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1

Temperature resistance of Salmonella in low-water activity whey protein powder as influenced by salt content.  

PubMed

Salmonella can survive in low-water activity (a(w)) foods for long periods of time. Water activity and the presence of solutes may affect its survival during heating. Low-a(w) products that contain sodium levels above 0.1 % (wt/wt) and that have been involved in major Salmonella outbreaks include peanut products and salty snacks. Reduced a(w) protects against thermal inactivation. There is conflicting information regarding the role of salt. The aim of this study was to determine whether NaCl influences the survival of Salmonella in low-a(w) whey protein powder independent of a(w) at 70 and 80 °C. Whey protein powders of differing NaCl concentrations (0, 8, and 17 % [wt/wt]) were equilibrated to target a(w) levels 0.23, 0.33, and 0.58. Powders were inoculated with Salmonella, vacuum sealed, and stored at 70 and 80 °C for 48 h. Cells were recovered on nonselective differential media. Survival data were fit with the Weibull model, and first decimal reduction times (?) (measured in minutes) and shape factor values (?) were estimated. The influence of temperature, a(w), and salinity on Weibull model parameters (? and ?) was analyzed using multiple linear regression. Results showed that a(w) significantly influenced the survival of Salmonella at both temperatures, increasing resistance at decreasing a(w). Sodium chloride did not provide additional protection or inactivation of Salmonella at any temperature beyond that attributed to a(w). The Weibull model described the survival kinetics of Salmonella well, with R2 adj and root mean square error values ranging from 0.59 to 0.97 and 0.27 to 1.07, respectively. Temperature and a(w) influenced ? values (P < 0.05), whereas no significant differences were found between 70 and 80 °C among the different salt concentrations (P > 0.05). ? values were not significantly influenced by temperature, a(w), or % NaCl (P > 0.05). This study indicates that information on salt content in food may not help improve predictions on the inactivation kinetics of Salmonella in low-a(w) protein systems within the a(w) levels and temperatures studied. PMID:24680075

Santillana Farakos, S M; Hicks, J W; Frank, J F

2014-04-01

2

Salt Content and Water Budget of The Suez Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water body in the Suez Canal is a combination of waters from differ- ent sources. Hence, its exact hydrographic structure is very difficult to define. Three main water masses are identified along the Canal on account of their salinity values: Levantine water mass I, the Suez Bay water mass II, and the Bitter Lake water mass IV, in addition

SELIM A. MORCOS; GIRGIS F. SOLIMAN

2001-01-01

3

Effects of Salt Concentration Changes During Freezing on the Unfrozen Water Content of Porous Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

By combining equations for salt concentration by water removal from porous bodies with those for freezing point depression in normal solutions, equations are developed for calculating freezing point depression shifts due to the gradual removal of water upon freezing in porous bodies. The same equations can be used for the calculation of shifts in the osmotic potential of the water

Amos Banin; Duwayne M. Anderson

1974-01-01

4

Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt  

E-print Network

Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt 2014; published online 14 October 2014) Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced

Suo, Zhigang

5

Removal of Sea Salt Hydrate Water from Seawater-Derived Samples by Dehydration  

E-print Network

Removal of Sea Salt Hydrate Water from Seawater-Derived Samples by Dehydration Amanda A. Frossard of natural seawater contain both sea salts and organic components. Depending on the temperature, pressure, and speed of drying, the salt components can form hydrates that bind water, slowing evaporation of the water

Russell, Lynn

6

Texture, flavor, and sensory quality of buffalo milk Cheddar cheese as influenced by reducing sodium salt content.  

PubMed

The adverse health effects of dietary sodium demand the production of cheese with reduced salt content. The study was aimed to assess the effect of reducing the level of sodium chloride on the texture, flavor, and sensory qualities of Cheddar cheese. Cheddar cheese was manufactured from buffalo milk standardized at 4% fat level by adding sodium chloride at 2.5, 2.0, 1.5, 1.0, and 0.5% (wt/wt of the curd obtained). Cheese samples were ripened at 6 to 8 °C for 180 d and analyzed for chemical composition after 1 wk; for texture and proteolysis after 1, 60, 120, and 180 d; and for volatile flavor compounds and sensory quality after 180 d of ripening. Decreasing the salt level significantly reduced the salt-in-moisture and pH and increased the moisture-in-nonfat-substances and water activity. Cheese hardness, toughness, and crumbliness decreased but proteolysis increased considerably on reducing the sodium content and during cheese ripening. Lowering the salt levels appreciably enhanced the concentration of volatile compounds associated with flavor but negatively affected the sensory perception. We concluded that salt level in cheese can be successfully reduced to a great extent if proteolysis and development of off-flavors resulted by the growth of starter and nonstarter bacteria can be controlled. PMID:25151874

Murtaza, M A; Huma, N; Sameen, A; Murtaza, M S; Mahmood, S; Mueen-ud-Din, G; Meraj, A

2014-11-01

7

Pearson’s correlations between moisture content, drip loss, expressible fluid and salt-induced water gain of broiler pectoralis major muscle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Moisture content, drip loss, expressible fluid, and % salt-induced water gain are widely used to estimate water states and water-holding capacity of raw meat. However, the relationships between these four measurements of broiler pectoralis (p.) major muscle describe are not well described. The objec...

8

Relative water content of Spruce needles determined by the leaf water content index  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Leaf relative water content (RWC) is defined as the volume of water in a leaf divided by the volume at full turgor. Using reflectance factors of wavelengths 0.83 micron and 1.6 microns, a Leaf Water Content Index (LWCI) was derived from the Lambert-Beer Law such that LWCI should equal RWC; LWCI was equal to RWC for Picea pungens, Picea rubens, Liquidambar styraciflua, and Quercus agrifolia. Algebraic manipulation shows that R(1.6)/R(0.83) termed the Moisture Stress Index (MSI), is near-linearly correlated to RWC and to the Equivalent Water Thickness (EWT). Five species tested so far had the same relationship between MSI and EWT, but EWT is not a measure of plant water status.

Hunt, E. Raymond, Jr.; Wong, Sam K. S.; Rock, Barrett N.

1987-01-01

9

The Effect of Salt Water on Rice.  

E-print Network

in the use of any salt water at all. HOW TO DETECT SALT. Salt water may be detected in three ways-by taste, by urinometzr, and by nitrate of silver. I (a) By Taste. Water containing 0.2 per cznt salt has a faint salt taste. The salt taste increases.... If the liquid remains yellow, it contains lore than 0.15 per cent of salt. If it turns red, the amount of salt present 3 negligible. If the solution does not turn red, add a second ounce of the nitrate of ilver to it, and shake. If the mixture turns red...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1909-01-01

10

Hot air expansion of potato starch pellets with different water contents and salt concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expansion and puffing kinetics of commercial potato starch pellets were examined using a hot air fan oven in order to determine the puffing kinetics. The time for the onset of expansion showed uni-molecular type kinetic behaviour and was modelled by an Arrhenius plot. A pseudo-activation enthalpy for pellet expansion was also determined. The initial moisture content of the commercial

Andrew D. Norton; Richard W. Greenwood; Ian Noble; Phil W. Cox

2011-01-01

11

Dissolving Salts in Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity adapted from Iowa State University, design and carry out an experiment: dissolve salts in water, see how different ionic compounds produce different reactions, and observe the resulting changes in temperature.

2007-08-09

12

Water purification using organic salts  

DOEpatents

Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

Currier, Robert P.

2004-11-23

13

Impact of Salt Purity on Interfacial Water Organization Revealed by Conventional and Heterodyne-Detected Vibrational Sum Frequency  

E-print Network

Impact of Salt Purity on Interfacial Water Organization Revealed by Conventional and Heterodyne of the chosen salts and their solutions. This is true not only for the ACS grade salts but also vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) and heterodyne-detected VSFG (HD-VSFG) spectroscopy that salt

14

[Simulation of effect of irrigation with reclaimed water on soil water-salt movement by ENVIRO-GRO model].  

PubMed

As the conflict between water supply and demand, wastewater reuse has become an important measure, which can relieve the water shortage in Beijing. In order to promote safe irrigation with reclaimed water and prevent soil salinisation, the dynamic transport of salts in urban soils of Beijing, a city of water shortage, under irrigation of reclaimed water was simulated by ENVIRO-GRO model in this research. The accumulation trends of soil salinity were predicted. Simultaneously, it investigated the effects of different irrigation practices on soil water-salt movement and salt accumulation. Results indicated that annual averages of soil salinity (EC(e)) increased 29.5%, 97.2%, 197.8% respectively, with the higher irrigation, normal irrigation, and low irrigation under equilibrium conditions. Irrigation frequency had little effect on soil salt-water movement, and soil salt accumulation was in a downward trend with low frequency of irrigation. Under equilibrium conditions, annual averages of EC(e) increased 23.7%, 97.2%, 208.5% respectively, with irrigation water salinity (EC(w)) 0.6, 1.2, 2.4 dS x m(-1). Soil salinity increased slightly with EC(w) = 0.6 dS x m(-1), while soil salinization did not appear. Totally, the growth of Blue grass was not influenced by soil salinity under equilibrium conditions with the regular irrigation in Beijing, but mild soil salinization appeared. PMID:23379129

Lü, Si-Dan; Chen, Wei-Ping; Wang, Mei-E

2012-12-01

15

Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste with High Salt Content by Colloidal Adsorbents - 13274  

SciTech Connect

Treatment processes have been fully developed for most of the liquid radioactive wastes generated during the operation of nuclear power plants. However, a process for radioactive liquid waste with high salt content, such as waste seawater generated from the unexpected accident at nuclear power station, has not been studied extensively. In this study, the adsorption efficiencies of cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) in radioactive liquid waste with high salt content were investigated using several types of zeolite with different particle sizes. Synthesized and commercial zeolites were used for the treatment of simulated seawater containing Cs and Sr, and the reaction kinetics and adsorption capacities of colloidal zeolites were compared with those of bulk zeolites. The experimental results demonstrated that the colloidal adsorbents showed fast adsorption kinetic and high binding capacity for Cs and Sr. Also, the colloidal zeolites could be successfully applied to the static adsorption condition, therefore, an economical benefit might be expected in an actual processes where stirring is not achievable. (authors)

Lee, Keun-Young; Chung, Dong-Yong; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Lee, Eil-Hee; Moon, Jei-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute - KAERI, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute - KAERI, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01

16

Monitoring soil water content by vertical temperature variations.  

PubMed

The availability of high sensitivity temperature sensors (0.001 K sensitivity platinum resistors), which can be positioned at intervals of a few centimeters along a vertical profile in the unsaturated zone, allows short-term in situ determinations-one day or even less-of the thermal diffusivity. The development of high data storage capabilities also makes this possible over long periods and the relative variations in thermal diffusivity allow the monitoring of the variations in water content. The processing of temperature measurements recorded at different depths is achieved by solving the heat equation, using the finite elements method, with both conductive and convective heat transfers. A first set of measurements has allowed this approach to be validated. Water content variations derived from thermal diffusivity values are in excellent agreement with TDR measurements carried out on the experimental site at Boissy-le-Châtel (Seine et Marne, France). PMID:23834312

Bechkit, Mohamed Amine; Flageul, Sébastien; Guerin, Roger; Tabbagh, Alain

2014-01-01

17

Reduction of the biogenic amine contents in low salt-fermented soybean paste by gamma irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irradiation effects on biogenic amines of low salt-fermented soybean paste were investigated during fermentation at 25 °C for 12 weeks. Low salt-fermented soybean paste was prepared with 6% and 8% salt, and a 12% salted one was used as a control. The prepared fermented soybean pastes were irradiated with doses of 5, 10, and 15 kGy. Non-irradiated samples (6% and

Jae-Hyun Kim; Dong-Ho Kim; Hyun-Joo Ahn; Hyun-Jin Park; Myung-Woo Byun

2005-01-01

18

The practical application of remediating soil impacted by salt from produced water  

SciTech Connect

In many geographical areas where crude oil is produced, saltwater is a natural by-product of the oil production stream. The dissolved solids of this produced saltwater varies significantly with geography. Often the higher salinity values are associated with produced water at secondary crude oil recovery waterfloods and on occasion with depletion-drive and water drive primary crude oil recovery. Secondary recovery methods, waterfloods, typically follow many years of primary crude oil production thereby extending the producing life another 20 to 40 years. Many of the major fields producing today have been on stream for more than 50 years. The historical actions associated with these operations, high salt concentrations of the water and the cumulative volumes of saltwater handled all combine to increase the environmental risk of adversely impacting surface. This paper shares some of the experiences one company has encountered in an effort to assess and reduce the economic and environmental risks associated with salt impacted soils at waterfloods. The focus of this paper is on the practical aspects of identifying soil areas impacted before the nationwide improvements in environmental requirements in the mid 1970s and improving the productivity of surface soils. It summarizes how successful remediation approaches have been aligned with soil characteristics and intended surface uses. Remediation approaches have included calcium/sodium exchange, fresh water flushing, and organic additives. Also presented are the precautions used to make sure potential adverse impacts from the salt are not passed from the soil to other media.

Cresswell, G.A.; Williams, O.W. [Mobile Exploration & Producing US Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

19

Salt, Water, and Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Good nutrition for athletes demands plenty of water, since water is essential to such vital functions as muscle reactions. Dehydration can result from jet travel as well as from exercise and heat, making it a danger to traveling athletic teams. To avoid dehydration, water needs should be monitored by frequent weighing, and a clean water supply…

Smith, Nathan J.

20

Exceptionally fast water desalination at complete salt rejection by pristine graphyne monolayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desalination that produces clean freshwater from seawater holds the promise of solving the global water shortage for drinking, agriculture and industry. However, conventional desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis and thermal distillation involve large amounts of energy consumption, and the semipermeable membranes widely used in reverse osmosis face the challenge to provide a high throughput at high salt rejection. Here we find by comprehensive molecular dynamics simulations and first principles modeling that pristine graphyne, one of the graphene-like one-atom-thick carbon allotropes, can achieve 100% rejection of nearly all ions in seawater including Na+, Cl-, Mg2+, K+ and Ca2+, at an exceptionally high water permeability about two orders of magnitude higher than those for commercial state-of-the-art reverse osmosis membranes at a salt rejection of ˜98.5%. This complete ion rejection by graphyne, independent of the salt concentration and the operating pressure, is revealed to be originated from the significantly higher energy barriers for ions than for water. This intrinsic specialty of graphyne should provide a new possibility for the efforts to alleviate the global shortage of freshwater and other environmental problems.

Xue, Minmin; Qiu, Hu; Guo, Wanlin

2013-12-01

21

Exceptionally fast water desalination at complete salt rejection by pristine graphyne monolayers.  

PubMed

Desalination that produces clean freshwater from seawater holds the promise of solving the global water shortage for drinking, agriculture and industry. However, conventional desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis and thermal distillation involve large amounts of energy consumption, and the semipermeable membranes widely used in reverse osmosis face the challenge to provide a high throughput at high salt rejection. Here we find by comprehensive molecular dynamics simulations and first principles modeling that pristine graphyne, one of the graphene-like one-atom-thick carbon allotropes, can achieve 100% rejection of nearly all ions in seawater including Na(+), Cl(-), Mg(2+), K(+) and Ca(2+), at an exceptionally high water permeability about two orders of magnitude higher than those for commercial state-of-the-art reverse osmosis membranes at a salt rejection of ~98.5%. This complete ion rejection by graphyne, independent of the salt concentration and the operating pressure, is revealed to be originated from the significantly higher energy barriers for ions than for water. This intrinsic specialty of graphyne should provide a new possibility for the efforts to alleviate the global shortage of freshwater and other environmental problems. PMID:24285308

Xue, Minmin; Qiu, Hu; Guo, Wanlin

2013-12-20

22

Temporal changes of flavour and texture in cooked bologna type sausages as affected by fat and salt content.  

PubMed

Temporal changes of flavour (mushroom-like and saltiness) and texture (juiciness) in cooked bologna type sausages with different fat and salt content and containing selected volatile compounds (100 mg kg(-1) of 1-octen-3-ol and 200 mg kg(-1) of 2,6-dimethylpyrazine) were evaluated using time-intensity (TI) method. Preceding the TI study, descriptive profiles of sausages were determined. Release of volatiles was analysed by solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) and an instrumental texture analysis was also performed. Chromatographic results obtained for 1-octen-3-ol were strongly correlated with the intensity perception of the linked odour and flavour (mushroom). Modifications of sausages matrix in terms of fat and salt content differently affected the dynamic perception of mushroom flavour, saltiness and juiciness. NaCl contributed to increasing release of 1-octen-3-ol (salting-out effect) confirmed by SPME analysis as well as the intensity and duration of the related flavour (mushroom) evaluated by TI. Similarly, NaCl increased the temporal perception of both saltines and juiciness of sausages. Increase in fat content led to a higher retention of 1-octen-3-ol (lipophilic compound) and thus to a less intense and shorter duration of mushroom flavour. Moreover, fat contributed to a more intense and a longer juiciness of sausages. These results highlight the feasibility of TI technique to evaluate changes in the temporal flavour and texture perception of sausages caused by modification of matrix composition. PMID:20416801

Ventanas, Sonia; Puolanne, Eero; Tuorila, Hely

2010-07-01

23

Mobility of Pb in salt marshes recorded by total content and stable isotopic signature.  

PubMed

Total lead and its stable isotopes were analysed in sediment cores, leaves, stem and roots of Sacorconia fruticosa and Spartina maritima sampled from Tagus (contaminated site) and Guadiana (low anthropogenic pressure) salt marshes. Lead concentration in vegetated sediments from the Tagus marsh largely exceeded the levels in non-vegetated sediments. Depth profiles of (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (206)Pb/(208)Pb showed a decrease towards the surface ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.160-1.167) as a result of a higher proportion of pollutant Pb components. In contrast, sediments from Guadiana marsh exhibited low Pb concentrations and an uniform isotopic signature ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.172+/-0.003) with depth. This suggests a homogeneous mixing of mine-derived particles and pre-industrial sediments with minor inputs of anthropogenic Pb. Lead concentrations in roots of plants from the two marshes were higher than in leaves and stems, indicating limited transfer of Pb to aerial parts. A similar Pb isotopic signature was found in roots and in vegetated sediments, indicating that Pb uptake by plants reflects the input in sediments as determined by a significant anthropogenic contribution of Pb at Tagus and by mineralogical Pb phases at Guadiana. The accumulation in roots from Tagus marsh (max. 2870 microg g(-1) in S. fruticosa and max. 1755 microg g(-1) in S. maritima) clearly points to the dominant role of belowground biomass in the cycling of anthropogenic Pb. The fraction of anthropogenic Pb in belowground biomass was estimated based on the signature of anthropogenic Pb components in sediments ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.154). Since no differences exist between Pb signature in roots and upper sediments, the background and anthropogenic levels of Pb in roots were estimated. Interestingly, both background and anthropogenic Pb in roots exhibited a maximum at the same depth, although the proportion of anthropogenic Pb was relatively constant with depth (83+/-4% for S. fruticosa and 74+/-8% for S. maritima). PMID:17320933

Caetano, Miguel; Fonseca, Nuno; Cesário Carlos Vale, Rute

2007-07-15

24

Mobility of Pb in salt marshes recorded by total content and stable isotopic signature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total lead and its stable isotopes were analysed in sediment cores, leaves, stem and roots of Sacorconia fruticosa and Spartina maritima sampled from Tagus (contaminated site) and Guadiana (low anthropogenic pressure) salt marshes. Lead concentration in vegetated sediments from the Tagus marsh largely exceeded the levels in non-vegetated sediments. Depth profiles of 206Pb\\/207Pb and 206Pb\\/208Pb showed a decrease towards the

Miguel Caetano; Nuno Fonseca; Rute Cesário Carlos Vale

2007-01-01

25

Surface and ground water quality in a restored urban stream affected by road salts  

EPA Science Inventory

In 2001 research began in Minebank Run, MD to examine the impact of restoration on water quality. Our research area was to determine if road salts in the surface and ground waters are detrimental to the stream channel restoration. The upstream reach (UP), above the Baltimore I-...

26

Salt Water Revival  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners visit the intertidal zone of a rocky coastal site well populated with marine organisms. During a low tide, when many organisms are not covered by water, learners create "waves" and a false "high tide" to trigger animals into action such as opening up their shells or pushing out feathery food-catching extensions.

2012-06-26

27

Growth performance of indigenous sheep fed Sporobolus virginicus grass hay grown in saline desert lands and irrigated with high salt content ground water.  

PubMed

Twenty-eight indigenous ewe lambs (6 months of age and 14.4 kg body weight (BW)) were used to evaluate the effect of feeding Sporobolus grass hay (SGH) as the only source of forage on growth, and feed and water intakes. The ewe lambs were randomly and equally allocated to two treatment groups (14 lambs/group). The ewe lambs in group 1 (treatment 1) received SGH, while lambs in group 2 (treatment 2) received Rhodes grass hay (RGH) as the only source of forage. Water was available at all times for both treatment groups. Sporobolus grass was irrigated with brackish water of high salt content (20,000 ppm) and grown in saline desert lands (sabkha) in the United Arab Emirates. The average daily dry matter intake was significantly (P water intakes per unit body gain and water intake per unit feed intake were significant (P ?.05) between the two groups at all stages. From these data, we conclude that SGH can replace Rhodes hay in sheep diet without significant effect on sheep performance. PMID:20607399

Alhadrami, G A; Al-Shorepy, S A; Yousef, A M

2010-12-01

28

Water Uptake by Mars Salt Analogs: An Investigation of Stable Aqueous Solutions Using Raman Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid water processes that may occur on the surface and near-subsurface of Mars have important implications for the present-day water cycle, habitability, and planetary protection policies. The presence of salts on Mars plays a role in surface-atmosphere interactions as salts enhance the soil's ability to retain water. This thesis explores the phase transitions of water upon interaction with Mars relevant salt analogs. Water uptake and loss properties of a single and complex Mars analog are examined using a Raman microscope equipped with an environmental cell. The effect of the hygroscopic salts on bacterial spores was evaluated with a focus on potential terrestrial contamination on outbound spacecraft and its influence on planetary protection concerns. Calcium perchlorate (Ca(ClO4)2) is a highly deliquescent salt that may exist on the surface of present-day Mars. Here, we quantify the deliquescent relative humidity (DRH) and efflorescent relative humidity (ERH) of Ca(ClO4)2 as a function of temperature (223 K to 273 K) to elucidate its behavior on the surface of Mars. Mars relevant temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions were simulated and deliquescence (solid to aqueous) and efflorescence (aqueous to solid) phase transitions of Ca(ClO4)2 were characterized. Experimental DRH values were compared to a thermodynamic model for three hydration states of Ca(ClO 4)2. Calcium perchlorate was found to supersaturate, with lower ERH values than DRH values. Additionally, we conducted a 17-hour experiment to simulate a subsurface relative humidity and temperature diurnal cycle. This demonstrated that aqueous Ca(ClO4)2 solutions can persist without efflorescing for the majority of a martian sol, up to 17 hours under Mars temperature heating rates and RH conditions. Applying these experimental results to martian surface and subsurface heat and mass transfer models, we find that aqueous Ca(ClO4)2 solutions could persist for most of the martian sol under present-day conditions. To investigate complex brine mixtures, a salt analog, deemed 'Instant Mars,' was developed to closely match the individual cation and anion concentrations as reported by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory instrument at the Phoenix landing site. 'Instant Mars' was developed to fully encompass and closely replicate correct concentrations of magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, perchlorate, chloride, and sulfate ions. Here we use two separate techniques, Raman microscopy and particle levitation, to study the water uptake and loss properties of individual Instant Mars analog particles. Raman microscope experiments reveal that Instant Mars particles can form stable, aqueous solutions at 56 +/- 5% RH at 243 K and persist as a metastable, aqueous solution down to 13 +/- 5% RH. The results presented in this thesis demonstrate that a salt analog that closely replicates in-situ measurements from the Phoenix landing site can take up water vapor from the surrounding environment and transition into a stable, aqueous solution. Furthermore, this aqueous Instant Mars solution can persist as a metastable, supersaturated solution in RH conditions much lower than the deliquescent RH. Finally, laboratory experiments presented here examine the interaction of B. subtilis spores (B-168) with liquid water in Mars relevant temperatures and RH conditions. In addition, Ca(ClO4)2 was mixed with the B. subtilis spores and exposed to the same diurnal cycle conditions to quantify the effects of Ca(ClO4)2 on the spores. A combination of Raman microscopy and an environmental cell allows us to visually and spectrally analyze the changes of the individual B. subtilis spores and Ca(ClO4)2 mixtures as they experience present-day martian diurnal cycle conditions. Results suggest that B-168 spores can survive the arid conditions and martian temperatures, even when exposed to Ca(ClO 4)2 in the crystalline or aqueous phase. The extreme hygroscopic nature of Ca(ClO4)2 allows for direct interaction of B. subtilis spores with liquid water. The results impact the understanding of planetary protectio

Nuding, Danielle L.

29

When do water-insoluble polyion-surfactant ion complex salts "redissolve" by added excess surfactant?  

PubMed

The redissolution of water-insoluble polyion-surfactant ion complexes by added excess of surfactant has systematically been investigated in experimental and theoretical phase equilibrium studies. A number of stoichiometric polyion-surfactant ion "complex salts" were synthesized and they consisted of akyltrimethylammonium surfactant ions of two different alkyl chain lengths (C(12)TA(+) and C(16)TA(+)) combined with homopolyions of polyacrylate of two different lengths (PA(-)(25) and PA(-)(6000)) or copolyions of acrylate and the slightly hydrophobic nonionic comonomers N-isopropylacrylamide (PA(-)-co-NIPAM) or N,N-dimethylacrylamide (PA(-)-co-DAM). The complex salts were mixed with water and excess alkyltrimethylammonium surfactant with either bromide or acetate counterions (C(n)TABr or C(n)TAAc). Factors promoting efficient redissolution were (i) very short polyions, (ii) a large fraction of NIPAM or DAM comonomers, and (iii) acetate, rather than bromide, as the surfactant counterion. Added C(12)TAAc gave an efficient redissolution of C(12)TAPA(25) but virtually no redissolution of C(12)TAPA(6000). A very efficient redissolution by added C(12)TAAc was obtained for PA(-)-co-NIPAM with 82 mol % of NIPAM. The C(12)TAPA-co-NIPAM/C(12)TAAc/H(2)O ternary phase diagram closely resembled the corresponding diagram for the much-studied pair cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose-(sodium) dodecyl sulfate. The simple Flory-Huggins theory adopted for polyelectrolyte systems successfully reproduced the main features of the experimental phase diagrams for the homopolyion systems, including the effect of the surfactant counterion. The efficient redissolution found for certain copolyion systems was explained by the formation of soluble polyion-surfactant ion complexes carrying an excess of surfactant ions through an additional hydrophobic attraction. PMID:21166446

dos Santos, Salomé; Gustavsson, Charlotte; Gudmundsson, Christian; Linse, Per; Piculell, Lennart

2011-01-18

30

Enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution by combining water soluble graphene with cobalt salts  

PubMed Central

Summary There is tremendous effort put in the pursuit for cheap and efficient catalysts for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution systems. Herein, we report an active catalyst that uses the earth-abundant element cobalt and water-dispersible sulfonated graphene. The photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity of the catalyst was tested by using triethanolamine (TEOA) as electron donor and eosin Y (EY) as the photosensitizer under LED irradiation at 525 nm. Hydrogen was produced constantly even after 20 h, and the turnover number (TON) reached 148 (H2/Co) in 4 h with respect to the initial concentration of the added cobalt salts was shown to be 5.6 times larger than that without graphene. PMID:25161850

Wang, Jing; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Chen, Bin; Li, Zhi-Jun; Meng, Qing-Yuan; Zhang, Li-Ping; Tung, Chen-Ho

2014-01-01

31

Amelioration of cardio-renal injury with aging in dahl salt-sensitive rats by H2-enriched electrolyzed water  

PubMed Central

Abstract Recent studies have revealed the biological effects of H2 in suppressing organ injuries due to acute inflammation and oxidative stress. Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats naturally develop elevated blood pressure (BP) and kidney injury with aging. The present study examined the effect of long-term supplementation of H2 in drinking water on age-related changes. Four-week-old male Dahl SS rats were fed 3 types of water (n?=?30 each) for up to 48 weeks: filtered water (FW), water with a high H2 content (492.5 ppb) obtained with water electrolysis (EW), or dehydrogenated EW (DW). Animals were subjected to histological analysis at 16, 24, and 48 weeks. The FW group showed progressive BP elevation and increases in albuminuria and cardiac remodeling during the course of treatment. Histologically, there were significant changes as a function of aging, i.e., glomerular sclerosis with tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the kidney, and increased cardiomyocyte diameter with interstitial fibrosis in the heart at 48 weeks. These changes were related to the enhanced inflammation and oxidative stress in the respective organs. However, there were no striking differences in BP among the groups, despite histological alterations in the EW group being significantly decreased when compared to FW and DW in both organs, with concurrently lower oxidative stress and inflammatory markers at 48 weeks. Conclusion Long-term ad libitum consumption of H2-enriched electrolyzed water can ameliorate the processes of kidney injury and cardiac remodeling with aging in Dahl SS rats by suppressing, at least partly, elevated inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:24289332

2013-01-01

32

Hydrogen production from salt water by Marine blue green algae and solar radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two marine bluegreen algae, Oscillatoria sp. Miami BG 7 and Synechococcus sp Miami 041511 have been selected as the result of over 10 years continuous and intensive effort of isolation, growth examination, and the screening of hydrogen photoproduction capability in this laboratory. Both strains photoproduced hydrogen for several days at high rates and a quantity of hydrogen was accumulated in a closed vessel. Overall hydrogen donor substance of the hydrogen photoproduction was found to be salt water. Using strain Miami BG 7, a two step method of hydrogen photoproduction from salt water was successfully developed and this was recycled several times over a one month period using both free cells and immobilized cells in both indoor and outdoor under natural sunlight. According to these experiments, a prototype floating hydrogen production system was designed for further development of the biosolar hydrogen production system.

Mitsui, A.; Rosner, D.; Kumazawa, S.; Barciela, S.; Phlips, E.

1985-01-01

33

Electrolysis of Salt Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a hands-on lab activity about the chemical composition and conductivity of water. Working in groups, learners will: conduct an experiment involving the process of electrolysis, prepare an experiment to better understand the process of ion exchange, discuss and research the "softness" and "hardness" of water, and use the periodic table to identify elements and learn their characteristics. Background information, a glossary and more is included. Materials needed for each student group include a 9-volt battery, two electrodes (e.g. copper strips, or two #2 pencils sharpened at both ends), electrical wire and glass beakers or ceramic saucers. This activity is part of the Aquarius Hands-on Laboratory Activities.

2012-08-03

34

A SCREENING ASSESSMENT OF THE RELATIVE VULNERABILITY OF COASTAL WATER SUPPLIES TO SALT WATER INTRUSION CAUSED BY SEA LEVEL RISE  

EPA Science Inventory

Sea levels have risen from four to eight inches in the 20th century, and model projections suggest an additional rise of 8 to 15 inches is possible during the 21st century. Rising sea levels can increase the upstream extent of salt water influence in coastal aquifers. In coasta...

35

Measuring Snow Water Content  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS hydrologic technician Jim Caldwell uses an aluminum tube and scale to measure snow depth, snow water content and snow density as part of the Maine Cooperative Snow Survey. This survey is conducted throughout Maine in the spring to aid in the evaluation of flood potential by the Maine River Flow...

36

Water Uptake By Mars Salt Analogs: An Investigation Of Stable Aqueous Solutions On Mars Using Raman Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand the formation of briny aqueous solutions on Mars, a salt analog was developed to closely match the individual cation and anion concentrations as reported by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory aboard the Phoenix Lander. ';Instant Mars' is a salt analog developed to fully encompass the correct concentrations of magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, perchlorate, chloride, and sulfate ions. Using environmental Raman microscopy, we have studied the water uptake by the Instant Mars analog as a function of temperature and relative humidity. Water uptake was monitored using Raman spectroscopy in combination with optical microscopy. A MicroJet droplet generator was used to generate 30 ?m diameter particles that were deposited onto a quartz disc. The particles undergo visual transformations as the relative humidity (RH) is increased and the presence of water uptake is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. At -30° C, water uptake begins at ~ 35% RH as humidity is increased. The water uptake is marked by the growth of a sulfate peak at 990 cm-1, an indicator that sulfate has undergone a phase transition into an aqueous state. As the RH continues to increase, the peak in the O-H region (~3500 cm-1) broadens as more liquid water accumulates in the particles. The Instant Mars particles achieve complete deliquescence at 68% RH, indicated both visually and with Raman spectroscopy. The gradual water uptake observed suggests that deliquescence of the Instant Mars particles is not an immediate process, but that it occurs in steps marked by the deliquescence of the individual salts. Perhaps of even more significance is the tendency for the Instant Mars particles to remain aqueous at low humidity as RH is decreased. Raman spectra indicate that liquid water is present as low as 2% RH at -30° C. Ongoing work will examine the phase of Instant Mars particles under simulated Martian surface and subsurface conditions to gain insight into the possibility for aqueous solutions on Mars today via water uptake.

Nuding, D.; Gough, R. V.; Jorgensen, S. K.; Tolbert, M. A.

2013-12-01

37

Direct arylation of N-heteroarenes with aryldiazonium salts by photoredox catalysis in water.  

PubMed

A highly effective visible light-promoted "radical-type" coupling of N-heteroarenes with aryldiazonium salts in water has been developed. The reaction proceeds at room temperature with [Ru(bpy)3 ]Cl2 ?6?H2 O as a photosensitizer and a commercial household light bulb as a light source. Pyridine and a variety of substituted pyridines are effective substrates under these reaction conditions, and only monosubstituted products are formed with different regioselectivities. Using aqueous formic acid as solvent, an array of xanthenes, thiazole, pyrazine, and pyridazine are compatible with this new arylation approach. The broad substrate scope, mild reaction conditions, and use of water as reaction solvent make this procedure a practical and environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of compounds containing aryl-heteroaryl motifs. PMID:24500947

Xue, Dong; Jia, Zhi-Hui; Zhao, Cong-Jun; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Wang, Chao; Xiao, Jianliang

2014-03-01

38

Salting-in and salting-out of water-soluble polymers in aqueous salt solutions.  

PubMed

To obtain further experimental evidence for the mechanisms of the salting effect produced by the addition of salting-out or sating-in inducing electrolytes to aqueous solutions of water-soluble polymers, systematic studies on the vapor-liquid equilibria and liquid-liquid equilibria of aqueous solutions of several polymers are performed in the presence of a large series of electrolytes. Polymers are polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 250 (PEGDME250), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 2000 (PEGDME2000), and polypropylene glycol 400 (PPG400), and the investigated electrolytes are KCl, NH(4)Cl, MgCl(2), (CH(3))(4)NCl, NaCl, NaNO(3), Na(2)CO(3), Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)Cit (tri-sodium citrate). Aqueous solutions of PPG400 form aqueous two-phase systems with all the investigated salts; however, other investigated polymers form aqueous two-phase systems only with Na(2)CO(3), Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)Cit. A relation was found between the salting-out or sating-in effects of electrolyte on the polymer aqueous solutions and the slopes of the constant water activity lines of ternary polymer-salt aqueous solutions, so that, in the case of the salting-out effect, the constant water activity lines had a concave slope, but in the case of the salting-in effects, the constant water activity lines had a convex slope. The effect of temperature, anion of electrolyte, cation of electrolyte, and type and molar mass of polymers were studied and the results interpreted in terms of the solute-water and solute-solute interactions. The salting-out effect results from the formation of ion (specially anion)-water hydration complexes, which, in turn, decreases hydration, and hence, the solubility of the polymer and the salting-in effect results from a direct binding of the cations to the ether oxygens of the polymers. PMID:22486327

Sadeghi, Rahmat; Jahani, Farahnaz

2012-05-01

39

Water Imbibition into Rock as Affected by Sample Shape, Pore, Conductivity, and Antecedent Water Content  

SciTech Connect

Infiltration is often presumed to follow Philip's equation, I = st{sup 1/2}, where I is cumulative infiltration, s is sorptivity, and t is time. This form of the equation is appropriate for short times, and/or for negligible gravitational effects. For a uniform soil, this equation describes a plot of log(mass imbibed) versus log(time), with a slope (imbibition exponent) of 1/2. The equation has also been applied to low-porosity rocks, where the extremely small pores render gravitational forces negligible. Experiments recently performed on a wide variety of rocks produced imbibition exponents from 0.2 to 0.5. Many rock types showed initial imbibition proceeding as I {approx} t{sup 1/4}, then later switched to ''normal'' (t{sup 1/2}) behavior. The distance to the wetting front that corresponds to this cross-over behavior was found to be related to the sample shape: tall thin samples are more likely to exhibit the exponent 1/4, and to cross over to 1/2-type behavior later, while short, squat samples are less likely to display the 1/4-type behavior at all. Additionally, the exponents are sensitive to antecedent water content, with initially wetter samples having smaller values. In this study, we present the experimental data, and provide a consistent and physically-based explanation using percolation theory. The analogy between imbibition and diffusion is used to model imbibition into samples with low pore connectivity, with the exponents and their crossover behavior emerging from a random walk process. All laboratory phenomena--different exponents, crossover behavior, and effects of sample shape and antecedent water content--are reproduced by the model, with similar patterns across experiment and simulation. We conclude both that diffusion is a useful and powerful conceptual model for understanding imbibition, and also that imbibition experiments, being simpler than diffusion measurements, can be used to examine diffusive behavior in rock.

R.P. Ewing

2005-08-29

40

Effectiveness of highway-drainage systems in preventing contamination of ground water by road salt, Route 25, southeastern Massachusetts; description of study area, data collection programs, and methodology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four test sites along a 7-mile section of Route 25 in southeastern Massachusetts, each representing a specific highway-drainage system, were instrumented to determine the effectiveness of the drainage systems in preventing contamination of ground water by road salt. One of the systems discharges highway runoff onsite through local drainpipes. The other systems use trunkline drainpipes through which runoff from highway surfaces, shoulders, and median strips is diverted and discharged into either a local stream or a coastal waterway. Route 25 was completed and opened to traffic in the summer of 1987. Road salt was first applied to the highway in the winter of 1987-88. The study area is on a thick outwash plain composed primarily of sand and gravel. Water-table depths range from 15 to 60 feet below land surface at the four test sites. Ground-water flow is in a general southerly direction, approximately perpendicular to the highway. Streamflow in the study area is controlled primarily by ground-water discharge. Background concentrations of dissolved chloride, sodium, and calcium-the primary constituents of road salt-are similar in ground water and surface water and range from 5 to 20, 5 to 10, and 1 to 5 milligrams per liter, respectively. Data-collection programs were developed for monitoring the application of road salt to the highway, the quantity of road-salt water entering the ground water, diverted through the highway-drainage systems, and entering a local stream. The Massachusetts Highway Department monitored road salt applied to the highway and reported these data to the U.S. Geological Survey. The U.S. Geological Survey designed and operated the ground-water, highway- drainage, and surface-water data-collection programs. A road-salt budget will be calculated for each test site so that the effectiveness of the different highway-drainage systems in preventing contamination of ground water by road salt can be determined.

Church, P.E.; Armstrong, D.S.; Granato, G.E.; Stone, V.J.; Smith, K.P.; Provencher, P.L.

1996-01-01

41

Composition of Irrigation Water Salinity Affects Growth Characteristics and Uptake of Selenium and Salt Ions by Soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of irrigation waters differing in salt composition on growth characteristics, salt ion and selenium (Se) accumulation, and distribution in plant components of the soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) cultivar “Manokin.” Plants were grown in sand cultures and irrigated with isoosmotic solutions containing (1) Cl as the dominant anion, or (2) a

D. Wang; C. M. Grieve; D. L. Suarez

2005-01-01

42

Effect of road deicing salt on the susceptibility of amphibian embryos to infection by water molds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some causative agents of amphibian declines act synergistically to impact individual amphibians and their populations. In particular, pathogenic water molds (aquatic oomycetes) interact with environmental stressors and increase mortality in amphibian embryos. We documented colonization of eggs of three amphibian species, the wood frog (Rana sylvatica), the green frog (Rana clamitans), and the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum), by water molds

Nancy E. Karraker; Gregory R. Ruthig

2009-01-01

43

Measuring vegetation water content by looking at trees blowing in the wind  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite-based soil moisture measurements have shown a diurnal variation in soil water content in Ghana. Most likely this diurnal variation is due to variation of moisture content in vegetation, as was measured by Friesen et al. Understanding the specifics of this cycle and it's relation with radar backscatter would help improve the estimation of soil moisture from satellites as well as provide a new source of information: vegetation water content (ie. plant water stress) from satellites. To this end, a non-intrusive method is needed to measure the change in time of the water content of vegetation. In this research, we have measured the Eigen-frequency of trees using an accelerometer bolted in the tree trunk. The change in Eigen-frequency over time is related to the change in mass and stiffness which are depended on the water content of the tree. We looked at two driving forces for the tree-mass-spring system. Firstly, trees were pulled back and suddenly released. Eigen-frequencies were easily identified from the oscillation observed. Secondly, the wind was used as a driving force and Eigen-frequencies were estimated in the frequency domain.

Kooreman, Bouke; Hut, Rolf; van de Giesen, Nick; Selker, John; Steele-Dunne, Susan

2013-04-01

44

Hot water, fresh beer, and salt  

SciTech Connect

In the hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO{sub 2}) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO{sub 2} so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer '' is answered experimentally.

Crawford, F.S. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (USA) Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (USA))

1990-11-01

45

Dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in salt water environment by Corexit 9500A in the presence of natural coastal materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effectiveness of Corexit 9500A for dispersing Louisiana crude oil was evaluated in salt water solutions containing natural materials in relation to salinity and dispersant-to-oil ratio (DOR). Experimental results showed that both salinity and DOR had significant effects on dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in the presence of different natural materials. The natural materials added to the salt water solutions included sea sand (South Beach, Miami, Florida), red mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle), seaweed (Sargassum natans), and sea grass (Halodule wrightii). Dispersant effectiveness (amount of oil dispersed into the water) was reduced significantly with increasing salinity with the minimum effectiveness observed in the salinity range between 30 and 50 ppt in all aqueous samples containing natural materials. When significant amounts of floating oil were present, the partially submerged natural materials enhanced the transfer of oil into the water column, which improved the dispersion effectiveness. However, dispersant effectiveness was significantly reduced when the amount of floating oil was relatively small and could not be released back to the water column. Surface tension may not be an adequate parameter for monitoring the effectiveness of dispersants in salt water environment. When distilled water was used (i.e., zero salinity), surface tension was significantly reduced with increasing dispersant concentration. However, there was no clear trend in the surface tension of the salt water solutions (17-51 ppt) containing crude oil and natural materials with increasing dispersant concentration.

Tansel, Berrin; Lee, Mengshan; Berbakov, Jillian; Tansel, Derya Z.; Koklonis, Urpiana

2014-04-01

46

The effects of tree establishment on water and salt dynamics in naturally salt-affected grasslands.  

PubMed

Plants, by influencing water fluxes across the ecosystem-vadose zone-aquifer continuum, can leave an imprint on salt accumulation and distribution patterns. We explored how the conversion of native grasslands to oak plantations affected the abundance and distribution of salts on soils and groundwater through changes in the water balance in naturally salt-affected landscapes of Hortobagy (Hungary), a region where artificial drainage performed approximately 150 years ago lowered the water table (from -2 to -5 m) decoupling it from the surface ecosystem. Paired soil sampling and detailed soil conductivity transects revealed consistently different salt distribution patterns between grasslands and plantations, with shallow salinity losses and deep salinity gains accompanying tree establishment. Salts accumulated in the upper soil layers during pre-drainage times have remained in drained grasslands but have been flushed away under tree plantations (65 and 83% loss of chloride and sodium, respectively, in the 0 to -0.5 m depth range) as a result of a five- to 25-fold increase in infiltration rates detected under plantations. At greater depth, closer to the current water table level, the salt balance was reversed, with tree plantations gaining 2.5 kg sodium chloride m(-2) down to 6 m depth, resulting from groundwater uptake and salt exclusion by tree roots in the capillary fringe. Diurnal water table fluctuations, detected in a plantation stand but not in the neighbouring grasslands, together with salt mass balances suggest that trees consumed approximately 380 mm groundwater per year, re-establishing the discharge regime and leading to higher salt accumulation rates than those interrupted by regional drainage practices more than a century ago. The strong influences of vegetation changes on water dynamics can have cascading consequences on salt accumulation and distribution, and a broad ecohydrological perspective that explicitly considers vegetation-groundwater links is needed to anticipate and manage them. PMID:17356808

Nosetto, Marcelo D; Jobbágy, Esteban G; Tóth, Tibor; Di Bella, Carlos M

2007-07-01

47

Temporal stability of soil water contents as affected by weather patterns: a simulation study.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Temporal stability of soil water content (TS SWC) is a natural phenomenon that recently attracts attention and finds multiple applications. Large variations in the interannual and interseasonal TS SWC have been encountered among locations studied by various authors. The objective of this work was ...

48

The water balance of the urban Salt Lake Valley: a multiple-box model validated by observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A main focus of the recently awarded National Science Foundation (NSF) EPSCoR Track-1 research project "innovative Urban Transitions and Arid-region Hydro-sustainability (iUTAH)" is to quantify the primary components of the water balance for the Wasatch region, and to evaluate their sensitivity to climate change and projected urban development. Building on the multiple-box model that we developed and validated for carbon dioxide (Strong et al 2011), mass balance equations for water in the atmosphere and surface are incorporated into the modeling framework. The model is used to determine how surface fluxes, ground-water transport, biological fluxes, and meteorological processes regulate water cycling within and around the urban Salt Lake Valley. The model is used to evaluate the hypotheses that increased water demand associated with urban growth in Salt Lake Valley will (1) elevate sensitivity to projected climate variability and (2) motivate more attentive management of urban water use and evaporative fluxes.

Stwertka, C.; Strong, C.

2012-12-01

49

Quaternary Diffusion Coefficients in a Protein-Polymer-Salt-Water System Determined by Rayleigh Interferometry  

E-print Network

that a protein concentration gradient induces salt diffusion from high to low protein concentration. This effect concentration gradients occur.7,8 Furthermore, applications in which convection is minimized with respect, Dii, links the flux of solute i to its own concentration gradient, while each cross-term diffusion

Annunziata, Onofrio

50

Quantifying Microbial Utilization of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Salt Marsh Sediments by Using the 13C Content of Bacterial rRNA?  

PubMed Central

Natural remediation of oil spills is catalyzed by complex microbial consortia. Here we took a whole-community approach to investigate bacterial incorporation of petroleum hydrocarbons from a simulated oil spill. We utilized the natural difference in carbon isotopic abundance between a salt marsh ecosystem supported by the 13C-enriched C4 grass Spartina alterniflora and 13C-depleted petroleum to monitor changes in the 13C content of biomass. Magnetic bead capture methods for selective recovery of bacterial RNA were used to monitor the 13C content of bacterial biomass during a 2-week experiment. The data show that by the end of the experiment, up to 26% of bacterial biomass was derived from consumption of the freshly spilled oil. The results contrast with the inertness of a nearby relict spill, which occurred in 1969 in West Falmouth, MA. Sequences of 16S rRNA genes from our experimental samples also were consistent with previous reports suggesting the importance of Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria and Firmicutes in the remineralization of hydrocarbons. The magnetic bead capture approach makes it possible to quantify uptake of petroleum hydrocarbons by microbes in situ. Although employed here at the domain level, RNA capture procedures can be highly specific. The same strategy could be used with genus-level specificity, something which is not currently possible using the 13C content of biomarker lipids. PMID:18083852

Pearson, Ann; Kraunz, Kimberly S.; Sessions, Alex L.; Dekas, Anne E.; Leavitt, William D.; Edwards, Katrina J.

2008-01-01

51

Tamarix hispida zinc finger protein ThZFP1 participates in salt and osmotic stress tolerance by increasing proline content and SOD and POD activities.  

