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Salt uptake and water loss in hams with different water contents at the lean surface and at different salting temperatures.  


The salt uptake homogeneity is crucial in assuring quality in dry-cured hams. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the water contents at the lean surface before salting and of the temperature during salting on the salt uptake. Pieces of loin stored at 3°C for 3 days before salting absorbed less salt through a surface that has been dried during storage. A group of raw hams were subjected to different pre-salting storage times (0, 3 and 6 days) and another group subjected to different set room temperatures during salting (-1.0, 0.5 and 4.0°C). The duration of storage before salting and the temperature during salting had a negative and a positive effect on the average salt absorption, respectively. The most important effects appeared after 6 days of storage and at 4°C. No significant differences in salt uptake homogeneity were found between storage times and between salting temperatures. PMID:23896138

Garcia-Gil, Núria; Muñoz, Israel; Santos-Garcés, Eva; Arnau, Jacint; Gou, Pere



Salt Content and Water Budget of The Suez Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water body in the Suez Canal is a combination of waters from differ- ent sources. Hence, its exact hydrographic structure is very difficult to define. Three main water masses are identified along the Canal on account of their salinity values: Levantine water mass I, the Suez Bay water mass II, and the Bitter Lake water mass IV, in addition




Problems in determination of the water content of rock-salt samples and its significance in nuclear-waste storage siting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in situ water content of rock salt in beds or domes and the exact nature of its occurrence are of considerable importance for the safe design and operation of nuclear-waste storage facilities in salt deposits. Most published determinations of the ``water content'' of salt are not comparable. Many determinations contain serious, and in part systematic, errors. The multiplicity of

Edwin Roedder; R. L. Bassett



Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt  

E-print Network

Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt 2014; published online 14 October 2014) Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced

Suo, Zhigang


Removal of Sea Salt Hydrate Water from Seawater-Derived Samples by Dehydration  

E-print Network

Removal of Sea Salt Hydrate Water from Seawater-Derived Samples by Dehydration Amanda A. Frossard of natural seawater contain both sea salts and organic components. Depending on the temperature, pressure, and speed of drying, the salt components can form hydrates that bind water, slowing evaporation of the water

Russell, Lynn


Modification of cadaverine content by NO in salt-stressed maize.  


NO has an important role in the control of plant development, growth, and the response to abiotic stress. In our recent paper it was demonstrated that NO affected the salt-induced changes in free amino acid levels in maize. (1) Since polyamines are synthesized from lysine and arginine, it was supposed that their concentrations are also influenced by NO. Cadaverine levels were increased by a NO donor and decreased by an inhibitor of NO synthesis in salt-stressed maize. These findings indicate that NO participates in the mediation of the effect of salt on cadaverine content. The coordinated changes in the NO and cadaverine levels may be involved in regulating of the response to salt stress in maize. PMID:24398894

Simon-Sarkadi, Livia; Ludidi, Ndiko; Kocsy, Gábor



Modification of cadaverine content by NO in salt-stressed maize  

PubMed Central

NO has an important role in the control of plant development, growth, and the response to abiotic stress. In our recent paper it was demonstrated that NO affected the salt-induced changes in free amino acid levels in maize.1 Since polyamines are synthesized from lysine and arginine, it was supposed that their concentrations are also influenced by NO. Cadaverine levels were increased by a NO donor and decreased by an inhibitor of NO synthesis in salt-stressed maize. These findings indicate that NO participates in the mediation of the effect of salt on cadaverine content. The coordinated changes in the NO and cadaverine levels may be involved in regulating of the response to salt stress in maize. PMID:24398894

Simon-Sarkadi, Livia; Ludidi, Ndiko; Kocsy, Gábor



Texture, flavor, and sensory quality of buffalo milk Cheddar cheese as influenced by reducing sodium salt content.  


The adverse health effects of dietary sodium demand the production of cheese with reduced salt content. The study was aimed to assess the effect of reducing the level of sodium chloride on the texture, flavor, and sensory qualities of Cheddar cheese. Cheddar cheese was manufactured from buffalo milk standardized at 4% fat level by adding sodium chloride at 2.5, 2.0, 1.5, 1.0, and 0.5% (wt/wt of the curd obtained). Cheese samples were ripened at 6 to 8°C for 180 d and analyzed for chemical composition after 1 wk; for texture and proteolysis after 1, 60, 120, and 180 d; and for volatile flavor compounds and sensory quality after 180 d of ripening. Decreasing the salt level significantly reduced the salt-in-moisture and pH and increased the moisture-in-nonfat-substances and water activity. Cheese hardness, toughness, and crumbliness decreased but proteolysis increased considerably on reducing the sodium content and during cheese ripening. Lowering the salt levels appreciably enhanced the concentration of volatile compounds associated with flavor but negatively affected the sensory perception. We concluded that salt level in cheese can be successfully reduced to a great extent if proteolysis and development of off-flavors resulted by the growth of starter and nonstarter bacteria can be controlled. PMID:25151874

Murtaza, M A; Huma, N; Sameen, A; Murtaza, M S; Mahmood, S; Mueen-Ud-Din, G; Meraj, A



Determination of salt content in various depth of pork chop by electrical impedance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The salt concentration was determined inside of pork chop both by electrical impedance spectroscopy and by a conventional chemical method (according to Mohr). The pork chop in various depths (4 mm, 10 mm, 20 mm and 25 mm) was punctured with two stainless steel electrodes. The length of electrodes was 60 mm, and they were insulated along the length except 1 cm section on the end, so the measurement of impedance was realized in various depths. The magnitude and phase angle of impedance were measured with a HP 4284A and a HP 4285A LCR meters from 30 Hz up to 1 MHz and from 75 kHz up to 30 MHz frequency range, respectively at 1 V voltage. The distance between the electrodes was 1 cm. The impedance magnitude decreased as the salt concentration increased. The magnitude of open-short corrected impedance values at various frequencies (10 kHz, 100 kHz, 125 kHz, 1.1 MHz and 8 MHz) showed a good correlation with salt content determined by chemical procedure. The electrical impedance spectroscopy seems a prospective method for determination the salt concentration inside the meat in various depths during the curing procedure.

Kaltenecker, P.; Szöllösi, D.; Friedrich, L.; Vozáry, E.



Quantifying Ground-Water Savings Achieved by Salt-Cedar Control Measures: A Demonstration Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consumption of ground water by phreatophytes in riparian corridors is thought to be one factor responsible for stream-flow reductions in western Kansas and elsewhere. Extensive phreatophyte-control measures, primarily focusing on invasive species such as salt cedar and Russian olive, are being considered in response to concerns about the impact of phreatophytes on surface-and ground-water resources. At present, there is no generally accepted means of quantifying the ground-water savings that might be gained through these control measures. Micrometeorological methods are often not appropriate for this application because their fetch requirements are too large for narrow riparian corridors. Recently, an approach based on diurnal fluctuations in the water table has been shown to have potential for quantifying ground-water consumption by phreatophytes. A demonstration project is underway to examine the utility of this method for assessing ground-water savings achieved through phreatophyte-control measures. This project is being carried out at a research site in a region of salt-cedar infestation along the Cimarron River in southwestern Kansas. The site has been subdivided into four areas of approximately four hectares each in which different salt-cedar control measures will be applied. Control measures will not be used in one area so that data unaffected by those measures can be obtained throughout the project. Wells equipped with submersible pressure sensors have been installed to monitor water-table responses in the vicinity of the most common phreatophyte communities at the site. A neutron access tube has been emplaced adjacent to each well so that water content in the vadose zone can also be monitored. Changes in water-content profiles will be used to estimate specific yield, a critical parameter in the proposed methodology. A weather station has also been installed on site to monitor meteorological conditions and provide reference ET estimates. Water-level data collected prior to any control activities clearly indicate that the magnitude of the water-table fluctuations is highly dependent on the apparent vitality of the phreatophyte community in the vicinity of each well. After the control measures have been applied, water-level data from the treated areas will be compared to data from the untreated area. That comparison should enable quantification of reductions in ground-water consumption produced by those measures.

Butler, J. J.; Kluitenberg, G. J.; Whittemore, D. O.; Healey, J. M.; Zhan, X.



Relative water content of Spruce needles determined by the leaf water content index  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Leaf relative water content (RWC) is defined as the volume of water in a leaf divided by the volume at full turgor. Using reflectance factors of wavelengths 0.83 micron and 1.6 microns, a Leaf Water Content Index (LWCI) was derived from the Lambert-Beer Law such that LWCI should equal RWC; LWCI was equal to RWC for Picea pungens, Picea rubens, Liquidambar styraciflua, and Quercus agrifolia. Algebraic manipulation shows that R(1.6)/R(0.83) termed the Moisture Stress Index (MSI), is near-linearly correlated to RWC and to the Equivalent Water Thickness (EWT). Five species tested so far had the same relationship between MSI and EWT, but EWT is not a measure of plant water status.

Hunt, E. Raymond, Jr.; Wong, Sam K. S.; Rock, Barrett N.



Antioxidant enzyme activities are affected by salt content and temperature and influence muscle lipid oxidation during dry-salted bacon processing.  


Fresh pork bacon belly was used as material and manufactured into dry-salted bacon through salting and drying-ripening. During processing both oxidative stability and antioxidant enzyme stability were evaluated by assessing peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and their correlations were also analysed. The results showed that all antioxidant enzyme activities decreased (p<0.05) until the end of process; GSH-Px was the most unstable one followed by catalase. Antioxidant enzyme activities were negatively correlated with TBARS (p<0.05), but the correlations were decreased with increasing process temperature. Salt showed inhibitory effect on all antioxidant enzyme activities and was concentration dependent. These results indicated that when process temperature and salt content were low at the same time during dry-salted bacon processing, antioxidant enzymes could effectively control lipid oxidation. PMID:23871020

Jin, Guofeng; He, Lichao; Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Jianhao; Ma, Meihu



Body Weight, Carcass Yield, and Intestinal Contents of Broilers Having Sodium and Potassium Salts in the Drinking Water Twenty-Four Hours Before Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of drinking water supplementation with graded increases of Na and K salts on the performance and gut contents of broilers before processing. Birds had no water, tap water, or water supplemented with sodium bicarbonate or potassium chloride in the concentrations of 0.15, 0.30, and 0.45% in the last 12

H. A. Gomes; S. L. Vieira; R. N. Reis; D. M. Freitas; R. Barros; F. V. F. Furtado; P. X. Silva



Impact of Salt Purity on Interfacial Water Organization Revealed by Conventional and Heterodyne-Detected Vibrational Sum Frequency  

E-print Network

Impact of Salt Purity on Interfacial Water Organization Revealed by Conventional and Heterodyne of the chosen salts and their solutions. This is true not only for the ACS grade salts but also vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) and heterodyne-detected VSFG (HD-VSFG) spectroscopy that salt


Adsorption of water vapor by poly(styrenesulfonic acid), sodium salt: isothermal and isobaric adsorption equilibria.  


Air conditioning and dehumidifying systems based on sorption on solids are of great interest, especially in humid climates, because they allow reduction of thermal loads and use of chlorofluorocarbons. Previous studies have shown that hydrophilic polymers such as sulfonic polymers can have very high performance in water adsorption from air. The aim of this study was to characterize the water vapor adsorption properties of fully sulfonated and monosulfonated poly(styrenesulfonic acid), sodium salt, and to elucidate the mechanism of adsorption on these materials. Adsorption isotherms have been determined by TGA between 298 and 317 K for pressures ranging from 0.1 to 45 hPa. They have type II of the IUPAC classification and a small hysteresis loop between adsorption and desorption processes was observed only for the monosulfonated sample. Water content is up to 80% weight at 80% relative humidity. Adsorption isotherms have been well fitted with the FHH model. Adsorption-desorption isobars have been determined by TGA under 37 hPa in the temperature range 298-373 K. They show that these polymers can be completely regenerated by heating at 313 K under humidified air. No degradation of the adsorption properties has been observed after several regenerations. Adsorption enthalpies and entropies have been deduced from the Clapeyron equation and from DSC measurements. A good agreement was found. A mechanism of adsorption is proposed considering two kinds of adsorbate: bounded water in electrostatic interaction with functional groups and free water resulting from condensation. PMID:15533403

Toribio, F; Bellat, J P; Nguyen, P H; Dupont, M



The detection of water-wetting in salt-rock by impedance measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical impedance measurement is shown to detect water-wetting in salt at elevated temperature and pressure. The critical wetting temperature (and pressure) is detected by a characteristic fall of in-phase resistivity. Wetting temperatures and pressures obtained by this method are (i) in close agreement with static capsule wetting studies and (ii) sufficiently low to be of concern if nuclear waste is to be stored long-term in salt-rock.

Skelton, Alasdair D. L.; Elphick, Stephen C.



Specific ion effects induced by mono-valent salts in like charged aggregates in water.  


While salt mediated association between similarly charged poly-electrolytes occurs in a broad range of biological and colloidal systems, the effects of mono-valent salts remains little known experimentally. In this communication we systematically study influences of assorted mono-valent salts on structures of and interactions in two dimensional ordered bundles of charged fibrils assembled in water using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS). By quantitatively analyzing the scattering peak features, we discern two competing effects with opposite influences due to partitioning of salts in the aqueous complex. While electrostatic effects from salts residing between the fibrils suppress attraction between fibrils and expand the bundles, it is compensated by external osmotic pressure from peripheral salts in the aqueous media. The balance between the two effects varies for different salts and gives rise to ion-specific equilibrium behavior as well as structure of ordered bundles in salty water. The specific ions effects in like charged aggregates can be attributed to preferential distribution of ions inside or outside the bundles, correlated to the ranking of ions in Hofmeister series for macromolecules. Unlike conventional studies on Hofmeister effects by thermodynamic measurements relying on modeling for data interpretation, our study is based directly on structural analysis and is model-insensitive. PMID:24828119

Huang, Ningdong; Tao, Jiaojiao; Liu, Jun; Wei, Shenghui; Li, Liangbin; Wu, Ziyu



Electrically induced pore pressures in high salt content clay slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of stagnant pore water pressures due to non-uniform and non-steady distribution of voltage gradients were investigated in high water and salt content clay slurry using a floor-scale apparatus. The experiment was intended to simulate electrically enhanced dewatering of sea harbor sediments by horizontal drainage towards vertically installed electrodes. The scale of the test apparatus allowed for accurate measurements

Trent Muraoka; Ehsan Ghazanfari; Reena Amatya Shrestha; Sibel Pamukcu



The detection of water-wetting in salt-rock by impedance measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical impedance measurement is shown to detect water-wetting in salt at elevated temperature and pressure. The critical wetting temperature (and pressure) is detected by a characteristic fall of in-phase resistivity. Wetting temperatures and pressures obtained by this method are (i) in close agreement with static capsule wetting studies and (ii) sufficiently low to be of concern if nuclear waste is

Alasdair D. L. Skelton; Stephen C. Elphick



Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste with High Salt Content by Colloidal Adsorbents - 13274  

SciTech Connect

Treatment processes have been fully developed for most of the liquid radioactive wastes generated during the operation of nuclear power plants. However, a process for radioactive liquid waste with high salt content, such as waste seawater generated from the unexpected accident at nuclear power station, has not been studied extensively. In this study, the adsorption efficiencies of cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) in radioactive liquid waste with high salt content were investigated using several types of zeolite with different particle sizes. Synthesized and commercial zeolites were used for the treatment of simulated seawater containing Cs and Sr, and the reaction kinetics and adsorption capacities of colloidal zeolites were compared with those of bulk zeolites. The experimental results demonstrated that the colloidal adsorbents showed fast adsorption kinetic and high binding capacity for Cs and Sr. Also, the colloidal zeolites could be successfully applied to the static adsorption condition, therefore, an economical benefit might be expected in an actual processes where stirring is not achievable. (authors)

Lee, Keun-Young; Chung, Dong-Yong; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Lee, Eil-Hee; Moon, Jei-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute - KAERI, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute - KAERI, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)



Analysis of the juice and water losses in salted and unsalted pork samples heated in water bath. Consequences for the prediction of weight loss by transfer models.  


This study has analyzed the effect of different factors on variation of meat weight due to juice loss, and variation of water content of pork samples heated in a water bath. The weight loss (WL) was influenced by initial water content of raw meat which can be connected to meat pH, muscle type, and by pre-salting. WL was also influenced by sample thickness and by nature of the surrounding fluid. These effects were significant at 50°C and in thinner samples but decreased as meat temperature and sample thickness increased. WL showed no significant difference in response to prior freezing, applying a surface constraint during heating or varying meat salt content from 0.8 to 2.0%. The results were interpreted from literature knowledge on protein denaturation, contraction and, transport phenomena. Reliably predicting WL from water content variation during heating hinges on taking into account the loss of dry matter and the possible effects of meat pH, sample size or surrounding fluid. PMID:25443971

Bombrun, Laure; Gatellier, Philippe; Portanguen, Stéphane; Kondjoyan, Alain



Effect of water and salt stresses on growth, chlorophyll, mineral ions and organic solutes contents, and enzymes activity in mung bean seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment was made by using different concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG) or salt solutions to decrease the osmotic\\u000a potential of the growth medium to reveal the response of mung bean (Vigna radiata) to water and salt stresses. No germination\\u000a (emergence of the seedling) occurred at medium osmotic potential lower than -1.0 MPa in all treatments. It was found that

M. A. Zayed; I. M. Zeid



Monitoring soil water content by vertical temperature variations.  


