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1

Innovative nondestructive measurements of water activity and the content of salts in low-salt hake minces.  

PubMed

Impedance spectroscopy (IS), low-field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (LF (1)H NMR), chloride titration, ion chromatography, and an ion selective electrode were used to investigate the physicochemical parameters and measure sodium and potassium contents in low-salt brines and fish. Salt solutions (0-3 w/w, %) and model products of minced hake with added NaCl (0.5-3.0 w/w, %), or a mixture of NaCl and KCl (50/50 w/w, %), were analyzed. Good correlation was observed between the sodium content determined by using the ion selective electrode method and ion chromatography (R(2) = 0.97). In both salt solutions and fish minces, the impedance spectroscopy measurements could detect the difference in salt contents in mince with salt contents down to 0.5%. The NMR transversal relaxation time T2 measurements clearly distinguished samples with 0, 0.5, and 1.0-3.0% salt, based on principal component analysis (PCA). Therefore, LF (1)H NMR seems to be a suitable technique for studies of low-salt products. PMID:24617416

Greiff, Kirsti; Fuentes, Ana; Aursand, Ida G; Erikson, Ulf; Masot, Rafael; Alcañiz, Miguel; Barat, Jose M

2014-03-26

2

Salt Content and Water Budget of The Suez Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water body in the Suez Canal is a combination of waters from differ- ent sources. Hence, its exact hydrographic structure is very difficult to define. Three main water masses are identified along the Canal on account of their salinity values: Levantine water mass I, the Suez Bay water mass II, and the Bitter Lake water mass IV, in addition

SELIM A. MORCOS; GIRGIS F. SOLIMAN

2001-01-01

3

Measurement of leaf relative water content by infrared reflectance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From basic considerations and Beer's law, a leaf water content index incorporating reflectances of wavelengths from 0.76 to 0.90 microns and from 1.55 to 1.75 microns was developed that relates leaf reflectance to leaf relative water content. For the leaf succulent, Agave deserti, the leaf water content index was not significantly different from the relative water content for either individual leaves or an entire plant. Also, the relative water contents of intact plants of Encelia farinosa and Hilaria rigida in the field were estimated by the leaf water content index; variations in the proportion of living to dead leaf area could cause large errors in the estimate of relative water content. Thus, the leaf water content index may be able to estimate average relative water content of canopies when TM4 and TM5 are measured at a known relative water content and fraction of dead leaf material.

Hunt, E. Raymond, Jr.; Rock, Barrett N.; Nobel, Park S.

1987-01-01

4

Quaternary Diffusion Coefficients in a Protein-Polymer-Salt-Water System Determined by Rayleigh Interferometry  

E-print Network

Quaternary Diffusion Coefficients in a Protein-Polymer-Salt-Water System Determined by Rayleigh in a protein-polymer-salt-water quaternary system. Specifically, we have measured the nine multicomponent diffusion coefficients, Dij, for the lysozyme-poly(ethylene glycol)-NaCl-water system at pH 4.5 and 25 °C

Annunziata, Onofrio

5

Relative water content of Spruce needles determined by the leaf water content index  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Leaf relative water content (RWC) is defined as the volume of water in a leaf divided by the volume at full turgor. Using reflectance factors of wavelengths 0.83 micron and 1.6 microns, a Leaf Water Content Index (LWCI) was derived from the Lambert-Beer Law such that LWCI should equal RWC; LWCI was equal to RWC for Picea pungens, Picea rubens, Liquidambar styraciflua, and Quercus agrifolia. Algebraic manipulation shows that R(1.6)/R(0.83) termed the Moisture Stress Index (MSI), is near-linearly correlated to RWC and to the Equivalent Water Thickness (EWT). Five species tested so far had the same relationship between MSI and EWT, but EWT is not a measure of plant water status.

Hunt, E. Raymond, Jr.; Wong, Sam K. S.; Rock, Barrett N.

1987-01-01

6

Removal of Sea Salt Hydrate Water from Seawater-Derived Samples by Dehydration  

E-print Network

groups by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy because it absorbs at the same infrared signatures of sea salt hydrate absorbance, likely because their smaller particles and lower filter loadings absorbance in the infrared (IR) region of hydrate bound and liquid water in salt water mixtures using Fourier

Russell, Lynn

7

The detection of chlorophyll content for salt stress of the wheat seedling by hyperspectral imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An auto-development pushbroom imaging spectrometer (PIS) with wavelength range of 400-1000 nm was applied to measure the chlorophyll content of wheat seedling. It showed that according to images of spectral imaging for leaves of Chinese Spring (Salt-sensitive), Zhouyuan 9369(common and high-yield) and Changwu 134(salt-tolerant) wheat seedling under salt stress, growth of salt-sensitive Chinese Spring wheat seedling was inhibited and it was feasible to carry out qualitative analysis. Images could intuitively reflect morphological information of growth status of wheat seedling and could show spectral differences of different leaves and different locations of one leave. Also, it was feasible to identify green and yellow locations of leaf and to carry out qualitative analysis. The tested sites of spectrum and the chlorophyll content measured sites were on the same area of single leaf. After measuring the hyperspectral image of leaf, the mean reflectance spectra of each leaf was calculated Totally, 126 samples were collected, which were then divided into a calibration set and a prediction set. Partial least square regression (PLSR) method was used to build the calibration model. Results showed that the extracted hyperspectral spectra had high correlation with chlorophyll content. The correlation coefficient of the calibration model is R=0.8138, the standard error of prediction is SEP=4.75. The results indicated that hyperspectral imaging were suitable for the non-invasive detection of chlorophyll content of wheat seedling.

Wu, Qiong; Zhu, Dazhou; Wang, Cheng; Ma, Zhihong; Zhang, Dongyan; Chen, Kun; Wang, Jihua

2011-08-01

8

Control of sea-water intrusion by salt-water pumping: Coast of Oman  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A shallow alluvial coastal aquifer in the Batinah area of Oman, with sea-water intrusion that extends several kilometres inland, has been studied experimentally, analytically and numerically. The water table is proved to have a trough caused by intensive pumping from a fresh groundwater zone and evaporation from the saline phreatic surface. Resistivity traverses perpendicular to the shoreline indicated no fresh groundwater recharge into the sea. Using an analytical Dupuit-Forchheimer model, developed for the plain part of the catchment, explicit expressions for the water table, sharp interface location and stored volume of fresh water are obtained. It is shown that by the pumping of salt water from the intruded part of the aquifer, this intrusion can be mitigated. Different catchment sizes, intensities of fresh groundwater pumping, evaporation rates, water densities, sea level, incident fresh water level in the mountains and hydraulic conductivity are considered. SUTRA code is applied to a hypothetical case of a leaky aquifer with line sinks modeling fresh water withdrawal and evaporation. The numerical code also shows that pumping of saline water can pull the dispersion zone back to the shoreline.

Kacimov, A. R.; Sherif, M. M.; Perret, J. S.; Al-Mushikhi, A.

2009-05-01

9

Impact of Salt Purity on Interfacial Water Organization Revealed by Conventional and Heterodyne-Detected Vibrational Sum Frequency  

E-print Network

Impact of Salt Purity on Interfacial Water Organization Revealed by Conventional and Heterodyne of the chosen salts and their solutions. This is true not only for the ACS grade salts but also vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) and heterodyne-detected VSFG (HD-VSFG) spectroscopy that salt

10

Removal of sea salt hydrate water from seawater-derived samples by dehydration.  

PubMed

Aerosol particles produced from bubble bursting of natural seawater contain both sea salts and organic components. Depending on the temperature, pressure, and speed of drying, the salt components can form hydrates that bind water, slowing evaporation of the water, particularly if large particles or thick layers of salts undergo drying that is nonuniform and incomplete. The water bound in these salt hydrates interferes with measuring organic hydroxyl and amine functional groups by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy because it absorbs at the same infrared wavelengths. Here, a method for separating the hydrate water in sea salt hydrates using freezing and then heating in warm, dry air (70 °C) is evaluated and compared to other methods, including spectral subtraction. Laboratory-generated sea salt analogs show an efficient removal of 89% of the hydrate water absorption peak height by 24 h of heating at atmospheric pressure. The heating method was also applied to bubbled submicrometer (Sea Sweep), generated bulk (Bubbler), and atomized seawater samples, with efficient removal of 5, 22, and 39 ?g of hydrate water from samples of initial masses of 11, 30, 58 ?g, respectively. The strong spectral similarity between the difference of the initial and dehydrated spectra and the laboratory-generated sea salt hydrate spectrum provided verification of the removal of hydrate water. In contrast, samples of submicrometer atmospheric particles from marine air masses did not have detectable signatures of sea salt hydrate absorbance, likely because their smaller particles and lower filter loadings provided higher surface area to volume ratios and allowed faster and more complete drying. PMID:23181806

Frossard, Amanda A; Russell, Lynn M

2012-12-18

11

Specific ion effects induced by mono-valent salts in like charged aggregates in water.  

PubMed

While salt mediated association between similarly charged poly-electrolytes occurs in a broad range of biological and colloidal systems, the effects of mono-valent salts remains little known experimentally. In this communication we systematically study influences of assorted mono-valent salts on structures of and interactions in two dimensional ordered bundles of charged fibrils assembled in water using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS). By quantitatively analyzing the scattering peak features, we discern two competing effects with opposite influences due to partitioning of salts in the aqueous complex. While electrostatic effects from salts residing between the fibrils suppress attraction between fibrils and expand the bundles, it is compensated by external osmotic pressure from peripheral salts in the aqueous media. The balance between the two effects varies for different salts and gives rise to ion-specific equilibrium behavior as well as structure of ordered bundles in salty water. The specific ions effects in like charged aggregates can be attributed to preferential distribution of ions inside or outside the bundles, correlated to the ranking of ions in Hofmeister series for macromolecules. Unlike conventional studies on Hofmeister effects by thermodynamic measurements relying on modeling for data interpretation, our study is based directly on structural analysis and is model-insensitive. PMID:24828119

Huang, Ningdong; Tao, Jiaojiao; Liu, Jun; Wei, Shenghui; Li, Liangbin; Wu, Ziyu

2014-06-28

12

[Simulation of effect of irrigation with reclaimed water on soil water-salt movement by ENVIRO-GRO model].  

PubMed

As the conflict between water supply and demand, wastewater reuse has become an important measure, which can relieve the water shortage in Beijing. In order to promote safe irrigation with reclaimed water and prevent soil salinisation, the dynamic transport of salts in urban soils of Beijing, a city of water shortage, under irrigation of reclaimed water was simulated by ENVIRO-GRO model in this research. The accumulation trends of soil salinity were predicted. Simultaneously, it investigated the effects of different irrigation practices on soil water-salt movement and salt accumulation. Results indicated that annual averages of soil salinity (EC(e)) increased 29.5%, 97.2%, 197.8% respectively, with the higher irrigation, normal irrigation, and low irrigation under equilibrium conditions. Irrigation frequency had little effect on soil salt-water movement, and soil salt accumulation was in a downward trend with low frequency of irrigation. Under equilibrium conditions, annual averages of EC(e) increased 23.7%, 97.2%, 208.5% respectively, with irrigation water salinity (EC(w)) 0.6, 1.2, 2.4 dS x m(-1). Soil salinity increased slightly with EC(w) = 0.6 dS x m(-1), while soil salinization did not appear. Totally, the growth of Blue grass was not influenced by soil salinity under equilibrium conditions with the regular irrigation in Beijing, but mild soil salinization appeared. PMID:23379129

Lü, Si-Dan; Chen, Wei-Ping; Wang, Mei-E

2012-12-01

13

Supporting Information to "Impact of Salt Purity on Interfacial Water Organization Revealed by Conventional and  

E-print Network

S1 Supporting Information to "Impact of Salt Purity on Interfacial Water Organization Revealed stretching region (2800 3000 cm-1 ) of neat water and all stock salt solutions studied after filtering 2 to 4) comparison of all 1 M salt solutions. Neat water spectra are shown as reference. #12;

14

[Determination of the sulfate ion content in antibiotic sulfate salts by a complexometric titration method].  

PubMed

A possibility of assaying antibiotic sulfates, such as gentamicin, kanamycin, monomycin, neomycin, ristomycin, streptomycin, florimycin and polymyxin M sulfates for sulfate ions by titration with barium chloride in the presence of chlorphosphonaso-III, a metal indicator immediately in the salt solutions or after elimination of the cation by means of ion exchange (sulfocation exchange resins in H+-form) was tested. The procedure was shown to be adequate to the classical weight method. PMID:7469396

Kartseva, V D; Lokshin, G B; Libinson, G S; Kruzhkova, N G

1980-12-01

15

Clear salt water versus clear pure water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A controlled experiment allows an investigator to conduct the experiment by changing only one single factor while keeping all other variables constant. The factor that was changed in this experiment, called the independent variable, was the type of water used: pure water or salt water.

Nancy Pelaez (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2007-08-17

16

Temporal changes of flavour and texture in cooked bologna type sausages as affected by fat and salt content.  

PubMed

Temporal changes of flavour (mushroom-like and saltiness) and texture (juiciness) in cooked bologna type sausages with different fat and salt content and containing selected volatile compounds (100 mg kg(-1) of 1-octen-3-ol and 200 mg kg(-1) of 2,6-dimethylpyrazine) were evaluated using time-intensity (TI) method. Preceding the TI study, descriptive profiles of sausages were determined. Release of volatiles was analysed by solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) and an instrumental texture analysis was also performed. Chromatographic results obtained for 1-octen-3-ol were strongly correlated with the intensity perception of the linked odour and flavour (mushroom). Modifications of sausages matrix in terms of fat and salt content differently affected the dynamic perception of mushroom flavour, saltiness and juiciness. NaCl contributed to increasing release of 1-octen-3-ol (salting-out effect) confirmed by SPME analysis as well as the intensity and duration of the related flavour (mushroom) evaluated by TI. Similarly, NaCl increased the temporal perception of both saltines and juiciness of sausages. Increase in fat content led to a higher retention of 1-octen-3-ol (lipophilic compound) and thus to a less intense and shorter duration of mushroom flavour. Moreover, fat contributed to a more intense and a longer juiciness of sausages. These results highlight the feasibility of TI technique to evaluate changes in the temporal flavour and texture perception of sausages caused by modification of matrix composition. PMID:20416801

Ventanas, Sonia; Puolanne, Eero; Tuorila, Hely

2010-07-01

17

Salt, Water, and Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Good nutrition for athletes demands plenty of water, since water is essential to such vital functions as muscle reactions. Dehydration can result from jet travel as well as from exercise and heat, making it a danger to traveling athletic teams. To avoid dehydration, water needs should be monitored by frequent weighing, and a clean water supply…

Smith, Nathan J.

18

Exceptionally fast water desalination at complete salt rejection by pristine graphyne monolayers.  

PubMed

Desalination that produces clean freshwater from seawater holds the promise of solving the global water shortage for drinking, agriculture and industry. However, conventional desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis and thermal distillation involve large amounts of energy consumption, and the semipermeable membranes widely used in reverse osmosis face the challenge to provide a high throughput at high salt rejection. Here we find by comprehensive molecular dynamics simulations and first principles modeling that pristine graphyne, one of the graphene-like one-atom-thick carbon allotropes, can achieve 100% rejection of nearly all ions in seawater including Na(+), Cl(-), Mg(2+), K(+) and Ca(2+), at an exceptionally high water permeability about two orders of magnitude higher than those for commercial state-of-the-art reverse osmosis membranes at a salt rejection of ~98.5%. This complete ion rejection by graphyne, independent of the salt concentration and the operating pressure, is revealed to be originated from the significantly higher energy barriers for ions than for water. This intrinsic specialty of graphyne should provide a new possibility for the efforts to alleviate the global shortage of freshwater and other environmental problems. PMID:24285308

Xue, Minmin; Qiu, Hu; Guo, Wanlin

2013-12-20

19

Effect of salt content on the rheological properties of salad dressing-type emulsions stabilized by emulsifier blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects that salt content and composition of emulsifier blends exert on the rheological properties of salad dressing-type emulsions were studied. Binary blends of egg yolk and different types of amphiphilic molecules (Tween 20, sucrose laurate and pea protein), in several proportions, were used to stabilize emulsions. Salt concentration was ranged from 0 to 2.3% w\\/w. Steady-state flow tests and

Inmaculada Martínez; M Angustias Riscardo; Jose M Franco

2007-01-01

20

Control of sea-water intrusion by salt-water pumping: Coast of Oman  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shallow alluvial coastal aquifer in the Batinah area of Oman, with sea-water intrusion that extends several kilometres inland, has been studied experimentally, analytically and numerically. The water table is proved to have a trough caused by intensive pumping from a fresh groundwater zone and evaporation from the saline phreatic surface. Resistivity traverses perpendicular to the shoreline indicated no fresh

A. R. Kacimov; M. M. Sherif; J. S. Perret; A. Al-Mushikhi

2009-01-01

21

Sensor for determining the water content of oil-in-water emulsion by specific admittance measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to know the water content of oil-in-water emulsions for applications such as oil transportation. A new on-line sensor has been designed for this purpose. The real part of the specific admittance is used for the water-content determination. A simplified Van Beck mixing law and an appropriate frequency are applied to obtain the water content without polarization effects.

Fernando García-Golding; Mario Giallorenzo; Noel Moreno; Victor Chang

1995-01-01

22

Control of sea-water intrusion by salt-water pumping: Coast of Oman  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shallow alluvial coastal aquifer in the Batinah area of Oman, with sea-water intrusion that extends several kilometres inland,\\u000a has been studied experimentally, analytically and numerically. The water table is proved to have a trough caused by intensive\\u000a pumping from a fresh groundwater zone and evaporation from the saline phreatic surface. Resistivity traverses perpendicular\\u000a to the shoreline indicated no fresh

A. R. Kacimov; M. M. Sherif; J. S. Perret; A. Al-Mushikhi

2009-01-01

23

Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark  

PubMed Central

Background A high salt (=NaCl) intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design For the first part of this study, 180 canteen meals were collected from a total of 15 worksites with in-house catering facilities. Duplicate portions of a lunch meal were collected from 12 randomly selected employees at each canteen on two non-consecutive days. For the second part of the study, a total of 250 fast food samples were collected from 52 retail places representing both city (Aarhus) and provincial towns. The canteen meals and fast food samples were analyzed for chloride by potentiometric titration with silver nitrate solution, and the salt content was estimated. Results The salt content in lunch meals in worksite canteens were 3.8±1.8 g per meal and 14.7±5.1 g per 10 MJ for men (n=109), and 2.8±1.2 g per meal and 14.4±6.2 g per 10 MJ for women (n=71). Salt content in fast food ranged from 11.8±2.5 g per 10 MJ (burgers) to 16.3±4.4 g per 10 MJ (sausages) with a mean content of 13.8±3.8 g per 10 MJ. Conclusion Salt content in both fast food and in worksite canteen meals is high and should be decreased. PMID:20305749

Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Hansen, Kirsten; Knuthsen, Pia; Saxholt, Erling; Fagt, Sisse

2010-01-01

24

The Salt or Sodium Chloride Content of Feeds  

E-print Network

1 EXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL, Preeident BULLETIN NO. 271 OCTOBER, 1920 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY THE SALT OR SODIUM CHLORIDE CONTENT OF FEEDS B. YOUNGBLOOD, DIRECTOK COLLEGE.... ............... Salt content of feecls.. ......... Salt content of mixed feeds.. ................... Summary ancl conclusions. Page. l1 [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] BULLETIN XO. 271. OCTOBE- '"On THE SALT OR SODIUM CHLORIDE CONTENT OF FEI The Texas feed...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Lomanitz, S. (Sebastian)

1920-01-01

25

Soil water depletion by oak trees and the influence of root water uptake on the moisture content spatial statistics  

E-print Network

. The space-time statistical structure of soil water uptake by oak trees was investigated in a 3.1-mSoil water depletion by oak trees and the influence of root water uptake on the moisture content, resistance block measured soil water pressure, and a compact constant head permeameter measured saturated

Katul, Gabriel

26

Non-destructive measurement of stem water content by time domain reflectometry using short probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) has previously been used to determine the water content of soils. Here, TDR is assessed as a method of tracking the seasonal change in water content of the stems of mature trees (Pinus sylvestris L.). The longer probes used for soil were replaced by 50 mm probes, inserted radially into the stems at 1 m above

J. Irvine; J. Grace

2010-01-01

27

Hydrogen production from salt water by Marine blue green algae and solar radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two marine bluegreen algae, Oscillatoria sp. Miami BG 7 and Synechococcus sp Miami 041511 have been selected as the result of over 10 years continuous and intensive effort of isolation, growth examination, and the screening of hydrogen photoproduction capability in this laboratory. Both strains photoproduced hydrogen for several days at high rates and a quantity of hydrogen was accumulated in a closed vessel. Overall hydrogen donor substance of the hydrogen photoproduction was found to be salt water. Using strain Miami BG 7, a two step method of hydrogen photoproduction from salt water was successfully developed and this was recycled several times over a one month period using both free cells and immobilized cells in both indoor and outdoor under natural sunlight. According to these experiments, a prototype floating hydrogen production system was designed for further development of the biosolar hydrogen production system.

Mitsui, A.; Rosner, D.; Kumazawa, S.; Barciela, S.; Phlips, E.

1985-01-01

28

Electrolysis of Salt Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a hands-on lab activity about the chemical composition and conductivity of water. Working in groups, learners will: conduct an experiment involving the process of electrolysis, prepare an experiment to better understand the process of ion exchange, discuss and research the "softness" and "hardness" of water, and use the periodic table to identify elements and learn their characteristics. Background information, a glossary and more is included. Materials needed for each student group include a 9-volt battery, two electrodes (e.g. copper strips, or two #2 pencils sharpened at both ends), electrical wire and glass beakers or ceramic saucers. This activity is part of the Aquarius Hands-on Laboratory Activities.

29

A Hypothesis Concerning the Dynamic Balance of Fresh Water and Salt Water in a Coastal Aquifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dispersion of salts produced by reciprocative motion of the salt-water front in a coastal aquifer induces a flow of salt water from the floor of the sea into the zone of diffu- sion and back to the sea. The head losses that accompany the landward flow tend to lesson the extent to which the salt water occupies the aquifer.

H. H. Cooper Jr.

1959-01-01

30

Modeling of thermochemical energy storage by salt hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the capability of salt hydrates to store thermochemical energy as they dissociate into anhydrous salts or lower hydrates and water vapor upon heating using the example of magnesium sulfate heptahydrate as a model salt. An anhydrous salt has a relatively higher energy content than its hydrated counterpart. It can be stably stored over long durations and transported at

Ganesh Balasubramanian; Mehdi Ghommem; Muhammad R. Hajj; William P. Wong; Jennifer A. Tomlin; Ishwar K. Puri

2010-01-01

31

Determination of Preferential Interaction Parameters by Multicomponent Diffusion. Applications to Poly(ethylene glycol)-Salt-Water Ternary Mixtures  

E-print Network

to Poly(ethylene glycol)-Salt-Water Ternary Mixtures Cong Tan, John G. Albright, and Onofrio Annunziata for lysozyme-salt-water systems using precision Rayleigh inter- ferometry.6,10-13,16 Here, we report biochemical and pharmaceutical applications. We report the four diffusion coefficients for the PEG-KCl-water

Annunziata, Onofrio

32

The control of salt flat topography by water-mediated halite transport - A case study at the salar de Uyuni, Bolivia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The salar de Uyuni is a massive salt flat in the Bolivian Altiplano that is periodically inundated by a shallow lake during the rainy season and whose water table never drops far beneath the salt surface. Using available gravity data, we have confirmed that the entire salar surface lies within several centimeters of the equipotential surface to which the water

A. A. Borsa; B. G. Bills; J. Minster

2005-01-01

33

Effects of Storage Temperature on Tyramine Production by Enterococcus faecalis R612Z1 in Water-Boiled Salted Ducks.  

PubMed

Tyramine production by Enterococcus faecalis R612Z1 in water-boiled salted ducks was evaluated during storage at different temperatures. The results showed that E. faecalis R612Z1 could produce tyramine in meat samples when the storage temperature was no less than 4°C. The E. faecalis R612Z1 counts of the meat samples reached 10(8) CFU/g on day 7 at 4°C and on day 4 at 10°C. However, the tyramine content of the meat samples stored at 10°C increased to 23.73 ?g/g (on day 10), which was greater than the level in the samples stored at 4°C (7.56 ?g/g). Reverse transcription quantitative PCR detection of the expression level of the tyrDC gene in E. faecalis R612Z1 in the meat samples revealed no significant changes at different storage temperatures. Thus, the changes in tyramine production of E. faecalis R612Z1 may be due to the different enzymatic activities at different storage temperatures. PMID:25285502

Liu, Fang; Du, Lihui; Wu, Haihong; Wang, Daoying; Zhu, Yongzhi; Geng, Zhiming; Zhang, Muhan; Xu, Weimin

2014-10-01

34

Water Imbibition into Rock as Affected by Sample Shape, Pore, Conductivity, and Antecedent Water Content  

SciTech Connect

Infiltration is often presumed to follow Philip's equation, I = st{sup 1/2}, where I is cumulative infiltration, s is sorptivity, and t is time. This form of the equation is appropriate for short times, and/or for negligible gravitational effects. For a uniform soil, this equation describes a plot of log(mass imbibed) versus log(time), with a slope (imbibition exponent) of 1/2. The equation has also been applied to low-porosity rocks, where the extremely small pores render gravitational forces negligible. Experiments recently performed on a wide variety of rocks produced imbibition exponents from 0.2 to 0.5. Many rock types showed initial imbibition proceeding as I {approx} t{sup 1/4}, then later switched to ''normal'' (t{sup 1/2}) behavior. The distance to the wetting front that corresponds to this cross-over behavior was found to be related to the sample shape: tall thin samples are more likely to exhibit the exponent 1/4, and to cross over to 1/2-type behavior later, while short, squat samples are less likely to display the 1/4-type behavior at all. Additionally, the exponents are sensitive to antecedent water content, with initially wetter samples having smaller values. In this study, we present the experimental data, and provide a consistent and physically-based explanation using percolation theory. The analogy between imbibition and diffusion is used to model imbibition into samples with low pore connectivity, with the exponents and their crossover behavior emerging from a random walk process. All laboratory phenomena--different exponents, crossover behavior, and effects of sample shape and antecedent water content--are reproduced by the model, with similar patterns across experiment and simulation. We conclude both that diffusion is a useful and powerful conceptual model for understanding imbibition, and also that imbibition experiments, being simpler than diffusion measurements, can be used to examine diffusive behavior in rock.

R.P. Ewing

2005-08-29

35

Salt in Dutchess Co. Waters Stuart Findlay  

E-print Network

or Groundwater? STREAM · Road salt biggest source ­ others? #12;SOIL CORES HOLD Cl LONGER THAN WATER KincaidSalt in Dutchess Co. Waters Stuart Findlay Vicky Kelly Where are we now? Compared to what? Where be increasing · What else is coming along? #12;Scope for Action · Reduced Salt is in Everyone's Interest

36

Salting-in and salting-out of water-soluble polymers in aqueous salt solutions.  

PubMed

To obtain further experimental evidence for the mechanisms of the salting effect produced by the addition of salting-out or sating-in inducing electrolytes to aqueous solutions of water-soluble polymers, systematic studies on the vapor-liquid equilibria and liquid-liquid equilibria of aqueous solutions of several polymers are performed in the presence of a large series of electrolytes. Polymers are polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 250 (PEGDME250), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 2000 (PEGDME2000), and polypropylene glycol 400 (PPG400), and the investigated electrolytes are KCl, NH(4)Cl, MgCl(2), (CH(3))(4)NCl, NaCl, NaNO(3), Na(2)CO(3), Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)Cit (tri-sodium citrate). Aqueous solutions of PPG400 form aqueous two-phase systems with all the investigated salts; however, other investigated polymers form aqueous two-phase systems only with Na(2)CO(3), Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)Cit. A relation was found between the salting-out or sating-in effects of electrolyte on the polymer aqueous solutions and the slopes of the constant water activity lines of ternary polymer-salt aqueous solutions, so that, in the case of the salting-out effect, the constant water activity lines had a concave slope, but in the case of the salting-in effects, the constant water activity lines had a convex slope. The effect of temperature, anion of electrolyte, cation of electrolyte, and type and molar mass of polymers were studied and the results interpreted in terms of the solute-water and solute-solute interactions. The salting-out effect results from the formation of ion (specially anion)-water hydration complexes, which, in turn, decreases hydration, and hence, the solubility of the polymer and the salting-in effect results from a direct binding of the cations to the ether oxygens of the polymers. PMID:22486327

Sadeghi, Rahmat; Jahani, Farahnaz

2012-05-01

37

Hot water, fresh beer, and salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the ``hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO2) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO2 so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, ``Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer?'' is answered experimentally.

Crawford, Frank S.

1990-11-01

38

Effects of de-icing salt on ground water characteristics.  

PubMed

The effect of "road salt" on the characteristics of Massachusetts drinking water supplies has been significant and cumulative rather than transient or seasonal. De-icing salt is essentially all sodium chloride. Calcium chloride accounted for only three percent of the total salt used. However, hardness content, as well as sodium ion concentration, has increased greatly in ground waters in the past decade. The changing composition of our water supplies has agricultural, economic, and public health implications. This study attempts to quantify the stoichiometry of these changes in concentration, which are in part due to an ion-exchange mechanism in the soil. PMID:238830

O'Brien, J E; Majewski, J C

1975-01-01

39

[Effects of salting, cut type, and initial simmering temperature on protein and fat contents of meat broths: I. Beef].  

PubMed

A 2 x 2 x 4 factorial design was used to study variation of protein and fat contents in beef broths as affected by cut type (flank, shank), salt treatments (addition of salt to the medium, no salt), and initial temperatures of simmering (25, 70, 75, and 100 degrees C). Flank portions yielded slightly more protein (0.29 g/100 mL) and had three-fold less fat (0.39 g/mL) than those of shank (0.25 and 1.12 g/mL, respectively) (P < 0.05). No linear relationship of temperature and amount of extractable components was observed, but it was clear that the greatest protein extraction was accomplished when meat was immersed in cooking water at boiling point (P < 0.05). In general, salting of water reduced fat content of beef broths. However, a significant Salting x Cut type interaction showed this effect was only present in shanks (P < 0.05). Conversely, the reducing effect (P < 0.05) of salting on amount of protein extracted from flank was not observed in shanks. Based on these data, we conclude that larger amounts of protein and less fat could be transferred from meat pieces to the medium by immersing beef in salted water at the boiling point. PMID:9673698

Gotera-Prado, Z; Quintero, J B; Huerta-Leidenz, N; Prado Gotera, Z

1997-12-01

40

Quantifying water and salt fluxes in a lowland polder catchment dominated by boil seepage: a probabilistic end-member mixing approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upward saline groundwater seepage is leading to surface water salinization of deep lying polders in the Netherlands. Identifying measures to reduce the salt content requires a thorough understanding and quantification of the dominant sources of water and salt on a daily basis. However, as in most balance studies, there are large uncertainties in the contribution from groundwater seepage. Taking these into account, we applied a probabilistic (GLUE) end-member mixing approach to simulate two years of daily to weekly observations of discharge, salt loads and salt concentration of water pumped out of an artificially drained polder catchment area. We were then able to assess the contribution from the different sources to the water and salt balance of the polder and uncertainties in their quantification. Our modelling approach demonstrates the need to distinguish preferential from diffuse seepage. Preferential seepage via boils contributes, on average, 66 % to the total salt load and only about 15 % to the total water flux into the polder and therefore forms the main salinization pathway. With the model we were able to calculate the effect of future changes on surface water salinity and to assess the uncertainty in our predictions. Furthermore, we analyzed the parameter sensitivity and uncertainty to determine for which parameter the quality of field measurements should be improved to reduce model input and output uncertainty. High frequency measurements of polder water discharge and weighted concentration at the outlet of the catchment area appear to be essential for obtaining reliable simulations of water and salt fluxes and for allotting these to the different sources.

de Louw, P. G. B.; van der Velde, Y.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.

2011-07-01

41

Quantifying water and salt fluxes in a lowland polder catchment dominated by boil seepage: a probabilistic end-member mixing approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upward saline groundwater seepage is leading to surface water salinization of low-lying polders in the Netherlands. Identifying measures to reduce the salt content requires a thorough understanding and quantification of the dominant sources water and salt on a daily basis. However, as in most balance studies, there are large uncertainties about the contribution of groundwater seepage. Taking these into account, we applied a probabilistic (GLUE) end-member mixing approach to simulate two years of daily to weekly observations of discharge, salt loads and salt concentrations of water pumped out of an artificially drained polder catchment area. We were then able to assess the contribution of the different sources to the water and salt balance of the polder and the uncertainties in their quantification. Our modelling approach demonstrates the need to distinguish preferential from diffuse seepage. Preferential seepage via boils contributes, on average, 66% to the total salt load and only about 15% to the total water flux into the polder and therefore forms the main salinization pathway. With the model we were able to calculate the effect of future changes on surface water salinity and to assess the uncertainty in our predictions. Furthermore, we analyzed the parameters sensitivity and uncertainty to determine for which parameter the quality of field measurements should be improved to the reduce model input and output uncertainty. High frequency measurements of polder water discharge and weighted concentration at the outlet of the catchment area appear to be essential for obtaining reliable simulations of water and salt fluxes and for allotting these to the different sources.

de Louw, P. G. B.; van der Velde, Y.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.

2011-01-01

42

Effectiveness of highway-drainage systems in preventing contamination of ground water by road salt, Route 25, southeastern Massachusetts; description of study area, data collection programs, and methodology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four test sites along a 7-mile section of Route 25 in southeastern Massachusetts, each representing a specific highway-drainage system, were instrumented to determine the effectiveness of the drainage systems in preventing contamination of ground water by road salt. One of the systems discharges highway runoff onsite through local drainpipes. The other systems use trunkline drainpipes through which runoff from highway surfaces, shoulders, and median strips is diverted and discharged into either a local stream or a coastal waterway. Route 25 was completed and opened to traffic in the summer of 1987. Road salt was first applied to the highway in the winter of 1987-88. The study area is on a thick outwash plain composed primarily of sand and gravel. Water-table depths range from 15 to 60 feet below land surface at the four test sites. Ground-water flow is in a general southerly direction, approximately perpendicular to the highway. Streamflow in the study area is controlled primarily by ground-water discharge. Background concentrations of dissolved chloride, sodium, and calcium-the primary constituents of road salt-are similar in ground water and surface water and range from 5 to 20, 5 to 10, and 1 to 5 milligrams per liter, respectively. Data-collection programs were developed for monitoring the application of road salt to the highway, the quantity of road-salt water entering the ground water, diverted through the highway-drainage systems, and entering a local stream. The Massachusetts Highway Department monitored road salt applied to the highway and reported these data to the U.S. Geological Survey. The U.S. Geological Survey designed and operated the ground-water, highway- drainage, and surface-water data-collection programs. A road-salt budget will be calculated for each test site so that the effectiveness of the different highway-drainage systems in preventing contamination of ground water by road salt can be determined.

Church, P.E.; Armstrong, D.S.; Granato, G.E.; Stone, V.J.; Smith, K.P.; Provencher, P.L.

1996-01-01

43

Compositional gaps in igneous rock suites controlled by magma system heat and water content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The differentiation of basaltic magmas to form more silica-rich magma is a fundamental process in crustal magmatism. However, suites of volcanic rocks erupted from individual volcanic centres rarely exhibit a compositional continuum between basalt and rhyolite. Instead, some rock suites exhibit marked compositional gaps. The origin of such gaps has been attributed to partial melting of the crust, the immiscibility of different magma types, crystallization of specific mineral phases and processes occurring within magma chambers. Here we couple high pressure and temperature experiments on mantle-derived basalt from St Vincent Volcano, Lesser Antilles, with variable water contents, to thermal models of magma differentiation. We show that the compositional distribution of the derivative magma varies as a function of water and heat content of the magmatic system, which is, in turn, related to the flux and duration of magma input. Systems that have relatively low heat content are characterized by compositional gaps, whose extent varies systemically with the water in the parent basalt. Irrespective of water content, compositional gaps diminish with time. Our approach can be used to retrieve information from volcanic rocks on their magmatic heat and water content in the parent basalt and hence explore these parameters as functions of tectonic settings and age.

Melekhova, Elena; Annen, Catherine; Blundy, Jon

2013-05-01

44

Study on the water content measurement of tomatoes by near infrared technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a promising technique for nondestructive measurement of farm products quality measurement and information acquisition. The objective of this research was to study the potential of NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as a way for nondestructive measurement of the water content of tomato leaves. A total of 120 leaves were collected as experimental materials, 80 of them were used to form a calibration data set. In order to set up a calibration model, NIR spectral data were collected in the spectral region between 800 nm and 2500 nm by NIR spectrometer of Nicolet Corporation, and water content of tomato leaves by a drying chest, four different mathematical treatments were used in spectrums processing: different wavelength range, baseline correction, smoothing, first and second derivative. Depending on data preprocessing and PLS analysis, we can get best prediction model when we select original spectra by baseline correction at full wavelength range (800-2500nm), the best model of water content has a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 1.91, a root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) of 0.731 and a calibration correlation coefficient (R) value of 0.96265. It is conclude that the FTNIR method with Smart Near-IR UpDRIFT accessory can accurate estimate the water content in tomato leaves.

Jiang, Huanyu; Ying, Yibin; Bao, Yingshi

2005-11-01

45

Biased Monitoring of Fresh Water-Salt Water Mixing Zone in Coastal Aquifers  

E-print Network

, such that policy makers can take the appropriate actions to protect this vital source of water. Therefore, accurateBiased Monitoring of Fresh Water-Salt Water Mixing Zone in Coastal Aquifers by Eyal Shalev1, Ariel aquifers, significant vertical hydraulic gradients are formed where fresh water and underlying salt water

Gvirtzman, Haim

46

Soil water depletion by oak trees and the influence of root water uptake on the moisture content spatial statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The space-time statistical structure of soil water uptake by oak trees was investigated in a 3.1-m-diameter closed top chamber using a three-dimensional measurement grid of soil moisture and pressure, and measurements of tree transpiration. Using the time domain reflectometry (TDR) measured moisture content, resistance block measured soil water pressure, and a compact constant head permeameter measured saturated hydraulic conductivity, the

Gabriel Katul; Philip Todd; Diane Pataki; Zbigniew J. Kabala; Ram Oren

1997-01-01

47

Boiling of Water Droplets Containing Dissolved Salts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted experiments on the effect of dissolving three different salts (sodium chloride, sodium sulphate and magnesium sulphate) in water droplets boiling on a hot stainless steel surface. Substrate temperatures were varied from 100^oC to 300^oC. We photographed droplets as they evaporated, and recorded their evaporation time. At surface temperatures that were too low to initiate nucleate boiling, all three salts were found to reduce the evaporation rate since they lower the vapor pressure of water. In the nucleate boiling regime, sodium sulphate and magnesium sulphate enhanced heat transfer because they prevented coalescence of vapor bubbles and produced foaming in the droplet, significantly reducing droplet lifetime. The ability of salts to prevent coalescence is linked to their ionic strength: electric charge accumulated on the surfaces of bubbles produces a repulsive force, preventing them from approaching each other. Sodium chloride, which has a low ionic strength, had little effect on droplet evaporation. Low concentrations (<0.3 mol/liter) of magnesium sulphate enhanced droplet boiling by promoting foaming. However high concentrations (>0.3 mol/liter) reduce droplet evaporation rates by increasing the vapour pressure of water.

Cui, Qiang; Chandra, Sanjeev; McCahan, Susan

2000-11-01

48

Measurement of soil water content and electrical conductivity by time domain reflectometry: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-destructive measurement of soil water content and electrical conductivity has been desired for many years. Recent development of time domain reflectometry (TDR) enables us to simultaneously obtain soil water content and electrical conductivity using a single probe with a minimal disturbance of soil. Research on water and solute transport in porous media using TDR has flourished in the last few

K. Noborio

2001-01-01

49

The water ow regime is characterized by the water ux vector q[m=s] and the water content [m3=m3] satisfying the conservation equation  

E-print Network

#12;The water ow regime is characterized by the water ux vector q[m=s] and the water content [m3=m3] satisfying the conservation equation (1.2) @t = rq for x 2 ";t > 0; where t[s] denotes time. Adsorption to the solid soil particles as a retention/release reaction often is the most important factor

50

The evaluation of the iodine content of table salt in Lesotho.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to investigate the iodine content of salt at both retail and household levels before the introduction of the universal salt iodisation legislation in Lesotho. A cross sectional study was conducted. 300 salt samples were collected from systematically selected households and 100 salt samples were collected from retailers situated in the same villages as the households selected for this study, in all ten districts of Lesotho. An iodometric titration method was used for analyzing the iodine content of the salt samples. The mean iodine content of salt at both retail and household level of 37 ppm ranged from 29 ppm to 48 ppm and from 31 ppm to 45 ppm in the different districts at retail and household level respectively. Uniformity of iodisation was lacking as indicated by the large variation in the mean iodine content among brands (ranging from 1-46 ppm at household level and 1-53 ppm at retail level as well as within brands (ranging from 7-97 ppm at household level and 12-76 ppm at retail level). 4% of households used non iodised salt. 18.2% of the household salt samples were below the adequate iodisation level of 15 ppm. 81.8% of the households use adequately iodised salt. This however does not meet WHO criteria for elimination of IDD as a public health problem since less than 90% of effectively iodised salt is being used at household level. PMID:17298157

Sebotsa, Masekonyela L D; Adjei, Richard

2002-01-01

51

Influence of the temperature of salt brine on salt uptake by Ragusano cheese.  

PubMed

The influence of temperature (12, 15, 18, 21, and 24 degrees C) of saturated brine on salt uptake by 3.8-kg experimental blocks of Ragusano cheese during 24 d of brining was determined. Twenty-six 3.8-kg blocks were made on each of three different days. All blocks were labeled and weighed prior to brining. One block was sampled and analyzed prior to brine salting. Five blocks were placed into each of five different brine tanks at different temperatures. One block was removed from each brine tank after 1, 4, 8, 16, and 24 d of brining, weighed, sampled, and analyzed for salt and moisture content. The weight loss by blocks of cheese after 24 d of brining was higher, with increasing brine temperature, and represented the net effect of moisture loss and salt uptake. The total salt uptake and moisture loss increased with increasing brine temperature. Salt penetrates into cheese through the moisture phase within the pore structure of the cheese. Porosity of the cheese structure and viscosity of the water phase within the pores influenced the rate and extent of salt penetration during 24 d of brining. In a previous study, it was determined that salt uptake at 18 degrees C was faster in 18% brine than in saturated brine due to higher moisture and porosity of the exterior portion of the cheese. In the present study, moisture loss occurred from all cheeses at all temperatures and most of the loss was from the exterior portion of the block during the first 4 d of brining. This loss in moisture would be expected to decrease porosity of the exterior portion and act as a barrier to salt penetration. The moisture loss increased with increasing brine temperature. If this decrease in porosity was the only factor influencing salt uptake, then it would be expected that the cheeses at higher brine temperature would have had lower salt content. However, the opposite was true. Brine temperature must have also impacted the viscosity of the aqueous phase of the cheese. Cheese in lower temperature brine would be expected to have higher viscosity of the aqueous phase and slower salt uptake, even though the cheese at lower brine temperature should have had a more porous structure (favoring faster uptake) than cheese at higher brine temperature. Therefore, changing brine concentration has a greater impact on cheese porosity, while changing brine temperature has a larger impact on viscosity of the aqueous phase of the cheese within the pores in the cheese. PMID:14507016

Melilli, C; Barbano, D M; Licitra, G; Portelli, G; Di Rosa, G; Carpino, S

2003-09-01

52

Changes in Phosphatidylcholine Headgroup Tilt and Water Order Induced by Monovalent Salts: Molecular Dynamics Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between monovalent salts and neutral lipid bilayers is known to influence global bilayer structural properties such as headgroup conformational fluctuations and the dipole potential. The local influence of the ions, however, has been unknown due to limited structural resolution of experimental methods. Molecular dynamics simulations are used here to elucidate local structural rearrangements upon association of a series

Jonathan N. Sachs; Hirsh Nanda; Horia I. Petrache; Thomas B. Woolfz

2004-01-01

53

The effects of tree establishment on water and salt dynamics in naturally salt-affected grasslands.  

PubMed

Plants, by influencing water fluxes across the ecosystem-vadose zone-aquifer continuum, can leave an imprint on salt accumulation and distribution patterns. We explored how the conversion of native grasslands to oak plantations affected the abundance and distribution of salts on soils and groundwater through changes in the water balance in naturally salt-affected landscapes of Hortobagy (Hungary), a region where artificial drainage performed approximately 150 years ago lowered the water table (from -2 to -5 m) decoupling it from the surface ecosystem. Paired soil sampling and detailed soil conductivity transects revealed consistently different salt distribution patterns between grasslands and plantations, with shallow salinity losses and deep salinity gains accompanying tree establishment. Salts accumulated in the upper soil layers during pre-drainage times have remained in drained grasslands but have been flushed away under tree plantations (65 and 83% loss of chloride and sodium, respectively, in the 0 to -0.5 m depth range) as a result of a five- to 25-fold increase in infiltration rates detected under plantations. At greater depth, closer to the current water table level, the salt balance was reversed, with tree plantations gaining 2.5 kg sodium chloride m(-2) down to 6 m depth, resulting from groundwater uptake and salt exclusion by tree roots in the capillary fringe. Diurnal water table fluctuations, detected in a plantation stand but not in the neighbouring grasslands, together with salt mass balances suggest that trees consumed approximately 380 mm groundwater per year, re-establishing the discharge regime and leading to higher salt accumulation rates than those interrupted by regional drainage practices more than a century ago. The strong influences of vegetation changes on water dynamics can have cascading consequences on salt accumulation and distribution, and a broad ecohydrological perspective that explicitly considers vegetation-groundwater links is needed to anticipate and manage them. PMID:17356808

Nosetto, Marcelo D; Jobbágy, Esteban G; Tóth, Tibor; Di Bella, Carlos M

2007-07-01

54

Cell signaling under salt, water and cold stresses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forward genetics and biochemical approaches to studying plant responses to salt, water and cold stresses began to bear fruit recently. Analysis of salt overly sensitive (sos) Arabidopsis mutants revealed a novel calcium-regulated protein kinase pathway for response to the ionic aspect of salt stress. In-gel kinase assays identified several SOS-independent protein kinases that are either activated specifically by osmotic stress

Jian-Kang Zhu

2001-01-01

55

Water- and organo-dispersible gold nanoparticles supported by using ammonium salts of hyperbranched polystyrene: preparation and catalysis.  