PubMed

Zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) are a large family that play important roles in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, RNA binding, morphogenesis, transcriptional regulation, abiotic or biotic stress response. However, the functions of ZFPs involved in abiotic stress are largely not known. In the present study, we cloned and functionally characterized a ZFP gene, ThZFP1, from Tamarix hispida. The expression of ThZFP1 is highly induced by NaCl, mannitol or ABA treatment. To study the function of ThZFP1 involved in abiotic stress response, transgenic T. hispida plants with overexpression or knockdown of ThZFP1 were generated using a transient transformation system. Gain- and loss-of-function studies of ThZFP1 suggested that ThZFP1 can induce the expression of a series of genes, including delta-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), leading to accumulation of proline and enhanced activities of SOD and POD. These physiological changes enhanced proline content and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capability when exposed to salt or osmotic stress. All the results obtained from T. hispida plants were further confirmed by analyses of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing ThZFP1. These data together suggested that ThZFP1 positively regulates proline accumulation and activities of SOD and POD under salt and osmotic stress conditions. PMID:25900571

Zang, Dandan; Wang, Chao; Ji, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yucheng

2015-06-01

52

Quantification of water content and speciation in natural silicic glasses (phonolite, dacite, rhyolite) by  

E-print Network

Quantification of water content and speciation in natural silicic glasses (phonolite, daciteRaman spectrometry are discussed for alkaline (phonolite) and calcalkaline (dacite and rhyolite) silicic glasses

53

Assessing water salinity along River Limón and Caño San Miguel irrigation paleochannel (Maracaibo, Venezuela) as affected by the balance of soluble salts in alluvium soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The saline degradation of soils that are irrigated with brackish water is worrisome increasing worldwide, and it may further affect the salinity of fresh water in those streams flowing across. The problem that is caused by an increasing concentration of salts that are more soluble than gypsum depends on the quality of irrigation water, climatic aridity, and drainage limitations. All these conditions meet in the alluvium soils of River Limón basin that are crossed by Caño San Miguel irrigation paleochannel. River Limón's regulation by closing Manuelote and Tulé artificial reservoirs has diminished the input of water and sediments from flooding events, which exerted dilutive effects in the past. In addition, the balance of soluble salts in these soils has also registered further net accumulation during those extremely dry years happened before 2006, because the great dilution contribution of ombrogenic dammed water coming from rain has not been enough to compensate salts concentration generated by water evapotranspiration in those irrigated soils of the middle basin, particularly in the absence of superficial runoff and deep drainage. Considering those semi-arid climate conditions prevailing in the area (annual precipitation = 710 mm; potential evapotransporation = 2361 mm), it resulted that water analyses in River Limón showed a ten-fold increased maximum annual salinity concentration (March) along the stream; that is, an electric conductivity (Ce) of 0.37 dS•m-1 (at 25 °C) at Puente Carrasquero pumping station, where water for crop irrigation is subtracted, turns to 34.60 dS•m-1 (at 25 °C) at its base level in Puerto Mara, where it discharges to Lake Maracaibo. In addition, the quality of irrigation water from Caño San Miguel, which aggregates to those coming from River Limón at the pumping station located in Carrasquero just before running through the alluvium of this water stream, resulted pretty irregular. In short, it spanned form C1 to C4 soil salinization risk classes depending on the sampling location and time of the year. In short, the farther away the sampling point from the initial pumping location, the higher the concentration of salts is measured; and these are even ten-fold higher in March, that is, after the end of the dry season, just before new rain dissolves the generated salt efflorescence on the surrounding soil (maximum Ce=9740 dS/m at 25 °C). In conclusion, a balance of salts should be attached to the balance of water required to compensate crop evapotranspiration aiming to achieve a sustainable use of the agrosystem. This salts balance is assessed in terms of the quantity of water that is required to drain soil so that productivity would be retained.

Rodriguez, Raquel; Moreno, Juan; Hermosilla, Daphne; Gascó, Antonio

2013-04-01

54

Iron clad wetlands: Soil iron-sulfur buffering determines coastal wetland response to salt water incursion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal freshwater wetland chemistry is rapidly changing due to increased frequency of salt water incursion, a consequence of global change. Seasonal salt water incursion introduces sulfate, which microbially reduces to sulfide. Sulfide binds with reduced iron, producing iron sulfide (FeS), recognizable in wetland soils by its characteristic black color. The objective of this study is to document iron and sulfate reduction rates, as well as product formation (acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and chromium reducible sulfide (CRS)) in a coastal freshwater wetland undergoing seasonal salt water incursion. Understanding iron and sulfur cycling, as well as their reduction products, allows us to calculate the degree of sulfidization (DOS), from which we can estimate how long soil iron will buffer against chemical effects of sea level rise. We show that soil chloride, a direct indicator of the degree of incursion, best predicted iron and sulfate reduction rates. Correlations between soil chloride and iron or sulfur reduction rates were strongest in the surface layer (0-3 cm), indicative of surface water incursion, rather than groundwater intrusion at our site. The interaction between soil moisture and extractable chloride was significantly related to increased AVS, whereas increased soil chloride was a stronger predictor of CRS. The current DOS in this coastal plains wetland is very low, resulting from high soil iron content and relatively small degree of salt water incursion. However, with time and continuous salt water exposure, iron will bind with incoming sulfur, creating FeS complexes, and DOS will increase.

Schoepfer, Valerie A.; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Burgin, Amy J.

2014-12-01

55

A universal salt model based on under-ground precipitation of solid salts due to supercritical water `out-salting'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the common characteristics of planets Earth and Mars is that both host water (H2O) and large accumulations of salt. Whereas Earth’s surface-environment can be regarded as ‘water-friendly’ and ‘salt hostile’, the reverse can be said for the surface of Mars. This is because liquid water is stable on Earth, and the atmosphere transports humidity around the globe, whereas on planet Mars, liquid water is unstable, rendering the atmosphere dry and, therefore, ‘salt-friendly’. The riddle as to how the salt accumulated in various locations on those two planets, is one of long-lasting and great debate. The salt accumulations on Earth are traditionally termed ‘evaporites’, meaning that they formed as a consequence of the evaporation of large masses of seawater. How the accumulations on Mars formed is much harder to explain, as an ocean only existed briefly. Although water molecules and OH-groups may exist in abundance in bound form (crystal water, adsorbed water, etc.), the only place where free water is expected to be stable on Mars is within underground faults, fractures, and crevices. Here it likely occurs as brine or in the form of ice. Based on these conditions, a key to understanding the accumulation of large deposits of salt on both planets is linked to how brines behave in the subsurface when pressurized and heated beyond their supercritical point. At depths greater than about 3 km (P>300 bars) water will no longer boil in a steam phase. Rather, it becomes supercritical and will attain the phase of supercritical water vapor (SCRIW) with a specific gravity of typically 0.3 g/cm3. An important characteristic of SCRIW is its inability to dissolve the common sea salts. The salt dissolved in the brines will therefore precipitate as solid particles when brines (seawater on the Earth) move into the supercritical P&T-domain (T>400°C, P>300 bars). Numerical modeling of a hydrothermal system in the Atlantis II Deep of the Red Sea indicates that a shallow magma-chamber causes a sufficiently high heat-flow to drive a convection cell of seawater. The model shows that salt precipitates along the flow lines within the supercritical region (Hovland et al., 2006). During the various stages of planet Mars’ development, it must be inferred that zones with very high heat-flow also existed there. This meant that water (brine) confined in the crust of Mars was mobilized in a convective manner and would pass into the supercritical water zone during the down-going leg (the recharge leg) of the convective cell. The zones with supercritical out-salting would require accommodation space for large masses of solid salt, as modeled in the Red Sea analogy. However, as the accommodation space for the solid salt fills up, it will pile up and force its way upwards to form large, perhaps layered anticlines, as seen in the Hebes Mensa area of Mars and at numerous locations on Earth, including the Red Sea. Thus, we offer a universal ‘hydrothermal salt model’, which would be viable on all planets with free water in their interiors or on their surfaces, including Mars and Earth. Hovland, et al., 2006. Salt formation by supercritical seawater and submerged boiling. Marine and Petrol. Geol. 23, 855-69

Rueslåtten, H.; Hovland, M. T.

2010-12-01

56

Liquid-glass transition of water/salt mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is known to exhibit a number of anomalous behaviors and to be an exceptionally poor glass-former. However, both features are strongly affected by applying pressure or adding salt. This means that these two parameters have strong influence on physical factors controlling the unusual features of water. By using a water/salt mixture as a model system, we experimentally demonstrate that the glass-forming ability and the fragility of a water/salt mixture are closely related to its equilibrium phase diagram. The key to this link may be frustration between local ordering and global ordering toward the crystal. Relying on the same role of salt as pressure in water anomalies as a breaker of local tetrahedral order, we infer the behavior of water under pressure from that of a water/salt mixture. This scenario not only explains unusual behavior of water-type liquids such as water, Si and Ge under pressure, but also may provide a general explanation on the link between the equilibrium phase diagram, the glass-forming ability, and the fragility of various materials for a wide class of materials.

Kobayashi, Mika; Tanaka, Hajime

2013-02-01

57

Influence of the water content and water activity on styrene degradation by Exophiala jeanselmei in biofilters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance at low water availability of styrene-degrading biofilters with the fungus Exophiala jeanselmei growing on perlite, the inert support, was investigated. E. jeanselmei degrades styrene at a water activity of 0.91–1. In biofilters, the styrene elimination capacity at a water activity of 0.91\\u000a is 5% of the maximal elimination capacity of 79?g?m-3?h-1 (water activity 1). Application of dry air

H. H. J. Cox; F. J. Magielsen; H. J. Doddema; W. Harder

1996-01-01

58

Water in the Oceanic Lithosphere: Salt Lake Crater Xenoliths, Oahu, Hawaii  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water can be present in nominally anhydrous minerals of peridotites in the form of hydrogen bonded to structural oxygen. Such water in the oceanic upper mantle could have a significant effect on its physical and chemical properties. However, the water content of the MORB source has been inferred indirectly from the compositions of basalts. Direct determinations on abyssal peridotites are scarce because they have been heavily hydrothermally altered. Here we present the first water analyses of minerals from spinel peridotite xenoliths of Salt Lake Crater, Oahu, Hawaii, which are exceptionally fresh. These peridotites are thought to represent fragments of the Pacific oceanic lithosphere that was refertilized by alkalic Hawaiian melts. A few have unradiogenic Os and radiogenic Hf isotopes and may be fragments of an ancient (2 Ga) depleted and recycled lithosphere. Water contents in olivine (Ol), orthopyroxene (Opx), and clinopyroxene (Cpx) were determined by FTIR spectrometry. Preliminary H_{2}O contents show ranges of 8-10 ppm for Ol, 151-277 ppm for Opx, and 337-603 ppm for Cpx. Reconstructed bulk rock H_{2}O contents range from 88-131 ppm overlapping estimates for the MORB source. Water contents between Ol minerals of the same xenolith are heterogeneous and individual OH infrared bands vary within a mineral with lower 3230 cm^{-1} and higher 3650-3400 cm^{-1} band heights from core to edge. This observation suggests disturbance of the hydrogen in Ol likely occurring during xenolith entrainment to the surface. Pyroxene water contents are higher than most water contents in pyroxenes from continental peridotite xenoliths and higher than those of abyssal peridotites. Cpx water contents decrease with increasing degree of depletion (e.g. increasing Fo in Ol and Cr# in spinel) consistent with an incompatible behavior of water. However Cpx water contents also show a positive correlation with LREE/HREE ratios and LREE concentrations consistent with refertilization. Opx water contents increase with increasing degree of depletion and decrease with LREE/HREE ratios which is inconsistent with the incompatible behavior of H. Calculated water contents of melts in equilibrium with Cpx or Opx range from 1.4 to 3.8 wt % which is higher than that of all Hawaiian lavas. Calculated melts in equilibrium with Cpx and Opx have variable but mostly high H_{2}O/Ce ratios (194 to 1146) consistent with those of rejuvenated stage lavas from Niihau and the South Arch volcanic field, but unlike the drier shield building stage tholeiites. Whether the high water contents recorded in Salt Lake Crater xenoliths were acquired before and/or during interaction of the oceanic lithosphere with the Hawaiian plume will be discussed.

Peslier, Anne H.; Bizimis, Michael

2010-01-01

59

Rapid assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll content.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Present techniques of airborne chlorophyll measurement are discussed as an approach to water pollution assessment. The differential radiometer, the chlorophyll correlation radiometer, and an infrared radiometer for water temperature measurements are described as the key components of the equipment. Also covered are flight missions carried out to evaluate the capability of the chlorophyll correlation radiometer in measuring the chlorophyll content in water bodies with widely different levels of nutrients, such as fresh-water lakes of high and low eutrophic levels, marine waters of high and low productivity, and an estuary with a high sediment content. The feasibility and usefulness of these techniques are indicated.

Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

1971-01-01

60

CHARACTERIZATION OF CASEIN FILMS MADE BY PRESSURIZED CARBON DIOXIDE: SALT EFFECT ON WATER SOLUBILITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Films made from casein, precipitated from skim milk using pressurized carbon dioxide (CO2), have been shown to exhibit unique properties such as water resistance in addition to the apparent environmental benefits that the process bears. To gain insights on the dominating molecular forces that give r...

61

Water and salt balance of Great Salt Lake, Utah, and simulation of water and salt movement through the causeway  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The water and salt balance of Great Salt Lake primarily depends on the amount of inflow from tributary streams and the conveyance properties of a causeway constructed during 1957-59 that divides the lake into the south and north parts. The conveyance properties of the causeway originally included two culverts, each 15 feet wide, and the permeable rock-fill material.

Wold, Steven R.; Thomas, Blakemore E.; Waddell, K.M.

1997-01-01

62

Little Change in Fast Food Calorie Counts, Salt Content  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. Little Change in Fast Food Calorie Counts, Salt Content Researchers tracked popular items from 3 major ... Mundell Wednesday, December 31, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Dietary Sodium Nutrition Weight Control WEDNESDAY, Dec. 31, 2014 (HealthDay ...

63

HA/nylon 6,6 porous scaffolds fabricated by salt-leaching/solvent casting technique: effect of nano-sized filler content on scaffold properties.  

PubMed

Nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA)/nylon 6,6 composite scaffolds were produced by means of the salt-leaching/solvent casting technique. NaCl with a distinct range size was used with the aim of optimizing the pore network. Composite powders with different n-HA contents (40%, 60%) for scaffold fabrication were synthesized and tested. The composite scaffolds thus obtained were characterized for their microstructure, mechanical stability and strength, and bioactivity. The microstructure of the composite scaffolds possessed a well-developed interconnected porosity with approximate optimal pore size ranging from 200 to 500 ?m, ideal for bone regeneration and vascularization. The mechanical properties of the composite scaffolds were evaluated by compressive strength and modulus tests, and the results confirmed their similarity to cortical bone. To characterize bioactivity, the composite scaffolds were immersed in simulated body fluid for different lengths of time and results monitored by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis to determine formation of an apatite layer on the scaffold surface. PMID:21904455

Mehrabanian, Mehran; Nasr-Esfahani, Mojtaba

2011-01-01

64

HA/nylon 6,6 porous scaffolds fabricated by salt-leaching/solvent casting technique: effect of nano-sized filler content on scaffold properties  

PubMed Central

Nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA)/nylon 6,6 composite scaffolds were produced by means of the salt-leaching/solvent casting technique. NaCl with a distinct range size was used with the aim of optimizing the pore network. Composite powders with different n-HA contents (40%, 60%) for scaffold fabrication were synthesized and tested. The composite scaffolds thus obtained were characterized for their microstructure, mechanical stability and strength, and bioactivity. The microstructure of the composite scaffolds possessed a well-developed interconnected porosity with approximate optimal pore size ranging from 200 to 500 ?m, ideal for bone regeneration and vascularization. The mechanical properties of the composite scaffolds were evaluated by compressive strength and modulus tests, and the results confirmed their similarity to cortical bone. To characterize bioactivity, the composite scaffolds were immersed in simulated body fluid for different lengths of time and results monitored by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis to determine formation of an apatite layer on the scaffold surface. PMID:21904455

Mehrabanian, Mehran; Nasr-Esfahani, Mojtaba

2011-01-01

65

[Effect of shifting sand burial on evaporation reduction and salt restraint under saline water irrigation in extremely arid region].  

PubMed

The Taklimakan Desert Highway Shelterbelt is drip-irrigated with high saline groundwater (2.58-29.70 g x L(-1)), and shifting sand burial and water-salt stress are most common and serious problems in this region. So it is of great importance to study the effect of shifting sand burial on soil moisture evaporation, salt accumulation and their distribution for water saving, salinity restraint, and suitable utilization of local land and water resources. In this study, Micro-Lysimeters (MLS) were used to investigate dynamics of soil moisture and salt under different thicknesses of sand burial (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm), and field control experiments of drip-irrigation were also carried out to investigate soil moisture and salt distribution under different thicknesses of shifting sand burial (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 cm). The soil daily and cumulative evaporation decreased with the increase of sand burial thickness in MLS, cumulative evaporation decreased by 2.5%-13.7% compared with control. And evaporative inhibiting efficiency increased with sand burial thickness, evaporative inhibiting efficiency of 1-5 cm sand burial was 16.7%-79.0%. Final soil moisture content beneath the interface of sand burial increased with sand burial thickness, and it increased by 2.5%-13.7% than control. The topsoil EC of shifting sand in MLS decreased by 1.19-6.00 mS x cm(-1) with the increasing sand burial thickness, whereas soil salt content beneath the interface in MLS increased and amplitude of the topsoil salt content was higher than that of the subsoil. Under drip-irrigation with saline groundwater, average soil moisture beneath the interface of shifting sand burial increased by 0.4% -2.0% compare with control, and the highest value of EC was 7.77 mS x cm(-1) when the sand burial thickness was 10 cm. The trend of salt accumulation content at shifting sand surface increased firstly, and then decreased with the increasing sand burial thickness. Soil salt contents beneath the interface of shifting sand burial were much lower than that of shifting sand surface. 35 cm was the critical sand burial thickness for water-saving and salt restraint. In summary, sand burial had obvious inhibition effects on soil evaporation and salt accumulation, so maybe it could be used to save water and reduce salt accumulation in arid shifting desert areas. PMID:25129944

Zhang, Jian-Guo; Zhao, Ying; Xu, Xin-Wen; Lei, Jia-Qiang; Li, Sheng-Yu; Wang, Yong-Dong

2014-05-01

66

Estimating canopy water content from spectroscopy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Foliar water content is a dynamic quantity depending on water losses from transpiration and water uptake from the soil. Absorption of shortwave radiation by water is determined by various frequency overtones of fundamental bending and stretching molecular transitions. Leaf water potential and rela...

67

Hyperosmolarity drives hypertension and CKD--water and salt revisited.  

PubMed

An epidemic of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Mesoamerica is providing new insights into the mechanisms by which salt and water might drive hypertension and CKD. Increasingly, evidence suggests that recurrent dehydration and salt loss might be a mechanism that causes CKD, and experimental studies suggest a key role for increased plasma osmolarity in activating both intrarenal (polyol-fructokinase) and extrarenal (vasopressin) pathways that drive renal injury. Thus, we propose that water and salt might influence blood pressure and kidney disease through the timing and combination of their intake, which affect plasma osmolarity as well as intrarenal and extrarenal mechanisms of renal injury. The type of fluid intake might also be important, as fluids containing fructose can trigger activation of these pathways. Future studies should investigate the effects of salt, sugar and fluid intake on plasma osmolarity as a potential pathogenetic mechanism in renal injury and high blood pressure. PMID:24802066

Johnson, Richard J; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Ishimoto, Takuji; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Wesseling, Catharina; Bankir, Lise; Sanchez-Lozada, Laura G

2014-07-01

68

GmWRKY53, a water- and salt-inducible soybean gene for rapid dissection of regulatory elements in BY-2 cell culture  

PubMed Central

Drought is the major cause of crop losses worldwide. Water stress-inducible promoters are important for understanding the mechanisms of water stress responses in crop plants. Here we utilized tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) Bright Yellow 2 (BY-2) cell system in presence of polyethylene glycol, salt and phytohormones. Extension of the system to 85 mM NaCl led to inducibility of up to 10-fold with the water stress and salt responsive soybean GmWRKY53 promoter. Upon ABA and JA treatment fold inducibility was up to 5-fold and 14-fold, respectively. Thus, we hypothesize that GmWRKY53 could be used as potential model candidate for dissecting drought regulatory elements as well as understanding crosstalk utilizing a rapid heterologous system of BY-2 culture. PMID:23511199

Tripathi, Prateek; Rabara, Roel C.; Lin, Jun; Rushton, Paul J.

2013-01-01

69

Salt water cooling tower retrofit experience  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the experience of engineers at Atlantic Electric Co. with a recent cooling tower fill retrofit at the company's B.L. England Station, Unit 3. Note that this tower is unique. It is the first natural draft salt water tower to be built in the United States. Unit 3's closed-loop saltwater cooling system features a double condenser and two 50% capacity horizontal circulating water pumps. A natural draft cooling tower rejects heat to the atmosphere through evaporation and sensible heat transfer. The tower is 180 ft in diameter at the base and 208 ft high, and features a counterflow design. It was designed to cool 63,500 gpm of circulating salt water through a range of 26 F with an approach of 19.2 degrees at an ambient wet bulb temperature of 76 F and 60% relative humidity. A drift rate of 0.002% of circulating water flow was specified to avoid excessive salt water carryover.

Rittenhouse, R.C.

1994-06-01

70

Measurement of fluid contents by light transmission in transient three-phase oil-water-air systems in sand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most three-phase flow models lack rigorous validation because very few methods exist that can measure transient fluid contents of the order of seconds of whole flow fields. The objective of this study was to develop a method by which fluid content can be measured rapidly in three-phase systems. The method uses the hue and intensity of light transmitted through a slab chamber to measure fluid contents. The water is colored blue with CuSO4. The light transmitted by high-frequency light bulbs is recorded with a color video camera in red, green, and blue and then converted to hue, saturation, and intensity. Calibration of hue and intensity with water, oil, and air is made using cells filled with different combinations of the three fluids. The results show that hue and water content are uniquely related over a large range of fluid contents. Total liquid content is a function of both hue and light intensity. The air content is obtained by subtracting the liquid content from the porosity. The method was tested with static and transient experiments. Measurements made with the light transmission method (LTM) and synchrotron X rays of the static experiment agreed well. In the transient experiments, fingers were formed by dripping water on the surface in a two-dimensional slab chamber with partially oil-saturated sand. The LTM is able to capture the spatial resolution of the fluid contents and can provide new insights in rapidly changing, three-phase flow systems.

Darnault, C. J. G.; Dicarlo, D. A.; Bauters, T. W. J.; Jacobson, A. R.; Throop, J. A.; Montemagno, C. D.; Parlange, J.-Y.; Steenhuis, T. S.

2001-07-01

71

46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section 45...LOAD LINES Load Line Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence River...

2013-10-01

72

46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section 45...LOAD LINES Load Line Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence River...

2010-10-01

73

46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section 45...LOAD LINES Load Line Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence River...

2012-10-01

74

46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section 45...LOAD LINES Load Line Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence River...

2011-10-01

75

46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section 45...LOAD LINES Load Line Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence River...

2014-10-01

76

Mediating relaxation and polarization of hydrogen-bonds in water by NaCl salting and heating.  

PubMed

Infrared spectroscopy and contact-angle measurements revealed that NaCl salting has the same effect as heating on O:H phonon softening and H-O phonon stiffening, but has the opposite effect on skin polarization of liquid water. The mechanics of thermal modulation of O-O Coulomb repulsion [Sun, et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2013, 4, 3238] may suggest a possible mechanism for this NaCl involved Hofmeister effect, aqueous solution modulated surface tension and its abilities in protein dissolution, from the perspective of Coulomb mediation of interaction within the O:H-O bond. PMID:25325235

Zhang, Xi; Yan, Tingting; Huang, Yongli; Ma, Zengsheng; Liu, Xinjuan; Zou, Bo; Sun, Chang Q

2014-12-01

77

Quantification of water content and speciation in natural silicic glasses (phonolite, dacite, rhyolite) by confocal microRaman spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of total water content (H2OT: 0.1-10 wt%) and water speciation (H2Omolecular\\/OH) in volcanic products by confocal microRaman spectrometry are discussed for alkaline (phonolite) and calcalkaline (dacite and rhyolite) silicic glasses. Shape and spectral distribution of the total water band (H2OT) at 3550 cm ?1 show systematic evolution with glass H2OT, water speciation and NBO\\/T. In the studied set

A. Di Muro; G. Montagnacb B. Villemant; B. Scaillet; B. Reynard

78

Quantification of water content and speciation in natural silicic glasses (phonolite, dacite, rhyolite) by confocal microRaman spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of total water content (H2OT: 0.1–10wt%) and water speciation (H2Omolecular\\/OH) in volcanic products by confocal microRaman spectrometry are discussed for alkaline (phonolite) and calcalkaline (dacite and rhyolite) silicic glasses. Shape and spectral distribution of the total water band (H2OT) at ?3550cm?1 show systematic evolution with glass H2OT, water speciation and NBO\\/T. In the studied set of silicic samples,

A. Di Muro; B. Villemant; G. Montagnac; B. Scaillet; B. Reynard

2006-01-01

79

Salt water cooling tower retrofit experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the experience of engineers at Atlantic Electric Co. with a recent cooling tower fill retrofit at the company's B.L. England Station, Unit 3. Note that this tower is unique. It is the first natural draft salt water tower to be built in the United States. Unit 3's closed-loop saltwater cooling system features a double condenser and two

Rittenhouse

1994-01-01

80

Indirectly suspended droplet microextraction of water-miscible organic solvents by salting-out effect for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

A simple and low-cost method that indirectly suspended droplet microextraction of water-miscible organic solvents (ISDME) by salting-out effect before high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) detection was used for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different samples. The ISDME is a combination of salting-out extraction of water-miscible organic solvent and directly suspended droplet microextraction (DSDME). Ninety-five microliters water-miscible organic solvent (1-propanol) was added to a 500-µL sample. A homogeneous solution was formed immediately. To produce a steady vortex at the top of the solution, the sample was agitated at 700 rpm using a magnetic stirrer. By the addition of ammonium sulfate (saturated solution) to the homogeneous solution, 1-propanol was separated and collected at the bottom of the steady vortex. Finally, 20?µL 1-propanol was injected into HPLC-UV. The effects of important parameters such as water-miscible organic solvent (type and volume), type of salt, and extraction time were evaluated. Under optimum conditions, the method has a good linear calibration range (0.1 µg/L-300 µg/L), coefficients of determination (R(2) > 0.998), low limits of detection (between 0.02 µg/L and 0.27 µg/L), and acceptable recovery (>85.0%). PMID:25242239

Daneshfar, Ali; Khezeli, Tahere

2014-12-01

81

Numerical Simulation of Soil Water Content in the Unsaturated Zone Using Constraints Provided by Geophysical Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil moisture distribution and variation in the vadose zone is important for agricultural, engineering and contaminant studies. Conventional sampling techniques for estimating soil water moisture content are costly, time consuming, invasive, and typically recover information at a single point in space and time only. Geophysical techniques have the potential to provide dense and accurate information about subsurface soil moisture. However, these data still provide information about water content at the time of measurement only, and geophysical data acquisition is sometimes hindered by cultural or site conditions. For example, although both surface and crosshole GPR techniques have been successfully applied for providing soil moisture information over space and time, the penetration distance of the GPR signal is limited in soils having high electrical conductivity, sometimes inhibiting moisture profiling through the entire vadose zone. In this study, we investigate the potential of coupling geophysical measurements with numerical modeling to provide information about soil moisture variations in space and over time. Such an approach was undertaken to permit estimation of soil moisture throughout the root zone even under difficult GPR data acquisition conditions, and also to yield insight into the dynamics of soil water distribution, including both state variables and fluxes. In this study, surface and crosshole geophysical measurements provide initial and boundary soil moisture conditions to a numerical simulator (TOUGH2-EOS9) based on Richard­_s Equation. Simulations were run using information available from various geophysical techniques collected at a naturally heterogeneous agricultural field site, including surface GPR, crosshole GPR, neutron probe, and TDR measurements. Information about soil heterogeneity was obtained using borehole soil textural information, and meteorological water flux boundary conditions were obtained using rain gauges, sap flow meters and also from a nearby CIMIS weather station. Hydraulic conductivity, one of the most difficult field variables to measure, can be satisfactorily estimated using a stochastic inverse modeling approach. Comparison of soil moisture measurements (collected throughout a year at a field site near Napa, CA) with the various simulations suggested that the approach was able to capture the natural evolution of the vadose zone soil moisture profile at several locations throughout the heterogeneous site. These results illustrate that improvement in the understanding of water cycling and its interaction with ecosystems can be obtained by coupling hydrological theory and measurements available from geophysical and meteorological techniques.

Hou, Z.; Rubin, Y.; Hubbard, S. S.

2002-12-01

82

Separation and Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process  

SciTech Connect

Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing wastewater residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by-products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy/rubber matrix for separating and encapsulating waste components from salt laden, arsenic contaminated, amorphous iron hydrate sludges. Such sludges are generated from conventional water purification precipitation/adsorption processes, used to convert aqueous brine streams to semi-solid waste streams, such as ion exchange/membrane separation, and from other precipitative heavy metal removal operations. In this study, epoxy and polystyrene butadiene (PSB) rubber emulsions are mixed together and then combined with a surrogate sludge. The surrogate sludge consists of amorphous iron hydrate with 1 part arsenic fixed to the surface of the hydrate per 10 parts iron mixed with sodium nitrate and chloride salts and water. The resulting emulsion is cured and dried at 80 °C to remove water. Microstructure characterization by electron microscopy confirms that the epoxy/PSB matrix surrounds and encapsulates the arsenic laden amorphous iron hydrate phase while allowing the salt to migrate to internal and external surfaces of the sample. Salt extraction studies indicate that the porous nature of the resulting matrix promotes the separation and removal of as much as 90% of the original salt content in only one hour. Long term leaching studies based on the use of the infinite slab diffusion model reveal no evidence of iron migration or, by inference, arsenic migration, and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficients of the unextracted salt yield leachability indices within regulations for non-hazardous landfill disposal. Because salt is the most mobile species, it is inferred that arsenic leaches from the host material at an even slower rate, making the waste forms amenable to unregulated land disposal options. These results indicate that the environmentally-benign, water-based emulsion processing of epoxy/PSB polymeric hosts show great promise as a separation and fixation technology for treating brine streams from wastewater treatment facilities.

Franks, C.; Quach, A.; Birnie III, D.; Ela, W.; Saez, A.E.; Zelinski, B.; Smith, H.; Smith, G.

2004-01-01

83

Barium content of benthic foraminifera controlled by bottom-water composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE carbon isotope ratio (delta13C) and cadmium content (Cd\\/Ca) of benthic foraminifera shells have been used to reconstruct deep-water circulation patterns of the glacial oceans1-7. These tracers co-vary with phosphorus in the modern ocean because they are nearly quantitatively regenerated from sinking biological debris in the upper water column. Hence they can be used to reconstruct the distribution of labile

D. Lea; E. Boyle

1989-01-01

84

Non-invasive quantification of small bowel water content by MRI: a validation study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Substantial water fluxes across the small intestine occur during digestion of food, but so far measuring these has required invasive intubation techniques. This paper describes a non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for measuring small bowel water content which has been validated using naso-duodenal infusion. Eighteen healthy volunteers were intubated, with the tube position being verified by MRI. After a baseline MRI scan, each volunteer had eight 40 ml boluses of a non-absorbable mannitol and saline solution infused into their proximal small bowel with an MRI scan being acquired after each bolus. The MRI sequence used was an adapted magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography sequence. The image data were thresholded to allow for intra- and inter-subject signal variations. The MRI measured volumes were then compared to the known infused volumes. This MRI technique gave excellent images of the small bowel, which closely resemble those obtained using conventional radiology with barium contrast. The mean difference between the measured MRI volumes and infused volumes was 2% with a standard deviation of 10%. The maximum 95% limits of agreement between observers were -15% to +17% while measurements by the same operator on separate occasions differed by only 4%. This new technique can now be applied to study alterations in small bowel fluid absorption and secretion due to gastrointestinal disease or drug intervention.

Hoad, C. L.; Marciani, L.; Foley, S.; Totman, J. J.; Wright, J.; Bush, D.; Cox, E. F.; Campbell, E.; Spiller, R. C.; Gowland, P. A.

2007-12-01

85

HIGH PERMEABILITY MEMBRANES FOR THE DEHYDRATION OF LOW WATER CONTENT ETHANOL BY PERVAPORATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Energy efficient dehydration of low water content ethanol is a challenge for the sustainable production of fuel-grade ethanol. Pervaporative membrane dehydration using a recently developed hydrophilic polymer membrane formulation consisting of a cross-linked mixture of poly(allyl...

86

[Effects of cooking methods on iodine content in iodized salt].  

PubMed

Effects of cooking methods and variety of foods on the retention of iodine content in food with iodized salt were studied. Vegetables from market and usual cooking methods were selected, including procedures of various cooking methods. The samples were fixed by potassium carbonate, ashed with zinc sulfate at 550 degrees C, then determined by colorimetric method with Ce-As-I catalytical reaction. The different cooking methods had different effects on the retention of iodine, in general, the retention of iodine by stewing of steaming was higher than by stir-frying. The effect of various vegetables on the retention of iodine was also different. The retention of iodine after stir-frying was 84.2%, 56.9%, 44.5%, 36.6% for fruit-bearing vegetables, leafy vegetables, roots and beans. The retention of iodine after stewing was 66.1%, 53.4%, 47.0%, and 43.2% for fruit-bearing vegetables, roots, beans and meat. The stability of organic iodine in food is higher than that of inorganic iodine. PMID:11939033

Shi, L; Zhou, R; Wang, G

1998-11-30

87

Surfactant enhanced wetting and salt leaching of soil contaminated by crude oil and brine  

SciTech Connect

As a pre-treatment of bioremediation, leaching of salts from an agriculture top soil contaminated with crude oil and brine was inhibited by severe water repellency resulting from the large difference in surface tension between water and soil aggregates coated by crude oil. Surfactant solutions were found effective in reducing soil water repellency and improving salt leaching. An intermittent leaching procedure further improved leaching efficiency by allowing diffusion of salt from soil interpores to aggregate surface. As a result, electric conductivity (EC) of the contaminated soil was reduced from 11.8 dS cm{sup -1} to 2.6 dS cm{sup -1} when the soil was leached with a non-ionic surfactant (0.05 N, SN-70, Witco Inc.) using 1.6 L kg{sup -1} water. Dissolved hydrocarbons into the leachate was 106 mg L{sup -1} counting for 3.5% of total oil content.

Guo, I.; McNabb, D.H.; Johnson, R.L. [Soil Remediation Research, Vegreville, Alberta (Canada)

1995-12-31

88

Protein, casein, and micellar salts in milk: current content and historical perspectives.  

PubMed

The protein and fat content of Dutch bulk milk has been monitored since the 1950s and has increased considerably, by 11 and 20%, respectively, whereas milk yield has more than doubled. The change in protein and fat content of milk is advantageous for the dairy industry, as these are the 2 most economically valuable constituents of milk. Increases in protein and fat content of milk have allowed increases in the yield of various products such as cheese and butter. However, for cheese and other applications where casein micelles play a crucial role in structure and stability, it is not only casein content, but also the properties of the casein micelles that determine processability. Of particular importance herein is the salt partition in milk, but it is unknown whether increased protein content has affected the milk salts and their distribution between casein micelles and milk serum. It was, therefore, the objective of this research to determine the salt composition and protein content for individual cow milk and bulk milk over a period of 1 yr and to compare these data to results obtained during the 1930s, 1950s, and 1960s in the last century. Calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and phosphorus content were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and inorganic phosphate, citrate, chloride, and sulfate content by anion-exchange chromatography in bulk milk and milk ultracentrifugate. In addition, ionic calcium and ionic magnesium concentration were determined by the Donnan membrane technique. We concluded that historical increase in milk yield and protein content in milk have resulted in correlated changes in casein content and the micellar salt fraction of milk. In addition, the essential nutrients, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus in milk have increased the past 75yr; therefore, the nutritional value of milk has improved. PMID:23849643

Bijl, E; van Valenberg, H J F; Huppertz, T; van Hooijdonk, A C M

2013-09-01

89

The salt content of products from popular fast-food chains in Costa Rica.  

PubMed

Salt is a major determinant of population blood pressure levels. Salt intake in Costa Rica is above levels required for good health. With an increasing number of Costa Ricans visiting fast food restaurants, it is likely that fast-food is contributing to daily salt intake. Salt content data from seven popular fast food chains in Costa Rica were collected in January 2013. Products were classified into 10 categories. Mean salt content was compared between chains and categories. Statistical analysis was performed using Welch ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer HSD tests. Significant differences were found between companies; Subway products had lowest mean salt content (0.97?g/100?g; p?salt content were observed between categories. Salads had a mean salt content of 0.45?g/100?g while sauces had 2.16?g/100?g (p?salt content was also seen within food categories. Salt content in sandwiches ranged from 0.5 to 2.1?g/100?g. The high levels and wide variation in salt content of fast food products in Costa Rica suggest that salt reduction is likely to be technically feasible in many cases. With an increasing number of consumers purchasing fast foods, even small improvements in salt levels could produce important health gains. PMID:25171851

Heredia-Blonval, Katrina; Blanco-Metzler, Adriana; Montero-Campos, Marielos; Dunford, Elizabeth K

2014-12-01

90

Cross-contamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 is inhibited by electrolyzed water combined with salt under dynamic conditions of increasing organic matter.  

PubMed

Water can be a vector for foodborne pathogen cross-contamination during washing of vegetables if an efficient method of water disinfection is not used. Chlorination is the disinfection method most widely used, but it generates disinfection by-products such as trihalomethanes (THMs). Therefore, alternative disinfection methods are sought. In this study, a dynamic system was used to simulate the commercial conditions of a washing tank. Organic matter and the inoculum of Escherichia coli O157:H7 were progressively added to the wash water in the washing tank. We evaluated the effectiveness of the electrolyzed water (EW) when combining with the addition of salt (1, 0.5 and 0.15 g/L NaCl) on the pathogenic inactivation, organic matter depletion and THM generation. Results indicated that electrolysis of vegetable wash water with addition of salt (0.5 g/L NaCl) was able to eliminate E. coli O157:H7 population build-up and decrease COD accumulation while low levels of THMs were produced. PMID:25475317

Gómez-López, Vicente M; Gil, María I; Pupunat, Laurent; Allende, Ana

2015-04-01

91

Comparison of intracellular water content measurements by dark-field imaging and EELS in medium voltage TEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the water content at the subcellular level is important to evaluate the intracellular concentration of either diffusible or non-diffusible elements in the physiological state measured by the electron microprobe methods. Water content variations in subcellular compartments are directly related to secretion phenomena and to transmembrane exchange processes, which could be attributed to pathophysiological states. In this paper we will describe in details and compare two local water measurement methods using analytical electron microscopy. The first one is based on darkfield imaging. It is applied on freeze-dried biological cryosections; it allows indirect measurement of the water content at the subcellular level from recorded maps of darkfield intensity. The second method uses electron energy loss spectroscopy. It is applied to hydrated biological cryosections. It is based on the differences that appear in the electron energy loss spectra of macromolecular assemblies and vitrified ice in the 0-30 eV range. By a multiple least squares (MLS) fit between an experimental energy loss spectrum and reference spectra of both frozen-hydrated ice and macromolecular assemblies we can deduce directly the local water concentration in biological cryosections at the subcellular level. These two methods are applied to two test specimens: human erythrocytes in plasma, and baker's yeast (Saccharomyses Cerevisiae) cryosections. We compare the water content measurements obtained by these two methods and discuss their advantages and drawbacks.

Terryn, C.; Michel, J.; Kilian, L.; Bonhomme, P.; Balossier, G.

2000-09-01

92

Receptacle model of salting-in by tetramethylammonium ions.  

PubMed

Water is a poor solvent for nonpolar solutes. Water containing ions is an even poorer solvent. According to standard terminology, the tendency of salts to precipitate oils from water is called salting-out. However, interestingly, some salt ions, such as tetramethylammonium (TMA), cause instead the salting-in of hydrophobic solutes. Even more puzzling, there is a systematic dependence on solute size. TMA causes the salting-out of small hydrophobes and the salting-in of larger nonpolar solutes. We study these effects using NPT Monte Carlo simulations of the Mercedes-Benz (MB) + dipole model of water, which was previously shown to account for hydrophobic effects and ion solubilities in water. The present model gives a structural interpretation for the thermodynamics of salting-in. The TMA structure allows deep penetration by a first shell of waters, the dipoles of which interact electrostatically with the ion. This first water shell sets up a second water shell that is shaped to act as a receptacle that binds the nonpolar solute. In this way, a nonpolar solute can actually bind more tightly to the TMA ion than to another hydrophobe, leading to the increased solubility and salting-in. Such structuring may also explain why molecular ions do not follow the same charge density series as atomic ions do. PMID:21028768

Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A; Vlachy, Vojko

2010-11-25

93

Characterization of water content dynamics and tracer breakthrough by 3-D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) under transient unsaturated conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterization of preferential flow and transport is still a major challenge but may be improved employing noninvasive, tomographic methods. In this study, 3-D time lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was employed during infiltration on an undisturbed, unsaturated soil core in a laboratory lysimeter. A tracer breakthrough was conducted during transient conditions by applying a series of short-term infiltrations, simulating natural precipitation events. The electrical response was quantitatively validated using data from a multicompartment suction sampler. Water content probes were also installed for ground-truthing of ERT responses. Water content variations associated with an infiltration front dominated the electrical response observed during individual short-term infiltration events, permitting analysis of water content dynamics from ERT data. We found that, instead of the application of an uncertain petrophysical function, shape measures of the electrical conductivity response might be used for constraining hydrological models. Considering tracer breakthroughs, the ERT observed voxel responses from time lapse tomograms at constant water contents in between infiltration events were used to quantitatively characterize the breakthrough curve. Shape parameters of the breakthrough derived from ERT, such as average velocity, were highly correlated with the shape parameters derived from local tracer breakthrough curves observed in the compartments of the suction plate. The study demonstrates that ERT can provide reliable quantitative information on both, tracer breakthroughs and water content variations under the challenging conditions of variable background electrical conductivity of the pore solution and non steady-state infiltration.

Wehrer, Markus; Slater, Lee D.

2015-01-01

94

Water Content of Earth's Continental Mantle Is Controlled by the Circulation of Fluids or Melts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A key mission of the ARES Directorate at JSC is to constrain models of the formation and geological history of terrestrial planets. Water is a crucial parameter to be measured with the aim to determine its amount and distribution in the interior of Earth, Mars, and the Moon. Most of that "water" is not liquid water per se, but rather hydrogen dissolved as a trace element in the minerals of the rocks at depth. Even so, the middle layer of differentiated planets, the mantle, occupies such a large volume and mass of each planet that when it is added at the planetary scale, oceans worth of water could be stored in its interior. The mantle is where magmas originate. Moreover, on Earth, the mantle is where the boundary between tectonic plates and the underlying asthenosphere is located. Even if mantle rocks in Earth typically contain less than 200 ppm H2O, such small quantities have tremendous influence on how easily they melt (i.e., the more water there is, the more magma is produced) and deform (the more water there is, the less viscous they are). These two properties alone emphasize that to understand the distribution of volcanism and the mechanism of plate tectonics, the water content of the mantle must be determined - Earth being a template to which all other terrestrial planets can be compared.

Peslier, Anne; Woodland, Alan B.; Bell, David R.; Lazarov, Marina; Lapen, Thomas J.

2014-01-01

95

Effects of water turbidity and salt concentration levels on penetration of solar radiation under water  

SciTech Connect

Two large, outdoor tanks were constructed in order to investigate the effects of water turbidity and salt concentration levels at various depths of water on penetration of solar radiation. These experiments were followed by a laboratory investigation that measured spectral transmittance and the extinction coefficient of water at different salt concentrations and turbidity levels. Both the outdoor and laboratory results indicate that the salt concentration level does not significantly affect solar radiation penetration. However, water clarity, quantified in terms of the turbidity level, plays a critical role on the magnitude of the solar radiation penetration, with the effect of turbidity on penetration increasing with the depth of water. A best-fit model is developed that gives the solar radiation penetration as a function of turbidity level and depth of water.

Wang, J.; Seyed-Yagoobi, J. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

1994-05-01

96

Dynamics of Confined Water Molecules in Aqueous Salt Hydrates  

SciTech Connect

The unusual properties of water are largely dictated by the dynamics of the H bond network. A single water molecule has more H bonding sites than atoms, hence new experimental and theoretical investigations about this peculiar liquid have not ceased to appear. Confinement of water to nanodroplets or small molecular clusters drastically changes many of the liquid’s properties. Such confined water plays a major role in the solvation of macro molecules such as proteins and can even be essential to their properties. Despite the vast results available on bulk and confined water, discussions about the correlation between spectral and structural properties continue to this day. The fast relaxation of the OH stretching vibration in bulk water, and the variance of sample geometries in the experiments on confined water obfuscate definite interpretation of the spectroscopic results in terms of structural parameters. We present first time-resolved investigations on a new model system that is ideally suited to overcome many of the problems faced in spectroscopical investigation of the H bond network of water. Aqueous hydrates of inorganic salts provide water molecules in a crystal grid, that enables unambiguous correlations of spectroscopic and structural features. Furthermore, the confined water clusters are well isolated from each other in the crystal matrix, so different degrees of confinement can be achieved by selection of the appropriate salt.

Werhahn, Jasper C.; Pandelov, S.; Yoo, Soohaeng; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Iglev, H.

2011-04-01

97

Water, Vapor, and Salt Dynamics in a Hot Repository  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a new model study examining the high temperature nuclear waste disposal concept at Yucca Mountain using MULTIFLUX, an integrated in-drift- and mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic model. The results show that a large amount of vapor flow into the drift is expected during the period of above-boiling temperatures. This phenomenon makes the emplacement drift a water/moisture attractor during the above-boiling temperature operation. The evaporation of the percolation water into the drift gives rise to salt accumulation in the rock wall, especially in the crown of the drift for about 1500 years in the example. The deposited salts over the drift footprint, almost entirely present in the fractures, may enter the drift either by rock fall or by water drippage. During the high temperature operation mode, the barometric pressure variation creates fluctuating relative humidity in the emplacement drift with a time period of approximately 10 days. Potentially wet and dry conditions and condensation on salt-laden drift wall sections may adversely affect the storage environment. Salt accumulations during the above-boiling temperature operation must be sufficiently addressed to fully understand the waste package environment during the thermal period. Until the questions are resolved, a below-boiling repository design is favored where the Alloy-22 will be less susceptible to localized corrosion. (authors)

Bahrami, Davood; Danko, George [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, 1664 N. Virginia St., Reno, NV, 89557 (United States); Walton, John [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University, El Paso, TX, 79968 (United States)

2007-07-01

98

Brines formed by multi-salt deliquescence  

SciTech Connect

The FY05 Waste Package Environment testing program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory focused on determining the temperature, relative humidity, and solution compositions of brines formed due to the deliquescence of NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures. Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of these brines is important because they define conditions under which brines may react with waste canister surfaces. Boiling point experiments show that NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures form brines that transform to hydrous melts that do not truly 'dry out' until temperatures exceed 300 and 400 C, respectively. Thus a conducting solution is present for these salt assemblages over the thermal history of the repository. The corresponding brines form at lower relative humidity at higher temperatures. The NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has a mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.8% at 180 C. Similarly, the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. The KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture salts also absorb some water (but do not appear to deliquesce) at 180 C and thus may also contribute to the transfer of electrons at interface between dust and the waste package surface. There is no experimental evidence to suggest that these brines will degas and form less deliquescent salt assemblages. Ammonium present in atmospheric and tunnel dust (as the chloride, nitrate, or sulfate) will readily decompose in the initial heating phase of the repository, and will affect subsequent behavior of the remaining salt mixture only through the removal of a stoichiometric equivalent of one or more anions. Although K-Na-NO{sub 3}-Cl brines form at high temperature and low relative humidity, these brines are dominated by nitrate, which is known to inhibit corrosion at lower temperature. Nitrate to chloride ratios of the NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture are about NO{sub 3}:Cl = 19:1. The role of nitrate on corrosion at higher temperatures is addressed in a companion report (Dixit et al., 2005).

Carroll, S; Rard, J; Alai, M; Staggs, K

2005-11-04

99

Soil Water Content on Mars as Estimated from Neutron Measurements by the HEND Instrument Onboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey Spacecraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of 20 months of observations of Mars by the Russian HEND instrument onboard the NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft. We show that there are two extended subpolar regions with a soil water content of several tens of percent in the northern and southern hemispheres of Mars. The southern subpolar region is well described by a two-layer

I. G. Mitrofanov; M. L. Litvak; A. S. Kozyrev; A. B. Sanin; V. I. Tret'yakov; V. Yu. Grin'kov; W. V. Boynton; C. Shinohara; D. Hamara; R. S. Saunders

2004-01-01

100

Dechlorination of chloroacetanilide herbicides by thiosulfate salts.  

PubMed

Halogenated organic compounds (XOCs) are among the most widely used synthetic chemicals. Many XOCs are recalcitrant to natural degradation and have become prominent environmental contaminants. One group of such XOCs are the heavily used chloroacetanilide herbicides. We have found that chloroacetanilide herbicides are rapidly dechlorinated in water, sand, and soil by thiosulfate salts under ambient conditions. Structural and kinetics analysis suggests that the reaction occurred by S(N)2 nucleophilic substitution, in which the chlorine was replaced by thiosulfate and the herbicide was detoxified. Laboratory studies showed that this reaction could be used for removing residues of chloroacetanilide herbicides in water, soil, and sand. Our findings also suggest that some other XOCs may be subject to this reaction. Because common thiosulfate salts are innocuous products (e.g., fertilizers) and the reaction selectively detoxifies XOCs at low thiosulfate levels, this discovery may lead to a new way for safe removal of certain XOCs from the environment. PMID:11943844

Gan, Jianying; Wang, Qiquan; Yates, Scott R; Koskinen, William C; Jury, William A

2002-04-16

101

Errors in determination of soil water content using time-domain reflectometry caused by soil compaction around wave guides  

SciTech Connect

Application of time domain reflectometry (TDR) in soil hydrology often involves the conversion of TDR-measured dielectric permittivity to water content using universal calibration equations (empirical or physically based). Deviations of soil-specific calibrations from the universal calibrations have been noted and are usually attributed to peculiar composition of soil constituents, such as high content of clay and/or organic matter. Although it is recognized that soil disturbance by TDR waveguides may have impact on measurement errors, to our knowledge, there has not been any quantification of this effect. In this paper, we introduce a method that estimates this error by combining two models: one that describes soil compaction around cylindrical objects and another that translates change in bulk density to evolution of soil water retention characteristics. Our analysis indicates that the compaction pattern depends on the mechanical properties of the soil at the time of installation. The relative error in water content measurement depends on the compaction pattern as well as the water content and water retention properties of the soil. Illustrative calculations based on measured soil mechanical and hydrologic properties from the literature indicate that the measurement errors of using a standard three-prong TDR waveguide could be up to 10%. We also show that the error scales linearly with the ratio of rod radius to the interradius spacing.

