Science.gov

Sample records for water by salt content

  1. Temperature resistance of Salmonella in low-water activity whey protein powder as influenced by salt content.

    PubMed

    Santillana Farakos, S M; Hicks, J W; Frank, J F

    2014-04-01

    Salmonella can survive in low-water activity (a(w)) foods for long periods of time. Water activity and the presence of solutes may affect its survival during heating. Low-a(w) products that contain sodium levels above 0.1 % (wt/wt) and that have been involved in major Salmonella outbreaks include peanut products and salty snacks. Reduced a(w) protects against thermal inactivation. There is conflicting information regarding the role of salt. The aim of this study was to determine whether NaCl influences the survival of Salmonella in low-a(w) whey protein powder independent of a(w) at 70 and 80 °C. Whey protein powders of differing NaCl concentrations (0, 8, and 17 % [wt/wt]) were equilibrated to target a(w) levels 0.23, 0.33, and 0.58. Powders were inoculated with Salmonella, vacuum sealed, and stored at 70 and 80 °C for 48 h. Cells were recovered on nonselective differential media. Survival data were fit with the Weibull model, and first decimal reduction times (δ) (measured in minutes) and shape factor values (β) were estimated. The influence of temperature, a(w), and salinity on Weibull model parameters (δ and β) was analyzed using multiple linear regression. Results showed that a(w) significantly influenced the survival of Salmonella at both temperatures, increasing resistance at decreasing a(w). Sodium chloride did not provide additional protection or inactivation of Salmonella at any temperature beyond that attributed to a(w). The Weibull model described the survival kinetics of Salmonella well, with R2 adj and root mean square error values ranging from 0.59 to 0.97 and 0.27 to 1.07, respectively. Temperature and a(w) influenced δ values (P < 0.05), whereas no significant differences were found between 70 and 80 °C among the different salt concentrations (P > 0.05). β values were not significantly influenced by temperature, a(w), or % NaCl (P > 0.05). This study indicates that information on salt content in food may not help improve predictions on the

  2. [Benz(a)pyrene content in the salt samples obtained from the borehole waters of the Krasnodar deposit].

    PubMed

    Ruchkovskiĭ, B S; Tsapenko, V F; Smirnov, I A; Samel'zon, R M

    1980-01-01

    Benz(a)pyrene content in the samples of salt obtained from water ground of the Krasnodar field was assayed by means of the spectral fluorescent method. The table salt "Extra" manufactured by the Slavyansk salt-works supplying the trade network (GOST 13830-68) served as control. 15 samples (60 reference standards) were examined. It was established that 3 of 5 tested samples obtained from purified concentrated brine of water ground of the Krasnodar field contained benz(a)pyrene in an amount of 0.0351 microgram/kg up to 0.16 microgram/kg. Benz(a)pyrene (0.104 microgram/kg) was detected in 1 of 4 tested samples of the salt "Extra". It is concluded that tested salt samples obtained from concentrated brine of water ground of the Krasnodar field contain an insignificant amount of benz(a)pyrene. PMID:6445646

  3. The effects of pre-salting methods on salt and water distribution of heavily salted cod, as analyzed by (1)H and (23)Na MRI, (23)Na NMR, low-field NMR and physicochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Gudjónsdóttir, María; Traoré, Amidou; Jónsson, Ásbjörn; Karlsdóttir, Magnea Gudrún; Arason, Sigurjón

    2015-12-01

    The effect of different pre-salting methods (brine injection with salt with/without polyphosphates, brining and pickling) on the water and salt distribution in dry salted Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) fillets was studied with proton and sodium NMR and MRI methods, supported by physicochemical analysis of salt and water content as well as water holding capacity. The study indicated that double head brine injection with salt and phosphates lead to the least heterogeneous water distribution, while pickle salting had the least heterogeneous salt distribution. Fillets from all treatments contained spots with unsaturated brine, increasing the risk of microbial denaturation of the fillets during storage. Since a homogeneous water and salt distribution was not achieved with the studied pre-salting methods, further optimizations of the salting process, including the pre-salting and dry salting steps, must be made in the future. PMID:26041245

  4. Salt tolerance of Beta macrocarpa is associated with efficient osmotic adjustment and increased apoplastic water content.

    PubMed

    Hamouda, I; Badri, M; Mejri, M; Cruz, C; Siddique, K H M; Hessini, K

    2016-05-01

    The chenopod Beta macrocarpa Guss (wild Swiss chard) is known for its salt tolerance, but the mechanisms involved are still debated. In order to elucidate the processes involved, we grew wild Swiss chard exposed to three salinity levels (0, 100 and 200 mm NaCl) for 45 days, and determined several physiological parameters at the end of this time. All plants survived despite reductions in growth, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in plants exposed to salinity (100 and 200 mm NaCl). As expected, the negative effects of salinity were more pronounced at 200 mm than at 100 mm NaCl: (i) leaf apoplastic water content was maintained or increased despite a significant reduction in leaf water potential, revealing the halophytic character of B. macrocarpa; (ii) osmotic adjustment occurred, which presumably enhanced the driving force for water extraction from soil, and avoided toxic build up of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the mesophyll apoplast of leaves. Osmotic adjustment mainly occurred through accumulation of inorganic ions and to a lesser extent soluble sugars; proline was not implicated in osmotic adjustment. Overall, two important mechanisms of salt tolerance in B. macrocarpa were identified: osmotic and apoplastic water adjustment. PMID:26588061

  5. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Yuanyuan; Xiang, Feng; Wang, Hong E-mail: suo@seas.harvard.edu; Chen, Baohong; Zhou, Jinxiong; Suo, Zhigang E-mail: suo@seas.harvard.edu

    2014-10-13

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have been used as highly stretchable transparent electrodes in flexible electronics, but those hydrogels are easy to dry out due to water evaporation. Targeted, we try to enhance water retention capacity of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced water retention capacity in different level. Specially, polyacrylamide hydrogel containing high content of lithium chloride can retain over 70% of its initial water even in environment with relative humidity of only 10% RH. The excellent water retention capacities of these hydrogels will make more applications of hydrogels become possible.

  6. Optimizing the salt-induced activation of enzymes in organic solvents: effects of lyophilization time and water content.

    PubMed

    Ru, M T; Dordick, J S; Reimer, J A; Clark, D S

    1999-04-20

    The addition of simple inorganic salts to aqueous enzyme solutions prior to lyophilization results in a dramatic activation of the dried powder in organic media relative to enzyme with no added salt. Activation of both the serine protease subtilisin Carlsberg and lipase from Mucor javanicus resulting from lyophilization in the presence of KCl was highly sensitive to the lyophilization time and water content of the sample. Specifically, for a preparation containing 98% (w/w) KCl, 1% (w/w) phosphate buffer, and 1% (w/w) enzyme, varying the lyophilization time showed a direct correlation between water content and activity up to an optimum, beyond which the activity decreased with increasing lyophilization time. The catalytic efficiency in hexane varied as much as 13-fold for subtilisin Carlsberg and 11-fold for lipase depending on the lyophilization time. This dependence was apparently a consequence of including the salt, as a similar result was not observed for the enzyme freeze-dried without KCl. In the case of subtilisin Carlsberg, the salt-induced optimum value of kcat/Km for transesterification in hexane was over 20,000-fold higher than that for salt-free enzyme, a substantial improvement over the previously reported enhancement of 3750-fold (Khmelnitsky, 1994). As was found previously for pure enzyme, the salt-activated enzyme exhibited greatest activity when lyophilized from a solution of pH equal to the pH for optimal activity in water. The active-site content of the lyophilized enzyme samples also depended upon lyophilization time and inclusion of salt, with opposite trends in this dependence observed for the solvents hexane and tetrahydrofuran. Finally, substrate selectivity experiments suggested that mechanism(s) other than selective partitioning of substrate into the enzyme-salt matrix are responsible for salt-induced activation of enzymes in organic solvents. PMID:10099600

  7. Optimizing the salt-induced activation of enzymes in organic solvents: Effects of lyophilization time and water content

    SciTech Connect

    Ru, M.T.; Reimer, J.A.; Clark, D.S.; Dordick, J.S.

    1999-04-20

    The addition of simple inorganic salts to aqueous enzyme solutions prior to lyophilization results in a dramatic activation of the dried powder in organic media relative to enzyme with no added salt. Activation of both the serine protease subtilisin Carlsberg and lipase from Mucor javanicus resulting from lyophilization in the presence of KCl was highly sensitive to the lyophilization time and water content of the sample. Specifically, for a preparation containing 98% (w/w) KCl, 1% (w/w) phosphate buffer, and 1% (w/w) enzyme, varying the lyophilization time showed a direct correlation between water content and activity up to an optimum, beyond which the activity decreased with increasing lyophilization time. The catalytic efficiency in hexane varied as much as 13-fold for subtilisin Carlsberg and 11-fold for lipase depending on the lyophilization time. This dependence was apparently a consequence of including the salt, as a similar result was not observed for the enzyme freeze-dried without KCl. In the case of subtilisin Carlsberg, the salt-induced optimum value of k{sub cat}/K{sub m} for transesterification in hexane was over 20,000-fold higher than that for salt-free enzyme, a substantial improvement over the previously reported enhancement of 3750-fold. As was found previously for pure enzyme, the salt-activated enzyme exhibited greatest activity when lyophilized from a solution of pH equal to the pH for optimal activity in water. The active-site content of the lyophilized enzyme samples also depended upon lyophilization time and inclusion of salt, with opposite trends in this dependence observed for the solvents hexane and tetrahydrofuran. Finally, substrate selectivity experiments suggested that mechanism(s) other than selective partitioning of substrate into the enzyme-salt matrix are responsible for salt-induced activation of enzymes in organic solvents.

  8. Measurement of leaf relative water content by infrared reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, E. Raymond, Jr.; Rock, Barrett N.; Nobel, Park S.

    1987-01-01

    From basic considerations and Beer's law, a leaf water content index incorporating reflectances of wavelengths from 0.76 to 0.90 microns and from 1.55 to 1.75 microns was developed that relates leaf reflectance to leaf relative water content. For the leaf succulent, Agave deserti, the leaf water content index was not significantly different from the relative water content for either individual leaves or an entire plant. Also, the relative water contents of intact plants of Encelia farinosa and Hilaria rigida in the field were estimated by the leaf water content index; variations in the proportion of living to dead leaf area could cause large errors in the estimate of relative water content. Thus, the leaf water content index may be able to estimate average relative water content of canopies when TM4 and TM5 are measured at a known relative water content and fraction of dead leaf material.

  9. Laboratory testing of salt samples for water content/loss of weight on heating, thermal fracture, insoluble residue, and clay and bulk mineralogy: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, L.B.; Schwendiman, L.

    1987-07-01

    This report presents the results of laboratory testing on salt samples from the Palo Duro Basin of the Texas Panhandle. Laboratory specimens were tested to determine water content by loss of weight on heating, temperature of thermal fracture, the amount of insoluble residue, and clay and bulk mineralogy. 7 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Determination of salt content in various depth of pork chop by electrical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltenecker, P.; Szöllösi, D.; Friedrich, L.; Vozáry, E.

    2013-04-01

    The salt concentration was determined inside of pork chop both by electrical impedance spectroscopy and by a conventional chemical method (according to Mohr). The pork chop in various depths (4 mm, 10 mm, 20 mm and 25 mm) was punctured with two stainless steel electrodes. The length of electrodes was 60 mm, and they were insulated along the length except 1 cm section on the end, so the measurement of impedance was realized in various depths. The magnitude and phase angle of impedance were measured with a HP 4284A and a HP 4285A LCR meters from 30 Hz up to 1 MHz and from 75 kHz up to 30 MHz frequency range, respectively at 1 V voltage. The distance between the electrodes was 1 cm. The impedance magnitude decreased as the salt concentration increased. The magnitude of open-short corrected impedance values at various frequencies (10 kHz, 100 kHz, 125 kHz, 1.1 MHz and 8 MHz) showed a good correlation with salt content determined by chemical procedure. The electrical impedance spectroscopy seems a prospective method for determination the salt concentration inside the meat in various depths during the curing procedure.

  11. Effect of water phase salt content and storage temperature on Listeria monocytogenes survival in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) roe and caviar (ikura).

    PubMed

    Shin, Joong-Han; Rasco, Barbara A

    2007-06-01

    Salmon caviar, or ikura, is a ready-to-eat food prepared by curing the salmon roe in a brine solution. Other seasonings or flavorants may be added, depending upon the characteristics of the product desired. Listeria monocytogenes growth is a potential risk, since it can grow at high salt concentrations (>10%) and in some products at temperatures as low as 3 degrees C. Ikura was prepared from chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) roe by adding food-grade NaCl to yield water phase salt contents (WPS) of 0.22% (no added salt), 2.39%+/- 0.18%, 3.50%+/- 0.19%, and 4.36%+/- 0.36%. A cocktail containing L. monocytogenes (ATCC 19114, 7644, 19113) was incorporated into the ikura at 2 inoculum levels (log 2.4 and 4.2 CFU/g), and stored at 3 or 7 degrees C for up to 30 d. L. monocytogenes was recovered by plating onto modified Oxford media. Aerobic microflora were analyzed on plate count agar. Samples were tested at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 d. L. monocytogenes did not grow in chum salmon ikura held at 3 degrees C during 30 d at any salt level tested; however, the addition of salt at these levels did little to inhibit Listeria growth at 7 degrees C and counts reached 5 to 6 logs CFU/g. Components in the salmon egg intracellular fluid appear to inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes. Total aerobic microflora levels were slightly lower in products with higher salt contents. These results indicate that temperature control is critical for ikura and similar products, but that products with lower salt contents can be safe, as long as good refrigeration is maintained. PMID:17995738

  12. Determining soil water content of salt-affected soil using far-infrared spectra: laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lu; Wang, Zhichun; Nyongesah, Maina John; Liu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Rapid determination of soil water content is urgently needed for monitoring and modeling ecosystem processes and improving agricultural practices, especially in arid landscapes. Far-infrared band application in soil water measurement is still limited. Various samples were arranged to simulate complex field condition and emissivity was obtained from a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Four spectral forms (including raw spectra, logarithm of reciprocal spectra, first-order derivate, and second-order derivate) were employed to develop a partial least squares regression model. The results indicate that the model with first-order derivate spectral form was identified with the highest performance (R2=0.87 and root mean square error=1.88%) at the range of 8.309 to 10.771 μm. Judging from the contribution of the bands to each principal component, the band region from 8.27 to 9.112 μm holds a great promise for soil water content estimation. Several channels of ASTER and MODIS correspond to the involved band domain, which show the potential of predicting and mapping soil water content on large scales. However, there are still constraints due to the differences in spectral resolution between instrument and sensors and the influence of complex factors under field conditions, which are still challenges for forthcoming studies.

  13. Determining salt concentrations for equivalent water activity in reduced-sodium cheese by use of a model system.

    PubMed

    Grummer, J; Schoenfuss, T C

    2011-09-01

    The range of sodium chloride (salt)-to-moisture ratio is critical in producing high-quality cheese products. The salt-to-moisture ratio has numerous effects on cheese quality, including controlling water activity (a(w)). Therefore, when attempting to decrease the sodium content of natural cheese it is important to calculate the amount of replacement salts necessary to create the same a(w) as the full-sodium target (when using the same cheese making procedure). Most attempts to decrease sodium using replacement salts have used concentrations too low to create the equivalent a(w) due to the differences in the molecular weight of the replacers compared with salt. This could be because of the desire to minimize off-flavors inherent in the replacement salts, but it complicates the ability to conclude that the replacement salts are the cause of off-flavors such as bitter. The objective of this study was to develop a model system that could be used to measure a(w) directly, without manufacturing cheese, to allow cheese makers to determine the salt and salt replacer concentrations needed to achieve the equivalent a(w) for their existing full-sodium control formulas. All-purpose flour, salt, and salt replacers (potassium chloride, modified potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, and calcium chloride) were blended with butter and water at concentrations that approximated the solids, fat, and moisture contents of typical Cheddar cheese. Salt and salt replacers were applied to the model systems at concentrations predicted by Raoult's law. The a(w) of the model samples was measured on a water activity meter, and concentrations were adjusted using Raoult's law if they differed from those of the full-sodium model. Based on the results determined using the model system, stirred-curd pilot-scale batches of reduced- and full-sodium Cheddar cheese were manufactured in duplicate. Water activity, pH, and gross composition were measured and evaluated statistically by linear mixed model

  14. Relative water content of Spruce needles determined by the leaf water content index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, E. Raymond, Jr.; Wong, Sam K. S.; Rock, Barrett N.

    1987-01-01

    Leaf relative water content (RWC) is defined as the volume of water in a leaf divided by the volume at full turgor. Using reflectance factors of wavelengths 0.83 micron and 1.6 microns, a Leaf Water Content Index (LWCI) was derived from the Lambert-Beer Law such that LWCI should equal RWC; LWCI was equal to RWC for Picea pungens, Picea rubens, Liquidambar styraciflua, and Quercus agrifolia. Algebraic manipulation shows that R(1.6)/R(0.83) termed the Moisture Stress Index (MSI), is near-linearly correlated to RWC and to the Equivalent Water Thickness (EWT). Five species tested so far had the same relationship between MSI and EWT, but EWT is not a measure of plant water status.

  15. Limitations of amorphous content quantification by isothermal calorimetry using saturated salt solutions to control relative humidity: alternative methods.

    PubMed

    Khalef, Nawel; Pinal, Rodolfo; Bakri, Aziz

    2010-04-01

    Despite the high sensitivity of isothermal calorimetry (IC), reported measurements of amorphous content by this technique show significant variability even for the same compound. An investigation into the reasons behind such variability is presented using amorphous lactose and salbutamol sulfate as model compounds. An analysis was carried out on the heat evolved as a result of the exchange of water vapor between the solid sample during crystallization and the saline solution reservoir. The use of saturated salt solutions as means of control of the vapor pressure of water within sealed ampoules bears inherent limitations that lead in turn to the variability associated with the IC technique. We present an alternative IC method, based on an open cell configuration that effectively addresses the limitations encountered with the sealed ampoule system. The proposed approach yields an integral whose value is proportional to the amorphous content in the sample, thus enabling reliable and consistent quantifications. PMID:19774655

  16. Salt preferences of honey bee water foragers.

    PubMed

    Lau, Pierre W; Nieh, James C

    2016-03-01

    The importance of dietary salt may explain why bees are often observed collecting brackish water, a habit that may expose them to harmful xenobiotics. However, the individual salt preferences of water-collecting bees were not known. We measured the proboscis extension reflex (PER) response of Apis mellifera water foragers to 0-10% w/w solutions of Na, Mg and K, ions that provide essential nutrients. We also tested phosphate, which can deter foraging. Bees exhibited significant preferences, with the most PER responses for 1.5-3% Na and 1.5% Mg. However, K and phosphate were largely aversive and elicited PER responses only for the lowest concentrations, suggesting a way to deter bees from visiting contaminated water. We then analyzed the salt content of water sources that bees collected in urban and semi-urban environments. Bees collected water with a wide range of salt concentrations, but most collected water sources had relatively low salt concentrations, with the exception of seawater and swimming pools, which had >0.6% Na. The high levels of PER responsiveness elicited by 1.5-3% Na may explain why bees are willing to collect such salty water. Interestingly, bees exhibited high individual variation in salt preferences: individual identity accounted for 32% of variation in PER responses. Salt specialization may therefore occur in water foragers. PMID:26823100

  17. Antioxidant enzyme activities are affected by salt content and temperature and influence muscle lipid oxidation during dry-salted bacon processing.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guofeng; He, Lichao; Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Jianhao; Ma, Meihu

    2013-12-01

    Fresh pork bacon belly was used as material and manufactured into dry-salted bacon through salting and drying-ripening. During processing both oxidative stability and antioxidant enzyme stability were evaluated by assessing peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and their correlations were also analysed. The results showed that all antioxidant enzyme activities decreased (p<0.05) until the end of process; GSH-Px was the most unstable one followed by catalase. Antioxidant enzyme activities were negatively correlated with TBARS (p<0.05), but the correlations were decreased with increasing process temperature. Salt showed inhibitory effect on all antioxidant enzyme activities and was concentration dependent. These results indicated that when process temperature and salt content were low at the same time during dry-salted bacon processing, antioxidant enzymes could effectively control lipid oxidation. PMID:23871020

  18. Pearson’s correlations between moisture content, drip loss, expressible fluid and salt-induced water gain of broiler pectoralis major muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moisture content, drip loss, expressible fluid, and % salt-induced water gain are widely used to estimate water states and water-holding capacity of raw meat. However, the relationships between these four measurements of broiler pectoralis (p.) major muscle describe are not well described. The objec...

  19. Silicon enhanced salt tolerance by improving the root water uptake and decreasing the ion toxicity in cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiwen; Liu, Peng; Chen, Daoqian; Yin, Lina; Li, Hongbing; Deng, Xiping

    2015-01-01

    Although the effects of silicon application on enhancing plant salt tolerance have been widely investigated, the underlying mechanism has remained unclear. In this study, seedlings of cucumber, a medium silicon accumulator plant, grown in 0.83 mM silicon solution for 2 weeks were exposed to 65 mM NaCl solution for another 1 week. The dry weight and shoot/root ratio were reduced by salt stress, but silicon application significantly alleviated these decreases. The chlorophyll concentration, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and leaf water content were higher in plants treated with silicon than in untreated plants under salt stress conditions. Further investigation showed that salt stress decreased root hydraulic conductance (Lp), but that silicon application moderated this salt-induced decrease in Lp. The higher Lp in silicon-treated plants may account for the superior plant water balance. Moreover, silicon application significantly decreased Na+ concentration in the leaves while increasing K+ concentration. Simultaneously, both free and conjugated types of polyamines were maintained at high levels in silicon-treated plants, suggesting that polyamines may be involved in the ion toxicity. Our results indicate that silicon enhances the salt tolerance of cucumber through improving plant water balance by increasing the Lp and reducing Na+ content by increasing polyamine accumulation. PMID:26442072

  20. Water purification using organic salts

    DOEpatents

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  1. Specific ion effects induced by mono-valent salts in like charged aggregates in water.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ningdong; Tao, Jiaojiao; Liu, Jun; Wei, Shenghui; Li, Liangbin; Wu, Ziyu

    2014-06-28

    While salt mediated association between similarly charged poly-electrolytes occurs in a broad range of biological and colloidal systems, the effects of mono-valent salts remains little known experimentally. In this communication we systematically study influences of assorted mono-valent salts on structures of and interactions in two dimensional ordered bundles of charged fibrils assembled in water using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS). By quantitatively analyzing the scattering peak features, we discern two competing effects with opposite influences due to partitioning of salts in the aqueous complex. While electrostatic effects from salts residing between the fibrils suppress attraction between fibrils and expand the bundles, it is compensated by external osmotic pressure from peripheral salts in the aqueous media. The balance between the two effects varies for different salts and gives rise to ion-specific equilibrium behavior as well as structure of ordered bundles in salty water. The specific ions effects in like charged aggregates can be attributed to preferential distribution of ions inside or outside the bundles, correlated to the ranking of ions in Hofmeister series for macromolecules. Unlike conventional studies on Hofmeister effects by thermodynamic measurements relying on modeling for data interpretation, our study is based directly on structural analysis and is model-insensitive. PMID:24828119

  2. Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste with High Salt Content by Colloidal Adsorbents - 13274

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Keun-Young; Chung, Dong-Yong; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Lee, Eil-Hee; Moon, Jei-Kwon

    2013-07-01

    Treatment processes have been fully developed for most of the liquid radioactive wastes generated during the operation of nuclear power plants. However, a process for radioactive liquid waste with high salt content, such as waste seawater generated from the unexpected accident at nuclear power station, has not been studied extensively. In this study, the adsorption efficiencies of cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) in radioactive liquid waste with high salt content were investigated using several types of zeolite with different particle sizes. Synthesized and commercial zeolites were used for the treatment of simulated seawater containing Cs and Sr, and the reaction kinetics and adsorption capacities of colloidal zeolites were compared with those of bulk zeolites. The experimental results demonstrated that the colloidal adsorbents showed fast adsorption kinetic and high binding capacity for Cs and Sr. Also, the colloidal zeolites could be successfully applied to the static adsorption condition, therefore, an economical benefit might be expected in an actual processes where stirring is not achievable. (authors)

  3. Effect of road deicing salt on the susceptibility of amphibian embryos to infection by water molds.

    PubMed

    Karraker, Nancy E; Ruthig, Gregory R

    2009-01-01

    Some causative agents of amphibian declines act synergistically to impact individual amphibians and their populations. In particular, pathogenic water molds (aquatic oomycetes) interact with environmental stressors and increase mortality in amphibian embryos. We documented colonization of eggs of three amphibian species, the wood frog (Rana sylvatica), the green frog (Rana clamitans), and the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum), by water molds in the field and examined the interactive effects of road deicing salt and water molds, two known sources of mortality for amphibian embryos, on two species, R. clamitans and A. maculatum in the laboratory. We found that exposure to water molds did not affect embryonic survivorship in either A. maculatum or R. clamitans, regardless of the concentration of road salt to which their eggs were exposed. Road salt decreased survivorship of A. maculatum, but not R. clamitans, and frequency of malformations increased significantly in both species at the highest salinity concentration. The lack of an effect of water molds on survival of embryos and no interaction between road salt and water molds indicates that observations of colonization of these eggs by water molds in the field probably represent a secondary invasion of unfertilized eggs or of embryos that had died of other causes. Given increasing salinization of freshwater habitats on several continents and the global distribution of water molds, our results suggest that some amphibian species may not be susceptible to the combined effects of these factors, permitting amphibian decline researchers to devote their attention to other potential causes. PMID:18976747

  4. Monitoring soil water content by vertical temperature variations.

    PubMed

    Bechkit, Mohamed Amine; Flageul, Sébastien; Guerin, Roger; Tabbagh, Alain

    2014-01-01

    The availability of high sensitivity temperature sensors (0.001 K sensitivity platinum resistors), which can be positioned at intervals of a few centimeters along a vertical profile in the unsaturated zone, allows short-term in situ determinations-one day or even less-of the thermal diffusivity. The development of high data storage capabilities also makes this possible over long periods and the relative variations in thermal diffusivity allow the monitoring of the variations in water content. The processing of temperature measurements recorded at different depths is achieved by solving the heat equation, using the finite elements method, with both conductive and convective heat transfers. A first set of measurements has allowed this approach to be validated. Water content variations derived from thermal diffusivity values are in excellent agreement with TDR measurements carried out on the experimental site at Boissy-le-Châtel (Seine et Marne, France). PMID:23834312

  5. Analysis of the juice and water losses in salted and unsalted pork samples heated in water bath. Consequences for the prediction of weight loss by transfer models.

    PubMed

    Bombrun, Laure; Gatellier, Philippe; Portanguen, Stéphane; Kondjoyan, Alain

    2015-01-01

    This study has analyzed the effect of different factors on variation of meat weight due to juice loss, and variation of water content of pork samples heated in a water bath. The weight loss (WL) was influenced by initial water content of raw meat which can be connected to meat pH, muscle type, and by pre-salting. WL was also influenced by sample thickness and by nature of the surrounding fluid. These effects were significant at 50°C and in thinner samples but decreased as meat temperature and sample thickness increased. WL showed no significant difference in response to prior freezing, applying a surface constraint during heating or varying meat salt content from 0.8 to 2.0%. The results were interpreted from literature knowledge on protein denaturation, contraction and, transport phenomena. Reliably predicting WL from water content variation during heating hinges on taking into account the loss of dry matter and the possible effects of meat pH, sample size or surrounding fluid. PMID:25443971

  6. The practical application of remediating soil impacted by salt from produced water

    SciTech Connect

    Cresswell, G.A.; Williams, O.W.

    1995-12-31

    In many geographical areas where crude oil is produced, saltwater is a natural by-product of the oil production stream. The dissolved solids of this produced saltwater varies significantly with geography. Often the higher salinity values are associated with produced water at secondary crude oil recovery waterfloods and on occasion with depletion-drive and water drive primary crude oil recovery. Secondary recovery methods, waterfloods, typically follow many years of primary crude oil production thereby extending the producing life another 20 to 40 years. Many of the major fields producing today have been on stream for more than 50 years. The historical actions associated with these operations, high salt concentrations of the water and the cumulative volumes of saltwater handled all combine to increase the environmental risk of adversely impacting surface. This paper shares some of the experiences one company has encountered in an effort to assess and reduce the economic and environmental risks associated with salt impacted soils at waterfloods. The focus of this paper is on the practical aspects of identifying soil areas impacted before the nationwide improvements in environmental requirements in the mid 1970s and improving the productivity of surface soils. It summarizes how successful remediation approaches have been aligned with soil characteristics and intended surface uses. Remediation approaches have included calcium/sodium exchange, fresh water flushing, and organic additives. Also presented are the precautions used to make sure potential adverse impacts from the salt are not passed from the soil to other media.

  7. Water ingestion by rats fed a high-salt diet may be mediated, in part, by visceral osmoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Manesh, Reza; Hoffmann, Myriam L; Stricker, Edward M

    2006-06-01

    After surgical removal of all salivary secretions ("desalivation"), rats increase their consumption of water while eating dry laboratory chow. In the present experiments, desalivated rats drank even more water while they ate "powdered" high-salt food (i.e., <15-mg food particles). The Na+ concentration of systemic plasma in these animals was not elevated during or immediately after the meal, which suggests that cerebral osmoreceptors were not involved in mediating the increased water intake. A presystemic osmoregulatory signal likely stimulated thirst because the Na+ and water contents of the gastric chyme computed to a solution approximately 150 mM NaCl. In contrast, desalivated rats drank much smaller volumes of water while eating "pulverized" high-salt food (i.e., 60-140-mg food particles), and the fluid mixture in the gastric chyme computed to approximately 280 mM NaCl solution. These and other findings suggest that the NaCl ingested in the powdered high-salt diet was dissolved in the gastric fluid and that duodenal osmoreceptors (or Na+-receptors) detected when the concentration of fluid leaving the stomach was elevated after each feeding bout, and promptly stimulated thirst, whereupon rats drank water until the gastric fluid was diluted back to isotonicity. However, when rats ate the pulverized high-salt diet, much of the NaCl ingested may have been embedded in the gastric chyme and therefore was not accessible to visceral osmoreceptors once it emptied from the stomach. Consistent with that hypothesis, fluid intakes were increased considerably when desalivated rats drank 0.10 M NaCl instead of water while eating either powdered or pulverized high-salt food. PMID:16455760

  8. Salt, Water, and Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nathan J.

    Good nutrition for athletes demands plenty of water, since water is essential to such vital functions as muscle reactions. Dehydration can result from jet travel as well as from exercise and heat, making it a danger to traveling athletic teams. To avoid dehydration, water needs should be monitored by frequent weighing, and a clean water supply…

  9. Exceptionally fast water desalination at complete salt rejection by pristine graphyne monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Minmin; Qiu, Hu; Guo, Wanlin

    2013-12-01

    Desalination that produces clean freshwater from seawater holds the promise of solving the global water shortage for drinking, agriculture and industry. However, conventional desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis and thermal distillation involve large amounts of energy consumption, and the semipermeable membranes widely used in reverse osmosis face the challenge to provide a high throughput at high salt rejection. Here we find by comprehensive molecular dynamics simulations and first principles modeling that pristine graphyne, one of the graphene-like one-atom-thick carbon allotropes, can achieve 100% rejection of nearly all ions in seawater including Na+, Cl-, Mg2+, K+ and Ca2+, at an exceptionally high water permeability about two orders of magnitude higher than those for commercial state-of-the-art reverse osmosis membranes at a salt rejection of ˜98.5%. This complete ion rejection by graphyne, independent of the salt concentration and the operating pressure, is revealed to be originated from the significantly higher energy barriers for ions than for water. This intrinsic specialty of graphyne should provide a new possibility for the efforts to alleviate the global shortage of freshwater and other environmental problems.

  10. Exceptionally fast water desalination at complete salt rejection by pristine graphyne monolayers.

    PubMed

    Xue, Minmin; Qiu, Hu; Guo, Wanlin

    2013-12-20

    Desalination that produces clean freshwater from seawater holds the promise of solving the global water shortage for drinking, agriculture and industry. However, conventional desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis and thermal distillation involve large amounts of energy consumption, and the semipermeable membranes widely used in reverse osmosis face the challenge to provide a high throughput at high salt rejection. Here we find by comprehensive molecular dynamics simulations and first principles modeling that pristine graphyne, one of the graphene-like one-atom-thick carbon allotropes, can achieve 100% rejection of nearly all ions in seawater including Na(+), Cl(-), Mg(2+), K(+) and Ca(2+), at an exceptionally high water permeability about two orders of magnitude higher than those for commercial state-of-the-art reverse osmosis membranes at a salt rejection of ~98.5%. This complete ion rejection by graphyne, independent of the salt concentration and the operating pressure, is revealed to be originated from the significantly higher energy barriers for ions than for water. This intrinsic specialty of graphyne should provide a new possibility for the efforts to alleviate the global shortage of freshwater and other environmental problems. PMID:24285308

  11. Quaternary diffusion coefficients in a protein-polymer-salt-water system determined by rayleigh interferometry.

    PubMed

    Annunziata, Onofrio; Vergara, Alessandro; Paduano, Luigi; Sartorio, Roberto; Miller, Donald G; Albright, John G

    2009-10-01

    We have experimentally investigated multicomponent diffusion in a protein-polymer-salt-water quaternary system. Specifically, we have measured the nine multicomponent diffusion coefficients, D(ij), for the lysozyme-poly(ethylene glycol)-NaCl-water system at pH 4.5 and 25 degrees C using precision Rayleigh interferometry. Lysozyme is a model protein for protein-crystallization and enzymology studies. We find that the protein diffusion coefficient, D(11), decreases as polymer concentration increases at a given salt concentration. This behavior can be quantitatively related to the corresponding increase in fluid viscosity only at low polymer concentration. However, at high polymer concentration (250 g/L), protein diffusion is enhanced compared to the corresponding viscosity prediction. We also find that a protein concentration gradient induces salt diffusion from high to low protein concentration. This effect increases in the presence of poly(ethylene glycol). Finally, we have evaluated systematic errors associated with measurements of protein diffusion coefficients by dynamic light scattering. This work overall helps characterize protein diffusion in crowded environments and may provide guidance for further theoretical developments in the field of protein crystallization and protein diffusion in such crowded systems, such as the cytoplasm of living cells. PMID:19746957

  12. Inhibition of salt water survival and Na-K-ATPase elevation in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) by moderate water temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, B. L.; Zaugg, W.S.; McLain, L. R.