PubMed

Gold nanoparticles (1 nm in size) stabilized by ammonium salts of hyperbranched polystyrene are prepared. Selection of the R groups provides access to both water- and organo-dispersible gold nanoparticles. The resulting gold nanoparticles are subjected to studies on catalysis in solution, which include reduction of 4-nitrophenol with sodium borohydride, aerobic oxidation of alcohols, and homocoupling of phenylboronic acid. In the reduction of 4-nitrophenol, the catalytic activity is clearly dependent on the size of the gold nanoparticles. For the aerobic oxidation of alcohols, two types of biphasic oxidation are achieved: one is the catalyst dispersing in the aqueous phase, whereas the other is in the organic phase. The catalysts are reusable more than four times without loss of the catalytic activity. Selective synthesis of biphenyl is achieved by the homocoupling of phenylboronic acid catalyzed by organo-dispersible gold nanoparticles. PMID:24115377

Gao, Lei; Nishikata, Takashi; Kojima, Keisuke; Chikama, Katsumi; Nagashima, Hideo

2013-12-01

56

Influence of the water content and water activity on styrene degradation by Exophiala jeanselmei in biofilters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance at low water availability of styrene-degrading biofilters with the fungus Exophiala jeanselmei growing on perlite, the inert support, was investigated. E. jeanselmei degrades styrene at a water activity of 0.91–1. In biofilters, the styrene elimination capacity at a water activity of 0.91\\u000a is 5% of the maximal elimination capacity of 79?g?m-3?h-1 (water activity 1). Application of dry air

H. H. J. Cox; F. J. Magielsen; H. J. Doddema; W. Harder

1996-01-01

57

Soil Water Content Forecasting by Support Vector Machine in Purple Hilly Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil water distribution and variation are helpful in predicting and understanding various hydrologic processes, including\\u000a weather changes, rainfall\\/runoff generation and irrigation scheduling. Soil water content prediction is essential to the development\\u000a of advanced agriculture information systems. In this paper, we apply support vector machines to soil water content predictions\\u000a and compare the results to other time series prediction methods in

Wei Wu; Xuan Wang; Deti Xie; Hongbin Liu

2007-01-01

58

Effect of salt on the phase behavior of the ternary system water-phenol-sodium dodecyl sulfate  

SciTech Connect

A detailed study of the effects of varying temperature and salt concentration on the phase behavior of the water-pentanol-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) system is presented. By addition of salt the lamellar phase extends well into the water-rich region and occurs at water contents exceeding 95%. The isotropic mixtures close in composition to the more dilute lamellar phase strongly scatter light and exhibit streaming birefringence. It seems that the isotropic-lamellar phase transition becomes less first order as the salt content increases. Moreover, this work provides evidence that in the water (salt)-pentanol-SDS system two mechanisms are involved to produce three-phase equilibria. Indeed, the authors results clearly show that three-phase regions arise from either a critical end point or an indifferent state.

Guerin, G.; Bellocq, A.M.

1988-05-05

59

Rapid assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll content.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Present techniques of airborne chlorophyll measurement are discussed as an approach to water pollution assessment. The differential radiometer, the chlorophyll correlation radiometer, and an infrared radiometer for water temperature measurements are described as the key components of the equipment. Also covered are flight missions carried out to evaluate the capability of the chlorophyll correlation radiometer in measuring the chlorophyll content in water bodies with widely different levels of nutrients, such as fresh-water lakes of high and low eutrophic levels, marine waters of high and low productivity, and an estuary with a high sediment content. The feasibility and usefulness of these techniques are indicated.

Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

1971-01-01

60

Household Salt Iodine Content Estimation with the Use of Rapid Test Kits and Iodometric Titration Methods  

PubMed Central

Background: Universal salt iodization remains the best strategy for controlling iodine deficiency disorders in Nepal. Aims: This study was designed to study the salt types and the household salt iodine content of school aged children in the hilly and the plain districts of eastern Nepal. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on school children of seven randomly chosen schools from four districts, namely, Sunsari, Dhankuta, Sankhuwasabha and Tehrathum of eastern Nepal. The school children were requested to bring two teaspoonfuls (approx. 12-15 g) of the salt which was consumed in their households, in a tightly sealed plastic pouch. The salt types were categorized, and the salt iodine content was estimated by using rapid test kits and iodometric titrations. The association of the salt iodine content of the different districts were tested by using the Chi-square test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values of the rapid test kits were compared with the iodometric titrations. Results: Our study showed that mean±SD values of the salt iodine content in the four districts, namely, Sunsari, Dhankuta, Sankhuwasabha and Tehrathum were 34.2±17.9, 33.2±14.5, 27.4±15.1 and 48.4±15.6 parts per million (ppm). There were 270 (38.2%) households which consumed crystal salt and 437(61.8%) of the households consumed packet salts. Conclusions: Our study recommends a regular monitoring of the salt iodization programs in these regions. More families should be made aware of the need to ensure that each individual consumes iodized salt. PMID:23814736

Nepal, Ashwini Kumar; Raj Shakya, Prem; Gelal, Basanta; Lamsal, Madhab; Brodie, David A; Baral, Nirmal

2013-01-01

61

Effects of water turbidity and salt concentration levels on penetration of solar radiation under water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two large, outdoor tanks were constructed in order to investigate the effects of water turbidity and salt concentration levels at various depths of water on penetration of solar radiation. These experiments were followed by a laboratory investigation that measured spectral transmittance and the extinction coefficient of water at different salt concentrations and turbidity levels. Both the outdoor and laboratory results

J. Wang; J. Seyed-Yagoobi

1994-01-01

62

Assessing water salinity along River Limón and Caño San Miguel irrigation paleochannel (Maracaibo, Venezuela) as affected by the balance of soluble salts in alluvium soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The saline degradation of soils that are irrigated with brackish water is worrisome increasing worldwide, and it may further affect the salinity of fresh water in those streams flowing across. The problem that is caused by an increasing concentration of salts that are more soluble than gypsum depends on the quality of irrigation water, climatic aridity, and drainage limitations. All these conditions meet in the alluvium soils of River Limón basin that are crossed by Caño San Miguel irrigation paleochannel. River Limón's regulation by closing Manuelote and Tulé artificial reservoirs has diminished the input of water and sediments from flooding events, which exerted dilutive effects in the past. In addition, the balance of soluble salts in these soils has also registered further net accumulation during those extremely dry years happened before 2006, because the great dilution contribution of ombrogenic dammed water coming from rain has not been enough to compensate salts concentration generated by water evapotranspiration in those irrigated soils of the middle basin, particularly in the absence of superficial runoff and deep drainage. Considering those semi-arid climate conditions prevailing in the area (annual precipitation = 710 mm; potential evapotransporation = 2361 mm), it resulted that water analyses in River Limón showed a ten-fold increased maximum annual salinity concentration (March) along the stream; that is, an electric conductivity (Ce) of 0.37 dS•m-1 (at 25 °C) at Puente Carrasquero pumping station, where water for crop irrigation is subtracted, turns to 34.60 dS•m-1 (at 25 °C) at its base level in Puerto Mara, where it discharges to Lake Maracaibo. In addition, the quality of irrigation water from Caño San Miguel, which aggregates to those coming from River Limón at the pumping station located in Carrasquero just before running through the alluvium of this water stream, resulted pretty irregular. In short, it spanned form C1 to C4 soil salinization risk classes depending on the sampling location and time of the year. In short, the farther away the sampling point from the initial pumping location, the higher the concentration of salts is measured; and these are even ten-fold higher in March, that is, after the end of the dry season, just before new rain dissolves the generated salt efflorescence on the surrounding soil (maximum Ce=9740 dS/m at 25 °C). In conclusion, a balance of salts should be attached to the balance of water required to compensate crop evapotranspiration aiming to achieve a sustainable use of the agrosystem. This salts balance is assessed in terms of the quantity of water that is required to drain soil so that productivity would be retained.

Rodriguez, Raquel; Moreno, Juan; Hermosilla, Daphne; Gascó, Antonio

2013-04-01

63

SALT WATER TOLERANCE AND WATER TURNOVER IN THE SNOWY PLOVER  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of water-related experiments showed that Snowy Plovers do not have any outstanding physiological capabilities for dealing with the potential thermal and osmotic stresses of the Great Salt Plains, Oklahoma. Snowy Plovers and Semipalmated Sandpipers failed to maintain body weight when given 0.3 M NaC1 ad libitum. Killdeer did even more poorly by rapidly losing weight on 0.2 M.

JAMES R. PURDUE; HOWARD HAINES

64

HA/nylon 6,6 porous scaffolds fabricated by salt-leaching/solvent casting technique: effect of nano-sized filler content on scaffold properties  

PubMed Central

Nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA)/nylon 6,6 composite scaffolds were produced by means of the salt-leaching/solvent casting technique. NaCl with a distinct range size was used with the aim of optimizing the pore network. Composite powders with different n-HA contents (40%, 60%) for scaffold fabrication were synthesized and tested. The composite scaffolds thus obtained were characterized for their microstructure, mechanical stability and strength, and bioactivity. The microstructure of the composite scaffolds possessed a well-developed interconnected porosity with approximate optimal pore size ranging from 200 to 500 ?m, ideal for bone regeneration and vascularization. The mechanical properties of the composite scaffolds were evaluated by compressive strength and modulus tests, and the results confirmed their similarity to cortical bone. To characterize bioactivity, the composite scaffolds were immersed in simulated body fluid for different lengths of time and results monitored by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis to determine formation of an apatite layer on the scaffold surface. PMID:21904455

Mehrabanian, Mehran; Nasr-Esfahani, Mojtaba

2011-01-01

65

A universal salt model based on under-ground precipitation of solid salts due to supercritical water `out-salting'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the common characteristics of planets Earth and Mars is that both host water (H2O) and large accumulations of salt. Whereas Earth’s surface-environment can be regarded as ‘water-friendly’ and ‘salt hostile’, the reverse can be said for the surface of Mars. This is because liquid water is stable on Earth, and the atmosphere transports humidity around the globe, whereas on planet Mars, liquid water is unstable, rendering the atmosphere dry and, therefore, ‘salt-friendly’. The riddle as to how the salt accumulated in various locations on those two planets, is one of long-lasting and great debate. The salt accumulations on Earth are traditionally termed ‘evaporites’, meaning that they formed as a consequence of the evaporation of large masses of seawater. How the accumulations on Mars formed is much harder to explain, as an ocean only existed briefly. Although water molecules and OH-groups may exist in abundance in bound form (crystal water, adsorbed water, etc.), the only place where free water is expected to be stable on Mars is within underground faults, fractures, and crevices. Here it likely occurs as brine or in the form of ice. Based on these conditions, a key to understanding the accumulation of large deposits of salt on both planets is linked to how brines behave in the subsurface when pressurized and heated beyond their supercritical point. At depths greater than about 3 km (P>300 bars) water will no longer boil in a steam phase. Rather, it becomes supercritical and will attain the phase of supercritical water vapor (SCRIW) with a specific gravity of typically 0.3 g/cm3. An important characteristic of SCRIW is its inability to dissolve the common sea salts. The salt dissolved in the brines will therefore precipitate as solid particles when brines (seawater on the Earth) move into the supercritical P&T-domain (T>400°C, P>300 bars). Numerical modeling of a hydrothermal system in the Atlantis II Deep of the Red Sea indicates that a shallow magma-chamber causes a sufficiently high heat-flow to drive a convection cell of seawater. The model shows that salt precipitates along the flow lines within the supercritical region (Hovland et al., 2006). During the various stages of planet Mars’ development, it must be inferred that zones with very high heat-flow also existed there. This meant that water (brine) confined in the crust of Mars was mobilized in a convective manner and would pass into the supercritical water zone during the down-going leg (the recharge leg) of the convective cell. The zones with supercritical out-salting would require accommodation space for large masses of solid salt, as modeled in the Red Sea analogy. However, as the accommodation space for the solid salt fills up, it will pile up and force its way upwards to form large, perhaps layered anticlines, as seen in the Hebes Mensa area of Mars and at numerous locations on Earth, including the Red Sea. Thus, we offer a universal ‘hydrothermal salt model’, which would be viable on all planets with free water in their interiors or on their surfaces, including Mars and Earth. Hovland, et al., 2006. Salt formation by supercritical seawater and submerged boiling. Marine and Petrol. Geol. 23, 855-69

Rueslåtten, H.; Hovland, M. T.

2010-12-01

66

Eating quality of UK-style sausages varying in price, meat content, fat level and salt content.  

PubMed

Thirty-six brands of pork sausage were purchased from a total of 10 retailers over a 4 months period and assessed for eating quality. The brands included 5 of the 10 most popular sausages in the UK, 4 basic, 14 standard, 10 premium and 8 healthy eating brands. The average price, meat content, fat content and salt content was 3.31 pounds/kg, 62%, 17% and 1.6%, respectively, but there were wide differences in price (1.08 pound/kg-5.23 pounds/kg), meat content (32-97%), fat content (2.1-29.1%) and salt content (0.5-2.5%). Sausages were assessed by a trained sensory panel using 100mm unstructured line scales and 14 descriptors (skin toughness, firmness, juiciness, pork flavour, fattiness, meatiness, particle size, cohesiveness, saltiness, sweet, acidic, bitter and metallic) including overall liking. The declared meat content was positively correlated with price, skin toughness, firmness, pork flavour, meatiness, particle size and perceived saltiness (r=0.5 or better). The declared fat content was positively correlated with fattiness and sweetness (r=0.42 or better) but not juiciness. There was no significant correlation between declared salt content and perceived saltiness. A principal component analysis showed that the first two principal components accounted for 51% of the variability in the data. Products could be separated into four quadrants according to their price, meat content, fat content and their associated eating quality attributes. PMID:20374862

Sheard, P R; Hope, E; Hughes, S I; Baker, A; Nute, G R

2010-05-01

67

Deuterium fractionation between aqueous salt solutions and water vapor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equilibrium fractionation factors for the partitioning of deuterium between pure water and water vapor at several temperatures (19°-27°C) and between aqueous salt solutions and water vapor as a function of salt concentration at 20°C are reported. The fractionation factors for the salt solutions show a linear variation with salt concentration and depend on the nature of both the cations

Michael K. Stewart; Irving Friedman

1975-01-01

68

The effects of pH and salt content on sodium balance in Daphina magna and Acantholeberis curvirostris (Crustacea: Cladocera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Sodium balance has been compared in two cladocerans,Daphnia magna, which commonly frequents alkaline waters of moderate to high salt content, andAcantholeberis curvirostris, which is found in acid peaty waters of low salt content.2.Differences in the affinity for sodium ions exist in different populations ofD. magna. In some populations the uptake mechanisms are half saturated at concentrations of 0.2 mM Na\\/l

W. T. W. Potts; G. Fryer

1979-01-01

69

Influence of Coagulant Salt Addition on the Treatment of Oil?in?Water Emulsions by Centrifugation, Ultrafiltration, and Vacuum Evaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Droplet size is a key factor in the treatment of oil?in?water (O\\/W) emulsions, because of its influence on emulsion properties. The addition of a coagulant salt generally causes emulsion destabilization, increasing the droplet size, and enhancing coalescence between oil droplets, which helps its further treatment. The influence of CaCl2 addition on droplet size distribution of a commercial O\\/W emulsion used

G. Gutiérrez; A. Lobo; D. Allende; A. Cambiella; C. Pazos; J. Coca; J. M. Benito

2008-01-01

70

The Effect of Salt Water on Rice.  

E-print Network

mq A QTF *'. ' . - - . 1 bC1 r*. .. r * - .=.-ksl-, G v $. THE EFFECT OF SALT WATER ON RICE AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President \\ STATION ,,,bfINISTRATION: *B. YOUNGBLOOD, M. S., Ph. D.,, Director A B CONNER...mq A QTF *'. ' . - - . 1 bC1 r*. .. r * - .=.-ksl-, G v $. THE EFFECT OF SALT WATER ON RICE AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President \\ STATION ,,,bfINISTRATION: *B. YOUNGBLOOD, M. S., Ph. D.,, Director A B CONNER...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1927-01-01

71

Influence of salt content and processing time on sensory characteristics of cooked "lacón".  

PubMed

The influence of salt content and processing time on the sensory properties of cooked "lacón" were determined. "Lacón" is a traditional dry-cured and ripened meat product made in the north-west of Spain from the fore leg of the pig, following a similar process to that of dry-cured ham. Six batches of "lacón" were salted with different amounts of salt (LS (3 days of salting), MS (4 days of salting) and HS (5 days of salting)) and ripened during two times (56 and 84 days of dry-ripening). Cured odour in all batches studied, red colour and rancid odour in MS and HS batches, flavour intensity in MS batch and fat yellowness, rancid flavour and hardness in the HS batch were significantly different with respect to the time of processing. Appearance, odour, flavour and texture were not significantly affected by the salt content (P>0.05). However, the saltiness score showed significant differences with respect to the salt levels in all studied batches (56 and 84 days of process). The principal component analysis showed that physicochemical traits were the most important ones concerning the quality of dry-cured "lacón" and offered a good separation of the mean samples according to the dry ripening days and salt level. PMID:21168978

Purriños, Laura; Bermúdez, Roberto; Temperán, Sara; Franco, Daniel; Carballo, Javier; Lorenzo, José M

2011-04-01

72

WATER, SALT AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The application of synchrotron based research for understanding the fate of contaminants in water, soil, and atmosphere is proving to be beneficial for scientists and regulators. Drawing the connection of a contaminated site to knowledge of metal speciation provides direct eviden...

73

Non-invasive quantification of small bowel water content by MRI: a validation study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Substantial water fluxes across the small intestine occur during digestion of food, but so far measuring these has required invasive intubation techniques. This paper describes a non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for measuring small bowel water content which has been validated using naso-duodenal infusion. Eighteen healthy volunteers were intubated, with the tube position being verified by MRI. After a baseline MRI scan, each volunteer had eight 40 ml boluses of a non-absorbable mannitol and saline solution infused into their proximal small bowel with an MRI scan being acquired after each bolus. The MRI sequence used was an adapted magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography sequence. The image data were thresholded to allow for intra- and inter-subject signal variations. The MRI measured volumes were then compared to the known infused volumes. This MRI technique gave excellent images of the small bowel, which closely resemble those obtained using conventional radiology with barium contrast. The mean difference between the measured MRI volumes and infused volumes was 2% with a standard deviation of 10%. The maximum 95% limits of agreement between observers were -15% to +17% while measurements by the same operator on separate occasions differed by only 4%. This new technique can now be applied to study alterations in small bowel fluid absorption and secretion due to gastrointestinal disease or drug intervention.

Hoad, C. L.; Marciani, L.; Foley, S.; Totman, J. J.; Wright, J.; Bush, D.; Cox, E. F.; Campbell, E.; Spiller, R. C.; Gowland, P. A.

2007-12-01

74

Polyion-surfactant ion complex salts formed by a random anionic copolyacid at different molar ratios of cationic surfactant: phase behavior with water and n-alcohols.  

PubMed

The presence of acid groups with different pK(a) values in the anionic copolymer poly(4-styrene sulfonic acid-co-maleic acid), P(SS-Ma), allowed the preparation of complex salts with a variable fraction of anionic groups neutralized by cationic surfactant in the copolymer via controlled titration with hexadecyltrimethylammonium hydroxide, C(16)TAOH. Two new complex salts were selected for detailed phase studies, C(16)TA(2)P(SS-Ma) and C(16)TA(3)P(SS-Ma), where both had 100% charged styrene sulfonate groups, but the fraction of charged carboxylate groups on the polyion was 50% or 100%, respectively. These complex salts thus contained both hydrophobic (styrene sulfonate) and hydrophilic (carboxylate) charged groups, and the ratio between the two could be altered by titration. These features were found to have consequences for the phase behavior in water and in ternary mixtures with water and n-alcohols for the two complex salts, which differed compared to complex salts containing homo- or copolyions with only carboxylate or styrene sulfonate charged groups. For both complex salts, binary mixtures with water produced, in the dilute region, two isotropic phases in equilibrium, the bottom (concentrated) one displaying increasing viscosity with increasing concentration. For the complex salt C(16)TA(2)P(SS-Ma), there was evidence of micellar growth to form anisometric aggregates at high concentrations. For the C(16)TA(3)P(SS-Ma) complex salt, this was not observed, and the isotropic phase was followed by a narrow region of cubic phase. In both cases, concentrations above ca. 60 wt % produced a hexagonal phase. For ternary mixtures with n-alcohols, the general trend was that a short-chain alcohol such as n-butanol acted as a cosolvent dissolving the aggregates, whereas with n-decanol, a cosurfactant effect was observed, inducing the formation of lamellar phases. Visual inspection (also between crossed polarizers), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were used in these studies. PMID:22288901

Percebom, Ana Maria; Piculell, Lennart; Loh, Watson

2012-03-01

75

Capillary forces and osmotic gradients in salt water -oil systems  

E-print Network

Capillary forces and osmotic gradients in salt water - oil systems Georg Ellila Chemical study. This is to my knowledge the first time the transport mechanisms in capillary oil-salt water and the Vista Program. 1 #12;Abstract This project looks at the capillary systems with salt water and oil

Kjelstrup, Signe

76

Iodine status in pregnancy and household salt iodine content in rural Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Adequate maternal iodine intake is essential during pregnancy for the development of the foetus. To assess the extent of iodine insufficiency and its association with household iodized salt in rural Bangladesh, we measured urinary iodine and household salt iodine content among pregnant women in early (?16 weeks, n = 1376) and late (?32 weeks, n = 1114) pregnancy. Salt (?20 g) and a spot urine sample (?10 mL) were collected from women participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation in rural northwestern Bangladesh during home visits in early and late pregnancy. Salt iodine was analyzed by iodometric titration, and urinary iodine by the Ohashi method. Almost all salt samples had some detectable iodine, but over 75% contained <15 ppm. Median (interquartile range) urinary iodine concentrations were 66 (34-133) and 55 (28-110) µg L?¹ in early and late pregnancy, respectively; urinary iodine <150 µg L?¹ was found in ?80% of women at both times in pregnancy. Although the risk of iodine insufficiency declined with increasing iodine content of household salt (P for trend <0.05), median urinary iodine did not reach 150 µg L?¹ until iodine in household salt was at least 32 ppm and 51 ppm during early and late pregnancy, respectively. Despite a national policy on universal salt iodization, salt iodine content remains insufficient to maintain adequate maternal iodine status throughout pregnancy in rural northern Bangladesh. Alternative measures like direct iodine supplementation during pregnancy could be considered to assure adequate iodine status during this high-risk period of life. PMID:20977661

Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Christian, Parul; Schulze, Kerry J; Ali, Hasmot; Kabir, Alamgir; Rashid, Mahbubur; Labrique, Alain; Salamatullah, Qauzi; West, Keith P

2012-04-01

77

Dynamic modelling of passive margin salt tectonics: effects of water loading, sediment properties and  

E-print Network

Dynamic modelling of passive margin salt tectonics: effects of water loading, sediment properties by Couette £ow in the underlying salt.The e¡ects of water: (i) increase solid and £uid pressures that contain salt through two-dimensional (2D) analytical failure analysis and plane-strain ¢nite

Beaumont, Christopher

78

Effects of water flow rate, salt concentration and water temperature on efficiency of an electrolyzed oxidizing water generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-factor central composite design was adopted to investigate the effects of water flow rate, water temperature and salt concentration on electrolysis efficiency and separation efficiency of an electrolyzed oxidizing water generator. Results indicated that electric potential (7.9–15.7 V) and power consumption (16–120 W) of the electrolysis cell were not affected by water flow rate, water temperature or salt concentration

S. Y. Hsu

2003-01-01

79

Indirectly suspended droplet microextraction of water-miscible organic solvents by salting-out effect for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

A simple and low-cost method that indirectly suspended droplet microextraction of water-miscible organic solvents (ISDME) by salting-out effect before high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) detection was used for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different samples. The ISDME is a combination of salting-out extraction of water-miscible organic solvent and directly suspended droplet microextraction (DSDME). Ninety-five microliters water-miscible organic solvent (1-propanol) was added to a 500-µL sample. A homogeneous solution was formed immediately. To produce a steady vortex at the top of the solution, the sample was agitated at 700 rpm using a magnetic stirrer. By the addition of ammonium sulfate (saturated solution) to the homogeneous solution, 1-propanol was separated and collected at the bottom of the steady vortex. Finally, 20?µL 1-propanol was injected into HPLC-UV. The effects of important parameters such as water-miscible organic solvent (type and volume), type of salt, and extraction time were evaluated. Under optimum conditions, the method has a good linear calibration range (0.1?µg/L-300?µg/L), coefficients of determination (R(2?) >?0.998), low limits of detection (between 0.02?µg/L and 0.27?µg/L), and acceptable recovery (>85.0%). Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:2694-2701. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:25242239

Daneshfar, Ali; Khezeli, Tahere

2014-12-01

80

Boiling of Water Droplets Containing Dissolved Salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted experiments on the effect of dissolving three different salts (sodium chloride, sodium sulphate and magnesium sulphate) in water droplets boiling on a hot stainless steel surface. Substrate temperatures were varied from 100^oC to 300^oC. We photographed droplets as they evaporated, and recorded their evaporation time. At surface temperatures that were too low to initiate nucleate boiling, all three

Qiang Cui; Sanjeev Chandra; Susan McCahan

2000-01-01

81

Effects of salt stress on the growth, physiological responses, and glycoside contents of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of three different NaCl concentrations (60, 90, and 120 mM) on the growth, physiological responses, and steviol glycoside composition of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni for 4 weeks. The results showed that the total dry weight decreased by 40% at 120 mM NaCl but remained the same at 60 and 90 mM NaCl. As salt concentration increased, chlorophyll contents decreased markedly by 10-70%, whereas the increments of the antioxidant enzyme activities were 1.0-1.6, 1.2-1.3, and 2.0-4.0 times, respectively, for superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase. The proline contents in salt-treated plants were 17-42 times higher than that in control. Moreover, leaf possessed significantly higher K? content and K?/Na? ratio than stem and root for all salt treatments. In addition, 90-120 mM NaCl treatment notably decreased the content of rebaudioside A (RA) and stevioside (ST) by 16.2-38.2%, whereas the increment of the ratio of RA/ST of salt-treated plants was 1.1-1.4 times. These results indicate that S. rebaudiana is moderately tolerant to salt stress. Hypohaline soil can be utilized in the plantation of S. rebaudiana and may be profitable for optimizing the steviol glycoside composition. PMID:23711229

Zeng, Jianwei; Chen, Aimeng; Li, Dandan; Yi, Bin; Wu, Wei

2013-06-19

82

Identification of water content in nanocavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tapered dielectric waveguide that scans, at constant height, a sample containing a viral capsid is studied by combining a lattice gas model to simulate water meniscus formation and a finite difference time domain algorithm for light propagation through the media involved. Our results show different contrasts related to different water contents and different meniscus orientations. We propose this method as a way to study water content and evaporation process in nanocavities being either biological, like viral capsides, or nonbiological, like photonic crystals.

Douas, Maysoun; Marqués, Manuel I.; Serena, Pedro A.

2013-04-01

83

Separation and Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process  

SciTech Connect

Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing wastewater residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by-products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy/rubber matrix for separating and encapsulating waste components from salt laden, arsenic contaminated, amorphous iron hydrate sludges. Such sludges are generated from conventional water purification precipitation/adsorption processes, used to convert aqueous brine streams to semi-solid waste streams, such as ion exchange/membrane separation, and from other precipitative heavy metal removal operations. In this study, epoxy and polystyrene butadiene (PSB) rubber emulsions are mixed together and then combined with a surrogate sludge. The surrogate sludge consists of amorphous iron hydrate with 1 part arsenic fixed to the surface of the hydrate per 10 parts iron mixed with sodium nitrate and chloride salts and water. The resulting emulsion is cured and dried at 80 °C to remove water. Microstructure characterization by electron microscopy confirms that the epoxy/PSB matrix surrounds and encapsulates the arsenic laden amorphous iron hydrate phase while allowing the salt to migrate to internal and external surfaces of the sample. Salt extraction studies indicate that the porous nature of the resulting matrix promotes the separation and removal of as much as 90% of the original salt content in only one hour. Long term leaching studies based on the use of the infinite slab diffusion model reveal no evidence of iron migration or, by inference, arsenic migration, and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficients of the unextracted salt yield leachability indices within regulations for non-hazardous landfill disposal. Because salt is the most mobile species, it is inferred that arsenic leaches from the host material at an even slower rate, making the waste forms amenable to unregulated land disposal options. These results indicate that the environmentally-benign, water-based emulsion processing of epoxy/PSB polymeric hosts show great promise as a separation and fixation technology for treating brine streams from wastewater treatment facilities.

Franks, C.; Quach, A.; Birnie III, D.; Ela, W.; Saez, A.E.; Zelinski, B.; Smith, H.; Smith, G.

2004-01-01

84

The Osmotically Functional Water Content of the Human Erythrocyte  

PubMed Central

Experiments were directed toward estimation of the magnitude of error incurred by the presumption of idealized osmometric behavior in the author's recent studies of monosaccharide transport through the human erythrocyte membrane. Thick suspensions of washed cells in isotonic buffered balanced salt medium were mixed in fixed proportions with varying dilutions of a concentrate of either (a) the mixed chlorides of the medium, or (b) glucose in the isotonic medium, and the resultant freezing point and hematocrit values determined. The form of the responses in the tonicity and the cell volume, as functions of the variable dilution of sugar or salts, conformed consistently with relations derived from the classical van't Hoff-Boyle-Mariotte pressure-volume relation. However, the effective cell water contents appeared substantially less than the weight lost in conventional drying, and varied somewhat according to the index used: expressed as grams of H2O per milliliter of cells at isotonic volume, the cell water implied by the hematocrit behavior was 0.614 ± 0.015 (SD); by the salt tonicity response, 0.565 ± 0.027; by the immediate glucose tonicity response, 0.562 ± 0.044; and by the equilibrium glucose tonicities, 0.589 ± 0.043. Olmstead's reports of gross deviation from the van't Hoff relation, in the rabbit red cell's responses to tonicity displacement, are attributed primarily to a systematic aberration in his method of data analysis, the observations themselves agreeing substantially with the present findings. PMID:14100971

LeFevre, Paul G.

1964-01-01

85

Validation of spot-testing kits to determine iodine content in salt.  

PubMed

Iodine deficiency disorders are a major public health problem, and salt iodization is the most widely practised intervention for their elimination. For the intervention to be successful and sustainable, it is vital to monitor the iodine content of salt regularly. Iodometric titration, the traditional method for measuring iodine content, has problems related to accessibility and cost. The newer spot-testing kits are inexpensive, require minimal training, and provide immediate results. Using data from surveys to assess the availability of iodized salt in two states in India, Madhya Pradesh and the National Capital Territory of Delhi, we tested the suitability of such a kit in field situations. Salt samples from Delhi were collected from 30 schools, chosen using the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) cluster sampling technique. A single observer made the measurement for iodine content using the kit. Salt samples from Madhya Pradesh were from 30 rural and 30 urban clusters, identified by using census data and the EPI cluster sampling technique. In each cluster, salt samples were collected from 10 randomly selected households and all retailers. The 15 investigators performing the survey estimated the iodine content of salt samples in the field using the kit. All the samples were brought to the central laboratory in Delhi, where iodine content was estimated using iodometric titration as a reference method. The agreement between the kit and titration values decreased as the number of observers increased. Although sensitivity was not much affected by the increase in the number of observers (93.3% for a single observer and 93.9% for multiple observers), specificity decreased sharply (90.4% for a single observer and 40.4% for multiple observers). Due to the low specificity and resulting high numbers of false-positives for the kit when used by multiple observers ("real-life situations"), kits were likely to consistently overestimate the availability of iodized salt. This overestimation could result in complacency. Therefore, we conclude that until a valid alternative is available, the titration method should be used for monitoring the iodine content of salt at all levels, from producer to consumer, to ensure effectiveness of the programme. PMID:10994281

Pandav, C S; Arora, N K; Krishnan, A; Sankar, R; Pandav, S; Karmarkar, M G

2000-01-01

86

Soil Water Content on Mars as Estimated from Neutron Measurements by the HEND Instrument Onboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey Spacecraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of 20 months of observations of Mars by the Russian HEND instrument onboard the NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft. We show that there are two extended subpolar regions with a soil water content of several tens of percent in the northern and southern hemispheres of Mars. The southern subpolar region is well described by a two-layer

I. G. Mitrofanov; M. L. Litvak; A. S. Kozyrev; A. B. Sanin; V. I. Tret'yakov; V. Yu. Grin'kov; W. V. Boynton; C. Shinohara; D. Hamara; R. S. Saunders

2004-01-01

87

61. VIEW OF SALT RIVER PROJECT WELL DISCHARGING WATER INTO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

61. VIEW OF SALT RIVER PROJECT WELL DISCHARGING WATER INTO THE ARIZONA CANAL NEAR 47TH AVENUE, LOOKING SOUTH Photographer: James Eastwood, July 1990 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

88

Collective oscillations of fresh and salt water bubble plumes  

PubMed

Bubble plumes of various void fractions and sizes were produced by varying the flow velocity of a water jet impinging normally on a water surface. The bubbles entrained at the surface were carried downwards by the fluid flow to depths ranging from 33 to 65 cm, and formed roughly cylindrical plumes with diameters ranging from 12 to 27 cm. The acoustic emissions from the plumes were recorded onto digital audio tape using a hydrophone placed outside the cloud at distances ranging from 50 cm to 16.0 m. Closeup video images of the individual bubbles within the plume were also taken in order to gain knowledge of the bubble size distributions. The experiments were performed in both fresh-water and salt-water environments. The fresh-water clouds emitted sounds with a modal structure that was significantly different from that produced by the salt-water clouds. Furthermore, the smaller bubbles present in the salt-water clouds have a fundamental effect on the amplification of turbulence noise, generating sound at significant levels for frequencies up to several hundred Hertz. PMID:10687686

Orris; Nicholas

2000-02-01

89

MANAGEMENT OF GROUNDWATER IN SALT WATER INGRESS COASTAL AQUIFERS  

E-print Network

surge, and drinking fresh water scarcity due to problem of salt water intrusion. Features which affect of freshwater supply wells when concentrations of dissolved ions exceed drinking-water standards. The degreeMANAGEMENT OF GROUNDWATER IN SALT WATER INGRESS COASTAL AQUIFERS C. P. Kumar Scientist `E1

Kumar, C.P.

90

Odour–taste interactions: A way to enhance saltiness in low-salt content solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated odour–saltiness interactions in aqueous solutions. In a first experiment, 81 consumers indicated expected taste attributes for 86 labels of flavour related to common food items. Panellists were able to rate expected saltiness of food flavour evoked by food written items. Differences in expected saltiness were observed in relation to actual salt content of food. In experiment 2,

G. Lawrence; C. Salles; C. Septier; J. Busch; T. Thomas-Danguin

2009-01-01

91

Effect of initial hydrogen content of a titanium alloy on susceptibility to hot salt stress corrosion.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of the initial hydrogen content of a titanium alloy on subsequent resistance to hot salt stress corrosion embrittlement and cracking was investigated. A Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V alloy was tested in four conditions: mill annealed (70 ppm H), duplex annealed (70 ppm H), vacuum annealed to an intermediate (36 ppm H) and a low (9 ppm H) hydrogen level. Material annealed at 650 C (duplex condition) exhibited resistance to hot salt stress corrosion superior to that exhibited by material in the mill annealed condition. Reduction of the alloy hydrogen content from 70 to as low as 9 ppm did not influence resistance to hot salt stress corrosion embrittlement or cracking.

Gray, H. R.

1972-01-01

92

Effect of high salt concentrations on water structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE characteristic tetrahedral structure of water is known to be disrupted by changes in pressure and temperature1-3. It has been suggested that ions in solution may have a similar perturbing effect4,5. Here we use neutron diffraction to compare the effects of applied pressure and high salt concentrations on the hydrogen-bonded network of water. We find that the ions induce a

R. Leberman; A. K. Soper

1995-01-01

93

The Receptacle Model of Salting-In by Tetramethylammonium Ions  

PubMed Central

Water is a poor solvent for nonpolar solutes. Water containing ions is an even poorer solvent. According to standard terminology, the tendency of salts to precipitate oils from water is called salting-out. However, interestingly, some salt ions, such as tetramethylammonium (TMA), cause instead the salting-in of hydrophobic solutes. Even more puzzling, there is a systematic dependence on solute size. TMA causes the salting-out of small hydrophobes and the salting-in of larger nonpolar solutes. We study these effects using NPT Monte Carlo simulations of the MB + dipole model of water, which was previously shown to account for hydrophobic effects and ion solubilities in water. The present model gives a structural interpretation for the thermodynamics of salting-in. The TMA structure allows deep penetration by a first shell of waters, the dipoles of which interact electrostatically with the ion. This first water shell sets up a second water shell that is shaped to act as a receptacle that binds the nonpolar solute. In this way, a nonpolar solute can actually bind more tightly to the TMA ion than to another hydrophobe, leading to the increased solubility and salting-in. Such structuring may also explain why molecular ions do not follow the same charge density series’ as atomic ions do. PMID:21028768

Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A.; Vlachy, Vojko

2010-01-01

94

Receptacle model of salting-in by tetramethylammonium ions.  

PubMed

Water is a poor solvent for nonpolar solutes. Water containing ions is an even poorer solvent. According to standard terminology, the tendency of salts to precipitate oils from water is called salting-out. However, interestingly, some salt ions, such as tetramethylammonium (TMA), cause instead the salting-in of hydrophobic solutes. Even more puzzling, there is a systematic dependence on solute size. TMA causes the salting-out of small hydrophobes and the salting-in of larger nonpolar solutes. We study these effects using NPT Monte Carlo simulations of the Mercedes-Benz (MB) + dipole model of water, which was previously shown to account for hydrophobic effects and ion solubilities in water. The present model gives a structural interpretation for the thermodynamics of salting-in. The TMA structure allows deep penetration by a first shell of waters, the dipoles of which interact electrostatically with the ion. This first water shell sets up a second water shell that is shaped to act as a receptacle that binds the nonpolar solute. In this way, a nonpolar solute can actually bind more tightly to the TMA ion than to another hydrophobe, leading to the increased solubility and salting-in. Such structuring may also explain why molecular ions do not follow the same charge density series as atomic ions do. PMID:21028768

Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A; Vlachy, Vojko

2010-11-25

95

Origin of fluid inclusion water in bedded salt deposits, Palo Duro Basin, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Salt horizons in the Palo Duro Basin being considered for repository sites contain fluid inclusions which may represent connate water retained in the salt from the time of original salt deposition and/or external waters which have somehow penetrated the salt. The exact origin of this water is important to the question of whether or not internal portions of the salt deposit have been, and are likely to be, isolated from the hydrosphere for long periods of time. The /sup 18/O//sup 16/O and D/H ratios measured for water extracted from solid salt samples show the inclusions to be dissimilar in isotopic composition to meteoric waters and to formation waters above and below the salt. The fluid inclusions cannot be purely external waters which have migrated into the salt. The isotope data are readily explained in terms of mixed meteoric-marine connate evaporite waters which date back to the time of deposition and early diagenesis of the salt (>250 million years). Any later penetration of the salt by meteoric waters has been insufficient to flush out the connate brines.

Knauth, L.P.; Beeunas, M.A.

1985-07-01

96

The arsenic content of bottled mineral waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The arsenic levels of 23 mineral waters on sale to the public in the United Kingdom were measured. The arsenic content of most waters was below 1 µg L-1 but the statutory limits of 50 ug L-1 for natural mineral waters and 100 µg L-1 for non-alcoholic beverages were exceeded by the French mineral water, Vichy Célestins (220 ug L-1).

John G. Farmer; Linda R. Johnson

1985-01-01

97

Atrazine and alachlor transport in claypan soils as influenced by differential antecedent soil water content.  

PubMed

Increased attention to ground water contamination has encouraged an interest in mechanisms of solute transport through soils. Few studies have investigated the effect of the initial soil water content on the transport and degradation of herbicides for claypan soils. We investigated the effect of claypan soils at initial field capacity vs. permanent wilting level on atrazine and alachlor transport. The soil studied was Mexico silt loam (fine, smectitic, mesic Aeric Vertic Epiaqualf) with a subsoil clay content, primarily montmorillonite, of >40%. Strontium bromide, atrazine, and alachlor were applied to plots; half were at field capacity (Wet treatment), and half were near the permanent wilting point (Dry treatment). Soil cores were removed at selected depths and times, and cores were analyzed for bromide and herbicide concentrations. Bromide, atrazine, and alachlor were detected at the 0.90-m depth in dry plots within 15 d after experiment initiation. Bromide was detected 0.15 m deeper (P < 0.05) in the Dry compared with the Wet treatment at 1, 7, and 60 d after application and >0.30 m deeper (P < 0.01) in the Dry treatment at 15 and 30 d after application; similar treatment results were found for atrazine and alachlor, although on fewer dates with significant differences. The mobility order of the applied chemicals was bromide > atrazine > alachlor. The atrazine apparent half-life was significantly longer in the Dry plots compared with the Wet plots. The retardation factor determined from the relative velocity of each herbicide to that of bromide was higher for alachlor than for atrazine. This study identifies the impact that shrinkage cracks have for different moisture conditions on preferential transport of herbicides in claypan soils. PMID:18574193

Kazemi, H V; Anderson, S H; Goyne, K W; Gantzer, C J

2008-01-01

98

The influence of aqueous content in small scale salt screening--improving hit rate for weakly basic, low solubility drugs.  

PubMed

Salt screening and selection is a well established approach for improving the properties of drug candidates, including dissolution rate and bioavailability. Typically during early development only small amounts of compound are available for solid state profiling, including salt screening. In order to probe large areas of experimental space, high-throughput screening is utilized and is often designed in a way to search for suitable crystallization parameters within hundreds or even thousands of conditions. However, the hit rate in these types of screens can be very low. In order to allow for selection of a salt form early within the drug development process whilst using smaller amounts of compounds, a screening procedure taking into account the compounds properties and the driving forces for salt formation is described. Experiments were carried out on the model compounds clotrimazole, cinnarizine itraconazole and atropine. We found an increase in crystalline hit rate for water-insoluble drugs crystallized from solutions that included at least 10% aqueous content. Conversely it was observed that compounds with greater water solubility did not benefit from aqueous content in salt screening, instead organic solvents lead to more crystalline screening hits. Results from four model compounds show that the inclusion of an aqueous component to the salt reaction can enhance the chance of salt formation and significantly improve the crystalline hit rate for low water soluble drugs. PMID:20553863

Tarsa, Peter B; Towler, Christopher S; Woollam, Grahame; Berghausen, Jörg

2010-09-11

99

Dynamics of Confined Water Molecules in Aqueous Salt Hydrates  

SciTech Connect

The unusual properties of water are largely dictated by the dynamics of the H bond network. A single water molecule has more H bonding sites than atoms, hence new experimental and theoretical investigations about this peculiar liquid have not ceased to appear. Confinement of water to nanodroplets or small molecular clusters drastically changes many of the liquid’s properties. Such confined water plays a major role in the solvation of macro molecules such as proteins and can even be essential to their properties. Despite the vast results available on bulk and confined water, discussions about the correlation between spectral and structural properties continue to this day. The fast relaxation of the OH stretching vibration in bulk water, and the variance of sample geometries in the experiments on confined water obfuscate definite interpretation of the spectroscopic results in terms of structural parameters. We present first time-resolved investigations on a new model system that is ideally suited to overcome many of the problems faced in spectroscopical investigation of the H bond network of water. Aqueous hydrates of inorganic salts provide water molecules in a crystal grid, that enables unambiguous correlations of spectroscopic and structural features. Furthermore, the confined water clusters are well isolated from each other in the crystal matrix, so different degrees of confinement can be achieved by selection of the appropriate salt.

Werhahn, Jasper C.; Pandelov, S.; Yoo, Soohaeng; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Iglev, H.

2011-04-01

100

Effects of water turbidity and salt concentration levels on penetration of solar radiation under water  

SciTech Connect

Two large, outdoor tanks were constructed in order to investigate the effects of water turbidity and salt concentration levels at various depths of water on penetration of solar radiation. These experiments were followed by a laboratory investigation that measured spectral transmittance and the extinction coefficient of water at different salt concentrations and turbidity levels. Both the outdoor and laboratory results indicate that the salt concentration level does not significantly affect solar radiation penetration. However, water clarity, quantified in terms of the turbidity level, plays a critical role on the magnitude of the solar radiation penetration, with the effect of turbidity on penetration increasing with the depth of water. A best-fit model is developed that gives the solar radiation penetration as a function of turbidity level and depth of water.

Wang, J.; Seyed-Yagoobi, J. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

1994-05-01

101

Detection of Plant Water Content with Needle-Type In-Situ Water Content Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A needle-type water content sensor with a polyethersulfone (PES) polymer membrane was developed for the low-invasive, direct in-situ measurement of plant water content (PWC) in prior work. In this paper we demonstrate a measurement of plant water stress that represents the demand for water of the plant and greatly affects its sweetness. We inserted the sensor into a stalk of strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) and soil. The variation in both the plant and the soil water content were successfully detected, which revealed the delay between variation in the plant water stress and soil water content after irrigation. Such delay could only be detected by the proposed sensor that could directly measure the variation of PWC in situ and continuously. The experiments also showed the variation in the signals as a function of detection sites and suggested that the detection sites of plant water stress need to be considered when the sensor is applied to irrigation culture.

Katayanagi, Hitoshi; Miki, Norihisa

102

Profile of iodine content of salt at trader level in the selected districts of India: Part I - Madhya Pradesh.  

PubMed

Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) are endemic in Madhya Pradesh. Since consuming iodized salt is the best way to prevent IDD, the government of Madhya Pradesh under the National Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Program (NIDDCP) has followed a policy of universal salt iodization (USI) since 1984, under which the state's population receives only iodized salt. However, despite this policy, the prevalence of IDD remains high in Madhya Pradesh. UNICEF-PAMM-MI-WHO-ICCIDD recently recommended monitoring the iodine content of salt at the trader level as a means of assessing the quality of salt being consumed by the population. The authors assessed the iodine content and types of iodized salt being sold by traders in Bastar, Dhar, Indore, Morena, Ratlam, Shahdol, Sidhi, Sihore, and Vidisha districts. From each district, more than 7 salt samples were collected from traders in district and block markets. Analysis of a total 108 salt samples using the standard iodometric titration method found that all samples contained some iodine. 35% of the traders, however, were selling salt containing less than 15 ppm of iodine, below the state government recommended minimum level of salt iodization for the retail level. PMID:12292800

Kapil, U; Singh, C; Mathur, A; Ramachandran, S; Yadav, R

1997-01-01

103

The Effect of Salt Water on Rice.  

E-print Network

producetl 62-0.15 per cent salt ........................ .7.9 gm. grain ]~roducerl 61-0.3 per cent salt .......................... .7,2 gm. grain 1)rodncecl In this experiment, 0.3 per ceilt salt usetl ziter thz plants were two weeks old wai... producetl 62-0.15 per cent salt ........................ .7.9 gm. grain ]~roducerl 61-0.3 per cent salt .......................... .7,2 gm. grain 1)rodncecl In this experiment, 0.3 per ceilt salt usetl ziter thz plants were two weeks old wai...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1909-01-01

104

Nitrogen in Desert Grasses as Affected by Biosolids, their Time of Application, and Soil Water Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the interactive effect of biosolids, time of application, and soil water on plant N concentration and uptake by Bouteloua gracilis (blue grama) and Hilaria mutica (tobosagrass) grown in pots. Biosolids were surface-applied to the soil of the pots either in the spring or the summer at rates of 0, 7, 18, 34, and 90 dry Mg ha.

RICARDO MATA-GONZÁLEZ; RONALD E. SOSEBEE; CHANGGUI WAN

2004-01-01

105

VARIATIONS IN THE DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONTENT OF INTRAGRAVEL WATER IN  

E-print Network

^402: VARIATIONS IN THE DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONTENT OF INTRAGRAVEL WATER IN FOUR SPAWNING STREAMS IN THE DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONTENT OF INTRAGRAVEL WATER IN FOUR SPAWNING STREAMS OF SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA by William J Introduction 1 Sampling intragravel water for dissolved oxygen content 2 Obtaining water samples from

106

Prediction of activity coefficients in liquid aerosol particles containing organic compounds, dissolved inorganic salts, and water—Part 3: Organic compounds, water, and ionic constituents by consideration of short-, mid-, and long-range effects using X-UNIFAC.3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-UNIFAC.3, a group contribution method for estimating activity coefficients of neutral and ionic components in liquid mixtures of organic compounds, inorganic salts, and water, is presented here. It is an extended UNIFAC method, in that traditional UNIFAC terms for short-range energetic interaction effects are extended to include ions as mixture components, and are combined with a Debye-Hückel long-range effect term and a second virial coefficient-type mid-range effect term. The method is formulated for application in modeling the formation of liquid aerosol particles consisting of general organic+inorganic salt+water solutions in which phase separation is likely to occur. Existing extended UNIFAC activity coefficient estimation methods can be problematic in modeling phase separation, since they require independent reference state corrections that may introduce significant errors. In X-UNIFAC.3, this problem is avoided by selecting appropriate reference states for all solution components, and imposing additional constraints on method parameters, when necessary, by inclusion of reference state correction terms within the activity coefficient expressions. Interaction parameters in the X-UNIFAC.3 equations are optimized for 12 different chemical groups (CH 3-, -CH 2-, -C|H-, -C||-, -OH, -COOH, H 2O, NH 4+, Na +, Cl -, NO3-, and SO42-) using available data for systems containing multi-functional oxygenated organic compounds and/or inorganic salts that are relevant to atmospheric aerosol applications. Estimations of water activities and mean ionic activity coefficients using X-UNIFAC.3 are compared with those of other extended UNIFAC methods. To demonstrate the use of X-UNIFAC.3 in predicting phase separation, the method is also applied to the butanoic acid+NaCl+water system, for which experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium data is available. The method performs well for aqueous salt solutions with salt concentrations within 30 mol kg -1 and for organic+inorganic salt+water solutions with salt concentrations less than or equal to 10 mol kg -1. Suggestions are proposed for improving the predictive capabilities of the method in future work.