Ghezzehei, T.A.

2008-05-29

102

Effect of initial hydrogen content of a titanium alloy on susceptibility to hot salt stress corrosion.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of the initial hydrogen content of a titanium alloy on subsequent resistance to hot salt stress corrosion embrittlement and cracking was investigated. A Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V alloy was tested in four conditions: mill annealed (70 ppm H), duplex annealed (70 ppm H), vacuum annealed to an intermediate (36 ppm H) and a low (9 ppm H) hydrogen level. Material annealed at 650 C (duplex condition) exhibited resistance to hot salt stress corrosion superior to that exhibited by material in the mill annealed condition. Reduction of the alloy hydrogen content from 70 to as low as 9 ppm did not influence resistance to hot salt stress corrosion embrittlement or cracking.

Gray, H. R.

1972-01-01

103

Results of water quality sampling near Richton, Cypress Creek and Lampton Salt Domes, Mississippi  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the Mississippi salt basin in southern Mississippi, chemical quality studies of surface water and ground water have been made to determine present water-quality conditions near three salt domes being studied by the Department of Energy as potential repositories for radioactive wastes. Chloride concentrations in excess of 60 milligrams per liter in surface water and ground water in Perry County indicate that contamination could be occurring from industrial wastes, oil test wells, or dissolution of Richton or Cypress Creek domes. (USGS)

Gandl, L.A.; Spiers, C.A.

1980-01-01

104

Profiling soil water content sensor  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A waveguide-on-access-tube (WOAT) sensor system based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) principles was developed to sense soil water content and bulk electrical conductivity in 20-cm (8 inch) deep layers from the soil surface to depths of 3 m (10 ft) (patent No. 13/404,491 pending). A Cooperative R...

105

Iodine nutrition: iodine content of iodized salt in the United States.  

PubMed

Adequacy of iodine nutrition in the United States has lately been of concern. A major source of dietary iodine for the U.S. population is iodized salt. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) recommends 60-100 mg Kl/kg salt, equivalent to 46-76 mg l/kg salt. All U.S. iodized salt contains 45 mg l/kg according to labels. We collected samples of table salt from freshly opened containers from U.S. volunteers. A sample was sent to us when the can was first purchased. Subsets of volunteers sent further samples when the salt container became half-empty through normal use and a further final sample when the container was nearly finished. We also looked at iodine distribution homogeneity within individual containers, loss of iodine from salt upon exposure to humidity and sunlight, and upon short-term heating (dry and in solution) as may be encountered in cooking. Measurements were made in 0.01% w/v salt solutions by induction coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with 72Ge as an internal standard. The median and mean (+/-sd) I content in freshly opened top-of-the-can salt samples was 44.1 and 47.5 +/- 18.5 mg/kg (n=88, range 12.7-129 mg l/kg) and geometric mean and standard deviation of 44.70 and 1.41. Forty-seven of 88 samples fell below the USFDA recommended I content while 6 exceeded it. The homogeneity in a single can of salt varied greatly: in 5 samples taken from the same container from different depths, the iodine content varied by as little as 1.2x (8.3% coefficient of variance (CV)) to as much as 3.3x (49.3% CV) from one container/brand to another. Iodine is significantly lost upon high humidity storage but light or dry heat has little effect. There is much recent literature on iodine sufficiency and uptake inhibitors; there is also much misinformation and disinformation. We review the relevant literature and discuss our results with reference to the United States. PMID:18351111

Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Liu, Yining; Dyke, Jason V

2008-02-15

106

Salt Appetite Is Reduced by a Single Experience of Drinking Hypertonic Saline in the Adult Rat  

PubMed Central

Salt appetite, the primordial instinct to favorably ingest salty substances, represents a vital evolutionary important drive to successfully maintain body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. This innate instinct was shown here in Sprague-Dawley rats by increased ingestion of isotonic saline (IS) over water in fluid intake tests. However, this appetitive stimulus was fundamentally transformed into a powerfully aversive one by increasing the salt content of drinking fluid from IS to hypertonic saline (2% w/v NaCl, HS) in intake tests. Rats ingested HS similar to IS when given no choice in one-bottle tests and previous studies have indicated that this may modify salt appetite. We thus investigated if a single 24 h experience of ingesting IS or HS, dehydration (DH) or 4% high salt food (HSD) altered salt preference. Here we show that 24 h of ingesting IS and HS solutions, but not DH or HSD, robustly transformed salt appetite in rats when tested 7 days and 35 days later. Using two-bottle tests rats previously exposed to IS preferred neither IS or water, whereas rats exposed to HS showed aversion to IS. Responses to sweet solutions (1% sucrose) were not different in two-bottle tests with water, suggesting that salt was the primary aversive taste pathway recruited in this model. Inducing thirst by subcutaneous administration of angiotensin II did not overcome this salt aversion. We hypothesised that this behavior results from altered gene expression in brain structures important in thirst and salt appetite. Thus we also report here lasting changes in mRNAs for markers of neuronal activity, peptide hormones and neuronal plasticity in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus following rehydration after both DH and HS. These results indicate that a single experience of drinking HS is a memorable one, with long-term changes in gene expression accompanying this aversion to salty solutions. PMID:25111786

Greenwood, Michael P.; Greenwood, Mingkwan; Paton, Julian F. R.; Murphy, David

2014-01-01

107

Identification and Control of Pollution from Salt Water Intrusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains informational guidelines for identifying and evaluating the nature and extent of pollution from salt water intrusion. The intent of these guidelines is to provide a basic framework for assessing salt water intrusion problems and their relationship to the total hydrologic system, and to provide assistance in developing…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

108

Water, Salt, and Nutrient Balances in an Estuarine Salt Marsh (Murderkill River Estuary, Kent County, Delaware) Project Period: 1 June 2007 to 30 November 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether salt marsh is a source or sink of nutrient species contributing to the oxygen demand of the Murderkill River Estuary (Kent County, Delaware) by measuring water, salt, and nutrient (N, P, C, Si) balances in and out of a constrained section of polyhaline salt-marsh. The results of this study will be used to verify and calibrate

Anthony Aufdenkampe

109

Molecular dynamics study of salt–solution interface: Solubility and surface charge of salt in water  

SciTech Connect

The NaCl salt–solution interface often serves as an example of an uncharged surface. However, recent laser-Doppler electrophoresis has shown some evidence that the NaCl crystal is positively charged in its saturated solution. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have investigated the NaCl salt–solution interface system, and calculated the solubility of the salt using the direct method and free energy calculations, which are kinetic and thermodynamic approaches, respectively. The direct method calculation uses a salt–solution combined system. When the system is equilibrated, the concentration in the solution area is the solubility. In the free energy calculation, we separately calculate the chemical potential of NaCl in two systems, the solid and the solution, using thermodynamic integration with MD simulations. When the chemical potential of NaCl in the solution phase is equal to the chemical potential of the solid phase, the concentration of the solution system is the solubility. The advantage of using two different methods is that the computational methods can be mutually verified. We found that a relatively good estimate of the solubility of the system can be obtained through comparison of the two methods. Furthermore, we found using microsecond time-scale MD simulations that the positively charged NaCl surface was induced by a combination of a sodium-rich surface and the orientation of the interfacial water molecules.

Kobayashi, Kazuya; Liang, Yunfeng, E-mail: y-liang@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: matsuoka@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Matsuoka, Toshifumi, E-mail: y-liang@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: matsuoka@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Environment and Resource System Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)] [Environment and Resource System Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Sakka, Tetsuo [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)] [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

2014-04-14

110

Molecular dynamics study of salt-solution interface: Solubility and surface charge of salt in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NaCl salt-solution interface often serves as an example of an uncharged surface. However, recent laser-Doppler electrophoresis has shown some evidence that the NaCl crystal is positively charged in its saturated solution. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have investigated the NaCl salt-solution interface system, and calculated the solubility of the salt using the direct method and free energy calculations, which are kinetic and thermodynamic approaches, respectively. The direct method calculation uses a salt-solution combined system. When the system is equilibrated, the concentration in the solution area is the solubility. In the free energy calculation, we separately calculate the chemical potential of NaCl in two systems, the solid and the solution, using thermodynamic integration with MD simulations. When the chemical potential of NaCl in the solution phase is equal to the chemical potential of the solid phase, the concentration of the solution system is the solubility. The advantage of using two different methods is that the computational methods can be mutually verified. We found that a relatively good estimate of the solubility of the system can be obtained through comparison of the two methods. Furthermore, we found using microsecond time-scale MD simulations that the positively charged NaCl surface was induced by a combination of a sodium-rich surface and the orientation of the interfacial water molecules.

Kobayashi, Kazuya; Liang, Yunfeng; Sakka, Tetsuo; Matsuoka, Toshifumi

2014-04-01

111

A validation of a thermal inertia approach to map soil water content on soils characterized by low fractional cover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assessment of the spatial distribution of soil water content could improve the effectiveness of agro-hydrological models. Although it is possible to retrieve the spatial distribution of the soil water content using thermal inertia, the main limit is its applicability to bare soils only. Recently, a variation of the thermal inertia approach has been setup also on vegetated soils characterized by low fractional cover. In particular, the methodology proposes to attenuate the solar radiation at the top of the canopy to the one reaching the soil trough an extinction factor. In situ data were acquired in June 2011 and July 2012 over two fields of maize and sunflowers; both were at their early growing stages. An airborneplatform provided images in the visible/near infrared and thermal infrared, both in day and night time. Results of the 2011 experiment demonstrated that the vegetation cover correction is required even with low fractional cover; indeed, not applying this correction would results in strong overestimation. The 2012 experiment (REFLEX) further validates the model on an independent dataset, thus, confirming the reliability of the methodology. Furthermore, a spatial resolution analysis highlighted that retrievals at low spatial resolution best compares with in situsoil water content than those obtained at high-resolution. Finally, the availability of a thermal image acquired after irrigating demonstrated the unreliability of the method when soil water content significantly changes between the two thermal acquisitions.

Maltese, Antonino; Capodici, Fulvio; La Loggia, Goffredo; Corbari, Chiara; Mancini, Marco

2013-10-01

112

[Effects of water-salt stresses on seedling growth and activities of antioxidative enzyme of Suaeda salsa in coastal wetlands of the Yellow River Delta].  

PubMed

The halophyte Suaeda salsa is the pioneer plant and is used for the degraded coastal wetland in Yellow River Delta. The water-salt stress is the most important factor for ecological restoration to degraded coastal wetland. To understand the adaptive mechanism of Suaeda salsa to water-salt stresses, the induced effects of different groundwater table depths (0, -10, -20, -30 cm) and salt stress (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%) on seedlings of Suaeda salsa plant were characterized by the growth parameters of plant height, branch number and biomass of different organs and biological indices of leaf chlorophyll content, the activities of SOD, CAT, the leaf content of MDA and protein. The results showed the significantly (p < 0.001) decreased height of the seedlings from -30 cm to 0 cm of groundwater table depth, together with the decreased the number of branches, the biomass of leaf, shoot and root. The highest total biomass of single plant was (1.09 +/- 0.15) g under the condition of -30 cm water table depth and 0% salt stress. However, the combination of 0 cm water table depth and 3% NaCl resulted in the biomass of (0.23 +/- 0.01) g, which was ca. 21% compared with the highest biomass. Similarly, the contents of leaf chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid were the highest under the condition of -30 cm water table depth and 0% salt stress and lowest under the condition of 0 cm water table depth combined with 3% NaCl. The activities of SOD, CAT were increased significantly (p < 0.05) depending on the increase of salt stress. At 0 cm water table depth, the activities of SOD were 55.00 U/mg with 0% NaCl and 151.58 U/mg with 3% NaCl, respectively. The activities of SOD were decreased when the water table depth increased. However, the activities of CAT achieved the highest level at -30 cm water table depth. At 0 and -10 cm water table depth, the MDA content increased with the increase of salt stress. The MDA content was 0.26 mmol/g at -30 cm water table depth with 3% NaCl, which was approx. 28%-40% of the MDA contents compared with that caused by other salt stresses. These results demonstrated that Suaeda salsa plant could change its morphological characteristics, biomass allocation, and the activities of antioxidative enzymes to adapt severe environment. PMID:22619973

Guan, Bo; Yu, Jun-Bao; Lu, Zhao-Hua; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Xue-Hong

2011-08-01

113

Evaluation of the direct and diffusion methods for the determination of fluoride content in table salt  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to assess methods currently used for analyzing fluoridated salt in order to identify the most useful method for this type of analysis. Basic research design Seventy-five fluoridated salt samples were obtained. Samples were analyzed for fluoride content, with and without pretreatment, using direct and diffusion methods. Element analysis was also conducted in selected samples. Fluoride was added to ultra pure NaCl and non-fluoridated commercial salt samples and Ca and Mg were added to fluoride samples in order to assess fluoride recoveries using modifications to the methods. Results Larger amounts of fluoride were found and recovered using diffusion than direct methods (96%–100% for diffusion vs. 67%–90% for direct). Statistically significant differences were obtained between direct and diffusion methods using different ion strength adjusters. Pretreatment methods reduced the amount of recovered fluoride. Determination of fluoride content was influenced both by the presence of NaCl and other ions in the salt. Conclusion Direct and diffusion techniques for analysis of fluoridated salt are suitable methods for fluoride analysis. The choice of method should depend on the purpose of the analysis. PMID:20088217

Martínez-Mier, E. Angeles; Soto-Rojas, Armando E.; Buckley, Christine M.; Margineda, Jorge; Zero, Domenick T.

2010-01-01

114

Projected Impact of Climate Change on the Water and Salt Budgets of the Arctic Ocean by a Global Climate Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The annual flux of freshwater into the Arctic Ocean by the atmosphere and rivers is balanced by the export of sea ice and oceanic freshwater. Two 150-year simulations of a global climate model are used to examine how this balance might change if atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) increase. Relative to the control, the last 50-year period of the GHG experiment indicates that the total inflow of water from the atmosphere and rivers increases by 10% primarily due to an increase in river discharge, the annual sea-ice export decreases by about half, the oceanic liquid water export increases, salinity decreases, sea-ice cover decreases, and the total mass and sea-surface height of the Arctic Ocean increase. The closed, compact, and multi-phased nature of the hydrologic cycle in the Arctic Ocean makes it an ideal test of water budgets that could be included in model intercomparisons.

Miller, James R.; Russell, Gary L.

1996-01-01

115

Estimated urinary salt excretion by a self-monitoring device is applicable to education of salt restriction.  

PubMed

The objective was to investigate the validity of a self-monitoring device that estimates 24-h urinary salt excretion from overnight urine samples as a tool for education regarding salt restriction. Twenty healthy volunteers consumed test meals for 14 days, with salt content as follows: 10?g (days 1-5); 5?g (days 6-8, 12 and 14); and 13?g (days 9-11 and 13). On days 2-15, urinary salt excretion was estimated from overnight urine samples by a self-monitoring device. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected on days 5 and 8 to measure salt excretion directly. Blood pressure was measured in the morning and during sleep on days 1-15. Estimated urinary salt excretion measured by the device showed a correlation with salt intake, and the ratio of estimated urinary salt excretion to salt intake was 0.84±0.10 (days 2-6), 1.27±0.28 (days 7-9), 0.70±0.11 (days 10-12), 1.37±0.22 (day 13), 0.68±0.13 (day 14) and 1.33±0.19 (day 15). The correlation between estimated urinary salt excretion measured by a device and directly measured 24-h urinary salt excretion was significant (r=0.65, P<0.05) during the period of 10?g salt intake, but not during 5?g salt intake. Blood pressure in the morning was not influenced by the change in salt intake, but systolic pressure during sleep showed a significant increase or decrease according to the levels of salt intake. In conclusion, a self-monitoring device, which can estimate 24-h urinary salt excretion from overnight urine samples, is considered to be a practical tool for education regarding salt restriction, although a similar future investigation is needed in older and/or hypertensive subjects. PMID:25339061

Yasutake, Kenichiro; Horita, Noriko; Murata, Yusuke; Koyama, Susumu; Enjoji, Munechika; Tsuchihashi, Takuya

2015-02-01

116

Cross-sectional survey of salt content in cheese: a major contributor to salt intake in the UK  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the salt (sodium chloride) content in cheese sold in UK supermarkets. Study design We carried out a cross-sectional survey in 2012, including 612 cheeses available in UK supermarkets. Methods The salt content (g/100?g) was collected from product packaging and nutrient information panels of cheeses available in the top seven retailers. Results Salt content in cheese was high with a mean (±SD) of 1.7±0.58?g/100?g. There was a large variation in salt content between different types of cheeses and within the same type of cheese. On average, halloumi (2.71±0.34?g/100?g) and imported blue cheese (2.71±0.83?g/100?g) contained the highest amounts of salt and cottage cheese (0.55±0.14?g/100?g) contained the lowest amount of salt. Overall, among the 394 cheeses that had salt reduction targets, 84.5% have already met their respective Department of Health 2012 salt targets. Cheddar and cheddar-style cheese is the most popular/biggest selling cheese in the UK and has the highest number of products in the analysis (N=250). On average, salt level was higher in branded compared with supermarket own brand cheddar and cheddar-style products (1.78±0.13 vs 1.72±0.14?g/100?g, p<0.01). Ninety per cent of supermarket own brand products met the 2012 target for cheddar and cheddar-style cheese compared with 73% of branded products (p=0.001). Conclusions Salt content in cheese in the UK is high. There is a wide variation in the salt content of different types of cheeses and even within the same type of cheese. Despite this, 84.5% of cheeses have already met their respective 2012 targets. These findings demonstrate that much larger reductions in the amount of salt added to cheese could be made and more challenging targets need to be set, so that the UK can continue to lead the world in salt reduction. PMID:25099933

Hashem, Kawther M; He, Feng J; Jenner, Katharine H; MacGregor, Graham A

2014-01-01

117

Renal excretion of water in men under hypokinesia and physical exercise with fluid and salt supplementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been suggested that under hypokinesia (reduced number of steps/day) and intensive physical exercise, the intensification of fluid excretion in men is apparently caused as a result of the inability of the body to retain optimum amounts of water. Thus, to evaluate this hypothesis, studies were performed with the use of fluid and sodium chloride (NaCl) supplements on 12 highly trained physically healthy male volunteers aged 19-24 years under 364 days of hypokinesis (HK) and a set of intensive physical exercises (PE). They were divided into two groups with 6 volunteers per group. The first group of subjects were submitted to HK and took daily fluid and salt supplements in very small doses and the second group of volunteers were subjected to intensive PE and fluid-salt supplements. For the simulation of the hypokinetic effect, both groups of subjects were kept under an average of 4000 steps/day. During the prehypokinetic period of 60 days and under the hypokinetic period of 364 days water consumed and eliminated in urine by the men, water content in blood, plasma volume, rate of glomerular filtration, renal blood flow, osmotic concentration of urine and blood were measured. Under HK, the rate of renal excretion of water increased considerably in both groups. The additional fluid and salt intake failed to normalize water balance adequately under HK and PE. It was concluded that negative water balance evidently resulted not from shortage of water in the diet but from the inability of the body to retain optimum amounts of fluid under HK and a set of intensive PEs.

Zorbas, Yan G.; Federenko, Youri F.; Togawa, Mitsui N.

118

Effect of chloride content of molten nitrate salt on corrosion of A516 carbon steel.  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion behavior of A516 carbon steel was evaluated to determine the effect of the dissolved chloride content in molten binary Solar Salt. Corrosion tests were conducted in a molten salt consisting of a 60-40 weight ratio of NaNO{sub 3} and KNO{sub 3} at 400{sup o}C and 450{sup o}C for up to 800 hours. Chloride concentrations of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% were investigated to determine the effect on corrosion of this impurity, which can be present in comparable amounts in commercial grades of the constituent salts. Corrosion rates were determined by descaled weight losses, corrosion morphology was examined by metallographic sectioning, and the types of corrosion products were determined by x-ray diffraction. Corrosion proceeded by uniform surface scaling and no pitting or intergranular corrosion was observed. Corrosion rates increased significantly as the concentration of dissolved chloride in the molten salt increased. The adherence of surface scales, and thus their protective properties, was degraded by dissolved chloride, fostering more rapid corrosion. Magnetite was the only corrosion product formed on the carbon steel specimens, regardless of chloride content or temperature.

Bradshaw, Robert W.; Clift, W. Miles

2010-11-01

119

Determination of sulfonamides in swine muscle after salting-out assisted liquid extraction with acetonitrile coupled with back-extraction by a water\\/acetonitrile\\/dichloromethane ternary component system prior to high-performance liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A salting-out assisted liquid extraction coupled with back-extraction by a water\\/acetonitrile\\/dichloromethane ternary component system combined with high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC–DAD) was developed for the extraction and determination of sulfonamides in solid tissue samples. After the homogenization of the swine muscle with acetonitrile and salt-promoted partitioning, an aliquot of 1mL of the acetonitrile extract containing a small amount

Wen-Hsien Tsai; Tzou-Chi Huang; Ho-Hsien Chen; Yuh-Wern Wu; Joh-Jong Huang; Hung-Yi Chuang

2010-01-01

120

Nitrogen in Desert Grasses as Affected by Biosolids, their Time of Application, and Soil Water Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the interactive effect of biosolids, time of application, and soil water on plant N concentration and uptake by Bouteloua gracilis (blue grama) and Hilaria mutica (tobosagrass) grown in pots. Biosolids were surface-applied to the soil of the pots either in the spring or the summer at rates of 0, 7, 18, 34, and 90 dry Mg ha.

RICARDO MATA-GONZÁLEZ; RONALD E. SOSEBEE; CHANGGUI WAN

2004-01-01

121

Local variation in absolute water content of human and rabbit eye lenses measured by Raman microspectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raman spectra were obtained from fresh, fixed and sliced rabbit lenses and from human lens slices. For all lenses and lens slices the ratio R, defined as the Raman intensity at 3390 cm?1 divided by the Raman intensity at 2935 cm?1, was measured at different locations along the visual and equatorial axis. The ratios R were transformed to absolute water

Alex Huizinga; Annet C. C. Bot; Mul de Frits F. M; Gijs F. J. M. Vrensen; Jan Greve

1989-01-01

122

The chemistry of salt-affected soils and waters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Knowledge of the chemistry of salt affected soils and waters is necessary for management of irrigation in arid and semi-arid regions. In this chapter we review the origin of salts in the landscape, the major chemical reactions necessary for prediction of the soil solution composition, and the use of...

123

Age-related changes in local water and protein content of human eye lenses measured by Raman microspectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Raman microspectroscopic method was used to determine the local water and protein content in human lenses. In 18 lenses of varying age position-defined water\\/protein content measurements were carried out along the visual and the equatorial axis.\\u000a\\u000aA main characteristic of the human lens is its constant and relatively low protein content. In addition this constant nuclear value is reached

Itte Siebinga; Gijs F. J. M. Vrensen; Mul de F. F. M; Jan Greve

1991-01-01

124

Content of toxic and essential metals in recrystallized and washed table salt in Shiraz, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background Table salt is the most commonly used food additive. Since most of the salt consumed in Iran comes from mines, contamination with heavy metals is a health concern. The commonest salt purification method in Iran is washing with water. But recently, some industries have turned to recrystallization method. The present study aimed to determine the level of essential and non-essential heavy metals in the table salt refined with recrystallization and washing methods. Methods Thirty eight pre-packed salt samples were directly collected from retail market in Shiraz (22 samples refined with recrystallization method and 16 with washing method). The level of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, nickel and cobalt was determined using Voltammetric method. Daily intakes of lead and cadmium as well as their weekly intakes were calculated. Results The levels of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, nickel and cobalt in recrystallized samples were 0. 30 ± 0.26, 0.02 ± 0.02, 0.11 ± 0.06, 0.34 ± 0.22, 0.15 ± 0.19 and 0.008 ± 0.007 ?g/g, respectively, and also 0.37 ± 0.27, 0.017 ± 0.021, 0.19 ± 0.18, 0.37 ± 0.20, 0.13 ± 0.23 and 0.037 ± 0.06 ?g/g in washed salt samples. The calculated weekly intake of lead and cadmium was 0.216 and 0.014 ?g/kg, respectively for the recrystallized and 0.2653 and 0.0119 ?g/kg for the washed salts. Conclusion All values for toxic metals were lower than the permitted maximum for human consumption as prescribed by Codex and Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. Only 0.8652-1.0612% of lead and 0.17-0.2% of cadmium PTWIs are received via salt consumption weekly. PMID:24398299

2014-01-01

125

Mineral Content and Biochemical Variables of Aloe vera L. under Salt Stress  

PubMed Central

Despite the proven economic importance of Aloe vera, studies of saline stress and its effects on the biochemistry and mineral content in tissues of this plant are scarce. The objective of this study was to grow Aloe under NaCl stress of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM and compare: (1) proline, total protein, and enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP-case) in chlorenchyma and parenchyma tissues, and (2) ion content (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, Fe, P. N, Zn, B, Mn, and Cu) in roots, stems, leaves and sprouts. Proline and PEP-case increased as salinity increased in both parenchyma and chlorenchyma, while total protein increased in parenchyma and decreased in chlorenchyma, although at similar salt concentrations total protein was always higher in chlorenchyma. As salinity increased Na and Cl ions increased in roots, stems, leaves, while K decreased only significantly in sprouts. Salinity increases typically caused mineral content in tissue to decrease, or not change significantly. In roots, as salinity increased Mg decreased, while all other minerals failed to show a specific trend. In stems, the mineral concentrations that changed were Fe and P which increased with salinity while Cu decreased. In leaves, Mg, Mn, N, and B decreased with salinity, while Cu increased. In sprouts, the minerals that decreased with increasing salinity were Mg, Mn, and Cu. Zinc did not exhibit a trend in any of the tissues. The increase in protein, proline and PEP-case activity, as well as the absorption and accumulation of cations under moderate NaCl stress caused osmotic adjustment which kept the plant healthy. These results suggest that Aloe may be a viable crop for soil irrigated with hard water or affected by salinity at least at concentrations used in the present study. PMID:24736276

Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel Víctor; Villegas-Espinoza, Jorge Arnoldo; Hernández-Montiel, Luis Guillermo; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; García-Hernández, José Luis

2014-01-01

126

Breadboard wash water renovation system. [using ferric chloride and ion exchange resins to remove soap and dissolved salts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A total wash water renovation system concept was developed for removing objectionable materials from spacecraft wash water in order to make the water reusable. The breadboard model system described provides for pretreatment with ferric chloride to remove soap by chemical precipitation, carbon adsorption to remove trace dissolved organics, and ion exchange for removal of dissolved salts. The entire system was put into continuous operation and carefully monitored to assess overall efficiency and equipment maintenance problems that could be expected in actual use. In addition, the capacity of the carbon adsorbers and the ion-exchange resin was calculated and taken into consideration in the final evaluation of the system adequacy. The product water produced was well within the Tentative Wash Water Standards with regard to total organic carbon, conductivity, urea content, sodium chloride content, color, odor, and clarity.

1978-01-01

127

Impact of eustatic sea level changes on the salt-water fresh-water interface in coastal ground waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Holocene sea level rise has been inundating former glacial to inter-glacial deposits at the North German coast some of which are in use for municipal drinking water abstraction. Sea water intrusion into these sediments represents a serious threat to the coastal freshwater resources. To date, mechanisms and timing of salt water intrusion have not been explored. Interstitial waters from two drilling cores recovered about 3 km offshore the coastline of Northern Germany now offer the possibility of investigating the origin and possible age of the sea water intrusion. The chloride inventory shows that the sea-water fresh-water interface in the subsurface is currently not in equilibrium with the position of todaýs coastline. Furthermore, the shape of the chloride depth profile suggests that at least one regression must have intermitted the Holocene transgression. Based on these findings we conducted a transient numerical simulation to elucidate the impact of eustatic sea level changes on the salt-water fresh-water distribution within the subsurface of coastal regions. We applied a modified Henry model with an inclined surface and forced by a dynamic sea level. The results show that salt fronts in the subsurface follow the coastline during transgressions and promote a fast salinization of the model aquifer. A regression immediately leads to the freshening of surface sediments via the replacement of saline and brackish waters with meteoric waters, while flushing of deeper parts of the model aquifer with fresh-water was significantly slower. Although the coastline has moved seaward saline ground waters remained at depth because ground water velocities are slower and density-driven recirculation of sea water constantly resupplies salt water. The results indicate that the shape of the salt-water fresh-water interface in coastal aquifers may strongly be affected by eustatic sea level changes. They also provide evidence that man-made fixation of the coast line by land reclamation and the subsequent construction of dykes in Northern Germany has impacted the salt-water distribution in the subsurface. But although dyking has started around 1000 years ago some areas still do not have completely freshened. This implies that freshening of aquifers once intruded by sea water may be a slow process which takes te?s to hundreds of years.

Riedel, Thomas; Lettmann, Karsten; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen

2010-05-01

128

Water Balance, Salt Loading, and Salinity Control Options of Red Bluff Reservoir, Texas  

E-print Network

TR- 298 2007 Water Balance, Salt Loading, and Salinity Control Options of Red Bluff Reservoir, Texas by S. Miyamoto, Fasong Yuan, and Shilpa Anand Agricultural Research and Extension Center at El Paso Texas... Agricultural Experiment Station The Texas A&M University System Texas Water Resources Institute Texas A&M University WATER BALANCE, SALT LOADING, AND SALINITY CONTROL OPTIONS OF RED BLUFF RESERVOIR, TEXAS S. Miyamoto, Fasong...

Miyamoto, S.; Yuan, Fasong; Anand, Shilpa

129

4. VIEW TO NORTHEAST, SKINNER SALT ROASTERS, SAMPLING BUILDING, WATER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW TO NORTHEAST, SKINNER SALT ROASTERS, SAMPLING BUILDING, WATER TOWER, AND OFFICE BUILDING. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

130

Hygienic importance of increased barium content in some fresh waters.  

PubMed

In surface waters of the mining and processing areas of uranium ore there is an increased content of free and bound barium ions due to the use of barium salts for the treatment of waste and mine waters containing radium. In model experiments with the algae Ankistrodesmus falcatus, Chlorella kessleri and Scenedesmus obliquus, we studied the effect of Ba2+ on the accumulation of 226Ra. It was found that the accumulation of radium by algae is negatively influenced with barium concentrations higher than 1 mg.l-1. The accumulation of barium of organisms of primary production was studied using 133BaCl2. At a barium content in the medium of 4.0, 0.46 and 0.04 mu. l-1, the algae accumulated 30-60% of the added amount of barium during an exposure of 15 days. Biochemical analyses showed that barium is bound to the cellular membrane and to other components of the algal cell that cannot be extracted with water or alcohol. PMID:7462608

Havlík, B; Hanusová, J; Rálková, J

1980-01-01

131

Water content reflectometer calibration and field use  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Automated soil water content can be used to help determine upward water movement from a shallow water table. Apparent permittivity determined from dielectric probes is related to more than soil water content for soils high in smectite clays. The purpose of this study was to calibrate and use CS616 w...

132

Movement of Salt and Nitrate in Shallow Groundwater in California's Central Valley - Large Scale Water, Salt, and Nitrate Balance Calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large-scale analysis of salt and nitrate was performed for the shallow groundwater aquifer of the entire California Central Valley floor (about 20,000 square miles). This analysis combined many different platforms of data in order to complete water and mass balance calculations. Groundwater and surface water quality test data were used in combination with mass loading from a watershed model (the Environmental Protection Agency's Watershed Analysis Risk Management Framework, or WARMF), as well as an integrated hydrologic model that simulates the use and movement of water coupled between the landscape, surface water, and groundwater (the U.S. Geological Survey's Central Valley Hydrologic Model, or CVHM). For this analysis, the Central Valley floor was divided into 22 zones, and the movement of shallow groundwater, surface water, salt, and nitrate was simulated in, out, and between the zones on a quarterly basis for a 20-year simulation period. In this analysis, shallow groundwater is defined by an estimate of the vertical distance water will travel from the water table within 20 years. Fluxes of mass from deep ambient groundwater and ambient surface water quality were estimated from measured concentration data. Quantities of mass were acquired for recharge (from WARMF output) or calculated using concentrations and other water budget components. Flow and volume components were extracted by post-processing CVHM output data. This resulted in a transient water, salt, and nitrate budget for each of the 22 zones. Simulated shallow groundwater concentrations were calculated to investigate water quality trends for the Central Valley. Four zones were identified as areas with the highest concentrations of salt (TDS) in the southwestern portion of the Central Valley; and six zones were identified as areas with the highest nitrate concentrations, mostly in the southeastern portion of the Valley. Additional analyses intended to shift from the large-scale balance calculations to a higher resolution analysis of the movement of water, salt, and nitrate was performed as a 'proof of concept' for two focus areas located in Stanislaus/Merced Counties and the Kings Subbasin, using MODPATH and MODPATH-OBS. Particle tracking was employed for both focus areas to observe the movement of water, salt, and nitrate from recharge zones to monitored wells, or on a cell-by-cell/layer-by-layer basis.

Dalgish, B. A.; Boyle, D.; Kretsinger Grabert, V. J.

2013-12-01

133

Estimating winter wheat plant water content using red edge parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote sensing of plant water content is difficult because the absorption band sensitive to foliar liquid water is also sensitive to the atmospheric vapour. A method using non-water-absorption spectral parameters to evaluate plant water content (PWC) would be valuable. In our experiment, canopy spectra of 48 winter wheat treatments with different varieties, different fertilization and irrigation levels were measured by

Liangyun Liu; Jihua Wang; Wenjiang Huang; Chunjiang Zhao; Bing Zhang; Qingxi Tong

2004-01-01

134

Hydrogeology and Simulated Ground-Water Flow in the Salt Pond Region of Southern Rhode Island  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Salt Pond region of southern Rhode Island extends from Westerly to Narragansett Bay and forms the natural boundary between the Atlantic Ocean and the shallow, highly permeable freshwater aquifer of the South Coastal Basin. Large inputs of fresh ground water coupled with the low flushing rates to the open ocean make the salt ponds particularly susceptible to eutrophication and bacterial contamination. Ground-water discharge to the salt ponds is an important though poorly quantified source of contaminants, such as dissolved nutrients. A ground-water-flow model was developed and used to delineate the watersheds to the salt ponds, including the areas that contribute ground water directly to the ponds and the areas that contribute ground water to streams that flow into ponds. The model also was used to calculate ground-water fluxes to these coastal areas for long-term average conditions. As part of the modeling analysis, adjustments were made to model input parameters to assess potential uncertainties in model-calculated watershed delineations and in ground-water discharge to the salt ponds. The results of the simulations indicate that flow to the salt ponds is affected primarily by the ease with which water is transmitted through a glacial moraine deposit near the regional ground-water divide, and by the specified recharge rate used in the model simulations. The distribution of the total freshwater flow between direct ground-water discharge and ground-water-derived surface-water (streamflow) discharge to the salt ponds is affected primarily by simulated stream characteristics, including the streambed-aquifer connection and the stream stage. The simulated position of the ground-water divide and, therefore, the model-calculated watershed delineations for the salt ponds, were affected only by changes in the transmissivity of the glacial moraine. Selected changes in other simulated hydraulic parameters had substantial effects on total freshwater discharge and the distribution of direct ground-water discharge and ground-water-derived surface-water (streamflow) discharge to the salt ponds, but still provided a reasonable match to the hydrologic data available for model calibration. To reduce the uncertainty in predictions of watershed areas and ground-water discharge to the salt ponds, additional hydrogeologic data would be required to constrain the model input parameters that have the greatest effect on the simulation results.

Masterson, John P.; Sorenson, Jason R.; Stone, Janet R.; Moran, S. Bradley; Hougham, Andrea

2007-01-01

135

Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of < 1 ppm in urKREEP. Using these data, predict that the bulk water content of the magma ocean would have <10 ppm. In contrast, estimate water contents of 320 ppm for the bulk Moon and 1.4 wt % for urKREEP from plagioclase in ferroan anorthosites. Results and interpretation: NanoSIMS data from granitic clasts from Apollo sample 15405,78 show that alkali feldspar, a common mineral in K-enriched rocks, can have approx. 20 ppm of water, which implies magmatic water contents of approx. 1 wt % in the high-silica magmas. This estimate is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. However, the Cl and F contents of apatite in chemically similar rocks suggest that these melts also had high Cl/F ratios, which leads to spuriously low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was likely very significant in the evolution of the lunar mantle. Conclusions: Lunar granites crystallized between 4.3-3.8 Ga from relatively wet melts that degassed upon crystallization. The formation of these granites likely removed significant amounts of water from some mantle source regions, e.g. later mare basalts predicting derivation from a mantle with <10 ppm water. However, this would have been a heterogeneous pro-cess based on K distribution. Thus some, if not most of the mantle may not have been devolatilized by this process; as seen by water in volcanic glasses and melt inclusions.

Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.

2016-01-01

136

A Tolerant Behavior in Salt-Sensitive Tomato Plants can be Mimicked by Chemical Stimuli  

PubMed Central

Lycopersicon esculentum plants exhibit increased salt stress tolerance following treatment with adipic acid monoethylester and 1,3-diaminepropane (DAAME), known as an inducer of resistance against biotic stress in tomato and pepper. For an efficient water and nutrient uptake, plants should adapt their water potential to compensate a decrease in water soil potential produced by salt stress. DAAME-treated plants showed a faster and stronger water potential reduction and an enhanced proline accumulation. Salinity-induced oxidative stress was also ameliorated by DAAME treatments. Oxidative membrane damage and ethylene emission were both reduced in DAAME-treated plants. This effect is probably a consequence of an increase of both non-enzymatic antioxidant activity as well as peroxidase activity. DAAME-mediated tolerance resulted in an unaltered photosynthetic rate and a stimulation of the decrease in transpiration under stress conditions without a cost in growth due to salt stress. The reduction in transpiration rate was concomitant with a reduction in phytotoxic Na+ and Cl? accumulation under saline stress. Interestingly, the ABA deficient tomato mutant sitiens was insensitive to DAAME-induced tolerance following NaCl stress exposure. Additionally, DAAME treatments increased the ABA content of leaves, therefore, an intact ABA signalling pathway seems to be important to express DAAME-induced salt tolerance. Here, we show a possibility of enhance tomato stress tolerance by chemical induction of the major plant defences against salt stress. DAAME-induced tolerance against salt stress could be complementary to or share elements with induced resistance against biotic stress. This might be the reason for the observed wide spectrum of effectiveness of this compound. PMID:19516968

Flors, Víctor; Paradís, Mercedes; García-Andrade, Javier; Cerezo, Miguel; González-Bosch, Carmen

2007-01-01

137

24-Epibrassinolide regulates photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content of Cucumis sativus under salt and/or copper stress.  

PubMed

Brassinosteroids have been extensively used to overcome various abiotic stresses. But its role in combined stress of salt and excess copper remains unexplored. Seeds of two cultivars (Rocket and Jumbo) of Cucumis sativus were grown in sand amended with copper (100 mg kg(-1)), and developed seedlings were exposed to salt stress in the form of NaCl (150 mM) at the 30-day stage of growth for 3 days. These seedlings were subsequently sprayed with 0 or 0.01 ?M of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) at the 35-day stage. The plants exposed to NaCl and Cu in combination exhibited a significant decline in fresh and dry mass of plant, chlorophyll content, activities of carbonic anhydrase, net photosynthetic rate and maximum quantum yield of the PSII primary photochemistry followed by NaCl and Cu stress alone, more severely in Jumbo than in Rocket. However, the follow-up treatment with EBL to the stressed and nonstressed plant improved growth, chlorophyll content, carbonic anhydrase activity and photosynthetic efficiency, and further enhanced the activity of various antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and content of proline at the 40-day stage of growth, and the response of the hormone was more effective in Rocket than in Jumbo. The elevated level of antioxidant enzymes as well as proline could have conferred tolerance to the NaCl- and/or Cu-stressed plants resulting in improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activity and proline content were more enhanced in Rocket than in Jumbo cultivar. PMID:23443638

Fariduddin, Q; Khalil, Radwan R A E; Mir, Bilal A; Yusuf, M; Ahmad, A

2013-09-01

138

Salt diffusion in interstitial waters and halite removal from sediments: Examples from the Red Sea and Illinois basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large thicknesses of bedded halite can be removed in subsiding sedimentary basins by vertical diffusion of dissolved salt in interstitial waters over geologic time scales. Calculations show that at least 10 m to 40 m of halite may have dissolved and diffused through the Red Sea sediments overlying the salt beds, since cessation of salt deposition approximately 5.3 million years

Vishnu Ranganathan

1991-01-01

139

Determination of liquid water content and dielectric constant in porous media by the capacitive method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A capacitive sensor-based apparatus has been settled to determine the liquid water amount and dielectric constant in consolidated porous media. This technique relies on the dielectric properties of water, air, and mineral substrate. The experimental procedure is described for successively oven-dried samples at 323 K. It allows us to determine the sample dielectric constant as a function of the sample water amount. For limestones from Caen region, an affine relationship is found at 293 K. This is then compared with other empirical soils data and with existing homogeneisation techniques applied to undeformable heterogeneous dielectrics. To cite this article: T. Fen-Chong et al., C. R. Mecanique 332 (2004).

Fen-Chong, Teddy; Fabbri, Antonin; Guilbaud, Jean-Pierre; Coussy, Olivier

2004-08-01

140

Solutions properties and solute–solvent interactions in ternary sugar–salt–water solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viscometric constants were used to provide information on solute–solvent interactions in ternary water–sugar–salt solutions. Comparison was made between pure water and aqueous salt solution as solvents affecting the behaviour of small carbohydrates. The determination of intrinsic viscosity was made more accurate by applying triple extrapolation of the three equations (Huggins, Kramer and Meffroy-Biget). Results obtained with this triple extrapolation method

A. M. Seuvre; M. Mathlouthi

2010-01-01

141

MANAGEMENT OF GROUNDWATER IN SALT WATER INGRESS COASTAL AQUIFERS  

E-print Network

groundwater pumping is the primary cause of saltwater intrusion along the coasts, lowering of the water tableMANAGEMENT OF GROUNDWATER IN SALT WATER INGRESS COASTAL AQUIFERS C. P. Kumar Scientist `E1 dealing with exploitation, restoration and management of fresh groundwater in coastal aquifers, the key

Kumar, C.P.

142

First data on the uranium content in water of the Yenisei River basin in the area affected by the operation of Rosatom plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is devoted to investigating the content of uranium isotopes in water of the Yenisei River and its tributaries within the territories affected by the operation of Rosatom plants (mining chemical combine, and electrochemical plant). Long-term monitoring of the 238U content by mass spectrometry carried out in two institutes of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

A. Ya. Bolsunovskii; A. M. Zhizhaev; A. I. Saprykin; A. G. Degermendzhi; A. I. Rubailo

2011-01-01

143

Soil water content and evaporation determined by thermal parameters obtained from ground-based and remote measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soil water contents from both smooth and rough bare soil were estimated from remotely sensed surface soil and air temperatures. An inverse relationship between two thermal parameters and gravimetric soil water content was found for Avondale loam when its water content was between air-dry and field capacity. These parameters, daily maximum minus minimum surface soil temperature and daily maximum soil minus air temperature, appear to describe the relationship reasonably well. These two parameters also describe relative soil water evaporation (actual/potential). Surface soil temperatures showed good agreement among three measurement techniques: in situ thermocouples, a ground-based infrared radiation thermometer, and the thermal infrared band of an airborne multispectral scanner.

Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B.; Jackson, R. D.; Vedder, J. F.; Blanchard, M. B.; Goettelman, R.

1976-01-01

144

Surveys of the salt content in UK bread: progress made and further reductions possible  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore the salt reductions made over time in packaged bread sold in the UK, the biggest contributor of salt to the UK diet. Study design Cross-sectional surveys were carried out on the salt content of breads available in UK supermarkets in 2001(40 products), 2006 (138) and 2011 (203). Main outcome measures The primary outcome measure was the change in salt content per 100?g over time. Further measures included the proportion of products meeting salt targets and differences between brands and bread types. Results The average salt level of bread was 1.23±0.19?g/100?g in 2001, 1.05±0.16 in 2006 and 0.98±0.13 in 2011. This shows a reduction in salt/100?g of ?20% between 2001 and 2011. In the 18 products which were surveyed in all 3?years, there was a significant reduction of 17% (p<0.05). Supermarket own brand bread was found to be lower in salt compared with branded bread (0.95?g/100?g compared with 1.04?g/100?g in 2011). The number of products meeting the 2012 targets increased from 28% in 2001 to 71% in 2011 (p<0.001). Conclusions This study shows that the salt content of bread has been progressively reduced over time, contributing to the evidence base that a target-based approach to salt reduction can lead to reductions being made. A wide variation in salt levels was found with many products already meeting the 2012 targets, indicating that further reductions can be made. This requires further progressive lower targets to be set, so that the UK can continue to lead the world in salt reduction and save the maximum number of lives. PMID:23794567

Brinsden, Hannah C; He, Feng J; Jenner, Katharine H; MacGregor, Graham A

2013-01-01

145

Stress Induced Water Content Variations in Mango Stem by Time Domain Reflectometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Close, direct, and accurate monitoring of the plant water status may serve as a practical (irrigation scheduling) and a research (climate- environmental induced physiologic changes) tool. Methods for high- frequency capacitance measurement (e.g., time domain reflectometry (TDR)) possess the potential for high resolution dielectric measure- ments with minimal dependence on properties of the measured matrix. The objective of this study

A. Nadler; Eran Raveh; Uri Yermiyahu; S. Green

2006-01-01

146

Investigation of indigenous water, salt and soil for solar ponds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The existence of salt-gradient solar ponds in nature is a strong indication that the successful exploitation of this phenomenon must account adequately for the influences of the local setting. Sun, weather and other general factors are treated elsewhere. This paper deals with water, salt, and soil. A general methodology for evaluating and, where feasible, adjusting the effects of these elements is under development. Eight essential solar pond characteristics have been identified, along with a variety of their dependencies upon properties of water, salt and soil. The comprehensive methodology, when fully developed, will include laboratory investigation in such diverse areas as brine physical chemistry, light transmission, water treatment, brine-soil interactions, sealants, and others. With the Salton Sea solar pond investigation as an example, some methods under development will be described.

Marsh, H. E.

1983-01-01

147

[Estimation of vegetation water content from Landsat 8 OLI data].  

PubMed

The present paper aims to analyze the capabilities and limitations for retrieving vegetation water content from Landsat8 OLI (Operational Land Imager) sensor-new generation of earth observation program. First, the effect of soil background on canopy reflectance and the sensitive band to vegetation water content were analyzed based on simulated dataset from ProSail model. Then, based on vegetation water indices from Landsat8 OLI and field vegetation water content during June 1 2013 to August 14 2013, the best vegetation water index for estimating vegetation water content was found through comparing 12 different indices. The results show that: (1) red, near infrared and two shortwave infrared bands of OLI sensor are sensitive to the change in vegetation water content, and near infrared band is the most sensitive one; (2) At low vegetation coverage, solar radiation reflected by soil background will reach to spectral sensor and influence the relationship between vegetation water index and vegetation water content, and simulation results from ProSail model also show that soil background reflectance has a significant impact on vegetation canopy reflectance in both wet and dry soil conditions, so the optimized soil adjusted vegetation index (OSAVI) was used in this paper to remove the effect of soil background on vegetation water index and improve its relationship with vegetation water content; (3) for the 12 vegetation water indices, the relationship between MSI2 and vegetation water content is the best with the R-square of 0.948 and the average error of vegetation water content is 0.52 kg · m(-2); (4) it is difficult to estimate vegetation water content from vegetation water indices when vegetation water content is larger than 2 kg · m(-2) due to spectral saturation of these indices. PMID:25881444

Zheng, Xing-ming; Ding, Yan-ling; Zhao, Kai; Jiang, Tao; Li, Xiao-feng; Zhang, Shi-yi; Li, Yang-yang; Wu, Li-li; Sun, Jian; Ren, Jian-hua; Zhang, Xuan-xuan

2014-12-01

148

High Salt Diets, Bone Strength and Mineral Content of Mature Femur After Skeletal Unloading  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is known that high salt diets increase urinary calcium (Ca) loss, but it is not known whether this effect weakens bone during space flight. The Bone Hormone Lab has studied the effect of high salt diets on Ca balance and whole body Ca in a space flight model (2,8). Neither the strength nor mineral content of the femurs from these studies has been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of high salt diets (HiNa) and skeletal unloading on femoral bone strength and bone mineral content (BMC) in mature rats.

Liang, Michael T. C.

