil constituents, such as high content of clay and/or organic matter. Although it is recognized that soil disturbance by TDR waveguides may have impact on measurement errors, to our knowledge, there has not been any quantification of this effect. In this paper, we introduce a method that estimates this error by combining two models: one that describes soil compaction around cylindrical objects and another that translates change in bulk density to evolution of soil water retention characteristics. Our analysis indicates that the compaction pattern depends on the mechanical properties of the soil at the time of installation. The relative error in water content measurement depends on the compaction pattern as well as the water content and water retention properties of the soil. Illustrative calculations based on measured soil mechanical and hydrologic properties from the literature indicate that the measurement errors of using a standard three-prong TDR waveguide could be up to 10%. We also show that the error scales linearly with the ratio of rod radius to the interradius spacing.

Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.



Elucidating the Mechanism by Which Gypsum fibrosum, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Maintains Cutaneous Water Content.  


Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) plays an important role in maintaining the normal water content of the skin. Previously, we revealed that the expression of cutaneous AQP3 increased following oral administration of Gypsum fibrosum (main component: CaSO4) to mice. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the mechanism by which Gypsum fibrosum increases the expression of cutaneous AQP3 in a keratinocyte cell line. Gypsum fibrosum or CaSO4 was added to keratinocytes, and the expression level of AQP3, the Ca concentration, the activity of protein kinase C (PKC), and the degrees of phosphorylation of both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) were measured. The mRNA and protein expression levels of AQP3 increased significantly 6?h-post addition of Gypsum fibrosum. In keratinocytes treated with Gypsum fibrosum, increases in the concentration of intracellular Ca, PKC activity, and the phosphorylation of ERK and CREB were observed. Pre-treatment with GF109203X, a PKC inhibitor, suppressed the mRNA expression levels of AQP3. Similarly to treatment with Gypsum fibrosum, the addition of CaSO4 led to the same observations in keratinocytes. It is hypothesized that Gypsum fibrosum causes an increase in the intracellular Ca concentration, PKC activity, and the phosphorylation levels of ERK and CREB, resulting in increased AQP3 expression in keratinocytes. In addition, it is possible that the effect of Gypsum fibrosum is attributable to CaSO4, based on the results demonstrating that the mechanisms of action of Gypsum fibrosum and CaSO4 were nearly identical. PMID:23912684

Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Ogiue, Naoki; Toyoda, Eri; Nakamura, Marina; Kon, Risako; Kusunoki, Yoshiki; Aburada, Takashi; Ishii, Makoto; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Machida, Yoshiaki; Ochiai, Wataru; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi



46 CFR 45.77 - Salt water freeboard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Salt water freeboard. 45.77 Section 45.77 Shipping...GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Freeboards § 45.77 Salt water freeboard. (a) The salt water addition in inches to freeboard applicable...



46 CFR 45.77 - Salt water freeboard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Salt water freeboard. 45.77 Section 45.77 Shipping...GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Freeboards § 45.77 Salt water freeboard. (a) The salt water addition in inches to freeboard applicable...



46 CFR 45.77 - Salt water freeboard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Salt water freeboard. 45.77 Section 45.77 Shipping...LAKES LOAD LINES Freeboards § 45.77 Salt water freeboard. (a) The salt water addition in inches to freeboard applicable to...



46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section 45.37...LINES Load Line Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence River mustâ...



Organic tank safety project: Effect of water partial pressure on the equilibrium water contents of waste samples from Hanford Tank 241BY108  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water content plays a crucial role in the strategy developed by Webb et al. to prevent propagating or sustainable chemical reactions in the organic-bearing wastes stored in the 20 Organic Tank Watch List tanks at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. Because of water`s importance in ensuring that the organic-bearing wastes continue to be stored safely, Duke Engineering and

R. D. Scheele; P. R. Bredt; R. L. Sell



Quantifying Microbial Utilization of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Salt Marsh Sediments by Using the 13C Content of Bacterial rRNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural remediation of oil spills is catalyzed by complex microbial consortia. Here we took a whole- community approach to investigate bacterial incorporation of petroleum hydrocarbons from a simulated oil spill. We utilized the natural difference in carbon isotopic abundance between a salt marsh ecosystem supported by the 13C-enriched C4 grass Spartina alterniflora and 13 C-depleted petroleum to monitor changes in

Ann Pearson; Kimberly S. Kraunz; Alex L. Sessions; Anne E. Dekas; William D. Leavitt; Katrina J. Edwards



Effect of water and salt stresses on the growth, gas exchange and water relations in Argyranthemum coronopifolium plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants of Argyranthemum coronopifolium were submitted to water stress (preconditioned by watering every 3 days, two dry–wet cycles were imposed) and salt stress (15 days of exposure to 140 mm NaCl followed by a recovery period of 11 days), independently. Effects of water and salt stresses on gas exchange, water relations and growth parameters were investigated in order to know

F. De Herralde; C. Biel; R. Savé; M. A. Morales; A. Torrecillas; J. J. Alarcón; M. J. Sánchez-Blanco



Salt-assisted liquid–liquid microextraction with water-miscible organic solvents for the determination of carbonyl compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and rapid method has been reported for the determination of carbonyl compounds involving reaction with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and extraction of hydrazones with water-miscible organic solvent acetonitrile when the phase separation occurs by addition of ammonium sulphate, a process called salt-assisted liquid–liquid microextraction. The extract was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection at 360nm. The procedure has been

Manju Gupta; Archana Jain; Krishna K. Verma



Effect of salt loading and salt deprivation on the vasopressin and oxytocin content of the median eminence and the neural lobe in adrenalectomized rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In adrenalectomized rats the influence of salt loading or salt deprivation on the vasopressin and oxytocin content of the median eminence (ME) and the neural lobe (NL) was studied by means of various methods: (1) morphometric and microphotometric analysis of aldehyde fuchsin-stained sections of ME and NL; (2) immunohistochemical demonstration of neurophysin, oxytocin, and vasopressin in the ME and in

D. Mink; R. E. Lang; E. Östermann; R. Bock



Demulsification of bitumen emulsions using water soluble salts of polymers  

SciTech Connect

A process for recovering bitumen from oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions is disclosed wherein water-soluble demulsifiers are used. These demulsifiers are water-soluble salts of polymers prepared by the reaction between certain polyoxyalkylene diamines with diepoxides. To resolve the bituminous petroleum emulsions, the process is carried out between 25/sup 0/ and 160/sup 0/C. wherein the demulsifier of the invention is contacted with the bituminous emulsion.

McCoy, D.R.; Cuscurida, M.; Speranza, G.P.



Protein, casein, and micellar salts in milk: Current content and historical perspectives.  


The protein and fat content of Dutch bulk milk has been monitored since the 1950s and has increased considerably, by 11 and 20%, respectively, whereas milk yield has more than doubled. The change in protein and fat content of milk is advantageous for the dairy industry, as these are the 2 most economically valuable constituents of milk. Increases in protein and fat content of milk have allowed increases in the yield of various products such as cheese and butter. However, for cheese and other applications where casein micelles play a crucial role in structure and stability, it is not only casein content, but also the properties of the casein micelles that determine processability. Of particular importance herein is the salt partition in milk, but it is unknown whether increased protein content has affected the milk salts and their distribution between casein micelles and milk serum. It was, therefore, the objective of this research to determine the salt composition and protein content for individual cow milk and bulk milk over a period of 1yr and to compare these data to results obtained during the 1930s, 1950s, and 1960s in the last century. Calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and phosphorus content were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and inorganic phosphate, citrate, chloride, and sulfate content by anion-exchange chromatography in bulk milk and milk ultracentrifugate. In addition, ionic calcium and ionic magnesium concentration were determined by the Donnan membrane technique. We concluded that historical increase in milk yield and protein content in milk have resulted in correlated changes in casein content and the micellar salt fraction of milk. In addition, the essential nutrients, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus in milk have increased the past 75yr; therefore, the nutritional value of milk has improved. PMID:23849643

Bijl, E; van Valenberg, H J F; Huppertz, T; van Hooijdonk, A C M



Humic substances and the water calcium content change the toxicity of malachite green  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Laboratory experiments were conducted to test interactive effects of calcium(Ca 2+) content and the presence of humic substance (HS) on malachite green (MAG)-induced toxicity in fish embryos and larvae by means of a semistatic 144-h- embryo-larval-test with zebrafish (Danio rerio). Two kinds of reconstituted water samples were used to produce the test media by mixing salts into deionized water

T. Meinelt; M. Pietrock; A. Wienke; F. Völker



Evaluating climate change effects on water and salt resources in Salt Lake, Turkey using multitemporal SPOT imagery.  


The main goal of this study is to investigate the dimension of climate change effects in Salt Lake and its vicinity in Turkey using satellite remote sensing data. The first stage of the study includes evaluation of the multitemporal climatic data on the Salt Lake Basin Area, Turkey for a period of 35 years (1970-2005). The changes in mean temperature and precipitation are evaluated for the study area by comparing two periods, 1970-1992 and 1993-2005. In the second stage, the effects of climate changes in the Salt Lake are investigated by evaluating water and salt reserve changes through seasonal and multitemporal SPOT imagery collected in 1987 and 2005. The climatic data and remotely sensed and treated satellite images show that water and salt reserve in Salt Lake has decreased between 1987 and 2005 due to drought and uncontrolled water usage. It is suggested that the use of water supplies, especially underground waters, around the Salt Lake should be controlled and the lake should regularly be monitored by current remote sensing data for an effective management of water and salt resources in the region. PMID:19267206

Ekercin, Semih; Ormeci, Cankut




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

61. VIEW OF SALT RIVER PROJECT WELL DISCHARGING WATER INTO THE ARIZONA CANAL NEAR 47TH AVENUE, LOOKING SOUTH Photographer: James Eastwood, July 1990 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ


Odour–taste interactions: A way to enhance saltiness in low-salt content solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated odour–saltiness interactions in aqueous solutions. In a first experiment, 81 consumers indicated expected taste attributes for 86 labels of flavour related to common food items. Panellists were able to rate expected saltiness of food flavour evoked by food written items. Differences in expected saltiness were observed in relation to actual salt content of food. In experiment 2,

G. Lawrence; C. Salles; C. Septier; J. Busch; T. Thomas-Danguin



Rock-salt Zn1?xMgxO epilayer having high Zn content grown on MgO (100) substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zn1?xMgxO epitaxial layers with x=0.5 and 0.2 were prepared by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on MgO (100) substrate. X-ray diffraction characterization revealed that both samples retain the rock-salt structure due to the confinement by the substrate lattice with low FWHM values (0.30–0.47°) of the (200) rocking curves. The epilayer surfaces are flat having a root mean square roughness of ˜1.0nm as measured by atomic force microscopy. According to reciprocal space map and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses, the epitaxial strains have been partly relaxed at film thicknesses of 110–130nm. In fact, a further relaxation of the strain when preparing the TEM specimen from the Zn0.8Mg0.2O epitaxial layer triggers a reverse transformation from the rock-salt structure to the wurtzite one. The bandgap energy of the Zn0.8Mg0.2O epitaxial layer is found to be as low as 4.73eV.

Lu, C.-Y. J.; Yan, T.; Chang, L.; Ploog, K. H.; Chou, M. M. C.; Chiang, C.-M.



Comments on “Electrical conductivity of wadsleyite as a function of temperature and water content” by Manthilake et al.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent paper, Manthilake et al. [Manthilake, M.A.G.M., et al. Electrical conductivity of wadsleyite as a function of temperature and water content. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, in press] presented the results of experimental study on the electrical conductivity of wadsleyite and concluded that the influence of water is small at transition zone temperatures and that a high concentration of water (hydrogen) cannot explain the observed conductivity in the transition zone as oppose to the conclusion originally obtained by Huang et al. [Huang, X., Xu, Y., Karato, S., 2005. Water content of the mantle transition zone from the electrical conductivity of wadsleyite and ringwoodite. Nature 434, 746-749) from a similar experimental study. In this note, we discuss the causes of discrepancies between the results by two groups and show that almost all the differences are due to the experimental artifacts in the studies by Manthilake et al. and Yoshino et al. [Manthilake, M.A.G.M., et al. Electrical conductivity of wadsleyite as a function of temperature and water content. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, in press; Yoshino, T., Manthilake, G., Matsuzaki, T., Katsura, T., 2008a. Dry mantle transition zone inferred from the conductivity of wadsleyite and ringwoodite. Nature 451, 326-329] namely (i) the use of inappropriate method of determining electrical conductivity and (ii) the use of the data from a sample of wadsleyite with a substantial amount of water as a "dry" conductivity. A comparison of electrical conductivity of truly "dry" wadsleyite and olivine shows that the conductivity is similar at the same pressure and temperature. We also show that the use of one frequency method results in systematic errors in the conductivity measurements that explains the discrepancies in the results by two sets of studies. When an appropriate method for determining electrical conductivity (i.e., the impedance spectroscopy) is used and when the results of truly dry sample are used for the background dry conductivity, we find that the influence of water (hydrogen) is large enough to explain a majority of variation of electrical conductivity by the regional variation in water content.

Karato, Shun-ichiro; Dai, Lidong



Soil surface water content estimation by full-waveform GPR signal inversion in presence of thin layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterizing the spatial distribution of the soil surface water content at various scales is essential in many researches and applications. There is still now a scale gap between small-scale invasive techniques and large-scale remote sensing acquisition of soil water content data. To bridge this scale gap, we have developed a specific proximal ground penetrating radar (GPR) approach based on international

J. Minet; S. Lambot; E. Slob; M. Vanclooster



Iodine in drinking water varies by more than 100-fold in Denmark. Importance for iodine content of infant formulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The iodine intake level of the population is of major importance for the occurrence of thyroid disorders in an area. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the importance of drinking water iodine content for the known regional differences in iodine intake in Denmark and for the iodine content of infant formulas. Iodine in tap water obtained from

K M Pedersen; P Laurberg; S Nøhr; A Jørgensen; S Andersen



Probing local water contents of in vitro protein films by ultrasonic force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By means of ultrasonic force microscopy and lateral force microscopy we measure adhesion hysteresis and friction on protein films of bovine serum albumin and concanavalin A at local scales. Our investigations at different relative humidities (less than 5% and at 50% relative humidity) correspond to dehydrated and hydrated states of proteins. We demonstrate that a substantial increase of adhesion hysteresis with relative humidity is sensitive measure of protein-water binding capacity at local scales.

Szoszkiewicz, Robert; Kulik, Andrzej J.; Gremaud, Gerard; Lekka, Malgorzata



Deuterium Content of Naturally Occurring Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE deuterium content of naturally occurring water has so far been determined by two methods-from the mass-spectrogram of the hydrogen derived from it; and from the specific gravity of deuterium-free water. The former method1 gave for the abundance ratio H\\/D the value 5000 +\\/-500, while two discrepant values2,3 have been obtained by the latter, namely 9000 and 5750+\\/-250.

A. J. Edwards; R. P. Bell; J. H. Wolfenden



Measuring Snow's Liquid Water Content.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. The liquid, or unfrozen, water in a snowpack has a major effect on the absorption, reflection and transmission by the snow of electromagnetic waves. Often the effect...



The influence of water content and drug solubility on the formulation of pellets by extrusion and spheronisation.  


The influence of drug solubility in the range 14.3-1000 gl-1 on the formation of pellets by extrusion and spheronisation has been investigated by evaluating the performance of a series of model drugs mixed with an equal part by weight of microcrystalline cellulose. The optimum formulation in terms of pellet roundness and the maximum quantity within a limited size range was established by preparing samples with a range of water levels. The range of water levels over which pellets could be formed was found to be dependent on the model drug and its particle size. In general the force necessary to extrude the wet mass through the ram extruder was found to decrease as the quantity of water added increased. The optimum water level required to form the best quality pellets was found to decrease as a linear function of the natural logarithm of the water solubility of the drug. If allowance is made for the loss of solid by dissolution of the drug, there is an increase in the apparent water content necessary to form good spheres above a critical solubility between 350 and 400 gl-1. PMID:10210738

Lustig-Gustafsson, C; Kaur Johal, H; Podczeck, F; Newton, J M



Temporal stability of soil water content in a small grassland head water catchment in western Germany observed by a wireless sensor network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil water content plays a key role in soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum process as well as the water, energy and CO2 budgets. The knowledge of spatial variability and temporal stability of soil water content is useful for the development of ground truthing strategies of remote sensing data and hydrological modeling. For this study we employed the wireless sensor network SoilNet developed by the Forschungszentrum Jülich to detect high resolution soil water content pattern of a grassland headwater catchment in Western Germany within the framework of the TERENO initiative. Soil water content was measured using newly developed time domain transmission sensors, which were installed in three depths (5, 20 and 50 cm). The mean relative difference is currently the principal tool for temporal stability analysis, which is computed by the individual measurements of soil water content at different locations in time. Sensor locations with a small mean relative difference provide a good estimation of the areal average of soil water content, whereas a small standard deviation indicates a great tendency of being temporally stable. This study showed that several locations for each depth are temporally stable but no location was found where all depths are equally temporal stable. Soil depth, soil properties such as soil porosity and soil hydraulic conductivity, root water uptake of the growing plants, and the time scale affected the temporal stability at the test site. With increasing soil depth, the standard deviation was decreasing, with a mean of the standard deviation from 1.79% to 0.87%, and a variance of the standard deviation from 0.58% to 0.19% . By increasing the time scale from 1 to 24 hour, the standard deviation was increasing as well, with a mean of the standard deviation from 2.7% to 9.8% and a variance of standard deviation from 1.9% to 5.7%. These findings are of relevance for applications of geospatial surface SWC assimilation in hydrologic modeling when only point-scale observations are available, as well as, remotely sensing surface SWC calibration and validation studies.

Qu, W.; Bogena, H.; Montzka, C.; Vereecken, H.



High-water-content mouldable hydrogels by mixing clay and a dendritic molecular binder.  


With the world's focus on reducing our dependency on fossil-fuel energy, the scientific community can investigate new plastic materials that are much less dependent on petroleum than are conventional plastics. Given increasing environmental issues, the idea of replacing plastics with water-based gels, so-called hydrogels, seems reasonable. Here we report that water and clay (2-3 per cent by mass), when mixed with a very small proportion (<0.4 per cent by mass) of organic components, quickly form a transparent hydrogel. This material can be moulded into shape-persistent, free-standing objects owing to its exceptionally great mechanical strength, and rapidly and completely self-heals when damaged. Furthermore, it preserves biologically active proteins for catalysis. So far no other hydrogels, including conventional ones formed by mixing polymeric cations and anions or polysaccharides and borax, have been reported to possess all these features. Notably, this material is formed only by non-covalent forces resulting from the specific design of a telechelic dendritic macromolecule with multiple adhesive termini for binding to clay. PMID:20090750

Wang, Qigang; Mynar, Justin L; Yoshida, Masaru; Lee, Eunji; Lee, Myongsoo; Okuro, Kou; Kinbara, Kazushi; Aida, Takuzo



Stability of salt in the Permian salt basin of Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas and New Mexico, with a section on dissolved salts in surface water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Permian salt basin in the Western Interior of the United States is defined as that region comprising a series of sedimentary basins in which halite and associated salts accumulated during Permian time. The region includes the western parts of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas, and eastern parts of Colorado and New Mexico. Following a long period of general tectonic stability throughout the region during most of early Paleozoic time, there was much tectonic activity in the area of the Permian salt basin during Late Pennsylvanian and Early Permian time just before bedded salt was deposited. The Early Permian tectonism was followed by stabilization of the basins in which the salt was deposited. These salt basins were neither contemporaneous nor continuous throughout the region, so that many salt beds are also discontinuous. In general, beds in the northern part of the basin (Kansas and northern Oklahoma) are older and the salt is progressively younger towards the south. Since Permian time the Permian salt basin has been relatively stable tectonically. Regionally, the area of the salt basin has been tilted and warped, has undergone periods of erosion, and has been subject to a major incursion of the sea; but deep-seated faults or igneous intrusions that postdate Permian salt are rare. In areas of the salt basin where salt is near the surface, such as southeastern New Mexico and central Kansas, there are no indications of younger deep-seated faulting and only a few isolated igneous intrusives of post-Permian age. On the other hand, subsidence or collapse of the land surface resulting from dissolution has been commonplace in the Permian salt basin. Some dissolution of salt deposits has probably been taking place ever since deposition of the salt more than 230 million years ago. Nevertheless, the subsurface dissolution fronts of the thick bedded-salt deposits of the Permian basin have retreated at a very slow average rate during that 230 million years. The preservation of bedded salt from subsurface dissolution depends chiefly on the isolation of the salt from moving ground water that is not completely saturated with salt. Karst topography is a major criterion for recognizing areas where subsurface dissolution has been active in the past; therefore, the age of the karst development is needed to provide the most accurate estimate of the dissolution rate. The Ogallala Formation-of Pliocene age is probably the most widespread deposit in the Permian salt basin that can be used as a point of reference for dating the development of recent topography. It is estimated that salt has been dissolved laterally in the vicinity of Carlsbad, New Mexico, at an average rate of about 6-8 miles per million years. Estimates of future rates of salt dissolution and the resulting lateral retreat of the underground dissolution front can be projected with reasonable confidence for southeastern New Mexico on the assumption that the climatic changes there in the past 4 million years are representative of climatic changes that may be expected in the near future of geologic time. Large amounts of salt are carried by present-day rivers in the Permian salt basin; some of the salt is derived from subsurface salt beds, but dissolution is relatively slow. Ground-water movement through the Permian salt basin is also relatively slow.

Bachman, George Odell; Johnson, Ross Byron.



Attachment of Escherichia coli to Soil Aggregates as Affected by Aggregate Water Content and Presence of Manure Constituents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many soils contain relatively large structural units that do not slack when soil is being wetted. Soil aggregates, obtained from dry soil samples by sieving, present a model media to study the interactions of intact soils with dissolved or suspended contaminants. Land-applied manures may contain various contaminants that cause water pollution and concomitant health problems. Some of these pollutants are bacteria, and Echerichia coli is widely used as an indicator of bacterial contamination. The objective of this work was to test the hypothesis that Echerichia coli attachment to soil aggregates is affected by aggregate size, aggregate water content, and presence of suspended manure colloids and dissolved organic compounds. Three aggregate fractions of 3.4-4.8 mm, 4.8-7.9 mm and 7.9-9.5 mm diameters were obtained by dry sieving of a loam soil. Air-dry and water-saturated aggregates were submerged in bacteria-water and bacteria-manure suspensions at four E. coli concentrations for 24 h. Amounts of attached E. coli were calculated from the difference between the amount applied and the amount remained in the suspension. Significant differences in E. coli attachment to air-dry and saturated aggregates were found. Both increase in water content and the presence of manure significantly decreased the Echerichia coli attachment to all aggregate fractions regardless of the aggregate size. Because E. coli transport in soil generally occurs through large pores between structural units when rainfall follows manure application, the decrease in bacteria attachment as a result of soil saturation and presence of suspended or dissolved manure components can enhance bacterial mobility and increase risk of ground water contamination.

Guber, A.; Pachepsky, Y.; Shelton, D. R.; Yu, O.



Exogenous proline effects on water relations and ions contents in leaves and roots of young olive.  


The ability of exogenous compatible solutes, such as proline, to counteract salt inhibitory effects was investigated in 2-year-old olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali) subjected to different saline water irrigation levels supplied or not with exogenous proline. Leaf water relations [relative water content (RWC), water potential], photosynthetic activity, leaf chlorophyll content, and starch contents were measured in young and old leaves. Salt ions (Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+)), proline and soluble sugars contents were determined in leaf and root tissues. Supplementary proline significantly mitigated the adverse effects of salinity via the improvement of photosynthetic activity (Pn), RWC, chlorophyll and carotenoid, and starch contents. Pn of young leaves in the presence of 25 mM proline was at 1.18 and 1.38 times higher than the values recorded under moderate (SS1) and high salinity (SS2) treatments, respectively. Further, the proline supply seems to have a more important relaxing effect on the photosynthetic chain in young than in old leaves of salt-stressed olive plants. The differential pattern of proline content between young and old leaves suggests that there would be a difference between these tissues in distinguishing between the proline taken from the growing media and that produced as a result of salinity stress. Besides, the large reduction in Na(+) accumulation in leaves and roots in the presence of proline could be due to its interference in osmotic adjustment process and/or its dilution by proline supply. Moreover, the lower accumulation of Na(+) in proline-treated plants, compared to their corresponding salinity treatment, displayed the improved effect of proline on the ability of roots to exclude the salt ions from the xylem sap flowing to the shoot, and thus better growth rates. PMID:20617349

Ben Ahmed, Ch; Magdich, S; Ben Rouina, B; Sensoy, S; Boukhris, M; Ben Abdullah, F



Profile of iodine content of salt at trader level in the selected districts of India: Part I - Madhya Pradesh.  


Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) are endemic in Madhya Pradesh. Since consuming iodized salt is the best way to prevent IDD, the government of Madhya Pradesh under the National Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Program (NIDDCP) has followed a policy of universal salt iodization (USI) since 1984, under which the state's population receives only iodized salt. However, despite this policy, the prevalence of IDD remains high in Madhya Pradesh. UNICEF-PAMM-MI-WHO-ICCIDD recently recommended monitoring the iodine content of salt at the trader level as a means of assessing the quality of salt being consumed by the population. The authors assessed the iodine content and types of iodized salt being sold by traders in Bastar, Dhar, Indore, Morena, Ratlam, Shahdol, Sidhi, Sihore, and Vidisha districts. From each district, more than 7 salt samples were collected from traders in district and block markets. Analysis of a total 108 salt samples using the standard iodometric titration method found that all samples contained some iodine. 35% of the traders, however, were selling salt containing less than 15 ppm of iodine, below the state government recommended minimum level of salt iodization for the retail level. PMID:12292800

Kapil, U; Singh, C; Mathur, A; Ramachandran, S; Yadav, R


Receptacle model of salting-in by tetramethylammonium ions.  


Water is a poor solvent for nonpolar solutes. Water containing ions is an even poorer solvent. According to standard terminology, the tendency of salts to precipitate oils from water is called salting-out. However, interestingly, some salt ions, such as tetramethylammonium (TMA), cause instead the salting-in of hydrophobic solutes. Even more puzzling, there is a systematic dependence on solute size. TMA causes the salting-out of small hydrophobes and the salting-in of larger nonpolar solutes. We study these effects using NPT Monte Carlo simulations of the Mercedes-Benz (MB) + dipole model of water, which was previously shown to account for hydrophobic effects and ion solubilities in water. The present model gives a structural interpretation for the thermodynamics of salting-in. The TMA structure allows deep penetration by a first shell of waters, the dipoles of which interact electrostatically with the ion. This first water shell sets up a second water shell that is shaped to act as a receptacle that binds the nonpolar solute. In this way, a nonpolar solute can actually bind more tightly to the TMA ion than to another hydrophobe, leading to the increased solubility and salting-in. Such structuring may also explain why molecular ions do not follow the same charge density series as atomic ions do. PMID:21028768

Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A; Vlachy, Vojko



Evaluation of the direct and diffusion methods for the determination of fluoride content in table salt  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to assess methods currently used for analyzing fluoridated salt in order to identify the most useful method for this type of analysis. Basic research design Seventy-five fluoridated salt samples were obtained. Samples were analyzed for fluoride content, with and without pretreatment, using direct and diffusion methods. Element analysis was also conducted in selected samples. Fluoride was added to ultra pure NaCl and non-fluoridated commercial salt samples and Ca and Mg were added to fluoride samples in order to assess fluoride recoveries using modifications to the methods. Results Larger amounts of fluoride were found and recovered using diffusion than direct methods (96%–100% for diffusion vs. 67%–90% for direct). Statistically significant differences were obtained between direct and diffusion methods using different ion strength adjusters. Pretreatment methods reduced the amount of recovered fluoride. Determination of fluoride content was influenced both by the presence of NaCl and other ions in the salt. Conclusion Direct and diffusion techniques for analysis of fluoridated salt are suitable methods for fluoride analysis. The choice of method should depend on the purpose of the analysis.

Martinez-Mier, E. Angeles; Soto-Rojas, Armando E.; Buckley, Christine M.; Margineda, Jorge; Zero, Domenick T.



Matrix-elimination with steam distillation for determination of short-chain fatty acids in hypersaline waters from pre-salt layer by ion-exclusion chromatography.  


A method for determination of formic, acetic, propionic and butyric acids in hypersaline waters by ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC), using steam distillation to eliminate matrix-interference, was developed. The steam distillation variables such as type of solution to collect the distillate, distillation time and volume of the 50% v/v H?SO? solution were optimized. The effect of the addition of NaCl different concentrations to the calibration standards on the carboxylic acid recovery was also investigated. Detection limits of 0.2, 0.5, 0.3 and 1.5 mg L?¹ were obtained for formic, acetic, propionic and butyric acids, respectively. Produced waters from petroleum reservoirs in the Brazilian pre-salt layer containing about 19% m/v of NaCl were analyzed. Good recoveries (99-108%) were obtained for all acids in spiked produced water samples. PMID:22226459

Ferreira, Fernanda N; Carneiro, Manuel C; Vaitsman, Delmo S; Pontes, Fernanda V M; Monteiro, Maria Inês C; Silva, Lílian Irene D da; Neto, Arnaldo Alcover



A role for nongovernmental organizations in monitoring the iodine content of salt in northern India.  

PubMed Central

The feasibility of using nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to monitor the iodine content of salt was studied in Uttar Pradesh, northern India, where iodine-deficiency disorders (IDDs) are endemic. Three NGOs already involved in health and development activities in the Gorakhpur, Varanasi, and Dehradun regions collected salt samples monthly from households and shops in selected villages over a 6-month period. A total of 4001 samples were analysed at regional laboratories by trained personnel using a standard protocol; 10% of the samples were sent to a central laboratory for external quality control. The iodine content lay in the range 0-95 mg/kg of salt; it was particularly low in the Gorakhpur and Varanasi regions, where over 80% of samples contained less than the minimum recommended level of 15 mg/kg; 37% of samples were in this category in the Dehradun region. Regular monitoring of the iodine content of salt at the consumer level is essential for the elimination of IDDs, and there is a need to improve awareness of this at all levels. NGOs can play a valuable role in both of these respects.

Pandav, C. S.; Pandav, S.; Anand, K.; Wajih, S. A.; Prakash, S.; Singh, J.; Karmarkar, M. G.



Brines formed by multi-salt deliquescence  

SciTech Connect

The FY05 Waste Package Environment testing program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory focused on determining the temperature, relative humidity, and solution compositions of brines formed due to the deliquescence of NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures. Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of these brines is important because they define conditions under which brines may react with waste canister surfaces. Boiling point experiments show that NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures form brines that transform to hydrous melts that do not truly 'dry out' until temperatures exceed 300 and 400 C, respectively. Thus a conducting solution is present for these salt assemblages over the thermal history of the repository. The corresponding brines form at lower relative humidity at higher temperatures. The NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has a mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.8% at 180 C. Similarly, the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. The KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture salts also absorb some water (but do not appear to deliquesce) at 180 C and thus may also contribute to the transfer of electrons at interface between dust and the waste package surface. There is no experimental evidence to suggest that these brines will degas and form less deliquescent salt assemblages. Ammonium present in atmospheric and tunnel dust (as the chloride, nitrate, or sulfate) will readily decompose in the initial heating phase of the repository, and will affect subsequent behavior of the remaining salt mixture only through the removal of a stoichiometric equivalent of one or more anions. Although K-Na-NO{sub 3}-Cl brines form at high temperature and low relative humidity, these brines are dominated by nitrate, which is known to inhibit corrosion at lower temperature. Nitrate to chloride ratios of the NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture are about NO{sub 3}:Cl = 19:1. The role of nitrate on corrosion at higher temperatures is addressed in a companion report (Dixit et al., 2005).