Erdakos, Garnet B.; Chang, Elsa I.; Pankow, James F.; Seinfeld, John H.

107

Separation of alcohol-water mixtures using salts  

SciTech Connect

Use of a salt (KF or Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) to induce phase separation of alcohol-water mixtures was investigated in three process flowsheets to compare operating and capital costs with a conventional distillation process. The process feed was the Clostridia fermentation product, composed of 98 wt % water and 2 wt % solvents (70% 1-butanol, 27% 2-propanol, and 3% ethanol). The design basis was 150 x 10/sup 6/ kg/y of solvents. Phase equilibria and tieline data were obtained from literature and experiments. Three separation-process designs were developed and compared by an incremental economic analysis (+-30%) with the conventional separation technique using distillation alone. The cost of salt recovery for recycle was found to be the critical feature. High capital and operating costs make recovery of salt by precipitation uneconomical; however, a separation scheme using multiple-effect evaporation for salt recovery has comparable incremental capital costs ($1.72 x 10/sup 6/ vs $1.76 x 10/sup 6/) and lower incremental operating costs ($2.14 x 10/sup 6//y vs $4.83 x 10/sup 6//y) than the conventional separation process.

Card, J. C.; Farrell, L. M.

1982-04-01

108

Integral Quantification of Soil Water Content at the Intermediate Catchment Scale by Ground Albedo Neutron Sensing (GANS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil water content at the plot or hill-slope scale is an important link between local vadose zone hydrology and catchment hydrology. However, so far only few methods are on the way to close this gap between point measurements and remote sensing. One new measurement methodology for integral quantifications of mean areal soil water content at the intermediate catchment scale is the aboveground sensing of cosmic-ray neutrons, more precisely ground albedo neutron sensing (GANS). Ground albedo natural neutrons, are generated by collisions of secondary cosmic rays with land surface materials (soil, water, biomass, snow, etc). Neutrons measured at the air/ground interface correlate with soil moisture contained in a footprint of ca. 600 m diameter and a depth ranging down to a few decimeters. This correlation is based on the crucial role of hydrogen as neutron moderator compared to others landscape materials. The present study performed ground albedo neutron sensing in different locations in Germany under different vegetative situations (cropped and bare field) and different seasonal conditions (summer, autumn and winter). Ground albedo neutrons were measured at (i) a farmland close to Potsdam (Brandenburg, Germany) cropped with corn in 2010 and sunflowers in 2011, and (ii) a mountainous farmland catchment (Schaefertal, Harz Mountains, Germany) in 2011. In order to test this method, classical soil moisture devices and meteorological data were used for comparison. Moreover, calibration approach, and transferability of calibration parameters to different times and locations are also evaluated. Our observations suggest that GANS can overcome the lack of data for hydrological processes at the intermediate scale. Soil water content from GANS compared quantitatively with mean water content values derived from a network of classical devices (RMSE = 0.02 m3/m3 and r2 = 0.98) in three calibration periods with cropped-field conditions. Then, same calibration parameters corresponded well under different field conditions. Moreover, GANS approach responded well to precipitation events in both experimental sites through summer and autumn, and soil water content estimations were affected by water stored in snow.

Rivera Villarreyes, C. A.; Baroni, G.; Oswald, S. E.

2012-04-01

109

Projected Impact of Climate Change on the Water and Salt Budgets of the Arctic Ocean by a Global Climate Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The annual flux of freshwater into the Arctic Ocean by the atmosphere and rivers is balanced by the export of sea ice and oceanic freshwater. Two 150-year simulations of a global climate model are used to examine how this balance might change if atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) increase. Relative to the control, the last 50-year period of the GHG experiment indicates that the total inflow of water from the atmosphere and rivers increases by 10% primarily due to an increase in river discharge, the annual sea-ice export decreases by about half, the oceanic liquid water export increases, salinity decreases, sea-ice cover decreases, and the total mass and sea-surface height of the Arctic Ocean increase. The closed, compact, and multi-phased nature of the hydrologic cycle in the Arctic Ocean makes it an ideal test of water budgets that could be included in model intercomparisons.

Miller, James R.; Russell, Gary L.

1996-01-01

110

Results of water quality sampling near Richton, Cypress Creek and Lampton Salt Domes, Mississippi  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the Mississippi salt basin in southern Mississippi, chemical quality studies of surface water and ground water have been made to determine present water-quality conditions near three salt domes being studied by the Department of Energy as potential repositories for radioactive wastes. Chloride concentrations in excess of 60 milligrams per liter in surface water and ground water in Perry County indicate that contamination could be occurring from industrial wastes, oil test wells, or dissolution of Richton or Cypress Creek domes. (USGS)

Gandl, L. A.; Spiers, C. A.

1980-01-01

111

Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Soil Water Content Distributions by Neutron Moderation  

SciTech Connect

Contaminant transport through the vadose zone is a complex process controlled largely by interactions between subsurface lithologic features, water flow, and fluid properties. Understanding the processes controlling transport is an important prerequisite to the development and implementation of effective soil and ground water remediation programs. However, difficulties in directly observing and sampling the subsurface can complicate attempts to better describe subsurface transport processes and is mostly responsible for the large amount of uncertainty associated with vadose zone processes. The reduction of the uncertainty has been identified as a site need at Hanford by the STCG and the National Research Council (2000a) and is a key aspect of the site?s science and technology effort.

Ward, Anderson L.; Caldwell, Todd G.; Gee, Glendon W.

2000-10-01

112

Effect of chloride content of molten nitrate salt on corrosion of A516 carbon steel.  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion behavior of A516 carbon steel was evaluated to determine the effect of the dissolved chloride content in molten binary Solar Salt. Corrosion tests were conducted in a molten salt consisting of a 60-40 weight ratio of NaNO{sub 3} and KNO{sub 3} at 400{sup o}C and 450{sup o}C for up to 800 hours. Chloride concentrations of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% were investigated to determine the effect on corrosion of this impurity, which can be present in comparable amounts in commercial grades of the constituent salts. Corrosion rates were determined by descaled weight losses, corrosion morphology was examined by metallographic sectioning, and the types of corrosion products were determined by x-ray diffraction. Corrosion proceeded by uniform surface scaling and no pitting or intergranular corrosion was observed. Corrosion rates increased significantly as the concentration of dissolved chloride in the molten salt increased. The adherence of surface scales, and thus their protective properties, was degraded by dissolved chloride, fostering more rapid corrosion. Magnetite was the only corrosion product formed on the carbon steel specimens, regardless of chloride content or temperature.

Bradshaw, Robert W.; Clift, W. Miles

2010-11-01

113

Forested wetlands in freshwater and salt-water environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of data from over 50 freshwater and about 50 salt-water sites revealed that freshwater and salt-water forested wetlands exhibit parallel responses to hydrologic factors. Greater ecosystem complexity and productivity are associated with higher hydrologic energy and more fertile con- ditions (riverine > fringe 1 basin > dwarf = scrub). However, structural complexity is greater in freshwater forested wetlands

ARIEL E. LUGO; SANDRA BROWN; MARK M. BRINSON

1988-01-01

114

Profile of iodine content of salt at trader level in the selected districts of India: Part II - Haryana.  

PubMed

Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) are endemic in Haryana state. Since consuming iodized salt is the best way to prevent IDD, the government of Haryana under the National Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Program (NIDDCP) has followed a policy of universal salt iodization (USI) since 1986, under which the state's population receives only iodized salt. However, despite this policy, the prevalence of IDD remains high in Haryana. UNICEF-PAMM-MI-WHO-ICCIDD recently recommended monitoring the iodine content of salt at the trader level as a means of assessing the quality of salt being consumed by the population. The authors assessed the iodine content and types of iodized salt being sold by traders in 13 of Haryana's 16 districts. Analysis of a total 117 salt samples from 117 traders using the standard iodometric titration method found all but one sample to contain some iodine. 20% of the traders, however, were selling salt containing less than 15 ppm of iodine, below the state government recommended minimum level of salt iodization for the retail level. PMID:12292802

Kapil, U; Nayar, D; Singh, C

1997-01-01

115

Validation of spot-testing kits to determine iodine content in salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodine deficiency disorders are a major public health problem, and salt iodization is the most widely practised intervention for their elimination. For the intervention to be successful and sustainable, it is vital to monitor the iodine content of salt regularly. Iodometric titration, the traditional method for measuring iodine content, has problems related to accessibility and cost. The newer spot-testing kits

Chandrakant S. Pandav; Narendra K. Arora; Anand Krishnan; Rajan Sankar; Smita Pandav; Madhu G. Karmarkar

116

Temporal stability of soil water content in a small grassland head water catchment in western Germany observed by a wireless sensor network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil water content plays a key role in soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum process as well as the water, energy and CO2 budgets. The knowledge of spatial variability and temporal stability of soil water content is useful for the development of ground truthing strategies of remote sensing data and hydrological modeling. For this study we employed the wireless sensor network SoilNet developed by the Forschungszentrum Jülich to detect high resolution soil water content pattern of a grassland headwater catchment in Western Germany within the framework of the TERENO initiative. Soil water content was measured using newly developed time domain transmission sensors, which were installed in three depths (5, 20 and 50 cm). The mean relative difference is currently the principal tool for temporal stability analysis, which is computed by the individual measurements of soil water content at different locations in time. Sensor locations with a small mean relative difference provide a good estimation of the areal average of soil water content, whereas a small standard deviation indicates a great tendency of being temporally stable. This study showed that several locations for each depth are temporally stable but no location was found where all depths are equally temporal stable. Soil depth, soil properties such as soil porosity and soil hydraulic conductivity, root water uptake of the growing plants, and the time scale affected the temporal stability at the test site. With increasing soil depth, the standard deviation was decreasing, with a mean of the standard deviation from 1.79% to 0.87%, and a variance of the standard deviation from 0.58% to 0.19% . By increasing the time scale from 1 to 24 hour, the standard deviation was increasing as well, with a mean of the standard deviation from 2.7% to 9.8% and a variance of standard deviation from 1.9% to 5.7%. These findings are of relevance for applications of geospatial surface SWC assimilation in hydrologic modeling when only point-scale observations are available, as well as, remotely sensing surface SWC calibration and validation studies.

Qu, W.; Bogena, H.; Montzka, C.; Vereecken, H.

2012-04-01

117

178 Procee,dings of Tlze Soutlz African Sugar Technologists ' A.ssociatio~ ~- June 1971 RECLAMATION OF SOME SODlC SOILS BY THE HIGH SALT WATER DILUTION METHOD BY  

E-print Network

Results of the laboratory reclamation of four sodic soils by the high salt water dilution method are reported. The exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) of all soils was decreased by leaching with solutions of decreasing sodium but constant calcium concentration. Although a final leaching with water of low electrolyte concentration (EC,, soils did show an overall decrease in hydraulic conductivity during reclam-ation of up to 34%.

R. W. Fitzpatrick; D. P. Turner; A. Cass; M. E. Sumner

118

High-water-content mouldable hydrogels by mixing clay and a dendritic molecular binder.  

PubMed

With the world's focus on reducing our dependency on fossil-fuel energy, the scientific community can investigate new plastic materials that are much less dependent on petroleum than are conventional plastics. Given increasing environmental issues, the idea of replacing plastics with water-based gels, so-called hydrogels, seems reasonable. Here we report that water and clay (2-3 per cent by mass), when mixed with a very small proportion (<0.4 per cent by mass) of organic components, quickly form a transparent hydrogel. This material can be moulded into shape-persistent, free-standing objects owing to its exceptionally great mechanical strength, and rapidly and completely self-heals when damaged. Furthermore, it preserves biologically active proteins for catalysis. So far no other hydrogels, including conventional ones formed by mixing polymeric cations and anions or polysaccharides and borax, have been reported to possess all these features. Notably, this material is formed only by non-covalent forces resulting from the specific design of a telechelic dendritic macromolecule with multiple adhesive termini for binding to clay. PMID:20090750

Wang, Qigang; Mynar, Justin L; Yoshida, Masaru; Lee, Eunji; Lee, Myongsoo; Okuro, Kou; Kinbara, Kazushi; Aida, Takuzo

2010-01-21

119

Content of toxic and essential metals in recrystallized and washed table salt in Shiraz, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background Table salt is the most commonly used food additive. Since most of the salt consumed in Iran comes from mines, contamination with heavy metals is a health concern. The commonest salt purification method in Iran is washing with water. But recently, some industries have turned to recrystallization method. The present study aimed to determine the level of essential and non-essential heavy metals in the table salt refined with recrystallization and washing methods. Methods Thirty eight pre-packed salt samples were directly collected from retail market in Shiraz (22 samples refined with recrystallization method and 16 with washing method). The level of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, nickel and cobalt was determined using Voltammetric method. Daily intakes of lead and cadmium as well as their weekly intakes were calculated. Results The levels of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, nickel and cobalt in recrystallized samples were 0. 30 ± 0.26, 0.02 ± 0.02, 0.11 ± 0.06, 0.34 ± 0.22, 0.15 ± 0.19 and 0.008 ± 0.007 ?g/g, respectively, and also 0.37 ± 0.27, 0.017 ± 0.021, 0.19 ± 0.18, 0.37 ± 0.20, 0.13 ± 0.23 and 0.037 ± 0.06 ?g/g in washed salt samples. The calculated weekly intake of lead and cadmium was 0.216 and 0.014 ?g/kg, respectively for the recrystallized and 0.2653 and 0.0119 ?g/kg for the washed salts. Conclusion All values for toxic metals were lower than the permitted maximum for human consumption as prescribed by Codex and Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. Only 0.8652-1.0612% of lead and 0.17-0.2% of cadmium PTWIs are received via salt consumption weekly. PMID:24398299

2014-01-01

120

Inabenfide-Induced Alleviation of Salt Stress in Rice as Linked to Changes in Salicylic Acid Content and Catalase Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of inabenfide was investigated in rice seedlings subjected to salt stress in relation to changes in chlorophyll fluorescence (? F\\/Fm'), lipid peroxidation, salicylic acid (SA) content, and catalase (CAT) activity. A reduction in shoot growth of rice seedlings by 120 mM NaCl treatment was significantly alleviated by pretreatment with 30 ? M inabenfide. Sodium ion content was not

Hiroko Sawada; Dea-Wook Kim; Katsuichiro Kobayashi

121

Mineral Content and Biochemical Variables of Aloe vera L. under Salt Stress  

PubMed Central

Despite the proven economic importance of Aloe vera, studies of saline stress and its effects on the biochemistry and mineral content in tissues of this plant are scarce. The objective of this study was to grow Aloe under NaCl stress of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM and compare: (1) proline, total protein, and enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP-case) in chlorenchyma and parenchyma tissues, and (2) ion content (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, Fe, P. N, Zn, B, Mn, and Cu) in roots, stems, leaves and sprouts. Proline and PEP-case increased as salinity increased in both parenchyma and chlorenchyma, while total protein increased in parenchyma and decreased in chlorenchyma, although at similar salt concentrations total protein was always higher in chlorenchyma. As salinity increased Na and Cl ions increased in roots, stems, leaves, while K decreased only significantly in sprouts. Salinity increases typically caused mineral content in tissue to decrease, or not change significantly. In roots, as salinity increased Mg decreased, while all other minerals failed to show a specific trend. In stems, the mineral concentrations that changed were Fe and P which increased with salinity while Cu decreased. In leaves, Mg, Mn, N, and B decreased with salinity, while Cu increased. In sprouts, the minerals that decreased with increasing salinity were Mg, Mn, and Cu. Zinc did not exhibit a trend in any of the tissues. The increase in protein, proline and PEP-case activity, as well as the absorption and accumulation of cations under moderate NaCl stress caused osmotic adjustment which kept the plant healthy. These results suggest that Aloe may be a viable crop for soil irrigated with hard water or affected by salinity at least at concentrations used in the present study. PMID:24736276

Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Cordoba-Matson, Miguel Victor; Villegas-Espinoza, Jorge Arnoldo; Hernandez-Montiel, Luis Guillermo; Troyo-Dieguez, Enrique; Garcia-Hernandez, Jose Luis

2014-01-01

122

[Effects of water-salt stresses on seedling growth and activities of antioxidative enzyme of Suaeda salsa in coastal wetlands of the Yellow River Delta].  

PubMed

The halophyte Suaeda salsa is the pioneer plant and is used for the degraded coastal wetland in Yellow River Delta. The water-salt stress is the most important factor for ecological restoration to degraded coastal wetland. To understand the adaptive mechanism of Suaeda salsa to water-salt stresses, the induced effects of different groundwater table depths (0, -10, -20, -30 cm) and salt stress (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%) on seedlings of Suaeda salsa plant were characterized by the growth parameters of plant height, branch number and biomass of different organs and biological indices of leaf chlorophyll content, the activities of SOD, CAT, the leaf content of MDA and protein. The results showed the significantly (p < 0.001) decreased height of the seedlings from -30 cm to 0 cm of groundwater table depth, together with the decreased the number of branches, the biomass of leaf, shoot and root. The highest total biomass of single plant was (1.09 +/- 0.15) g under the condition of -30 cm water table depth and 0% salt stress. However, the combination of 0 cm water table depth and 3% NaCl resulted in the biomass of (0.23 +/- 0.01) g, which was ca. 21% compared with the highest biomass. Similarly, the contents of leaf chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid were the highest under the condition of -30 cm water table depth and 0% salt stress and lowest under the condition of 0 cm water table depth combined with 3% NaCl. The activities of SOD, CAT were increased significantly (p < 0.05) depending on the increase of salt stress. At 0 cm water table depth, the activities of SOD were 55.00 U/mg with 0% NaCl and 151.58 U/mg with 3% NaCl, respectively. The activities of SOD were decreased when the water table depth increased. However, the activities of CAT achieved the highest level at -30 cm water table depth. At 0 and -10 cm water table depth, the MDA content increased with the increase of salt stress. The MDA content was 0.26 mmol/g at -30 cm water table depth with 3% NaCl, which was approx. 28%-40% of the MDA contents compared with that caused by other salt stresses. These results demonstrated that Suaeda salsa plant could change its morphological characteristics, biomass allocation, and the activities of antioxidative enzymes to adapt severe environment. PMID:22619973

Guan, Bo; Yu, Jun-Bao; Lu, Zhao-Hua; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Xue-Hong

2011-08-01

123

Xylem Water Content and Wood Density in Spruce and Oak Trees Detected by High-Resolution Computed Tomography1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elucidation of the mechanisms involved in long-distance water transport in trees requires knowledge of the water distribution within the sapwood and heartwood of the stem as well as of the earlywood and latewood of an annual ring. X-ray computed tomography is a powerful tool for measuring density distributions and water contents in the xylem with high spatial resolution. Ten- to

Jorg H. Fromm; Irina Sautter; Dietmar Matthies; Johannes Kremer; Peter Schumacher; Carl Ganter

124

Mechanism of protein salting in and salting out by divalent cation salts: balance between hydration and salt binding.  

PubMed

The preferential interactions of proteins with solvent components were studied in concentrated aqueous solutions of the sulfate, acetate, and chloride salts of Mg2+, Ba2+, Ca2+, Mn2+ and Ni2+ [except for CaSO4, BaSO4, Mn-(OAc)2, and Ni(OAc)2], and results were compared with those of the Na+ salts. It was found that, for all the salts, the preferential hydration increased in the order of Cl- less than CH3-COO- less than SO42- regardless of the cationic species used, in agreement with the anionic lyotropic series, and that the same parameter exhibited a tendency to increase in the order of Mn2+, Ni2+ less than Ca2+, Ba2+ less than Mg2+ less than Na+. The salting-out and stabilizing or salting-in and destabilizing effectiveness of the salts were interpreted in terms of the observed preferential interactions. The surface tension increment of salts, which is a major factor responsible for the preferential interactions of the Na+ salts, had no correlation with those of the divalent cation salts. It was shown that the binding of divalent cations to the proteins overcomes the salt exclusion due to the surface tension increase, leading to a decrease in the preferential hydration. In conformity with this mechanism, the preferential interaction of MgCl2 was strongly pH dependent, because of the protein charge-dependent affinity of Mg2+ for proteins, while NaCl showed no pH dependence of the preferential interaction. The proposed mechanism was supported by a strong correlation between the preferential interaction results and the interaction of these salts with the model peptide compound acetyltetraglycine ethyl ester, described by Robinson and Jencks. PMID:6525340

Arakawa, T; Timasheff, S N

1984-12-01

125

Renal excretion of water in men under hypokinesia and physical exercise with fluid and salt supplementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been suggested that under hypokinesia (reduced number of steps/day) and intensive physical exercise, the intensification of fluid excretion in men is apparently caused as a result of the inability of the body to retain optimum amounts of water. Thus, to evaluate this hypothesis, studies were performed with the use of fluid and sodium chloride (NaCl) supplements on 12 highly trained physically healthy male volunteers aged 19-24 years under 364 days of hypokinesis (HK) and a set of intensive physical exercises (PE). They were divided into two groups with 6 volunteers per group. The first group of subjects were submitted to HK and took daily fluid and salt supplements in very small doses and the second group of volunteers were subjected to intensive PE and fluid-salt supplements. For the simulation of the hypokinetic effect, both groups of subjects were kept under an average of 4000 steps/day. During the prehypokinetic period of 60 days and under the hypokinetic period of 364 days water consumed and eliminated in urine by the men, water content in blood, plasma volume, rate of glomerular filtration, renal blood flow, osmotic concentration of urine and blood were measured. Under HK, the rate of renal excretion of water increased considerably in both groups. The additional fluid and salt intake failed to normalize water balance adequately under HK and PE. It was concluded that negative water balance evidently resulted not from shortage of water in the diet but from the inability of the body to retain optimum amounts of fluid under HK and a set of intensive PEs.

Zorbas, Yan G.; Federenko, Youri F.; Togawa, Mitsui N.

126

Field Devices for Monitoring Soil Water Content  

E-print Network

. Professor, Soil and Water Science Dept. Univ. of Florida for The Irrigation Water Management Program Team content in the soil can be directly determined using the difference in weight before and after drying content (GWC, g g-1 ) as weight of water over weight of dry soil, i.e. the ratio of the mass of water

127

Water Dynamics, Ice Stability, and Salts in Victoria Valley Soils, Antarctica: An Instructive Analog for Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typical of many hyper arid soils of the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, soils in Victoria Valley contain ~10% ice (at 0.3 m depth) and ~0.4% salt, mostly calcium and sodium sulfates and chlorides, making them excellent analogs to Martian soils. Vapor diffusion models designed to investigate ground ice dynamics on Mars are not entirely satisfactory because they lead to the unrealistic expectation that soils in Antarctica should be ice free within a 1000 years of being saturated with ice, and yet even ancient soils characteristically contain abundant ice near the surface. Validation of these diffusion models has been limited because of the paucity of field based climate and soil climate data. Moreover the models ignore the significant effects of snow cover, surface melt water and salts on vapor fluxes. To better understand the presence and stability of the shallow subsurface ice we are exploring the effect of snow cover and salts on vapor fluxes. Ice stability was investigated using high-resolution climate and soil temperature data from 2002 to 2005. According to the vapor diffusion model ice sublimates at an average rate of 0.22 mm a-1, corresponding to an ice recession of ~1.3 mm a-1 for soil with 10% ice content. Some of the water vapor is transported to the atmosphere; however, some water vapor accumulates at depth in the soil. Furthermore, snow cover during the summer may substantially reduce annual ice loss. Stable isotopes (?18O & ?D) in ice along a 1.6m vertical soil profile reveal a deuterium excess (-13 to -77 ‰) with the greatest enrichment of heavy isotopes at the top of the ice cement and decreasing with depth to form a concave-down profile. This isotopic profile was interpreted using a quantitative model of H2O transport in perennially frozen soil, including the advection-dispersion of heavy isotope- enriched surface water into the ice-cement. It suggests an average infiltration rate of 0.7 mm a-1 of brine if 2.5% of the H2O present is unfrozen, a quantity supported by salt concentration and the temperature record. According to the solute content and temperature of these soils and phase equilibria, sulfates mostly gypsum (CaSO4 2H2O), and mirabilite (Na2SO4 10H2O) are present in dry and ice rich soils. Dry soils, due to hydration have the potential to store 7.5 mm of water in the top 0.22 m of dry soil. Both the sublimation and advection-dispersion model suggest that summer snow events significantly affect ice stability. More realistic estimates of the effect of snow on the annual sublimation rates require field data on the timing and duration of snow cover, and the formation of snowmelt water and surface recharge of subsurface ice. The abundance of hydrated salts in dry soils and first measurements of contrasting water contents at different humidities strongly suggests that the role of salts in the storage and transport of H2O in cold, dry soils needs to be evaluated. This seems to be even more important as recent investigation on Mars indicate that the hydrological cycle on Mars may have been strongly influenced by dehydration reactions of sulfate salts.

Hagedorn, B.; Sletten, R. S.; Hallet, B.

2006-12-01

128

Coupled Salt and Water Flows in a Groundwater Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The postulates of irreversible thermodynamics and the law of conservation of mass were combined to yield two simultaneous partial differential equations describing the simultaneous transient-state flow of salt and water in fine-grained sediments. The resulting equations have been used to analyze the movements of groundwater and salt in a subterranean aquitard in the Oxnard, California, basin, a multiple aquifer system,

James A. Greenberg; James K. Mitchell; Paul A. Witherspoon

1973-01-01

129

Effects of temperature and salt concentration on distilled water production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper studies the influence of salt concentration and temperature on the distillation flow rate in a single effect multi-stage system for small water distillation units for low purchasing communities of 50 to 100 people. The distillation process has been evaporation–condensation under variable conditions: temperature of the evaporation and salt concentration. The results have shown there is a dependence of

C. Armenta-Deu

2002-01-01

130

Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of < 1 ppm in urKREEP. Using these data, predict that the bulk water content of the magma ocean would have <10 ppm. In contrast, estimate water contents of 320 ppm for the bulk Moon and 1.4 wt % for urKREEP from plagioclase in ferroan anorthosites. Results and interpretation: NanoSIMS data from granitic clasts from Apollo sample 15405,78 show that alkali feldspar, a common mineral in K-enriched rocks, can have approx. 20 ppm of water, which implies magmatic water contents of approx. 1 wt % in the high-silica magmas. This estimate is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. However, the Cl and F contents of apatite in chemically similar rocks suggest that these melts also had high Cl/F ratios, which leads to spuriously low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was likely very significant in the evolution of the lunar mantle. Conclusions: Lunar granites crystallized between 4.3-3.8 Ga from relatively wet melts that degassed upon crystallization. The formation of these granites likely removed significant amounts of water from some mantle source regions, e.g. later mare basalts predicting derivation from a mantle with <10 ppm water. However, this would have been a heterogeneous pro-cess based on K distribution. Thus some, if not most of the mantle may not have been devolatilized by this process; as seen by water in volcanic glasses and melt inclusions.

Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.

2016-01-01

131

Salt content of school meals and comparison of perception related to sodium intake in elementary, middle, and high schools  

PubMed Central

Excessive sodium intake leading to hypertension, stroke, and stomach cancer is mainly caused by excess use of salt in cooking. This study was performed to estimate the salt content in school meals and to compare differences in perceptions related to sodium intake between students and staffs working for school meal service. We collected 382 dishes for food from 24 schools (9 elementary, 7 middle, 8 high schools) in Gyeonggi-do and salt content was calculated from salinity and weight of individual food. The average salt content from elementary, middle, and high school meals were 2.44 g, 3.96 g, and 5.87 g, respectively. The amount of salt provided from the school lunch alone was over 80% of the recommended daily salt intake by WHO. Noodles, stews, sauces, and soups were major sources of salt intake at dish group level, while the most salty dishes were sauces, kimchies, and stir-fried foods. Dietary knowledge and attitude related to sodium intake and consumption frequency of the salty dishes were surveyed with questionnaire in 798 students and 256 staffs working for school meal service. Compared with the staffs, the students perceived school meals salty and the proportions of students who thought school meals were salty increased with going up from elementary to high schools (P < 0.001). Among the students, middle and high school students showed significant propensity for the preference to one-dish meal, processed foods, eating much broth and dipping sauce or seasoning compared with the elementary students, although they had higher nutrition knowledge scores. These results proposed that monitoring salt content of school meals and consideration on the contents and education methods in school are needed to lower sodium intake. PMID:23424102

Ahn, Sohyun; Park, Seoyun; Kim, Jin Nam; Han, Sung Nim; Jeong, Soo Bin

2013-01-01

132

Amplification of salt-induced polymer diffusiophoresis by increasing salting-out strength.  

PubMed

The role of salting-out strength on (1) polymer diffusiophoresis from high to low salt concentration, and (2) salt osmotic diffusion from high to low polymer concentration was investigated. These two cross-diffusion phenomena were experimentally characterized by Rayleigh interferometry at 25 °C. Specifically, we report ternary diffusion coefficients for polyethylene glycol (molecular weight, 20 kg·mol(-1)) in aqueous solutions of several salts (NaCl, KCl, NH4Cl, CaCl2, and Na2SO4) as a function of salt concentration at low polymer concentration (0.5% w/w). We also measured polymer diffusion coefficients by dynamic light scattering in order to discuss the interpretation of these transport coefficients in the presence of cross-diffusion effects. Our cross-diffusion results, primarily those on salt osmotic diffusion, were utilized to extract Nw, the number of water molecules in thermodynamic excess around a macromolecule. This preferential-hydration parameter characterizes the salting-out strength of the employed salt. For chloride salts, changing cation has a small effect on Nw. However, replacing NaCl with Na2SO4 (i.e., changing anion) leads to a 3-fold increase in Nw, in agreement with cation and anion Hofmeister series. Theoretical arguments show that polymer diffusiophoresis is directly proportional to the difference Nw - nw, where nw is the number of water molecules transported by the migrating macromolecule. Interestingly, the experimental ratio, nw/Nw, was found to be approximately the same for all investigated salts. Thus, the magnitude of polymer diffusiophoresis is also proportional to salting-out strength as described by Nw. A basic hydrodynamic model was examined in order to gain physical insight on the role of nw in particle diffusiophoresis and explain the observed invariance of nw/Nw. Finally, we consider a steady-state diffusion problem to show that concentration gradients of strong salting-out agents such as Na2SO4 can produce large amplifications and depletions of macromolecule concentration. These effects may be exploited in self-assembly and adsorption processes. PMID:25245596

McAfee, Michele S; Zhang, Huixiang; Annunziata, Onofrio

2014-10-21

133

The prevention of the concentration polarization and the water dissociation in electrodeionization by an amphoteric salt NH 4CH 3COO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration polarization in electrodeionization is easily obtained with NaCl, Na2SO4, and KCl; above a critical voltage, we observe water dissociation and a neat decrease in efficiency, which constitute limiting parameters. These phenomena are not observed with amphoteric salts such as NH4CH3COO. The efficiency increases continuously with the applied voltage without any apparent water dissociation or other abnormal phenomena. The

Kamel-Eddine Bouhidel; Aicha Lakehal

2006-01-01

134

Estimating winter wheat plant water content using red edge parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote sensing of plant water content is difficult because the absorption band sensitive to foliar liquid water is also sensitive to the atmospheric vapour. A method using non-water-absorption spectral parameters to evaluate plant water content (PWC) would be valuable. In our experiment, canopy spectra of 48 winter wheat treatments with different varieties, different fertilization and irrigation levels were measured by

Liangyun Liu; Jihua Wang; Wenjiang Huang; Chunjiang Zhao; Bing Zhang; Qingxi Tong

2004-01-01

135

Freezing tolerance and soluble sugar contents affected by water stress during cold-acclimation and de-acclimation in cabbage seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of water stress on freezing tolerance during cold-acclimation and de-acclimation in cabbage seedlings were studied. The seedlings were subjected to water stress by withholding water. The treatment wilted the seedlings and decreased the water content of their shoots. Exposure of seedlings to low temperatures (5°C) for 7 days induced freezing tolerance. Water stress promoted the increase in freezing

Hidekazu Sasaki; Kazuo Ichimura; Kunihiko Okada; Masayuki Oda

1998-01-01

136

Impact of eustatic sea level changes on the salt-water fresh-water interface in coastal ground waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Holocene sea level rise has been inundating former glacial to inter-glacial deposits at the North German coast some of which are in use for municipal drinking water abstraction. Sea water intrusion into these sediments represents a serious threat to the coastal freshwater resources. To date, mechanisms and timing of salt water intrusion have not been explored. Interstitial waters from two drilling cores recovered about 3 km offshore the coastline of Northern Germany now offer the possibility of investigating the origin and possible age of the sea water intrusion. The chloride inventory shows that the sea-water fresh-water interface in the subsurface is currently not in equilibrium with the position of todaýs coastline. Furthermore, the shape of the chloride depth profile suggests that at least one regression must have intermitted the Holocene transgression. Based on these findings we conducted a transient numerical simulation to elucidate the impact of eustatic sea level changes on the salt-water fresh-water distribution within the subsurface of coastal regions. We applied a modified Henry model with an inclined surface and forced by a dynamic sea level. The results show that salt fronts in the subsurface follow the coastline during transgressions and promote a fast salinization of the model aquifer. A regression immediately leads to the freshening of surface sediments via the replacement of saline and brackish waters with meteoric waters, while flushing of deeper parts of the model aquifer with fresh-water was significantly slower. Although the coastline has moved seaward saline ground waters remained at depth because ground water velocities are slower and density-driven recirculation of sea water constantly resupplies salt water. The results indicate that the shape of the salt-water fresh-water interface in coastal aquifers may strongly be affected by eustatic sea level changes. They also provide evidence that man-made fixation of the coast line by land reclamation and the subsequent construction of dykes in Northern Germany has impacted the salt-water distribution in the subsurface. But although dyking has started around 1000 years ago some areas still do not have completely freshened. This implies that freshening of aquifers once intruded by sea water may be a slow process which takes te?s to hundreds of years.

Riedel, Thomas; Lettmann, Karsten; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen

2010-05-01

137

4. VIEW TO NORTHEAST, SKINNER SALT ROASTERS, SAMPLING BUILDING, WATER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW TO NORTHEAST, SKINNER SALT ROASTERS, SAMPLING BUILDING, WATER TOWER, AND OFFICE BUILDING. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

138

Changes to cellular water and element content induced by nucleolar stress: investigation by a cryo-correlative nano-imaging approach.  

PubMed

The cell is a crowded volume, with estimated mean mass percentage of macromolecules and of water ranging from 7.5 to 45 and 55 to 92.5 %, respectively. However, the concentrations of macromolecules and water at the nanoscale within the various cell compartments are unknown. We recently developed a new approach, correlative cryo-analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy, for mapping the quantity of water within compartments previously shown to display GFP-tagged protein fluorescence on the same ultrathin cryosection. Using energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXS), we then identified various elements (C, N, O, P, S, K, Cl, Mg) in these compartments and quantified them in mmol/l. Here, we used this new approach to quantify water and elements in the cytosol, mitochondria, condensed chromatin, nucleoplasm, and nucleolar components of control and stressed cancerous cells. The water content of the control cells was between 60 and 83 % (in the mitochondria and nucleolar fibrillar centers, respectively). Potassium was present at concentrations of 128-462 mmol/l in nucleolar fibrillar centers and condensed chromatin, respectively. The induction of nucleolar stress by treatment with a low dose of actinomycin-D to inhibit rRNA synthesis resulted in both an increase in water content and a decrease in the elements content in all cell compartments. We generated a nanoscale map of water and elements within the cell compartments, providing insight into their changes induced by nucleolar stress. PMID:23385351

Nolin, Frédérique; Michel, Jean; Wortham, Laurence; Tchelidze, Pavel; Balossier, Gérard; Banchet, Vincent; Bobichon, Hélène; Lalun, Nathalie; Terryn, Christine; Ploton, Dominique

2013-07-01

139

Soil water content and evaporation determined by thermal parameters obtained from ground-based and remote measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soil water contents from both smooth and rough bare soil were estimated from remotely sensed surface soil and air temperatures. An inverse relationship between two thermal parameters and gravimetric soil water content was found for Avondale loam when its water content was between air-dry and field capacity. These parameters, daily maximum minus minimum surface soil temperature and daily maximum soil minus air temperature, appear to describe the relationship reasonably well. These two parameters also describe relative soil water evaporation (actual/potential). Surface soil temperatures showed good agreement among three measurement techniques: in situ thermocouples, a ground-based infrared radiation thermometer, and the thermal infrared band of an airborne multispectral scanner.

Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B.; Jackson, R. D.; Vedder, J. F.; Blanchard, M. B.; Goettelman, R.

1976-01-01

140

Swelling and shrinking of a polyelectrolyte gel induced by a salt solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability of a polyelectrolyte gel in solution results from a delicate balance between several competing thermodynamic forces, viz. (i) osmotic pressure of free ions in the gel, (ii) molecular interaction of solvent and polymer molecules, (iii) network elasticity, (iv) Debye-Htickel interaction of ions. That balance may be upset by a decrease of temperature and by the addition of salt to the solvent. This results in a decrease of osmotic pressure and collapse of the gel to a small fraction of the initial volume. The effect can be reversed by increasing temperature and by removing salt from the solution. This paper presents an attempt to describe swelling and shrinking quantitatively and to understand the nature of the opposing forces. The volume of a particular polyacrylamide gel in a water acetone solution is represented as a function of the salt content and of temperature.

Rydzewski, R.

1990-05-01

141

Perchlorate, iodine supplements, iodized salt and breast milk iodine content.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to determine if increasing maternal iodine intake through single dose tablets will decrease breast milk concentrations of the iodine-uptake inhibitor, perchlorate, through competitive inhibition. We also sought to determine if the timing of supplementation influences the fraction of iodine excreted in milk versus urine and to compare the effectiveness of iodized salt as a means of providing iodine to breastfed infants. Thirteen women who did not use supplements, seven of whom used iodized salt and six of whom used non-iodized salt, submitted four milk samples and a 24-h urine collection daily for three days. Women repeated the sampling protocol for three more days during which ~150?g of iodine were taken in the evening and again for three days with morning supplementation. Samples were analyzed using isotope-dilution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for iodine and isotope-dilution ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for perchlorate. No statistically significant differences were observed in milk iodine or perchlorate concentrations during the two treatment periods. Estimated perchlorate intake was above the U.S. National Academy of Sciences suggested reference dose for most infants. Single daily dose iodine supplementation was not effective in decreasing milk perchlorate concentrations. Users of iodized salt had significantly higher iodine levels in milk than non-users. Iodized salt may be a more effective means of iodine supplementation than tablets. PMID:22335882

Kirk, Andrea B; Kroll, Martina; Dyke, Jason V; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Dias, Rukshan A; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

2012-03-15

142

24-Epibrassinolide regulates photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content of Cucumis sativus under salt and/or copper stress.  

PubMed

Brassinosteroids have been extensively used to overcome various abiotic stresses. But its role in combined stress of salt and excess copper remains unexplored. Seeds of two cultivars (Rocket and Jumbo) of Cucumis sativus were grown in sand amended with copper (100 mg kg(-1)), and developed seedlings were exposed to salt stress in the form of NaCl (150 mM) at the 30-day stage of growth for 3 days. These seedlings were subsequently sprayed with 0 or 0.01 ?M of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) at the 35-day stage. The plants exposed to NaCl and Cu in combination exhibited a significant decline in fresh and dry mass of plant, chlorophyll content, activities of carbonic anhydrase, net photosynthetic rate and maximum quantum yield of the PSII primary photochemistry followed by NaCl and Cu stress alone, more severely in Jumbo than in Rocket. However, the follow-up treatment with EBL to the stressed and nonstressed plant improved growth, chlorophyll content, carbonic anhydrase activity and photosynthetic efficiency, and further enhanced the activity of various antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and content of proline at the 40-day stage of growth, and the response of the hormone was more effective in Rocket than in Jumbo. The elevated level of antioxidant enzymes as well as proline could have conferred tolerance to the NaCl- and/or Cu-stressed plants resulting in improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activity and proline content were more enhanced in Rocket than in Jumbo cultivar. PMID:23443638

Fariduddin, Q; Khalil, Radwan R A E; Mir, Bilal A; Yusuf, M; Ahmad, A

2013-09-01

143

First data on the uranium content in water of the Yenisei River basin in the area affected by the operation of Rosatom plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is devoted to investigating the content of uranium isotopes in water of the Yenisei River and its tributaries within the territories affected by the operation of Rosatom plants (mining chemical combine, and electrochemical plant). Long-term monitoring of the 238U content by mass spectrometry carried out in two institutes of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

A. Ya. Bolsunovskii; A. M. Zhizhaev; A. I. Saprykin; A. G. Degermendzhi; A. I. Rubailo

2011-01-01

144

Transport of dissolved salts by bottom density currents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolution mechanisms of the concentration fields of dissolved salts transported by density currents were studied in five lowland\\u000a reservoirs and in the latitudinal part of Teletskoe Lake based on data of multicomponent measurements of the distributions\\u000a of current parameters and water composition in longitudinal sections. A mathematical model is proposed for the description\\u000a of dissolved salt transport by these currents.

B. I. Samolyubov; E. S. Afanas’ev

2007-01-01

145

DESCRIPTION OF THE FRESH AND SALT WATER SUPPLY AND PUMPING PLANTS USED FOR THE AQUARIUM.  

E-print Network

DESCRIPTION OF THE FRESH AND SALT WATER SUPPLY AND PUMPING PLANTS USED FOR THE AQUARIUM. BY I. S. K. REEVES, Passed Aahfant Engineer U: S.Navy. .Freshwater supply.-The water for the fresh-water aquaria was supplied from one of the water mains under the aquarium building at an average pressure of about 60 pounds

146

Surveys of the salt content in UK bread: progress made and further reductions possible  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore the salt reductions made over time in packaged bread sold in the UK, the biggest contributor of salt to the UK diet. Study design Cross-sectional surveys were carried out on the salt content of breads available in UK supermarkets in 2001(40 products), 2006 (138) and 2011 (203). Main outcome measures The primary outcome measure was the change in salt content per 100?g over time. Further measures included the proportion of products meeting salt targets and differences between brands and bread types. Results The average salt level of bread was 1.23±0.19?g/100?g in 2001, 1.05±0.16 in 2006 and 0.98±0.13 in 2011. This shows a reduction in salt/100?g of ?20% between 2001 and 2011. In the 18 products which were surveyed in all 3?years, there was a significant reduction of 17% (p<0.05). Supermarket own brand bread was found to be lower in salt compared with branded bread (0.95?g/100?g compared with 1.04?g/100?g in 2011). The number of products meeting the 2012 targets increased from 28% in 2001 to 71% in 2011 (p<0.001). Conclusions This study shows that the salt content of bread has been progressively reduced over time, contributing to the evidence base that a target-based approach to salt reduction can lead to reductions being made. A wide variation in salt levels was found with many products already meeting the 2012 targets, indicating that further reductions can be made. This requires further progressive lower targets to be set, so that the UK can continue to lead the world in salt reduction and save the maximum number of lives. PMID:23794567

Brinsden, Hannah C; He, Feng J; Jenner, Katharine H; MacGregor, Graham A

2013-01-01

147

Correlation among Cirrus Ice Content, Water Vapor and Temperature in the TTL as Observed by CALIPSO and Aura-MLS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water vapor in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) has a local radiative cooling effect. As a source for ice in cirrus clouds, however, it can also indirectly produce infrared heating. Using NASA A-Train satellite measurements of CALIPSO and Aura/MLS we calculated the correlation of water vapor, ice water content and temperature in the TTL. We find that temperature strongly controls water vapor (correlation r =0.94) and cirrus clouds at 100 hPa (r = -0.91). Moreover we observe that the cirrus seasonal cycle is highly (r =-0.9) anticorrelated with the water vapor variation in the TTL, showing higher cloud occurrence during December-January-February. We further investigate the anticorrelation on a regional scale and find that the strong anticorrelation occurs generally in the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone). The seasonal cycle of the cirrus ice water content is also highly anticorrelated to water vapor (r = -0.91) and our results support the hypothesis that the total water at 100 hPa is roughly constant. Temperature acts as a main regulator for balancing the partition between water vapor and cirrus clouds. Thus, to a large extent, the depleting water vapor in the TTL during DJF is a manifestation of cirrus formation.

Flury, T.; Wu, D. L.; Read, W. G.

2012-01-01

148

Insufficient level of iodine content in household powder salt in Nepal.  

PubMed

Universal salt iodization (USI) is long term strategy for the control of iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) in Nepal. Standardized periodic testing of the iodine content in salt is a critical part of a salt iodisation programme. To achieve programmatic objective, this study was carried out to estimate the iodine content of household salt in Kavre, Lalitpur and Parsa districts of Nepal. Iodometric titration of 1803 salt samples collected from the households through the students of different schools revealed that 289 (16.0%) had less than 15 ppm iodine. Two hundred forty-one powder salt samples without two children logo (14.3% among total powder salt samples) had iodine below 15 ppm. It includes 25.8% of total salt samples from Parsa district of Terai ecological region. Among total, the largest proportion of the population accounting for almost 93.0% used powder salt. In total 1803 salt samples, mean and median iodine concentration were 31.8 ppm (95.0% CI=31.0-32.6) and 29.5 ppm respectively. The mean and median iodine concentration of phoda (dhike) salt were 22.1 ppm (95.0% CI= 19.2-25.1) and 18.9 ppm; powder salt were 32.6 ppm (95.0% CI= 31.7- 33.4) and 30.6 ppm respectively. In the community level, people are still using the non-iodized salt. To eliminate the IDD more efforts are required at program implementation and monitoring level. PMID:17899952

Joshi, Anand Ballabh; Banjara, Megha Raj; Bhatta, Lok Ranjan; Rikimaru, Toru; Jimba, Masamine

2007-06-01

149

Hydrogeology and Simulated Ground-Water Flow in the Salt Pond Region of Southern Rhode Island  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Salt Pond region of southern Rhode Island extends from Westerly to Narragansett Bay and forms the natural boundary between the Atlantic Ocean and the shallow, highly permeable freshwater aquifer of the South Coastal Basin. Large inputs of fresh ground water coupled with the low flushing rates to the open ocean make the salt ponds particularly susceptible to eutrophication and bacterial contamination. Ground-water discharge to the salt ponds is an important though poorly quantified source of contaminants, such as dissolved nutrients. A ground-water-flow model was developed and used to delineate the watersheds to the salt ponds, including the areas that contribute ground water directly to the ponds and the areas that contribute ground water to streams that flow into ponds. The model also was used to calculate ground-water fluxes to these coastal areas for long-term average conditions. As part of the modeling analysis, adjustments were made to model input parameters to assess potential uncertainties in model-calculated watershed delineations and in ground-water discharge to the salt ponds. The results of the simulations indicate that flow to the salt ponds is affected primarily by the ease with which water is transmitted through a glacial moraine deposit near the regional ground-water divide, and by the specified recharge rate used in the model simulations. The distribution of the total freshwater flow between direct ground-water discharge and ground-water-derived surface-water (streamflow) discharge to the salt ponds is affected primarily by simulated stream characteristics, including the streambed-aquifer connection and the stream stage. The simulated position of the ground-water divide and, therefore, the model-calculated watershed delineations for the salt ponds, were affected only by changes in the transmissivity of the glacial moraine. Selected changes in other simulated hydraulic parameters had substantial effects on total freshwater discharge and the distribution of direct ground-water discharge and ground-water-derived surface-water (streamflow) discharge to the salt ponds, but still provided a reasonable match to the hydrologic data available for model calibration. To reduce the uncertainty in predictions of watershed areas and ground-water discharge to the salt ponds, additional hydrogeologic data would be required to constrain the model input parameters that have the greatest effect on the simulation results.