1998-01-01

149

Novel wireless health monitor with acupuncture bio-potentials obtained by using a replaceable salt-water-wetted foam-rubber cushions on RFID-tag.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a bio-potential measurement apparatus including a wireless device for transmitting acupuncture bio-potential information to a remote control station for health conditions analysis and monitor. The key technology of this system is to make replaceable foam-rubber cushions, double-side conducting tapes, chip and antenna on the radio frequency identification (RFID) tag. The foam-rubber cushions can be wetted with salt-water and contact with the acupuncture points to reduce contact resistance. Besides, the double-side conducting tapes are applied to fix foam-rubber cushions. Thus, one can peel the used cushions or tapes away and supply new ones quickly. Since the tag is a flexible plastic substrate, it is easy to deploy on the skin. Besides, the amplifier made by CMOS technology on RFID chip could amplify the signals to improve S/N ratio and impedance matching. Thus, cloud server can wirelessly monitor the health conditions. An example shows that the proposed system can be used as a wireless health condition monitor, the numerical method and the criteria are given to analyze eleven bio-potentials for the important acupunctures of eleven meridians on a person's hands and legs. Then a professional doctor can know the performance of an individual and the cross-linking effects of the organs. PMID:25227072

Lin, Jium-Ming; Lu, Hung-Han; Lin, Cheng-Hung

2014-01-01

150

Passive radio requestable SAW water content sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a SAW reflective delay line, a new passive sensor for a remote measurement of water content in sandy soil was built. The system operates in the European 434 MHz ISM-band and consists of a request unit and a passive sensor connected by a radio link to the request unit. The SAW device is fabricated on LiNbO3, YZ-cut, and mounted

L. Reindl; C. C. W. Ruppel; A. Kirmayr; N. Slockhausen; M. A. Hilhorst

1999-01-01

151

Water deficit and salt stress diagnosis through LED induced chlorophyll fluorescence analysis in Jatropha curcas L. oil plants for biodiesel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light-emitting-diode induced chlorophyll fluorescence analysis is employed to investigate the effect of water and salt stress upon the growth process of physicnut(jatropha curcas) grain oil plants for biofuel. Red(Fr) and far-red (FFr) chlorophyll fluorescence emission signals around 685 nm and 735 nm, respectively, were observed and examined as a function of the stress intensity(salt concentration and water deficit) for a period of time of 30 days. The chlorophyll fluorescence(ChlF) ratio Fr/FFr which is a valuable nondestructive and nonintrusive indicator of the chlorophyll content of leaves was exploited to monitor the level of stress experienced by the jatropha plants. The ChlF technique data indicated that salinity plays a minor role in the chlorophyll concentration of leaves tissues for NaCl concentrations in the 25 to 200 mM range, and results agreed quite well with those obtained using conventional destructive spectrophotometric methods. Nevertheless, for higher NaCl concentrations a noticeable decrease in the Chl content was observed. The Chl fluorescence ratio analysis also permitted detection of damage caused by water deficit in the early stages of the plants growing process. A significant variation of the Fr/FFr ratio was observed sample in the first 10 days of the experiment when one compared control and nonwatered samples. The results suggest that the technique may potentially be applied as an early-warning indicator of stress caused by water deficit.

Gouveia-Neto, Artur S.; Silva, Elias A., Jr.; Oliveira, Ronaldo A.; Cunha, Patrícia C.; Costa, Ernande B.; Câmara, Terezinha J. R.; Willadino, Lilia G.

2011-02-01

152

Water Content of the Oceanic Lithosphere at Hawaii from FTIR Analysis of Peridotite Xenoliths  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although water in the mantle is mostly present as trace H dissolved in minerals, it has a large influence on its melting and rheological properties. The water content of the mantle lithosphere beneath continents is better constrained by abundant mantle xenolith data than beneath oceans where it is mainly inferred from MORB glass analysis. Using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, we determined the water content of olivine (Ol), clinopyroxene (Cpx) and orthopyroxene (Opx) in spinel peridotite xenoliths from Salt Lake Crater, Oahu, Hawaii, which are thought to represent fragments of the Pacific oceanic lithosphere that was refertilized by alkalic Hawaiian melts. Only Ol exhibits H diffusion profiles, evidence of limited H loss during xenolith transport to the surface. Water concentrations (Ol: 9-28 ppm H2O, Cpx: 246-566 ppm H2O, Opx: 116-224 ppm H2O) are within the range of those from continental settings but higher than those from Gakkel ridge abyssal peridotites. The Opx H2O contents are similar to those of abyssal peridotites from Atlantic ridge Leg 153 (170-230 ppm) but higher than those from Leg 209 (10- 14 ppm). The calculated bulk peridotite water contents (94 to 144 ppm H2O) are in agreement with MORB mantle source water estimates and lower than estimates for the source of Hawaiian rejuvenated volcanism (approx 540 ppm H2O) . The water content of Cpx and most Opx correlates negatively with spinel Cr#, and positively with pyroxene Al and HREE contents. This is qualitatively consistent with the partitioning of H into the melt during partial melting, but the water contents are too high for the degree of melting these peridotites experienced. Melts in equilibrium with xenolith minerals have H2O/Ce ratios similar to those of OIB

Peslier, Anne H.; Bizmis, Michael

2013-01-01

153

Phase diagram of 1,2-dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE):water system at subzero temperatures and at low water contents.  

PubMed

The phase behavior of partially hydrated 1, 2-dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction methods together with water sorption isotherms. DOPE liposomes were dehydrated in the H(II) phase at 29 degrees C and in the L(alpha) phase at 0 degrees C by vapor phase equilibration over saturated salt solutions. Other samples were prepared by hydration of dried DOPE by vapor phase equilibration at 29 degrees C and 0 degrees C. Five lipid phases (lamellar liquid crystalline, L(alpha); lamellar gel, L(beta); inverted hexagonal, H(II); inverted ribbon, P(delta); and lamellar crystalline, L(c)) and the ice phase were observed depending on the water content and temperature. The ice phase did not form in DOPE suspensions containing <9 wt% water. The L(c) phase was observed in samples with a water content of 2-6 wt% that were annealed at 0 degrees C for 2 or more days. The L(c) phase melted at 5-20 degrees C producing the H(II) phase. The P(delta) phase was observed at water contents of <0.5 wt%. The phase diagram, which includes five lipid phases and two water phases (ice and liquid water), has been constructed. The freeze-induced dehydration of DOPE has been described with the aid of the phase diagram. PMID:10407074

Shalaev, E Y; Steponkus, P L

1999-07-15

154

Seawater as salt and water source for solar ponds  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a method for preliminary design of a 1 km{sup 2} solar pond that will be supplied with salt and water from the sea. The evaporating basins, needed to concentrate the seawater are also included in the project. Starting from the experience that Agip Petroli gained in running the 25,000 m{sup 2} Solar Pond, built inside a salt-work in Margherita di Savoia, in southern Italy, two projects were worked out: the first one of 25,000 m{sup 2} and the second one of 1 km{sup 2} of surface. Making comparison between harvested energy cost of the solar pond, and the energy cost of alternative and traditional energy sources, the coastal Solar Pond of 1 km{sup 2} that utilizes seawater as salt and water source, is competitive.

Folchitto, S. (Agip Petroli S.p.A., Roma (Italy))

1991-01-01

155

ALUMINUM BIOAVAILABILITY FROM DRINKING WATER IS VERY LOW AND IS NOT APPRECIABLY INFLUENCED BY STOMACH CONTENTS OR WATER HARDNESS. (R825357)  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives were to estimate aluminum (Al) oral bioavailability under conditions that model its consumption in drinking water, and to test the hypotheses that stomach contents and co-administration of the major components of hard water affect Al absorption. Rats received intra...

156

Fat and salt contents affect the in-mouth temporal sodium release and saltiness perception of chicken sausages.  

PubMed

In cooked meats, sodium chloride is involved in taste, texture and flavour release. So a reduction in the salt content may have an impact on overall perception and acceptability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of composition on sodium release and saltiness intensity in chicken sausages. The rheological properties of the sausages differed according to composition. Temporal sodium release and temporal saltiness intensity were evaluated by four selected subjects when eating sausages. At each time point, the effect of the salt level in sausages on sodium release was positive and highly significant. The effect of lipids on sodium release was negative. Concerning perception, the amount of salt used had a positive effect on saltiness intensity, and lipids seemed to exert a masking effect. Generally, clear relationships between salt levels, sodium release and saltiness intensity were found but the masking effect of lipids on saltiness intensity probably also involved texture or fat perception mechanisms. PMID:23501259

Chabanet, C; Tarrega, A; Septier, C; Siret, F; Salles, C

2013-06-01

157

Soil water content and yield variability in vineyards of Mediterranean northeastern Spain affected by mechanization and climate variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper was to analyse the combined influence of the Mediterranean climate variability (particularly the irregular rainfall distribution throughout the year) and the land transformations carried out in vineyards of northeastern Spain on soil water content evolution and its influence on grape production. The study was carried out in a commercial vineyard located in the Anoia-Alt Penedès

M. C. Ramos

2006-01-01

158

Carbon Balance and Water Relations of Sorghum Exposed to Salt and Water Stress 1  

PubMed Central

The daily (24 hour) changes in carbon balance, water loss, and leaf area of whole sorghum plants (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, cv BTX616) were measured under controlled environment conditions typical of warm, humid, sunny days. Plants were either (a) irrigated frequently with nutrient solution (osmotic potential ?0.08 kilojoules per kilogram = ?0.8 bar), (b) not irrigated for 15 days, (c) irrigated frequently with moderately saline nutrient (80 millimoles NaCl + 20 millimoles CaCl2·2H2O per kilogram water, osmotic potential ?0.56 kilojoules per kilogram), or (d) preirrigated with saline nutrient and then not irrigated for 22 days. Under frequent irrigation, salt reduced leaf expansion and carbon gain, but water use efficiency was increased since the water loss rate was reduced more than the carbon gain. Water stress developed more slowly in the salinized plants and they were able to adjust osmotically by a greater amount. Leaf expansion and carbon gain continued down to lower leaf water potentials. Some additional metabolic cost associated with salt stress was detected, but under water stress this was balanced by the reduced cost of storing photosynthate rather than converting it to new biomass. Reirrigation produced a burst of respiration associated with renewed synthesis of biomass from stored photosynthate. It is concluded that although irrigation of sorghum with moderately saline water inhibits plant growth in comparison with irrigation with nonsaline water, it also inhibits water loss and allows a greater degree of osmotic adjustment, so that the plants are able to continue growing longer and reach lower leaf water potentials between irrigations. PMID:16664521

Richardson, Steven G.; McCree, Keith J.

1985-01-01

159

Salt-water-freshwater transient upconing - An implicit boundary-element solution  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The boundary-element method is used to solve the set of partial differential equations describing the flow of salt water and fresh water separated by a sharp interface in the vertical plane. In order to improve the accuracy and stability of the numerical solution, a new implicit scheme was developed for calculating the motion of the interface. The performance of this scheme was tested by means of numerical simulation. The numerical results are compared to experimental results for a salt-water upconing under a drain problem. ?? 1985.

Kemblowski, M.

1985-01-01

160

Geophysical methods to support correct water sampling locations for salt dilution gauging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve water management design, particularly in irrigation areas, it is important to evaluate the baseline state of the water resources, including canal discharge. Discharge measurements, using salt dilution gauging, are a traditional and well-documented technique. The complete mixing of salt used for dilution gauging is required for reliable measurements; this condition is difficult to test or verify and, if not fulfilled, is the largest source of uncertainty in the discharge calculation. In this paper, a geophysical technique (FERT, Fast Electrical Resistivity Tomography) is proposed for imaging the distribution of the salt plume used for dilution gauging at every point along a sampling cross-section. In this way, it is possible to check whether complete mixing has occurred. If the mixing is not complete, the image created by FERT can also provide guidance for selecting water-sampling locations in the sampling cross-section. A water multi-sampling system prototype for the simultaneous sampling of canal water at different points within the cross-section, aimed to potentially take into account concentration variability, is also proposed and tested. Preliminary results of a single test with salt dilution gauging and FERT in a real case are reported. The results show that imaging the passage of the salt plume is possible by means of geophysical controls and that this can potentially help in the selection of water sampling points.

Comina, C.; Lasagna, M.; De Luca, D. A.; Sambuelli, L.

2014-05-01

161

Electromyogram as a measure of heavy metal toxicity in fresh water and salt water mussels  

SciTech Connect

The response of bivalves to heavy metals and other toxins has usually been determined by observing valve position. Since mussels close their valves to avoid noxious stimuli, experimental delivery of chemicals ins uncertain. To obtain constant results plastic spacers can be employed to hold the valves apart. This obviates valve position as an index of response and some other method is required. Electromyography of intact mussels is one such index, giving a simple, effective, and quantitative measurement of activity. Experiments are reported in this article on the effects of added mercury on salt water and fresh water species.

Kidder, G.W. III [Illinois State Univ., Normal, IL (United States)]|[Mt. Desert Island Biological Lab., Salsbury Cove, ME (United States); McCoy, A.A. [Mt. Desert Island Biological Lab., Salsbury Cove, ME (United States)]|[Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States)

1996-02-01

162

NITRATE RELEASE BY SALT MARSH PLANTS: AN OVERLOOKED NUTRIENT FLUX MECHANISM  

EPA Science Inventory

Salt marshes provide water purification as an important ecosystem service in part by storing, transforming and releasing nutrients. This service can be quantified by measuring nutrient fluxes between marshes and surface waters. Many processes drive these fluxes, including photosy...

163

Structural and Functional State of Thylakoids in a Halophyte Suaeda altissima before and after Disturbance of Salt–Water Balance by Extremely High Concentrations of NaCl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Halophyte plants Suaeda altissima L. were grown in water culture at different concentrations of NaCl in the medium, and their leaves were sampled to examine the ultrastructure of chloroplasts. In parallel tests, the functional state of chloroplasts was assessed from parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence. In addition the effects of NaCl on plant growth and on the contents of Na+, K+,

Yu. V. Balnokin; E. B. Kurkova; N. A. Myasoedov; R. V. Lun'kov; N. Z. Shamsutdinov; E. A. Egorova; N. G. Bukhov

2004-01-01

164

Characterization of Cloud Water-Content Distribution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of realistic cloud parameterizations for climate models requires accurate characterizations of subgrid distributions of thermodynamic variables. To this end, a software tool was developed to characterize cloud water-content distributions in climate-model sub-grid scales. This software characterizes distributions of cloud water content with respect to cloud phase, cloud type, precipitation occurrence, and geo-location using CloudSat radar measurements. It uses a statistical method called maximum likelihood estimation to estimate the probability density function of the cloud water content.

Lee, Seungwon

2010-01-01

165

Estimating winter wheat plant water content using red edge width  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote sensing of vegetation liquid water has important application in agriculture and forestry. The spectral index or features of water absorption in NIR and SWIR have been found useful for the detection of plant water content (PWC). It is unfortunately that the foliar liquid water absorption is superposed by the atmospheric vapor absorption, and it is very difficult to distinguish

Liangyun Liu; Chunjiang Zhao; Wenjiang Huang; Jihua Wang

2003-01-01

166

Modeling of salt-water migration through spod-podzolic soils under the field and laboratory conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assessment of highly mineralized water influence on soils is an important issue in the contemporary world. Various regions with different conditions are exposed to salt-affected soils forming. Salinization of soils is a complex process of the chemical and physical properties changes. Therefore the chain of the laboratory and field experiments should be done in order to assess the main factors promoting highly mineralized water migration. In addition to it modelling is a good way to understand and evaluate main chemical and physical transformations in soils. The chain of experiments was done to assess salt water movement in spod-podzolic soils under field and laboratory conditions. The main goals were to evaluate the rate of salt water movement through soils and to estimate velocity of the desalinization process. Field experiment was conducted on spod-podzolic soils of Kaliningrad region. There were 4 sites measuring 20*25 cm watering with salt water in amount of 5 liters per each area. The mineralization of the solution was 100 g/l. In addition to the salt affected sites, 2 non polluted grounds were assessed too. Soils samples were collected in the period of 1 week, 1 month, 3 month and 1 year after the spill had been done. The samples were taken each 10 cm 110 cm deep and in double repeatability. Main chemical and physical parameters, such as volume water content, pH, conductivity, amount of calcium ion, magnesium, sodium, and chlorite in soils etc. were measured in each sample. The second experiment was conducted to evaluate the rate of soils solutions transformation under the laboratory conditions. Organic horizon was taken from the field and was stuffed in columns with 1.0 g/cm3 density. There were 16 columns with 4 cm diameter. 14 columns were showered with salt water with the same mineralization as in the field experiment. The amount of salt water injected in columns was 104 mm per one sample which is equal to the salt water volume spilled per one area in the previous experiment. Also there were 2 columns as a verification variant contained pure soil. Each column was washed off with different amount of distilled water. The total volume of the pure solution was equal to the mean amount of the annual precipitation in the region of the field experiment. The main physical and chemical properties were measured in soils samples as well in the first experiment. In addition to it the complex assessment of soil's water were made. The experiments revealed the fast rate of salinization-desalinization processes in spod-podzolic soils of the coniferous areas in Kaliningrad region. The maximum values of conductivity were observed at the end of 1 week period and made up more than 2000 mSm/cm in top soils horizons. Furthermore the desalinization of the soils took place in both field and laboratory experiments a year after the spill. The reported study was partially supported by RFBR, research project No 12-05-31088 mol_a.

Ronzhina, Tatiana

2013-04-01

167

Workers intake too much salt from dishes of eating out and food service cafeterias; direct chemical analysis of sodium content  

PubMed Central

The average sodium intake of Koreans was reported to be 5,279.9 mg/day, which is one of the highest intake levels worldwide. The average Koreans intake 19.6% of sodium from kimchi, showing kimchi as the main contributor of sodium in this country (Ministry of Health and Welfare, 2005). The sodium content of dishes that are frequently chosen by workers, and which were served by foodservice cafeterias were chemically analyzed. The average sodium content of one meal provided by 10 foodservice cafeterias was 2,777.7 mg. Twenty-one, one-dish-meals, frequently chosen by workers for a lunch menu, were collected at 4 different restaurants for each menu by one male, aged in the twenties and analyzed chemically also. Workers who eat lunch at a workplace cafeteria everyday could intake about 8 g of salt at a one-time meal and those who eat out for a one-dish-meal would intake 3-8 g of salt without counting sodium content from the side dishes. From these study results, one could estimate that over 10 g of salt could be possible for a single meal for workers who eat out everyday. A nationwide nutrition campaign and education for low salt diets for restaurant owners and foodservice providers should be seriously considered. PMID:20098587

Park, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Seung-Lim; Kim, Jin-Young; Kang, Soon-Ah; Park, Kun-Young; Ryou, Hyun-Joo

2009-01-01

168

Measurement of fluid contents by light transmission in transient three-phase oil-water-air systems in sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most three-phase flow models lack rigorous validation because very few methods exist that can measure transient fluid contents of the order of seconds of whole flow fields. The objective of this study was to develop a method by which fluid content can be measured rapidly in three-phase systems. The method uses the hue and intensity of light transmitted through a

C. J. G. Darnault; D. A. DiCarlo; T. W. J. Bauters; A. R. Jacobson; J. A. Throop; C. D. Montemagno; J.-Y. Parlange; T. S. Steenhuis

2001-01-01

169

Renal arteriolar injury by salt intake contributes to salt memory for the development of hypertension.  

PubMed

The role of salt intake in the development of hypertension is prominent, but its mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Our aim was to examine the effect of transient salt intake during the prehypertensive period in hypertensive model animals. Dahl salt-sensitive rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats were fed from 6 to 14 weeks with low-salt (0.12% NaCl), normal-salt (0.8% NaCl), high-salt (7% NaCl), or high-sodium/normal-chloride diet and returned to normal-salt diet for 3 months. Rats in the high-salt group saw elevations in blood pressure (BP) not only during the treatment period but also for the 3 months after returning to normal-salt diet. We named this phenomenon salt memory. Renal arteriolar injury was found in the high-salt group at the end of experiment. Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed from 6 to 14 weeks with high-salt diet with angiotensin receptor blocker, vasodilator, calcium channel blocker, and calcium channel blocker+angiotensin receptor blocker and returned to normal-salt diet. Although BP was suppressed to control levels by vasodilator or calcium channel blocker, elevated renal angiotensin II and renal arteriolar injury were observed, and salt memory did not disappear because of sustained renal arteriolar injury. Calcium channel blocker+angiotensin receptor blocker suppressed renal arteriolar injury, resulting in the disappearance of salt memory. Cross-transplantation of kidneys from Dahl salt-sensitive rats on high salt to control rats caused increase of BP, whereas control kidneys caused reduction in BP of hypertensive rats, inducing the central role of the kidney. These results suggest that renal arteriolar injury through BP and renal angiotensin II elevation plays important roles in the development of salt memory for hypertension. PMID:24980670

Oguchi, Hideyo; Sasamura, Hiroyuki; Shinoda, Kazunobu; Morita, Shinya; Kono, Hidaka; Nakagawa, Ken; Ishiguro, Kimiko; Hayashi, Kaori; Nakamura, Mari; Azegami, Tatsuhiko; Oya, Mototsugu; Itoh, Hiroshi

2014-10-01

170

PRODUCTION IN COASTAL SALT MARSHES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Production ecology in southern California coastal salt marshes was investigated by harvesting macrophytes and monitoring environmental factors (substrate salinity, pH, nitrogen, redox, water content, temperature, and tide level) at four locations--Sweetwater River Estuary, Los Pe...

171

First data on the uranium content in water of the Yenisei River basin in the area affected by the operation of Rosatom plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is devoted to investigating the content of uranium isotopes in water of the Yenisei River and its tributaries within\\u000a the territories affected by the operation of Rosatom plants (mining chemical combine, and electrochemical plant). Long-term\\u000a monitoring of the 238U content by mass spectrometry carried out in two institutes of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

A. Ya. Bolsunovskii; A. M. Zhizhaev; A. I. Saprykin; A. G. Degermendzhi; A. I. Rubailo

2011-01-01

172

Diclofenac Salts. V. Examples of Polymorphism among Diclofenac Salts with Alkyl-hydroxy Amines Studied by DSC and HSM  

PubMed Central

Nine diclofenac salts prepared with alkyl-hydroxy amines were analyzed for their properties to form polymorphs by DSC and HSM techniques. Thermograms of the forms prepared from water or acetone are different in most cases, suggesting frequent examples of polymorphism among these salts. Polymorph transition can be better highlighted when analysis is carried out by thermo-microscopy, which in most cases made it possible to observe the processes of melting of the metastable form and re-crystallization of the stable one. Solubility values were qualitatively related to the crystal structure of the salts and the molecular structure of the cation.

Fini, Adamo; Cavallari, Cristina; Ospitali, Francesca

2010-01-01

173

Modelling Ontogenetic Changes of Nitrogen and Water Content in Lettuce  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims It is well established that the nitrogen content of plants, including lettuce, decreases with time. It has also been observed that water content of lettuce increases between planting and harvest. This paper is an attempt at modelling these observations. • Methods An existing dynamic model (Nicolet), designed to predict growth and nitrate content of glasshouse lettuce, is modified to accommodate the ontogenetic changes of reduced-nitrogen and water contents (on a dry matter basis). The decreasing reduced-N content and the increasing water content are mimicked by dividing the originally uniform plant into ‘metabolically active’ tissue and ‘support’ tissue. The ‘metabolic’ tissue is assumed to contain a higher nitrogen content and a lower water content than the ‘support’ tissue. As the plants grow, the ratio of ‘support’ to ‘metabolic’ tissue increases, resulting in an increased mean water content and a decreased reduced-N content. Simulations with the new model are compared with experimental glasshouse data over four seasons. • Key Results The empirical linear relationship between water and reduced-N contents, matches, to a good approximation, the corresponding relationship based on the model. The agreement between the two makes it possible to effectively uncouple the estimation of the ‘ontogenetic’ parameters from the estimation of the other parameters. The growth and nitrate simulation results match the data rather well and are hardly affected by the new refinement. The reduced-N and water contents are predicted much better with the new model. • Conclusion Prediction of nitrogen uptake for the substantial nitrate pool of lettuce depends on the water content. Hence, the modified model may assist in making better fertilization decisions and better estimates of nitrogen leaching. PMID:15294851

SEGINER, IDO; BLEYAERT, PETER; BREUGELMANS, MAAIKE

2004-01-01

174

46 CFR 46.10-45 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. 46.10-45 Section 46.10-45...Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. (a) Passenger vessels required...Great Lakes voyages, shall not submerge in salt water the subdivision load line...

2010-10-01

175

46 CFR 46.10-45 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. 46.10-45 Section 46.10-45...Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. (a) Passenger vessels required...Great Lakes voyages, shall not submerge in salt water the subdivision load line...

2011-10-01

176

An in-situ electropolymerization based sensor for measuring salt content in crude oil.  

PubMed

Determining salt content is a vital procedure in the petroleum industry during the process of crude oil transportation, refining and production. Monitoring the salinity value using a fast and direct technique can substantially lower the cost of crude oil in its processing and its production stages. In the present work, a novel analytical method was developed to detect the amount of salt present in crude oil in a quick and reliable manner. The measurement is based on the rate of in-situ electropolymerization of a monomer such as aniline in association with the salt content in the crude oil. The salt dispersed in the hydrocarbon matrix is used as an electrolyte in the electrolytic system to induce an electropolymerization reaction upon the induction of voltages, in which the salt content is measured corresponding to the polymeric film formation on the working electrode surface. Acetonitrile and N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) were used in the electrochemical cell as solvents, and cyclic voltammetry tests were performed for Arabian crude oil solutions in the presence of aniline. The method has shown an excellent detection response for very low concentrations of salt. Four Arabian crude oils with salt concentrations of 34.2, 28.5, 14.3 and 5.71 mg L(-1) have produced current intensity of 180.1, 172.6, 148.1 and 134.2 µA at an applied current potential of 1.75 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), respectively. A Calibration curve was obtained in the range of 5-35 mg L(-1), giving limits of detection and quantitation at 1.98 and 5.95 mg L(-1), respectively. The in-situ electropolymerization based sensor has significant advantages over the existing techniques of salt monitoring in crude oil such as fast response, temperature independency, electrode stability, and minimum sample preparation. PMID:25476303

Aleisa, Rashed M; Akmal, Naim

2015-01-01

177

Porous starch/cellulose nanofibers composite prepared by salt leaching technique for tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Starch/cellulose nanofibers composites with proper porosity pore size, mechanical strength, and biodegradability for cartilage tissue engineering have been reported in this study. The porous thermoplastic starch-based composites were prepared by combining film casting, salt leaching, and freeze drying methods. The diameter of 70% nanofibers was in the range of 40-90 nm. All samples had interconnected porous morphology; however an increase in pore interconnectivity was observed when the sodium chloride ratio was increased in the salt leaching. Scaffolds with the total porogen content of 70 wt% exhibited adequate mechanical properties for cartilage tissue engineering applications. The water uptake ratio of nanocomposites was remarkably enhanced by adding 10% cellulose nanofibers. The scaffolds were partially destroyed due to low in vitro degradation rate after more than 20 weeks. Cultivation of isolated rabbit chondrocytes on the fabricated scaffold proved that the incorporation of nanofibers in starch structure improves cell attachment and proliferation. PMID:24751269

Nasri-Nasrabadi, Bijan; Mehrasa, Mohammad; Rafienia, Mohammad; Bonakdar, Shahin; Behzad, Tayebeh; Gavanji, Shahin

2014-08-01

178

A comparison of the coupled fresh water-salt water flow and the Ghyben-Herzberg sharp interface approaches to modeling of transient behavior in coastal aquifer systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A quasi-three dimensional finite difference model which simulates coupled, fresh water and salt water flow, separated by a sharp interface, is used to investigate the effects of storage characteristics, transmissivity, boundary conditions and anisotropy on the transient responses of such flow systems. The magnitude and duration of the departure of aquifer response from the behavior predicted using the Ghyben-Herzberg, one-fluid approach is a function of the ease with which flow can be induced in the salt water region. In many common hydrogeologic settings short-term fresh water head responses, and transitional responses between short-term and long-term, can only be realistically reproduced by including the effects of salt water flow on the dynamics of coastal flow systems. The coupled fresh water-salt water flow modeling approach is able to reproduce the observed annual fresh water head response of the Waialae aquifer of southeastern Oahu, Hawaii. ?? 1986.

Essaid, H.I.

1986-01-01

179

Increased Cerebral Water Content in Hemodialysis Patients  

PubMed Central

Little information is available on the impact of hemodialysis on cerebral water homeostasis and its distribution in chronic kidney disease. We used a neuropsychological test battery, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a novel technique for quantitative measurement of localized water content using 3T MRI to investigate ten hemodialysis patients (HD) on a dialysis-free day and after hemodialysis (2.4±2.2 hours), and a matched healthy control group with the same time interval. Neuropsychological testing revealed mainly attentional and executive cognitive dysfunction in HD. Voxel-based-morphometry showed only marginal alterations in the right inferior medial temporal lobe white matter in HD compared to controls. Marked increases in global brain water content were found in the white matter, specifically in parietal areas, in HD patients compared to controls. Although the global water content in the gray matter did not differ between the two groups, regional increases of brain water content in particular in parieto-temporal gray matter areas were observed in HD patients. No relevant brain hydration changes were revealed before and after hemodialysis. Whereas longer duration of dialysis vintage was associated with increased water content in parieto-temporal-occipital regions, lower intradialytic weight changes were negatively correlated with brain water content in these areas in HD patients. Worse cognitive performance on an attention task correlated with increased hydration in frontal white matter. In conclusion, long-term HD is associated with altered brain tissue water homeostasis mainly in parietal white matter regions, whereas the attentional domain in the cognitive dysfunction profile in HD could be linked to increased frontal white matter water content. PMID:25826269

Costa, Ana Sofia; Gras, Vincent; Tiffin-Richards, Frances; Mirzazade, Shahram; Holschbach, Bernhard; Frank, Rolf Dario; Vassiliadou, Athina; Krüger, Thilo; Eitner, Frank; Gross, Theresa; Schulz, Jörg Bernhard; Floege, Jürgen; Shah, Nadim Jon

2015-01-01

180

Effect of initial hydrogen content of a titanium alloy on susceptibility to hot-salt stress-corrosion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V alloy was tested in four conditions: mill annealed (70 ppM H), duplex annealed (70 ppM H), vacuum annealed to an intermediate (36 ppM) and a low (9 ppM H) hydrogen level. Material annealed at 650 C (duplex condition) exhibited resistance to hot-salt stress corrosion superior to that exhibited by material in the mill-annealed condition. Reduction of the alloy hydrogen content from 70 to as low as 9 ppM did not influence resistance to hot-salt stress corrosion embrittlement or cracking.

Gray, H. R.

1971-01-01

181

Water and chlorine content in the Martian soil along the first 1900 m of the Curiosity rover traverse as estimated by the DAN instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of hydrated phases in the soil and near-surface bedrock of Gale Crater is thought to be direct evidence for water-rock interaction in the crater in the ancient past. Layered sediments over the Gale Crater floor are thought to have formed in past epochs due to sediment transport, accumulation, and cementation through interaction with fluids, and the observed strata of water-bearing minerals record the history of these episodes. The first data analysis of the Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) investigation on board the Curiosity rover is presented for 154 individual points of active mode measurements along 1900 m of the traverse over the first 361 Martian solar days in Gale crater. It is found that a model of constant water content within subsurface should be rejected for practically all tested points, whereas a two-layer model with different water contents in each layer is supported by the data. A so-called direct two-layer model (water content increasing with depth) yields acceptable fits for odometry ranges between 0 and 455 m and beyond 638 m. The mean water (H2O) abundances of the top and bottom layers vary from 1.5 to 1.7 wt % and from 2.2 to 3.3 wt %, respectively, while at some tested spots the water content is estimated to be as high as ~5 wt %. The data for odometry range 455-638 m support an inverse two-layer model (water content decreasing with depth), with an estimated mean water abundance of 2.1 ± 0.1 wt % and 1.4 ± 0.04 wt % in the top and bottom layers, respectively.

Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Sanin, A. B.; Starr, R. D.; Lisov, D. I.; Kuzmin, R. O.; Behar, A.; Boynton, W. V.; Hardgrove, C.; Harshman, K.; Jun, I.; Milliken, R. E.; Mischna, M. A.; Moersch, J. E.; Tate, C. G.

2014-07-01

182

Corrosion of aluminides by molten nitrate salt  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion of titanium-, iron-, and nickel-based aluminides by a highly aggressive, oxidizing NaNO{sub 3}(-KNO{sub 3})-Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} has been studied at 650{degree}C. It was shown that weight changes could be used to effectively evaluate corrosion behavior in the subject nitrate salt environments provided these data were combined with salt analyses and microstructural examinations. The studies indicated that the corrosion of relatively resistant aluminides by these nitrate salts proceeded by oxidation and a slow release from an aluminum-rich product layer into the salt at rates lower than that associated with many other types of metallic materials. The overall corrosion process and resulting rate depended on the particular aluminide being exposed. In order to minimize corrosion of nickel or iron aluminides, it was necessary to have aluminum concentrations in excess of 30 at. %. However, even at a concentration of 50 at. % Al, the corrosion resistance of TiAl was inferior to that of Ni{sub 3}Al and Fe{sub 3}Al. At higher aluminum concentrations, iron, nickel, and iron-nickel aluminides exhibited quite similar weight changes, indicative of the principal role of aluminum in controlling the corrosion process in NaNO{sub 3}(-KNO{sub 3})-Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} salts. 20 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Tortorelli, P.F.; Bishop, P.S.

1990-01-01

183

ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY The effects of tree establishment on water and salt dynamics  

E-print Network

ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY The effects of tree establishment on water and salt dynamics in naturally salt an imprint on salt accumulation and distribution patterns. We explored how the conversion of native grasslands to oak plantations affected the abundance and distribution of salts on soils and groundwater

Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

184

Evaluation of trace metal content by ICP-MS using closed vessel microwave digestion in fresh water fish.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to investigate trace metal levels of different varieties of fresh water fish using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer after microwave digestion (MD-ICPMS). Fish samples were collected from the outlets of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The trace metal content in different varieties of analyzed fish were ranged from 0.24 to 1.68?mg/kg for Chromium in Cyprinus carpio and Masto symbollon, 0.20 to 7.52?mg/kg for Manganese in Labeo rohita and Masto symbollon, 0.006 to 0.07?mg/kg for Cobalt in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, 0.31 to 2.24?mg/kg for Copper in Labeo rohita and Penaeus monodon, 3.25 to 14.56?mg/kg for Zinc in Cyprinus carpio and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and 0.01 to 2.05?mg/kg for Selenium in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, respectively. Proximate composition data for the different fishes were also tabulated. Since the available data for different trace elements for fish is scanty, here an effort is made to present a precise data for the same as estimated on ICP-MS. Results were in accordance with recommended daily intake allowance by WHO/FAO. PMID:24744789

Jarapala, Sreenivasa Rao; Kandlakunta, Bhaskarachary; Thingnganing, Longvah

2014-01-01

185

Evaluation of Trace Metal Content by ICP-MS Using Closed Vessel Microwave Digestion in Fresh Water Fish  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study was to investigate trace metal levels of different varieties of fresh water fish using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer after microwave digestion (MD-ICPMS). Fish samples were collected from the outlets of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The trace metal content in different varieties of analyzed fish were ranged from 0.24 to 1.68?mg/kg for Chromium in Cyprinus carpio and Masto symbollon, 0.20 to 7.52?mg/kg for Manganese in Labeo rohita and Masto symbollon, 0.006 to 0.07?mg/kg for Cobalt in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, 0.31 to 2.24?mg/kg for Copper in Labeo rohita and Penaeus monodon, 3.25 to 14.56?mg/kg for Zinc in Cyprinus carpio and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and 0.01 to 2.05?mg/kg for Selenium in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, respectively. Proximate composition data for the different fishes were also tabulated. Since the available data for different trace elements for fish is scanty, here an effort is made to present a precise data for the same as estimated on ICP-MS. Results were in accordance with recommended daily intake allowance by WHO/FAO. PMID:24744789

Jarapala, Sreenivasa Rao; Kandlakunta, Bhaskarachary; Thingnganing, Longvah

2014-01-01

186

High pressure processing alters water distribution enabling the production of reduced-fat and reduced-salt pork sausages.  

PubMed

High pressure processing (HPP) was used to explore novel methods for modifying the textural properties of pork sausages with reduced-salt, reduced-fat and no fat replacement additions. A 2×7 factorial design was set up, incorporating two pressure levels (0.1 or 200MPa) and seven fat levels (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30%). Sausages treated at 200MPa exhibited improved tenderness at all fat levels compared with 0.1MPa treated samples, and the shear force of sausages treated at 200MPa with 15 or 20% fat content was similar to the 0.1MPa treated sausages with 30% fat. HPP significantly changed the P2 peak ratio of the four water components in raw sausages, resulting in improved textural properties of emulsion-type sausages with reduced-fat and reduced-salt. Significant correlations were found between pH, color, shear force and water proportions. The scanning and transmission micrographs revealed the formation of smaller fat globules and an improved network structure in the pressure treated sausages. In conclusion, there is potential to manufacture sausages with reduced-fat and reduced-salt by using HPP to maintain textural qualities. PMID:25553411

Yang, Huijuan; Han, Minyi; Bai, Yun; Han, Yanqing; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

2015-04-01

187

Salt-water encroachment in southern Nassau and southeastern Queens Counties, Long Island, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Test drilling, extraction of water from cores, electric logging, water sampling, and water-level measurements from 1958 to 1961 provided a suitable basis for a substantial refinement in the definition of the positions, chloride concentrations, and rates of movement of salty water in the intermediate and deep deposits of southern Nassau County and southeastern Queens County. Filter-press, centrifugal, and dilution methods were used to extract water from cores for chloride analysis at the test-drilling sites. Chloride analysis of water extracted by these methods, chloride analyses of water from wells, and the interpretation of electric logs helped to define the chloride content of the salty water. New concepts of environmental-water head and zerovels, developed during the investigation, proved useful for defining hydraulic gradients and ratee of flow in ground water of variable density in a vertical direction and in horizontal and inclined planes, respectively. Hydraulic gradients in and between fresh and salty water were determined from water levels from data at individual and multiple-observation wells. Salty ground water occurs in southern Nassau and southeastern Queens Counties as three wedgelike extensions that project landward in unconsolidated deposits from a main body of salty water that lies seaward of the barrier beaches in Nassau County and of Jamaica Bay in Queens County. Salty water occurs not only in permeable deposits but also in the shallow and deep clay deposits. The highest chloride content of the salty ground water in the main body and the wedges is about 16,000 ppm, which is about 1,000 to 2,000 ppm less than the chloride content of ocean water. The shallow salty water in the Pleistocene and Recent deposits is connected freely with the bays, tidal estuaries, and ocean. The intermediate wedge is found only in the southwestern part of Nassau County in the upper part of the Magothy (?) Formation, in the Jamneco Gravel, and in the overlying clay deposits. It extends from the seaward areas inland about 2 miles into Island Park. The deep wedge extends into southeastern Queens County and southern Nassau County principally in the deeper parts of the Magothy (?) Formation and in the underlying clay member of the Raritan Formation. The leading edge of the deep wedge is at the base of the Magothy (?) Formation. This edge is apparently at the shoreline east of Lido Beach and extends inland about 4 miles to Woodmere and about 7 miles to South Ozone Park. Zones of diffusion as much as 6 miles wide and about 500 feet thick were delineated in the frontal part of the salty-water wedges. These thick and broad zones of diffusion were probably formed during the past 1,000 or more years in heterogeneous unconsolidated deposits by long- and short-term changes in sea level and in fresh-water outflow to the sea and by dispersion caused by the movements of the water and its salt mass. Changes in sea level and fresh-water outflow together produced appreciable advances and recessions of the salt-water front. The chemical compositions of the diffused water in all wedges are modified to some extent by base exchange and other physical and chemical processes and also by diffusion. The intermediate wedge of salty water is moving landward at a rate of less than 20 feet a year in the vicinity of Island Park and, thus, has moved less than 1,000 feet since 1900. The leading edge of the deep wedge has advanced landward at about 300 feet a :ear in Woodmere in southwestern Nassau County and about 160 feet a year at South Ozone Park in southeastern Queens County, principally under the influence of local withdrawals near the toe of the wedge. Between Hewlett and Lido Beach, the deep wedge is moving inland at the rate of about 10 feet a year under the influence of regional withdrawals in inland areas. Regional encroachment of the deep wedge is apparently retarded appreciably by cyclic flow, that is, by the return seaward in the upper

Lusczynski, N.J.; Swarzenski, Wolfgang V.

1966-01-01

188

The MODIS Vegetation Canopy Water Content product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation water stress drives wildfire behavior and risk, having important implications for biogeochemical cycling in natural ecosystems, agriculture, and forestry. Water stress limits plant transpiration and carbon gain. The regulation of photosynthesis creates close linkages between the carbon, water, and energy cycles and through metabolism to the nitrogen cycle. We generated systematic weekly CWC estimated for the USA from 2000-2006. MODIS measures the sunlit reflectance of the vegetation in the visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared. Radiative transfer models, such as PROSPECT-SAILH, determine how sunlight interacts with plant and soil materials. These models can be applied over a range of scales and ecosystem types. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were used to optimize the inversion of these models to determine vegetation water content. We carried out multi-scale validation of the product using field data, airborne and satellite cross-calibration. An Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) of the product is under evaluation by NASA. The CWC product inputs are 1) The MODIS Terra/Aqua surface reflectance product (MOD09A1/MYD09A1) 2) The MODIS land cover map product (MOD12Q1) reclassified to grassland, shrub-land and forest canopies; 3) An ANN trained with PROSPECT-SAILH; 4) A calibration file for each land cover type. The output is an ENVI file with the CWC values. The code is written in Matlab environment and is being adapted to read not only the 8 day MODIS composites, but also daily surface reflectance data. We plan to incorporate the cloud and snow mask and generate as output a geotiff file. Vegetation water content estimates will help predicting linkages between biogeochemical cycles, which will enable further understanding of feedbacks to atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. It will also serve to estimate primary productivity of the biosphere; monitor/assess natural vegetation health related to drought, pollution or diseases; improve irrigation scheduling by reducing over-watering and under-watering. These estimates will also allow researchers to identify wildfire behavior/risk: drives ignition probability and burning efficiency; to be used as an indicator of soil moisture and Leaf Area Index.

Ustin, S. L.; Riano, D.; Trombetti, M.

2008-12-01

189

3,4-Dihydroquinolinium salts: preparation by reaction of N-Arylnitrilium salts with alkenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

N-Arylnitrilium salts 1 react with nucleophilic alkenes 2 to afford 3,4-dihydroquinolinium salts 3, which can be transformed into the free bases with aqueous sodium hydroxide. Dehydrogenation of the 3,4-dihydroquinolinium salts 3 with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinone furnishes quinolinium salts 7. If the intermediate carbenium ion A formed by electrophilic attack of 1 on the alkene 2 is conjugatively or hyperconjugatively stabilized, instead of

Ahmed H. moustafa; Martin G. Hitzler; Martin Lutz; Johannes C. Jochims

1997-01-01

190

Global heat and salt transports by eddy movement.  

PubMed

Oceanic mesoscale eddies contribute important horizontal heat and salt transports on a global scale. Here we show that eddy transports are mainly due to individual eddy movements. Theoretical and observational analyses indicate that cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies move westwards, and they also move polewards and equatorwards, respectively, owing to the ? of Earth's rotation. Temperature and salinity (T/S) anomalies inside individual eddies tend to move with eddies because of advective trapping of interior water parcels, so eddy movement causes heat and salt transports. Satellite altimeter sea surface height anomaly data are used to track individual eddies, and vertical profiles from co-located Argo floats are used to calculate T/S anomalies. The estimated meridional heat transport by eddy movement is similar in magnitude and spatial structure to previously published eddy covariance estimates from models, and the eddy heat and salt transports both are a sizeable fraction of their respective total transports. PMID:24534770

Dong, Changming; McWilliams, James C; Liu, Yu; Chen, Dake

2014-01-01

191

Sea Water Ageing of GFRP Composites and the Dissolved salts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper houses the effect of sea water immersion on glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. The major sources of interest are study of sea water absorption, penetration of the dissolved salts, details of chemical and physical bonds at the interface, variations of mechanical properties and study of failure mechanisms as revealed through SEM fractographs. Eighteen ply GFRP composites are immersed in sea water for a period of one year in steps of two months durations. It is revealed that the moisture absorption transforms from a Fickian to non-Fickian behavior with lapse of time. The dissolved salt 'K' shows highest depth of penetration after one year of immersion while 'Na' shows a least depth of penetration, as revealed from the EDS spectra. It is also revealed that 'Ca' seems to have a sudden burst in the rate of penetration even surpassing that of 'K'. This trend can be attributed to the combined effect of ionic mobility of the various dissolved salts and the probable interaction between 'K' and the -OH group of epoxy resin. This interaction between dissolved 'K' and the -OH group in the polymer could have arrested the further advancement of 'K' salts in the polymer, resulting in comparatively high rates of 'Ca' penetration. The mechanical properties such as inter laminar shear stress (ILSS), stress and strain at rupture, glass transition temperature (Tg) and elastic modulus show a decreasing trend with the increased duration of immersion. As revealed from the SEM fractographs pot- holing, fiber pull-out, matrix crack etc. are seen to be the major reason for failure of the immersed samples under load.

Chakraverty, A. P.; Mohanty, U. K.; Mishra, S. C.; Satapathy, A.

2015-02-01

192

Quantum Calculations on Salt Bridges with Water: Potentials, Structure, and Properties  

SciTech Connect

Salt bridges are electrostatic links between acidic and basic amino acids in a protein; quantum calculations are used here to determine the energetics and other properties of one form of these species, in the presence of water molecules. The acidic groups are carboxylic acids (aspartic and glutamic acids); proteins have two bases with pK above physiological pH: one, arginine, with a guanidinium basic group, the other lysine, which is a primary amine. Only arginine is modeled here, by ethyl guanidinium, while propionic acid is used as a model for either carboxylic acid. The salt bridges are accompanied by 0-12 water molecules; for each of the 13 systems, the energy-bond distance relation, natural bond orbitals (NBO), frequency calculations allowing thermodynamic corrections to room temperature, and dielectric constant dependence, were all calculated. The water molecules were found to arrange themselves in hydrogen bonded rings anchored to the oxygens of the salt bridge components. This was not surprising in itself, but it was found that the rings lead to a periodicity in the energy, and to a 'water addition' rule. The latter shows that the initial rings, with four oxygen atoms, become five member rings when an additional water molecule becomes available, with the additional water filling in at the bond with the lowest Wiberg index, as calculated using NBO. The dielectric constant dependence is the expected hyperbola, and the fit of the energy to the inverse dielectric constant is determined. There is an energy periodicity related to ring formation upon addition of water molecules. When 10 water molecules have been added, all spaces near the salt bridge are filled, completing the first hydration shell, and a second shell starts to form. The potentials associated with salt bridges depend on their hydration, and potentials assigned without regard to local hydration are likely to cause errors as large as or larger than kBT, thus suggesting a serious problem if these potentials are used in Molecular Dynamics simulations.

Liao, Sing; Green, Michael E.

2011-01-01

193

17O NMR and Raman spectra of water with different calcium salts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

17O NMR and Raman spectra of water with different calcium salts have been measured. Different water samples were prepared by adding nano-materials, calcium gluconate, calcium citrate and calcium chloride into distilled water. Both 17O NMR and Raman spectra of different water samples were recorded. The effects of temperature and time on 17O NMR line-width of different water samples were analyzed as well. The experimental results showed that Raman spectra of water with these four calcium salts were almost the same as those for distilled water when the temperature increased to 40 °C. The 17O NMR line-width of distilled water decreased from 76.8 Hz to 46.9 Hz and 65.8 Hz after nano-materials and calcium chloride were added, respectively. Besides, the 17O NMR line-width of distilled water increased from 76.8 Hz to 131.6 Hz after calcium citrate was added, while the 17O NMR line-width of distilled water increased from 76.8 Hz to 77.2 Hz after calcium gluconate was added. The 17O NMR line-width of water with calcium chloride increased while the other three water samples were nearly stable as the temperature increased from 30 °C to 85 °C. The 17O NMR line-width of water with nano-materials kept steady while the 17O NMR line-width of the other three water samples all increased in 42 days.

Yan, Ying; Ou, Xiao-xia; Zhang, Hui-ping

2014-09-01

194

Water content and structure in malignant and benign skin tumours  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of the low frequency region of Raman spectra enables determination of water structure. It has been previously demonstrated by various techniques that water content and possibly also the water structure is altered in some malignant tumours. To further elucidate possible change in water structure in tumours we performed NIR FT Raman spectroscopy on biopsies from selected benign and malignant skin tumours (benign: seborrheic keratosis, pigmented nevi; malignant: malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma). We did not observe any differences in water content between malignant and benign skin tumours with an exception of seborrheic keratosis, in which the water content was decreased. Increase in the tetrahedral (free) water was found in malignant skin tumours and sun-damaged skin relative to normal young skin and benign skin tumours. This finding may add to the understanding of molecular alterations in cancer.

Gniadecka, M.; Nielsen, O. F.; Wulf, H. C.

2003-12-01

195

Salicylic Acid Alleviates the Adverse Effects of Salt Stress in Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii Seedlings by Activating Photosynthesis and Enhancing Antioxidant Systems  

PubMed Central

Background Salt stress is a major factor limiting plant growth and productivity. Salicylic acid (SA) has been shown to ameliorate the adverse effects of environmental stress on plants. To investigate the protective role of SA in ameliorating salt stress on Torreya grandis (T. grandis) trees, a pot experiment was conducted to analyze the biomass, relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll content, net photosynthesis (Pn), gas exchange parameters, relative leakage conductivity (REC), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) of T. grandis under 0.2% and 0.4% NaCl conditions with and without SA. Methodology/Principal Findings The exposure of T. grandis seedlings to salt conditions resulted in reduced growth rates, which were associated with decreases in RWC and Pn and increases in REC and MDA content. The foliar application of SA effectively increased the chlorophyll (chl (a+b)) content, RWC, net CO2 assimilation rates (Pn), and proline content, enhanced the activities of SOD, CAT and POD, and minimized the increases in the REC and MDA content. These changes increased the capacity of T. grandis in acclimating to salt stress and thus increased the shoot and root dry matter. However, when the plants were under 0% and 0.2% NaCl stress, the dry mass of the shoots and roots did not differ significantly between SA-treated plants and control plants. Conclusions SA induced the salt tolerance and increased the biomass of T. grandis cv. by enhancing the chlorophyll content and activity of antioxidative enzymes, activating the photosynthetic process, and alleviating membrane injury. A better understanding about the effect of salt stress in T. grandis is vital, in order gain knowledge over expanding the plantations to various regions and also for the recovery of T. grandis species in the future. PMID:25302987

Du, Xuhua; Tang, Hui; Shen, Chaohua; Wu, Jiasheng

2014-01-01

196

Verification of Ground Penetrating Radar for Soil Water Content Measuring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatially distributed water at the land surface is a vital natural resource for human being and ecosystems. Soil water content at vadose zone at regional scale controls exchange of moisture and energy between Earth surface and atmosphere, at the catchment scale - the separation of precipitation into infiltration, runoff and evapotranspiration, at the field scale - plant growing, at the small plot scale - pathway of water flow through soil profile. Hydrologist, agronomists, soil scientists and others looking for technology providing soil water content measurements across a range of spatial range. Ground penetrating radar is not destructive method of measurement for diverse application was tested in the field for mapping a spatial distribution of soil water content during infiltration event at chestnut soil of Saratov Region, Russia. A Common-MidPoint method was used to calibrate GPR OKO with a 400 MHz antenna. At experimental plot of 50x50 m a range of 36 boreholes equipped by vertical access tubes (10 distance between) for TDR PR2 with 4 predefined depths of soil moisture measurements was prepared. TDR PR2 equipment used for measurements was calibrated on special experimental setup with soil from plot. Data sets of parallel measurements of soil water content by TDR at 4 depths of borehole locations and GPR at trace lines along ranges of boreholes were used to produce soil water content maps with geo-statistical methods. Keywords: GPR, TDR, soil water content

Ermolaeva, O.; Zeiliguer, A.