Carroll, S; Rard, J; Alai, M; Staggs, K



Improved tolerance to salt and water stress in Drosophila melanogaster cells conferred by late embryogenesis abundant protein.  


Mechanisms that govern anhydrobiosis involve the accumulation of highly hydrophilic macromolecules, such as late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins. Group 1 LEA proteins comprised of 181 (AfLEA1.1) and 197 (AfLEA1.3) amino acids were cloned from embryos of Artemia franciscana and expressed in Drosophila melanogaster cells (Kc167). Confocal microscopy revealed a construct composed of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and AfLEA1.3 accumulates in the mitochondria (AfLEA1.3-GFP), while AfLEA1.1-GFP was found in the cytoplasm. In the presence of mixed substrates, oxygen consumption was statistically identical for permeabilized Kc167 control and Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells. Acute titrations of permeabilized cells with NaCl up to 500 mM led to successive drops in oxygen flux, which were significantly ameliorated by 18% in Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells compared to Kc167 controls. Mitochondria were isolated from both cell types and resuspended in a sucrose-based buffer solution. The purified mitochondria from Kc167 control cells showed significantly larger reductions in respiratory capacities after one freeze-thaw cycle (-80°C) compared to mitochondria isolated from Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells. When cultured in the presence of a non-permeant osmolyte (50-200 mM sucrose) cells expressing AfLEA1.3 showed significantly improved viability (10-15%) during this hyperosmotic challenge as compared to Kc167 controls. Furthermore, Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells survived desiccation by convective air drying in presence of 200 mM extracellular trehalose to lower final moisture contents than did control Kc167 cells (0.36 g H2O/g DW vs.1.02 g H2O/g DW). Thus, AfLEA1.3 exerts a protective influence on mitochondrial function and increases viability of Kc167 cells during water stress. PMID:23376561

Marunde, Matthew R; Samarajeewa, Dilini A; Anderson, John; Li, Shumin; Hand, Steven C; Menze, Michael A



Effect of nitrogen, salt, and iron content in the growth medium and light intensity on lipid production by microalgae isolated from freshwater sources in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four green microalgae (TRG, KB, SK, and PSU) identified as Botryococcus spp. by morphological criteria were isolated from lakes and freshwater ponds in southern Thailand. In nitrogen-rich medium the strains achieved a lipid content of 25.8%, 17.8%, 15.8% and 5.7%, respectively. A combination of nitrogen deficiency, moderately high light intensity (82.5?Em?2s?1) and high level of iron (0.74mM) improved lipid accumulation

Chittra Yeesang; Benjamas Cheirsilp



Characteristics of salt taste and free chlorine or chloramine in drinking water.  


Salty taste with or without chlorine or chloramine flavour is one of the major consumer complaints to water utilities. The flavour profile analysis (FPA) taste panel method determined the average taste threshold concentration for salt (NaCl) in Milli-Q water to be 640 +/- 3 mg/L at pH 8. Chlorine and chloramine disinfectants have no antagonistic or synergistic effects on the taste of NaCl, salt, in Milli-Q water. The flavour threshold concentrations for chlorine or chloramine in Milli-Q water alone or in the presence of NaCl could not be estimated by the Weber-Fechner curves due to the chlorine or chloramine flavour outliers in the 0.2-0.8 mg/L concentration range. Apparently, NaCl is not equilibrated with the concentration of ions in the saliva in the mouth and the concentration of free chlorine or chloramines cannot be tasted correctly. Therefore, dechlorinated tap water may be the best background water to use for a particular drinking water evaluation of chlorine and chloramine thresholds. Laboratory FPA studies of free chlorine found that a 67% dilution of Central Arizona Project (CAP) (Tucson, AZ) water with Milli-O water was required to reduce the free chlorine flavour to a threshold value instead of a theoretical value of 80% (Krasner and Barrett, 1980). No synergistic effect was found for chlorine flavour on the dilution of CAP water with Milli-Q water. When Central Avra Valley (AVRA) groundwater was used for the dilution of CAP water, a synergistic effect of the TDS present was observed for the chlorine flavour. Apparently, the actual mineral content of drinking water, and not just NaCl in Milli-Q water, is needed for comparative flavour tests for chlorine and chloramines. PMID:17489422

Wiesenthal, K E; McGuire, M J; Suffet, I H



Integrated production of fresh water, sea salt and magnesium from sea water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seawater desalination is becoming an important source of fresh water in several countries all around the world. One of the main drawbacks of desalination processes, however, is related to the disposal of large quantities of concentrated brine, which is an always-present by-product of the process. An integrated production of fresh water and salts may be achieved using the discharge brine

Andrea Cipollina; Angelo Misseri; Giacomo D’Alì Staiti; Alessandro Galia; Giorgio Micale; Onofrio Scialdone



Placental water content and distribution.  


The percentage of total placental water (%H2O(T)), maternal (%MBV) and fetal (%FBV) blood volumes, non-vascular extracellular (%EW) and intracellular (%IW) water, and villous histology were studied in placentas from 12 normal term pregnancies after a normal vaginal delivery, 19 caesarean sections at term after a normal pregnancy and history of a previous caesarean section and 47 caesarean sections at term or preterm due to pregnancy complications. Values were derived from change in placental dry weight, maternal and fetal haemoglobin content and 51CrEDTA space after incubation of placental fragments. Normal ranges (mean +/- SD) after term vaginal delivery were: H2O(T) 83.9 +/- 0.2%, MBV 10.9 +/- 0.2%, FBV 7.4 +/- 0.9%, EW 57.3 +/- 1.3% and IW 11.2 +/- 0.6%. %H2O(T) was higher after caesarean section; other measurements were not affected. There were no differences between placentas after 33-37 and after 38-42 weeks gestation. Three of eight placentas after rhesus incompatibility had %H2O(T) above the mean +2SD of term placentas and five of 17 IUGR placentas were below the mean -2SD. The remaining placentas following maternal pre-eclampsia, hypertension, or diabetes had no apparent alteration in %H2O(T). A blind histological diagnosis of 'true' oedema was associated with both a significantly high %IW and %H2O(T). Perhaps this is due to alteration in placental cell volume regulation in certain situations. PMID:8208669

Barker, G; Boyd, R D; D'Souza, S W; Donnai, P; Fox, H; Sibley, C P



Determination of Water Content in Automobile Lubricant Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Improved by Machine Learning Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this paper is to determine the water content of automobile lubricant based on the near-infrared (NIR) spectra collected and to observe whether NIR spectroscopy could be used for predicting water content. Least square support vector machine (LS-SVM), back-propagation neural networks (BPNN) and Gaussian processes regression (GPR) were employed to develop prediction models. There were 150 samples

Zhao Yun; Xu Xing; Jiang Lu-lu; Zhang Yu; Tan Li-hong; He Yong



Spectroscopic measurement of glucose content in a solution involving the water molecule clusters downsized by ultrasonic cavitations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In near-infrared spectroscopy, the detection of low glucose condensation around 100 mg/dl is extremely difficult owing to various hydrogen-bonded water clusters. Ultrasonic cavitations were effective to downsize them or reconstruct them. It was found that glucose solution attacked by cavitations had a peculiar recovery time depending on the glucose condensation until its chemical reaction approached the equilibrium. The absorbance profiles of such varying solutions manifested that their variations depended on the glucose content and the PLS regression method for them enabled estimating the glucose condensation with an accuracy of ±16 mg/dl.

Saiga, Noriaki; Matsuda, Kenji



Effect of chloride content of molten nitrate salt on corrosion of A516 carbon steel.  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion behavior of A516 carbon steel was evaluated to determine the effect of the dissolved chloride content in molten binary Solar Salt. Corrosion tests were conducted in a molten salt consisting of a 60-40 weight ratio of NaNO{sub 3} and KNO{sub 3} at 400{sup o}C and 450{sup o}C for up to 800 hours. Chloride concentrations of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% were investigated to determine the effect on corrosion of this impurity, which can be present in comparable amounts in commercial grades of the constituent salts. Corrosion rates were determined by descaled weight losses, corrosion morphology was examined by metallographic sectioning, and the types of corrosion products were determined by x-ray diffraction. Corrosion proceeded by uniform surface scaling and no pitting or intergranular corrosion was observed. Corrosion rates increased significantly as the concentration of dissolved chloride in the molten salt increased. The adherence of surface scales, and thus their protective properties, was degraded by dissolved chloride, fostering more rapid corrosion. Magnetite was the only corrosion product formed on the carbon steel specimens, regardless of chloride content or temperature.

Bradshaw, Robert W.; Clift, W. Miles



Effects of Carbon Dioxide, Water Supply, and Seasonality on Terpene Content and Emission by Rosmarinus officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosmarinus officinalis L. plants were grown under carbon dioxide concentrations of 350 and 700 µmol\\/mol (atmospheric CO2 and elevated CO2) and under two levels of irrigation (high water and low water) from October 1, 1994 to May 31, 1996. Elevated CO2 led to increasingly larger monthly growth rates than the atmospheric CO2 treatments. The increase was 9.5% in spring 1995,

Josep Peñuelas; Joan Llusià



Genetics of water content in sugarbeet roots  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water contributes the greatest portion of harvested sugarbeet weight. Due to the convenience of measuring sucrose in solution, such as that extracted in beet juice, little information on the inheritance of water content in beets is available. Water content has a direct influence on the percent of ...


Dopaminergic control of neonatal salt and water metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is reason to believe that the dopaminergic system plays a role in the control of salt and water metabolism in the neonate. Therefore, we performed a series of studies designed to test this assumption and reveal the relationship between dopamine (DA) and other factors known to affect salt and water balance. The postnatal course of urinary dopamine excretion was

Endre Sulyok



Identification and Control of Pollution from Salt Water Intrusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains informational guidelines for identifying and evaluating the nature and extent of pollution from salt water intrusion. The intent of these guidelines is to provide a basic framework for assessing salt water intrusion problems and their relationship to the total hydrologic system, and to provide assistance in developing…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.


Profile of iodine content of salt at trader level in the selected districts of India: Part II - Haryana.  


Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) are endemic in Haryana state. Since consuming iodized salt is the best way to prevent IDD, the government of Haryana under the National Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Program (NIDDCP) has followed a policy of universal salt iodization (USI) since 1986, under which the state's population receives only iodized salt. However, despite this policy, the prevalence of IDD remains high in Haryana. UNICEF-PAMM-MI-WHO-ICCIDD recently recommended monitoring the iodine content of salt at the trader level as a means of assessing the quality of salt being consumed by the population. The authors assessed the iodine content and types of iodized salt being sold by traders in 13 of Haryana's 16 districts. Analysis of a total 117 salt samples from 117 traders using the standard iodometric titration method found all but one sample to contain some iodine. 20% of the traders, however, were selling salt containing less than 15 ppm of iodine, below the state government recommended minimum level of salt iodization for the retail level. PMID:12292802

Kapil, U; Nayar, D; Singh, C


Freezing tolerance and soluble sugar contents affected by water stress during cold-acclimation and de-acclimation in cabbage seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of water stress on freezing tolerance during cold-acclimation and de-acclimation in cabbage seedlings were studied. The seedlings were subjected to water stress by withholding water. The treatment wilted the seedlings and decreased the water content of their shoots. Exposure of seedlings to low temperatures (5°C) for 7 days induced freezing tolerance. Water stress promoted the increase in freezing

Hidekazu Sasaki; Kazuo Ichimura; Kunihiko Okada; Masayuki Oda



Abscisic Acid Content of Senescing Petals on Cut Rose Flowers As Affected by Sucrose and Water Stress 1  

PubMed Central

Leafless cut Superstar roses (Rosa hyb.) were kept in a 1% sucrose solution. During the first few days of treatment, the abscisic acid content and the water deficit in the petals was higher in treated flowers than in controls kept in water. Later and up to the termination of the flower's life, ABA content and water deficit values were lower in petals of sucrose-treated flowers than in controls. Water stress treatments resulted in higher water deficit values and higher ABA content of petals. An 8-day sucrose treatment following temporary water stress improved the quality of flowers and reduced the level of ABA in the petals. We conclude that the effect which sucrose has on the ABA content of rose petals is at least partly due to its effect on changes in water deficit in the petals. This happens in spite of the fact that rose petals have no stomata, and therefore, ABA is not involved in regulating water balance via the stomata.

Borohov, Amihud; Tirosh, Tsipora; Halevy, Abraham H.



Assessment of drinking water radioactivity content by liquid scintillation counting: set up of high sensitivity and emergency procedures.  


In our institute, different procedures have been developed to measure the radioactivity content of drinking water both in normal and in emergency situations, such as those arising from accidental and terrorist events. A single radiometric technique, namely low level liquid scintillation counting (LSC), has been used. In emergency situations a gross activity screening is carried out without any sample treatment by a single and quick liquid scintillation counting. Alpha and beta activities can be measured in more than one hundred samples per day with sensitivities of a few Bq/L. Higher sensitivity gross alpha and beta, uranium and radium measurements can be performed on water samples after specific sample treatments. The sequential method proposed is designed in such a way that the same water sample can be used in all the stages, with slight modifications. This sequential procedure was applied in a survey of the Lombardia district. At first tap waters of the 13 largest towns were examined, then a more detailed monitoring was carried out in the surroundings of Milano and Lodi towns. The high sensitivity method for the determination of uranium isotopes was used to check the presence of depleted uranium in Lake Garda. Reduced equipment requirements and relative readiness of radiochemical procedures make LSC an attractive technique which can also be applied by laboratories lacking specific radiochemistry facilities and experience. PMID:15042271

Rusconi, R; Azzellino, A; Bellinzona, S; Forte, M; Gallini, R; Sgorbati, G



Calibration of a water content reflectometer and soil water dynamics for an agroforestry practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water content reflectometers allow temporal and continuous assessment of spatial differences in soil water dynamics. We hypothesized\\u000a that volumetric soil water content estimated by the water content reflectometers (CS616 Campbell Sci. Inc., Logan, UT) is\\u000a influenced by clay content and temperature and therefore site- and or soil-specific equations are required for accurate estimations\\u000a of soil water. Objectives of the study

Ranjith P. UdawattaStephen; Stephen H. Anderson; Peter P. Motavalli; Harold E. Garrett



Inabenfide-Induced Alleviation of Salt Stress in Rice as Linked to Changes in Salicylic Acid Content and Catalase Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of inabenfide was investigated in rice seedlings subjected to salt stress in relation to changes in chlorophyll fluorescence (? F\\/Fm'), lipid peroxidation, salicylic acid (SA) content, and catalase (CAT) activity. A reduction in shoot growth of rice seedlings by 120 mM NaCl treatment was significantly alleviated by pretreatment with 30 ? M inabenfide. Sodium ion content was not

Hiroko Sawada; Dea-Wook Kim; Katsuichiro Kobayashi


The impact of salt stress on the water status of barley plants is partially mitigated by elevated CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the changing climate, plants will be facing increasingly harsh environmental conditions marked by elevated salinity in the soils and elevated concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere. These two factors have opposite effects on water status in plants. Therefore, our objective was to determine the interaction between these two factors and to determine whether elevated [CO2] might alleviate the adverse

Usue Pérez-López; Anabel Robredo; Maite Lacuesta; Amaia Mena-Petite; Alberto Muñoz-Rueda



Changes to cellular water and element content induced by nucleolar stress: investigation by a cryo-correlative nano-imaging approach.  


The cell is a crowded volume, with estimated mean mass percentage of macromolecules and of water ranging from 7.5 to 45 and 55 to 92.5 %, respectively. However, the concentrations of macromolecules and water at the nanoscale within the various cell compartments are unknown. We recently developed a new approach, correlative cryo-analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy, for mapping the quantity of water within compartments previously shown to display GFP-tagged protein fluorescence on the same ultrathin cryosection. Using energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXS), we then identified various elements (C, N, O, P, S, K, Cl, Mg) in these compartments and quantified them in mmol/l. Here, we used this new approach to quantify water and elements in the cytosol, mitochondria, condensed chromatin, nucleoplasm, and nucleolar components of control and stressed cancerous cells. The water content of the control cells was between 60 and 83 % (in the mitochondria and nucleolar fibrillar centers, respectively). Potassium was present at concentrations of 128-462 mmol/l in nucleolar fibrillar centers and condensed chromatin, respectively. The induction of nucleolar stress by treatment with a low dose of actinomycin-D to inhibit rRNA synthesis resulted in both an increase in water content and a decrease in the elements content in all cell compartments. We generated a nanoscale map of water and elements within the cell compartments, providing insight into their changes induced by nucleolar stress. PMID:23385351

Nolin, Frédérique; Michel, Jean; Wortham, Laurence; Tchelidze, Pavel; Balossier, Gérard; Banchet, Vincent; Bobichon, Hélène; Lalun, Nathalie; Terryn, Christine; Ploton, Dominique



Utilization of Open Marsh Water Management Ditches by the Treatened Atlantic Salt Marsh Snake ('Nerodia clarkii taeniata').  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey of a population of Atlantic salt marsh snakes (Nerodia clarkii taeniata) located in a recovered mosquito control impoundment was made during a 6 month period beginning in July, 1991, and ending in early January 1992. Snakes were either hand caugh...

G. T. Goode S. A. Scott H. I. Kochman



46 CFR 46.10-45 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. 46.10-45 Section 46.10-45...Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. (a) Passenger vessels required...Lakes voyages, shall not submerge in salt water the subdivision load line...



46 CFR 46.10-45 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. 46.10-45 Section 46.10-45...Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. (a) Passenger vessels required...Lakes voyages, shall not submerge in salt water the subdivision load line...



46 CFR 46.10-45 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. 46.10-45 Section 46.10-45...Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. (a) Passenger vessels required...Lakes voyages, shall not submerge in salt water the subdivision load line...



First data on the uranium content in water of the Yenisei River basin in the area affected by the operation of Rosatom plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is devoted to investigating the content of uranium isotopes in water of the Yenisei River and its tributaries within the territories affected by the operation of Rosatom plants (mining chemical combine, and electrochemical plant). Long-term monitoring of the 238U content by mass spectrometry carried out in two institutes of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

A. Ya. Bolsunovskii; A. M. Zhizhaev; A. I. Saprykin; A. G. Degermendzhi; A. I. Rubailo



Diffusion of Salts across a Butanol-Water Interface  

PubMed Central

Diffusion of the chloride salts of Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs from water into 1-butanol and from 1-butanol into water was examined at temperatures from 13-40°C. Distribution coefficients, interfacial transfer coefficients, Arrhenius activation energy, free energy of activation, enthalpy, and entropy of activation were determined for the diffusion of these salts across the alcohol-water interface. The results indicate that the entropy decrease made the major contribution to the change in the free energy of activation.

Ting, H. P.; Bertrand, G. L.; Sears, D. F.



Growth and alkaloid contents in leaves of Tabernaemontana pachysiphon Stapf (Apocynaceae) as influenced by light intensity, water and nutrient supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of Tabernaemontana pachysiphon (Apocynaceae) plants and the alkaloid content of leaves were investigated in the greenhouse at three levels of nutrient supply under two contrasting water and light regimes. We determined height increment, above-ground biomass production, leaf size, specific leaf weight and the content of the alkaloids apparicine, A2, isovoacangine, tubotaiwine and tubotaiwine-N-oxide. The effects of major controlling

M. Höft; R. Verpoorte; E. Beck



Water Dynamics, Ice Stability, and Salts in Victoria Valley Soils, Antarctica: An Instructive Analog for Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typical of many hyper arid soils of the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, soils in Victoria Valley contain ~10% ice (at 0.3 m depth) and ~0.4% salt, mostly calcium and sodium sulfates and chlorides, making them excellent analogs to Martian soils. Vapor diffusion models designed to investigate ground ice dynamics on Mars are not entirely satisfactory because they lead to the unrealistic expectation that soils in Antarctica should be ice free within a 1000 years of being saturated with ice, and yet even ancient soils characteristically contain abundant ice near the surface. Validation of these diffusion models has been limited because of the paucity of field based climate and soil climate data. Moreover the models ignore the significant effects of snow cover, surface melt water and salts on vapor fluxes. To better understand the presence and stability of the shallow subsurface ice we are exploring the effect of snow cover and salts on vapor fluxes. Ice stability was investigated using high-resolution climate and soil temperature data from 2002 to 2005. According to the vapor diffusion model ice sublimates at an average rate of 0.22 mm a-1, corresponding to an ice recession of ~1.3 mm a-1 for soil with 10% ice content. Some of the water vapor is transported to the atmosphere; however, some water vapor accumulates at depth in the soil. Furthermore, snow cover during the summer may substantially reduce annual ice loss. Stable isotopes (?18O & ?D) in ice along a 1.6m vertical soil profile reveal a deuterium excess (-13 to -77 ‰) with the greatest enrichment of heavy isotopes at the top of the ice cement and decreasing with depth to form a concave-down profile. This isotopic profile was interpreted using a quantitative model of H2O transport in perennially frozen soil, including the advection-dispersion of heavy isotope- enriched surface water into the ice-cement. It suggests an average infiltration rate of 0.7 mm a-1 of brine if 2.5% of the H2O present is unfrozen, a quantity supported by salt concentration and the temperature record. According to the solute content and temperature of these soils and phase equilibria, sulfates mostly gypsum (CaSO4 2H2O), and mirabilite (Na2SO4 10H2O) are present in dry and ice rich soils. Dry soils, due to hydration have the potential to store 7.5 mm of water in the top 0.22 m of dry soil. Both the sublimation and advection-dispersion model suggest that summer snow events significantly affect ice stability. More realistic estimates of the effect of snow on the annual sublimation rates require field data on the timing and duration of snow cover, and the formation of snowmelt water and surface recharge of subsurface ice. The abundance of hydrated salts in dry soils and first measurements of contrasting water contents at different humidities strongly suggests that the role of salts in the storage and transport of H2O in cold, dry soils needs to be evaluated. This seems to be even more important as recent investigation on Mars indicate that the hydrological cycle on Mars may have been strongly influenced by dehydration reactions of sulfate salts.

Hagedorn, B.; Sletten, R. S.; Hallet, B.



Optimization of hydrophilic interaction LC by univariate and multivariate methods and its combination with salting-out liquid-liquid extraction for the determination of antihypertensive drugs in the environmental waters.  


Hydrophilic interaction LC for the separation of four antihypertensive drugs was optimized by both univariate and multivariate methods. The column efficiency, resolution, and separation time were used as the three assessment parameters. The best separation condition of 97% ACN with 3% aqueous buffer containing 50 mM ammonium acetate at a pH of 3.0 was obtained by the two optimization methods. The multivariate optimization, orthogonal array design herein, was demonstrated to be a little tedious, but afforded a much better understanding of underlying separation factors. The content of ACN in the mobile phase contributed most significantly to separation. Furthermore, sample diluent and injection volume were found to influence the chromatographic performance. To match the hydrophilic interaction LC mobile phase, a proper sample pretreatment method, salting-out liquid-liquid extraction, in which ACN was the extractant, was chosen. Since reserpine was unstable under both acidic and alkaline conditions, it was not studied in this part. The optimal salting-out liquid-liquid extraction parameters were as follows: 400 ?L ACN was added to 1 mL sample solution containing 500 mg NH4 Cl at a pH of 14.0. The linearity ranged from 0.01 to 1.00 ?g/mL with r(2) > 0.9937. The LODs were between 1.9 and 2.5 ng/mL. The developed method was applied to the environmental water sample with good performance. PMID:23450627

Wang, Qing; Yin, Chen-ru; Xu, Li



The chemistry of salt-affected soils and waters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Knowledge of the chemistry of salt affected soils and waters is necessary for management of irrigation in arid and semi-arid regions. In this chapter we review the origin of salts in the landscape, the major chemical reactions necessary for prediction of the soil solution composition, and the use of...


Salt content of school meals and comparison of perception related to sodium intake in elementary, middle, and high schools  

PubMed Central

Excessive sodium intake leading to hypertension, stroke, and stomach cancer is mainly caused by excess use of salt in cooking. This study was performed to estimate the salt content in school meals and to compare differences in perceptions related to sodium intake between students and staffs working for school meal service. We collected 382 dishes for food from 24 schools (9 elementary, 7 middle, 8 high schools) in Gyeonggi-do and salt content was calculated from salinity and weight of individual food. The average salt content from elementary, middle, and high school meals were 2.44 g, 3.96 g, and 5.87 g, respectively. The amount of salt provided from the school lunch alone was over 80% of the recommended daily salt intake by WHO. Noodles, stews, sauces, and soups were major sources of salt intake at dish group level, while the most salty dishes were sauces, kimchies, and stir-fried foods. Dietary knowledge and attitude related to sodium intake and consumption frequency of the salty dishes were surveyed with questionnaire in 798 students and 256 staffs working for school meal service. Compared with the staffs, the students perceived school meals salty and the proportions of students who thought school meals were salty increased with going up from elementary to high schools (P < 0.001). Among the students, middle and high school students showed significant propensity for the preference to one-dish meal, processed foods, eating much broth and dipping sauce or seasoning compared with the elementary students, although they had higher nutrition knowledge scores. These results proposed that monitoring salt content of school meals and consideration on the contents and education methods in school are needed to lower sodium intake.

Ahn, Sohyun; Park, Seoyun; Kim, Jin Nam; Han, Sung Nim; Jeong, Soo Bin



Effect of a beating process, as a means of reducing salt content in Chinese-style meatballs (kung-wan): A physico-chemical and textural study.  


Two different meat-cutting methods were used to prepare kung-wans in an attempt to produce low-salt products while retaining the same, or improved, textural and physicochemical properties of the standard high-salt formulation. The level of salt and the processing method significantly affected color, cooking yield, texture and changes in the secondary structures of proteins. Improved salt levels resulted in firmer texture. At the same salt levels, compared with chopping, the beating method resulted in higher L(?)-values, improved cooking yields and changes in the ?-sheet content of the proteins, which resulted in an improved product with better texture. Using the beating process, the kung-wans prepared with 1% and 2% salt had similar L(?)-values, cooking yield and texture, and were better than those prepared by chopping with 2% salt. Overall, the beating process enabled lowering of the salt content, making the kung-wans more hard, brittle and elastic. PMID:23896148

Kang, Zhuang-Li; Zou, Yu-Feng; Xu, Xing-Lian; Zhu, Chao-Zhi; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Guang-Hong



Drying front and water content dynamics during evaporation from sand delineated by neutron radiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaporative drying of porous media is jointly controlled by external (atmospheric) conditions and by media internal transport properties. Effects of different atmospheric potential evaporative demand on observed drying rates were studied in a series of laboratory experiments using sand-filled Hele-Shaw cells. We examined two potential evaporation rates of about 8 and 40 mm per day. The evolution and geometry of

N. Shokri; P. Lehmann; P. Vontobel; D. Or



Assessment of drinking water radioactivity content by liquid scintillation counting: set up of high sensitivity and emergency procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our institute, different procedures have been developed to measure the radioactivity content of drinking water both in normal and in emergency situations, such as those arising from accidental and terrorist events. A single radiometric technique, namely low level liquid scintillation counting (LSC), has been used. In emergency situations a gross activity screening is carried out without any sample treatment

R. Rusconi; A. Azzellino; S. Bellinzona; M. Forte; R. Gallini; G. Sgorbati



Identification of the thermal transitions in potato starch at a low water content as studied by preparative DSC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to identify the transitions in the complex DSC profiles of potato starch at a low water content. Preparative DSC involves the thermal processing of samples in stainless steel DSC pans in a way that allows their subsequent structural characterization. The low temperature (LT), dual melting (M1–M2), and high temperature (HT) endotherms observed in DSC

Peter A. M. Steeneken; Albert J. J. Woortman



Bulk, surface properties and water uptake mechanisms of salt/acid amorphous composite systems.  


Developing amorphous pharmaceuticals can be desirable due to advantageous biopharmaceutical properties. Low glass transition temperature (Tg) amorphous drugs can be protected from crystallisation by mixing with high Tg excipients, such as polymers, or with salt forms. However, both polymers and salts can enhance the water uptake. The aim of this study was to formulate physico-chemically stable amorphous materials, by co-processing different proportions of sulfathiazole and its sodium salt to produce an optimum ratio, characterised by the best physical stability and lowest hygroscopicity. Both sulfathiazole and salt amorphised upon spray drying. At room temperature, sulfathiazole crystallised within 1h at <5% relative humidity while the salt deliquesced when exposed to ambient humidity conditions. In the case of composite systems, FTIR spectroscopy, thermal and surface analysis suggested interactions with an acid:salt stoichiometry of 1:2. Increasing proportions of salt raised the Tg, enhancing the storage stability, however this was opposed by an enhanced hygroscopicity. The water uptake mechanism within the different amorphous systems, analysed by fitting the water sorption isotherms with the Young and Nelson equation, was dependent on the ratio employed, with the salt and the acid facilitating absorption and adsorption, respectively. Tuning the properties of amorphous salt/acid composites by optimising the ratio appears potentially promising to improve the physical stability of amorphous formulations. PMID:23948137

Bianco, Stefano; Tewes, Frederic; Tajber, Lidia; Caron, Vincent; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie



Xylem Water Content and Wood Density in Spruce and Oak Trees Detected by High-Resolution Computed Tomography1  

PubMed Central

Elucidation of the mechanisms involved in long-distance water transport in trees requires knowledge of the water distribution within the sapwood and heartwood of the stem as well as of the earlywood and latewood of an annual ring. X-ray computed tomography is a powerful tool for measuring density distributions and water contents in the xylem with high spatial resolution. Ten- to 20-year-old spruce (Picea abies L. KARST.) and oak (Quercus robur) trees grown in the field were used throughout the experiments. Stem and branch discs were collected from different tree heights, immediately deep frozen, and used for the tomographic determinations of spatial water distributions. Results are presented for single-tree individuals, demonstrating heartwood and sapwood distribution throughout their entire length as well as the water relations in single annual rings of both types of wood. Tree rings of the sapwood show steep water gradients from latewood to earlywood, whereas those of the heartwood reflect water deficiency in both species. Although only the latest two annual rings of the ringporous species are generally assumed to transport water, we found similar amounts of water and no tyloses in all rings of the oak sapwood, which indicates that at least water storage is important in the whole sapwood.

Fromm, Jorg H.; Sautter, Irina; Matthies, Dietmar; Kremer, Johannes; Schumacher, Peter; Ganter, Carl



Xylem water content and wood density in spruce and oak trees detected by high-resolution computed tomography.  