Masterson, John P.; Sorenson, Jason R.; Stone, Janet R.; Moran, S. Bradley; Hougham, Andrea

2007-01-01

150

Rapid estimates of relative water content.  

PubMed

Relative water content may be accurately estimated using the ratio of tissue fresh weight to tissue turgid weight, termed here relative tissue weight. That relative water content and relative tissue weight are linearly related is demonstrated algebraically. The mean value of r(2) for grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz) leaf tissue over eight separate sampling occasions was 0.993. Similarly high values were obtained for maize (Zea mays cv. Cornell M-3) (0.998) and apple (Malus sylvestris cv. Northern Spy) (0.997) using a range of leaf ages. The proposal by Downey and Miller (1971. Rapid measurements of relative turgidity in maize (Zea mays L.). New Phytol. 70: 555-560) that relative water content in maize may be estimated from water uptake was also investigated for grapevine leaves; this was found to be a less reliable estimate than that obtained with relative tissue weight. With either method, there is a need for calibration, although this could be achieved for relative tissue weight at least with only a few subsamples. PMID:16658686

Smart, R E

1974-02-01

151

On chlorine salts: Their detection, stability and implications for water on Mars and Europa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chlorine salts (e.g. chlorides, chlorates and perchlorates) are an important factor in the stability of water on the surfaces of planetary bodies. Here we have shown that perchlorate and chlorate salts will lower the freezing point of water, allowing it to be liquid down to ~204 K. These salts will also slow down the evaporation rate, extending the lifetime of the liquid water solution. Chlorine salts have been detected on Mars, which has significant implications for the stability of water and hence its habitability. To study their effects on the stability of water on planetary surfaces, we need to first locate where these chlorine salts exist; this is typically done by remote sensing. To date, only anhydrous chlorides have been remotely detected, mostly due to the lack of hydrated chlorine salts in the spectral libraries used to identify features. To address this deficit, we measured reflectance spectra for numerous chlorine salts. Hydration bands were most common in near-infrared spectra, with band depth and width increasing with increasing hydration state. In the mid-infrared, oxychlorine salts exhibit spectral features due to Cl-O vibrations. We also investigated the spectral features of these salts at low temperature (80 K) to compare with remote sensing data of the outer satellites, specifically Europa. At low temperature, water bands become narrower and shallower than their room temperature counterparts. We show that chlorine salts do possess distinct spectral features that should allow for their detection by remote sensing, though care must be taken to acquire laboratory spectra of all hydrated phases at the relevant conditions (e.g. temperature, pressure) for the planetary body being studied.

Hanley, Jennifer

152

High Salt Diets, Bone Strength and Mineral Content of Mature Femur After Skeletal Unloading  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is known that high salt diets increase urinary calcium (Ca) loss, but it is not known whether this effect weakens bone during space flight. The Bone Hormone Lab has studied the effect of high salt diets on Ca balance and whole body Ca in a space flight model (2,8). Neither the strength nor mineral content of the femurs from these studies has been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of high salt diets (HiNa) and skeletal unloading on femoral bone strength and bone mineral content (BMC) in mature rats.

Liang, Michael T. C.

1998-01-01

153

Water, salt water and alkaline solution uptake in epoxy thin films  

E-print Network

. There are no clear trends as to the effects of salt water solution on diffusivity. Kahraman and Al-Harthi [25] attribute an increased diffusivity to the ability of the salt solutions to form micro-cavities in the epoxies. Room temperature results for 3.5% [27... by Moisture Sorption-Desorption and Dynamic Mechanical Studies. Polymer Composites, 1982. 3(3): p. 118-124. 20. Al-Harthi, M., K. Loughlin, and R. Kahraman, Moisture diffusion into epoxy adhesive: Testing and modeling. Adsorption, 2007. 13(2): p. 115...

Scott, P.; Lees, Janet M.

2013-05-10

154

Quantification of water content and speciation in natural silicic glasses (phonolite, dacite, rhyolite) by  

E-print Network

crystallization (Scaillet and Evans, 1999), evolution of eruptive dynamics (Di Muro et al., 2004), pyroclastic, rhyolite) by confocal microRaman spectrometry A. Di Muroa, , B. Villemanta , G. Montagnacb , B. ScailletcRaman spectrometry are discussed for alkaline (phonolite) and calcalkaline (dacite and rhyolite) silicic glasses

155

ALUMINUM BIOAVAILABILITY FROM DRINKING WATER IS VERY LOW AND IS NOT APPRECIABLY INFLUENCED BY STOMACH CONTENTS OR WATER HARDNESS. (R825357)  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives were to estimate aluminum (Al) oral bioavailability under conditions that model its consumption in drinking water, and to test the hypotheses that stomach contents and co-administration of the major components of hard water affect Al absorption. Rats received intra...

156

Upper-tropospheric water contents as observed by the A-Train MLS, CALIPSO and CloudSat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Partition between water vapor and cloud masses in the upper-troposphere has an important implication for cloud feedback processes in climate change. Uncertainties about ice microphysics in the upper troposphere remain to be one of the large error sources in cloud remote sensing. Due to lack of in-situ observations and reliable climatology about ice microphysics, poorly-constrained assumptions made in Aura MLS and CloudSat cloud ice retrievals can result in a factor of 2-3 differences in the retrieved cloud ice. To reduce the uncertainties, in this study we analyze the A-Train MLS, CALIPSO, and CloudSat data since May 2008 when these measurements begin to collocate to each other within +/- 10 km along the orbit plane. The collocated data provide an unprecedented opportunity to study cloud-induced radiance (Tcir), lidar backscatter (beta), and radar received power (Pr) measurements jointly on a point-by-point basis. By computing the integrated quantity of the active measurements for the MLS measurement volume, we are able to derive the Tcir-beta and Tcir-Pr relationships, as well as their relationships to ice water content (IWC) near the upper troposphere. Using MLS 240 and 640 GHz measurements, we obtain an empirical beta-IWC relation to derive IWC from CALIPSO 532nm backscatter. The derived lidar IWCs are consistent with CloudSat and insitu measurements in the upper troposphere, suggesting more water mass stored in the condensed phase than gas phase in the tropical upper-troposphere.

Wu, D. L.; Chae, J.; Lambert, A.; Read, W. G.

2009-12-01

157

Simulation Of Salt-Water Encroachment In A Multi-Layer Groundwater System, Bangkok, Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salt-water encroachment in the multi-layer groundwater system underlying the Bangkok metropolitan area was simulated with a quasi-three-dimensional flow and solute-transport model. The quasi-three-dimensional model used in this study is based on the model SUTRA. Accurate conceptualization of the initial state of the system with regard to the distribution of salt-water concentration is very important for modeling, especially in areas where localized zones of high salt concentration exist in the groundwater. Data adequacy and model results were evaluated by a geostatistical analysis. The model is capable of simulating the regional trend of potentiometric levels and salt concentration. However, lack of monitoring data in areas where localized zones of high salt concentration exist resulted in large model residuals.

Gangopadhyay, S.; Das Gupta, A.

1995-04-01

158

Determinants of Residential Water Convservation: The Case of Salt Lake City, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the effectiveness of demand-side water conservation policies in Salt Lake City, Utah for the years 1999 to 2002. We add to the existing residential water demand literature by exploring panel estimation techniques with disaggregated household level data. Alternative policies used to induce water conservation are discussed based on estimates of demand schedule parameters. We find that public

Eric Coleman; Terry Glover

2004-01-01

159

ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY The effects of tree establishment on water and salt dynamics  

E-print Network

ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY The effects of tree establishment on water and salt dynamics in naturally salt through changes in the water balance in naturally salt-affected landscapes of Hortobagy (Hungary. At greater depth, closer to the current water table level, the salt balance was reversed, with tree

Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

160

Fat and salt contents affect the in-mouth temporal sodium release and saltiness perception of chicken sausages.  

PubMed

In cooked meats, sodium chloride is involved in taste, texture and flavour release. So a reduction in the salt content may have an impact on overall perception and acceptability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of composition on sodium release and saltiness intensity in chicken sausages. The rheological properties of the sausages differed according to composition. Temporal sodium release and temporal saltiness intensity were evaluated by four selected subjects when eating sausages. At each time point, the effect of the salt level in sausages on sodium release was positive and highly significant. The effect of lipids on sodium release was negative. Concerning perception, the amount of salt used had a positive effect on saltiness intensity, and lipids seemed to exert a masking effect. Generally, clear relationships between salt levels, sodium release and saltiness intensity were found but the masking effect of lipids on saltiness intensity probably also involved texture or fat perception mechanisms. PMID:23501259

Chabanet, C; Tarrega, A; Septier, C; Siret, F; Salles, C

2013-06-01

161

Investigation of indigenous water, salt and soil for solar ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of salt-gradient solar ponds in nature is a strong indication that the successful exploitation of this phenomenon must account adequately for the influences of the local setting. Sun, weather and other general factors are treated elsewhere. This paper deals with water, salt, and soil. A general methodology for evaluating and, where feasible, adjusting the effects of these elements is under development. Eight essential solar pond characteristics have been identified, along with a variety of their dependencies upon properties of water, salt and soil. The comprehensive methodology, when fully developed, will include laboratory investigation in such diverse areas as brine physical chemistry, light transmission, water treatment, brine-soil interactions, sealants, and others. With the Salton Sea solar pond investigation as an example, some methods under development will be described.

Marsh, H. E.

162

Investigation of indigenous water, salt and soil for solar ponds  

SciTech Connect

The existence of salt-gradient solar ponds in nature is a strong indication that the successful exploitation of this phenomenon must account adequately for the influences of the local setting. Sun, weather and other general factors are treated elsewhere. This paper deals with water, salt, and soil. A general methodology for evaluating and, where feasible, adjusting the effects of these elements is under development. Eight essential solar pond characteristics have been identified, along with a variety of their dependencies upon properties of water, salt and soil. The comprehensive methodology, when fully developed, will include laboratory investigation in such diverse areas as brine physical chemistry, light transmission, water treatment, brinesoil interactions, sealants, and others. With the Salton Sea solar pond investigation as an example, some methods under development are described.

Marsh, H.E.

1983-08-01

163

Characterization of Cloud Water-Content Distribution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of realistic cloud parameterizations for climate models requires accurate characterizations of subgrid distributions of thermodynamic variables. To this end, a software tool was developed to characterize cloud water-content distributions in climate-model sub-grid scales. This software characterizes distributions of cloud water content with respect to cloud phase, cloud type, precipitation occurrence, and geo-location using CloudSat radar measurements. It uses a statistical method called maximum likelihood estimation to estimate the probability density function of the cloud water content.

Lee, Seungwon

2010-01-01

164

Factors affecting properties of pork sausage patties made with reduced salt contents  

E-print Network

) plays an important functional role in processed meats (Terrell, 1983). Salt is one of the main ingredients affecting the taste of processed meat products (Rust and Olson, 1982) and acts upon myofibrillar proteins to increase their water...) plays an important functional role in processed meats (Terrell, 1983). Salt is one of the main ingredients affecting the taste of processed meat products (Rust and Olson, 1982) and acts upon myofibrillar proteins to increase their water...

Matlock, Robert Gerard

2012-06-07

165

Interfacial water: A first principles molecular dynamics study of a nanoscale water film on salt  

E-print Network

Interfacial water: A first principles molecular dynamics study of a nanoscale water film on salt Li Density functional theory DFT molecular dynamics simulations of a thin 15 Ã? water film on NaCl 001 have interfacial water system. The interaction of the water film with the surface orders the water molecules

Alavi, Ali

166

46 CFR 46.10-45 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. (a) Passenger vessels required...voyages, shall not submerge in salt water the subdivision load line applicable...coastwise voyages may be marked with fresh water load lines. A passenger...

2012-10-01

167

46 CFR 46.10-45 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. (a) Passenger vessels required...voyages, shall not submerge in salt water the subdivision load line applicable...coastwise voyages may be marked with fresh water load lines. A passenger...

2013-10-01

168

A New Way to Measure Cirrus Ice Water Content by Using Ice Raman Scatter with Raman Lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High and cold cirrus clouds mainly contain irregular ice crystals, such as, columns, hexagonal plates, bullet rosettes, and dendrites, and have different impacts on the climate system than low-level clouds, such as stratus, stratocumulus, and cumulus. The radiative effects of cirrus clouds on the current and future climate depend strongly on cirrus cloud microphysical properties including ice water content (IWC) and ice crystal sizes, which are mostly an unknown aspect of cinus clouds. Because of the natural complexity of cirrus clouds and their high locations, it is a challenging task to get them accurately by both remote sensing and in situ sampling. This study presents a new method to remotely sense cirrus microphysical properties by using ice Raman scatter with a Raman lidar. The intensity of Raman scattering is fundamentally proportional to the number of molecules involved. Therefore, ice Raman scattering signal provides a more direct way to measure IWC than other remote sensing methods. Case studies show that this method has the potential to provide essential information of cirrus microphysical properties to study cloud physical processes in cirrus clouds.

Wang, Zhien; Whiteman, David N.; Demoz, Belay; Veselovskii, Igor

2004-01-01

169

Geophysical surveys for monitoring coastal salt water intrusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical surveys have been exploited in a coastal forest reserve, at the mouth of the river Bradano in South Italy (Basilicata, southern Italy, N 40°22', E 16°51'), to investigate the subsurface saltwater contamination. Forest Reserve of Metapontum is a wood of artificial formation planted to protect fruit and vegetable cultivations from salt sea-wind; in particular it is constituted by a back dune pine forest mainly composed of Aleppo Pine trees (Pinus halepensis) and domestic pine trees (Pinus pinea). Two separate geophysical field campaigns, one executed in 2006 and a second executed in 2008, were performed in the forest reserve; in particular, electrical resistivity tomographies, resistivity and ground penetrating radar maps were elaborated and analyzed. In addition, chemical and physical analyses on soil and waters samples were performed in order to confirm and integrate geophysical data. The analyses carried out allowed an accurate characterization of salt intrusion phenomenon: the spatial extension and depth of the saline wedge were estimated. Primary and secondary salinity of the Metapontum forest reserve soil occurred because of high water-table and the evapo-transpiration rate which was much higher than the rainfall rate; these, of course, are linked to natural factors such as climate, natural drainage patterns, topographic features, geological structure and distance to the sea. Naturally, since poor land management, like the construction of river dams, indiscriminate extraction of inert from riverbeds that subtract supplies sedimentary, the alteration of the natural water balance, plays an important role in this process. The obtained results highlighted that integrated geophysical surveys gave a precious contribute for better evaluating marine intrusion wedge in coastal aquifers and providing a rapid, non-invasive and low cost tool for coastal monitoring.

Loperte, A.; Satriani, A.; Simoniello, T.; Imbrenda, V.; Lapenna, V.

2009-04-01

170

First data on the uranium content in water of the Yenisei River basin in the area affected by the operation of Rosatom plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is devoted to investigating the content of uranium isotopes in water of the Yenisei River and its tributaries within\\u000a the territories affected by the operation of Rosatom plants (mining chemical combine, and electrochemical plant). Long-term\\u000a monitoring of the 238U content by mass spectrometry carried out in two institutes of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

A. Ya. Bolsunovskii; A. M. Zhizhaev; A. I. Saprykin; A. G. Degermendzhi; A. I. Rubailo

2011-01-01

171

Salt-water coupling in leaky epithelia.  

PubMed

The theory of quasi-isotonic transport by cellular osmosis (the standing-gradient theory) has been challenged on the grounds that the osmotic permeabilities of the mucosal and interspace membranes are too low; if they were as high as the theory requires then the osmotic permeability of the whole epithelium would be 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than observed. This objection has basically been accepted for it is now claimed that these enormous permeabilities do exist, but are masked by unstirred-layer effects; I show that this is incorrect because unstirred-layer corrections are small and that the situation has not changed since 1975. The view that the route of fluid transport is junctional is replacing the cellular theory, and trans-junctional water flows seem to account for major fractions of the flow in various epithelia. I argue on grounds of general theory that these are unlikely to be osmotic flows because the junctional pores cannot satisfy both the osmotic and diffusive properties required of them, but the basic osmotic theory is also rather vague here. Non-osmotic theories, if junctional flow is accepted, must be either electro-kinetic or peristaltic. PMID:7005450

Hill, A

1980-10-31

172

Surface behaviour of bile salts and tetrahydrolipstatin at air\\/water and oil\\/water interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface behaviour of two bile salts, sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) and sodium taurodeoxycholate (NaTDC), as well as that of tetrahydrolipstatin (THL), a potent gastrointestinal lipase inhibitor, was studied at air\\/water and oil\\/water interfaces, using interfacial tensiometry methods. The surface behaviour of NaDC and NaTDC was comparable at both oil\\/water and air\\/water interfaces. A fairly compact interfacial monolayer of bile salts

Ali Tiss; Stéphane Ransac; Hans Lengsfeld; Paul Hadvàry; Alain Cagna; Robert Verger

2001-01-01

173

Effects of harvest date, irrigation level, cultivar type and fruit water content on olive mill wastewater generated by a laboratory scale 'Abencor' milling system.  

PubMed

Olive mill wastewaters (OMW) were obtained at laboratory scale by milling olives from four cultivars grown at different irrigation levels and harvested at different times. Samples were compared based on wastewater quantity, pH, suspended matter, salinity, organic load, total phenols, NPK, and phytotoxicity. Principal component analysis discriminated between harvest times, regardless of olive cultivar, indicating substantial influence of fruit ripeness on OMW characteristics. OMW properties were affected both by the composition and the extraction efficiency of fruit water. As the fruit water content increased, the concentrations of solutes in the fruit water decreased, but the original fruit water composed a larger portion of the total wastewater volume. These contradicting effects resulted in lack of correlation between fruit water content and OMW properties. The significant effects shown for fruit ripeness, irrigation and cultivar on OMW characteristics indicate that olive horticultural conditions should be considered in future OMW management. PMID:22226593

Aviani, I; Raviv, M; Hadar, Y; Saadi, I; Dag, A; Ben-Gal, A; Yermiyahu, U; Zipori, I; Laor, Y

2012-03-01

174

Evaluation of trace metal content by ICP-MS using closed vessel microwave digestion in fresh water fish.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to investigate trace metal levels of different varieties of fresh water fish using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer after microwave digestion (MD-ICPMS). Fish samples were collected from the outlets of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The trace metal content in different varieties of analyzed fish were ranged from 0.24 to 1.68?mg/kg for Chromium in Cyprinus carpio and Masto symbollon, 0.20 to 7.52?mg/kg for Manganese in Labeo rohita and Masto symbollon, 0.006 to 0.07?mg/kg for Cobalt in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, 0.31 to 2.24?mg/kg for Copper in Labeo rohita and Penaeus monodon, 3.25 to 14.56?mg/kg for Zinc in Cyprinus carpio and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and 0.01 to 2.05?mg/kg for Selenium in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, respectively. Proximate composition data for the different fishes were also tabulated. Since the available data for different trace elements for fish is scanty, here an effort is made to present a precise data for the same as estimated on ICP-MS. Results were in accordance with recommended daily intake allowance by WHO/FAO. PMID:24744789

Jarapala, Sreenivasa Rao; Kandlakunta, Bhaskarachary; Thingnganing, Longvah

2014-01-01

175

Evaluation of Trace Metal Content by ICP-MS Using Closed Vessel Microwave Digestion in Fresh Water Fish  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study was to investigate trace metal levels of different varieties of fresh water fish using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer after microwave digestion (MD-ICPMS). Fish samples were collected from the outlets of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The trace metal content in different varieties of analyzed fish were ranged from 0.24 to 1.68?mg/kg for Chromium in Cyprinus carpio and Masto symbollon, 0.20 to 7.52?mg/kg for Manganese in Labeo rohita and Masto symbollon, 0.006 to 0.07?mg/kg for Cobalt in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, 0.31 to 2.24?mg/kg for Copper in Labeo rohita and Penaeus monodon, 3.25 to 14.56?mg/kg for Zinc in Cyprinus carpio and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and 0.01 to 2.05?mg/kg for Selenium in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, respectively. Proximate composition data for the different fishes were also tabulated. Since the available data for different trace elements for fish is scanty, here an effort is made to present a precise data for the same as estimated on ICP-MS. Results were in accordance with recommended daily intake allowance by WHO/FAO. PMID:24744789

Jarapala, Sreenivasa Rao; Kandlakunta, Bhaskarachary; Thingnganing, Longvah

2014-01-01

176

Salt seeking by food selection in adrenalectomized rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the generality of salt-seeking behavior in 2 experiments with 12 sham-operated and 9 adrenalectomized male albino Dublin strain rats. Under diets which differed in salt content, the adrenalectomized Ss selected salty over plain food. Where the salt concentration was 3% or greater, the adrenalectomized Ss maintained body weight and showed no adverse symptoms. Contrary to previous theories, results demonstrate

Douglas L. Grimsley

1973-01-01

177

Theoretical considerations on the motion of salt and fresh water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a survey of the theoretical investigations in Holland on the motion of salt and fresh water in estuaries, locks, etc. The insight gained is set forth, and also questions yet unsolved are mentioned. First the long wave phenomena in the interface of two sharply separated liquids are treated, and in connection herewith, the cases of critical flow.

J. B. Schijf; J. C. Schönfled

1953-01-01

178

Modelling Ontogenetic Changes of Nitrogen and Water Content in Lettuce  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims It is well established that the nitrogen content of plants, including lettuce, decreases with time. It has also been observed that water content of lettuce increases between planting and harvest. This paper is an attempt at modelling these observations. • Methods An existing dynamic model (Nicolet), designed to predict growth and nitrate content of glasshouse lettuce, is modified to accommodate the ontogenetic changes of reduced-nitrogen and water contents (on a dry matter basis). The decreasing reduced-N content and the increasing water content are mimicked by dividing the originally uniform plant into ‘metabolically active’ tissue and ‘support’ tissue. The ‘metabolic’ tissue is assumed to contain a higher nitrogen content and a lower water content than the ‘support’ tissue. As the plants grow, the ratio of ‘support’ to ‘metabolic’ tissue increases, resulting in an increased mean water content and a decreased reduced-N content. Simulations with the new model are compared with experimental glasshouse data over four seasons. • Key Results The empirical linear relationship between water and reduced-N contents, matches, to a good approximation, the corresponding relationship based on the model. The agreement between the two makes it possible to effectively uncouple the estimation of the ‘ontogenetic’ parameters from the estimation of the other parameters. The growth and nitrate simulation results match the data rather well and are hardly affected by the new refinement. The reduced-N and water contents are predicted much better with the new model. • Conclusion Prediction of nitrogen uptake for the substantial nitrate pool of lettuce depends on the water content. Hence, the modified model may assist in making better fertilization decisions and better estimates of nitrogen leaching. PMID:15294851

SEGINER, IDO; BLEYAERT, PETER; BREUGELMANS, MAAIKE

2004-01-01

179

Water and chlorine content in the Martian soil along the first 1900 m of the Curiosity rover traverse as estimated by the DAN instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

presence of hydrated phases in the soil and near-surface bedrock of Gale Crater is thought to be direct evidence for water-rock interaction in the crater in the ancient past. Layered sediments over the Gale Crater floor are thought to have formed in past epochs due to sediment transport, accumulation, and cementation through interaction with fluids, and the observed strata of water-bearing minerals record the history of these episodes. The first data analysis of the Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) investigation on board the Curiosity rover is presented for 154 individual points of active mode measurements along 1900 m of the traverse over the first 361 Martian solar days in Gale crater. It is found that a model of constant water content within subsurface should be rejected for practically all tested points, whereas a two-layer model with different water contents in each layer is supported by the data. A so-called direct two-layer model (water content increasing with depth) yields acceptable fits for odometry ranges between 0 and 455 m and beyond 638 m. The mean water (H2O) abundances of the top and bottom layers vary from 1.5 to 1.7 wt % and from 2.2 to 3.3 wt %, respectively, while at some tested spots the water content is estimated to be as high as ~5 wt %. The data for odometry range 455-638 m support an inverse two-layer model (water content decreasing with depth), with an estimated mean water abundance of 2.1 ± 0.1 wt % and 1.4 ± 0.04 wt % in the top and bottom layers, respectively.

Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Sanin, A. B.; Starr, R. D.; Lisov, D. I.; Kuzmin, R. O.; Behar, A.; Boynton, W. V.; Hardgrove, C.; Harshman, K.; Jun, I.; Milliken, R. E.; Mischna, M. A.; Moersch, J. E.; Tate, C. G.

2014-07-01

180

Structural and Functional State of Thylakoids in a Halophyte Suaeda altissima before and after Disturbance of Salt–Water Balance by Extremely High Concentrations of NaCl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Halophyte plants Suaeda altissima L. were grown in water culture at different concentrations of NaCl in the medium, and their leaves were sampled to examine the ultrastructure of chloroplasts. In parallel tests, the functional state of chloroplasts was assessed from parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence. In addition the effects of NaCl on plant growth and on the contents of Na+, K+,

Yu. V. Balnokin; E. B. Kurkova; N. A. Myasoedov; R. V. Lun'kov; N. Z. Shamsutdinov; E. A. Egorova; N. G. Bukhov

2004-01-01

181

The MODIS Vegetation Canopy Water Content product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation water stress drives wildfire behavior and risk, having important implications for biogeochemical cycling in natural ecosystems, agriculture, and forestry. Water stress limits plant transpiration and carbon gain. The regulation of photosynthesis creates close linkages between the carbon, water, and energy cycles and through metabolism to the nitrogen cycle. We generated systematic weekly CWC estimated for the USA from 2000-2006. MODIS measures the sunlit reflectance of the vegetation in the visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared. Radiative transfer models, such as PROSPECT-SAILH, determine how sunlight interacts with plant and soil materials. These models can be applied over a range of scales and ecosystem types. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were used to optimize the inversion of these models to determine vegetation water content. We carried out multi-scale validation of the product using field data, airborne and satellite cross-calibration. An Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) of the product is under evaluation by NASA. The CWC product inputs are 1) The MODIS Terra/Aqua surface reflectance product (MOD09A1/MYD09A1) 2) The MODIS land cover map product (MOD12Q1) reclassified to grassland, shrub-land and forest canopies; 3) An ANN trained with PROSPECT-SAILH; 4) A calibration file for each land cover type. The output is an ENVI file with the CWC values. The code is written in Matlab environment and is being adapted to read not only the 8 day MODIS composites, but also daily surface reflectance data. We plan to incorporate the cloud and snow mask and generate as output a geotiff file. Vegetation water content estimates will help predicting linkages between biogeochemical cycles, which will enable further understanding of feedbacks to atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. It will also serve to estimate primary productivity of the biosphere; monitor/assess natural vegetation health related to drought, pollution or diseases; improve irrigation scheduling by reducing over-watering and under-watering. These estimates will also allow researchers to identify wildfire behavior/risk: drives ignition probability and burning efficiency; to be used as an indicator of soil moisture and Leaf Area Index.

Ustin, S. L.; Riano, D.; Trombetti, M.

2008-12-01

182

Effect of initial hydrogen content of a titanium alloy on susceptibility to hot-salt stress-corrosion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V alloy was tested in four conditions: mill annealed (70 ppM H), duplex annealed (70 ppM H), vacuum annealed to an intermediate (36 ppM) and a low (9 ppM H) hydrogen level. Material annealed at 650 C (duplex condition) exhibited resistance to hot-salt stress corrosion superior to that exhibited by material in the mill-annealed condition. Reduction of the alloy hydrogen content from 70 to as low as 9 ppM did not influence resistance to hot-salt stress corrosion embrittlement or cracking.

Gray, H. R.

1971-01-01

183

Renal arteriolar injury by salt intake contributes to salt memory for the development of hypertension.  

PubMed

The role of salt intake in the development of hypertension is prominent, but its mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Our aim was to examine the effect of transient salt intake during the prehypertensive period in hypertensive model animals. Dahl salt-sensitive rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats were fed from 6 to 14 weeks with low-salt (0.12% NaCl), normal-salt (0.8% NaCl), high-salt (7% NaCl), or high-sodium/normal-chloride diet and returned to normal-salt diet for 3 months. Rats in the high-salt group saw elevations in blood pressure (BP) not only during the treatment period but also for the 3 months after returning to normal-salt diet. We named this phenomenon salt memory. Renal arteriolar injury was found in the high-salt group at the end of experiment. Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed from 6 to 14 weeks with high-salt diet with angiotensin receptor blocker, vasodilator, calcium channel blocker, and calcium channel blocker+angiotensin receptor blocker and returned to normal-salt diet. Although BP was suppressed to control levels by vasodilator or calcium channel blocker, elevated renal angiotensin II and renal arteriolar injury were observed, and salt memory did not disappear because of sustained renal arteriolar injury. Calcium channel blocker+angiotensin receptor blocker suppressed renal arteriolar injury, resulting in the disappearance of salt memory. Cross-transplantation of kidneys from Dahl salt-sensitive rats on high salt to control rats caused increase of BP, whereas control kidneys caused reduction in BP of hypertensive rats, inducing the central role of the kidney. These results suggest that renal arteriolar injury through BP and renal angiotensin II elevation plays important roles in the development of salt memory for hypertension. PMID:24980670

Oguchi, Hideyo; Sasamura, Hiroyuki; Shinoda, Kazunobu; Morita, Shinya; Kono, Hidaka; Nakagawa, Ken; Ishiguro, Kimiko; Hayashi, Kaori; Nakamura, Mari; Azegami, Tatsuhiko; Oya, Mototsugu; Itoh, Hiroshi

2014-10-01

184

Chemical quality of ground water in Salt Lake Valley, Utah, 1969-85  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1979-84, 35 wells completed in the principal aquifer in the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, that had been sampled during 1962-67 were resampled to determine if water-quality changes had occurred. The dissolved-solids concentration of the water from 13 of the wells has increased by more than 10 percent since 1962-67.

Waddell, K. M.; Seiler, R. L.; Solomon, D. K.

1987-01-01

185

Modeling of water-drain and salt-transfer processes on swamped lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrodynamic and hydraulic models of water drain on swamped lands are proposed, which describe the processes of filtration and surface drain with different degrees of detail and accuracy. Based on the models of salt transfer by interacting filtration and riverbed flows, the issues of modeling the quality of subsoil and surface waters are considered.

A. A. Kashevarov

2005-01-01

186

Salt hydrates for water activity control with biocatalysts in organic media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addition of solid salt hydrate(s) to the reaction mixture is a convenient method of water activity control. This article discusses\\u000a the theoretical background to their use, and gives a compilation of data on the water activity values produced by 48 hydrate\\u000a pairs of possible use in this application.

Peter J. Halling

1992-01-01

187

Rise and fall of road salt contamination of water-supply springs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A storage pile of de-icing agent consisting principally of sodium chloride was placed in the recharge area of two springs, and remained there for 2 years. Water flow is through fractures in rocks with low matrix permeability, along a hydraulic gradient developed along fracture zones. Salt contamination in the springs was noticed about 1 year after the salt was placed. When the salt was removed 1 year later, chloride concentrations in the springs exceeded 500 mg/L. Monitoring for the following 5 years showed salt contamination rising for the first year, but receding to normal background after 5 years. Chloride to sodium ratios of the spring waters indicated that some sodium was initially sequestered, probably by ion exchange on clay minerals, in the early part of the monitoring period, and released during the latter part; thereby extending the period of contamination.

Werner, Eberhard; Dipretoro, Richard S.

2006-12-01

188

Estimating canopy water content using hyperspectral remote sensing data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperspectral remote sensing has demonstrated great potential for accurate retrieval of canopy water content (CWC). This CWC is defined by the product of the leaf equivalent water thickness (EWT) and the leaf area index (LAI). In this paper, in particular the spectral information provided by the canopy water absorption feature at 970nm for estimating and predicting CWC was studied using

J. G. P. W. Clevers; L. Kooistra; M. E. Schaepman

2010-01-01

189

Watershed scale temporal stability of soil water content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recognition of temporally stable locations with respect to soil water content is of importance for soil water management decisions, especially in sloping land of watersheds. Neutron probe soil water content (0 to 0.8m), evaluated at 20 dates during a year in the Loess Plateau of China, in a 20ha watershed dominated by Ust-Sandiic Entisols and Aeolian sandy soils, were

Wei Hu; Mingan Shao; Fengpeng Han; Klaus Reichardt; Jing Tan

2010-01-01

190

Estimating Subsurface Structure and Water Content by GPR Data Inversion Based on FDTD Forward Modeling and Automatic Feature Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple common offset surface ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements are evaluated to retrieve subsurface geometrical parameters together with the corresponding soil water content. We developed an inversion scheme which is intermediate between (i) inverting of picked reflectors using ray-tracing and (ii) full waveform inversion. This scheme is based on an regularized structural parameterization of the subsurface together with forward predictions of GPR measurements obtained from FDTD simulations. The scheme consists of three steps: 1. Measured and predicted signals are convolved with an estimate of the wavelet's envelope. 2. significant features are detected automatically in both signals and their timing as well as their amplitude are determined. 3. The parameterization of the subsurface architecture and of the layers' material properties are adjusted in the least-squares sense. The capability of this method to determine complex geometrical features and soil water content is shown with synthetic as well as real datasets. Measurements were conducted at the ASSESS-GPR site, an artificial testbed (20 m*4 m* 2m) with high resolution ground-truth.

Buchner, J. S.; Wollschlaeger, U.; Kühne, A.; Bogda, F.; Roth, K.

2011-12-01

191

Rapid Salt Exchange by Coupled Ultrafiltration and Dialysis in Anisotropic Hollow Fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anisotropic hollow fibers allow construction of a dialyzing system that provides extremely large membrane surface in a small laboratory-sized system. Possessing the added property of high ultrafiltration flux, these fibers reduce salt exchange times from days to hours. In this system the exchange of salt by dialytic transport is largely unaffected by recirculation rate, solute type, or content, but is

William F. Blatt; Lita Nelsen; Eliseo M. Zipilivan; Mark C. Porter

1972-01-01

192

Bile salt biotransformations by human intestinal bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary bile acids, produced solely by intesti- nal bacteria, can accumulate to high levels in the enter- ohepatic circulation of some individuals and may contribute to the pathogenesis of colon cancer, gallstones, and other gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. Bile salt hydrolysis and hy- droxy group dehydrogenation reactions are carried out by a broad spectrum of intestinal anaerobic bacteria, whereas bile acid

Jason M. Ridlon; Dae-Joong Kang; Phillip B. Hylemon

2005-01-01

193

Water Research 38 (2004) 33313339 Testing a surface tension-based model to predict the salting  

E-print Network

Water Research 38 (2004) 3331­3339 Testing a surface tension-based model to predict the salting out associated with transferring solutes from water to a salt solution to the difference in surface tensions]. With respect to inorganic salts, numerous researchers have reported that the presence of ionic species in water

Herbert, Bruce

194

Estimation of plant water content by spectral absorption features centered at 1,450 nm and 1,940 nm regions.  

PubMed

Vegetation water content could possibly provide widespread utility in agriculture, forestry and hydrology. In this article, three species leaves were measured radiometrically in order to determine a relationship between leaf water status and the spectral feature centered at 1,450 and 1,940 nm where there are strong water absorptions. The first step of our research is to measure leaf spectra with a FieldSpec-FR. After the spectral analysis using the continuum removal technique, the spectral absorption feature parameters: absorption band depth (D (1450), D (1940)), the normalized band depth of absorption in 1,450 and 1,940 nm (BNA(1450), BNA(1940)), the ratio of the two reflectance of continuum line (R (1450i )/R (1940i )), the ratio of the two band depth (D (1450)/D (1940)) and the ratio of the two absorption areas (A (1450)/A (1940)) in the two wavebands were extracted from each leaf spectrum. The fuel moisture content (FMC), specific leaf weight (SLW), equivalent water thickness (EWT) were measured for each leaf sample. A correlation analysis was conducted between the spectral absorption feature parameters and corresponding FMC, SLW and EWT. In addition, some existing indices for assessing water status such as WI (water index), WI/NDVI (water index/normalized difference vegetation index), MSI (moisture stress index), NDWI (normalized difference water index)were calculated and the correlation between them and water status were analyzed too. The results by comparing the correlations indicated that the spectral absorption feature indices we proposed were better. The indexes BNA(1940), D (1450)/D (1940), and A (1450)/A (1940) were well correlated with FMC, and the correlation between the indexes D (1450,) D (1940), R (1450i )/R (1940i ) and EWT were strong. The index A (1450)/A (1940) was tested to be a good indictor for evaluating plant water content, because there was strongest positive correlation between it and FMC than other indices. PMID:18853268

Wang, Jie; Xu, Ruisong; Yang, Shilun

2009-10-01

195

First data on the uranium content in water of the Yenisei River basin in the area affected by the operation of Rosatom plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is devoted to investigating the content of uranium isotopes in water of the Yenisei River and its tributaries within the territories affected by the operation of Rosatom plants (mining chemical combine, and electrochemical plant). Long-term monitoring of the 238U content by mass spectrometry carried out in two institutes of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences first revealed the multiple excess of 238U over the background content in different areas of the Yenisei River basin, such as the region of the Yenisei River near the effluents of the mining and chemical combine (MCC), and the territories of the Bol'shaya Tel' and Kan rivers. In these regions, the 238U content in water reaches 2.1-4.0 ?g/l, which exceeds its content upstream from the MCC (0.3-0.6 ?g/l) by almost an order of magnitude. The studies of the isotopic composition of uranium in water samples, which were carried out at the Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, showed the presence of a technogenic isotope of uranium 236U in the samples from the Bolshaya Tel' River and revealed the deviation of the isotope ratio 238U/235U (167 ± 3 and 177 ± 3) from the equilibrium natural ratio (238U/235U = 138). These facts attest to the technogenic origin of part of the uranium in water of the Bol'shaya Tel' River connected with the activity of MCC. The excess uranium content in the Kan River requires additional studies to ascertain the fraction of uranium of technogenic origin connected with the activity of the electrochemical plant (ECP) (Fig. 1, Table 4).

Bolsunovskii, A. Ya.; Zhizhaev, A. M.; Saprykin, A. I.; Degermendzhi, A. G.; Rubailo, A. I.

2011-07-01

196

Double inversion of emulsions induced by salt concentration.  

PubMed

The effects of salt on emulsions containing sorbitan oleate (Span 80) and Laponite particles were investigated. Surprisingly, a novel double phase inversion was induced by simply changing the salt concentration. At fixed concentration of Laponite particles in the aqueous phase and surfactant in paraffin oil, emulsions are oil in water (o/w) when the concentration of NaCl is lower than 5 mM. Emulsions of water in oil (w/o) are obtained when the NaCl concentration is between 5 and 20 mM. Then the emulsions invert to o/w when the salt concentration is higher than 50 mM. In this process, different emulsifiers dominate the composition of the interfacial layer, and the emulsion type is correspondingly controlled. When the salt concentration is low in the aqueous dispersion of Laponite, the particles are discrete and can move to the interface freely. Therefore, the emulsions are stabilized by particles and surfactant, and the type is o/w as particles are in domination. At intermediate salt concentrations, the aqueous dispersions of Laponite are gel-like, the viscosity is high, and the transition of the particles from the aqueous phase to the interface is inhibited. The emulsions are stabilized mainly by lipophilic surfactant, and w/o emulsions are obtained. For high salt concentration, flocculation occurs and the viscosity of the dispersion is reduced; thus, the adsorption of particles is promoted and the type of emulsions inverts to o/w. Laser-induced fluorescent confocal micrographs and cryo transmission electron microscopy clearly confirm the adsorption of Laponite particles on the surface of o/w emulsion droplets, whereas the accumulation of particles at the w/o emulsion droplet surfaces was not observed. This mechanism is also supported by the results of rheology and interfacial tension measurements. PMID:22475400

Zhang, Jingchun; Li, Lu; Wang, Jun; Sun, Haigang; Xu, Jian; Sun, Dejun

2012-05-01

197

Characterization of protein hydrolysis and odor-active compounds of fish sauce inoculated with Virgibacillus sp. SK37 under reduced salt content.  

PubMed

The effect of Virgibacillus sp. SK37, together with reduced salt content, on fish sauce quality, particularly free amino acids and odor-active compounds, was investigated. Virgibacillus sp. SK37 was inoculated with an approximate viable count of 5 log CFU/mL in samples with varied amounts of solar salt, for example, 10, 15, and 20% of total weight. Eighteen selected odorants were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA), and their odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated. Samples prepared using 10% salt underwent spoilage after 7 days of fermentation. The viable count of Virgibacillus sp. SK37 was found over 3 months in the samples containing 15 and 20% salt. However, acceleration of protein hydrolysis was not pronounced in inoculated samples at both 15 and 20% salt. Virgibacillus sp. SK37, together with salt contents reduced to 15-20%, appeared to increase the content of 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, acetic acid, and 2-methylpropanoic acid. However, only aldehydes were found to have an effect on the overall aroma of fish sauce based on high OAVs, suggesting that the inoculation of samples with Virgibacillus sp. SK37 under reduced salt contents of 15-20% likely contributed to stronger malty or dark chocolate notes. PMID:23768048

Lapsongphon, Nawaporn; Cadwallader, Keith R; Rodtong, Sureelak; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

2013-07-10

198

Global heat and salt transports by eddy movement.  

PubMed

Oceanic mesoscale eddies contribute important horizontal heat and salt transports on a global scale. Here we show that eddy transports are mainly due to individual eddy movements. Theoretical and observational analyses indicate that cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies move westwards, and they also move polewards and equatorwards, respectively, owing to the ? of Earth's rotation. Temperature and salinity (T/S) anomalies inside individual eddies tend to move with eddies because of advective trapping of interior water parcels, so eddy movement causes heat and salt transports. Satellite altimeter sea surface height anomaly data are used to track individual eddies, and vertical profiles from co-located Argo floats are used to calculate T/S anomalies. The estimated meridional heat transport by eddy movement is similar in magnitude and spatial structure to previously published eddy covariance estimates from models, and the eddy heat and salt transports both are a sizeable fraction of their respective total transports. PMID:24534770

Dong, Changming; McWilliams, James C; Liu, Yu; Chen, Dake

2014-01-01

199

High water content hydrogel with super high refractive index.  

PubMed

Transparent, high water content (>65%), and cytocompatible hydrogels, which also possess super high refractive indices (RI?>?1.5), are needed for ophthalmological applications. Most hydrogels can achieve either high RI or high water content but not both in the same system because water is a low RI material. Here, high water content/high RI hydrogels fabricated through elevated-temperature UV polymerization of an aqueous solution of acrylamide (AM) and methacrylamide (MAM) with tri(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (TEDA) crosslinker are reported. By varying the AM:MAM ratios (2:8 to 8:2) and crosslinker density (5 to 11?mol %), it is discovered that high water content (66%) AM:MAM copolymer hydrogels exhibiting anomalously high refractive indices (1.53); they are also colorless, transparent (99.4%), and cytocompatible with human keratinocytes. PMID:23881874

Zhou, Chuncai; Heath, Daniel E; Sharif, Abdul Rahim Mohamed; Rayatpisheh, Shahrzad; Oh, Bernice H L; Rong, Xu; Beuerman, Roger; Chan-Park, Mary B

2013-11-01

200

Bile salt biotransformations by human intestinal bacteria.  

PubMed

Secondary bile acids, produced solely by intestinal bacteria, can accumulate to high levels in the enterohepatic circulation of some individuals and may contribute to the pathogenesis of colon cancer, gallstones, and other gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. Bile salt hydrolysis and hydroxy group dehydrogenation reactions are carried out by a broad spectrum of intestinal anaerobic bacteria, whereas bile acid 7-dehydroxylation appears restricted to a limited number of intestinal anaerobes representing a small fraction of the total colonic flora. Microbial enzymes modifying bile salts differ between species with respect to pH optima, enzyme kinetics, substrate specificity, cellular location, and possibly physiological function. Crystallization, site-directed mutagenesis, and comparisons of protein secondary structure have provided insight into the mechanisms of several bile acid-biotransforming enzymatic reactions. Molecular cloning of genes encoding bile salt-modifying enzymes has facilitated the understanding of the genetic organization of these pathways and is a means of developing probes for the detection of bile salt-modifying bacteria. The potential exists for altering the bile acid pool by targeting key enzymes in the 7alpha/beta-dehydroxylation pathway through the development of pharmaceuticals or sequestering bile acids biologically in probiotic bacteria, which may result in their effective removal from the host after excretion. PMID:16299351

Ridlon, Jason M; Kang, Dae-Joong; Hylemon, Phillip B

2006-02-01

201

Aggressive salt and water restriction in acutely decompensated heart failure: is it worth its weight in salt?  

PubMed

Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is the leading cause of hospitalization worldwide, especially in the elderly, and is associated with a high readmission rate and increased first year mortality. Fluid overload manifested by pulmonary congestion is seen in the majority of patients with ADHF and is believed to be the reason behind most admissions. ADHF is commonly treated with intravenous diuretics aimed to alleviate congestion and restore euvolemia. In fact, current European and American guidelines for heart failure (HF) consider relief of congestion as the first-line therapy in ADHF. Following the same theme of reducing fluid retention, historical approaches have recommended water and salt restriction as an essential non-pharmacological therapy in the management of symptomatic HF. This 'common sense' dietary practice was mainly based on experts' opinions and has been challenged by recent data suggesting that salt or fluid restriction has neutral outcomes in achieving clinical stability and improving signs and symptoms of HF. PMID:24073677

Rami, Kahwash

2013-09-01

202

Enrichment and Association of Bacteria and Particulates in Salt Marsh Surface Water  

PubMed Central

Elevated counts of bacteria were found during outgoing tides in surface microlayers (?300 ?m) of Sippewissett salt marsh, Falmouth, Massachusetts, and Palo Alto salt marsh, Palo Alto, California. At both sampling sites, the degrees by which bacteria were concentrated into the surface microlayer were linearly dependent upon surface concentration of particulate material. A significant percentage of bacteria in the microlayer were found to be attached to particulate material, while bacterial populations in the subsurface water were largely planktonic. Proportions of the bacterial populations which could be grown on seawater nutrient agar were also greater in the microlayer than in the subsurface waters and were positively correlated with the fraction of bacteria attached to particulate matter. Data from these studies suggest that particulates in the microlayer waters of the salt marsh influenced the observed increase in both the readily grown and the total numbers of bacteria. PMID:16345554

Harvey, R. W.; Young, L. Y.