    1975-01-01

    The steelhead trout metamorphosis from a freshwater parr to a sea water-tolerant smolt possessing the migration tendency was evaluated at six different growth temperatures ranging from 6 to 15 C during January through July. The highest temperature where a transformation was indicated was 11.3 C. By April fish reared at 6 C had elevated ATPase levels typical of smolts or migratory animals and showed 92% survival in sea water. Ten and 11.3 C-reared fish showed a short-lived elevation in ATPase in mid-April alone concurrently with 100% sea water survival at that time. Only in 6 C-reared animals did the salt water survival ability continue into May. High ATPase levels likewise were prolonged into May and June only in the 6 C-reared group. The data indicate that metamorphosis (and therefore successful migration) of juvenile steelhead trout is directly controlled by water temperature.

  13. Complex polyion-surfactant ion salts in equilibrium with water: changing aggregate shape and size by adding oil.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, Juliana S; Norrman, Jens; Piculell, Lennart; Loh, Watson

    2006-11-23

    The phase behavior of ternary mixtures containing an alkyltrimethylammonium polyacrylate complex salt, water, and a nonpolar "oil" (n-decanol, p-xylene or cyclohexane) is investigated. The complex salts were prepared with short or long polyacrylates (30 or 6000 repeating units) and with hexadecyltrimethylammonium or dodecyltrimethylammonium surfactant ions. Phase diagrams and structures were determined by visual inspection and small-angle X-ray scattering analyses. Systems containing decanol display a predominance of lamellar phases, while hexagonal phases prevail in systems containing p-xylene or cyclohexane. The difference is interpreted as a result of the different locations of the oils within the surfactant aggregates. Decanol is incorporated at the aggregate interface, leading to a decrease in its curvature, which favors the appearance of lamellar structures. p-Xylene and cyclohexane, on the other hand, are mostly incorporated in the interior of the cylindrical aggregate, as reflected by its swelling as the oil content increases. The comparison of these results with those reported for similar systems with monovalent (bromide) counterions indicates a much more limited swelling of the lamellar phases with polymeric counterions by water. This limited swelling behavior is predominantly ascribed to bridging due to the polyions. PMID:17107195

  14. 46 CFR 45.77 - Salt water freeboard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Salt water freeboard. 45.77 Section 45.77 Shipping COAST... Salt water freeboard. (a) The salt water addition in inches to freeboard applicable to each fresh water mark is obtained by the formula: Addition=Δ/41T where: Δ=displacement in fresh water, in tons of...

  15. 46 CFR 45.77 - Salt water freeboard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Salt water freeboard. 45.77 Section 45.77 Shipping COAST... Salt water freeboard. (a) The salt water addition in inches to freeboard applicable to each fresh water mark is obtained by the formula: Addition=Δ/41T where: Δ=displacement in fresh water, in tons of...

  16. 46 CFR 45.77 - Salt water freeboard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Salt water freeboard. 45.77 Section 45.77 Shipping COAST... Salt water freeboard. (a) The salt water addition in inches to freeboard applicable to each fresh water mark is obtained by the formula: Addition=Δ/41T where: Δ=displacement in fresh water, in tons of...

  17. 46 CFR 45.77 - Salt water freeboard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Salt water freeboard. 45.77 Section 45.77 Shipping COAST... Salt water freeboard. (a) The salt water addition in inches to freeboard applicable to each fresh water mark is obtained by the formula: Addition=Δ/41T where: Δ=displacement in fresh water, in tons of...

  18. 46 CFR 45.77 - Salt water freeboard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Salt water freeboard. 45.77 Section 45.77 Shipping COAST... Salt water freeboard. (a) The salt water addition in inches to freeboard applicable to each fresh water mark is obtained by the formula: Addition=Δ/41T where: Δ=displacement in fresh water, in tons of...

  19. Surface and ground water quality in a restored urban stream affected by road salts

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2001 research began in Minebank Run, MD to examine the impact of restoration on water quality. Our research area was to determine if road salts in the surface and ground waters are detrimental to the stream channel restoration. The upstream reach (UP), above the Baltimore I-...

  20. [Development of salt concentrates for mineralization of recycled water aboard the space station].

    PubMed

    Skliar, E F; Amiragov, M S; Bobe, L S; Gavrilov, L I; Kurochkin, M G; Solntseva, D P; Krasnov, M S; Skuratov, V M

    2006-01-01

    Recycled water can be brought up to the potable grade by adding minimal quantities of three soluble concentrates with the maximal content of inorganic salts. The authors present results of 3-year storage of potable water mineralized with makeup concentrates and analysis of potable water prepared with the use of the salt concentrates stored over this period of time. A water mineralization unit has been designed based on the principle of cyclic duty to produce physiologically healthy potable water with a preset salt content. PMID:17193977

  1. Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Hansen, Kirsten; Knuthsen, Pia; Saxholt, Erling; Fagt, Sisse

    2010-01-01

    Background A high salt (=NaCl) intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design For the first part of this study, 180 canteen meals were collected from a total of 15 worksites with in-house catering facilities. Duplicate portions of a lunch meal were collected from 12 randomly selected employees at each canteen on two non-consecutive days. For the second part of the study, a total of 250 fast food samples were collected from 52 retail places representing both city (Aarhus) and provincial towns. The canteen meals and fast food samples were analyzed for chloride by potentiometric titration with silver nitrate solution, and the salt content was estimated. Results The salt content in lunch meals in worksite canteens were 3.8±1.8 g per meal and 14.7±5.1 g per 10 MJ for men (n=109), and 2.8±1.2 g per meal and 14.4±6.2 g per 10 MJ for women (n=71). Salt content in fast food ranged from 11.8±2.5 g per 10 MJ (burgers) to 16.3±4.4 g per 10 MJ (sausages) with a mean content of 13.8±3.8 g per 10 MJ. Conclusion Salt content in both fast food and in worksite canteen meals is high and should be decreased. PMID:20305749

  2. Water Uptake by Mars Salt Analogs: An Investigation of Stable Aqueous Solutions Using Raman Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuding, Danielle L.

    -day conditions. To investigate complex brine mixtures, a salt analog, deemed 'Instant Mars,' was developed to closely match the individual cation and anion concentrations as reported by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory instrument at the Phoenix landing site. 'Instant Mars' was developed to fully encompass and closely replicate correct concentrations of magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, perchlorate, chloride, and sulfate ions. Here we use two separate techniques, Raman microscopy and particle levitation, to study the water uptake and loss properties of individual Instant Mars analog particles. Raman microscope experiments reveal that Instant Mars particles can form stable, aqueous solutions at 56 +/- 5% RH at 243 K and persist as a metastable, aqueous solution down to 13 +/- 5% RH. The results presented in this thesis demonstrate that a salt analog that closely replicates in-situ measurements from the Phoenix landing site can take up water vapor from the surrounding environment and transition into a stable, aqueous solution. Furthermore, this aqueous Instant Mars solution can persist as a metastable, supersaturated solution in RH conditions much lower than the deliquescent RH. Finally, laboratory experiments presented here examine the interaction of B. subtilis spores (B-168) with liquid water in Mars relevant temperatures and RH conditions. In addition, Ca(ClO4)2 was mixed with the B. subtilis spores and exposed to the same diurnal cycle conditions to quantify the effects of Ca(ClO4)2 on the spores. A combination of Raman microscopy and an environmental cell allows us to visually and spectrally analyze the changes of the individual B. subtilis spores and Ca(ClO4)2 mixtures as they experience present-day martian diurnal cycle conditions. Results suggest that B-168 spores can survive the arid conditions and martian temperatures, even when exposed to Ca(ClO 4)2 in the crystalline or aqueous phase. The extreme hygroscopic nature of Ca(ClO4)2 allows for direct interaction of B

  3. When do water-insoluble polyion-surfactant ion complex salts "redissolve" by added excess surfactant?

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Salomé; Gustavsson, Charlotte; Gudmundsson, Christian; Linse, Per; Piculell, Lennart

    2011-01-18

    The redissolution of water-insoluble polyion-surfactant ion complexes by added excess of surfactant has systematically been investigated in experimental and theoretical phase equilibrium studies. A number of stoichiometric polyion-surfactant ion "complex salts" were synthesized and they consisted of akyltrimethylammonium surfactant ions of two different alkyl chain lengths (C(12)TA(+) and C(16)TA(+)) combined with homopolyions of polyacrylate of two different lengths (PA(-)(25) and PA(-)(6000)) or copolyions of acrylate and the slightly hydrophobic nonionic comonomers N-isopropylacrylamide (PA(-)-co-NIPAM) or N,N-dimethylacrylamide (PA(-)-co-DAM). The complex salts were mixed with water and excess alkyltrimethylammonium surfactant with either bromide or acetate counterions (C(n)TABr or C(n)TAAc). Factors promoting efficient redissolution were (i) very short polyions, (ii) a large fraction of NIPAM or DAM comonomers, and (iii) acetate, rather than bromide, as the surfactant counterion. Added C(12)TAAc gave an efficient redissolution of C(12)TAPA(25) but virtually no redissolution of C(12)TAPA(6000). A very efficient redissolution by added C(12)TAAc was obtained for PA(-)-co-NIPAM with 82 mol % of NIPAM. The C(12)TAPA-co-NIPAM/C(12)TAAc/H(2)O ternary phase diagram closely resembled the corresponding diagram for the much-studied pair cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose-(sodium) dodecyl sulfate. The simple Flory-Huggins theory adopted for polyelectrolyte systems successfully reproduced the main features of the experimental phase diagrams for the homopolyion systems, including the effect of the surfactant counterion. The efficient redissolution found for certain copolyion systems was explained by the formation of soluble polyion-surfactant ion complexes carrying an excess of surfactant ions through an additional hydrophobic attraction. PMID:21166446

  4. Effect of salt and urban water samples on bacterivory by the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    St Denis, C H; Pinheiro, M D O; Power, M E; Bols, Niels C

    2010-02-01

    The effect of road salt on the eating of bacteria or bacterivory by the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila, was followed in non-nutrient Osterhout's solution with Escherichia coli expressing green fluorescent protein. Bacterivory was impaired at between 0.025 and 0.050% w/v but the ciliates appeared to have normal morphologies and motilities, whereas at above 0.1%, bacterivory was blocked and many ciliates died. By contrast, E. coli remained viable, suggesting salt could alter predator-prey relationships in microbial communities. In nutrient medium, salt was not toxic and the ciliates grew. After growth in salt, ciliates consumed bacteria in 0.2% salt, indicating the salt acclimation of bacterivory. Bacteria and ciliates were added to urban creek samples to compare their capacity to support exogenous bacterivory. Even though samples were collected weekly for a year and be expected to have fluctuating salt levels as a result of deicing, all creek samples supported a similar level of bacterivory. PMID:19786315

  5. Visualization by light transmission of oil and water contents in transient two-phase flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darnault, Christophe J. G.; Throop, James A.; DiCarlo, David A.; Rimmer, Alon; Steenhuis, Tammo S.; Parlange, J.-Yves

    1998-06-01

    The difficulty of determining transient fluid contents in a soil-oil-water system is hampering an understanding of the system's flow characteristics. In this paper, we describe a light transmission method (LTM) which can rapidly obtain oil and water contents throughout a large two-dimensional flow field of silica sand. By appropriately coloring the water with 0.005% FD&C blue #1, the hue of the transmitted light is found to be directly related to the water content within the porous media. The hue provides a high resolution measurement of the water and oil contents in transient flow fields (such as unstable flow). Evaluation of the reliability of LTM was assessed by checking the mass balance for a known water injection and its utility in visualizing a whole flow field was exemplified for unstable fingered flow by comparing fluid contents to those obtained with synchrotron X-ray radiation.

  6. Hydrogen production from salt water by Marine blue green algae and solar radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitsui, A.; Rosner, D.; Kumazawa, S.; Barciela, S.; Phlips, E.

    1985-01-01

    Two marine bluegreen algae, Oscillatoria sp. Miami BG 7 and Synechococcus sp Miami 041511 have been selected as the result of over 10 years continuous and intensive effort of isolation, growth examination, and the screening of hydrogen photoproduction capability in this laboratory. Both strains photoproduced hydrogen for several days at high rates and a quantity of hydrogen was accumulated in a closed vessel. Overall hydrogen donor substance of the hydrogen photoproduction was found to be salt water. Using strain Miami BG 7, a two step method of hydrogen photoproduction from salt water was successfully developed and this was recycled several times over a one month period using both free cells and immobilized cells in both indoor and outdoor under natural sunlight. According to these experiments, a prototype floating hydrogen production system was designed for further development of the biosolar hydrogen production system.

  7. Water dynamics and salt-activation of enzymes in organic media: mechanistic implications revealed by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Eppler, Ross K; Komor, Russell S; Huynh, Joyce; Dordick, Jonathan S; Reimer, Jeffrey A; Clark, Douglas S

    2006-04-11

    Deuterium spin relaxation was used to examine the motion of enzyme-bound water on subtilisin Carlsberg co-lyophilized with inorganic salts for activation in different organic solvents. Spectral editing was used to ensure that the relaxation times were associated with relatively mobile deuterons, which were contributed almost entirely by D(2)O rather than hydrogen-deuteron exchange on the protein. The results indicate that the timescale of motion for residual water molecules on the biocatalyst, (tau(c))(D(2)O), in hexane decreased from 65 ns (salt-free) to 0.58 ns (98% CsF) as (k(cat)/K(M))(app) of the biocatalyst preparation increased from 0.092 s(-1) x M(-1) (salt-free) to 1,140 s(-1) x M(-1) (98% CsF). A similar effect was apparent in acetone; the timescale decreased from 24 ns (salt-free) to 2.87 ns (98% KF), with a corresponding increase in (k(cat)/K(M))(app) of 0.140 s(-1) x M(-1) (salt-free) to 12.8 s(-1) x M(-1) (98% KF). Although a global correlation between water mobility and enzyme activity was not evident, linear correlations between ln[(k(cat)/K(M))(app)] and (tau(c))(D(2)O) were obtained for salt-activated enzyme preparations in both hexane and acetone. Furthermore, a direct correlation was evident between (k(cat)/K(M))(app) and the total amount of mobile water per mass of enzyme. These results suggest that increases in enzyme-bound water mobility mediated by the presence of salt act as a molecular lubricant and enhance enzyme flexibility in a manner functionally similar to temperature. Greater flexibility may permit a larger degree of local transition-state mobility, reflected by a more positive entropy of activation, for the salt-activated enzyme compared with the salt-free enzyme. This increased mobility may contribute to the dramatic increases in biocatalyst activity. PMID:16585507

  8. Structure Evolution of Ordered Mesoporous Carbons Induced by Water Content of Mixed Solvents Water/Ethanol.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Liang, Shujun; Li, Zhenzhong; Zhai, Yan; Song, Yan

    2016-12-01

    In this work, mesostructure evolution of ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) from the 2-D hexagonal (space group p6mm) to the discontinuous cubic [Formula: see text], then towards the face-centered cubic lattice [Formula: see text], and finally, to the simple cubic Pm3n is achieved by simply adjusting the cosolvent water content of the mixed solvents water/ethanol in the presence of a reverse nonionic triblock copolymer and low molecular resin by evaporation-induced self-assembly method. Experimental results demonstrate that both the cosolvent and the reverse triblock copolymer play a key role in the mesophase transitions of OMCs. Furthermore, the OMCs with Pm3n symmetry are reported for the first time. Finally, the mechanism of mesostructure transition was discussed and proposed. PMID:27518232

  9. Understanding the bias between moisture content by oven drying and water content by Karl Fischer titration at moisture equilibrium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple causes of the difference between equilibrium moisture and water content have been found. The errors or biases were traced to the oven drying procedure to determine moisture content. The present paper explains the nature of the biases in oven drying and how it is possible to suppress one ...

  10. Recovery of mineral salts and potable water from desalting plant effluents by evaporation. Part II. Proposed simulation system for salt recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Aal, H.K.; Ba-Lubaid, K.M.; Shaikh, A.A.; Al-Harbi, D.K. )

    1990-04-01

    Salt recovery from rejected brines of the Al-Khobar Water Desalination Plant, Saudi Arabia, is studied through the simulation of a modified MSF system. Two phases of concentrations are planned: Phase I will concentrate the main effluent from 6.4 wt% total salt to 28.8%, while Phase II will use the effluents from Phase I as a feed to undergo further evaporation and cooling. NaCl and water are produced throughout this phase, while the end residue product will be essentially MgCl{sub 2}, since it is the most soluble. A mathematical model is developed and used to perform stage-to-stage material and heat balance calculations. Concentrations of NaCl and MgCl{sub 2} in the streams entering and leaving a stage are determined by using the solubility correlation developed in Part I. Simulation results show that by using 5,210 tons/h brine as a feed for Phase I, they can recover 4,430 tons/h fresh water, 277 tons/h NaCl, and 502 tons/h bittern (in which the ratio of MgCl{sub 2}/NaCl is increased to 12) as the very final products of the integrated scheme. This bittern provides 30 tons/h MgCl{sub 2} as an end product.

  11. Water Uptake By Mars Salt Analogs: An Investigation Of Stable Aqueous Solutions On Mars Using Raman Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuding, D.; Gough, R. V.; Jorgensen, S. K.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    To understand the formation of briny aqueous solutions on Mars, a salt analog was developed to closely match the individual cation and anion concentrations as reported by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory aboard the Phoenix Lander. ';Instant Mars' is a salt analog developed to fully encompass the correct concentrations of magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, perchlorate, chloride, and sulfate ions. Using environmental Raman microscopy, we have studied the water uptake by the Instant Mars analog as a function of temperature and relative humidity. Water uptake was monitored using Raman spectroscopy in combination with optical microscopy. A MicroJet droplet generator was used to generate 30 μm diameter particles that were deposited onto a quartz disc. The particles undergo visual transformations as the relative humidity (RH) is increased and the presence of water uptake is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. At -30° C, water uptake begins at ~ 35% RH as humidity is increased. The water uptake is marked by the growth of a sulfate peak at 990 cm-1, an indicator that sulfate has undergone a phase transition into an aqueous state. As the RH continues to increase, the peak in the O-H region (~3500 cm-1) broadens as more liquid water accumulates in the particles. The Instant Mars particles achieve complete deliquescence at 68% RH, indicated both visually and with Raman spectroscopy. The gradual water uptake observed suggests that deliquescence of the Instant Mars particles is not an immediate process, but that it occurs in steps marked by the deliquescence of the individual salts. Perhaps of even more significance is the tendency for the Instant Mars particles to remain aqueous at low humidity as RH is decreased. Raman spectra indicate that liquid water is present as low as 2% RH at -30° C. Ongoing work will examine the phase of Instant Mars particles under simulated Martian surface and subsurface conditions to gain insight into the possibility for aqueous solutions on Mars

  12. Water Imbibition into Rock as Affected by Sample Shape, Pore, Conductivity, and Antecedent Water Content

    SciTech Connect

    R.P. Ewing

    2005-08-29

    Infiltration is often presumed to follow Philip's equation, I = st{sup 1/2}, where I is cumulative infiltration, s is sorptivity, and t is time. This form of the equation is appropriate for short times, and/or for negligible gravitational effects. For a uniform soil, this equation describes a plot of log(mass imbibed) versus log(time), with a slope (imbibition exponent) of 1/2. The equation has also been applied to low-porosity rocks, where the extremely small pores render gravitational forces negligible. Experiments recently performed on a wide variety of rocks produced imbibition exponents from 0.2 to 0.5. Many rock types showed initial imbibition proceeding as I {approx} t{sup 1/4}, then later switched to ''normal'' (t{sup 1/2}) behavior. The distance to the wetting front that corresponds to this cross-over behavior was found to be related to the sample shape: tall thin samples are more likely to exhibit the exponent 1/4, and to cross over to 1/2-type behavior later, while short, squat samples are less likely to display the 1/4-type behavior at all. Additionally, the exponents are sensitive to antecedent water content, with initially wetter samples having smaller values. In this study, we present the experimental data, and provide a consistent and physically-based explanation using percolation theory. The analogy between imbibition and diffusion is used to model imbibition into samples with low pore connectivity, with the exponents and their crossover behavior emerging from a random walk process. All laboratory phenomena--different exponents, crossover behavior, and effects of sample shape and antecedent water content--are reproduced by the model, with similar patterns across experiment and simulation. We conclude both that diffusion is a useful and powerful conceptual model for understanding imbibition, and also that imbibition experiments, being simpler than diffusion measurements, can be used to examine diffusive behavior in rock.

  13. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1990-11-01

    In the ``hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO2) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO2 so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, ``Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer?'' is answered experimentally.

  14. Effects of de-icing salt on ground water characteristics.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, J E; Majewski, J C

    1975-01-01

    The effect of "road salt" on the characteristics of Massachusetts drinking water supplies has been significant and cumulative rather than transient or seasonal. De-icing salt is essentially all sodium chloride. Calcium chloride accounted for only three percent of the total salt used. However, hardness content, as well as sodium ion concentration, has increased greatly in ground waters in the past decade. The changing composition of our water supplies has agricultural, economic, and public health implications. This study attempts to quantify the stoichiometry of these changes in concentration, which are in part due to an ion-exchange mechanism in the soil. PMID:238830

  15. SALT WATER INTRUSION IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salt water intrusion, from one or more sources outlined in this report, has resulted in degradation of subsurface fresh water aquifers in 43 States. Numerous case histories delineating current problems exist, providing adequate documentation of the seriousness of salt water intru...

  16. Effectiveness of highway-drainage systems in preventing contamination of ground water by road salt, Route 25, southeastern Massachusetts; description of study area, data collection programs, and methodology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, P.E.; Armstrong, D.S.; Granato, G.E.; Stone, V.J.; Smith, K.P.; Provencher, P.L.

    1996-01-01

    Four test sites along a 7-mile section of Route 25 in southeastern Massachusetts, each representing a specific highway-drainage system, were instrumented to determine the effectiveness of the drainage systems in preventing contamination of ground water by road salt. One of the systems discharges highway runoff onsite through local drainpipes. The other systems use trunkline drainpipes through which runoff from highway surfaces, shoulders, and median strips is diverted and discharged into either a local stream or a coastal waterway. Route 25 was completed and opened to traffic in the summer of 1987. Road salt was first applied to the highway in the winter of 1987-88. The study area is on a thick outwash plain composed primarily of sand and gravel. Water-table depths range from 15 to 60 feet below land surface at the four test sites. Ground-water flow is in a general southerly direction, approximately perpendicular to the highway. Streamflow in the study area is controlled primarily by ground-water discharge. Background concentrations of dissolved chloride, sodium, and calcium-the primary constituents of road salt-are similar in ground water and surface water and range from 5 to 20, 5 to 10, and 1 to 5 milligrams per liter, respectively. Data-collection programs were developed for monitoring the application of road salt to the highway, the quantity of road-salt water entering the ground water, diverted through the highway-drainage systems, and entering a local stream. The Massachusetts Highway Department monitored road salt applied to the highway and reported these data to the U.S. Geological Survey. The U.S. Geological Survey designed and operated the ground-water, highway- drainage, and surface-water data-collection programs. A road-salt budget will be calculated for each test site so that the effectiveness of the different highway-drainage systems in preventing contamination of ground water by road salt can be determined.

  17. Municipal water reuse for urban agriculture in Namibia: Modeling nutrient and salt flows as impacted by sanitation user behavior.

    PubMed

    Woltersdorf, L; Scheidegger, R; Liehr, S; Döll, P

    2016-03-15

    Adequate sanitation, wastewater treatment and irrigation infrastructure often lacks in urban areas of developing countries. While treated, nutrient-rich reuse water is a precious resource for crop production in dry regions, excessive salinity might harm the crops. The aim of this study was to quantify, from a system perspective, the nutrient and salt flows a new infrastructure connecting water supply, sanitation, wastewater treatment and nutrient-rich water reuse for the irrigation of agriculture, from a system perspective. For this, we developed and applied a quantitative assessment method to understand the benefits and to support the management of the new water infrastructure in an urban area in semi-arid Namibia. The nutrient and salt flows, as affected by sanitation user behavior, were quantified by mathematical material flow analysis that accounts for the low availability of suitable and certain data in developing countries, by including data ranges and by assessing the effects of different assumptions in cases. Also the nutrient and leaching requirements of a crop scheme were calculated. We found that, with ideal sanitation use, 100% of nutrients and salts are reclaimed and the slightly saline reuse water is sufficient to fertigate 10 m(2)/cap/yr (90% uncertainty interval 7-12 m(2)/cap/yr). However, only 50% of the P contained in human excreta could be finally used for crop nutrition. During the pilot phase fewer sanitation users than expected used slightly more water per capita, used the toilets less frequently and practiced open defecation more frequently. Therefore, it was only possible to reclaim about 85% of nutrients from human excreta, the reuse water was non-saline and contained less nutrient so that the P was the limiting factor for crop fertigation. To reclaim all nutrients from human excreta and fertigate a larger agricultural area, sanitation user behavior needs to be improved. The results and the methodology of this study can be generalized and

  18. Temporal stability of soil water contents as affected by weather patterns: a simulation study.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temporal stability of soil water content (TS SWC) is a natural phenomenon that recently attracts attention and finds multiple applications. Large variations in the interannual and interseasonal TS SWC have been encountered among locations studied by various authors. The objective of this work was ...

  19. Using advanced oxidation treatment for biofilm inactivation by varying water vapor content in air plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryota, Suganuma; Koichi, Yasuoka

    2015-09-01

    Biofilms are caused by environmental degradation in food factories and medical facilities. The inactivation of biofilms involves making them react with chemicals including chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, and ozone, although inactivation using chemicals has a potential problem because of the hazardous properties of the residual substance and hydrogen peroxide, which have slow reaction velocity. We successfully performed an advanced oxidation process (AOP) using air plasma. Hydrogen peroxide and ozone, which were used for the formation of OH radicals in our experiment, were generated by varying the amount of water vapor supplied to the plasma. By varying the content of the water included in the air, the main product was changed from air plasma. When we increased the water content in the air, hydrogen peroxide was produced, while ozone peroxide was produced when we decreased the water content in the air. By varying the amount of water vapor, we realized a 99.9% reduction in the amount of bacteria in the biofilm when we discharged humidified air only. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 25630104.

  20. Determination of water content by capillary gas chromatography coupled with thermal conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Lodi, A; Bellini, M S; Clavel, A; Pijnenburg, N

    2011-11-01

    This article presents some experience obtained by applying capillary gas chromatography coupled with thermal conductivity detection (GC/TCD) to the determination of water in substances for pharmaceutical use. This technique represents a useful, orthogonal tool complementary to water determination methods based on volumetric or coulometric titration. It can also represent an alternative technique when such titrations are not applicable. This article presents the preliminary results obtained in a number of case studies where a GC/TCD procedure was applied in comparison with pharmacopoeial methods to substances with different water contents. PMID:22225767

  1. Dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in salt water environment by Corexit 9500A in the presence of natural coastal materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tansel, Berrin; Lee, Mengshan; Berbakov, Jillian; Tansel, Derya Z.; Koklonis, Urpiana

    2014-04-01

    Effectiveness of Corexit 9500A for dispersing Louisiana crude oil was evaluated in salt water solutions containing natural materials in relation to salinity and dispersant-to-oil ratio (DOR). Experimental results showed that both salinity and DOR had significant effects on dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in the presence of different natural materials. The natural materials added to the salt water solutions included sea sand (South Beach, Miami, Florida), red mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle), seaweed (Sargassum natans), and sea grass (Halodule wrightii). Dispersant effectiveness (amount of oil dispersed into the water) was reduced significantly with increasing salinity with the minimum effectiveness observed in the salinity range between 30 and 50 ppt in all aqueous samples containing natural materials. When significant amounts of floating oil were present, the partially submerged natural materials enhanced the transfer of oil into the water column, which improved the dispersion effectiveness. However, dispersant effectiveness was significantly reduced when the amount of floating oil was relatively small and could not be released back to the water column. Surface tension may not be an adequate parameter for monitoring the effectiveness of dispersants in salt water environment. When distilled water was used (i.e., zero salinity), surface tension was significantly reduced with increasing dispersant concentration. However, there was no clear trend in the surface tension of the salt water solutions (17-51 ppt) containing crude oil and natural materials with increasing dispersant concentration.

  2. Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Eric V; Murphy, Dan; Stefan, Heinz G

    2008-11-15

    Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these lakes were 10 and 25 times higher, respectively, than in other non-urban lakes in the region. Seasonal salinity/chloride cycles in the lakes were correlated with road salt applications: High concentrations in the winter and spring, especially near the bottom of the lakes, were followed by lower concentrations in the summer and fall due to flushing of the lakes by rainfall runoff. The seasonal salt storage/flushing rates for individual lakes were derived from volume-weighted average chloride concentration time series. The rate ranged from 9 to 55% of a lake's minimum salt content. In some of the lakes studied salt concentrations were high enough to stop spring turnover preventing oxygen from reaching the benthic sediments. Concentrations above the sediments were also high enough to induce convective mixing of the saline water into the sediment pore water. A regional analysis of historical water quality records of 38 lakes in the TCMA showed increases in lake salinity from 1984 to 2005 that were highly correlated with the amount of rock salt purchased by the State of Minnesota. Chloride concentrations in individual lakes were positively correlated with the percent of impervious surfaces in the watershed and inversely with lake volume. Taken together, the results show a continuing degradation of the water quality of urban lakes due to application of NaCl in their watersheds. PMID:18762321

  3. Irrigation scheduling as affected by field capacity and wilting point water content from different data sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil water content at field capacity and wilting point water content is critical information for irrigation scheduling, regardless of soil water sensor-based method (SM) or evapotranspiration (ET)-based method. Both methods require knowledge on site-specific and soil-specific Management Allowable De...

  4. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, F.S. Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA )

    1990-11-01

    In the hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO{sub 2}) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO{sub 2} so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer '' is answered experimentally.

  5. Effect of hydration on the water content of human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Levin, R L; Cravalho, E G; Huggins, C E

    1976-12-01

    An ideal, hydrated, nondilute pseudobinary salt-protein-water solution model of the RBC intracellular solution has been developed to describe the osmotic behavior of human erythrocytes during freezing and thawing. Because of the hydration of intracellular solutes (mostly cell proteins), our analytical results predict that at least 16.65% of the isotonic cell water content will be retained within RBCs placed in hypertonic solutions. These findings are consistent not only with the experimental measurements of the amount of isotonic cell water retained within RBCs subjected to nonisotonic extracellular solutions (20-32%) but also with the experimental evidence that all of the water within RBCs is solvent water. By modeling the RBC intracellular solution as a hydrated salt-protein-water solution, no anomalous osmotic behavior is apparent. PMID:990394

  6. Hormonal activity in detached lettuce leaves as affected by leaf water content.

    PubMed

    Aharoni, N; Blumenfeld, A; Richmond, A E

    1977-06-01

    The interrelationship between water deficiency and hormonal makeup in plants was investigated in detached leaves of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. ;Hazera Yellow'). Water stress was imposed by desiccating the leaves for several hours in light or darkness at different air temperatures and relative humidity. In the course of desiccation, a rise in abscisic acid content and a decline in gibberellin and cytokinin activity were observed by gas-liquid chromatography, by both the barley endosperm bioassay and radioimmunoassay and by the soybean callus bioassay. Gibberellin activity began to decline in the stressed leaves before the rise in abscisic acid, the rate of this decline being positively correlated with the rate of increase in leaf water saturation deficit. Recovery from water stress was effected by immersing the leaf petioles in water while exposing the blades to high relative humidity. This resulted in a decrease in leaf water saturation deficit, a reduction in abscisic acid content, and an increase in gibberellin and cytokinin activity.Application of abscisic acid to the leaves caused partial stomatal closure in turgid lettuce leaves, whereas treatment with gibberellic acid and kinetin of such leaves had no effect on the stomatal aperture. In desiccating leaves, however, gibberellic acid and kinetin treatment considerably retarded stomatal closure, thus enhancing the increase in leaf water saturation deficit. These results suggest that the effect of desiccation in changing leaf hormonal make-up, i.e. a rapid increase in abscisic acid and a decrease in both cytokinin and gibberellin activity, is related to a mechanism designed to curtail water loss under conditions inducing water deficiency. PMID:16660015

  7. Domestic Material Content in Molten-Salt Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, Craig; Kurup, Parthiv; Akar, Sertac; Flores, Francisco

    2015-08-26

    This study lists material composition data for two concentrating solar power (CSP) plant designs: a molten-salt power tower and a hypothetical parabolic trough plant, both of which employ a molten salt for the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and thermal storage media. The two designs have equivalent generating and thermal energy storage capacities. The material content of the saltHTF trough plant was approximately 25% lower than a comparably sized conventional oil-HTF parabolic trough plant. The significant reduction in oil, salt, metal, and insulation mass by switching to a salt-HTF design is expected to reduce the capital cost and LCOE for the parabolic trough system.

  8. Resolving precipitation induced water content profiles by inversion of dispersive GPR data: A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangel, Adam R.; Moysey, Stephen M. J.; van der Kruk, Jan

    2015-06-01

    Surface-based ground-penetrating radar (GPR) measurements have significant potential for monitoring dynamic hydrologic processes at multiple scales in time and space. At early times during infiltration into a soil, the zone above the wetting front may act as a low-velocity waveguide that traps GPR waves, thereby causing dispersion and making interpretation of the data using standard methods difficult. In this work, we show that the dispersion is dependent upon the distribution of water within the waveguide, which is controlled by soil hydrologic properties. Simulations of infiltration were performed by varying the n-parameter of the Mualem-van Genuchten equation using HYDRUS-1D; the associated GPR data were simulated to evaluate the influence of dispersion. We observed a notable decrease in wave dispersion as the sharpness of the wetting front profile decreased. Given the sensitivity of the dispersion effect to the wetting front profile, we also evaluated whether the water content distribution can be determined through inversion of the dispersive GPR data. We found that a global grid search combined with the simplex algorithm was able to estimate the average water content when the wetted zone is divided into 2 layers. This approach was incapable, however, of representing the gradational nature of the water content distribution behind the wetting front. In contrast, the shuffled complex evolution algorithm was able to constrain a piece-wise linear function to closely match the shallow gradational water content profile. In both the layered and piece-wise linear case, the sensitivity of the dispersive data dropped sharply below the wetting front, which in this case was around 20 cm, i.e., twice the average wavelength, for a 900 MHz GPR survey. This study demonstrates that dispersive GPR data has significant potential for capturing the early-time dynamics of infiltration that cannot be obtained with standard GPR analysis approaches.