The availability of high sensitivity temperature sensors (0.001 K sensitivity platinum resistors), which can be positioned at intervals of a few centimeters along a vertical profile in the unsaturated zone, allows short-term in situ determinations-one day or even less-of the thermal diffusivity. The development of high data storage capabilities also makes this possible over long periods and the relative variations in thermal diffusivity allow the monitoring of the variations in water content. The processing of temperature measurements recorded at different depths is achieved by solving the heat equation, using the finite elements method, with both conductive and convective heat transfers. A first set of measurements has allowed this approach to be validated. Water content variations derived from thermal diffusivity values are in excellent agreement with TDR measurements carried out on the experimental site at Boissy-le-Châtel (Seine et Marne, France). PMID:23834312

Bechkit, Mohamed Amine; Flageul, Sébastien; Guerin, Roger; Tabbagh, Alain



Salt, Water, and Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Good nutrition for athletes demands plenty of water, since water is essential to such vital functions as muscle reactions. Dehydration can result from jet travel as well as from exercise and heat, making it a danger to traveling athletic teams. To avoid dehydration, water needs should be monitored by frequent weighing, and a clean water supply…

Smith, Nathan J.


Exceptionally fast water desalination at complete salt rejection by pristine graphyne monolayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desalination that produces clean freshwater from seawater holds the promise of solving the global water shortage for drinking, agriculture and industry. However, conventional desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis and thermal distillation involve large amounts of energy consumption, and the semipermeable membranes widely used in reverse osmosis face the challenge to provide a high throughput at high salt rejection. Here we find by comprehensive molecular dynamics simulations and first principles modeling that pristine graphyne, one of the graphene-like one-atom-thick carbon allotropes, can achieve 100% rejection of nearly all ions in seawater including Na+, Cl-, Mg2+, K+ and Ca2+, at an exceptionally high water permeability about two orders of magnitude higher than those for commercial state-of-the-art reverse osmosis membranes at a salt rejection of ˜98.5%. This complete ion rejection by graphyne, independent of the salt concentration and the operating pressure, is revealed to be originated from the significantly higher energy barriers for ions than for water. This intrinsic specialty of graphyne should provide a new possibility for the efforts to alleviate the global shortage of freshwater and other environmental problems.

Xue, Minmin; Qiu, Hu; Guo, Wanlin



Predicting the effects of landuse change on water and salt balance—a case study of a catchment affected by dryland salinity in NSW, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated and comprehensive framework for the assessment of water and salt balance for large catchments is presented. The framework is applied to the Mandagery Creek catchment (1688 km 2), located in the south-eastern part of Australia. The catchment is affected by dryland salinity and the effects of landuse, climate, topography, soils and geology on water and salt balance are examined. Landuse change scenarios designed to: (a) increase the perennial content of the pastures and crop rotations and (b) increase the current remnant native woody vegetation with additional tree cover are investigated to determine the level of intervention required to develop ameliorative strategies. Likely downstream impacts of the reduction in water flow and salt export are also estimated.

Tuteja, Narendra Kumar; Beale, Geoffrey; Dawes, Warrick; Vaze, Jai; Murphy, Brian; Barnett, Paul; Rancic, Aleksandra; Evans, Ray; Geeves, Guy; Rassam, Daud W.; Miller, Michelle



Salt Water Revival  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners visit the intertidal zone of a rocky coastal site well populated with marine organisms. During a low tide, when many organisms are not covered by water, learners create "waves" and a false "high tide" to trigger animals into action such as opening up their shells or pushing out feathery food-catching extensions.

Science, Lawrence H.



Enhanced removal of sodium salts supported by in-situ catalyst synthesis in a supercritical water oxidation process.  


For practical applications of supercritical water oxidation to wastewater treatment, the deposition of inorganic salts in supercritical phase must be controlled to prevent a reactor from clogging. This study investigated enhanced removal of sodium salts with titanium particles, serving as a salt trapper and a catalyst precursor, and sodium recovery by sub-critical water. When Na(2)CO(3) was tested as a model salt, sodium removal efficiency was higher than theoretically maximum efficiency defined by Na(2)CO(3) solubility. The enhanced sodium removal resulted from in-situ synthesis of sodium titanate, which could catalyse acetic acid oxidation. The kinetics of sodium removal was described well by a diffusion mass-transfer model combined with a power law-type rate model of sodium titanate synthesis. Titanium particles showed positive effect on sodium removal in the case of NaOH, Na(2)SO(4) and Na(3)PO(4). However, they had negligible effect for NaCl and negative effect for Na(2)CrO(4), respectively. More than 99% of trapped sodium was recovered by sub-critical water except for Na(2)CrO(4). In contrast, sodium recovery efficiency remained less than 50% in the case of Na(2)CrO(4). Reused titanium particles showed the same performance for enhanced sodium removal. Enhanced salt removal supported by in-situ catalyst synthesis has great potential to enable both salt removal control and catalytic oxidation. PMID:22592475

Takahashi, F; Sun, Z R; Fukushi, K; Oshima, Y; Yamamoto, K



Water Uptake by Mars Salt Analogs: An Investigation of Stable Aqueous Solutions Using Raman Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid water processes that may occur on the surface and near-subsurface of Mars have important implications for the present-day water cycle, habitability, and planetary protection policies. The presence of salts on Mars plays a role in surface-atmosphere interactions as salts enhance the soil's ability to retain water. This thesis explores the phase transitions of water upon interaction with Mars relevant salt analogs. Water uptake and loss properties of a single and complex Mars analog are examined using a Raman microscope equipped with an environmental cell. The effect of the hygroscopic salts on bacterial spores was evaluated with a focus on potential terrestrial contamination on outbound spacecraft and its influence on planetary protection concerns. Calcium perchlorate (Ca(ClO4)2) is a highly deliquescent salt that may exist on the surface of present-day Mars. Here, we quantify the deliquescent relative humidity (DRH) and efflorescent relative humidity (ERH) of Ca(ClO4)2 as a function of temperature (223 K to 273 K) to elucidate its behavior on the surface of Mars. Mars relevant temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions were simulated and deliquescence (solid to aqueous) and efflorescence (aqueous to solid) phase transitions of Ca(ClO4)2 were characterized. Experimental DRH values were compared to a thermodynamic model for three hydration states of Ca(ClO 4)2. Calcium perchlorate was found to supersaturate, with lower ERH values than DRH values. Additionally, we conducted a 17-hour experiment to simulate a subsurface relative humidity and temperature diurnal cycle. This demonstrated that aqueous Ca(ClO4)2 solutions can persist without efflorescing for the majority of a martian sol, up to 17 hours under Mars temperature heating rates and RH conditions. Applying these experimental results to martian surface and subsurface heat and mass transfer models, we find that aqueous Ca(ClO4)2 solutions could persist for most of the martian sol under present-day conditions. To investigate complex brine mixtures, a salt analog, deemed 'Instant Mars,' was developed to closely match the individual cation and anion concentrations as reported by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory instrument at the Phoenix landing site. 'Instant Mars' was developed to fully encompass and closely replicate correct concentrations of magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, perchlorate, chloride, and sulfate ions. Here we use two separate techniques, Raman microscopy and particle levitation, to study the water uptake and loss properties of individual Instant Mars analog particles. Raman microscope experiments reveal that Instant Mars particles can form stable, aqueous solutions at 56 +/- 5% RH at 243 K and persist as a metastable, aqueous solution down to 13 +/- 5% RH. The results presented in this thesis demonstrate that a salt analog that closely replicates in-situ measurements from the Phoenix landing site can take up water vapor from the surrounding environment and transition into a stable, aqueous solution. Furthermore, this aqueous Instant Mars solution can persist as a metastable, supersaturated solution in RH conditions much lower than the deliquescent RH. Finally, laboratory experiments presented here examine the interaction of B. subtilis spores (B-168) with liquid water in Mars relevant temperatures and RH conditions. In addition, Ca(ClO4)2 was mixed with the B. subtilis spores and exposed to the same diurnal cycle conditions to quantify the effects of Ca(ClO4)2 on the spores. A combination of Raman microscopy and an environmental cell allows us to visually and spectrally analyze the changes of the individual B. subtilis spores and Ca(ClO4)2 mixtures as they experience present-day martian diurnal cycle conditions. Results suggest that B-168 spores can survive the arid conditions and martian temperatures, even when exposed to Ca(ClO 4)2 in the crystalline or aqueous phase. The extreme hygroscopic nature of Ca(ClO4)2 allows for direct interaction of B. subtilis spores with liquid water. The results impact the understanding of planetary protectio

Nuding, Danielle L.


Enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution by combining water soluble graphene with cobalt salts  

PubMed Central

Summary There is tremendous effort put in the pursuit for cheap and efficient catalysts for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution systems. Herein, we report an active catalyst that uses the earth-abundant element cobalt and water-dispersible sulfonated graphene. The photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity of the catalyst was tested by using triethanolamine (TEOA) as electron donor and eosin Y (EY) as the photosensitizer under LED irradiation at 525 nm. Hydrogen was produced constantly even after 20 h, and the turnover number (TON) reached 148 (H2/Co) in 4 h with respect to the initial concentration of the added cobalt salts was shown to be 5.6 times larger than that without graphene. PMID:25161850

Wang, Jing; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Chen, Bin; Li, Zhi-Jun; Meng, Qing-Yuan; Zhang, Li-Ping; Tung, Chen-Ho



Soil water depletion by oak trees and the influence of root water uptake on the moisture content spatial statistics  

E-print Network

and soil water redistribution. One of the main findings in this study is that root water uptake is centralSoil water depletion by oak trees and the influence of root water uptake on the moisture content. The space-time statistical structure of soil water uptake by oak trees was investigated in a 3.1-m

Katul, Gabriel


Amelioration of cardio-renal injury with aging in dahl salt-sensitive rats by H2-enriched electrolyzed water  

PubMed Central

Abstract Recent studies have revealed the biological effects of H2 in suppressing organ injuries due to acute inflammation and oxidative stress. Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats naturally develop elevated blood pressure (BP) and kidney injury with aging. The present study examined the effect of long-term supplementation of H2 in drinking water on age-related changes. Four-week-old male Dahl SS rats were fed 3 types of water (n?=?30 each) for up to 48 weeks: filtered water (FW), water with a high H2 content (492.5 ppb) obtained with water electrolysis (EW), or dehydrogenated EW (DW). Animals were subjected to histological analysis at 16, 24, and 48 weeks. The FW group showed progressive BP elevation and increases in albuminuria and cardiac remodeling during the course of treatment. Histologically, there were significant changes as a function of aging, i.e., glomerular sclerosis with tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the kidney, and increased cardiomyocyte diameter with interstitial fibrosis in the heart at 48 weeks. These changes were related to the enhanced inflammation and oxidative stress in the respective organs. However, there were no striking differences in BP among the groups, despite histological alterations in the EW group being significantly decreased when compared to FW and DW in both organs, with concurrently lower oxidative stress and inflammatory markers at 48 weeks. Conclusion Long-term ad libitum consumption of H2-enriched electrolyzed water can ameliorate the processes of kidney injury and cardiac remodeling with aging in Dahl SS rats by suppressing, at least partly, elevated inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:24289332



Effect of water content on stability of landslides triggered by earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake- triggered landslides are one of the most important natural hazards that often result in serious structural damage and loss of life. They are widely studied by several researchers. However, less attention has been focused on soil water content. Although the effect of water content has been widely studied for rainfall- triggered landslides [1], much less attention has been given to it for stability analysis of earthquake- triggered landslides. We developed a combined hydrology and stability model to investigate effect of soil water content on earthquake-triggered landslides. For this purpose, Bishop's method is used to do the slope stability analysis and Richard's equation is employed to model infiltration. Bishop's method is one the most widely methods used for analyzing stability of slopes [2]. Earthquake acceleration coefficient (EAC) is also considered in the model to analyze the effect of earthquake on slope stability. Also, this model is able to automatically determine geometry of the potential landslide. In this study, slopes with different initial water contents are simulated. First, the simulation is performed in the case of earthquake only with different EACs and water contents. As shown in Fig. 1, initial water content has a significant effect on factor of safety (FS). Greater initial water contents lead to less FS. This impact is more significant when EAC is small. Also, when initial water content is high, landslides can happen even with small earthquake accelerations. Moreover, in this study, effect of water content on geometry of landslides is investigated. For this purpose, different cases of landslides triggered by earthquakes only and both rainfall and earthquake for different initial water contents are simulated. The results show that water content has more significant effect on geometry of landslides triggered by rainfall than those triggered by an earthquake. Finally, effect of water content on landslides triggered by earthquakes during rainfall is investigated. In this study, after different durations of rainfall, an earthquake is applied to the model and the elapsed time in which the FS gets less than one obtains by trial and error. The results for different initial water contents and earthquake acceleration coefficients show that landslides can happen after shorter rainfall duration when water content is greater. If water content is high enough, the landslide occurs even without rainfall. References [1] Ray RL, Jacobs JM, de Alba P. Impact of unsaturated zone soil moisture and groundwater table on slope instability. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 2010, 136(10):1448-1458. [2] Das B. Principles of Foundation Engineering. Stanford, Cengage Learning, 2011. Fig. 1. Effect of initial water content on FS for different EACs

Beyabanaki, S.; Bagtzoglou, A. C.; Anagnostou, E. N.




EPA Science Inventory

Sea levels have risen from four to eight inches in the 20th century, and model projections suggest an additional rise of 8 to 15 inches is possible during the 21st century. Rising sea levels can increase the upstream extent of salt water influence in coastal aquifers. In coasta...


Electrolysis of Salt Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a hands-on lab activity about the chemical composition and conductivity of water. Working in groups, learners will: conduct an experiment involving the process of electrolysis, prepare an experiment to better understand the process of ion exchange, discuss and research the "softness" and "hardness" of water, and use the periodic table to identify elements and learn their characteristics. Background information, a glossary and more is included. Materials needed for each student group include a 9-volt battery, two electrodes (e.g. copper strips, or two #2 pencils sharpened at both ends), electrical wire and glass beakers or ceramic saucers. This activity is part of the Aquarius Hands-on Laboratory Activities.


Measuring Snow Water Content  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS hydrologic technician Jim Caldwell uses an aluminum tube and scale to measure snow depth, snow water content and snow density as part of the Maine Cooperative Snow Survey. This survey is conducted throughout Maine in the spring to aid in the evaluation of flood potential by the Maine River Flow...


Production by Hexagenia limbata in a warm-water reservoir and its association with chlorophyll content of the water column  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the productivity of nymphs of the mayfly Hexagenia limbata in Lake Waco, a central Texas reservoir, and assessed its association with chlorophyll content of the water. We hypothesized that food availability measured as chlorophyll content of the water may directly associate with growth of Hexagenia and predict population productivity. To test this, we compared production by mayfly populations

Cindi L. Welch; Darrell S. Vodopich



Water Uptake By Mars Salt Analogs: An Investigation Of Stable Aqueous Solutions On Mars Using Raman Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand the formation of briny aqueous solutions on Mars, a salt analog was developed to closely match the individual cation and anion concentrations as reported by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory aboard the Phoenix Lander. ';Instant Mars' is a salt analog developed to fully encompass the correct concentrations of magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, perchlorate, chloride, and sulfate ions. Using environmental Raman microscopy, we have studied the water uptake by the Instant Mars analog as a function of temperature and relative humidity. Water uptake was monitored using Raman spectroscopy in combination with optical microscopy. A MicroJet droplet generator was used to generate 30 ?m diameter particles that were deposited onto a quartz disc. The particles undergo visual transformations as the relative humidity (RH) is increased and the presence of water uptake is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. At -30° C, water uptake begins at ~ 35% RH as humidity is increased. The water uptake is marked by the growth of a sulfate peak at 990 cm-1, an indicator that sulfate has undergone a phase transition into an aqueous state. As the RH continues to increase, the peak in the O-H region (~3500 cm-1) broadens as more liquid water accumulates in the particles. The Instant Mars particles achieve complete deliquescence at 68% RH, indicated both visually and with Raman spectroscopy. The gradual water uptake observed suggests that deliquescence of the Instant Mars particles is not an immediate process, but that it occurs in steps marked by the deliquescence of the individual salts. Perhaps of even more significance is the tendency for the Instant Mars particles to remain aqueous at low humidity as RH is decreased. Raman spectra indicate that liquid water is present as low as 2% RH at -30° C. Ongoing work will examine the phase of Instant Mars particles under simulated Martian surface and subsurface conditions to gain insight into the possibility for aqueous solutions on Mars today via water uptake.

Nuding, D.; Gough, R. V.; Jorgensen, S. K.; Tolbert, M. A.