1980-01-01

203

Information content and reliability of TOVS estimates of precipitable water  

E-print Network

INFORMATION CONTENT AND RELIABILITY OF TOYS ESTIMATES OF PRECIPITABLE WATER A Thesis by MIN YIN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1994 Major Subject: Meteorology INFORMATION CONTENT AND RELIABILITY OF TOYS ESTIMATES OF PRECIPITABLE WATER A Thesis by MIN YIN Submitted to Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

Yin, Min

2012-06-07

204

Assessment of Injection Well Construction and Operation for Water Injection Wells and Salt Water Disposal Wells  

E-print Network

practices to determine if factors other than brine extraction (i.e. downward flow of fresh water within such as drilling mud and work- over fluids. These are all shallow wells using injected fresh water to dissolve salt. In a single well system using either a single tubing or dual tubing configuration, fresh water is pumped

205

Iodine content of salt 2 years after the introduction of the universal salt iodisation legislation in Lesotho.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of the universal salt iodisation legislation on I levels of salt at household, retail and entry level in Lesotho. We used a multistage proportion to population size method to select thirty-one clusters from all the districts and ecological zones of Lesotho. In each cluster, thirty households were randomly selected and salt samples were collected. Six salt samples from two randomly selected retailers in each cluster, and a total of 107 salt samples from all the commercial entry points in the country were also collected. Lesotho does not produce salt and it imports almost all its salt from South Africa. The salt samples were analysed using the iodometric titration method. The median I concentration of salt was 36.2 ppm at entry point, 37.3 ppm at retail level and 38.5 ppm at household level. At household level only 1.6 % used non-iodised salt and 86.9 % used adequately iodised salt. Of all salt collected at household level, 20.4 % was coarse salt, which was significantly less well iodised than fine salt. The study demonstrates a major achievement in the availability of iodised salt as well as household use of adequately iodised salt. Under-iodisation of coarse salt and non-uniformity of salt iodisation at the production site were observed. Therefore, there is a need for enforcement of the salt iodisation legislation especially at entry-point level to ensure that only iodised salt enters the country. During enforcement more emphasis should be given to iodisation of coarse salt. PMID:16022762

Sebotsa, Masekonyela Linono Damane; Dannhauser, Andre; Jooste, Pieter L; Joubert, Gina

2005-06-01

206

Salt-water encroachment in southern Nassau and southeastern Queens Counties, Long Island, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Test drilling, extraction of water from cores, electric logging, water sampling, and water-level measurements from 1958 to 1961 provided a suitable basis for a substantial refinement in the definition of the positions, chloride concentrations, and rates of movement of salty water in the intermediate and deep deposits of southern Nassau County and southeastern Queens County. Filter-press, centrifugal, and dilution methods were used to extract water from cores for chloride analysis at the test-drilling sites. Chloride analysis of water extracted by these methods, chloride analyses of water from wells, and the interpretation of electric logs helped to define the chloride content of the salty water. New concepts of environmental-water head and zerovels, developed during the investigation, proved useful for defining hydraulic gradients and ratee of flow in ground water of variable density in a vertical direction and in horizontal and inclined planes, respectively. Hydraulic gradients in and between fresh and salty water were determined from water levels from data at individual and multiple-observation wells. Salty ground water occurs in southern Nassau and southeastern Queens Counties as three wedgelike extensions that project landward in unconsolidated deposits from a main body of salty water that lies seaward of the barrier beaches in Nassau County and of Jamaica Bay in Queens County. Salty water occurs not only in permeable deposits but also in the shallow and deep clay deposits. The highest chloride content of the salty ground water in the main body and the wedges is about 16,000 ppm, which is about 1,000 to 2,000 ppm less than the chloride content of ocean water. The shallow salty water in the Pleistocene and Recent deposits is connected freely with the bays, tidal estuaries, and ocean. The intermediate wedge is found only in the southwestern part of Nassau County in the upper part of the Magothy (?) Formation, in the Jamneco Gravel, and in the overlying clay deposits. It extends from the seaward areas inland about 2 miles into Island Park. The deep wedge extends into southeastern Queens County and southern Nassau County principally in the deeper parts of the Magothy (?) Formation and in the underlying clay member of the Raritan Formation. The leading edge of the deep wedge is at the base of the Magothy (?) Formation. This edge is apparently at the shoreline east of Lido Beach and extends inland about 4 miles to Woodmere and about 7 miles to South Ozone Park. Zones of diffusion as much as 6 miles wide and about 500 feet thick were delineated in the frontal part of the salty-water wedges. These thick and broad zones of diffusion were probably formed during the past 1,000 or more years in heterogeneous unconsolidated deposits by long- and short-term changes in sea level and in fresh-water outflow to the sea and by dispersion caused by the movements of the water and its salt mass. Changes in sea level and fresh-water outflow together produced appreciable advances and recessions of the salt-water front. The chemical compositions of the diffused water in all wedges are modified to some extent by base exchange and other physical and chemical processes and also by diffusion. The intermediate wedge of salty water is moving landward at a rate of less than 20 feet a year in the vicinity of Island Park and, thus, has moved less than 1,000 feet since 1900. The leading edge of the deep wedge has advanced landward at about 300 feet a :ear in Woodmere in southwestern Nassau County and about 160 feet a year at South Ozone Park in southeastern Queens County, principally under the influence of local withdrawals near the toe of the wedge. Between Hewlett and Lido Beach, the deep wedge is moving inland at the rate of about 10 feet a year under the influence of regional withdrawals in inland areas. Regional encroachment of the deep wedge is apparently retarded appreciably by cyclic flow, that is, by the return seaward in the upper

Lusczynski, N.J.; Swarzenski, Wolfgang V.

1966-01-01

207

MEASUREMENTS AND MODEL ESTIMATES ON LIQUID WATER MASS FROM SINGLE AND MIXED-SALT PARTICLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerosol liquid water mass is measured using the method developed by Lee and Hsu (1) in this work. The measured humidographs of NaCl, Na2SO4, MgCl2 · 6H2O and various NaCl-Na2SO4 and NaCl-MgCl2 · 6H2O mixed salts are reported. The results show the liquid water mass (LWM) measurements on single salts of NaCl and Na2SO4 agree with Tang et al. (2-3)

Chung-Te Lee; Shih-Yu Chang; Wen-Chuan Hsu

2004-01-01

208

Effect of presence of salt on the dynamics of water in uncharged nanochannels.  

PubMed

Energy conversion and generation mechanisms at nano-scales often include tapping power from pressure-driven flow of water containing dissolved salts in nanofluidic channels. The deviation of such flows from continuum behaviour can often be advantageously utilized to enhance the energy conversion efficiency. Here, by executing molecular dynamics simulations, we pinpoint alterations in effective stick-slip at the solid-liquid interface as a function of variation in the nature of the salt as well as salt solution concentration for different substrate wettabilities, which could possibly act as a control towards modulating energy conversion efficiencies of nanofluidic devices. Our results reveal that the presence of salt has distinctive effects in wettable and non-wettable channels. Finally, we address the observed slip length deviation quantitatively based on hydration energy of the individual ionic species. PMID:23406130

Bakli, Chirodeep; Chakraborty, Suman

2013-02-01

209

Effect of salt ions on protein layers at the air-water interface under a crystallization condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The density profiles of lysozyme layers at the air-water interface before and after adding salt were determined by X-ray reflection. After adding salt, the density of the lysozyme (LSZ) layers decreases, whereas the thickness drastically increases. The salt ions are considered to increase the LSZ-LSZ interaction, and consequently decrease the surface activity of LSZ, allow adsorbed lysozyme molecules crystallize.

Yano, Yohko F.; Uruga, Tomoya

2013-06-01

210

Changes in water content and distribution in Quercus ilex leaves during progressive drought assessed by in vivo 1H magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

Background Drought is a common stressor in many regions of the world and current climatic global circulation models predict further increases in warming and drought in the coming decades in several of these regions, such as the Mediterranean basin. The changes in leaf water content, distribution and dynamics in plant tissues under different soil water availabilities are not well known. In order to fill this gap, in the present report we describe our study withholding the irrigation of the seedlings of Quercus ilex, the dominant tree species in the evergreen forests of many areas of the Mediterranean Basin. We have monitored the gradual changes in water content in the different leaf areas, in vivo and non-invasively, by 1H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using proton density weighted (?w) images and spin-spin relaxation time (T2) maps. Results ?w images showed that the distal leaf area lost water faster than the basal area and that after four weeks of similar losses, the water reduction was greater in leaf veins than in leaf parenchyma areas and also in distal than in basal leaf area. There was a similar tendency in all different areas and tissues, of increasing T2 values during the drought period. This indicates an increase in the dynamics of free water, suggesting a decrease of cell membranes permeability. Conclusions The results indicate a non homogeneous leaf response to stress with a differentiated capacity to mobilize water between its different parts and tissues. This study shows that the MRI technique can be a useful tool to follow non-intrusively the in vivo water content changes in the different parts of the leaves during drought stress. It opens up new possibilities to better characterize the associated physiological changes and provides important information about the different responses of the different leaf areas what should be taken into account when conducting physiological and metabolic drought stress studies in different parts of the leaves during drought stress. PMID:20735815

2010-01-01

211

NEAR SURFACE WATER CONTENT ESTIMATION USING GPR DATA: INVESTIGATIONS WITHIN  

E-print Network

estimates of water content and the changes in water content over space and time using both groundwaveNEAR SURFACE WATER CONTENT ESTIMATION USING GPR DATA: INVESTIGATIONS WITHIN CALIFORNIA VINEYARDS S (sshubbard@lbl.gov) Detailed estimates of water content are necessary for variety of hydrogeological inves

Rubin, Yoram

212

Soil water content and infiltration in agroforestry buffer strips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry practices are receiving increased attention in temperate zones due to their environmental and economic benefits.\\u000a To test the hypothesis that agroforestry buffers reduce runoff by increased infiltration, water use, and water storage; profile\\u000a water content and soil water infiltration were measured for a Putnam soil (fine, smectitic, mesic Vertic Albaqualf). The watershed\\u000a was under no-till management with a corn

Stephen H. Anderson; Ranjith P. Udawatta; Tshepiso Seobi; Harold E. Garrett

2009-01-01

213

Introduction to fraction of absorbed par by canopy chlorophyll (fAPARchl) and canopy leaf water content derived from hyperion, simulated HyspIRI and MODIS images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by canopy chlorophyll (fAPARchl) is different from fraction of PAR absorbed by the whole canopy (fAPARcanopy, i.e., FPAR). The concept, algorithm and product of fAPARchl, and the product of leaf water content (LWC) are new to the remote sensing community and ecosystem scientists. In this paper, we introduce fAPARchl and LWC and provide

Qingyuan Zhang; Elizabeth M. Middleton

2010-01-01

214

Quantifying water content using GPR: impact of petrophysical variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic signal velocity measurements are commonly used to quantify liquid water contents of near surface geomaterials. Typically, a single-valued function, such as Topp's equation, is used to convert dielectric permittivity (K) into water content (?). Several factors contribute to error in such water content estimates, including use of incorrect petrophysical relationships, dependence of dielectric permittivity on pore scale geometry, frequency dispersive behavior (for example caused by the presence of swelling clay minerals), and macroscopic heterogeneity that leads to incorrect estimates of dielectric permittivity from field data. We use field and laboratory measurements and synthetic examples to investigate the relative importance of these sources of error. Co-axial cell measurements on clean sand samples suggest that even where the K versus ? relationship is well characterized, heterogeneity in the distribution of water at the pore scale for example caused by wetting-drying hysteresis, can lead to moisture content errors of ±2% volumetric water content, although more typically errors of <±1% can be expected. Measurements on sandstone samples suggest that larger errors, of up to ±5% can arise at GPR frequencies (i.e. 100MHz), resulting from the presence of swelling clay, although the influence of clay is less important at higher frequencies (i.e. >300MHz). Similar sized errors can result from variations in pore-scale geometry. However, experience suggests that the largest errors in water content measurements arise from assumptions concerning radar ray path geometry. GPR estimates of water content in macroscopically layered media made by assuming that the first radar wave arrivals are direct rays, whereas in fact these are critically refracted rays, can result in water content estimates that are inaccurate by up to 20%. Synthetic modeling to investigate the dependence of the magnitude of such errors on the geometric characteristics of heterogeneity will be presented.

West, L. J.; Endres, A. L.

2006-05-01

215

Biodegradable and biocompatible inorganic–organic hybrid materials: 4. Effect of acid content and water content on the incorporation of aliphatic polyesters into silica by the sol-gel process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of poly ?-caprolactone (PCL) incorporation into silica networks prepared by the sol-gel process depends on the HCl:tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) molar ratio and the H2O:TEOS molar ratio, as well. The PCL incorporation increases with the concentration of the acid used as the catalyst. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) indicates that increasing the acid concentration or decreasing the water content results in

D. Tian; S. Blacher; R. Jerome

1999-01-01

216

Quantum Calculations on Salt Bridges with Water: Potentials, Structure, and Properties  

SciTech Connect

Salt bridges are electrostatic links between acidic and basic amino acids in a protein; quantum calculations are used here to determine the energetics and other properties of one form of these species, in the presence of water molecules. The acidic groups are carboxylic acids (aspartic and glutamic acids); proteins have two bases with pK above physiological pH: one, arginine, with a guanidinium basic group, the other lysine, which is a primary amine. Only arginine is modeled here, by ethyl guanidinium, while propionic acid is used as a model for either carboxylic acid. The salt bridges are accompanied by 0-12 water molecules; for each of the 13 systems, the energy-bond distance relation, natural bond orbitals (NBO), frequency calculations allowing thermodynamic corrections to room temperature, and dielectric constant dependence, were all calculated. The water molecules were found to arrange themselves in hydrogen bonded rings anchored to the oxygens of the salt bridge components. This was not surprising in itself, but it was found that the rings lead to a periodicity in the energy, and to a 'water addition' rule. The latter shows that the initial rings, with four oxygen atoms, become five member rings when an additional water molecule becomes available, with the additional water filling in at the bond with the lowest Wiberg index, as calculated using NBO. The dielectric constant dependence is the expected hyperbola, and the fit of the energy to the inverse dielectric constant is determined. There is an energy periodicity related to ring formation upon addition of water molecules. When 10 water molecules have been added, all spaces near the salt bridge are filled, completing the first hydration shell, and a second shell starts to form. The potentials associated with salt bridges depend on their hydration, and potentials assigned without regard to local hydration are likely to cause errors as large as or larger than kBT, thus suggesting a serious problem if these potentials are used in Molecular Dynamics simulations.

Liao, Sing; Green, Michael E.

2011-01-01

217

Regulation of flower development in Dendrobium crumenatum by changes in carbohydrate contents, water status and cell wall metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The involvement of carbohydrates, water potential, cell wall components and cell wall-based enzymes in regulating flower development in Dendrobium crumenatum was investigated. Plants were subjected to cold treatment to release floral buds from dormancy, and the various parameters were investigated from young floral bud stage till flower senescence. Development of floral buds was accompanied by progressive decrease in concentrations of

You-Min Yap; Chiang-Shiong Loh; Bee-Lian Ong

2008-01-01

218

ORIGINAL PAPER An Equation of State for Hypersaline Water in Great Salt  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER An Equation of State for Hypersaline Water in Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA David L the water and salt balance (Loving et al. 2000). About 90% of the freshwater surface inflows enter GSL south 2011 / Published online: 11 June 2011 Ã? U.S. Government 2011 Abstract Great Salt Lake (GSL) is one

219

Potential water-quality effects from iron cyanide anticaking agents in road salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-soluble iron cyanide compounds are widely used as anticaking agents in road salt, which creates potential contamination of surface and groundwater with these compounds when the salt dissolves and is washed off roads in runoff. This paper presents a summary of available information on iron cyanide use in road salt and its potential effects on water quality. Also, estimates of

M. G. Paschka; R. S. Ghosh; D. A. Dzombak

1999-01-01

220

Geologic appraisal of Paradox basin salt deposits for water emplacement  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thick salt deposits of Middle Pennsylvanian age are present in an area of 12,000 square miles in the Paradox basin of southeast Utah and southwest Colorado. The deposits are in the Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation. The greatest thickness of this evaporite sequence is in a troughlike depression adjacent to the Uncompahgre uplift on the northeast side of the basin. The salt deposits consist of a cyclical sequence of thick halite units separated by thin units of black shale, dolomite, and anhydrite. Many halite units are several hundred feet thick and locally contain economically valuable potash deposits. Over much of the Paradox basin the salt deposits occur at depths of more than 5,000 feet. Only in a series of salt anticlines located along the northeastern side of the basin do the salt deposits rise to relatively shallow depths. The salt anticlines can be divided geographically and structurally into five major systems. Each system consists of a long undulating welt of thickened salt over which younger rocks are arched in anticlinal form. Locally there are areas along the axes of the anticlines where the Paradox Member was never covered by younger sediments. This allowed large-scale migration of Paradox strata toward and up through these holes in the sediment cover forming diapiric anticlines. The central or salt-bearing cores of tthe anticlines range in thickness from about 2,500 to 14,000 feet. Structure in the central core of the salt anticlines is the result of both regional-compression and flowage of the Paradox Member into the anticlines from adjacent synclines. Structure in the central cores of the salt anticlines ranges from relatively undeformed beds to complexly folded and faulted masses, in which stratigraphic continuity is undemonstrable. The presence of thick cap rock .over many of the salt anticlines is evidence of removal of large volumes of halite by groundwater. Available geologic and hydrologic information suggests that this is a relatively slow process and that any waste-storage or disposal sites in these structures should remain dry for hundreds of thousands of years. Trace to commercial quantities of oil and gas are found in all of the black shale-dolomite-anhydrite interbeds of the Paradox Member. These hydrocarbons constitute a definite hazard in the construction and operation of underground waste-storage or disposal facilities. However, many individual halite beds are of. sufficient thickness that a protective seal of halite can be left between the openings and the gassy beds. A total of 12 different, localities were considered to be potential waste-storage or disposal sites in the Paradox basin. Two Sharer dome and Salt Valley anticline, were considered to have the most favorable characteristics.

Hite, R. J.; Lohman, Stanley William

1973-01-01

221

Salting the landscapes in Transbaikalia: natural and technogenic factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salting the soils, surface and subsurface waters is widespread in Transbaikalia. Hearths of salting occur within intermountain depressions of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic age both in the steppe arid and forest humid landscapes. Total water mineralization reaches 80 g/dm3 in lakes and 4-5 g/dm3 in subsurface waters. The waters belong to hydrocarbonate sodium and sulfate sodium types by chemical composition. The soda type of waters is widely spread through the whole area. Sulfate waters are found in several hearths of salting. Deposition of salts takes place in some lakes. Mirabilite and soda depositions are most commonly observed in muds of salt lakes. Deposition of salts occurs both as a result of evaporative concentrating and during freezing out the solvent. In the winter period, efflorescences of salts, where decawater soda is main mineral, are observed on ice surface. Solonchaks are spread in areas of shallow ground waters (1-2m). Soil salting is most intense in the lower parts of depressions, where surface of ground waters is at depth 0.5-1.0m. In soil cover of solonchaks, salt horizon is of various thicknesses, and it has various morphological forms of occurrence, i.e. as thick deposits of salts on soil surface and salting the surficial horizons. The soil has low alkaline reaction of medium and is characterized by high content of exchangeable bases with significant content of exchangeable sodium in the absorbing complex. Total amount of salts varies from 0.7 to 1.3%. Their maximal quantity (3.1%) is confined to the surficial layer. Sulfate-sodium type of salting is noted in the solonchak upper horizons and sulfate-magnesium-calcium one in the lower ones (Ubugunov et al, 2009). Formation of salting hearths is associated with natural and technogenic conditions. The Mesozoic depressions of Transbaikalia are characterized by intense volcanism. Covers of alkaline and moderately alkaline basalts that are enriched in potassium, sodium, carbon dioxide, fluorine, chlorine, sulphur, strontium, lithium, molybdenum, nickel, and vanadium are widely spread there. Geochemical habit of basalts largely determines chemical compositions of waters and mineral formations in hearths of salting. Unloading the fissure-vein waters that evacuate solute from the Jurassic-Cretaceous volcanogenic-sedimentary deposits greatly effects chemical composition in some hearths of salting. Irrigation systems in many intermountain depressions influence the salting hearth formation. The associated secondary salting occurs as spots in the areas, where ground water surface reaches foot of loams during irrigation. Salting the landscapes takes out big areas of fertile lands from agricultural use, threatens with breakdowns at enterprises of thermal energetic that consume water as heat carrier.

Peryazeva, E. G.; Plyusnin, A. M.; Chinavlev, A. M.

2010-05-01

222

Neural-Renal Interactions in the Hypertension Induced by Papillary Necrosis: Role of Dietary Salt Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of high salt intake (1.0% NaCl in the drinking water) on rats made hypertensive by 2-bromoethylamine hydrobromide (BEA) treatment (200 mg\\/kg, i.p.) were examined. BEA-induced medullary necrosis resulted in a mild hypertension (146 ± 5 mm Hg) that was exacerbated by 4 weeks of high salt intake (163 ± 6 mmHg). BEA-treated rats had significant salt-induced increases in

David R. Wallace

1990-01-01

223

Superoxide generated by pyrogallol reduces highly water-soluble tetrazolium salt to produce a soluble formazan: a simple assay for measuring superoxide anion radical scavenging activities of biological and abiological samples.  

PubMed

Superoxide anion radical (O2(?-)) plays an important role in several human diseases. The xanthine/xanthine oxidase system is frequently utilized to produce O2(?-). However, false positive results are easily got by using this system. The common spectrophotometric probes for O2(?-) are nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and cytochrome c. Nevertheless, the application of NBT method is limited because of the water-insolubility of NBT formazan and the assay using cytochrome c lacks sensitivity and is not suitable for microplate measurement. We overcome these problems by using 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene (pyrogallol) as O2(?-)-generating system and a highly water-soluble tetrazolium salt, 2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium sodium salt (WST-1) which can be reduced by superoxide anion radical to a stable water-soluble formazan with a high absorbance at 450 nm. The method is simple, rapid and sensitive. Moreover, it can be adapted to microplate format. In this study, the O2(?-) scavenging activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), L-ascorbic acid, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), albumin from human serum, flavonoids and herbal extracts were assessed by using this method. Meanwhile, the activities of tissue homogenates and serum were determined by using this validated method. This method, applicable to tissue homogenates, serum and herbal extracts, proved to be efficient for measuring O2(?-) scavenging activities of biological and abiological samples. PMID:23953206

Xu, Chen; Liu, Shu; Liu, Zhiqiang; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Shuying

2013-09-01

224

Salinization of Mirror Lake by Road Salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The salinization of Mirror Lake in the White Mountains of New Hampshire has been ongoing steadily since Interstate 93 (I-93)\\u000a was built through the NE subcatchment of the lake in the fall and winter of 1969–1970. Salt added to I-93 during winter as\\u000a a deicer has been transported to the lake by different quantified, hydrologic pathways, but primarily from the

Gene E. Likens; Donald C. Buso

2010-01-01

225

Salicylic Acid Alleviates the Adverse Effects of Salt Stress in Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii Seedlings by Activating Photosynthesis and Enhancing Antioxidant Systems  

PubMed Central

Background Salt stress is a major factor limiting plant growth and productivity. Salicylic acid (SA) has been shown to ameliorate the adverse effects of environmental stress on plants. To investigate the protective role of SA in ameliorating salt stress on Torreya grandis (T. grandis) trees, a pot experiment was conducted to analyze the biomass, relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll content, net photosynthesis (Pn), gas exchange parameters, relative leakage conductivity (REC), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) of T. grandis under 0.2% and 0.4% NaCl conditions with and without SA. Methodology/Principal Findings The exposure of T. grandis seedlings to salt conditions resulted in reduced growth rates, which were associated with decreases in RWC and Pn and increases in REC and MDA content. The foliar application of SA effectively increased the chlorophyll (chl (a+b)) content, RWC, net CO2 assimilation rates (Pn), and proline content, enhanced the activities of SOD, CAT and POD, and minimized the increases in the REC and MDA content. These changes increased the capacity of T. grandis in acclimating to salt stress and thus increased the shoot and root dry matter. However, when the plants were under 0% and 0.2% NaCl stress, the dry mass of the shoots and roots did not differ significantly between SA-treated plants and control plants. Conclusions SA induced the salt tolerance and increased the biomass of T. grandis cv. by enhancing the chlorophyll content and activity of antioxidative enzymes, activating the photosynthetic process, and alleviating membrane injury. A better understanding about the effect of salt stress in T. grandis is vital, in order gain knowledge over expanding the plantations to various regions and also for the recovery of T. grandis species in the future. PMID:25302987

Du, Xuhua; Tang, Hui; Shen, Chaohua; Wu, Jiasheng

2014-01-01

226

Standardizing Characterization of Electromagnetic Water Content Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT,cases salinity. However, it is sometimes the case that a new,sensor is promoted,and distributed only to be Performancedifferences inthe growingnumber ofelectromagnetic disapproved,of years later due,to poor,measurement (EM) sensors designed to estimate soil water content from a variety of indirect measurements (e.g., from measured travel time, capacitance, performance. The cost to users in unreliable experimen- frequency shift) suggests the need for

J. M. Blonquist; D. A. Robinson; V. Philip Rasmussen; D. Or

2005-01-01

227

The Effect of Salt Stoichiometry on Protein-Salt Interactions Determined by Ternary Diffusion in Aqueous Solutions  

E-print Network

The Effect of Salt Stoichiometry on Protein-Salt Interactions Determined by Ternary Diffusion of salt stoichiometry on the transport properties of lysozyme-salt aqueous mixtures. We find that the two cross-diffusion coefficients are very sensitive to salt stoichiometry. One of the cross

Annunziata, Onofrio

228

Hydrology of the Bonneville Salt Flats, northwestern Utah, and simulation of ground-water flow and solute transport in the shallow-brine aquifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the hydrologic system of the Bonneville Salt Flats with emphasis on the mechanisms of solute transport. Variable-density, three-dimensional computer simulations of the near-surface part of the ground-water system were done to quantify both the transport of salt dissolved in subsurface brine that leaves the salt-crust area and the salt dissolved and precipitated on the land surface. The study was designed to define the hydrology of the brine ground-water system and the natural and anthropogenic processes causing salt loss, and where feasible, to quantify these processes. Specific areas of study include the transport of salt in solution by ground-water flow and the transport of salt in solution by wind-driven ponds and the subsequent salt precipitation on the surface of the playa upon evaporation or seepage into the subsurface. In addition, hydraulic and chemical changes in the hydrologic system since previous studies were documented.

Mason, James L.; Kipp, Kenneth L., Jr.

1998-01-01

229

Geophysical methods to support correct water sampling locations for salt dilution gauging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve water management design, particularly in irrigation areas, it is important to evaluate the baseline state of the water resources, including canal discharge. Salt dilution gauging is a traditional and well-documented technique in this respect. The complete mixing of salt used for dilution gauging is required; this condition is difficult to test or verify and, if not fulfilled, is the largest source of uncertainty in the discharge calculation. In this paper, a geophysical technique (FERT, fast electrical resistivity tomography) is proposed for imaging the distribution of the salt plume used for dilution gauging at every point along a sampling cross section. With this imaging, complete mixing can be verified. If the mixing is not complete, the image created by FERT can also provide a possible guidance for selecting water-sampling locations in the sampling cross section. A water multi-sampling system prototype aimed to potentially take into account concentration variability is also proposed and tested. The results reported in the paper show that FERT provides a three-dimensional image of the dissolved salt plume and that this can potentially help in the selection of water sampling points.

Comina, C.; Lasagna, M.; De Luca, D. A.; Sambuelli, L.

2014-08-01

230

Generating electric fields in PDMS microfluidic devices with salt water electrodes.  

PubMed

Droplet merging and sorting in microfluidic devices usually rely on electric fields generated by solid metal electrodes. We show that simpler and more reliable salt water electrodes, despite their lower conductivity, can perform the same droplet manipulations at the same voltages. PMID:24671446

Sciambi, Adam; Abate, Adam R

2014-08-01

231

Effects of Irrigation Water with Different Salt Concentrations and SAR Values on Soil Salinisation and Sodification  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND. Most soils irrigated with brackish wa- ter are subject to salinisation or alkalisation, which cause a reduction in soil fertility and the formation of saline-alkaline soils in the medium or long-term. To further contribute to the knowledge on these top- ics, a study was undertaken on the salinisation and sodification of soils irrigated by waters with different salt concentrations

G. CUCCI; P. RUBINO; A. CALIANDRO

232

Efficient chemical and visible-light-driven water oxidation using nickel complexes and salts as precatalysts.  

PubMed

Chemical and visible-light-driven water oxidation catalyzed by a number of Ni complexes and salts have been investigated at pH 7-9 in borate buffer. For chemical oxidation, [Ru(bpy)3](3+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) was used as the oxidant, with turnover numbers (TONs) >65 and a maximum turnover frequency (TOFmax) >0.9 s(-1). Notably, simple Ni salts such as Ni(NO3 )2 are more active than Ni complexes that bear multidentate N-donor ligands. The Ni complexes and salts are also active catalysts for visible-light-driven water oxidation that uses [Ru(bpy)3](2+) as the photosensitizer and S2 O8 (2-) as the sacrificial oxidant; a TON>1200 was obtained at pH 8.5 by using Ni(NO3)2 as the catalyst. Dynamic light scattering measurements revealed the formation of nanoparticles in chemical and visible-light-driven water oxidation by the Ni catalysts. These nanoparticles aggregated during water oxidation to form submicron particles that were isolated and shown to be partially reduced ?-NiOOH by various techniques, which include SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XRD, and IR spectroscopy. These results suggest that the Ni complexes and salts act as precatalysts that decompose under oxidative conditions to form an active nickel oxide catalyst. The nature of this active oxide catalyst is discussed. PMID:24155063

Chen, Gui; Chen, Lingjing; Ng, Siu-Mui; Lau, Tai-Chu

2014-01-01

233

Sensitivity of probabilistic MCO water content estimates to key assumptions  

SciTech Connect

Sensitivity of probabilistic multi-canister overpack (MCO) water content estimates to key assumptions is evaluated with emphasis on the largest non-cladding film-contributors, water borne by particulates adhering to damage sites, and water borne by canister particulate. Calculations considered different choices of damage state degree of independence, different choices of percentile for reference high inputs, three types of input probability density function (pdfs): triangular, log-normal, and Weibull, and the number of scrap baskets in an MCO.

DUNCAN, D.R.

1999-02-25

234

LOCALIZATION AND SECRETION OF SALT BY THE SALT GLANDS OF Tamarix aphylla.  

PubMed

Analysis of salt secreted by the salt glands of Tamarix aphylla shows that the composition of the secreted salt is dependent on the salt composition of the root environment. Rubidium ion, if added to culture solutions in which the plants were growing, is also taken up by the plants and subsequently secreted by the glands. Electron micrographs of glands from the ribidium-secreting plants show accumulations of electron-dense material in the microvacuoles of the secretory cells. It is concluded that rubidium is accumulated in the microvacuoles and subsequently secreted by their fusion with the plasmalemma. PMID:16591764

Thomson, W W; Berry, W L; Liu, L L

1969-06-01

235

LOCALIZATION AND SECRETION OF SALT BY THE SALT GLANDS OF Tamarix aphylla*  

PubMed Central

Analysis of salt secreted by the salt glands of Tamarix aphylla shows that the composition of the secreted salt is dependent on the salt composition of the root environment. Rubidium ion, if added to culture solutions in which the plants were growing, is also taken up by the plants and subsequently secreted by the glands. Electron micrographs of glands from the ribidium-secreting plants show accumulations of electron-dense material in the microvacuoles of the secretory cells. It is concluded that rubidium is accumulated in the microvacuoles and subsequently secreted by their fusion with the plasmalemma. Images PMID:16591764

Thomson, W. W.; Berry, W. L.; Liu, L. L.

1969-01-01

236

Single Location Doublet Well to Reduce Salt-Water Encroachment: Phase I-Numerical Simulation  

E-print Network

C. E. Jacob received patents in 1965 for a single location well doublet that would produce fresh water overlying salt-water without upconing of the heavier salt-water and pollution of the fresh water zone. No known evaluation of the concept...

Reddell, D. L.

237

Salt Tracer and Area-Velocity Water Discharge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students spend a 50-minute class (or longer) measuring water discharge of a local stream. They use two different techniques: the traditional area-velocity method and a salt-tracer method. In the classroom, each student using Excel or Kaleidagraph to calculate discharge from field measurements. They summarize their results in an essay, and assess differences between the two techniques and potential sources of error. Designed for a geomorphology course Designed for an introductory geology course Addresses student fear of quantitative aspect and/or inadequate quantitative skills

Riihimaki, Catherine

238

UPCONING OF A SALT-WATER/FRESH-WATER INTERFACE BELOW A PUMPING WELL  

EPA Science Inventory

Analytical solutions for the upconing of an abrupt salt-water/fresh-water interface beneath a pumping well and for the concentration profile across a moving interface are developed for two types of upconing problems. The first considers the position of the interface and the salin...

239

Salts drive controllable multilayered upright assembly of amyloid-like peptides at mica/water interface  

PubMed Central

Surface-assisted self-assembly of amyloid-like peptides has received considerable interest in both amyloidosis research and nanotechnology in recent years. Despite extensive studies, some controlling factors, such as salts, are still not well understood, even though it is known that some salts can promote peptide self-assemblies through the so-called “salting-out” effect. However, they are usually noncontrollable, disordered, amorphous aggregates. Here, we show via a combined experimental and theoretical approach that a conserved consensus peptide NH2-VGGAVVAGV-CONH2 (GAV-9) (from representative amyloidogenic proteins) can self-assemble into highly ordered, multilayered nanofilaments, with surprising all-upright conformations, under high-salt concentrations. Our atomic force microscopy images also demonstrate that the vertical stacking of multiple layers is highly controllable by tuning the ionic strength, such as from 0 mM (monolayer) to 100 mM (mainly double layer), and to 250 mM MgCl2 (double, triple, quadruple, and quintuple layers). Our atomistic molecular dynamics simulations then reveal that these individual layers have very different internal nanostructures, with parallel ?-sheets in the first monolayer but antiparallel ?-sheets in the subsequent upper layers due to their different microenvironment. Further studies show that the growth of multilayered, all-upright nanostructures is a common phenomenon for GAV-9 at the mica/water interface, under a variety of salt types and a wide range of salt concentrations. PMID:23650355

Dai, Bin; Kang, Seung-gu; Huynh, Tien; Lei, Haozhi; Castelli, Matteo; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Ruhong

2013-01-01

240

The water, deuterium, gas and uranium content of tektites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The water content, deuterium concentration of the water, total gas and uranium contents were determined on tektite samples and other glass samples from Texas, Australia, Philippine Islands, Java, French Indo-China, Czechoslovakia, Libyan Desert, Billiton Island, Thailand, French West Africa, Peru, and New Mexico. The water content ranges from 0.24 per cent for the Peru tektite, to 0.0002 per cent for a moldavite. The majority of the tektites have less than 0.05 per cent water, and average 0.005 per cent H2O by weight. No other gases were detected, the lower detection limit being about 1 p.p.m. by weight. The deuterium content of the water in tektites is in the same range as that in terrestrial waters, and varies from 0.010 mole per cent to 0.0166 mole per cent deuterium. The uranium content is about from 1 to 3 p.p.m. The possible origin of tektites is discussed. The experimental data presented favour their being originally terrestrial, but produced by some catastrophic event. An extra-terrestrial source is not ruled out. ?? 1958.

Friedman, I.

1958-01-01

241

Fragmentation of colliding planetesimals with water content  

E-print Network

We investigate the outcome of collisions of Ceres-sized planetesimals composed of a rocky core and a shell of water ice. These collisions are not only relevant for explaining the formation of planetary embryos in early planetary systems, but also provide insight into the formation of asteroid families and possible water transport via colliding small bodies. Earlier studies show characteristic collision velocities exceeding the bodies' mutual escape velocity which - along with the distribution of the impact angles - cover the collision outcome regimes 'partial accretion', 'erosion', and 'hit-and-run' leading to different expected fragmentation scenarios. Existing collision simulations use bodies composed of strengthless material; we study the distribution of fragments and their water contents considering the full elasto-plastic continuum mechanics equations also including brittle failure and fragmentation.

Maindl, Thomas I; Schäfer, Christoph; Speith, Roland

2014-01-01

242

Fluorescence and DOC contents of estuarine pore waters from colonized and non-colonized sediments: effects of sampling preservation.  

PubMed

The influence of the colonization of salt marsh sediments with Halimione portulacoides was evaluated by analysing the fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in sediment pore waters from a salt marsh at different depths. Cores of sediments at colonized and non-colonized sites were collected from a coastal lagoon (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal). The DOC content of extracted pore waters was determined and characterized by synchronous molecular fluorescence (Deltalambda=60nm) and UV-visible spectroscopies. The common practice of freezing sediment cores for further and later chemical investigation was shown not to be an appropriate methodology of sample preservation. On the contrary, freezing of extracted and filtered pore water seemed not to affect either the DOC content or the fluorescence properties of pore waters. Two types of fluorescent substances were found in the pore waters spectra; one corresponding to humic-like substances and another one resembling proteins. However, major differences were found in the spectra of pore waters depending on both depth and the presence/absence of vegetation colonization. PMID:17140624

Otero, M; Mendonça, A; Válega, M; Santos, E B H; Pereira, E; Esteves, V I; Duarte, A

2007-02-01

243

The deuterium content of water in some volcanic glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deuterium-hydrogen composition (relative to Lake Michigan WATER = 0.0) of water extractsd from coexisting perlite and obsidian from eleven different localities was determined. The water content of the obsidians is generally from 0.09 to 0.29 per cent by weight, though two samples from near Olancha, California, contain about 0.92 per cent. The relative deuterium concentration is from -4.6 to

Irving Friedman; Robert L. Smith

1958-01-01

244

46 CFR 45.77 - Salt water freeboard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to freeboard applicable to each fresh water mark is obtained by the formula... where: ?=displacement in fresh water, in tons of 2,240 pounds...immersion, of 2,240 pounds, in fresh water at the summer load...

2012-10-01

245

46 CFR 45.77 - Salt water freeboard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...to freeboard applicable to each fresh water mark is obtained by the formula... where: ?=displacement in fresh water, in tons of 2,240 pounds...immersion, of 2,240 pounds, in fresh water at the summer load...

2011-10-01

246

46 CFR 45.77 - Salt water freeboard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to freeboard applicable to each fresh water mark is obtained by the formula... where: ?=displacement in fresh water, in tons of 2,240 pounds...immersion, of 2,240 pounds, in fresh water at the summer load...

2013-10-01

247

Groundwater Contamination by Road Salt: Steady-State Concentrations in East Central Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The average steady-state contamination of groundwater by road salt in the suburban area around Boston, on the assumption that current rates of application of salt will continue, is about 160 milligrams of sodium chloride per liter of water (100 milligrams of chloride per liter). This value is compared with values of 50 to 100 milligrams of chloride per liter found

Edwin E. Huling; Thomas C. Hollocher

1972-01-01

248

Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt.

Eric V. Novotny; Dan Murphy; Heinz G. Stefan

2008-01-01

249

SEPARATION OF METAL SALTS BY ADSORPTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been found that certain metal salts, particularly the halides of ; iron, cobalt, nickel, and the actinide metals, arc readily absorbed on aluminum ; oxide, while certain other salts, particularly rare earth metal halides, are not ; so absorbed. Use is made of this discovery to separate uranium from the rare ; earths. The metal salts are first

Gruen

1959-01-01

250

Determination of total arsenic content in water by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) using vapour generation assembly (VGA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of arsenic in water is important in view of contamination of ground water with arsenic in some parts of the world including West Bengal in India and neighboring country Bangladesh. WHO has fixed the threshold for arsenic in drinking water to 10ppb (?g\\/l) level, hence the methodology for determination of arsenic is required to be sensitive at ppb level.

Jai Raj Behari; Rajiv Prakash

2006-01-01

251

Monitoring the effect of introducing mandatory iodisation at an elevated iodine concentration on the iodine content of retailer salt after 1, 3 and 5 years in South Africa.  

PubMed

In this study we monitored the short-term, medium-term and long-term effects of introducing mandatory iodisation at an elevated iodine concentration on the iodine content of retailer salt. In 1995 retailer salt samples were purchased in 48 sentinel towns, situated in three of the nine provinces of South Africa, shortly before the introduction of mandatory iodisation at an elevated iodine concentration of 40-60 ppm, and again 1, 3 and 5 years later. The iodine concentrations in these salt samples were determined by means of the iodometric titration method. Within 1 year the mean iodine concentration more than doubled from 14 to 33 ppm, and further increased to 42 ppm over the next 2 years. However, after another 2 years, the mean iodine concentration relapsed to a lower concentration of 33 ppm. The distribution of iodine values followed the same trend and exhibited a sharp increase in the percentage of under-iodised salt samples at 5 years of follow-up. This study showed the favourable short-term and medium-term impact of introducing mandatory iodisation at an elevated iodine concentration on the iodine content of retailer salt, as well as the reality of a relapse in the long term, emphasising the need for regularly monitoring the iodine content of retailer salt. PMID:16019299

Jooste, Pieter L

2004-11-01

252

Responses to saline drinking water in offspring born to ewes fed high salt during pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the fetal programming of lambs born to ewes exposed to high salt during pregnancy. In the present study, we hypothesise that salt-programmed lambs may not need to drink as much saline water as control lambs and that voluntary feed intake of salt-programmed lambs would be reduced. We used two groups of lambs born to ewes fed either

S. N. Digby; D. Blache; D. G. Masters; D. K. Revell

2010-01-01

253

Design of Phosphonium-Type Zwitterion as an Additive to Improve Saturated Water Content of Phase-Separated Ionic Liquid from Aqueous Phase toward Reversible Extraction of Proteins  

PubMed Central

We designed phosphonium-type zwitterion (ZI) to control the saturated water content of separated ionic liquid (IL) phase in the hydrophobic IL/water biphasic systems. The saturated water content of separated IL phase, 1-butyl-3-methyimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, was considerably improved from 0.4 wt% to 62.8 wt% by adding N,N,N-tripentyl-4-sulfonyl-1-butanephosphonium-type ZI (P555C4S). In addition, the maximum water content decreased from 62.8 wt% to 34.1 wt% by increasing KH2PO4/K2HPO4 salt content in upper aqueous phosphate buffer phase. Horse heart cytochrome c (cyt.c) was dissolved selectively in IL phase by improving the water content of IL phase, and spectroscopic analysis revealed that the dissolved cyt.c retained its higher ordered structure. Furthermore, cyt. c dissolved in IL phase was re-extracted again from IL phase to aqueous phase by increasing the concentration of inorganic salts of the buffer solution. PMID:24013379

Ito, Yoritsugu; Kohno, Yuki; Nakamura, Nobuhumi; Ohno, Hiroyuki

2013-01-01

254

Body water content of extremely preterm infants at birth  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Preterm birth is often associated with impaired growth. Small for gestational age status confers additional risk.?AIM—To determine the body water content of appropriately grown (AGA) and small for gestational age (SGA) preterm infants in order to provide a baseline for longitudinal studies of growth after preterm birth.?METHODS—All infants born at the Hammersmith and Queen Charlotte's Hospitals between 25 and 30 weeks gestational age were eligible for entry into the study. Informed parental consent was obtained as soon after delivery as possible, after which the extracellular fluid content was determined by bromide dilution and total body water by H218O dilution.?RESULTS—Forty two preterm infants were studied. SGA infants had a significantly higher body water content than AGA infants (906 (833-954) and 844 (637-958) ml/kg respectively; median (range); p = 0.019). There were no differences in extracellular and intracellular fluid volumes, nor in the ratio of extracellular to intracellular fluid. Estimates of relative adiposity suggest a body fat content of about 7% in AGA infants, assuming negligible fat content in SGA infants and lean body tissue hydration to be equivalent in the two groups.?CONCLUSIONS—Novel values for the body water composition of the SGA preterm infant at 25-30 weeks gestation are presented. The data do not support the view that SGA infants have extracellular dehydration, nor is their regulation of body water impaired.?? PMID:10873174

Hartnoll, G.; Betremieux, P.; Modi, N.

2000-01-01

255

Actinide removal from molten salts by chemical oxidation and salt distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Actinide removal from molten salts can be accomplished by a two step process where the actinide is first oxidized to the oxide using a chemical oxidant such as calcium carbonate or sodium carbonate. After the actinide is precipitated as an oxide the molten salt is distilled away from the actinide oxides leaving a oxide powder heel and an actinide free

James A. McNeese; Eduardo Garcia; Vonda R. Dole; Walter J. Griego

1995-01-01

256

Infrared spectroscopy of aqueous ionic salt mixtures at low concentrations: ion pairing in water.  

PubMed

The analysis by infrared spectroscopy of aqueous mixtures of NaI and CsCl was made in order to obtain information at the molecular level of the mixing of these two salts taken as model systems of strong electrolytes in water. In previous papers [J.-J. Max and C. Chapados, J. Chem. Phys. 115, 2664 (2001) and J.-J. Max et al., ibid. 126, 184507 (2007)] it was reported that a pure salt in water forms pairs of monoions to which are attached a fixed number of water molecules, giving solvated water species. Due to their interaction with the ion pairs, the solvated water molecules are strongly perturbed, modifying the IR water spectrum being monitored. After taking the IR spectrum of pure water, a small volume of NaI 2M was added and the IR spectrum taken. Then a small volume of CsCl 2M was added and a new IR spectrum taken. This procedure was repeated to obtain a series of 38 spectra in the 0.05M-0.83M concentration range. Factor analysis made on the series revealed the presence of three types of water: pure water and two salt solvated waters. The number of solvated water molecules on the two salts taken together is ten. Since NaI and CsCl have, respectively, 3.5 and 3.0 solvated water molecules, it was concluded that a reaction occurred in the solutions forming NaCl and CsI that have, respectively, five water molecules each for a total of ten. The analysis of the spectra of the orthogonal factors supports this attribution. These results provide additional proof of ion pairing in water. Furthermore, comparing the band displacements and intensity variations observed on the solvated water species to that of pure water indicates that the dielectric milieu surrounding the ion pairs is not constant. These results do not support the classical view of Debye-Huckel that considers that the ions are independent and the dielectric milieu constant. The present results give some in situ information on the reaction that goes on in "simple" electrolyte systems whose reactivity and molecular organization are still not completely mastered. PMID:17887859

Max, Jean-Joseph; Chapados, Camille

2007-09-21

257

Influences of Salinity Variations on Pore-water Flow in Salt Marshes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salt marshes are important wetlands at the ocean-land interface with various ecological functions, serving as essential habitats for intertidal fauna, affecting the productivity of coastal waters through nutrient exchange, moderating the greenhouse gas emission and global warming. They are influenced by various physical and biogeochemical processes, among which the pore-water flow and associated solute transport processes play an important role in determining the material exchange between marsh soils and coastal water. Previous studies have examined such processes under the solo or combined effects of tidal fluctuation, evapotranspiration, stratigraphy, inland freshwater input, and topography. However, these investigations have neglected the spatial and temporal salinity variations in surface water and pore-water, which commonly exist in salt marshes due to the impacts of tidal inundation, precipitation and evapotranspiration. The density contrast between the surface water and pore-water may lead to significant modifications of the pore-water flow. Based on results from laboratory experiments and numerical simulations, we will demonstrate that: (1) under upward salinity gradients, flow instabilities in the form of fingers occur once the salinity contrast reaches a certain level, whereas under downward salinity gradients the system is stable; (2) because of the strong tidally-induced advective process occurring near the creek, both the number and size of fingers change gradually from the near-creek zone to the marsh interior; and (3) both upward and downward salinity gradients enhance the exchange between the surface water and pore-water in the marsh sediments. Keywords: Salt marshes; density effect; salinity gradient; pore-water flow; fingers. Instabilities under upward salinity gradient Stable system under downward salinity gradient

Shen, C.; Jin, G.; Xin, P.; Li, L.

2013-12-01

258

The deuterium content of water in some volcanic glasses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The deuterium-hydrogen composition (relative to Lake Michigan water = 0.0) of water extractsd from coexisting perlite and obsidian from eleven different localities was determined. The water content of the obsidians is generally from 0.09 to 0.29 per cent by weight, though two samples from near Olancha, California, contain about 0.92 per cent. The relative deuterium concentration is from -4.6 to -12.3 per cent. The coexisting perlite contains from 2.0 to 3.8 per cent of water with a relative deuterium concentration of -3.1 to -16.6 per cent. The deuterium concentration in the perlites is not related to that in the enclosed obsidian. The deuterium concentration in the perlite water is related to the deuterium concentration of the modern meteoric water and the perlite water contains approximately 4 per cent less deuterium than does the groundwater of the area in which the perlites occur. The above relations hold true for perlites from northern New Mexico, east slope of the Sierra Nevada. California Coast Range, Yellowstone Park, Wyoming, and New Zealand. As the water in the obsidian is unrelated to meteoric water, but the enclosing perlite water is related, we believe that this is evidence for the secondary hydration of obsidian to form high water content perlitic glass. ?? 1958.