  9. Climatology of cloud water content associated with different cloud types observed by A-Train satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lei; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Wang, Zhien; Su, Hui; Deng, Min; Massie, Steven

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates the climatology of vertical distributions of cloud liquid water content, ice water content, and cloud fraction (CFR) associated with eight different cloud types, by utilizing the combined CloudSat radar and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations lidar measurements. The geographical and seasonal variations of these cloud properties for each cloud type are also analyzed. The cloud water content (CWC) of each cloud type is sorted by three parameters obtained from colocated satellite observations to investigate the relationships between large-scale conditions and the vertical structure of clouds. Results show that different cloud types have different altitudes of CWC and CFR peaks, and the altitude of CFR peak does not always overlap with that of CWC peak. Each type of cloud shows a clear asymmetric pattern of spatial distribution between Northern Hemisphere (NH) and Southern Hemisphere (SH). Stratocumulus and stratus clouds make the greatest contribution to the liquid water path, while the ice water path is mostly contributed by deep convective cloud over the tropics and nimbostratus over the middle and high latitudes. Over both middle and high latitudes, clouds have larger seasonal variation in the NH than in the SH. Over ocean, large CWCs of deep convective cloud, cirrus, and altostratus are above 7 km, and are associated with high convective available potential energy (>2000 J/kg), warm sea surface temperature (>303 K), and relatively high precipitation (>1 mm/h). Over land, most of the middle and high clouds have similar CWC distributions compared to those over ocean, but altocumulus and low clouds are quite different from those over ocean.

  10. Click chemistry from organic halides, diazonium salts and anilines in water catalysed by copper nanoparticles on activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Francisco; Moglie, Yanina; Radivoy, Gabriel; Yus, Miguel

    2011-09-21

    An easy-to-prepare, reusable and versatile catalyst consisting of oxidised copper nanoparticles on activated carbon has been fully characterised and found to effectively promote the multicomponent synthesis of 1,2,3-triazoles from organic halides, diazonium salts, and aromatic amines in water at a low copper loading. PMID:21789331

  11. Rapid assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll content.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Present techniques of airborne chlorophyll measurement are discussed as an approach to water pollution assessment. The differential radiometer, the chlorophyll correlation radiometer, and an infrared radiometer for water temperature measurements are described as the key components of the equipment. Also covered are flight missions carried out to evaluate the capability of the chlorophyll correlation radiometer in measuring the chlorophyll content in water bodies with widely different levels of nutrients, such as fresh-water lakes of high and low eutrophic levels, marine waters of high and low productivity, and an estuary with a high sediment content. The feasibility and usefulness of these techniques are indicated.

  12. Certification of the reference material of water content in water saturated 1-octanol by Karl Fischer coulometry, Karl Fischer volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haifeng; Ma, Kang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jia; Sun, Guohua; Li, Hongmei

    2012-10-15

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) of water content are widely used in the calibration and validation of Karl Fischer coulometry and volumetry. In this study, the water content of the water saturated 1-octanol (WSO) CRM was certified by Karl Fischer coulometry, volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (Q NMR). The water content recovery by coulometry was 99.76% with a diaphragm-less electrode and Coulomat AG anolyte. The relative bias between the coulometry and volumetry results was 0.06%. In Q NMR, the water content of WSO is traceable to the International System (SI) of units through the purity of internal standard. The relative bias of water content in WSO between Q NMR and volumetry was 0.50%. The consistency of results for these three independent methods improves the accuracy of the certification of the RM. The certified water content of the WSO CRM was 4.76% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.09%. PMID:23442697

  13. Nitrite toxicity of Litopenaeus vannamei in water containing low concentrations of sea salt or mixed salts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sowers, A.; Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.; Browdy, C.L.; Tomasso, J.R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The uptake, depuration and toxicity of environmental nitrite was characterized in Litopenaeus vannamei exposed in water containing low concentrations of artificial sea salt or mixed salts. In 2 g/L artificial sea salts, nitrite was concentrated in the hemolymph in a dose-dependent and rapid manner (steady-state in about 2 d). When exposed to nitrite in 2 g/L artificial sea salts for 4 d and then moved to a similar environment without added nitrite, complete depuration occurred within a day. Increasing salinity up to 10 g/L decreased uptake of environmental nitrite. Nitrite uptake in environments containing 2 g/L mixed salts (combination of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium chlorides) was similar to or lower than rates in 2 g/L artificial sea salt. Toxicity was inversely related to total dissolved salt and chloride concentrations and was highest in 2 g/L artificial sea salt (96-h medial lethal concentration = 8.4 mg/L nitrite-N). Animals that molted during the experiments did not appear to be more susceptible to nitrite than animals that did not molt. The shallow slope of the curve describing the relationship between toxicity and salinity suggests that management of nitrite toxicity in low-salinity shrimp ponds by addition of more salts may not be practical. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2004.

  14. Swelling of phospholipids by monovalent salt

    PubMed Central

    Petrache, Horia I.; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Harries, Daniel; Kučerka, Norbert; Nagle, John F.; Parsegian, V. Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Critical to biological processes such as membrane fusion and secretion, ion-lipid interactions at the membrane-water interface still raise many unanswered questions. Using reconstituted phosphatidylcholine membranes, we confirm here that multilamellar vesicles swell in salt solutions, a direct indication that salt modifies the interactions between neighboring membranes. By varying sample histories, and by comparing with data from ion carrier-containing bilayers, we eliminate the possibility that swelling is an equilibration artifact. Although both attractive and repulsive forces could be modified by salt, we show experimentally that swelling is driven primarily by weakening of the van der Waals attraction. To isolate the effect of salt on van der Waals interactions, we focus on high salt concentrations at which any possible electrostatic interactions are screened. By analysis of X-ray diffraction data, we show that salt does not alter membrane structure or bending rigidity, eliminating the possibility that repulsive fluctuation forces change with salt. By measuring changes in interbilayer separation with applied osmotic stress, we have determined, using the standard paradigm for bilayer interactions, that 1 M concentrations of KBr or KCl decrease the van der Waals strength by 50%. By weakening van der Waals attractions, salt increases energy barriers to membrane contact, possibly affecting cellular communication and biological signaling. PMID:16267342

  15. Scattering by solutions of major sea salts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Hu, Lianbo; Twardowski, Michael S; Sullivan, James M

    2009-10-26

    Increased scattering by seawater relative to that by pure water is primarily due to additional fluctuation of the refractive index contributed by sea salts. Salts with different ionic weight and sizes, while barely affecting the scattering that is due to density fluctuations, have a significant effect on the scattering that is due to concentration fluctuations. And this explains the major differences of their total scattering that would be observed. Scattering by solutions of NaCl, the major sea salt, is consistently about 6.7% and 4% lower than seawater of the same mass concentration and of the same refractive index, respectively. Because of ionic interactions, the molecular scattering does not follow the simple addition rule that applies to bulk inherent optical properties, with the total less than the summation of the parts. The possible values of scattering by waters of, such as, Dead Sea or Orca Basin, which have different salt composition from seawater, are discussed. PMID:19997177

  16. A universal salt model based on under-ground precipitation of solid salts due to supercritical water `out-salting'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueslåtten, H.; Hovland, M. T.

    2010-12-01

    shallow magma-chamber causes a sufficiently high heat-flow to drive a convection cell of seawater. The model shows that salt precipitates along the flow lines within the supercritical region (Hovland et al., 2006). During the various stages of planet Mars’ development, it must be inferred that zones with very high heat-flow also existed there. This meant that water (brine) confined in the crust of Mars was mobilized in a convective manner and would pass into the supercritical water zone during the down-going leg (the recharge leg) of the convective cell. The zones with supercritical out-salting would require accommodation space for large masses of solid salt, as modeled in the Red Sea analogy. However, as the accommodation space for the solid salt fills up, it will pile up and force its way upwards to form large, perhaps layered anticlines, as seen in the Hebes Mensa area of Mars and at numerous locations on Earth, including the Red Sea. Thus, we offer a universal ‘hydrothermal salt model’, which would be viable on all planets with free water in their interiors or on their surfaces, including Mars and Earth. Hovland, et al., 2006. Salt formation by supercritical seawater and submerged boiling. Marine and Petrol. Geol. 23, 855-69

  17. Laboratory experiments of salt water intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crestani, Elena; Camporese, Matteo; Salandin, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The problem of saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers is dealt with by the proper setup of a sand-box device to develop laboratory experiments in a controlled environment. Saline intrusion is a problem of fundamental importance and affects the quality of both surface water and groundwater in coastal areas. In both cases the phenomenon may be linked to anthropogenic (construction of reservoirs, withdrawals, etc.) and/or natural (sea-level excursions, variability of river flows, etc.) changes. In recent years, the escalation of this problem has led to the development of specific projects and studies to identify possible countermeasures, typically consisting of underground barriers. Physical models are fundamental to study the saltwater intrusion problem, since they provide benchmarks for numerical model calibrations and for the evaluation of the effectiveness of solutions to contain the salt wedge. In order to study and describe the evolution of the salt wedge, the effectiveness of underground barriers, and the distance from the coast of a withdrawal that guarantees a continuous supply of fresh water, a physical model has been realized at the University of Padova to represent the terminal part of a coastal aquifer. It consists of a laboratory flume 500 cm long, 30 cm wide and 60 cm high, filled for an height of 45 cm with glass beads with a d50 of 0.6 mm and a uniformity coefficient d60/d10~= 1.5. The material is homogeneous and characterized by a porosity of about 0.37 and by an hydraulic conductivity of about 1.8×10-3 m/s. Upstream from the sand-box, a tank, continuously supplied by a pump, provides fresh water to recharge the aquifer, while the downstream tank, filled with salt water, simulates the sea. The volume of the downstream tank (~= 2 m3) is about five times the upstream one, so that density variations due to the incoming fresh water flow are negligible. The water level in the two tanks is continuously monitored by means of two level probes and is

  18. Exploring the use of Low-intensity Ultrasonics as a Tool for Assessing the Salt Content in Pork Meat Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Pérez, J. V.; de Prados, M.; Martínez-Escrivá, G.; González, R.; Mulet, A.; Benedito, J.

    Meat industry demands non-destructive techniques for the control of the salting process to achieve a homogeneous final salt content in salted meat products. The feasibility of using low-intensity ultrasound for characterizing the salting process of pork meat products was evaluated. The ultrasonic velocity (V) and time of flight (TF) were measured by through-transmission and pulse-echo methods, respectively, in salted meat products. Salting involved an increase of the V in meat muscles and a decrease of the time of flight in whole hams. Measuring the V before and after salting, the salt content could be estimated. Moreover, online monitoring of the salting process by computing the TF could be considered a reliable tool for quality control purposes.

  19. Iron clad wetlands: Soil iron-sulfur buffering determines coastal wetland response to salt water incursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoepfer, Valerie A.; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Burgin, Amy J.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal freshwater wetland chemistry is rapidly changing due to increased frequency of salt water incursion, a consequence of global change. Seasonal salt water incursion introduces sulfate, which microbially reduces to sulfide. Sulfide binds with reduced iron, producing iron sulfide (FeS), recognizable in wetland soils by its characteristic black color. The objective of this study is to document iron and sulfate reduction rates, as well as product formation (acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and chromium reducible sulfide (CRS)) in a coastal freshwater wetland undergoing seasonal salt water incursion. Understanding iron and sulfur cycling, as well as their reduction products, allows us to calculate the degree of sulfidization (DOS), from which we can estimate how long soil iron will buffer against chemical effects of sea level rise. We show that soil chloride, a direct indicator of the degree of incursion, best predicted iron and sulfate reduction rates. Correlations between soil chloride and iron or sulfur reduction rates were strongest in the surface layer (0-3 cm), indicative of surface water incursion, rather than groundwater intrusion at our site. The interaction between soil moisture and extractable chloride was significantly related to increased AVS, whereas increased soil chloride was a stronger predictor of CRS. The current DOS in this coastal plains wetland is very low, resulting from high soil iron content and relatively small degree of salt water incursion. However, with time and continuous salt water exposure, iron will bind with incoming sulfur, creating FeS complexes, and DOS will increase.

  20. Eating quality of UK-style sausages varying in price, meat content, fat level and salt content.

    PubMed

    Sheard, P R; Hope, E; Hughes, S I; Baker, A; Nute, G R

    2010-05-01

    Thirty-six brands of pork sausage were purchased from a total of 10 retailers over a 4 months period and assessed for eating quality. The brands included 5 of the 10 most popular sausages in the UK, 4 basic, 14 standard, 10 premium and 8 healthy eating brands. The average price, meat content, fat content and salt content was 3.31 pounds/kg, 62%, 17% and 1.6%, respectively, but there were wide differences in price (1.08 pound/kg-5.23 pounds/kg), meat content (32-97%), fat content (2.1-29.1%) and salt content (0.5-2.5%). Sausages were assessed by a trained sensory panel using 100mm unstructured line scales and 14 descriptors (skin toughness, firmness, juiciness, pork flavour, fattiness, meatiness, particle size, cohesiveness, saltiness, sweet, acidic, bitter and metallic) including overall liking. The declared meat content was positively correlated with price, skin toughness, firmness, pork flavour, meatiness, particle size and perceived saltiness (r=0.5 or better). The declared fat content was positively correlated with fattiness and sweetness (r=0.42 or better) but not juiciness. There was no significant correlation between declared salt content and perceived saltiness. A principal component analysis showed that the first two principal components accounted for 51% of the variability in the data. Products could be separated into four quadrants according to their price, meat content, fat content and their associated eating quality attributes. PMID:20374862

  1. Temporal stability of soil water content as affected by climate: a simulation study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temporal stability of soil water content (TS SWC) is a natural phenomenon that recently attracts attention and finds multiple applications. Weather and climate are usually mentioned as a factor of TS SWC, but its effect is far from clear. The objective of this work was to use soil water modeling to ...

  2. Changes in antioxidant enzymes activities and proline, total phenol and anthocyanine contents in Hyssopus officinalis L. plants under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Jahantigh, Omolbanin; Najafi, Farzaneh; Badi, Hassanali Naghdi; Khavari-Nejad, Ramazan Ali; Sanjarian, Forough

    2016-06-01

    The relationships between salt stress and antioxidant enzymes activities, proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents in Hyssopus officinalis L. plants in growth stage were investigated. The plants were subjected to five levels of saline irrigation water, 0.37 (tap water as control) with 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dSm(-1) of saline water. After two months the uniform plants were harvested for experimental analysis. Antioxidant enzymes activities and proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents of the plants were examinated. Enhanced activities of peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were determined by increasing salinity that plays an important protective role in the ROS-scavenging process. Proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents increased significantly with increasing salinity. These results suggest that salinity tolerance of Hyssopus officinalis plants might be closely related with the increased capacity of antioxidative system to scavenge reactive oxygen species and with the accumulation of osmoprotectant proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents under salinity conditions. PMID:27165530

  3. Characterizing and Exploring the Formation Mechanism of Salt Deposition by Reusing Advanced-softened, Silica-rich, Oilfield-produced Water (ASOW) in Superheated Steam Pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Bin; Xu, Ying; Lin, Senmin; Dai, Xiaohu

    2015-01-01

    To dispose of large volumes of oilfield-produced water, an environmentally friendly method that reuses advanced-softened, silica-rich, oilfield-produced water (ASOW) as feedwater was implemented via a 10-month pilot-scale test in oilfield. However, salt deposition detrimental to the efficiency and security of steam injection system was generated in superheated steam pipeline. To evaluate the method, the characteristics and formation mechanism of the deposition were explored. The silicon content and total hardness of the ASOW were 272.20 mg/L and 0.018 mg/L, respectively. Morphology and composition of the deposition were determined by scanning electron microscope–energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), inductively coupled plasma–mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Na2Si2O5, Na2CO3 and trace silanes were identified in the deposition. In addition, the solubility of the deposition was about 99%, suggesting that it is very different from traditional scaling. The results of a simulation experiment and thermal analysis system (TGA and TG-FTIR) proved that Na2CO3 and Si(OH)4 (gas) are involved in the formation of Na2Si2O5, which is ascribed mainly to the temperature difference between the superheated steam and the pipe wall. These findings provide an important reference for improving the reuse of ASOW and reducing its deposition. PMID:26608736

  4. Characterizing and Exploring the Formation Mechanism of Salt Deposition by Reusing Advanced-softened, Silica-rich, Oilfield-produced Water (ASOW) in Superheated Steam Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Bin; Xu, Ying; Lin, Senmin; Dai, Xiaohu

    2015-11-01

    To dispose of large volumes of oilfield-produced water, an environmentally friendly method that reuses advanced-softened, silica-rich, oilfield-produced water (ASOW) as feedwater was implemented via a 10-month pilot-scale test in oilfield. However, salt deposition detrimental to the efficiency and security of steam injection system was generated in superheated steam pipeline. To evaluate the method, the characteristics and formation mechanism of the deposition were explored. The silicon content and total hardness of the ASOW were 272.20 mg/L and 0.018 mg/L, respectively. Morphology and composition of the deposition were determined by scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Na2Si2O5, Na2CO3 and trace silanes were identified in the deposition. In addition, the solubility of the deposition was about 99%, suggesting that it is very different from traditional scaling. The results of a simulation experiment and thermal analysis system (TGA and TG-FTIR) proved that Na2CO3 and Si(OH)4 (gas) are involved in the formation of Na2Si2O5, which is ascribed mainly to the temperature difference between the superheated steam and the pipe wall. These findings provide an important reference for improving the reuse of ASOW and reducing its deposition.

  5. Characterizing and Exploring the Formation Mechanism of Salt Deposition by Reusing Advanced-softened, Silica-rich, Oilfield-produced Water (ASOW) in Superheated Steam Pipeline.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bin; Xu, Ying; Lin, Senmin; Dai, Xiaohu

    2015-01-01

    To dispose of large volumes of oilfield-produced water, an environmentally friendly method that reuses advanced-softened, silica-rich, oilfield-produced water (ASOW) as feedwater was implemented via a 10-month pilot-scale test in oilfield. However, salt deposition detrimental to the efficiency and security of steam injection system was generated in superheated steam pipeline. To evaluate the method, the characteristics and formation mechanism of the deposition were explored. The silicon content and total hardness of the ASOW were 272.20 mg/L and 0.018 mg/L, respectively. Morphology and composition of the deposition were determined by scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Na2Si2O5, Na2CO3 and trace silanes were identified in the deposition. In addition, the solubility of the deposition was about 99%, suggesting that it is very different from traditional scaling. The results of a simulation experiment and thermal analysis system (TGA and TG-FTIR) proved that Na2CO3 and Si(OH)4 (gas) are involved in the formation of Na2Si2O5, which is ascribed mainly to the temperature difference between the superheated steam and the pipe wall. These findings provide an important reference for improving the reuse of ASOW and reducing its deposition. PMID:26608736

  6. Estimating canopy water content from spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foliar water content is a dynamic quantity depending on water losses from transpiration and water uptake from the soil. Absorption of shortwave radiation by water is determined by various frequency overtones of fundamental bending and stretching molecular transitions. Leaf water potential and rela...

  7. New parametric implementation of metamorphic reactions limited by water content, impact on exhumation along detachment faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezri, L.; Le Pourhiet, L.; Wolf, S.; Burov, E.

    2015-11-01

    Metamorphic phase changes have a strong impact on the physical and mechanical properties of rocks including buoyancy (body forces) and rheology (interface forces). As such, they exert important dynamic control on tectonic processes. It is generally assumed that phase changes are mainly controlled by pressure (P) and temperature (T) conditions. Yet, in reality, whatever the PT conditions are, phase changes cannot take place without an adequate amount of the main reactant - water. In present day geodynamic models, the influence of water content is neglected. It is generally assumed that water is always available in quantities sufficient for thermodynamic reactions to take place at minimal Gibbs energy for given P and T conditions and a constant chemical composition. If this assumption was correct, no high-grade metamorphic rocks could to be found on the Earth's surface, since they would be retro-morphed to low-grade state during their exhumation. Indeed, petrologic studies point out that water, as a limiting reactant, is responsible for the lack of retrograde metamorphic reactions observed in the rocks exhumed in typical MCC contexts. In order to study the impact of fluid content on the structure of metamorphic core complexes, we have coupled a geodynamic thermo-mechanical code Flamar with a fluid-transport and water-limited thermodynamic phase transition algorithm. We have introduced a new parameterization of Darcy flow that is able to capture source/sink and transport aspects of fluid transport at the scale of the whole crust with a minimum of complexity. Within this model, phase transitions are controlled by pressure temperature and the local amount of free fluid that comes from both external (meteoric) and local (dehydration) sources. The numerical experiments suggest a strong positive feedback between the asymmetry of the tectonic structures and the depth of penetration of meteoric fluids. In particular, bending-stress distribution in asymmetric detachment zones

  8. WATER, SALT AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of synchrotron based research for understanding the fate of contaminants in water, soil, and atmosphere is proving to be beneficial for scientists and regulators. Drawing the connection of a contaminated site to knowledge of metal speciation provides direct eviden...

  9. 46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section 45.37 Shipping... Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence... marks under § 45.77 for salt water; and (b) Be marked with the letters “FW” above the fresh water...

  10. 46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section 45.37 Shipping... Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence... marks under § 45.77 for salt water; and (b) Be marked with the letters “FW” above the fresh water...

  11. 46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section 45.37 Shipping... Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence... marks under § 45.77 for salt water; and (b) Be marked with the letters “FW” above the fresh water...

  12. 46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section 45.37 Shipping... Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence... marks under § 45.77 for salt water; and (b) Be marked with the letters “FW” above the fresh water...

  13. 46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section 45.37 Shipping... Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence... marks under § 45.77 for salt water; and (b) Be marked with the letters “FW” above the fresh water...

  14. Water in the Oceanic Lithosphere: Salt Lake Crater Xenoliths, Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, Anne H.; Bizimis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Water can be present in nominally anhydrous minerals of peridotites in the form of hydrogen bonded to structural oxygen. Such water in the oceanic upper mantle could have a significant effect on its physical and chemical properties. However, the water content of the MORB source has been inferred indirectly from the compositions of basalts. Direct determinations on abyssal peridotites are scarce because they have been heavily hydrothermally altered. Here we present the first water analyses of minerals from spinel peridotite xenoliths of Salt Lake Crater, Oahu, Hawaii, which are exceptionally fresh. These peridotites are thought to represent fragments of the Pacific oceanic lithosphere that was refertilized by alkalic Hawaiian melts. A few have unradiogenic Os and radiogenic Hf isotopes and may be fragments of an ancient (2 Ga) depleted and recycled lithosphere. Water contents in olivine (Ol), orthopyroxene (Opx), and clinopyroxene (Cpx) were determined by FTIR spectrometry. Preliminary H_{2}O contents show ranges of 8-10 ppm for Ol, 151-277 ppm for Opx, and 337-603 ppm for Cpx. Reconstructed bulk rock H_{2}O contents range from 88-131 ppm overlapping estimates for the MORB source. Water contents between Ol minerals of the same xenolith are heterogeneous and individual OH infrared bands vary within a mineral with lower 3230 cm^{-1} and higher 3650-3400 cm^{-1} band heights from core to edge. This observation suggests disturbance of the hydrogen in Ol likely occurring during xenolith entrainment to the surface. Pyroxene water contents are higher than most water contents in pyroxenes from continental peridotite xenoliths and higher than those of abyssal peridotites. Cpx water contents decrease with increasing degree of depletion (e.g. increasing Fo in Ol and Cr# in spinel) consistent with an incompatible behavior of water. However Cpx water contents also show a positive correlation with LREE/HREE ratios and LREE concentrations consistent with refertilization. Opx water

  15. How subaerial salt extrusions influence water quality in adjacent aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdizadeh, Razieh; Zarei, Mehdi; Raeisi, Ezzat

    2015-12-01

    Brines supplied from salt extrusions cause significant groundwater salinization in arid and semi-arid regions where salt rock is exposed to dissolution by episodic rainfalls. Here we focus on 62 of the 122 diapirs of Hormuz salt emergent in the southern Iran. To consider managing the degradation effect that salt extrusions have on the quality of adjoining aquifers, it is first necessary to understand how they influence adjacent water resources. We evaluate here the impacts that these diapirs have on adjacent aquifers based on investigating their geomorphologies, geologies, hydrologies and hydrogeologies. The results indicate that 28/62 (45%) of our sample of salt diapirs have no significant impact on the quality of groundwater in adjoining aquifers (namely Type N), while the remaining 34/62 (55%) degrade nearby groundwater quality. We offer simple conceptual models that account for how brines flowing from each of these types of salt extrusions contaminate adjacent aquifers. We identify three main mechanisms that lead to contamination: surface impact (Type A), subsurface intrusion (Type B) and indirect infiltration (Type C). A combination of all these mechanisms degrades the water quality in nearby aquifers in 19/62 (31%) of the salt diapirs studied. Having characterized the mechanism(s) by which each diapir affects the adjacent aquifer, we suggest a few possible remediation strategies to be considered. For instance, engineering the surface runoff of diapirs Types A and C into nearby evaporation basins would improve groundwater quality.

  16. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of drinking water salt deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soktoev, B. R.; Rikhvanov, L. P.; Matveenko, I. A.

    2015-11-01

    The article presents the research results on the features of element and mineral composition of salt deposits (limescale) formed in household conditions in heat exchanging equipment. The major part of limescale is represented by two species of calcium carbonate - calcite and aragonite. We have shown that high concentrations of chemical elements in the limescale promote the formation of their own mineral forms (sulphates, silicates, native forms) in salt deposits. Detecting such mineral formations suggests the salt deposits of drinking water to be a long-term storage media which can be used in the course of eco-geochemical and metallogenic studies.

  17. HIGH PERMEABILITY MEMBRANES FOR THE DEHYDRATION OF LOW WATER CONTENT ETHANOL BY PERVAPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Energy efficient dehydration of low water content ethanol is a challenge for the sustainable production of fuel-grade ethanol. Pervaporative membrane dehydration using a recently developed hydrophilic polymer membrane formulation consisting of a cross-linked mixture of poly(allyl...

  18. Salt water cooling tower retrofit experience

    SciTech Connect

    Rittenhouse, R.C.

    1994-06-01

    This article describes the experience of engineers at Atlantic Electric Co. with a recent cooling tower fill retrofit at the company's B.L. England Station, Unit 3. Note that this tower is unique. It is the first natural draft salt water tower to be built in the United States. Unit 3's closed-loop saltwater cooling system features a double condenser and two 50% capacity horizontal circulating water pumps. A natural draft cooling tower rejects heat to the atmosphere through evaporation and sensible heat transfer. The tower is 180 ft in diameter at the base and 208 ft high, and features a counterflow design. It was designed to cool 63,500 gpm of circulating salt water through a range of 26 F with an approach of 19.2 degrees at an ambient wet bulb temperature of 76 F and 60% relative humidity. A drift rate of 0.002% of circulating water flow was specified to avoid excessive salt water carryover.

  19. Soil water content and soil disaggregation by disking affects PM10 emissions.

    PubMed

    Madden, Nicholaus M; Southard, Randal J; Mitchell, Jeff P

    2009-01-01

    Row crop agriculture in California's San Joaquin Valley is a major contributor of particulate matter <10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10). The California Air Resources Board uses fixed PM10 emission values for various tillage operations to monitor and design attainment strategies. However, fixed emission values do not reflect emissions produced by a single implement operating under different soil conditions. This 2-yr study evaluated how PM10 mass concentrations (microg L(-1)) from disking change as a function of gravimetric soil water content (GWC), number of sequential diskings (D1, D2, D3), and the soil's weighted mean ped diameter (WMPD). Results showed PM10 increased logarithmically as the soil dried from a GWC of 14 to 4%. Average PM10 values at the lower GWCs were six to eight times greater than at the higher GWCs. Number of diskings also increased PM10, especially in drier soil. Below a GWC of 7%, PM10 for D3 was about twice that for D1. Despite strong correlations between more disking and lower WMPD, a lower WMPD did not always result in an increase in PM10. This underscored the role soil water plays in reducing PM10 at high GWCs despite low WMPDs from multiple diskings. Three-way interactions between GWC, disking, and PM10 showed, on average, that the magnitude of PM10 produced by D1 was 1.3 to 1.6 times lower than by D3, despite having insignificantly different GWC. Therefore, a disking operation can yield two different PM10 values under similar GWCs if the amount of soil disaggregation is different. Our results show that inclusion of soil parameters in PM10 emission estimates is essential to describing agriculture's role in air quality violations and to assess the value of proposed mitigation measures, such as conservation tillage. PMID:19141793

  20. Airborne endotoxin associated with particles of different sizes and affected by water content in handled straw.

    PubMed

    Madsen, A M; Nielsen, S H

    2010-07-01

    High exposures to endotoxin are observed in environments where organic materials are handled and lower exposures are found in e.g. indoor air. Inhaled endotoxin contributes significantly to the induction of airway inflammation and dysfunction. The size of an inhaled particle influences the deposition in the airways and the following health symptoms. The objective is to characterise the distribution of endotoxin on airborne particles of different sizes in straw storage halls with high exposure and in other environments with lower exposure levels to endotoxin. Furthermore we have studied the influence of water content of handled straw on the size distribution of endotoxin containing particles. Total, inhalable, thoracic and respirable endotoxin and particles have each been quantified in aerosols from boiler rooms and straw storage halls at 24 power plants, including 21 biofuel plants. Inhalable, thoracic and respirable endotoxin have been quantified in aerosols from offices and outdoor air. The endotoxin concentration was higher in airborne thoracic dust than in airborne 'total dust'. The median respirable fraction in the straw storage halls, boiler rooms at biofuel plants, boiler rooms at conventional plants, offices and outdoors was respectively 42%, 9%, 19%, 24% and 34%. Thoracic endotoxin per number of thoracic particles was higher than respirable endotoxin per number of respirable particles at the biofuel plants. In straw storage halls the fraction of endotoxin of respirable size was highest on the days with lowest water content in the received straw. Furthermore the exposures to all endotoxin fractions were highest on days with the lowest water content in the received straw. In conclusion the highest exposures and concentrations of endotoxin occur or tend to occur from thoracic dust. A high variation in endotoxin concentrations and in fractions of respirable or thoracic size is found in the different working areas. This is important in the risk assessment and

  1. Mobilization of arsenic, lead, and mercury under conditions of sea water intrusion and road deicing salt application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongbing; Alexander, John; Gove, Brita; Koch, Manfred

    2015-09-01

    Water geochemistry data from complexly designed salt-solution injection experiments in the laboratory, coastal aquifers of Bangladesh and Italy, taken from the literature, and two salted watersheds of New Jersey, US were collected and analyzed to study the geochemical mechanisms that mobilize As, Pb, and Hg under varied salting conditions. Overall, increased NaCl-concentrations in aquifers and soil are found to increase the release of Pb and Hg into the water. Reducing environments and possible soil dispersion by hydrated Na+ are found to lead to an increase of As-concentration in water. However, the application of a pure NaCl salt solution in the column injection experiment was found to release less As, Pb, and Hg initially from the soil and delay their concentration increase, when compared to the application of CaCl2 and NaCl mixed salts (at 6:4 weight ratio). The concentration correlation dendrogram statistical analyses of the experimental and field data suggest that the release of As, Hg, and Pb into groundwater and the soil solution depends not only on the salt level and content, but also on the redox condition, dissolved organic matter contents, competitiveness of other ions for exchange sites, and source minerals. With the ongoing over-exploration of coastal aquifers from increased pumping, continued sea-level rise, and increased winter deicing salt applications in salted watersheds of many inland regions, the results of this study will help understand the complex relation between the concentrations of As, Pb, and Hg and increased salt level in a coastal aquifer and in soils of a salted watershed.

  2. Mobilization of arsenic, lead, and mercury under conditions of sea water intrusion and road deicing salt application.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongbing; Alexander, John; Gove, Brita; Koch, Manfred

    2015-09-01

    Water geochemistry data from complexly designed salt-solution injection experiments in the laboratory, coastal aquifers of Bangladesh and Italy, taken from the literature, and two salted watersheds of New Jersey, US were collected and analyzed to study the geochemical mechanisms that mobilize As, Pb, and Hg under varied salting conditions. Overall, increased NaCl-concentrations in aquifers and soil are found to increase the release of Pb and Hg into the water. Reducing environments and possible soil dispersion by hydrated Na(+) are found to lead to an increase of As-concentration in water. However, the application of a pure NaCl salt solution in the column injection experiment was found to release less As, Pb, and Hg initially from the soil and delay their concentration increase, when compared to the application of CaCl2 and NaCl mixed salts (at 6:4 weight ratio). The concentration correlation dendrogram statistical analyses of the experimental and field data suggest that the release of As, Hg, and Pb into groundwater and the soil solution depends not only on the salt level and content, but also on the redox condition, dissolved organic matter contents, competitiveness of other ions for exchange sites, and source minerals. With the ongoing over-exploration of coastal aquifers from increased pumping, continued sea-level rise, and increased winter deicing salt applications in salted watersheds of many inland regions, the results of this study will help understand the complex relation between the concentrations of As, Pb, and Hg and increased salt level in a coastal aquifer and in soils of a salted watershed. PMID:26210297

  3. Effects of salt stress on the growth, physiological responses, and glycoside contents of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jianwei; Chen, Aimeng; Li, Dandan; Yi, Bin; Wu, Wei

    2013-06-19

    This study examined the effects of three different NaCl concentrations (60, 90, and 120 mM) on the growth, physiological responses, and steviol glycoside composition of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni for 4 weeks. The results showed that the total dry weight decreased by 40% at 120 mM NaCl but remained the same at 60 and 90 mM NaCl. As salt concentration increased, chlorophyll contents decreased markedly by 10-70%, whereas the increments of the antioxidant enzyme activities were 1.0-1.6, 1.2-1.3, and 2.0-4.0 times, respectively, for superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase. The proline contents in salt-treated plants were 17-42 times higher than that in control. Moreover, leaf possessed significantly higher K⁺ content and K⁺/Na⁺ ratio than stem and root for all salt treatments. In addition, 90-120 mM NaCl treatment notably decreased the content of rebaudioside A (RA) and stevioside (ST) by 16.2-38.2%, whereas the increment of the ratio of RA/ST of salt-treated plants was 1.1-1.4 times. These results indicate that S. rebaudiana is moderately tolerant to salt stress. Hypohaline soil can be utilized in the plantation of S. rebaudiana and may be profitable for optimizing the steviol glycoside composition. PMID:23711229

  4. Water Content of Earth's Continental Mantle Is Controlled by the Circulation of Fluids or Melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, Anne; Woodland, Alan B.; Bell, David R.; Lazarov, Marina; Lapen, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    A key mission of the ARES Directorate at JSC is to constrain models of the formation and geological history of terrestrial planets. Water is a crucial parameter to be measured with the aim to determine its amount and distribution in the interior of Earth, Mars, and the Moon. Most of that "water" is not liquid water per se, but rather hydrogen dissolved as a trace element in the minerals of the rocks at depth. Even so, the middle layer of differentiated planets, the mantle, occupies such a large volume and mass of each planet that when it is added at the planetary scale, oceans worth of water could be stored in its interior. The mantle is where magmas originate. Moreover, on Earth, the mantle is where the boundary between tectonic plates and the underlying asthenosphere is located. Even if mantle rocks in Earth typically contain less than 200 ppm H2O, such small quantities have tremendous influence on how easily they melt (i.e., the more water there is, the more magma is produced) and deform (the more water there is, the less viscous they are). These two properties alone emphasize that to understand the distribution of volcanism and the mechanism of plate tectonics, the water content of the mantle must be determined - Earth being a template to which all other terrestrial planets can be compared.