Salt in Dutchess Co. Waters Stuart Findlay  

E-print Network

or Groundwater? STREAM · Road salt biggest source ­ others? #12;SOIL CORES HOLD Cl LONGER THAN WATER KincaidSalt in Dutchess Co. Waters Stuart Findlay Vicky Kelly Where are we now? Compared to what? Where be increasing · What else is coming along? #12;Scope for Action · Reduced Salt is in Everyone's Interest


Thermal properties of ration components as affected by moisture content and water activity during freezing.  


Beef roast with vegetables is an example of a meal, ready-to-eat (MRE) ration entrée. It is a mixture of meat, potato, mushroom, and carrot with a gravy sauce. The thermal properties of each component were characterized in terms of freezing point, latent heat, freezable and unfreezable water contents, and enthalpy during freezing using differential scanning calorimetry. Freezing and thawing curves and the effect of freezing and thawing cycles on thermal properties were also evaluated. The freezing points of beef, potato, mushroom, and sauce were all in the range of -5.1 to -5.6 degrees C, but moisture content, water activity, latent heat, freezable and unfreezable water contents, and enthalpy varied among these components. Freezing temperature greatly affected the unfrozen water fraction. The unfreezable water content (unfrozen water fraction at -50 degrees C) of ration components was in the range of 8.2% to 9.7%. The freezing and thawing curves of vegetables with sauce differed from those of beef but took similar time to freeze or thaw. Freezing and thawing cycles did not greatly affect the thermal properties of each component. Freezing point and latent heat were reduced by decreasing moisture content and water activity of each component. Water activity was proportionally linear to freezing point at a(w) > 0.88, and moisture content was proportionally linear to freezable water content in all ration components. Water was not available for freezing when moisture content was reduced to 28.8% or less. This study indicates that moisture content and water activity are critical factors affecting thermal behavior of ration components during freezing. PMID:19021797

Li, J; Chinachoti, P; Wang, D; Hallberg, L M; Sun, X S



The Effect of Salt Water on Rice.  

E-print Network

of salt in water used for irrigation is sometimes a difficulty in Texas. At some of the rice farms located near the gulf coast of Texas, the amount of water pumped is sometimes greater than the capacity of the stream and as a result salt water-finds its... special Japan variety of rice supposed to be resistant to salt water, although the yield of the latter was only about one-third of that in the pot which received no salt water. One addition sufficient to make the water in the pot contain 0.2 per cent...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)



Water Imbibition into Rock as Affected by Sample Shape, Pore, Conductivity, and Antecedent Water Content  

SciTech Connect

Infiltration is often presumed to follow Philip's equation, I = st{sup 1/2}, where I is cumulative infiltration, s is sorptivity, and t is time. This form of the equation is appropriate for short times, and/or for negligible gravitational effects. For a uniform soil, this equation describes a plot of log(mass imbibed) versus log(time), with a slope (imbibition exponent) of 1/2. The equation has also been applied to low-porosity rocks, where the extremely small pores render gravitational forces negligible. Experiments recently performed on a wide variety of rocks produced imbibition exponents from 0.2 to 0.5. Many rock types showed initial imbibition proceeding as I {approx} t{sup 1/4}, then later switched to ''normal'' (t{sup 1/2}) behavior. The distance to the wetting front that corresponds to this cross-over behavior was found to be related to the sample shape: tall thin samples are more likely to exhibit the exponent 1/4, and to cross over to 1/2-type behavior later, while short, squat samples are less likely to display the 1/4-type behavior at all. Additionally, the exponents are sensitive to antecedent water content, with initially wetter samples having smaller values. In this study, we present the experimental data, and provide a consistent and physically-based explanation using percolation theory. The analogy between imbibition and diffusion is used to model imbibition into samples with low pore connectivity, with the exponents and their crossover behavior emerging from a random walk process. All laboratory phenomena--different exponents, crossover behavior, and effects of sample shape and antecedent water content--are reproduced by the model, with similar patterns across experiment and simulation. We conclude both that diffusion is a useful and powerful conceptual model for understanding imbibition, and also that imbibition experiments, being simpler than diffusion measurements, can be used to examine diffusive behavior in rock.

R.P. Ewing



Modelling the effects of land-use change on water and salt delivery from a catchment affected by dryland salinity in south-east Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive framework for the assessment of water and salt balance for large catchments affected by dryland salinity is applied to the Boorowa River catchment (1550 km2), located in south-eastern Australia. The framework comprised two models, each focusing on a different aspect and operating on a different scale. A quasi-physical semi-distributed model CATSALT was used to estimate runoff and salt fluxes from different source areas within the catchment. The effects of land use, climate, topography, soils and geology are included. A groundwater model FLOWTUBE was used to estimate the long-term effects of land-use change on groundwater discharge. Unlike conventional salinity studies that focus on groundwater alone, this study makes use of a new approach to explore surface and groundwater interactions with salt stores and the stream.Land-use change scenarios based on increased perennial pasture and tree-cover content of the vegetation, aimed at high leakage and saline discharge areas, are investigated. Likely downstream impacts of the reduction in flow and salt export are estimated.The water balance model was able to simulate both the daily observed stream flow and salt load at the catchment outlet for high and low flow conditions satisfactorily. Mean leakage rate of about 23.2 mm year-1 under current land use for the Boorowa catchment was estimated. The corresponding mean runoff and salt export from the catchment were 89 382 ML year-1 and 38 938 t year-1, respectively. Investigation of various land-use change scenarios indicates that changing annual pastures and cropping areas to perennial pastures is not likely to result in substantial improvement of water quality in the Boorowa River. A land-use change of about 20% tree-cover, specifically targeting high recharge and the saline discharge areas, would be needed to decrease stream salinity by 150 ?S cm-1 from its current level. Stream salinity reductions of about 20 ?S cm-1 in the main Lachlan River downstream of the confluence of the Boorowa River is predicted. The FLOWTUBE modelling within the Boorowa River catchment indicated that discharge areas under increased recharge conditions could re-equilibrate in around 20 years for the catchment, and around 15 years for individual hillslopes.

Vaze, Jai; Barnett, Paul; Beale, Geoffrey; Dawes, Warrick; Evans, Ray; Tuteja, Narendra Kumar; Murphy, Brian; Geeves, Guy; Miller, Michelle



Effectiveness of highway-drainage systems in preventing contamination of ground water by road salt, Route 25, southeastern Massachusetts; description of study area, data collection programs, and methodology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four test sites along a 7-mile section of Route 25 in southeastern Massachusetts, each representing a specific highway-drainage system, were instrumented to determine the effectiveness of the drainage systems in preventing contamination of ground water by road salt. One of the systems discharges highway runoff onsite through local drainpipes. The other systems use trunkline drainpipes through which runoff from highway surfaces, shoulders, and median strips is diverted and discharged into either a local stream or a coastal waterway. Route 25 was completed and opened to traffic in the summer of 1987. Road salt was first applied to the highway in the winter of 1987-88. The study area is on a thick outwash plain composed primarily of sand and gravel. Water-table depths range from 15 to 60 feet below land surface at the four test sites. Ground-water flow is in a general southerly direction, approximately perpendicular to the highway. Streamflow in the study area is controlled primarily by ground-water discharge. Background concentrations of dissolved chloride, sodium, and calcium-the primary constituents of road salt-are similar in ground water and surface water and range from 5 to 20, 5 to 10, and 1 to 5 milligrams per liter, respectively. Data-collection programs were developed for monitoring the application of road salt to the highway, the quantity of road-salt water entering the ground water, diverted through the highway-drainage systems, and entering a local stream. The Massachusetts Highway Department monitored road salt applied to the highway and reported these data to the U.S. Geological Survey. The U.S. Geological Survey designed and operated the ground-water, highway- drainage, and surface-water data-collection programs. A road-salt budget will be calculated for each test site so that the effectiveness of the different highway-drainage systems in preventing contamination of ground water by road salt can be determined.

Church, P.E.; Armstrong, D.S.; Granato, G.E.; Stone, V.J.; Smith, K.P.; Provencher, P.L.



Experimental evaluation of water content determination in transformer oil by moisture sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paper presents experimental research on temperature dependency of water solubility in mineral transformer oils. Moisture sensor measurements and absolute water content determination by Karl Fisher titration method were performed under controlled laboratory conditions to investigate solubility models of different types and conditions of mineral transformer oils. Results of experiments demonstrate that preset moisture solubility model of the moisture sensor affects

T. Gradnik; M. Koncan-Gradnik; N. Petric; N. Muc



Estimation of fuel moisture content by inversion of radiative transfer models to simulate equivalent water thickness and dry matter content: analysis at leaf and canopy level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire danger models identify fuel moisture content (FMC) of live vegetation as a critical variable, since it affects fire ignition and propagation. FMC can be calculated by dividing equivalent water thickness (EWT) by dry matter content (DM). The \\

D. Riano; P. Vaughan; E. Chuvieco; Pablo J. Zarco-Tejada; Susan L. Ustin




Microsoft Academic Search

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) yields are known to decrease for plants grown in saline soils. This study was conducted to determine the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation on fruit yield and mineral content of salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive tomato cultivars grown with varied levels of salt. NaCl and CaCl2were added to soil in the irrigation water in equal molar

Ghazi N. Al-Karaki; R. Hammad



Dry matter yield, nitrogen absorption, and water uptake by sweet corn under salt stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response to salinity differs greatly among various plant species. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of NaCl salinity on growth of corn in terms of dry matter production and nitrogen and water uptake. Dry matter yield and N and water uptake by sweet corn (Zea mays L; cv. “Florida Stay Sweet\\

M. Pessarakli; J. T. Huber; T. C. Tucker



Effect of road deicing salt on the susceptibility of amphibian embryos to infection by water molds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some causative agents of amphibian declines act synergistically to impact individual amphibians and their populations. In particular, pathogenic water molds (aquatic oomycetes) interact with environmental stressors and increase mortality in amphibian embryos. We documented colonization of eggs of three amphibian species, the wood frog (Rana sylvatica), the green frog (Rana clamitans), and the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum), by water molds

Nancy E. Karraker; Gregory R. Ruthig



Measuring vegetation water content by looking at trees blowing in the wind  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite-based soil moisture measurements have shown a diurnal variation in soil water content in Ghana. Most likely this diurnal variation is due to variation of moisture content in vegetation, as was measured by Friesen et al. Understanding the specifics of this cycle and it's relation with radar backscatter would help improve the estimation of soil moisture from satellites as well as provide a new source of information: vegetation water content (ie. plant water stress) from satellites. To this end, a non-intrusive method is needed to measure the change in time of the water content of vegetation. In this research, we have measured the Eigen-frequency of trees using an accelerometer bolted in the tree trunk. The change in Eigen-frequency over time is related to the change in mass and stiffness which are depended on the water content of the tree. We looked at two driving forces for the tree-mass-spring system. Firstly, trees were pulled back and suddenly released. Eigen-frequencies were easily identified from the oscillation observed. Secondly, the wind was used as a driving force and Eigen-frequencies were estimated in the frequency domain.

Kooreman, Bouke; Hut, Rolf; van de Giesen, Nick; Selker, John; Steele-Dunne, Susan



Improvement of water use efficiency in rice by expression of HARDY, an Arabidopsis drought and salt tolerance gene  

PubMed Central

Freshwater is a limited and dwindling global resource; therefore, efficient water use is required for food crops that have high water demands, such as rice, or for the production of sustainable energy biomass. We show here that expression of the Arabidopsis HARDY (HRD) gene in rice improves water use efficiency, the ratio of biomass produced to the water used, by enhancing photosynthetic assimilation and reducing transpiration. These drought-tolerant, low-water-consuming rice plants exhibit increased shoot biomass under well irrigated conditions and an adaptive increase in root biomass under drought stress. The HRD gene, an AP2/ERF-like transcription factor, identified by a gain-of-function Arabidopsis mutant hrd-D having roots with enhanced strength, branching, and cortical cells, exhibits drought resistance and salt tolerance, accompanied by an enhancement in the expression of abiotic stress associated genes. HRD overexpression in Arabidopsis produces thicker leaves with more chloroplast-bearing mesophyll cells, and in rice, there is an increase in leaf biomass and bundle sheath cells that probably contributes to the enhanced photosynthesis assimilation and efficiency. The results exemplify application of a gene identified from the model plant Arabidopsis for the improvement of water use efficiency coincident with drought resistance in the crop plant rice. PMID:17881564

Karaba, Aarati; Dixit, Shital; Greco, Raffaella; Aharoni, Asaph; Trijatmiko, Kurniawan R.; Marsch-Martinez, Nayelli; Krishnan, Arjun; Nataraja, Karaba N.; Udayakumar, Makarla; Pereira, Andy



Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt.  


Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these lakes were 10 and 25 times higher, respectively, than in other non-urban lakes in the region. Seasonal salinity/chloride cycles in the lakes were correlated with road salt applications: High concentrations in the winter and spring, especially near the bottom of the lakes, were followed by lower concentrations in the summer and fall due to flushing of the lakes by rainfall runoff. The seasonal salt storage/flushing rates for individual lakes were derived from volume-weighted average chloride concentration time series. The rate ranged from 9 to 55% of a lake's minimum salt content. In some of the lakes studied salt concentrations were high enough to stop spring turnover preventing oxygen from reaching the benthic sediments. Concentrations above the sediments were also high enough to induce convective mixing of the saline water into the sediment pore water. A regional analysis of historical water quality records of 38 lakes in the TCMA showed increases in lake salinity from 1984 to 2005 that were highly correlated with the amount of rock salt purchased by the State of Minnesota. Chloride concentrations in individual lakes were positively correlated with the percent of impervious surfaces in the watershed and inversely with lake volume. Taken together, the results show a continuing degradation of the water quality of urban lakes due to application of NaCl in their watersheds. PMID:18762321

Novotny, Eric V; Murphy, Dan; Stefan, Heinz G



Dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in salt water environment by Corexit 9500A in the presence of natural coastal materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effectiveness of Corexit 9500A for dispersing Louisiana crude oil was evaluated in salt water solutions containing natural materials in relation to salinity and dispersant-to-oil ratio (DOR). Experimental results showed that both salinity and DOR had significant effects on dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in the presence of different natural materials. The natural materials added to the salt water solutions included sea sand (South Beach, Miami, Florida), red mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle), seaweed (Sargassum natans), and sea grass (Halodule wrightii). Dispersant effectiveness (amount of oil dispersed into the water) was reduced significantly with increasing salinity with the minimum effectiveness observed in the salinity range between 30 and 50 ppt in all aqueous samples containing natural materials. When significant amounts of floating oil were present, the partially submerged natural materials enhanced the transfer of oil into the water column, which improved the dispersion effectiveness. However, dispersant effectiveness was significantly reduced when the amount of floating oil was relatively small and could not be released back to the water column. Surface tension may not be an adequate parameter for monitoring the effectiveness of dispersants in salt water environment. When distilled water was used (i.e., zero salinity), surface tension was significantly reduced with increasing dispersant concentration. However, there was no clear trend in the surface tension of the salt water solutions (17-51 ppt) containing crude oil and natural materials with increasing dispersant concentration.