2009-04-01

197

Estimation of plant water content by spectral absorption features centered at 1,450 nm and 1,940 nm regions.  

PubMed

Vegetation water content could possibly provide widespread utility in agriculture, forestry and hydrology. In this article, three species leaves were measured radiometrically in order to determine a relationship between leaf water status and the spectral feature centered at 1,450 and 1,940 nm where there are strong water absorptions. The first step of our research is to measure leaf spectra with a FieldSpec-FR. After the spectral analysis using the continuum removal technique, the spectral absorption feature parameters: absorption band depth (D (1450), D (1940)), the normalized band depth of absorption in 1,450 and 1,940 nm (BNA(1450), BNA(1940)), the ratio of the two reflectance of continuum line (R (1450i )/R (1940i )), the ratio of the two band depth (D (1450)/D (1940)) and the ratio of the two absorption areas (A (1450)/A (1940)) in the two wavebands were extracted from each leaf spectrum. The fuel moisture content (FMC), specific leaf weight (SLW), equivalent water thickness (EWT) were measured for each leaf sample. A correlation analysis was conducted between the spectral absorption feature parameters and corresponding FMC, SLW and EWT. In addition, some existing indices for assessing water status such as WI (water index), WI/NDVI (water index/normalized difference vegetation index), MSI (moisture stress index), NDWI (normalized difference water index)were calculated and the correlation between them and water status were analyzed too. The results by comparing the correlations indicated that the spectral absorption feature indices we proposed were better. The indexes BNA(1940), D (1450)/D (1940), and A (1450)/A (1940) were well correlated with FMC, and the correlation between the indexes D (1450,) D (1940), R (1450i )/R (1940i ) and EWT were strong. The index A (1450)/A (1940) was tested to be a good indictor for evaluating plant water content, because there was strongest positive correlation between it and FMC than other indices. PMID:18853268

Wang, Jie; Xu, Ruisong; Yang, Shilun

2009-10-01

198

Interferometric tomography of fuel cells for monitoring membrane water content  

E-print Network

We have developed a system that uses two 1D interferometric phase projections for reconstruction of 2D water content changes over time in situ in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system. By modifying the filtered ...

Waller, Laura

199

First data on the uranium content in water of the Yenisei River basin in the area affected by the operation of Rosatom plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is devoted to investigating the content of uranium isotopes in water of the Yenisei River and its tributaries within the territories affected by the operation of Rosatom plants (mining chemical combine, and electrochemical plant). Long-term monitoring of the 238U content by mass spectrometry carried out in two institutes of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences first revealed the multiple excess of 238U over the background content in different areas of the Yenisei River basin, such as the region of the Yenisei River near the effluents of the mining and chemical combine (MCC), and the territories of the Bol'shaya Tel' and Kan rivers. In these regions, the 238U content in water reaches 2.1-4.0 ?g/l, which exceeds its content upstream from the MCC (0.3-0.6 ?g/l) by almost an order of magnitude. The studies of the isotopic composition of uranium in water samples, which were carried out at the Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, showed the presence of a technogenic isotope of uranium 236U in the samples from the Bolshaya Tel' River and revealed the deviation of the isotope ratio 238U/235U (167 ± 3 and 177 ± 3) from the equilibrium natural ratio (238U/235U = 138). These facts attest to the technogenic origin of part of the uranium in water of the Bol'shaya Tel' River connected with the activity of MCC. The excess uranium content in the Kan River requires additional studies to ascertain the fraction of uranium of technogenic origin connected with the activity of the electrochemical plant (ECP) (Fig. 1, Table 4).

Bolsunovskii, A. Ya.; Zhizhaev, A. M.; Saprykin, A. I.; Degermendzhi, A. G.; Rubailo, A. I.

2011-07-01

200

Geophysical methods to support correct water sampling locations for salt dilution gauging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve water management design, particularly in irrigation areas, it is important to evaluate the baseline state of the water resources, including canal discharge. Salt dilution gauging is a traditional and well-documented technique in this respect. The complete mixing of salt used for dilution gauging is required; this condition is difficult to test or verify and, if not fulfilled, is the largest source of uncertainty in the discharge calculation. In this paper, a geophysical technique (FERT, fast electrical resistivity tomography) is proposed for imaging the distribution of the salt plume used for dilution gauging at every point along a sampling cross section. With this imaging, complete mixing can be verified. If the mixing is not complete, the image created by FERT can also provide a possible guidance for selecting water-sampling locations in the sampling cross section. A water multi-sampling system prototype aimed to potentially take into account concentration variability is also proposed and tested. The results reported in the paper show that FERT provides a three-dimensional image of the dissolved salt plume and that this can potentially help in the selection of water sampling points.

Comina, C.; Lasagna, M.; De Luca, D. A.; Sambuelli, L.

2014-08-01

201

MFR PAPER 1255 Use of Salt (NaCI) Water to Reduce Mortality of Chinook Salmon  

E-print Network

MFR PAPER 1255 Use of Salt (NaCI) Water to Reduce Mortality of Chinook Salmon Smolts, Oncorhynchus salmon and trout by capturing them at an upriver dam, transporting them around a series of dams gairdneri. However, the mortality of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, immediately following

202

Conversion of an Aziridine to an Oxazolidinone Using a Salt and Carbon Dioxide in Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A convenient, inexpensive, environment friendly, and regioselective conversion of an aziridine to an oxazolidinone is developed by using iodide salt and CO[2] in water. A description is provided, on the way in which this series of experiments will show students how to change experimental conditions to obtain mainly one desired regiosomer of a…

Wallace, Justin R.; Lieberman, Deborah L.; Hancock, Matthew T.; Pinhas, Allan R.

2005-01-01

203

Ammonium salts of polymaleic acids and use as corrosion inhibitors in water-in-oil emulsions  

SciTech Connect

The subject invention relates to salts of polymaleic acids having a molecular weight between 200 and 1500 and to their use in preventing the corrosion of metal caused by hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide in water-in-oil emulsions such as crude oil.

Oppenlaender, K.; Barthold, K.; Stork, K.

1984-03-13

204

Metasomatic control of water contents in the Kaapvaal cratonic mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water and trace element contents were measured by FTIR and laser ablation-ICPMS on minerals from peridotite xenoliths in kimberlites of the Kaapvaal craton from Finsch, Kimberley, Jagersfontein (South Africa), Letseng-La-Terae, and Liqhobong (Lesotho) mines. The peridotites record a wide range of pressure, temperature, oxygen fugacity, and metasomatic events. Correlations between water content or OH vibration bands with major, minor and trace elements in pyroxene and garnet precludes disturbance during xenolith entrainment by the host kimberlite magma and indicate preservation of mantle water contents. Clinopyroxene water contents (150-400 ppm H2O, by weight) correlate with those of orthopyroxene (40-250 ppm). Olivines (Peslier et al., 2008, 2010) and garnets have 0-86 and 0-20 ppm H2O, respectively. Relations in individual xenolith suites between the amount of water and that of incompatible elements Ti, Na, Fe3+ and rare earths in minerals suggests that metasomatism by oxidizing melts controls the water content of olivine, pyroxene and garnet. At pressures ?5.5 GPa, hydrous, alkaline, siliceous fluids or melts metasomatized Liqhobong and Kimberley peridotites, producing high water contents in their olivine, pyroxenes and garnet. At higher pressures, the percolation of ultramafic melts reacting with peridotite resulted in co-variation of Ca, Ti and water at the edge of garnets at Jagersfontein, and the overall crystallization of garnet with lower water contents than those in the original peridotites. The upward migration of these ultramafic melts through the lithospheric mantle also increased the water content of olivines with decreasing pressure at Finsch Mine. H2O/Ce ratios of melts in equilibrium with Kaapvaal peridotites range from 100 to 20,000 and the larger values may indicate metasomatism in subduction zone settings. Metasomatic events in Kaapvaal peridotites are thought to have occurred from the Archean to the Mesozoic. However, circumstantial evidence suggest that the metasomatic events responsible for setting the water contents may date from the Archean at Kimberley and from the Proterozoic at Jagersfontein. Combined water with Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotopic data at Finsch (Lazarov et al., in press-a) and with Ar-Ar phlogopite ages at Liqhobong (Hopp et al., 2008) indicates that water addition by metasomatic melts occurred in the Proterozoic. Water contents of mantle minerals in Kaapvaal xenoliths measured here have been preserved since that time and can consequently be used in modelling viscosity and longevity of cratonic roots since at least the mid-Proterozoic.

Peslier, A. H.; Woodland, A. B.; Bell, D. R.; Lazarov, M.; Lapen, T. J.

2012-11-01

205

Information content and reliability of TOVS estimates of precipitable water  

E-print Network

INFORMATION CONTENT AND RELIABILITY OF TOYS ESTIMATES OF PRECIPITABLE WATER A Thesis by MIN YIN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1994 Major Subject: Meteorology INFORMATION CONTENT AND RELIABILITY OF TOYS ESTIMATES OF PRECIPITABLE WATER A Thesis by MIN YIN Submitted to Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

Yin, Min

1994-01-01

206

Boundary lubrication by sodium salts: a Hofmeister series effect.  

PubMed

Boundary lubrication plays an important role in the function of sliding surfaces in contact. Of particular interest in this study, boundary regime tribology is relevant for understanding textural attributes perceived during oral consumption of food, where the tongue squeezes and slides against the hard palate. This work investigates aqueous lubrication of a sliding/rolling ball-on-disc contact by sodium anions of the Hofmeister series in both water and guar gum solutions. Low concentrations (0.001 M) of strongly kosmotropic salts provide reduced friction coefficients in both systems (water and guar gum solutions), although a different mechanism prevails in each. Surface-bound hydrated ions are responsible in the case of water, and salt-promoted adsorption of hydrated-polymer chains dominate with guar gum. In each system, friction decreases in accordance with the Hofmeister series: iodide, nitrate, bromide, chloride, fluoride, phosphate and citrate. The addition of salt has little impact on solution of bulk viscosity, and so this work demonstrates that significant boundary lubrication can be provided without surface modification and with lubricants of viscosity similar to that of water. PMID:22621913

Garrec, D A; Norton, I T

2012-08-01

207

Single Location Doublet Well to Reduce Salt-Water Encroachment: Phase I-Numerical Simulation  

E-print Network

C. E. Jacob received patents in 1965 for a single location well doublet that would produce fresh water overlying salt-water without upconing of the heavier salt-water and pollution of the fresh water zone. No known evaluation of the concept...

Reddell, D. L.

208

Electrokinetic behavior of fluoride salts as explained from water structure considerations  

SciTech Connect

Unlike the other silver halides, silver fluoride is positively charged in its saturated solution as determined by nonequilibrium electrophoresis measurements. In the absence of surface hydrolysis reactions, other fluoride salts (LiF, CaF{sub 2}, and MgF{sub 2}) also are positively charged in their saturation solutions. Furthermore, the electrokinetic behavior of these fluoride salts is rather insensitive to the fluoride ion activity in neutral or acidic solutions, and reversal of the sign of the surface charge by fluoride addition is not possible. Based on FTIR transmission spectra to describe the water structure of ionic solutions, in situ FTIR/internal reflection spectroscopy (FTIR/IRS) has been used to spectroscopically characterize interfacial water at fluoride salt surfaces. The experimental spectra were examined by consideration of the O-H stretching region (3,000--3,800 cm{sup {minus}1}) associated with the vibrational spectra of interfacial water. These results reveal a unique hydration state for fluorides and explain the anomalous electrokinetic behavior of fluoride salts such as LiF, CaF{sub 2}, and MgF{sub 2}, which show an unexpected insensitivity to the fluoride ion concentration in solution. It appears that this insensitivity is due to the formation of strong hydrogen bonding of the fluoride ions with water molecules. This hydration state prevents the accommodation of excess fluoride ions at surface lattice sites and accounts for the observed electrokinetic behavior.

Hu, Y.; Lu, Y.; Veeramasuneni, S.; Miller, J.D. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering] [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering

1997-06-01

209

Electrokinetic Behavior of Fluoride Salts as Explained from Water Structure Considerations  

PubMed

Unlike the other silver halides, silver fluoride is positively charged in its saturated solution as determined by nonequilibrium electrophoresis measurements. In the absence of surface hydrolysis reactions, other fluoride salts (LiF, CaF2 , and MgF2 ) also are positively charged in their saturated solutions. Furthermore, the electrokinetic behavior of these fluoride salts is rather insensitive to the fluoride ion activity in neutral or acidic solutions, and reversal of the sign of the surface charge by fluoride addition is not possible. Based on FTIR transmission spectra to describe the water structure of ionic solutions, in situ FTIR/internal reflection spectroscopy (FTIR/IRS) has been used to spectroscopically characterize interfacial water at fluoride salt surfaces. The experimental spectra were examined by consideration of the O-H stretching region (3000-3800 cm-1 ) associated with the vibrational spectra of interfacial water. These results reveal a unique hydration state for fluorides and explain the anomalous electrokinetic behavior of fluoride salts such as LiF, CaF2 , and MgF2 , which show an unexpected insensitivity to the fluoride ion concentration in solution. It appears that this insensitivity is due to the formation of strong hydrogen bonding of the fluoride ions with water molecules. This hydration state prevents the accommodation of excess fluoride ions at surface lattice sites and accounts for the observed electrokinetic behavior. PMID:9241159

Hu; Lu; Veeramasuneni; Miller

1997-06-01

210

Biased Monitoring of Fresh Water-Salt Water Mixing Zone in Coastal Aquifers  

E-print Network

in Long-Screen Borehole Installation of monitoring boreholes may cause local vertical flow due biased due to this effect. This problem is intensified in places of long-screen monitoring boreholes water-salt water mixing zone in the coastal aquifer of Israel are installed with 10 to 50 m long screens

Gvirtzman, Haim

211

Soil water content and infiltration in agroforestry buffer strips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry practices are receiving increased attention in temperate zones due to their environmental and economic benefits.\\u000a To test the hypothesis that agroforestry buffers reduce runoff by increased infiltration, water use, and water storage; profile\\u000a water content and soil water infiltration were measured for a Putnam soil (fine, smectitic, mesic Vertic Albaqualf). The watershed\\u000a was under no-till management with a corn

Stephen H. Anderson; Ranjith P. Udawatta; Tshepiso Seobi; Harold E. Garrett

2009-01-01

212

The Effect of Salt Stoichiometry on Protein-Salt Interactions Determined by Ternary Diffusion in Aqueous Solutions  

E-print Network

The Effect of Salt Stoichiometry on Protein-Salt Interactions Determined by Ternary Diffusion of salt stoichiometry on the transport properties of lysozyme-salt aqueous mixtures. We find that the two cross-diffusion coefficients are very sensitive to salt stoichiometry. One of the cross

Annunziata, Onofrio

213

Iodine content of salt 2 years after the introduction of the universal salt iodisation legislation in Lesotho.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of the universal salt iodisation legislation on I levels of salt at household, retail and entry level in Lesotho. We used a multistage proportion to population size method to select thirty-one clusters from all the districts and ecological zones of Lesotho. In each cluster, thirty households were randomly selected and salt samples were collected. Six salt samples from two randomly selected retailers in each cluster, and a total of 107 salt samples from all the commercial entry points in the country were also collected. Lesotho does not produce salt and it imports almost all its salt from South Africa. The salt samples were analysed using the iodometric titration method. The median I concentration of salt was 36.2 ppm at entry point, 37.3 ppm at retail level and 38.5 ppm at household level. At household level only 1.6 % used non-iodised salt and 86.9 % used adequately iodised salt. Of all salt collected at household level, 20.4 % was coarse salt, which was significantly less well iodised than fine salt. The study demonstrates a major achievement in the availability of iodised salt as well as household use of adequately iodised salt. Under-iodisation of coarse salt and non-uniformity of salt iodisation at the production site were observed. Therefore, there is a need for enforcement of the salt iodisation legislation especially at entry-point level to ensure that only iodised salt enters the country. During enforcement more emphasis should be given to iodisation of coarse salt. PMID:16022762

Sebotsa, Masekonyela Linono Damane; Dannhauser, Andre; Jooste, Pieter L; Joubert, Gina

2005-06-01

214

Modeling of Dense Water Production and Salt Transport from Alaskan Coastal Polynyas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main significance of this paper is that a realistic, three-dimensional, high-resolution primitive equation model has been developed to study the effects of dense water formation in Arctic coastal polynyas. The model includes realistic ambient stratification, realistic bottom topography, and is forced by time-variant surface heat flux, surface salt flux, and time-dependent coastal flow. The salt and heat fluxes, and the surface ice drift, are derived from satellite observations (SSM/I and NSCAT sensors). The model is used to study the stratification, salt transport, and circulation in the vicinity of Barrow Canyon during the 1996/97 winter season. The coastal flow (Alaska coastal current), which is an extension of the Bering Sea throughflow, is formulated in the model using the wind-transport regression. The results show that for the 1996/97 winter the northeastward coastal current exports 13% to 26% of the salt produced by coastal polynyas upstream of Barrow Canyon in 20 to 30 days. The salt export occurs more rapidly during less persistent polynyas. The inclusion of ice-water stress in the model makes the coastal current slightly weaker and much wider due to the combined effects of surface drag and offshore Ekman transport.

Signorini, Sergio R.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

2000-01-01

215

Soil water availability in the Patagonian arid steppe: Gravel content effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for estimating volumetric water content as a function of soil water potential and gravel content was developed. In the system studied gravel can withhold up to 67% of the amount held by the fine material. Water content at field capacity decreases 50% when gravel content (>11 mm) increases from 0% to 40% of total soil weight. For those

J. M. Paruelo; M. R. Aguiar; R. A. Golluscio

1988-01-01

216

Water content reflectometer calibration, field versus laboratory  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

For soils with large amounts of high-charge clays, site-specific calibrations for the newer permittivity probes that operate at lower frequencies, often have higher permittivity values than factory calibrations. The purpose of this study was to determine site-specific calibration of water content re...

217

Estimation of water turnover rates of captive West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) held in fresh and salt water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) to move between fresh and salt water raises the question of whether manatees drink salt water. Water turnover rates were estimated in captive West Indian manatees using the deuterium oxide dilution technique. Rates were quantified in animals using four experimental treatments: (1) held in fresh water and fed lettuce (N=4), (2) held in salt water and fed lettuce (N=2), (3) acutely exposed to salt water and fed lettuce (N=4), and (4) chronically exposed to salt water with limited access to fresh water and fed sea grass (N=5). Animals held in fresh water had the highest turnover rates (145+/-12 ml kg-1 day-1) (mean +/- s.e.m.). Animals acutely exposed to salt water decreased their turnover rate significantly when moved into salt water (from 124+/-15 to 65+/-15 ml kg-1 day-1) and subsequently increased their turnover rate upon re-entry to fresh water (146+/-19 ml kg-1 day-1). Manatees chronically exposed to salt water had significantly lower turnover rates (21+/-3 ml kg-1 day-1) compared with animals held in salt water and fed lettuce (45+/-3 ml kg-1 day-1). Manatees chronically exposed to salt water and fed sea grass had very low turnover rates compared with manatees held in salt water and fed lettuce, which is consistent with a lack of mariposia. Manatees in fresh water drank large volumes of water, which may make them susceptible to hyponatremia if access to a source of Na+ is not provided.

Ortiz, R. M.; Worthy, G. A.; Byers, F. M.

1999-01-01

218

Mineralogical and Anthropogenic Controls of Stream Water Chemistry in Salted Watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyses of major cation and anion concentrations in stream water and soil solutions from two salted (regular applications of winter road deicing salt) watersheds located in the northeastern United States indicate that both mineralogical and anthropogenic factors are important in controlling water chemistry. The relatively stable concentrations of calcium and magnesium, as well as their possible weathering paths identified by mass-balance models, indicate that the weathering of feldspars and the dissolution of carbonates are the primary sources for these two cations in the small, salted Centennial Lake Watershed (CLW, 1.95 km 2). However, the relatively stable and lower concentrations of sodium and chloride in soil solutions, and their fluctuating and higher concentrations in stream water from the CLW, indicate that road deicing salt is the primary source for these ions in stream water. Furthermore, positive correlations between calcium and sulfur concentrations and magnesium and sulfur concentrations in soil solutions, as well as positive correlations between sulfur and iron concentrations in soil compositions, indicate that both the dissolution of gypsum and the oxidation of pyrite into hematite are the primary sources of sulfate in the CLW. Analyses of water chemistry from the related and much larger Delaware River Watershed (DRW, 17560 km 2) show that sodium and chloride concentrations have increased steadily due to the regular application of winter deicing salt over the 68 years for which data are available. The more rapid increase of stream water chloride concentrations, relative to the increase in sodium, also results in the steady decline of Na+/Cl-molar ratios in the DRW over that time. In addition, the reduction of sulfate and increase of bicarbonate concentration since 1980 in DRW stream water may be attributed to the decline of sulfate levels in atmospheric deposition resulting from enhanced national and state environmental regulations and a shift in local economic activity away from heavy industry. There also are more periods of low silica stream water concentrations in the DRW than in the past, perhaps as a result of recent increases in summer water temperatures due to global climate change. The combined results of this study illustrate the many changing anthropogenic factors that can control stream water chemistry in salted watersheds and that these factors need to be taken into account when considering future water quality regulations and policy.

Sun, H.; Alexander, J.; Gove, B.; Chakowski, N.; Husch, J.

2013-12-01

219

Quantifying water content using GPR: impact of petrophysical variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic signal velocity measurements are commonly used to quantify liquid water contents of near surface geomaterials. Typically, a single-valued function, such as Topp's equation, is used to convert dielectric permittivity (K) into water content (?). Several factors contribute to error in such water content estimates, including use of incorrect petrophysical relationships, dependence of dielectric permittivity on pore scale geometry, frequency dispersive behavior (for example caused by the presence of swelling clay minerals), and macroscopic heterogeneity that leads to incorrect estimates of dielectric permittivity from field data. We use field and laboratory measurements and synthetic examples to investigate the relative importance of these sources of error. Co-axial cell measurements on clean sand samples suggest that even where the K versus ? relationship is well characterized, heterogeneity in the distribution of water at the pore scale for example caused by wetting-drying hysteresis, can lead to moisture content errors of ±2% volumetric water content, although more typically errors of <±1% can be expected. Measurements on sandstone samples suggest that larger errors, of up to ±5% can arise at GPR frequencies (i.e. 100MHz), resulting from the presence of swelling clay, although the influence of clay is less important at higher frequencies (i.e. >300MHz). Similar sized errors can result from variations in pore-scale geometry. However, experience suggests that the largest errors in water content measurements arise from assumptions concerning radar ray path geometry. GPR estimates of water content in macroscopically layered media made by assuming that the first radar wave arrivals are direct rays, whereas in fact these are critically refracted rays, can result in water content estimates that are inaccurate by up to 20%. Synthetic modeling to investigate the dependence of the magnitude of such errors on the geometric characteristics of heterogeneity will be presented.

West, L. J.; Endres, A. L.

2006-05-01

220

Inhibition of Peptide Acylation in PLGA Microspheres with Water-soluble Divalent Cationic Salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To test the potential of water-soluble divalent cationic salts to inhibit acylation of octreotide encapsulated in poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic\\u000a acid)-star (PLGA) microspheres.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The divalent cationic salts, calcium chloride and manganese chloride, previously shown to disrupt peptide sorption, were introduced\\u000a in PLGA microspheres prepared by the double emulsion-solvent evaporation method. Peptide stability was monitored by reversed-phase\\u000a high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and identified

Ying Zhang; Andreas M. Sophocleous; Steven P. Schwendeman

2009-01-01

221

Effect of moisture content of concrete on water uptake  

SciTech Connect

The penetration of water and non-polar hexane in Portland cement mortar prisms with different initial moisture contents was investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR). The amount of water in gel pores strongly affects the penetration of water in much larger capillary pores. Water penetration is reduced by the self-sealing effect as characterized by non-sq roott dependence of capillary uptake and penetration depth. This is explained by the ongoing redistribution of water from capillaries into gel pores which results in internal swelling and loss of continuity of the capillary pore system; a correlation was observed between the amount of redistributed water and departure from sq roott behaviour. A descriptive model is used to explain the dependence of water uptake and penetration on moisture content. For increasing initial moisture contents up to a critical value equivalent to equilibrium with a relative humidity between 65 and 80%, less penetrating water is able to redistribute. Thus more penetrating water is in larger capillaries with less viscous resistance; uptake and penetration depth increase. Above the critical initial moisture content, uptake and penetration depth decrease towards zero. This is explained by (a) an overall reduction in capillary pressure because transport takes places in fewer and larger pores and (b) an increase in viscous resistance due to the connection of penetrating capillary water with pores already containing water. Less capillary pore space is available for transport. The surface region of concrete placed in contact with water is not instantaneously saturated. Water content increases with time depending on the degree of surface saturation. A new transition coefficient for capillary suction gamma is defined for the calculation of surface flux.

Rucker-Gramm, P. [Concrete Concepts Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH Brandes, Lay, Rucker, Fraunhoferstrasse 30b, 80469 Muenchen (Germany); Beddoe, R.E., E-mail: Beddoe@cbm.bv.tum.d [Centre for Building Materials, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Baumbachstr. 7, 81245 Muenchen (Germany)

2010-01-15

222

Changes in water content and distribution in Quercus ilex leaves during progressive drought assessed by in vivo 1H magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

Background Drought is a common stressor in many regions of the world and current climatic global circulation models predict further increases in warming and drought in the coming decades in several of these regions, such as the Mediterranean basin. The changes in leaf water content, distribution and dynamics in plant tissues under different soil water availabilities are not well known. In order to fill this gap, in the present report we describe our study withholding the irrigation of the seedlings of Quercus ilex, the dominant tree species in the evergreen forests of many areas of the Mediterranean Basin. We have monitored the gradual changes in water content in the different leaf areas, in vivo and non-invasively, by 1H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using proton density weighted (?w) images and spin-spin relaxation time (T2) maps. Results ?w images showed that the distal leaf area lost water faster than the basal area and that after four weeks of similar losses, the water reduction was greater in leaf veins than in leaf parenchyma areas and also in distal than in basal leaf area. There was a similar tendency in all different areas and tissues, of increasing T2 values during the drought period. This indicates an increase in the dynamics of free water, suggesting a decrease of cell membranes permeability. Conclusions The results indicate a non homogeneous leaf response to stress with a differentiated capacity to mobilize water between its different parts and tissues. This study shows that the MRI technique can be a useful tool to follow non-intrusively the in vivo water content changes in the different parts of the leaves during drought stress. It opens up new possibilities to better characterize the associated physiological changes and provides important information about the different responses of the different leaf areas what should be taken into account when conducting physiological and metabolic drought stress studies in different parts of the leaves during drought stress. PMID:20735815

2010-01-01

223

Salt marsh-atmosphere exchange of energy, water vapor, and CO2: effects of transient flooding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-duration floods help sustain many wetland systems, yet benchmarks of important wetland-atmosphere interactions are typically derived from non-flooded conditions. Exchanges of energy, water vapor, and CO2 between an intertidal salt marsh and the atmosphere were quantified by eddy covariance, micrometeorology, and other field methods. A flood tide lasting less than three hours completely suppressed marsh-atmosphere CO2 exchange. Compared to non-flooded conditions, the radiation budget and latent heat flux of the salt marsh were larger and the sensible and soil heat fluxes smaller during daytime high tides, with large energy flux into the surface water. Night-time high tides had less pronounced, opposite effects on net radiation, soil heat flux, and surface water energy storage. Longer floods correlated with larger exchange flux perturbation. A suite of seven exchange models was used to diagnose key mechanisms causing the observed changes: different canopy/soil/water resistance to vapor transport, changed Bowen ratio, altered marsh microclimate (air temperature, humidity, wind speed), and surface water heat storage. Analysis of an ensemble of 17 calibrated model parameters revealed a significant wetland-atmosphere exchange regime shift due to tidal flooding: the salt marsh functioned like a heated, sparse crop during non-flooded periods and like well-watered, evaporatively-cooled grass during floods. An analogous wetland-atmosphere exchange regime shift likely occurs in other systems sustained by short-duration flood events between larger hydrologic events.

Moffett, K. B.; Gorelick, S.

2009-12-01

224

Groundwater Contamination by Road Salt: Steady-State Concentrations in East Central Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The average steady-state contamination of groundwater by road salt in the suburban area around Boston, on the assumption that current rates of application of salt will continue, is about 160 milligrams of sodium chloride per liter of water (100 milligrams of chloride per liter). This value is compared with values of 50 to 100 milligrams of chloride per liter found

Edwin E. Huling; Thomas C. Hollocher

1972-01-01

225

A Grandfather Studies the Power of the Wind; Turning Salt Water into Drinking Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ATETV project delivers web-based videos to connect students to careers in advanced technology. This episode of ATETV follows a non-traditional adult student as he returns to school to study wind energy technology, and examines water treatment technology for desalination. The video can be viewed whole or in two segments: "A Grandfather Studies the Power of the Wind" and "Turning Salt Water into Drinking Water." The running time for the full episode is 9:59.

226

A Comparison of Different Model Concepts for Salt Water Intrusion Processes  

E-print Network

A Comparison of Different Model Concepts for Salt Water Intrusion Processes R. Hinkelmann, H. Sheta salt water intrusion processes are investigated. For both, the governing equations as well for almost half of the water supply for human consumption. In the coastal environment, excessive groundwater

Cirpka, Olaf Arie

227

Water content or water activity: what rules crispy behavior in bread crust?  

PubMed

A dry crust loses its crispness when water migrates into the crust. It is not clear if it is the amount of water absorbed or the water activity ( a w) that leads to a loss of crispness. The hysteresis effect observed when recording a water sorption isotherm allowed us to study the effects of a w and moisture content separately. All experiments were carried out on model bread crusts made from Soissons bread flour. The effect of water content and water activity on the glass transition of model bread crusts was studied in detail using two complimentary techniques: phase transition analysis (PTA) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The results were compared with sensory data and results from a puncture test, which provided data on acoustic emission and fracture mechanics during breaking of the crusts. The water content of the crust was found to be decisive for the transition point as measured by PTA and NMR. However, both water content and water activity had an effect on perceived crispness and number of force and sound peaks. From this may be concluded that the distribution of the water in the samples with a history of high water content is more inhomogeneous, which results in crispy and less crispy regions, thus making them overall more crispy than samples with the same water content but higher a w. PMID:18611031

van Nieuwenhuijzen, N H; Primo-Martín, C; Meinders, M B J; Tromp, R H; Hamer, R J; van Vliet, T

2008-08-13

228

Sensitivity of probabilistic MCO water content estimates to key assumptions  

SciTech Connect

Sensitivity of probabilistic multi-canister overpack (MCO) water content estimates to key assumptions is evaluated with emphasis on the largest non-cladding film-contributors, water borne by particulates adhering to damage sites, and water borne by canister particulate. Calculations considered different choices of damage state degree of independence, different choices of percentile for reference high inputs, three types of input probability density function (pdfs): triangular, log-normal, and Weibull, and the number of scrap baskets in an MCO.

DUNCAN, D.R.

1999-02-25

229

Warming, Salting and Origin of The Tyrrhenian Deep Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data collected from 1996 to 2001 down to 3,500 m in the Tyrrhenian sub-basin (Mediterranean Sea) with ship-handled and moored instruments show 5-year trends (warming~1.6x10-2C/yr, salting~0.8x10-2psu/yr) that are the largest ever evidenced in Mediterranean deep waters. This specificity is not consistent with the usual hypoth- esis that Tyrrhenian Deep Water (TDW) is a mixture of eastern water flowing from the Channel of Sicily and western water flowing from the Channel of Sardinia, partly since both are reported to encounter lower trends. We present additional arguments against this former hypothesis and hypothesise that TDW might result from a dense water formation process occurring within the Tyrrhenian sub-basin itself, in a region never reported up to now, i.e. east of the Strait of Bonifacio. Whatever the validity of our hypothesis, climatic changes are clearly occurring in the whole sea and are efficiently specified with long time series.

Fuda, J.-L.; Etiope, G.; Millot, C.; Favali, P.; Calcara, M.; Smriglio, G.; Boschi, E.

230

Influence of total lipid concentration, bile salt: lecithin ratio, and cholesterol content on inter-mixed micellarhesicular (non-lecithin-associated) bile salt concentrations in model bile  

Microsoft Academic Search

We modified classic equilibrium dialysis methodol- ogy to correct for dialysant dilution and Donnan effects, and have systematically studied how variations in total lipid concen- tration, bile salt (taurocho1ate):lecithin (egg yolk) ratio, and cho- lesterol content influence inter-mixed micellar\\/vesicular (non- lecithin-associated) concentrations (IMC) of bile salts (BS) in model bile. To simulate large volumes of dialysant, the total volume (1

Joanne M. Donovan; Natasha Timofeywa; Martin C. Carey

231

Influences of Salinity Variations on Pore-water Flow in Salt Marshes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salt marshes are important wetlands at the ocean-land interface with various ecological functions, serving as essential habitats for intertidal fauna, affecting the productivity of coastal waters through nutrient exchange, moderating the greenhouse gas emission and global warming. They are influenced by various physical and biogeochemical processes, among which the pore-water flow and associated solute transport processes play an important role in determining the material exchange between marsh soils and coastal water. Previous studies have examined such processes under the solo or combined effects of tidal fluctuation, evapotranspiration, stratigraphy, inland freshwater input, and topography. However, these investigations have neglected the spatial and temporal salinity variations in surface water and pore-water, which commonly exist in salt marshes due to the impacts of tidal inundation, precipitation and evapotranspiration. The density contrast between the surface water and pore-water may lead to significant modifications of the pore-water flow. Based on results from laboratory experiments and numerical simulations, we will demonstrate that: (1) under upward salinity gradients, flow instabilities in the form of fingers occur once the salinity contrast reaches a certain level, whereas under downward salinity gradients the system is stable; (2) because of the strong tidally-induced advective process occurring near the creek, both the number and size of fingers change gradually from the near-creek zone to the marsh interior; and (3) both upward and downward salinity gradients enhance the exchange between the surface water and pore-water in the marsh sediments. Keywords: Salt marshes; density effect; salinity gradient; pore-water flow; fingers. Instabilities under upward salinity gradient Stable system under downward salinity gradient

Shen, C.; Jin, G.; Xin, P.; Li, L.

2013-12-01

232

Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water  

DOEpatents

A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants-containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid. 6 figs.

Tsai, S.P.

1997-07-08

233

Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water  

DOEpatents

A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid.

Tsai, Shih-Perng (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01

234

Analyses of soil water content variations and GPR attribute distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water flux was investigated in the frame of the project 'preferential flow paths—3D water and solute dynamic in heterogeneous media'. The objective of the study was the non-destructive three-dimensional monitoring and description of heterogeneous flux fields with hydrological and geophysical methods. A large tank filled with homogeneous sand was set up to realize infiltration experiments. We compared the parameter distribution calculated from measurements of a ground penetrating radar system (GPR) with a simulated water content distribution using a two-dimensional numerical model based on the Van Genuchten-Mualem approach in order to assess the effectiveness of the geophysical measure for the characterization of soil water content variations. A statistical examination of both simulated water contents based on independent measured soil properties and reflection amplitudes from radargrams indicated a better conformity between geophysical data and simulated water contents assuming a heterogeneous hydraulic parameter distribution. The heterogeneous nature of the sand body could be confirmed by dye tracer experiments. The analyzed GPR attribute, the distribution of the maximum reflection amplitudes, may serve in future studies as an indicator for the expected water content heterogeneity in sandy soils.

Schmalz, B.; Lennartz, B.

2002-10-01

235

Salt marsh ecohydrological zonation due to heterogeneous vegetation - groundwater - surface water interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the most fundamental characteristics of intertidal salt marshes are distinctive vegetation zonation and tidally-forced hydrology. Vegetation zones often correlate with tidal hydrology and plant water use is significant in the wetland balance; however, specific links between vegetation zonation, plant water use, and spatiotemporally variable intertidal hydrology have eluded thorough characterization. This investigation developed the first comprehensive salt marsh ecohydrology models integrating the transient, 3D, coupled surface water and groundwater flow and plant water use of an intensively studied salt marsh field site. The physics-based modeling demonstrated that superimposing heterogeneous sediment hydraulic properties, evapotranspiration rates, and rooting depths, together with tidal dynamics, induced surprising spatial variations in root zone hydraulics: variations pronounced enough to constitute wholly different root zone habitats with different pressure heads, saturations, and vertical groundwater velocities. These diverse habitats were apparent only when both hydraulic and vegetative influences were accounted for, leading to their definition as discrete "ecohydrological zones." We distinguished five different ecohydrological zones (EHZs) by distinct combinations of sediment hydraulic properties and evapotranspiration rates and two EHZs by topography. The hydraulic variations among EHZs were masked shortly after a flooding tide, but again became prominent during prolonged marsh exposure. Boundaries between EHZs exhibited large gradients in head, saturation, and vertical flow magnitude and direction due to a combination of vegetation and sediment effects. We suggest that ecohydrological zones, combining spatially-variable topographic, sediment, and vegetation influences, are the fundamental spatial habitat units comprising the salt marsh ecosystem. This perspective contrasts with historical emphasis on vegetation zones as the foremost unit of habitat variation within salt marshes.

Moffett, K. B.; Gorelick, S.; McLaren, R.; Sudicky, E. A.

2011-12-01

236

The water, deuterium, gas and uranium content of tektites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The water content, deuterium concentration of the water, total gas and uranium contents were determined on tektite samples and other glass samples from Texas, Australia, Philippine Islands, Java, French Indo-China, Czechoslovakia, Libyan Desert, Billiton Island, Thailand, French West Africa, Peru, and New Mexico. The water content ranges from 0.24 per cent for the Peru tektite, to 0.0002 per cent for a moldavite. The majority of the tektites have less than 0.05 per cent water, and average 0.005 per cent H2O by weight. No other gases were detected, the lower detection limit being about 1 p.p.m. by weight. The deuterium content of the water in tektites is in the same range as that in terrestrial waters, and varies from 0.010 mole per cent to 0.0166 mole per cent deuterium. The uranium content is about from 1 to 3 p.p.m. The possible origin of tektites is discussed. The experimental data presented favour their being originally terrestrial, but produced by some catastrophic event. An extra-terrestrial source is not ruled out. ?? 1958.

Friedman, I.

1958-01-01

237

Effects of subfornical organ extracts on salt-water balance in the rat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The subfornical organ (SFO) is a circumventricular structure located at the junction of the lamina terminalis and the tela choroidea of the third cerebral ventricle. SFO is histologically regarded as a neurosecretory structure, although the physiological effects or biochemical nature of such secretions are not yet ascertained. Results are presented for an experimental study designed to determine whether SFO extracts alter parameters associated with salt-water balance in the rat. The data obtained support the conclusion that SFO contains some water-soluble substance(s), easily released by incubation, dialyzable and heat stable, which influences the salt-water balance after injection into ventricular cerebrospinal fluid. Whether other brain tissues or plasma contains the same or similar material is not yet convincingly established. The observation that one or more active constituents are easily released from SFO upon incubation in potassium-enriched medium may be of value.

Summy-Long, J. Y.; Crawford, I. L.; Severs, W. B.

1976-01-01

238

Standardizing Characterization of Electromagnetic Water Content Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT,cases salinity. However, it is sometimes the case that a new,sensor is promoted,and distributed only to be Performancedifferences inthe growingnumber ofelectromagnetic disapproved,of years later due,to poor,measurement (EM) sensors designed to estimate soil water content from a variety of indirect measurements (e.g., from measured travel time, capacitance, performance. The cost to users in unreliable experimen- frequency shift) suggests the need for

J. M. Blonquist; D. A. Robinson; V. Philip Rasmussen; D. Or

2005-01-01

239

Concentration and precipitation of NaCl and KCl from salt cake leach solutions by electrodialysis  

SciTech Connect

Electrodialysis was investigated for cost-effective recovery of salt from salt cake leach solutions. (Salt cake is a waste stream generated by the aluminum industry during treatment of aluminum drosses and scrap.) We used a pilot-scale electrodialysis stack of 5 membrane pairs, each with an effective area of 0.02 m{sup 2}. The diluate stream contained synthetic NaCl, KCl,mixtures of NaCl and KCl, and actual salt cake leach solutions (mainly NaCl and KCl, with small amounts of MgCl{sub 2}). We concentrated and precipitated NaCl and KCl salts from the concentrate steam when the initial diluate stream concentration was 21.5 to 28.8 wt% NaCl and KCl. We found that water transferring through the membranes was a significant factor in overall efficiency of salt recovery by electrodialysis.

Sreenivasarao, K; Patsiogiannis, F.; Hryn, J.N.

1997-02-09

240

Simultaneous measurement of unfrozen water content and ice content in frozen soil using gamma ray attenuation and TDR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The freezing temperature of water in soil is not constant but varies over a range determined by soil texture. Consequently, the amounts of unfrozen water and ice change with temperature in frozen soil, which in turn affects hydraulic, thermal, and mechanical properties of frozen soil. In this paper, an Am-241 gamma ray source and time-domain reflectometry (TDR) were combined to measure unfrozen water content and ice content in frozen soil simultaneously. The gamma ray attenuation was used to determine total water content. The TDR was used to determine the dielectric constant of the frozen soil. Based on a four-phase mixing model, the amount of unfrozen water content in the frozen soil could be determined. The ice content was inferred by the difference between total water content and unfrozen water content. The gamma ray attenuation and the TDR were both calibrated by a gravimetric method. Water contents measured by gamma ray attenuation and TDR in an unfrozen silt column under infiltration were compared and showed that the two methods have the same accuracy and response to changes of water content. Unidirectional column freezing experiments were performed to apply the combined method of gamma ray attenuation and TDR for measuring unfrozen water content and ice content. The measurement error of the gamma ray attenuation and TDR was around 0.02 and 0.01 m3/m3, respectively. The overestimation of unfrozen water in frozen soil by TDR alone was quantified and found to depend on the amount of ice content. The higher the ice content, the larger the overestimation. The study confirmed that the combined method could accurately determine unfrozen water content and ice content in frozen soil. The results of soil column freezing experiments indicate that total water content distribution is affected by available pore space and the freezing front advance rate. It was found that there is similarity between the soil water characteristic and the soil freezing characteristic of variably saturated soil. Unfrozen water content is independent of total water content and affected only by temperature when the freezing point is reached.

Zhou, Xiaohai; Zhou, Jian; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang; Stauffer, Fritz

2014-12-01

241

Effects of different cooling treatments on water diffusion, microcirculation, and water content within exercised muscles: evaluation by magnetic resonance T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging.  

PubMed

In this study, we determined the effects of different cooling treatments on exercised muscles. Seven adults underwent four post-exercise treatments (20-min ice-bag application, 60-min gel-pack application at 10 degrees C and 17 degrees C, and non-cooling treatment) with at least 1 week between treatments. Magnetic resonance diffusion- and T2-weighted images were obtained to calculate the apparent diffusion coefficients (apparent diffusion coefficient 1, which reflects intramuscular water diffusion and microcirculation, and apparent diffusion coefficient 2, which is approximately equal to the true diffusion coefficient that excludes as much of the effect of intramuscular microcirculation as possible) and the T2 values (intramuscular water content level) of the ankle dorsiflexors, respectively, before and after ankle dorsiflexion exercise and after post-exercise treatment. The T2 values increased significantly after exercise and returned to pre-exercise values after each treatment; no significant differences were observed among the four post-exercise treatments. Both apparent diffusion coefficients also increased significantly after exercise and decreased significantly after the three cooling treatments; no significant difference was detected among the three cooling treatments. Local cooling suppresses both water diffusion and microcirculation within exercised muscles. Moreover, although the treatment time was longer, adequate cooling effects could be achieved using the gel-pack applications at relatively mild cooling temperatures. PMID:20845216

Yanagisawa, Osamu; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Fukubayashi, Toru

2010-09-01

242

Dependence of seismoelectric amplitudes on water content - a field study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In porous saturated media, seismic compressional waves can cause seismoelectric and seismoelectromagnetic signals through electrokinetic coupling. It has been observed that these measureable signals also occur in partially saturated media, but the theory is largely unknown for these circumstances. Seismoelectromagnetic tomography is expected to combine the sensitivity of electrical properties to water-content and permeability, to the high spatial resolution of seismic surveys. A better understanding of the physical processes and a reliable quantification of the conversion between seismic and electric energy are necessary and need to take into account the effect of water-content, especially for shallow subsurface investigations. In order to quantify seismoelectric signals with changing water content, we repeated seismoelectric and seismic measurements on the same profile in the Vosges Mountains during several months. The electrical resistivity was also monitored to take into account the water-content variations. We show that an exponential relation can be established between the seismoelectric amplitudes normalized with the seismic amplitudes and the resistivity which in turn is related to the saturation: Increasing resistivity (decreasing water content) leads to decreasing normalized seismoelectric amplitudes. These results imply that the electrokinetic coefficient should increase with water-saturation, as measured in laboratory, but not predicted by theory. This work was funded by CNRS and Université Louis Pasteur de Strasbourg.

Strahser, M. H. P.; Matthey, P.-D.; Jouniaux, L.; Sailhac, P.

2009-04-01

243

Field Measurement of Suction, Water Content, and Water Permeability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a review of techniques for field measurement of suction, water content, and water hydraulic conductivity\\u000a (permeability). Main problems in the use of field tensiometers are addressed and hints on how to improve tensiometer performance\\u000a are given. Advantages and limitations of instruments for indirect measurement of suction including electrical conductivity\\u000a sensors, thermal conductivity sensors, dielectric permittivity sensors, filter

Alessandro Tarantino; Andrew M. Ridley; David G. Toll

2008-01-01

244

Control of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase activity by salts and anionic polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude extracts of cauliflower florets had high xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity, but this was largely lost after partial purification and de-salting. Activity was restored (promoted up to 40-fold) by any of a wide variety of inorganic and organic salts. Optimum concentrations for Na +, K + and NH 4 + salts were typically ~300 mM. The chlorides of Ca 2+, Mg

Takumi Takeda; Stephen C. Fry

2004-01-01

245

[Ethical aspects of the fluoridation of water, salt, and milk].  

PubMed

The article discusses two ethical aspects of the fluoridation of water, salt, and milk. First, it considers whether fluoridation contradicts the right of self-determination. Second, it discusses the chances and risks of fluoridation. The answer to the first question depends on whether people can choose other options. Freedom of choice is not simply the right to choose between different options. It is a right which defends the moral integrity of persons. Nobody should be coerced to eat or drink something which he or she rejects morally. In the political sphere, personal rights of persons can be restricted if and only if it is necessary, if there is a public interest, and if the restriction of the right is reasonable. Regarding fluoridation, even in the best risk-chance scenario, some persons have to expect a net harm. Therefore, the reasoning in favor of fluoridation has to have a specific purpose. The proclaimed reasoning is that fluoridation will benefit the worst off and is therefore a demand of justice. But this argument fails as there are other options to benefit the worst off. Even in the best risk-chance scenario, only one option is morally permissible: the fluoridation of salt, which respects the freedom of choice. PMID:19343280

Rippe, K P

2009-05-01

246

Comparison of measured changes in seasonal soil water content by rainfed maize-bean intercrop and component cropping systems in a semi-arid region of southern Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal water content fluctuation within the effective root zone was monitored during the growing season for a maize-bean intercrop (IMB), sole maize (SM) and sole bean (SB) in Free State Province, Republic of South Africa. Comparisons were undertaken for progressive depths of extraction 0-300 mm; 300-600 mm and 600-900 mm respectively. These enabled the understanding of water extraction behavior of the cropping systems within the different soil layers including the topsoil surface normally influenced by soil surface evaporation. Additive intercrops have been known to conserve water, largely due to the early high leaf area index and the higher total leaf area. In this study, the combined effect of the intercrop components seemed to lower the total water demand by the intercrop compared to the sole crops. During the two seasons (2000/2001 and 2001/2002) the drained upper limit (DUL) and crop lower limits (CLL) were determined. The maize-bean intercrop, sole maize and sole bean had CLL of 141 mm/m, 149 mm/m and 159 mm/m respectively. The DUL was 262 mm/m for the site and therefore the potential plant extractable soil water for the cropping systems were: 121 mm/m (IMB); 114 mm/m (SM) and 103 mm/m (SB). Overall, the intercrop did not have significantly different total soil water extraction during both seasons, although it was additive, showing that it had higher water to biomass conversion.