  5. Effects of carbon dioxide, water supply, and seasonality on terpene content and emission by Rosmarinus officinalis

    SciTech Connect

    Penuelas, J.; Llusia, J.

    1997-04-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis L. plants were grown under carbon dioxide concentrations of 350 and 700 {mu}mol (atmospheric CO{sub 2} and elevated CO{sub 2}) and under two levels of irrigation (high water and low water) from October 1, 1994 to May 31, 1996. Elevated CO{sub 2} led on increasingly larger monthly growth rates than the atmospheric CO{sub 2} treatments. The increase was 9.5% in spring 1995, 23% in summer 1995, and 53% in spring 1996 in the high-water treatments, whereas in low-water treatments the growth response to elevated CO{sub 2} was constrained until the second year spring, when there was a 47% increase. The terpene concentrations was slightly larger in the elevated CO{sub 2} treatments than in atmospheric CO{sub 2} treatments and reached a maximum 37% difference in spring 1996. There was no significant effect of water treatment, likely as a result of a mild low water treatment for a Mediterranean plant. Terpene concentrations increased throughout the period of study, indicating possible age effects. The most abundant terpenes were {alpha}-pinene, cineole, camphor, borneol, and verbenone, which represented about 75% of the total. No significant differences were found in the terpene composition of the plants in the different treatments or seasons. The emission of volatile terpenes was much larger in spring (about 75 {mu}g/dry wt/hr) than in autumn (about 10 {mu}g/dry wt/hr), partly because of higher temperature and partly because of seasonal effect, but no significant differences was found because of CO{sub 2} or water treatment. The main terpene emitted was {alpha}-pinene, which represented about 50% of the total. There was no clear correlation between content and emission, either quantitatively or qualitatively. More volatile terpenes were proportionally more important in the total emission than in total content and in autumn than in spring.

  6. Evaluating climate change effects on water and salt resources in Salt Lake, Turkey using multitemporal SPOT imagery.

    PubMed

    Ekercin, Semih; Ormeci, Cankut

    2010-04-01

    The main goal of this study is to investigate the dimension of climate change effects in Salt Lake and its vicinity in Turkey using satellite remote sensing data. The first stage of the study includes evaluation of the multitemporal climatic data on the Salt Lake Basin Area, Turkey for a period of 35 years (1970-2005). The changes in mean temperature and precipitation are evaluated for the study area by comparing two periods, 1970-1992 and 1993-2005. In the second stage, the effects of climate changes in the Salt Lake are investigated by evaluating water and salt reserve changes through seasonal and multitemporal SPOT imagery collected in 1987 and 2005. The climatic data and remotely sensed and treated satellite images show that water and salt reserve in Salt Lake has decreased between 1987 and 2005 due to drought and uncontrolled water usage. It is suggested that the use of water supplies, especially underground waters, around the Salt Lake should be controlled and the lake should regularly be monitored by current remote sensing data for an effective management of water and salt resources in the region. PMID:19267206

  7. Cardiac content of brain natriuretic peptide in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Yokota, Naoto; Aburaya, Masahito; Yamamoto, Yoshitaka; Kato, Johji; Kitamura, Kazuo; Kida, Osamu; Eto, Tanenao; Kangawa, Kenji; Tanaka, Kenjiro ); Minamino, Naoto; Matsuo, Hisayuki )

    1991-01-01

    The cardiac content of immunoreactive rat brain natriuretic peptide (ir-rBNP) in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The atrial content of ir-rBNP was significantly lower in the DOCA-salt group than in the control group. However, the ventricular content of ir-rBNP was markedly increased in the DOCA-salt group as compared to the other groups. Ir-rBNP level in the atria was negatively correlated with blood pressure, while that in the ventricle was positively correlated with blood pressure. A significant correlation was observed between tissue levels of ir-rBNP and ir-rat atrial natriuretic peptide (rANP) both in atrium and ventricle. These results raise the possibility that rBNP as well as rANP functions as a cardiac hormone, the production of which probably changes in response to increased of body fluid and blood pressure.

  8. Water vapor content in the polar atmosphere measured by Lyman-alpha/OH fluorescence method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwasaka, Y.; Saitoh, S.; Ono, A.

    1985-01-01

    The water vapor of the polar stratosphere possibly plays an important role in various aeronomical processes; for example, OH radical formation through photodissociation of H2O, formation of water cluster ions, radiative energy transfer in the lower stratosphere, condensation onto particulate matter, and so on. In addition to these, it has been speculated, from the viewpoint of global transport and/or budget of water vapor, that the polar stratosphere functions as an active sink. STANFORD (1973) emphasized the existence of the stratospheric Cist cloud in the polar stratosphere which brought a large loss rate of stratospheric water vapor through a so-called freeze-out of cloud particles from the stratosphere into the troposphere. However, these geophysically interesting problems unfortunately remain to be solved, owing to the lack of measurements on water vapor distribution and its temporal variation in the polar stratosphere. The water vapor content measured at Syowa Station (69.00 deg S, 39.35 deg E), Antarctica using a balloon-borne hygrometer (Lyman - alpha/OH fluorescence type) is discussed.

  9. Vertical Distributions of Cloud Water Content Associated with Different Cloud Types as Observed by A-Train Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, L.; Jiang, J. H.; Wang, Z.; Su, H.; Deng, M.; Massie, S. T.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents a detailed global climatology of vertical distributions of cloud liquid water content (LWC), ice water content (IWC) and cloud fraction (CF) associated with 8 different cloud types, by utilizing the combined CloudSat radar and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) lidar measurements. The geographical and seasonal variations of these cloud properties for each cloud type are also analyzed and quantified. The cloud water contents (CWC = IWC + LWC) of each cloud type are further sorted by a number of large-scale parameters obtained from co-located satellite observations to investigate how large-scale environmental conditions affect the formation and distribution of different types of clouds. This study provides useful results for many future studies, such as how aerosols interact with different types of clouds. It can also serve as a baseline observation to evaluate clouds simulated by global climate models.

  10. Separation and Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, C.; Quach, A.; Birnie III, D.; Ela, W.; Saez, A.E.; Zelinski, B.; Smith, H.; Smith, G.

    2004-01-01

    Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing wastewater residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by-products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy/rubber matrix for separating and encapsulating waste components from salt laden, arsenic contaminated, amorphous iron hydrate sludges. Such sludges are generated from conventional water purification precipitation/adsorption processes, used to convert aqueous brine streams to semi-solid waste streams, such as ion exchange/membrane separation, and from other precipitative heavy metal removal operations. In this study, epoxy and polystyrene butadiene (PSB) rubber emulsions are mixed together and then combined with a surrogate sludge. The surrogate sludge consists of amorphous iron hydrate with 1 part arsenic fixed to the surface of the hydrate per 10 parts iron mixed with sodium nitrate and chloride salts and water. The resulting emulsion is cured and dried at 80 °C to remove water. Microstructure characterization by electron microscopy confirms that the epoxy/PSB matrix surrounds and encapsulates the arsenic laden amorphous iron hydrate phase while allowing the salt to migrate to internal and external surfaces of the sample. Salt extraction studies indicate that the porous nature of the resulting matrix promotes the separation and removal of as much as 90% of the original salt content in only one hour. Long term leaching studies based on the use of the infinite slab diffusion model reveal no evidence of iron migration or, by inference, arsenic migration, and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficients of the unextracted salt yield leachability indices within regulations for non-hazardous landfill disposal. Because salt is the most mobile species, it is inferred that arsenic

  11. The Significance of Interfacial Water Structure in Soluble Salt Flotation Systems.

    PubMed

    Hancer, M.; Celik, M. S.; Miller, J. D.

    2001-03-01

    Flotation of soluble salts with dodecyl amine hydrochloride (DAH) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) collectors has demonstrated that the interfacial water structure and hydration states of soluble salt surfaces together with the precipitation tendency of the corresponding collector salts are of considerable importance in explaining their flotation behavior. In particular, the high concentration of ions in these soluble salt brines and their hydration appear to modify the bulk and interfacial structure of water as revealed by contact angle measurements and this effect is shown to be an important feature in the flotation chemistry of soluble salt minerals including alkali halide and alkali oxyanion salts. Depending on characteristic chemical features (salt type), the salt can serve either as a structure maker, in which intermolecular hydrogen bonding between water molecules is facilitated, or as a structure breaker, in which intermolecular hydrogen bonding between water molecules is disrupted. For structure making salts the brine completely wets the salt surface and no contact angle can be measured. For structure breaking salts the brine does not completely wet the salt surface and a finite contact angle is measured. In this regard it has been found that soluble salt flotation either with the cationic DAH or anionic SDS collector is possible only if the salt is a structure breaker. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11237454

  12. Comparison of intracellular water content measurements by dark-field imaging and EELS in medium voltage TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terryn, C.; Michel, J.; Kilian, L.; Bonhomme, P.; Balossier, G.

    2000-09-01

    Knowledge of the water content at the subcellular level is important to evaluate the intracellular concentration of either diffusible or non-diffusible elements in the physiological state measured by the electron microprobe methods. Water content variations in subcellular compartments are directly related to secretion phenomena and to transmembrane exchange processes, which could be attributed to pathophysiological states. In this paper we will describe in details and compare two local water measurement methods using analytical electron microscopy. The first one is based on darkfield imaging. It is applied on freeze-dried biological cryosections; it allows indirect measurement of the water content at the subcellular level from recorded maps of darkfield intensity. The second method uses electron energy loss spectroscopy. It is applied to hydrated biological cryosections. It is based on the differences that appear in the electron energy loss spectra of macromolecular assemblies and vitrified ice in the 0-30 eV range. By a multiple least squares (MLS) fit between an experimental energy loss spectrum and reference spectra of both frozen-hydrated ice and macromolecular assemblies we can deduce directly the local water concentration in biological cryosections at the subcellular level. These two methods are applied to two test specimens: human erythrocytes in plasma, and baker's yeast (Saccharomyses Cerevisiae) cryosections. We compare the water content measurements obtained by these two methods and discuss their advantages and drawbacks.

  13. 61. VIEW OF SALT RIVER PROJECT WELL DISCHARGING WATER INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. VIEW OF SALT RIVER PROJECT WELL DISCHARGING WATER INTO THE ARIZONA CANAL NEAR 47TH AVENUE, LOOKING SOUTH Photographer: James Eastwood, July 1990 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. Validation of spot-testing kits to determine iodine content in salt.

    PubMed Central

    Pandav, C. S.; Arora, N. K.; Krishnan, A.; Sankar, R.; Pandav, S.; Karmarkar, M. G.

    2000-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are a major public health problem, and salt iodization is the most widely practised intervention for their elimination. For the intervention to be successful and sustainable, it is vital to monitor the iodine content of salt regularly. Iodometric titration, the traditional method for measuring iodine content, has problems related to accessibility and cost. The newer spot-testing kits are inexpensive, require minimal training, and provide immediate results. Using data from surveys to assess the availability of iodized salt in two states in India, Madhya Pradesh and the National Capital Territory of Delhi, we tested the suitability of such a kit in field situations. Salt samples from Delhi were collected from 30 schools, chosen using the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) cluster sampling technique. A single observer made the measurement for iodine content using the kit. Salt samples from Madhya Pradesh were from 30 rural and 30 urban clusters, identified by using census data and the EPI cluster sampling technique. In each cluster, salt samples were collected from 10 randomly selected households and all retailers. The 15 investigators performing the survey estimated the iodine content of salt samples in the field using the kit. All the samples were brought to the central laboratory in Delhi, where iodine content was estimated using iodometric titration as a reference method. The agreement between the kit and titration values decreased as the number of observers increased. Although sensitivity was not much affected by the increase in the number of observers (93.3% for a single observer and 93.9% for multiple observers), specificity decreased sharply (90.4% for a single observer and 40.4% for multiple observers). Due to the low specificity and resulting high numbers of false-positives for the kit when used by multiple observers ("real-life situations"), kits were likely to consistently overestimate the availability of iodized salt

  15. The estimation of total petroleum hydrocarbons content in waste water by IR spectrometry with multivariate calibrations.

    PubMed

    Vershinin, Viacheslav I; Petrov, Sergey V

    2016-02-01

    Alkanes, cycloalkanes and arenes have rather different sensitivities to IR-spectrometric determination, leading to high relative uncertainty (δc) for the total petroleum hydrocarbon index (TPH) in natural and waste waters. Another source of TPH uncertainty is the mismatch of group composition of the hydrocarbon mixture in the sample and in the standard substance used for one-dimensional calibration. Increasing the number of wavelengths and using of multivariate calibrations permit the reduction of δc to <10% rel. These calibrations may be constructed from IR-spectra and findings of extracts from aqueous solutions with known content of hydrocarbons. The method takes into account the losses of hydrocarbons during sample preparation. The accuracy of TPH estimations for this method is much better than for standard methods based on one-dimensional calibration with Simard mixture. This new method is useful in produced waste water analysis. PMID:26653437

  16. Salt effects on the picosecond dynamics of lysozyme hydration water investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and an insight into the Hofmeister series for protein stability and solubility.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Katsuyoshi; Shiraki, Kentaro; Hattori, Toshiaki

    2016-06-01

    The addition of salts into protein aqueous solutions causes changes in protein solubility and stability, whose ability is known to be ordered in the Hofmeister series. We investigated the effects of Hofmeister salts on the picosecond dynamics of water around a lysozyme molecule using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The change in the absorption coefficient for 200 mg mL(-1) lysozyme aqueous solution by the addition of salts was found to depend on the salts used, whereas that for pure water was almost independent of salts. From the difference in the salt concentration dependence for various salts, it has been found that chaotropic anions make the dynamics of water around the lysozyme molecule slower, whereas kosmotropic anions make the dynamics faster. The ability of an anion to slow down the water dynamics was found to have the following order: SCN(-) > Cl(-) > H2PO4(-) > NO3(-) ≈ SO4(2-). This result indicates that the effects of anions on the dynamics of water around the lysozyme molecule are the opposite of those for bulk water. This finding agrees with a prediction from a molecular model proposed by Collins [K. D. Collins, Methods, 2004, 34, 300]. The results presented here are compared with the results from preferential interaction studies and the results from sum frequency generation spectroscopy. These discussions have led to the conclusion that the picosecond dynamics of protein hydration water strongly contributes to protein stability, whereas electrostatic interactions between protein molecules contribute to protein solubility. PMID:27193313

  17. Elucidating the mechanism by which Gypsum fibrosum, a traditional Chinese medicine, maintains cutaneous water content.

    PubMed

    Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Ogiue, Naoki; Toyoda, Eri; Nakamura, Marina; Kon, Risako; Kusunoki, Yoshiki; Aburada, Takashi; Ishii, Makoto; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Machida, Yoshiaki; Ochiai, Wataru; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) plays an important role in maintaining the normal water content of the skin. Previously, we revealed that the expression of cutaneous AQP3 increased following oral administration of Gypsum fibrosum (main component: CaSO₄) to mice. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the mechanism by which Gypsum fibrosum increases the expression of cutaneous AQP3 in a keratinocyte cell line. Gypsum fibrosum or CaSO₄ was added to keratinocytes, and the expression level of AQP3, the Ca concentration, the activity of protein kinase C (PKC), and the degrees of phosphorylation of both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) were measured. The mRNA and protein expression levels of AQP3 increased significantly 6 h-post addition of Gypsum fibrosum. In keratinocytes treated with Gypsum fibrosum, increases in the concentration of intracellular Ca, PKC activity, and the phosphorylation of ERK and CREB were observed. Pre-treatment with GF109203X, a PKC inhibitor, suppressed the mRNA expression levels of AQP3. Similarly to treatment with Gypsum fibrosum, the addition of CaSO₄ led to the same observations in keratinocytes. It is hypothesized that Gypsum fibrosum causes an increase in the intracellular Ca concentration, PKC activity, and the phosphorylation levels of ERK and CREB, resulting in increased AQP3 expression in keratinocytes. In addition, it is possible that the effect of Gypsum fibrosum is attributable to CaSO₄, based on the results demonstrating that the mechanisms of action of Gypsum fibrosum and CaSO₄ were nearly identical. PMID:23912684

  18. Cross-contamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 is inhibited by electrolyzed water combined with salt under dynamic conditions of increasing organic matter.

    PubMed

    Gómez-López, Vicente M; Gil, María I; Pupunat, Laurent; Allende, Ana

    2015-04-01

    Water can be a vector for foodborne pathogen cross-contamination during washing of vegetables if an efficient method of water disinfection is not used. Chlorination is the disinfection method most widely used, but it generates disinfection by-products such as trihalomethanes (THMs). Therefore, alternative disinfection methods are sought. In this study, a dynamic system was used to simulate the commercial conditions of a washing tank. Organic matter and the inoculum of Escherichia coli O157:H7 were progressively added to the wash water in the washing tank. We evaluated the effectiveness of the electrolyzed water (EW) when combining with the addition of salt (1, 0.5 and 0.15 g/L NaCl) on the pathogenic inactivation, organic matter depletion and THM generation. Results indicated that electrolysis of vegetable wash water with addition of salt (0.5 g/L NaCl) was able to eliminate E. coli O157:H7 population build-up and decrease COD accumulation while low levels of THMs were produced. PMID:25475317

  19. Errors in determination of soil water content using time-domain reflectometry caused by soil compaction around wave guides

    SciTech Connect

    Ghezzehei, T.A.

    2008-05-29

    Application of time domain reflectometry (TDR) in soil hydrology often involves the conversion of TDR-measured dielectric permittivity to water content using universal calibration equations (empirical or physically based). Deviations of soil-specific calibrations from the universal calibrations have been noted and are usually attributed to peculiar composition of soil constituents, such as high content of clay and/or organic matter. Although it is recognized that soil disturbance by TDR waveguides may have impact on measurement errors, to our knowledge, there has not been any quantification of this effect. In this paper, we introduce a method that estimates this error by combining two models: one that describes soil compaction around cylindrical objects and another that translates change in bulk density to evolution of soil water retention characteristics. Our analysis indicates that the compaction pattern depends on the mechanical properties of the soil at the time of installation. The relative error in water content measurement depends on the compaction pattern as well as the water content and water retention properties of the soil. Illustrative calculations based on measured soil mechanical and hydrologic properties from the literature indicate that the measurement errors of using a standard three-prong TDR waveguide could be up to 10%. We also show that the error scales linearly with the ratio of rod radius to the interradius spacing.

  20. Errors in determination of soil water content using time domain reflectometry caused by soil compaction around waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.

    2008-08-01

    Application of time domain reflectometry (TDR) in soil hydrology often involves the conversion of TDR-measured dielectric permittivity to water content using universal calibration equations (empirical or physically based). Deviations of soil-specific calibrations from the universal calibrations have been noted and are usually attributed to peculiar composition of soil constituents, such as high content of clay and/or organic matter. Although it is recognized that soil disturbance by TDR waveguides may have impact on measurement errors, to our knowledge, there has not been any quantification of this effect. In this paper, we introduce a method that estimates this error by combining two models: one that describes soil compaction around cylindrical objects and another that translates change in bulk density to evolution of soil water retention characteristics. Our analysis indicates that the compaction pattern depends on the mechanical properties of the soil at the time of installation. The relative error in water content measurement depends on the compaction pattern as well as the water content and water retention properties of the soil. Illustrative calculations based on measured soil mechanical and hydrologic properties from the literature indicate that the measurement errors of using a standard three-prong TDR waveguide could be up to 10%. We also show that the error scales linearly with the ratio of rod radius to the interradius spacing.

  1. Surfactant enhanced wetting and salt leaching of soil contaminated by crude oil and brine

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, I.; McNabb, D.H.; Johnson, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    As a pre-treatment of bioremediation, leaching of salts from an agriculture top soil contaminated with crude oil and brine was inhibited by severe water repellency resulting from the large difference in surface tension between water and soil aggregates coated by crude oil. Surfactant solutions were found effective in reducing soil water repellency and improving salt leaching. An intermittent leaching procedure further improved leaching efficiency by allowing diffusion of salt from soil interpores to aggregate surface. As a result, electric conductivity (EC) of the contaminated soil was reduced from 11.8 dS cm{sup -1} to 2.6 dS cm{sup -1} when the soil was leached with a non-ionic surfactant (0.05 N, SN-70, Witco Inc.) using 1.6 L kg{sup -1} water. Dissolved hydrocarbons into the leachate was 106 mg L{sup -1} counting for 3.5% of total oil content.

  2. Profiling soil water content sensor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A waveguide-on-access-tube (WOAT) sensor system based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) principles was developed to sense soil water content and bulk electrical conductivity in 20-cm (8 inch) deep layers from the soil surface to depths of 3 m (10 ft) (patent No. 13/404,491 pending). A Cooperative R...

  3. The Receptacle Model of Salting-In by Tetramethylammonium Ions

    PubMed Central

    Hribar–Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A.; Vlachy, Vojko

    2010-01-01

    Water is a poor solvent for nonpolar solutes. Water containing ions is an even poorer solvent. According to standard terminology, the tendency of salts to precipitate oils from water is called salting-out. However, interestingly, some salt ions, such as tetramethylammonium (TMA), cause instead the salting-in of hydrophobic solutes. Even more puzzling, there is a systematic dependence on solute size. TMA causes the salting-out of small hydrophobes and the salting-in of larger nonpolar solutes. We study these effects using NPT Monte Carlo simulations of the MB + dipole model of water, which was previously shown to account for hydrophobic effects and ion solubilities in water. The present model gives a structural interpretation for the thermodynamics of salting-in. The TMA structure allows deep penetration by a first shell of waters, the dipoles of which interact electrostatically with the ion. This first water shell sets up a second water shell that is shaped to act as a receptacle that binds the nonpolar solute. In this way, a nonpolar solute can actually bind more tightly to the TMA ion than to another hydrophobe, leading to the increased solubility and salting-in. Such structuring may also explain why molecular ions do not follow the same charge density series’ as atomic ions do. PMID:21028768

  4. Receptacle model of salting-in by tetramethylammonium ions.

    PubMed

    Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A; Vlachy, Vojko

    2010-11-25

    Water is a poor solvent for nonpolar solutes. Water containing ions is an even poorer solvent. According to standard terminology, the tendency of salts to precipitate oils from water is called salting-out. However, interestingly, some salt ions, such as tetramethylammonium (TMA), cause instead the salting-in of hydrophobic solutes. Even more puzzling, there is a systematic dependence on solute size. TMA causes the salting-out of small hydrophobes and the salting-in of larger nonpolar solutes. We study these effects using NPT Monte Carlo simulations of the Mercedes-Benz (MB) + dipole model of water, which was previously shown to account for hydrophobic effects and ion solubilities in water. The present model gives a structural interpretation for the thermodynamics of salting-in. The TMA structure allows deep penetration by a first shell of waters, the dipoles of which interact electrostatically with the ion. This first water shell sets up a second water shell that is shaped to act as a receptacle that binds the nonpolar solute. In this way, a nonpolar solute can actually bind more tightly to the TMA ion than to another hydrophobe, leading to the increased solubility and salting-in. Such structuring may also explain why molecular ions do not follow the same charge density series as atomic ions do. PMID:21028768

  5. Effect of initial hydrogen content of a titanium alloy on susceptibility to hot salt stress corrosion.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, H. R.

    1972-01-01

    The influence of the initial hydrogen content of a titanium alloy on subsequent resistance to hot salt stress corrosion embrittlement and cracking was investigated. A Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V alloy was tested in four conditions: mill annealed (70 ppm H), duplex annealed (70 ppm H), vacuum annealed to an intermediate (36 ppm H) and a low (9 ppm H) hydrogen level. Material annealed at 650 C (duplex condition) exhibited resistance to hot salt stress corrosion superior to that exhibited by material in the mill annealed condition. Reduction of the alloy hydrogen content from 70 to as low as 9 ppm did not influence resistance to hot salt stress corrosion embrittlement or cracking.

  6. Stability of salt in the Permian salt basin of Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas and New Mexico, with a section on dissolved salts in surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bachman, George Odell; Johnson, Ross Byron

    1973-01-01

    bedded salt from subsurface dissolution depends chiefly on the isolation of the salt from moving ground water that is not completely saturated with salt. Karst topography is a major criterion for recognizing areas where subsurface dissolution has been active in the past; therefore, the age of the karst development is needed to provide the most accurate estimate of the dissolution rate. The Ogallala Formation-of Pliocene age is probably the most widespread deposit in the Permian salt basin that can be used as a point of reference for dating the development of recent topography. It is estimated that salt has been dissolved laterally in the vicinity of Carlsbad, New Mexico, at an average rate of about 6-8 miles per million years. Estimates of future rates of salt dissolution and the resulting lateral retreat of the underground dissolution front can be projected with reasonable confidence for southeastern New Mexico on the assumption that the climatic changes there in the past 4 million years are representative of climatic changes that may be expected in the near future of geologic time. Large amounts of salt are carried by present-day rivers in the Permian salt basin; some of the salt is derived from subsurface salt beds, but dissolution is relatively slow. Ground-water movement through the Permian salt basin is also relatively slow.

  7. Origin of fluid inclusion water in bedded salt deposits, Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Knauth, L.P.; Beeunas, M.A.

    1985-07-01

    Salt horizons in the Palo Duro Basin being considered for repository sites contain fluid inclusions which may represent connate water retained in the salt from the time of original salt deposition and/or external waters which have somehow penetrated the salt. The exact origin of this water is important to the question of whether or not internal portions of the salt deposit have been, and are likely to be, isolated from the hydrosphere for long periods of time. The /sup 18/O//sup 16/O and D/H ratios measured for water extracted from solid salt samples show the inclusions to be dissimilar in isotopic composition to meteoric waters and to formation waters above and below the salt. The fluid inclusions cannot be purely external waters which have migrated into the salt. The isotope data are readily explained in terms of mixed meteoric-marine connate evaporite waters which date back to the time of deposition and early diagenesis of the salt (>250 million years). Any later penetration of the salt by meteoric waters has been insufficient to flush out the connate brines.

  8. Atrazine and alachlor transport in claypan soils as influenced by differential antecedent soil water content.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, H V; Anderson, S H; Goyne, K W; Gantzer, C J

    2008-01-01

    Increased attention to ground water contamination has encouraged an interest in mechanisms of solute transport through soils. Few studies have investigated the effect of the initial soil water content on the transport and degradation of herbicides for claypan soils. We investigated the effect of claypan soils at initial field capacity vs. permanent wilting level on atrazine and alachlor transport. The soil studied was Mexico silt loam (fine, smectitic, mesic Aeric Vertic Epiaqualf) with a subsoil clay content, primarily montmorillonite, of >40%. Strontium bromide, atrazine, and alachlor were applied to plots; half were at field capacity (Wet treatment), and half were near the permanent wilting point (Dry treatment). Soil cores were removed at selected depths and times, and cores were analyzed for bromide and herbicide concentrations. Bromide, atrazine, and alachlor were detected at the 0.90-m depth in dry plots within 15 d after experiment initiation. Bromide was detected 0.15 m deeper (P < 0.05) in the Dry compared with the Wet treatment at 1, 7, and 60 d after application and >0.30 m deeper (P < 0.01) in the Dry treatment at 15 and 30 d after application; similar treatment results were found for atrazine and alachlor, although on fewer dates with significant differences. The mobility order of the applied chemicals was bromide > atrazine > alachlor. The atrazine apparent half-life was significantly longer in the Dry plots compared with the Wet plots. The retardation factor determined from the relative velocity of each herbicide to that of bromide was higher for alachlor than for atrazine. This study identifies the impact that shrinkage cracks have for different moisture conditions on preferential transport of herbicides in claypan soils. PMID:18574193

  9. Water, Vapor, and Salt Dynamics in a Hot Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Bahrami, Davood; Danko, George; Walton, John

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a new model study examining the high temperature nuclear waste disposal concept at Yucca Mountain using MULTIFLUX, an integrated in-drift- and mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic model. The results show that a large amount of vapor flow into the drift is expected during the period of above-boiling temperatures. This phenomenon makes the emplacement drift a water/moisture attractor during the above-boiling temperature operation. The evaporation of the percolation water into the drift gives rise to salt accumulation in the rock wall, especially in the crown of the drift for about 1500 years in the example. The deposited salts over the drift footprint, almost entirely present in the fractures, may enter the drift either by rock fall or by water drippage. During the high temperature operation mode, the barometric pressure variation creates fluctuating relative humidity in the emplacement drift with a time period of approximately 10 days. Potentially wet and dry conditions and condensation on salt-laden drift wall sections may adversely affect the storage environment. Salt accumulations during the above-boiling temperature operation must be sufficiently addressed to fully understand the waste package environment during the thermal period. Until the questions are resolved, a below-boiling repository design is favored where the Alloy-22 will be less susceptible to localized corrosion. (authors)

  10. Dynamics of Confined Water Molecules in Aqueous Salt Hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Werhahn, Jasper C.; Pandelov, S.; Yoo, Soohaeng; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Iglev, H.

    2011-04-01

    The unusual properties of water are largely dictated by the dynamics of the H bond network. A single water molecule has more H bonding sites than atoms, hence new experimental and theoretical investigations about this peculiar liquid have not ceased to appear. Confinement of water to nanodroplets or small molecular clusters drastically changes many of the liquid’s properties. Such confined water plays a major role in the solvation of macro molecules such as proteins and can even be essential to their properties. Despite the vast results available on bulk and confined water, discussions about the correlation between spectral and structural properties continue to this day. The fast relaxation of the OH stretching vibration in bulk water, and the variance of sample geometries in the experiments on confined water obfuscate definite interpretation of the spectroscopic results in terms of structural parameters. We present first time-resolved investigations on a new model system that is ideally suited to overcome many of the problems faced in spectroscopical investigation of the H bond network of water. Aqueous hydrates of inorganic salts provide water molecules in a crystal grid, that enables unambiguous correlations of spectroscopic and structural features. Furthermore, the confined water clusters are well isolated from each other in the crystal matrix, so different degrees of confinement can be achieved by selection of the appropriate salt.

  11. Errors in determination of soil water content using time-domain reflectometry caused by soil compaction around wave guides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezzehei, T. A.

    2007-12-01

    Application of time-domain reflectometry (TDR) in soil hydrology often involves the conversion of TDR-measured dielectric permittivity to water content using universal calibration equations (empirical or physically based). Deviations of soil-specific calibrations from the universal calibrations have been noted and are usually attributed with peculiar composition of soil constituents, such as high content of clay and/or organic matter. Although it is recognized that soil disturbance by TDR wave guides may have impact on measurement errors, to our knowledge, there has not been any quantification of this effect. In this presentation, we introduce a combined mechanical-hydrological method that estimates the measurement error. Our analysis indicates that soil compaction pattern depends on the mechanical properties of the soil at the time of installation. The relative error in water content measurement depends on the compaction pattern as well as the water content and water retention characteristics of the soil. Illustrative calculations based on measured soil mechanical and hydrologic properties from the literature show that the measurement errors of using a standard three-prong TDR wave guide could be up to 10 percent. We also show that the error scales linearly with the ratio of rod radius to the inter- radius spacing.

  12. A validation of a thermal inertia approach to map soil water content on soils characterized by low fractional cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltese, Antonino; Capodici, Fulvio; La Loggia, Goffredo; Corbari, Chiara; Mancini, Marco

    2013-10-01

    The assessment of the spatial distribution of soil water content could improve the effectiveness of agro-hydrological models. Although it is possible to retrieve the spatial distribution of the soil water content using thermal inertia, the main limit is its applicability to bare soils only. Recently, a variation of the thermal inertia approach has been setup also on vegetated soils characterized by low fractional cover. In particular, the methodology proposes to attenuate the solar radiation at the top of the canopy to the one reaching the soil trough an extinction factor. In situ data were acquired in June 2011 and July 2012 over two fields of maize and sunflowers; both were at their early growing stages. An airborneplatform provided images in the visible/near infrared and thermal infrared, both in day and night time. Results of the 2011 experiment demonstrated that the vegetation cover correction is required even with low fractional cover; indeed, not applying this correction would results in strong overestimation. The 2012 experiment (REFLEX) further validates the model on an independent dataset, thus, confirming the reliability of the methodology. Furthermore, a spatial resolution analysis highlighted that retrievals at low spatial resolution best compares with in situsoil water content than those obtained at high-resolution. Finally, the availability of a thermal image acquired after irrigating demonstrated the unreliability of the method when soil water content significantly changes between the two thermal acquisitions.

  13. [Content of Osmolytes and Flavonoids under Salt Stress in Arabidopsis thaliana Plants Defective in Jasmonate Signaling].