Elucidation of the mechanisms involved in long-distance water transport in trees requires knowledge of the water distribution within the sapwood and heartwood of the stem as well as of the earlywood and latewood of an annual ring. X-ray computed tomography is a powerful tool for measuring density distributions and water contents in the xylem with high spatial resolution. Ten- to 20-year-old spruce (Picea abies L. KARST.) and oak (Quercus robur) trees grown in the field were used throughout the experiments. Stem and branch discs were collected from different tree heights, immediately deep frozen, and used for the tomographic determinations of spatial water distributions. Results are presented for single-tree individuals, demonstrating heartwood and sapwood distribution throughout their entire length as well as the water relations in single annual rings of both types of wood. Tree rings of the sapwood show steep water gradients from latewood to earlywood, whereas those of the heartwood reflect water deficiency in both species. Although only the latest two annual rings of the ringporous species are generally assumed to transport water, we found similar amounts of water and no tyloses in all rings of the oak sapwood, which indicates that at least water storage is important in the whole sapwood. PMID:11598217

Fromm, J H; Sautter, I; Matthies, D; Kremer, J; Schumacher, P; Ganter, C



Comestible liquid sea salt having a low sodium content and method for producing the same  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A comestible liquid sea salt preparation and method for producing the same. The comestible preparation is produced from sea water and is low in sodium, about 9.8 wt %, therefore making it suitable for consumption by persons having cardiac disorders, arterial hypertension, renal disorders, endemias and the like. Even though the amount of sodium is reduced the preparation is able to maintain a suitable gustatory sensation, making it an advantageous substitute for regular table salt. The method for producing the preparation involves a series of steps in which sea water is decanted, evaporated, converted into a spray; and concentrated. The preparation also undergoes a micro plankton regulation step and sodium chloride is added to the resulting preparation so that the concentration of sodium chloride is 25 percent of the total preparation.



Preparation and Characterisation of Titanium Dioxide Produced from Ti-salt Flocculated Sludge in Water Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past few years, titanium salts were investigated as alternative coagulants for the removal of organic matter of different molecular sizes in contaminated water. The flocculation efficiency of Ti-salt was comparable to those of FeCl3 and Al2(SO4)3 salts, commonly used coagulants. Incinerated sludge-TiO2 showed higher surface area and photocatalytic activity than commercially available TiO2. Metal-doped forms were produced by

Hokyong Shon; Yousef Okour; Ibrahim El Saliby; Jun Park; Dong-Lyun Cho; Jong Beom Kim; Hee Ju Park; Jong-Ho Kim



Microsoft Academic Search

Two samples of ocean water from the Pacific, one collected at the ; surface near the coast outside San Diego Bay in the summer of 1956 and the other ; taken at a depth of 3500 m from longitude 124 d 41.0' W, latitude ; 33 d 54.5' N on March 25, 1957, were analyzed for total thorium ; alpha

W. M. Sackett; H. A. Potratz; E. D. Goldberg



Surveys of the salt content in UK bread: progress made and further reductions possible  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore the salt reductions made over time in packaged bread sold in the UK, the biggest contributor of salt to the UK diet. Study design Cross-sectional surveys were carried out on the salt content of breads available in UK supermarkets in 2001(40 products), 2006 (138) and 2011 (203). Main outcome measures The primary outcome measure was the change in salt content per 100?g over time. Further measures included the proportion of products meeting salt targets and differences between brands and bread types. Results The average salt level of bread was 1.23±0.19?g/100?g in 2001, 1.05±0.16 in 2006 and 0.98±0.13 in 2011. This shows a reduction in salt/100?g of ?20% between 2001 and 2011. In the 18 products which were surveyed in all 3?years, there was a significant reduction of 17% (p<0.05). Supermarket own brand bread was found to be lower in salt compared with branded bread (0.95?g/100?g compared with 1.04?g/100?g in 2011). The number of products meeting the 2012 targets increased from 28% in 2001 to 71% in 2011 (p<0.001). Conclusions This study shows that the salt content of bread has been progressively reduced over time, contributing to the evidence base that a target-based approach to salt reduction can lead to reductions being made. A wide variation in salt levels was found with many products already meeting the 2012 targets, indicating that further reductions can be made. This requires further progressive lower targets to be set, so that the UK can continue to lead the world in salt reduction and save the maximum number of lives.

Brinsden, Hannah C; He, Feng J; Jenner, Katharine H; MacGregor, Graham A



[Mineral salts and water in the diet of the athlete].  


Hydroelectrolyte disturbances, even if modest, are capable of negatively modifying sports performance. When the sweating, that accompanies sports activity, is abundant, it is the means by which the greatest quantity of water and salt are lost. A correct diet can prevent any of the manifestations connected to an altered hydroelectrolyte equilibrium, especially when the activity is very prolonged. A potassium or magnesium defect, even if they rarely reach serum levels below the norm, are frequently encountered after sports activity of an intermediate time span (2-3 hrs.), during which the athlete rarely eats. Variations of sodium and/or calcium are instead difficult to appreciate. PMID:2417431

Zuliani, U; Azzali, G L; Solito, F




Microsoft Academic Search

Extractive distillation employing a dissolved salt instead of a liquid third component as the separating agent is a promising but relatively neglected technique for achieving azeotropic and other difficult separations. In systems for which a soluble and effective salt can be found, major savings in both capital and energy costs are possible. The technical aspects of such processing are described




On the salt-induced activation of lyophilized enzymes in organic solvents: Effect of salt kosmotropicity on enzyme activity  

SciTech Connect

The dramatic activation of enzymes in nonaqueous media upon co-lyophilization with simple inorganic salts has been investigated as a function of the Jones-Dole B coefficient, a thermodynamic parameter for characterizing the salt's affinity for water and its chaotropic (water-structure breaking) or kosmotropic (water-structure making) character. In general, the water content, active-site content, and transesterification activity of freeze-dried subtilisin Carlsberg preparations containing >96% w/w salt increased with increasing kosmotropicity of the activating salt. Degrees of activation relative to the salt-free enzyme ranged from 33-fold for chaotropic sodium iodide to 2,480-fold for kosmotropic sodium acetate. Exceptions to the general trend can be explained by the mechanical properties and freezing characteristics of the salts undergoing lyophilization. The profound activating effect can thus be attributed in part to the stabilizing (salting-out) effect of kosmotropic salts and the phenomenon of preferential hydration.

Ru, M.T.; Hirokane, S.Y.; Lo, A.S.; Dordick, J.S.; Reimer, J.A.; Clark, D.S.



Insufficient level of iodine content in household powder salt in Nepal.  


Universal salt iodization (USI) is long term strategy for the control of iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) in Nepal. Standardized periodic testing of the iodine content in salt is a critical part of a salt iodisation programme. To achieve programmatic objective, this study was carried out to estimate the iodine content of household salt in Kavre, Lalitpur and Parsa districts of Nepal. Iodometric titration of 1803 salt samples collected from the households through the students of different schools revealed that 289 (16.0%) had less than 15 ppm iodine. Two hundred forty-one powder salt samples without two children logo (14.3% among total powder salt samples) had iodine below 15 ppm. It includes 25.8% of total salt samples from Parsa district of Terai ecological region. Among total, the largest proportion of the population accounting for almost 93.0% used powder salt. In total 1803 salt samples, mean and median iodine concentration were 31.8 ppm (95.0% CI=31.0-32.6) and 29.5 ppm respectively. The mean and median iodine concentration of phoda (dhike) salt were 22.1 ppm (95.0% CI= 19.2-25.1) and 18.9 ppm; powder salt were 32.6 ppm (95.0% CI= 31.7- 33.4) and 30.6 ppm respectively. In the community level, people are still using the non-iodized salt. To eliminate the IDD more efforts are required at program implementation and monitoring level. PMID:17899952

Joshi, Anand Ballabh; Banjara, Megha Raj; Bhatta, Lok Ranjan; Rikimaru, Toru; Jimba, Masamine



Measurement of fluid contents by light transmission in transient three-phase oil-water-air systems in sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most three-phase flow models lack rigorous validation because very few methods exist that can measure transient fluid contents of the order of seconds of whole flow fields. The objective of this study was to develop a method by which fluid content can be measured rapidly in three-phase systems. The method uses the hue and intensity of light transmitted through a

C. J. G. Darnault; D. A. DiCarlo; T. W. J. Bauters; A. R. Jacobson; J. A. Throop; C. D. Montemagno; J.-Y. Parlange; T. S. Steenhuis



Effects of soil water content on soil respiration in forests and cattle pastures of eastern Amazonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of soil water content on efflux of CO2 from soils has been described by linear, logarithmic, quadratic, and parabolic functions of soil water expressed as matric potential, gravimetric and volumetric water content, water holding capacity, water-filled pore space, precipitation indices, and depth to water table. The effects of temperature and water content are often statistically confounded. The objectives

Eric A. Davidson; Louis V. Verchot; J. Henrique Cattânio; Ilse L. Ackerman; J. E. M. Carvalho



Impact of Salt and Water on Protein Structural Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is known as the lubricant of life. Without water, most proteins would lose their biological functions. Extensive studies have been carried out on how high concentration salts (dissolved in water) alter the stability and solubility of proteins. Such effects are thought to be mediated via salt-water interactions and water-protein interactions. This classic research field is known as the Hofmeister Series. We report the effects of Hofmeister Salts on the structural dynamics of proteins. Photoactive yellow protein (PYP), a bacterial blue light photoreceptor protein, is employed as a model system in this study. Time-resolved FTIR spectroscopic techniques allow us to probe the structural changes in proteins. Our data reveal that high concentration salt solutions alter the proton transfer pathway and suppress conformational changes in PYP upon photo-excitation. This study opens up a new dimension in the field of Hofmeister series. Further theoretical and experimental studies are needed in order to understand the dynamic properties of salt-water interactions and water-protein interactions.

Thubagere, Anu; Kelemen, Lorand; Nie, Beining; Kaledhonkar, Sandip; Xie, Aihua



Solar Still Part 1: Salt Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The water cycle is the process that moves water around Earth. In this video segment adapted from ZOOM, cast members use a homemade solar still to mimic this natural process, separating pure water from a saltwater mixture.

Foundation, Wgbh E.



On Chlorine Salts: Their Detection, Stability and implications for Water on Mars and Europa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chlorine salts (e.g. chlorides, chlorates and perchlorates) are an important factor in the stability of water on the surfaces of planetary bodies. Here we have shown that perchlorate and chlorate salts will lower the freezing point of water, allowing it to be liquid down to ~204 K. These salts will also slow down the evaporation rate, extending the lifetime of the liquid water solution. Chlorine salts have been detected on Mars, which has significant implications for the stability of water and hence its habitability. To study their effects on the stability of water on planetary surfaces, we need to first locate where these chlorine salts exist; this is typically done by remote sensing. To date, only anhydrous chlorides have been remotely detected, mostly due to the lack of hydrated chlorine salts in the spectral libraries used to identify features. To address this deficit, we measured reflectance spectra for numerous chlorine salts. Hydration bands were most common in near-infrared spectra, with band depth and width increasing with increasing hydration state. In the mid-infrared, oxychlorine salts exhibit spectral features due to Cl-O vibrations. We also investigated the spectral features of these salts at low temperature (80 K) to compare with remote sensing data of the outer satellites, specifically Europa. At low temperature, water bands become narrower and shallower than their room temperature counterparts. We show that chlorine salts do possess distinct spectral features that should allow for their detection by remote sensing, though care must be taken to acquire laboratory spectra of all hydrated phases at the relevant conditions (e.g. temperature, pressure) for the planetary body being studied.

Hanley, Jennifer



Boron carbon nitride nanostructures from salt melts: tunable water-soluble phosphors.  


A simple, high yield, chemical process is developed to fabricate layered h-BN nanosheets and BCNO nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. 5 nm at 700 °C. The use of the eutectic LiCl/KCl salt melt medium enhances the kinetics of the reaction between sodium borohydride and urea or guanidine as well as the dispersion of the nanoparticles in water. The carbon content can be tuned from 0 to 50 mol % by adjusting the reactant ratio, thus providing precise control of the light emission of the particles in the range 440-528 nm while reaching a quantum yield of 26%. Because of their green synthesis, low toxicity, small size, and stability against aggregation in water, the as-obtained photoluminescent BCNO nanoparticles show promise for diagnostics and optoelectronics. PMID:21506566

Lei, Weiwei; Portehault, David; Dimova, Rumiana; Antonietti, Markus



Field Calibration of Water Content Reflectometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field monitoring of volumetric soil water content (VWC) is critical for a variety of applications. Recently developed electronic soil water sensors provide a relatively inexpensive monitoring option. However, the calibration of these sensors is more sensitive to variations in soil properties than for time domain reflectometry (TDR), which is generally regarded as the best electronic means of VWC measurement and

D. G. Chandler; M. Seyfried; M. Murdock; J. P. McNamara



First data on the uranium content in water of the Yenisei River basin in the area affected by the operation of Rosatom plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is devoted to investigating the content of uranium isotopes in water of the Yenisei River and its tributaries within\\u000a the territories affected by the operation of Rosatom plants (mining chemical combine, and electrochemical plant). Long-term\\u000a monitoring of the 238U content by mass spectrometry carried out in two institutes of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

A. Ya. Bolsunovskii; A. M. Zhizhaev; A. I. Saprykin; A. G. Degermendzhi; A. I. Rubailo



Calibration equations for two capacitance water content probes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the calibration equations of two capacitance probes for monitoring the soil water content in a lysimeter field. Capacitance probes provide readings at desired depths and time intervals. The calibration equations are derived by regression analysis between measurements of scaled frequency and volumetric soil water content. The calibration equations are compared with the manufacturer default equations to estimate the irrigation water depth. The accuracy of capacitance probes in monitoring soil water content increased by using the site-specific calibration equations rather than the manufacturer default equation.

Paraskevas, C.; Georgiou, P.; Ilias, A.; Panoras, A.; Babajimopoulos, C.



The MODIS Vegetation Canopy Water Content product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation water stress drives wildfire behavior and risk, having important implications for biogeochemical cycling in natural ecosystems, agriculture, and forestry. Water stress limits plant transpiration and carbon gain. The regulation of photosynthesis creates close linkages between the carbon, water, and energy cycles and through metabolism to the nitrogen cycle. We generated systematic weekly CWC estimated for the USA from 2000-2006. MODIS measures the sunlit reflectance of the vegetation in the visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared. Radiative transfer models, such as PROSPECT-SAILH, determine how sunlight interacts with plant and soil materials. These models can be applied over a range of scales and ecosystem types. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were used to optimize the inversion of these models to determine vegetation water content. We carried out multi-scale validation of the product using field data, airborne and satellite cross-calibration. An Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) of the product is under evaluation by NASA. The CWC product inputs are 1) The MODIS Terra/Aqua surface reflectance product (MOD09A1/MYD09A1) 2) The MODIS land cover map product (MOD12Q1) reclassified to grassland, shrub-land and forest canopies; 3) An ANN trained with PROSPECT-SAILH; 4) A calibration file for each land cover type. The output is an ENVI file with the CWC values. The code is written in Matlab environment and is being adapted to read not only the 8 day MODIS composites, but also daily surface reflectance data. We plan to incorporate the cloud and snow mask and generate as output a geotiff file. Vegetation water content estimates will help predicting linkages between biogeochemical cycles, which will enable further understanding of feedbacks to atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. It will also serve to estimate primary productivity of the biosphere; monitor/assess natural vegetation health related to drought, pollution or diseases; improve irrigation scheduling by reducing over-watering and under-watering. These estimates will also allow researchers to identify wildfire behavior/risk: drives ignition probability and burning efficiency; to be used as an indicator of soil moisture and Leaf Area Index.

Ustin, S. L.; Riano, D.; Trombetti, M.



Adsorption of benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium chloride at the hydrophobic silica-water interface studied by total internal reflection Raman spectroscopy: effects of silica surface properties and metal salt addition.  


The adsorption of the cationic surfactant benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium (BDMHA(+)) chloride was studied at an octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS)-monolayer-modified silica-water interface by Raman spectroscopy in total internal reflection (TIR) geometry. The present study demonstrates the capabilities of this spectroscopic technique to evaluate thermodynamic and kinetic BDMHA(+)Cl(-) adsorption properties at the hydrophobic silica surface. The surface coverage of BDMHA(+) decreased by 50% at the hydrophobic OTS-silica surface relative to the surface coverage on bare silica; the dominating driving mechanisms for surfactant adsorption were identified as hydrophobic effects and head group charge screening by the electrolyte counterions. Addition of magnesium metal salt (MgCl2) to the aqueous solution (? neutral pH) lowered the surface coverage and moderately increased the Langmuir adsorption constants relative to those of the pure surfactant. These trends were previously observed at the hydrophilic, negatively charged silica surface but with a smaller change in the Gibbs free energy of adsorption at the hydrophobic silica surface. The hydrophobic OTS-silica surface properties resulted in shorter times for the surfactant to reach steady-state adsorption conditions compared to the slow adsorption kinetics previously seen with the surfactant at the hydrophilic surface. Adsorption isotherms, based on Raman signal intensities from spectral analysis, were developed according to the Langmuir adsorption model for the pure surfactant at the OTS-silica-water interface; the modified Langmuir model was applied to the surfactant adsorption in the presence of 5, 10, 50, and 100 mM magnesium chloride. Spectral analysis of the Raman scattering intensities and geometric considerations suggests a hemimicelle-type surface aggregate as the most likely surfactant structure at the OTS-silica surface. The different kinetics observed at the hydrophilic versus the hydrophobic silica surface further indicate that the surface charge and potential influence the surfactant diffusion and kinetic rates of adsorption at the silica-water interface. PMID:23947412

Grenoble, Zlata; Baldelli, Steven



A Discussion of the Water Content of Vermiculite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected chemical and diffraction analyses from the literature, supplemented by thermal and thermogravimetric analyses and infrared absorption observations, are utilized to construct a rational model of the water arrangement in natural vermiculites. A super cell is arranged by simple modification of the Hendricks water nets to accom- modate the somewhat higher water contents, indicated by weight loss analyses, and the

W. F. Bradley; J. M. SERRATOSA



Determination of oxygen-18 content of water by hydrolysis of phosphorus pentachloride and measurment by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Water is one of the most difficult chemicals in which to measure /sup 18/0 content. The classical method consisted of equilibrating a sample of water with a known amount of CO/sub 2/, followed by the determination of the /sup 18/0 content of the CO/sub 27/ and back-calculating via the known equilibrium constant for this reaction. Another method is the pyrolysis of an H/sub 2/0 sample with guanidine hydrochloride. The CO/sub 2/ produced from pyrolysis contains oxygen with the same /sup 18/0 content as that of the original H/sub 2/0 sample. The advantage of this method over the 2 previously mentioned is that it does not require the technology associated with handling gaseous samples. A sample of (/sup 18/0) H/sub 2/0 was placed in a PCl/sub 5/ reaction vessel. The phosphoric acid resulting from complete hydrolysis of the PCl/sub 5/ was methyl esterified by adding one or two drops of methanol, followed by an ethereal solution of diazomethane. The solutions of trimethyl phosphate were then concentrated to minimal volume by evaporating the solvent in a stream of dry N/sub 2/, and diluting with CHCl/sub 3/. The electron impact mass spectrum of trimethyl phosphate observed was consistent with that reported by Bafus et al. Basing the final calculated /sup 18/0 content on the measurement of several ion intensities results in a significant decrease in the sensitivity of the result to errors in the measurement of any one ion intensity. Because the hydrolysis of PCl/sub 5/ introduces four oxygens from water into the H/sub 3/P0/sub 4/, a statistical distribtuion of the five isotopomers of H/sub 3/P0/sub 4/ should be obtained, assuming no isotope effects in the PCl/sub 5/ hydrolysis. 2 tables. (DP)

Sharp, T.R.; Minard, R.D.



Diffusion of salts across a butanol-water interface.  


Diffusion of the chloride salts of Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs from water into 1-butanol and from 1-butanol into water was examined at temperatures from 13-40 degrees C. Distribution coefficients, interfacial transfer coefficients, Arrhenius activation energy, free energy of activation, enthalpy, and entropy of activation were determined for the diffusion of these salts across the alcohol-water interface. The results indicate that the entropy decrease made the major contribution to the change in the free energy of activation. PMID:5972380

Ting, H P; Bertrand, G L; Sears, D F



Sorption of hydrophobic pesticides on a Mediterranean soil affected by wastewater, dissolved organic matter and salts.  


Irrigation with treated wastewaters as an alternative in countries with severe water shortage may influence the sorption of pesticides and their environmental effects, as wastewater contains higher concentrations of suspended and dissolved organic matter and inorganic compounds than freshwater. We have examined the sorption behaviour of three highly hydrophobic pesticides (the herbicide pendimethalin and the insecticides ?-cypermethrin and deltamethrin) on a Mediterranean agricultural soil using the batch equilibration method. We considered wastewater, extracts from urban sewage sludge with different dissolved organic carbon contents, and inorganic salt solutions, using Milli Q water as a control. All pesticides were strongly retained by soil although some sorption occurred on the walls of the laboratory containers, especially when wastewater and inorganic salt solutions were used. The calculation of distribution constants by measuring pesticide concentrations in soil and solution indicated that pendimethalin sorption was not affected whereas ?-cypermethrin and deltamethrin retention were significantly enhanced (ca. 5 and 2 times, respectively) when wastewater or salt solutions were employed. We therefore conclude that the increased sorption of the two pesticides caused by wastewater cannot be only the result of its dissolved organic carbon content, but also of the simultaneous presence of inorganic salts in the solution. PMID:20980092

Rodríguez-Liébana, José A; Mingorance, Ma Dolores; Peña, Aránzazu



Solutions properties and solute–solvent interactions in ternary sugar–salt–water solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viscometric constants were used to provide information on solute–solvent interactions in ternary water–sugar–salt solutions. Comparison was made between pure water and aqueous salt solution as solvents affecting the behaviour of small carbohydrates. The determination of intrinsic viscosity was made more accurate by applying triple extrapolation of the three equations (Huggins, Kramer and Meffroy-Biget). Results obtained with this triple extrapolation method

A. M. Seuvre; M. Mathlouthi



Blood acid-base and hemodynamic changes in dogs acutely depleted of salt and water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dogs were depleted of water (3.5% BW) and salt (about 10% of their total body exchangeable sodium) by intraperitoneal injection of a 10% glucose solution (550 mOsm\\/l). During the 3-h experiment these water and salt depleted (WSD) animals showed a significant decrease in blood pH, base excess (BE), plasma bicarbonate (HCO3-), systolic (SP) and diastolic (DP) pressures and an increase

Héctor García Pierce; Isaac M. Libermann; Graciela Lagos; Raquel Magri



Uptake of atmospheric mercury by deionized water and aqueous solutions of inorganic salts at acidic, neutral and alkaline pH.  


Mercury (Hg) is well known as a toxic environmental pollutant that is among the most highly bioconcentrated trace metals in the human food chain. The atmosphere is one of the most important media for the environmental cycling of mercury, since it not only receives mercury emitted from natural sources such as volcanoes and soil and water surfaces but also from anthropogenic sources such as fossil fuel combustion, mining and metal smelting. Although atmospheric mercury exists in different physical and chemical forms, as much as 90% can occur as elemental vapour Hg0, depending on the geographic location and time of year. Atmospheric mercury can be deposited to aquatic ecosystems through both wet (rain or snow) and dry (vapour adsorption and particulate deposition) processes. The purpose of the present study was to measure, under laboratory conditions, the rate of deposition of gaseous, elemental mercury (Hg0) to deionized water and to solutions of inorganic salt species of varying ionic strengths with a pH range of 2-12. In deionized water the highest deposition rates occurred at both low (pH 2) and high (pH 12). The addition of different species of salt of various concentrations for the most part had only slight effects on the absorption and retention of atmospheric Hg0. The low pH solutions of various salt concentrations and the high pH solutions of high salt concentrations tested in this study generally showed a greater tendency to absorb and retain atmospheric Hg0 than those at a pH closer to neutral. PMID:12363314

Waite, D T; Snihura, A D; Liu, Y; Huang, G H



Effect of Deicing Salt on Ion Conentrations in Urban Roadside Snow and Surface Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The damaging effects of deicing salt on surface water have been suggested by a number of studies, but there is a lack of knowledge about these effects on urban roadside snow and surface water in northeastern China. The concentrations of K, Ca, Na, Mg, Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cl - and SO4 2- in roadside snow and surface water in

Fayun Li; Ying Zhang; Zaiping Xiong; Tingting Sun



Solar Still Part I: Salt Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The water cycle is the process that moves water around Earth. In this video segment, adapted from a ZOOM television broadcast, cast members use a homemade solar still to mimic the natural processes of evaporation and condensation, separating pure water from a saltwater mixture. The segment is three minutes thirty-two seconds in length.


Levels of total cyanide and NaCl in surface waters adjacent to road salt storage facilities.  


Concentrations of Na, Cl and total cyanide (simple+complex forms of cyanide) in surface waters adjacent to uncovered, outdoor sand-salt storage facilities were monitored for the calendar year 1988. Runoff of deicing salt from these unprotected sand-salt piles resulted in Cl concentrations up to 13,500 mg liter(-1) in surrounding surface waters indicating substantial leaching of road salt from sand-salt storage lots. The use of sodium hexacyanoferrate (II) as an anti-caking agent in road salt resulted in up to 200 microg liter(-1) total cyanide (CN) in surface waters adjacent to sand-salt piles. Concentrations of Na and Cl were highest during the summer months whereas the concentrations of total CN were highest during the autumn months. The observed concentrations of total CN were less than the calculated maximum concentrations based on total CN content of pure road salt indicating that sodium hexacyanoferrate(II) was being adsorbed during overland flow onto soils and/or sediments of the wetlands. A laboratory adsorption study using five soils and a road salt solution showed that the soils adsorbed from 25 to 83% of the sodium hexacyanoferrate(II) present in the soil-road salt suspensions. The percentage of sodium hexacyanoferrate(II) adsorbed on soils increased with decreasing soil pH. PMID:15092217

Ohno, T



A Tolerant Behavior in Salt-Sensitive Tomato Plants can be Mimicked by Chemical Stimuli  

PubMed Central

Lycopersicon esculentum plants exhibit increased salt stress tolerance following treatment with adipic acid monoethylester and 1,3-diaminepropane (DAAME), known as an inducer of resistance against biotic stress in tomato and pepper. For an efficient water and nutrient uptake, plants should adapt their water potential to compensate a decrease in water soil potential produced by salt stress. DAAME-treated plants showed a faster and stronger water potential reduction and an enhanced proline accumulation. Salinity-induced oxidative stress was also ameliorated by DAAME treatments. Oxidative membrane damage and ethylene emission were both reduced in DAAME-treated plants. This effect is probably a consequence of an increase of both non-enzymatic antioxidant activity as well as peroxidase activity. DAAME-mediated tolerance resulted in an unaltered photosynthetic rate and a stimulation of the decrease in transpiration under stress conditions without a cost in growth due to salt stress. The reduction in transpiration rate was concomitant with a reduction in phytotoxic Na+ and Cl? accumulation under saline stress. Interestingly, the ABA deficient tomato mutant sitiens was insensitive to DAAME-induced tolerance following NaCl stress exposure. Additionally, DAAME treatments increased the ABA content of leaves, therefore, an intact ABA signalling pathway seems to be important to express DAAME-induced salt tolerance. Here, we show a possibility of enhance tomato stress tolerance by chemical induction of the major plant defences against salt stress. DAAME-induced tolerance against salt stress could be complementary to or share elements with induced resistance against biotic stress. This might be the reason for the observed wide spectrum of effectiveness of this compound.

Flors, Victor; Paradis, Mercedes; Garcia-Andrade, Javier; Cerezo, Miguel; Gonzalez-Bosch, Carmen



Fat and salt contents affect the in-mouth temporal sodium release and saltiness perception of chicken sausages.  


In cooked meats, sodium chloride is involved in taste, texture and flavour release. So a reduction in the salt content may have an impact on overall perception and acceptability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of composition on sodium release and saltiness intensity in chicken sausages. The rheological properties of the sausages differed according to composition. Temporal sodium release and temporal saltiness intensity were evaluated by four selected subjects when eating sausages. At each time point, the effect of the salt level in sausages on sodium release was positive and highly significant. The effect of lipids on sodium release was negative. Concerning perception, the amount of salt used had a positive effect on saltiness intensity, and lipids seemed to exert a masking effect. Generally, clear relationships between salt levels, sodium release and saltiness intensity were found but the masking effect of lipids on saltiness intensity probably also involved texture or fat perception mechanisms. PMID:23501259

Chabanet, C; Tarrega, A; Septier, C; Siret, F; Salles, C



The association of octadecyl-end-capped poly-(sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonates) in water and salt solutions: A study by fluorescence spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) have been used to study the aggregation in aqueous solutions of poly-(2-acrylamido)-2-methylpropanesulfonic acids, sodium salt mono-endcapped with either N,N-di-n-octadecyl or N-4-[(1-pyrenyl)butyl]-N-n-octadecyl which were prepared by free radical polymerization of 2-(acrylamido)-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS) initiated with the azo compounds, 4,4'-azobis{cyano-N,N-di-n-octadecyl}pentanamide and 4,4'-azobis{cyano-N,N-[4-(1-pyrenyl)butyl]-n-octadecyl}pentanamide, respectively. Both techniques indicate the occurrence of multimolecular aggregates in solutions of the polymers in water and in 0.2 M NaCl. The concentration range for aggregation is about 1-14 mmol AMPS l^{-1} (0.5-2.7 g l^{-1}) in 0.2 M NaCl and the enthalpy of micellization, estimated from ITC data, is 100 J [mol AMPS]^{-1}. The accessibility of the chromophores to neutral molecules and to cationic species was assessed by quenching of fluorescence with nitromethane and thallium nitrate, respectively. The association of the mono-endcapped polymers is compared to that of PAMPS derivatives carrying hydrophobic groups randomly attached along the chain.

Mizusaki, M.; Morishima, Y.; Raju, B. B.; Winnik, F. M.


Vapor–liquid equilibria of propionic acid–water system in the presence of different types of inorganic salts: effect of temperature and salt concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isothermal vapor–liquid equilibrium data at 40 and 50°C were obtained by using a headspace gas chromatography (GC) (one of the static methods) for the propionic acid–water system in the presence and absence of chloride salts. Propionic acid was salted-out in the presence of any chloride salt, in the following order: aluminum chloride>calcium chloride>sodium chloride>ammonium chloride. The effects of AlCl3, CaCl2,

Fawzi Banat; Sameer Al-Asheh; Jana Simandl



Pulsed dielectric breakdown of pressurized water and salt solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dielectric breakdown of pressurized water and salt solutions subjected to high amplitude electric fields of submicrosecond duration has been investigated. Well-defined pulses (80 kV, 3 ns rise time, 100 ns duration) have been applied to a gap (0.04–0.21 cm), between Rogowski profile electrodes, containing de-ionized, nondistilled water; de-ionized, distilled water; sodium chloride solutions (0.001–1.0 M); or magnesium sulfate solutions

H. M. Jones; E. E. Kunhardt



Effect of dissolved inorganic salts on the isothermal vapor–liquid equilibrium of the propionic acid–water mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propionic acid–water is one of the minimum boiling point azeotropic binary mixtures. Alteration of the vapor–liquid equilibrium (VLE) by addition of inorganic salts is of interest, since it allows bypassing the azeotropic point due to salt-in and salt-out effects. The effect of NaCl, NH4Cl, CaCl2, and AlCl3 at salt concentrations of 1 m and the effect of NaCl molality (0.5–3

Fawzi Banat; Sameer Al-Asheh; Jana Simandl



Effect of chloride content of molten nitrate salt on corrosion of A516 carbon steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion behavior of A516 carbon steel was evaluated to determine the effect of the dissolved chloride content in molten binary Solar Salt. Corrosion tests were conducted in a molten salt consisting of a 60-40 weight ratio of NaNO and KNO at 400{sup o}C and 450{sup o}C for up to 800 hours. Chloride concentrations of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 wt.%

Robert W. Bradshaw; W. Miles Clift



Salt waste volume reduction by sodium removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature searcha nd preliminary experiments were carried out to ; determine the feasibility of reducing salt waste volumes by the removal of sodium ; and purifying the sodium as metal for reuse or less restricted storage for use in ; the long-term storage of Hanford's radioactive salt waste. Included in the ; experimental part of the study were oxalate

L. L. Burger; J. L. Ryan; J. L. Swanson; L. A. Bray




Microsoft Academic Search

Metallic thorium production was attempted by fused salts electrolysis in ; an argon atmosphere, using the thorium fluoride double salts system. The ; electrolyte was pure thorium salts obtained from processing Korean monazite sands ; through alkali decomposition and solvent extraction. The bath content consisted ; of sodium chloride -potassium chloride and thorium salt eutectic. Relations ; between current densities,

D. Kim; J. Lee; H. Lee





It has been found that certain metal salts, particularly the halides of iron, cobalt, nickel, and the actinide metals, arc readily absorbed on aluminum oxide, while certain other salts, particularly rare earth metal halides, are not so absorbed. Use is made of this discovery to separate uranium from the rare earths. The metal salts are first dissolved in a molten mixture of alkali metal nitrates, e.g., the eutectic mixture of lithium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and then the molten salt solution is contacted with alumina, either by slurrying or by passing the salt solution through an absorption tower. The process is particularly valuable for the separation of actinides from lanthanum-group rare earths.