Tansel, Berrin; Lee, Mengshan; Berbakov, Jillian; Tansel, Derya Z.; Koklonis, Urpiana



Cell signaling under salt, water and cold stresses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forward genetics and biochemical approaches to studying plant responses to salt, water and cold stresses began to bear fruit recently. Analysis of salt overly sensitive (sos) Arabidopsis mutants revealed a novel calcium-regulated protein kinase pathway for response to the ionic aspect of salt stress. In-gel kinase assays identified several SOS-independent protein kinases that are either activated specifically by osmotic stress

Jian-Kang Zhu



A liquid–liquid extraction technique for phthalate esters with water-soluble organic solvents by adding inorganic salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  In the presence of inorganic salts, the mixture solution of some water-soluble organic solvents and water can form two clearly\\u000a separated phases. One is the organic solvent rich phase, the other is the water rich phase. In the phase separation process,\\u000a hydrophobic solutes dissolved in the mixture solution such as phthalate esters can be extracted into the organic solvent rich

Yaqi Cai; Yu’e Cai; Yali Shi; Jiemin Liu; Shifen Mou; Yiqiang Lu



Determination of Preferential Interaction Parameters by Multicomponent Diffusion. Applications to Poly(ethylene glycol)-Salt-Water Ternary Mixtures  

E-print Network

interaction coef- ficients have been determined for several protein-osmolyte aqueous solutions.3 These studies compact proteins. Moreover, we observe that the PEG preferential hydration significantly decreases as salt of macromolecules in aqueous solution is perturbed by the presence of osmolytes such as salts and small organic

Annunziata, Onofrio


Assessing water salinity along River Limón and Caño San Miguel irrigation paleochannel (Maracaibo, Venezuela) as affected by the balance of soluble salts in alluvium soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The saline degradation of soils that are irrigated with brackish water is worrisome increasing worldwide, and it may further affect the salinity of fresh water in those streams flowing across. The problem that is caused by an increasing concentration of salts that are more soluble than gypsum depends on the quality of irrigation water, climatic aridity, and drainage limitations. All these conditions meet in the alluvium soils of River Limón basin that are crossed by Caño San Miguel irrigation paleochannel. River Limón's regulation by closing Manuelote and Tulé artificial reservoirs has diminished the input of water and sediments from flooding events, which exerted dilutive effects in the past. In addition, the balance of soluble salts in these soils has also registered further net accumulation during those extremely dry years happened before 2006, because the great dilution contribution of ombrogenic dammed water coming from rain has not been enough to compensate salts concentration generated by water evapotranspiration in those irrigated soils of the middle basin, particularly in the absence of superficial runoff and deep drainage. Considering those semi-arid climate conditions prevailing in the area (annual precipitation = 710 mm; potential evapotransporation = 2361 mm), it resulted that water analyses in River Limón showed a ten-fold increased maximum annual salinity concentration (March) along the stream; that is, an electric conductivity (Ce) of 0.37 dS•m-1 (at 25 °C) at Puente Carrasquero pumping station, where water for crop irrigation is subtracted, turns to 34.60 dS•m-1 (at 25 °C) at its base level in Puerto Mara, where it discharges to Lake Maracaibo. In addition, the quality of irrigation water from Caño San Miguel, which aggregates to those coming from River Limón at the pumping station located in Carrasquero just before running through the alluvium of this water stream, resulted pretty irregular. In short, it spanned form C1 to C4 soil salinization risk classes depending on the sampling location and time of the year. In short, the farther away the sampling point from the initial pumping location, the higher the concentration of salts is measured; and these are even ten-fold higher in March, that is, after the end of the dry season, just before new rain dissolves the generated salt efflorescence on the surrounding soil (maximum Ce=9740 dS/m at 25 °C). In conclusion, a balance of salts should be attached to the balance of water required to compensate crop evapotranspiration aiming to achieve a sustainable use of the agrosystem. This salts balance is assessed in terms of the quantity of water that is required to drain soil so that productivity would be retained.

Rodriguez, Raquel; Moreno, Juan; Hermosilla, Daphne; Gascó, Antonio



Iron clad wetlands: Soil iron-sulfur buffering determines coastal wetland response to salt water incursion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

freshwater wetland chemistry is rapidly changing due to increased frequency of salt water incursion, a consequence of global change. Seasonal salt water incursion introduces sulfate, which microbially reduces to sulfide. Sulfide binds with reduced iron, producing iron sulfide (FeS), recognizable in wetland soils by its characteristic black color. The objective of this study is to document iron and sulfate reduction rates, as well as product formation (acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and chromium reducible sulfide (CRS)) in a coastal freshwater wetland undergoing seasonal salt water incursion. Understanding iron and sulfur cycling, as well as their reduction products, allows us to calculate the degree of sulfidization (DOS), from which we can estimate how long soil iron will buffer against chemical effects of sea level rise. We show that soil chloride, a direct indicator of the degree of incursion, best predicted iron and sulfate reduction rates. Correlations between soil chloride and iron or sulfur reduction rates were strongest in the surface layer (0-3 cm), indicative of surface water incursion, rather than groundwater intrusion at our site. The interaction between soil moisture and extractable chloride was significantly related to increased AVS, whereas increased soil chloride was a stronger predictor of CRS. The current DOS in this coastal plains wetland is very low, resulting from high soil iron content and relatively small degree of salt water incursion. However, with time and continuous salt water exposure, iron will bind with incoming sulfur, creating FeS complexes, and DOS will increase.

Schoepfer, Valerie A.; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Burgin, Amy J.



Certification of the reference material of water content in water saturated 1-octanol by Karl Fischer coulometry, Karl Fischer volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance.  


Certified reference materials (CRMs) of water content are widely used in the calibration and validation of Karl Fischer coulometry and volumetry. In this study, the water content of the water saturated 1-octanol (WSO) CRM was certified by Karl Fischer coulometry, volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (Q NMR). The water content recovery by coulometry was 99.76% with a diaphragm-less electrode and Coulomat AG anolyte. The relative bias between the coulometry and volumetry results was 0.06%. In Q NMR, the water content of WSO is traceable to the International System (SI) of units through the purity of internal standard. The relative bias of water content in WSO between Q NMR and volumetry was 0.50%. The consistency of results for these three independent methods improves the accuracy of the certification of the RM. The certified water content of the WSO CRM was 4.76% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.09%. PMID:23442697

Wang, Haifeng; Ma, Kang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jia; Sun, Guohua; Li, Hongmei



A universal salt model based on under-ground precipitation of solid salts due to supercritical water `out-salting'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the common characteristics of planets Earth and Mars is that both host water (H2O) and large accumulations of salt. Whereas Earth’s surface-environment can be regarded as ‘water-friendly’ and ‘salt hostile’, the reverse can be said for the surface of Mars. This is because liquid water is stable on Earth, and the atmosphere transports humidity around the globe, whereas on planet Mars, liquid water is unstable, rendering the atmosphere dry and, therefore, ‘salt-friendly’. The riddle as to how the salt accumulated in various locations on those two planets, is one of long-lasting and great debate. The salt accumulations on Earth are traditionally termed ‘evaporites’, meaning that they formed as a consequence of the evaporation of large masses of seawater. How the accumulations on Mars formed is much harder to explain, as an ocean only existed briefly. Although water molecules and OH-groups may exist in abundance in bound form (crystal water, adsorbed water, etc.), the only place where free water is expected to be stable on Mars is within underground faults, fractures, and crevices. Here it likely occurs as brine or in the form of ice. Based on these conditions, a key to understanding the accumulation of large deposits of salt on both planets is linked to how brines behave in the subsurface when pressurized and heated beyond their supercritical point. At depths greater than about 3 km (P>300 bars) water will no longer boil in a steam phase. Rather, it becomes supercritical and will attain the phase of supercritical water vapor (SCRIW) with a specific gravity of typically 0.3 g/cm3. An important characteristic of SCRIW is its inability to dissolve the common sea salts. The salt dissolved in the brines will therefore precipitate as solid particles when brines (seawater on the Earth) move into the supercritical P&T-domain (T>400°C, P>300 bars). Numerical modeling of a hydrothermal system in the Atlantis II Deep of the Red Sea indicates that a shallow magma-chamber causes a sufficiently high heat-flow to drive a convection cell of seawater. The model shows that salt precipitates along the flow lines within the supercritical region (Hovland et al., 2006). During the various stages of planet Mars’ development, it must be inferred that zones with very high heat-flow also existed there. This meant that water (brine) confined in the crust of Mars was mobilized in a convective manner and would pass into the supercritical water zone during the down-going leg (the recharge leg) of the convective cell. The zones with supercritical out-salting would require accommodation space for large masses of solid salt, as modeled in the Red Sea analogy. However, as the accommodation space for the solid salt fills up, it will pile up and force its way upwards to form large, perhaps layered anticlines, as seen in the Hebes Mensa area of Mars and at numerous locations on Earth, including the Red Sea. Thus, we offer a universal ‘hydrothermal salt model’, which would be viable on all planets with free water in their interiors or on their surfaces, including Mars and Earth. Hovland, et al., 2006. Salt formation by supercritical seawater and submerged boiling. Marine and Petrol. Geol. 23, 855-69

Rueslåtten, H.; Hovland, M. T.



Influence of the water content and water activity on styrene degradation by Exophiala jeanselmei in biofilters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance at low water availability of styrene-degrading biofilters with the fungus Exophiala jeanselmei growing on perlite, the inert support, was investigated. E. jeanselmei degrades styrene at a water activity of 0.91–1. In biofilters, the styrene elimination capacity at a water activity of 0.91\\u000a is 5% of the maximal elimination capacity of 79?g?m-3?h-1 (water activity 1). Application of dry air

H. H. J. Cox; F. J. Magielsen; H. J. Doddema; W. Harder



Rapid assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll content.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Present techniques of airborne chlorophyll measurement are discussed as an approach to water pollution assessment. The differential radiometer, the chlorophyll correlation radiometer, and an infrared radiometer for water temperature measurements are described as the key components of the equipment. Also covered are flight missions carried out to evaluate the capability of the chlorophyll correlation radiometer in measuring the chlorophyll content in water bodies with widely different levels of nutrients, such as fresh-water lakes of high and low eutrophic levels, marine waters of high and low productivity, and an estuary with a high sediment content. The feasibility and usefulness of these techniques are indicated.

Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.



Water in the Oceanic Lithosphere: Salt Lake Crater Xenoliths, Oahu, Hawaii  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water can be present in nominally anhydrous minerals of peridotites in the form of hydrogen bonded to structural oxygen. Such water in the oceanic upper mantle could have a significant effect on its physical and chemical properties. However, the water content of the MORB source has been inferred indirectly from the compositions of basalts. Direct determinations on abyssal peridotites are scarce because they have been heavily hydrothermally altered. Here we present the first water analyses of minerals from spinel peridotite xenoliths of Salt Lake Crater, Oahu, Hawaii, which are exceptionally fresh. These peridotites are thought to represent fragments of the Pacific oceanic lithosphere that was refertilized by alkalic Hawaiian melts. A few have unradiogenic Os and radiogenic Hf isotopes and may be fragments of an ancient (2 Ga) depleted and recycled lithosphere. Water contents in olivine (Ol), orthopyroxene (Opx), and clinopyroxene (Cpx) were determined by FTIR spectrometry. Preliminary H_{2}O contents show ranges of 8-10 ppm for Ol, 151-277 ppm for Opx, and 337-603 ppm for Cpx. Reconstructed bulk rock H_{2}O contents range from 88-131 ppm overlapping estimates for the MORB source. Water contents between Ol minerals of the same xenolith are heterogeneous and individual OH infrared bands vary within a mineral with lower 3230 cm^{-1} and higher 3650-3400 cm^{-1} band heights from core to edge. This observation suggests disturbance of the hydrogen in Ol likely occurring during xenolith entrainment to the surface. Pyroxene water contents are higher than most water contents in pyroxenes from continental peridotite xenoliths and higher than those of abyssal peridotites. Cpx water contents decrease with increasing degree of depletion (e.g. increasing Fo in Ol and Cr# in spinel) consistent with an incompatible behavior of water. However Cpx water contents also show a positive correlation with LREE/HREE ratios and LREE concentrations consistent with refertilization. Opx water contents increase with increasing degree of depletion and decrease with LREE/HREE ratios which is inconsistent with the incompatible behavior of H. Calculated water contents of melts in equilibrium with Cpx or Opx range from 1.4 to 3.8 wt % which is higher than that of all Hawaiian lavas. Calculated melts in equilibrium with Cpx and Opx have variable but mostly high H_{2}O/Ce ratios (194 to 1146) consistent with those of rejuvenated stage lavas from Niihau and the South Arch volcanic field, but unlike the drier shield building stage tholeiites. Whether the high water contents recorded in Salt Lake Crater xenoliths were acquired before and/or during interaction of the oceanic lithosphere with the Hawaiian plume will be discussed.

Peslier, Anne H.; Bizimis, Michael



Vitamin (B1, B2, B3 and B6) content and oxidative stability of Gastrocnemius muscle from dry-cured hams elaborated with different nitrifying salt contents and by two ageing times.  


The effect of the amount of added nitrate and nitrate plus nitrite to dry-cured hams on the vitamin (B1, B2, B3, B6) content, the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activities and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was assessed in Gastrocnemius muscle at the end of two ripening processes. Five different curing mixtures (Hi-N: 600 KNO3; Lo-N: 150 KNO3; Hi-Mix: 600 KNO3+600 NaNO2; Lo-Mix: 150 KNO3+150 NaNO2; Hi-Mix/Asc: 600 KNO3+600 NaNO2+500 sodium ascorbate, expressed as mg of salts added on surface per kg of fresh ham) were evaluated in dry-cured hams aged for 11.5months (standard process, SP) and 22months (long process, LP). Minor differences in target parameters between the hams due to the process were found. The amount of nitrate when it was added alone or as a mixture of nitrate and nitrite, as well as the ascorbate addition to dry-cured hams did not affect vitamin B1, B2 and B3 contents. The level of vitamin B6 was affected by both the amount and the mixture of salts; the addition of nitrite reduced around 40% the content of vitamin B6, but it was not affected by nitrate or ascorbate. The activity of SOD and CAT decreased with the amount of nitrate and nitrite, while GSHPx and TBARS resulted unaffected. PMID:23811105

Gratacós-Cubarsí, M; Sárraga, C; Castellari, M; Guàrdia, M D; Regueiro, J A García; Arnau, J



Water and salt balance of Great Salt Lake, Utah, and simulation of water and salt movement through the causeway  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The water and salt balance of Great Salt Lake primarily depends on the amount of inflow from tributary streams and the conveyance properties of a causeway constructed during 1957-59 that divides the lake into the south and north parts. The conveyance properties of the causeway originally included two culverts, each 15 feet wide, and the permeable rock-fill material.

Wold, Steven R.; Thomas, Blakemore E.; Waddell, K.M.



[Effect of shifting sand burial on evaporation reduction and salt restraint under saline water irrigation in extremely arid region].  


The Taklimakan Desert Highway Shelterbelt is drip-irrigated with high saline groundwater (2.58-29.70 g x L(-1)), and shifting sand burial and water-salt stress are most common and serious problems in this region. So it is of great importance to study the effect of shifting sand burial on soil moisture evaporation, salt accumulation and their distribution for water saving, salinity restraint, and suitable utilization of local land and water resources. In this study, Micro-Lysimeters (MLS) were used to investigate dynamics of soil moisture and salt under different thicknesses of sand burial (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm), and field control experiments of drip-irrigation were also carried out to investigate soil moisture and salt distribution under different thicknesses of shifting sand burial (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 cm). The soil daily and cumulative evaporation decreased with the increase of sand burial thickness in MLS, cumulative evaporation decreased by 2.5%-13.7% compared with control. And evaporative inhibiting efficiency increased with sand burial thickness, evaporative inhibiting efficiency of 1-5 cm sand burial was 16.7%-79.0%. Final soil moisture content beneath the interface of sand burial increased with sand burial thickness, and it increased by 2.5%-13.7% than control. The topsoil EC of shifting sand in MLS decreased by 1.19-6.00 mS x cm(-1) with the increasing sand burial thickness, whereas soil salt content beneath the interface in MLS increased and amplitude of the topsoil salt content was higher than that of the subsoil. Under drip-irrigation with saline groundwater, average soil moisture beneath the interface of shifting sand burial increased by 0.4% -2.0% compare with control, and the highest value of EC was 7.77 mS x cm(-1) when the sand burial thickness was 10 cm. The trend of salt accumulation content at shifting sand surface increased firstly, and then decreased with the increasing sand burial thickness. Soil salt contents beneath the interface of shifting sand burial were much lower than that of shifting sand surface. 35 cm was the critical sand burial thickness for water-saving and salt restraint. In summary, sand burial had obvious inhibition effects on soil evaporation and salt accumulation, so maybe it could be used to save water and reduce salt accumulation in arid shifting desert areas. PMID:25129944

Zhang, Jian-Guo; Zhao, Ying; Xu, Xin-Wen; Lei, Jia-Qiang; Li, Sheng-Yu; Wang, Yong-Dong



Little Change in Fast Food Calorie Counts, Salt Content  


... JavaScript. Little Change in Fast Food Calorie Counts, Salt Content Researchers tracked popular items from 3 major ... Mundell Wednesday, December 31, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Dietary Sodium Nutrition Weight Control WEDNESDAY, Dec. 31, 2014 (HealthDay ...


Effects of water flow rate, salt concentration and water temperature on efficiency of an electrolyzed oxidizing water generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-factor central composite design was adopted to investigate the effects of water flow rate, water temperature and salt concentration on electrolysis efficiency and separation efficiency of an electrolyzed oxidizing water generator. Results indicated that electric potential (7.9–15.7 V) and power consumption (16–120 W) of the electrolysis cell were not affected by water flow rate, water temperature or salt concentration

S. Y. Hsu



Experimental measurements of water content in crude oil emulsions by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured the water content (0.01%-0.25% w/w) in crude oil emulsions using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). To improve the precision and range of the measurements, we used 1 and 10 mm thick quartz cells. The experiments were performed at 20 °C and the THz wave was transmitted vertically to the samples and detected on the other side. The experimental results suggest linear relation for the THz absorption coefficient and the water content of the crude oil emulsions in the observed range. The linear dependence facilitates high-precision measurements of the water content of crude oil. This suggests the potential of THz-TDS in determining the water concentration in crude oil and borehole fluid identification.

Jin, Wu-Jun; Zhao, Kun; Yang, Chen; Xu, Chang-Hong; Ni, Hao; Chen, Shao-Hua



Mediating relaxation and polarization of hydrogen-bonds in water by NaCl salting and heating.  