    PubMed

    Yastreb, T O; Kolupaev, Yu E; Lugovaya, A A; Dmitriev, A P

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the salt stress (200 mM NaCl) and exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) on levels of osmolytes and flavonoids in leaves of four-week-old Arabidopsis thaliana L. plants of the wild-type (WT) Columbia-0 (Col-0) and the mutant jin1 (jasmonate insensitive 1) with impaired jasmonate signaling were studied. The increase in proline content caused by the salt stress was higher in the Col-0 plants than in the mutant jin1. This difference was especially marked if the plants had been pretreated with exogenous 0.1 µM JA. The sugar content increased in response to the salt stress in the JA-treated WT plants but decreased in the jin1 mutant. Leaf treatment with JA of the WT plants but not mutant defective in jasmonate signaling also enhanced the levels of anthocyanins and flavonoids absorbed in UV-B range. The presence of JA increased salinity resistance of the Col-0 plants, since the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products and growth inhibition caused by NaCl were less pronounced. Under salt stress, JA almost did not render a positive effect on the jin1 plants. It is concluded that the protein JIN1/MYC2 is involved in control of protective systems under salt stress. PMID:27266252

  14. Water and solute transport in agricultural soils predicted by volumetric clay and silt contents.

    PubMed

    Karup, Dan; Moldrup, Per; Paradelo, Marcos; Katuwal, Sheela; Norgaard, Trine; Greve, Mogens H; de Jonge, Lis W

    2016-09-01

    Solute transport through the soil matrix is non-uniform and greatly affected by soil texture, soil structure, and macropore networks. Attempts have been made in previous studies to use infiltration experiments to identify the degree of preferential flow, but these attempts have often been based on small datasets or data collected from literature with differing initial and boundary conditions. This study examined the relationship between tracer breakthrough characteristics, soil hydraulic properties, and basic soil properties. From six agricultural fields in Denmark, 193 intact surface soil columns 20cm in height and 20cm in diameter were collected. The soils exhibited a wide range in texture, with clay and organic carbon (OC) contents ranging from 0.03 to 0.41 and 0.01 to 0.08kgkg(-1), respectively. All experiments were carried out under the same initial and boundary conditions using tritium as a conservative tracer. The breakthrough characteristics ranged from being near normally distributed to gradually skewed to the right along with an increase in the content of the mineral fines (particles ≤50μm). The results showed that the mineral fines content was strongly correlated to functional soil structure and the derived tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs), whereas the OC content appeared less important for the shape of the BTC. Organic carbon was believed to support the stability of the soil structure rather than the actual formation of macropores causing preferential flow. The arrival times of 5% and up to 50% of the tracer mass were found to be strongly correlated with volumetric fines content. Predicted tracer concentration breakthrough points as a function of time up to 50% of applied tracer mass could be well fitted to an analytical solution to the classical advection-dispersion equation. Both cumulative tracer mass and concentration as a function of time were well predicted from the simple inputs of bulk density, clay and silt contents, and applied tracer mass

  15. Water and solute transport in agricultural soils predicted by volumetric clay and silt contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karup, Dan; Moldrup, Per; Paradelo, Marcos; Katuwal, Sheela; Norgaard, Trine; Greve, Mogens H.; de Jonge, Lis W.

    2016-09-01

    Solute transport through the soil matrix is non-uniform and greatly affected by soil texture, soil structure, and macropore networks. Attempts have been made in previous studies to use infiltration experiments to identify the degree of preferential flow, but these attempts have often been based on small datasets or data collected from literature with differing initial and boundary conditions. This study examined the relationship between tracer breakthrough characteristics, soil hydraulic properties, and basic soil properties. From six agricultural fields in Denmark, 193 intact surface soil columns 20 cm in height and 20 cm in diameter were collected. The soils exhibited a wide range in texture, with clay and organic carbon (OC) contents ranging from 0.03 to 0.41 and 0.01 to 0.08 kg kg- 1, respectively. All experiments were carried out under the same initial and boundary conditions using tritium as a conservative tracer. The breakthrough characteristics ranged from being near normally distributed to gradually skewed to the right along with an increase in the content of the mineral fines (particles ≤ 50 μm). The results showed that the mineral fines content was strongly correlated to functional soil structure and the derived tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs), whereas the OC content appeared less important for the shape of the BTC. Organic carbon was believed to support the stability of the soil structure rather than the actual formation of macropores causing preferential flow. The arrival times of 5% and up to 50% of the tracer mass were found to be strongly correlated with volumetric fines content. Predicted tracer concentration breakthrough points as a function of time up to 50% of applied tracer mass could be well fitted to an analytical solution to the classical advection-dispersion equation. Both cumulative tracer mass and concentration as a function of time were well predicted from the simple inputs of bulk density, clay and silt contents, and applied tracer

  16. Improved tolerance to salt and water stress in Drosophila melanogaster cells conferred by late embryogenesis abundant protein.

    PubMed

    Marunde, Matthew R; Samarajeewa, Dilini A; Anderson, John; Li, Shumin; Hand, Steven C; Menze, Michael A

    2013-04-01

    Mechanisms that govern anhydrobiosis involve the accumulation of highly hydrophilic macromolecules, such as late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins. Group 1 LEA proteins comprised of 181 (AfLEA1.1) and 197 (AfLEA1.3) amino acids were cloned from embryos of Artemia franciscana and expressed in Drosophila melanogaster cells (Kc167). Confocal microscopy revealed a construct composed of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and AfLEA1.3 accumulates in the mitochondria (AfLEA1.3-GFP), while AfLEA1.1-GFP was found in the cytoplasm. In the presence of mixed substrates, oxygen consumption was statistically identical for permeabilized Kc167 control and Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells. Acute titrations of permeabilized cells with NaCl up to 500 mM led to successive drops in oxygen flux, which were significantly ameliorated by 18% in Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells compared to Kc167 controls. Mitochondria were isolated from both cell types and resuspended in a sucrose-based buffer solution. The purified mitochondria from Kc167 control cells showed significantly larger reductions in respiratory capacities after one freeze-thaw cycle (-80°C) compared to mitochondria isolated from Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells. When cultured in the presence of a non-permeant osmolyte (50-200 mM sucrose) cells expressing AfLEA1.3 showed significantly improved viability (10-15%) during this hyperosmotic challenge as compared to Kc167 controls. Furthermore, Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells survived desiccation by convective air drying in presence of 200 mM extracellular trehalose to lower final moisture contents than did control Kc167 cells (0.36 g H2O/g DW vs.1.02 g H2O/g DW). Thus, AfLEA1.3 exerts a protective influence on mitochondrial function and increases viability of Kc167 cells during water stress. PMID:23376561

  17. Effect of high salt concentrations on water structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leberman, R.; Soper, A. K.

    1995-11-01

    THE characteristic tetrahedral structure of water is known to be disrupted by changes in pressure and temperature1-3. It has been suggested that ions in solution may have a similar perturbing effect4,5. Here we use neutron diffraction to compare the effects of applied pressure and high salt concentrations on the hydrogen-bonded network of water. We find that the ions induce a change in structure equivalent to the application of high pressures, and that the size of the effect is ion-specific. Ionic concentrations of a few moles per litre have equivalent pressures that can exceed a thousand atmospheres. We propose that these changes may be understood in terms of the partial molar volume of the ions, relative to those of water molecules. The equivalent induced pressure of a particular ion species is correlated with its efficacy in precipitating, or salting-out, proteins from solution6.

  18. Hemodynamics and Salt-and-Water Balance Link Sodium Storage and Vascular Dysfunction in Salt-Sensitive Subjects.

    PubMed

    Laffer, Cheryl L; Scott, Robert C; Titze, Jens M; Luft, Friedrich C; Elijovich, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    We investigated 24-hour hemodynamic changes produced by salt loading and depletion in 8 salt-sensitive (SS) and 13 salt-resistant (SR) normotensive volunteers. After salt loading, mean arterial pressure was higher in SS (96.5±2.8) than in SR (84.2±2.7 mm Hg), P<0.01, owing to higher total peripheral resistance in SS (1791±148) than in SR (1549±66 dyn*cm(-5)*s), P=0.05, whereas cardiac output was not different between groups (SS 4.5±0.3 versus SR 4.4±0.2 L/min, not significant). Following salt depletion, cardiac output was equally reduced in both groups. Total peripheral resistance increased 24±6% (P<0.001) in SR, whose mean arterial pressure remained unchanged. In contrast, total peripheral resistance did not change in SS (1±6%, not significant). Thus, their mean arterial pressure was reduced, abolishing the mean arterial pressure difference between groups. SS had higher E/e' ratios than SR in both phases of the protocol. In these 21 subjects and in 32 hypertensive patients, Na(+) balance was similar in SR and SS during salt loading or depletion. However, SR did not gain weight during salt retention (-158±250 g), whereas SS did (819±204), commensurate to iso-osmolar water retention. During salt depletion, SR lost the expected amount of weight for iso-osmolar Na(+) excretion, whereas SS lost a greater amount that failed to fully correct the fluid retention from the previous day. We conclude that SS are unable to modulate total peripheral resistance in response to salt depletion, mirroring their inability to vasodilate in response to salt loading. We suggest that differences in water balance between SS and SR indicate differences in salt-and-water storage in the interstitial compartment that may relate to vascular dysfunction in SS. PMID:27160204

  19. Methods and concepts in quantifying resistance to drought, salt and freezing, abiotic stresses that affect plant water status.

    PubMed

    Verslues, Paul E; Agarwal, Manu; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha; Zhu, Jianhua; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2006-02-01

    The abiotic stresses of drought, salinity and freezing are linked by the fact that they all decrease the availability of water to plant cells. This decreased availability of water is quantified as a decrease in water potential. Plants resist low water potential and related stresses by modifying water uptake and loss to avoid low water potential, accumulating solutes and modifying the properties of cell walls to avoid the dehydration induced by low water potential and using protective proteins and mechanisms to tolerate reduced water content by preventing or repairing cell damage. Salt stress also alters plant ion homeostasis, and under many conditions this may be the predominant factor affecting plant performance. Our emphasis is on experiments that quantify resistance to realistic and reproducible low water potential (drought), salt and freezing stresses while being suitable for genetic studies where a large number of lines must be analyzed. Detailed protocols for the use of polyethylene glycol-infused agar plates to impose low water potential stress, assay of salt tolerance based on root elongation, quantification of freezing tolerance and the use of electrolyte leakage experiments to quantify cellular damage induced by freezing and low water potential are also presented. PMID:16441347

  20. Correlation between salt-induced change in water structure and lipid structure of multi-lamellar vesicles observed by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Da-Hye; Son, Heyjin; Jeong, Jin-Young; Park, Gun-Sik

    2016-08-01

    Salt-induced change in the structure of water molecules inside multi-lamellar vesicles is experimentally studied with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The complex dielectric constant of 1, 2-ditetradecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine model membranes dispersed in NaCl solution with different salt concentrations are measured. Structure of water molecules in the solution is characterized from the measured dielectric constant using Debye relaxation model. Combined with small-angle X-ray scattering observation, it is found that salt-induced change of water structure, especially fast water fraction, show strong correlation with the increase in nanometer-scale multi-lamellar repeat space. This suggests that water could be critical in nanometer-scale membrane-membrane communications.

  1. Simultaneous analysis of silicon and boron dissolved in water by combination of electrodialytic salt removal and ion-exclusion chromatography with corona charged aerosol detection.

    PubMed

    Mori, Masanobu; Sagara, Katsuya; Arai, Kaori; Nakatani, Nobutake; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Toda, Kei; Itabashi, Hideyuki; Kozaki, Daisuke; Sugo, Yumi; Watanabe, Shigeki; Ishioka, Noriko S; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-29

    Selective separation and sensitive detection of dissolved silicon and boron (DSi and DB) in aqueous solution was achieved by combining an electrodialytic ion isolation device (EID) as a salt remover, an ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC) column, and a corona charged aerosol detector (CCAD) in sequence. DSi and DB were separated by IEC on the H(+)-form of a cation exchange resin column using pure water eluent. DSi and DB were detected after IEC separation by the CCAD with much greater sensitivity than by conductimetric detection. The five-channel EID, which consisted of anion and cation acceptors, cathode and anode isolators, and a sample channel, removed salt from the sample prior to the IEC-CCAD. DSi and DB were scarcely attracted to the anion accepter in the EID and passed almost quantitatively through the sample channel. Thus, the coupled EID-IEC-CCAD device can isolate DSi and DB from artificial seawater and hot spring water by efficiently removing high concentrations of Cl(-) and SO4(2-) (e.g., 98% and 80% at 0.10molL(-1) each, respectively). The detection limits at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 were 0.52μmolL(-1) for DSi and 7.1μmolL(-1) for DB. The relative standard deviations (RSD, n=5) of peak areas were 0.12% for DSi and 4.3% for DB. PMID:26755416

  2. Detection of Plant Water Content with Needle-Type In-Situ Water Content Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayanagi, Hitoshi; Miki, Norihisa

    A needle-type water content sensor with a polyethersulfone (PES) polymer membrane was developed for the low-invasive, direct in-situ measurement of plant water content (PWC) in prior work. In this paper we demonstrate a measurement of plant water stress that represents the demand for water of the plant and greatly affects its sweetness. We inserted the sensor into a stalk of strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) and soil. The variation in both the plant and the soil water content were successfully detected, which revealed the delay between variation in the plant water stress and soil water content after irrigation. Such delay could only be detected by the proposed sensor that could directly measure the variation of PWC in situ and continuously. The experiments also showed the variation in the signals as a function of detection sites and suggested that the detection sites of plant water stress need to be considered when the sensor is applied to irrigation culture.

  3. Effect of a beating process, as a means of reducing salt content in Chinese-style meatballs (kung-wan): a dynamic rheological and Raman spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Zhuang-Li; Wang, Peng; Xu, Xing-Lian; Zhu, Chao-Zhi; Zou, Yu-Feng; Li, Ke; Zhou, Guang-Hong

    2014-02-01

    Chopping and beating processes were used as meat-cutting methods in preparing kung-wan to produce low-salt products while retaining or improving the emulsion stability, sensory evaluation, and physico-chemical properties of the standard high-salt formulation. Increased salt content improved emulsion stability and dynamic rheology. However, 3% salt content decreased the overall acceptance of kung-wan. Compared with the chopping process, beating resulted in higher emulsion stability, overall acceptance, and β-sheet content (P<0.05). Additionally, the beating process formed more compact and continuous structures at the same salt content. Kung-wan produced by beating with 1% and 2% salt had similar emulsion stabilities, sensory evaluation, and secondary structures (P>0.05). Therefore, this process allows reduction of salt content, suggesting that the kung-wan produced in this manner is healthier and has better texture. PMID:24200556

  4. Dependence of seismoelectric amplitudes on water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strahser, Matthias; Jouniaux, Laurence; Sailhac, Pascal; Matthey, Pierre-Daniel; Zillmer, Matthias

    2011-12-01

    The expectation behind seismoelectric field measurements is to achieve a combination of the sensitivity of electrical properties to water content and permeability and the high spatial resolution of seismic surveys. A better understanding of the physical processes and a reliable quantification of the conversion between seismic energy and electric energy are necessary, and need to take into account the effect of water content, especially for shallow subsurface investigations. We performed a field survey to quantify the seismoelectric signals as the water content changed. We measured seismoelectric signals induced by seismic wave propagation, by repeating the observations on the same two profiles during several months. The electrical resistivity was monitored to take into account the water content variations. We show that the horizontal component of the seismoelectric field, normalized with respect to the horizontal component of the seismic acceleration is inversely proportional to the electrical resistivity ρ0.42 ± 0.25. Assuming that the observed resistivity changes depend only on the water content, this result implies that the electrokinetic coefficient should increase with increasing water saturation. Taking into account the water saturation and combining our results with the Archie law for the resistivity in non-saturated conditions, the normalized seismoelectric field is a power-law of the effective saturation with the exponent (0.42 ± 0.25)n where n is Archie's saturation exponent.

  5. Cross-sectional survey of salt content in cheese: a major contributor to salt intake in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Hashem, Kawther M; He, Feng J; Jenner, Katharine H; MacGregor, Graham A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the salt (sodium chloride) content in cheese sold in UK supermarkets. Study design We carried out a cross-sectional survey in 2012, including 612 cheeses available in UK supermarkets. Methods The salt content (g/100 g) was collected from product packaging and nutrient information panels of cheeses available in the top seven retailers. Results Salt content in cheese was high with a mean (±SD) of 1.7±0.58 g/100 g. There was a large variation in salt content between different types of cheeses and within the same type of cheese. On average, halloumi (2.71±0.34 g/100 g) and imported blue cheese (2.71±0.83 g/100 g) contained the highest amounts of salt and cottage cheese (0.55±0.14 g/100 g) contained the lowest amount of salt. Overall, among the 394 cheeses that had salt reduction targets, 84.5% have already met their respective Department of Health 2012 salt targets. Cheddar and cheddar-style cheese is the most popular/biggest selling cheese in the UK and has the highest number of products in the analysis (N=250). On average, salt level was higher in branded compared with supermarket own brand cheddar and cheddar-style products (1.78±0.13 vs 1.72±0.14 g/100 g, p<0.01). Ninety per cent of supermarket own brand products met the 2012 target for cheddar and cheddar-style cheese compared with 73% of branded products (p=0.001). Conclusions Salt content in cheese in the UK is high. There is a wide variation in the salt content of different types of cheeses and even within the same type of cheese. Despite this, 84.5% of cheeses have already met their respective 2012 targets. These findings demonstrate that much larger reductions in the amount of salt added to cheese could be made and more challenging targets need to be set, so that the UK can continue to lead the world in salt reduction. PMID:25099933

  6. Projected Impact of Climate Change on the Water and Salt Budgets of the Arctic Ocean by a Global Climate Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James R.; Russell, Gary L.

    1996-01-01

    The annual flux of freshwater into the Arctic Ocean by the atmosphere and rivers is balanced by the export of sea ice and oceanic freshwater. Two 150-year simulations of a global climate model are used to examine how this balance might change if atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) increase. Relative to the control, the last 50-year period of the GHG experiment indicates that the total inflow of water from the atmosphere and rivers increases by 10% primarily due to an increase in river discharge, the annual sea-ice export decreases by about half, the oceanic liquid water export increases, salinity decreases, sea-ice cover decreases, and the total mass and sea-surface height of the Arctic Ocean increase. The closed, compact, and multi-phased nature of the hydrologic cycle in the Arctic Ocean makes it an ideal test of water budgets that could be included in model intercomparisons.

  7. The dependence of the electrical conductivity measured by time domain reflectometry on the water content of a sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferré, P. A.; Redman, J. D.; Rudolph, D. L.; Kachanoski, R. G.

    1998-05-01

    We present paired measurements of the water content and electrical conductivity collected in a laboratory column packed with a homogeneous, clean sand over a wide range of water content and pore water electrical conductivity (EC) conditions. The EC was determined using the method of Nadler et al. [1991] from waveforms collected with two-rod time domain reflectometry (TDR) probes with and without baluns and with three-rod probes without baluns. Following Heimovaara et al. [1995], we calibrated the probes in saline solutions to account for the series resistance of the cable and connectors. The calibrated EC shows a nonlinear dependence on the water content that is well described by a simple power relationship [Archie, 1942]. Recognizing that calibration in saline solutions is impractical for some TDR probes, we demonstrate that the EC response can be calibrated directly using the results of drainage events, incorporating only a separate calibration of the cable resistance. None of the probe designs shows any clear advantage for EC measurement.

  8. The salt content of products from popular fast-food chains in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Heredia-Blonval, Katrina; Blanco-Metzler, Adriana; Montero-Campos, Marielos; Dunford, Elizabeth K

    2014-12-01

    Salt is a major determinant of population blood pressure levels. Salt intake in Costa Rica is above levels required for good health. With an increasing number of Costa Ricans visiting fast food restaurants, it is likely that fast-food is contributing to daily salt intake. Salt content data from seven popular fast food chains in Costa Rica were collected in January 2013. Products were classified into 10 categories. Mean salt content was compared between chains and categories. Statistical analysis was performed using Welch ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer HSD tests. Significant differences were found between companies; Subway products had lowest mean salt content (0.97 g/100 g; p < 0.05) while Popeye's and KFC had the highest (1.57 g/100 g; p < 0.05). Significant variations in mean salt content were observed between categories. Salads had a mean salt content of 0.45 g/100 g while sauces had 2.16 g/100 g (p < 0.05). Wide variation in salt content was also seen within food categories. Salt content in sandwiches ranged from 0.5 to 2.1 g/100 g. The high levels and wide variation in salt content of fast food products in Costa Rica suggest that salt reduction is likely to be technically feasible in many cases. With an increasing number of consumers purchasing fast foods, even small improvements in salt levels could produce important health gains. PMID:25171851

  9. [Water-salt homeostasis in rats during space flight].

    PubMed

    Natochin, Iu V; Serova, L V

    1995-01-01

    The paper generalized the results of s series of experiments aimed at studying liquid and electrolytes contents in various organs and tissues of rats following 3-week space flights (SF). The results ascertain high reliability of the water-salt homeostasis maintaining system which ensures stable water and electrolytes amounts in the majority of animal tissues in SF. The following alterations appear to be of greatest significance: deduced potassium levels in the heart ventricle tissues in male rats after short-duration (7-9 d) exposure in SF, zero-g-induced degradation of the body ability to bind potassium at injection of isotonic solution KCl into the stomach; redistribution of potassium ions between mother and developing fetuses in space experiments with pregnant animals. Simulated experiments showed that similar shifting of potassium ions in the mother-fetus system may be due not to weightlessness exclusively but other impacts, i.e. they are not specific. PMID:8664861

  10. Salt appetite is reduced by a single experience of drinking hypertonic saline in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Michael P; Greenwood, Mingkwan; Paton, Julian F R; Murphy, David

    2014-01-01

    Salt appetite, the primordial instinct to favorably ingest salty substances, represents a vital evolutionary important drive to successfully maintain body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. This innate instinct was shown here in Sprague-Dawley rats by increased ingestion of isotonic saline (IS) over water in fluid intake tests. However, this appetitive stimulus was fundamentally transformed into a powerfully aversive one by increasing the salt content of drinking fluid from IS to hypertonic saline (2% w/v NaCl, HS) in intake tests. Rats ingested HS similar to IS when given no choice in one-bottle tests and previous studies have indicated that this may modify salt appetite. We thus investigated if a single 24 h experience of ingesting IS or HS, dehydration (DH) or 4% high salt food (HSD) altered salt preference. Here we show that 24 h of ingesting IS and HS solutions, but not DH or HSD, robustly transformed salt appetite in rats when tested 7 days and 35 days later. Using two-bottle tests rats previously exposed to IS preferred neither IS or water, whereas rats exposed to HS showed aversion to IS. Responses to sweet solutions (1% sucrose) were not different in two-bottle tests with water, suggesting that salt was the primary aversive taste pathway recruited in this model. Inducing thirst by subcutaneous administration of angiotensin II did not overcome this salt aversion. We hypothesised that this behavior results from altered gene expression in brain structures important in thirst and salt appetite. Thus we also report here lasting changes in mRNAs for markers of neuronal activity, peptide hormones and neuronal plasticity in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus following rehydration after both DH and HS. These results indicate that a single experience of drinking HS is a memorable one, with long-term changes in gene expression accompanying this aversion to salty solutions. PMID:25111786

  11. Identification and Control of Pollution from Salt Water Intrusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This document contains informational guidelines for identifying and evaluating the nature and extent of pollution from salt water intrusion. The intent of these guidelines is to provide a basic framework for assessing salt water intrusion problems and their relationship to the total hydrologic system, and to provide assistance in developing…

  12. Integral Quantification of Soil Water Content at the Intermediate Catchment Scale by Ground Albedo Neutron Sensing (GANS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera Villarreyes, C. A.; Baroni, G.; Oswald, S. E.

    2012-04-01

    Soil water content at the plot or hill-slope scale is an important link between local vadose zone hydrology and catchment hydrology. However, so far only few methods are on the way to close this gap between point measurements and remote sensing. One new measurement methodology for integral quantifications of mean areal soil water content at the intermediate catchment scale is the aboveground sensing of cosmic-ray neutrons, more precisely ground albedo neutron sensing (GANS). Ground albedo natural neutrons, are generated by collisions of secondary cosmic rays with land surface materials (soil, water, biomass, snow, etc). Neutrons measured at the air/ground interface correlate with soil moisture contained in a footprint of ca. 600 m diameter and a depth ranging down to a few decimeters. This correlation is based on the crucial role of hydrogen as neutron moderator compared to others landscape materials. The present study performed ground albedo neutron sensing in different locations in Germany under different vegetative situations (cropped and bare field) and different seasonal conditions (summer, autumn and winter). Ground albedo neutrons were measured at (i) a farmland close to Potsdam (Brandenburg, Germany) cropped with corn in 2010 and sunflowers in 2011, and (ii) a mountainous farmland catchment (Schaefertal, Harz Mountains, Germany) in 2011. In order to test this method, classical soil moisture devices and meteorological data were used for comparison. Moreover, calibration approach, and transferability of calibration parameters to different times and locations are also evaluated. Our observations suggest that GANS can overcome the lack of data for hydrological processes at the intermediate scale. Soil water content from GANS compared quantitatively with mean water content values derived from a network of classical devices (RMSE = 0.02 m3/m3 and r2 = 0.98) in three calibration periods with cropped-field conditions. Then, same calibration parameters corresponded

  13. Effect of chloride content of molten nitrate salt on corrosion of A516 carbon steel.

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, Robert W.; Clift, W. Miles

    2010-11-01

    The corrosion behavior of A516 carbon steel was evaluated to determine the effect of the dissolved chloride content in molten binary Solar Salt. Corrosion tests were conducted in a molten salt consisting of a 60-40 weight ratio of NaNO{sub 3} and KNO{sub 3} at 400{sup o}C and 450{sup o}C for up to 800 hours. Chloride concentrations of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% were investigated to determine the effect on corrosion of this impurity, which can be present in comparable amounts in commercial grades of the constituent salts. Corrosion rates were determined by descaled weight losses, corrosion morphology was examined by metallographic sectioning, and the types of corrosion products were determined by x-ray diffraction. Corrosion proceeded by uniform surface scaling and no pitting or intergranular corrosion was observed. Corrosion rates increased significantly as the concentration of dissolved chloride in the molten salt increased. The adherence of surface scales, and thus their protective properties, was degraded by dissolved chloride, fostering more rapid corrosion. Magnetite was the only corrosion product formed on the carbon steel specimens, regardless of chloride content or temperature.

  14. Effects of liquid VOC concentration and salt content on partitioning equilibrium of hydrophilic VOC at air-sweat interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wen-Hsi; Chu, Fu-Sui; Su, Tzy-I.

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) must initially be absorbed by sweat on the surface of skin for human VOC dermal exposure. The partitioning equilibrium at the air-sweat interface is given by p=Cg*/C, where pc is the partitioning coefficient, and Cg* is the gaseous concentration in equilibrium with the aqueous VOC concentration ( CL) at a constant water temperature ( Tw). A series of thermodynamic functions of Cg*(C,T) are presented, as well as the values of pc, and the heat of gaseous-liquid phase transfer (Δ Htr) for tested VOCs, including iso-propanol (IPA, CL=12-120 mg L -1) and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK, CL=10-80 mg L -1) to determine the effects of liquid VOC concentration and salt contents of sweat on pc of hydrophilic VOCs. Experimental data reveal that the pc values of IPA and MEK drop as the liquid VOC concentrations increasing from 10 to 120 mg L -1. However, sodium salt content in human sweat (sodium chloride and sodium lactate) induces the effect of salt, indicating the increase in pc. Notably, neither urea nor ammonia in human sweat increase pc. Artificial sweat, consisting of sodium chloride 0.47%, urea 0.05%, ammonia 0.004% and sodium lactate 0.6%, was used to evaluate the increase in the pc values of IPA and MEK. The liquid VOC concentration effect simultaneously develops together with the salt effect on the partition at the interface of air-sweat for hydrophilic VOC solutions. The pc values of IPA for artificial sweat decrease as much as 32.5% as CL increases from 12 to 120 mg L -1 at 300 K, and those of MEK drop by as much as 70.9% as CL increases from 10 to 80 mg L -1 at 300 K. This investigation provides a basis for elucidating the assessment of human dermal exposure to hydrophilic VOCs.

  15. Soil water content and yield variability in vineyards of Mediterranean northeastern Spain affected by mechanization and climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, M. C.

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this paper was to analyse the combined influence of the Mediterranean climate variability (particularly the irregular rainfall distribution throughout the year) and the land transformations carried out in vineyards of northeastern Spain on soil water content evolution and its influence on grape production. The study was carried out in a commercial vineyard located in the Anoia-Alt Penedès region (Barcelona province, northeastern Spain), which was prepared for mechanization with important land transformations. Two plots were selected for the study: one with low degree of transformation of the soil profile, representing a non-disturbed situation, and the second one in which more than 3 m were cut in the upper part of the plot and filled in the lower part, representing the disturbed situation. Soil water content was evaluated at three positions along the slope in each plot and at three depths (0-20, 20-40, 40-60 cm) during the period 1999-2001, years with different rainfall characteristics, including extreme events and long dry periods. Rainfall was recorded in the experimental field using a pluviometer linked to a data-logger. Runoff rates and yield were evaluated at the same positions. For the same annual rainfall, the season of the year in which rainfall is recorded and its intensity are critical for water availability for crops. Soil water content varies within the plot and is related to the soil characteristics existing at the different positions of the landscape. The differences in soil depth created by soil movements in the field mechanization give rise to significant yield reductions (up to 50%) between deeper and shallow areas. In addition, for the same annual rainfall, water availability for crops depends on its distribution over the year, particularly in soils with low water-storage capacity. The yield was strongly affected in years with dry or very dry winters.

  16. Potentials and problems of sustainable irrigation with water high in salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Gal, Alon

    2015-04-01

    Water scarcity and need to expand agricultural productivity have led to ever growing utilization of poor quality water for irrigation of crops. Almost in all cases, marginal or alternative water sources for irrigation contain relatively high concentrations of dissolved salts. When salts are present, irrigation water management, especially in the dry regions where water requirements are highest, must consider leaching in addition to crop evapotranspiration requirements. Leaching requirements for agronomic success are calculable and functions of climate, soil, and very critically, of crop sensitivity and the actual salinity of the irrigation water. The more sensitive the crop and more saline the water, the higher the agronomic cost and the greater the quantitative need for leaching. Israel is a forerunner in large-scale utilization of poor quality water for irrigation and can be used as a case study looking at long term repercussions of policy alternatively encouraging irrigation with recycled water or brackish groundwater. In cases studied in desert conditions of Israel, as much of half of the water applied to crops including bell peppers in greenhouses and date palms is actually used to leach salts from the root zone. The excess water used to leach salts and maintain agronomic and economic success when irrigating with water containing salts can become an environmental hazard, especially in dry areas where natural drainage is non-existent. The leachate often contains not only salts but also agrochemicals including nutrients, and natural contaminants can be picked up and transported as well. This leachate passes beyond the root zone and eventually reaches ground or surface water resources. This, together with evidence of ongoing increases in sodium content of fresh produce and increased SAR levels of soils, suggest that the current policy and practice in Israel of utilization of high amounts of low quality irrigation water is inherently non- sustainable. Current

  17. Influence of Salts on the Partitioning of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural in Water/MIBK.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Sultan; Held, Christoph; Altuntepe, Emrah; Köse, Tülay; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2016-04-28

    This study investigates the influence of electrolytes on the performance of extracting 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from aqueous media using methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). For that purpose, liquid-liquid phase equilibria (LLE) of quaternary systems containing HMF, water, MIBK and salts were measured at atmospheric pressure and 298.15 K. The salts under investigation were composed of one of the anions NO(3-), SO4(2-), Cl(-), or CH3COO(-) and of one of the alkali cations Li(+), Na(+), or K(+). On the basis of these LLE data, the partition coefficient of HMF between the aqueous and the MIBK phase KHMF was determined. It could be shown that KHMF significantly depends on the kind and concentration of the added salt. Weak electrolytes (e.g., sulfates, acetates) caused salting-out, whereas nitrates caused salting-in of HMF to the aqueous phase. Unexpectedly, LiCl caused salting-out at low LiCl concentrations and salting-in at LiCl concentrations higher than 3 mol/kgH2O. The model electrolyte perturbed-chain SAFT (ePC-SAFT) was used to predict the salt influence on the LLE in the quaternary systems water/MIBK/HMF/salt in good agreement with the experimental data. On the basis of ePC-SAFT, it could be concluded that the different salting-out/salting-in behavior of the various salts is mainly caused by their different tendency to form ion pairs in aqueous solutions. PMID:27027570

  18. Mineral content and biochemical variables of Aloe vera L. under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel Víctor; Villegas-Espinoza, Jorge Arnoldo; Hernández-Montiel, Luis Guillermo; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; García-Hernández, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Despite the proven economic importance of Aloe vera, studies of saline stress and its effects on the biochemistry and mineral content in tissues of this plant are scarce. The objective of this study was to grow Aloe under NaCl stress of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM and compare: (1) proline, total protein, and enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP-case) in chlorenchyma and parenchyma tissues, and (2) ion content (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, Fe, P. N, Zn, B, Mn, and Cu) in roots, stems, leaves and sprouts. Proline and PEP-case increased as salinity increased in both parenchyma and chlorenchyma, while total protein increased in parenchyma and decreased in chlorenchyma, although at similar salt concentrations total protein was always higher in chlorenchyma. As salinity increased Na and Cl ions increased in roots, stems, leaves, while K decreased only significantly in sprouts. Salinity increases typically caused mineral content in tissue to decrease, or not change significantly. In roots, as salinity increased Mg decreased, while all other minerals failed to show a specific trend. In stems, the mineral concentrations that changed were Fe and P which increased with salinity while Cu decreased. In leaves, Mg, Mn, N, and B decreased with salinity, while Cu increased. In sprouts, the minerals that decreased with increasing salinity were Mg, Mn, and Cu. Zinc did not exhibit a trend in any of the tissues. The increase in protein, proline and PEP-case activity, as well as the absorption and accumulation of cations under moderate NaCl stress caused osmotic adjustment which kept the plant healthy. These results suggest that Aloe may be a viable crop for soil irrigated with hard water or affected by salinity at least at concentrations used in the present study. PMID:24736276

  19. Mineral Content and Biochemical Variables of Aloe vera L. under Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel Víctor; Villegas-Espinoza, Jorge Arnoldo; Hernández-Montiel, Luis Guillermo; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; García-Hernández, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Despite the proven economic importance of Aloe vera, studies of saline stress and its effects on the biochemistry and mineral content in tissues of this plant are scarce. The objective of this study was to grow Aloe under NaCl stress of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM and compare: (1) proline, total protein, and enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP-case) in chlorenchyma and parenchyma tissues, and (2) ion content (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, Fe, P. N, Zn, B, Mn, and Cu) in roots, stems, leaves and sprouts. Proline and PEP-case increased as salinity increased in both parenchyma and chlorenchyma, while total protein increased in parenchyma and decreased in chlorenchyma, although at similar salt concentrations total protein was always higher in chlorenchyma. As salinity increased Na and Cl ions increased in roots, stems, leaves, while K decreased only significantly in sprouts. Salinity increases typically caused mineral content in tissue to decrease, or not change significantly. In roots, as salinity increased Mg decreased, while all other minerals failed to show a specific trend. In stems, the mineral concentrations that changed were Fe and P which increased with salinity while Cu decreased. In leaves, Mg, Mn, N, and B decreased with salinity, while Cu increased. In sprouts, the minerals that decreased with increasing salinity were Mg, Mn, and Cu. Zinc did not exhibit a trend in any of the tissues. The increase in protein, proline and PEP-case activity, as well as the absorption and accumulation of cations under moderate NaCl stress caused osmotic adjustment which kept the plant healthy. These results suggest that Aloe may be a viable crop for soil irrigated with hard water or affected by salinity at least at concentrations used in the present study. PMID:24736276

  20. Renal excretion of water in men under hypokinesia and physical exercise with fluid and salt supplementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Federenko, Youri F.; Togawa, Mitsui N.