Ogindo, H. O.; Walker, S.

247

UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah  

SciTech Connect

Surface remedial action was completed at the Salt Lake City, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in the fall of 1987. Results of water sampling for the years 1992 to 1994 indicate that site-related ground water contamination occurs in the shallow unconfined aquifer (the uppermost aquifer). With respect to background ground water quality, contaminated ground water in the shallow, unconfined aquifer has elevated levels of chloride, sodium, sulfate, total dissolved solids, and uranium. No contamination associated with the former tailings pile occurs in levels exceeding background in ground water in the deeper confined aquifer. This document provides the water sampling and analysis plan for ground water monitoring at the former uranium processing site in Salt Lake City, Utah (otherwise known as the ``Vitro`` site, named after the Vitro Chemical Company that operated the mill). All contaminated materials removed from the processing site were relocated and stabilized in a disposal cell near Clive, Utah, some 85 miles west of the Vitro site (known as the ``Clive`` disposal site). No ground water monitoring is being performed at the Clive disposal site, since concurrence of the remedial action plan by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and completion of the disposal cell occurred before the US Environmental Protection Agency issued draft ground water standards in 1987 (52 FR 36000) for cleanup, stabilization, and control of residual radioactive materials at the disposal site. In addition, the likelihood of post-closure impact on the ground water is minimal to nonexistent, due to the naturally poor quality of the ground water. Water sampling activities planned for calendar year 1994 consist of sampling ground water from nine monitor wells to assess the migration of contamination within the shallow unconfined aquifer and sampling ground water from two existing monitor wells to assess ground water quality in the confined aquifer.

Not Available

1994-06-01

248

[Near infrared spectroscopy study on water content in turbine oil].  

PubMed

Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with successive projections algorithm (SPA) was investigated for determination of water content in turbine oil. Through the 57 samples of different water content in turbine oil scanned applying near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, with the water content in the turbine oil of 0-0.156%, different pretreatment methods such as the original spectra, first derivative spectra and differential polynomial least squares fitting algorithm Savitzky-Golay (SG), and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were applied for the extraction of effective wavelengths, the correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used as the model evaluation indices, accordingly water content in turbine oil was investigated. The results indicated that the original spectra with different water content in turbine oil were pretreated by the performance of first derivative + SG pretreatments, then the selected effective wavelengths were used as the inputs of least square support vector machine (LS-SVM). A total of 16 variables selected by SPA were employed to construct the model of SPA and least square support vector machine (SPA-LS-SVM). There is 9 as The correlation coefficient was 0.975 9 and the root of mean square error of validation set was 2.655 8 x 10(-3) using the model, and it is feasible to determine the water content in oil using near infrared spectroscopy and SPA-LS-SVM, and an excellent prediction precision was obtained. This study supplied a new and alternative approach to the further application of near infrared spectroscopy in on-line monitoring of contamination such as water content in oil. PMID:24555360

Chen, Bin; Liu, Ge; Zhang, Xian-Ming

2013-11-01

249

Calcium and bromide contents of natural waters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The linear relation observed in a log Ca++ versus log Br - plot for subsurface Cl- waters is attributed to ultrafiltration by shale of sea water and fresh water that have passed through sedimentary rocks since their formation. Reactions between these solutions and sedimentary minerals, particularly dolomitization, must have contributed additional Ca+ + to solution.

Anderson, R.J.; Graf, D.L.; Jones, B.F.

1966-01-01

250

The water cycles of water-soluble organic salts of atmospheric importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the water cycles of nine water-soluble organic salts of atmospheric interest were studied using an electrodynamic balance (EDB) at 25°C. Sodium formate, sodium acetate, sodium succinate, sodium pyruvate and sodium methanesulfonate (Na-MSA) particles crystallize as the relative humidity (RH) decreases and they deliquesce as the RH increases. Sodium oxalate and ammonium oxalate form supersaturated particles at low

Changgeng Peng; Chak K Chan

2001-01-01

251

Postmortem aging can significantly enhance water-holding capacity of broiler pectoralis major muscle measured by the salt-induced swelling/centrifuge method  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water-holding capacity (WHC) is one of the most important functional properties of fresh meat and can be significantly affected by postmortem muscle changes. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of postmortem aging on WHC of broiler pectoralis (p.) major muscle indicated with % s...

252

Low salt petroleum produced water reuse: a farming alternative outside the food chain.  

PubMed

Oil and gas production gives rise to water production depending on the state of maturation of the Field. This means large volumes of water available. Today, this water is partly re-injected into the reservoir. Totalfinaelf's sustainable contribution to preserve water resources is to propose an alternative utilization: the reuse of produced waters from petroleum activities, outside the food chain. The aim of the first part of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing low-salt water (<20 g/l) cleaned of hydrocarbons, for agricultural or forest irrigation. Rudimentary technologies such as artificial wetlands were tested to remove hydrocarbon substances and preliminary tests were performed with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and hemp (Cannabis sativa). Among the species tested in real conditions (greenhouse), hemp was affected by saline water whereas the results obtained for cotton were representative of the average worldwide production. These results validate the reuse of low-salt produced water in climatic conditions with expected temperatures of up to 37 degrees C in summer and 25 degrees C in winter. Following these results, field pilots are planned. Further research is planned to focus, taking into account local needs and environmental and production constraints. PMID:15344784

Rambeau, O; de Lafond, R Morales; Baldoni, P; Gosselin, J P; Baccou, J C

2004-01-01

253

Estimating foliar water content of winter wheat with hyperspectral image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimates of vegetation water content are of great interest for assessing vegetation water status in agriculture and forestry, and have been used for drought assessment. This study focuses on the retrieval of foliar water content with hyperspectral data at canopy level. The hyperspectral image used in this study was acquired by the airborne operative modular imaging spectrometer (OMIS) at Demonstration Site for Precision Agriculture in Xiaotangshan area, Beijing, on April 26th, 2001. 40 image spectra were extracted to correspond to the quasi-synchronous meansurements of foliar water content (FWC). The image spectra of winter wheat were utilized to validate the sensitivity of the existing and novel water indices and parameters of three water absorption features in NIR and SWIR regions. Correlation analysis showed that, NDWI(860,1241) and NDWI(860,1200) both had significant linear relationships with FWC (R2 were 0.4124 and 0.4042 respectively). Red edge position (REP) could reflect indirectly the variations of wheat FWC to some extent. Significant linear relationships were also found between WI(820,1600) and FWC, and between WI(900,1200) and FWC, while no relationship was shown between the traditional WI(900,970) and FWC. The derived depth of water absorption centered around 2078nm, namely AD2078, had the highest linear correlation with FWC (R2 is 0.4551) , much higher than those parameters derived from the two water absorption around 1175 and 1409. In the end, AD2078 was applied to OMIS image to map the foliar water content. The value range of the inverted foliar water content ranged from 69.39 to 78.35%, which was quite close to that of the field measurements (70.72-78.12%). The distribution of the FWC map was quite consistent with growth status of winter wheat.

Zhang, Xia; Jiao, Quanjun; Wu, Di; Zhang, Bing; Gao, Lianru

2007-11-01

254

Salt diffusion in interstitial waters and halite removal from sediments: Examples from the Red Sea and Illinois basins  

SciTech Connect

Large thicknesses of bedded halite can be removed in subsiding sedimentary basins by verticla diffusion of dissolved salt in interstitial waters over geologic time scales. Calculations show that at least 10 m to 40 m of halite may have dissolved and diffused through the Red Sea sediments overlying the salt beds, since cessation of salt deposition approximatley 5.3 million years ago. The total amount of salt diffused out of the sediment column over geologic time is five to twenty times the amount of salt that currently exists in the porewater column. If upward flow in the past occurred at even small rates, 10{sup {minus}3} m/yr, the amount of halite removed could have been ten times as great, 500 m. Unlike the Red Sea Basin, no halite beds are known in the Illinois Basin in spite of the fact that interstitial waters with as much as 200{per thousand} TDS (approximately 220 g/L) occur. Calculations show that if a halite bed had been deposited at the base of the Illinois Basin in Cambrian time, it would have been completely removed from the stratigraphic record had it initially been less than 60 m to 130 m in thickness. A significant thickness of halite deposited in sedimentary basins may thus be removed during active burial of salt beds, and before exhumation and exposure of the salt beds to shallow meteoric waters.

Ranganathan, V. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington (United States))

1991-06-01

255

Remote sensing of fuel moisture content from canopy water indices and the normalized dry matter index  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An important variable for predicting the occurrence and spread of wildfire, fuel moisture content (FMC) is the ratio of foliar water content and foliar dry matter content. One approach for the remote sensing of FMC was to estimate the change in canopy water content over time by using a vegetation w...

256

The influence of membrane electrode assembly water content on the performance of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell as investigated by 1H NMR microscopy.  

PubMed

The relation between the performance of a self-humidifying H(2)/O(2) polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell and the amount and distribution of water as observed using (1)H NMR microscopy was investigated. The integrated (1)H NMR image signal intensity (proportional to water content) from the region of the polymer electrolyte membrane between the catalyst layers was found to correlate well with the power output of the fuel cell. Several examples are provided which demonstrate the sensitivity of the (1)H NMR image intensity to the operating conditions of the fuel cell. Changes in the O(2)(g) flow rate cause predictable trends in both the power density and the image intensity. Higher power densities, achieved by decreasing the resistance of the external circuit, were found to increase the water in the PEM. An observed plateau of both the power density and the integrated (1)H NMR image signal intensity from the membrane electrode assembly and subsequent decline of the power density is postulated to result from the accumulation of H(2)O(l) in the gas diffusion layer and cathode flow field. The potential of using (1)H NMR microscopy to obtain the absolute water content of the polymer electrolyte membrane is discussed and several recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:17415498

Feindel, Kirk W; Bergens, Steven H; Wasylishen, Roderick E

2007-04-21

257

Neural network technologies in Raman spectroscopy of water solutions of inorganic salts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is devoted to successful application of artificial neural networks (ANN) for more precise analysis of Raman spectra, and for the solution of the inverse problems of laser Raman spectroscopy. The characteristic peculiarities of the valence band shape of Raman scattering by water molecules in the solutions of KBr, KCl, KI, NaCl, NaI electrolytes have been revealed. These peculiarities allow to perform non-contact recognition of salts type and determination of salt concentration in water solutions by means of artificial neural networks. We suppose that the classification algorithms using the artificial neural networks, applied in this study, may be also useful for other problems in Raman spectroscopy and in fluorimetry, and in application of these methods in ecology.

Dolenko, Tatiana A.; Burikov, Sergey A.; Sugonjaev, Alexander V.

2005-06-01

258

Attenuation of salt-induced hypertension by aqueous calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa.  

PubMed

The aqueous calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) has a folk reputation as an antihypertensive agent. On account of its antioxidant properties and probably high K+ concentration, we hypothesized that HS may attenuate the development of salt-induced hypertension. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8 each) were treated for 12 weeks as follows: control (normal diet + water), salt-loaded (8% salt diet + water), HS (normal diet + 6 mg/ml HS), salt+HS (8% salt diet + 6 mg/ml HS) and furosemide (normal diet+ 0.25mg/Kg furosemide). Their blood pressure and heart rates were measured and responses to noradrenalin and acetylcholine (0.01 mg/kg respectively) were estimated. The cationic concentration of 6 mg/ml HS was determined. The Na+ and K+ concentrations of 6 mg/ml HS were 3.6 and 840 mmol/l respectively. The mean arterial pressure (MAP±SEM; mmHg) of salt loaded rats (184.6±29.8) was significantly higher than control (113.2±3.0; P<0.05), HS (90.0±7.4; P<0.001) salt+HS (119.4±8.9; P<0.05) and furosemide (94.9±11.5; P<0.01). The MAP of salt+HS and control rats did not differ significantly and the effect of HS was comparable to furosemide. The pressor response to noradrenalin or vasodilator response to acetylcholine remained similar in all groups. These results suggest that HS attenuated the development of salt-induced hypertension and this attenuation may be associated with its high K+ content or high potassium: sodium ratio and not with altered pressor/depressor response to noradrenalin or acetylcholine. Also the effects of HS and furosemide on blood pressure are comparable. PMID:23652235

Mojiminiyi, F B O; Audu, Z; Etuk, E U; Ajagbonna, O P

2012-01-01

259

Effects of Salting and Drying on Shark (Carcharhinus sorrah) Meat Quality Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of drying method and pretreatment with salt on the properties of shark meat was investigated. Water loss during the salting step was faster with dry salting than with brine salting; however, both methods led to the same final water content at the end of the drying process. Moisture desorption isotherms showed that addition of salt prior to sun

Nejib Guizani; Ali Obaid Al-Shoukri; Ann Mothershaw; Mohammad Shafiur Rahman

2008-01-01

260

The activity-composition relationship of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in aqueous salt solutions: I. vapor-liquid water equilibration of single salt solutions from 50 to 100[degrees]C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differences between oxygen and hydrogen isotope activity and composition ratios of water in single salt solutions (NaCl, KCl, MgCl[sub 2], CaCl[sub 2], Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4], and MgSO[sub 4]) were determined by means of a vapor-liquid water equilibration method over the temperature range of 50 to 100[degrees]C. A parallel equilibration technique of pure water and salt solutions with the same

J. Horita; D. J. Wesolowski; D. R. Cole

1993-01-01

261

Mechanisms of water-salt metabolism disturbances in dogs subjected to six month hypokinesia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water-salt metabolism in dogs during prolonged restricted motor activity (hypokinesia) was investigated. It was found that hydration occurred and fluid was redistributed between the extra- and intra-cellular sectors. Also, electrolyte excretion rose, and magnetism and calcium metabolism changed significantly. It is concluded that the forces caused by muscle strain proper (which was decreased under conditions of hypokinesia) influence the state of bone metabolism.

Korolkov, V. I.; Kovalenko, Y. A.; Krotov, V. P.; Ilyushko, N. A.; Kondratyeva, V. A.; Kondratyev, Y. I.

1980-01-01

262

Separation & Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing waste water residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy\\/rubber matrix

Carrie J. Franks; Anh P. Quach; Dunbar P. Birnie; Wendell P. Ela; Avelino E. Saez; Brian J. Zelinski; Harry D. Smith; Gary Lynn L. Smith

2004-01-01

263

Correcting the errors from variable sea salt retention and water of hydration in loss on ignition analysis: Implications for studies of estuarine and coastal waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The standard technique of determining the concentrations of total suspended solids (TSSs), particulate inorganic matter (PIM), and particulate organic matter (POM) by filtration with glass fiber filters is subject to an error or bias from sea salt plus water of hydration retention, when applied to saline waters. The sea salt plus water of hydration retention by the filters occurs even after washing the filter with 300 ml of deionized water, a greater volume than any wash recommended in the literature. We determined that the mass retention on a glass fiber filter, at a given salinity, is essentially constant, no matter the volume of seawater passed through the filter. We also determined that the sea salt plus water of hydration retention on glass fiber filters is directly proportional to the salinity of the seawater filtered. Sea salt plus water of hydration retention causes an overestimate of TSS; sea salt retention causes an overestimate of PIM; volatilization of water of hydration causes an overestimate of POM. Thus a correction curve is required for sea salt and water of hydration errors in the determination of TSS and PIM. Corrected POM comes from the difference between the two. Also, filter blanks (procedural control filters), run with deionized (DI) water rather than the seawater sample, are required to correct for possible filter mass loss during the analysis. We demonstrate correction curves for sea salt plus water of hydration retention for Whatman GF/F filters, 47 mm diameter, utilizing the methods of the APHA Manual, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Application of other glass fiber filter types or an analytical technique differing significantly from that employed here requires a different correction curve for retention of sea salt and water of hydration. These methods can be used to reanalyze older data on PIM, POM, and TSS. We apply these corrections to PIM and POM data from the northern Gulf of Mexico and examine the interactions of these filter corrections with corrections for structural water volatilization from suspended clay minerals in the determinations of PIM and POM. We analyze published data on PIM and POM determinations and their application to remote sensing. We conclude that sea salt and water of hydration retention on filters has an adverse effect on remote-sensing algorithms inverting radiance reflectance to estimate concentrations of suspended matter.

Stavn, Robert H.; Rick, Hans J.; Falster, Alexander V.

2009-03-01

264

NEAR SURFACE WATER CONTENT ESTIMATION USING GPR DATA: INVESTIGATIONS WITHIN  

E-print Network

NEAR SURFACE WATER CONTENT ESTIMATION USING GPR DATA: INVESTIGATIONS WITHIN CALIFORNIA VINEYARDS S radar (GPR) meth- ods to estimate near surface water content within two California vineyard study sites and reflected GPR events. We will present the spatial and temporal estimates of water content ob- tained from

Rubin, Yoram

265

Comparison of Vegetation Water Content Estimates from Windsat and Modis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Retrieval of soil moisture content from microwave sensors also returns an estimate of vegetation water content. Remotely sensed indices from optical sensors can be used to estimate canopy water content. For corn and soybean in central Iowa, there are allometric relationships between canopy water c...

266

Improved interpretation of water content reflectometer measurements in soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water content reflectometers use time domain reflectometry (TDR) to estimate the apparent permittivity of soil, which in turn can be related to the soil water content. The objective of this study is to develop a physical model for water content reflectometers. The length of the sensor rods and the d...

267

Halophilic enzyme activation induced by salts  

PubMed Central

Halophilic archea (halobacteriae) thrive in hypersaline environments, avoiding osmotic shock by increasing the ion concentration of their cytoplasm by up to 3–6 M. To remain folded and active, their constitutive proteins have evolved towards a biased amino acid composition. High salt concentration affects catalytic activity in an enzyme-dependent way and a unified molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here, we have investigated a DNA ligase from Haloferax volcanii (Hv LigN) to show that K+ triggers catalytic activity by preferentially stabilising a specific conformation in the reaction coordinate. Sodium ions, in turn, do not populate such isoform and the enzyme remains inactive in the presence of this co-solute. Our results show that the halophilic amino acid signature enhances the enzyme's thermodynamic stability, with an indirect effect on its catalytic activity. This model has been successfully applied to reengineer Hv LigN into an enzyme that is catalytically active in the presence of NaCl. PMID:22355525

Ortega, Gabriel; Laín, Ana; Tadeo, Xavier; López-Méndez, Blanca; Castaño, David; Millet, Oscar

2011-01-01

268

Offshore Stratigraphic Controls on Salt-Water Intrusion in Los Angeles Area Coastal Aquifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground water is a major component of the water supply for the ~10 million residents of Los Angeles County. Ground water pumping, linked to population growth since the early 1900's, caused water levels to decline, reversed seaward hydraulic gradients in some coastal aquifers, and resulted in salt water intrusion. United States Geological Survey geologists and hydrologists are working cooperatively with

B. D. Edwards; D. J. Ponti; K. D. Ehman; J. C. Tinsley; E. G. Reichard

2002-01-01

269

Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings  

SciTech Connect

Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt.

Spence, R.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Fedorov, V.V.; Downing, D.J.

1999-04-01

270

A composition-independent quantitative determination of the water content in silicate glasses and silicate melt inclusions by confocal Raman spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach was developed to measure the water content of silicate glasses using Raman spectroscopy, which is independent\\u000a of the glass matrix composition and structure. Contrary to previous studies, the compositional range of our studied silicate\\u000a glasses was not restricted to rhyolites, but included andesitic, basaltic and phonolitic glasses. We used 21 glasses with\\u000a known water contents for calibration.

Zoltán Zajacz; Werner Halter; Wim J. Malfait; Olivier Bachmann; Robert J. Bodnar; Marc M. Hirschmann; Charles W. Mandeville; Yann Morizet; Othmar Müntener; Peter Ulmer; James D. Webster

2005-01-01

271

Calibrating a salt water intrusion model with time-domain electromagnetic data.  

PubMed

Salt water intrusion models are commonly used to support groundwater resource management in coastal aquifers. Concentration data used for model calibration are often sparse and limited in spatial extent. With airborne and ground-based electromagnetic surveys, electrical resistivity models can be obtained to provide high-resolution three-dimensional models of subsurface resistivity variations that can be related to geology and salt concentrations on a regional scale. Several previous studies have calibrated salt water intrusion models with geophysical data, but are typically limited to the use of the inverted electrical resistivity models without considering the measured geophysical data directly. This induces a number of errors related to inconsistent scales between the geophysical and hydrologic models and the applied regularization constraints in the geophysical inversion. To overcome these errors, we perform a coupled hydrogeophysical inversion (CHI) in which we use a salt water intrusion model to interpret the geophysical data and guide the geophysical inversion. We refer to this methodology as a Coupled Hydrogeophysical Inversion-State (CHI-S), in which simulated salt concentrations are transformed to an electrical resistivity model, after which a geophysical forward response is calculated and compared with the measured geophysical data. This approach was applied for a field site in Santa Cruz County, California, where a time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) dataset was collected. For this location, a simple two-dimensional cross-sectional salt water intrusion model was developed, for which we estimated five uniform aquifer properties, incorporating the porosity that was also part of the employed petrophysical relationship. In addition, one geophysical parameter was estimated. The six parameters could be resolved well by fitting more than 300 apparent resistivities that were comprised by the TDEM dataset. Except for three sounding locations, all the TDEM data could be fitted close to a root-mean-square error of 1. Possible explanations for the poor fit of these soundings are the assumption of spatial uniformity, fixed boundary conditions and the neglecting of 3D effects in the groundwater model and the TDEM forward responses. PMID:22891736

Herckenrath, Daan; Odlum, Nick; Nenna, Vanessa; Knight, Rosemary; Auken, Esben; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

2013-01-01

272

Ground Water is a Chronic Source of Chloride to Surface Water of an Urban Stream Exposed to Road Salt in a Chesapeake Bay Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent evidence from the mid-Atlantic suggests that freshwater supplies are threatened by chronic chloride inputs from road salts applied to improve highway safety. Elevated chloride levels also may limit the ability of aquatic systems to microbially process nitrate nitrogen, a nutrient whose elevated levels pose human and ecological threats. Understanding the behavior of chloride in urban watersheds where road salts are applied is critical to predicting subsequent impacts to ecosystem health and drinking water supplies. Here we report on a long-term study of water chemistry in Minebank Run, a recently restored stream in an urban watershed of Towson, MD that receives chronic chloride inputs from the 695 Beltway highway and connecting arteries. Chloride, sodium, and specific conductance were greatly elevated in the both surface water and ground water of Minebank Run, spiking in correspondence to road salt application in the winter. Chloride levels were consistently higher in ground water of the bank side of a minor roadway and downstream of the 695 Beltway. Surface water chloride levels remained elevated throughout the year apparently because ground water continued to supply surface water with chloride even after road salt application ceased. Thus, ground water may represent a chronic source of chloride to surface water, thereby contributing to the upward trend in freshwater salinity in urbanizing areas. Stream susceptibility to road salt impacts may depend upon ground water hydrology and stream geomorphology. However, geomorphic stream restoration practices widely used in the mid-Atlantic are not designed to address salinity effects. Source control of road salts may be necessary to reduce environmental risk.

Mayer, P.; Doheny, E.; Kaushal, S.; Groffman, P.; Striz, E.

2006-05-01

273

GRAVIMETRIC AND VOLUMETRIC DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF SOIL WATER CONTENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Accurate soil water content measurements to considerable depth are required for investigations of crop water use, water use efficiency, irrigation efficiency, and the hydraulic properties of soils. Many indirect methods have been proposed for sensing soil water content with minimal soil disturbance....

274

Geomicrobiology and hopanoid content of sulfidic subsurface vent biofilms, Little Salt Spring, Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfide-rich, oxygen-poor environments are widespread in the subsurface and were prevalent at the earth's surface during critical intervals in the geologic past. Modern microbial communities in sulfidic niches have the potential to shed light on the biogeochemistry and biosignatures of anoxia and euxinia in earth history. Caves and sinkholes provide rare windows into microbially-dominated, sulfidic subsurface environments that are otherwise difficult and expensive to access. Little Salt Spring (Sarasota County, Florida) is a cover-collapse sinkhole lake with oxic surface water and anoxic, sulfidic bottom water (Alvarez Zarikian 2005). The site is famous for excellent preservation of human and animal archaeological remains (Clausen 1979), and its microbiology has never been investigated. Abundant white biofilms develop seasonally at a warm vent that feeds into the anoxic bottom water at 73 m depth below the water surface. The biofilms are of interest both as potential sources of biomarker compounds and because of their likely role in sulfuric acid production and limestone dissolution (speleogenesis). Biofilm samples were collected by expert science divers and investigated using microscopy, nucleic acid, and lipid analytical methods. Microscopy of the live biofilm revealed clusters of microbial filaments with holdfasts and dendritic, sulfur-rich colonial structures similar to those described in the 1960s for Thiobacterium, a sulfur-oxidizing genus with undetermined phylogeny. A 16S rDNA library constructed from the biofilm was split into three main phylotypes, with multiple clones representing (1) a Betaproteobacterial clade with no cultivated representatives, (2) filamentous Epsilonproteobacteria, and (3) a major bacterial lineage without named isolates (OP11/OD2). A full cycle rRNA approach is currently underway to link 16S rDNA phylotypes with specific populations in the biofilm. We confirmed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) that abundant filamentous cells with holdfasts are Epsilonproteobacteria. Additional FISH experiments will target the Betaproteobacterial and OP11/OD2 phylotypes retrieved by cloning. Based on HPLC-MS analyses, the biofilm contains at least 5 membrane hopanoid structures distinct from the suite of hopanoids present in sinking organic particles from the photic zone of the sinkhole. Future efforts will be aimed at linking hopanoid structures to specific sulfur-oxidizing populations and to geochemical parameters such as sulfide and oxygen concentrations. References Alvarez Zarikian,C. A., P. K. Swart, J. A. Gifford, P. L. Blackwelder, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 225, 134 (2005). Clausen, C. J., A. D. Cohen, C. Emiliani, J. A. Holman, J. J. Stipp, Science 203, 609 (1979).

Yang, E.; Schaperdoth, I.; Albrecht, H.; Freeman, K. H.; Macalady, J. L.

2008-12-01

275

Biased monitoring of fresh water-salt water mixing zone in coastal aquifers.  

PubMed

In coastal aquifers, significant vertical hydraulic gradients are formed where fresh water and underlying salt water discharge together upward to the seafloor. Monitoring boreholes may act as "short circuits" along these vertical gradients, connecting between the higher and the lower hydraulic head zones. When a sea tide is introduced, the fluctuations of both the water table and the depth of the mixing zone are also biased due to this effect. This problem is intensified in places of long-screen monitoring boreholes, which are common in many places in the world. For example, all approximately 500 boreholes of the fresh water-salt water mixing zone in the coastal aquifer of Israel are installed with 10 to 50 m long screens. We present field measurements of these fluctuations, along with a three-dimensional numerical model. We find that the in-well fluctuation magnitude of the mixing zone is an order of magnitude larger than that in the porous media of the actual aquifer. The primary parameters that affect the magnitude of this bias are the anisotropy of the aquifer conductivity and the borehole hydraulic parameters. With no sea tide, borehole interference is higher for the anisotropic case because the vertical hydraulic gradients are high. When tides are introduced, the amplitude of the mixing zone fluctuation is higher for the isotropic case because the overall effective hydraulic conductivity is greater than the conductivity in the anisotropic case. In the aquifer, the fresh water-salt water mixing zone fluctuations are dampened, and tens of meters inland from the shoreline, the fluctuations are on the order of few centimeters. PMID:18823401

Shalev, Eyal; Lazar, Ariel; Wollman, Stuart; Kington, Shushanna; Yechieli, Yoseph; Gvirtzman, Haim

2009-01-01

276

Near Surface Water Content Estimation using GPR Data  

E-print Network

Near Surface Water Content Estimation using GPR Data: Investigations within California Vineyards S France April 2003 Funded by NSF Ear-0087802 and USDA 2001-35102-09866 to Y. Rubin #12;Outline · GPR) may be difficult to map using TDR or gravimetric techniques** #12;GPR METHOD The velocity of the GPR

Rubin, Yoram

277

Original article Irrigation, faecal water content and development rate  

E-print Network

Original article Irrigation, faecal water content and development rate of free-living stages of irrigation by flooding the pastures on the ability of the eggs of sheep Tri- chostrongyles to develop irrigation or submerged, at different times and durations. The rates of development of Teladorsagia

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

278

Response to "comments on field calibration of water content refectometers"  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This publication is a response to comments on a recent paper, “Field calibration of water content reflectometers”, by Chandler, Seyfried and McNamara, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 2004) we published. In that paper we presented a method for field calibration of a relatively inexpensive so...

279

Tamarisk Water Flux Patterns Before, During and After Episodic Defoliation by the Salt Cedar Leaf Beetle on the Colorado Plateau, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tamarisk (Tamarix) species are among the most successful plant invaders in the western United States, and has had significant impacts on watershed hydrology and water resources. Accordingly, local, state and federal agencies have undertaken considerable efforts to eradicate tamarisk and restore riparian habitats to pre-invasion status. A biological control - the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda elongata) - was released in the summer of 2004 at several locations in eastern Utah, USA to control the spread and impact of tamarisk within the Colorado River watershed. Beginning in April of 2008, sap flux techniques were used to monitor changes in transpiration fluxes in response to canopy defoliation by the beetle. Specifically we installed modified (10 mm length) heat dissipation probes into the main stem of 20 mature tamarisk trees within a single stand on the Colorado Plateau. In July, the saltcedar leaf beetle reduced the total leaf area to near 0% of pre-beetle invasion status. Consequently, sap flux declined by up to 80% compared to pre-beetle invasion fluxes. By mid-August, refoliation of the canopy occurred, and sap flux rates returned to pre- defoliation status. Sap flux rates prior to defoliation were modeled against atmospheric vapor pressure deficit in order to predict the amount of water salvage from defoliation. Sap flux from June 1 through September 1 was on average 36% lower than predicted values. Combined with scaling techniques, the heat dissipation approach shows a high potential for monitoring changes in watershed hydrology in response to tamarisk defoliation by the saltcedar leaf beetle. Nevertheless, tamarisk sap flux studies with heat dissipation probes presents several challenges, including, narrow sapwood depth, low flux rates in response to defoliation, and large thermal gradients that are inevitable in warm climates (particularly after defoliation removes canopy shading). We will present results from ongoing research to address these potential pitfalls.

Hultine, K. R.; Nagler, P. L.; Dennison, P. E.

2008-12-01

280

Corrosion of Mullite by Molten Salts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interaction of molten salts of different Na2O activities and mullite is examined with furnace and burner tests. The more-acidic molten salts form small amounts of Al2O3; the more-basic molten salts form various Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2 compounds. The results are interpreted using the Na2O-Al203-SiO2 ternary phase diagram, and some possible diffusion paths are discussed. The generally higher melting points of Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2 compounds lead to better behavior of mullite in molten salts, as compared to SiO2-protected ceramics such as SiC. Mullite-coated SiC is discussed, and the corrosion behavior is evaluated.

Jacobson, Nathan S.; Lee, Kang N.; Yoshio, Tetsuo

1996-01-01

281

Experimental Studies of Salt-Cavity Leaching by Freshwater Injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt-cavity-leaching experiments were conducted in the laboratory in support of the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program. Cavities of an initially cylindrical geometry were created by hollowing out salt cores from one end, leaving the circular wall and bottom as an integral piece. In three experiments, a salt cavity was placed vertically in a pressure vessel and its interior was

Daniel Reda; Anthony Russo

1986-01-01

282

Water repellency and critical soil water content in a dune sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessments of water repellency of soils are commonly made on air-dried or oven-dried samples, without considering the soil water content. The objectives of this study were to examine the spatial and temporal variability of soil water content, actual water repellency over short distances, and the variations in critical soil water contents. Between 22 April and 23 November 1999, numerous samples

Louis W. Dekker; Stefan H. Doerr; Klaas Oostindie; Apostolos K. Ziogas; Coen J. Ritsema

2001-01-01

283

Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans, a halotolerant plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, improves yield and content of secondary metabolites in Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell under primary and secondary salt stress.  

PubMed

Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri), an integral component of Indian Ayurvedic medicine system, is facing a threat of extinction owing to the depletion of its natural populations. The present study investigates the prospective of exploitation of halotolerant plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in utilising the salt stressed soils for cultivation of B. monnieri. The effects of two salt tolerant PGPR, Bacillus pumilus (STR2) and Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans (STR36) on the growth and content of bacoside-A, an important pharmaceutical compound in B. monnieri, were investigated under primary and secondary salinity conditions. The herb yields of un-inoculated plants decreased by 48 % under secondary salinization and 60 % under primary salinization than the non salinised plants. Among the rhizobacteria treated plants, E. oxidotolerans recorded 109 and 138 %, higher herb yield than non-inoculated plants subjected to primary and secondary salinity respectively. E. oxidotolerans inoculated plants recorded 36 and 76 % higher bacoside-A content under primary and secondary salinity respectively. Higher levels of proline content and considerably lower levels of lipid peroxidation were noticed when the plants were inoculated with PGPR under all salinity regimes. From the results of this investigation, it can be concluded that, the treatments with salt tolerant PGPR can be a useful strategy in the enhancement of biomass yield and saponin contents in B. monnieri, as besides being an eco-friendly approach; it can also be instrumental in cultivation of B. monnieri in salt stressed environments. PMID:23085953

Bharti, Nidhi; Yadav, Deepti; Barnawal, Deepti; Maji, Deepamala; Kalra, Alok

2013-02-01

284

UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This water sampling and analysis plan describes planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in Salt Lake City, Utah. This plan identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for routine monitoring of ground water, sediments, and surface waters at monitoring stations on the site.

NONE

1995-06-01

285

Water Dynamics in Salt Solutions Studied with Ultrafast Two-Dimensional Infrared (2D IR)  

E-print Network

Water Dynamics in Salt Solutions Studied with Ultrafast Two-Dimensional Infrared (2D IR RECEIVED ON FEBRUARY 3, 2009 C O N S P E C T U S Water is ubiquitous in nature, but it exists as pure water infrequently. From the ocean to biology, water molecules interact with a wide variety of dissolved species

Fayer, Michael D.

286

Effect of water turbidity on thermal performance of a salt-gradient solar pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of water turbidity on the thermal performance of a salt-gradient solar pond is studied using a one-dimensional theoretical model. The theoretical model uses an empirical correlation that includes the effect of water turbidity on solar radiation penetration in water. The correlation is based on a uniform turbidity distribution in water; however, the correlation is extended to include a

J. Wang; J. Seyed-Yagoobi

1995-01-01

287

Statistical analysis of nitrate in ground water, West Salt River Valley, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Accurate estimates of the nitrate concentrations in ground water in west Salt River Valley are needed to better manage ground water affected by nitrate. Statistical analyses were done to establish the best statistical method to produce these estimates. Three sets of ground-water data for different time periods --1975-77, 1980-85, and 1986-90--were used to analyze spatial and temporal variations in concentrations of nitrate in ground water. The use of inverse-distance squared weighting, radial-basis function, kriging, and cokriging were evaluated for estimating nitrate concentrations in ground water. From an analysis of the cross-validation results, cokriging maps resulted in the best estimates, and they were accepted as being the most reliable. Cross-validation results also indicated that nitrate cokriged best with magnesium for 1975-77 and 1986-90 and with calcium for 1980-85. Kriging results consistently were almost as reliable as any of the cokriging results. Because of the difficulties inherent in the cokriging process, kriging, although not optimal, was the fastest way to obtain reasonably good results. In 1980-85, cokriged nitrate concentrations exceeded 20 milligrams per liter in a 12-square-kilometer area in Phoenix and Glendale and exceeded 10 milligrams per liter in a 280-square-kilometer area that extended to the Salt River. In 1986-90, nitrate concentrations along the entire reach of the Salt River in west Salt River Valley were less than 10 milligrams per liter and were smaller probably as a result of recharge from the Salt and Gila Rivers in 1982. Farther north in Phoenix and Glendale, the area in which nitrate concentrations exceeded 10 milligrams per liter expanded to 490 square kilometers for 1986-90. In Buckeye Valley, nitrate concentrations exceeded 10 milligrams per liter in an area of 300 square milometers for 1980-85 from the Gila River in the early 1980's but possibly could be an artifact of the different data distributions associated with each data set. In the Phoenix area, cokriged nitrate concentrations for 1975-77 exceeded 10 milligrams per liter in a 290-square-kilometer area and exceeded 20 milligrams per liter in a 1.4-square- kilometer area.

Long, Andy E.; Brown, James G.; Gellenbeck, Dorinda J.

1997-01-01

288

Salts on Europa's surface detected by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reflectance spectra in the 1- to 2.5-micrometer wavelength region of the surface of Europa obtained by Galileo's Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer exhibit distorted water absorption bands that indicate the presence of hydrated minerals. The laboratory spectra of hydrated salt minerals such as magnesium sulfates and sodium carbonates and mixtures of these minerals provide a close match to the Europa spectra. The distorted bands are only observed in the optically darker areas of Europa, including the lineaments, and may represent evaporite deposits formed by water, rich in dissolved salts, reaching the surface from a water-rich layer underlying an ice crust.

McCord, T.B.; Hansen, G.B.; Fanale, F.P.; Carlson, R.W.; Matson, D.L.; Johnson, T.V.; Smythe, W.D.; Crowley, J.K.; Martin, P.D.; Ocampo, A.; Hibbitts, C.A.; Granahan, J.C.

1998-01-01

289

Effect of water turbidity on thermal performance of a salt-gradient solar pond  

SciTech Connect

The effect of water turbidity on the thermal performance of a salt-gradient solar pond is studied using a one-dimensional theoretical model. The theoretical model uses an empirical correlation that includes the effect of water turbidity on solar radiation penetration in water. The correlation is based on a uniform turbidity distribution in water; however, the correlation is extended to include a non-uniform turbidity distribution with respect to depth of water. The results indicate that water clarity plays a significant role on thermal performance for salt gradient solar ponds. 24 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Wang, J.; Seyed-Yagoobi, J. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

1995-05-01

290

The role of succulent halophytes in the water balance of salt marsh rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of succulent halophytes in the water balance and ecology of salt marsh rodents is dependent upon an evaluation of the composition of the available sources and the physiological properties of their potential consumers. Studies of the osmotic properties of succulent halophytes from southern California coastal salt marshes are presented, together with experiments regarding the utilization of Common Pickleweed

Harry N. Coulombe

1970-01-01

291

Chloride dynamics in a restored urban stream and the influence of road salts on water quality  

EPA Science Inventory

Understanding the connection between road salts and water quality is essential to assess the implications for human health and ecosystem services from these widely used de-icers. Preliminary analysis identified a probable connection between road salt application and a stream wat...

292

Nasal Salt Excretion and the Possible Function of the Cloaca in Water Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secretion of concentrated salt solutions from the nasal region was observed in several terrestrial birds and reptiles. In the secreted fluid potassium usually exceeded sodium concentrations, with chloride and bicarbonate as the major anions. It is suggested that the extrarenal excretion of salts is related to the reabsorption of water in the cloaca, that it is necessary for the production

Knut Schmidt-Nielson; Arieh Borut; Ping Lee; Eugene Crawford Jr.

1963-01-01

293

Experimental studies of salt cavity leaching via fresh-water injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt cavity leaching experiments were conducted in the laboratory in support of the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program. Cavities of an initial cylindrical geometry were created by machining salt cores from one end, leaving the circular wall and bottom as an integral piece. In each of three separate experiments, a salt cavity was placed vertically in a pressure vessel

D. C. Reda; A. J. Russo

1984-01-01

294

Water Calibration Measurements for Neutron Radiography: Application to Water Content Quantification in Porous Media  

SciTech Connect

Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 2 mm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector / scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media.

Kang, Misun [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Cheng, Chu-lin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Perfect, Edmund [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Horita, Juske [Texas Tech University (TTU); Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL

2013-01-01

295

Water calibration measurements for neutron radiography: Application to water content quantification in porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 0.2 cm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector/scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media.

Kang, M.; Bilheux, H. Z.; Voisin, S.; Cheng, C. L.; Perfect, E.; Horita, J.; Warren, J. M.

2013-04-01

296

Performance evaluation of TDT soil water content and watermark soil water potential sensors  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study evaluated the performance of digitized Time Domain Transmissometry (TDT) soil water content sensors (Acclima, Inc., Meridian, ID) and resistance-based soil water potential sensors (Watermark 200, Irrometer Company, Inc., Riverside, CA) in two soils. The evaluation was performed by compar...

297

Land Use Change Impacts on Water, Salt, and Nutrient Cycles: Case Study Semiarid Southern High Plains, Texas, USA (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use change can have large scale impacts on the salt and nutrient cycles by changing partitioning of water at the land surface, applying irrigation and fertilizers to the system, and transporting salts and nutrients to underlying aquifers. The objective of this study was to evaluate impacts of land-use change on salt and nutrient cycles by quantifying water fluxes and salt and nutrient inventories under natural ecosystems (3 boreholes) and rain-fed agroecosystem (19 boreholes) and irrigated agroecosystem (13 boreholes) in the Southern High Plains, Texas. Salt and nutrient inventories were estimated by measuring water-extractable anion concentrations in sampled boreholes and water fluxes were estimated using the chloride mass balance approach. Large salt inventories accumulated under natural ecosystems from bulk precipitation since the Pleistocene (median chloride: 2,200 kg/ha/m; perchlorate: 46 g/ha/m; sulfate: 5,600 kg/ha/m). Conversion of natural ecosystems to rainfed agroecosystems flushed these pre-existing salt reservoirs towards and into the underlying Ogallala aquifer as a result of increased recharge rates (median of 19 profiles: 24 mm/yr). The flushed zone of rain-fed profiles are characterized by extremely low inventories of salts (chloride: 15 kg/ha/m; perchlorate: 6.3 g/ha/m; sulfate, 750 kg/ha/m). Cultivation also resulted in mineralization and nitrification of soil organic nitrogen, creating nitrate reservoirs at the leading edge of the front that represent 74% of profile nitrate-N and that are being mobilized into the aquifer. Irrigation has the greatest impact on nonpoint source contaminants by adding salts and nutrients to the system. Chloride inventories under irrigated agroecosystems (median 1,600 kg/ha/m) are similar to those under natural ecosystems (median 2,200 kg/ha/m) but accumulated over decades rather than millennia typical of natural ecosystems. Peak Cl concentrations in profiles represent evapoconcentration factors of 12-42 relative to inputs, attributed to deficit irrigation and minimal flushing. Perchlorate (ClO4), primarily from irrigation water, behaves similar to chloride (r=0.69-1.0 in profiles). Large nitrate-N inventories below the root zone represent 96% (median) of profile nitrate-N. Salt inventories under irrigated agroecosystems are correlated with salt concentrations in irrigation water (r=0.94 for chloride). Water fluxes under irrigated agroecosystems (18 to 97 mm/yr, median 48 mm/yr) are mobilizing these contaminants into the Ogallala aquifer. Solute hydrographs show large increases in groundwater salinity by factors of ?3 for chloride and factors of ?7 for nitrate-N from the 1970s, attributed to mobilization of salts that accumulated under natural and rainfed ecosystems. Groundwater quality is likely to degrade much more in the future with mobilization of inventories under irrigated agroecosystems with projected increases in total dissolved solids from median values of 1,000 to 6,000 mg/L and nitrate-N from 10 to 110 mg/L. Future water resources management should consider tradeoffs between water, salt, and nutrient balances when promoting various irrigation practices.

Scanlon, B. R.; Reedy, R. C.; Gates, J. B.

2009-12-01

298

(B) ABET Criterion 3: Outcomes Met By Course Content Course #: BEE 427 Title: Water Sampling and Measurement in Environmental Analysis  

E-print Network

and Measurement in Environmental Analysis Semester/Year: Fall 2006 Instructor: Larry D. Geohring Identify______ Name of Instructor: __Larry D. Geohring________ Course Outcomes Specific to Course ABET a- criteria How_________________________________________ __ Course Title: _ Water Sampling and Measurement in Environmental Analysis ___ Instructor: __Larry D

Walter, M.Todd

299

Porous polymeric structures for tissue engineering prepared by a coagulation, compression moulding and salt leaching technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for the preparation of porous polymeric structures involving coagulation, compression moulding and particulate leaching has been developed. The technique combines the advantages of thermal processing methods and particulate leaching. A high molecular weight polymer solution in an organic solvent containing dispersed water-soluble salt particles is precipitated into an excess of non-solvent. The polymer–salt composite is then processed by

Qingpu Hou; Dirk W. Grijpma; Jan Feijen

2003-01-01

300

DERIVING PROGNOSTIC EQUATIONS FOR CLOUD FRACTION AND LIQUID WATER CONTENT  

E-print Network

DERIVING PROGNOSTIC EQUATIONS FOR CLOUD FRACTION AND LIQUID WATER CONTENT Vincent E. Larson1 1-negative everywhere and is normalized. Gregory et al. (2002), Wilson and Gregory (2003), and Bushell et al. (2003 that accounts for how liquid water varies with both total water content and temperature. The variable s has

301

Microstructural behavior of water-in-oil emulsions stabilized by fatty acid esters of propylene glycol and zinc fatty acid salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This manuscript reports an experimental work to observe the microscopic structures and dispersion phase behavior of mixtures of water and oil with combined use of acylpropyleneglycols, containing C16\\/C18 fatty acid moiety, and zinc fatty acid carboxylates (ZnC), both of which play emulsifying roles in the water-in-oil (W\\/O) emulsion systems obtained. Attention was mostly paid to the effects of in situ

Adam Macierzanka; Halina Szel?g

2006-01-01

302

OCCUPATIONAL ALLERGY AND ASTHMA AMONG SALT WATER FISH PROCESSING WORKERS  

PubMed Central

Background Fish processing is a common economic activity in Southern Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and host determinants of allergic symptoms, allergic sensitization, bronchial hyper-responsiveness and asthma among workers processing saltwater fish. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 594 currently employed workers in two processing plants involved in pilchard canning and fishmeal processing. A modified European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) questionnaire was used. Skin prick tests (SPT) used extracts of common airborne allergens, fresh fish (pilchard, anchovy, maasbanker, mackerel, red eye) and fishmeal. Spirometry and methacholine challenge tests (tidal breathing method) used ATS guidelines. Results Work-related ocular-nasal symptoms (26%) were more common than asthma symptoms (16%). The prevalence of atopy was 36%, while 7% were sensitized to fish species and 26% had NSBH (PC20 ? 8 mg/ml or ?12% increase in FEV1 post bronchodilator). The prevalence of probable occupational asthma was 1.8% and fish allergic rhino-conjunctivitis 2.6%. Women were more likely to report work-related asthma symptoms (OR=1.94) and have NSBH (OR=3.09), while men were more likely to be sensitized to fish (OR=2.06) and have airway obstruction (OR=4.17). Atopy (OR=3.16) and current smoking (OR=2.37), but not habitual seafood consumption were associated with sensitization to fish. Conclusions Based on comparison with previous published studies, the prevalence of occupational asthma to salt water fish is lower than due to shellfish. The gendered distribution of work and exposures in fish processing operations together with atopy and cigarette smoking are important determinants of occupational allergy and asthma. PMID:18726880

Jeebhay, Mohamed F; Robins, Thomas G; Miller, Mary E; Bateman, Eric; Smuts, Marius; Baatjies, Roslynn; Lopata, Andreas L

2010-01-01

303

Ice crystallization in ultrafine water-salt aerosols: nucleation, ice-solution equilibrium, and internal structure.  

PubMed

Atmospheric aerosols have a strong influence on Earth's climate. Elucidating the physical state and internal structure of atmospheric aqueous aerosols is essential to predict their gas and water uptake, and the locus and rate of atmospherically important heterogeneous reactions. Ultrafine aerosols with sizes between 3 and 15 nm have been detected in large numbers in the troposphere and tropopause. Nanoscopic aerosols arising from bubble bursting of natural and artificial seawater have been identified in laboratory and field experiments. The internal structure and phase state of these aerosols, however, cannot yet be determined in experiments. Here we use molecular simulations to investigate the phase behavior and internal structure of liquid, vitrified, and crystallized water-salt ultrafine aerosols with radii from 2.5 to 9.5 nm and with up to 10% moles of ions. We find that both ice crystallization and vitrification of the nanodroplets lead to demixing of pure water from the solutions. Vitrification of aqueous nanodroplets yields nanodomains of pure low-density amorphous ice in coexistence with vitrified solute rich aqueous glass. The melting temperature of ice in the aerosols decreases monotonically with an increase of solute fraction and decrease of radius. The simulations reveal that nucleation of ice occurs homogeneously at the subsurface of the water-salt nanoparticles. Subsequent ice growth yields phase-segregated, internally mixed, aerosols with two phases in equilibrium: a concentrated water-salt amorphous mixture and a spherical cap-like ice nanophase. The surface of the crystallized aerosols is heterogeneous, with ice and solution exposed to the vapor. Free energy calculations indicate that as the concentration of salt in the particles, the advance of the crystallization, or the size of the particles increase, the stability of the spherical cap structure increases with respect to the alternative structure in which a core of ice is fully surrounded by solution. We predict that micrometer-sized particles and nanoparticles have the same equilibrium internal structure. The variation of liquid-vapor surface tension with solute concentration is a key factor in determining whether a solution-embedded ice core or vapor-exposed ice cap is the equilibrium structure of the aerosols. In agreement with experiments, we predict that the structure of mixed-phase HNO3-water particles, representative of polar stratospheric clouds, consists of an ice core surrounded by freeze-concentrated solution. The results of this work are important to determine the phase state and internal structure of sea spray ultrafine aerosols and other mixed-phase particles under atmospherically relevant conditions. PMID:24820354

Hudait, Arpa; Molinero, Valeria

2014-06-01

304

Maxwell-Wagner relaxation in common minerals and a desert soil at low water contents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Penetration of 100- to 1000-MHz ground-penetrating radar (GPR) signals is virtually non-existent in arid and desert soils despite their low water content and moderate conductivity, the latter of which cannot explain the loss. Under the hypothesis that strong dielectric relaxation supplements DC conductivity to cause high intrinsic attenuation rates, we compared the complex permittivity of a desert soil sample with that of controlled samples of quartz, feldspars, calcite, coarse and crystallite gypsum, kaolinite and montmorillonite. The soil had 80% quartz, 10% feldspars and 10% gypsum by weight, with the latter composed of crystallites and crustations. All samples had 4-7% volumetric water content. We measured permittivity most accurately from 1.6 MHz to 4 GHz with Fourier Transform time domain reflectometry, and used grain sizes less than 53 ?m. All samples show low-frequency dispersion with the soil, gypsum crystallites and montmorillonite having the strongest below 100 MHz, the highest attenuation rates, and conductivity values unable to account for these rates. The soil rate exceeded 100 dB m- 1 by 1 GHz. Through modeling we find that a broadened relaxation centered from 2 to 16 MHz sufficiently supplements losses caused by conductivity and free water relaxation to account for loss rates in all our samples, and accounts for low-frequency dispersion below 1 GHz. We interpret the relaxation to be of the Maxwell-Wagner (MW) type because of the 2- to 16-MHz values, relaxation broadening, the lack of salt, clay and magnetic minerals, and insufficient surface area to support adsorbed water. The likely MW dipolar soil inclusions within the predominantly quartz matrix were gypsum particles coated with water containing ions dissolved from the gypsum, and the conducting water layers themselves. The inclusions for the monomineralic soils were likely ionized partially or completely water-filled interstices, and partially filled galleries for the montmorillonite. The low water content may be necessary to help isolate these inclusions. For our common, low conductivity minerals, the MW contributions to attenuation rates are significant above 10 MHz, whereas they are significant above about 100 MHz for the more conductive minerals and soil.