Infrared spectroscopy and contact-angle measurements revealed that NaCl salting has the same effect as heating on O:H phonon softening and H-O phonon stiffening, but has the opposite effect on skin polarization of liquid water. The mechanics of thermal modulation of O-O Coulomb repulsion [Sun, et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2013, 4, 3238] may suggest a possible mechanism for this NaCl involved Hofmeister effect, aqueous solution modulated surface tension and its abilities in protein dissolution, from the perspective of Coulomb mediation of interaction within the O:H-O bond. PMID:25325235

Zhang, Xi; Yan, Tingting; Huang, Yongli; Ma, Zengsheng; Liu, Xinjuan; Zou, Bo; Sun, Chang Q



46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section 45...LOAD LINES Load Line Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence River...



46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section 45...LOAD LINES Load Line Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence River...



46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section 45...LOAD LINES Load Line Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence River...



46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section 45...LOAD LINES Load Line Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence River...



Quantification of water content and speciation in natural silicic glasses (phonolite, dacite, rhyolite) by confocal microRaman spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of total water content (H2OT: 0.1-10 wt%) and water speciation (H2Omolecular\\/OH) in volcanic products by confocal microRaman spectrometry are discussed for alkaline (phonolite) and calcalkaline (dacite and rhyolite) silicic glasses. Shape and spectral distribution of the total water band (H2OT) at 3550 cm ?1 show systematic evolution with glass H2OT, water speciation and NBO\\/T. In the studied set

A. Di Muro; G. Montagnacb B. Villemant; B. Scaillet; B. Reynard


Quantification of water content and speciation in natural silicic glasses (phonolite, dacite, rhyolite) by confocal microRaman spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of total water content (H2OT: 0.1–10wt%) and water speciation (H2Omolecular\\/OH) in volcanic products by confocal microRaman spectrometry are discussed for alkaline (phonolite) and calcalkaline (dacite and rhyolite) silicic glasses. Shape and spectral distribution of the total water band (H2OT) at ?3550cm?1 show systematic evolution with glass H2OT, water speciation and NBO\\/T. In the studied set of silicic samples,

A. Di Muro; B. Villemant; G. Montagnac; B. Scaillet; B. Reynard



Evaluating climate change effects on water and salt resources in Salt Lake, Turkey using multitemporal SPOT imagery.  


The main goal of this study is to investigate the dimension of climate change effects in Salt Lake and its vicinity in Turkey using satellite remote sensing data. The first stage of the study includes evaluation of the multitemporal climatic data on the Salt Lake Basin Area, Turkey for a period of 35 years (1970-2005). The changes in mean temperature and precipitation are evaluated for the study area by comparing two periods, 1970-1992 and 1993-2005. In the second stage, the effects of climate changes in the Salt Lake are investigated by evaluating water and salt reserve changes through seasonal and multitemporal SPOT imagery collected in 1987 and 2005. The climatic data and remotely sensed and treated satellite images show that water and salt reserve in Salt Lake has decreased between 1987 and 2005 due to drought and uncontrolled water usage. It is suggested that the use of water supplies, especially underground waters, around the Salt Lake should be controlled and the lake should regularly be monitored by current remote sensing data for an effective management of water and salt resources in the region. PMID:19267206

Ekercin, Semih; Ormeci, Cankut





Secretion of concentrated salt solutions from the nasal region was observed in several terrestrial birds and reptiles. In the secreted fluid potassium usually exceeded sodium concentrations, with chloride and bicarbonate as the major anions. It is suggested that the extrarenal excretion of salts is related to the reabsorption of water in the cloaca, that it is necessary for the production of urine with a particularly low water content, and perhaps was prerequisite for the evolution of efficient cloacal water conservation. PMID:14074841




Determination of salt content in hot takeaway meals in the United Kingdom.  


High sodium intake is associated with negative health outcomes, including an independent correlation with high blood pressure which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. A high proportion of sodium intake in the UK is from processed and out of the home food; this includes takeaway food which is increasing in popularity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate salt levels in popular hot takeaway meals. A total of 411 samples of 23 different types of takeaway meals were analysed. Obtained results show the salt content in these kinds of foods is alarmingly high. Comparing medians (interquartile range) for different meal categories, Pizzas contained the highest salt content per portion (9.45 g (6.97-12.83)), followed by Chinese meals (8.07 g (5.47-10.99 g)), Kebabs (6.21 g (4.01-8.35)) and Indian meals (4.73 g (3.61-6.10)). In addition, significant differences in the salt content between meals within the same category were reported. To enable the consumer to meet the UK's target salt intake, a significant reduction in the salt content of hot takeaway meals should be considered. PMID:22772043

Jaworowska, Agnieszka; Blackham, Toni; Stevenson, Leonard; Davies, Ian G



Characterization of lamellar phases fabricated from Brij30\\/water\\/1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium salts ternary systems by small-angle X-ray scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lamellar liquid crystalline phases composed of either imidazolium salt, the hydrophilic 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (bmim-BF4) or the hydrophobic 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (bmim-PF6), in aqueous solution of Brij-30 (tetraethylene glycol lauryl ether, C12E4) have been assembled at a constant temperature (T=25°C). Their elaborate structures such as the distribution of hydrophobic or hydrophilic parts of surfactant bilayer and water are revealed quantitatively by

Wenchang Zhuang; Xiao Chen; Jinguang Cai; Guodong Zhang; Huayu Qiu



Barium content of benthic foraminifera controlled by bottom-water composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE carbon isotope ratio (delta13C) and cadmium content (Cd\\/Ca) of benthic foraminifera shells have been used to reconstruct deep-water circulation patterns of the glacial oceans1-7. These tracers co-vary with phosphorus in the modern ocean because they are nearly quantitatively regenerated from sinking biological debris in the upper water column. Hence they can be used to reconstruct the distribution of labile

D. Lea; E. Boyle




EPA Science Inventory

Energy efficient dehydration of low water content ethanol is a challenge for the sustainable production of fuel-grade ethanol. Pervaporative membrane dehydration using a recently developed hydrophilic polymer membrane formulation consisting of a cross-linked mixture of poly(allyl...


Discrimination between Oral Cancer and Healthy Tissue Based on Water Content Determined by Raman Spectroscopy.  


Tumor-positive resection margins are a major problem in oral cancer surgery. High-wavenumber Raman spectroscopy is a reliable technique to determine the water content of tissues, which may contribute to differentiate between tumor and healthy tissue. The aim of this study was to examine the use of Raman spectroscopy to differentiate tumor from surrounding healthy tissue in oral squamous cell carcinoma. From 14 patients undergoing tongue resection for squamous cell carcinoma, the water content was determined at 170 locations on freshly excised tongue specimens using the Raman bands of the OH-stretching vibrations (3350-3550 cm(-1)) and of the CH-stretching vibrations (2910-2965 cm(-1)). The results were correlated with histopathological assessment of hematoxylin and eosin stained thin tissue sections obtained from the Raman measurement locations. The water content values from squamous cell carcinoma measurements were significantly higher than from surrounding healthy tissue (p-value < 0.0001). Tumor tissue could be detected with a sensitivity of 99% and a specificity of 92% using a cutoff water content value of 69%. Because the Raman measurements are fast and can be carried out on freshly excised tissue without any tissue preparation, this finding signifies an important step toward the development of an intraoperative tool for tumor resection guidance with the aim of enabling oncological radical surgery and improvement of patient outcome. PMID:25621527

Barroso, E M; Smits, R W H; Bakker Schut, T C; Ten Hove, I; Hardillo, J A; Wolvius, E B; Baatenburg de Jong, R J; Koljenovi?, S; Puppels, G J



Iodine status in pregnancy and household salt iodine content in rural Bangladesh.  


Adequate maternal iodine intake is essential during pregnancy for the development of the foetus. To assess the extent of iodine insufficiency and its association with household iodized salt in rural Bangladesh, we measured urinary iodine and household salt iodine content among pregnant women in early (?16 weeks, n = 1376) and late (?32 weeks, n = 1114) pregnancy. Salt (?20 g) and a spot urine sample (?10 mL) were collected from women participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation in rural northwestern Bangladesh during home visits in early and late pregnancy. Salt iodine was analyzed by iodometric titration, and urinary iodine by the Ohashi method. Almost all salt samples had some detectable iodine, but over 75% contained <15 ppm. Median (interquartile range) urinary iodine concentrations were 66 (34-133) and 55 (28-110) µg L?¹ in early and late pregnancy, respectively; urinary iodine <150 µg L?¹ was found in ?80% of women at both times in pregnancy. Although the risk of iodine insufficiency declined with increasing iodine content of household salt (P for trend <0.05), median urinary iodine did not reach 150 µg L?¹ until iodine in household salt was at least 32 ppm and 51 ppm during early and late pregnancy, respectively. Despite a national policy on universal salt iodization, salt iodine content remains insufficient to maintain adequate maternal iodine status throughout pregnancy in rural northern Bangladesh. Alternative measures like direct iodine supplementation during pregnancy could be considered to assure adequate iodine status during this high-risk period of life. PMID:20977661

Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Christian, Parul; Schulze, Kerry J; Ali, Hasmot; Kabir, Alamgir; Rashid, Mahbubur; Labrique, Alain; Salamatullah, Qauzi; West, Keith P




E-print Network

MANAGEMENT OF GROUNDWATER IN SALT WATER INGRESS COASTAL AQUIFERS C. P. Kumar Scientist `E1 dealing with exploitation, restoration and management of fresh groundwater in coastal aquifers, the key is disturbed by groundwater withdrawals and other human activities that lower groundwater levels, reduce fresh

Kumar, C.P.


Cardiac content of brain natriuretic peptide in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats  

SciTech Connect

The cardiac content of immunoreactive rat brain natriuretic peptide (ir-rBNP) in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The atrial content of ir-rBNP was significantly lower in the DOCA-salt group than in the control group. However, the ventricular content of ir-rBNP was markedly increased in the DOCA-salt group as compared to the other groups. Ir-rBNP level in the atria was negatively correlated with blood pressure, while that in the ventricle was positively correlated with blood pressure. A significant correlation was observed between tissue levels of ir-rBNP and ir-rat atrial natriuretic peptide (rANP) both in atrium and ventricle. These results raise the possibility that rBNP as well as rANP functions as a cardiac hormone, the production of which probably changes in response to increased of body fluid and blood pressure.

Yokota, Naoto; Aburaya, Masahito; Yamamoto, Yoshitaka; Kato, Johji; Kitamura, Kazuo; Kida, Osamu; Eto, Tanenao; Kangawa, Kenji; Tanaka, Kenjiro (Miyazaki Medical College (Japan)); Minamino, Naoto; Matsuo, Hisayuki (National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Osaka (Japan))



Protein, casein, and micellar salts in milk: current content and historical perspectives.  


The protein and fat content of Dutch bulk milk has been monitored since the 1950s and has increased considerably, by 11 and 20%, respectively, whereas milk yield has more than doubled. The change in protein and fat content of milk is advantageous for the dairy industry, as these are the 2 most economically valuable constituents of milk. Increases in protein and fat content of milk have allowed increases in the yield of various products such as cheese and butter. However, for cheese and other applications where casein micelles play a crucial role in structure and stability, it is not only casein content, but also the properties of the casein micelles that determine processability. Of particular importance herein is the salt partition in milk, but it is unknown whether increased protein content has affected the milk salts and their distribution between casein micelles and milk serum. It was, therefore, the objective of this research to determine the salt composition and protein content for individual cow milk and bulk milk over a period of 1 yr and to compare these data to results obtained during the 1930s, 1950s, and 1960s in the last century. Calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and phosphorus content were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and inorganic phosphate, citrate, chloride, and sulfate content by anion-exchange chromatography in bulk milk and milk ultracentrifugate. In addition, ionic calcium and ionic magnesium concentration were determined by the Donnan membrane technique. We concluded that historical increase in milk yield and protein content in milk have resulted in correlated changes in casein content and the micellar salt fraction of milk. In addition, the essential nutrients, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus in milk have increased the past 75yr; therefore, the nutritional value of milk has improved. PMID:23849643

Bijl, E; van Valenberg, H J F; Huppertz, T; van Hooijdonk, A C M



Effects of sugar, salt and water on soybean oil quality during deep-frying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of flour dough components (water, sugar and salt) on soybean oil deterioration during deep-fat frying have been\\u000a investigated. Flour dough sheets made from flour and water were used as the carrier of salt and sugar. Several analyses, including\\u000a acid value, carbonyl value,p-anisidine value, color, dielectric constant, Fritest, total polar compounds and polymer content, were used to evaluate deterioration

Yan-Hwa Chu; Shiuan Luo



Cross-contamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 is inhibited by electrolyzed water combined with salt under dynamic conditions of increasing organic matter.  


Water can be a vector for foodborne pathogen cross-contamination during washing of vegetables if an efficient method of water disinfection is not used. Chlorination is the disinfection method most widely used, but it generates disinfection by-products such as trihalomethanes (THMs). Therefore, alternative disinfection methods are sought. In this study, a dynamic system was used to simulate the commercial conditions of a washing tank. Organic matter and the inoculum of Escherichia coli O157:H7 were progressively added to the wash water in the washing tank. We evaluated the effectiveness of the electrolyzed water (EW) when combining with the addition of salt (1, 0.5 and 0.15 g/L NaCl) on the pathogenic inactivation, organic matter depletion and THM generation. Results indicated that electrolysis of vegetable wash water with addition of salt (0.5 g/L NaCl) was able to eliminate E. coli O157:H7 population build-up and decrease COD accumulation while low levels of THMs were produced. PMID:25475317

Gómez-López, Vicente M; Gil, María I; Pupunat, Laurent; Allende, Ana



The salt content of products from popular fast-food chains in Costa Rica.  


Salt is a major determinant of population blood pressure levels. Salt intake in Costa Rica is above levels required for good health. With an increasing number of Costa Ricans visiting fast food restaurants, it is likely that fast-food is contributing to daily salt intake. Salt content data from seven popular fast food chains in Costa Rica were collected in January 2013. Products were classified into 10 categories. Mean salt content was compared between chains and categories. Statistical analysis was performed using Welch ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer HSD tests. Significant differences were found between companies; Subway products had lowest mean salt content (0.97?g/100?g; p?salt content were observed between categories. Salads had a mean salt content of 0.45?g/100?g while sauces had 2.16?g/100?g (p?salt content was also seen within food categories. Salt content in sandwiches ranged from 0.5 to 2.1?g/100?g. The high levels and wide variation in salt content of fast food products in Costa Rica suggest that salt reduction is likely to be technically feasible in many cases. With an increasing number of consumers purchasing fast foods, even small improvements in salt levels could produce important health gains. PMID:25171851

Heredia-Blonval, Katrina; Blanco-Metzler, Adriana; Montero-Campos, Marielos; Dunford, Elizabeth K



Water Research 39 (2005) 16751686 Electricity generation using membrane and salt bridge  

E-print Network

Water Research 39 (2005) 1675­1686 Electricity generation using membrane and salt bridge microbial also examined power output in a MFC with a salt bridge instead of a membrane system. Power output by the salt bridge MFC (inoculated with G. metallireducens) was 2.2 mW/m2 . The low power output was directly


Comparison of intracellular water content measurements by dark-field imaging and EELS in medium voltage TEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the water content at the subcellular level is important to evaluate the intracellular concentration of either diffusible or non-diffusible elements in the physiological state measured by the electron microprobe methods. Water content variations in subcellular compartments are directly related to secretion phenomena and to transmembrane exchange processes, which could be attributed to pathophysiological states. In this paper we will describe in details and compare two local water measurement methods using analytical electron microscopy. The first one is based on darkfield imaging. It is applied on freeze-dried biological cryosections; it allows indirect measurement of the water content at the subcellular level from recorded maps of darkfield intensity. The second method uses electron energy loss spectroscopy. It is applied to hydrated biological cryosections. It is based on the differences that appear in the electron energy loss spectra of macromolecular assemblies and vitrified ice in the 0-30 eV range. By a multiple least squares (MLS) fit between an experimental energy loss spectrum and reference spectra of both frozen-hydrated ice and macromolecular assemblies we can deduce directly the local water concentration in biological cryosections at the subcellular level. These two methods are applied to two test specimens: human erythrocytes in plasma, and baker's yeast (Saccharomyses Cerevisiae) cryosections. We compare the water content measurements obtained by these two methods and discuss their advantages and drawbacks.

Terryn, C.; Michel, J.; Kilian, L.; Bonhomme, P.; Balossier, G.