    It has been suggested that under hypokinesia (reduced number of steps/day) and intensive physical exercise, the intensification of fluid excretion in men is apparently caused as a result of the inability of the body to retain optimum amounts of water. Thus, to evaluate this hypothesis, studies were performed with the use of fluid and sodium chloride (NaCl) supplements on 12 highly trained physically healthy male volunteers aged 19-24 years under 364 days of hypokinesis (HK) and a set of intensive physical exercises (PE). They were divided into two groups with 6 volunteers per group. The first group of subjects were submitted to HK and took daily fluid and salt supplements in very small doses and the second group of volunteers were subjected to intensive PE and fluid-salt supplements. For the simulation of the hypokinetic effect, both groups of subjects were kept under an average of 4000 steps/day. During the prehypokinetic period of 60 days and under the hypokinetic period of 364 days water consumed and eliminated in urine by the men, water content in blood, plasma volume, rate of glomerular filtration, renal blood flow, osmotic concentration of urine and blood were measured. Under HK, the rate of renal excretion of water increased considerably in both groups. The additional fluid and salt intake failed to normalize water balance adequately under HK and PE. It was concluded that negative water balance evidently resulted not from shortage of water in the diet but from the inability of the body to retain optimum amounts of fluid under HK and a set of intensive PEs.

  1. Salt stress increases content and size of glutenin macropolymers in wheat grain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaxiang; Shi, Zhiqiang; Tian, Youjia; Zhou, Qin; Cai, Jian; Dai, Tingbo; Cao, Weixing; Pu, Hanchun; Jiang, Dong

    2016-04-15

    Addition of salt solution in making wheat dough improves viscoelasticity. However, the effect of native salt fortification on dough quality is unclear. Here, wheat plants were subjected to post-anthesis salt stress to modify salt ion content in grains. The contents of Na(+) and K(+), high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), glutenin macropolyers (GMP) and amino acids in mature grains were measured. As NaCl concentration in soil increased, grain yield decreased while Na(+) and K(+) contents increased. The contents of amino acids, HMW-GS and GMP in grains also increased, especially when NaCl concentration exceeded 0.45%. Fraction of GMP larger than 10 μm was also increased. Na(+) and K(+) contents were significantly positively correlated to GMP and total HMW-GS contents, and to large GMP fraction. PMID:26616983

  2. Microwave remote sensing of soil water content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cihlar, J.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1975-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing of soils to determine water content was considered. A layered water balance model was developed for determining soil water content in the upper zone (top 30 cm), while soil moisture at greater depths and near the surface during the diurnal cycle was studied using experimental measurements. Soil temperature was investigated by means of a simulation model. Based on both models, moisture and temperature profiles of a hypothetical soil were generated and used to compute microwave soil parameters for a clear summer day. The results suggest that, (1) soil moisture in the upper zone can be predicted on a daily basis for 1 cm depth increments, (2) soil temperature presents no problem if surface temperature can be measured with infrared radiometers, and (3) the microwave response of a bare soil is determined primarily by the moisture at and near the surface. An algorithm is proposed for monitoring large areas which combines the water balance and microwave methods.

  3. The chemistry of salt-affected soils and waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of the chemistry of salt affected soils and waters is necessary for management of irrigation in arid and semi-arid regions. In this chapter we review the origin of salts in the landscape, the major chemical reactions necessary for prediction of the soil solution composition, and the use of...

  4. Water Dynamics, Ice Stability, and Salts in Victoria Valley Soils, Antarctica: An Instructive Analog for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, B.; Sletten, R. S.; Hallet, B.

    2006-12-01

    quantity supported by salt concentration and the temperature record. According to the solute content and temperature of these soils and phase equilibria, sulfates mostly gypsum (CaSO4 2H2O), and mirabilite (Na2SO4 10H2O) are present in dry and ice rich soils. Dry soils, due to hydration have the potential to store 7.5 mm of water in the top 0.22 m of dry soil. Both the sublimation and advection-dispersion model suggest that summer snow events significantly affect ice stability. More realistic estimates of the effect of snow on the annual sublimation rates require field data on the timing and duration of snow cover, and the formation of snowmelt water and surface recharge of subsurface ice. The abundance of hydrated salts in dry soils and first measurements of contrasting water contents at different humidities strongly suggests that the role of salts in the storage and transport of H2O in cold, dry soils needs to be evaluated. This seems to be even more important as recent investigation on Mars indicate that the hydrological cycle on Mars may have been strongly influenced by dehydration reactions of sulfate salts.

  5. Highly Effective Pt-Based Water-Gas Shift Catalysts by Surface Modification with Alkali Hydroxide Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Kusche, Matthias; Bustillo, Karen; Agel, Friederike; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2015-01-29

    Here, we describe an economical and convenient method to improve the performance of Pt/alumina catalysts for the water–gas shift reaction through surface modification of the catalysts with alkali hydroxides according to the solid catalyst with ionic liquid layer approach. The results are in agreement with our findings reported earlier for methanol steam reforming. This report indicates that alkali doping of the catalyst plays an important role in the observed catalyst activation. In addition, the basic and hygroscopic nature of the salt coating contributes to a significant improvement in the performance of the catalyst. During the reaction, a partly liquid film of alkali hydroxide forms on the alumina surface, which increases the availability of H2O at the catalytically active sites. Kinetic studies reveal a negligible effect of the KOH coating on the rate dependence of CO and H2O partial pressures. In conclusion, TEM studies indicate an agglomeration of the active Pt clusters during catalyst preparation; restructuring of Pt nanoparticles occurs under reaction conditions, which leads to a highly active and stable system over 240h time on stream. Excessive pore fillings with KOH introduce a mass transfer barrier as indicated in a volcano-shaped curve of activity versus salt loading. The optimum KOH loading was found to be 7.5wt%.

  6. Highly Effective Pt-Based Water-Gas Shift Catalysts by Surface Modification with Alkali Hydroxide Salts

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kusche, Matthias; Bustillo, Karen; Agel, Friederike; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2015-01-29

    Here, we describe an economical and convenient method to improve the performance of Pt/alumina catalysts for the water–gas shift reaction through surface modification of the catalysts with alkali hydroxides according to the solid catalyst with ionic liquid layer approach. The results are in agreement with our findings reported earlier for methanol steam reforming. This report indicates that alkali doping of the catalyst plays an important role in the observed catalyst activation. In addition, the basic and hygroscopic nature of the salt coating contributes to a significant improvement in the performance of the catalyst. During the reaction, a partly liquid filmmore » of alkali hydroxide forms on the alumina surface, which increases the availability of H2O at the catalytically active sites. Kinetic studies reveal a negligible effect of the KOH coating on the rate dependence of CO and H2O partial pressures. In conclusion, TEM studies indicate an agglomeration of the active Pt clusters during catalyst preparation; restructuring of Pt nanoparticles occurs under reaction conditions, which leads to a highly active and stable system over 240h time on stream. Excessive pore fillings with KOH introduce a mass transfer barrier as indicated in a volcano-shaped curve of activity versus salt loading. The optimum KOH loading was found to be 7.5wt%.« less

  7. Secondary Confinement of Water Observed in Eutectic Melting of Aqueous Salt Systems in Nanopores.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Jens; Prause, Albert; Findenegg, Gerhard H

    2016-05-19

    Freezing and melting of aqueous solutions of alkali halides confined in the cylindrical nanopores of MCM-41 and SBA-15 silica was probed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). We find that the confinement-induced shift of the eutectic temperature in the pores can be significantly greater than the shift of the melting temperature of pure water. Greatest shifts of the eutectic temperature are found for salts that crystallize as oligohydrates at the eutectic point. This behavior is explained by the larger fraction of pore volume occupied by salt hydrates as compared to anhydrous salts, on the assumption that precipitated salt constitutes an additional confinement for ice/water in the pores. A model based on this secondary confinement effect gives a good representation of the experimental data. Salt-specific secondary confinement may play a role in a variety of fields, from salt-impregnated advanced adsorbents and catalysts to the thermal weathering of building materials. PMID:27124392

  8. Discerning total salt contents and surface humidity on building stone with a portable moisture meter (Protimeter) in the region of Petra (Jordan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Heras, M.; Wedekind, W.; Lopez-Arce, P.

    2012-04-01

    Water and moisture are some of the main decay agents of building stone and, in general of any stone structure. Several non-invasive methods are used to quantify moisture in building stone, many of them based on the fact that moist stone presents different electrical properties than dry stone. This is the case of resistance-based sensing equipment, such as "Protimeter" portable moisture meters. Although originally designed to measure moisture contents in wood, this sensing equipment is commonly used to measure the so-called "Wood Moisture Equivalent" (WME) in other building materials, such stone and mortar. However, this type of resistance-based sensors pose a degree of uncertainty, as there are other factors that modify electrical properties, such as porosity and salt content. When assessing the overall state of decay of a structure, it might not be crucial, in some cases, to discern between salt and water content: both high moisture levels and high salt content give high WME values, and both are usually related to areas with overall poor state of conservation and/or more prone to decay. However, discerning these two factors is crucial when trying to understand the dynamics of how some decay patterns are formed. This is the case of surface runoff in vertical façades and how it leads to the formation of alveoli and tafoni through salt weathering. Surface runoff and associated salt weathering are among the main decay processes found at the archaeological site of Petra (Jordan) and its understanding is of paramount importance for the conservation of this site. Some "Protimeter" sensors include a capacitance sensor in addition to the usual resistance sensing pins, which allows to measure sub-surface electrical properties. This paper presents results on how the combination of these two measurement modes could be used to discern if high WME values are caused by high surface humidity or by high salt contents in the context of Surface runoff and associated salt weathering

  9. Salt content of school meals and comparison of perception related to sodium intake in elementary, middle, and high schools.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sohyun; Park, Seoyun; Kim, Jin Nam; Han, Sung Nim; Jeong, Soo Bin; Kim, Hye-Kyeong

    2013-02-01

    Excessive sodium intake leading to hypertension, stroke, and stomach cancer is mainly caused by excess use of salt in cooking. This study was performed to estimate the salt content in school meals and to compare differences in perceptions related to sodium intake between students and staffs working for school meal service. We collected 382 dishes for food from 24 schools (9 elementary, 7 middle, 8 high schools) in Gyeonggi-do and salt content was calculated from salinity and weight of individual food. The average salt content from elementary, middle, and high school meals were 2.44 g, 3.96 g, and 5.87 g, respectively. The amount of salt provided from the school lunch alone was over 80% of the recommended daily salt intake by WHO. Noodles, stews, sauces, and soups were major sources of salt intake at dish group level, while the most salty dishes were sauces, kimchies, and stir-fried foods. Dietary knowledge and attitude related to sodium intake and consumption frequency of the salty dishes were surveyed with questionnaire in 798 students and 256 staffs working for school meal service. Compared with the staffs, the students perceived school meals salty and the proportions of students who thought school meals were salty increased with going up from elementary to high schools (P < 0.001). Among the students, middle and high school students showed significant propensity for the preference to one-dish meal, processed foods, eating much broth and dipping sauce or seasoning compared with the elementary students, although they had higher nutrition knowledge scores. These results proposed that monitoring salt content of school meals and consideration on the contents and education methods in school are needed to lower sodium intake. PMID:23424102

  10. Hygienic importance of increased barium content in some fresh waters.

    PubMed

    Havlík, B; Hanusová, J; Rálková, J

    1980-01-01

    In surface waters of the mining and processing areas of uranium ore there is an increased content of free and bound barium ions due to the use of barium salts for the treatment of waste and mine waters containing radium. In model experiments with the algae Ankistrodesmus falcatus, Chlorella kessleri and Scenedesmus obliquus, we studied the effect of Ba2+ on the accumulation of 226Ra. It was found that the accumulation of radium by algae is negatively influenced with barium concentrations higher than 1 mg.l-1. The accumulation of barium of organisms of primary production was studied using 133BaCl2. At a barium content in the medium of 4.0, 0.46 and 0.04 mu. l-1, the algae accumulated 30-60% of the added amount of barium during an exposure of 15 days. Biochemical analyses showed that barium is bound to the cellular membrane and to other components of the algal cell that cannot be extracted with water or alcohol. PMID:7462608

  11. Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.

    2016-01-01

    Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of < 1 ppm in urKREEP. Using these data, predict that the bulk water content of the magma ocean would have <10 ppm. In contrast, estimate water contents of 320 ppm for the bulk Moon and 1.4 wt % for urKREEP from plagioclase in ferroan anorthosites. Results and interpretation: NanoSIMS data from granitic clasts from Apollo sample 15405,78 show that alkali feldspar, a common mineral in K-enriched rocks, can have approx. 20 ppm of water, which implies magmatic water contents of approx. 1 wt % in the high-silica magmas. This estimate is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. However, the Cl and F contents of apatite in chemically similar rocks suggest that these melts also had high Cl/F ratios, which leads to spuriously low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was

  12. 4. VIEW TO NORTHEAST, SKINNER SALT ROASTERS, SAMPLING BUILDING, WATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW TO NORTHEAST, SKINNER SALT ROASTERS, SAMPLING BUILDING, WATER TOWER, AND OFFICE BUILDING. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  13. Ply Thickness Fiber Glass on Windmill Drive Salt Water Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sifa, Agus; Badruzzaman; Suwandi, Dedi

    2016-04-01

    Factors management of salt-making processes need to be considered selection of the location and the season is very important to support the efforts of salting. Windmills owned by the farmers are still using wood materials are made each year it is not effectively done and the shape of windmills made not in accordance with the requirements without considering the wind speed and the pumping speed control influenced by the weight and size of windmill, it affects the productivity of salt. to optimize the function of windmills on pumping salt water by change the material blade on the wheel by using a material composite, composite or fiberglass are used for blades on windmills made of a material a mixture of Epoxy-Resin and Matrix E-Glass. The mechanical characteristics of the power of his blade one of determining the materials used and the thickness of the blade, which needed a strong and lightweight. The calculation result thick fiberglass with a composition of 60% fiber and 40% epoxy, at a wind speedof area salt fields 9 m/s, the drag force that occurs at 11,56 kg, then the calculation result by 0,19 mm thick with a layer of 10, the total thickness of 1,9 mm, with a density of 1760 kg/m3, mechanical character of elongated elastic modulus of 46200 MPa, modulus of transverse elasticity of 10309,6 MPa, shear modulus of 3719 MPa and Poisson ratio of 0,31, then the calculation using the finite element ABAQUS obtained critical point at the confluence of the blade to the value of Von Mises tension was happening 1,158e9 MPa maximum and minimum 2,123e5 MPa, for a maximum value of displacement occurred condition at the tip of the blade. The performance test results windmills at a wind speed of 5,5 m/s wind power shows that occur 402,42 watts and power turbines produced 44,21 watt, and TSR 0,095 and the value Cp of 0,1, test results windmill in salt fields in the beginning rotation windmill lighter, able to move above wind speed of 5.5 m/s.

  14. Soil water content and evaporation determined by thermal parameters obtained from ground-based and remote measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B.; Jackson, R. D.; Vedder, J. F.; Blanchard, M. B.; Goettelman, R.

    1976-01-01

    Soil water contents from both smooth and rough bare soil were estimated from remotely sensed surface soil and air temperatures. An inverse relationship between two thermal parameters and gravimetric soil water content was found for Avondale loam when its water content was between air-dry and field capacity. These parameters, daily maximum minus minimum surface soil temperature and daily maximum soil minus air temperature, appear to describe the relationship reasonably well. These two parameters also describe relative soil water evaporation (actual/potential). Surface soil temperatures showed good agreement among three measurement techniques: in situ thermocouples, a ground-based infrared radiation thermometer, and the thermal infrared band of an airborne multispectral scanner.

  15. Excess Salt Increases Infarct Size Produced by Photothrombotic Distal Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Hiroshi; Nabika, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral circulation is known to be vulnerable to high salt loading. However, no study has investigated the effects of excess salt on focal ischemic brain injury. After 14 days of salt loading (0.9% saline) or water, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were subjected to photothrombotic middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and infarct volume was determined at 48 h after MCAO: albumin and hemoglobin contents in discrete brain regions were also determined in SHR. Salt loading did not affect blood pressure levels in SHR and WKY. After MCAO, regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), determined with two ways of laser-Doppler flowmetry (one-point measurement or manual scanning), was more steeply decreased in the salt-loaded group than in the control group. In SHR/Izm, infarct volume in the salt-loaded group was 112±27 mm3, which was significantly larger than 77±12 mm3 in the control group (p = 0.002), while the extents of blood-brain barrier disruption (brain albumin and hemoglobin levels) were not affected by excess salt. In WKY, salt loading did not significantly increase infarct size. These results show the detrimental effects of salt loading on intra-ischemic CBF and subsequent brain infarction produced by phototrhombotic MCAO in hypertensive rats. PMID:24816928

  16. Breadboard wash water renovation system. [using ferric chloride and ion exchange resins to remove soap and dissolved salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A total wash water renovation system concept was developed for removing objectionable materials from spacecraft wash water in order to make the water reusable. The breadboard model system described provides for pretreatment with ferric chloride to remove soap by chemical precipitation, carbon adsorption to remove trace dissolved organics, and ion exchange for removal of dissolved salts. The entire system was put into continuous operation and carefully monitored to assess overall efficiency and equipment maintenance problems that could be expected in actual use. In addition, the capacity of the carbon adsorbers and the ion-exchange resin was calculated and taken into consideration in the final evaluation of the system adequacy. The product water produced was well within the Tentative Wash Water Standards with regard to total organic carbon, conductivity, urea content, sodium chloride content, color, odor, and clarity.

  17. Anomalous water diffusion in salt solutions

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yun; Hassanali, Ali A.; Parrinello, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of water exhibits anomalous behavior in the presence of different electrolytes. Recent experiments [Kim JS, Wu Z, Morrow AR, Yethiraj A, Yethiraj A (2012) J Phys Chem B 116(39):12007–12013] have found that the self-diffusion of water can either be enhanced or suppressed around CsI and NaCl, respectively, relative to that of neat water. Here we show that unlike classical empirical potentials, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations successfully reproduce the qualitative trends observed experimentally. These types of phenomena have often been rationalized in terms of the “structure-making” or “structure-breaking” effects of different ions on the solvent, although the microscopic origins of these features have remained elusive. Rather than disrupting the network in a significant manner, the electrolytes studied here cause rather subtle changes in both structural and dynamical properties of water. In particular, we show that water in the ab initio molecular dynamics simulations is characterized by dynamic heterogeneity, which turns out to be critical in reproducing the experimental trends. PMID:24522111

  18. Geoelectrical Monitoring for Observation of Changes in Water Content in the Slope of an Embankment Caused By Heavy Rain Using a Large-Scale Rainfall Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takakura, S.; Yoshioka, M.; Ishizawa, T.; Sakai, N.

    2014-12-01

    Measuring the temporal variation of water content along a slope is important for predicting and preventing slope disasters. We conducted repeated monthly geoelectrical surveys since February 2011 on one slope of an embankment in the large-scale rainfall simulator of the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED). In order to confirm the relationship between water content and resistivity changes in the slope due to heavy rain, we conducted seven artificial rain experiments at the embankment, controlling the total amount and intensity of rainfall using the mobile rainfall simulator. We observed soil water content and conducted geoelectrical measurements on the slope of the embankment before, during and after the artificial rains. It is difficult to obtain the rapid change of resistivity structure due to the rain because the analysis of resistivity structure requires measurement by much electrode array combination. Therefore, we performed only a continuous measurement using a Wenner array with "a" spacing of 0.5 m and 1 m. The changes in analyzed resistivity took place almost simultaneously with changes in water content. The fall of resistivity accelerates as the intensity of rainfall increases. The resistivity changed significantly with a rapid change in water content. The change in resistivity is slightly earlier than the change in volumetric water content at the same depth. These facts indicate that geoelectrical monitoring is effective for observing changes in the water content of the slope of an embankment caused by heavy rain.

  19. Surveys of the salt content in UK bread: progress made and further reductions possible

    PubMed Central

    Brinsden, Hannah C; He, Feng J; Jenner, Katharine H; MacGregor, Graham A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To explore the salt reductions made over time in packaged bread sold in the UK, the biggest contributor of salt to the UK diet. Study design Cross-sectional surveys were carried out on the salt content of breads available in UK supermarkets in 2001(40 products), 2006 (138) and 2011 (203). Main outcome measures The primary outcome measure was the change in salt content per 100 g over time. Further measures included the proportion of products meeting salt targets and differences between brands and bread types. Results The average salt level of bread was 1.23±0.19 g/100 g in 2001, 1.05±0.16 in 2006 and 0.98±0.13 in 2011. This shows a reduction in salt/100 g of ≈20% between 2001 and 2011. In the 18 products which were surveyed in all 3 years, there was a significant reduction of 17% (p<0.05). Supermarket own brand bread was found to be lower in salt compared with branded bread (0.95 g/100 g compared with 1.04 g/100 g in 2011). The number of products meeting the 2012 targets increased from 28% in 2001 to 71% in 2011 (p<0.001). Conclusions This study shows that the salt content of bread has been progressively reduced over time, contributing to the evidence base that a target-based approach to salt reduction can lead to reductions being made. A wide variation in salt levels was found with many products already meeting the 2012 targets, indicating that further reductions can be made. This requires further progressive lower targets to be set, so that the UK can continue to lead the world in salt reduction and save the maximum number of lives. PMID:23794567

  20. Correlation among Cirrus Ice Content, Water Vapor and Temperature in the TTL as Observed by CALIPSO and Aura-MLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flury, T.; Wu, D. L.; Read, W. G.

    2012-01-01

    Water vapor in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) has a local radiative cooling effect. As a source for ice in cirrus clouds, however, it can also indirectly produce infrared heating. Using NASA A-Train satellite measurements of CALIPSO and Aura/MLS we calculated the correlation of water vapor, ice water content and temperature in the TTL. We find that temperature strongly controls water vapor (correlation r =0.94) and cirrus clouds at 100 hPa (r = -0.91). Moreover we observe that the cirrus seasonal cycle is highly (r =-0.9) anticorrelated with the water vapor variation in the TTL, showing higher cloud occurrence during December-January-February. We further investigate the anticorrelation on a regional scale and find that the strong anticorrelation occurs generally in the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone). The seasonal cycle of the cirrus ice water content is also highly anticorrelated to water vapor (r = -0.91) and our results support the hypothesis that the total water at 100 hPa is roughly constant. Temperature acts as a main regulator for balancing the partition between water vapor and cirrus clouds. Thus, to a large extent, the depleting water vapor in the TTL during DJF is a manifestation of cirrus formation.

  1. Sorption of hydrophobic pesticides on a Mediterranean soil affected by wastewater, dissolved organic matter and salts.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Liébana, José A; Mingorance, Ma Dolores; Peña, Aránzazu

    2011-03-01

    Irrigation with treated wastewaters as an alternative in countries with severe water shortage may influence the sorption of pesticides and their environmental effects, as wastewater contains higher concentrations of suspended and dissolved organic matter and inorganic compounds than freshwater. We have examined the sorption behaviour of three highly hydrophobic pesticides (the herbicide pendimethalin and the insecticides α-cypermethrin and deltamethrin) on a Mediterranean agricultural soil using the batch equilibration method. We considered wastewater, extracts from urban sewage sludge with different dissolved organic carbon contents, and inorganic salt solutions, using Milli Q water as a control. All pesticides were strongly retained by soil although some sorption occurred on the walls of the laboratory containers, especially when wastewater and inorganic salt solutions were used. The calculation of distribution constants by measuring pesticide concentrations in soil and solution indicated that pendimethalin sorption was not affected whereas α-cypermethrin and deltamethrin retention were significantly enhanced (ca. 5 and 2 times, respectively) when wastewater or salt solutions were employed. We therefore conclude that the increased sorption of the two pesticides caused by wastewater cannot be only the result of its dissolved organic carbon content, but also of the simultaneous presence of inorganic salts in the solution. PMID:20980092

  2. Impact of the analytical blank in the uncertainty evaluation of the copper content in waters by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Elcio Cruz; Monteiro, Maria Inês Couto; Pontes, Fernanda Veronesi Marinho; de Almeida, Marcelo Dominguez; Carneiro, Manuel Castro; da Silva, Lílian Irene Dias; Alcover Neto, Arnaldo

    2012-01-01

    Chemical analysts use analytical blanks in their analyses, but seldom is this source of uncertainty evaluated. Generally, there is great confusion. Although the numerical value of the blank, in some situations, can be negligible, its source of uncertainty cannot be. This article discusses the uncertainty contribution of the analytical blank using a numerical example of the copper content in waters by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicate that the uncertainties of the analytical blank can contribute up to 50% when the blank sample is considered in this analysis, confirming its high impact. This effect can be primarily observed where the analyte concentration approaches the lower range of the analytical curve. Even so, the blank is not always computed. Therefore, the relevance of the analytical blank can be confirmed by uncertainty evaluation. PMID:22649945

  3. SEPARATION OF METAL SALTS BY ADSORPTION

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.

    1959-01-20

    It has been found that certain metal salts, particularly the halides of iron, cobalt, nickel, and the actinide metals, arc readily absorbed on aluminum oxide, while certain other salts, particularly rare earth metal halides, are not so absorbed. Use is made of this discovery to separate uranium from the rare earths. The metal salts are first dissolved in a molten mixture of alkali metal nitrates, e.g., the eutectic mixture of lithium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and then the molten salt solution is contacted with alumina, either by slurrying or by passing the salt solution through an absorption tower. The process is particularly valuable for the separation of actinides from lanthanum-group rare earths.

  4. High Salt Diets, Bone Strength and Mineral Content of Mature Femur After Skeletal Unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Michael T. C.

    1998-01-01

    It is known that high salt diets increase urinary calcium (Ca) loss, but it is not known whether this effect weakens bone during space flight. The Bone Hormone Lab has studied the effect of high salt diets on Ca balance and whole body Ca in a space flight model (2,8). Neither the strength nor mineral content of the femurs from these studies has been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of high salt diets (HiNa) and skeletal unloading on femoral bone strength and bone mineral content (BMC) in mature rats.

  5. Narrowly size-distributed cobalt salt containing poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) particles by inverse miniemulsion.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhihai; Wang, Zhuo; Herrmann, Christine; Ziener, Ulrich; Landfester, Katharina

    2010-05-18

    Cobalt-containing hybrid particles have been prepared through the encapsulation of cobalt tetrafluoroborate hexahydrate (CoTFB) via inverse miniemulsion polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). We systematically varied the amount and type of cosolvent (water, methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol), apolar continuous phase (cyclohexane, isooctane, isopar M, hexadecane), amount of cobalt salt, and molecular weight of the polymeric surfactant. The influence of those parameters on the particle size, size distribution, and particle morphology were investigated. Narrowly size-distributed hybrid particles with good colloidal stability could be obtained in a wide range of cobalt content between 5.7 and 22.6 wt % salt relative to the monomer. The addition of a cosolvent such as water not only promotes the loading of metal salt but also has a positive influence on narrowing the particle size distribution. We assume that generally narrowly size-distributed particles can be obtained for a large variety of combinations of polar/apolar phase by adjusting the balance between osmotic and Laplace pressure via the solubility of the metal salt in the continuous phase and lowering the interfacial tension by adjusting the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value of the surfactant. The results show a significant advantage of the inverse miniemulsion over the direct system with respect to the variability and total amount of metal salt without losing the narrow particle size distribution and colloidal stability. PMID:20112941

  6. Content of toxic and essential metals in recrystallized and washed table salt in Shiraz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Table salt is the most commonly used food additive. Since most of the salt consumed in Iran comes from mines, contamination with heavy metals is a health concern. The commonest salt purification method in Iran is washing with water. But recently, some industries have turned to recrystallization method. The present study aimed to determine the level of essential and non-essential heavy metals in the table salt refined with recrystallization and washing methods. Methods Thirty eight pre-packed salt samples were directly collected from retail market in Shiraz (22 samples refined with recrystallization method and 16 with washing method). The level of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, nickel and cobalt was determined using Voltammetric method. Daily intakes of lead and cadmium as well as their weekly intakes were calculated. Results The levels of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, nickel and cobalt in recrystallized samples were 0. 30 ± 0.26, 0.02 ± 0.02, 0.11 ± 0.06, 0.34 ± 0.22, 0.15 ± 0.19 and 0.008 ± 0.007 μg/g, respectively, and also 0.37 ± 0.27, 0.017 ± 0.021, 0.19 ± 0.18, 0.37 ± 0.20, 0.13 ± 0.23 and 0.037 ± 0.06 μg/g in washed salt samples. The calculated weekly intake of lead and cadmium was 0.216 and 0.014 μg/kg, respectively for the recrystallized and 0.2653 and 0.0119 μg/kg for the washed salts. Conclusion All values for toxic metals were lower than the permitted maximum for human consumption as prescribed by Codex and Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. Only 0.8652-1.0612% of lead and 0.17-0.2% of cadmium PTWIs are received via salt consumption weekly. PMID:24398299

  7. Rapid estimates of relative water content.

    PubMed

    Smart, R E

    1974-02-01

    Relative water content may be accurately estimated using the ratio of tissue fresh weight to tissue turgid weight, termed here relative tissue weight. That relative water content and relative tissue weight are linearly related is demonstrated algebraically. The mean value of r(2) for grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz) leaf tissue over eight separate sampling occasions was 0.993. Similarly high values were obtained for maize (Zea mays cv. Cornell M-3) (0.998) and apple (Malus sylvestris cv. Northern Spy) (0.997) using a range of leaf ages. The proposal by Downey and Miller (1971. Rapid measurements of relative turgidity in maize (Zea mays L.). New Phytol. 70: 555-560) that relative water content in maize may be estimated from water uptake was also investigated for grapevine leaves; this was found to be a less reliable estimate than that obtained with relative tissue weight. With either method, there is a need for calibration, although this could be achieved for relative tissue weight at least with only a few subsamples. PMID:16658686

  8. Air-Liquid Interfaces: II. Water Structure and Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Heather; Gopalakrishnan, Sandhya; Ma, Gang; Liu, Dingfang; Levering, Lori

    2004-03-01

    Aqueous salt solutions were investigated using scanning sum frequency generation (SFG), a highly surface-selective spectroscopy, and ATR-IR and Raman spectroscopies. Water surface structure was investigated for NaF, NaCl, NaBr and NaI aqueous solutions and surface data indicate a significantly disturbed hydrogen bonding environment from that of neat water. The spectra strongly suggest the presence of bromide and iodide anions in the interfacial region in addition to an increase in interfacial depth; yet the surfaces of the sodium fluoride and chloride salt solutions do not show evidence of surface water perturbation. Ammonium chloride and sulfate, and sodium sulfate aqueous solutions were also investigated. Surface water structure varied considerably between the three salt solutions. Electric double layer effects are indicated.

  9. Polyamines Confer Salt Tolerance in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) by Reducing Sodium Uptake, Improving Nutrient Homeostasis, Antioxidant Defense, and Methylglyoxal Detoxification Systems

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Rahman, Anisur; Alam, Md. Mahabub; Mahmud, Jubayer-Al; Suzuki, Toshisada; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The physiological roles of PAs (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) were investigated for their ability to confer salt tolerance (200 mM NaCl, 48 h) in mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-2). Salt stress resulted in Na toxicity, decreased K, Ca, Mg, and Zn contents in roots and shoots, and disrupted antioxidant defense system which caused oxidative damage as indicated by increased lipid peroxidation, H2O2 content, O2•- generation rate, and lipoxygenase activity. Salinity-induced methylglyoxal (MG) toxicity was also clearly evident. Salinity decreased leaf chlorophyll (chl) and relative water content (RWC). Supplementation of salt affected seedlings with exogenous PAs enhanced the contents of glutathione and ascorbate, increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) and glyoxalase enzyme (glyoxalase II), which reduced salt-induced oxidative stress and MG toxicity, respectively. Exogenous PAs reduced cellular Na content and maintained nutrient homeostasis and modulated endogenous PAs levels in salt affected mung bean seedlings. The overall salt tolerance was reflected through improved tissue water and chl content, and better seedling growth. PMID:27516763

  10. Polyamines Confer Salt Tolerance in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) by Reducing Sodium Uptake, Improving Nutrient Homeostasis, Antioxidant Defense, and Methylglyoxal Detoxification Systems.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Rahman, Anisur; Alam, Md Mahabub; Mahmud, Jubayer-Al; Suzuki, Toshisada; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The physiological roles of PAs (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) were investigated for their ability to confer salt tolerance (200 mM NaCl, 48 h) in mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-2). Salt stress resulted in Na toxicity, decreased K, Ca, Mg, and Zn contents in roots and shoots, and disrupted antioxidant defense system which caused oxidative damage as indicated by increased lipid peroxidation, H2O2 content, [Formula: see text] generation rate, and lipoxygenase activity. Salinity-induced methylglyoxal (MG) toxicity was also clearly evident. Salinity decreased leaf chlorophyll (chl) and relative water content (RWC). Supplementation of salt affected seedlings with exogenous PAs enhanced the contents of glutathione and ascorbate, increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) and glyoxalase enzyme (glyoxalase II), which reduced salt-induced oxidative stress and MG toxicity, respectively. Exogenous PAs reduced cellular Na content and maintained nutrient homeostasis and modulated endogenous PAs levels in salt affected mung bean seedlings. The overall salt tolerance was reflected through improved tissue water and chl content, and better seedling growth. PMID:27516763

  11. Salts as Water Ice Cloud Nuclei on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago-Materese, D.; Chuang, P. Y.; Iraci, L. T.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, observations of the Martian surface have indicated the presence of chlorine-bearing minerals, including perchlorates, on the surface of Mars. These salt-bearing minerals would potentially be source material for dust lofted from the surface into the Martian atmosphere, thus providing potential nucleation sites for water ice clouds. Considering that salts play an important role in cloud formation on Earth, it is important to have a better understanding of how salt may affect nucleation processes under Mars-like conditions. We perform laboratory experiments to examine water ice nucleation onto salt substrates. We use a vacuum chamber that simulates the temperatures and pressures observed of the Martian atmosphere. Using infrared spectroscopy we measure the onset of nucleation and calculate the temperature-dependent critical saturation ratio (Scrit) for water ice nucleation onto salts, specifically sodium chloride and sodium perchlorate. Preliminary results of Scrit values for water ice nucleation on sodium chloride show a negative temperature dependence, as did other substrates from previous experiments. Values of Scrit are useful for understanding the realistic conditions under which water ice clouds may form on Mars, and can be used in climate models simulating clouds on Mars.