Friedman, I.; Smith, R. L.

1958-01-01

259

Influence of salts, including amino acids, on the rate and outcome of the in-water prebiotic reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most prebiotic reactions are hypothesized to have occurred in water. However, organic compounds in general are not water-soluble. This has created a great problem for prebiotic chemistry. However, it has been shown recently that many organic materials which are not soluble in water are still capable of reacting in water, often at faster rates than in the organic solvents. This has provided a new era in the study of the prebiotic reactions. Simulated prebiotic reactions are typically performed in water. However, presence of inorganic salts and the amino acids was ubiquitous in the aqueous media on the prebiotic Earth. We thus address the influence of common salts and selected water-soluble amino acids on the rate and outcome of selected prebiotic reactions in water. We focus on Diels-Alder (DA) reaction and multicomponent Passerini reaction (PR), as models for other prebiotic reactions. Some of the results came from our laboratory, and others are from the literature. DA reaction is influenced by salts and by selected water-soluble amino acids, but generally not to a large extent. The PR is also influenced by salts, but not dramatically. However, concentrations of salts and amino acids could have been extremely high in various local niches on the early Earth, and the influence of such concentrations on these prebiotic reactions awaits further study.

Kolb, Vera M.

2013-09-01

260

[Determination of tracer gas contents in sediment pore water of gas hydrate area by two-dimensional gas chromatography].  

PubMed

A two-dimensional gas chromatographic instrument was established by the capillary flow technology (Deans Switch) and two columns (PoraPLOT Q and Molsieve 5A) and three detectors (pulsed discharge helium ionization detector, flame photometric detector and thermal conductivity detector). The instrument can be used to measure tracer gases simultaneously including hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. The detection limits of the hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide were 0.51, 0.17, 82 and 0.08 micromol/mol, and the calibration curves presented good linear relationships in the range of 2-1030, 0.6-501, 120-10500 and 0.2- 49.1 micromol/mol, respectively. The relative standard deviations were less than 10% for the measurements of ten standard gases. By this method, the tracer gases in the sediment pore water of gas hydrate area in South China Sea had been detected. This method is simple, sensitive, and suitable for on-board detection. Compared with the usual methods for measuring tracer gases, the amount of a sample necessary is reduced greatly. It is useful for the survey of gas hydrate and hydrothermal resources below sea floor and for the research of dissolved gases in the ocean. PMID:21574403

Wang, Hu; Yang, Qunhui; Ji, Fuwu; Zhou, Huaiyang; Xue, Xiang

2011-01-01

261

A composition-independent quantitative determination of the water content in silicate glasses and silicate melt inclusions by confocal Raman spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach was developed to measure the water content of silicate glasses using Raman spectroscopy, which is independent\\u000a of the glass matrix composition and structure. Contrary to previous studies, the compositional range of our studied silicate\\u000a glasses was not restricted to rhyolites, but included andesitic, basaltic and phonolitic glasses. We used 21 glasses with\\u000a known water contents for calibration.

Zoltán Zajacz; Werner Halter; Wim J. Malfait; Olivier Bachmann; Robert J. Bodnar; Marc M. Hirschmann; Charles W. Mandeville; Yann Morizet; Othmar Müntener; Peter Ulmer; James D. Webster

2005-01-01

262

Near Surface Water Content Estimation using GPR Data  

E-print Network

in Water Content (due to soil heterogeneity, topography, land cover, evapotranspiration and precipitation waves can be used to estimate soil water content � Short pulses of High frequency EM energy � Variations relationship #12;Special Studies: GPR-obtained Volumetric Water Content (VWC) Estimates vs. TDR measurements

Rubin, Yoram

263

Critical water contents of hydrophobic soils in New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil water repellency is an important problem for pasture farming in New Zealand which causes low infiltration rates and increased surface runoff. However, the real extent of this issue is not yet evaluated. Water repellency is thought to appear on dry soils, when the water content falls below a critical limit. The main objectives of this study was 1) to investigate the effects of different amounts of infiltration water on hydrophobicity of three selected soils under grassland in the North island of New Zealand, and 2) to determine the critical water content for ten sites with five different soil types. In April 2011 undisturbed and disturbed soil samples from a brown, gley and organic soil have been taken from sites around Mount Taranaki. Soil water repellency was determined using the Water Droplet Penetration Time Test (WDPT) and the Molarity of Ethanol Droplet Test (MED). During the lab experiment four amounts of water were applied to the 270 cm³ samples: 400, 800, 1600 and 2400 mL . One test was performed with cold and one with hot (80 °C) water. Each test was replicated four times. In the leachate the amount of dissolved organic carbon was analyzed. The experiments showed that only for the brown soil water repellency decreased significantly with increasing amount of infiltration water whereas for gley soils no correlation was found. Gley soil had initially a lower degree of hydrophobicity compared to the other soils. Possibly due to the higher bulk density of these soils, the carbon compounds directly surrounding the soil particles wre rearranged rather than leached. No clear pattern could be obtained for organic soils. This may be explained by the high initial carbon content of more than 20%. It may take a much greater amount of infiltration to affect hydrophobicity. The critical contact angle of investigated soils above which water repellency is moderately persistent, was 93.8°. In May 2012 ten more sites were sampled and five soil types were investigated with respect to the critical water content. Soil hydrophobicity was again tested during 4 wetting and drying cycles on 3 replicates each of disturbed and undisturbed soil samples. The tests confirmed that water repellency does not exist at high water contents. It generally starts to appear at a certain limit, increases rapidly up to a peak value and finally decreases slowly when the water content approaches 0. Critical water contents were very high in the first wetting cycle and stabilized at a rather constant level during the 2nd, 3rd and 4th wetting cycle. This phenomenon may be due to inhomogeneous water distributions within the field moist soil samples in the 1st wetting cycle and it was thus chosen to take the critical moisture content from the 2nd wetting cycle for further purposes. We found relatively broad transition zones where soils were found to be both hydrophilic and hydrophobic. Critical water contents or rather transition zones were found to differ significantly between the various soil orders and showed values between 0.34 (m³/m³) for recent soil and 0.44(m³/m³) for organic soil.

Landl, Magdalena; Holzinger, Ursula; Singh, Ranvir; Klik, Andreas

2013-04-01

264

Sodium Content of Community Water Supplies in California  

PubMed Central

The amount of sodium ion in water used for ingestion may be critical in effective use of a low sodium dietary regimen. Waters containing not over 20 mg of sodium per liter are provided for in the sodium restricted diets set forth by the American Heart Association. For diets containing more than 500 mg of sodium a day, waters of greater sodium content may be used if proper dietary adjustments are made. While assessment of the long-term average sodium content of a community water supply is difficult, the determined values for sodium lend to classification within range categories. The larger community water supplies in California are presented within several range categories of sodium content. The more commonly used water softeners add sodium to water. The sodium-restricted patient should be cautioned against their use. Similar consideration should probably be given to water supplies of retirement communities where the potential for disorders requiring sodium restriction is greater than in the general population. PMID:5673988

Steinkamp, Ruth C.; Young, Clarence L.; Nyhus, Dolores; Greenberg, Arnold E.

1968-01-01

265

[Comparative study on hyperspectral inversion accuracy of soil salt content and electrical conductivity].  

PubMed

The objective of the present article is to ascertain the mechanism of hyperspectral remote sensing monitoring for soil salinization, which is of great importance for improving the accuracy of hyperspectral remote sensing monitoring. Paddy soils in Wensu, Hetian and Baicheng counties of the southern Xinjiang were selected. Hyperspectral data of soils were obtained. Soil salt content (S(t)) an electrical conductivity of 1:5 soil-to-water extracts (EC(1:5)) were determined. Relationships between S(t) and EC(1:5) were studied. Correlations between hyperspectral indices and S(t), and EC(1:5) were analyzed. The inversion accuracy of S(t) using hyperspectral technique was compared with that of EC(1:5). Results showed that: significant (p<0.01) relationships were found between S(t) and EC(1:5) for soils in Wensu and Hetian counties, and correlation coefficients were 0.86 and 0.45, respectively; there was no significant relationship between S(t) and EC(1:5) for soils in Baicheng county. Therefore, the correlations between S(t) and EC(1:5) varied with studied sites. S(t) and EC(1:5) were significantly related with spectral reflectance, first derivative reflectance and continuum-removed reflectance, respectively; but correlation coefficients between S(t) and spectral indices were higher than those between EC(1:5) and spectral indices, which was obvious in some sensitive bands for soil salinization such as 660, 35, 1229, 1414, 1721, 1738, 1772, 2309 nm, and so on. Prediction equations of St and EC(1:5) were established using multivariate linear regression, principal component regression and partial least-squares regression methods, respectively. Coefficients of determination, determination coefficients of prediction, and relative analytical errors of these equations were analyzed. Coefficients of determination and relative analytical errors of equations between S(t) and spectral indices were higher than those of equations between EC(1:5) and spectral indices. Therefore, the responses of high spectral information to St were more sensitive than those of high spectral information to EC(1:5). Accuracy of St predicted from high spectral data was higher than that of EC(1:5) estimated from high spectral data. The results of this study can provide a theoretical basis to improve hyperspectral remote sensing monitoring accuracy of soil salinization. PMID:24822430

Peng, Jie; Wang, Jia-Qiang; Xiang, Hong-Ying; Teng, Hong-Fen; Liu, Wei-Yang; Chi, Chun-Ming; Niu, Jian-Long; Guo, Yan; Shi, Zhou

2014-02-01

266

Water budget and water-surface fluctuations, Great Salt Lake, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The water-budget equation for Great Salt Lakes is: Inflow = Outflow + or - Storage change. The average annual inflow for the period 1931-76 was about 2.9 million acre-feet; 1.9 million acre-feet from surface sources, about 900,000 acre-feet from direct precipitation, and about 75,000 acre-feet from ground water. The average annual outflow for the same period, all be evaportion, also was about 2.9 million acre-feet. Storage changes are computed on the basis of changes in the surface level of the lake. During the period of historic record, 1847-1978, the lake surface has fluctuated within a range of about 20 feet but has shown little overall change. The lake surface would have been about 5 feet higher in 1978 than it was in 1947 had there been no consumptive use of water caused by man 's activities in the lake basin. Since 1959 the lake has been divided into two parts by a railroad causeway, which has restricted the natural circulation. This has resulted in a difference of salinity and of surface level across the causeway. The difference in surface level between the two parts of the lake varies seasonally and annually and has been as much as 2.35 feet. (USGS)

Arnow, Ted

1978-01-01

267

Geomicrobiology and hopanoid content of sulfidic subsurface vent biofilms, Little Salt Spring, Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfide-rich, oxygen-poor environments are widespread in the subsurface and were prevalent at the earth's surface during critical intervals in the geologic past. Modern microbial communities in sulfidic niches have the potential to shed light on the biogeochemistry and biosignatures of anoxia and euxinia in earth history. Caves and sinkholes provide rare windows into microbially-dominated, sulfidic subsurface environments that are otherwise difficult and expensive to access. Little Salt Spring (Sarasota County, Florida) is a cover-collapse sinkhole lake with oxic surface water and anoxic, sulfidic bottom water (Alvarez Zarikian 2005). The site is famous for excellent preservation of human and animal archaeological remains (Clausen 1979), and its microbiology has never been investigated. Abundant white biofilms develop seasonally at a warm vent that feeds into the anoxic bottom water at 73 m depth below the water surface. The biofilms are of interest both as potential sources of biomarker compounds and because of their likely role in sulfuric acid production and limestone dissolution (speleogenesis). Biofilm samples were collected by expert science divers and investigated using microscopy, nucleic acid, and lipid analytical methods. Microscopy of the live biofilm revealed clusters of microbial filaments with holdfasts and dendritic, sulfur-rich colonial structures similar to those described in the 1960s for Thiobacterium, a sulfur-oxidizing genus with undetermined phylogeny. A 16S rDNA library constructed from the biofilm was split into three main phylotypes, with multiple clones representing (1) a Betaproteobacterial clade with no cultivated representatives, (2) filamentous Epsilonproteobacteria, and (3) a major bacterial lineage without named isolates (OP11/OD2). A full cycle rRNA approach is currently underway to link 16S rDNA phylotypes with specific populations in the biofilm. We confirmed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) that abundant filamentous cells with holdfasts are Epsilonproteobacteria. Additional FISH experiments will target the Betaproteobacterial and OP11/OD2 phylotypes retrieved by cloning. Based on HPLC-MS analyses, the biofilm contains at least 5 membrane hopanoid structures distinct from the suite of hopanoids present in sinking organic particles from the photic zone of the sinkhole. Future efforts will be aimed at linking hopanoid structures to specific sulfur-oxidizing populations and to geochemical parameters such as sulfide and oxygen concentrations. References Alvarez Zarikian,C. A., P. K. Swart, J. A. Gifford, P. L. Blackwelder, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 225, 134 (2005). Clausen, C. J., A. D. Cohen, C. Emiliani, J. A. Holman, J. J. Stipp, Science 203, 609 (1979).

Yang, E.; Schaperdoth, I.; Albrecht, H.; Freeman, K. H.; Macalady, J. L.

2008-12-01

268

Thermal Inactivation of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus in a Peptone-Salt Medium Mimicking the Water-Soluble Phase of Hydrolyzed Fish By-Products  

PubMed Central

Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) (serotype Sp) was exposed to temperatures between 60 and 90°C in a medium mimicking the water-soluble phase of hydrolyzed fish by-products. D values ranged from 290 to 0.5 min, and the z value was approximately 9.8°C. Addition of formic acid to create a pH 4 medium did not enhance heat inactivation. Predicted inactivation effects at different temperature-time combinations are provided. PMID:22247167

Modahl, Ingebj?rg; Myrmel, Mette

2012-01-01

269

Laboratory Characterization of Capacitance Sensors for Measuring Soil Water Content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automated sensing of soil water content with capacitance methods is common due to the relative ease of installation and monitoring at multiple sites. The resonant frequency of an inductance-capacitance circuit is a function of the dielectric permittivity of the material surrounding the ring-capacitor sensor. However, limited relationships between resonant frequency and permittivity in the soil water range have been reported. Furthermore, sensor readings and apparent water contents have been shown to vary with temperature in laboratory and field studies in the opposite direction of that expected for free water. We designed laboratory equipment and experiments to improve our fundamental knowledge about the behavior and characterization of such a capacitance sensor (Sentek EnviroSMARTTM). Four sensors are used for resonant frequency readings, while a fifth measures total capacitance directly on an HP Network Analyzer. A solvent-resistant container was designed for water-dioxane mixtures, which provide a complete range of permittivity values from 2.2 to over 80. The sensor readings are sensitive to permittivity changes in the range expected for soils from very dry to fully saturated. Variability between four sensors is reduced by normalization to readings in air and water. Frequency-based permittivity estimates in free water decreased linearly with temperature, as expected, substantiating the field-measured temperature dependence. Next, an expanding metal cylinder was used to interfere with the electrical field in air, water and two dioxane-water mixtures. The change in normalized readings with distance to the metal boundary is approximated by a negative exponential function with a characteristic length of 11 mm. The laboratory results are confirmed with numerical experiments assuming axisymmetric materials. Using the improved capacitance sensor characterization, water content can be estimated directly from permittivity using a universal calibration, and there is now a stronger basis for addressing the temperature-dependence of measurements in soil-air-water systems.

Green, T. R.; Schwank, M.; Flühler, H.

2005-12-01

270

Proteins induced by salt stress in tomato germinating seeds  

SciTech Connect

Salt effects on protein synthesis in tomato germinating seeds were investigated by two-dimensional polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis of proteins labeled in vivo with ({sup 35}S)-Methionine. Seeds germinating in NaCl were analyzed at three germination stages (4mm long radicals, 15mm long radicles and expanding cotyledons) and compared to those germinating in water. At the first germination stage several basic proteins of M.W. 13Kd, 16Kd, 17Kd and 18Kd were detected in only salt germinating seeds. Other basic proteins of M.W. 12Kd, 50Kd and 54Kd were salt-induced at the second and third stage of germination. One 14Kd acid protein is observed in every assayed stage and shows several phosphorylated forms. The levels of expression of these proteins are directly correlated to assayed NaCl concentrations. All of these proteins, except 17Kd, are also induced by abscisic acid (ABA) in the same germination stages. A cooperative effect on the synthesis of these proteins is observed when both ABA and NaCl are present.

Torres-Shumann, S.; Godoy, J.A.; del Pozo, O.; Pintor-Toro, J.A. (Instituto Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia, Sevilla (Spain))

1989-04-01

271

Canopy water content retrieval from hyperspectral remote sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogeochemical processes in plants, such as photosyn thesis, evaporation and net primary production, are directly related to foliar water. Therefore, canopy water content is important for the understanding of the terrestrial ecosystem functioning. Spectral information related to the water absorption feature s at 970 nm and 1200 nm offers possibilities for de riving information on leaf and canopy water content.

J. G. P. W. Clevers; L. Kooistra; M. E. Schaepman

2007-01-01

272

Low salt petroleum produced water reuse: a farming alternative outside the food chain.  

PubMed

Oil and gas production gives rise to water production depending on the state of maturation of the Field. This means large volumes of water available. Today, this water is partly re-injected into the reservoir. Totalfinaelf's sustainable contribution to preserve water resources is to propose an alternative utilization: the reuse of produced waters from petroleum activities, outside the food chain. The aim of the first part of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing low-salt water (<20 g/l) cleaned of hydrocarbons, for agricultural or forest irrigation. Rudimentary technologies such as artificial wetlands were tested to remove hydrocarbon substances and preliminary tests were performed with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and hemp (Cannabis sativa). Among the species tested in real conditions (greenhouse), hemp was affected by saline water whereas the results obtained for cotton were representative of the average worldwide production. These results validate the reuse of low-salt produced water in climatic conditions with expected temperatures of up to 37 degrees C in summer and 25 degrees C in winter. Following these results, field pilots are planned. Further research is planned to focus, taking into account local needs and environmental and production constraints. PMID:15344784

Rambeau, O; de Lafond, R Morales; Baldoni, P; Gosselin, J P; Baccou, J C

2004-01-01

273

Original article Irrigation, faecal water content and development rate  

E-print Network

Original article Irrigation, faecal water content and development rate of free-living stages of irrigation by flooding the pastures on the ability of the eggs of sheep Tri- chostrongyles to develop irrigation or submerged, at different times and durations. The rates of development of Teladorsagia

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

274

A comparison of the ecology of planktonic bacteria in fresh and salt water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The planktonic bacteria inhabiting fresh and salt waters are not physiologically identical; most marine bacteria, for example, require sodium and some marine forms can thrive at 1,000 atm of pressure in the deep sea. Despite this difference, the conclusion of this review is that the ecology of planktonic bacteria is virtually identical in fresh and salt waters. The differences are

John E. Hobbie

1988-01-01

275

Models for coupling of salt and water transport; Proximal tubular reabsorption in Necturus kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models for coupling of salt and water transport are developed with two important assumptions appropriate for leaky epithelia. (a) The tight junction is permeable to both salt and water. (b) Active Na transport into the lateral spaces is assumed to occur uniformly along the length of the channel. The proposed models deal specifically with the intraepithelial mechanism of proximal tubular

HENRY SACKIN; EMILE L. BOULPAEP

1975-01-01

276

Estimation of plant water content by spectral absorption features centered at 1,450 nm and 1,940 nm regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation water content could possibly provide widespread utility in agriculture, forestry and hydrology. In this article,\\u000a three species leaves were measured radiometrically in order to determine a relationship between leaf water status and the\\u000a spectral feature centered at 1,450 and 1,940 nm where there are strong water absorptions. The first step of our research is\\u000a to measure leaf spectra with a

Jie Wang; Ruisong Xu; Shilun Yang

2009-01-01

277

In situ adaptation of activated sludge by shock leading to enhance treatment of high ammonia content petrochemical waste water  

SciTech Connect

A modified activated sludge process that includes both carbonaceous and nitrogenous oxidation to reduce high levels of ammonia in petrochemical waste water was studied in a pilot plant design. Dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, and sludge age were controlled and measured. Ammonia concentration in the petrochemical waste water used as the influent waste to the pilot plant was maintained up to 390 mg/L. Adaptation of the activated sludge biomass to the influent was accomplished with step-function shock loading. Subsequently, operation in the zero sludge wasting mode resulted in a low excess sludge production rate and the minimization of nitrifier washout and high percentage removals of ammonia, COD, BOD, and sulfide were measured.

Thiem, L.T.; Alkhatib, E.A.

1988-07-01

278

[Coupling relationship between water and salt of waters ecosystems in arid zone: a case study in Xinjiang Tarim River basin].  

PubMed

The pollution of waters ecosystems is caused by natural and artificial factors in Tarim River. Temporal and spatial variation of surface runoff is the main reason for changes of coupling relationship between water and salt. In the end of 1950s, mineralization degree was less than 1.0 g.L-1 from the upper reaches to the lower reaches of Tetema Lake in Tarim River. At present, only in July, August and October, mineralization degree is less than 1.0 g.L-1. During the other months, mineralization degree is more than 3.0 g.L-1 in Alaer Lake. In Qiala (the lower reaches of Tarim River), mineralization degree is more than 1.0 g.L-1 except in March. Moreover, mineralization degree is about 5.0 g.L-1 in July and December. It is showed that annual water quality belongs to the fifth seriously polluted water in Alaer, Xinquman and Yingbazha. Meanwhile, annual water quality in Qiala belongs to the fourth polluted water. In a word, water quality state and hydrological chemistry component are the most obviously indicator for coupling relationship between water and salt in Tarim River. PMID:11993128

Wang, Ranghui; Fan, Zili; Ma, Yingjie

2002-02-01

279

Growth, Water Relations, and Accumulation of Organic and Inorganic Solutes in Roots of Maize Seedlings during Salt Stress.  

PubMed Central

Seedlings of maize (Zea mays L. cv Pioneer 3906), hydroponically grown in the dark, were exposed to NaCl either gradually (salt acclimation) or in one step (salt shock). In the salt-acclimation treatment, root extension was indistinguishable from that of unsalinized controls for at least 6 d at concentrations up to 100 mM NaCl. By contrast, salt shock rapidly inhibited extension, followed by a gradual recovery, so that by 24 h extension rates were the same as for controls, even at 150 mM NaCl. Salt shock caused a rapid decrease in root water and solute potentials for the apical zones, and the estimated turgor potential showed only a small decline; similar but more gradual changes occurred with salt acclimation. The 5-bar decrease in root solute potential with salt shock (150 mM NaCl) during the initial 10 min of exposure could not be accounted for by dehydration, indicating that substantial osmotic adjustment occurred rapidly. Changes in concentration of inorganic solutes (Na+, K+, and Cl-) and organic solutes (proline, sucrose, fructose, and glucose) were measured during salt shock. The contribution of these solutes to changes in root solute potential with salinization was estimated. PMID:12223650

Rodriguez, H. G.; Roberts, JKM.; Jordan, W. R.; Drew, M. C.

1997-01-01

280

Carbohydrate and Proline Contents in Leaves, Roots, and Apices of SaltTolerant and Salt-Sensitive Wheat Cultivars1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intra-specific variations in nonstructural carbohydrates and free proline were determined in leaves, apices, roots, and maturing seeds of two salt-tolerant cultivars (CR and Kharchia-65) and one salt-sensitive cv. Ghods of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in sand culture at various levels of salinity (0, 100, 200, and 300 mM NaCl and CaCl2 at 5 : 1 molar ratio) under

M. Kafi; W. S. Stewart; A. M. Borland

2003-01-01

281

ASCE World Water and Environmental Resources Congress Salt Lake City, Utah USA  

E-print Network

1 ASCE World Water and Environmental Resources Congress Salt Lake City, Utah USA June 27 to July 1 ......................................................................................5 Catchbasin Sediment and Supernatnant Quality and Potential Water Quality Degradation

Pitt, Robert E.

282

Mechanisms of water-salt metabolism disturbances in dogs subjected to six month hypokinesia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water-salt metabolism in dogs during prolonged restricted motor activity (hypokinesia) was investigated. It was found that hydration occurred and fluid was redistributed between the extra- and intra-cellular sectors. Also, electrolyte excretion rose, and magnetism and calcium metabolism changed significantly. It is concluded that the forces caused by muscle strain proper (which was decreased under conditions of hypokinesia) influence the state of bone metabolism.

Korolkov, V. I.; Kovalenko, Y. A.; Krotov, V. P.; Ilyushko, N. A.; Kondratyeva, V. A.; Kondratyev, Y. I.

1980-01-01

283

EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS TO DOMESTIC WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS IN SALT LAKE COUNTY, UTAH.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A magnitude-7. 5 earthquake occurring along the central portion of the Wasatch Fault, Utah, may cause significant damage to Salt Lake County's domestic water system. This system is composed of water treatment plants, aqueducts, distribution mains, and other facilities that are vulnerable to ground shaking, liquefaction, fault movement, and slope failures. Recent investigations into surface faulting, landslide potential, and earthquake intensity provide basic data for evaluating the potential earthquake hazards to water-distribution systems in the event of a large earthquake. Water supply system components may be vulnerable to one or more earthquake-related effects, depending on site geology and topography. Case studies of water-system damage by recent large earthquakes in Utah and in other regions of the United States offer valuable insights in evaluating water system vulnerability to earthquakes.

Highland, Lynn, M.

1985-01-01

284

Design and Implementation of a Low-Cost Non-Destructive System for Measurements of Water and Salt Levels in Food Products Using Impedance Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IQMA and the DTA have developed a low-cost system to determinate the contents of water and salt in food products as cured ham or pork loin using non-destructive methods. The system includes an electronic equipment that allows the implementation of impedance spectroscopy and an electrode. The electrode is a concentric needle which allows carrying out tests in a non-destructive way. Preliminary results indicate that there is a correlation between the water and salt contents and the module and phase of the impedance of the food sample in the range of 1 Hz to 1 MHz.

Masot, Rafael; Alcañiz, Miguel; Fuentes, Ana; Campos, Franciny; Barat, José M.; Gil, Luis; Labrador, Roberto H.; Soto, Juan; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón

2009-05-01

285

Water in urban planning, Salt Creek Basin, Illinois water management as related to alternative land-use practices  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water management can be an integral part of urban comprehensive planning in a large metropolitan area. Water both imposes constraints on land use and offers opportunities for coordinated land and water management. Salt Creek basin in Cook and Du Page Counties of the Chicago metropolitan area is typical of rapidly developing suburban areas and has been selected to illustrate some of these constraints and opportunities and to suggest the effects of alternative solutions. The present study concentrates on the related problems of ground-water recharge, water quality, management of flood plains, and flood-control measures. Salt Creek basin has a drainage area of 150 square miles. It is in flat to. gently rolling terrain, underlain by glacial drift as much as 200 feet thick which covers a dolomite aquifer. In 1964, the population of the basin was about 400,000, and 40 percent of the land was in urban development. The population is expected to number 550,000 to 650,000 by 1990, and most of the land will be taken by urban development. Salt Creek is a sluggish stream, typical of small drainage channels in the headwaters area of northeastern Illinois. Low flows of 15 to 25 cubic feet per second in the lower part of the basin consist largely of sewage effluent. Nearly all the public water supplies in the basin depend on ground water. Of the total pumpage of 27.5 million gallons per day, 17.5 million gallons per day is pumped from the deep (Cambrian-Ordovician) aquifers and 10 million gallons per day is pumped from the shallow (Silurian dolomite and glacial drift) aquifers. The potential yield of the shallow aquifers, particularly glacial drift in the northern part of the basin, far exceeds present use. The largest concentration of pumpage from the shallow ,aquifers is in the Hinsdale-La Grange area. Salt Creek serves as an important source of recharge to these supplies, particularly just east of Hinsdale. The entire reach of Salt Creek south and east of Elmhurst can be regarded as an area of potential recharge to the shallow aquifers. Preservation of the effectiveness of these potential recharge areas should be considered in land-use planning. Salt Creek is polluted in times of both low and high flow. Most communities in the basin in Du Page County discharge their treated sewage into the creek, whereas those in Cook County transfer their sewage to plants of the Metropolitan Sanitary District outside the basin. During periods of high runoff, combined storm runoff and overflow from sanitary sewers enter the creek. Such polluted water detracts from the stream's esthetic and recreational potential and poses a threat to ground-water supplies owing to induced recharge of polluted water to shallow aquifers. Alternative approaches .to the pollution problem include improvement of the degree of sewage treatment, detention and treatment of storm runoff, dilution of sewage through flow augmentation, or transfer of sewage from the basin to a central treatment plant. To result in an enhanced environment, the streambed would have to be cleansed of accumulated sludge deposits. The overbank flooding in Salt Creek basin every 2 to 3 years presents problems because of encroachments and developments on the flood plains. Flood plains in an urban area can be managed by identifying them, by recognizing that either their natural storage capacity or equivalent artificial capacity is needed to accommodate floods, and by planning land use accordingly. Examples of effective floodplain management include (1) preservation of greenbelts or regional parks along stream courses, (2) use of flood plains for recreation, parking lots. or other low-intensity uses, (3) use of flood-proofed commercial buildings, and (4) provision for compensatory storage to replace natural storage capacity. Results of poor flood-plain management include uncontrolled residential development and encroachment by fill into natural storage areas where no compensatory storage has been

Spieker, Andrew Maute

1970-01-01

286

The imprint of land use on water and salt dynamics in the semiarid plains of Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As semiarid forests become increasingly replaced by rain-fed annual crops throughout the sedimentary plains of Argentina, changes in the water and salt balance of ecosystem and groundwater are likely to occur. This possibility is suggested by the recent formation of saline seeps and springs in the region and by a large body of observations under similar land cover transitions in other continents. Dry forests worldwide have shown extremely low deep drainage (groundwater recharge) and high vadose salt accumulation. Their cultivation initiated deep drainage, solute displacement, and rising water tables in many cases, affecting the long term viability of agriculture. To explore this possibility we characterized vadose moisture and chloride storage and transport in a sedimentary watershed that started to get cleared and cultivated ~100 years ago, and linked this observation to the sudden formation of salty streams through sediment liquefaction during the last 20 years. Within this watershed we selected 7 paired stands under dry forest and crops and sampled their sediments (n=3) down to 6 m of depth using hand augers. We characterized current surface water and salt export from the new streams at several points along their course and at three dates within a growing season (Jun/2008, Oct/2008 and Apr/2009). A consistently dry and salty zone was found below two meters of depth in dry forest stands, suggesting that they experienced very low to negligible deep drainage. Under cultivated dry forests chloride storage losses were >70% and moisture gains were of >30% more, suggesting a net chloride leaching of 150 to 1600 g m-2 following deforestation. New streams had a discharge of 10 mm yr-1 and salt exports of 6 g m-2 yr-1. Based on the cultivated area of the watershed and the net chloride lost from its soil profiles we estimate that at current water yield rates between 25 to 250 years of stream flow will be necessary to remove the leached salts out from the region. While the steady long term precipitation raise experienced by this region (30% more in in the last 100 years) has been assumed as the ultimate cause triggering the sudden formation of salty streams, dry forests have maintained their vadose salt stock and their typical low deep drainage rates until the present, suggesting that the combination of higher precipitation and extensive clearing of forest are two converging causes of hydrological change.

Santoni, C. S.; Jobbágy, E.; Risio Allione, L.; Llobell, D.; Galvan, M.

2009-12-01

287

Activity of the Bile Salt Export Pump (ABCB11) Is Critically Dependent on Canalicular Membrane Cholesterol Content  

PubMed Central

Mutations in ATP8B1 cause severe inherited liver disease. The disease is characterized by impaired biliary bile salt excretion (cholestasis), but the mechanism whereby impaired ATP8B1 function results in cholestasis is poorly understood. ATP8B1 is a type 4 P-type ATPase and is a flippase for phosphatidylserine. Atp8b1-deficient mice display a dramatic increase in the biliary extraction of cholesterol from the canalicular (apical) membrane of the hepatocyte. Here we studied the hypothesis that disproportionate cholesterol extraction from the canalicular membrane impairs the activity of the bile salt transporter, ABCB11, and as a consequence causes cholestasis. Using single pass liver perfusions, we show that not only ABCB11-mediated transport but also Abcc2-mediated transport were reduced at least 4-fold in Atp8b1 deficiency. We show that canalicular membranes of cholestatic Atp8b1-deficient mice have a dramatically reduced cholesterol to phospholipid ratio, i.e. 0.75 ± 0.24 versus 2.03 ± 0.71 for wild type. In vitro depletion of cholesterol from mouse liver plasma membranes using methyl-?-cyclodextrin demonstrated a near linear relation between cholesterol content of the membranes and ATP-dependent taurocholate transport. Abcc2-mediated transport activity was not affected up to 30% of membrane cholesterol depletion but declined to negligible levels at 70% of membrane cholesterol depletion. These effects were reversible as cholesterol repletion of the liver membranes completely restored Abcb11- and Abcc2-mediated transport. Our data demonstrate that membrane cholesterol content is a critical determinant of ABCB11/ABCC2 transport activity, provide an explanation for the etiology of ATP8B1 disease, and suggest a novel mechanism protecting the canalicular membrane against luminal bile salt overload. PMID:19228692

Paulusma, Coen C.; de Waart, D. Rudi; Kunne, Cindy; Mok, Kam S.; Elferink, Ronald P. J. Oude

2009-01-01

288

Diversity of the predominant spoilage bacteria in water-boiled salted duck during storage.  

PubMed

The spoilage microbiota in water-boiled salted duck during storage at 4 degrees C was determined using culture-dependent and independent methods. Analysis of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) patterns of PCR amplicons targeting the V3 region of the 16S rDNA and sequencing of the bands allowed profiling of the microbiota present in the duck. Community DNA extracts were prepared directly from water-boiled salted duck and from culturable bacterial fractions harvested from both MRS and PCA media. The spoilage bacteria mainly consisted of Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Macrococcus caseolyticus, Weissella, Halomonas sp. or Cobetia sp., and Exiguobacterium sp. based on sequencing and homology search of the DGGE bands. It appeared that both the bacterial counts and diversity increased during storage time. By plating method, bacterial counts in MRS agar increased from 10(4) to 10(8) CFU/g from day 1 to 10, while total bacterial counts in PCA agar reached 10(9) CFU/g after 10 d. Total of 14 strains isolated from PCA and MRS agar were identified as M. caseolyticus (2), S. saprophyticus (7), S. sciuri (1), W. paramesenteroides (2), and W. confusa (2) by 16S rDNA sequencing. The identification of the spoilage-related microbiota is helpful to better understand the bacteria ecology in water-boiled salted duck and may lead to the discovery of appropriate preservation strategies. PMID:20629890

Liu, Fang; Wang, Daoying; Du, Lihui; Zhu, Yongzhi; Xu, Weimin

2010-06-01

289

Effects of flow rate, temperature and salt concentration on chemical and physical properties of electrolyzed oxidizing water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study adopted a three-factor-three-level factorial design to study the effects of water flow rate, salt concentration and water temperature on pH, oxidation–reduction potential (ORP), total residual chlorine, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity and salinity of electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW). Results indicated that pH and dissolved oxygen concentration were not affected by these processing factors. Increasing water flow rate decreased total

Shun-Yao Hsu

2005-01-01

290

A Comparison of Different Model Concepts for Salt Water Intrusion Processes  

E-print Network

as well as the position of the fresh water / salt water transition zone. INTRODUCTION Groundwater accounts for almost half of the water supply for human consumption. In the coastal environment, excessive groundwater pumping has caused severe intrusion of saline water into fresh water aquifers in most parts of the world

Cirpka, Olaf Arie

291

Recreational runners with patellofemoral pain exhibit elevated patella water content.  

PubMed

Increased bone water content resulting from repetitive patellofemoral joint overloading has been suggested to be a possible mechanism underlying patellofemoral pain (PFP). To date, it remains unknown whether persons with PFP exhibit elevated bone water content. The purpose of this study was to determine whether recreational runners with PFP exhibit elevated patella water content when compared to pain-free controls. Ten female recreational runners with a diagnosis of PFP (22 to 39years of age) and 10 gender, age, weight, height, and activity matched controls underwent chemical-shift-encoded water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify patella water content (i.e., water-signal fraction). Differences in bone water content of the total patella, lateral aspect of the patella, and medial aspect of the patella were compared between groups using independent t tests. Compared with the control group, the PFP group demonstrated significantly greater total patella bone water content (15.4±3.5% vs. 10.3±2.1%; P=0.001), lateral patella water content (17.2±4.2% vs. 11.5±2.5%; P=0.002), and medial patella water content (13.2±2.7% vs. 8.4±2.3%; P<0.001). The higher patella water content observed in female runners with PFP is suggestive of venous engorgement and elevated extracellular fluid. In turn, this may lead to an increase in intraosseous pressure and pain. PMID:24906520

Ho, Kai-Yu; Hu, Houchun H; Colletti, Patrick M; Powers, Christopher M

2014-09-01

292

Calibrating a salt water intrusion model with time-domain electromagnetic data.  

PubMed

Salt water intrusion models are commonly used to support groundwater resource management in coastal aquifers. Concentration data used for model calibration are often sparse and limited in spatial extent. With airborne and ground-based electromagnetic surveys, electrical resistivity models can be obtained to provide high-resolution three-dimensional models of subsurface resistivity variations that can be related to geology and salt concentrations on a regional scale. Several previous studies have calibrated salt water intrusion models with geophysical data, but are typically limited to the use of the inverted electrical resistivity models without considering the measured geophysical data directly. This induces a number of errors related to inconsistent scales between the geophysical and hydrologic models and the applied regularization constraints in the geophysical inversion. To overcome these errors, we perform a coupled hydrogeophysical inversion (CHI) in which we use a salt water intrusion model to interpret the geophysical data and guide the geophysical inversion. We refer to this methodology as a Coupled Hydrogeophysical Inversion-State (CHI-S), in which simulated salt concentrations are transformed to an electrical resistivity model, after which a geophysical forward response is calculated and compared with the measured geophysical data. This approach was applied for a field site in Santa Cruz County, California, where a time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) dataset was collected. For this location, a simple two-dimensional cross-sectional salt water intrusion model was developed, for which we estimated five uniform aquifer properties, incorporating the porosity that was also part of the employed petrophysical relationship. In addition, one geophysical parameter was estimated. The six parameters could be resolved well by fitting more than 300 apparent resistivities that were comprised by the TDEM dataset. Except for three sounding locations, all the TDEM data could be fitted close to a root-mean-square error of 1. Possible explanations for the poor fit of these soundings are the assumption of spatial uniformity, fixed boundary conditions and the neglecting of 3D effects in the groundwater model and the TDEM forward responses. PMID:22891736

Herckenrath, Daan; Odlum, Nick; Nenna, Vanessa; Knight, Rosemary; Auken, Esben; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

2013-01-01

293

Development of the sediment and water quality management strategies for the Salt-water River, Taiwan.  

PubMed

The Salt-water River watershed is one of the major river watersheds in the Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Water quality and sediment investigation results show that the river water contained high concentrations of organics and ammonia-nitrogen, and sediments contained high concentrations of heavy metals and organic contaminants. The main pollution sources were municipal and industrial wastewaters. Results from the enrichment factor (EF) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo) analyses imply that the sediments can be characterized as heavily polluted in regard to Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Cu. The water quality analysis simulation program (WASP) model was applied for water quality evaluation and carrying capacity calculation. Modeling results show that the daily pollutant inputs were much higher than the calculated carrying capacity (1050 kg day(-1) for biochemical oxygen demand and 420 kg day(-1) for ammonia-nitrogen). The proposed watershed management strategies included river water dilution, intercepting sewer system construction and sediment dredging. PMID:21392809

Lin, C E; Chen, C T; Kao, C M; Hong, A; Wu, C Y

2011-01-01

294

Radial transport of salt and water in roots of the common reed (Phragmites australis?Trin. ex Steudel).  

PubMed

To understand the root function in salt tolerance, radial salt and water transport were studied using reed plants growing in brackish habitat water with an osmotic pressure (?M ) of 0.63?MPa. Roots bathed in this medium exuded a xylem sap with NaCl as the major osmolyte and did so even at higher salt concentration (?M up to 1.3?MPa). Exudation was stopped after a small increase of ?M (0.26?MPa) using polyethylene glycol 600 as osmolyte. The endodermis of fine lateral roots was found to be the main barrier to radial solute diffusion on an apoplastic path. Apoplastic salt transfer was proven by rapid replacement of stelar Na(+) by Li(+) in an isomolar LiCl medium. Water fluxes did not exert a true solvent drag on NaCl. Xylem sap concentrations of NaCl in basal internodes of transpiring culms were more than five times higher than in medial and upper ones. It was concluded that the radial NaCl flux was mainly diffusion through the apoplast, and radial water transport, because of the resistance of the cell wall matrix to convective mass flow, was confined to the symplast. Radial salt permeation in roots reduced the water stress exerted by the brackish medium. PMID:23488547

Fritz, Michael; Ehwald, Rudolf

2013-10-01

295

Accuracy of bottled drinking water label content.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy of the concentration of fluoride (F), calcium (Ca), pH, and total dissolved solids (TDS) levels mentioned on the labels of the various brands of bottled drinking water available in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Twenty-one different brands of locally produced non-carbonated (still water) bottled drinking water were collected from the supermarkets of Riyadh. The concentration of F, Ca, TDS, and pH values were noted from the labels of the bottles. The samples were analyzed for concentrations in the laboratory using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean level of F, Ca, and pH were found as 0.86 ppm, 38.47 ppm, and 7.5, respectively, which were significantly higher than the mean concentration of these elements reported in the labels. Whereas, the mean TDS concentration was found 118.87 ppm, which was significantly lower than the mean reported on the labels. In tropical countries like Saudi Arabia, the appropriate level of F concentration in drinking water as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) should be 0.6-0.7 ppm. Since the level of F was found to be significantly higher than the WHO recommended level, the children exposed to this level could develop objectionable fluorosis. The other findings, like pH value, concentrations of Ca, and TDS, were in the range recommended by the WHO and Saudi standard limits and therefore should have no obvious significant health implications. PMID:19475483

Khan, Nazeer B; Chohan, Arham N

2010-07-01

296

Salt marsh-atmosphere exchange of energy, water vapor, and carbon dioxide: Effects of tidal flooding and biophysical controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The degree to which short-duration, transient floods modify wetland-atmosphere exchange of energy, water vapor, and carbon dioxide (CO2) is poorly documented despite the significance of flooding in many wetlands. This study explored the effects of transient floods on salt marsh-atmosphere linkages. Eddy flux, micrometeorological, and other field data collected during two tidal phases (daytime versus nighttime high tides) quantified the salt marsh radiation budget, surface energy balance, and CO2 flux. Analysis contrasted flooded and nonflooded and day and night effects. The salt marsh surface energy balance was similar to that of a heating-dominated sparse crop during nonflooded periods but similar to that of an evaporative cooling-dominated, well-watered grassy lawn during flooding. Observed increases in latent heat flux and decreases in net ecosystem exchange during flooding were proportional to flood depth and duration, with complete CO2 flux suppression occurring above some flood height less than the canopy height. Flood-induced changes in the salt marsh energy balance were dominated by changes in sensible heat flux, soil heat flux, and surface water heat storage. Parameters suitable for predicting the salt marsh surface energy balance were obtained by calibrating common models (e.g., Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor, and pan coefficient). Biophysical controls on salt marsh-atmosphere exchange were identified following calibration of models describing the coupling of canopy photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in the salt marsh. The effects of flooding on salt marsh-atmosphere exchange are temporary but strongly affect the marsh water, carbon, and energy balance despite their short duration.

Moffett, Kevan B.; Wolf, Adam; Berry, Joe A.; Gorelick, Steven M.

2010-10-01

297

Effects of rainfall partitioning by Mediterranean vegetation on soil water content dynamics. Results from field studies along a climatic gradient in Spain.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role played by rainfall partitioning by vegetation is of paramount importance for the water balance both at local and catchment scales. Rainfall partitioning fluxes (throughfall and stemflow) have a large degree of temporal and spatial variability and may consequently lead to significant changes in the volume and composition of water that reach the understory vegetation and the soil. Throughfall affects the surface soils horizons and stemflow, channelled by branches and stems, can reach deeper soil layers and remain available for the roots. This work investigates the effect of rainfall partitioning on soil water content in three Mediterranean study areas covering a strong climatic gradient and different vegetation species. From Northern to Southern Spain the study areas are: The Vallcebre research catchments (42° 12'N, 1° 49'E) with forest patches of Pinus sylvestris and of Quercus pubescens, The Parapuños research catchment (39° 35'N, 6° 5'W ), a wooded rangeland with Quercus rotundifolia and annual grasses in open areas, and the Tabernas experimental area (37° 0'N, 2° 26'W) with disperse shrubs and a mixture of annual plants and biological soil crusts in open areas. Mean annual rainfall ranges between 862 and 235 mm (in Vallcebre and Tabernas respectively). For the studied tree species throughfall was the dominant flux and have a similar rate, being stemflow only a small part of the bulk rainfall. For the studied shrubs, measured throughfall as well as stemflow were highly variable between species. Superficial soil water content was on average lower under forest (Vallcebre) or individual trees (Parapuños) that in the open areas. Contrarily, in Tabernas soil was wetter under shrubs than in open areas, although with higher variability. Driest soils below continous forest covers, as in Vallcebre, or even in sparse covered areas as in the Parapuños catchment, may be explained by the dominant role of rainfall interception and transpiration. In Tabernas, soil moisture usually remained higher under shrubs than below open areas except for some small rainfall events. This is likely related to the fact that, shrubs architecture funnels precipitation towards the soil through stemflow. Individual shrubs may also act as sinks for overland flow generated in open areas, promoting infiltration.

Llorens, Pilar; Latron, Jérôme; Muzylo, Aleksandra; Schnabel, Susanne; Domingo, Francisco; Cantón, Yolanda; Gallart, Francesc

2010-05-01

298

Iodine Content in Fish and Other Food Products from East Africa Analyzed by ICP-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to measure the iodine content in sea water fish, fresh water fish, and different foods of plant origin commonly consumed in East Africa in order to evaluate dietary iodine sources for the population in the selected areas. Fish, and food items of cereals, vegetables, legumes, salt, and tea, were obtained from local market sampling

Karen M. Eckhoff; Amund Maage

1997-01-01

299

Water calibration measurements for neutron radiography: Application to water content quantification in porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 0.2 cm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector/scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media.

Kang, M.; Bilheux, H. Z.; Voisin, S.; Cheng, C. L.; Perfect, E.; Horita, J.; Warren, J. M.

2013-04-01

300

Water Calibration Measurements for Neutron Radiography: Application to Water Content Quantification in Porous Media  

SciTech Connect

Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 2 mm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector / scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media.

Kang, Misun [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Cheng, Chu-lin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Perfect, Edmund [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Horita, Juske [Texas Tech University (TTU); Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL

2013-01-01

301

Production of aflatoxin by Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL-2999 during growth in the presence of curing salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL-2999 was inoculated into meat mixtures with curing salts and into yeast extractsucrose (YES) and sucrose-ammonium salts (SAS) broth with and without curing salts to determine if the presence of curing salts significantly affected growth and aflatoxin production by the mold. The effect of individual curing salts or curing salt mixtures on growth and toxin elaboration by the

K. R. Meier; E. H. Marth

1977-01-01

302

Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings  

SciTech Connect

Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt.

Spence, R.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Fedorov, V.V.; Downing, D.J.