Effects of carbon dioxide, water supply, and seasonality on terpene content and emission by Rosmarinus officinalis  

SciTech Connect

Rosmarinus officinalis L. plants were grown under carbon dioxide concentrations of 350 and 700 {mu}mol (atmospheric CO{sub 2} and elevated CO{sub 2}) and under two levels of irrigation (high water and low water) from October 1, 1994 to May 31, 1996. Elevated CO{sub 2} led on increasingly larger monthly growth rates than the atmospheric CO{sub 2} treatments. The increase was 9.5% in spring 1995, 23% in summer 1995, and 53% in spring 1996 in the high-water treatments, whereas in low-water treatments the growth response to elevated CO{sub 2} was constrained until the second year spring, when there was a 47% increase. The terpene concentrations was slightly larger in the elevated CO{sub 2} treatments than in atmospheric CO{sub 2} treatments and reached a maximum 37% difference in spring 1996. There was no significant effect of water treatment, likely as a result of a mild low water treatment for a Mediterranean plant. Terpene concentrations increased throughout the period of study, indicating possible age effects. The most abundant terpenes were {alpha}-pinene, cineole, camphor, borneol, and verbenone, which represented about 75% of the total. No significant differences were found in the terpene composition of the plants in the different treatments or seasons. The emission of volatile terpenes was much larger in spring (about 75 {mu}g/dry wt/hr) than in autumn (about 10 {mu}g/dry wt/hr), partly because of higher temperature and partly because of seasonal effect, but no significant differences was found because of CO{sub 2} or water treatment. The main terpene emitted was {alpha}-pinene, which represented about 50% of the total. There was no clear correlation between content and emission, either quantitatively or qualitatively. More volatile terpenes were proportionally more important in the total emission than in total content and in autumn than in spring.

Penuelas, J.; Llusia, J. [Universitat Autonoma, Barcelona (Spain)] [Universitat Autonoma, Barcelona (Spain)



Dynamics of Confined Water Molecules in Aqueous Salt Hydrates  

SciTech Connect

The unusual properties of water are largely dictated by the dynamics of the H bond network. A single water molecule has more H bonding sites than atoms, hence new experimental and theoretical investigations about this peculiar liquid have not ceased to appear. Confinement of water to nanodroplets or small molecular clusters drastically changes many of the liquid’s properties. Such confined water plays a major role in the solvation of macro molecules such as proteins and can even be essential to their properties. Despite the vast results available on bulk and confined water, discussions about the correlation between spectral and structural properties continue to this day. The fast relaxation of the OH stretching vibration in bulk water, and the variance of sample geometries in the experiments on confined water obfuscate definite interpretation of the spectroscopic results in terms of structural parameters. We present first time-resolved investigations on a new model system that is ideally suited to overcome many of the problems faced in spectroscopical investigation of the H bond network of water. Aqueous hydrates of inorganic salts provide water molecules in a crystal grid, that enables unambiguous correlations of spectroscopic and structural features. Furthermore, the confined water clusters are well isolated from each other in the crystal matrix, so different degrees of confinement can be achieved by selection of the appropriate salt.

Werhahn, Jasper C.; Pandelov, S.; Yoo, Soohaeng; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Iglev, H.



Water, Vapor, and Salt Dynamics in a Hot Repository  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a new model study examining the high temperature nuclear waste disposal concept at Yucca Mountain using MULTIFLUX, an integrated in-drift- and mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic model. The results show that a large amount of vapor flow into the drift is expected during the period of above-boiling temperatures. This phenomenon makes the emplacement drift a water/moisture attractor during the above-boiling temperature operation. The evaporation of the percolation water into the drift gives rise to salt accumulation in the rock wall, especially in the crown of the drift for about 1500 years in the example. The deposited salts over the drift footprint, almost entirely present in the fractures, may enter the drift either by rock fall or by water drippage. During the high temperature operation mode, the barometric pressure variation creates fluctuating relative humidity in the emplacement drift with a time period of approximately 10 days. Potentially wet and dry conditions and condensation on salt-laden drift wall sections may adversely affect the storage environment. Salt accumulations during the above-boiling temperature operation must be sufficiently addressed to fully understand the waste package environment during the thermal period. Until the questions are resolved, a below-boiling repository design is favored where the Alloy-22 will be less susceptible to localized corrosion. (authors)

Bahrami, Davood; Danko, George [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, 1664 N. Virginia St., Reno, NV, 89557 (United States); Walton, John [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University, El Paso, TX, 79968 (United States)



Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on photosynthesis and water status of maize plants under salt stress.  


The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus mosseae on characteristics of the growth, water status, chlorophyll concentration, gas exchange, and chlorophyll fluorescence of maize plants under salt stress was studied in the greenhouse. Maize plants were grown in sand and soil mixture with five NaCl levels (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 g/kg dry substrate) for 55 days, following 15 days of non-saline pretreatment. Under salt stress, mycorrhizal maize plants had higher dry weight of shoot and root, higher relative chlorophyll content, better water status (decreased water saturation deficit, increased water use efficiency, and relative water content), higher gas exchange capacity (increased photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, and decreased intercellular CO(2) concentration), higher non-photochemistry efficiency [increased non-photochemical quenching values (NPQ)], and higher photochemistry efficiency [increased the maximum quantum yield in the dark-adapted state (Fv/Fm), the maximum quantum yield in the light-adapted sate (Fv'/Fm'), the actual quantum yield in the light-adapted steady state (phiPSII) and the photochemical quenching values (qP)], compared with non-mycorrhizal maize plants. In addition, AM symbiosis could trigger the regulation of the energy biturcation between photochemical and non-photochemical events reflected in the deexcitation rate constants (kN, kN', kP, and kP'). All the results show that G. mosseae alleviates the deleterious effect of salt stress on plant growth, through improving plant water status, chlorophyll concentration, and photosynthetic capacity, while the influence of AM symbiosis on photosynthetic capacity of maize plants can be indirectly affected by soil salinity and mycorrhizae-mediated enhancement of water status, but not by the mycorrhizae-mediated enhancement of chlorophyll concentration and plant biomass. PMID:18584217

Sheng, Min; Tang, Ming; Chen, Hui; Yang, Baowei; Zhang, Fengfeng; Huang, Yanhui



Dechlorination of chloroacetanilide herbicides by thiosulfate salts  

PubMed Central

Halogenated organic compounds (XOCs) are among the most widely used synthetic chemicals. Many XOCs are recalcitrant to natural degradation and have become prominent environmental contaminants. One group of such XOCs are the heavily used chloroacetanilide herbicides. We have found that chloroacetanilide herbicides are rapidly dechlorinated in water, sand, and soil by thiosulfate salts under ambient conditions. Structural and kinetics analysis suggests that the reaction occurred by SN2 nucleophilic substitution, in which the chlorine was replaced by thiosulfate and the herbicide was detoxified. Laboratory studies showed that this reaction could be used for removing residues of chloroacetanilide herbicides in water, soil, and sand. Our findings also suggest that some other XOCs may be subject to this reaction. Because common thiosulfate salts are innocuous products (e.g., fertilizers) and the reaction selectively detoxifies XOCs at low thiosulfate levels, this discovery may lead to a new way for safe removal of certain XOCs from the environment. PMID:11943844

Gan, Jianying; Wang, Qiquan; Yates, Scott R.; Koskinen, William C.; Jury, William A.



[Elimination of fluoride in urine during fluoridation of salt and drinking water].  


From 552 ambulatory gynecological patients in different parts of Switzerland the urinary excretion of fluorine was measured. The patients were classified into 4 groups according to origin: (1) 84 women were from the Canton Basel-Stadt. In this city water has been fluoridated since 1962; (2) 139 women from Canton Glarus. In this area a pilot study was under way using table and baker's salt, to both of which 250 mg F/kg had been added; (3) 128 women from Canton Aargau who were using a low dose fluoridated salt (90 mg F/kg); (4) 201 patients from Cantons Aargau and Tessin respectively who were consuming neither fluoridated water or salt acted as controls. Quantitation of ionized fluorine in urine was performed by means of the fluoride ion sensitive electrode in afternoon urine samples, thus eliminating the influence of sex difference and diurnal rhythm in fluorine excretion. The molar urinary fluorine concentration was related to the corresponding urinary creatinine concentration and expressed as mumol F per mmol creatinine. The fluoridation of salt or water was considered ideal when the excretion factor amounted to 6.29 mumol X mmol-1. The most important finding was that the Glarus females excrete higher levels of fluorine than the patients from Basel, though the difference was no significant. The fluoridation of salt with 90 mg F/kg is followed by an increase of the excretion factor from 2.58 to 3.65 mumol X mmol-1. It could also be demonstrated that in Canton Glarus, where salt with higher fluorine content is used, the excretion coefficient remains below the level believed to be toxic in the long run. It is concluded that salt fluoridation with 250 gm F/kg is safe. Furthermore, the excretion of fluorine in the control group seems to confirm that fluorine is a trace element of ubiquitous occurrence even excreted in urine of individuals who deliberately avoid fluorine as an additive to table salt or water. PMID:7112075

Wespi, H J; Bürgi, W



Matrix-elimination with steam distillation for determination of short-chain fatty acids in hypersaline waters from pre-salt layer by ion-exclusion chromatography.  


A method for determination of formic, acetic, propionic and butyric acids in hypersaline waters by ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC), using steam distillation to eliminate matrix-interference, was developed. The steam distillation variables such as type of solution to collect the distillate, distillation time and volume of the 50% v/v H?SO? solution were optimized. The effect of the addition of NaCl different concentrations to the calibration standards on the carboxylic acid recovery was also investigated. Detection limits of 0.2, 0.5, 0.3 and 1.5 mg L?¹ were obtained for formic, acetic, propionic and butyric acids, respectively. Produced waters from petroleum reservoirs in the Brazilian pre-salt layer containing about 19% m/v of NaCl were analyzed. Good recoveries (99-108%) were obtained for all acids in spiked produced water samples. PMID:22226459

Ferreira, Fernanda N; Carneiro, Manuel C; Vaitsman, Delmo S; Pontes, Fernanda V M; Monteiro, Maria Inês C; Silva, Lílian Irene D da; Neto, Arnaldo Alcover



Fertilizer Facts: April 1997, Number 14 Safflower Seed Yield and Oil Content as Affected by Water and N  

E-print Network

Fertilizer Facts: April 1997, Number 14 Safflower Seed Yield and Oil Content as Affected by Water. Research Center Montana State University Safflower is a broadleaf, annual oil seed crop. It is adapted, and foots (residue from oil refining). Safflower is grown as an alternative crop to small grain rotations

Lawrence, Rick L.


Effect of initial hydrogen content of a titanium alloy on susceptibility to hot salt stress corrosion.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of the initial hydrogen content of a titanium alloy on subsequent resistance to hot salt stress corrosion embrittlement and cracking was investigated. A Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V alloy was tested in four conditions: mill annealed (70 ppm H), duplex annealed (70 ppm H), vacuum annealed to an intermediate (36 ppm H) and a low (9 ppm H) hydrogen level. Material annealed at 650 C (duplex condition) exhibited resistance to hot salt stress corrosion superior to that exhibited by material in the mill annealed condition. Reduction of the alloy hydrogen content from 70 to as low as 9 ppm did not influence resistance to hot salt stress corrosion embrittlement or cracking.

Gray, H. R.



Results of water quality sampling near Richton, Cypress Creek and Lampton Salt Domes, Mississippi  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the Mississippi salt basin in southern Mississippi, chemical quality studies of surface water and ground water have been made to determine present water-quality conditions near three salt domes being studied by the Department of Energy as potential repositories for radioactive wastes. Chloride concentrations in excess of 60 milligrams per liter in surface water and ground water in Perry County indicate that contamination could be occurring from industrial wastes, oil test wells, or dissolution of Richton or Cypress Creek domes. (USGS)

Gandl, L.A.; Spiers, C.A.



Water Content of Aluminum, Dialysis  

E-print Network

In the presence of normal renal function, a high concentration of aluminum in drinking water has been implicated as a factor in the etiology of a neurological syndrome in one specific geographical area. The role of aluminum as a toxic agent in other neurological disorders, where renal function is normal, is controversial. Aluminum is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and is normally excreted by the kidneys in the urine. In patients with chronic renal failure, aluminum appears to be of proven toxicological importance. In these patients the accumulation of aluminum in tissues causes an encephalopathy (dialysis encephalopathy or dialysis dementia), a specific form of metabolic bone disease (osteomalacic dialysis osteodystrophy), and an anemia and also plays an etiological role in some of the other complications associated with end-stage chronic renal disease. A failure in the normal renal excretory mechanism accounts for the tissue accumulation in chronic renal failure. The majority of chronic renal failure patients who develop aluminum toxicity are on long-term treatment with either hemo- or peritoneal dialysis; some patients develop toxicity who are only on treatment with aluminum-containing phosphate-binding agents. Aluminum in the dialysate appears to be the major source of the metal in chronic renal failure patients who develop aluminum toxicity. The aluminum content of the dialysate depends primarily on the content

Michael R. Wills; John Savory


Profiling soil water content sensor  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A waveguide-on-access-tube (WOAT) sensor system based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) principles was developed to sense soil water content and bulk electrical conductivity in 20-cm (8 inch) deep layers from the soil surface to depths of 3 m (10 ft) (patent No. 13/404,491 pending). A Cooperative R...


Improved tolerance to salt and water stress in Drosophila melanogaster cells conferred by late embryogenesis abundant protein.  


Mechanisms that govern anhydrobiosis involve the accumulation of highly hydrophilic macromolecules, such as late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins. Group 1 LEA proteins comprised of 181 (AfLEA1.1) and 197 (AfLEA1.3) amino acids were cloned from embryos of Artemia franciscana and expressed in Drosophila melanogaster cells (Kc167). Confocal microscopy revealed a construct composed of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and AfLEA1.3 accumulates in the mitochondria (AfLEA1.3-GFP), while AfLEA1.1-GFP was found in the cytoplasm. In the presence of mixed substrates, oxygen consumption was statistically identical for permeabilized Kc167 control and Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells. Acute titrations of permeabilized cells with NaCl up to 500 mM led to successive drops in oxygen flux, which were significantly ameliorated by 18% in Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells compared to Kc167 controls. Mitochondria were isolated from both cell types and resuspended in a sucrose-based buffer solution. The purified mitochondria from Kc167 control cells showed significantly larger reductions in respiratory capacities after one freeze-thaw cycle (-80°C) compared to mitochondria isolated from Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells. When cultured in the presence of a non-permeant osmolyte (50-200 mM sucrose) cells expressing AfLEA1.3 showed significantly improved viability (10-15%) during this hyperosmotic challenge as compared to Kc167 controls. Furthermore, Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells survived desiccation by convective air drying in presence of 200 mM extracellular trehalose to lower final moisture contents than did control Kc167 cells (0.36 g H2O/g DW vs.1.02 g H2O/g DW). Thus, AfLEA1.3 exerts a protective influence on mitochondrial function and increases viability of Kc167 cells during water stress. PMID:23376561

Marunde, Matthew R; Samarajeewa, Dilini A; Anderson, John; Li, Shumin; Hand, Steven C; Menze, Michael A



Dynamic modelling of passive margin salt tectonics: effects of water loading, sediment properties and  

E-print Network

continental margin to include the e¡ects of submarine water loading and pore £uid pressure. Seaward thinning sediments above aweak salt layer produce a pressure gradient that induces Poiseuille £ow in the viscous salt by Couette £ow in the underlying salt.The e¡ects of water: (i) increase solid and £uid pressures

Beaumont, Christopher


Identification and Control of Pollution from Salt Water Intrusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains informational guidelines for identifying and evaluating the nature and extent of pollution from salt water intrusion. The intent of these guidelines is to provide a basic framework for assessing salt water intrusion problems and their relationship to the total hydrologic system, and to provide assistance in developing…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.


Molecular dynamics study of salt–solution interface: Solubility and surface charge of salt in water  

SciTech Connect

The NaCl salt–solution interface often serves as an example of an uncharged surface. However, recent laser-Doppler electrophoresis has shown some evidence that the NaCl crystal is positively charged in its saturated solution. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have investigated the NaCl salt–solution interface system, and calculated the solubility of the salt using the direct method and free energy calculations, which are kinetic and thermodynamic approaches, respectively. The direct method calculation uses a salt–solution combined system. When the system is equilibrated, the concentration in the solution area is the solubility. In the free energy calculation, we separately calculate the chemical potential of NaCl in two systems, the solid and the solution, using thermodynamic integration with MD simulations. When the chemical potential of NaCl in the solution phase is equal to the chemical potential of the solid phase, the concentration of the solution system is the solubility. The advantage of using two different methods is that the computational methods can be mutually verified. We found that a relatively good estimate of the solubility of the system can be obtained through comparison of the two methods. Furthermore, we found using microsecond time-scale MD simulations that the positively charged NaCl surface was induced by a combination of a sodium-rich surface and the orientation of the interfacial water molecules.

Kobayashi, Kazuya; Liang, Yunfeng, E-mail:, E-mail:; Matsuoka, Toshifumi, E-mail:, E-mail: [Environment and Resource System Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)] [Environment and Resource System Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Sakka, Tetsuo [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)] [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)



Molecular dynamics study of salt-solution interface: Solubility and surface charge of salt in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NaCl salt-solution interface often serves as an example of an uncharged surface. However, recent laser-Doppler electrophoresis has shown some evidence that the NaCl crystal is positively charged in its saturated solution. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have investigated the NaCl salt-solution interface system, and calculated the solubility of the salt using the direct method and free energy calculations, which are kinetic and thermodynamic approaches, respectively. The direct method calculation uses a salt-solution combined system. When the system is equilibrated, the concentration in the solution area is the solubility. In the free energy calculation, we separately calculate the chemical potential of NaCl in two systems, the solid and the solution, using thermodynamic integration with MD simulations. When the chemical potential of NaCl in the solution phase is equal to the chemical potential of the solid phase, the concentration of the solution system is the solubility. The advantage of using two different methods is that the computational methods can be mutually verified. We found that a relatively good estimate of the solubility of the system can be obtained through comparison of the two methods. Furthermore, we found using microsecond time-scale MD simulations that the positively charged NaCl surface was induced by a combination of a sodium-rich surface and the orientation of the interfacial water molecules.