  12. Survival of Salmonella enterica serotype Tennessee during simulated gastric passage is improved by low water activity and high fat content.

    PubMed

    Aviles, Bryan; Klotz, Courtney; Smith, Twyla; Williams, Robert; Ponder, Monica

    2013-02-01

    The low water activity (a(w) 0.3) of peanut butter prohibits the growth of Salmonella in a product; however, illnesses are reported from peanut butter contaminated with very small doses, suggesting the food matrix itself influences the infectious dose of Salmonella, potentially by improving Salmonella's survival in the gastrointestinal tract. The purpose of our study was to quantify the survival of a peanut butter outbreak-associated strain of Salmonella enterica serotype Tennessee when inoculated into peanut butters with different fat contents and a(w) (high fat, high a(w); high fat, low a(w); low fat, high a(w); low fat, low a(w)) and then challenged with a simulated gastrointestinal system. Exposures to increased fat content and decreased a(w) both were associated with a protective effect on the survival of Salmonella Tennessee in the simulated gastric fluid compared with control cells. After a simulated intestinal phase, the populations of Salmonella Tennessee in the control and low-fat formulations were not significantly different; however, a 2-log CFU/g increase occurred in high-fat formulations. This study demonstrates that cross-protection from low-a(w) stress and the presence of high fat results in improved survival in the low pH of the stomach. The potential for interaction of food matrix and stress adaptations could influence the virulence of Salmonella and should be considered for risk analysis. PMID:23433384

  13. A derivatization approach using pyrylium salts for the sensitive and simple determination of sulfide in spring water by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Rembisz, Żaneta; Bzdurska, Dorota; Obiedzińska, Justyna; Martínez-Máńez, Ramón; Zakrzewski, Robert

    2015-08-14

    A high-performance liquid chromatography method based on pre-column derivatization with the pyrylium salts (4-[p-(N,N-dimethylamino)phenyl]-2,6-diphenylpyrylium perchlorate (LN1) and 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium tetrafluoroborate (L1)) has been developed for the determination of sulfide. After the reaction of sulfide ions with LN1 or L1 aiming at the formation of the corresponding thiopyrylium derivatives LN3 or L3, they were separated on a C18 column using phosphate buffer and acetonitrile as eluent, and afterwards detected with a UV/vis detector. By using the described method, sulfide ions can be determined in the range of 5.12-486.4 μg·L(-1) or 1.024-20.48 μg·L(-1) by means of L1 or LN1, respectively. In our experiments, the relative standard deviation was not higher than 2% and the recovery coefficient was in the range of 88-102%. The proposed method was applied to the determination of sulfide in spring water samples from Busko Zdrój and Uniejów health resorts located in Poland. PMID:26163932

  14. Rainfall estimation from liquid water content and precipitable water content data over land, ocean and plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Adhikari, A.; Maitra, A.

    2016-01-01

    A simplistic approach has been proposed to estimate annual rainfall amount from cloud liquid water content and precipitable water content utilizing the data pertaining to the period of 1997-2006. The study involves seven land locations over India, seven stations over plateau and seven locations over the Indian Ocean. The wavelet analyses exhibit prominent annual peaks in the global spectra of rainfall, cloud liquid water content and precipitable water content. Power-law relationships are found to exist between the global wavelet peaks of precipitation and those of both the parameters, namely, cloud liquid water content and precipitable water content. Again, a linear relationship exists between global wavelet peaks of rainfall amount and total rainfall amount. The rainfall estimations utilizing cloud liquid water content data exhibit better matching with the measured values than those utilizing precipitable water content data.

  15. ALUMINUM BIOAVAILABILITY FROM DRINKING WATER IS VERY LOW AND IS NOT APPRECIABLY INFLUENCED BY STOMACH CONTENTS OR WATER HARDNESS. (R825357)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives were to estimate aluminum (Al) oral bioavailability under conditions that model its consumption in drinking water, and to test the hypotheses that stomach contents and co-administration of the major components of hard water affect Al absorption. Rats received intra...

  16. Novel wireless health monitor with acupuncture bio-potentials obtained by using a replaceable salt-water-wetted foam-rubber cushions on RFID-tag.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jium-Ming; Lu, Hung-Han; Lin, Cheng-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a bio-potential measurement apparatus including a wireless device for transmitting acupuncture bio-potential information to a remote control station for health conditions analysis and monitor. The key technology of this system is to make replaceable foam-rubber cushions, double-side conducting tapes, chip and antenna on the radio frequency identification (RFID) tag. The foam-rubber cushions can be wetted with salt-water and contact with the acupuncture points to reduce contact resistance. Besides, the double-side conducting tapes are applied to fix foam-rubber cushions. Thus, one can peel the used cushions or tapes away and supply new ones quickly. Since the tag is a flexible plastic substrate, it is easy to deploy on the skin. Besides, the amplifier made by CMOS technology on RFID chip could amplify the signals to improve S/N ratio and impedance matching. Thus, cloud server can wirelessly monitor the health conditions. An example shows that the proposed system can be used as a wireless health condition monitor, the numerical method and the criteria are given to analyze eleven bio-potentials for the important acupunctures of eleven meridians on a person's hands and legs. Then a professional doctor can know the performance of an individual and the cross-linking effects of the organs. PMID:25227072

  17. Freezing avoidance by supercooling in Olea europaea cultivars: the role of apoplastic water, solute content and cell wall rigidity.

    PubMed

    Arias, Nadia S; Bucci, Sandra J; Scholz, Fabian G; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2015-10-01

    Plants can avoid freezing damage by preventing extracellular ice formation below the equilibrium freezing temperature (supercooling). We used Olea europaea cultivars to assess which traits contribute to avoid ice nucleation at sub-zero temperatures. Seasonal leaf water relations, non-structural carbohydrates, nitrogen and tissue damage and ice nucleation temperatures in different plant parts were determined in five cultivars growing in the Patagonian cold desert. Ice seeding in roots occurred at higher temperatures than in stems and leaves. Leaves of cold acclimated cultivars supercooled down to -13 °C, substantially lower than the minimum air temperatures observed in the study site. During winter, leaf ice nucleation and leaf freezing damage (LT50 ) occurred at similar temperatures, typical of plant tissues that supercool. Higher leaf density and cell wall rigidity were observed during winter, consistent with a substantial acclimation to sub-zero temperatures. Larger supercooling capacity and lower LT50 were observed in cold-acclimated cultivars with higher osmotically active solute content, higher tissue elastic adjustments and lower apoplastic water. Irreversible leaf damage was only observed in laboratory experiments at very low temperatures, but not in the field. A comparative analysis of closely related plants avoids phylogenetic independence bias in a comparative study of adaptations to survive low temperatures. PMID:25737264

  18. Pattern transitions of oil-water two-phase flow with low water content in rectangular horizontal pipes probed by terahertz spectrum.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xin; Wu, Shi-Xiang; Zhao, Kun; Wang, Wei; Zhan, Hong-Lei; Jiang, Chen; Xiao, Li-Zhi; Chen, Shao-Hua

    2015-11-30

    The flow-pattern transition has been a challenging problem in two-phase flow system. We propose the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) to investigate the behavior underlying oil-water flow in rectangular horizontal pipes. The low water content (0.03-2.3%) in oil-water flow can be measured accurately and reliably from the relationship between THz peak amplitude and water volume fraction. In addition, we obtain the flow pattern transition boundaries in terms of flow rates. The critical flow rate Qc of the flow pattern transitions decreases from 0.32 m3 h to 0.18 m3 h when the corresponding water content increases from 0.03% to 2.3%. These properties render THz-TDS particularly powerful technology for investigating a horizontal oil-water two-phase flow system. PMID:26698815

  19. Dynamics of pore-water and salt in estuarine marshes subjected to tide and evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Shen, C.; Li, L.; Lockington, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Salt dynamics in estuarine tidal marshes are strongly associated with their intrinsic hydrological processes and ecological behaviors, which are not well understood. Numerical simulations were carried out to investigate the transport and distribution of pore water and salt in a vertical cross section perpendicular to the tidal creek that subjects to spring-neap tide and evaporation. Vaporizing pore water from unsaturated soil surface with salt left in soils, the time-variant actual evaporation is affected by aerodynamic factors as well as soil conditions, including pore-water saturation, solute concentration and the thickness of salt precipitation above the soil surface (efflorescence). Different simulation cases were performed by adjusting the tidal signal, marsh platform slope and soil properties. The simulation analysis indicates that, the tide-averaged soil salinity increases with the reduction of inundation period in a spring-neap tide cycle. As the salt accumulated by evaporation could leave soil from seepage back to seawater during ebbtide, the pore-water salinity at the surface within the tidal range remains close to that of seawater. With the presence of hyper-saline soil and efflorescence, salt flat develops only in the area where capillary connection between evaporating surface and water-saturated soil is maintained while tidal inundation absent. On the contrary, the sandy supratidal marsh where hydrological connections are disrupted keeps a relatively low soil salinity (40-60 ppt) and pore-water saturation as evaporation remains low throughout the tidal cycles.

  20. Investigation of indigenous water, salt and soil for solar ponds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E.

    1983-01-01

    The existence of salt-gradient solar ponds in nature is a strong indication that the successful exploitation of this phenomenon must account adequately for the influences of the local setting. Sun, weather and other general factors are treated elsewhere. This paper deals with water, salt, and soil. A general methodology for evaluating and, where feasible, adjusting the effects of these elements is under development. Eight essential solar pond characteristics have been identified, along with a variety of their dependencies upon properties of water, salt and soil. The comprehensive methodology, when fully developed, will include laboratory investigation in such diverse areas as brine physical chemistry, light transmission, water treatment, brine-soil interactions, sealants, and others. With the Salton Sea solar pond investigation as an example, some methods under development will be described.

  1. Classification of 17 DES supernovae by SALT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, E.; Bassett, B.; Crawford, S.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.

    2016-02-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of 17 supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATel #4668). The spectra (380-820nm) were obtained using the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) on the South African Large Telescope (SALT).

  2. Mineralogical study of stream waters and efflorescent salts in Sierra Minera, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria luz; Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Hernandez, Carmen; Hernandez-Cordoba, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    content because is a reception point of a lot of tailing dumps. Water samples from C3 to C8 also had acid pH and high trace element content, particularly As (remains soluble) and Zn and Cd (high mobility). In addition, they showed high soluble sulphates. C2 water showed neutral pH, soluble carbonate and low trace element content because is influenced by a stabilised tailing dump. However, the As remains soluble. Zone D: All waters collected in this zone showed acid pH and high trace element content, mainly Zn, Cd and As. Some differences were found from the high and the low part: samples located in the lower part (D2-D7) showed higher As content while Zn is higher in the high part (D8-D13) The DRX analysis in evaporates suggest that in D4 copiapite, coquimbite, gypsum, bianchite and ferrohexahydrite are formed and in D11 gypsum, bianchite, halotrichite and siderotil. D1 is affected by secondary contamination, which showed higher pH (still acid) and lower content in soluble salts and trace elements.

  3. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Pérez, J. V.; De Prados, M.; Pérez-Muelas, N.; Cárcel, J. A.; Benedito, J.

    2012-12-01

    Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (p<0.05) linear relationships were found between the ultrasonic velocity and the salt (R2 = 0.975) and moisture (R2 = 0.863) contents. In addition, the change of the ultrasonic velocity with the increase of the salt content showed a good agreement with the Kinsler equation. Therefore, low intensity ultrasound emerges as a potential technique to monitor, in a non destructive way, the meat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

  4. Characterization of Cloud Water-Content Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seungwon

    2010-01-01

    The development of realistic cloud parameterizations for climate models requires accurate characterizations of subgrid distributions of thermodynamic variables. To this end, a software tool was developed to characterize cloud water-content distributions in climate-model sub-grid scales. This software characterizes distributions of cloud water content with respect to cloud phase, cloud type, precipitation occurrence, and geo-location using CloudSat radar measurements. It uses a statistical method called maximum likelihood estimation to estimate the probability density function of the cloud water content.

  5. Geophysical surveys for monitoring coastal salt water intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loperte, A.; Satriani, A.; Simoniello, T.; Imbrenda, V.; Lapenna, V.

    2009-04-01

    Geophysical surveys have been exploited in a coastal forest reserve, at the mouth of the river Bradano in South Italy (Basilicata, southern Italy, N 40°22', E 16°51'), to investigate the subsurface saltwater contamination. Forest Reserve of Metapontum is a wood of artificial formation planted to protect fruit and vegetable cultivations from salt sea-wind; in particular it is constituted by a back dune pine forest mainly composed of Aleppo Pine trees (Pinus halepensis) and domestic pine trees (Pinus pinea). Two separate geophysical field campaigns, one executed in 2006 and a second executed in 2008, were performed in the forest reserve; in particular, electrical resistivity tomographies, resistivity and ground penetrating radar maps were elaborated and analyzed. In addition, chemical and physical analyses on soil and waters samples were performed in order to confirm and integrate geophysical data. The analyses carried out allowed an accurate characterization of salt intrusion phenomenon: the spatial extension and depth of the saline wedge were estimated. Primary and secondary salinity of the Metapontum forest reserve soil occurred because of high water-table and the evapo-transpiration rate which was much higher than the rainfall rate; these, of course, are linked to natural factors such as climate, natural drainage patterns, topographic features, geological structure and distance to the sea. Naturally, since poor land management, like the construction of river dams, indiscriminate extraction of inert from riverbeds that subtract supplies sedimentary, the alteration of the natural water balance, plays an important role in this process. The obtained results highlighted that integrated geophysical surveys gave a precious contribute for better evaluating marine intrusion wedge in coastal aquifers and providing a rapid, non-invasive and low cost tool for coastal monitoring.

  6. Water Content of the Oceanic Lithosphere at Hawaii from FTIR Analysis of Peridotite Xenoliths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, Anne H.; Bizmis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Although water in the mantle is mostly present as trace H dissolved in minerals, it has a large influence on its melting and rheological properties. The water content of the mantle lithosphere beneath continents is better constrained by abundant mantle xenolith data than beneath oceans where it is mainly inferred from MORB glass analysis. Using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, we determined the water content of olivine (Ol), clinopyroxene (Cpx) and orthopyroxene (Opx) in spinel peridotite xenoliths from Salt Lake Crater, Oahu, Hawaii, which are thought to represent fragments of the Pacific oceanic lithosphere that was refertilized by alkalic Hawaiian melts. Only Ol exhibits H diffusion profiles, evidence of limited H loss during xenolith transport to the surface. Water concentrations (Ol: 9-28 ppm H2O, Cpx: 246-566 ppm H2O, Opx: 116-224 ppm H2O) are within the range of those from continental settings but higher than those from Gakkel ridge abyssal peridotites. The Opx H2O contents are similar to those of abyssal peridotites from Atlantic ridge Leg 153 (170-230 ppm) but higher than those from Leg 209 (10- 14 ppm). The calculated bulk peridotite water contents (94 to 144 ppm H2O) are in agreement with MORB mantle source water estimates and lower than estimates for the source of Hawaiian rejuvenated volcanism (approx 540 ppm H2O) . The water content of Cpx and most Opx correlates negatively with spinel Cr#, and positively with pyroxene Al and HREE contents. This is qualitatively consistent with the partitioning of H into the melt during partial melting, but the water contents are too high for the degree of melting these peridotites experienced. Melts in equilibrium with xenolith minerals have H2O/Ce ratios similar to those of OIB

  7. A New Way to Measure Cirrus Ice Water Content by Using Ice Raman Scatter with Raman Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhien; Whiteman, David N.; Demoz, Belay; Veselovskii, Igor

    2004-01-01

    High and cold cirrus clouds mainly contain irregular ice crystals, such as, columns, hexagonal plates, bullet rosettes, and dendrites, and have different impacts on the climate system than low-level clouds, such as stratus, stratocumulus, and cumulus. The radiative effects of cirrus clouds on the current and future climate depend strongly on cirrus cloud microphysical properties including ice water content (IWC) and ice crystal sizes, which are mostly an unknown aspect of cinus clouds. Because of the natural complexity of cirrus clouds and their high locations, it is a challenging task to get them accurately by both remote sensing and in situ sampling. This study presents a new method to remotely sense cirrus microphysical properties by using ice Raman scatter with a Raman lidar. The intensity of Raman scattering is fundamentally proportional to the number of molecules involved. Therefore, ice Raman scattering signal provides a more direct way to measure IWC than other remote sensing methods. Case studies show that this method has the potential to provide essential information of cirrus microphysical properties to study cloud physical processes in cirrus clouds.

  8. Spatial and temporal evolution of a microseismic swarm induced by water injection in the Arkema-Vauvert salt field (southern France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godano, Maxime; Bardainne, Thomas; Regnier, Marc; Deschamps, Anne; Valette, Marc

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates a microseismic swarm induced by injection operations in the Arkema-Vauvert salt field. The seismic activity in this field is monitored only by two permanent 3-component stations deployed in two wells. This study focuses on a period of 21 months (2004 January-2005 September) during which 1214 seismic events are located. The seismic activity is divided into three periods correlating with the water injection operations, highlighting a migration of the seismicity toward a thrust fault connecting the injection well and the production well. A waveform analysis reveals S-wave anisotropy, and focal mechanisms are computed using P, Sv and Sh amplitudes manually measured on anisotropy-corrected seismograms. First, synthetic resolution tests assess the reliability of the focal mechanisms determination from the two 3-component stations deployed in the field. Synthetic data are generated for 1056 earthquakes with various focal mechanisms and are perturbed with noise. The results indicate that the type of focal mechanism is correctly retrieved for 74 per cent of the synthetic earthquakes, but the uncertainties of the strike and rake are significant (from 15 to 45?). Next, the focal mechanisms are computed for 532 real earthquakes. The solutions primarily correspond to a dip-slip/thrust fault type with subvertical NE-SW and subhorizontal N-S to NW-SE nodal planes. Correlations between the focal mechanisms and the spatio-temporal distribution of the seismic activity are noteworthy. The study shows it is possible to reliably retrieve double-couple focal mechanisms for some faulting geometries with two 3-component seismological stations. However, the reliability of the focal mechanism retrieval depends on the station configuration. Therefore, the addition of further stations would improve the results.

  9. Workers intake too much salt from dishes of eating out and food service cafeterias; direct chemical analysis of sodium content

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Seung-Lim; Kim, Jin-Young; Kang, Soon-Ah; Park, Kun-Young; Ryou, Hyun-Joo

    2009-01-01

    The average sodium intake of Koreans was reported to be 5,279.9 mg/day, which is one of the highest intake levels worldwide. The average Koreans intake 19.6% of sodium from kimchi, showing kimchi as the main contributor of sodium in this country (Ministry of Health and Welfare, 2005). The sodium content of dishes that are frequently chosen by workers, and which were served by foodservice cafeterias were chemically analyzed. The average sodium content of one meal provided by 10 foodservice cafeterias was 2,777.7 mg. Twenty-one, one-dish-meals, frequently chosen by workers for a lunch menu, were collected at 4 different restaurants for each menu by one male, aged in the twenties and analyzed chemically also. Workers who eat lunch at a workplace cafeteria everyday could intake about 8 g of salt at a one-time meal and those who eat out for a one-dish-meal would intake 3-8 g of salt without counting sodium content from the side dishes. From these study results, one could estimate that over 10 g of salt could be possible for a single meal for workers who eat out everyday. A nationwide nutrition campaign and education for low salt diets for restaurant owners and foodservice providers should be seriously considered. PMID:20098587

  10. Evaluation of Trace Metal Content by ICP-MS Using Closed Vessel Microwave Digestion in Fresh Water Fish

    PubMed Central

    Jarapala, Sreenivasa Rao; Kandlakunta, Bhaskarachary; Thingnganing, Longvah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate trace metal levels of different varieties of fresh water fish using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer after microwave digestion (MD-ICPMS). Fish samples were collected from the outlets of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The trace metal content in different varieties of analyzed fish were ranged from 0.24 to 1.68 mg/kg for Chromium in Cyprinus carpio and Masto symbollon, 0.20 to 7.52 mg/kg for Manganese in Labeo rohita and Masto symbollon, 0.006 to 0.07 mg/kg for Cobalt in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, 0.31 to 2.24 mg/kg for Copper in Labeo rohita and Penaeus monodon, 3.25 to 14.56 mg/kg for Zinc in Cyprinus carpio and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and 0.01 to 2.05 mg/kg for Selenium in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, respectively. Proximate composition data for the different fishes were also tabulated. Since the available data for different trace elements for fish is scanty, here an effort is made to present a precise data for the same as estimated on ICP-MS. Results were in accordance with recommended daily intake allowance by WHO/FAO. PMID:24744789

  11. Bromide content of sea-salt aerosol particles collected over the Indian Ocean during INDOEX 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, R.; von Glasow, R.; Sander, R.; Andreae, M. O.; Crutzen, P. J.

    2002-10-01

    Bromide can be depleted from sea-salt aerosol particles in the marine boundary layer (MBL) and converted to reactive gas-phase species like Br, BrO, and HOBr, which affect ozone chemistry. Air pollution can enhance the bromine release from sea-salt aerosols and thus inject additional bromine into the MBL. During the winter monsoon the northern Indian Ocean is strongly affected by air pollution from the Indian subcontinent and Asia. As part of the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), aerosol particles were sampled with stacked filter units (SFU) on the NCAR Hercules C-130 aircraft during February-March 1999. We determined the vertical and latitudinal distribution of the major inorganic aerosol components (NH4+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-) and the Br- content of the coarse aerosol to examine the role of the bromine release on the gas-phase chemistry in the marine boundary layer over the tropical Indian Ocean. The aerosol mass and composition varied significantly with air mass origin and sampling location. In the northern part of the Indian Ocean (5°-15°N, 66°-73°E), high concentrations of pollution-derived inorganic species were found in the marine boundary layer extending from the sea surface to about 1.2 km above sea level. In this layer, the average mass concentration of all aerosol species detected by our technique was comparable to pollution levels observed in industrialized regions. In the Southern Hemisphere (1°-9°S, 66°- 73°E), the aerosol concentrations rapidly declined to remote background levels. A chloride loss from the coarse aerosol particles was observed in parallel to the latitudinal gradient of the non sea salt SO42- burden. In most of the samples, Br- was depleted from the sea-salt aerosols. However, we found an enrichment in bromide in aerosols affected by air masses originating over strong pollution sources in India (Bombay, Calcutta). In these cases the additional pollution-derived Br from organo-halogen additives in petrol

  12. Water deficit and salt stress diagnosis through LED induced chlorophyll fluorescence analysis in Jatropha curcas L. oil plants for biodiesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia-Neto, Artur S.; Silva, Elias A., Jr.; Oliveira, Ronaldo A.; Cunha, Patrícia C.; Costa, Ernande B.; Câmara, Terezinha J. R.; Willadino, Lilia G.

    2011-02-01

    Light-emitting-diode induced chlorophyll fluorescence analysis is employed to investigate the effect of water and salt stress upon the growth process of physicnut(jatropha curcas) grain oil plants for biofuel. Red(Fr) and far-red (FFr) chlorophyll fluorescence emission signals around 685 nm and 735 nm, respectively, were observed and examined as a function of the stress intensity(salt concentration and water deficit) for a period of time of 30 days. The chlorophyll fluorescence(ChlF) ratio Fr/FFr which is a valuable nondestructive and nonintrusive indicator of the chlorophyll content of leaves was exploited to monitor the level of stress experienced by the jatropha plants. The ChlF technique data indicated that salinity plays a minor role in the chlorophyll concentration of leaves tissues for NaCl concentrations in the 25 to 200 mM range, and results agreed quite well with those obtained using conventional destructive spectrophotometric methods. Nevertheless, for higher NaCl concentrations a noticeable decrease in the Chl content was observed. The Chl fluorescence ratio analysis also permitted detection of damage caused by water deficit in the early stages of the plants growing process. A significant variation of the Fr/FFr ratio was observed sample in the first 10 days of the experiment when one compared control and nonwatered samples. The results suggest that the technique may potentially be applied as an early-warning indicator of stress caused by water deficit.

  13. Effects of harvest date, irrigation level, cultivar type and fruit water content on olive mill wastewater generated by a laboratory scale 'Abencor' milling system.

    PubMed

    Aviani, I; Raviv, M; Hadar, Y; Saadi, I; Dag, A; Ben-Gal, A; Yermiyahu, U; Zipori, I; Laor, Y

    2012-03-01

    Olive mill wastewaters (OMW) were obtained at laboratory scale by milling olives from four cultivars grown at different irrigation levels and harvested at different times. Samples were compared based on wastewater quantity, pH, suspended matter, salinity, organic load, total phenols, NPK, and phytotoxicity. Principal component analysis discriminated between harvest times, regardless of olive cultivar, indicating substantial influence of fruit ripeness on OMW characteristics. OMW properties were affected both by the composition and the extraction efficiency of fruit water. As the fruit water content increased, the concentrations of solutes in the fruit water decreased, but the original fruit water composed a larger portion of the total wastewater volume. These contradicting effects resulted in lack of correlation between fruit water content and OMW properties. The significant effects shown for fruit ripeness, irrigation and cultivar on OMW characteristics indicate that olive horticultural conditions should be considered in future OMW management. PMID:22226593

  14. Increased Cerebral Water Content in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Ana Sofia; Gras, Vincent; Tiffin-Richards, Frances; Mirzazade, Shahram; Holschbach, Bernhard; Frank, Rolf Dario; Vassiliadou, Athina; Krüger, Thilo; Eitner, Frank; Gross, Theresa; Schulz, Jörg Bernhard; Floege, Jürgen; Shah, Nadim Jon

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available on the impact of hemodialysis on cerebral water homeostasis and its distribution in chronic kidney disease. We used a neuropsychological test battery, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a novel technique for quantitative measurement of localized water content using 3T MRI to investigate ten hemodialysis patients (HD) on a dialysis-free day and after hemodialysis (2.4±2.2 hours), and a matched healthy control group with the same time interval. Neuropsychological testing revealed mainly attentional and executive cognitive dysfunction in HD. Voxel-based-morphometry showed only marginal alterations in the right inferior medial temporal lobe white matter in HD compared to controls. Marked increases in global brain water content were found in the white matter, specifically in parietal areas, in HD patients compared to controls. Although the global water content in the gray matter did not differ between the two groups, regional increases of brain water content in particular in parieto-temporal gray matter areas were observed in HD patients. No relevant brain hydration changes were revealed before and after hemodialysis. Whereas longer duration of dialysis vintage was associated with increased water content in parieto-temporal-occipital regions, lower intradialytic weight changes were negatively correlated with brain water content in these areas in HD patients. Worse cognitive performance on an attention task correlated with increased hydration in frontal white matter. In conclusion, long-term HD is associated with altered brain tissue water homeostasis mainly in parietal white matter regions, whereas the attentional domain in the cognitive dysfunction profile in HD could be linked to increased frontal white matter water content. PMID:25826269

  15. WATER LEVEL AND OXYGEN DELIVERY/UTILIZATION IN POROUS SALT MARSH SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasing terrestrial nutrient inputs to coastal waters is a global water quality issue worldwide, and salt marshes may provide a valuable nutrient buffer, either by direct removal or by smoothing out pulse inputs between sources and sensitive estuarine habitats. A major challen...

  16. Tensile properties and translaminar fracture toughness of glass fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester resin composites aged in distilled and salt water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiman, Gozali, M. Hulaifi; Setyawan, Paryanto Dwi

    2016-03-01

    Glass fiber reinforced polymer has been widely used in chemical industry and transportation due to lightweight and cost effective manufacturing. However due to the ability to absorb water from the environment, the durability issue is of interest for up to days. This paper investigated the water uptake and the effect of absorbed water on the tensile properties and the translaminar fracture toughness of glass fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester composites (GFRP) aged in distilled and salt water up to 30 days at a temperature of 50°C. It has been shown that GFRP absorbed more water in distilled water than in salt water. In distilled water, the tensile strength of GFRP tends to decrease steeply at 7 days and then slightly recovered for further immersion time. In salt water, the tensile strength tends to decrease continually up to 30 days immersion. The translaminar fracture toughness of GFRP aged in both distilled and salt-water shows the similar behavior. The translaminar fracture toughness increases after 7 days immersion and then tends to decrease beyond that immersion time. In the existence of ionics content in salt water, it causes more detrimental effect on the mechanical properties of fiberglass/unsaturated polyester composites compared to that of distilled water.

  17. Interaction of ionic liquid with water with variation of water content in 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6])/TX-100/water ternary microemulsions monitored by solvent and rotational relaxation of coumarin 153 and coumarin 490.

    PubMed

    Seth, Debabrata; Chakraborty, Anjan; Setua, Palash; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2007-06-14

    The interaction of water with room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) [bmim][PF6] has been studied in [bmim][PF6]/TX-100/water ternary microemulsions by solvent and rotational relaxation of coumarin 153 (C-153) and coumarin 490 (C-490). The rotational relaxation and average solvation time of C-153 and C-490 gradually decrease with increase in water content of the microemulsions. The gradual increase in the size of the microemulsion with increase in w0 (w0=[water]/[surfactant]) is evident from dynamic light scattering measurements. Consequently the mobility of the water molecules also increases. In comparison to pure water the retardation of solvation time in the RTIL containing ternary microemulsions is very less. The authors have also reported the solvation time of C-490 in neat [bmim][PF6]. The solvation time of C-490 in neat [bmim][PF6] is bimodal with time constants of 400 ps and 1.10 ns. PMID:17581068

  18. Interaction of ionic liquid with water with variation of water content in 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6])/TX-100/water ternary microemulsions monitored by solvent and rotational relaxation of coumarin 153 and coumarin 490

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seth, Debabrata; Chakraborty, Anjan; Setua, Palash; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2007-06-01

    The interaction of water with room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) [bmim][PF6] has been studied in [bmim][PF6]/TX-100/water ternary microemulsions by solvent and rotational relaxation of coumarin 153 (C-153) and coumarin 490 (C-490). The rotational relaxation and average solvation time of C-153 and C-490 gradually decrease with increase in water content of the microemulsions. The gradual increase in the size of the microemulsion with increase in w0 (w0=[water]/[surfactant]) is evident from dynamic light scattering measurements. Consequently the mobility of the water molecules also increases. In comparison to pure water the retardation of solvation time in the RTIL containing ternary microemulsions is very less. The authors have also reported the solvation time of C-490 in neat [bmim][PF6]. The solvation time of C-490 in neat [bmim][PF6] is bimodal with time constants of 400ps and 1.10ns.

  19. Some characteristics of protein precipitation by salts.

    PubMed

    Shih, Y C; Prausnitz, J M; Blanch, H W

    1992-12-01

    The solubilities of lysozyme, alpha-chymotrypsin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied in aqueous electrolyte solution as a function of ionic strength, pH, the chemical nature of salt, and initial protein concentration. Compositions were measured for both the supernatant phase and the precipitate phase at 25 degrees C. Salts studied were sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, and sodium phosphate. For lysozyme, protein concentrations in supernatant and precipitate phases are independent of the initial protein concentration; solubility can be represented by the Cohn salting-out equation. Lysozyme has a minimum solubility around pH 10, close to its isoelectric point (pH 10.5). The effectiveness of the three salts studied for precipitation were in the sequence sulfate > phosphate > chloride, consistent with the Hofmeister series. However, for alpha-chymotrypsin and BSA, initial protein concentration affects the apparent equillibrium solubility. For these proteins, experimental results show that the compositions of the precipitate phase are also affected by the initial protein concentration. We define a distribution coefficient kappa(e) to represent the equilibrium ratio of the protein concentration in the supernatant phase to that in the precipitate phase. When the salt concentration is constant, the results show that, for lysozyme, the protein concentrations in both phases are independent of the initial protein concentrations, and thus kappa(e) is a constant. For alpha-chymotrypsin and BSA, their concentrations in both phases are nearly proportional to the initial protein concentrations, and therefore, for each protein, at constant salt concentration, the distribution coefficient kappa(e) is independent of the initial protein concentration. However, for both lysozyme and alpha-chymotrypsin, the distribution coefficient falls with increasing salt concentration. These results indicate that care must be used in the definition of solubility. Solubility is appropriate

  20. Estimating the vegetation water content using a radar vegetation index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation water content is an important biophysical parameter. Here, the Radar Vegetation Index (RVI) based on polarimetric backscatter observations was evaluated for estimating vegetation water content. Analysis utilized a data set obtained by a ground-based multi-frequency polarimetric scatterome...

  1. Electromyogram as a measure of heavy metal toxicity in fresh water and salt water mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Kidder, G.W. III |; McCoy, A.A. |

    1996-02-01

    The response of bivalves to heavy metals and other toxins has usually been determined by observing valve position. Since mussels close their valves to avoid noxious stimuli, experimental delivery of chemicals ins uncertain. To obtain constant results plastic spacers can be employed to hold the valves apart. This obviates valve position as an index of response and some other method is required. Electromyography of intact mussels is one such index, giving a simple, effective, and quantitative measurement of activity. Experiments are reported in this article on the effects of added mercury on salt water and fresh water species.

  2. Salt-water-freshwater transient upconing - An implicit boundary-element solution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kemblowski, M.

    1985-01-01

    The boundary-element method is used to solve the set of partial differential equations describing the flow of salt water and fresh water separated by a sharp interface in the vertical plane. In order to improve the accuracy and stability of the numerical solution, a new implicit scheme was developed for calculating the motion of the interface. The performance of this scheme was tested by means of numerical simulation. The numerical results are compared to experimental results for a salt-water upconing under a drain problem. ?? 1985.

  3. Effect of initial hydrogen content of a titanium alloy on susceptibility to hot-salt stress-corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, H. R.

    1971-01-01

    The Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V alloy was tested in four conditions: mill annealed (70 ppM H), duplex annealed (70 ppM H), vacuum annealed to an intermediate (36 ppM) and a low (9 ppM H) hydrogen level. Material annealed at 650 C (duplex condition) exhibited resistance to hot-salt stress corrosion superior to that exhibited by material in the mill-annealed condition. Reduction of the alloy hydrogen content from 70 to as low as 9 ppM did not influence resistance to hot-salt stress corrosion embrittlement or cracking.