Arcone, Steven A.; Boitnott, Ginger E.

2012-06-01

305

Solar collector/still for salt-water desalination. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A combined in-line solar collector/still for the desalination of salt water was designed, built, and tested on site in the Florida Keys. During the course of the project the basic configuration was modified, as project funds permitted, to enhance performance. This collector/still utilizes sunlight for the direct heating of water and for the heating of air. The heating air is bubbled through the heated water producing desalinated water vapor which is subsequently collected. The result is non-salted water produced using sunlight.

Fonash, R L

1983-01-01

306

The water, deuterium, gas and uranium content of tektites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water content, deuterium concentration of the water, total gas and uranium contents were determined on tektite samples and other glass samples from Texas, Australia, Philippine Islands, Java, French Indo-China, Czechoslovakia, Libyan Desert, Billiton Island, Thailand, French West Africa, Peru, and New Mexico. The water content ranges from 0.24 per cent for the Peru tektite, to 0.0002 per cent for

Irving Friedman

1958-01-01

307

Remote sensing of canopy water content: scaling from leaf data to MODIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water in green vegetation is detectable using reflectances in the near infrared and shortwave infrared. Canopy water content is estimated from the product of leaf water content and leaf area index (LAI). The Normalized Difference Infrared Index [NDII = (R850 - R1650)/(R850 + R1650)] was found to be strongly related to canopy water content using various moderate resolution sensors (Landsat TM, ASTER, AWiFS) during the SMEX02, SMEX04, SMEX05, and OTTER experiments. With the high temporal resolution of MODIS, changes in canopy water content may perhaps be used to estimate plant water stress and wild-fire potential. However, the low spatial resolution of MODIS does not allow the relationship between NDII and canopy water content to be determined experimentally. The objective of this study is to validate the expected relationship of canopy water content with NDII by the standard LAI data product from MODIS; the quotient is the expected leaf water content which will vary by land-cover type. Maximum NDII for 2000-2007 was calculated from the MODIS standard surface reflectance data products and compared to maximum MODIS LAI for the same years. Mean leaf water content from MODIS was not significantly different from leaf data for most land cover types. However the large standard deviations indicated that canopy water content from NDII is not currently accurate for monitoring the incipient stages of plant water stress.

Hunt, E. Raymond, Jr.; Qu, John J.; Hao, Xianjun; Wang, Lingli

2009-08-01

308

Health Gain by Salt Reduction in Europe: A Modelling Study  

PubMed Central

Excessive salt intake is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Salt intake exceeds the World Health Organization population nutrition goal of 5 grams per day in the European region. We assessed the health impact of salt reduction in nine European countries (Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom). Through literature research we obtained current salt intake and systolic blood pressure levels of the nine countries. The population health modeling tool DYNAMO-HIA including country-specific disease data was used to predict the changes in prevalence of ischemic heart disease and stroke for each country estimating the effect of salt reduction through its effect on blood pressure levels. A 30% salt reduction would reduce the prevalence of stroke by 6.4% in Finland to 13.5% in Poland. Ischemic heart disease would be decreased by 4.1% in Finland to 8.9% in Poland. When salt intake is reduced to the WHO population nutrient goal, it would reduce the prevalence of stroke from 10.1% in Finland to 23.1% in Poland. Ischemic heart disease would decrease by 6.6% in Finland to 15.5% in Poland. The number of postponed deaths would be 102,100 (0.9%) in France, and 191,300 (2.3%) in Poland. A reduction of salt intake to 5 grams per day is expected to substantially reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease and mortality in several European countries. PMID:25826317

Hendriksen, Marieke A. H.; van Raaij, Joop M. A.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Breda, Joao; Boshuizen, Hendriek C.

2015-01-01

309

Health gain by salt reduction in europe: a modelling study.  

PubMed

Excessive salt intake is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Salt intake exceeds the World Health Organization population nutrition goal of 5 grams per day in the European region. We assessed the health impact of salt reduction in nine European countries (Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom). Through literature research we obtained current salt intake and systolic blood pressure levels of the nine countries. The population health modeling tool DYNAMO-HIA including country-specific disease data was used to predict the changes in prevalence of ischemic heart disease and stroke for each country estimating the effect of salt reduction through its effect on blood pressure levels. A 30% salt reduction would reduce the prevalence of stroke by 6.4% in Finland to 13.5% in Poland. Ischemic heart disease would be decreased by 4.1% in Finland to 8.9% in Poland. When salt intake is reduced to the WHO population nutrient goal, it would reduce the prevalence of stroke from 10.1% in Finland to 23.1% in Poland. Ischemic heart disease would decrease by 6.6% in Finland to 15.5% in Poland. The number of postponed deaths would be 102,100 (0.9%) in France, and 191,300 (2.3%) in Poland. A reduction of salt intake to 5 grams per day is expected to substantially reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease and mortality in several European countries. PMID:25826317

Hendriksen, Marieke A H; van Raaij, Joop M A; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Breda, Joao; Boshuizen, Hendriek C

2015-01-01

310

Effects of rainfall partitioning by Mediterranean vegetation on soil water content dynamics. Results from field studies along a climatic gradient in Spain.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role played by rainfall partitioning by vegetation is of paramount importance for the water balance both at local and catchment scales. Rainfall partitioning fluxes (throughfall and stemflow) have a large degree of temporal and spatial variability and may consequently lead to significant changes in the volume and composition of water that reach the understory vegetation and the soil. Throughfall affects the surface soils horizons and stemflow, channelled by branches and stems, can reach deeper soil layers and remain available for the roots. This work investigates the effect of rainfall partitioning on soil water content in three Mediterranean study areas covering a strong climatic gradient and different vegetation species. From Northern to Southern Spain the study areas are: The Vallcebre research catchments (42° 12'N, 1° 49'E) with forest patches of Pinus sylvestris and of Quercus pubescens, The Parapuños research catchment (39° 35'N, 6° 5'W ), a wooded rangeland with Quercus rotundifolia and annual grasses in open areas, and the Tabernas experimental area (37° 0'N, 2° 26'W) with disperse shrubs and a mixture of annual plants and biological soil crusts in open areas. Mean annual rainfall ranges between 862 and 235 mm (in Vallcebre and Tabernas respectively). For the studied tree species throughfall was the dominant flux and have a similar rate, being stemflow only a small part of the bulk rainfall. For the studied shrubs, measured throughfall as well as stemflow were highly variable between species. Superficial soil water content was on average lower under forest (Vallcebre) or individual trees (Parapuños) that in the open areas. Contrarily, in Tabernas soil was wetter under shrubs than in open areas, although with higher variability. Driest soils below continous forest covers, as in Vallcebre, or even in sparse covered areas as in the Parapuños catchment, may be explained by the dominant role of rainfall interception and transpiration. In Tabernas, soil moisture usually remained higher under shrubs than below open areas except for some small rainfall events. This is likely related to the fact that, shrubs architecture funnels precipitation towards the soil through stemflow. Individual shrubs may also act as sinks for overland flow generated in open areas, promoting infiltration.

Llorens, Pilar; Latron, Jérôme; Muzylo, Aleksandra; Schnabel, Susanne; Domingo, Francisco; Cantón, Yolanda; Gallart, Francesc

2010-05-01

311

Oscillations in a Linearly Stratified Salt Solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our physics students like to watch a ball bouncing underwater. They do this by dropping a weighted plastic ball into a 1000-ml cylinder filled with a linearly stratified salt-water solution at room temperature. The ball oscillates and comes to rest at about mid-depth. Its motion is analogous to the damped vertical oscillations of a mass hanging from a spring. Our apparatus for producing precise linear salt gradients is simple, inexpensive (cost about 50), and is easy to use. A refractometer is used to measure salt content (or density) of samples taken at various depths. Here we specify fresh- and salt-water volumes for making density gradients suitable for a class demonstration or a three-hour laboratory class.

Heavers, Richard M.

2007-04-01

312

Stalagmite water content as a proxy for drip water supply in tropical and subtropical areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this pilot study water was extracted from samples of two Holocene stalagmites from Socotra Island, Yemen, and one Eemian stalagmite from southern continental Yemen. The amount of water extracted per unit mass of stalagmite rock, termed "water yield" hereafter, serves as a measure for its total water content. The stalagmites' water yield records vary systematically with the corresponding oxygen isotopic compositions of the calcite (?18Ocalcite). Low ?18Ocalcite values are thereby accompanied by low water yields and vice versa. Based on the paleoclimatic interpretation of the ?18Ocalcite records, water yields can be linked to drip water supply. High drip water supply caused by high precipitation rates supports homogeneous deposition of calcite with low porosity and therefore a small fraction of water-filled inclusions, resulting in low water yields of the respective samples. A reduction of drip water supply fosters irregular growth of calcite with higher porosity, leading to an increase of the fraction of water-filled inclusions and thus higher water yields. The results are consistent with the literature on stalagmite growth and supported by optical inspection of thin sections of our samples. We propose that for a stalagmite from a tropical or subtropical area, its water yield record represents a novel paleoclimate proxy recording changes in drip water supply, which can in turn be interpreted in terms of associated precipitation rates.

Vogel, N.; Scheidegger, Y.; Brennwald, M. S.; Fleitmann, D.; Figura, S.; Wieler, R.; Kipfer, R.

2012-07-01

313

Microbially mediated CH 4 consumption and N 2 O emission is affected by elevated CO 2 , soil water content, and composition of semi-arid grassland species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated CO2 affects plant productivity, but also water availability and plant species composition in semi-arid grasslands, thereby potentially\\u000a causing complex effects on CH4 consumption and N2O emission. We studied the effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration (400 vs 780 ?L L?1), water content (15 vs 20% gravimetric soil moisture), and composition of semi-arid grassland species (perennial grasses\\u000a Bouteloua gracilis, Hesperostipa comata, and

Feike A. Dijkstra; Jack A. Morgan; Daniel R. LeCain; Ronald F. Follett

2010-01-01

314

Environmental aspects of produced-water salt releases in onshore and coastal petroleum-producing areas of the conterminous U.S. - a bibliography  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Environmental effects associated with the production of oil and gas have been reported since the first oil wells were drilled in the Appalachian Basin in Pennsylvania and Kentucky in the early to mid-1800s. The most significant of these effects are the degradation of soils, ground water, surface water, and ecosystems they support by releases of suspended and dissolved hydrocarbons and co-produced saline water. Produced water salts are less likely than hydrocarbons to be adsorbed by mineral phases in the soil and sediment and are not subject to degradation by biologic processes. Sodium is a major dissolved constituent in most produced waters and it causes substantial degradation of soils through altering of clays and soil textures and subsequent erosion. Produced water salts seem to have the most wide-ranging effects on soils, water quality, and ecosystems. Trace elements, including boron, lithium, bromine, fluorine, and radium, also occur in elevated concentrations in some produced waters. Many trace elements are phytotoxic and are adsorbed and may remain in soils after the saline water has been flushed away. Radium-bearing scale and sludge found in oilfield equipment and discarded on soils pose additional hazards to human health and ecosystems. This bibliography includes studies from across the oil- and natural-gas-producing areas of the conterminous United States that were published in the last 80 yrs. The studies describe the effects of produced water salts on soils, water quality, and ecosystems. Also included are reports that describe (1) the inorganic chemistry of produced waters included in studies of formation waters for various purposes, (2) other sources of salt affecting water quality that may be mistaken for produced water effects, (3) geochemical and geophysical techniques that allow discrimination of salt sources, (4) remediation technologies designed to repair damage caused to soils and ground water by produced water salts, and (5) contamination by naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM)at oilfield sites.

Otton, James K.

2006-01-01

315

Geoelectric resistivity sounding for delineating salt water intrusion in the Abu Zenima area, west Sinai, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A direct current (dc) resistivity geoelectric technique is applied in the Abu Zenima area, West Sinai, Egypt to delineate salt water intrusion from the Gulf of Suez and evaluate the quality and some of the petrophysical parameters of the aquifer. Sixteen Schlumberger vertical electrical soundings (VES) with maximum AB/2 = 3000 m are conducted. The interpretation of the one-dimensional (1D) inversion of the acquired resistivity data could map the fresh to slightly brackish aquifer (true resistivity = 52-71 ? m, thickness = 17-66 m), which floats on denser, more saline, deeper water (<5 ? m). A number of water samples of the fresh aquifer are analysed to determine the total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations (ppm). A good agreement is observed between the resistivity boundaries and the borehole data. The mutual relations between the aquifer layering, the direction of the groundwater flow and the hydrogeophysical conditions of the aquifer are investigated. The geoelectric (Dar-Zarrouk) parameters are determined and interpreted in terms of the hydraulic conductivity, transimissivity, clay content, grain size distribution and potentiality of the aquifer. The integration of the results indicates a high potentiality and a relatively good quality of the fresh to slightly brackish aquifer in the north-eastern part of the study area.

Khalil, Mohamed H.

2006-09-01

316

Water Uptake of Mars Salt Analogs: An Investigation of Stable Aqueous Solutions on Mars Using Raman Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand the formation of briny aqueous solutions on Mars, a salt analog was developed to closely match the cation and anion concentrations as reported by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory aboard the Phoenix Lander. The salt analog contained magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, perchlorate, chloride, sulfate, and carbonate ions. The salt analog was developed to fully encompass the correct anion and cation concentration and is referred to as 'Instant Mars.' Using Raman microscopy, we have studied phase transitions of the analogs in an environmental cell. Phase transitions were monitored using Raman spectroscopy in combination with optical microscopy while samples were in a controlled water vapor and temperature environment. Salt analog solutions were nebulized to generate 20 ?m particles (on average) that were deposited onto a quartz wafer. The particles undergo visual transformations as the relative humidity (RH) is increased and the presence of aqueous phase salts is confirmed by Raman spectra. Perhaps even more interesting is a liquid water phase particle can persist at lower RH values than the humidity at which the aqueous phase first appeared. This hysteresis effect is due to kinetic inhibition of salt nucleation and can result in metastable, supersaturated salt solutions existing at RH values as low as 10%. With measured humidity values at the Phoenix Lander site varying from 0-100% in a diurnal cycle, it seems likely that aqueous, briny solutions can form in Martian environmental conditions. Microscope images illustrating water uptake at 243K of an 'Instant Mars' particle. As the RH increases, a visual change (size and darkness) is apparent.

Nuding, D.; Gough, R. V.; Tolbert, M. A.

2012-12-01

317

Salts and nutrients present in regenerated waters induce changes in water relations, antioxidative metabolism, ion accumulation and restricted ion uptake in Myrtus communis L. plants.  

PubMed

The use of reclaimed water (RW) constitutes a valuable strategy for the efficient management of water and nutrients in landscaping. However, RW may contain levels of toxic ions, affecting plant production or quality, a very important aspect for ornamental plants. The present paper evaluates the effect of different quality RWs on physiological and biochemical parameters and the recovery capacity in Myrtus communis L. plants. M. communis plants were submitted to 3 irrigation treatments with RW from different sources (22 weeks): RW1 (1.7 dS m(-1)), RW2 (4.0 dS m(-1)) and RW3 (8.0 dS m(-1)) and one control (C, 0.8 dS m(-1)). During a recovery period of 11 weeks, all plants were irrigated with the control water. The RW treatments did not negatively affect plant growth, while RW2 even led to an increase in biomass. After recovery, only plants irrigated with RW3 showed some negative effects on growth, which was related to a decrease in the net photosynthesis rate, higher Na accumulation and a reduction in K levels. An increase in salinity was accompanied by decreases in leaf water potential, relative water content and gas exchange parameters, and increases in Na and Cl uptake. Plants accumulated Na in roots and restricted its translocation to the aerial part. The highest salinity levels produced oxidative stress, as seen from the rise in electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation. The use of regenerated water together with carefully managed drainage practices, which avoid the accumulation of salt by the substrate, will provide economic and environmental benefits. PMID:25394799

Acosta-Motos, José R; Alvarez, Sara; Barba-Espín, Gregorio; Hernández, José A; Sánchez-Blanco, María J

2014-10-16

318

Effect of water in salt repositories. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Additional results confirm that during most of the consolidation of polycrystalline salt in brine, the previously proposed rate expression applies. The final consolidation, however, proceeds at a lower rate than predicted. The presence of clay hastens the consolidation process but does not greatly affect the previously observed relationship between permeability and void fraction. Studies of the migration of brine within polycrystalline salt specimens under stress indicate that the principal effect is the exclusion of brine as a result of consolidation, a process that evidently can proceed to completion. No clear effect of a temperature gradient could be identified. A previously reported linear increase with time of the reciprocal permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine was confirmed, though the rate of increase appears more nearly proportional to the product of sigma ..delta..P rather than sigma ..delta..P/sup 2/ (sigma is the uniaxial stress normal to the interface and ..delta..P is the hydraulic pressure drop). The new results suggest that a limiting permeability may be reached. A model for the permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine is developed that is reasonably consistent with the present results and may be used to predict the permeability of bedded salt. More measurements are needed, however, to choose between two limiting forms of the model.

Baes, C.F. Jr.; Gilpatrick, L.O.; Kitts, F.G.; Bronstein, H.R.; Shor, A.J.

1983-09-01

319

46 CFR 45.77 - Salt water freeboard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

(b) When the displacement at the summer load waterline cannot be certified, the addition in inches to the minimum freeboard in fresh water may be obtained by multiplying 0.25 by the summer draught in feet measured from the top of the keel to the center of the load line...

2014-10-01

320

[Exploring dream contents by neuroimaging].  

PubMed

Dreaming is a subjective experience during sleep that is often accompanied by vivid perceptual and emotional contents. Because of its fundamentally subjective nature, the objective study of dream contents has been challenging. However, since the discovery of rapid eye movements during sleep, scientific knowledge on the relationship between dreaming and physiological measures including brain activity has accumulated. Recent advances in neuroimaging analysis methods have made it possible to uncover direct links between specific dream contents and brain activity patterns. In this review, we first give a historical overview on dream researches with a focus on the neurophysiological and behavioral signatures of dreaming. We then discuss our recent study in which visual dream contents were predicted, or decoded, from brain activity during sleep onset periods using machine learning-based pattern recognition of functional MRI data. We suggest that advanced analytical tools combined with neural and behavioral databases will reveal the relevance of spontaneous brain activity during sleep to waking experiences. PMID:24748094

Horikawa, Tomoyasu; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

2014-04-01

321

Salt tectonics on Venus  

SciTech Connect

The discovery of a surprisingly high deuterium/hydrogen ratio on Venus immediately led to the speculation that Venus may have once had a volume of surface water comparable to that of the terrestrial oceans. The authors propose that the evaporation of this putative ocean may have yielded residual salt deposits that formed various terrain features depicted in Venera 15 and 16 radar images. By analogy with models for the total evaporation of the terrestrial oceans, evaporite deposits on Venus should be at least tens to hundreds of meters thick. From photogeologic evidence and in-situ chemical analyses, it appears that the salt plains were later buried by lava flows. On Earth, salt diapirism leads to the formation of salt domes, anticlines, and elongated salt intrusions - features having dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 km. Due to the rapid erosion of salt by water, surface evaporite landforms are only common in dry regions such as the Zagros Mountains of Iran, where salt plugs and glaciers exist. Venus is far drier than Iran; extruded salt should be preserved, although the high surface temperature (470/sup 0/C) would probably stimulate rapid salt flow. Venus possesses a variety of circular landforms, tens to hundreds of kilometers wide, which could be either megasalt domes or salt intrusions colonizing impact craters. Additionally, arcurate bands seen in the Maxwell area of Venus could be salt intrusions formed in a region of tectonic stress. These large structures may not be salt features; nonetheless, salt features should exist on Venus.

Wood, C.A.; Amsbury, D.

1986-05-01

322

Salicylic acid alleviates decreases in photosynthesis under salt stress by enhancing nitrogen and sulfur assimilation and antioxidant metabolism differentially in two mungbean cultivars.  

PubMed

Salicylic acid (SA) is known to affect photosynthesis under normal conditions and induces tolerance in plants to biotic and abiotic stresses through influencing physiological processes. In this study, physiological processes were compared in salt-tolerant (Pusa Vishal) and salt-sensitive (T44) cultivars of mungbean and examined how much these processes were induced by SA treatment to alleviate decrease in photosynthesis under salt stress. Cultivar T44 accumulated higher leaf Na(+) and Cl(-) content and exhibited greater oxidative stress than Pusa Vishal. Activity of antioxidant enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) was greater in Pusa Vishal than T44. Contrarily, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was greater in T44. The greater accumulation of leaf nitrogen and sulfur through higher activity of their assimilating enzymes, nitrate reductase (NR) and ATP-sulfurylase (ATPS) increased reduced glutathione (GSH) content more conspicuously in Pusa Vishal than T44. Application of 0.5 mM SA increased nitrogen and sulfur assimilation, GSH content and activity of APX and GR. This resulted in the increase in photosynthesis under non-saline condition and alleviated the decrease in photosynthesis under salt stress. It also helped in restricting Na(+) and Cl(-) content in leaf, and maintaining higher efficiency of PSII, photosynthetic N-use efficiency (NUE) and water relations in Pusa Vishal. However, application of 1.0 mM SA resulted in inhibitory effects. The effect of SA was more pronounced in Pusa Vishal than T44. These results indicate that SA application alleviates the salt-induced decrease in photosynthesis mainly through inducing the activity of NR and ATPS, and increasing antioxidant metabolism to a greater extent in Pusa Vishal than T44. PMID:21112120

Nazar, Rahat; Iqbal, Noushina; Syeed, Shabina; Khan, Nafees A

2011-05-15

323

Vertical Profiles of Soil Water Content as Influenced by Environmental Factors in a Small Catchment on the Hilly-Gully Loess Plateau  

PubMed Central

Characterization of soil water content (SWC) profiles at catchment scale has profound implications for understanding hydrological processes of the terrestrial water cycle, thereby contributing to sustainable water management and ecological restoration in arid and semi-arid regions. This study described the vertical profiles of SWC at the small catchment scale on the hilly and gully Loess Plateau in Northeast China, and evaluated the influences of selected environmental factors (land-use type, topography and landform) on average SWC within 300 cm depth. Soils were sampled from 101 points across a small catchment before and after the rainy season. Cluster analysis showed that soil profiles with high-level SWC in a stable trend (from top to bottom) were most commonly present in the catchment, especially in the gully related to terrace. Woodland soil profiles had low-level SWC with vertical variations in a descending or stable trend. Most abandoned farmland and grassland soil profiles had medium-level SWC with vertical variations in varying trends. No soil profiles had low-level SWC with vertical variations in an ascending trend. Multi-regression analysis showed that average SWC was significantly affected by land-use type in different soil layers (0–20, 20–160, and 160–300 cm), generally in descending order of terrace, abandoned farmland, grassland, and woodland. There was a significant negative correlation between average SWC and gradient along the whole profile (P<0.05). Landform significantly affected SWC in the surface soil layer (0–20 cm) before the rainy season but throughout the whole profile after the rainy season, with lower levels on the ridge than in the gully. Altitude only strongly affected SWC after the rainy season. The results indicated that land-use type, gradient, landform, and altitude should be considered in spatial SWC estimation and sustainable water management in these small catchments on the Loess Plateau as well as in other complex terrains with similar settings. PMID:25313829

Wang, Bing; Wen, Fenxiang; Wu, Jiangtao; Wang, Xiaojun; Hu, Yani

2014-01-01

324

Sugar and water contents of honey with dielectric property sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dielectric properties of pure yellow locust, jujube and rape flower honey and their water-adulterated products with water content from 18% to 42.6% were measured with open-ended coaxial-line probe technology and a network analyzer from 10 to 4500MHz at 25°C. Dielectric constants of pure honeys and water-added honey samples decreased monotonically with increasing frequency, and increased with increasing water content.

Wenchuan Guo; Xinhua Zhu; Yi Liu; Hong Zhuang

2010-01-01

325

Lorentz Force on Sodium and Chlorine Ions in a Salt Water Solution Flow under a Transverse Magnetic Field  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is shown that, by applying elementary concepts in electromagnetism and electrochemistry to a system consisting of salt water flowing in a thin rectangular pipe at an average velocity v[subscript A] under the influence of a transverse magnetic field B[subscript 0], an electromotive force generator can be conceived. In fact, the Lorentz force…

De Luca, R.

2009-01-01

326

THE EFFECTS OF HYPOPHYSECTOMY AND BOVINE PROLACTIN ON SALT FLUXES IN FRESH-WATER-ADAPTED FUNDULUS HETEROCLITUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the characteristics of salt balance in the euryhaline killifish Fundulus heteroclitus have been outlined by us elsewhere (Potts and Evans, 1966) . One of the major features of osmotic regulation in this fish is a marked reduction in the sodium and chloride fluxes on adaptation to fresh water. A similar reduction has been observed in several euryhaline teleosts

W. T. W. POTTS; D. H. EVANS

327

Fluid-loading solutions and plasma volume: Astro-ade and salt tablets with water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluid loading with salt and water is a countermeasure used after space flight to restore body fluids. However, gastrointestinal side effects have been frequently reported in persons taking similar quantities of salt and water in ground-based studies. The effectiveness of the Shuttle fluid-loading countermeasure (8 gms salt, 0.97 liters of water) was compared to Astro-ade (an isotonic electrolyte solution), to maintain plasma volume (PV) during 4.5 hrs of resting fluid restriction. Three groups of healthy men (n=6) were studied: a Control Group (no drinking), an Astro-ade Group, and a Salt Tablet Group. Changes in PV after drinking were calculated from hematocrit and hemoglobin values. Both the Salt Tablet and Astro-ade Groups maintained PV at 2-3 hours after ingestion compared to the Control Group, which had a 6 percent decline. Side effects (thirst, stomach cramping, and diarrhea) were noted in at least one subject in both the Astro-ade and Salt Tablet Groups. Nausea and vomiting were reported in one subject in the Salt Tablet Group. It was concluded that Astro-ade may be offered as an alternate fluid-loading countermeasure but further work is needed to develop a solution that is more palatable and has fewer side effects.

Fortney, Suzanne M.; Seinmann, Laura; Young, Joan A.; Hoskin, Cherylynn N.; Barrows, Linda H.

1994-01-01

328

A salt-water reservoir as the source of a compositionally stratified plume on Enceladus.  

PubMed

The discovery of a plume of water vapour and ice particles emerging from warm fractures ('tiger stripes') in Saturn's small, icy moon Enceladus raised the question of whether the plume emerges from a subsurface liquid source or from the decomposition of ice. Previous compositional analyses of particles injected by the plume into Saturn's diffuse E ring have already indicated the presence of liquid water, but the mechanisms driving the plume emission are still debated. Here we report an analysis of the composition of freshly ejected particles close to the sources. Salt-rich ice particles are found to dominate the total mass flux of ejected solids (more than 99 per cent) but they are depleted in the population escaping into Saturn's E ring. Ice grains containing organic compounds are found to be more abundant in dense parts of the plume. Whereas previous Cassini observations were compatible with a variety of plume formation mechanisms, these data eliminate or severely constrain non-liquid models and strongly imply that a salt-water reservoir with a large evaporating surface provides nearly all of the matter in the plume. PMID:21697830

Postberg, F; Schmidt, J; Hillier, J; Kempf, S; Srama, R

2011-06-30

329

Radio-requestable passive SAW water-content sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new passive sensor for remote measurement of water content in sandy soil was designed, using a surface acoustic wave (SAW) reflective delay line. Information from this sensor can be obtained by an interrogation device via a radio link operating in the European 434-MHz industrial-scientific-medical band. The SAW device, manufactured on the YZ cut of LiNbO3, is mounted and sealed

Leonhard Reindl; Clemens C. W. Ruppel; Alexander Kirmayr; Norbert Stockhausen; Max A. Hilhorst; Jos Balendonck

2001-01-01

330

Access to nitriles from aldehydes mediated by an oxoammonium salt.  

PubMed

A scalable, high yielding, rapid route to access an array of nitriles from aldehydes mediated by an oxoammonium salt (4-acetylamino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxoammonium tetrafluoroborate) and hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) as an ammonia surrogate has been developed. The reaction likely involves two distinct chemical transformations: reversible silyl-imine formation between HMDS and an aldehyde, followed by oxidation mediated by the oxoammonium salt and desilylation to furnish a nitrile. The spent oxidant can be easily recovered and used to regenerate the oxoammonium salt oxidant. PMID:25665019

Kelly, Christopher B; Lambert, Kyle M; Mercadante, Michael A; Ovian, John M; Bailey, William F; Leadbeater, Nicholas E

2015-03-27

331

Brines formed by multi-salt deliquescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FY05 Waste Package Environment testing program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory focused on determining the temperature, relative humidity, and solution compositions of brines formed due to the deliquescence of NaCl-KNOâ-NaNOâ and NaCl-KNOâ-NaNOâ-Ca(NOâ)â salt mixtures. Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of these brines is important because they define conditions under which brines may react with waste canister surfaces. Boiling

S Carroll; J Rard; M Alai; K Staggs

2005-01-01

332

Salt tolerance underlies the cryptic invasion of North American salt marshes by an introduced haplotype of the common reed Phragmites australis (Poaceae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A distinct, non-native haplotype of the common reed Phragmites australis has become invasive in Atlantic coastal Spartina marshes. We compared the salt tolerance and other growth characteristics of the invasive M haplotype with 2 native haplotypes (F and AC) in greenhouse experiments. The M haplotype retained 50% of its growth potential up to 0.4 M NaCl, whereas the F and AC haplotypes did not grow above 0.1 M NaCl. The M haplotype produced more shoots per gram of rhizome tissue and had higher relative growth rates than the native haplotypes on both freshwater and saline water treatments. The M haplotype also differed from the native haplotypes in shoot water content and the biometrics of shoots and rhizomes. The results offer an explanation for how the M haplotype is able to spread in coastal salt marshes and support the conclusion of DNA analyses that the M haplotype is a distinct ecotype of P. australis.

Vasquez, E.A.; Glenn, E.P.; Brown, J.J.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Nelson, S.G.

2005-01-01

333

Salt Marsh Sediment Biogeochemical Response to the Deep Water Horizon BP Oil Spill (Skiff Island, LA, and Cat Island, Marsh Point, and Salt Pan Island, MS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large scale impact of the Deep Water Horizon BP Oil Spill on biological communities can be better predicted by developing an understanding of how carbon loading from the spill is affecting the microbial and biological communities of salt marshes along the Mississippi and Louisiana Gulf Coast. Sediment biogeochemical processes that degrade enriched carbon pools through sulfate reduction are primarily responsible for the biological breakdown of spilled hydrocarbons (Shin et al., 2000). Determination of sulfide concentration in contaminated areas, therefore, allows for an assessment of the oil spill impact on salt marsh at Skiff Island, LA, and Marsh Point, Cat Island, and Salt Pan Island, MS. As a result of carbon loading, porewater hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentrations are expected to show an increase in the largely anoxic wetland sediment, making the sediment more toxic and inhospitable to marsh vegetation (Alber et al., 2008). High sulfide levels due to carbon loading in hydrocarbon contaminated salt marshes cause microbial activity to increase at the plant rhizospere, leading to plant browning and die back (Eldridge and Morse 2000). Preliminary analysis of the Marsh Point study area was conducted in Fall 2010. Sediment cores indicated that sulfate reducing bacteria are significantly more active in contaminated sediments, producing sulfide concentrations 20x higher than in non-contaminated sediments. The difference in the sediment biogeochemistry between the contaminated site and non-contaminated site at Marsh Point, MS indicated that the effects of hydrocarbon contamination on sulfur cycling in salt marshes should be more spatially explored. In Fall 2011, the study was expanded to include Skiff Island, LA, and Cat Island, and Salt Pan Island, MS in addition to Marsh Point, MS. Sediment electrode profiles (H2S, O2, pH, and Eh), degree of hydrocarbon contamination (GC), grain size analysis, microbial community substrate level carbon utilization profiles, and total organic carbon results will be presented on these four locations in order to explore the potential sedimentary geochemical processes impacting salt marsh dieback, which may be enhanced as a result of the Deep Water Horizon BP Oil Spill.

Guthrie, C. L.; McNeal, K. S.; Mishra, D. R.; Blakeney, G. A.

2012-12-01

334

Remote Sensing of Vegetation Water Content using Shortwave Infrared Reflectance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetation water content is an important biophysical parameter for estimation of soil moisture from microwave radiometers. The Soil Moisture Experiments in 2004 (SMEX04) and 2005 (SMEX05) had an objective of developing and testing algorithms for a vegetation water content (VWC) data product using sh...

335

Does Water Content or Flow Rate Control Colloid Transport in Unsaturated Porous Media?  

SciTech Connect

Mobile colloids can play an important role in contaminant transport in soils: many contaminants exist in colloidal form, and colloids can facilitate transport of otherwise immobile contaminants. In unsaturated soils, colloid transport is, among other factors, affected by water content and flow rate. Our objective was to determine whether water content or flow rate is more important for colloid transport. We passed negatively charged polystyrene colloids (220 nm diameter) through unsaturated sand-filled columns under steady-state flow at different water contents (effective water saturations Se ranging from 0.1 to 1.0, with Se = (? – ?r)/(?s – ?r)) and flow rates (pore water velocities v of 5 and 10 cm/min). Water content was the dominant factor in our experiments. Colloid transport decreased with decreasing water content, and below a critical water content (Se < 0.1), colloid transport was inhibited, and colloids were strained in water films. Pendular ring and water film thickness calculations indicated that colloids can move only when pendular rings are interconnected. The flow rate affected retention of colloids in the secondary energy minimum, with less colloids being trapped when the flow rate increased. These results confirm the importance of both water content and flow rate for colloid transport in unsaturated porous media and highlight the dominant role of water content.

Thorsten Knappenberger; Markus Flury; Earl D. Mattson; James B. Harsh

2014-03-01

336

ATTACHMENT OF ESCHERICHIA COLI TO SOIL AGGREGATES AS AFFECTED BY AGGREGATE WATER CONTENT AND PRESENCE OF MANURE COLLOIDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many soils contain relatively large structural units that do not slack when soil is being wetted. Soil aggregates, obtained from dry soil samples by sieving, present a model media to study the interactions of intact soils with dissolved or suspended contaminants. Land-applied manures may contain var...

337

Comparison of hyperspectral retrievals with vegetation water indices for leaf and canopy water content  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Leaf and canopy water contents provide information for leaf area index, vegetation biomass, and wildfire fuel moisture content. Hyperspectral retrievals of leaf and canopy water content are determined from the relationship of spectral reflectance and the specific absorption coefficient of water ove...

338

Grain orientation in high Tc superconductors by molten salt powder synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The molten salt or the flux method is used to fabricate a grain oriented YBa2Cu3O(7-x) (123) superconductor. Here we suggest a two-stage approach in using the 'green phase', Y2BaCuO5 (211), as seed crystals in the formation of YBa2Cu3O(7-x). The process uses Y2BaCuO5 formed by molten salt synthesis. The Y2BaCuO5 phase was observed to be stable in water and in most of the salt systems. Salt processing can form a small quantity of anisotropic particles of Y2BaCuO5. This material can form the 123 phase when tape cast and sintered in the presence of the required levels of Ba and Cu.

Gopalakrishnan, Sudhakar; Schulze, Walter A.

1991-01-01

339

Chloride absorption in salt-sensitive Carrizo citrange and salt-tolerant Cleopatra mandarin citrus rootstocks is linked to water use  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, seedlings of two citrus rootstocks, the salt-tolerant Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.) and the salt-sensitive Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb. 3 Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.) were used to study the relationship between chloride and water uptake. The results indicated that net chloride uptake rates in both genotypes were alike and decreased linearly with the

JoseLuis Moya; Aurelio Gomez-Cadenas; Eduardo Primo-Millo; Manuel Talon

2003-01-01

340

Increasing the collected energy and reducing the water requirements in salt-gradient solar ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salt-gradient solar ponds are low-cost, large-scale solar collectors with integrated storage that can be used as an energy source in many thermal systems. For instance, solar ponds have proven to be a promising solution to drive thermal desalination in arid zones. However, in zones with limited water availability, where evaporation constrains the use of solar ponds in areas with the greatest potential for solar energy development, evaporation losses at the surface of the pond constrain their use. Therefore, evaporation represents a significant challenge for development of these low-cost solar systems in arid settings. In this investigation, different transparent floating elements were tested to suppress evaporation: flat discs, hemispheres, and a continuous cover. Flat discs were the most effective evaporation suppression element. Evaporation decreased from 4.8 to 2.5 mm/day when 88% of the pond was covered with the flat discs. In addition, the highest temperature increased from 34 to 43°C and the heat content increased from 179 to 220 MJ (a 22% increase). Reduced evaporative losses at the surface of the pond resulted in lower conductive losses from the storage zone and increased the collected energy. The magnitude of evaporation reduction observed in this work is important as it allows solar pond operation in locations with limited water supply for replenishment. The increase in stored heat allows more energy to be withdrawn from the pond for use in external applications, which significantly improves the thermal efficiencies of solar ponds.

Suarez, F. I.; Ruskowitz, J. A.; Tyler, S. W.; Childress, A. E.

2013-12-01

341

Fracture of porous materials induced by crystallization of salt  

E-print Network

The penetration of salt into porous materials is known to have deleterious effects, often resulting in fracture. The damage process begins with a saline solution penetrating the porous network by way of capillary action. ...

Katzoff, Golda Y

2006-01-01

342

Plant Response to Differential Soil Water Content and Salinity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Root-zone soil water content is extremely dynamic, governed by complex and coupled processes such as root uptake, irrigation, evaporation, and leaching. Root uptake of water and nutrients is influenced by these conditions and the processes involved. Plant roots are living and functioning in a dynamic environment that is subjected to extreme changes over relatively short time and small distances. In order to better manage our agricultural resources and cope with increasing constraints of water limitation, environmental concerns and climate change, it is vital to understand plants responses to these changes in their environment. We grew chick pea (Cicer arietinum) plants, in boxes of 30 x 25 x 1 cm dimensions filled with fine sand. Layers of coarse sand (1.5 cm thick) were embedded in the fine-sand media to divide the root growth environment into sections that were hydraulically disconnected from each other. This way, each section could be independently treated with differential levels of water and salinity. The root growth and distribution in the soil was monitored on daily bases using neutron radiography. Daily water uptake was measured by weighing the containers. Changes of soil water content in each section of the containers were calculated from the neutron radiographs. Plants that part of their root system was stressed with drought or salinity showed no change in their daily water uptake rate. The roots in the stressed sections stayed turgid during the stress period and looked healthy in the neutron images. However the uptake rate was severely affected when the soil in the non-stressed section started to dry. The plants were then fully irrigated with water and the water uptake rate recovered to its initial rate shortly after irrigation. The neutron radiographs clearly illustrated the shrinkage and recovery of the roots under stress and the subsequent relief. This cycle was repeated a few times and the same trend could be reproduced. Our results show that plants' response to water- or salinity-stress ranges from full compensation to severe reduction in transpiration, depending on the availability of water in their surrounding soil. Results of applying different treatments of salinity and drought will be shown. Available models of root water uptake will be employed to simulate the obtained results.

Moradi, A. B.; Dara, A.; Kamai, T.; Ngo, A.; Walker, R.; Hopmans, J. W.

2011-12-01

343

Involvement of a glucosinolate (sinigrin) in the regulation of water transport in Brassica oleracea grown under salt stress.  

PubMed

Members of the Brassicaceae are known for their contents of nutrients and health-promoting phytochemicals, including glucosinolates. The concentrations of these chemopreventive compounds (glucosinolate-degradation products, the bioactive isothiocyanates) may be modified under salinity. In this work, the effect of the aliphatic glucosinolate sinigrin (2-propenyl-glucosinolate) on plant water balance, involving aquaporins, was explored under salt stress. For this purpose, water uptake and its transport through the plasma membrane were determined in plants after NaCl addition, when sinigrin was also supplied. We found higher hydraulic conductance (L0 ) and water permeability (Pf ) and increased abundance of PIP2 aquaporins after the direct administration of sinigrin, showing the ability of the roots to promote cellular water transport across the plasma membrane in spite of the stress conditions imposed. The higher content of the allyl-isothiocyanate and the absence of sinigrin in the plant tissues suggest that the isothiocyanate is related to water balance; in fact, a direct effect of this nitro-sulphate compound on water uptake is proposed. This work provides the first evidence that the addition of a glucosinolate can regulate aquaporins and water transport: this effect and the mechanism(s) involved merit further investigation. PMID:23837634

Martínez-Ballesta, Maria del Carmen; Muries, Beatriz; Moreno, Diego Ángel; Dominguez-Perles, Raúl; García-Viguera, Cristina; Carvajal, Micaela

2014-02-01

344

Factors affecting properties of pork sausage patties made with reduced salt contents  

E-print Network

not affect (P&0. 9861) saltiness scores for fresh-frozen sausage patties . Mean values for pH of fresh-frozen sausage patties stratified by salt level and phosphate group are shown in Table 6. These means are presented to illustrate the interaction (P&0... or Lem-0-Fos I in precooked patties resulted in higher pH values, increased cooking yields, improved juiciness scores and also inhibited the formation of off-flavor and rancidity. Higher NaC1 levels maintained juiciness scores and reheating yields...

Matlock, Robert Gerard

1983-01-01

345

[Bio-oil production from biomass pyrolysis in molten salt].  

PubMed

In order to investigate the effects of pyrolysis conditions on bio-oil production from biomass in molten salt, experiments of biomass pyrolysis were carried out in a self-designed reactor in which the molten salt ZnCl2-KCl (with mole ratio 7/6) was selected as heat carrier, catalyst and dispersion agent. The effects of metal salt added into ZnCl2-KCl and biomass material on biomass pyrolysis were discussed, and the main compositions of bio-oil were determined by GC-MS. Metal salt added into molten salt could affect pyrolysis production yields remarkably. Lanthanon salt could enhance bio-oil yield and decrease water content in bio-oil, when mole fraction of 5.0% LaCl3 was added, bio-oil yield could reach up to 32.0%, and water content of bio-oil could reduce to 61.5%. The bio-oil and char yields were higher when rice straw was pyrolysed, while gas yield was higher when rice husk was used. Metal salts showed great selectivity on compositions of bio-oil. LiCl and FeCl2 promoted biomass to pyrolyse into smaller molecular weight compounds. CrCl3, CaCl2 and LaCl3 could restrain second pyrolysis of bio-oil. The research provided a scientific reference for production of bio-oil from biomass pyrolysis in molten salt. PMID:21650030

Ji, Dengxiang; Cai, Tengyue; Ai, Ning; Yu, Fengwen; Jiang, Hongtao; Ji, Jianbing

2011-03-01

346

Pure water injection into porous rock with superheated steam and salt in a solid state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of geothermal fields require injection of fluid into the hot rock to maintain pressure and productivity. The presence of solid salt in porous space may cause an unexpected change in the characteristics of the reservoir and produced fluids, and dramatically affect the profitability of the project. We consider an injection problem of pure water into high temperature geothermal reservoir, saturated with superheated vapour and solid salt. Pure water moves away from injection point and dissolves solid salt. When salty water reaches the low-pressure hot domain, water evaporation occurs and, consequently, salt precipitates. We develop a simplified analytical model of the process and derive the similarity solutions for a 1-D semi-infinite reservoir. These solutions are multi-valued and describe the reduction in permeability and porosity due to salt precipitation at the leading boiling front. If the parameters of the system exceed critical values, then similarity solution ceases to exist. We identify this mathematical behaviour with reservoir sealing in the physical system. The TOUGH2-EWASG code has been used to verify this hypothesis and investigate the precipitate formation for an idealized bounded 1-D geothermal system of a length of 500 m with water injection at one extreme and fluid extraction at the other one. Both boundaries are kept at constant pressure and temperature. The result for the semi-infinite numerical model show that the monotonic grow of the solid salt saturation to reach asymptotic similarity solution generally occurs over a very large length starting from the injection point. Reservoir sealing occurs if solid salt at the initial state occupies a considerable part of the porous space. Numerical experiments for the bounded 500 m system demonstrate that a small amount of salt is enough to get reservoir sealing. Generally, salt tend to accumulate near the production well, and salt plug forms at the elements adjacent to the extraction point. This type of simulation studies can be applied to Hot Dry Rock systems to investigate the effects of dissolution/precipitation of solid salt, if present in the system, on the feasibility of the project.

Montegrossi, G.; Tsypkin, G.; Calore, C.

2012-04-01

347

Surfactant Adsorption at the Salt/Water Interface: Comparing the Conformation and Interfacial Water Structure for Selected Surfactants  

E-print Network

Surfactant Adsorption at the Salt/Water Interface: Comparing the Conformation and Interfacial Water Structure for Selected Surfactants Kevin A. Becraft and Geraldine L. Richmond* Department of Chemistry, Uni in situ spectroscopic measurements monitoring the adsorption of a series of carboxylate surfactants onto

Richmond, Geraldine L.

348

Preliminary assestment of lint cotton water content in gin-drying temperature studies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Prior studies to measure total water (free and bound) in lint cotton by Karl Fischer Titration showed the method is more accurate and precise than moisture content by standard oven drying. The objective of the current study was to compare the moisture and total water contents from five cultivars de...

349

Iatrogenic salt water drowning and the hazards of a high central venous pressure  

PubMed Central

Current teaching and guidelines suggest that aggressive fluid resuscitation is the best initial approach to the patient with hemodynamic instability. The source of this wisdom is difficult to discern, however, Early Goal Directed therapy (EGDT) as championed by Rivers et al. and the Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines appears to have established this as the irrefutable truth. However, over the last decade it has become clear that aggressive fluid resuscitation leading to fluid overload is associated with increased morbidity and mortality across a diverse group of patients, including patients with severe sepsis as well as elective surgical and trauma patients and those with pancreatitis. Excessive fluid administration results in increased interstitial fluid in vital organs leading to impaired renal, hepatic and cardiac function. Increased extra-vascular lung water (EVLW) is particularly lethal, leading to iatrogenic salt water drowning. EGDT and the Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines recommend targeting a central venous pressure (CVP)?>?8 mmHg. A CVP?>?8 mmHg has been demonstrated to decrease microcirculatory flow, as well as renal blood flow and is associated with an increased risk of renal failure and death. Normal saline (0.9% salt solution) as compared to balanced electrolyte solutions is associated with a greater risk of acute kidney injury and death. This paper reviews the adverse effects of large volume resuscitation, a high CVP and the excessive use of normal saline. PMID:25110606

2014-01-01

350

Soil-Water Characteristic Curve Modeling at Low Water Content: Empirical and Semi-Empirical Approaches  

E-print Network

Soil-Water Characteristic Curve Modeling at Low Water Content: Empirical and Semi model, the Modified Kovacs (MK) model for the determination of soil-water characteristic curve at the low water contents of two horizons of a soil from Burkina Faso. Combining terms from capillary state

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

351

COBALT DETERMINATION IN NATURAL WATER AND TABLE SALT SAMPLES BY FLAME ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY\\/ON-LINE SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION COMBINATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, a methyl acrylate resin (Chromosorb 105) was used for on-line solid phase extraction and determination of traces cobalt by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Cobalt is preconcentrated at pH 9 onto mini column at NH3 media. The elution step for retained cobalt is performed with a stream of 1 M HCl at 4.0 mL\\/min and cobalt displaced is

Aslihan Uzun Karatepe; Mustafa Soylak; Latif Elci

2002-01-01

352

Single- and dual-wavelength radar determination of liquid-water content in a Texas thunderstorm  

E-print Network

SINGLE- AND DUAL-WAVELENGTH RADAR DETERMINATION OF LIQUID-WATER CONTENT IN A TEXAS THUNDERSTORM A Thesis by CHARLES THEODORE LINN l Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1976 Major Subject: Meteorology SINGLE-AND DUAL-WAVELENGTH RADAR DETERMINATION OF LIQUID-WATER CONTENT IN A TEXAS THUNDERSTORM A Thesis by CHARLES THEODORE LINN Approved as to style and content by: (Ch rman...