Kobayashi, Kazuya; Liang, Yunfeng; Sakka, Tetsuo; Matsuoka, Toshifumi




E-print Network



Renal excretion of water in men under hypokinesia and physical exercise with fluid and salt supplementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been suggested that under hypokinesia (reduced number of steps/day) and intensive physical exercise, the intensification of fluid excretion in men is apparently caused as a result of the inability of the body to retain optimum amounts of water. Thus, to evaluate this hypothesis, studies were performed with the use of fluid and sodium chloride (NaCl) supplements on 12 highly trained physically healthy male volunteers aged 19-24 years under 364 days of hypokinesis (HK) and a set of intensive physical exercises (PE). They were divided into two groups with 6 volunteers per group. The first group of subjects were submitted to HK and took daily fluid and salt supplements in very small doses and the second group of volunteers were subjected to intensive PE and fluid-salt supplements. For the simulation of the hypokinetic effect, both groups of subjects were kept under an average of 4000 steps/day. During the prehypokinetic period of 60 days and under the hypokinetic period of 364 days water consumed and eliminated in urine by the men, water content in blood, plasma volume, rate of glomerular filtration, renal blood flow, osmotic concentration of urine and blood were measured. Under HK, the rate of renal excretion of water increased considerably in both groups. The additional fluid and salt intake failed to normalize water balance adequately under HK and PE. It was concluded that negative water balance evidently resulted not from shortage of water in the diet but from the inability of the body to retain optimum amounts of fluid under HK and a set of intensive PEs.

Zorbas, Yan G.; Federenko, Youri F.; Togawa, Mitsui N.


Comments on “Electrical conductivity of wadsleyite as a function of temperature and water contentby Manthilake et al.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent paper, Manthilake et al. [Manthilake, M.A.G.M., et al. Electrical conductivity of wadsleyite as a function of temperature and water content. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, in press] presented the results of experimental study on the electrical conductivity of wadsleyite and concluded that the influence of water is small at transition zone temperatures and that a high concentration of water (hydrogen) cannot explain the observed conductivity in the transition zone as oppose to the conclusion originally obtained by Huang et al. [Huang, X., Xu, Y., Karato, S., 2005. Water content of the mantle transition zone from the electrical conductivity of wadsleyite and ringwoodite. Nature 434, 746-749) from a similar experimental study. In this note, we discuss the causes of discrepancies between the results by two groups and show that almost all the differences are due to the experimental artifacts in the studies by Manthilake et al. and Yoshino et al. [Manthilake, M.A.G.M., et al. Electrical conductivity of wadsleyite as a function of temperature and water content. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, in press; Yoshino, T., Manthilake, G., Matsuzaki, T., Katsura, T., 2008a. Dry mantle transition zone inferred from the conductivity of wadsleyite and ringwoodite. Nature 451, 326-329] namely (i) the use of inappropriate method of determining electrical conductivity and (ii) the use of the data from a sample of wadsleyite with a substantial amount of water as a "dry" conductivity. A comparison of electrical conductivity of truly "dry" wadsleyite and olivine shows that the conductivity is similar at the same pressure and temperature. We also show that the use of one frequency method results in systematic errors in the conductivity measurements that explains the discrepancies in the results by two sets of studies. When an appropriate method for determining electrical conductivity (i.e., the impedance spectroscopy) is used and when the results of truly dry sample are used for the background dry conductivity, we find that the influence of water (hydrogen) is large enough to explain a majority of variation of electrical conductivity by the regional variation in water content.

Karato, Shun-ichiro; Dai, Lidong



IR spectroscopy of aqueous alkali halide solutions: Pure salt-solvated water spectra and hydration numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extrapolation techniques were used to obtain pure salt-solvated water spectra from the attenuated total reflection infrared spectra (ATR-IR) of aqueous solutions of the nine alkali halide salts LiCl, NaCl, KCl, CsCl, NaBr, KBr, NaI, KI, and CsI and the alkaline-earth chloride salt MgCl2. These salts ionize completely in water. The ions by themselves do not absorb in the IR, but their interactions with water can be observed and analyzed. A pure salt-solvated water spectrum is easier to analyze than that of a combined solution of pure water and salt-solvated water. Although the salt-solvated water spectra examined have distinctive signatures, they can be classified in three categories: those similar to NaCl; those not similar to NaCl; and MgCl2, in a class by itself. Each of the pure salt-solvated water spectra differs from that of liquid water, though the number of bands is the same. From the Gaussian band fitting, we found that the positions of the bands were fairly constant, whereas their intensities differed. The salt hydration numbers were determined: for NaCl, KCl, NaBr, KBr, and CsI solutions it is 5; for KI and MgCL2 it is 4; for NaI it is 3.5; for CsCl it is 3; and for LiCl it is 2. From these results we found that each pair of ions (monoatomic ions) of the ten salt solutions studied are close bound and form a complex in a cluster organization with a fixed number of water molecules.

Max, Jean-Joseph; Chapados, Camille



Effect of chloride content of molten nitrate salt on corrosion of A516 carbon steel.  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion behavior of A516 carbon steel was evaluated to determine the effect of the dissolved chloride content in molten binary Solar Salt. Corrosion tests were conducted in a molten salt consisting of a 60-40 weight ratio of NaNO{sub 3} and KNO{sub 3} at 400{sup o}C and 450{sup o}C for up to 800 hours. Chloride concentrations of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% were investigated to determine the effect on corrosion of this impurity, which can be present in comparable amounts in commercial grades of the constituent salts. Corrosion rates were determined by descaled weight losses, corrosion morphology was examined by metallographic sectioning, and the types of corrosion products were determined by x-ray diffraction. Corrosion proceeded by uniform surface scaling and no pitting or intergranular corrosion was observed. Corrosion rates increased significantly as the concentration of dissolved chloride in the molten salt increased. The adherence of surface scales, and thus their protective properties, was degraded by dissolved chloride, fostering more rapid corrosion. Magnetite was the only corrosion product formed on the carbon steel specimens, regardless of chloride content or temperature.

Bradshaw, Robert W.; Clift, W. Miles



Content of toxic and essential metals in recrystallized and washed table salt in Shiraz, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background Table salt is the most commonly used food additive. Since most of the salt consumed in Iran comes from mines, contamination with heavy metals is a health concern. The commonest salt purification method in Iran is washing with water. But recently, some industries have turned to recrystallization method. The present study aimed to determine the level of essential and non-essential heavy metals in the table salt refined with recrystallization and washing methods. Methods Thirty eight pre-packed salt samples were directly collected from retail market in Shiraz (22 samples refined with recrystallization method and 16 with washing method). The level of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, nickel and cobalt was determined using Voltammetric method. Daily intakes of lead and cadmium as well as their weekly intakes were calculated. Results The levels of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, nickel and cobalt in recrystallized samples were 0. 30 ± 0.26, 0.02 ± 0.02, 0.11 ± 0.06, 0.34 ± 0.22, 0.15 ± 0.19 and 0.008 ± 0.007 ?g/g, respectively, and also 0.37 ± 0.27, 0.017 ± 0.021, 0.19 ± 0.18, 0.37 ± 0.20, 0.13 ± 0.23 and 0.037 ± 0.06 ?g/g in washed salt samples. The calculated weekly intake of lead and cadmium was 0.216 and 0.014 ?g/kg, respectively for the recrystallized and 0.2653 and 0.0119 ?g/kg for the washed salts. Conclusion All values for toxic metals were lower than the permitted maximum for human consumption as prescribed by Codex and Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. Only 0.8652-1.0612% of lead and 0.17-0.2% of cadmium PTWIs are received via salt consumption weekly. PMID:24398299



Breadboard wash water renovation system. [using ferric chloride and ion exchange resins to remove soap and dissolved salts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A total wash water renovation system concept was developed for removing objectionable materials from spacecraft wash water in order to make the water reusable. The breadboard model system described provides for pretreatment with ferric chloride to remove soap by chemical precipitation, carbon adsorption to remove trace dissolved organics, and ion exchange for removal of dissolved salts. The entire system was put into continuous operation and carefully monitored to assess overall efficiency and equipment maintenance problems that could be expected in actual use. In addition, the capacity of the carbon adsorbers and the ion-exchange resin was calculated and taken into consideration in the final evaluation of the system adequacy. The product water produced was well within the Tentative Wash Water Standards with regard to total organic carbon, conductivity, urea content, sodium chloride content, color, odor, and clarity.



Responses of common and successional heathland species to manipulated salt spray and water availability.  


Coastal sandplain heathlands are a rare plant community in the northeastern United States. Salt spray and water availability are likely important factors determining heathland distribution. Field surveys and manipulative experiments were performed to examine heathland species' responses to salt spray and water availability. We surveyed field distributions of four typical heathland species: Solidago puberula, Solidago rugosa, Gaylussacia baccata, and Myrica pensylvanica. The distributions of two native tree species, Pinus rigida and Quercus ilicifolia, were also surveyed because they succeed into coastal heathlands with low disturbance frequency. We then manipulated salt spray and water in the field and measured species' water status, necrosis, and growth responses to the treatments. Predawn xylem pressure potential and necrosis were strongly affected by high salt spray and low water availability. Shoot elongation was also limited in S. puberula and S. rugosa grown in high salt, low water treatments. Gaylussacia baccata and Q. ilicifolia were particularly sensitive to high salt spray and low water, suggesting that they might excluded be from areas with those conditions. The interaction between salt spray and water availability could affect the landscape scale and should be incorporated into conservation management plans. PMID:21653348

Griffiths, Megan E; Orians, Colin M



Water Balance, Salt Loading, and Salinity Control Options of Red Bluff Reservoir, Texas  

E-print Network

TR- 298 2007 Water Balance, Salt Loading, and Salinity Control Options of Red Bluff Reservoir, Texas by S. Miyamoto, Fasong Yuan, and Shilpa Anand Agricultural Research and Extension Center at El Paso Texas... Agricultural Experiment Station The Texas A&M University System Texas Water Resources Institute Texas A&M University WATER BALANCE, SALT LOADING, AND SALINITY CONTROL OPTIONS OF RED BLUFF RESERVOIR, TEXAS S. Miyamoto, Fasong...

Miyamoto, S.; Yuan, Fasong; Anand, Shilpa


Amplification of salt-induced polymer diffusiophoresis by increasing salting-out strength.  


The role of salting-out strength on (1) polymer diffusiophoresis from high to low salt concentration, and (2) salt osmotic diffusion from high to low polymer concentration was investigated. These two cross-diffusion phenomena were experimentally characterized by Rayleigh interferometry at 25 °C. Specifically, we report ternary diffusion coefficients for polyethylene glycol (molecular weight, 20 kg·mol(-1)) in aqueous solutions of several salts (NaCl, KCl, NH4Cl, CaCl2, and Na2SO4) as a function of salt concentration at low polymer concentration (0.5% w/w). We also measured polymer diffusion coefficients by dynamic light scattering in order to discuss the interpretation of these transport coefficients in the presence of cross-diffusion effects. Our cross-diffusion results, primarily those on salt osmotic diffusion, were utilized to extract N(w), the number of water molecules in thermodynamic excess around a macromolecule. This preferential-hydration parameter characterizes the salting-out strength of the employed salt. For chloride salts, changing cation has a small effect on N(w). However, replacing NaCl with Na2SO4 (i.e., changing anion) leads to a 3-fold increase in N(w), in agreement with cation and anion Hofmeister series. Theoretical arguments show that polymer diffusiophoresis is directly proportional to the difference N(w) - n(w), where n(w) is the number of water molecules transported by the migrating macromolecule. Interestingly, the experimental ratio, n(w)/N(w), was found to be approximately the same for all investigated salts. Thus, the magnitude of polymer diffusiophoresis is also proportional to salting-out strength as described by N(w). A basic hydrodynamic model was examined in order to gain physical insight on the role of n(w) in particle diffusiophoresis and explain the observed invariance of n(w)/N(w). Finally, we consider a steady-state diffusion problem to show that concentration gradients of strong salting-out agents such as Na2SO4 can produce large amplifications and depletions of macromolecule concentration. These effects may be exploited in self-assembly and adsorption processes. PMID:25245596

McAfee, Michele S; Zhang, Huixiang; Annunziata, Onofrio



Discerning total salt contents and surface humidity on building stone with a portable moisture meter (Protimeter) in the region of Petra (Jordan)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water and moisture are some of the main decay agents of building stone and, in general of any stone structure. Several non-invasive methods are used to quantify moisture in building stone, many of them based on the fact that moist stone presents different electrical properties than dry stone. This is the case of resistance-based sensing equipment, such as "Protimeter" portable moisture meters. Although originally designed to measure moisture contents in wood, this sensing equipment is commonly used to measure the so-called "Wood Moisture Equivalent" (WME) in other building materials, such stone and mortar. However, this type of resistance-based sensors pose a degree of uncertainty, as there are other factors that modify electrical properties, such as porosity and salt content. When assessing the overall state of decay of a structure, it might not be crucial, in some cases, to discern between salt and water content: both high moisture levels and high salt content give high WME values, and both are usually related to areas with overall poor state of conservation and/or more prone to decay. However, discerning these two factors is crucial when trying to understand the dynamics of how some decay patterns are formed. This is the case of surface runoff in vertical façades and how it leads to the formation of alveoli and tafoni through salt weathering. Surface runoff and associated salt weathering are among the main decay processes found at the archaeological site of Petra (Jordan) and its understanding is of paramount importance for the conservation of this site. Some "Protimeter" sensors include a capacitance sensor in addition to the usual resistance sensing pins, which allows to measure sub-surface electrical properties. This paper presents results on how the combination of these two measurement modes could be used to discern if high WME values are caused by high surface humidity or by high salt contents in the context of Surface runoff and associated salt weathering. Research funded by AECID (PCI A/032184/10)

Gomez-Heras, M.; Wedekind, W.; Lopez-Arce, P.



Excess Salt Increases Infarct Size Produced by Photothrombotic Distal Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats  

PubMed Central

Cerebral circulation is known to be vulnerable to high salt loading. However, no study has investigated the effects of excess salt on focal ischemic brain injury. After 14 days of salt loading (0.9% saline) or water, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were subjected to photothrombotic middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and infarct volume was determined at 48 h after MCAO: albumin and hemoglobin contents in discrete brain regions were also determined in SHR. Salt loading did not affect blood pressure levels in SHR and WKY. After MCAO, regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), determined with two ways of laser-Doppler flowmetry (one-point measurement or manual scanning), was more steeply decreased in the salt-loaded group than in the control group. In SHR/Izm, infarct volume in the salt-loaded group was 112±27 mm3, which was significantly larger than 77±12 mm3 in the control group (p?=?0.002), while the extents of blood-brain barrier disruption (brain albumin and hemoglobin levels) were not affected by excess salt. In WKY, salt loading did not significantly increase infarct size. These results show the detrimental effects of salt loading on intra-ischemic CBF and subsequent brain infarction produced by phototrhombotic MCAO in hypertensive rats. PMID:24816928

Yao, Hiroshi; Nabika, Toru



Water content reflectometer calibration and field use  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Automated soil water content can be used to help determine upward water movement from a shallow water table. Apparent permittivity determined from dielectric probes is related to more than soil water content for soils high in smectite clays. The purpose of this study was to calibrate and use CS616 w...


Movement of Salt and Nitrate in Shallow Groundwater in California's Central Valley - Large Scale Water, Salt, and Nitrate Balance Calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large-scale analysis of salt and nitrate was performed for the shallow groundwater aquifer of the entire California Central Valley floor (about 20,000 square miles). This analysis combined many different platforms of data in order to complete water and mass balance calculations. Groundwater and surface water quality test data were used in combination with mass loading from a watershed model (the Environmental Protection Agency's Watershed Analysis Risk Management Framework, or WARMF), as well as an integrated hydrologic model that simulates the use and movement of water coupled between the landscape, surface water, and groundwater (the U.S. Geological Survey's Central Valley Hydrologic Model, or CVHM). For this analysis, the Central Valley floor was divided into 22 zones, and the movement of shallow groundwater, surface water, salt, and nitrate was simulated in, out, and between the zones on a quarterly basis for a 20-year simulation period. In this analysis, shallow groundwater is defined by an estimate of the vertical distance water will travel from the water table within 20 years. Fluxes of mass from deep ambient groundwater and ambient surface water quality were estimated from measured concentration data. Quantities of mass were acquired for recharge (from WARMF output) or calculated using concentrations and other water budget components. Flow and volume components were extracted by post-processing CVHM output data. This resulted in a transient water, salt, and nitrate budget for each of the 22 zones. Simulated shallow groundwater concentrations were calculated to investigate water quality trends for the Central Valley. Four zones were identified as areas with the highest concentrations of salt (TDS) in the southwestern portion of the Central Valley; and six zones were identified as areas with the highest nitrate concentrations, mostly in the southeastern portion of the Valley. Additional analyses intended to shift from the large-scale balance calculations to a higher resolution analysis of the movement of water, salt, and nitrate was performed as a 'proof of concept' for two focus areas located in Stanislaus/Merced Counties and the Kings Subbasin, using MODPATH and MODPATH-OBS. Particle tracking was employed for both focus areas to observe the movement of water, salt, and nitrate from recharge zones to monitored wells, or on a cell-by-cell/layer-by-layer basis.