Gruen, D.M.



Geophysical surveys for monitoring coastal salt water intrusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical surveys have been exploited in a coastal forest reserve, at the mouth of the river Bradano in South Italy (Basilicata, southern Italy, N 40°22', E 16°51'), to investigate the subsurface saltwater contamination. Forest Reserve of Metapontum is a wood of artificial formation planted to protect fruit and vegetable cultivations from salt sea-wind; in particular it is constituted by a back dune pine forest mainly composed of Aleppo Pine trees (Pinus halepensis) and domestic pine trees (Pinus pinea). Two separate geophysical field campaigns, one executed in 2006 and a second executed in 2008, were performed in the forest reserve; in particular, electrical resistivity tomographies, resistivity and ground penetrating radar maps were elaborated and analyzed. In addition, chemical and physical analyses on soil and waters samples were performed in order to confirm and integrate geophysical data. The analyses carried out allowed an accurate characterization of salt intrusion phenomenon: the spatial extension and depth of the saline wedge were estimated. Primary and secondary salinity of the Metapontum forest reserve soil occurred because of high water-table and the evapo-transpiration rate which was much higher than the rainfall rate; these, of course, are linked to natural factors such as climate, natural drainage patterns, topographic features, geological structure and distance to the sea. Naturally, since poor land management, like the construction of river dams, indiscriminate extraction of inert from riverbeds that subtract supplies sedimentary, the alteration of the natural water balance, plays an important role in this process. The obtained results highlighted that integrated geophysical surveys gave a precious contribute for better evaluating marine intrusion wedge in coastal aquifers and providing a rapid, non-invasive and low cost tool for coastal monitoring.

Loperte, A.; Satriani, A.; Simoniello, T.; Imbrenda, V.; Lapenna, V.



Verification of Ground Penetrating Radar for Soil Water Content Measuring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatially distributed water at the land surface is a vital natural resource for human being and ecosystems. Soil water content at vadose zone at regional scale controls exchange of moisture and energy between Earth surface and atmosphere, at the catchment scale - the separation of precipitation into infiltration, runoff and evapotranspiration, at the field scale - plant growing, at the small plot scale - pathway of water flow through soil profile. Hydrologist, agronomists, soil scientists and others looking for technology providing soil water content measurements across a range of spatial range. Ground penetrating radar is not destructive method of measurement for diverse application was tested in the field for mapping a spatial distribution of soil water content during infiltration event at chestnut soil of Saratov Region, Russia. A Common-MidPoint method was used to calibrate GPR OKO with a 400 MHz antenna. At experimental plot of 50x50 m a range of 36 boreholes equipped by vertical access tubes (10 distance between) for TDR PR2 with 4 predefined depths of soil moisture measurements was prepared. TDR PR2 equipment used for measurements was calibrated on special experimental setup with soil from plot. Data sets of parallel measurements of soil water content by TDR at 4 depths of borehole locations and GPR at trace lines along ranges of boreholes were used to produce soil water content maps with geo-statistical methods. Keywords: GPR, TDR, soil water content

Ermolaeva, O.; Zeiliguer, A.



Polarimetric method for ice water content determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been a number of studies to estimate ice water content (IWC) of snow clouds using the radar reflectivity factor, Z. All of these studies show extreme variability in the IWC-Z relations, which appear to change from day to day and cloud to cloud. High diversity in the IWC-Z relations is primarily due to the fact that reflectivity factor

Alexander V. Ryzhkov; Dusan S. Zrnic



Salt Effects on Solvolysis Reactions of p-Nitrophenyl Alkanoates Catalyzed by 4-(Dialkylamino) pyridine-Functionalized Polymer in Buffered Water and Aqueous Methanol Solutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Specific salting-in effects that lead to striking substrate selectivity were observed for the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl alkanoates 2 (n=2-16) catalyzed by 4-(dialkylamino) pyridine-functionalized polymer 1 in aqueous Tris buffer solution at pH 8.0 and 3...

G. J. Wang D. Ye W. K. Fife



Water contents and OH speciation in pyroxenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nominally anhydrous minerals such as pyroxene contain trace amounts of hydrogen which reside in structural defects. Dissolved water (hydroxyls species OH) plays a crucial role in modifying the physical and chemical properties of the Earth’s mantle and attests a significant water reservoir inside. For a series of natural clino- and orthopyroxenes (cpx and opx) from large suite mantle xenoliths, we investigated the total water (H2Otot) in pyroxenes using micro-FTIR so as to constrain the OH dissolution mechanisms. Samples studied have been brought up either by 1) alkaline basalts magmas, Mont Briançon, Maar de Borée , Barges (France), Dreiser Weiher (Germany), San Carlos (Arizona), Black Rock Sumitt (Nevada), Kilbourne Hole (New Mexico), or by 2) kimberlite magmas, Letseng-la-Terae (South Africa). Crystal chemistry from the different xenoliths was determined by microprobe analyses. Pyroxenes have high Mg number (about 0.9) and spinels contain 0.19 Fe3+/Fetot. Equilibrium P, T conditions were determined by geothermobarometry. P-T conditions were estimated between 700 and 1400°C and between 0.5 and 6.3 GPa. Polarized FTIR spectra acquired on natural cpx and opx are consistent with previous studies, showing the main absorption bands attributed to OH species in the region between 3000-3800 cm-1. H2Otot was estimated by the Beer-Lambert law using the calibration of Libowitzky and Rossman (1997) and gives about 300 ppm and 100 ppm H2O for cpx and opx, respectively. Partionning coefficient between cpx and opx is estimated to 2.1, similar to those from literature data on pyroxenes of alkali-basalt and kimberlitic xenoliths. The H2Otot does not show significant correlation with crystal chemistry, therefore contrasting with previous studies. However, we observe a good linear correlation between the cpx/opx water content and the physical conditions (P, T and fO2 determined from Fe3+/Fetot in spinel) recorded by the mantle xenoliths: ppm H2Ocpx=522.89-119.38*P-0.195*T+484.19*(Fe3+/Fetot) and ppm H2Oopx=193.14+3.18*P-6.22*T-178.78*(Fe3+/Fetot).The derived linear equations suggest a strong influence of the Fe3+/Fetot in the water dissolution mechanism in agreement with recent work.

Bégaudeau, K.; Morizet, Y.; Mercier, J.



Estimation of plant water content by spectral absorption features centered at 1,450 nm and 1,940 nm regions.  


Vegetation water content could possibly provide widespread utility in agriculture, forestry and hydrology. In this article, three species leaves were measured radiometrically in order to determine a relationship between leaf water status and the spectral feature centered at 1,450 and 1,940 nm where there are strong water absorptions. The first step of our research is to measure leaf spectra with a FieldSpec-FR. After the spectral analysis using the continuum removal technique, the spectral absorption feature parameters: absorption band depth (D (1450), D (1940)), the normalized band depth of absorption in 1,450 and 1,940 nm (BNA(1450), BNA(1940)), the ratio of the two reflectance of continuum line (R (1450i )/R (1940i )), the ratio of the two band depth (D (1450)/D (1940)) and the ratio of the two absorption areas (A (1450)/A (1940)) in the two wavebands were extracted from each leaf spectrum. The fuel moisture content (FMC), specific leaf weight (SLW), equivalent water thickness (EWT) were measured for each leaf sample. A correlation analysis was conducted between the spectral absorption feature parameters and corresponding FMC, SLW and EWT. In addition, some existing indices for assessing water status such as WI (water index), WI/NDVI (water index/normalized difference vegetation index), MSI (moisture stress index), NDWI (normalized difference water index)were calculated and the correlation between them and water status were analyzed too. The results by comparing the correlations indicated that the spectral absorption feature indices we proposed were better. The indexes BNA(1940), D (1450)/D (1940), and A (1450)/A (1940) were well correlated with FMC, and the correlation between the indexes D (1450,) D (1940), R (1450i )/R (1940i ) and EWT were strong. The index A (1450)/A (1940) was tested to be a good indictor for evaluating plant water content, because there was strongest positive correlation between it and FMC than other indices. PMID:18853268

Wang, Jie; Xu, Ruisong; Yang, Shilun



Carbon Balance and Water Relations of Sorghum Exposed to Salt and Water Stress 1  

PubMed Central

The daily (24 hour) changes in carbon balance, water loss, and leaf area of whole sorghum plants (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, cv BTX616) were measured under controlled environment conditions typical of warm, humid, sunny days. Plants were either (a) irrigated frequently with nutrient solution (osmotic potential ?0.08 kilojoules per kilogram = ?0.8 bar), (b) not irrigated for 15 days, (c) irrigated frequently with moderately saline nutrient (80 millimoles NaCl + 20 millimoles CaCl2·2H2O per kilogram water, osmotic potential ?0.56 kilojoules per kilogram), or (d) preirrigated with saline nutrient and then not irrigated for 22 days. Under frequent irrigation, salt reduced leaf expansion and carbon gain, but water use efficiency was increased since the water loss rate was reduced more than the carbon gain. Water stress developed more slowly in the salinized plants and they were able to adjust osmotically by a greater amount. Leaf expansion and carbon gain continued down to lower leaf water potentials. Some additional metabolic cost associated with salt stress was detected, but under water stress this was balanced by the reduced cost of storing photosynthate rather than converting it to new biomass. Reirrigation produced a burst of respiration associated with renewed synthesis of biomass from stored photosynthate. It is concluded that although irrigation of sorghum with moderately saline water inhibits plant growth in comparison with irrigation with nonsaline water, it also inhibits water loss and allows a greater degree of osmotic adjustment, so that the plants are able to continue growing longer and reach lower leaf water potentials between irrigations.

Richardson, Steven G.; McCree, Keith J.



Metasomatic control of water contents in the Kaapvaal cratonic mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water and trace element contents were measured by FTIR and laser ablation-ICPMS on minerals from peridotite xenoliths in kimberlites of the Kaapvaal craton from Finsch, Kimberley, Jagersfontein (South Africa), Letseng-La-Terae, and Liqhobong (Lesotho) mines. The peridotites record a wide range of pressure, temperature, oxygen fugacity, and metasomatic events. Correlations between water content or OH vibration bands with major, minor and trace elements in pyroxene and garnet precludes disturbance during xenolith entrainment by the host kimberlite magma and indicate preservation of mantle water contents. Clinopyroxene water contents (150-400 ppm H2O, by weight) correlate with those of orthopyroxene (40-250 ppm). Olivines (Peslier et al., 2008, 2010) and garnets have 0-86 and 0-20 ppm H2O, respectively. Relations in individual xenolith suites between the amount of water and that of incompatible elements Ti, Na, Fe3+ and rare earths in minerals suggests that metasomatism by oxidizing melts controls the water content of olivine, pyroxene and garnet. At pressures ?5.5 GPa, hydrous, alkaline, siliceous fluids or melts metasomatized Liqhobong and Kimberley peridotites, producing high water contents in their olivine, pyroxenes and garnet. At higher pressures, the percolation of ultramafic melts reacting with peridotite resulted in co-variation of Ca, Ti and water at the edge of garnets at Jagersfontein, and the overall crystallization of garnet with lower water contents than those in the original peridotites. The upward migration of these ultramafic melts through the lithospheric mantle also increased the water content of olivines with decreasing pressure at Finsch Mine. H2O/Ce ratios of melts in equilibrium with Kaapvaal peridotites range from 100 to 20,000 and the larger values may indicate metasomatism in subduction zone settings. Metasomatic events in Kaapvaal peridotites are thought to have occurred from the Archean to the Mesozoic. However, circumstantial evidence suggest that the metasomatic events responsible for setting the water contents may date from the Archean at Kimberley and from the Proterozoic at Jagersfontein. Combined water with Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotopic data at Finsch (Lazarov et al., in press-a) and with Ar-Ar phlogopite ages at Liqhobong (Hopp et al., 2008) indicates that water addition by metasomatic melts occurred in the Proterozoic. Water contents of mantle minerals in Kaapvaal xenoliths measured here have been preserved since that time and can consequently be used in modelling viscosity and longevity of cratonic roots since at least the mid-Proterozoic.

Peslier, A. H.; Woodland, A. B.; Bell, D. R.; Lazarov, M.; Lapen, T. J.



Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (p<0.05) linear relationships were found between the ultrasonic velocity and the salt (R2 = 0.975) and moisture (R2 = 0.863) contents. In addition, the change of the ultrasonic velocity with the increase of the salt content showed a good agreement with the Kinsler equation. Therefore, low intensity ultrasound emerges as a potential technique to monitor, in a non destructive way, the meat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

García-Pérez, J. V.; De Prados, M.; Pérez-Muelas, N.; Cárcel, J. A.; Benedito, J.



First data on the uranium content in water of the Yenisei River basin in the area affected by the operation of Rosatom plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is devoted to investigating the content of uranium isotopes in water of the Yenisei River and its tributaries within the territories affected by the operation of Rosatom plants (mining chemical combine, and electrochemical plant). Long-term monitoring of the 238U content by mass spectrometry carried out in two institutes of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences first revealed the multiple excess of 238U over the background content in different areas of the Yenisei River basin, such as the region of the Yenisei River near the effluents of the mining and chemical combine (MCC), and the territories of the Bol'shaya Tel' and Kan rivers. In these regions, the 238U content in water reaches 2.1-4.0 ?g/l, which exceeds its content upstream from the MCC (0.3-0.6 ?g/l) by almost an order of magnitude. The studies of the isotopic composition of uranium in water samples, which were carried out at the Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, showed the presence of a technogenic isotope of uranium 236U in the samples from the Bolshaya Tel' River and revealed the deviation of the isotope ratio 238U/235U (167 ± 3 and 177 ± 3) from the equilibrium natural ratio (238U/235U = 138). These facts attest to the technogenic origin of part of the uranium in water of the Bol'shaya Tel' River connected with the activity of MCC. The excess uranium content in the Kan River requires additional studies to ascertain the fraction of uranium of technogenic origin connected with the activity of the electrochemical plant (ECP) (Fig. 1, Table 4).

Bolsunovskii, A. Ya.; Zhizhaev, A. M.; Saprykin, A. I.; Degermendzhi, A. G.; Rubailo, A. I.



Striped bass: environmental risks in fresh and salt water  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the 112th Annual meeting of the American Fisheries Society (AFS) at Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, the society held a 1-day symposium Striped Bass: Environmental Risks in Fresh and Salt Water. This issue of the Transactions contains some of the papers from that symposium. This symposium explored several hypotheses about sources of environmental risks that could cause problems for




Gastric factors controlling water- and salt-solution-drinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirsty rats presented with salt solutions of various concentrations increase their intake as a function of concentration up to an isotonic solution strength, with a decreased acceptance of hypertonic solutions. Hypertonic pre-drink loads elevate the drinking of water or hypotonic solutions but decrease the intake of hypertonic solutions. The volume of preload, irrespective of concentration, is inversely related to subsequent

Eliot Stellar; Ray Hyman; Sherwood Samet



Electromyogram as a measure of heavy metal toxicity in fresh water and salt water mussels  

SciTech Connect

The response of bivalves to heavy metals and other toxins has usually been determined by observing valve position. Since mussels close their valves to avoid noxious stimuli, experimental delivery of chemicals ins uncertain. To obtain constant results plastic spacers can be employed to hold the valves apart. This obviates valve position as an index of response and some other method is required. Electromyography of intact mussels is one such index, giving a simple, effective, and quantitative measurement of activity. Experiments are reported in this article on the effects of added mercury on salt water and fresh water species.

Kidder, G.W. III [Illinois State Univ., Normal, IL (United States)]|[Mt. Desert Island Biological Lab., Salsbury Cove, ME (United States); McCoy, A.A. [Mt. Desert Island Biological Lab., Salsbury Cove, ME (United States)]|[Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States)



A highly water-soluble disulfonated tetrazolium salt as a chromogenic indicator for NADH as well as cell viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly water soluble disulfonated tetrazolium salt, 4-[3-(2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-2H-5-tetrazolio]-1,3-benzene disulfonate sodium salt, was synthesized. The compound is reduced by NADH in good yields at neutral pHs in the presence of 1-methoxy PMS to produce the corresponding formazan dye that absorbs at 460 nm. The formazan is soluble to water at concentrations higher than 0.1 M. The tetrazolium salt thus proved to

Munetaka Ishiyama; Yoko Miyazono; Kazumi Sasamoto; Yosuke Ohkura; Keiyu Ueno



Removal of Nitrates from Ground Waters by Reverse Osmosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A concept for hybrid ground water processing is presented, which makes it possible to economically reduce the content of nitrates to the allowable limit (50 ppm) while simultaneously reducing the total salt content, and to harmlessly dispose of the concen...

R. Rautenbach K. H. Henne



Effect of moisture content of concrete on water uptake  

SciTech Connect

The penetration of water and non-polar hexane in Portland cement mortar prisms with different initial moisture contents was investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR). The amount of water in gel pores strongly affects the penetration of water in much larger capillary pores. Water penetration is reduced by the self-sealing effect as characterized by non-sq roott dependence of capillary uptake and penetration depth. This is explained by the ongoing redistribution of water from capillaries into gel pores which results in internal swelling and loss of continuity of the capillary pore system; a correlation was observed between the amount of redistributed water and departure from sq roott behaviour. A descriptive model is used to explain the dependence of water uptake and penetration on moisture content. For increasing initial moisture contents up to a critical value equivalent to equilibrium with a relative humidity between 65 and 80%, less penetrating water is able to redistribute. Thus more penetrating water is in larger capillaries with less viscous resistance; uptake and penetration depth increase. Above the critical initial moisture content, uptake and penetration depth decrease towards zero. This is explained by (a) an overall reduction in capillary pressure because transport takes places in fewer and larger pores and (b) an increase in viscous resistance due to the connection of penetrating capillary water with pores already containing water. Less capillary pore space is available for transport. The surface region of concrete placed in contact with water is not instantaneously saturated. Water content increases with time depending on the degree of surface saturation. A new transition coefficient for capillary suction gamma is defined for the calculation of surface flux.

Rucker-Gramm, P. [Concrete Concepts Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH Brandes, Lay, Rucker, Fraunhoferstrasse 30b, 80469 Muenchen (Germany); Beddoe, R.E., E-mail: [Centre for Building Materials, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Baumbachstr. 7, 81245 Muenchen (Germany)



Mg-Sulfate Salts as Possible Water Reservoirs in Martian Regolith  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron spectrometer data from the Mars Odyssey orbiter provide evidence of high water-equivalent hydrogen abundance in some near-equatorial locations on Mars. In broad regions shallow (<1 m) regolith appears to have water abundances of up to ˜13 wt%. Water ice is predicted to be unstable at the present time at all depths below the surface in these equatorial regions. If present in hydrous silicate minerals such as clays or zeolites, which may contain water in abundances of ˜10-20% at Martian surface conditions, the Odyssey data require a regolith very enriched in hydrous silicates - an unlikely proposition. Viking X-ray fluorescence data and alteration assemblages in martian meteorites suggest the presence of sulfate salts in martian regolith. Viking data from excavated duricrust indicate that Mg and S are correlated and that ˜10% of an Mg-sulfate salt is a likely cementing agent. However, the range of possible Mg sulfates is large. Epsomite (7-hydrate, 51% water) and hexahydrite (6-hydrate, 47% water) are the most hydrated; both form structures of isolated SO4 tetrahedra with isolated octahedral sites consisting of Mg coordinated by six H2O molecules (epsomite has an extra H2O in addition to the six required to coordinate with Mg). Pentahydrite (5-hydrate, 43% water) has infinite chains of alternating SO4 tetrahedra and Mg octahedra, with 4/5 of the water forming apices in octahedral sites. Starkeyite (4-hydrate, 37% water) has clusters of two SO4 tetrahedra and two Mg octahedra, linked only by hydrogen bonds. The Mg-sulfate sanderite (2-hydrate, 23% water) is rare and has poorly known structure. Kieserite (1-hydrate, 13% water) is relatively common in evaporite deposits and has a framework structure of infinite tetrahedral-octahedral chains cross-linked by hydrogen bonds. The stability of Mg-sulfate hydrates under martian near-surface conditions depends on their structures; those with excess water beyond that required to form the octahedral Mg site (e.g., epsomite, pentahydrite) lose that excess readily. Experiments with epsomite and hexahydrite indicate great sensitivity to environmental conditions; epsomite is not stable at 295 K at relative humidity (RH) values less than about 55%, below which hexahydrite is the observed phase. More importantly, hexahydrite - with all water coordinated to Mg in octahedral sites - is unstable at pressures less than ˜20 mtorr. X-ray diffraction analysis of hexahydrite held at 20 mtorr for six hours shows that structural degradation is slow at 100 K but becomes obvious in 1 hour at 273 K. Thermogravimetric analysis of this amorphous solid shows that it contains ˜26% H2O (compared with 47% in crystalline hexahydrite), and its observed macroscopic expansion behavior suggests that it can reversibly hydrate and dehydrate. Although neither epsomite nor hexahydrite is likely to be stable near the surface of Mars, their amorphous derivatives or crystalline forms of the lower hydrates might be present (preliminary thermogravimetric data indicate that kieserite is likely to be stable). However, the limited rehydration of structurally degraded hexahydrite indicates that unrealistically large amounts ( ˜50%) would be required in the upper meter of regolith to account for the higher water contents ( ˜13%) suggested for some martian equatorial regions; even larger amounts of kieserite ( ˜100%) would be required. A more important role for sulfates may be in the formation of a low-permeability salt crust that could restrict dewatering of underlying soil horizons.

Vaniman, D. T.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Carey, J. W.; Feldman, W. C.



Compositions for depolluting fresh water and salt water bodies  

SciTech Connect

Compositions are disclosed, which are adapted to depollute fresh and sea water bodies from crude oil and petroleum product pollution by microbial action. The growth of micro-organisms capable of metabolizing hydrocarbons is exalted by certain combination of nutrients, such as lecithin as a phosphorus source, hydantoins, amides allophanates, polyamines, acyl-ureas and esters of the hydantoic and allantoic acids as the nitrogen sources. Ureido-derivatives of amides are also contemplated as additional nutrients.

Olivieri, R.; Degen, L.; Robertiello, A.




Microsoft Academic Search

A field study was conducted at NIA experimental farm, Tandojam to observe the growth and nutrients (macro and micro) content of some salt tolerant multipurpose tree species (Acacia ampliceps, Acacia stenophylla, Acacia nilotica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, and Conocarpus lancifolius) under saline environment. The salinity of the soil was varying from medium saline to very highly saline. The growth performances recorded at




Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of salts (Na2SO4, Na2CO3, MgSO4, NaCl, MgCl2), soil extract and polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) on the germination of Chenopodium glaucum L., seed was studied. Maximum germination was obtained in distilled water. Germination decreased with increase in salinity. The inhibition of germination by salt solutions was in the order of MgCl2 > Na2SO4 > Na2CO3 > NaCl > Soil extract >



Rise and fall of road salt contamination of water-supply springs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A storage pile of de-icing agent consisting principally of sodium chloride was placed in the recharge area of two springs, and remained there for 2 years. Water flow is through fractures in rocks with low matrix permeability, along a hydraulic gradient developed along fracture zones. Salt contamination in the springs was noticed about 1 year after the salt was placed. When the salt was removed 1 year later, chloride concentrations in the springs exceeded 500 mg/L. Monitoring for the following 5 years showed salt contamination rising for the first year, but receding to normal background after 5 years. Chloride to sodium ratios of the spring waters indicated that some sodium was initially sequestered, probably by ion exchange on clay minerals, in the early part of the monitoring period, and released during the latter part; thereby extending the period of contamination.

Werner, Eberhard; Dipretoro, Richard S.



Modeling of salt-water migration through spod-podzolic soils under the field and laboratory conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assessment of highly mineralized water influence on soils is an important issue in the contemporary world. Various regions with different conditions are exposed to salt-affected soils forming. Salinization of soils is a complex process of the chemical and physical properties changes. Therefore the chain of the laboratory and field experiments should be done in order to assess the main factors promoting highly mineralized water migration. In addition to it modelling is a good way to understand and evaluate main chemical and physical transformations in soils. The chain of experiments was done to assess salt water movement in spod-podzolic soils under field and laboratory conditions. The main goals were to evaluate the rate of salt water movement through soils and to estimate velocity of the desalinization process. Field experiment was conducted on spod-podzolic soils of Kaliningrad region. There were 4 sites measuring 20*25 cm watering with salt water in amount of 5 liters per each area. The mineralization of the solution was 100 g/l. In addition to the salt affected sites, 2 non polluted grounds were assessed too. Soils samples were collected in the period of 1 week, 1 month, 3 month and 1 year after the spill had been done. The samples were taken each 10 cm 110 cm deep and in double repeatability. Main chemical and physical parameters, such as volume water content, pH, conductivity, amount of calcium ion, magnesium, sodium, and chlorite in soils etc. were measured in each sample. The second experiment was conducted to evaluate the rate of soils solutions transformation under the laboratory conditions. Organic horizon was taken from the field and was stuffed in columns with 1.0 g/cm3 density. There were 16 columns with 4 cm diameter. 14 columns were showered with salt water with the same mineralization as in the field experiment. The amount of salt water injected in columns was 104 mm per one sample which is equal to the salt water volume spilled per one area in the previous experiment. Also there were 2 columns as a verification variant contained pure soil. Each column was washed off with different amount of distilled water. The total volume of the pure solution was equal to the mean amount of the annual precipitation in the region of the field experiment. The main physical and chemical properties were measured in soils samples as well in the first experiment. In addition to it the complex assessment of soil's water were made. The experiments revealed the fast rate of salinization-desalinization processes in spod-podzolic soils of the coniferous areas in Kaliningrad region. The maximum values of conductivity were observed at the end of 1 week period and made up more than 2000 mSm/cm in top soils horizons. Furthermore the desalinization of the soils took place in both field and laboratory experiments a year after the spill. The reported study was partially supported by RFBR, research project No 12-05-31088 mol_a.

Ronzhina, Tatiana



Reduction of salt in pork sausages by the addition of carrot fibre or potato starch and high pressure treatment.  


The combined effect of high pressure processing (HPP) (400, 600 and 800 MPa) and carrot fibre (CF) and potato starch (PS) on low salt (1.2%) pork sausages was investigated and compared with high (1.8%) salt sausages. Sausages had a marked increase in whitening with increasing content of fibre or starch, pressure level, and process temperature. The degree of redness was mainly affected by pressure level and heat treatment. An important finding regarding salt reduction was that the use of starch or fibre had more impact on textural properties than the level of salt since Young's modulus and strain at fracture were mainly affected by formulation and HPP. Water binding capacity of low salt sausages was improved to the same level as high salt sausages with HPP and addition of CF or PS particularly by the addition of PS which produced sausages with better sensory properties than CF. The sensory analysis showed that this approach is promising for producing low salt sausages. PMID:22682686

Grossi, Alberto; Søltoft-Jensen, Jakob; Knudsen, Jes Christian; Christensen, Mette; Orlien, Vibeke



What Determines the Normal Water Content of a Living Cell?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most living cells contain a large amount of water. To improve our understanding of this fundamental phenomenon of cell physiology, five theories are critically examined in the light of three sets of relevant experimental findings. These findings are: (1) the diversity and specificity of the percentage water content to tissue type; (2) the limitation imposed by the Law of the

Gilbert Ling


High Salt Content of Western Infant's Diet : Possible Relationship to Hypertension in the Adult  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN support of investigations on the ætiological role of chronic excess salt ingestion in human hypertension1 we have repeatedly induced experimental hypertension in rats by chronically feeding a diet high in sodium (chloride), similar to that described by Meneely et al.2. We have observed that, if high salt intakes are initiated at the time of weaning (3 weeks of age),

Lewis K. Dahl; Martha Heine; Lorraine Tassinari



Sensitivity of probabilistic MCO water content estimates to key assumptions  

SciTech Connect

Sensitivity of probabilistic multi-canister overpack (MCO) water content estimates to key assumptions is evaluated with emphasis on the largest non-cladding film-contributors, water borne by particulates adhering to damage sites, and water borne by canister particulate. Calculations considered different choices of damage state degree of independence, different choices of percentile for reference high inputs, three types of input probability density function (pdfs): triangular, log-normal, and Weibull, and the number of scrap baskets in an MCO.




Calcium and bromide contents of natural waters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The linear relation observed in a log Ca++ versus log Br - plot for subsurface Cl- waters is attributed to ultrafiltration by shale of sea water and fresh water that have passed through sedimentary rocks since their formation. Reactions between these solutions and sedimentary minerals, particularly dolomitization, must have contributed additional Ca+ + to solution.

Anderson, R. J.; Graf, D. L.; Jones, B. F.



Field Measurement of Suction, Water Content, and Water Permeability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a review of techniques for field measurement of suction, water content, and water hydraulic conductivity\\u000a (permeability). Main problems in the use of field tensiometers are addressed and hints on how to improve tensiometer performance\\u000a are given. Advantages and limitations of instruments for indirect measurement of suction including electrical conductivity\\u000a sensors, thermal conductivity sensors, dielectric permittivity sensors, filter

Alessandro Tarantino; Andrew M. Ridley; David G. Toll



A multi-residue method for the determination of 90 pesticides in matrices with a high water content by LC–MS\\/MS without clean-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method using QuEChERS extraction and LC–MS\\/MS in electrospray positive ionisation mode was developed and validated for the analysis of 90 pesticides in a high water content matrix (tomato) in a single chromatographic run. To assess the intra-laboratory reproducibility of the method, validation was conducted on four different days by two different analysts. The validation data was treated using a

Fernando Diniz Madureira; Fabiano Aurélio da Silva Oliveira; Wesley Robert de Souza; Ana Paula Pontelo; Mauro Lúcio Gonçalves de Oliveira; Gilsara Silva



A multi-residue method for the determination of 90 pesticides in matrices with a high water content by LC–MS\\/MS without clean-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method using QuEChERS extraction and LC–MS\\/MS in electrospray positive ionisation mode was developed and validated for the analysis of 90 pesticides in a high water content matrix (tomato) in a single chromatographic run. To assess the intra-laboratory reproducibility of the method, validation was conducted on four different days by two different analysts. The validation data was treated using a

Fernando Diniz Madureira; Fabiano Aurélio da Silva Oliveira; Wesley Robert de Souza; Ana Paula Pontelo; Mauro Lúcio Gonçalves de Oliveira; Gilsara Silva



Destroying Gadofullerene Aggregates by Salt Addition in Aqueous Solution of Gd@C60(OH)x and Gd@C60[C(COOH2)]10  

PubMed Central

A combined proton relaxivity and dynamic light scattering study has shown that aggregates formed in aqueous solution of water-soluble gadofullerenes can be disrupted by addition of salts. The salt content of fullerene-based materials will strongly influence properties related to aggregation phenomena, therefore their behavior in biological or medical applications. In particular, the relaxivity of gadofullerenes decreases dramatically with phosphate addition. Moreover, real biological fluids present a rather high salt concentration which will have consequences on fullerene aggregation and influence fullerene-based drug delivery.