1999-04-01

303

Effect of salt on boiling heat transfer of ammonia-water mixture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nucleate pool boiling heat transfer coefficients were determined experimentally for NH3-H2O, NH3-H2O-LiNO3 and NH3-H2O-LiBr mixtures. Both the salts were effective in increasing the heat transfer coefficient of NH3-H2O mixture. A concentration of 10 mass% of the salts in water, produced the greatest enhancement in heat transfer coefficient at all the range of pressure, heat flux and ammonia concentration studied in this investigation. The experiments indicated that ammonia concentration also has the impact on the augmentation of heat transfer coefficient in NH3-H2O binary mixture by the addition of salts. For the solution of ammonia mass fraction 0.30, high concentration of LiBr gives the highest heat transfer coefficient, for ammonia mass fraction of 0.25, high concentration of LiNO3 gives the maximum heat transfer coefficient, for ammonia mass fraction of 0.15, both the salts are equally effective in increasing the heat transfer coefficient.

Sathyabhama, A.

2012-03-01

304

Microbially mediated CH 4 consumption and N 2 O emission is affected by elevated CO 2 , soil water content, and composition of semi-arid grassland species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated CO2 affects plant productivity, but also water availability and plant species composition in semi-arid grasslands, thereby potentially\\u000a causing complex effects on CH4 consumption and N2O emission. We studied the effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration (400 vs 780 ?L L?1), water content (15 vs 20% gravimetric soil moisture), and composition of semi-arid grassland species (perennial grasses\\u000a Bouteloua gracilis, Hesperostipa comata, and

Feike A. Dijkstra; Jack A. Morgan; Daniel R. LeCain; Ronald F. Follett

2010-01-01

305

MARCO: MAp Retrieval by COntent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system named MARCO (denoting MAp Retrieval by COntent) that is used for the acquisition, storage,indexing, and retrieval of map images is presented. The input to MARCO are raster images of separate maplayers and raster images of map composites. A legend-driven map interpretation system converts map layerimages from their physical representation to their logical representation. This logical representation is thenused

Hanan Samet; Aya Soffer

1996-01-01

306

Spatial Averaging of Water Content by Time Domain Reflectometry: Implications for Twin Rod Probes with and without Dielectric Coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The averaging of apparent relative dielectric permittivities by time domain reflectometry (TDK) is examined for properties varying along TDK waveguides and in the plane perpendicular to a TDR probe. A square root averaging model with uniform weighting factors describes the measured apparent relative dielectric permittivity for axially varying materials; variations in the transverse plane are described by an inverse averaging

P. A. Ferré; D. L. Rudolph; R. G. Kachanoski

1996-01-01

307

Effect of hydrotropic salts on phase relationships involving hydrocarbons, water, and alcohols  

SciTech Connect

Hydrotropic salts, which can increase the solubility of organic materials in aqueous solutions, are useful to tertiary oil recovery. We have examined effects on solubility of hydrocarbons in water (with and without alcohols) through addition of inorganic hydrotropic salts, such as perchlorates, thiocyanates, and iodides - high in the usual Hofmeister series - and of organic salts such as short chain alkyl benzene sulfonates and other salts based on substituted benzene derivatives. Although the inorganic salts are relatively ineffective in increasing solubility of hydrocarbons in water, many of the organic salts are excellent hydrotropic agents for hydrocarbons. We have examined the phase relationships for several series of aromatic salts such as sulfonates, carboxylates and hydroxycarboxylates, as a function of alkyl-carbon substitution in three-component (hydrocarbon, salt, water) and in four-component (hydrocarbon, salt, alcohol, water) systems. We have also examined miscibility relationships for a given hydrotropic salt as the chain length of alkanes and alkyl benzenes is systematically varied. While miscibilities decrease with increase in chain length of the hydrocarbon, the hydrotropic properties in these systems increase rapidly with the number of alkyl carbons on the benzene ring of the salts and they are relatively insensitive to the type of charged group (sulfonate vs carboxylate) attached to the benzene ring. However, there were significant increases in hydrotropy as one goes from equally substituted sulfonates or carboxylates to salicylates. A number of salts have been identified which have much greater hydrotropic properties for hydrocarbons than such well-known hydrotropic materials as toluene and xylene sulfonates.

Ho, P.C.; Kraus, K.A.

1980-01-01

308

Sorption of para-xylene vapors on salt-treated soils measured by flow-equilibration and gas chromatography methods  

SciTech Connect

The impact of soil properties other than organic C content and surface area on vapor-phase sorption has rarely been considered. This study was conducted to determine the effect of salt, namely CaCl{sub 2}, on the sorption of p-xylene vapor under anhydrous and hydrated conditions. Sorption on Webster soil (Typic Haploquolls) before and after removal of organic C was measured using a flow-equilibration method. in addition, the utility of an eluted pulse gas chromatography method was evaluated using the sand fraction of Oldsmar soil (Alfic Arenic Haplaquods) as a column-packing material. The CaCl{sub 2} significantly decreased p-xylene sorption at both 0 and 90% RH for both adsorbents. Under anhydrous conditions, reduced sorption by Oldsmar sand was evidenced at low p-xylene vapor pressures by a constant net retention volume and symmetrical peaks, indicating linear sorption and ideal behavior at these vapor pressures (i.e., the Henry`s region). In the absence of salt, the net retention volume continued to increase at p-xylene vapor pressures as low as 0.33 Pa, indicating isotherm nonlinearity, even at this low vapor pressure. This difference in retention behavior suggests that salt modified the nature of the surface of the sorbents. Under hydrated conditions, the reduction in sorption may be related to the salting-out effect of CaCl{sub 2} on gas solubility in adsorbed water films. These data suggest that the distribution and migration of organic vapors may be substantially greater in salt-affected soils due to reduced sorption on both the dry and water-coated solid phases that am present. 27 refs., 5 figs.

Rhue, R.D.; Pennell, K.D.; Reve, W.H. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [and others

1993-07-01

309

Effect of beating processing, as a means of reducing salt content in frankfurters: a physico-chemical and Raman spectroscopic study.  

PubMed

Structural changes, L(?)-value, cooking yield changes and textural properties of pork frankfurters containing 1% or 2% salt, produced by the two methods were studied by Raman spectroscopy and texture profile analysis. Increasing salt content from 1% to 2% increased the L(?)-value, cooking yield and hardness, and decreased (p<0.05) the C-H stretching and CH2 and CH3 bending vibrations, but did not affect the changes of secondary structures, tryptophan or tyrosine residues. Compared with the chopping, the beating increased L(?)-value, cooking yield and hardness of the frankfurters in both salt concentrations. It also resulted in an increase in ?-sheets, accompanied by a significant (p<0.05) decrease in ?-helix content, a greater exposure of tyrosine residues to the polar environment and a decrease in the CH stretching and CH2 and CH3 bending vibrations. The results showed that the beating process enabled lowering of the salt content while improving the L(?)-value, cooking yield and hardness of the frankfurters. PMID:24960638

Kang, Zhuang-Li; Wang, Peng; Xu, Xing-Lian; Zhu, Chao-Zhi; Li, Ke; Zhou, Guang-Hong

2014-10-01

310

Impact of the Pick the Tick food information programme on the salt content of food in New Zealand.  

PubMed

The Pick the Tick programme of the National Heart Foundation of New Zealand aims to provide a framework for cooperation with the food industry to improve nutrition labelling and to develop a healthy food supply. Food manufacturers, whose products meet defined nutritional criteria, are able to display the Pick the Tick logo on food labels. The tick is used by 59% of shoppers in assisting them make healthy food choices. Food companies are encouraged to reformulate product composition if they fail to meet criteria and develop new products to specifically meet the Pick the Tick criteria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the programme on food formulation. The main outcome measure was the amount of salt not added to food products. Changes to sodium levels were multiplied by the volume of sales and then converted to salt in tonnes to provide a tangible measure of the impact of the programme. In a 1-year period, July 1998 to June 1999, Pick the Tick influenced food companies to exclude approximately 33 tonnes of salt through the reformulation and formulation of 23 breads, breakfast cereals and margarine. Breakfast cereals showed the largest reduction in sodium content by an average of 378 mg sodium per 100 g product (61%). Bread was reduced by an average of 123 mg per 100 g product (26%) and margarine by 53 mg per 100 g (11%). Pick the Tick appeals to the food industry as a tool for marketing food products and has provided an incentive to improve the nutritional value of foods. The tick on approved products not only acts as a 'nutrition signpost' for consumers but can also significantly influence the formulation of products without sacrificing taste or quality. PMID:11847134

Young, Leanne; Swinburn, Boyd

2002-03-01

311

Water, salt, and heat exchange through the Kinburn Strait of the Dnieper-Bug Estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the multiannual observations (1965-2011), the diurnal, seasonal, and annual variabilities of the water, salt, and heat exchange rates in the Kinburn Strait of the Dnieper-Bug Estuary are studied. A method for calculation of the water, salt, and heat exchange rates through the strait is proposed, and the respective values are specified to be used for solving the practical problems related to efficient use of the water resources in this near-mouth region.

Minkovskaya, R. Ya.; Demidov, A. N.

2014-09-01

312

Cyclic Flow of Salt Water in the Biscayne Aquifer of Southeastern Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations over a period of nearly 20 years confirm the fact that the salt-water front in the Biscayne aquifer along the coast of the Miami area, Florida, is dynamically stable at a position seaward of that computed according to the Ghyben-Herzberg principle. During periods of heavy recharge the fresh-water head is high enough to cause the fresh water, the salt

F. A. Kohout

1960-01-01

313

Water, salt, and energy balances of the Dead Sea N. G. Lensky, Y. Dvorkin, and V. Lyakhovsky  

E-print Network

Water, salt, and energy balances of the Dead Sea N. G. Lensky, Y. Dvorkin, and V. Lyakhovsky. Citation: Lensky, N. G., Y. Dvorkin, V. Lyakhovsky, I. Gertman, and I. Gavrieli (2005), Water, salt is less than that from a freshwater surface because the dissolved salts lower the free energy of the water

Lyakhovsky, Vladimir

314

Putrescine alleviation of growth in salt stressed Brassica juncea by inducing antioxidative defense system.  

PubMed

Seedlings of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.cv. RH-30) grown in controlled condition (irradiance 75 Wm(-2), RH 60-70% and temp. 25 +/- 2 degrees C) for 7d and watered with Hoagland's solution containing different level of NaCL (50-250 mmol/L NaCl) with or without putrescine (PUT, 0.1 mmol/L) were examined for PUT amelioration of NaCl induced inhibition in seedling growth by altering activity of antioxygenic enzymes and level of free radicals in the leaves. Salinity caused reduction in seedling growth and biomass accumulation was parallel to increased superoxide (*O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels, lipid peroxidation (MDA content) and electrolyte leakage in leaf tissues which were reversed significantly by PUT. The antioxygenic enzymes viz superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) were differentially altered, depending on salt level. PUT induction of enzyme was in the following order APX>GR>CAT>SOD>POD in leaf tissues of salt stressed seedlings. PUT increased the level of glutathione and carotenoids in leaf tissues. This finding suggests that PUT might be activating antioxygenic enzymes and elevating antioxidants there by controlling free radical generation, hence preventing membrane peroxidation and denaturation of biomolecules resulting into improved seedling growth under salinity. PMID:16008089

Verma, Sarita; Mishra, Shyam Narayan

2005-06-01

315

Photosynthetic response of the arctic semi-aquatic moss Calliergon giganteum to water content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photosynthetic response to water content of the arctic semi-aquatic moss Calliergon giganteum was measured by infrared gas analysis to determine the maximum net photosynthetic rate and the water content at maximum and half maximum net photosynthesis. The maximum values of net photosynthetic rate were ranging from 1.2 to 1.6mg CO2g?1h?1. The optimum water contents for net photosynthesis and water

Takeshi Ueno; Hiroshi Kanda

2006-01-01

316

Salts on Europa's surface detected by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reflectance spectra in the 1- to 2.5-micrometer wavelength region of the surface of Europa obtained by Galileo's Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer exhibit distorted water absorption bands that indicate the presence of hydrated minerals. The laboratory spectra of hydrated salt minerals such as magnesium sulfates and sodium carbonates and mixtures of these minerals provide a close match to the Europa spectra. The distorted bands are only observed in the optically darker areas of Europa, including the lineaments, and may represent evaporite deposits formed by water, rich in dissolved salts, reaching the surface from a water-rich layer underlying an ice crust.

McCord, T.B.; Hansen, G.B.; Fanale, F.P.; Carlson, R.W.; Matson, D.L.; Johnson, T.V.; Smythe, W.D.; Crowley, J.K.; Martin, P.D.; Ocampo, A.; Hibbitts, C.A.; Granahan, J.C.

1998-01-01

317

Salts on Europa's surface detected by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer. The NIMS Team.  

PubMed

Reflectance spectra in the 1- to 2.5-micrometer wavelength region of the surface of Europa obtained by Galileo's Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer exhibit distorted water absorption bands that indicate the presence of hydrated minerals. The laboratory spectra of hydrated salt minerals such as magnesium sulfates and sodium carbonates and mixtures of these minerals provide a close match to the Europa spectra. The distorted bands are only observed in the optically darker areas of Europa, including the lineaments, and may represent evaporite deposits formed by water, rich in dissolved salts, reaching the surface from a water-rich layer underlying an ice crust. PMID:9596573

McCord, T B; Hansen, G B; Fanale, F P; Carlson, R W; Matson, D L; Johnson, T V; Smythe, W D; Crowley, J K; Martin, P D; Ocampo, A; Hibbitts, C A; Granahan, J C

1998-05-22

318

Vertical Profiles of Soil Water Content as Influenced by Environmental Factors in a Small Catchment on the Hilly-Gully Loess Plateau  

PubMed Central

Characterization of soil water content (SWC) profiles at catchment scale has profound implications for understanding hydrological processes of the terrestrial water cycle, thereby contributing to sustainable water management and ecological restoration in arid and semi-arid regions. This study described the vertical profiles of SWC at the small catchment scale on the hilly and gully Loess Plateau in Northeast China, and evaluated the influences of selected environmental factors (land-use type, topography and landform) on average SWC within 300 cm depth. Soils were sampled from 101 points across a small catchment before and after the rainy season. Cluster analysis showed that soil profiles with high-level SWC in a stable trend (from top to bottom) were most commonly present in the catchment, especially in the gully related to terrace. Woodland soil profiles had low-level SWC with vertical variations in a descending or stable trend. Most abandoned farmland and grassland soil profiles had medium-level SWC with vertical variations in varying trends. No soil profiles had low-level SWC with vertical variations in an ascending trend. Multi-regression analysis showed that average SWC was significantly affected by land-use type in different soil layers (0–20, 20–160, and 160–300 cm), generally in descending order of terrace, abandoned farmland, grassland, and woodland. There was a significant negative correlation between average SWC and gradient along the whole profile (P<0.05). Landform significantly affected SWC in the surface soil layer (0–20 cm) before the rainy season but throughout the whole profile after the rainy season, with lower levels on the ridge than in the gully. Altitude only strongly affected SWC after the rainy season. The results indicated that land-use type, gradient, landform, and altitude should be considered in spatial SWC estimation and sustainable water management in these small catchments on the Loess Plateau as well as in other complex terrains with similar settings. PMID:25313829

Wang, Bing; Wen, Fenxiang; Wu, Jiangtao; Wang, Xiaojun; Hu, Yani

2014-01-01

319

Vertical profiles of soil water content as influenced by environmental factors in a small catchment on the hilly-gully loess plateau.  

PubMed

Characterization of soil water content (SWC) profiles at catchment scale has profound implications for understanding hydrological processes of the terrestrial water cycle, thereby contributing to sustainable water management and ecological restoration in arid and semi-arid regions. This study described the vertical profiles of SWC at the small catchment scale on the hilly and gully Loess Plateau in Northeast China, and evaluated the influences of selected environmental factors (land-use type, topography and landform) on average SWC within 300 cm depth. Soils were sampled from 101 points across a small catchment before and after the rainy season. Cluster analysis showed that soil profiles with high-level SWC in a stable trend (from top to bottom) were most commonly present in the catchment, especially in the gully related to terrace. Woodland soil profiles had low-level SWC with vertical variations in a descending or stable trend. Most abandoned farmland and grassland soil profiles had medium-level SWC with vertical variations in varying trends. No soil profiles had low-level SWC with vertical variations in an ascending trend. Multi-regression analysis showed that average SWC was significantly affected by land-use type in different soil layers (0-20, 20-160, and 160-300 cm), generally in descending order of terrace, abandoned farmland, grassland, and woodland. There was a significant negative correlation between average SWC and gradient along the whole profile (P<0.05). Landform significantly affected SWC in the surface soil layer (0-20 cm) before the rainy season but throughout the whole profile after the rainy season, with lower levels on the ridge than in the gully. Altitude only strongly affected SWC after the rainy season. The results indicated that land-use type, gradient, landform, and altitude should be considered in spatial SWC estimation and sustainable water management in these small catchments on the Loess Plateau as well as in other complex terrains with similar settings. PMID:25313829

Wang, Bing; Wen, Fenxiang; Wu, Jiangtao; Wang, Xiaojun; Hu, Yani

2014-01-01

320

Bile acid salt binding with colesevelam HCl is not affected by suspension in common beverages.  

PubMed

It has been previously reported that anions in common beverages may bind to bile acid sequestrants (BAS), reducing their capacity for binding bile acid salts. This study examined the ability of the novel BAS colesevelam hydrochloride (HCl), in vitro, to bind bile acid sodium salts following suspension in common beverages. Equilibrium binding was evaluated under conditions of constant time and varying concentrations of bile acid salts in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). A stock solution of sodium salts of glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDC), taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC), and glycocholic acid (GC), was added to each prepared sample of colesevelam HCl. Bile acid salt binding was calculated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Kinetics experiments were conducted using constant initial bile acid salt concentrations and varying binding times. The affinity, capacity, and kinetics of colesevelam HCl binding for GCDC, TDC, and GC were not significantly altered after suspension in water, carbonated water, Coca-Cola, Sprite, grape juice, orange juice, tomato juice, or Gatorade. The amount of bile acid sodium salt bound as a function of time was unchanged by pretreatment with any beverage tested. The in vitro binding characteristics of colesevelam HCl are unchanged by suspension in common beverages. PMID:16937334

Hanus, Martin; Zhorov, Eugene

2006-12-01

321

Effect of phosphatidylserine content on the partition coefficients of diazepam and flurazepam between phosphatidylcholine-phosphatidylserine bilayer of small unilamellar vesicles and water studied by second derivative spectrophotometry.  

PubMed

The affinity of the psychotropic benzodiazepine drugs diazepam (DZ) and flurazepam (FZ) to phosphatidylserine (PS) was examined since PS is abundantly contained in brain membranes. The effect of PS content on the partition coefficients (K(p)s) of these drugs between phosphatidylcholine (PC)-PS bilayer membranes of small unilamellar vesicles (SUV) and water was measured using second derivative spectrophotometry. The second derivative spectra of DZ and FZ measured in the solutions containing various amounts of PC-PS SUV clearly showed derivative isosbestic points and a distinct derivative intensity change depending on the amount of the SUV added. The derivative intensity differences (AD) of the drugs before and after addition of the SUV suspension were measured at a specific wavelength. Using the AD values, the Kp values were calculated and obtained with relative standard deviation of below 10%. The Kp values of both drugs increased according to the PS content in the PS-PC bilayer membranes of the SUV proving that both have higher affinity to the PC-PS bilayer membranes than to PC membranes. The effect was much larger for FZ, i.e., the Kp value of FZ at 30 mol% PS content increased to about five times the value for the PC SUV. This can be explained by the fact that at the experimental pH of 7.4, 80% of FZ molecules are in a cationic form (pKa=8.1), so that these molecules are highly accessible to the negatively charged PS molecules. The results support the rapid and high distribution of DZ and FZ in the central nervous system after their administration. PMID:11911192

Omran, Ahmed Ahmed; Kitamura, Keisuke; Takegami, Shigehiko; Kitade, Tatsuya; El-Sayed, Abdel-Aziz Youssef; Mohamed, Mahmoud Hamed; Abdel-Mottaleb, Mohamed

2002-03-01

322

Salt formation associated with sub-surface boiling and supercritical water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that supercritical water has extremely low solubility for normal sea salts. This fact opens up the possibility for the precipitation of salt from seawater that circulates in faults and fractures close to a heat source in tectonically active basins (typically extensional pre-rifts and rift settings). Seawater attains supercritical conditions at depths exceeding 2800m (corresponding to a

M. Hovland; H. G. Rueslåtten; H. K. Johnsen; B. Kvamme; T. Kuznetsova

2006-01-01

323

The role of succulent halophytes in the water balance of salt marsh rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of succulent halophytes in the water balance and ecology of salt marsh rodents is dependent upon an evaluation of the composition of the available sources and the physiological properties of their potential consumers. Studies of the osmotic properties of succulent halophytes from southern California coastal salt marshes are presented, together with experiments regarding the utilization of Common Pickleweed

Harry N. Coulombe

1970-01-01

324

Rise and fall of road salt contamination of water-supply springs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A storage pile of de-icing agent consisting principally of sodium chloride was placed in the recharge area of two springs, and remained there for 2 years. Water flow is through fractures in rocks with low matrix permeability, along a hydraulic gradient developed along fracture zones. Salt contamination in the springs was noticed about 1 year after the salt was placed. When the

Eberhard Werner; Richard S. diPretoro

2006-01-01

325

Nasal Salt Excretion and the Possible Function of the Cloaca in Water Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secretion of concentrated salt solutions from the nasal region was observed in several terrestrial birds and reptiles. In the secreted fluid potassium usually exceeded sodium concentrations, with chloride and bicarbonate as the major anions. It is suggested that the extrarenal excretion of salts is related to the reabsorption of water in the cloaca, that it is necessary for the production

Knut Schmidt-Nielson; Arieh Borut; Ping Lee; Eugene Crawford Jr.

1963-01-01

326

Effect of water turbidity on thermal performance of a salt-gradient solar pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of water turbidity on the thermal performance of a salt-gradient solar pond is studied using a one-dimensional theoretical model. The theoretical model uses an empirical correlation that includes the effect of water turbidity on solar radiation penetration in water. The correlation is based on a uniform turbidity distribution in water; however, the correlation is extended to include a

J. Wang; J. Seyed-Yagoobi

1995-01-01

327

Water Dynamics in Salt Solutions Studied with Ultrafast Two-Dimensional Infrared (2D IR)  

E-print Network

Water Dynamics in Salt Solutions Studied with Ultrafast Two-Dimensional Infrared (2D IR RECEIVED ON FEBRUARY 3, 2009 C O N S P E C T U S Water is ubiquitous in nature, but it exists as pure water infrequently. From the ocean to biology, water molecules interact with a wide variety of dissolved species

Fayer, Michael D.

328

[Fluoride content in well water in rural areas in Morocco].  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to determine fluorides (F-) content in the well water consumed as drinking water by some Moroccan populations in rural areas. All samples were collected between April and October 2011. Measurements were performed by an ion selective electrode. Thirty wells spread to cover most of the country and locally chosen based on the number of inhabitants who consume its water. All wells were in rural areas. The mean (+/- SD) of F- was 1.84 +/- 1.6 mg/L with a range from 0.42 to 8.95 mg/L Concentrations of F- in phosphate regions were higher than those found in other regions. More than half of the samples exceeded the current standard. Our study showed that water of some Moroccan regions is naturally rich in F-exposing people who consume it at high risk of fluorosis. PMID:25223146

El Jaoudi, R; El Cadi, M Ait; Bouslimane, Y; Fekhaoui, M; Bouklouze, A; Cherrah, Y

2014-06-01

329

Effect of water turbidity on thermal performance of a salt-gradient solar pond  

SciTech Connect

The effect of water turbidity on the thermal performance of a salt-gradient solar pond is studied using a one-dimensional theoretical model. The theoretical model uses an empirical correlation that includes the effect of water turbidity on solar radiation penetration in water. The correlation is based on a uniform turbidity distribution in water; however, the correlation is extended to include a non-uniform turbidity distribution with respect to depth of water. The results indicate that water clarity plays a significant role on thermal performance for salt gradient solar ponds. 24 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Wang, J.; Seyed-Yagoobi, J. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

1995-05-01

330

ESTIMATING SOIL WATER CONTENT USING COKRIGING  

EPA Science Inventory

Using cokriging, estimates and estimation variances of the gravimetric moisture content (GMC) were made using one and two additional random functions: the bare soil surface temperature and the percent sand content. Various measures of the differences and quality of the estimates ...

331

Effect of salt stress on cucumber: Na + –K + ratio, osmolyte concentration, phenols and chlorophyll content  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot experiment with 17 diverse genotypes of cucumber with four levels of salt stress viz., 0, 2, 4 and 6 dS m?1 was carried out during 2006. ANOVA revealed significant differences amongst genotypes and genotype × salt stress interaction\\u000a indicating the genetic variability and differential response of the genotypes to different salt stress levels. The salt stress\\u000a adversely affected the biochemical parameters; effects

Jagesh K. Tiwari; Anilabh D. Munshi; Ravinder Kumar; Raghu N. Pandey; Ajay Arora; Jayant S. Bhat; Amish Kumar Sureja

2010-01-01

332

OCCUPATIONAL ALLERGY AND ASTHMA AMONG SALT WATER FISH PROCESSING WORKERS  

PubMed Central

Background Fish processing is a common economic activity in Southern Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and host determinants of allergic symptoms, allergic sensitization, bronchial hyper-responsiveness and asthma among workers processing saltwater fish. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 594 currently employed workers in two processing plants involved in pilchard canning and fishmeal processing. A modified European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) questionnaire was used. Skin prick tests (SPT) used extracts of common airborne allergens, fresh fish (pilchard, anchovy, maasbanker, mackerel, red eye) and fishmeal. Spirometry and methacholine challenge tests (tidal breathing method) used ATS guidelines. Results Work-related ocular-nasal symptoms (26%) were more common than asthma symptoms (16%). The prevalence of atopy was 36%, while 7% were sensitized to fish species and 26% had NSBH (PC20 ? 8 mg/ml or ?12% increase in FEV1 post bronchodilator). The prevalence of probable occupational asthma was 1.8% and fish allergic rhino-conjunctivitis 2.6%. Women were more likely to report work-related asthma symptoms (OR=1.94) and have NSBH (OR=3.09), while men were more likely to be sensitized to fish (OR=2.06) and have airway obstruction (OR=4.17). Atopy (OR=3.16) and current smoking (OR=2.37), but not habitual seafood consumption were associated with sensitization to fish. Conclusions Based on comparison with previous published studies, the prevalence of occupational asthma to salt water fish is lower than due to shellfish. The gendered distribution of work and exposures in fish processing operations together with atopy and cigarette smoking are important determinants of occupational allergy and asthma. PMID:18726880

Jeebhay, Mohamed F; Robins, Thomas G; Miller, Mary E; Bateman, Eric; Smuts, Marius; Baatjies, Roslynn; Lopata, Andreas L

2010-01-01

333

Replacement of salt by a novel potassium- and magnesium-enriched salt alternative improves the cardiovascular effects of ramipril.  

PubMed Central

1. The influence of salt (sodium chloride; NaCl) (an additional 6% in the diet) and that of a novel sodium-reduced, potassium-, magnesium-, and L-lysine-enriched salt alternative on the cardiovascular effects of ramipril was studied in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats in a 6-week study. The intake of sodium chloride was adjusted to the same level by adding the salt alternative at a 1.75 times higher amount than regular salt. 2. Salt produced a marked rise in blood pressure and induced cardiac hypertrophy and significant mortality, while the salt alternative neither increased blood pressure nor caused any mortality and produced less cardiac hypertrophy than salt. 3. Ramipril treatment at a daily dose of 3 mg kg-1 normalized blood pressure and prevented the development of cardiac hypertrophy of rats on control diet. These effects of ramipril were blocked by the addition of salt but were only slightly attenuated by the addition of the salt alternative. The mortality in the salt group was prevented by ramipril. 4. Responses of mesenteric arterial rings in vitro were examined at the end of the study. Salt, but not the salt alternative, increased vascular contractile responses to noradrenaline. Ramipril treatment improved the arterial relaxation responses to acetylcholine and to sodium nitroprusside. The vascular relaxation enhancing effect of ramipril was blocked by salt but only slightly attenuated by the salt alternative. 5. Ramipril treatment did not significantly increase plasma renin activity in the presence or in the absence of salt supplementation. The salt alternative did not cause hyperkalaemia, either alone or in combination with ramipril treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8032605

Mervaala, E. M.; Paakkari, I.; Laakso, J.; Nevala, R.; Teräväinen, T. M.; Fyhrquist, F.; Vapaatalo, H.; Karppanen, H.

1994-01-01

334

An Instrumented Lysimeter System for Monitoring Salt and Water Movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lysimeter system is described which consists of four continuously weighing lysimeters mounted on a por- table platform. The lysimeters, made from low pressure PVC irrigation pipe (1.18 m deep by 0.31 m dia), are placed on a hydraulic weighing system that consists of either a water-tilled rubber pillow or an automotive in- nertube connected to a water column. The

C. W. Robbins; L. S. Willardson

335

Salt-dependent increase in triterpenoids is reversible upon transfer to fresh water in mangrove plants Kandelia candel and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza.  

PubMed

This study examined the salinity dependence of triterpenoid content and triterpenoid synthase gene expression in mangrove plants, Kandelia candel and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (Rhizophoraceae) after long-term exposure to salinity and subsequent re-adaptation. Seedlings of the two mangrove species grown in varying salt concentrations for 4 months were divided into two treatment groups and grown for another 4 months, one group continued under the respective saline condition and the other in fresh water for re-adaptation. The total content of triterpenoids increased with increasing salinity in roots and leaves of K. candel, but only in roots in B. gymnorrhiza. This increase was reversed to a variable extent, depending on the species and organ, after transfer to fresh water. In contrast, the total content of phytosterols showed no correlation with salinity throughout the experiment. The increase in total triterpenoids was accompanied by an up-regulation of several triterpenoid synthase genes: KcMS, a multifunctional triterpenoid synthase, in roots and leaves of K. candel and BgLUS, a lupeol synthase, and BgbAS, a ?-amyrin synthase, in roots of B. gymnorrhiza. The expression of root KcCAS, a cycloartenol synthase, which is involved in phytosterol biosynthesis, was not modulated by the salinity conditions but decreased with increasing salinity in leaves, followed by the restoration to the initial level after transfer to fresh water. The concentrations of individual triterpenoids, but not of phytosterols, in the roots positively correlated with the salinity. These results reinforced the importance of triterpenoids in the adaptation of mangroves to withstand salt and/or water stress. PMID:22921677

Basyuni, Mohammad; Baba, Shigeyuki; Kinjo, Yuji; Putri, Lollie A P; Hakim, Luthfi; Oku, Hirosuke

2012-12-15

336

Water content measurement in granular materials using ultrasonic waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of the wafer content of granular materials is an important task in agriculture as well as in the food industry. No available measuring method provides completely satisfactory results either because of the lengthy measurement operations or due to the maintenance of accuracy problems. This paper discusses the possibility of determining the water potential, from which the water content

A. Carullo; M. Parvis; A. Vallan

1997-01-01

337

Effect of water content on the water repellency for hydrophobized sands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alternative earthen covers such as capillary barriers (CBs) and evapotranspirative covers are recognized as useful technical and low-cost solutions for limiting water infiltration and controlling seepage flow at solid waste landfills in semi-arid and arid regions. However, their application to the landfills at wet regions seems to be matter of concern due to loss of their impending capability under high precipitation. One of the possible techniques to enhance the impermeable properties of CBs is to alter soil grain surfaces to be water-repellent by mixing/coating hydrophobic agents (HAs). In order to examine a potential use of model sands hydrophobized with locally available and environmental-friendly HAs such as oleic acid (OA) and stearic acid (SA) for hydrophobic CBs. In the present study, we first characterized the effect of water content on the degree of water repellency (WR) for hydrophobized sands and volcanic ash soil at different depth. Secondly, the time dependency of the contact angle in hydrophobized sands and volcanic ash soils at different water content was evaluated. Further, the effects of hydrophobic organic matter contents on the WR of hydrophobized sands were investigated by horizontal infiltration test. We investigated the degree of WR as functions of volumetric water content (?) of a volcanic ash soil samples from different depth and water adjusted hydrophobized sand samples with different ratio of HAs by using sessile drop method (SDM). The initial contact angle (?i) measured from SDM decreased gradually with increasing water content in OA and SA coated samples. Measured ?i values for volcanic ash soils increased with increasing water content and reached a peak values of 111.7o at ?= 0.325 cm3 cm-3, where-after ?i gradually decreased. Each test sample exhibited sharp decrease in contact angle with time at higher water content. Sorptivity values for oleic acid coated samples decreased with increasing HA content and reached the minimum value of 0.068 cm s-1/2 at 1 g HA kg-1 sand, and then gradually increased.

Subedi, S.; Kawamoto, K.; Kuroda, T.; Moldrup, P.; Komatsu, T.

2011-12-01

338

A three dimensional two-phase debris flow model: Reduction to one free model parameter by linking rheology to grain size distribution and water content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attempts to model debris flow material either as a granular or as a viscous matter can not account for the wide range of debris flow processes, leading to the development of two-phase models with one phase accounting for the fluid and the other for the grains. Within this group of models, depth-averaged approaches are wide-spread, but since the rheology of true material is sensitive to pressure and shear gradient, three dimensional simulations are necessary to predict flows in complex geometries. Phase interaction can be modelled by solving the Navier-Stokes equation system for each phase and linking the phases with drag force models. However, this is a numerically expensive way that introduces a number of free parameters because too little is known about drag of non-spherical grains in non-Newtonian fluids. The approach proposed here solves one phase-averaged Navier-stokes equation system by applying the Volume of Fluid method, while still allowing to account for the sensitivity of the local rheology to pressure and shear in dependency to phase concentrations. One phase with a Herschel-Bulkley rheology represents the interstitial fluid and can mix with a second phase with the Coulomb-viscoplastic rheology of Pudasaini (Birte et al. 2013) that represents the gravel. A third phase is kept separate and represents the air. This setup allows modelling key properties of debris flow processes like run out or impact in high detail. By linking the Herschel Bulkley parameters to water content, clay mineral proportion and grain size distribution (Kaitna et al. 2007, Yu et al. 2013), and the parameters of the Coulomb-viscoplastic rheology to the angle of repose of the gravel, a reduction to one free model parameter was achieved. The resulting model is tested with laboratory experiments for its capability to reproduce the sensitivity of debris flow material to water content and channel curvature. Existing large scale flume experiments are used to corroborate the model and demonstrate its sensitivity to smooth or rough channel bed conditions, and a simulation of a large scale debris flow breaker is presented to show its applicability for practical problems.

von Boetticher, Albrecht; McArdell, Brian; Rickenmann, Dieter; Hübl, Johannes; Scheidl, Christian

2014-05-01

339

Plant Response to Differential Soil Water Content and Salinity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Root-zone soil water content is extremely dynamic, governed by complex and coupled processes such as root uptake, irrigation, evaporation, and leaching. Root uptake of water and nutrients is influenced by these conditions and the processes involved. Plant roots are living and functioning in a dynamic environment that is subjected to extreme changes over relatively short time and small distances. In order to better manage our agricultural resources and cope with increasing constraints of water limitation, environmental concerns and climate change, it is vital to understand plants responses to these changes in their environment. We grew chick pea (Cicer arietinum) plants, in boxes of 30 x 25 x 1 cm dimensions filled with fine sand. Layers of coarse sand (1.5 cm thick) were embedded in the fine-sand media to divide the root growth environment into sections that were hydraulically disconnected from each other. This way, each section could be independently treated with differential levels of water and salinity. The root growth and distribution in the soil was monitored on daily bases using neutron radiography. Daily water uptake was measured by weighing the containers. Changes of soil water content in each section of the containers were calculated from the neutron radiographs. Plants that part of their root system was stressed with drought or salinity showed no change in their daily water uptake rate. The roots in the stressed sections stayed turgid during the stress period and looked healthy in the neutron images. However the uptake rate was severely affected when the soil in the non-stressed section started to dry. The plants were then fully irrigated with water and the water uptake rate recovered to its initial rate shortly after irrigation. The neutron radiographs clearly illustrated the shrinkage and recovery of the roots under stress and the subsequent relief. This cycle was repeated a few times and the same trend could be reproduced. Our results show that plants' response to water- or salinity-stress ranges from full compensation to severe reduction in transpiration, depending on the availability of water in their surrounding soil. Results of applying different treatments of salinity and drought will be shown. Available models of root water uptake will be employed to simulate the obtained results.

Moradi, A. B.; Dara, A.; Kamai, T.; Ngo, A.; Walker, R.; Hopmans, J. W.

2011-12-01

340

Polymer capture by ?-hemolysin pore upon salt concentration gradient.  

PubMed

We have measured the rate of capture of single molecules of sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) by ?-hemolysin protein pore by varying applied voltage, pH, and the salt concentration asymmetry across the pore. We show that electrostatic interaction between the polyelectrolyte and the protein pore significantly affects the polymer capture rate in addition to the enhancement of drift arising from electrolyte concentration gradient. At higher pH values where the electrostatic interaction between the polymer and the ?-hemolysin pore is repulsive, an antagonistic coupling with the drift induced by salt concentration gradient emerges. This antagonistic coupling results in a nonmonotonic dependence of the polymer capture rate on the salt concentration in the donor compartment. The coupling between the pore-polymer interaction and drift can be weakened by increasing the strength of the electric field that drives the polymer translocation. In contrast, at lower pH values where the polymer-pore interaction is attractive, a synergy with the additional drift from salt concentration asymmetry arises and the capture rate depends monotonically on the donor salt concentration. For higher pH, we identify two regimes for the enhancement of capture rate by salt concentration gradient: (a) drift-dominated regime, where the capture rate is roughly quadratic in the ratio of salt concentration in the receiver compartment to that in the donor compartment, and (b) antagonistic coupling regime at higher values of this ratio with a linear relation for the polymer capture rate. PMID:24410240

Jeon, Byoung-jin; Muthukumar, Murugappan

2014-01-01

341

Effect of water in salt repositories. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Additional results confirm that during most of the consolidation of polycrystalline salt in brine, the previously proposed rate expression applies. The final consolidation, however, proceeds at a lower rate than predicted. The presence of clay hastens the consolidation process but does not greatly affect the previously observed relationship between permeability and void fraction. Studies of the migration of brine within polycrystalline salt specimens under stress indicate that the principal effect is the exclusion of brine as a result of consolidation, a process that evidently can proceed to completion. No clear effect of a temperature gradient could be identified. A previously reported linear increase with time of the reciprocal permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine was confirmed, though the rate of increase appears more nearly proportional to the product of sigma ..delta..P rather than sigma ..delta..P/sup 2/ (sigma is the uniaxial stress normal to the interface and ..delta..P is the hydraulic pressure drop). The new results suggest that a limiting permeability may be reached. A model for the permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine is developed that is reasonably consistent with the present results and may be used to predict the permeability of bedded salt. More measurements are needed, however, to choose between two limiting forms of the model.

Baes, C.F. Jr.; Gilpatrick, L.O.; Kitts, F.G.; Bronstein, H.R.; Shor, A.J.

1983-09-01

342

Potential water-quality effects from iron cyanide anticaking agents in road salt  

SciTech Connect

Water-soluble iron cyanide compounds are widely used as anticaking agents in road salt, which creates potential contamination of surface and groundwater with these compounds when the salt dissolves and is washed off roads in runoff. This paper presents a summary of available information on iron cyanide use in road salt and its potential effects on water quality. Also, estimates of total cyanide concentrations in snow-melt runoff from roadways are presented as simple mass-balance calculations. Although available information does not indicate a widespread problem, it also is clear that the water-quality effects of cyanide in road salt have not been examined much. Considering the large, and increasing, volume of road salt used for deicing, studies are needed to determine levels of total and free cyanide in surface and groundwater adjacent to salt storage facilities and along roads with open drainage ditches. Results could be combined with current knowledge of the fate and transport of cyanide to assess water-quality effects of iron cyanide anticaking agents used in road salt.

Paschka, M.G.; Ghosh, R.S.; Dzombak, D.A.

1999-10-01

343

Partitioning of Fatty Acids in Oil\\/Water Systems Analyzed by HPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surfactant\\/oil\\/water systems in which the surface-active substance is a mixture of an undissociated fatty acid (FA) and its\\u000a sodium salt soap, exhibit the typical phase behavior and the general emulsion phenomenology produced by a formulation scan.\\u000a The phase behavior transition is induced by changing the FA concentration in the system at a fixed alkaline (NaOH) content\\u000a in water, which results

Bélgica Bravo; Jhoana Sánchez; Ana Cáceres; Gerson Chávez; Fredy Ysambertt; Nelson Márquez; Maria Jaimes; Maria Isabel Briceño; Jean Louis Salager

2008-01-01

344

Accuracy of bottled drinking water label content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy of the concentration of fluoride (F), calcium (Ca), pH, and total dissolved\\u000a solids (TDS) levels mentioned on the labels of the various brands of bottled drinking water available in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.\\u000a Twenty-one different brands of locally produced non-carbonated (still water) bottled drinking water were collected from the\\u000a supermarkets of

Nazeer B. Khan; Arham N. Chohan

2010-01-01

345

46 CFR 45.77 - Salt water freeboard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(b) When the displacement at the summer load waterline cannot be certified, the addition in inches to the minimum freeboard in fresh water may be obtained by multiplying 0.25 by the summer draught in feet measured from the top of the keel to the center of the load line...

2010-10-01

346

Effect of bile salts on monolayer curvature of a phosphatidylethanolamine/water model membrane system  

E-print Network

Effect of bile salts on monolayer curvature of a phosphatidylethanolamine/water model membrane dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE)/sodium cholate/water has been determined using 31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In the absence of cholate, it is well known that the DOPE/water system forms a reversed hexagonal

Brown, Michael F.

347

Hydrogen production from inexhaustible supplies of fresh and salt water using microbial  

E-print Network

Hydrogen production from inexhaustible supplies of fresh and salt water using microbial reverse) There is a tremendous source of entropic energy available from the salinity difference between river water and seawater exoelectrogenic bacteria. Only five pairs of seawater and river water cells were sandwiched between an anode

348

Electrical Resistivity Imaging and Quantification of Water Content Distribution during Infiltration and Redistribution in Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlled by precipitation, evapotranspiration, recharge, and soil-hydraulic properties, water content is difficult to measure extensively in heterogeneous, natural environments without disturbing the subsurface. Time-lapse electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) is a cost-effective, minimally invasive method for imaging changes in water content in the vadose zone. Quantifying the relation between resistivity and water content, however, is challenging due to 1) spatially variable

K. Singha; B. B. Mirus; J. R. Nimmo; K. Perkins

2006-01-01

349

On the hydrophilicity of polyzwitterion poly (N,N-dimethyl-N-(3-(methacrylamido)propyl)ammoniopropane sulfonate) in water, deuterated water, and aqueous salt solutions.  

PubMed

A series of zwitterionic model polymers with defined molar masses up to 150,000?Da and defined end groups are prepared from sulfobetaine monomer N,N-dimethyl-N-(3-(methacrylamido)propyl)ammoniopropanesulfonate (SPP). Polymers are synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT) using a functional chain transfer agent labeled with a fluorescent probe. Their upper critical solution temperature-type coil-to-globule phase transition in water, deuterated water, and various salt solutions is studied by turbidimetry. Cloud points increase with polyzwitterion concentration and molar mass, being considerably higher in D2O than in H2O. Moreover, cloud points are strongly affected by the amount and nature of added salts. Typically, they increase with increasing salt concentration up to a maximum value, whereas further addition of salt lowers the cloud points again, mostly down to below freezing point. The different salting-in and salting-out effects of the studied anions can be correlated with the Hofmeister series. In physiological sodium chloride solution and in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), the cloud point is suppressed even for high molar mass samples. Accordingly, SPP-polymers behave strongly hydrophilic under most conditions encountered in biomedical applications. However, the direct transfer of results from model studies in D2O, using, e.g. (1)H NMR or neutron scattering techniques, to 'normal' systems in H2O is not obvious. PMID:25058808

Hildebrand, Viet; Laschewsky, André; Zehm, Daniel

2014-10-01

350

Does water content or flow rate control colloid transport in unsaturated porous media?  

PubMed

Mobile colloids can play an important role in contaminant transport in soils: many contaminants exist in colloidal form, and colloids can facilitate transport of otherwise immobile contaminants. In unsaturated soils, colloid transport is, among other factors, affected by water content and flow rate. Our objective was to determine whether water content or flow rate is more important for colloid transport. We passed negatively charged polystyrene colloids (220 nm diameter) through unsaturated sand-filled columns under steady-state flow at different water contents (effective water saturations Se ranging from 0.1 to 1.0, with Se = (? - ?r)/(?s - ?r)) and flow rates (pore water velocities v of 5 and 10 cm/min). Water content was the dominant factor in our experiments. Colloid transport decreased with decreasing water content, and below a critical water content (Se < 0.1), colloid transport was inhibited, and colloids were strained in water films. Pendular ring and water film thickness calculations indicated that colloids can move only when pendular rings are interconnected. The flow rate affected retention of colloids in the secondary energy minimum, with less colloids being trapped when the flow rate increased. These results confirm the importance of both water content and flow rate for colloid transport in unsaturated porous media and highlight the dominant role of water content. PMID:24588072

Knappenberger, Thorsten; Flury, Markus; Mattson, Earl D; Harsh, James B

2014-04-01

351

Water Uptake of Mars Salt Analogs: An Investigation of Stable Aqueous Solutions on Mars Using Raman Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand the formation of briny aqueous solutions on Mars, a salt analog was developed to closely match the cation and anion concentrations as reported by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory aboard the Phoenix Lander. The salt analog contained magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, perchlorate, chloride, sulfate, and carbonate ions. The salt analog was developed to fully encompass the correct anion and cation concentration and is referred to as 'Instant Mars.' Using Raman microscopy, we have studied phase transitions of the analogs in an environmental cell. Phase transitions were monitored using Raman spectroscopy in combination with optical microscopy while samples were in a controlled water vapor and temperature environment. Salt analog solutions were nebulized to generate 20 ?m particles (on average) that were deposited onto a quartz wafer. The particles undergo visual transformations as the relative humidity (RH) is increased and the presence of aqueous phase salts is confirmed by Raman spectra. Perhaps even more interesting is a liquid water phase particle can persist at lower RH values than the humidity at which the aqueous phase first appeared. This hysteresis effect is due to kinetic inhibition of salt nucleation and can result in metastable, supersaturated salt solutions existing at RH values as low as 10%. With measured humidity values at the Phoenix Lander site varying from 0-100% in a diurnal cycle, it seems likely that aqueous, briny solutions can form in Martian environmental conditions. Microscope images illustrating water uptake at 243K of an 'Instant Mars' particle. As the RH increases, a visual change (size and darkness) is apparent.

Nuding, D.; Gough, R. V.; Tolbert, M. A.