  4. Corrosion of aluminides by molten nitrate salt

    SciTech Connect

    Tortorelli, P.F.; Bishop, P.S.

    1990-01-01

    The corrosion of titanium-, iron-, and nickel-based aluminides by a highly aggressive, oxidizing NaNO{sub 3}(-KNO{sub 3})-Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} has been studied at 650{degree}C. It was shown that weight changes could be used to effectively evaluate corrosion behavior in the subject nitrate salt environments provided these data were combined with salt analyses and microstructural examinations. The studies indicated that the corrosion of relatively resistant aluminides by these nitrate salts proceeded by oxidation and a slow release from an aluminum-rich product layer into the salt at rates lower than that associated with many other types of metallic materials. The overall corrosion process and resulting rate depended on the particular aluminide being exposed. In order to minimize corrosion of nickel or iron aluminides, it was necessary to have aluminum concentrations in excess of 30 at. %. However, even at a concentration of 50 at. % Al, the corrosion resistance of TiAl was inferior to that of Ni{sub 3}Al and Fe{sub 3}Al. At higher aluminum concentrations, iron, nickel, and iron-nickel aluminides exhibited quite similar weight changes, indicative of the principal role of aluminum in controlling the corrosion process in NaNO{sub 3}(-KNO{sub 3})-Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} salts. 20 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Geophysical methods to support correct water sampling locations for salt dilution gauging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comina, C.; Lasagna, M.; De Luca, D. A.; Sambuelli, L.

    2014-05-01

    To improve water management design, particularly in irrigation areas, it is important to evaluate the baseline state of the water resources, including canal discharge. Discharge measurements, using salt dilution gauging, are a traditional and well-documented technique. The complete mixing of salt used for dilution gauging is required for reliable measurements; this condition is difficult to test or verify and, if not fulfilled, is the largest source of uncertainty in the discharge calculation. In this paper, a geophysical technique (FERT, Fast Electrical Resistivity Tomography) is proposed for imaging the distribution of the salt plume used for dilution gauging at every point along a sampling cross-section. In this way, it is possible to check whether complete mixing has occurred. If the mixing is not complete, the image created by FERT can also provide guidance for selecting water-sampling locations in the sampling cross-section. A water multi-sampling system prototype for the simultaneous sampling of canal water at different points within the cross-section, aimed to potentially take into account concentration variability, is also proposed and tested. Preliminary results of a single test with salt dilution gauging and FERT in a real case are reported. The results show that imaging the passage of the salt plume is possible by means of geophysical controls and that this can potentially help in the selection of water sampling points.

  6. Nitric Oxide Mitigates Salt Stress by Regulating Levels of Osmolytes and Antioxidant Enzymes in Chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Abdel Latef, Arafat A.; Hashem, Abeer; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.; Gucel, Salih; Tran, Lam-Son P.

    2016-01-01

    This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO) in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants. SNAP (50 μM) was applied to chickpea plants grown under non-saline and saline conditions (50 and 100 mM NaCl). Salt stress inhibited growth and biomass yield, leaf relative water content (LRWC) and chlorophyll content of chickpea plants. High salinity increased electrolyte leakage, carotenoid content and the levels of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, soluble proteins and soluble sugars), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase in chickpea plants. Expression of the representative SOD, CAT and APX genes examined was also up-regulated in chickpea plants by salt stress. On the other hand, exogenous application of NO to salinized plants enhanced the growth parameters, LRWC, photosynthetic pigment production and levels of osmolytes, as well as the activities of examined antioxidant enzymes which is correlated with up-regulation of the examined SOD, CAT and APX genes, in comparison with plants treated with NaCl only. Furthermore, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and MDA contents showed decline in salt-stressed plants supplemented with NO as compared with those in NaCl-treated plants alone. Thus, the exogenous application of NO protected chickpea plants against salt stress-induced oxidative damage by enhancing the biosyntheses of antioxidant enzymes, thereby improving plant growth under saline stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO has capability to mitigate the adverse effects of high salinity on chickpea plants by improving LRWC, photosynthetic pigment biosyntheses, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system. PMID:27066020

  7. Nitric Oxide Mitigates Salt Stress by Regulating Levels of Osmolytes and Antioxidant Enzymes in Chickpea.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Abdel Latef, Arafat A; Hashem, Abeer; Abd Allah, Elsayed F; Gucel, Salih; Tran, Lam-Son P

    2016-01-01

    This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO) in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants. SNAP (50 μM) was applied to chickpea plants grown under non-saline and saline conditions (50 and 100 mM NaCl). Salt stress inhibited growth and biomass yield, leaf relative water content (LRWC) and chlorophyll content of chickpea plants. High salinity increased electrolyte leakage, carotenoid content and the levels of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, soluble proteins and soluble sugars), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase in chickpea plants. Expression of the representative SOD, CAT and APX genes examined was also up-regulated in chickpea plants by salt stress. On the other hand, exogenous application of NO to salinized plants enhanced the growth parameters, LRWC, photosynthetic pigment production and levels of osmolytes, as well as the activities of examined antioxidant enzymes which is correlated with up-regulation of the examined SOD, CAT and APX genes, in comparison with plants treated with NaCl only. Furthermore, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and MDA contents showed decline in salt-stressed plants supplemented with NO as compared with those in NaCl-treated plants alone. Thus, the exogenous application of NO protected chickpea plants against salt stress-induced oxidative damage by enhancing the biosyntheses of antioxidant enzymes, thereby improving plant growth under saline stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO has capability to mitigate the adverse effects of high salinity on chickpea plants by improving LRWC, photosynthetic pigment biosyntheses, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system. PMID:27066020

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF SALT CONTENT AT DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF TERASI TO THE SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF SAMBAL TERASI, THE CHILI SAUCE ADDED WITH TERASI.

    PubMed

    Ambarita, N T Damanik; De Meulenaer, B

    2015-01-01

    The type of terasi (the Indonesian seafood fermented paste) and the ingredients used can give sambal terasi (ST), the chili sauce added with terasi, its identity and taste distinction. Inherit from its production, salt content differs the flavor(s) of product added with terasi. This research explored the role of terasi salt content, either from the origin of terasi or by salt adjustment, to the products acceptability and sensory characteristics perceived during subsequent sensorial evaluations. Six types of terasi were characterized based on the proximate and salt content, and prepared as STs with and without salt adjustment at several terasi concentrations. 118 panelists conducted sensory evaluations for overall acceptability at 12.5% terasi; at lower concentration specific tastes (sweet, bitter, salty, sour, umami, fishy and rebon) were characterized by 80 panelists. Results showed that the acceptance of ST is more due to its innate origin salt content and to the suitability saltiness perceived. The specific odor of terasi, combining with other taste(s), when prepared at higher terasi concentration as practiced in restaurant, home and commercial products showed masking effect(s). After saltiness adjusted, different types of terasi showed different taste characteristics. Preferred ST were different between higher and lower concentration. Better tastes characteristics and stronger spices taste were found at lower salt content (and terasi concentration). PMID:26630752

  9. How Do Changes to the Railroad Causeway in Utah's Great Salt Lake Affect Water and Salt Flow?

    PubMed

    White, James S; Null, Sarah E; Tarboton, David G

    2015-01-01

    Managing terminal lake elevation and salinity are emerging problems worldwide. We contribute to terminal lake management research by quantitatively assessing water and salt flow for Utah's Great Salt Lake. In 1959, Union Pacific Railroad constructed a rock-filled causeway across the Great Salt Lake, separating the lake into a north and south arm. Flow between the two arms was limited to two 4.6 meter wide rectangular culverts installed during construction, an 88 meter opening (referred to locally as a breach) installed in 1984, and the semi porous material of the causeway. A salinity gradient developed between the two arms of the lake over time because the south arm receives approximately 95% of the incoming streamflow entering Great Salt Lake. The north arm is often at, or near, salinity saturation, averaging 317 g/L since 1966, while the south is considerably less saline, averaging 142 g/L since 1966. Ecological and industrial uses of the lake are dependent on long-term salinity remaining within physiological and economic thresholds, although optimal salinity varies for the ecosystem and between diverse stakeholders. In 2013, Union Pacific Railroad closed causeway culverts amid structural safety concerns and proposed to replace them with a bridge, offering four different bridge designs. As of summer 2015, no bridge design has been decided upon. We investigated the effect that each of the proposed bridge designs would have on north and south arm Great Salt Lake elevation and salinity by updating and applying US Geological Survey's Great Salt Lake Fortran Model. Overall, we found that salinity is sensitive to bridge size and depth, with larger designs increasing salinity in the south arm and decreasing salinity in the north arm. This research illustrates that flow modifications within terminal lakes cannot be separated from lake salinity, ecology, management, and economic uses. PMID:26641101

  10. How Do Changes to the Railroad Causeway in Utah’s Great Salt Lake Affect Water and Salt Flow?

    PubMed Central

    White, James S.; Null, Sarah E.; Tarboton, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Managing terminal lake elevation and salinity are emerging problems worldwide. We contribute to terminal lake management research by quantitatively assessing water and salt flow for Utah’s Great Salt Lake. In 1959, Union Pacific Railroad constructed a rock-filled causeway across the Great Salt Lake, separating the lake into a north and south arm. Flow between the two arms was limited to two 4.6 meter wide rectangular culverts installed during construction, an 88 meter opening (referred to locally as a breach) installed in 1984, and the semi porous material of the causeway. A salinity gradient developed between the two arms of the lake over time because the south arm receives approximately 95% of the incoming streamflow entering Great Salt Lake. The north arm is often at, or near, salinity saturation, averaging 317 g/L since 1966, while the south is considerably less saline, averaging 142 g/L since 1966. Ecological and industrial uses of the lake are dependent on long-term salinity remaining within physiological and economic thresholds, although optimal salinity varies for the ecosystem and between diverse stakeholders. In 2013, Union Pacific Railroad closed causeway culverts amid structural safety concerns and proposed to replace them with a bridge, offering four different bridge designs. As of summer 2015, no bridge design has been decided upon. We investigated the effect that each of the proposed bridge designs would have on north and south arm Great Salt Lake elevation and salinity by updating and applying US Geological Survey’s Great Salt Lake Fortran Model. Overall, we found that salinity is sensitive to bridge size and depth, with larger designs increasing salinity in the south arm and decreasing salinity in the north arm. This research illustrates that flow modifications within terminal lakes cannot be separated from lake salinity, ecology, management, and economic uses. PMID:26641101

  11. The MODIS Vegetation Canopy Water Content product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustin, S. L.; Riano, D.; Trombetti, M.

    2008-12-01

    Vegetation water stress drives wildfire behavior and risk, having important implications for biogeochemical cycling in natural ecosystems, agriculture, and forestry. Water stress limits plant transpiration and carbon gain. The regulation of photosynthesis creates close linkages between the carbon, water, and energy cycles and through metabolism to the nitrogen cycle. We generated systematic weekly CWC estimated for the USA from 2000-2006. MODIS measures the sunlit reflectance of the vegetation in the visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared. Radiative transfer models, such as PROSPECT-SAILH, determine how sunlight interacts with plant and soil materials. These models can be applied over a range of scales and ecosystem types. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were used to optimize the inversion of these models to determine vegetation water content. We carried out multi-scale validation of the product using field data, airborne and satellite cross-calibration. An Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) of the product is under evaluation by NASA. The CWC product inputs are 1) The MODIS Terra/Aqua surface reflectance product (MOD09A1/MYD09A1) 2) The MODIS land cover map product (MOD12Q1) reclassified to grassland, shrub-land and forest canopies; 3) An ANN trained with PROSPECT-SAILH; 4) A calibration file for each land cover type. The output is an ENVI file with the CWC values. The code is written in Matlab environment and is being adapted to read not only the 8 day MODIS composites, but also daily surface reflectance data. We plan to incorporate the cloud and snow mask and generate as output a geotiff file. Vegetation water content estimates will help predicting linkages between biogeochemical cycles, which will enable further understanding of feedbacks to atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. It will also serve to estimate primary productivity of the biosphere; monitor/assess natural vegetation health related to drought, pollution or diseases

  12. Responses of Water and Salt Parameters to Groundwater Levels for Soil Columns Planted with Tamarix chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jiangbao; Zhao, Ximei; Chen, Yinping; Fang, Ying; Zhao, Ziguo

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is the main water resource for plant growth and development in the saline soil of the Yellow River Delta in China. To investigate the variabilities and distributions of soil water and salt contents at various groundwater level (GL), soil columns with planting Tamarix chinensis Lour were established at six different GL. The results demonstrated the following: With increasing GL, the relative soil water content (RWC) declined significantly, whereas the salt content (SC) and absolute soil solution concentration (CS) decreased after the initial increase in the different soil profiles. A GL of 1.2 m was the turning point for variations in the soil water and salt contents, and it represented the highest GL that could maintain the soil surface moist within the soil columns. Both the SC and CS reached the maximum levels in these different soil profiles at a GL of 1.2 m. With the raise of soil depth, the RWC increased significantly, whereas the SC increased after an initial decrease. The mean SC values reached 0.96% in the top soil layer; however, the rates at which the CS and RWC decreased with the GL were significantly reduced. The RWC and SC presented the greatest variations at the medium (0.9–1.2 m) and shallow water levels (0.6 m) respectively, whereas the CS presented the greatest variation at the deep water level (1.5–1.8 m).The RWC, SC and CS in the soil columns were all closely related to the GL. However, the correlations among the parameters varied greatly within different soil profiles, and the most accurate predictions of the GL were derived from the RWC in the shallow soil layer or the SC in the top soil layer. A GL at 1.5–1.8 m was moderate for planting T. chinensis seedlings under saline groundwater conditions. PMID:26730602

  13. Dietary salt loading and ion-poor water exposure provide insight into the molecular physiology of the rainbow trout gill epithelium tight junction complex.

    PubMed

    Kolosov, Dennis; Kelly, Scott P

    2016-08-01

    This study utilized dietary salt loading and ion-poor water (IPW) exposure of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to further understand the role of fish gill epithelium tight junction (TJ) physiology in salt and water balance. Gill morphology, biochemistry and molecular physiology were examined, with an emphasis on genes encoding TJ proteins. Fish were either fed a control or salt-enriched diet (~10 % NaCl) for 4 weeks prior to IPW exposure for 24 h. Serum [Na(+)], [Cl(-)] and muscle moisture content were unaltered by salt feeding, but changed in response to IPW irrespective of diet. Dietary salt loading altered the morphology (reduced Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase-immunoreactive cell numbers and surface exposure of mitochondrion-rich cells), biochemistry (decreased vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase activity) and molecular physiology (decreased nkaα1a and cftrII mRNA abundance) of the gill in a manner indicative of reduced active ion uptake activity. But in control fish and not salt-fed fish, gill mRNA abundance of nkaα1c increased and nbc decreased after IPW exposure. Genes encoding TJ proteins were typically either responsive to salt feeding or IPW, but select genes responded to combined experimental treatment (e.g. IPW responsive but only if fish were salt-fed). Therefore, using salt feeding and IPW exposure, new insights into what factors influence gill TJ proteins and the role that specific TJ proteins might play in regulating the barrier properties of the gill epithelium have been acquired. In particular, evidence suggests that TJ proteins in the gill epithelium, or the regulatory networks that control them, respond independently to external or internal stimuli. PMID:27083431

  14. NITRATE RELEASE BY SALT MARSH PLANTS: AN OVERLOOKED NUTRIENT FLUX MECHANISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salt marshes provide water purification as an important ecosystem service in part by storing, transforming and releasing nutrients. This service can be quantified by measuring nutrient fluxes between marshes and surface waters. Many processes drive these fluxes, including photosy...

  15. Offshore Stratigraphic Controls on Salt-Water Intrusion in Los Angeles Area Coastal Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, B. D.; Ponti, D. J.; Ehman, K. D.; Tinsley, J. C.; Reichard, E. G.

    2002-12-01

    Ground water is a major component of the water supply for the ~10 million residents of Los Angeles County. Ground water pumping, linked to population growth since the early 1900's, caused water levels to decline, reversed seaward hydraulic gradients in some coastal aquifers, and resulted in salt water intrusion. United States Geological Survey geologists and hydrologists are working cooperatively with local water agencies to (1) understand and model the process of salt-water intrusion in this siliciclastic, structurally complex basin, and (2) identify potential pathways for the salt-water intrusion. We collected over 2000 trackline-km of single- and multi-channel intermediate- and high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles (60 to 5000 Hz) from the Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor complex and the adjacent San Pedro shelf to develop a 3-dimensional stratigraphic model of the coastal aquifer system. These data define stratal geometries, paleo-channels, and fault traces in the offshore that are potential pathways of salt-water intrusion. The offshore seismic-reflection profiles correlate with onshore geophysical and borehole data collected from four nearby drill sites that were cored continuously to depths ranging to 400 meters. These core holes provide detailed 1-dimensional reference sections that furnish stratigraphic, age, and facies control for the seismic-reflection profiles. The coastal aquifer system is described using sequence stratigraphic concepts as units deposited during eustatic sea level fluctuations during the Pleistocene to Recent. Seismic-reflection profiles identify sequence boundaries, and hence aquifer and aquitard units, by the truncation and onlap of reflectors. If and where the sequences crop out on the sea floor provides a potential pathway for intrusion. The youngest unit, the Gaspur aquifer, is intruded with salt water and consists of at least two flat-lying sequences, each marked by basal gravelly sands deposited by the ancestral Los Angeles

  16. Rise and fall of road salt contamination of water-supply springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Eberhard; Dipretoro, Richard S.

    2006-12-01

    A storage pile of de-icing agent consisting principally of sodium chloride was placed in the recharge area of two springs, and remained there for 2 years. Water flow is through fractures in rocks with low matrix permeability, along a hydraulic gradient developed along fracture zones. Salt contamination in the springs was noticed about 1 year after the salt was placed. When the salt was removed 1 year later, chloride concentrations in the springs exceeded 500 mg/L. Monitoring for the following 5 years showed salt contamination rising for the first year, but receding to normal background after 5 years. Chloride to sodium ratios of the spring waters indicated that some sodium was initially sequestered, probably by ion exchange on clay minerals, in the early part of the monitoring period, and released during the latter part; thereby extending the period of contamination.

  17. Chemical quality of ground water in Salt Lake Valley, Utah, 1969-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddell, K.M.; Seiler, R.L.; Solomon, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    During 1979-84, 35 wells completed in the principal aquifer in the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, that had been sampled during 1962-67 were resampled to determine if water-quality changes had occurred. The dissolved-solids concentration of the water from 13 of the wells has increased by more than 10 percent since 1962-67.

  18. The relationship between water content and swelling parameters of soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samet Öngen, Ali; Abiddin Ergüler, Zeynal

    2016-04-01

    The level of swelling dependent damages of low-rising engineering structures constructed on and/or in unsaturated zone of soil deposits is generally controlled by mineralogical compositions and water content of soils. It is well known that seasonal or even daily variations in water content causes volumetric changes within unsaturated zone of a soil composed mainly of swelling type clay minerals. In this regard, in addition to mineralogical composition of soils, water content should be considered as another major factor for understanding swelling behavior of soils. It can be concluded from literature review that swelling parameters of soils were determined by performing experimental studies on dry samples or samples having natural water content without incorporating seasonal continuous variations in water content. Thus, the effect of variation in water content on swelling mechanism of soils is not yet sufficiently studied in previous studies. For achieving accurate understanding of swelling behavior at field conditions, a new approach is required to identify swelling parameter at different initial water content. For this purpose, a comprehensive study was performed to investigate the effect of water content on swelling behavior of soils and to find a new parameter for assessing swelling parameters of samples prepared at different initial water content conditions. Based on main objectives of this study, soil samples having wide range in terms of grain size distributions, mineralogical compositions and Atterberg limits were collected from different locations in Turkey. To minimize the effect of dry unit weight on swelling behavior of soils, samples were prepared at the same dry unit weight (14.6 kN/m3) and different initial water contents. It was determined that there is a linear relationship between initial water content and swelling parameters, and swelling parameters decrease with increasing initial water content conditions. By utilizing this relationship, a new

  19. [Alleviation of salt stress during maize seed germination by presoaking with exogenous sugar].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Yang, Ke-jun; Li, Zuo-tong; Zhao, Chang-jiang; Xu, Jing-yu; Hu, Xue- wei; Shi, Xin-xin; Ma, Li-feng

    2015-09-01

    The maize variety Kenyu 6 was used to study the effects of exogenous glucose (Glc) and sucrose (Suc) on salt tolerance of maize seeds at germination stage under 150 mmol · L(-1) NaCl treatment. Results showed that under salt stress condition, 0.5 mmol · L(-1) exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking could promote seed germination and early seedling growth. Compared with the salt treatment, Glc presoaking increased the shoot length, radicle length and corresponding dry mass up to 1.5, 1.3, 2.1 and 1.8 times, and those of the Suc presoaking treatment increased up to 1.7, 1.3. 2.7 and 1.9 times, respectively. Exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking resulted in decreased levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content of maize shoot under salt stress, which were lowered by 24.9% and 20.6% respectively. Exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking could increase the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and induce glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity of maize shoot under salt stress. Compared with the salt treatment. Glc presoaking increased the activity of SOD, APX, GPX, GR and G6PDH by 66.2%, 62.9%, 32.0%, 38.5% and 50.5%, and those of the Suc presoaking increased by 67.5%, 59.8%, 30.0%, 38.5% and 50.4%, respectively. Glc and Suc presoaking also significantly increased the contents of ascorbic acid (ASA) and glutathione (GSH), ASA/DHA and GSH/GSSG. The G6PDH activity was found closely related with the strong antioxidation capacity induced by exogenous sugars. In addition, Glc and Suc presoaking enhanced K+/Na+ in maize shoot by 1.3 and 1.4 times of water soaking salt treatment, respectively. These results indicated that exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking could improve antioxidation capacity of maize seeds and maintain the in vivo K+/Na+ ion balance to alleviate the inhibitory effect of salt stress on maize seed germination. PMID:26785556

  20. Monitoring the oleuropein content of olive leaves and fruits using ultrasound- and salt-assisted liquid-liquid extraction optimized by response surface methodology and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ismaili, Ahmad; Heydari, Rouhollah; Rezaeepour, Reza

    2016-01-01

    A novel and rapid ultrasound- and salt-assisted liquid-liquid extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography has been optimized by response surface methodology for the determination of oleuropein from olive leaves. Box-Behnken design was used for optimizing the main parameters including ultrasound time (A), pH (B), salt concentration (C), and volume of miscible organic solvent (D). In this technique, a mixture of plant sample and extraction solvent was subjected to ultrasound waves. After ultrasound-assisted extraction, phase separation was performed by the addition of salt to the liquid phase. The optimal conditions for the highest extraction yield of oleuropein were ultrasound time, 30 min; volume of organic solvent, 2.5 mL; salt concentration, 25% w/v; and sample pH, 4. Experimental data were fitted with a quadratic model. Analysis of variance results show that BC interaction, A(2) , B(2) , C(2) , and D(2) are significant model terms. Unlike the conventional extraction methods for plant extracts, no evaporation and reconstitution operations were needed in the proposed technique. PMID:26530030

  1. Modeling of salt-water migration through spod-podzolic soils under the field and laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronzhina, Tatiana

    2013-04-01

    The assessment of highly mineralized water influence on soils is an important issue in the contemporary world. Various regions with different conditions are exposed to salt-affected soils forming. Salinization of soils is a complex process of the chemical and physical properties changes. Therefore the chain of the laboratory and field experiments should be done in order to assess the main factors promoting highly mineralized water migration. In addition to it modelling is a good way to understand and evaluate main chemical and physical transformations in soils. The chain of experiments was done to assess salt water movement in spod-podzolic soils under field and laboratory conditions. The main goals were to evaluate the rate of salt water movement through soils and to estimate velocity of the desalinization process. Field experiment was conducted on spod-podzolic soils of Kaliningrad region. There were 4 sites measuring 20*25 cm watering with salt water in amount of 5 liters per each area. The mineralization of the solution was 100 g/l. In addition to the salt affected sites, 2 non polluted grounds were assessed too. Soils samples were collected in the period of 1 week, 1 month, 3 month and 1 year after the spill had been done. The samples were taken each 10 cm 110 cm deep and in double repeatability. Main chemical and physical parameters, such as volume water content, pH, conductivity, amount of calcium ion, magnesium, sodium, and chlorite in soils etc. were measured in each sample. The second experiment was conducted to evaluate the rate of soils solutions transformation under the laboratory conditions. Organic horizon was taken from the field and was stuffed in columns with 1.0 g/cm3 density. There were 16 columns with 4 cm diameter. 14 columns were showered with salt water with the same mineralization as in the field experiment. The amount of salt water injected in columns was 104 mm per one sample which is equal to the salt water volume spilled per one area in

  2. 46 CFR 46.10-45 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. 46... in salt water. (a) Passenger vessels required to be marked with subdivision load lines, engaged on foreign and coastwise voyages other than the Great Lakes voyages, shall not submerge in salt water...

  3. 46 CFR 46.10-45 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. 46... in salt water. (a) Passenger vessels required to be marked with subdivision load lines, engaged on foreign and coastwise voyages other than the Great Lakes voyages, shall not submerge in salt water...

  4. 46 CFR 46.10-45 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. 46... in salt water. (a) Passenger vessels required to be marked with subdivision load lines, engaged on foreign and coastwise voyages other than the Great Lakes voyages, shall not submerge in salt water...

  5. Hydrochemical investigations for delineating salt-water intrusion into the coastal aquifer of Maharlou Lake, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanshahi, Reza; Zare, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater quality depends on different factors such as geology, lithology, properties of aquifer, land use, the physical condition of boundaries etc. Studying these factors can help users to manage groundwater quality. This study deals with the groundwater quality of an aquifer located in the southeastern part of Maharlou salt lake, Iran. This lake is located in the southeast of Shiraz and is the outlet of Shiraz sewages. Due to overexploitation of groundwater from the aquifer, the gradient of water table is from the lake towards the aquifer and therefore, saline water migrates to the aquifer. The phenomenon of salt water intrusion contributes to the deterioration of groundwater. In this research, groundwater types, maps of iso EC and iso ions, ion exchange in the mixing of fresh and salt water, salinity variation of the groundwater in the profile of well water column, and the salinity-time variation of the groundwater were studied. The gradual increase of the salinity of groundwater with depth from top to down in the aquifer indicates that salt water is located under fresh water. The time variation of physical and chemical parameters in the groundwater discharged from a well shows that the saline water in the bottom of the aquifer moves upward and destroys the quality of groundwater in the study area. Furthermore, Sachoun geological formation formed by evaporate deposits and evaporation from shallow groundwater are two other factors which decrease the groundwater quality.

  6. Double inversion of emulsions induced by salt concentration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingchun; Li, Lu; Wang, Jun; Sun, Haigang; Xu, Jian; Sun, Dejun

    2012-05-01

    The effects of salt on emulsions containing sorbitan oleate (Span 80) and Laponite particles were investigated. Surprisingly, a novel double phase inversion was induced by simply changing the salt concentration. At fixed concentration of Laponite particles in the aqueous phase and surfactant in paraffin oil, emulsions are oil in water (o/w) when the concentration of NaCl is lower than 5 mM. Emulsions of water in oil (w/o) are obtained when the NaCl concentration is between 5 and 20 mM. Then the emulsions invert to o/w when the salt concentration is higher than 50 mM. In this process, different emulsifiers dominate the composition of the interfacial layer, and the emulsion type is correspondingly controlled. When the salt concentration is low in the aqueous dispersion of Laponite, the particles are discrete and can move to the interface freely. Therefore, the emulsions are stabilized by particles and surfactant, and the type is o/w as particles are in domination. At intermediate salt concentrations, the aqueous dispersions of Laponite are gel-like, the viscosity is high, and the transition of the particles from the aqueous phase to the interface is inhibited. The emulsions are stabilized mainly by lipophilic surfactant, and w/o emulsions are obtained. For high salt concentration, flocculation occurs and the viscosity of the dispersion is reduced; thus, the adsorption of particles is promoted and the type of emulsions inverts to o/w. Laser-induced fluorescent confocal micrographs and cryo transmission electron microscopy clearly confirm the adsorption of Laponite particles on the surface of o/w emulsion droplets, whereas the accumulation of particles at the w/o emulsion droplet surfaces was not observed. This mechanism is also supported by the results of rheology and interfacial tension measurements. PMID:22475400

  7. On temporal wind variations forcing salt water inflows into the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lass, H. U.; Matthäus, W.

    1996-10-01

    Salt water inflows into the Baltic Sea are important processes for maintaining the general stratification and the ventilation of the bottom water in deep basins of the central Baltic. These events occur randomly during the winter season at intervals from one to several years. This pattern changed in the mid-seventies when only weak or no major inflows were observed. During that period a steady loss of salt together with a steady increase in hydrogen sulphide concentrations was observed in the central Baltic deep water.It is generally assumed that strong westerly winds force a salt water inflow. Long time series of daily wind records at the meteorological station Arkona and sea level observations at Landsort between 1951 and 1990 have been analyzed in order to find characteristic sequences being associated with inflow events. A necessary condition for a salt water inflow is for the wind to blow from west for several tens of days. The weighted mean of the yearly cycle of the wind components for years without and with salt water inflows revealed that this condition happens usually in November and December. However, in years with inflows, a long-lasting easterly wind occurs in October and early November just before the strengthening of westerly winds. A similar sequence is observed in the yearly cycle of the mean sea level of the Baltic Sea, i.e., in years with inflows a lowering of the mean sea level precedes the increase of the sea level in November to December. Hence, major salt water inflows are very likely forced by a sequence of easterly winds in late autumn lasting for 20 30days followed by strong to very strong westerly winds of similar duration.

  8. The impact of the absence of aliphatic glucosinolates on water transport under salt stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Ballesta, Mcarmen; Moreno-Fernández, Diego A.; Castejón, Diego; Ochando, Cristina; Morandini, Piero A.; Carvajal, Micaela

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Brassicaceae are known for their contents of nutrients and health-promoting phytochemicals, including glucosinolates. Exposure to salinity increases the levels of several of these compounds, but their role in abiotic stress response is unclear. The effect of aliphatic glucosinolates on plant water balance and growth under salt stress, involving aquaporins, was investigated by means of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants impaired in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis, which is controlled by two transcription factors: Myb28 and Myb29. The double mutant myb28myb29, completely lacking aliphatic glucosinolates, was compared to wild type Col-0 (WT) and the single mutant myb28. A greater reduction in the hydraulic conductivity of myb28myb29 was observed under salt stress, when compared to the WT and myb28; this correlated with the abundance of both PIP1 and PIP2 aquaporin subfamilies. Also, changes in root architecture in response to salinity were genotype dependent. Treatment with NaCl altered glucosinolates biosynthesis in a similar way in WT and the single mutant and differently in the double mutant. The results indicate that short-chain aliphatic glucosinolates may contribute to water saving under salt stress. PMID:26236322

  9. Aldicarb and carbofuran transport in a Hapludalf influenced by differential antecedent soil water content and irrigation delay.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, H V; Anderson, S H; Goyne, K W; Gantzer, C J

    2009-01-01

    Pesticide use in agroecosystems can adversely impact groundwater quality via chemical leaching through soils. Few studies have investigated the effects of antecedent soil water content (SWC) and timing of initial irrigation (TII) after chemical application on pesticide transport and degradation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of antecedent soil water content (wet vs dry) and timing of initial irrigation (0h Delay vs 24h Delay) on aldicarb [(EZ)-2-methyl-2-(methylthio)propionaldehyde O-methylcarbamoyloxime] and carbofuran [2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate] transport and degradation parameters at a field site with Menfro silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Hapludalf) soils. Aldicarb and carbofuran were applied to plots near field capacity (wet) or near permanent wilting point (dry). Half of the dry and wet plots received irrigation water immediately after chemical application and the remaining plots were irrigated after a 24h Delay. The transport and degradation parameters were estimated using the method of moments. Statistical significance determined for SWC included averages across TII levels, and significance determined for TII included averages across SWC levels. For the dry treatment, aldicarb was detected 0.10 m deeper (P<0.01) on two of the four sampling dates and carbofuran was detected at least 0.10 m deeper (P<0.05) on all of the sampling dates compared to the wet treatment. Pore water velocity was found to be higher (P<0.10) in the dry vs wet treatments on three of four dates for aldicarb and two of four dates for carbofuran. Retardation coefficients for both pesticides showed similar evidence of reduced values for the dry vs wet treatments. These results indicate deeper pesticide movement in the initially dry treatment. For aldicarb and carbofuran, estimated values of the degradation rate were approximately 40-49% lower in the initially dry plots compared to the initially wet plots

  10. Estimation of plant water content by spectral absorption features centered at 1,450 nm and 1,940 nm regions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Xu, Ruisong; Yang, Shilun

    2009-10-01

    Vegetation water content could possibly provide widespread utility in agriculture, forestry and hydrology. In this article, three species leaves were measured radiometrically in order to determine a relationship between leaf water status and the spectral feature centered at 1,450 and 1,940 nm where there are strong water absorptions. The first step of our research is to measure leaf spectra with a FieldSpec-FR. After the spectral analysis using the continuum removal technique, the spectral absorption feature parameters: absorption band depth (D (1450), D (1940)), the normalized band depth of absorption in 1,450 and 1,940 nm (BNA(1450), BNA(1940)), the ratio of the two reflectance of continuum line (R (1450i )/R (1940i )), the ratio of the two band depth (D (1450)/D (1940)) and the ratio of the two absorption areas (A (1450)/A (1940)) in the two wavebands were extracted from each leaf spectrum. The fuel moisture content (FMC), specific leaf weight (SLW), equivalent water thickness (EWT) were measured for each leaf sample. A correlation analysis was conducted between the spectral absorption feature parameters and corresponding FMC, SLW and EWT. In addition, some existing indices for assessing water status such as WI (water index), WI/NDVI (water index/normalized difference vegetation index), MSI (moisture stress index), NDWI (normalized difference water index)were calculated and the correlation between them and water status were analyzed too. The results by comparing the correlations indicated that the spectral absorption feature indices we proposed were better. The indexes BNA(1940), D (1450)/D (1940), and A (1450)/A (1940) were well correlated with FMC, and the correlation between the indexes D (1450,) D (1940), R (1450i )/R (1940i ) and EWT were strong. The index A (1450)/A (1940) was tested to be a good indictor for evaluating plant water content, because there was strongest positive correlation between it and FMC than other indices. PMID:18853268