Laus, Sabrina; Sitharaman, Balaji; Toth, Eva; Bolskar, Robert D.; Helm, Lothar; Asokan, Subashini; Wong, Michael S.; Wilson, Lon J.



Water Solubility of Polymers with Salt: the Hofmeister Series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed temperature gradient microfluidic devices that allow high throughput, low sample volume assays to be performed on the folding of thermoresponsive polymers and proteins. These macromolecular systems are insoluble at high temperatures, but become hydrated and unfold as the temperature is decreased in a process analogous to the cold denaturation of proteins. Our assays enable highly precise measurements to be made rapidly of the physical behavior of the polymers. The device is specifically used to obtain data on poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) and alpha-elastin at multiple concentrations in the presence of a variety of ions. The results indicate that the folding process follows the Hofmeister series. This series, which dates back to 1888, is a rank ordering of anions and cations based upon their ability to salt-out or salt-in proteins. It had been historically believed that ions affect macromolecule solubility indirectly through their interactions with bulk water. This idea has been largely disproved by a variety of characterization techniques over the last decade. A new theory to explain the mechanism of the Hofmeister effect, however, still needs to be developed. Microfluidic assays in combination with vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy allowed us to develop a model based solely on the direct interaction of the ions with a macromolecule and its first hydration shell. In fact, the protein folding properties can be related to a few simple factors: an ion's hydration entropy, its effect on the surface tension of an aqueous interface, and its ability to interact directly with binding sights on a protein.

Cremer, Paul



The deuterium content of water in some volcanic glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deuterium-hydrogen composition (relative to Lake Michigan WATER = 0.0) of water extractsd from coexisting perlite and obsidian from eleven different localities was determined. The water content of the obsidians is generally from 0.09 to 0.29 per cent by weight, though two samples from near Olancha, California, contain about 0.92 per cent. The relative deuterium concentration is from -4.6 to

Irving Friedman; Robert L. Smith



Experimental studies of oil withdrawal from salt cavities via fresh-water injection  

SciTech Connect

The US Strategic Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program coordinates the storage of crude oil in underground salt caverns. Oil removal from these caverns will be accomplished by injecting water into a brine volume located beneath the oil, buoyantly displacing the oil upwards, where it will then be recovered through a production pipe located near the top of the cavern. The critical question was whether or not the crude oil would protect the salt walls from dissolution upon exposure to unsaturated brine following oil/brine interface passage. These oil/brine/salt interactions were experimentally investigated in the laboratory. Cylindrical cavities were created by machining (hollowing-out) salt cores from one end, leaving the circular wall and bottom as an integral piece. In each of four separate experiments, a salt cavity was placed vertically in a pressure vessel and its interior filled with crude oil overlying a saturated-brine picket. The vessel was sealed and pressurized to actual SPR-cavern pressure. Fresh water was injected down a tube and into the brine pocket, displacing the coil upwards, where it was recovered from the cavity through a second (production) tube near the top of the vessel. A traversable gamma-beam densitometer was positioned above the initial saturated-brine/oil interface and was used as a non-intrusive diagnostic to define the presence, or absence, of salt dissolution (cavity shape change) during the transient oil-withdrawal process. Such measurements showed the occurrence of salt-wall recession following interface passage in all tests, i.e., crude-oil adherence, and/or penetration, at the salt wall failed to protect the salt from dissolution upon its exposure to unsaturated brine. Measured post-test cavity shapes corroborated the transient results. Both transient and steady-state measurements were found to be in good agreement with numerical predictions. 15 references, 16 figures, 1 table.

Reda, D.C.; Russo, A.J.



The Effects of Light Salting on Physicochemical Characteristics of Frozen Cod (Gadus morhua) Fillets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of light salting by brine injection and brine immersion on physicochemical and textural properties of cod fillets were evaluated. Light salting significantly increased yield and water holding capacity. Adding brine injection to the process can be used to shorten the process time needed to obtain the desired salt content and increase yield. The effects on chemical composition were

Kristin Anna Thorarinsdottir; Sigurjon Arason; Gudjon Thorkelsson



Enhancement of Cyanobacterial Salt Tolerance by Combined Nitrogen 1  

PubMed Central

Presence of certain nitrogenous compounds in the growth medium significantly enhanced the salt tolerance of the fresh-water cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain L-31 as well as the brackish water cyanobacterium Anabaena torulosa. Among these, nitrate, ammonium, and glutamine were most effective followed by glutamate and aspartate. These nitrogenous compounds also inhibited Na+ influx in both Anabaena spp. with the same order of effectiveness as that observed for protection against salt stress. The inhibition of Na+ influx on addition of the nitrogenous substances was rapid; nitrate and ammonium inhibited Na+ influx competitively. Proline and glycine did not affect Na+ influx and also had no influence on the salt tolerance of either Anabaena sp. The observed protection was not consequent to a stimulatory effect of combined nitrogen on growth per se. Uptake of NO3? and NH4+ increased during salt stress but was not correlated with growth. Intracellular levels of NO3? and NH4+ were found to be inadequate to constitute a major component of the internal osmoticum. The results suggest that inhibition of Na+ influx by combined nitrogen is a major mechanism for protection of cyanobacteria against salt stress.

Reddy, Bontha R.; Apte, Shree K.; Thomas, Joseph



Effect of Foliar Salicylic Acid Applications on Growth, Chlorophyll, and Mineral Content of Cucumber Grown Under Salt Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of foliar salicylic acid (SA) applications on growth, chlorophyll, and mineral content of cucumber grown under salt stress. The study was conducted in pot experiments under greenhouse conditions. Cucumber seedlings were treated with foliar SA applications at different concentrations (0.0, 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mM). Salinity treatments were established by

Ertan Yildirim; Metin Turan; Ismail Guvenc




EPA Science Inventory

Production ecology in southern California coastal salt marshes was investigated by harvesting macrophytes and monitoring environmental factors (substrate salinity, pH, nitrogen, redox, water content, temperature, and tide level) at four locations--Sweetwater River Estuary, Los Pe...


Peptide salt bridge stability: From gas phase via microhydration to bulk water simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The salt bridge formation and stability in the terminated lysine-glutamate dipeptide is investigated in water clusters of increasing size up to the limit of bulk water. Proton transfer dynamics between the acidic and basic side chains is described by DFT-based Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations. While the desolvated peptide prefers to be in its neutral state, already the addition of a single water molecule can trigger proton transfer from the glutamate side chain to the lysine side chain, leading to a zwitterionic salt bridge state. Upon adding more water molecules we find that stabilization of the zwitterionic state critically depends on the number of hydrogen bonds between side chain termini, the water molecules, and the peptidic backbone. Employing classical molecular dynamics simulations for larger clusters, we observed that the salt bridge is weakened upon additional hydration. Consequently, long-lived solvent shared ion pairs are observed for about 30 water molecules while solvent separated ion pairs are found when at least 40 or more water molecules hydrate the dipeptide. These results have implications for the formation and stability of salt bridges at partially dehydrated surfaces of aqueous proteins.

Pluha?ová, Eva; Marsalek, Ondrej; Schmidt, Burkhard; Jungwirth, Pavel



Peptide salt bridge stability: from gas phase via microhydration to bulk water simulations.  


The salt bridge formation and stability in the terminated lysine-glutamate dipeptide is investigated in water clusters of increasing size up to the limit of bulk water. Proton transfer dynamics between the acidic and basic side chains is described by DFT-based Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations. While the desolvated peptide prefers to be in its neutral state, already the addition of a single water molecule can trigger proton transfer from the glutamate side chain to the lysine side chain, leading to a zwitterionic salt bridge state. Upon adding more water molecules we find that stabilization of the zwitterionic state critically depends on the number of hydrogen bonds between side chain termini, the water molecules, and the peptidic backbone. Employing classical molecular dynamics simulations for larger clusters, we observed that the salt bridge is weakened upon additional hydration. Consequently, long-lived solvent shared ion pairs are observed for about 30 water molecules while solvent separated ion pairs are found when at least 40 or more water molecules hydrate the dipeptide. These results have implications for the formation and stability of salt bridges at partially dehydrated surfaces of aqueous proteins. PMID:23163393

Pluha?ová, Eva; Marsalek, Ondrej; Schmidt, Burkhard; Jungwirth, Pavel



Experimental techniques to determine salt formation and deposition in supercritical water oxidation reactors  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) is an emerging technology for destroying aqueous organic waste. Feed material, containing organic waste at concentrations typically less than 10 wt % in water, is pressurized and heated to conditions above water`s critical point where the ability of water to dissolve hydrocarbons and other organic chemicals is greatly enhanced. An oxidizer, is then added to the feed. Given adequate residence time and reaction temperature, the SCWO process rapidly produces innocuous combustion products. Organic carbon and nitrogen in the feed emerge as CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}; metals, heteroatoms, and halides appear in the effluent as inorganic salts and acids. The oxidation of organic material containing heteroatoms, such as sulfur or phosphorous, forms acid anions. In the presence of metal ions, salts are formed and precipitate out of the supercritical fluid. In a tubular configured reactor, these salts agglomerate, adhere to the reactor wall, and eventually interfere by causing a flow restriction in the reactor leading to an increase in pressure. This rapid precipitation is due to an extreme drop in salt solubility that occurs as the feed stream becomes supercritical. To design a system that can accommodate the formation of these salts, it is important to understand the deposition process quantitatively. A phenomenological model is developed in this paper to predict the time that reactor pressure begins to rise as a function of the fluid axial temperature profile and effective solubility curve. The experimental techniques used to generate effective solubility curves for one salt of interest, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, are described, and data is generated for comparison. Good correlation between the model and experiment is shown. An operational technique is also discussed that allows the deposited salt to be redissolved in a single phase and removed from the affected portion of the reactor. This technique is demonstrated experimentally.

Chan, J.P.C.; LaJeunesse, C.A.; Rice, S.F.



Enrichment of fluoride in groundwater under the impact of saline water intrusion at the salt lake area of Yuncheng basin, northern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term intake of high-fluoride groundwater causes endemic fluorosis. This study, for the first time, discovered that the salt lake water intrusion into neighboring shallow aquifers might result in elevation of fluoride content of the groundwater. Two cross-sections along the groundwater flow paths were selected to study the geochemical processes controlling fluoride concentration in Yuncheng basin, northern China. There are two major reasons for the observed elevation of fluoride content: one is the direct contribution of the saline water; the other is the undersaturation of the groundwater with respect to fluorite due to salt water intrusion, which appears to be more important reason. The processes of the fluorine activity reduction and the change of Na/Ca ratio in groundwater induced by the intrusion of saline water favor further dissolution of fluorine-bearing mineral, and it was modeled using PHREEQC. With the increase in Na concentration (by adding NaCl or Na2SO4 as Na source, calcium content kept invariable), the increase of NaF concentration was rapid at first and then became slower; and the concentrations of HF, HF{2/-}, CaF+, and MgF+ were continuously decreasing. The geochemical conditions in the study area are advantageous to the complexation of F- with Na+ and the decline of saturation index of CaF2, regardless of the water type (Cl-Na or SO4-Na type water).

Gao, Xubo; Wang, Yanxin; Li, Yilian; Guo, Qinghai



Fluorescence and DOC contents of estuarine pore waters from colonized and non-colonized sediments: effects of sampling preservation.  


The influence of the colonization of salt marsh sediments with Halimione portulacoides was evaluated by analysing the fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in sediment pore waters from a salt marsh at different depths. Cores of sediments at colonized and non-colonized sites were collected from a coastal lagoon (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal). The DOC content of extracted pore waters was determined and characterized by synchronous molecular fluorescence (Deltalambda=60nm) and UV-visible spectroscopies. The common practice of freezing sediment cores for further and later chemical investigation was shown not to be an appropriate methodology of sample preservation. On the contrary, freezing of extracted and filtered pore water seemed not to affect either the DOC content or the fluorescence properties of pore waters. Two types of fluorescent substances were found in the pore waters spectra; one corresponding to humic-like substances and another one resembling proteins. However, major differences were found in the spectra of pore waters depending on both depth and the presence/absence of vegetation colonization. PMID:17140624

Otero, M; Mendonça, A; Válega, M; Santos, E B H; Pereira, E; Esteves, V I; Duarte, A



Corrosion of aluminides by molten nitrate salt  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion of titanium-, iron-, and nickel-based aluminides by a highly aggressive, oxidizing NaNO{sub 3}(-KNO{sub 3})-Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} has been studied at 650{degree}C. It was shown that weight changes could be used to effectively evaluate corrosion behavior in the subject nitrate salt environments provided these data were combined with salt analyses and microstructural examinations. The studies indicated that the corrosion of relatively resistant aluminides by these nitrate salts proceeded by oxidation and a slow release from an aluminum-rich product layer into the salt at rates lower than that associated with many other types of metallic materials. The overall corrosion process and resulting rate depended on the particular aluminide being exposed. In order to minimize corrosion of nickel or iron aluminides, it was necessary to have aluminum concentrations in excess of 30 at. %. However, even at a concentration of 50 at. % Al, the corrosion resistance of TiAl was inferior to that of Ni{sub 3}Al and Fe{sub 3}Al. At higher aluminum concentrations, iron, nickel, and iron-nickel aluminides exhibited quite similar weight changes, indicative of the principal role of aluminum in controlling the corrosion process in NaNO{sub 3}(-KNO{sub 3})-Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} salts. 20 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Tortorelli, P.F.; Bishop, P.S.



Observations of Salt Fingers in the central waters of the Eastern North Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents direct measurements of the temperature signature of salt fingers, observed by a horizontally towed temperature sensor at a station in the middle of the subtropical gyre in the eastern North Pacific. The observed spectral shape compares favourably with predictions from the spectral model of Schmitt (1979a), in which a wide range of finger wave numbers grow. The buoyancy flux due to temperature across the fingering interface is estimated by three methods: a `direct' determination from the observed temperature gradient variance and predictions from two laboratory flux laws. The order-of-magnitude agreement among these estimates is an encouraging start to the problem of parameterizing the heat, salt, and buoyancy fluxes associated with salt fingering in the Central Waters of the subtropical gyres, a very real problem in view of the widespread occurrence of salt-fingering signatures in the towed temperature records.

Gargett, A. E.; Schmitt, R. W.



Estimating foliar water content of winter wheat with hyperspectral image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimates of vegetation water content are of great interest for assessing vegetation water status in agriculture and forestry, and have been used for drought assessment. This study focuses on the retrieval of foliar water content with hyperspectral data at canopy level. The hyperspectral image used in this study was acquired by the airborne operative modular imaging spectrometer (OMIS) at Demonstration Site for Precision Agriculture in Xiaotangshan area, Beijing, on April 26th, 2001. 40 image spectra were extracted to correspond to the quasi-synchronous meansurements of foliar water content (FWC). The image spectra of winter wheat were utilized to validate the sensitivity of the existing and novel water indices and parameters of three water absorption features in NIR and SWIR regions. Correlation analysis showed that, NDWI(860,1241) and NDWI(860,1200) both had significant linear relationships with FWC (R2 were 0.4124 and 0.4042 respectively). Red edge position (REP) could reflect indirectly the variations of wheat FWC to some extent. Significant linear relationships were also found between WI(820,1600) and FWC, and between WI(900,1200) and FWC, while no relationship was shown between the traditional WI(900,970) and FWC. The derived depth of water absorption centered around 2078nm, namely AD2078, had the highest linear correlation with FWC (R2 is 0.4551) , much higher than those parameters derived from the two water absorption around 1175 and 1409. In the end, AD2078 was applied to OMIS image to map the foliar water content. The value range of the inverted foliar water content ranged from 69.39 to 78.35%, which was quite close to that of the field measurements (70.72-78.12%). The distribution of the FWC map was quite consistent with growth status of winter wheat.

Zhang, Xia; Jiao, Quanjun; Wu, Di; Zhang, Bing; Gao, Lianru



Rapid Salt Exchange by Coupled Ultrafiltration and Dialysis in Anisotropic Hollow Fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anisotropic hollow fibers allow construction of a dialyzing system that provides extremely large membrane surface in a small laboratory-sized system. Possessing the added property of high ultrafiltration flux, these fibers reduce salt exchange times from days to hours. In this system the exchange of salt by dialytic transport is largely unaffected by recirculation rate, solute type, or content, but is

William F. Blatt; Lita Nelsen; Eliseo M. Zipilivan; Mark C. Porter



Improved algorithm for global map of water vapor contents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved algorithm for global map of water vapor contents S.Mukai, I.Sano, M.Taniguchi(1) and Y.Okada(2) (1)Kinki University,(2)Kobe University An improved retrieval algorithm for water vapor content from satellite data is described. A POLDER sensor, mounted on the Earth observation satellite ADEOS in 1996, is a unique sensor, which can gather multi-directional (up to 14) polarization measurements of one target. The POLDER sensor is mounted on the satellite ADEOS-II launched on 14 December in 2002. Two channels in the near infrared wavelengths are used to estimate the total column water vapor content. The first channel is in the water vapor absorption band of 0.910 mm and the second is in the gas absorption-free band of 0.865 mm. In practice, a ratio of each reflectance for these two channels is used to estimate the total column water vapor content. This procedure has been proposed as a CNES/POLDER standard algorithm [Vesperini et al., 1999], and restricted to the clear-sky pixels over the land and sun-glitter pixels over the ocean. Further assumptions applied to this method are as follows; surface reflectivity is constant over the two channels, scattering by atmospheric aerosols is not significant at these channels, and the total column water vapor content is not significantly affected by the vertical profile of water vapor. This work intends to reduce the restrictions on the method mentioned above. It is shown first that the thermal data is available for retrieval of water vapor contents over the ocean given by ADEOS/OCTS or its successor, ADEOS-II/GLI. Thus the global map of water vapor contents all over the world involving the land and the whole ocean is obtained. Second spectral properties of the land surface are taken into account based on IGBP-DIS/DISCover data. It is found that an assumption of constant surface reflectivity over the two channels is not available, especially for grass-covered land. Furthermore atmospheric effect by aerosols is considered. The obtained satellite derived results are validated with the ground-based data as AERONET, ECMWF etc. Finally the obtained results of water vapor contents are compared with cloud microphysics and aerosol properties to understand the hydrologic cycles in the Earth-atmosphere surface system.

Mukai, S.; Sano, I.; Taniguchi, M.; Okada, Y.


Determination of total arsenic content in water by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) using vapour generation assembly (VGA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of arsenic in water is important in view of contamination of ground water with arsenic in some parts of the world including West Bengal in India and neighboring country Bangladesh. WHO has fixed the threshold for arsenic in drinking water to 10ppb (?g\\/l) level, hence the methodology for determination of arsenic is required to be sensitive at ppb level.

Jai Raj Behari; Rajiv Prakash



Determination of total arsenic content in water by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) using vapour generation assembly (VGA).  


Analysis of arsenic in water is important in view of contamination of ground water with arsenic in some parts of the world including West Bengal in India and neighboring country Bangladesh. WHO has fixed the threshold for arsenic in drinking water to 10ppb (microg/l) level, hence the methodology for determination of arsenic is required to be sensitive at ppb level. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry with vapour generation assembly (AAS-VGA) is well known technique for the trace analysis of arsenic. However, total arsenic analysis [As(III)+As(V)] is very crucial and it requires reduction of As(V) to As(III) for correct analysis. As(III) is reduced to AsH3 vapours and finally to free As atoms, which are responsible for absorption signal in AAS. To accomplish this the vapour generation assembly attached to AAS has acid channel filled with 10 M HCl and the reduction channel with sodium borohydride. Further sample can be reduced either before aspiration for analysis, using potassium iodide (KI) or the sample can be introduced in the instrument directly and KI can be added in the reduction channel along with the sodium borohydride. The present work shows that samples prepared in 3 M HCl can be reduced with KI for 30 min before introduction in the instrument. Alternatively samples can be prepared in 6 M HCl and directly aspirated in AAS using KI in VGA reduction channel. The latter methodology is more useful when the sample size is large and time cycle is difficult to maintain. It is observed that the acid concentration of the sample in both the situations plays an important role. Further reduction in acid concentration and analysis time is achieved for the arsenic analysis by using modified method. Analysis in both the methods is sensitive at ppb level. PMID:16213544

Behari, Jai Raj; Prakash, Rajiv



Effect of presence of salt on the dynamics of water in uncharged nanochannels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy conversion and generation mechanisms at nano-scales often include tapping power from pressure-driven flow of water containing dissolved salts in nanofluidic channels. The deviation of such flows from continuum behaviour can often be advantageously utilized to enhance the energy conversion efficiency. Here, by executing molecular dynamics simulations, we pinpoint alterations in effective stick-slip at the solid-liquid interface as a function of variation in the nature of the salt as well as salt solution concentration for different substrate wettabilities, which could possibly act as a control towards modulating energy conversion efficiencies of nanofluidic devices. Our results reveal that the presence of salt has distinctive effects in wettable and non-wettable channels. Finally, we address the observed slip length deviation quantitatively based on hydration energy of the individual ionic species.

Bakli, Chirodeep; Chakraborty, Suman



Effect of presence of salt on the dynamics of water in uncharged nanochannels.  


Energy conversion and generation mechanisms at nano-scales often include tapping power from pressure-driven flow of water containing dissolved salts in nanofluidic channels. The deviation of such flows from continuum behaviour can often be advantageously utilized to enhance the energy conversion efficiency. Here, by executing molecular dynamics simulations, we pinpoint alterations in effective stick-slip at the solid-liquid interface as a function of variation in the nature of the salt as well as salt solution concentration for different substrate wettabilities, which could possibly act as a control towards modulating energy conversion efficiencies of nanofluidic devices. Our results reveal that the presence of salt has distinctive effects in wettable and non-wettable channels. Finally, we address the observed slip length deviation quantitatively based on hydration energy of the individual ionic species. PMID:23406130

Bakli, Chirodeep; Chakraborty, Suman



Effect of salt ions on protein layers at the air-water interface under a crystallization condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The density profiles of lysozyme layers at the air-water interface before and after adding salt were determined by X-ray reflection. After adding salt, the density of the lysozyme (LSZ) layers decreases, whereas the thickness drastically increases. The salt ions are considered to increase the LSZ-LSZ interaction, and consequently decrease the surface activity of LSZ, allow adsorbed lysozyme molecules crystallize.

Yano, Yohko F.; Uruga, Tomoya



Transpiring wall supercritical water oxidation reactor salt deposition studies  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has teamed with Foster Wheeler Development Corp. and GenCorp, Aerojet to develop and evaluate a new supercritical water oxidation reactor design using a transpiring wall liner. In the design, pure water is injected through small pores in the liner wall to form a protective boundary layer that inhibits salt deposition and corrosion, effects that interfere with system performance. The concept was tested at Sandia on a laboratory-scale transpiring wall reactor that is a 1/4 scale model of a prototype plant being designed for the Army to destroy colored smoke and dye at Pine Bluff Arsenal in Arkansas. During the tests, a single-phase pressurized solution of sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) was heated to supercritical conditions, causing the salt to precipitate out as a fine solid. On-line diagnostics and post-test observation allowed us to characterize reactor performance at different flow and temperature conditions. Tests with and without the protective boundary layer demonstrated that wall transpiration provides significant protection against salt deposition. Confirmation tests were run with one of the dyes that will be processed in the Pine Bluff facility. The experimental techniques, results, and conclusions are discussed.

Haroldsen, B.L.; Mills, B.E.; Ariizumi, D.Y.; Brown, B.G. [and others



Analogue modelling of salt diapirism induced by differential loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

In salt tectonics, two general concepts exist to explain salt diapirism. First, the theory of active piercement by Trusheim (1960) states that salt rises up and pierces its overburden autonomously by buoyancy forces. Second, the theory of reactive piercement by Vendeville and Jackson (1992) considers a tectonic stress field responsible for initiation of salt uplift and has been tested in

Michael Warsitzka; Jonas Kley; Nina Kukowski; Fabian Jähne



The salting out action of alkali metal nitrates on the water-diethylamine binary system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a polythermal study of the salting out action of alkali metal (Na, K, and Cs) nitrates on the water-diethylamine binary system characterized by stratification with a lower critical solution point (LCSP) were comparatively analyzed. Alkali metal nitrates experiencing homoselective solvation in aqueousorganic solvents were found to decrease the LCSP of this binary system, that is, have a salting out action. A decrease in the radius of the cation in the series CsNO3-KNO3-NaNO3 decreased the temperature of critical tie line formation in the monotectic state of salt-water-diethylamine ternary systems (69.3, 48.1, and 22.9°C, respectively). In all ternary systems, first and foremost in the system with potassium nitrate, the effect of diethylamine salting out from aqueous solutions grew stronger as the temperature increased. The conclusion was drawn that, among the salts studied, sodium nitrate had the strongest salting out effect at 22.9-88.4°C, and potassium nitrate, at 88.4-150.0°C.

Il'in, K. K.; Cherkasov, D. G.; Kurskii, V. F.



Changes of Micronutrients, Dry Weight, and Chlorophyll Contents in Strawberry Plants Under Salt Stress Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various concentrations of NaCl (0, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg\\/L) were applied to plants of the “Camarosa” and “Tioga” strawberry varieties for 10 weeks. At the end of the experiment, it was determined that the leaf dry weight increased especially at 500 and 1000 mg\\/L NaCl treatments when compared to control treatment. However, salt applications did not change total chlorophyll content. With

Ece Turhan; Atilla Eris



Mineral and Microbial Contents of Bottled and Tap Water in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is essential to health however its purity, potability and the mineral content is important for consumption by humans. This study aim to determine the clinically important levels of minerals in bottled water and to determine the microbiological content of commercially available bottled waters and tap water from 5 regions of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Commercially available bottled mineral waters were

Kawther F. Abed; Suaad S. Alwakeel


Freeze separation of salt contaminated melt water and sand wash water at snow storage and sand recycling facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freeze separation is used to concentrate dilute salt in snow melt water and sand recycling wash water into concentrated brine that will be supplemented with crystal salt to treat recycled road sand. This reuse decreases the salt released to the environment. Field observations from a case study of a snow storage site in Edmonton, Albert, Canada confirmed freeze separation naturally

Christina Tatarniuk; Robert Donahue; David Sego



Potential water-quality effects from iron cyanide anticaking agents in road salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-soluble iron cyanide compounds are widely used as anticaking agents in road salt, which creates potential contamination of surface and groundwater with these compounds when the salt dissolves and is washed off roads in runoff. This paper presents a summary of available information on iron cyanide use in road salt and its potential effects on water quality. Also, estimates of

M. G. Paschka; R. S. Ghosh; D. A. Dzombak



Estimation of Areal Soil Water Content through Microwave Remote Sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis the use of microwave remote sensing to estimate soil water content is investigated. A general framework is described which is applicable to both passive and active microwave remote sensing of soil water content. The various steps necessary to estimate areal soil water content are discussed through literature review, laboratory experimental results and results of extensive field experimental

Oevelen van P. J



Bile salt biotransformations by human intestinal bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary bile acids, produced solely by intesti- nal bacteria, can accumulate to high levels in the enter- ohepatic circulation of some individuals and may contribute to the pathogenesis of colon cancer, gallstones, and other gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. Bile salt hydrolysis and hy- droxy group dehydrogenation reactions are carried out by a broad spectrum of intestinal anaerobic bacteria, whereas bile acid

Jason M. Ridlon; Dae-Joong Kang; Phillip B. Hylemon



Critical water contents of hydrophobic soils in New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil water repellency is an important problem for pasture farming in New Zealand which causes low infiltration rates and increased surface runoff. However, the real extent of this issue is not yet evaluated. Water repellency is thought to appear on dry soils, when the water content falls below a critical limit. The main objectives of this study was 1) to investigate the effects of different amounts of infiltration water on hydrophobicity of three selected soils under grassland in the North island of New Zealand, and 2) to determine the critical water content for ten sites with five different soil types. In April 2011 undisturbed and disturbed soil samples from a brown, gley and organic soil have been taken from sites around Mount Taranaki. Soil water repellency was determined using the Water Droplet Penetration Time Test (WDPT) and the Molarity of Ethanol Droplet Test (MED). During the lab experiment four amounts of water were applied to the 270 cm³ samples: 400, 800, 1600 and 2400 mL . One test was performed with cold and one with hot (80 °C) water. Each test was replicated four times. In the leachate the amount of dissolved organic carbon was analyzed. The experiments showed that only for the brown soil water repellency decreased significantly with increasing amount of infiltration water whereas for gley soils no correlation was found. Gley soil had initially a lower degree of hydrophobicity compared to the other soils. Possibly due to the higher bulk density of these soils, the carbon compounds directly surrounding the soil particles wre rearranged rather than leached. No clear pattern could be obtained for organic soils. This may be explained by the high initial carbon content of more than 20%. It may take a much greater amount of infiltration to affect hydrophobicity. The critical contact angle of investigated soils above which water repellency is moderately persistent, was 93.8°. In May 2012 ten more sites were sampled and five soil types were investigated with respect to the critical water content. Soil hydrophobicity was again tested during 4 wetting and drying cycles on 3 replicates each of disturbed and undisturbed soil samples. The tests confirmed that water repellency does not exist at high water contents. It generally starts to appear at a certain limit, increases rapidly up to a peak value and finally decreases slowly when the water content approaches 0. Critical water contents were very high in the first wetting cycle and stabilized at a rather constant level during the 2nd, 3rd and 4th wetting cycle. This phenomenon may be due to inhomogeneous water distributions within the field moist soil samples in the 1st wetting cycle and it was thus chosen to take the critical moisture content from the 2nd wetting cycle for further purposes. We found relatively broad transition zones where soils were found to be both hydrophilic and hydrophobic. Critical water contents or rather transition zones were found to differ significantly between the various soil orders and showed values between 0.34 (m³/m³) for recent soil and 0.44(m³/m³) for organic soil.

Landl, Magdalena; Holzinger, Ursula; Singh, Ranvir; Klik, Andreas



The Use of Bending Angle Retrieved By GPS Radio Occultation Technique For The Measurement of The Atmospheric Water Vapour Content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade the use of GPS radio occultation technique (GPS RO) has been deeply and widely investigated for retrieving physical and chemical Earth atmospheric parameters. The technique proved to be particularly precise in retrieving temperature profiles with an high vertical resolution (<1 Km). Temperature profiles are obtained for the dry part of the atmosphere solving for a system of 2 equations (the Thayer equation and the equation of state for dry air) in 2 unknown (hydrostatic pressure and temperature). The system cannot be solved for lower troposphere because the water vapour pressu re is not negligible. So we are forced to include some other information such as the humidity computed by the models (ECMWF or NEP) or adding another observable in the system as the zenith troposphere delays estimated by the GPS ground stations. In this work we will investigate the possibility to retrieve humidity using only the bending angles achieved by the GPS RO. In particular, the humidity profiles are extracted differentiating the true bending angle profiles, retrieved by the GPS RO, with the dry ones, obtained by fitting and extrapolating the outer layers bending angles in a dry atmosphere model (exponential or Hopfield). The bending angles will be retrieved by CHAMP and SAC-C GPS RO data. Then the humidity profiles obtained with the proposed technique will be compared and validated with those retrieved with radio-sounding balloons over two sites at different latitudes: Brindisi (Italy) and Singapore (Japan).