Linn, Charles Theodore

1976-01-01

353

Comparison of hyperspectral retrievals with vegetation water indices for leaf and canopy water content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leaf and canopy water contents provide information for leaf area index, vegetation biomass, and wildfire fuel moisture content. Hyperspectral retrievals of leaf and canopy water content are determined from the relationship of spectral reflectance and the specific absorption coefficient of water over the wavelength range of a water absorption feature. Vegetation water indices such as the Normalized Difference Water Index [NDWI = (R850 - R1240)/(R850 + R1240)] and Normalized Difference Infrared Index [NDII = (R850 - R1650)/(R850 + R1650)] may be calculated from multispectral sensors such as Landsat Thematic Mapper, SPOT HRG, or MODIS. Predicted water contents from hyperspectral data were much greater than measured water contents for both leaves and canopies. Furthermore, simulated spectral reflectances from the PROSPECT and SAIL models also had greater retrieved leaf and canopy water contents compared to the inputs. Used simply as an index correlated to leaf and canopy water contents, hyperspectral retrievals had better predictive capability than NDII or NDWI. Atmospheric correction algorithms estimate canopy water content in order to estimate the amount of water vapor. These results indicate that estimated canopy water contents should have a systematic bias, even though this bias does not affect retrieved surface reflectances from hyperspectral data. Field campaigns in a variety of vegetation functional types are needed to calibrate both hyperspectral retrievals and vegetation water indices.

Hunt, E. Raymond, Jr.; Daughtry, Craig S. T.; Qu, John J.; Wang, Lingli; Hao, Xianjun

2011-09-01

354

Water, salt, and energy balances of the Dead Sea N. G. Lensky, Y. Dvorkin, and V. Lyakhovsky  

E-print Network

Water, salt, and energy balances of the Dead Sea N. G. Lensky, Y. Dvorkin, and V. Lyakhovsky, and energy balances of the Dead Sea, Water Resour. Res., 41, W12418, doi:10.1029/2005WR004084. 1 is less than that from a freshwater surface because the dissolved salts lower the free energy of the water

Lyakhovsky, Vladimir

355

Water Dynamics in Divalent and Monovalent Concentrated Salt Chiara H. Giammanco, Daryl B. Wong, and Michael D. Fayer*  

E-print Network

Water Dynamics in Divalent and Monovalent Concentrated Salt Solutions Chiara H. Giammanco, Daryl B, United States ABSTRACT: Water hydrogen bond dynamics in concentrated salt solutions are studied using causes a shift in absorption frequency relative to that of the OD stretch absorption in bulk pure water

Fayer, Michael D.

356

Intra-Abdominal Pressure Correlates with Extracellular Water Content  

PubMed Central

Background Secondary increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) may result from extra-abdominal pathology, such as massive fluid resuscitation, capillary leak or sepsis. All these conditions increase the extravascular water content. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between IAP and body water volume. Material and Methods Adult patients treated for sepsis or septic shock with acute kidney injury (AKI) and patients undergoing elective pharyngolaryngeal or orthopedic surgery were enrolled. IAP was measured in the urinary bladder. Total body water (TBW), extracellular water content (ECW) and volume excess (VE) were measured by whole body bioimpedance. Among critically ill patients, all parameters were analyzed over three consecutive days, and parameters were evaluated perioperatively in surgical patients. Results One hundred twenty patients were studied. Taken together, the correlations between IAP and VE, TBW, and ECW were measured at 408 time points. In all participants, IAP strongly correlated with ECW and VE. In critically ill patients, IAP correlated with ECW and VE. In surgical patients, IAP correlated with ECW and TBW. IAP strongly correlated with ECW and VE in the mixed population. IAP also correlated with VE in critically ill patients. ROC curve analysis showed that ECW and VE might be discriminative parameters of risk for increased IAP. Conclusion IAP strongly correlates with ECW. PMID:25849102

D?browski, Wojciech; Kotlinska-Hasiec, Edyta; Jaroszynski, Andrzej; Zadora, Przemyslaw; Pilat, Jacek; Rzecki, Ziemowit; Zaluska, Wojciech; Schneditz, Daniel

2015-01-01

357

Water transfer in soil at low water content. Is the local equilibrium assumption still appropriate?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of water content in the superficial layers of soils is critical in the modelling of land-surface processes. In arid regions, vapour flux contributes significantly to the global water mass balance. To account for it in theoretical descriptions, most of the models proposed in the literature rely on the local equilibrium assumption that constrains the vapour pressure to remain at its equilibrium value. It implicitly amounts to consider an instantaneous phase change. Recent works underlined a retardation time and a decrease in phase change rate as the water content gets lower. Therefore, the objective is to revisit water transport modelling by rejecting the local equilibrium assumption. This requires developing a non-equilibrium model by taking into account the phase change kinetics. To assess the interest of this approach, a natural soil of Burkina-Faso has been experimentally characterized from independent tests and soil column experiments have been carried out. The comparison of experimental drying kinetics and water content profiles with computational predictions confirms the reliability of this description. Liquid/gas non-equilibrium is significant in a limited subsurface zone which defines explicitly the transition from liquid transport in lower layers to vapour transport in upper layers, i.e., the evaporation front. The overall moisture dynamics is governed by the coupling between water transport mechanisms (liquid filtration, vapour diffusion, phase change) that mainly occurs in this transition zone.

Ouedraogo, F.; Cherblanc, F.; Naon, B.; Bénet, J.-C.

2013-06-01

358

MONITORING OF SALT-INDUCED DEFORMATIONS IN POROUS SYSTEMS BY MICROSCOPIC SPECKLE PATTERN INTERFEROMETRY  

E-print Network

MONITORING OF SALT-INDUCED DEFORMATIONS IN POROUS SYSTEMS BY MICROSCOPIC SPECKLE PATTERN porosity distribution, and its negligible humidity expansion. The glass sam- ples, soaked with salt: electronic speckle pattern interferometry, deformation measurement, salt crys- tallization, phase transition

Hinsch, Klaus

359

Variation of O 18 content of waters from natural sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of marine water and fresh water samples were examined for the relative O 18 \\/O 16 ratio, and the variation of this ratio was determined to a precision of ± 0.1%. In the case of surface marine waters, for a range of salinity of 29.40%., the O 16 content varies over a range of approximately 6%. The low

S. Epstein; T. Mayeda

1953-01-01

360

The Fatty Acid Content of Ocean Water  

E-print Network

1-10% major 10% 32 assumed that the reduction in unsaturation and chain length is due to prolonged exposure of fatty acids to oxidizing conditions in deep water, then this might indicate sufficiently rapid mixing rates of top and bottom water... and unsaturated fatty acids and triglycerides during this investigation gave similar results. 13 Final acceptance of gas-liquid chromatography as a method for identifying fatty acids in sea water was based upon the results obtained from repeated analysis...

Slowey, James Frank

1960-01-01

361

Stalagmite water content as a proxy for drip water supply in tropical and subtropical areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this pilot study water was extracted from samples of two Holocene stalagmites from Socotra Island, Yemen, and one Eemian stalagmite from southern continental Yemen. The amount of water extracted per unit mass of stalagmite rock, termed "water yield" hereafter, serves as a measure of its total water content. Based on direct correlation plots of water yields and ?18Ocalcite and on regime shift analyses, we demonstrate that for the studied stalagmites the water yield records vary systematically with the corresponding oxygen isotopic compositions of the calcite (?18Ocalcite). Within each stalagmite lower ?18Ocalcite values are accompanied by lower water yields and vice versa. The ?18Ocalcite records of the studied stalagmites have previously been interpreted to predominantly reflect the amount of rainfall in the area; thus, water yields can be linked to drip water supply. Higher, and therefore more continuous drip water supply caused by higher rainfall rates, supports homogeneous deposition of calcite with low porosity and therefore a small fraction of water-filled inclusions, resulting in low water yields of the respective samples. A reduction of drip water supply fosters irregular growth of calcite with higher porosity, leading to an increase of the fraction of water-filled inclusions and thus higher water yields. The results are consistent with the literature on stalagmite growth and supported by optical inspection of thin sections of our samples. We propose that for a stalagmite from a dry tropical or subtropical area, its water yield record represents a novel paleo-climate proxy recording changes in drip water supply, which can in turn be interpreted in terms of associated rainfall rates.

Vogel, N.; Scheidegger, Y.; Brennwald, M. S.; Fleitmann, D.; Figura, S.; Wieler, R.; Kipfer, R.

2013-01-01

362

Water resources, salinity and salt yields of the rivers of the Bolivian Amazon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the first time that the water resources, the salinity and the yields of the upper basins of the Madera River have been reported. Formed by the confluence of the Beni and Mamore, the Madera is one of the world's largest rivers: 17,000 m 3s -1, approximately half the discharge of the Congo River. It has a dissolved discharge close to that of the Congo River: 1 ts -1 of ions. Likewise, the Beni and the Mamore Rivers, are also classified as large rivers, greater than the Volga River, the largest in Europe, and the Niger River, the second largest in Africa. The amounts of water involved are considerable. The average dissolved content of these rivers, 57-61 mg l -1 respectively, is relatively low to medium. Many types of water, classified according to their ionic compositions, have been characterized in the Andes, the Amazon Plain, and in the main drainage axis. The slightly mineralized black water of the plain seems the most unique type. Recycling of water vapor in the Amazon Basin is confirmed by the low chloride and sodium contents of the water in the plain. Thus the importance of this phenomenon in the genesis of rainfall throughout the basin is emphasized. The contribution of the Upper Madera River to the Amazon River is 9.7% of the water and 10.9% of ionic load.

Roche, Michel-Alain; Jauregui, Carlos Fernandez

1988-06-01

363

A modeling study of water and salt exchange for a micro-tidal, stratified northern Gulf of Mexico estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model is applied to the Mobile Bay system to study water and salt exchange with the northern Gulf of Mexico via Main Pass (MP) and eastern Mississippi Sound via Pass-aux-Herons (PaH). On average, more water leaves the Bay through MP than through PaH, and the Bay gains salt through MP and loses about the same amount through PaH. However, the volume discharge rate Qf and salt transport rate FS vary greatly in response to wind and river discharge with the range of variation 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than the corresponding mean. Stratification plays a key role for salt transport through MP. During periods of large river discharge, the landward shear dispersive transport FE peaking during equatorial tides and the landward tidal oscillatory transport FT peaking during tropic tides, respectively, balance the seaward advective transport QfS0. During periods of relatively weak stratification, FS at MP is almost entirely determined by QfS0 and its variability is well correlated with north-south (along-estuary) wind, associated with the barotropic (water level) adjustment. At the shallow, weakly stratified PaH, FS is almost identical to QfS0, and Qf is well correlated with east-west wind, with the correlation becoming stronger during the dry period.

Kim, Choong-Ki; Park, Kyeong

2012-08-01

364

Salting-out phenomenon and 1-octanol/water partition coefficient of metalaxyl pesticide.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present the effect of inorganic cations such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ on the salting-out phenomenon of metalaxyl from pure water to aqueous salt solutions. Moreover the 1-octanol/water partition coefficient in pure water is presented. To accomplish this, aqueous solubility of metalaxyl was determined in pure water, in different salt solution (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2), and at different concentration level ranging from 0.01 to 1.5 M. The 1-octanol/water partition coefficient was determined using the static shake-flask method. Solubility was determined using dynamic saturation method for pure water in the range of 298.15-325.15 K and at 298.15 K for different salt solutions. The solubility value in pure water for studied interval was found constant (m=3.118×10(-2) mol kg(-1)). Solubility values were used to calculate the standard molar Gibbs free energy of dissolution (?solG°) and transfer (?trG°) at 298.15 K. The values of ?trG° from pure to all studied aqueous salt solutions did not exceed 2 kJ mol(-1), the value of ?solG° of dissolution is 18.5 ±0.72 kJ mol(-1). The 1-octanol/water partition coefficient in pure water log Ko/w is equal to 1.69. The obtained results confirm the classification of the neutral metalaxyl as a slightly hydrophobic molecule. PMID:21094973

Saab, J; Bassil, G; Abou Naccoul, R; Stephan, J; Mokbel, I; Jose, J

2011-02-01

365

Computational and experimental platform for understanding and optimizing water flux and salt rejection in nanoporous membranes.  

SciTech Connect

Affordable clean water is both a global and a national security issue as lack of it can cause death, disease, and international tension. Furthermore, efficient water filtration reduces the demand for energy, another national issue. The best current solution to clean water lies in reverse osmosis (RO) membranes that remove salts from water with applied pressure, but widely used polymeric membrane technology is energy intensive and produces water depleted in useful electrolytes. Furthermore incremental improvements, based on engineering solutions rather than new materials, have yielded only modest gains in performance over the last 25 years. We have pursued a creative and innovative new approach to membrane design and development for cheap desalination membranes by approaching the problem at the molecular level of pore design. Our inspiration comes from natural biological channels, which permit faster water transport than current reverse osmosis membranes and selectively pass healthy ions. Aiming for an order-of-magnitude improvement over mature polymer technology carries significant inherent risks. The success of our fundamental research effort lies in our exploiting, extending, and integrating recent advances by our team in theory, modeling, nano-fabrication and platform development. A combined theoretical and experimental platform has been developed to understand the interplay between water flux and ion rejection in precisely-defined nano-channels. Our innovative functionalization of solid state nanoporous membranes with organic protein-mimetic polymers achieves 3-fold improvement in water flux over commercial RO membranes and has yielded a pending patent and industrial interest. Our success has generated useful contributions to energy storage, nanoscience, and membrane technology research and development important for national health and prosperity.

Rempe, Susan B.

2010-09-01

366

Salt feedback on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.  

PubMed

The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is a central element in the control of the salt and water balance of the body and arterial blood pressure. The activity of the RAAS is controlled by the protease renin, which is released from renal juxtaglomerular epithelioid cells (JGE cells) into the circulation. Renin release is regulated by a complex interplay of several locally acting hormones or mechanisms and longer feedback loops one of which involves salt intake. Acute NaCl loads or longer lasting high salt intakes suppress plasma renin activity, whereas reductions in NaCl intake stimulate it. Because the activation of the RAAS conserves the salt content of the body, a classical feedback loop between salt intake/body salt content and renin is established. Despite of its important role for body fluid homeostasis, the precise signaling pathways connecting salt intake with the synthesis and release of renin are only incompletely understood. Four putative controllers of the salt-dependent regulation of the RAAS have been suggested: (1) the macula densa mechanism which adjusts renin release in response to changes in the renal tubular salt concentration; (2) salt-dependent changes in the arterial blood pressure; (3) circulating salt-dependent hormones, particularly the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP); and (4) renal sympathetic nervous activity, which is regulated by extracellular volume and arterial blood pressure. In this review, the role of these known controllers of the RAAS will be discussed with special emphasis on their relative contributions to the salt-dependent regulation of the RAAS at different time frames. PMID:25502115

Schweda, Frank

2015-03-01

367

Electrodialysis technology for salt recovery from aluminum salt cake  

SciTech Connect

Electrodialysis technology for recovering salt from aluminum salt cake is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Salt cake, a slag-like aluminum-industry waste stream, contains aluminum metal, salt (NaCl and KCl), and nonmetallics (primarily aluminum oxide). Salt cake can be recycled by digesting with water and filtering to recover the metal and oxide values. A major obstacle to widespread salt cake recycling is the cost of recovering salt from the process brine. Electrodialysis technology developed at Argonne appears to be a cost-effective approach to handling the salt brines, compared to evaporation or disposal. In Argonne's technology, the salt brine is concentrated until salt crystals are precipitated in the electrodialysis stack; the crystals are recovered downstream. The technology is being evaluated on the pilot scale using Eurodia's EUR 40-76-5 stack.

Hryn, J. N.; Krumdick, G.; Graziano, D.; Sreenivasarao, K.

2000-02-02

368

Reversible inactivation of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase by Angeli’s salt  

PubMed Central

Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLDH) is a key component of 3 mitochondrial ?-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes including pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, and branched chain amino acid dehydrogenase complex. It is a pyridine-dependent disulfide oxidoreductase that is very sensitive to oxidative modifications by reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of DLDH modification by RNS derived from Angeli’s salt. Studies were conducted using isolated rat brain mitochondria that were incubated with varying concentrations of Angeli’s salt followed by spectrophotometric enzyme assays, blue native gel analysis, and 2-dimensional gel-based proteomic approaches. Results show that DLDH could be inactivated by Angeli’s salt in a concentration dependent manner and the inactivation was a targeting rather than a random process as peroxynitrite did not show any detectable inhibitory effect on the enzyme’s activity under the same experimental conditions. Since Angeli’s salt can readily decompose at physiological pH to yield nitroxyl anion (HNO) and nitric oxide, further studies were conducted to determine the actual RNS that was responsible for DLDH inactivation. Results indicate that it was HNO that exerted the effect of Angeli’s salt on DLDH. Finally, two-dimensional Western blot analysis indicates that DLDH inactivation by Angeli’s salt was accompanied by formation of protein s-nitrosothiols, suggesting that s-nitrosylation is likely the cause of loss in enzyme’s activity. Taken together, the present study provides insights into mechanisms of DLDH inactivation induced by HNO derived from Angeli’s salt. PMID:23139597

Yan, Liang-Jun; Liu, Li; Forster, Michael J.

2012-01-01

369

Regulation of mdr2 P-glycoprotein expression by bile salts.  

PubMed Central

The phosphatidyl translocating activity of the mdr2 P-glycoprotein (Pgp) in the canalicular membrane of the mouse hepatocyte is a rate-controlling step in the biliary secretion of phospholipid. Since bile salts also regulate the secretion of biliary lipids, we investigated the influence of the type of bile salt in the circulation on mdr2 Pgp expression and activity. Male mice were led a purified diet to which either 0.1% (w/w) cholate or 0.5% (w/w) ursodeoxycholate was added. This led to a near-complete replacement of the endogenous bile salt pool (mainly tauromuricholate) by taurocholate or tauroursodeoxycholate respectively. The phospholipid secretion capacity was then determined by infusion of increasing amounts of tauroursodeoxycholate. Cholate feeding resulted in a 55% increase in maximal phospholipid secretion compared with that in mice on the control diet. Northern blotting revealed that cholate feeding increased mdr2 Pgp mRNA levels by 42%. Feeding with ursodeoxycholate did not influence the maximum rate of phospholipid output or the mdr2 mRNA content. Female mice had a higher basal mdr2 Pgp mRNA level than male mice, and this was also correlated with a higher phospholipid secretion capacity. This could be explained by the 4-fold higher basal cholate content in the bile of female compared with male mice. Our results suggest that the type of bile salts in the circulation influences the expression of the mdr2 gene. PMID:9020871

Frijters, C M; Ottenhoff, R; van Wijland, M J; van Nieuwkerk, C M; Groen, A K; Oude Elferink, R P

1997-01-01

370

Comparison of Vegetation Water Content Estimates From WindSat and MODIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Determination of soil moisture content by microwave remote sensing is important for quantifying the global energy, water and biogeochemical cycles. Vegetation water content (VWC, kg m-2) is one of the important parameters for retrieval of soil moisture using passive microwave radiometers. Liquid w...

371

Influence of Water Content on RF and Microwave Dielectric Properties of Foods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dielectric properties of several foods with a wide range of water content are presented graphically at frequencies between 10 MHz and 20 GHz. Their frequency- and temperature-dependent dielectric behavior is discussed with respect to differences in water content and explained by responses of ionic c...

372

Gibberellic acid (GA3) enhance seed water uptake, germination and early seedling growth in sugar beet under salt stress.  

PubMed

The study was carried out to assess whether water uptake could be improved in sugar beet seeds and salt tolerance at the germination and early seedling stage by soaking the seeds for 10 h in distilled water (control), 100, 150 and 200 mg L(-1) GA3. Electrical Conductivity (EC) values of the NaCl solution were 0.0 (control), 4.7, 9.4 and 14.1 dS n(-1) NaCl. Priming increased the final germination percentage and the germination rate (1/t 50, where t 50 is the time to 50% of germination) under saline condition. Water uptake of primed seeds also increased significantly with increasing concentration of GA3 as compared to control. Priming also alleviated the adverse effect of salt stress on sugar beet in terms of roots and shoots lengths and fresh weights of plants, roots and shoots. PMID:19069553

Jamil, Muhammad; Rha, Eui Shik

2007-02-15

373

Geoelectrical and hydrochemical investigations for characterizing the salt water intrusion in the Khanasser valley, northern Syria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated approach of geoelectrical and hydrochemical investigation surveys was proposed for indicating contact regions between saline and fresh groundwater in the Khanasser valley region, northern Syria. The qualitative and quantitative interpretations of 34 vertical electrical soundings (VES) enable to characterize the salt water intrusion laterally and vertically. The established iso-apparent resistivity maps for different AB/2 spacings obviously indicate the presence of a lowresistivity (less than 4 Ohm·m) zone related to the salt water intrusion in the Quaternary and Paleogene deposits. The different hydrochemical and geophysical parameters, such as electrical resistivity, total dissolved solids (TDS) and major ions concentrations used to characterize the salt water intrusion gave almost similar results in locating and mapping the different boundaries of the groundwater salinity. The proposed approach is useful for mapping the interface between different groundwater qualities, and can be therefore used to successfully characterize the salt water intrusion phenomenon in other semi-arid regions. The application of such an approach is a powerful tool and can be used for water resource management in the water scarce areas.

Asfahani, Jamal; Abou Zakhem, Boulos

2013-04-01

374

Salt and heat trends in the shelf waters of the southern Middle-Atlantic Bight  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reports on the evolution of water masses within the southern portion of the Middle-Atlantic Bight (MAB) and their exchange with the slope waters based upon the Ocean Margins Program hydrographic dataset (February–October 1996). Water mass distributions were quantified in terms of their content of freshwater and of Gulf Stream Water, with the Cold Pool Water (CPW) as the

Francesco Bignami; Tom Sawyer Hopkins

2003-01-01

375

Ice Particle Impact on Cloud Water Content Instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Determining the total amount of water contained in an icing cloud necessitates the measurement of both the liquid droplets and ice particles. One commonly accepted method for measuring cloud water content utilizes a hot wire sensing element, which is maintained at a constant temperature. In this approach, the cloud water content is equated with the power required to keep the sense element at a constant temperature. This method inherently assumes that impinging cloud particles remain on the sensing element surface long enough to be evaporated. In the case of ice particles, this assumption requires that the particles do not bounce off the surface after impact. Recent tests aimed at characterizing ice particle impact on a thermally heated wing section, have raised questions about the validity of this assumption. Ice particles were observed to bounce off the heated wing section a very high percentage of the time. This result could have implications for Total Water Content sensors which are designed to capture ice particles, and thus do not account for bouncing or breakup of ice particles. Based on these results, a test was conducted to investigate ice particle impact on the sensing elements of the following hot-wire cloud water content probes: (1) Nevzorov Total Water Content (TWC)/Liquid Water Content (LWC) probe, (2) Science Engineering Associates TWC probe, and (3) Particle Measuring Systems King probe. Close-up video imaging was used to study ice particle impact on the sensing element of each probe. The measured water content from each probe was also determined for each cloud condition. This paper will present results from this investigation and attempt to evaluate the significance of ice particle impact on hot-wire cloud water content measurements.

Emery, Edward F.; Miller, Dean R.; Plaskon, Stephen R.; Strapp, Walter; Lillie, Lyle

2004-01-01

376

Spatiotemporal relations between water budget components and soil water content in a forested tributary catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examined 3 years of measured daily values of all major water budget components (precipitation P, potential evapotranspiration PET, actual evapotranspiration ET, and runoff R) and volumetric soil water content ? of a small, forested catchment located in the west of Germany. The spatial distribution of ? was determined from a wireless sensor network of 109 points with 3 measurement depths each; ET was calculated from eddy-covariance tower measurements. The water budget was dominantly energy limited, with ET amounting to approximately 90% of PET, and a runoff ratio R/P of 56%. P, ET, and R closed the long-term water budget with a residual of 2% of precipitation. On the daily time scale, the residual of the water budget was larger than on the annual time scale, and explained to a moderate extent by ? (R2 = 0.40). Wavelet analysis revealed subweekly time scales, presumably dominated by unaccounted fast-turnover storage terms such as interception, as a major source of uncertainty in water balance closure. At weekly resolution, soil water content explained more than half (R2 = 0.62) of the residual. By means of combined empirical orthogonal function and cluster analysis, two slightly different spatial patterns of ? could be identified that were associated with mean ? values below and above 0.35 cm3/cm3, respectively. The timing of these patterns as well as the varying coherence between PET, ET, and soil water content responded to changes in water availability, including a moderate response to the European drought in spring 2011.

Graf, Alexander; Bogena, Heye R.; Drüe, Clemens; Hardelauf, Horst; Pütz, Thomas; Heinemann, Günther; Vereecken, Harry

2014-06-01

377

Models of coupled salt and water transport across leaky epithelia.  

PubMed

A general formulation is presented for the verification of isotonic transport and for the assignment of a degree of osmotic coupling in any epithelial model. In particular, it is shown that the concentration of the transported fluid in the presence of exactly equal bathing media is, in general, not a sufficient calculation by which to decide the issue of isotonicity of transport. Within this framework, two epithelial models are considered: (1) A nonelectrolyte compartment model of the lateral intercellular space is presented along with its linearization about the condition of zero flux. This latter approximate model is shown to be useful in the estimation of deviation from isotonicity, intraepithelial solute polarization effects, and the capacity to transport water against a gradient. In the case of uphill water transport, some limitations of a model of fixed geometry are indicated and the advantage of modeling a compliant interspace is suggested. (2) A comprehensive model of cell and channel is described which includes the major electrolytes and the possible presence of intraepithelial gradients. The general approach to verification of isotonicity is illustrated for this numerical model. In addition, the insights about parameter dependence gained from the linear compartment model are shown to be applicable to understanding this large simulation. PMID:6264088

Weinstein, A M; Stephenson, J L

1981-05-15

378

Ultra fast cooling of hot steel plate by air atomized spray with salt solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, the applicability of air atomized spray with the salt added water has been studied for ultra fast cooling (UFC) of a 6 mm thick AISI-304 hot steel plate. The investigation includes the effect of salt (NaCl and MgSO4) concentration and spray mass flux on the cooling rate. The initial temperature of the steel plate before the commencement of cooling is kept at 900 °C or above, which is usually observed as the "finish rolling temperature" in the hot strip mill of a steel plant. The heat transfer analysis shows that air atomized spray with the MgSO4 salt produces 1.5 times higher cooling rate than atomized spray with the pure water, whereas air atomized spray with NaCl produces only 1.2 times higher cooling rate. In transition boiling regime, the salt deposition occurs which causes enhancement in heat transfer rate by conduction. Moreover, surface tension is the governing parameter behind the vapour film instability and this length scale increases with increase in surface tension of coolant. Overall, the achieved cooling rates produced by both types of salt added air atomized spray are found to be in the UFC regime.

Mohapatra, Soumya S.; Ravikumar, Satya V.; Jha, Jay M.; Singh, Akhilendra K.; Bhattacharya, Chandrima; Pal, Surjya K.; Chakraborty, Sudipto

2014-05-01

379

Polder Effects on Sediment-to-Soil Conversion: Water Table, Residual Available Water Capacity, and Salt Stress Interdependence  

PubMed Central

The French Atlantic marshlands, reclaimed since the Middle Age, have been successively used for extensive grazing and more recently for cereal cultivation from 1970. The soils have acquired specific properties which have been induced by the successive reclaiming and drainage works and by the response of the clay dominant primary sediments, that is, structure, moisture, and salinity profiles. Based on the whole survey of the Marais Poitevin and Marais de Rochefort and in order to explain the mechanisms of marsh soil behavior, the work focuses on two typical spots: an undrained grassland since at least 1964 and a drained cereal cultivated field. The structure-hydromechanical profiles relationships have been established thanks to the clay matrix shrinkage curve. They are confronted to the hydraulic functioning including the fresh-to-salt water transfers and to the recording of tensiometer profiles. The CE1/5 profiles supply the water geochemical and geophysical data by their better accuracy. Associated to the available water capacity calculation they allow the representation of the parallel evolution of the residual available water capacity profiles and salinity profiles according to the plant growing and rooting from the mesophile systems of grassland to the hygrophile systems of drained fields. PMID:23990758

Radimy, Raymond Tojo; Dudoignon, Patrick; Hillaireau, Jean Michel; Deboute, Elise

2013-01-01

380

Dissipation behavior of organophosphorus pesticides during the cabbage pickling process: residue changes with salt and vinegar content of pickling solution.  

PubMed

In this experiment, the behavior of 10 pesticides in three different cabbage pickling treatments has been studied. The brine used for pickling was made up with different salt and vinegar contents to determine the influence of different pickling solutions on pesticide dissipation and distribution. A modified QuECHERS and SPE method was established for the analysis of the pesticides in the cabbage and brine. It was found that different pesticides showed different dissipation patterns and finally represented dissimilar residue levels in the cabbage and brine. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the distinctions of these pesticides between each treatment and proved that salt content and pH value had certain influence on the dissipation and distribution of these pesticides during the pickling process. The data from this experiment would help to control pesticide residues in pickled cabbage and prevent potential risk to human health and environmental safety. PMID:23402557

Lu, Yuele; Yang, Zhonghua; Shen, Luyao; Liu, Zhenmin; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Diao, Jinling

2013-03-01

381

Wittig reactions in water. Synthesis of new water-soluble phosphonium salts and their reactions with substituted benzaldehydes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the synthesis of new phosphonium salts which are soluble and stable in basic aqueous solution. The Wittig reactions of these phosphonium salts with substituted benzaldehydes in aqueous sodium hydroxide are discussed. These reactions exclude the use of any organic solvents and the products are isolated by a simple filtration.

Matthew G Russell; Stuart Warren

1998-01-01

382

DEHYDRATION OF LOW WATER CONTENT ETHANOL  

EPA Science Inventory

Pervaporation has emerged as an economically viable alternative technology for the dehydration of organic solvents, removal of organic compounds from water and organic/organic separations. Development of a membrane system with suitable flux and selectivity characteristics plays a...

383

Carbonhydrate Content and Root Growth in Seeds Germinated Under Salt Stress: Implications for Seed Conditioning  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugars and sugar alcohols have well documented roles in salt tolerance in whole plants and maturing seeds. Less is known, however, about possible effects of these compounds during germination. Seeds from mannitol-accumulating salt-tolerant celery [Apium graveloens L. var. dulce (P. Mill.) DC], non...

384

Evaluation of Robust Heat Pulse Probes for Water Content Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrological processes in the vadose zone are typically highly variable, and are interrelated with water content. Thus, knowledge of temporal and spatial soil water content distributions is essential for understanding both natural and managed soil ecosystems. Despite the vast importance of soil water content, its measurement remains challenging as sensor capabilities are limited and deployment of sensor-networks are costly. Heat pulse sensors are advantageous for measuring water content and thermal properties of porous media. Measurements with these sensors are soil independent and data acquisition requirements are relatively simple. Though the principles have been tested in the laboratory, alternative probe designs are needed for application in field conditions. In this study we laboratory-tested a robust probe design and analyzed the results. Because of the larger-diameter probes of our design, for data interpretation we use a heat transfer solution that accounts for probe geometry as opprosed to the more traditional line-source model that can not be used.

Kamai, T.; Ngo, A.; Kluitenberg, G. J.; Hopmans, J. W.

2010-12-01

385

Acclimation of hydrogen peroxide enhances salt tolerance by activating defense-related proteins in Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer.  

PubMed

The effect of exogenously applied hydrogen peroxide on salt stress tolerance was investigated in Panax ginseng. Pretreatment of ginseng seedlings with 100 ?M H2O2 increased the physiological salt tolerance of the ginseng plant and was used as the optimum concentration to induce salt tolerance capacity. Treatment with exogenous H2O2 for 2 days significantly enhanced salt stress tolerance in ginseng seedlings by increasing the activities of ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and guaiacol peroxidase and by decreasing the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and endogenous H2O2 as well as the production rate of superoxide radical (O2(-)). There was a positive physiological effect on the growth and development of salt-stressed seedlings by exogenous H2O2 as measured by ginseng dry weight and both chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Exogenous H2O2 induced changes in MDA, O2(-), antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant compounds, which are responsible for increases in salt stress tolerance. Salt treatment caused drastic declines in ginseng growth and antioxidants levels; whereas, acclimation treatment with H2O2 allowed the ginseng seedlings to recover from salt stress by up-regulation of defense-related proteins such as antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant compounds. PMID:24584574

Sathiyaraj, Gayathri; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Kim, Yu-Jin; Lee, Ok Ran; Parvin, Shonana; Balusamy, Sri Renuka Devi; Khorolragchaa, Atlanzul; Yang, Deok Chun

2014-06-01

386

GPR study of pore water content and salinity in sand  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution studies of hydrological problems of the near-surface zone can be better accomplished by applying ground-probing radar (GPR) and geoelectrical techniques. The authors report on GPR measurements (500 and 900 MHz antennae) which were carried out on a sorted, clean sand, both in the laboratory and at outdoor experimental sites. The outdoor sites include a full-scale model measuring 5 x 3 x 2.4 m{sup 3} with three buried sand bodies saturated with water of various salinities. Studies investigate the capability of GPR to determine the pore water content and to estimate the salinity. These parameters are important for quantifying and evaluating the water quality of vadose zones and aquifers. The radar technique is increasingly applied in quantifying soil moisture but is still rarely used in studying the problems of water salinity and quality. The reflection coefficient at interfaces is obtained from the amplitude spectrum in the frequency and time domains and is confirmed by 1D wavelet modelling. In addition, the GPR velocity to a target at a known depth is determined using techniques of two-way traveltime, CMP semblance analysis and fitting an asymptotic diffraction curve. The results demonstrate that the reflection coefficient increases with increasing salinity of the moisture. These results may open up a new approach for applications in environmental problems and groundwater prospecting, e.g., mapping and monitoring of contamination and evaluation of aquifer salinity, especially in coastal areas with a time-varying fresh-water lens.

Hagrey, S.A.; Mueller, C.

2000-01-01

387

Effect of higher water vapor content on TBC performance  

SciTech Connect

Coal gasification, or IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle), is one pathway toward cleaner use of coal for power generation with lower emissions. However, when coal-derived synthesis gas (i.e., syngas) is burned in turbines designed for natural gas, turbine manufacturers recommend 'derating,' or lowering the maximum temperature, which lowers the efficiency of the turbine, making electricity from IGCC more expensive. One possible reason for the derating is the higher water vapor contents in the exhaust gas. Water vapor has a detrimental effect on many oxidation-resistant high-temperature materials. In a turbine hot section, Ni-base superalloys are coated with a thermal barrier coating (TBC) allowing the gas temperature to be higher than the superalloy solidus temperature. TBCs have a low thermal conductivity ceramic top coating (typically Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}, or YSZ) and an oxidation-resistant metallic bond coating. For land-based gas turbines, the industry standard is air plasma sprayed (APS) YSZ and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) sprayed NiCoCrAlY bond coatings. To investigate the role of higher water vapor content on TBC performance and possible mitigation strategies, furnace cycling experiments were conducted in dry O{sub 2} and air with 10% (typical with natural gas or jet fuel) or 50 vol% water vapor. Cycle frequency and temperature were accelerated to one hour at 1100 C (with 10 minute cooling to {approx}30 C between each thermal cycle) to induce early failures in coatings that are expected to operate for several years with a metal temperature of {approx}900 C. Coupons (16 mm diameter x 2 mm thick) of commercial second-generation single crystal superalloy CMSX4 were HVOF coated on both sides with {approx}125 {micro}m of Ni-22wt%Co-17Cr-12Al either with 0.7Y or 0.7Y-0.3Hf-0.4Si. One side was then coated with 190-240 {micro}m of APS YSZ. Coatings were cycled until the YSZ top coating spalled. Figure 2 shows the results of the initial phase of experiments. Compared to dry O{sub 2}, the addition of 10% water vapor decreased the lifetime of MCrAlY by {approx}30% for the conventional CMSX4 substrates. Higher average lifetimes were observed with Hf in the bond coating, but a similar decrease in lifetime was observed when water vapor was added. The addition of Y and La to the superalloy substrate did not change the YSZ lifetime with 10% water vapor. However, increasing water vapor content from 10 to 50% did not further decrease the lifetime of either bond coating with the doped superalloy substrate. Thus, these results suggest that higher water vapor contents cannot explain the derating of syngas-fired turbines, and other factors such as sulfur and ash from imperfect syngas cleanup (or upset conditions) need to be explored. Researchers continue to study effects of water vapor on thermally grown alumina scale adhesion and growth rate, and are looking for bond coating compositions more resistant to oxidation in the presence of water vapor.

Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Haynes, James A [ORNL

2012-01-01

388

SEQUESTERING AGENTS FOR METAL IMMOBILIZATION APPLICATION TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVE CAPS IN FRESH AND SALT WATER SEDIMENTS  

SciTech Connect

This research evaluated the removal of inorganic contaminants by a variety of amendments and mixtures of amendments in fresh and salt water. A series of removal and retention batch experiments was conducted to identify the best treatment for metal removal. Metal removal by the amendments was evaluated by calculating the partition coefficient and percent removal. Retention of metals by the amendments was evaluated in retention (desorption) studies in which residue from the removal studies was extracted with 1 M MgCl{sub 2} solution. The results indicated that phosphate amendments, some organoclays (e.g., OCB-750), and the biopolymer, chitosan, are very effective in removal and retention of metals in both fresh and salt water. These amendments are being evaluated further as components in the development of active caps for sediment remediation.

Knox, A; Michael Paller, M

2006-11-17

389

Electrical conductivity of orthopyroxene: Implications for the water content of the asthenosphere  

PubMed Central

Electrical conductivity of minerals is sensitive to water content and hence can be used to infer the water content in the mantle. However, previous studies to infer the water content in the upper mantle were based on pure olivine model of the upper mantle. Influence of other minerals particularly that of orthopyroxene needs to be included to obtain a better estimate of water content in view of the high water solubility in this mineral. Here we report new results of electrical conductivity measurements on orthopyroxene, and apply these results to estimate the water content of the upper mantle of Earth. We found that the electrical conductivity of orthopyroxene is enhanced by the addition of water in a similar way as other minerals such as olivine and pyrope garnet. Using these new results, we calculate the electrical conductivity of pyrolite mantle as a function of water content and temperature incorporating the temperature and water fugacity-dependent hydrogen partitioning. Reported values of asthenosphere conductivity of 4 × 10?2?10?1 S/m corresponds to the water content of 0.01–0.04 wt%, a result in good agreement with the petrological model of the upper mantle. PMID:20009379

Dai, Lidong; Karato, Shun-ichiro

2009-01-01

390

A route to explain water anomalies from results on an aqueous solution of salt  

E-print Network

In this paper we investigate the possibility to detect the hypothesized liquid-liquid critical point of water in supercooled aqueous solutions of salts. Molecular dynamics computer simulations are conducted on bulk TIP4P water and on an aqueous solution of sodium chloride in TIP4P water, with concentration c = 0.67 mol/kg. The liquid-liquid critical point is found both in the bulk and in the solution. Its position in the thermodynamic plane shifts to higher temperature and lower pressure for the solution. Comparison with available experimental data allowed us to produce the phase diagrams of both bulk water and the aqueous solution as measurable in experiments. Given the position of the liquid-liquid critical point in the solution as obtained from our simulations, the experimental determination of the hypothesized liquid-liquid critical point of water in aqueous solutions of salts appears possible.

D. Corradini; M. Rovere; P. Gallo

2010-03-26

391

Salt marsh retreat induced by wind waves: experiments, field and modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Edge erosion of salt marshes due to surface waves and tide forcing is likely the chief mechanism that models marsh boundaries and by which salt marshes in worldwide areas are being lost. To address this problem, an experimental investigation in a laboratory flume and field measurements collected in the lagoon of Venice were conducted to understand the main processes controlling marsh edge retreat with a focus on the erosion mechanisms caused by the impact of wind waves in the case of various tidal levels. A physical model reproducing a salt marsh bank was built inside a long wave current flume where random surface waves have been generated according to a given wave spectrum. The physical model was constructed with the original soil of salt marshes from the Venice Lagoon, while the wave climate was reproduced according to field measurements. In order to reveal the effect of vegetation on bank stability, two identical banks were built but for the inclusion of halophytic plants. A first set of experiments was conducted reproducing only tidal waves, a second set with wind waves superimposed to the tide. A third set o f experiments were aimed to investigate the dynamic impact and transmission of the waves on and within the bank. The following quantities were collected during the experiments: water content and pore water pressure inside the bank, water levels and velocities at various distances from the bank, dynamic pressures on the bank edge surface and internal pressure fluctuations due to wave impact. Bank geometry profile and bottom topography at different times have also been collected to characterize the erosion rate with time and the evolution of bank retreat. Two types of mass failures were observed during the experiments: slides and toppling failures. The latter were most frequently observed failures, consisting in the toppling of blocks and were often the consequence of the presence of deep tension cracks. In most cases the impact of wind waves caused the overturning of the block. In both the unvegetated and vegetated experiments, mass failures occurred in the first part of the experiment whereas the remaining part was characterized by particle by particle erosion. Effect of vegetation lead to a delay in block failures due the presence of roots, although the total eroded volume differed slightly between the two scenarios. The field measurements were aimed at quantifying the erosion characteristics of marsh soil and the wave climate close to the bank edge during a moderate wind event. Several pressure transducers installed 0.15 m above the bed and adequately spaced were used to collect wave height and wave direction with respect to the edge of the marsh. Then, on the base of experimental and field evidence, a new toppling model is proposed and test against laboratory data: a block of cohesive material at incipient failing condition is attached to the underlying layer and identified by the presence of tension crack; it behaves as a dynamical system subjected to several forces, until the tensile strength of the material is exceed. Test of the model showed its capability at reproducing the failure process and it highlighted which are the most crucial conditions in promoting the failure of a bank edge subjected to wave attack and tide forcing.

Solari, L.; Francalanci, S.; Bendoni, M.; Cappietti, L.

2013-12-01

392

Conformational Preferences of N,N-Dimethylsuccinamate as a Function of Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metal Salts: Experimental Studies in DMSO and Water As Determined by 1H NMR Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

The fraction of gauche conformers of N,N-dimethylsuccinamic acid (1) and its Li+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, and N(Bu)4+ salts were estimated in DMSO and D2O solution by comparing the experimental vicinal proton–proton couplings determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy with those calculated using the Haasnoot, de Leeuw, and Altona (HLA) equation. In DMSO, the gauche preferences were found to increase with decreasing Ahrens ionic radius of the metal counterion. The same trend was not seen in D2O, where the gauche fraction for all of the metallic salts were estimated to be approximately statistical or less. This highlights the importance of metal chelation on the conformation of organic molecules in polar aprotic media, which has implications for protein folding. PMID:24506581

2015-01-01

393

Salt stable lubricant for water base drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

A water base drilling fluid having enhanced lubricating properties in the presence of polyvalent cations comprising a mixture of (1) water; (2) finely divided inorganic solids; (3) an alkanolamide of a saturated fatty acid having 8 to 20 carbon atoms, or triglycerides thereof, and (4) an alkanolamide of an unsaturated fatty acid having 18 carbon atoms, or triglycerides thereof.

Kercheville, J.D.

1981-07-28

394

Method for excluding salt and other soluble materials from produced water  

DOEpatents

A method for reducing the salinity, as well as the hydrocarbon concentration of produced water to levels sufficient to meet surface water discharge standards. Pressure vessel and coflow injection technology developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is used to mix produced water and a gas hydrate forming fluid to form a solid or semi-solid gas hydrate mixture. Salts and solids are excluded from the water that becomes a part of the hydrate cage. A three-step process of dissociation of the hydrate results in purified water suitable for irrigation.

Phelps, Tommy J. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Tsouris, Costas (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Palumbo, Anthony V. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Riestenberg, David E. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; McCallum, Scott D. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

2009-08-04

395

Warming, salting and origin of the Tyrrhenian Deep Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data collected from 1996 to 2001 down to 3,500 m in the Tyrrhenian sub-basin with ship-handled and moored instruments show 5-year T and S trends (0.016 °C/yr, 0.008/yr) that are the largest ever evidenced in Mediterranean deep waters. This is not consistent with the usual hypothesis that Tyrrhenian Deep Water (TDW) is a mixture of eastern water flowing from the Sicily Channel and western water flowing from the Sardinia Channel partly since both are reported to encounter lower trends. We argue that TDW might result from a dense water formation process occurring within the Tyrrhenian itself, in a region never reported up to now, east of the Bonifacio Strait. Whatever the validity of our hypothesis, climatic changes are occurring in the whole sea and are efficiently specified with long time series.

Fuda, J.-L.; Etiope, G.; Millot, C.; Favali, P.; Calcara, M.; Smriglio, G.; Boschi, E.

2002-10-01

396

[The new method monitoring crop water content based on NIR-Red spectrum feature space].  

PubMed

Moisture content is an important index of crop water stress condition, timely and effective monitoring of crop water content is of great significance for evaluating crop water deficit balance and guiding agriculture irrigation. The present paper was trying to build a new crop water index for winter wheat vegetation water content based on NIR-Red spectral space. Firstly, canopy spectrums of winter wheat with narrow-band were resampled according to relative spectral response function of HJ-CCD and ZY-3. Then, a new index (PWI) was set up to estimate vegetation water content of winter wheat by improveing PDI (perpendicular drought index) and PVI (perpendicular vegetation index) based on NIR-Red spectral feature space. The results showed that the relationship between PWI and VWC (vegetation water content) was stable based on simulation of wide-band multispectral data HJ-CCD and ZY-3 with R2 being 0.684 and 0.683, respectively. And then VWC was estimated by using PWI with the R2 and RMSE being 0.764 and 0.764, 3.837% and 3.840%, respectively. The results indicated that PWI has certain feasibility to estimate crop water content. At the same time, it provides a new method for monitoring crop water content using remote sensing data HJ-CCD and ZY-3. PMID:25358162

Cheng, Xiao-juan; Xu, Xin-gang; Chen, Tian-en; Yang, Gui-jun; Li, Zhen-hai

2014-06-01

397

Stratospheric water vapor content evolution during EASOE  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results of stratospheric water vapor measurements made from balloon borne instruments in the arctic winter as a part of EASOE. A frost-point hygrometer allowed measurement of the frost point and air temperature, which allowed the detection of conditions consistent with the formation of polar stratospheric clouds. Such clouds were observed on one occasion when this diagnostic sensed conditions conducive to the formation of such clouds. Outside the polar vortex the average water vapor density was fairly constant, between 4 to 5 ppmv between 16 and 25 km. More variation was observed both above and below these altitudes, and inside the vortex, vertical motion was also observed.

Ovarlez, J.; Overlez, H. (Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique du CNRS, Palaiseau (France))

1994-06-22

398

Salt distribution in dry-cured ham measured by computed tomography and image analysis.  

PubMed

Forty-seven hams were scanned four times by computed tomography (CT) while being manufactured into dry-cured hams. An image-processing algorithm measured CT values in the lean part of the hams and provided line profiles reflecting the magnitude and spatial location of salt gradients. At the end of manufacturing, seven entire hams were dissected and the salt content of the lean part determined. Likewise, in the remaining 40 hams, the lean meat of the slices corresponding to the CT images was dissected, analyzed chemically for NaCl and compared to the CT value. The salt content of entire dry-cured hams correlated well (r(2)=0.94) to the CT value of a 10 mm section located at the center of femur bone, perpendicular to the length axis of the hams. In the same position, significant correlations between the CT values before (r(2)=0.71) and after (r(2)=0.80) the ageing period and actual chemical analysis of the same section were demonstrated. Line profiles illustrating the combined salt distribution and dehydration within a ham related to the physical characteristics of the ham as well as to the manufacturing process. These findings reveal that the effects of altered manufacturing practices can be followed non-invasively, while hams are still in production. Computed tomography combined with appropriate image analysis offers advantages as a non-invasive tool in both research and product development. PMID:22062634

Vestergaard, Christian; Erbou, Søren G; Thauland, Torunn; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Berg, Per

2005-01-01

399

Flocculation of Clay and Organic Matter in Turbid Salt Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment transport and deposition in estuaries and tidal flats are often dominated by the aggregation of clay and organic matter into composite particles or “flocs”. The stability of the flocs is important in determining the distance over which the sediment is transported and the areas to which the sediment is deposited. During floc transport from riverine to oceanic environments, stability is determined by suspended sediment concentrations, sediment types, organic matter type, fluid flow rates and small scale turbulence. In a series of laboratory experiments, interactions between clay sediments and organic matter were evaluated within a flow column that was filled with saline water. The focus of this investigation was on changes in floc size, density and strength as flow velocities and turbulent stresses were altered. Significant changes in the floc shape, consolidation, density and behavior were determined for flow rates and Reynolds numbers that are common to riverine environments. The variability in floc composition was also shown to influence bulk sediment properties: heat transport, acoustic propagation and shear strength, while sediments were entrained in high-density suspensions and low-density deposits.

Reed, A. H.; Yin, H.; Zhang, G.; Tan, X.; Furukawa, Y.

2010-12-01

400

Corrosion of SiC by Molten Salt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced ceramic materials considered for wide range of applications as in gas turbine engines and heat exchangers. In such applications, materials may be in corrosive environments that include molten salts. Very corrosive to alloys. In order to determine extent of problem for ceramic materials, corrosion of SiC by molten salts studied in both jet fuel burners and laboratory furnaces. Surface of silicon carbide corroded by exposure to flame seeded with 4 parts per million of sodium. Strength of silicon carbide decreased by corrosion in flame and tube-furnace tests.

Jacobson, Nathan S.; Smialek, James L.

1987-01-01