2012-12-01

352

Salt-water encroachment, geology, and ground-water resources of Savannah area, Georgia and South Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Savannah area consists of about 2,300 square miles of the Coastal Plain along the coast of eastern Georgia and southeastern South Carolina. Savannah is near the center of the area. Most of the large ground-water developments are in or near Savannah. About 98 percent of the approximately 60 mgd of ground water used is pumped from the principal artesian aquifer, which is composed of about 600 feet of limestone of middle Eocene, Oligocene, and early Miocene ages. Industrial and other wells of large diameter yield as much as 4,200 gpm from the principal artesian aquifer. Pumping tests and flow-net analyses show that the coefficient of transmissibility averages about 200,000 gpd per ft in the immediate Savannah area. The specific capacity of wells in the principal artesian aquifer generally is about 50 gpm per ft of drawdown. The coefficient of storage of the principal artesian aquifer is about 0.0003 in the Savannah area. Underlying the Savannah area are a series of unconsolidated and semiconsolidated sediments ranging in age from Late Cretaceous to Recent. The Upper Cretaceous, Paleocene, and lower Eocene sediments supply readily available and usable water in other parts of the Coastal Plain, but although the character and physical properties of these formations are similar in the Savannah area to the same properties in other areas, the hydraulic and structural conditions appear to be different. Deep test wells are needed to evaluate the ground-water potential of these rocks. The lower part of the sediments of middle Eocene age acts as a confining layer to the vertical movement of water into or out of the principal artesian aquifer. Depending on the location and depth, the principal artesian aquifer consists of from one to five geologic units. The lower boundary of the aquifer is determined by a reduction in permeability and an increase in salt-water content. Although the entire limestone section is considered water bearing, most of the ground water used in the area comes from the upper part of the Ocala limestone of late Eocene age and the limestones of Oligocene age. The greatest volume of water comes from the upper part of the Ocala limestone, but the greatest number of wells are supplied from the rocks of Oligocene age. The Tampa limestone and Hawthorn formation of early Miocene age are generally water bearing; the amount and quality of the water depends on the location. The water from some wells in the Tampa and most of the water from the Hawthorn is high in hydrogen sulfide. In the northeastern part of the area the principal artesian aquifer is close to the land surface. Here the confining layer is thin and in some of the estauaries it may be completely cut through by the scouring action of the streams during tidal fluctuations. In this part of the area artesian groundwater at one time discharged from the aquifer as submarine springs. Now a reverse effect may be occurring; ocean and river water may be entering the aquifer. The silts, clays, and very fine sands of the upper Miocene and Pliocene ( ?) series generally have low permeabilities and form the upper confining layer for the principal artesian aquifer. Although all the sediments overlying the principal artesian aquifer are considered to be part of the confining layer, locally some of the upper units are water bearing. The uppermost geologic units in the Savannah area are sediments of Pliocene ( ?) to Recent age and consist of sands, silts, and clays with shell and gravel beds which are a source of water for shallow wells. The first large ground-water supply from the principal artesian aquifer was developed in 1886 by the city of Savannah. Additional municipal and industrial supplies have been developed since that time. Pumpage progressively increased to a peak of 62 mgd in 1957. Outside of the city and industrial area the 1957 pumpage was about 9 mgd. In 1958 the total pumpage in the Savannah area was about 68 mgd or about 3 mgd less th

Counts, H.B.; Donsky, Ellis

1964-01-01

353

Salt tectonics on Venus  

SciTech Connect

The discovery of a surprisingly high deuterium/hydrogen ratio on Venus immediately led to the speculation that Venus may have once had a volume of surface water comparable to that of the terrestrial oceans. The authors propose that the evaporation of this putative ocean may have yielded residual salt deposits that formed various terrain features depicted in Venera 15 and 16 radar images. By analogy with models for the total evaporation of the terrestrial oceans, evaporite deposits on Venus should be at least tens to hundreds of meters thick. From photogeologic evidence and in-situ chemical analyses, it appears that the salt plains were later buried by lava flows. On Earth, salt diapirism leads to the formation of salt domes, anticlines, and elongated salt intrusions - features having dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 km. Due to the rapid erosion of salt by water, surface evaporite landforms are only common in dry regions such as the Zagros Mountains of Iran, where salt plugs and glaciers exist. Venus is far drier than Iran; extruded salt should be preserved, although the high surface temperature (470/sup 0/C) would probably stimulate rapid salt flow. Venus possesses a variety of circular landforms, tens to hundreds of kilometers wide, which could be either megasalt domes or salt intrusions colonizing impact craters. Additionally, arcurate bands seen in the Maxwell area of Venus could be salt intrusions formed in a region of tectonic stress. These large structures may not be salt features; nonetheless, salt features should exist on Venus.

Wood, C.A.; Amsbury, D.

1986-05-01

354

Environmental aspects of produced-water salt releases in onshore and coastal petroleum-producing areas of the conterminous U.S. - a bibliography  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Environmental effects associated with the production of oil and gas have been reported since the first oil wells were drilled in the Appalachian Basin in Pennsylvania and Kentucky in the early to mid-1800s. The most significant of these effects are the degradation of soils, ground water, surface water, and ecosystems they support by releases of suspended and dissolved hydrocarbons and co-produced saline water. Produced water salts are less likely than hydrocarbons to be adsorbed by mineral phases in the soil and sediment and are not subject to degradation by biologic processes. Sodium is a major dissolved constituent in most produced waters and it causes substantial degradation of soils through altering of clays and soil textures and subsequent erosion. Produced water salts seem to have the most wide-ranging effects on soils, water quality, and ecosystems. Trace elements, including boron, lithium, bromine, fluorine, and radium, also occur in elevated concentrations in some produced waters. Many trace elements are phytotoxic and are adsorbed and may remain in soils after the saline water has been flushed away. Radium-bearing scale and sludge found in oilfield equipment and discarded on soils pose additional hazards to human health and ecosystems. This bibliography includes studies from across the oil- and natural-gas-producing areas of the conterminous United States that were published in the last 80 yrs. The studies describe the effects of produced water salts on soils, water quality, and ecosystems. Also included are reports that describe (1) the inorganic chemistry of produced waters included in studies of formation waters for various purposes, (2) other sources of salt affecting water quality that may be mistaken for produced water effects, (3) geochemical and geophysical techniques that allow discrimination of salt sources, (4) remediation technologies designed to repair damage caused to soils and ground water by produced water salts, and (5) contamination by naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM)at oilfield sites.

Otton, James K.

2006-01-01

355

Relationship between Water Content and Osmotic Potential of Lentinula edodes  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to understand how osmotic potentials in Lentinula edodes tissues are related to water contents and how they change while a mushroom matures. Water content and osmotic potential of L. edodes mushroom tissues from log cultivation and sawdust cultivation were measured and the relationships were analyzed. Osmotic potentials in the tissues were exponentially proportional to their moisture contents and there were strain differences in the potentials. Strain 290 has lower osmotic potential than strain 302, in the tissues at the same water content. As the mushrooms mature, tissue water content maintained ca 94% in head tissues and ca 90% in gills, but significantly decreased from ca 90% to 82% in the stipe tissues. Osmotic potential changes were similar to the tissue water content changes as the mushrooms mature. While osmotic potentials maintained -0.25 to -0.45 MPa in head and gill tissues, the potentials greatly decreased from -0.65 to -1.33MPa in stipe tissues. Our results show that osmotic potentials in L. edodes tissues are exponentially proportional to tissue water contents, that strains differ in osmotic potential related to water, and that stipe tissues can still have nutritional value when they mature. PMID:23997603

Cho, Sun-Young

2008-01-01

356

Protection by iron salts against sporidesmin intoxication in sheep.  

PubMed

A number of iron compounds have been shown to protect sheep against the harmful effects of the facial eczema toxin, sporidesmin. Various salts were found to be effective; the oxidation state of the metal was not important although water-solubility did appear to be a prerequisite for prophylactic activity. The effect of iron salts was additive with that of zinc, and it is suggested that the protective action of these compounds results from their ability to inhibit the absorption of copper, consistent with the previously-proposed free-radical mechanism for sporidesmin toxicity. PMID:16031522

Munday, R; Manns, E

1989-06-01

357

Fracture of porous materials induced by crystallization of salt  

E-print Network

The penetration of salt into porous materials is known to have deleterious effects, often resulting in fracture. The damage process begins with a saline solution penetrating the porous network by way of capillary action. ...

Katzoff, Golda Y

2006-01-01

358

Effect of Water Content in Potato Amylopectin Starch on Microwave Foaming Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we investigated the role of the water content of extrudates had in foaming capacity and searched for the water\\u000a content giving the greatest expansion of starch extrudates. Porous structures based on potato amylopectin starch were prepared\\u000a by extrusion followed by a microwave foaming process. Starch was first extruded with water, in order to incorporate water\\u000a in the

Mia Sjöqvist; Paul Gatenholm

2007-01-01

359

Ouabain-insensitive salt and water movements in duck red cells. I. Kinetics of cation transport under hypertonic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T Duck red cells in hypertonic media experience rapid osmotic shrink- age followed by gradual reswelling back toward their original volume. This uptake of salt and water is self limiting and demands a specific ionic composition of the external solution. Although ouabain (10 -4 M) alters the pattern of cation accumula- tion from

WILLIAM F. SCHMIDT; THOMAS J. McMANUS

1977-01-01

360

The Transport of Salt and Water across Isolated Rat Ileum: Evidence for at least two distinct pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flows of sodium, potassium, and chloride under electrical and chemical gradients and of salt and water in the presence of osmotic pressure gradients are described by phenomenological equations based on the thermo- dynamics of irreversible processes. The aim was to give the simplest possible description, that is to postulate the least number of active transport processes and the least

T. W. Clarkson

1967-01-01

361

Salt tolerance underlies the cryptic invasion of North American salt marshes by an introduced haplotype of the common reed Phragmites australis (Poaceae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A distinct, non-native haplotype of the common reed Phragmites australis has become invasive in Atlantic coastal Spartina marshes. We compared the salt tolerance and other growth characteristics of the invasive M haplotype with 2 native haplotypes (F and AC) in greenhouse experiments. The M haplotype retained 50% of its growth potential up to 0.4 M NaCl, whereas the F and AC haplotypes did not grow above 0.1 M NaCl. The M haplotype produced more shoots per gram of rhizome tissue and had higher relative growth rates than the native haplotypes on both freshwater and saline water treatments. The M haplotype also differed from the native haplotypes in shoot water content and the biometrics of shoots and rhizomes. The results offer an explanation for how the M haplotype is able to spread in coastal salt marshes and support the conclusion of DNA analyses that the M haplotype is a distinct ecotype of P. australis.

Vasquez, E.A.; Glenn, E.P.; Brown, J.J.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Nelson, S.G.

2005-01-01

362

NOTE / NOTE New observations on urine contents in water-  

E-print Network

NOTE / NOTE New observations on urine contents in water- deprived Negev Desert rodents Carmi Korine of the murid subfamilies Gerbillinae and Cricetomyinae from the Namib Desert, when deprived of water, excreted much water. This phenomenon has not been reported in other rodents, and whether it is a trait

Vatnick, Itzick

363

Vegetation water content estimation using Hyperion hyperspectral data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper used water related vegetation indices calculated from Hyperion image to make water content mapping. The study area is located in Zhangye city, Gansu province in Heihe River Basin of China. Hyperion hyperspectral data was acquired on September 10, 2007. Using Hyperion reflectance of 35 plots, the relationships between vegetation indices and Equivalent Water Thickness (EWT) were calculated. R2

Jinguo Yuan; Kaijun Sun; Zheng Niu

2010-01-01

364

Variation of O 18 content of waters from natural sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of marine water and fresh water samples were examined for the relative O 18 \\/O 16 ratio, and the variation of this ratio was determined to a precision of ± 0.1%. In the case of surface marine waters, for a range of salinity of 29.40%., the O 16 content varies over a range of approximately 6%. The low

S. Epstein; T. Mayeda

1953-01-01

365

A salt-water reservoir as the source of a compositionally stratified plume on Enceladus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of a plume of water vapour and ice particles emerging from warm fractures (`tiger stripes') in Saturn's small, icy moon Enceladus raised the question of whether the plume emerges from a subsurface liquid source or from the decomposition of ice. Previous compositional analyses of particles injected by the plume into Saturn's diffuse E ring have already indicated the presence of liquid water, but the mechanisms driving the plume emission are still debated. Here we report an analysis of the composition of freshly ejected particles close to the sources. Salt-rich ice particles are found to dominate the total mass flux of ejected solids (more than 99 per cent) but they are depleted in the population escaping into Saturn's E ring. Ice grains containing organic compounds are found to be more abundant in dense parts of the plume. Whereas previous Cassini observations were compatible with a variety of plume formation mechanisms, these data eliminate or severely constrain non-liquid models and strongly imply that a salt-water reservoir with a large evaporating surface provides nearly all of the matter in the plume.

Postberg, F.; Schmidt, J.; Hillier, J.; Kempf, S.; Srama, R.

2011-06-01

366

A Scheme for Parameterizing Ice-Cloud Water Content in General Circulation Models.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical properties of ice clouds are a primary issue for climate and climate change. Evaluating these optical properties in three-dimensional models for studying climate will require a method to calculate the ice water content of such clouds. A procedure is developed to parameterize ice water content as a function of large-scale meteorological characteristics for use in circulation models in which the ice water content is not calculated by means of a three-dimensional prognostic equation for condensed water. The technique identifies large-scale flows in which ice clouds exist and calculates their ice water content by reconstructing the trajectory associated with cloud formation. As the cloud forms, its ice content changes both by deposition of ice from water vapor and by ice removal by sedimentation. The sedimentation process is found to modify significantly the ice water content expected from deposition alone. Ice water contents predicted by the parameterization are compared with aircraft observations collected in the middle latitudes and the tropics, and show reasonable agreement over four orders-of-magnitude of ice water content. A parameterization for the sublimation of ice crystals settling into ice-subsaturated environments is also presented.

Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Donner, Leo J.

1990-08-01

367

Protease stabilization by carboxylic acid salts: Relative efficiencies and mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

s  Kinetic studies are presented on the inhibition of proteolysis by carboxylic acid salts on the synthetic substrate succinyl\\u000a ala-ala-pro-phe-para nitroanilide. The inhibition of proteolysis\\/autodigestion is shown to be the major factor in the stabilization\\u000a of a detergent protease [i.e., Maxatase (subtilisin Carlsberg)] in an unbuilt, liquid, heavy duty laundry formulation. The\\u000a inhibition of autodigestion by a carboxylic acid salt as

Michael C. Crossin

1989-01-01

368

Access tube devices to monitor soil water content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Neutron Probe is considered to be one of the best indirect measurement-systems to obtain the soil water content. However, due to health problems and new measuring-techniques, other measurement systems have been developed and placed on the market. The IAEA in special tried hard to find alternatives to the radioactive measurement-techniques. Consequently, the IAEA in co-operation with institutes from Australia, France, Austria, and the USA compared the TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry) and the FDR (Frequency Domain Reflectometry) to the radioactive Neutron Probe. During the period from June 2000 to May 2002 those three measurement-systems were tested in practice at three locations in Lower Austria (sandy, loamy, and clay soil conditions) by the Institute of Hydraulics and Rural Water-Management (University of Agricultural Sciences, Vienna). The used equipment consisted of access tube devices TRIME (TDR), DIVINER 2000 (FDR), and SOLO 40 (radioactive). Once a week, measurements of soil water content were taken every 10 cm down to a depth of 1 m with three replications each. In the course of this experiment, all systems were field-calibrated and compared to standard-calibration. Concerning the practical utilisation the Diviner by Sentek is best to handle. After comparing those three systems for more than two years, the FDR-method has proved to be better in results and handling than TDR. The availability of appropriate measurement systems to determine the soil water content is a basic prerequisite for further descriptions of subsurface flow and solute transport process as well as for agricultural aspects.

Cepuder, P.

2003-04-01

369

Soil-Water Characteristic Curve Modeling at Low Water Content: Empirical and Semi-Empirical Approaches  

E-print Network

Soil-Water Characteristic Curve Modeling at Low Water Content: Empirical and Semi model, the Modified Kovacs (MK) model for the determination of soil-water characteristic curve at the low water contents of two horizons of a soil from Burkina Faso. Combining terms from capillary state

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

370

THE INTERRELATIONSHIPS OF SALT CONCENTRATION AND SOIL MOISTURE CONTENT WITH THE GROWTH OF BEANS  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE effect of various soil moisture treatments upon plant growth is of particular interest to the grower of crops on saline soils for it is possible that differences in soil moisture may either decrease or intensify the salt effect. Even when no harmful concentrations of salt occur in the soil, there is a diversity of opinion as to the proper

A. D. A YER; C. H. W ADLEIG

371

Yield, essential oil and pigment content of Calendula officinalis L. flower heads cultivated under salt stress conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flower heads of Calendula officinalis L. are used for medicinal or culinary purposes. Since Egyptian agricultural lands contain salt, this study investigated the effects of saline irrigation water on yield (fresh and dry weights of flower heads), essential oil (EO) yield, chemical constituents of the EO and total flavonoids and carotenoids of flower heads at three flowering stages, i.e. initial

Khalid A. Khalid

2010-01-01

372

Water transfer in soil at low water content. Is the local equilibrium assumption still appropriate?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of water content in the superficial layers of soils is critical in the modelling of land-surface processes. In arid regions, vapour flux contributes significantly to the global water mass balance. To account for it in theoretical descriptions, most of the models proposed in the literature rely on the local equilibrium assumption that constrains the vapour pressure to remain at its equilibrium value. It implicitly amounts to consider an instantaneous phase change. Recent works underlined a retardation time and a decrease in phase change rate as the water content gets lower. Therefore, the objective is to revisit water transport modelling by rejecting the local equilibrium assumption. This requires developing a non-equilibrium model by taking into account the phase change kinetics. To assess the interest of this approach, a natural soil of Burkina-Faso has been experimentally characterized from independent tests and soil column experiments have been carried out. The comparison of experimental drying kinetics and water content profiles with computational predictions confirms the reliability of this description. Liquid/gas non-equilibrium is significant in a limited subsurface zone which defines explicitly the transition from liquid transport in lower layers to vapour transport in upper layers, i.e., the evaporation front. The overall moisture dynamics is governed by the coupling between water transport mechanisms (liquid filtration, vapour diffusion, phase change) that mainly occurs in this transition zone.

Ouedraogo, F.; Cherblanc, F.; Naon, B.; Bénet, J.-C.

2013-06-01

373

A model for evaluating the influence of water and salt on vegetation in a semi-arid desert region, northern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model, influence of water and salt on vegetation (IWSV), was developed to evaluate their influence on plant species. The\\u000a main function of this model was to calculate a comprehensive index value for evaluating the suitability of plant growth. This\\u000a model consists of five explanatory variables (vadose zone moisture content, vadose zone salinity, vadose zone lithology, depth\\u000a to the water

Dong Hui Cheng; Wen Ke Wang; Xun Hong Chen; Guang Cai Hou; Hong Bin Yang; Ying Li

374

Ice Particle Impact on Cloud Water Content Instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Determining the total amount of water contained in an icing cloud necessitates the measurement of both the liquid droplets and ice particles. One commonly accepted method for measuring cloud water content utilizes a hot wire sensing element, which is maintained at a constant temperature. In this approach, the cloud water content is equated with the power required to keep the sense element at a constant temperature. This method inherently assumes that impinging cloud particles remain on the sensing element surface long enough to be evaporated. In the case of ice particles, this assumption requires that the particles do not bounce off the surface after impact. Recent tests aimed at characterizing ice particle impact on a thermally heated wing section, have raised questions about the validity of this assumption. Ice particles were observed to bounce off the heated wing section a very high percentage of the time. This result could have implications for Total Water Content sensors which are designed to capture ice particles, and thus do not account for bouncing or breakup of ice particles. Based on these results, a test was conducted to investigate ice particle impact on the sensing elements of the following hot-wire cloud water content probes: (1) Nevzorov Total Water Content (TWC)/Liquid Water Content (LWC) probe, (2) Science Engineering Associates TWC probe, and (3) Particle Measuring Systems King probe. Close-up video imaging was used to study ice particle impact on the sensing element of each probe. The measured water content from each probe was also determined for each cloud condition. This paper will present results from this investigation and attempt to evaluate the significance of ice particle impact on hot-wire cloud water content measurements.

Emery, Edward F.; Miller, Dean R.; Plaskon, Stephen R.; Strapp, Walter; Lillie, Lyle

2004-01-01

375

The effect of ultrasonic salting on protein and water-protein interactions in meat.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of power ultrasound (US) treatment (4.2, 11 or 19 W cm(-2) for 10, 25 or 40 min) on water-protein interactions during the salting of pork. All US treatments increased the protein extraction above that of the control (p<0.001), with the exception of 4.2 W cm(-2) for 10 and 25 min. Differential scanning calorimetry indicated myosin denaturation at the surface of the sample treated with the highest power (19 W cm(-2), 40 min). There was no effect on water binding capacity assessed by centrifuge, however, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance T21 relaxation was increased by 19 W cm(-2) (p<0.05). No changes to the meat matrix were evident by light microscopy. Findings indicate that US salting could be a surface phenomenon which can accelerate mass transfer and extract protein but denature myosin at high power inputs. Potential could exist for US to enhance conventional curing techniques. PMID:24206713

McDonnell, C K; Allen, P; Morin, C; Lyng, J G

2014-03-15

376

Nasal Absorption of Insulin: Enhancement by Hydrophobic Bile Salts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that therapeutically useful amounts of insulin are absorbed by the nasal mucosa of human beings when administered as a nasal spray with the common bile salts. By employing a series of bile salts with subtle differences in the number, position, and orientation of their nuclear hydroxyl functions and alterations in side chain conjugation, we show that adjuvant potency for nasal insulin absorption correlates positively with increasing hydrophobicity of the bile salts' steroid nucleus. As inferred from studies employing various concentrations of unconjugated deoxycholate and a constant dose of insulin, insulin absorption begins at the aqueous critical micellar concentration of the bile salt and becomes maximal when micelle formation is well established. These and other data are consistent with the complementary hypotheses that bile salts act as absorption adjuvants by (i) producing high juxtamembrane concentrations of insulin monomers via solubilization in mixed bile salt micelles and (ii) forming reverse micelles within nasal membranes, through which insulin monomers can diffuse through polar channels from the nares into the blood stream.

Gordon, G. S.; Moses, A. C.; Silver, R. D.; Flier, J. S.; Carey, M. C.

1985-11-01

377

Increasing the collected energy and reducing the water requirements in salt-gradient solar ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salt-gradient solar ponds are low-cost, large-scale solar collectors with integrated storage that can be used as an energy source in many thermal systems. For instance, solar ponds have proven to be a promising solution to drive thermal desalination in arid zones. However, in zones with limited water availability, where evaporation constrains the use of solar ponds in areas with the greatest potential for solar energy development, evaporation losses at the surface of the pond constrain their use. Therefore, evaporation represents a significant challenge for development of these low-cost solar systems in arid settings. In this investigation, different transparent floating elements were tested to suppress evaporation: flat discs, hemispheres, and a continuous cover. Flat discs were the most effective evaporation suppression element. Evaporation decreased from 4.8 to 2.5 mm/day when 88% of the pond was covered with the flat discs. In addition, the highest temperature increased from 34 to 43°C and the heat content increased from 179 to 220 MJ (a 22% increase). Reduced evaporative losses at the surface of the pond resulted in lower conductive losses from the storage zone and increased the collected energy. The magnitude of evaporation reduction observed in this work is important as it allows solar pond operation in locations with limited water supply for replenishment. The increase in stored heat allows more energy to be withdrawn from the pond for use in external applications, which significantly improves the thermal efficiencies of solar ponds.

Suarez, F. I.; Ruskowitz, J. A.; Tyler, S. W.; Childress, A. E.

2013-12-01

378

Effect of higher water vapor content on TBC performance  

SciTech Connect

Coal gasification, or IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle), is one pathway toward cleaner use of coal for power generation with lower emissions. However, when coal-derived synthesis gas (i.e., syngas) is burned in turbines designed for natural gas, turbine manufacturers recommend 'derating,' or lowering the maximum temperature, which lowers the efficiency of the turbine, making electricity from IGCC more expensive. One possible reason for the derating is the higher water vapor contents in the exhaust gas. Water vapor has a detrimental effect on many oxidation-resistant high-temperature materials. In a turbine hot section, Ni-base superalloys are coated with a thermal barrier coating (TBC) allowing the gas temperature to be higher than the superalloy solidus temperature. TBCs have a low thermal conductivity ceramic top coating (typically Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}, or YSZ) and an oxidation-resistant metallic bond coating. For land-based gas turbines, the industry standard is air plasma sprayed (APS) YSZ and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) sprayed NiCoCrAlY bond coatings. To investigate the role of higher water vapor content on TBC performance and possible mitigation strategies, furnace cycling experiments were conducted in dry O{sub 2} and air with 10% (typical with natural gas or jet fuel) or 50 vol% water vapor. Cycle frequency and temperature were accelerated to one hour at 1100 C (with 10 minute cooling to {approx}30 C between each thermal cycle) to induce early failures in coatings that are expected to operate for several years with a metal temperature of {approx}900 C. Coupons (16 mm diameter x 2 mm thick) of commercial second-generation single crystal superalloy CMSX4 were HVOF coated on both sides with {approx}125 {micro}m of Ni-22wt%Co-17Cr-12Al either with 0.7Y or 0.7Y-0.3Hf-0.4Si. One side was then coated with 190-240 {micro}m of APS YSZ. Coatings were cycled until the YSZ top coating spalled. Figure 2 shows the results of the initial phase of experiments. Compared to dry O{sub 2}, the addition of 10% water vapor decreased the lifetime of MCrAlY by {approx}30% for the conventional CMSX4 substrates. Higher average lifetimes were observed with Hf in the bond coating, but a similar decrease in lifetime was observed when water vapor was added. The addition of Y and La to the superalloy substrate did not change the YSZ lifetime with 10% water vapor. However, increasing water vapor content from 10 to 50% did not further decrease the lifetime of either bond coating with the doped superalloy substrate. Thus, these results suggest that higher water vapor contents cannot explain the derating of syngas-fired turbines, and other factors such as sulfur and ash from imperfect syngas cleanup (or upset conditions) need to be explored. Researchers continue to study effects of water vapor on thermally grown alumina scale adhesion and growth rate, and are looking for bond coating compositions more resistant to oxidation in the presence of water vapor.

Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Haynes, James A [ORNL

2012-01-01

379

Thermoreactions between molten salts and water at high cooling rates  

SciTech Connect

New experimental results of the investigations of steam explosion in ionic melts are described. The existence of a long lived local area of increased optical density is established. Caused by initial perturbation (like water droplet, laser beam, etc.), the area moves through the melt and disappears simultaneously with the explosion. Also, characteristic electromagnetic radiation is for the first time registered in the ultraviolet and infrared spectra during the time before the explosion. The results described show that although the water can trigger the process (in accordance with the steam explosion concept), the phenomena related to the explosion are intrinsic to the phase transformations in the melt. These phenomena can hardly be understood in the framework of the standard theory of the first-order phase transitions.

Aleshin, G.Y. [St. Petersburg Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)] [St. Petersburg Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)

1996-11-01

380

Effect of salt on boiling heat transfer of ammonia-water mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleate pool boiling heat transfer coefficients were determined experimentally for NH3-H2O, NH3-H2O-LiNO3 and NH3-H2O-LiBr mixtures. Both the salts were effective in increasing the heat transfer coefficient of NH3-H2O mixture. A concentration of 10 mass% of the salts in water, produced the greatest enhancement in heat transfer coefficient at all the range of pressure, heat flux and ammonia concentration studied in

A. Sathyabhama

2011-01-01

381

The Effects of Tidal Export from Salt Marsh Ditches on Estuarine Water Quality and Plankton Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt marshes are an important transition zone between terrestrial and marine ecosystems, and in their natural state, they\\u000a often function to cycle or trap terrestrially derived nutrients and organic matter. Many US salt marshes were ditched during\\u000a the twentieth century, potentially altering their functionality. The goal of this 4-year study was to assess the impact of\\u000a water from ditches within

Florian Koch; Christopher J. Gobler

2009-01-01

382

Drift data acquired on mechanical salt water cooling devices. Final report, Jul 1973Feb 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives test data from drift characterization and airborne salt monitoring studies conducted on and around a single-cell, mechanical-draft salt-water cooling tower and two spray modules at Turkey Point, Florida. Source measurements of drift droplet size distributions and mineral mass emissions were conducted for both devices during a winter test and for the tower alone during a summer test.

G. O. Schrecker; R. O. Webb; D. A. Rutherford; F. M. Shofner

1975-01-01

383

Ice water content of Arctic, midlatitude, and tropical cirrus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ measurements of total water have been obtained during several airborne field experiments in the Arctic (POLSTAR 1997 and 1998; EUPLEX/ENVISAT 2003), at midlatitudes (ENVISAT 2002, Cirrus 2003 and 2004, TROCCINOX 2005), and in the tropics (APE-THESEO 1999, TROCCINOX/ENVISAT 2005, SCOUT-O3 2005) in 52 flights in cirrus using the Jülich Lyman-? fluorescence hygrometer FISH. For a subset of 28 flights, the measurements are complemented by gas phase measurements of H2O. From the data set obtained in these experiments, the ice water content (IWC) in cirrus clouds is derived using two different approaches and functions of the minimum, mean, median, and maximum IWC are provided. The data are analyzed as a function of temperature in the range 183-250 K for Arctic, midlatitudinal, and tropical regions thus extending previous climatologies to much lower temperatures and lower detectable IWC. For each temperature, IWC covers a broad band, decreasing with temperature over the whole temperature range. In the tropics, several events of enhanced ice water content are observed which are related to recent impact of convection.

Schiller, C.; KräMer, M.; Afchine, A.; Spelten, N.; Sitnikov, N.

2008-12-01

384

Composition, microstructure, and surface barrier layer development during brine salting.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to characterize the changes in chemical composition, porosity, and structure that occur at the surface of a block of brine-salted cheese and their relationship to the rate at which salt is taken up from the brine. To create a difference in composition, salt uptake, and barrier layer properties, identical blocks of Ragusano cheese were placed in saturated and 18% salt brine at 18 degrees C for 12 d. The overall moisture content and porosity decreased, whereas salt and salt in moisture content increased near the surface of blocks of brine-salted Ragusano cheese for all treatments. The general appearance of the microstructure of the surface of the blocks of brine-salted cheese was much more compact than the microstructure 1 mm inside the block at both brine concentrations. Large differences in porosity of the barrier layer were produced by brine-salting cheese in 18% vs. saturated brine, with cheese in saturated brine having much lower porosity at the surface and taking up much less salt during brining. The macro network of water channels within the microstructure of the cheese was less open near the surface of the block for cheese in both saturated and 18% brine after 4 d. However, no large differences in the size of the macro channels in the cheese structure due to the difference in brine concentration were observed by scanning electron microscopy. It is possible that the shrinkage of the much smaller pore structure within the casein matrix of the cheese is more important and will become more limiting to the rate of salt diffusion. Further microstructure work at higher resolution is needed to answer this question. The calculated decrease in porosity at the exterior 1-mm portion of the block was 50.8 and 29.2% for cheeses that had been in saturated vs. 18% brine for 12 d, respectively. The difference in brine concentration had a very large impact on the salt in moisture content of the cheese. The exterior of the cheese in 18% brine reached a salt in moisture content almost identical to that of the brine very quickly (17.3% at 4 d), whereas the salt in moisture content at the surface of the cheese block in saturated brine was only 11.9% at 4 d. There appears to be some critical concentration of salt in brine above which there is a large negative impact on salt uptake due to the creation of a barrier layer at the surface of the block of cheese. PMID:15956296

Melilli, C; Carcò, D; Barbano, D M; Tumino, G; Carpino, S; Licitra, G

2005-07-01

385

Effect of water content on partial ternary phase diagram water-in-diesel microemulsion fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction of water in the fuel gave a significant effect to the reduction of pollutant such as NOx emission. In this work, water/diesel microemulsion fuels were prepared using compositional method by mixing water and diesel in the presence of non-ionic surfactant and co-surfactant. The effects of water composition on the partial ternary phase diagram were studied at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% (w/w). The physical stability of the microemulsion was investigated at 45°C over a period of one month. The optimum formulae obtained were diesel/T80/1-penthanol/water 60:20:15:5 wt% (System 1), 55:20:15:10 wt% (System 2), 50:20:15:15 wt% (System 3) and 45:20:15:20 wt% (System 4). Physicochemical characterizations of optimum formulae were studied. The results showed that water content has a significant effect to the formation of microemulsion, its stability, droplet size and viscosity.

Mukayat, Hastinatun; Badri, Khairiah Haji; Raman, Ismail Ab.; Ramli, Suria

2014-09-01

386

Process control of lightly salted wild and farmed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) by brine injection, brining, and freezing--a low field NMR study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to use low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and traditional chemical methods to investigate the physical and chemical differences in wild and farmed cod processed pre- and postrigor, and how these properties were affected by brine injection, brining, and freezing. In prerigor processed farmed or wild cod, brine injections followed by brining for 2 d, with brine concentrations up to 5.5% and 4%, respectively, were not sufficient to reach a muscle salt concentration of 2% as aimed for, while wild cod processed postrigor had sufficient salt uptake after the same processing. Low-field NMR gave valuable information about the differences in the muscle structure between wild and farmed cod as well as the state of the water in the muscle during brine injection, brining, and during rigor tension. Low-field NMR is, therefore, a valuable tool that can be used to optimize the salting and storing processes of lightly salted cod products from both wild and farmed cod. For farmed cod to be used in the production of lightly salted products further research is needed. Practical Application: Optimal processing of lightly salted cod products is important to the fish industry, due to an increasing market for this product in southern Europe. Farmed cod, which is seen as a potential steady raw material source for this production, differs considerably from its wild counterparts by having other chemical and physical muscle properties, such as lower water content and lower pH. With the processing procedures used today the farmed cod can, therefore, only be used in some of the products, where wild cod is currently used as raw material. It is, therefore, important that the processing of these products is optimized with regard to these differences in the raw material. This study gives a valuable contribution to further studies about optimal combinations of brine injections, brining, and freezing of pre- and postrigor processed farmed compared to wild cod. PMID:21535492

Gudjonsdottir, Maria; Gunnlaugsson, Valur N; Finnbogadottir, Gudrun A; Sveinsdottir, Kolbrun; Magnusson, Hannes; Arason, Sigurjon; Rustad, Turid

2010-10-01

387

On temporal wind variations forcing salt water inflows into the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt water inflows into the Baltic Sea are important processes for maintaining the general stratification and the ventilation of the bottom water in deep basins of the central Baltic. These events occur randomly during the winter season at intervals from one to several years. This pattern changed in the mid-seventies when only weak or no major inflows were observed. During

H. U. Lass; W. Matthäus

1996-01-01

388

Numerical Simulations of Road Salt Impact at a Municipal Water Supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloride concentrations at major water supply wells within the Regional Municipality of Waterloo in Ontario have been increasingly rapidly over the past 20 years. If present trends continue, drinking water limits may be reached within the next decade. Road salt has been identified as the prime source of the contamination, and various remediation strategies are being investigated. As part of

M. L. Bester; E. O. Frind; J. W. Molson

2002-01-01

389

Stratocumulus Liquid Water Content from Dual-Wavelength Radar ROBIN J. HOGAN  

E-print Network

Stratocumulus Liquid Water Content from Dual-Wavelength Radar ROBIN J. HOGAN , NICOLAS GAUSSIAT ABSTRACT A technique is described to retrieve stratocumulus liquid water content (LWC) using the differential attenuation measured by vertically pointing radars at 35 GHz and 94 GHz. Millimeter-wave

Reading, University of

390

Capacitive deionization coupled with microbial fuel cells to desalinate low-concentration salt water.  

PubMed

A new technology (CDI-MFC) that combined capacitive deionization (CDI) and microbial fuel cell (MFC) was developed to treat low-concentration salt water with NaCl concentration of 60mg/L. The water desalination rate was 35.6mg/(Lh), meanwhile the charge efficiency was 21.8%. Two desorption modes were investigated: discharging (DC) mode and short circuit (SC) mode. The desalination rate in the DC mode was 200.6±3.1mg/(Lh), 47.8% higher than that in the SC mode [135.7±15.3mg/(Lh)]. The average current in the DC mode was also much higher than that of the SC mode. The energy stored in the CDI cell has been reused to enhance the electron production of MFC by the discharging desorption mode (DC mode), which offers an approach to recover the electrostatic energy in the CDI cell. PMID:22364771

Yuan, Lulu; Yang, Xufei; Liang, Peng; Wang, Lei; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Wei, Jincheng; Huang, Xia

2012-04-01

391

Iatrogenic salt water drowning and the hazards of a high central venous pressure  

PubMed Central

Current teaching and guidelines suggest that aggressive fluid resuscitation is the best initial approach to the patient with hemodynamic instability. The source of this wisdom is difficult to discern, however, Early Goal Directed therapy (EGDT) as championed by Rivers et al. and the Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines appears to have established this as the irrefutable truth. However, over the last decade it has become clear that aggressive fluid resuscitation leading to fluid overload is associated with increased morbidity and mortality across a diverse group of patients, including patients with severe sepsis as well as elective surgical and trauma patients and those with pancreatitis. Excessive fluid administration results in increased interstitial fluid in vital organs leading to impaired renal, hepatic and cardiac function. Increased extra-vascular lung water (EVLW) is particularly lethal, leading to iatrogenic salt water drowning. EGDT and the Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines recommend targeting a central venous pressure (CVP)?>?8 mmHg. A CVP?>?8 mmHg has been demonstrated to decrease microcirculatory flow, as well as renal blood flow and is associated with an increased risk of renal failure and death. Normal saline (0.9% salt solution) as compared to balanced electrolyte solutions is associated with a greater risk of acute kidney injury and death. This paper reviews the adverse effects of large volume resuscitation, a high CVP and the excessive use of normal saline. PMID:25110606

2014-01-01

392

[Relationship between soil water content and water use efficiency of apple leaves].  

PubMed

The relationship between soil water content and water use efficiency (WUE) of apple tree leaf was examined, and the mechanism of WUE variation was also studied by using pot-culture. The results showed that the WUE was upmost when soil water relative content (SWC) reached 52.0%. The increase of WUE when SWC decreased from 77.2% to 52.0% was mainly caused by the change of stomatal conductance. The decline of carboxylation efficiency resulted in the decrease of WUE when SWC decreased from 52.0% to 20.1%. The WUE returned up after being rewatered, but could not reach the control level within a week. The WUE decreased when the soil was waterlogged, but reached the control level in three days after being waterlogged. After the third day, the WUE decreased gradually with the extending of the time being waterlogged. On the sixth day being waterlogged, the carboxylation efficiency decreased. PMID:11758419

Jie, Y; Yang, H; Cui, M; Luo, X

2001-06-01

393

Effectiveness of attention to reduce salt in diet, as evidenced by reduced urinary excretion of salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attitude of people toward salty food [including their attention to reduce salt (NaCI) intake] was investigated by a questionnaire method in 524 adult subjects (131 men, and 393 women including 313 women in the 30 to 60 years age range) in a small farming village in northeastern Japan. Excretion of NaCI in urine was measured in 24?hr samples which

Haruo Nakatsuka; Yutaka Imai; Keishi Abe; Hiroshi Satoh; Takao Watanabe; Masayuki Ikeda

1991-01-01

394

Long-life alkaline primary cell having low water content  

SciTech Connect

A flat, long-life alkaline primary cell having a low water content comprises a positive electrode of mercuric oxide or silver oxide, a negative electrode of amalgamated zinc or cadmium , and separator layers disposed between the electrodes. The positive electrode lies upon a disc of nickel screening. Flanged edges of two of the separator layers are gripped between a cover and a sealing ring. The electrolyte absorbed by the separator layers is a mixture of sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, and rubidium hydroxide. The number of moles of water per mole of alkali hydroxide is 2.0-2.7 for sodium hydroxide, 2.4-3.1 for potassium hydroxide, and 2.8-4.0 for rubidium hydroxide.

Ruetschi, P.

1980-06-24

395

Chemical quality of ground water in Salt Lake Valley, Utah, 1969-85  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1979-84, 35 wells completed in the principal aquifer in the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, that had been sampled during 1962-67 were resampled to determine if water quality changes had occurred. The dissolved solids concentration of the water from 13 of the wells has increased by more than 10% since 1962-67. Much of the ground water between the mouth of Bingham Canyon and the Jordan River about 10 mi to the east has been contaminated by seepage from reservoirs and evaporation ponds associated with mining activities. Many domestic and irrigation wells yield water with concentrations of dissolved solids that exceed 2,000 mg/L. A reservoir in the mouth of Bingham Canyon contains acidic waters with a pH of 3 to 4 and concentrations of dissolved solids ranging from 43,000 to 68,000 mg/L. Seepage from evaporation ponds, which are about 4.5 mi east of the reservoir, also is acidic and contains similar concentrations of dissolved solids. East of the reservoir, where a steep hydraulic gradient exists along the mountain front, the velocities of contaminant movement were estimated to range from about 680-1,000 ft/yr. Groundwater underlying part of the community of South Salt Lake near the Jordan River has been contaminated by leachate from uranium-mill tailings. The major effect of the leachate from the tailings of the Vitro Chemical Co. on the shallow unconfined aquifer downgradient from the tailings was the contribution of measurable quantities of dissolved solids, chloride, sulfate, iron, and uranium. The concentration of dissolved solids in uncontaminated water was 1,650 mg/L, whereas downgradient from the tailings area, the concentrations ranged from 2,320-21,000 mg/L. The maximum volume of contaminated water was estimated to be 7,800 acre-ft. The major effect of the leachate from the Vitro tailings on the confined aquifer was the contribution of measurable quantities of dissolved solids, chloride, sulfate, and iron. The concentration of dissolved solids upgradient from the tailings was 330 mg/L, and beneath and downgradient from the tailings the concentrations were 864 and 1,240 mg/L. The minimum volume of contaminated water in the confined aquifer was estimated to be about 12,000 acre-ft. (Lantz-PTT)

Waddell, K. M.; Seiler, R. L.; Solomon, D. K.

1986-01-01

396

[Bio-oil production from biomass pyrolysis in molten salt].  

PubMed

In order to investigate the effects of pyrolysis conditions on bio-oil production from biomass in molten salt, experiments of biomass pyrolysis were carried out in a self-designed reactor in which the molten salt ZnCl2-KCl (with mole ratio 7/6) was selected as heat carrier, catalyst and dispersion agent. The effects of metal salt added into ZnCl2-KCl and biomass material on biomass pyrolysis were discussed, and the main compositions of bio-oil were determined by GC-MS. Metal salt added into molten salt could affect pyrolysis production yields remarkably. Lanthanon salt could enhance bio-oil yield and decrease water content in bio-oil, when mole fraction of 5.0% LaCl3 was added, bio-oil yield could reach up to 32.0%, and water content of bio-oil could reduce to 61.5%. The bio-oil and char yields were higher when rice straw was pyrolysed, while gas yield was higher when rice husk was used. Metal salts showed great selectivity on compositions of bio-oil. LiCl and FeCl2 promoted biomass to pyrolyse into smaller molecular weight compounds. CrCl3, CaCl2 and LaCl3 could restrain second pyrolysis of bio-oil. The research provided a scientific reference for production of bio-oil from biomass pyrolysis in molten salt. PMID:21650030

Ji, Dengxiang; Cai, Tengyue; Ai, Ning; Yu, Fengwen; Jiang, Hongtao; Ji, Jianbing

2011-03-01

397

Water Dynamics in Divalent and Monovalent Concentrated Salt Chiara H. Giammanco, Daryl B. Wong, and Michael D. Fayer*  

E-print Network

Water Dynamics in Divalent and Monovalent Concentrated Salt Solutions Chiara H. Giammanco, Daryl B, United States ABSTRACT: Water hydrogen bond dynamics in concentrated salt solutions are studied using causes a shift in absorption frequency relative to that of the OD stretch absorption in bulk pure water

Fayer, Michael D.

398

Estimating canopy water content using hyperspectral remote sensing data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperspectral remote sensing has demonstrated great potential for accurate retrieval of canopy water content (CWC). This CWC is defined by the product of the leaf equivalent water thickness (EWT) and the leaf area index (LAI). In this paper, in particular the spectral information provided by the canopy water absorption feature at 970 nm for estimating and predicting CWC was studied using a modelling approach and in situ spectroradiometric measurements. The relationship of the first derivative at the right slope of the 970 nm water absorption feature with CWC was investigated with the PROSAIL radiative transfer model and tested for field spectroradiometer measurements on two test sites. The first site was a heterogeneous floodplain with natural vegetation like grasses and various shrubs. The second site was an extensively grazed fen meadow. PROSAIL simulations (using coupled SAIL/PROSPECT-5 models) showed a linear relationship between the first derivative over the 1015-1050 nm spectral interval and CWC ( R2 = 0.97). For 8 plots at the floodplain site the spectral derivative over the 1015-1050 nm interval obtained with an ASD FieldSpec spectroradiometer yielded an R2 of 0.51 with CWC. For 40 plots at the fen meadow ASD FieldSpec spectral measurements yielded an R2 of 0.68 for the derivative over the 1015-1050 nm interval with CWC. Consistency of the results confirmed the potential of using simulation results for calibrating the relationship between this first derivative and CWC.

Clevers, J. G. P. W.; Kooistra, L.; Schaepman, M. E.

2010-04-01

399

Oxy-combustion of high water content fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the issues of global warming and the energy crisis arouse extensive concern, more and more research is focused on maximizing energy efficiency and capturing CO2 in power generation. To achieve this, in this research, we propose an unconventional concept of combustion - direct combustion of high water content fuels. Due to the high water content in the fuels, they may not burn under air-fired conditions. Therefore, oxy-combustion is applied. Three applications of this concept in power generation are proposed - direct steam generation for the turbine cycle, staged oxy-combustion with zero flue gas recycle, and oxy-combustion in a low speed diesel-type engine. The proposed processes could provide alternative approaches to directly utilize fuels which intrinsically have high water content. A large amount of energy to remove the water, when the fuels are utilized in a conventional approach, is saved. The properties and difficulty in dewatering high water content fuels (e.g. bioethanol, microalgae and fine coal) are summarized. These fuels include both renewable and fossil fuels. In addition, the technique can also allow for low-cost carbon capture due to oxy-combustion. When renewable fuel is utilized, the whole process can be carbon negative. To validate and evaluate this concept, the research focused on the investigation of the flame stability and characteristics for high water content fuels. My study has demonstrated the feasibility of burning fuels that have been heavily diluted with water in a swirl-stabilized burner. Ethanol and 1-propanol were first tested as the fuels and the flame stability maps were obtained. Flame stability, as characterized by the blow-off limit -- the lowest O2 concentration when a flame could exist under a given oxidizer flow rate, was determined as a function of total oxidizer flow rate, fuel concentration and nozzle type. Furthermore, both the gas temperature contour and the overall ethanol concentration in the droplets along the spray were measured in the chamber for a stable flame. The experimental results indicate significant preferential vaporization of ethanol over water. Modeling results support this observation and indicate that the vaporization process is best described as the distillation limit mode with enhanced mass transfer by convection. Further, the influence of preferential vaporization on flame stability was investigated. A procedure was developed to evaluate the extent of preferential vaporization and subsequent flame stability of a fuel in aqueous solution. Various water soluble fuels were analyzed via this procedure in order to identify a chemical fuel showing strong preferential vaporization. t-Butanol was identified as having excellent physical and chemical properties, indicating stronger preferential vaporization than ethanol. Flame stability tests were run for aqueous solutions of both t-butanol and ethanol under identical flow conditions. Flame stability was characterized by the blow-off limit. In each comparison, the energy contents in the two solutions were kept the same. For the experiments under high swirl flow conditions (100% swirl flow), 12.5 wt% t-butanol has slightly lower blow-off limits than 15 wt% ethanol, and 8.3 wt% t-butanol has much lower blow-off limits than 10 wt% ethanol. For the experiments under a low swirl flow condition (50% swirl/50% axial flow), 12.5 wt% t-butanol has a much lower blow-off limit than 15 wt% ethanol. The time to release the fuel from a droplet was also calculated for both ethanol and t-butanol. For the same size droplet, the time to release t-butanol is much shorter than that of ethanol under the same conditions. Faster release of the fuel from water enhances flame stability, which is consistent with the experimental results. For the oxy-combustion characteristics of low-volatility fuel with high water content, glycerol was chosen as the fuel to study. It is found that self-sustained flame can be obtained for glycerol solution with concentration as high as 60 wt%, when burned in pure O2. However, the flame is lifted far away f

Yi, Fei