Vespe, F.; Benedetto, C.; Pacione, R.


Important observations and parameters for a salt water intrusion model.  


Sensitivity analysis with a density-dependent ground water flow simulator can provide insight and understanding of salt water intrusion calibration problems far beyond what is possible through intuitive analysis alone. Five simple experimental simulations presented here demonstrate this point. Results show that dispersivity is a very important parameter for reproducing a steady-state distribution of hydraulic head, salinity, and flow in the transition zone between fresh water and salt water in a coastal aquifer system. When estimating dispersivity, the following conclusions can be drawn about the data types and locations considered. (1) The "toe" of the transition zone is the most effective location for hydraulic head and salinity observations. (2) Areas near the coastline where submarine ground water discharge occurs are the most effective locations for flow observations. (3) Salinity observations are more effective than hydraulic head observations. (4) The importance of flow observations aligned perpendicular to the shoreline varies dramatically depending on distance seaward from the shoreline. Extreme parameter correlation can prohibit unique estimation of permeability parameters such as hydraulic conductivity and flow parameters such as recharge in a density-dependent ground water flow model when using hydraulic head and salinity observations. Adding flow observations perpendicular to the shoreline in areas where ground water is exchanged with the ocean body can reduce the correlation, potentially resulting in unique estimates of these parameter values. Results are expected to be directly applicable to many complex situations, and have implications for model development whether or not formal optimization methods are used in model calibration. PMID:15584297

Shoemaker, W Barclay


Phylogenetic Analysis of Culturable Dimethyl Sulfide-Producing Bacteria from a Spartina-Dominated Salt Marsh and Estuarine Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), an abundant osmoprotectant found in marine algae and salt marsh cordgrass, can be metabolized to dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and acrylate by microbes having the enzyme DMSP lyase. A suite of DMS-producing bacteria isolated from a salt marsh and adjacent estuarine water on DMSP agar plates differed markedly from the pelagic strains currently in culture. While many of the




Analysis of salt effects on solubility of noble gases in water using the reference interaction site model theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed robust and very efficient algorithms for solving the reference interaction site model (RISM) equations for salt solutions in the bulk and near a solute atom of noble gases. The theory of dielectric consistency recently developed for solutions at finite salt concentrations is employed in the formalism. The change in water structure in the bulk caused by addition

Masahiro Kinoshita; Fumio Hirata



Remote sensing of fuel moisture content from canopy water indices and the normalized dry matter index  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An important variable for predicting the occurrence and spread of wildfire, fuel moisture content (FMC) is the ratio of foliar water content and foliar dry matter content. One approach for the remote sensing of FMC was to estimate the change in canopy water content over time by using a vegetation w...


Design of Phosphonium-Type Zwitterion as an Additive to Improve Saturated Water Content of Phase-Separated Ionic Liquid from Aqueous Phase toward Reversible Extraction of Proteins  

PubMed Central

We designed phosphonium-type zwitterion (ZI) to control the saturated water content of separated ionic liquid (IL) phase in the hydrophobic IL/water biphasic systems. The saturated water content of separated IL phase, 1-butyl-3-methyimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, was considerably improved from 0.4 wt% to 62.8 wt% by adding N,N,N-tripentyl-4-sulfonyl-1-butanephosphonium-type ZI (P555C4S). In addition, the maximum water content decreased from 62.8 wt% to 34.1 wt% by increasing KH2PO4/K2HPO4 salt content in upper aqueous phosphate buffer phase. Horse heart cytochrome c (cyt.c) was dissolved selectively in IL phase by improving the water content of IL phase, and spectroscopic analysis revealed that the dissolved cyt.c retained its higher ordered structure. Furthermore, cyt. c dissolved in IL phase was re-extracted again from IL phase to aqueous phase by increasing the concentration of inorganic salts of the buffer solution.

Ito, Yoritsugu; Kohno, Yuki; Nakamura, Nobuhumi; Ohno, Hiroyuki



Salting the landscapes in Transbaikalia: natural and technogenic factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salting the soils, surface and subsurface waters is widespread in Transbaikalia. Hearths of salting occur within intermountain depressions of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic age both in the steppe arid and forest humid landscapes. Total water mineralization reaches 80 g/dm3 in lakes and 4-5 g/dm3 in subsurface waters. The waters belong to hydrocarbonate sodium and sulfate sodium types by chemical composition. The soda type of waters is widely spread through the whole area. Sulfate waters are found in several hearths of salting. Deposition of salts takes place in some lakes. Mirabilite and soda depositions are most commonly observed in muds of salt lakes. Deposition of salts occurs both as a result of evaporative concentrating and during freezing out the solvent. In the winter period, efflorescences of salts, where decawater soda is main mineral, are observed on ice surface. Solonchaks are spread in areas of shallow ground waters (1-2m). Soil salting is most intense in the lower parts of depressions, where surface of ground waters is at depth 0.5-1.0m. In soil cover of solonchaks, salt horizon is of various thicknesses, and it has various morphological forms of occurrence, i.e. as thick deposits of salts on soil surface and salting the surficial horizons. The soil has low alkaline reaction of medium and is characterized by high content of exchangeable bases with significant content of exchangeable sodium in the absorbing complex. Total amount of salts varies from 0.7 to 1.3%. Their maximal quantity (3.1%) is confined to the surficial layer. Sulfate-sodium type of salting is noted in the solonchak upper horizons and sulfate-magnesium-calcium one in the lower ones (Ubugunov et al, 2009). Formation of salting hearths is associated with natural and technogenic conditions. The Mesozoic depressions of Transbaikalia are characterized by intense volcanism. Covers of alkaline and moderately alkaline basalts that are enriched in potassium, sodium, carbon dioxide, fluorine, chlorine, sulphur, strontium, lithium, molybdenum, nickel, and vanadium are widely spread there. Geochemical habit of basalts largely determines chemical compositions of waters and mineral formations in hearths of salting. Unloading the fissure-vein waters that evacuate solute from the Jurassic-Cretaceous volcanogenic-sedimentary deposits greatly effects chemical composition in some hearths of salting. Irrigation systems in many intermountain depressions influence the salting hearth formation. The associated secondary salting occurs as spots in the areas, where ground water surface reaches foot of loams during irrigation. Salting the landscapes takes out big areas of fertile lands from agricultural use, threatens with breakdowns at enterprises of thermal energetic that consume water as heat carrier.

Peryazeva, E. G.; Plyusnin, A. M.; Chinavlev, A. M.



In situ adaptation of activated sludge by shock leading to enhance treatment of high ammonia content petrochemical waste water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified activated sludge process that includes both carbonaceous and nitrogenous oxidation to reduce high levels of ammonia in petrochemical waste water was studied in a pilot plant design. Dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, and sludge age were controlled and measured. Ammonia concentration in the petrochemical waste water used as the influent waste to the pilot plant was maintained up to

L. T. Thiem; E. A. Alkhatib



Geo-electromagnetic survey of the fresh/salt water interface in the coastal southeastern Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of geo-electromagnetic surveys and 3D mapping of the spatial distribution of fresh/salt water interface conducted during the IAEA submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) experiment in March 2002 near the boat basin in Donnalucata in the southeastern Sicily are reported. The high-resolution geo-electromagnetic profile showed the presence of several fresh/salt water horizons with various formation resistivities of geologic media. The geo-electromagnetic data confirmed the observations made by seepage metres that in the central part of the Donnalucata boat basin high seepage rates of recirculated seawater were observed. The 3D spatial distribution of formation resistivities with depth showed a saltwater intrusion at the pier, which acts as a barrier for the transport of fresh water to the sea. The geo-electromagnetic measurements showed spatial and temporal variability of the fresh/salt water interface, as measured formation resistivities were in inverse relationship with the daily tide, showing a nonlinear transformation of the boundary of the fresh/salt water interface in the process of its spreading offshore with time.

Kontar, Evgeny A.; Ozorovich, Yuri R.



Conversion of an Aziridine to an Oxazolidinone Using a Salt and Carbon Dioxide in Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A convenient, inexpensive, environment friendly, and regioselective conversion of an aziridine to an oxazolidinone is developed by using iodide salt and CO[2] in water. A description is provided, on the way in which this series of experiments will show students how to change experimental conditions to obtain mainly one desired regiosomer of a…

Wallace, Justin R.; Lieberman, Deborah L.; Hancock, Matthew T.; Pinhas, Allan R.



Ecosystem-groundwater interactions under changing land uses: Linking water, salts, and carbon across central Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although most ecosystems display a one-way connection with groundwater based on the regulation of deep water drainage (recharge), this link can become reciprocal when the saturated zone is shallow and plants take up groundwater (discharge). In what context is the reciprocal link most likely? How is it affected by land use changes? Has it consequences on salt and carbon cycling?

E. G. Jobbagy; M. D. Nosetto; C. S. Santoni; R. B. Jackson




SciTech Connect

This report contains the experimental, theoretical and numerical studies performed under Department of Energy (DOE) Agreement Number DE-FG07-96ER14732 entitled ''Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance for Imaging Subsurface Water.'' DOE and Department of Defense (DOD) complexes and test ranges are situated in widely varying climatic conditions from the desert southwest to the humid east. The mission of the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) is to clean up the inventory of inactive DOE sites and facilities, and the goal of the EM Office of Technology Development (OTD) is to deliver technologies to make environmental restoration more efficient and cost effective. In the western United States, where a number of DOE facilities are located, the water table can occur several hundred feet below the surface. The zone between surface and water table is called the vadose zone or unsaturated zone. A characteristic of that zone is that mobility of water and contaminants is greatly reduced compared to rate of movement in the saturated zone. A thick vadose zone lowers the risk and, at least, increases the time before contaminants enter drinking water supplies. The assessment of risk is often performed by modeling of ground water flow and contaminant migration by analytical methods or unsaturated flow models (e.g. Hendrickx et al 1991). Necessary inputs for these models are the hydraulic properties of the different geological formations (e.g. Hendrickx 1990) and the water content distribution in the vadose zone (Freeze and Cherry 1979). Accurate risk assessments for ground water contamination cannot be conducted without actual measurements of the water content distribution in the vadose zone. To date, very few techniques have been developed to provide such information at an acceptable speed and cost. Because soil water contents exhibit a large spatial and temporal variability, the costs of conventional measurement techniques, such as gravimetric sampling, gypsum blocks, and neutron probes, are high. Only non-intrusive tests with a cost factor much lower than that of an intrusive test will offer acceptable alternatives. Therefore, a definite need exists for a non-intrusive water content measurement method. The surface nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique applied to imaging of ground water was first developed by Russian scientists from the Institute of Chemical and Combustion in Novosibirsk, Russia. Over the last two decades they have published a series of papers and reports describing the theory of the method, along with experimental measurements from the surface to a depth of about 100 m. Preliminary evaluation of the concepts and results merited further investigations, particularly because of the critical technical need for cost-effective water content measurements in environmental restoration.

Hendrickx, Jan M.H.



Altering ligament water content affects ligament pre-stress and creep behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water content of a ligament can be altered by injury and surgical intervention in vivo, and inadvertently or purposely during in vitro tests. We investigated how altering the water content of the rabbit medial collateral ligament (MCL) affected its resulting creep behaviour (defined as an increase in strain from sequential cyclic and static creep tests). The water content of

G. M. Thornton; N. G. Shrive; C. B. Frank



SBUV Trends in PMC Ice Water Content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlapping data sets from SBUV and SBUV/2 instruments can be combined to create a long-term record of polar mesospheric cloud (PMC, also known as noctilucent clouds) behavior. We have previously used these data to examine multi-decade trends in PMC occurrence frequency and albedo. In this presentation, we extend our analysis to consider zonally and seasonally averaged PMC ice water content (IWC). We use a set of parameterized relationships between mid-UV PMC albedo and scattering angle derived from WACCM-CARMA simulations to determine IWC from SBUV PMC observations at 252 nm. This procedure incorporates an adjustment for the fact that the SBUV/2 data are sensitive to only a portion of the total IWC. We will show results using SBUV/2 data from 1979 to the most recent Northern Hemisphere PMC season in 2010, and compare our results with previous work (e.g. Stevens et al. [2007], Baumgarten et al. [2008]).

Deland, M. T.; Thomas, G. E.; Shettle, E. P.; Olivero, J. J.



[Determination of tracer gas contents in sediment pore water of gas hydrate area by two-dimensional gas chromatography].  


A two-dimensional gas chromatographic instrument was established by the capillary flow technology (Deans Switch) and two columns (PoraPLOT Q and Molsieve 5A) and three detectors (pulsed discharge helium ionization detector, flame photometric detector and thermal conductivity detector). The instrument can be used to measure tracer gases simultaneously including hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. The detection limits of the hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide were 0.51, 0.17, 82 and 0.08 micromol/mol, and the calibration curves presented good linear relationships in the range of 2-1030, 0.6-501, 120-10500 and 0.2- 49.1 micromol/mol, respectively. The relative standard deviations were less than 10% for the measurements of ten standard gases. By this method, the tracer gases in the sediment pore water of gas hydrate area in South China Sea had been detected. This method is simple, sensitive, and suitable for on-board detection. Compared with the usual methods for measuring tracer gases, the amount of a sample necessary is reduced greatly. It is useful for the survey of gas hydrate and hydrothermal resources below sea floor and for the research of dissolved gases in the ocean. PMID:21574403

Wang, Hu; Yang, Qunhui; Ji, Fuwu; Zhou, Huaiyang; Xue, Xiang



Spectroscopic determination of leaf water content using continuous wavelet analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gravimetric water content (GWC, %), a commonly used measure of leaf water content, describes the ratio of water to dry matter for each individual leaf. To date, the relationship between spectral reflectance and GWC in leaves is poorly understood due to the confounding effects of unpredictably varying water and dry matter ratios on spectral response. Few studies have attempted

T. Cheng; B. Rivard; A. Sánchez-Azofeifa



Electrokinetic Behavior of Fluoride Salts as Explained from Water Structure Considerations  


Unlike the other silver halides, silver fluoride is positively charged in its saturated solution as determined by nonequilibrium electrophoresis measurements. In the absence of surface hydrolysis reactions, other fluoride salts (LiF, CaF2 , and MgF2 ) also are positively charged in their saturated solutions. Furthermore, the electrokinetic behavior of these fluoride salts is rather insensitive to the fluoride ion activity in neutral or acidic solutions, and reversal of the sign of the surface charge by fluoride addition is not possible. Based on FTIR transmission spectra to describe the water structure of ionic solutions, in situ FTIR/internal reflection spectroscopy (FTIR/IRS) has been used to spectroscopically characterize interfacial water at fluoride salt surfaces. The experimental spectra were examined by consideration of the O-H stretching region (3000-3800 cm-1 ) associated with the vibrational spectra of interfacial water. These results reveal a unique hydration state for fluorides and explain the anomalous electrokinetic behavior of fluoride salts such as LiF, CaF2 , and MgF2 , which show an unexpected insensitivity to the fluoride ion concentration in solution. It appears that this insensitivity is due to the formation of strong hydrogen bonding of the fluoride ions with water molecules. This hydration state prevents the accommodation of excess fluoride ions at surface lattice sites and accounts for the observed electrokinetic behavior. PMID:9241159

Hu; Lu; Veeramasuneni; Miller



Do monovalent mobile ions affect DNA's flexibility at high salt content?  


Numerous theoretical and experimental studies disagree on the impact of surrounding mobile ions on DNA conformational flexibility at high salt content. Specifically, it is not clear how the DNA persistence length varies when concentration of monovalent mobile ions is increased beyond the physiological value of ?0.1 M. In the present Communication we address this biologically important issue computationally by means of molecular dynamics simulations. We utilize our recently developed chemically accurate coarse-grained model for the double-stranded DNA with explicit mobile ions. We find that in a range of moderate-to-high ionic concentrations, ?0.1-1 M, DNA persistence length drops noticeably by ?25%. Our results contradict some experimental works and the celebrated theory of Odijk, Skolnick and Fixman (Skolnick et al., Macromolecules, 1977, 10, 944), suggesting a negligible variation of DNA persistence length at these concentrations. On the other hand, our findings are in near quantitative agreement with a number of other theoretical and experimental studies. Combined with our recent work on elucidating the role of elastic and electrostatic effects in maintaining DNA shape, the results reported here may indicate that conceptually new understanding of DNA rigidity needs to be developed. PMID:22246071

Savelyev, Alexey



Microemulsions with excellent water solubilizing capacity at high hydrocarbon levels with quaternary ammonium salts as surfactants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In W\\/O microemulsions prepared by adding dry surfactant to a mixture of 85% heptane or toluene and 15% pentanol, then titrating\\u000a with water, systems using quaternary ammonium salts have been shown to be capable of solubilizing much larger amounts of water\\u000a than systems using the anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate. In homologous series in the range C12 to C16 it would

Raymond L. Venable



Water swellable clay composition and method to maintain stability in salt contaminated water  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of drilling comprising contacting an earthen formation with a rotary drilling bit to form a salt contaminated drill hole and circulating a drilling fluid in the drill hole to cool and lubricate the drill bit during rotation and to lift drill cuttings of the drill hole. The drilling fluid becomes contaminated with salt contaminated water. The improvement described here comprises adding a water swellable montmorillonite clay composition to the drilling fluid. The composition comprises a water swellable montmorillonite clay, xanthan gum in an amount of 0.1% to 20% based on the weight of water swellable montmorillonite clay, and at least one other, water soluble gum selected from the group consisting of guar gum, dextran gum, locust bean gum, and mixtures thereof in an amount of 4.0% to 10% based on the weight of water swellable clay.

Alexander, W.



Boundary lubrication by sodium salts: a Hofmeister series effect.  


Boundary lubrication plays an important role in the function of sliding surfaces in contact. Of particular interest in this study, boundary regime tribology is relevant for understanding textural attributes perceived during oral consumption of food, where the tongue squeezes and slides against the hard palate. This work investigates aqueous lubrication of a sliding/rolling ball-on-disc contact by sodium anions of the Hofmeister series in both water and guar gum solutions. Low concentrations (0.001 M) of strongly kosmotropic salts provide reduced friction coefficients in both systems (water and guar gum solutions), although a different mechanism prevails in each. Surface-bound hydrated ions are responsible in the case of water, and salt-promoted adsorption of hydrated-polymer chains dominate with guar gum. In each system, friction decreases in accordance with the Hofmeister series: iodide, nitrate, bromide, chloride, fluoride, phosphate and citrate. The addition of salt has little impact on solution of bulk viscosity, and so this work demonstrates that significant boundary lubrication can be provided without surface modification and with lubricants of viscosity similar to that of water. PMID:22621913

Garrec, D A; Norton, I T



Boron behavior during desalination of sea and underground water by electrodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree of boron removal and its residual content in desalinated water vs. the feed boron concentration and the total salt content of a solution by means of electrodialysis have been studied. A comparative analysis of treatment of waters containing boron by the electrodialysis using the heterogeneous [MK-40 and MA-40 (Russia)], homogeneous [MK-100 and MA-100 (Ukraine)], and IONICS [CR67-HMR and

Ludmila Melnik; Olga Vysotskaja; Boris Kornilovich



[Characterization of cross-linked quaternary chitosan salt and its adsorption of perchlorate from water].  


Cross-linked quaternary chitosan salt was prepared and used to adsorb perchlorate from water. Parameters of cross-linking agent, temperature and pH were investigated to optimize the reaction conditions. The adsorption and regeneration ability of the adsorbent were also conducted. Quaternary chitosan salt could be fixed by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde using ethanol as dispersant. The optimal glutaraldehyde dosage and temperature were 6.82% and 45 degrees C, respectively. The cross-linked reaction was independent of pH with the range from 3 to 12. Quaternary chitosan salt was cross-linked mainly through the reaction between the methyl groups of ammonium on quaternary chitosan salt and the -C=O groups on glutaraldehyde. The optimal pH(zpc) of the adsorbent was about 10.6. The adsorbent showed high efficiency for perchlorate removal, and the adsorption capacity varied from 12.321 mg/g to 117.819 mg/g with the ClO4(-) concentration range from 5 mg/L to 200 mg/L. The spent adsorbents could be effectively regenerated by NaCl brine with the concentration more than 0.3%. The results suggest that the cross-linked chitosan quaternary ammonium salt would be a promising method for perchlorate removal from water. PMID:22165217

Xie, Yan-Hua; Li, Shi-Yu; Liu, Guang-Li



Salts drive controllable multilayered upright assembly of amyloid-like peptides at mica/water interface.  


Surface-assisted self-assembly of amyloid-like peptides has received considerable interest in both amyloidosis research and nanotechnology in recent years. Despite extensive studies, some controlling factors, such as salts, are still not well understood, even though it is known that some salts can promote peptide self-assemblies through the so-called "salting-out" effect. However, they are usually noncontrollable, disordered, amorphous aggregates. Here, we show via a combined experimental and theoretical approach that a conserved consensus peptide NH2-VGGAVVAGV-CONH2 (GAV-9) (from representative amyloidogenic proteins) can self-assemble into highly ordered, multilayered nanofilaments, with surprising all-upright conformations, under high-salt concentrations. Our atomic force microscopy images also demonstrate that the vertical stacking of multiple layers is highly controllable by tuning the ionic strength, such as from 0 mM (monolayer) to 100 mM (mainly double layer), and to 250 mM MgCl2 (double, triple, quadruple, and quintuple layers). Our atomistic molecular dynamics simulations then reveal that these individual layers have very different internal nanostructures, with parallel ?-sheets in the first monolayer but antiparallel ?-sheets in the subsequent upper layers due to their different microenvironment. Further studies show that the growth of multilayered, all-upright nanostructures is a common phenomenon for GAV-9 at the mica/water interface, under a variety of salt types and a wide range of salt concentrations. PMID:23650355

Dai, Bin; Kang, Seung-gu; Huynh, Tien; Lei, Haozhi; Castelli, Matteo; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Ruhong



A Grandfather Studies the Power of the Wind; Turning Salt Water into Drinking Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ATETV project delivers web-based videos to connect students to careers in advanced technology. This episode of ATETV follows a non-traditional adult student as he returns to school to study wind energy technology, and examines water treatment technology for desalination. The video can be viewed whole or in two segments: "A Grandfather Studies the Power of the Wind" and "Turning Salt Water into Drinking Water." The running time for the full episode is 9:59.



[Natural water contents and endemic goiter--a review].  


A review is given of literature which considers water as the cause of endemic goitre irrespective of its iodine content and which incriminates goitrogenic substances in the water. There are evident connections between the geogenic origin of the water and the incidence of goitre insofar as water from shallow wells from phyllite, gneiss and slate was linked to an elevated goitre incidence as compared to water from igneous rock or from deeper wells with limestone underground. Water which caused goitre was often found to be grossly polluted. So far, nitrate, humic acids and some of their degradation products have been clearly identified to be goitrogenic. Experimental studies by the author emphasize the importance of nitrate as well as of humic acids and their derivatives as waterborne goitrogens. PMID:7727020

Seffner, W



The activity-composition relationship of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in aqueous salt solutions: II. Vapor-liquid water equilibration of mixed salt solutions from 50 to 100[degrees]C and geochemical implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The difference between oxygen and hydrogen isotope activity and composition ratios of water in mixed salt solutions in the system Na-K-Mg-Ca-Cl-SO[sub 4]-H[sub 2]O was determined by means of a vapor-liquid water equilibration method over the temperature range of 50 to 100[degrees]C. The observed isotope salt effects in complex mixed salt solutions to very high ionic strengths agree quantitatively with calculations

J. Horita; D. R. Cole; D. J. Wesolowski



The activity-composition relationship of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in aqueous salt solutions: II. Vapor-liquid water equilibration of mixed salt solutions from 50 to 100°C and geochemical implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The difference between oxygen and hydrogen isotope activity and composition ratios of water in mixed salt solutions in the system Na-K-Mg-Ca-Cl-SO 4 -H 2 O was determined by means of a vaporliquid water equilibration method over the temperature range of 50 to 100°C. The observed isotope salt effects in complex mixed salt solutions to very high ionic strengths agree quantitatively

Juske Horita; David R. Cole; David J. Wesolowski



Modeling root water uptake with root mediated soil water content redistribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this study was to develop and test a simple root water uptake parameterization applicable in numerical models of soil water movement. The suggested approach was implemented in a one-dimensional dual-continuum model of soil water flow based on Richards' equation. The model was used to simulate soil water movement at an experimental forest site. The performance of the model was evaluated using observed soil water pressure and soil water content data. Several episodes, during which the root mediated soil water content redistribution effects played an important role, were detected. Differences between the model responses and observations, as well as differences between the traditional and newly developed root water uptake modeling approaches, were analyzed. The research was supported by the Czech Science Foundation project No. 205/08/1174.

Dohnal, M.; Votrubova, J.; Vogel, T.; Tesar, M.



Comparison of the Mineral Content of Tap Water and Bottled Waters  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Because of growing concern that constituents of drinking water may have adverse health effects, consumption of tap water in North America has decreased and consumption of bottled water has increased. Our objectives were to 1) determine whether North American tap water contains clinically important levels of calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), and sodium (Na+) and 2) determine whether differences in mineral content of tap water and commercially available bottled waters are clinically important. DESIGN We obtained mineral analysis reports from municipal water authorities of 21 major North American cities. Mineral content of tap water was compared with published data regarding commercially available bottled waters and with dietary reference intakes (DRIs). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Mineral levels varied among tap water sources in North America and among bottled waters. European bottled waters generally contained higher mineral levels than North American tap water sources and North American bottled waters. For half of the tap water sources we examined, adults may fulfill between 8% and 16% of their Ca2+ DRI and between 6% and 31% of their Mg2+ DRI by drinking 2 liters per day. One liter of most moderate mineralization European bottled waters contained between 20% and 58% of the Ca2+ DRI and between 16% and 41% of the Mg2+ DRI in adults. High mineralization bottled waters often contained up to half of the maximum recommended daily intake of Na+. CONCLUSION Drinking water sources available to North Americans may contain high levels of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+ and may provide clinically important portions of the recommended dietary intake of these minerals. Physicians should encourage patients to check the mineral content of their drinking water, whether tap or bottled, and choose water most appropriate for their needs.

Azoulay, Arik; Garzon, Philippe; Eisenberg, Mark J



A multi-residue method for the determination of 90 pesticides in matrices with a high water content by LC-MS/MS without clean-up.  


A method using QuEChERS extraction and LC-MS/MS in electrospray positive ionisation mode was developed and validated for the analysis of 90 pesticides in a high water content matrix (tomato) in a single chromatographic run. To assess the intra-laboratory reproducibility of the method, validation was conducted on four different days by two different analysts. The validation data was treated using a spreadsheet developed in-house, which sets the most appropriate model for linear fit by determining whether the residuals of the calibration curves are homocedastic or heterocedastic. A statistical test for the significance of regression was also carried out. Calibration was always matrix-matched and the curves were obtained over the range 0.0075-0.10 or 0.020-0.125 mg kg(-1). Identification of analytes was based on retention times and MRM ratios. Recoveries were assessed at four different levels for each analyte and were between 73 and 106%, with relative standard deviations under reproducibility conditions of <20%. The measurement uncertainties of the method for each pesticide analysed were below 50%. Previous validation of the same method, applied to papaya samples and satisfactory results obtained in various proficiency tests with different high water content matrices, demonstrated the applicability of the method to these classes of commodities, without clean-up. The validated method will be applied routinely in the pesticide residues monitoring programme that constitutes the National Residue and Contaminant Control Plan of Brazil. PMID:22059454

Madureira, Fernando Diniz; da Silva Oliveira, Fabiano Aurélio; de Souza, Wesley Robert; Pontelo, Ana Paula; de Oliveira, Mauro Lúcio Gonçalves; Silva, Gilsara



Electrokinetics dependence on water-content in sand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrokinetic potential results from the coupling between the water flow and the electrical current because of the presence of ions within water. This coupling is well described in fluid-saturated media, however its behavior under unsaturated flow conditions is still discussed. We propose here an experimental approach which can clearly describe streaming potential variations in unsaturated conditions. Several drainage experiments have been performed within a column filled with a clean sand. Streaming potential measurements are combined to capillary pressure and to water content measurements each 10 centimeter along the column. In order to model hydrodymanics during each experiment, we solve Richards equation in an inverse way which allows us to establish the relation between hydraulic conductivity and water content, and retention relation. The electrokinetic coefficient C shows a more complex behavior than it was previously reported and can not be fitted by the existing models. We show that the normalized electrokinetic coefficient increases first when water saturation decreases from 100% to about 80% - 95%, and then decreases as the water saturation decreases, whereas all previous works described a unifrom decrease of the normalized electrokinetic coefficient as water saturation decreases. We delimited two water saturation domains, and deduced two different empirical laws describing the evolution of the electrokinetic coefficient in unsaturated conditions. Finally, electrical potentials data from four different drainage experiments and hydrodynamics were jointly inversed, including electrical conductivity measurements in order to find a robust description of the electrokinetic coefficient behavior in unsaturated conditions.

Allègre, V.; Lehmann, F.; Jouniaux, L.; Sailhac, P.; Matthey, P.



Ra-Po-Pb isotope systematics in waters of Sambhar Salt Lake, Rajasthan (India): geochemical characterization and particulate reactivity.  


The Sambhar Salt Lake hydrological system, including river waters, groundwaters, evaporating pans and sub-surface brines, has been analyzed for the salt content (TDS) and naturally occurring radionuclides (210Po, 210Pb and 226,228Ra). The abundance of these radionuclides and their activity ratios show a wide variation in different hydrological regimes, which helps to geochemically characterize the lake system. A significantly lower Ra to total dissolved solids (TDS) ratio in the brines (by two to three orders of magnitude), when compared to the groundwaters and river waters, suggests removal of dissolved Ra by co-precipitation with Ca-Mg minerals at an early stage of the brine evolution. The concentration of Ra in evaporating lake/pan waters saturates at a value of about 10 mBq L (-1) [corrected] over the salinity range of 100-370gL(-1); attributable to its equilibration with the clay minerals. The two distinct regimes, saline lake system (lake water, evaporating pans and sub-surface brines) and groundwaters have been identified based on their differences in the distribution of 226,228Ra isotopes. This observation points to the conclusion that the groundwaters and the lake brines are not intimately coupled in terms of their origin and evolution. The abundances of 210Po and 210Pb along with their activity ratios (210Po/210Pb) are markedly different among the surface lake waters/evaporating pans, sub-surface lake brines and groundwaters. These differences are explained in terms of different geochemical behaviour of these nuclides in presence of algae and organic matter present in these water regimes. PMID:19019503

Yadav, D N; Sarin, M M



Estimation of plant water content by spectral absorption features centered at 1,450 nm and 1,940 nm regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation water content could possibly provide widespread utility in agriculture, forestry and hydrology. In this article,\\u000a three species leaves were measured radiometrically in order to determine a relationship between leaf water status and the\\u000a spectral feature centered at 1,450 and 1,940 nm where there are strong water absorptions. The first step of our research is\\u000a to measure leaf spectra with a

Jie Wang; Ruisong Xu; Shilun Yang



[Evaluation of fluoride content in Modena water].  


The Authors confirm the importance of fluoroprophylaxis in the prevention of Dental caries. They analyze the main methods of fluoroprophylaxis pointing out the systemic fluoroprophylaxis, effected by means of water fluoruration, as the best one for a valid prevention of dental caries on a large scale. In view of such a kind of fluoroprophylaxis in our country the Authors considered quite interesting to effect a research about the amount of fluoride in the waters of the district of Modena. The whole of results are reported. PMID:2395770

Aggazzotti, G; Vernole, B; Dottorini, R; Caprioglio, D; Fantuzzi, G


Salt production by the evaporation of SWRO brine in Eilat: a success story  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mekorot Water Company owns and operates a SWRO plant in Eilat for the production of 10,000 m3\\/d of desalinated water. This peculiar plant, commissioned during June 1997, is practically dual purpose, for the production of desalinated water and also for the manufacture of high-quality table salt by the Israel Salt Company. The feed to the desalination plant is a blend

Aliza Ravizky; Nissim Nadav



Salt effect in post-synthesis hydrothermal treatment of MCM-41  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-synthesis hydrothermal treatment of MCM-41 mesoporous silica provides a convenient method for pore expansion and silica wall thickening for improvement of its stability. The physical chemistry of the process is investigated by examining the effects of water content, salts and aluminum on pore expansion. A hydrothermal treatment at 150 °C in water or a salt solution leads to controlled pore

Hong-Ping Lin; Chung-Yuan Mou



Low addition of melamine salts for improved UF adhesives water resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melamine\\/acid salts such as melamine acetate, melamine formate and melamine oxalate, function both as efficient hidden hardeners\\u000a of UF resins for plywood as well as upgrading the performance of simple UF resins for plywood through approximately 10% by\\u000a mass melamine grafting to yield comparable strength durability of premanufactured MUF resins of 30%–40% melamine mass content,\\u000a hence of resins of much

M. Prestifilippo; A. Pizzi; H. Norback; P. Lavisci



Water repellency and critical soil water content in a dune sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessments of water repellency of soils are commonly made on air-dried or oven-dried samples, without considering the soil water content. The objectives of this study were to examine the spatial and temporal variability of soil water content, actual water repellency over short distances, and the variations in critical soil water contents. Between 22 April and 23 November 1999, numerous samples

Louis W. Dekker; Stefan H. Doerr; Klaas Oostindie; Apostolos K. Ziogas; Coen J. Ritsema



Polyelectrolyte Uptake by PEMs at High Salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upon a jump in salt concentration, a polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) constructed by the layer-by-layer process will swell, and in consequence, uptake from solution a large additional mass of the capping polyelectrolyte. Here, swelling and uptake are monitored in time by the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) method as a function of elevated salt concentration (0.75M<[NaCl]<2.5 M) during the uptake of poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS, MW˜70,000 g/mol) by poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)/PSS PEMs made at [NaCl]=0.5M. For [NaCl] less than ˜1 M, PSS adds only at/near the PEM surface, while for higher [NaCl], PSS fully permeates the PEM, contributing a PSS mass approaching, even exceeding, that already present; higher salt concentration leads to faster and greater PSS uptake. Above [NaCl]=1.0 M, uptake is diffusive, characterized by surprisingly large and sharply [NaCl]-dependent diffusion coefficients (˜10-14 - 10-12 cm^2/s). This uptake process opens a general opportunity for facile bulk and surface modifications of PEMs.

Hoagland, David; Su, Zhaohui; Peng, Bo; Zan, Xingjie



In situ visualization of the performance of a supercritical-water salt separator using neutron radiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt separation from supercritical water has been identified as a key issue in the deployment of supercritical-water technologies, particularly in the supercritical-water gasification of biomass. In order to better understand salt separation, neutron radiography has been employed to allow visualization of the transport phenomena associated with the separation of salt from supercritical D2O in a reverse-flow vessel. D2O was used

Andrew A. Peterson; Peter Vontobel; Frédéric Vogel; Jefferson W. Tester



Study on kinetics of mass transfer in water-boiled salted duck during wet-curing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curing is the most important process for the production of water-boiled salted duck. This work was designed to compare the difference in mass transfer of water and salt in water-boiled salted duck among different concentration brines during wet-curing. Duck breasts were wet-cured for 72h in four brine solutions having concentrations, i.e. 5%, 15%, and 25% NaCl (w\\/w), and repeatedly reused

Lei Du; Guang-Hong Zhou; Xing-Lian Xu; Chun-Bao Li



Free Boundary Problem Involving a Cusp: Breakthrough of Salt Water. Modelling, Analysis and Simulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper we study a two-phase free boundary problem describing the stationary flow of fresh and salt water in a porous medium, when both fluids are drawn into a well. For given discharges at the well (Qf for fresh water and Qs for salt water) we form...

H. W. Alt C. J. van Duijn



Production of Carbopol 974P and Carbopol 971P pellets by extrusion-spheronization: optimization of the processing parameters and water content.  


Pellets obtained by extrusion-spheronization represent multiparticulate dosage forms whose interest in intestinal drug delivery can be potentiated and targeted through bioadhesive properties. However, adhesion itself makes the process difficult or even impossible. The problem of tackiness encountered with bioadhesive wet masses was previously eliminated by the use of electrolytes such as CaCl2. This approach is known to reduce the viscosity of polyacrylic acids by disturbing the interactions between carboxylate groups on adjacent polymer molecules, thereby decreasing their bioadhesive properties. The present study aimed at producing pellets containing carbomers without addition of electrolytes in order to maintain their bioadhesive potentiality at its maximum. Carbopol 974P (10%, 15% and 20%) and Carbopol 971P (10%) were used in combination with Avicel PH101. The extrusion speed (30, 45, 60, 90, and 150 rpm), spheronizer speed (350, 700, 960, 1000, and 1300 rpm), spheronization time (5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes) and amount of water (45%, 50%, 54%, and 58%) were optimized in order to obtain the highest yield of spherical pellets ranging 710-1000 microm in diameter. For pellets containing 10%, 15% Carbopol 974P or 10% Carbopol 971P and 45% water content, 30 rpm extrusion speed, 960 rpm, and 10 minutes spheronization speed and time led to the highest yields and sphericities, respectively, 72% and 0.91, 67% and 0.78, and 76% and 0.80. Production of pellets with 20% Carbopol 974P could be achieved through the increase of the water content up to 58% and implementation of 30 rpm extrusion speed, 1300 rpm, and 10 minutes spheronization speed and time. The yield and sphericity were 42% and 0.78 respectively. PMID:15244083

Mezreb, N; Charrueau, Christine; Boy, P; Allain, P; Chaumeil, J C



Estimating Soil Water Content Using Cokriging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using cokriging, estimates and estimation variances of the gravimetric moisture content (GMC) were made using one and two additional random functions: the bare soil surface temperature and the percent sand content. Various measures of the differences and ...

S. R. Yates A. W. Warrick



Accuracy of bottled drinking water label content.  


The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy of the concentration of fluoride (F), calcium (Ca), pH, and total dissolved solids (TDS) levels mentioned on the labels of the various brands of bottled drinking water available in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Twenty-one different brands of locally produced non-carbonated (still water) bottled drinking water were collected from the supermarkets of Riyadh. The concentration of F, Ca, TDS, and pH values were noted from the labels of the bottles. The samples were analyzed for concentrations in the laboratory using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean level of F, Ca, and pH were found as 0.86 ppm, 38.47 ppm, and 7.5, respectively, which were significantly higher than the mean concentration of these elements reported in the labels. Whereas, the mean TDS concentration was found 118.87 ppm, which was significantly lower than the mean reported on the labels. In tropical countries like Saudi Arabia, the appropriate level of F concentration in drinking water as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) should be 0.6-0.7 ppm. Since the level of F was found to be significantly higher than the WHO recommended level, the children exposed to this level could develop objectionable fluorosis. The other findings, like pH value, concentrations of Ca, and TDS, were in the range recommended by the WHO and Saudi standard limits and therefore should have no obvious significant health implications. PMID:19475483

Khan, Nazeer B; Chohan, Arham N



Effects of potassium lactate and high pressure on transglutaminase restructured dry-cured hams with reduced salt content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten raw hams (from 5 carcasses) were boned and salted either with salt reduction (15g\\/kg NaCl) or salt reduction with addition of potassium lactate (15g\\/kg NaCl and 39.74g\\/kg of a 60% K-lactate solution). Subsequently, the ham pieces were assembled together with transglutaminase, vacuum packed into water-permeable plastic bags and kept at 3°C and 85% RH until reaching above 30% weight

E. Fulladosa; X. Serra; P. Gou; J. Arnau



Effects of Salts of the Hofmeister Series on the Hydrogen Bond Network of Water  

PubMed Central

The effect of salts on water behavior has been a topic of interest for many years; however, some recent reports have suggested that ions do not influence the hydrogen bonding behavior of water. Using an effective two-state hydrogen bonding model to interpret the temperature excursion infrared response of the O-H stretch of aqueous salt solutions, we show a strong correlation between salt effects on water hydrogen bonding and the Hofmeister order. These data clearly show that salts do have a measurable impact on the equilibrium hydrogen bonding behavior of water and support models which explain Hofmeister effects on the basis of solute charge density.

Vanderkooi, Jane M.



A new and novel process for separation of salts, scale salts and norm contaminant salts from saline waters and saline solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new and novel process for saline waters and saline solutions conversion has been provided that requires only a fair amount of a miscible organic solvent and heat transfer. Such requirements are ordinary in the nature of precipitation and vaporization. The proposed process consists of adding a miscible (strongly associated) organic solvent to saline water so that salt precipitates of

M. S. H. Bader



The Effects of the Natriuretic Factor from Uremic Urine on Sodium Transport, Water and Electrolyte Content, and Pyruvate Oxidation by the Isolated Toad Bladder  

PubMed Central

The urine of patients with chronic uremia contains a gel filtration fraction that is natriuretic in the rat. The effects of this fraction on the isolated urinary bladder of the toad were examined in the present studies. When added to the serosal surface of the bladder, a significant and substantial fall in short-circuit current and potential difference was observed. The changes began after a lag period of at least 10 min and continued over a period of 60 min. The decrease in short-circuit current at the end of 1 h averaged 44%. The same fraction from the urine of normal subjects produced no significant change in either short-circuit current or potential difference. When the isolated epithelial cells from the toad bladder were incubated in the presence of the inhibitor, intracellular sodium content increased significantly. There was no change in intracellular water content; hence the intracellular concentration of sodium increased by a mean of 7 meq/liter. The changes in intracellular potassium content and concentration were not satistically significant. When the isolated epithelia were incubated with the uremic factor, there was also a significant decrease in pyruvate utilization in relation to cells from paired hemibladders incubated in the absence of the fraction. The fraction from normal subjects produced no change in either intracellular sodium content or pyruvate oxidation. The results suggest that the inhibitor acts from the serosal surface, inhibits sodium transport across the serosal barrier, and produces a decrease in substrate utilization in association with the change in transepithelial sodium transport.

Kaplan, Michael A.; Bourgoignie, Jacques J.; Rosecan, Jeffrey; Bricker, Neal S.



Solution Properties of Poly(ethylene Oxide) as Determined by Viscometric Measurements in Aqueous Salt Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of dilute solutions of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) in aqueous salt solutions are studied by measurements of intrinsic viscosity [n] in theta and nontheta solvents. The unperturbed dimensions in various salt solutions were found larger than those in pure water. These results are attributed to a change in the polymer hydration sheath, in the uche-transilibrium in the PEO chain

Mualla Ataman



Groundwater Contamination by Road Salt: Steady-State Concentrations in East Central Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The average steady-state contamination of groundwater by road salt in the suburban area around Boston, on the assumption that current rates of application of salt will continue, is about 160 milligrams of sodium chloride per liter of water (100 milligrams of chloride per liter). This value is compared with values of 50 to 100 milligrams of chloride per liter found

Edwin E. Huling; Thomas C. Hollocher



Influence of salts, including amino acids, on the rate and outcome of the in-water prebiotic reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most prebiotic reactions are hypothesized to have occurred in water. However, organic compounds in general are not water-soluble. This has created a great problem for prebiotic chemistry. However, it has been shown recently that many organic materials which are not soluble in water are still capable of reacting in water, often at faster rates than in the organic solvents. This has provided a new era in the study of the prebiotic reactions. Simulated prebiotic reactions are typically performed in water. However, presence of inorganic salts and the amino acids was ubiquitous in the aqueous media on the prebiotic Earth. We thus address the influence of common salts and selected water-soluble amino acids on the rate and outcome of selected prebiotic reactions in water. We focus on Diels-Alder (DA) reaction and multicomponent Passerini reaction (PR), as models for other prebiotic reactions. Some of the results came from our laboratory, and others are from the literature. DA reaction is influenced by salts and by selected water-soluble amino acids, but generally not to a large extent. The PR is also influenced by salts, but not dramatically. However, concentrations of salts and amino acids could have been extremely high in various local niches on the early Earth, and the influence of such concentrations on these prebiotic reactions awaits further study.

Kolb, Vera M.



Surface tension measurements show that chaotropic salting-in denaturants are not just water-structure breakers.  

PubMed Central

Since the salting-in agents guanidinium chloride, urea, and lithium perchlorate increase the surface tension of water, the salting-in phenomenon does not reflect easier cavity formation in water. Therefore, these salting-in agents must be directly contributing to the solvation of a solute such as benzene in water, probably by a direct solvation interaction. The increased surface-tension effects do not overbalance these solvation effects since they are smaller than the large surface-tension increases with lithium chloride, a typical salting-out agent. The salting-in agent tetra-n-butylammonium chloride differs in that it lowers the surface tension of water. Thus, it probably contributes both to easier cavity formation and to direct solvation of the substrate. The previous findings that most salting-in agents switch to become salting-out agents in other polar solvents such as ethylene glycol and formamide but that tetra-n-butylammonium chloride does not switch in these solvents can be understood in terms of relative polarities.

Breslow, R; Guo, T



Geomicrobiology and hopanoid content of sulfidic subsurface vent biofilms, Little Salt Spring, Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfide-rich, oxygen-poor environments are widespread in the subsurface and were prevalent at the earth's surface during critical intervals in the geologic past. Modern microbial communities in sulfidic niches have the potential to shed light on the biogeochemistry and biosignatures of anoxia and euxinia in earth history. Caves and sinkholes provide rare windows into microbially-dominated, sulfidic subsurface environments that are otherwise difficult and expensive to access. Little Salt Spring (Sarasota County, Florida) is a cover-collapse sinkhole lake with oxic surface water and anoxic, sulfidic bottom water (Alvarez Zarikian 2005). The site is famous for excellent preservation of human and animal archaeological remains (Clausen 1979), and its microbiology has never been investigated. Abundant white biofilms develop seasonally at a warm vent that feeds into the anoxic bottom water at 73 m depth below the water surface. The biofilms are of interest both as potential sources of biomarker compounds and because of their likely role in sulfuric acid production and limestone dissolution (speleogenesis). Biofilm samples were collected by expert science divers and investigated using microscopy, nucleic acid, and lipid analytical methods. Microscopy of the live biofilm revealed clusters of microbial filaments with holdfasts and dendritic, sulfur-rich colonial structures similar to those described in the 1960s for Thiobacterium, a sulfur-oxidizing genus with undetermined phylogeny. A 16S rDNA library constructed from the biofilm was split into three main phylotypes, with multiple clones representing (1) a Betaproteobacterial clade with no cultivated representatives, (2) filamentous Epsilonproteobacteria, and (3) a major bacterial lineage without named isolates (OP11/OD2). A full cycle rRNA approach is currently underway to link 16S rDNA phylotypes with specific populations in the biofilm. We confirmed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) that abundant filamentous cells with holdfasts are Epsilonproteobacteria. Additional FISH experiments will target the Betaproteobacterial and OP11/OD2 phylotypes retrieved by cloning. Based on HPLC-MS analyses, the biofilm contains at least 5 membrane hopanoid structures distinct from the suite of hopanoids present in sinking organic particles from the photic zone of the sinkhole. Future efforts will be aimed at linking hopanoid structures to specific sulfur-oxidizing populations and to geochemical parameters such as sulfide and oxygen concentrations. References Alvarez Zarikian,C. A., P. K. Swart, J. A. Gifford, P. L. Blackwelder, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 225, 134 (2005). Clausen, C. J., A. D. Cohen, C. Emiliani, J. A. Holman, J. J. Stipp, Science 203, 609 (1979).

Yang, E.; Schaperdoth, I.; Albrecht, H.; Freeman, K. H.; Macalady, J. L.



Determination of D/sub 2/O Contents of Water at Low Levels by Mass Spectrometry: Water-Hydrogen Isotope Equilibration Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A simple analytical method for the determination of D/sub 2/O concentration of water at low levels (below 10 mol%) is established. Hydrogen gas is brought into isotope equilibrium with samples of water in the presence of hydrophobic platinum catalyst. Iso...

K. Watanabe M. Ouchi



Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt.

Eric V. Novotny; Dan Murphy; Heinz G. Stefan



Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible ²³⁸Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such

Jay Stimmel; Roger Wishau; Kevin B. Ramsey; Andrew Montoya; Jason Brock; M. Heslop; K. Wernly



Improvement of water vapor adsorption ability of natural mesoporous material by impregnating with chloride salts for development of a new desiccant filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is the development of a new adsorbent for the desiccant material which can be regenerated by the domestic\\u000a exhaust heat by using natural mesoporous material, Wakkanai siliceous shale. To improve this shale’s performance to adsorb\\/desorb\\u000a the water vapor, lithium chloride, calcium chloride or sodium chloride was supported into the mesopores by impregnating with\\u000a each chloride

Saya Nakabayashi; Katsunori Nagano; Makoto Nakamura; Junya Togawa; Asami Kurokawa


The water cycles of water-soluble organic salts of atmospheric importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the water cycles of nine water-soluble organic salts of atmospheric interest were studied using an electrodynamic balance (EDB) at 25°C. Sodium formate, sodium acetate, sodium succinate, sodium pyruvate and sodium methanesulfonate (Na-MSA) particles crystallize as the relative humidity (RH) decreases and they deliquesce as the RH increases. Sodium oxalate and ammonium oxalate form supersaturated particles at low

Changgeng Peng; Chak K Chan



Water Contents of Pyroxenes from Etna Recent Eruptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatiles (i.e. water) play a fundamental role by influencing the physical-chemical properties of magmas, and they are extremely useful to understand the mechanism of explosive eruptions, thus to forecast volcanic events. Nominally anhydrous minerals, that have been discovered to incorporate H2O, can be a new tool to better understand magma volatile contents. Since pyroxenes are very common in volcanic rocks, they can be used to add new data on the magmas volatiles budget. We measured H2O contents on selected cpx crystals from the Etna 3930 BP summit picritic eruption, 2001 and 2002 flank eruptions. These Etnean eruptions are between the most explosive events in the recent history of the volcano and the products are largely known for their primitive compositions and high volatile content (Kamenetsky et al. 2007, Geology 35, 255-258 and ref. therein). Cpx crystals more than some hundred microns in size were oriented by single- crystal XRD and the three main ? , ?, ? optical directions were measured on (100) and (010) orientations by polarized IR spectra. All the IR spectra showed vibrational bands in the water region at 3630, 3530 and 3460 cm-1, and the water content was calculated by the Libowitzky and Rossman (Am. Mineral. 82, 1111,1997) calibration. On the same crystal FTIR, SC-XRD and EPM analysis were performed and to account for possible H loss by Fe oxidation, Mössbauer spectra were measured on selected samples. Etna cpxs have a quite high H2O content, suggesting a water rich magmatic system and show only minor variations for different eruptions: 254 ppm H2O for 3930 BP picritic eruption; 214 ppm H2O for 2001 eruption; 161-254 ppm H2O for 2002 eruption. Zoned cpx from the eruption 2001 was analysed in the core and rim portion by obtaining 214 ppm H2O content for the core and 138 ppm H2O for the rim. The Mössbauer spectra measured on the same crystal show an increase in Fe3+ in the rim (Fe3+3/Fe2+ ratio: rim = 0.66, core= 0.79). Although Fe oxidation could have been responsible for partial water loss, different physico-chemical magma conditions during the rim growth cannot be excluded. The water content measured for the Etna cpx is well compared with that measured in the cpx from Aeolian volcanic rocks (Italy) that are water rich as well and show different water contents during their volcanic evolution: i.e. Salina 75-97ppm H2O 286-390ppm H2O and 171-199ppm H2O for the three main volcanic stages. The values of the H2O content of Cpxs from Etna and Aeolian volcanoes (up to 390ppm H2O) have so far been reported only for HP mantle Cpxs.

Nazzareni, S.; Pompilio, M.; Skogby, H.; Zanazzi, P. F.



Protection of Lactobacillus acidophilus from bile salts in a model intestinal juice by incorporation into the inner-water phase of a W\\/O\\/W emulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria have been paid increasing attention as a probiotics, but their viability is affected by the various digestive processes of their host such as the acidic stomach solution and bile acids. The protection of Lactobacillus acidophilus JCM 1132 against the cytotoxic bile acids was examined by incorporating the bacteria in the inner-water phase of a W\\/O\\/W emulsion. Sodium

Motohiro Shima; Takefumi Matsuo; Masatsugu Yamashita; Shuji Adachi



Sugar and water contents of honey with dielectric property sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dielectric properties of pure yellow locust, jujube and rape flower honey and their water-adulterated products with water content from 18% to 42.6% were measured with open-ended coaxial-line probe technology and a network analyzer from 10 to 4500MHz at 25°C. Dielectric constants of pure honeys and water-added honey samples decreased monotonically with increasing frequency, and increased with increasing water content.

Wenchuan Guo; Xinhua Zhu; Yi Liu; Hong Zhuang




EPA Science Inventory

Using cokriging, estimates and estimation variances of the gravimetric moisture content (GMC) were made using one and two additional random functions: the bare soil surface temperature and the percent sand content. Various measures of the differences and quality of the estimates ...


Molecular thermodynamics of salt effect in vapor–liquid equilibrium of ethanol–water systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scaled particle theory was used to derive a general expression for the salt effect parameter, K, of isobaric vapor–liquid equilibrium for ethanol–water-1-1 type electrolytic systems, which appears in the Furter equation. This expression was essentially a sum of two terms: 1, the hard sphere interaction term calculated by Masterton–Lee's equation, 2, the soft sphere interaction term calculated by Y. Hu's

Ren Yi Sun



Estimation of soil water content for engineering and agricultural applications using ground penetrating radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-surface water content is important for a variety of applications in engineering, agriculture, ecology, and environmental monitoring and is an essential input parameter for hydrological and atmospheric models. Water content is both spatially and temporally variable and is difficult to characterize using conventional measurement techniques, which are invasive, time-consuming to collect, and provide only a limited number of point measurements. The purpose of this study is to investigate ground penetrating radar (GPR) techniques for improved estimation of water content. GPR techniques have potential for providing accurate, high-resolution estimates of water content quickly and non-invasively, but the efficacy of these techniques for field-scale applications has not been previously determined. This study begins with a literature review of the application of GPR techniques for water content estimation, followed by a description of the principles employed in GPR surveying and the general methodology for converting electromagnetic GPR measurements to water content estimates. Next, a pilot experiment using GPR techniques for water content estimation is described; this experiment was performed under very controlled conditions and used common-offset GPR reflections to estimate the water content in sandy test pits. This experiment showed that GPR techniques can estimate water content very accurately (within 0.017 cm3/cm3 of the volumetric water content estimates obtained gravimetrically) and provided motivation for the second, less-controlled experiment. The second study used common-offset GPR reflections to estimate water content in a transportation engineering application, where the GPR data were used to monitor the water content in sub-asphalt aggregate layers and to estimate deformation under dynamic loading. This experiment showed that GPR data could be used to accurately monitor changes in the horizontal and vertical distributions of sub-asphalt water content with time, with an average error of 0.021 cm3/cm3 between the water content estimates derived from GPR and gravimetric measurements. The third experiment used multi-frequency GPR groundwave data to estimate the near-surface water content in the uncontrolled, heterogeneous environment of a California vineyard. Comparison of water content estimates from GPR data and from gravimetric measurements collected during this experiment showed that GPR data could accurately estimate water content in a heterogeneous environment (average error was less than 0.02 cm3/cm3) and could be used to guide precision vineyard management. Lastly, geostatistical analysis was performed on the high-resolution water content estimates collected in the vineyard, and the results of this analysis showed that the variability of near-surface water content is a function of measurement depth, season, and shallowly-rooted vegetation.

Grote, Katherine Rose



Purple Salt and Tiny Drops of Water in Meteorites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some meteorites, especially those called carbonaceous chondrites, have been greatly affected by reaction with water on the asteroids in which they formed. These reactions, which took place during the first 10 million years of the Solar System's history, formed assorted water-bearing minerals, but nobody has found any of the water that caused the alteration. Nobody, that is, until now. Michael

G. J. Taylor



Comment on “Monitoring the Unfrozen Water Content of Soil and Snow Using Time Domain Reflectometry” by Jean Stein and Douglas L. Kane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time domain reflectometry (TDR) is still a relatively new technique for determining the water content of soils and perhaps other porous media. Therefore particular care and rigor should be applied to both the experimental methods used and in the written presentation of results. Whilst Stein and Kane [1983] should be commended for their attempt to expand the use of the

D. E. Patterson; M. W. Smith



Concentration and precipitation of NaCl and KCl from salt cake leach solutions by electrodialysis  

SciTech Connect

Electrodialysis was investigated for cost-effective recovery of salt from salt cake leach solutions. (Salt cake is a waste stream generated by the aluminum industry during treatment of aluminum drosses and scrap.) We used a pilot-scale electrodialysis stack of 5 membrane pairs, each with an effective area of 0.02 m{sup 2}. The diluate stream contained synthetic NaCl, KCl,mixtures of NaCl and KCl, and actual salt cake leach solutions (mainly NaCl and KCl, with small amounts of MgCl{sub 2}). We concentrated and precipitated NaCl and KCl salts from the concentrate steam when the initial diluate stream concentration was 21.5 to 28.8 wt% NaCl and KCl. We found that water transferring through the membranes was a significant factor in overall efficiency of salt recovery by electrodialysis.

Sreenivasarao, K; Patsiogiannis, F.; Hryn, J.N.



The MODIS Vegetation Canopy Water Content product  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation water stress drives wildfire behavior and risk, having important implications for biogeochemical cycling in natural ecosystems, agriculture, and forestry. Water stress limits plant transpiration and carbon gain. The regulation of photosynthesis creates close linkages between the carbon, water, and energy cycles and through metabolism to the nitrogen cycle. We generated systematic weekly CWC estimated for the USA from 2000-2006.

S. L. Ustin; D. Riano; M. Trombetti



Salt water batteries utilizing fusion-cast PbCl2Cu2Cl2electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although salt water batteries based on magnesium alloys and silver chloride have been used for several years, they present several problems, the most important of which is the very high cost. Alternate systems utilizing lead chloride or cuprous chloride have achieved only moderate success. The present research relates to a high energy low cost salt water battery based on an

T. Gray; J. Wojtowicz



[Monitoring of water and salt transport in silt and sandy soil during the leaching process].  


Water and salt transport in soil and its mechanism is the key point of the saline soil research. The dynamic rule of water and transport in soil during the leaching process is the theoretical basis of formation, flush, drainage and improvement of saline soil. In this study, a vertical infiltration experiment was conducted to monitor the variation in the resistivity of silt and sandy soil during the leaching process by the self-designed automatic monitoring device. The experimental results showed that the peaks in the resistivity of the two soils went down and faded away in the course of leaching. It took about 30 minutes for sandy soil to reach the water-salt balance, whereas the silt took about 70 minutes. With the increasing leaching times, the desalination depth remained basically the same, being 35 cm for sandy soil and 10 cm for the silt from the top to bottom of soil column. Therefore, 3 and 7 leaching processes were required respectively for the complete desalination of the soil column. The temporal and spatial resolution of this monitoring device can be adjusted according to the practical demand. This device can not only achieve the remote, in situ and dynamic monitoring data of water and salt transport, but also provide an effective method in monitoring, assessment and early warning of salinization. PMID:23323426

Fu, Teng-Fei; Jia, Yong-Gang; Guo, Lei; Liu, Xiao-Lei



Electromagnetic determination of clay water content: role of the microporosity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electromagnetic determination of clay water content requires a good understanding of the main factors that affect the relationship between the clay relative permittivity ? and the water content ?. The first part of this paper proposes a review of the different factors affecting it: (a) a significantly high imaginary part of the relative permittivity; (b) a frequency-dependent response; (c)

Ph. Cosenza; A. Tabbagh



Soil Water Content Spatial Correlation Estimation Using GPR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial correlation estimates of water content in the shallow subsurface are needed as input for stochastic generation of representative vadose zone models. Improved vadose zone characterization is also important for applications such as precision agriculture, environmental monitoring, and optimizing data collection strategies. However, water content in the vadose zone is often highly variable. As such, using only traditional vadose zone

K. R. Grote; S. S. Hubbard; Y. Rubin



Hierarchical Measurement of Field-Scale Soil Water Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water content is a key variable in terrestrial systems. It is closely related to soil texture, hence varies continuously as well as discontinuously on many spatial and temporal scales. Measuring water content at large scales is thus a significant challenge. We demonstrate the relative merits of two electromagnetic methods -- TDR (time-domain reflectometry) and GPR (ground-penetrating radar) -- both of

K. Roth; U. Wollschläger



Remote Sensing of Vegetation Water Content using Shortwave Infrared Reflectances  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetation water content is an important biophysical parameter for estimation of soil moisture from microwave radiometers. The Soil Moisture Experiments in 2004 (SMEX04) and 2005 (SMEX05) had an objective of developing and testing algorithms for a vegetation water content data product using shortwav...


Remote Sensing of Vegetation Water Content using Shortwave Infrared Reflectance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetation water content is an important biophysical parameter for estimation of soil moisture from microwave radiometers. The Soil Moisture Experiments in 2004 (SMEX04) and 2005 (SMEX05) had an objective of developing and testing algorithms for a vegetation water content (VWC) data product using sh...


Aggressive salt and water restriction in acutely decompensated heart failure: is it worth its weight in salt?  


Evaluation of: Aliti GB, Rabelo ER, Clausell N, Rohde LE, Biolo A, Beck-da-Silva L. Aggressive fluid and sodium restriction in acute decompensated heart failure: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern. Med. 173(12), 1058-1064 (2013). Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is the leading cause of hospitalization worldwide, especially in the elderly, and is associated with a high readmission rate and increased first year mortality [2,3] . Fluid overload manifested by pulmonary congestion is seen in the majority of patients with ADHF and is believed to be the reason behind most admissions. ADHF is commonly treated with intravenous diuretics aimed to alleviate congestion and restore euvolemia. In fact, current European and American guidelines for heart failure (HF) [4-6] consider relief of congestion as the first-line therapy in ADHF. Following the same theme of reducing fluid retention, historical approaches have recommended water and salt restriction as an essential non-pharmacological therapy in the management of symptomatic HF. This 'common sense' dietary practice was mainly based on experts' opinions and has been challenged by recent data suggesting that salt or fluid restriction has neutral outcomes in achieving clinical stability and improving signs and symptoms of HF [7,8] . PMID:24073677

Rami, Kahwash



Iodine Content in Fish and Other Food Products from East Africa Analyzed by ICP-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to measure the iodine content in sea water fish, fresh water fish, and different foods of plant origin commonly consumed in East Africa in order to evaluate dietary iodine sources for the population in the selected areas. Fish, and food items of cereals, vegetables, legumes, salt, and tea, were obtained from local market sampling

Karen M. Eckhoff; Amund Maage



Actinide removal from molten salts by chemical oxidation and salt distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Actinide removal from molten salts can be accomplished by a two step process where the actinide is first oxidized to the oxide using a chemical oxidant such as calcium carbonate or sodium carbonate. After the actinide is precipitated as an oxide the molten salt is distilled away from the actinide oxides leaving a oxide powder heel and an actinide free

James A. McNeese; Eduardo Garcia; Vonda R. Dole; Walter J. Griego



Iodine content in drinking water and other beverages in Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the variation in iodine content in drinking water in Denmark and to determine the difference in iodine content between organic and non-organic milk. Further, to analyse the iodine content in other beverages.Design and setting: Tap water samples were collected from 41 evenly distributed localities in Denmark. Organic and non-organic milk was collected at the same time (twice

LB Rasmussen; EH Larsen; L Ovesen



Accuracy of bottled drinking water label content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy of the concentration of fluoride (F), calcium (Ca), pH, and total dissolved\\u000a solids (TDS) levels mentioned on the labels of the various brands of bottled drinking water available in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.\\u000a Twenty-one different brands of locally produced non-carbonated (still water) bottled drinking water were collected from the\\u000a supermarkets of

Nazeer B. Khan; Arham N. Chohan



The activity-composition relationship of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in aqueous salt solutions: I. vapor-liquid water equilibration of single salt solutions from 50 to 100[degrees]C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differences between oxygen and hydrogen isotope activity and composition ratios of water in single salt solutions (NaCl, KCl, MgCl[sub 2], CaCl[sub 2], Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4], and MgSO[sub 4]) were determined by means of a vapor-liquid water equilibration method over the temperature range of 50 to 100[degrees]C. A parallel equilibration technique of pure water and salt solutions with the same

J. Horita; D. J. Wesolowski; D. R. Cole



Effect of water content on the water repellency for hydrophobized sands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alternative earthen covers such as capillary barriers (CBs) and evapotranspirative covers are recognized as useful technical and low-cost solutions for limiting water infiltration and controlling seepage flow at solid waste landfills in semi-arid and arid regions. However, their application to the landfills at wet regions seems to be matter of concern due to loss of their impending capability under high precipitation. One of the possible techniques to enhance the impermeable properties of CBs is to alter soil grain surfaces to be water-repellent by mixing/coating hydrophobic agents (HAs). In order to examine a potential use of model sands hydrophobized with locally available and environmental-friendly HAs such as oleic acid (OA) and stearic acid (SA) for hydrophobic CBs. In the present study, we first characterized the effect of water content on the degree of water repellency (WR) for hydrophobized sands and volcanic ash soil at different depth. Secondly, the time dependency of the contact angle in hydrophobized sands and volcanic ash soils at different water content was evaluated. Further, the effects of hydrophobic organic matter contents on the WR of hydrophobized sands were investigated by horizontal infiltration test. We investigated the degree of WR as functions of volumetric water content (?) of a volcanic ash soil samples from different depth and water adjusted hydrophobized sand samples with different ratio of HAs by using sessile drop method (SDM). The initial contact angle (?i) measured from SDM decreased gradually with increasing water content in OA and SA coated samples. Measured ?i values for volcanic ash soils increased with increasing water content and reached a peak values of 111.7o at ?= 0.325 cm3 cm-3, where-after ?i gradually decreased. Each test sample exhibited sharp decrease in contact angle with time at higher water content. Sorptivity values for oleic acid coated samples decreased with increasing HA content and reached the minimum value of 0.068 cm s-1/2 at 1 g HA kg-1 sand, and then gradually increased.

Subedi, S.; Kawamoto, K.; Kuroda, T.; Moldrup, P.; Komatsu, T.



Growth, Water Relations, and Accumulation of Organic and Inorganic Solutes in Roots of Maize Seedlings during Salt Stress.  

PubMed Central

Seedlings of maize (Zea mays L. cv Pioneer 3906), hydroponically grown in the dark, were exposed to NaCl either gradually (salt acclimation) or in one step (salt shock). In the salt-acclimation treatment, root extension was indistinguishable from that of unsalinized controls for at least 6 d at concentrations up to 100 mM NaCl. By contrast, salt shock rapidly inhibited extension, followed by a gradual recovery, so that by 24 h extension rates were the same as for controls, even at 150 mM NaCl. Salt shock caused a rapid decrease in root water and solute potentials for the apical zones, and the estimated turgor potential showed only a small decline; similar but more gradual changes occurred with salt acclimation. The 5-bar decrease in root solute potential with salt shock (150 mM NaCl) during the initial 10 min of exposure could not be accounted for by dehydration, indicating that substantial osmotic adjustment occurred rapidly. Changes in concentration of inorganic solutes (Na+, K+, and Cl-) and organic solutes (proline, sucrose, fructose, and glucose) were measured during salt shock. The contribution of these solutes to changes in root solute potential with salinization was estimated.

Rodriguez, H. G.; Roberts, JKM.; Jordan, W. R.; Drew, M. C.



Development of the sediment and water quality management strategies for the Salt-water River, Taiwan.  


The Salt-water River watershed is one of the major river watersheds in the Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Water quality and sediment investigation results show that the river water contained high concentrations of organics and ammonia-nitrogen, and sediments contained high concentrations of heavy metals and organic contaminants. The main pollution sources were municipal and industrial wastewaters. Results from the enrichment factor (EF) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo) analyses imply that the sediments can be characterized as heavily polluted in regard to Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Cu. The water quality analysis simulation program (WASP) model was applied for water quality evaluation and carrying capacity calculation. Modeling results show that the daily pollutant inputs were much higher than the calculated carrying capacity (1050 kg day(-1) for biochemical oxygen demand and 420 kg day(-1) for ammonia-nitrogen). The proposed watershed management strategies included river water dilution, intercepting sewer system construction and sediment dredging. PMID:21392809

Lin, C E; Chen, C T; Kao, C M; Hong, A; Wu, C Y



Reduction of development of left ventricular hypertrophy in salt-loaded Dahl salt-sensitive rats by angiotensin II receptor inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the effect of the angiotensin II AT1 receptor antagonist losartan (DuP753) on echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) anatomy in Dahl rats on high sodium diet, 27 Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl-S, 13 on drug and 14 receiving tap water) and 27 Dahl salt-resistant rats (Dahl-R, 13 on drug and 14 receiving tap water) were studied by M-mode echocardiography during 8 weeks

Giovanni de Simone; Richard B. Devereux; Maria J. F. Camargo; Donald C. Wallerson; Jean E. Sealey; John H. Laragh



Increased substance P content in nerve fibers associated with mesenteric veins from deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats.  


This study examined sensory nerves associated with mesenteric arteries and veins in sham and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats. Reactivity of arteries and veins to substances released from sensory nerves was also studied in vitro using computer-assisted video microscopy. Co-localization of substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) immunoreactivity (ir) was used to evaluate perivascular sensory nerves. Radioimmunoassay was used to quantify SP- and CGRP-ir content. Immunohistochemical studies revealed a plexus of SP/CGRP-ir nerves associated with arteries and veins. The intensity of SP-ir, but not CGRP-ir labeling was greater in arteries and veins from DOCA-salt compared to sham rats. RIA measurements revealed that the CGRP-ir content of arteries and veins was higher than the SP-ir content but there was a significant increase in SP-ir, but not CGRP-ir, content in arteries and veins from DOCA-salt rats. SP (0.03-1 microM) contracted veins and the NK-3 receptor agonist, senktide, mimicked this effect. There were no differences in SP or senktide reactivity of veins from sham or DOCA-salt rats. SP, but not senktide, relaxed KCl (40 mM) preconstricted arteries. CGRP (0.3 microM), acetylcholine (10 microM) and capsaicin (1 microM) relaxed KCl-preconstricted arteries and veins. The NK-1 receptor agonist, substance P methyl ester relaxed arteries but not veins. These data indicate that DOCA-salt hypertension is associated with upregulation of SP content in perivascular nerves. NK-3 receptors mediate venoconstriction which is unchanged in DOCA-salt hypertension. Increased release of SP from perivenous nerves might contribute to the increased venomotor tone in DOCA-salt hypertension. PMID:16297989

Galligan, James J; Miller, Sara B; Katki, Khurshed; Supowit, Scott; DiPette, Donald; Fink, Gregory D



Radiometric estimation of water vapor content over Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-channel microwave radiometre (make: Radiometrics Corporation) is installed at Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais-INPE, Brazil (22°S). The radiometric output of two channels of the radiometer in the form of brightness temperature at 23.834 GHz and 30 GHz, initially, were used to find out the ambient water vapor content and the non-precipitable cloud liquid water content. The necessary algorithm was developed for the purpose. The best results were obtained using the hinge frequency 23.834 GHz and 30 GHz pair having an r.m.s. error of only 2.64. The same methodology was then adopted exploiting 23.034 GHz and 30 GHz pair. In that case the r.m.s. error was 3.42. These results were then compared with those obtained over Kolkata (22°N), India, by using 22.234 GHz and 31.4 GHz radiometric data. This work conclusively suggests the use of a frequency should not be at the water vapor resonance line. Instead, while measuring the vapor content for separation of vapor and cloud liquid, one of them should be a few GHz left or right from the resonance line i.e., at 23.834 GHz and the other one should be around 30 GHz.

Karmakar, P. K.; Maiti, M.; Sett, S.; Angelis, C. F.; Machado, L. A. T.



Colorimetric cell proliferation assay for microorganisms in microtiter plate using water-soluble tetrazolium salts.  


A colorimetric method to assay cell proliferation of microorganisms in 96-well microtiter plates using water-soluble tetrazolium salts and electron mediators was developed. Combinations of 6 kinds of water-soluble tetrazolium salts and 27 kinds of electron mediators that considered the metabolic efficiency of microorganisms and the influence with medium components were investigated. 2-Methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ) was reduced most effectively by various species of microorganisms, and a combination of WST-8 as a water-soluble tetrazolium salt with 2-methyl-1,4-NQ repressed the increase in background due to medium components. In the presence of 2-methyl-1,4-NQ, WST-8 was reduced by microbial cells to formazan, which exhibited maximum absorbance at 460 nm. The proposed tetrazolium method could be applied to measure proliferations of various microbial cells including 3 kinds of yeast, 9 kinds of Gram-positive bacteria, and 10 kinds of Gram-negative bacteria. Linear relationships between the absorbance and viable microbial cell density were obtained in all microorganisms, suggesting that the absorbance change reflected the microbial cell proliferation. PMID:18586343

Tsukatani, Tadayuki; Suenaga, Hikaru; Higuchi, Tomoko; Akao, Tetsuyuki; Ishiyama, Munetaka; Ezoe, Kimitoshi; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi



Diversity of the predominant spoilage bacteria in water-boiled salted duck during storage.  


The spoilage microbiota in water-boiled salted duck during storage at 4 degrees C was determined using culture-dependent and independent methods. Analysis of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) patterns of PCR amplicons targeting the V3 region of the 16S rDNA and sequencing of the bands allowed profiling of the microbiota present in the duck. Community DNA extracts were prepared directly from water-boiled salted duck and from culturable bacterial fractions harvested from both MRS and PCA media. The spoilage bacteria mainly consisted of Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Macrococcus caseolyticus, Weissella, Halomonas sp. or Cobetia sp., and Exiguobacterium sp. based on sequencing and homology search of the DGGE bands. It appeared that both the bacterial counts and diversity increased during storage time. By plating method, bacterial counts in MRS agar increased from 10(4) to 10(8) CFU/g from day 1 to 10, while total bacterial counts in PCA agar reached 10(9) CFU/g after 10 d. Total of 14 strains isolated from PCA and MRS agar were identified as M. caseolyticus (2), S. saprophyticus (7), S. sciuri (1), W. paramesenteroides (2), and W. confusa (2) by 16S rDNA sequencing. The identification of the spoilage-related microbiota is helpful to better understand the bacteria ecology in water-boiled salted duck and may lead to the discovery of appropriate preservation strategies. PMID:20629890

Liu, Fang; Wang, Daoying; Du, Lihui; Zhu, Yongzhi; Xu, Weimin



Prediction of water content of sour and acid gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimating the feasibility of acid gas geological disposal requires the knowledge of the water content of the gas phase at moderate pressures and temperatures (typically below 50MPa, below 380K) and up to 6mol NaCl. In this paper, a non-iterative model is developed to predict the water content of sour and acid gases at equilibrium with pure water and brine. This

Mohsen Zirrahi; Reza Azin; Hassan Hassanzadeh; Mahmood Moshfeghian



Influence of water and thermal history on ion transport in lithium salt-succinonitrile plastic crystalline electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Important issues of water and thermal history affecting ion transport in a representative plastic crystalline lithium salt electrolyte: succinonitrile (SN)–lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) are discussed here. Ionic conductivity of electrolytes with high lithium salt amounts (~1M) in SN at a particular temperature is known to be influenced both by the trans–gauche isomerism and ion association (solvation), the two most important intrinsic

Supti Das; Aninda J. Bhattacharyya



Calcium Carbonate Precipitation/Dissolution in Salt Water - Fresh Water Mixing Zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral precipitation and dissolution in subsurface environments can have a dramatic effect on the permeability and porosity of formations and hence exert a feedback on the fluid flow. Many parameters influence mineral precipitation and dissolution, but the one addressed here concerns precipitation or dissolution that arises from mixing of saturated solutions with different salinities (or temperatures). This effect arises because the solubility of a mineral in solution depends non-linearly on salinity (or temperature). Examples include calcite precipitation and/or dissolution resulting from mixing of fresh and saline waters in coastal carbonate formations, or the precipitation of anhydrite (CaSO4) upon mixing of hydrothermal solutions with seawater. The present preliminary study focuses on flow, precipitation and dissolution along a salt water-fresh water interface in a porous medium. Emphasis is placed on the quantitative evolution of the flow field in both time and space, under different flow regimes and chemical compositions. Flow experiments were performed in a 2D flow cell packed with 1 mm diameter glass beads. Salt water and fresh water, both saturated with CaCO3, were injected simultaneously at equal flow rates at two inlets. The effluent acid from the outlets was collected and analyzed for Ca2+ concentration, in order to calculate precipitated/dissolved calcium carbonate (based on molar volume of the component) during the experiments. The equilibrium concentration of dissolved calcium carbonate in salt water was found to be higher than in fresh water. Calcium carbonate tended to precipitate in the mixing zone because the resulting mixture became supersaturated. The precipitation rate of calcium carbonate, and the forms of precipitation and subsequent dissolution, are highly dependent on the flow rate, the chemical composition of the injected fluids, and the salinity gradient.

Berkowitz, B.; Singurindy, O.; Lowell, R. P.



Calibrating a salt water intrusion model with time-domain electromagnetic data.  


Salt water intrusion models are commonly used to support groundwater resource management in coastal aquifers. Concentration data used for model calibration are often sparse and limited in spatial extent. With airborne and ground-based electromagnetic surveys, electrical resistivity models can be obtained to provide high-resolution three-dimensional models of subsurface resistivity variations that can be related to geology and salt concentrations on a regional scale. Several previous studies have calibrated salt water intrusion models with geophysical data, but are typically limited to the use of the inverted electrical resistivity models without considering the measured geophysical data directly. This induces a number of errors related to inconsistent scales between the geophysical and hydrologic models and the applied regularization constraints in the geophysical inversion. To overcome these errors, we perform a coupled hydrogeophysical inversion (CHI) in which we use a salt water intrusion model to interpret the geophysical data and guide the geophysical inversion. We refer to this methodology as a Coupled Hydrogeophysical Inversion-State (CHI-S), in which simulated salt concentrations are transformed to an electrical resistivity model, after which a geophysical forward response is calculated and compared with the measured geophysical data. This approach was applied for a field site in Santa Cruz County, California, where a time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) dataset was collected. For this location, a simple two-dimensional cross-sectional salt water intrusion model was developed, for which we estimated five uniform aquifer properties, incorporating the porosity that was also part of the employed petrophysical relationship. In addition, one geophysical parameter was estimated. The six parameters could be resolved well by fitting more than 300 apparent resistivities that were comprised by the TDEM dataset. Except for three sounding locations, all the TDEM data could be fitted close to a root-mean-square error of 1. Possible explanations for the poor fit of these soundings are the assumption of spatial uniformity, fixed boundary conditions and the neglecting of 3D effects in the groundwater model and the TDEM forward responses. PMID:22891736

Herckenrath, Daan; Odlum, Nick; Nenna, Vanessa; Knight, Rosemary; Auken, Esben; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter



Ground Water is a Chronic Source of Chloride to Surface Water of an Urban Stream Exposed to Road Salt in a Chesapeake Bay Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent evidence from the mid-Atlantic suggests that freshwater supplies are threatened by chronic chloride inputs from road salts applied to improve highway safety. Elevated chloride levels also may limit the ability of aquatic systems to microbially process nitrate nitrogen, a nutrient whose elevated levels pose human and ecological threats. Understanding the behavior of chloride in urban watersheds where road salts are applied is critical to predicting subsequent impacts to ecosystem health and drinking water supplies. Here we report on a long-term study of water chemistry in Minebank Run, a recently restored stream in an urban watershed of Towson, MD that receives chronic chloride inputs from the 695 Beltway highway and connecting arteries. Chloride, sodium, and specific conductance were greatly elevated in the both surface water and ground water of Minebank Run, spiking in correspondence to road salt application in the winter. Chloride levels were consistently higher in ground water of the bank side of a minor roadway and downstream of the 695 Beltway. Surface water chloride levels remained elevated throughout the year apparently because ground water continued to supply surface water with chloride even after road salt application ceased. Thus, ground water may represent a chronic source of chloride to surface water, thereby contributing to the upward trend in freshwater salinity in urbanizing areas. Stream susceptibility to road salt impacts may depend upon ground water hydrology and stream geomorphology. However, geomorphic stream restoration practices widely used in the mid-Atlantic are not designed to address salinity effects. Source control of road salts may be necessary to reduce environmental risk.

Mayer, P.; Doheny, E.; Kaushal, S.; Groffman, P.; Striz, E.



Proteins induced by salt stress in tomato germinating seeds  

SciTech Connect

Salt effects on protein synthesis in tomato germinating seeds were investigated by two-dimensional polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis of proteins labeled in vivo with ({sup 35}S)-Methionine. Seeds germinating in NaCl were analyzed at three germination stages (4mm long radicals, 15mm long radicles and expanding cotyledons) and compared to those germinating in water. At the first germination stage several basic proteins of M.W. 13Kd, 16Kd, 17Kd and 18Kd were detected in only salt germinating seeds. Other basic proteins of M.W. 12Kd, 50Kd and 54Kd were salt-induced at the second and third stage of germination. One 14Kd acid protein is observed in every assayed stage and shows several phosphorylated forms. The levels of expression of these proteins are directly correlated to assayed NaCl concentrations. All of these proteins, except 17Kd, are also induced by abscisic acid (ABA) in the same germination stages. A cooperative effect on the synthesis of these proteins is observed when both ABA and NaCl are present.

Torres-Shumann, S.; Godoy, J.A.; del Pozo, O.; Pintor-Toro, J.A. (Instituto Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia, Sevilla (Spain))



Regional increase of mean chloride concentration in water due to the application of deicing salt.  


The Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council 2000/60/EC: Establishing a Framework for Community Action in the Field of Water Policy, states that it is necessary to consider human activities within a river basin in order to prevent and reduce the spreading of pollutants and to achieve good water status. This paper shows a simple method to estimate the environmental pressure from the deicing of roads as steady state chloride concentration in water. The data processed are presented using GIS. The result showed that the contribution of deicing salt is of importance for the chloride concentration on a regional scale. The increase in chloride concentration is also compared to the background concentration and other sources of chloride within the river basin. Road salt applied by the Swedish National Road Administration (SNRA) accounts for more than half of the total chloride load for the river basin investigated. The method presented may easily be generalised to a national scale for monitoring the environmental effects of deicing salt application. PMID:15144775

Thunqvist, Eva-Lotta



Hypothalamic activity during altered salt and water balance in the snake Bothrops jararaca.  


The effects of water and salt overload on the activities of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei and the adjacent periventricular zone of the hypothalamus of the snake Bothrops jararaca were investigated by measurements of Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-ir). Both water and salt overload resulted in changes in body mass, plasma osmolality, and plasma concentrations of sodium, potassium, and chloride. Hyper-osmolality increased Fos immunoreactivity in the rostral supraoptic nucleus (SON), the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and adjacent periventricular areas. Both hyper- and hypo-osmolality increased Fos immunoreactivity in the intermediate SON, but not in other areas of the hypothalamus. Immunostaining was abundant in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-contacting tanycyte-like cells in the ependymal layer of the third ventricle. These data highlight some features of regional distribution of Fos immunoreactivity that are consistent with vasotocin functioning as a hormone, and support the role of hypothalamic structures in the response to disruption of salt and water balance in this snake. PMID:17703311

Zambotti-Villela, Leonardo; Marinho, Camila Eduardo; Alponti, Rafaela Fadoni; Silveira, Paulo Flavio



Halophilic enzyme activation induced by salts  

PubMed Central

Halophilic archea (halobacteriae) thrive in hypersaline environments, avoiding osmotic shock by increasing the ion concentration of their cytoplasm by up to 3–6 M. To remain folded and active, their constitutive proteins have evolved towards a biased amino acid composition. High salt concentration affects catalytic activity in an enzyme-dependent way and a unified molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here, we have investigated a DNA ligase from Haloferax volcanii (Hv LigN) to show that K+ triggers catalytic activity by preferentially stabilising a specific conformation in the reaction coordinate. Sodium ions, in turn, do not populate such isoform and the enzyme remains inactive in the presence of this co-solute. Our results show that the halophilic amino acid signature enhances the enzyme's thermodynamic stability, with an indirect effect on its catalytic activity. This model has been successfully applied to reengineer Hv LigN into an enzyme that is catalytically active in the presence of NaCl.

Ortega, Gabriel; Lain, Ana; Tadeo, Xavier; Lopez-Mendez, Blanca; Castano, David; Millet, Oscar



Radial transport of salt and water in roots of the common reed (Phragmites australis?Trin. ex Steudel).  


To understand the root function in salt tolerance, radial salt and water transport were studied using reed plants growing in brackish habitat water with an osmotic pressure (?M ) of 0.63?MPa. Roots bathed in this medium exuded a xylem sap with NaCl as the major osmolyte and did so even at higher salt concentration (?M up to 1.3?MPa). Exudation was stopped after a small increase of ?M (0.26?MPa) using polyethylene glycol 600 as osmolyte. The endodermis of fine lateral roots was found to be the main barrier to radial solute diffusion on an apoplastic path. Apoplastic salt transfer was proven by rapid replacement of stelar Na(+) by Li(+) in an isomolar LiCl medium. Water fluxes did not exert a true solvent drag on NaCl. Xylem sap concentrations of NaCl in basal internodes of transpiring culms were more than five times higher than in medial and upper ones. It was concluded that the radial NaCl flux was mainly diffusion through the apoplast, and radial water transport, because of the resistance of the cell wall matrix to convective mass flow, was confined to the symplast. Radial salt permeation in roots reduced the water stress exerted by the brackish medium. PMID:23488547

Fritz, Michael; Ehwald, Rudolf




EPA Science Inventory

Pervaporation has emerged as an economically viable alternative technology for the dehydration of organic solvents, removal of organic compounds from water and organic/organic separations. Development of a membrane system with suitable flux and selectivity characteristics plays a...


Tamarisk Water Flux Patterns Before, During and After Episodic Defoliation by the Salt Cedar Leaf Beetle on the Colorado Plateau, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tamarisk (Tamarix) species are among the most successful plant invaders in the western United States, and has had significant impacts on watershed hydrology and water resources. Accordingly, local, state and federal agencies have undertaken considerable efforts to eradicate tamarisk and restore riparian habitats to pre-invasion status. A biological control - the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda elongata) - was released in the summer of 2004 at several locations in eastern Utah, USA to control the spread and impact of tamarisk within the Colorado River watershed. Beginning in April of 2008, sap flux techniques were used to monitor changes in transpiration fluxes in response to canopy defoliation by the beetle. Specifically we installed modified (10 mm length) heat dissipation probes into the main stem of 20 mature tamarisk trees within a single stand on the Colorado Plateau. In July, the saltcedar leaf beetle reduced the total leaf area to near 0% of pre-beetle invasion status. Consequently, sap flux declined by up to 80% compared to pre-beetle invasion fluxes. By mid-August, refoliation of the canopy occurred, and sap flux rates returned to pre- defoliation status. Sap flux rates prior to defoliation were modeled against atmospheric vapor pressure deficit in order to predict the amount of water salvage from defoliation. Sap flux from June 1 through September 1 was on average 36% lower than predicted values. Combined with scaling techniques, the heat dissipation approach shows a high potential for monitoring changes in watershed hydrology in response to tamarisk defoliation by the saltcedar leaf beetle. Nevertheless, tamarisk sap flux studies with heat dissipation probes presents several challenges, including, narrow sapwood depth, low flux rates in response to defoliation, and large thermal gradients that are inevitable in warm climates (particularly after defoliation removes canopy shading). We will present results from ongoing research to address these potential pitfalls.

Hultine, K. R.; Nagler, P. L.; Dennison, P. E.



Nuclear-waste repository impaired by effects of sub-surface salt dissolution  

SciTech Connect

Thirty alkaline lake basins are underlain by Permian salt in West Texas-eastern New Mexico. Early workers thought the basins were created by solution of Permian salt, causing surface collapse. It wasn't until studies by Gustavson and others (1980-85) that salt dissolution beneath several basins was confirmed. Study of alkaline lake basins 240 km south of the main area worked by Gustavson and others (1980-85) shows basins associated and not associated with salt dissolution. Basins associated with salt dissolution are often underlain by Cretaceous formations which are either horizontal or displaced. Thus, evidence indicates many of the large lake basins are antecedent to salt dissolution, that salt dissolution results from infiltration of lake water, and that a certain amount of dissolution occurs before propagation of the cavity to surface. Areas of unusually thick Cretaceous rocks around several lake basins in the central Southern High Plains and unusually thick sections of Tertiary Ogallala in the Northern High Plains indicate regional dissolution of Permian salt beds prior to Cretaceous deposition. Therefore, dissolution of Permian salt in West Texas has been of long-term, regional extent, and formation of sinks, faults and the solute discharge of streams east of the Southern High Plains indicates salt dissolution continues. It therefore follows that the geologic integrity of any high-level nuclear-waste repository site in the Permian salt beds may be seriously impaired, and that the geologic suitability of bedded salts for high-level nuclear-waste storage anywhere by seriously questions.

Reeves, C.C. Jr.; Temple, J.M.



Salt marsh-atmosphere exchange of energy, water vapor, and carbon dioxide: Effects of tidal flooding and biophysical controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The degree to which short-duration, transient floods modify wetland-atmosphere exchange of energy, water vapor, and carbon dioxide (CO2) is poorly documented despite the significance of flooding in many wetlands. This study explored the effects of transient floods on salt marsh-atmosphere linkages. Eddy flux, micrometeorological, and other field data collected during two tidal phases (daytime versus nighttime high tides) quantified the salt marsh radiation budget, surface energy balance, and CO2 flux. Analysis contrasted flooded and nonflooded and day and night effects. The salt marsh surface energy balance was similar to that of a heating-dominated sparse crop during nonflooded periods but similar to that of an evaporative cooling-dominated, well-watered grassy lawn during flooding. Observed increases in latent heat flux and decreases in net ecosystem exchange during flooding were proportional to flood depth and duration, with complete CO2 flux suppression occurring above some flood height less than the canopy height. Flood-induced changes in the salt marsh energy balance were dominated by changes in sensible heat flux, soil heat flux, and surface water heat storage. Parameters suitable for predicting the salt marsh surface energy balance were obtained by calibrating common models (e.g., Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor, and pan coefficient). Biophysical controls on salt marsh-atmosphere exchange were identified following calibration of models describing the coupling of canopy photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in the salt marsh. The effects of flooding on salt marsh-atmosphere exchange are temporary but strongly affect the marsh water, carbon, and energy balance despite their short duration.

Moffett, Kevan B.; Wolf, Adam; Berry, Joe A.; Gorelick, Steven M.



Intracerebroventricular osmosensitivity in the Pekin Duck. Properties and functions in salt and water balance.  


Pekin ducks were implanted with devices allowing intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) microinfusions at rates of 0.1--0.4 mul/min during 15 min in the conscious animals. When hydrated by intragastric infusion of 1 ml/min tap water, i.c.v. infusion of hypertonic NaCl solutions reduced urine flow and increased osmolality, presumably due to increased ADH release. Osmotically equivalent Li+ salts (Cl-, Br-, So24-) caused a slightly prolonged antidiuresis, while Ca2+ and Mg2+ salts caused a more protracted antidiuresis. Urea solution osmotically equivalent to 4.8% NaCl had no effect on diuresis, while osmotically equivalent mannitol solution slightly enhanced diuresis. Angiotensin II (0.5--2.5 pmol in 15 min) and Carbachol (3.0 pmol in 15 min) infused in 0.9% saline caused antidiuresis. The results suggest that the central control of ADH release in birds is similarly organized as in mammals, with receptive elements reacting to ionic rather than osmotic changes and with Na+ as the naturally involved cation. In ducks with their salt glands activated by i.v. infusion of 800 mosmol NaCl/kg H2O at 0.2 ml/min, salt gland secretion was not augmented by i.c.v. microinfusion of hypertonic NaCl but inhibited by i.c.v. infusion of osmotically equivalent mannitol solution. The supraorbital salt glands, when activated appear to be little stimulated further by a rise but may be inhibited by a fall of i.c.v. Na+ concentration. PMID:7191101

Deutsch, H; Simon, E



Comparison of diffuse discharge from shallow water tables in soils and salt flats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffuse (evaporative) discharge of ground water is of interest in the management of local or regional ground waters, and soil salinity. However, past studies show that discharge may vary greatly between soils in agricultural areas and salt flats for similar water table depths. Low discharge from salt flats has been previously attributed to the effect of salt crusts, yet possible soil hydrological reasons for those differences have not been examined. Steady-state hydraulic theory describing the relationship between discharge and water table depth is reviewed. The minimum water table depths required for the theory to be applied are defined in terms of soil parameters. Relationships between discharge and water table depth are then used to analyse the results of previous diffuse discharge studies. It is shown that discharge from both bare agricultural soils and salt flats is consistent with this theory. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of three salt flat soils, determined from measurements of discharge and soil matric suction, showed that low discharge flexus recorded from the sites were due to low soil permeability. The relationship between discharge flux and water table depth calculated for these sites also described discharge from other salt flats, implying that low hydraulic conductivity caused low discharge from these areas as well. The reasons for the low hydraulic conductivity of salt flat soils are not clear, and need to be investigated to determine if it is a general property of soils in these areas, or results from the high salinity levels.

Thorburn, Peter J.; Walker, Glen R.; Woods, Peter H.



Stratospheric water vapor content evolution during EASOE  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results of stratospheric water vapor measurements made from balloon borne instruments in the arctic winter as a part of EASOE. A frost-point hygrometer allowed measurement of the frost point and air temperature, which allowed the detection of conditions consistent with the formation of polar stratospheric clouds. Such clouds were observed on one occasion when this diagnostic sensed conditions conducive to the formation of such clouds. Outside the polar vortex the average water vapor density was fairly constant, between 4 to 5 ppmv between 16 and 25 km. More variation was observed both above and below these altitudes, and inside the vortex, vertical motion was also observed.

Ovarlez, J.; Overlez, H. (Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique du CNRS, Palaiseau (France))