Dalgish, B. A.; Boyle, D.; Kretsinger Grabert, V. J.



[The water content reference material of water saturated octanol].  


The national standards of biofuels specify the technique specification and analytical methods. A water content certified reference material based on the water saturated octanol was developed in order to satisfy the needs of the instrument calibration and the methods validation, assure the accuracy and consistency of results in water content measurements of biofuels. Three analytical methods based on different theories were employed to certify the water content of the reference material, including Karl Fischer coulometric titration, Karl Fischer volumetric titration and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance. The consistency of coulometric and volumetric titration was achieved through the improvement of methods. The accuracy of the certified result was improved by the introduction of the new method of quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance. Finally, the certified value of reference material is 4.76% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.09%. PMID:21650035

Wang, Haifeng; Ma, Kang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Zhanyuan



Anomalous water diffusion in salt solutions  

PubMed Central

The dynamics of water exhibits anomalous behavior in the presence of different electrolytes. Recent experiments [Kim JS, Wu Z, Morrow AR, Yethiraj A, Yethiraj A (2012) J Phys Chem B 116(39):12007–12013] have found that the self-diffusion of water can either be enhanced or suppressed around CsI and NaCl, respectively, relative to that of neat water. Here we show that unlike classical empirical potentials, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations successfully reproduce the qualitative trends observed experimentally. These types of phenomena have often been rationalized in terms of the “structure-making” or “structure-breaking” effects of different ions on the solvent, although the microscopic origins of these features have remained elusive. Rather than disrupting the network in a significant manner, the electrolytes studied here cause rather subtle changes in both structural and dynamical properties of water. In particular, we show that water in the ab initio molecular dynamics simulations is characterized by dynamic heterogeneity, which turns out to be critical in reproducing the experimental trends. PMID:24522111

Ding, Yun; Hassanali, Ali A.; Parrinello, Michele



Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of < 1 ppm in urKREEP. Using these data, predict that the bulk water content of the magma ocean would have <10 ppm. In contrast, estimate water contents of 320 ppm for the bulk Moon and 1.4 wt % for urKREEP from plagioclase in ferroan anorthosites. Results and interpretation: NanoSIMS data from granitic clasts from Apollo sample 15405,78 show that alkali feldspar, a common mineral in K-enriched rocks, can have approx. 20 ppm of water, which implies magmatic water contents of approx. 1 wt % in the high-silica magmas. This estimate is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. However, the Cl and F contents of apatite in chemically similar rocks suggest that these melts also had high Cl/F ratios, which leads to spuriously low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was likely very significant in the evolution of the lunar mantle. Conclusions: Lunar granites crystallized between 4.3-3.8 Ga from relatively wet melts that degassed upon crystallization. The formation of these granites likely removed significant amounts of water from some mantle source regions, e.g. later mare basalts predicting derivation from a mantle with <10 ppm water. However, this would have been a heterogeneous pro-cess based on K distribution. Thus some, if not most of the mantle may not have been devolatilized by this process; as seen by water in volcanic glasses and melt inclusions.

Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.



Narrowly size-distributed cobalt salt containing poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) particles by inverse miniemulsion.  


Cobalt-containing hybrid particles have been prepared through the encapsulation of cobalt tetrafluoroborate hexahydrate (CoTFB) via inverse miniemulsion polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). We systematically varied the amount and type of cosolvent (water, methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol), apolar continuous phase (cyclohexane, isooctane, isopar M, hexadecane), amount of cobalt salt, and molecular weight of the polymeric surfactant. The influence of those parameters on the particle size, size distribution, and particle morphology were investigated. Narrowly size-distributed hybrid particles with good colloidal stability could be obtained in a wide range of cobalt content between 5.7 and 22.6 wt % salt relative to the monomer. The addition of a cosolvent such as water not only promotes the loading of metal salt but also has a positive influence on narrowing the particle size distribution. We assume that generally narrowly size-distributed particles can be obtained for a large variety of combinations of polar/apolar phase by adjusting the balance between osmotic and Laplace pressure via the solubility of the metal salt in the continuous phase and lowering the interfacial tension by adjusting the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value of the surfactant. The results show a significant advantage of the inverse miniemulsion over the direct system with respect to the variability and total amount of metal salt without losing the narrow particle size distribution and colloidal stability. PMID:20112941

Cao, Zhihai; Wang, Zhuo; Herrmann, Christine; Ziener, Ulrich; Landfester, Katharina



Prediction of activity coefficients in liquid aerosol particles containing organic compounds, dissolved inorganic salts, and water—Part 1: Organic compounds and water by consideration of short- and long-range effects using X-UNIFAC.1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The semi-empirical group contribution method (GCM) of Kikic et al. [Chem. Eng. Sci. 46 (1991) 2775-2780] for estimating activity coefficient ( ?) values of neutral organic compounds and water in solutions composed of organic compounds, dissolved inorganic salts, and water is adapted for application to atmospheric particulate matter (PM). It is assumed that ? values are determined by a combination of short- and long-range interactions. The ? expression involves conventional UNIFAC terms and a Debye-Hückel term, with the former computed using group-group interaction parameters. Organic-organic interaction parameters are assigned the values from the UNIFAC-LLE model of Magnussen et al. [Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Design Develop. 20 (1981) 331-339]. Forty interaction parameters (ion-solvent group and anion-cation) were obtained from Kikic et al. [Chem. Eng. Sci. 46 (1991) 2775-2780], Achard et al. [Fluid Phase Equilibria 98 (1994) 71-89], and Ming and Russell [Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. J. 48 (2002) 1331-1348]. Twenty additional interaction parameters (ion-solvent group) are estimated based on 879 UNIQUAC-fitted ? values for organic compounds and water. The fitted ? values are based on liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data for a range of ternary and quaternary organic/inorganic salt/water mixtures at 293-308 K. The UNIQUAC fits are analogous to those described by Fredenslund et al. [Vapor-Liquid Equilibria Using UNIFAC: A Group-Contribution Method, Elsevier Scientific Publishing, New York, 1977]. The LLE mixture compositions range from primarily organic solutions to primarily aqueous solutions with maximum ionic strengths of ˜5 mol kg -1. The groups characteristic of organic compounds found in atmospheric PM considered here include: CH 3-, -CH 2-, -CH|-, -C||-, -OH, -CH 2CO-, and -COOH. These are: single bonded carbon with three, two, one, and zero hydrogens, respectively, hydroxyl, -CH 2-carbonyl, and carboxyl, respectively. The inorganic salts represented in the mixture data include NaCl, NaNO 3, Na 2SO 4, (NH 4) 2SO 4, and CaCl 2 so that the cations and anions considered include Na +, NH 4+, and Ca 2+, and Cl -, NO3-, and SO42-, respectively. The method predicts the UNIQUAC-fitted ? values for all datasets with an average error of ˜20%. In an application of the method, ? values are predicted in an aerosol PM phase containing four oxidation products (from ?-pinene/O 3) and water, without and with 1 and 2 mol kg -1 dissolved (NH 4) 2SO 4. The presence of the dissolved salt can cause significant increases in the ? values of the oxidation products considered, reflecting a potential "salting-out" effect for (NH 4) 2SO 4 on the oxidation products considered. Results indicate an important role played by dissolved salts in affecting the thermodynamic properties of atmospheric organic PM and the utility of X-UNIFAC.1 as a tool for evaluating those effects.

Erdakos, Garnet B.; Asher, William E.; Seinfeld, John H.; Pankow, James F.


Adsorption of benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium chloride at the hydrophobic silica-water interface studied by total internal reflection Raman spectroscopy: effects of silica surface properties and metal salt addition.  


The adsorption of the cationic surfactant benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium (BDMHA(+)) chloride was studied at an octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS)-monolayer-modified silica-water interface by Raman spectroscopy in total internal reflection (TIR) geometry. The present study demonstrates the capabilities of this spectroscopic technique to evaluate thermodynamic and kinetic BDMHA(+)Cl(-) adsorption properties at the hydrophobic silica surface. The surface coverage of BDMHA(+) decreased by 50% at the hydrophobic OTS-silica surface relative to the surface coverage on bare silica; the dominating driving mechanisms for surfactant adsorption were identified as hydrophobic effects and head group charge screening by the electrolyte counterions. Addition of magnesium metal salt (MgCl2) to the aqueous solution (? neutral pH) lowered the surface coverage and moderately increased the Langmuir adsorption constants relative to those of the pure surfactant. These trends were previously observed at the hydrophilic, negatively charged silica surface but with a smaller change in the Gibbs free energy of adsorption at the hydrophobic silica surface. The hydrophobic OTS-silica surface properties resulted in shorter times for the surfactant to reach steady-state adsorption conditions compared to the slow adsorption kinetics previously seen with the surfactant at the hydrophilic surface. Adsorption isotherms, based on Raman signal intensities from spectral analysis, were developed according to the Langmuir adsorption model for the pure surfactant at the OTS-silica-water interface; the modified Langmuir model was applied to the surfactant adsorption in the presence of 5, 10, 50, and 100 mM magnesium chloride. Spectral analysis of the Raman scattering intensities and geometric considerations suggests a hemimicelle-type surface aggregate as the most likely surfactant structure at the OTS-silica surface. The different kinetics observed at the hydrophilic versus the hydrophobic silica surface further indicate that the surface charge and potential influence the surfactant diffusion and kinetic rates of adsorption at the silica-water interface. PMID:23947412

Grenoble, Zlata; Baldelli, Steven



Solutions properties and solute–solvent interactions in ternary sugar–salt–water solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viscometric constants were used to provide information on solute–solvent interactions in ternary water–sugar–salt solutions. Comparison was made between pure water and aqueous salt solution as solvents affecting the behaviour of small carbohydrates. The determination of intrinsic viscosity was made more accurate by applying triple extrapolation of the three equations (Huggins, Kramer and Meffroy-Biget). Results obtained with this triple extrapolation method

A. M. Seuvre; M. Mathlouthi



First data on the uranium content in water of the Yenisei River basin in the area affected by the operation of Rosatom plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is devoted to investigating the content of uranium isotopes in water of the Yenisei River and its tributaries within the territories affected by the operation of Rosatom plants (mining chemical combine, and electrochemical plant). Long-term monitoring of the 238U content by mass spectrometry carried out in two institutes of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

A. Ya. Bolsunovskii; A. M. Zhizhaev; A. I. Saprykin; A. G. Degermendzhi; A. I. Rubailo



Soil water content and evaporation determined by thermal parameters obtained from ground-based and remote measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soil water contents from both smooth and rough bare soil were estimated from remotely sensed surface soil and air temperatures. An inverse relationship between two thermal parameters and gravimetric soil water content was found for Avondale loam when its water content was between air-dry and field capacity. These parameters, daily maximum minus minimum surface soil temperature and daily maximum soil minus air temperature, appear to describe the relationship reasonably well. These two parameters also describe relative soil water evaporation (actual/potential). Surface soil temperatures showed good agreement among three measurement techniques: in situ thermocouples, a ground-based infrared radiation thermometer, and the thermal infrared band of an airborne multispectral scanner.

Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B.; Jackson, R. D.; Vedder, J. F.; Blanchard, M. B.; Goettelman, R.




E-print Network

DESCRIPTION OF THE FRESH AND SALT WATER SUPPLY AND PUMPING PLANTS USED FOR THE AQUARIUM. BY I. S. K was supplied from one of the water mains under the aquarium building at an average pressure of about 60 pounds per square inch, and before passing into the supply pipes erected over the aquarium this water


Interaction of ionic liquid with water with variation of water content in 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6])\\/TX-100\\/water ternary microemulsions monitored by solvent and rotational relaxation of coumarin 153 and coumarin 490  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of water with room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) [bmim][PF6] has been studied in [bmim][PF6]\\/TX-100\\/water ternary microemulsions by solvent and rotational relaxation of coumarin 153 (C-153) and coumarin 490 (C-490). The rotational relaxation and average solvation time of C-153 and C-490 gradually decrease with increase in water content of the microemulsions. The gradual increase in the size of the

Debabrata Seth; Anjan Chakraborty; Palash Setua; Nilmoni Sarkar



Influence of composition and thermal history of volcanic glasses on water content as determined by  

E-print Network

and (Fe3+ )IV in calcalkaline (rhyolite to basaltic andesite) and alkaline (trachyte, phonolite to alkali to an external standard is only faintly composition-dependent for Si-rich alkaline glasses (trachytes for water analysis. Repeated cycles of thermal annealing induce microcrystallization of hydrous trachyte

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Abundance of lanthanoids in rock salts determined by neutron activation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contents of lanthanoids (Ln's) of rock salts have been measured by neutron activation analysis. Original salt samples were\\u000a treated in advance of neutron irradiation so that Ln's were enriched and amounts of interfering nuclides were reduced. The\\u000a contents of Ln's were at ppt-sub ppb levels and were comparable with or slightly lower than those of solar salts. The Ln abundance

M. Yui; Y. Kikawada; T. Oi; T. Honda; T. Nozaki



Estimating foliar water content of winter wheat with hyperspectral image  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of vegetation water content are of great interest for assessing vegetation water status in agriculture and forestry, and have been used for drought assessment. This study focuses on the retrieval of foliar water content with hyperspectral data at canopy level. The hyperspectral image used in this study was acquired by the airborne operative modular imaging spectrometer (OMIS) at Demonstration

Xia Zhang; Quanjun Jiao; Di Wu; Bing Zhang; Lianru Gao



Investigation of indigenous water, salt and soil for solar ponds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The existence of salt-gradient solar ponds in nature is a strong indication that the successful exploitation of this phenomenon must account adequately for the influences of the local setting. Sun, weather and other general factors are treated elsewhere. This paper deals with water, salt, and soil. A general methodology for evaluating and, where feasible, adjusting the effects of these elements is under development. Eight essential solar pond characteristics have been identified, along with a variety of their dependencies upon properties of water, salt and soil. The comprehensive methodology, when fully developed, will include laboratory investigation in such diverse areas as brine physical chemistry, light transmission, water treatment, brine-soil interactions, sealants, and others. With the Salton Sea solar pond investigation as an example, some methods under development will be described.

Marsh, H. E.



Investigation of indigenous water, salt and soil for solar ponds  

SciTech Connect

The existence of salt-gradient solar ponds in nature is a strong indication that the successful exploitation of this phenomenon must account adequately for the influences of the local setting. Sun, weather and other general factors are treated elsewhere. This paper deals with water, salt, and soil. A general methodology for evaluating and, where feasible, adjusting the effects of these elements is under development. Eight essential solar pond characteristics have been identified, along with a variety of their dependencies upon properties of water, salt and soil. The comprehensive methodology, when fully developed, will include laboratory investigation in such diverse areas as brine physical chemistry, light transmission, water treatment, brinesoil interactions, sealants, and others. With the Salton Sea solar pond investigation as an example, some methods under development are described.

Marsh, H.E.



Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (p<0.05) linear relationships were found between the ultrasonic velocity and the salt (R2 = 0.975) and moisture (R2 = 0.863) contents. In addition, the change of the ultrasonic velocity with the increase of the salt content showed a good agreement with the Kinsler equation. Therefore, low intensity ultrasound emerges as a potential technique to monitor, in a non destructive way, the meat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

García-Pérez, J. V.; De Prados, M.; Pérez-Muelas, N.; Cárcel, J. A.; Benedito, J.



Solar Still Part I: Salt Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The water cycle is the process that moves water around Earth. In this video segment, adapted from a ZOOM television broadcast, cast members use a homemade solar still to mimic the natural processes of evaporation and condensation, separating pure water from a saltwater mixture. The segment is three minutes thirty-two seconds in length.


Correlation among Cirrus Ice Content, Water Vapor and Temperature in the TTL as Observed by CALIPSO and Aura-MLS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water vapor in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) has a local radiative cooling effect. As a source for ice in cirrus clouds, however, it can also indirectly produce infrared heating. Using NASA A-Train satellite measurements of CALIPSO and Aura/MLS we calculated the correlation of water vapor, ice water content and temperature in the TTL. We find that temperature strongly controls water vapor (correlation r =0.94) and cirrus clouds at 100 hPa (r = -0.91). Moreover we observe that the cirrus seasonal cycle is highly (r =-0.9) anticorrelated with the water vapor variation in the TTL, showing higher cloud occurrence during December-January-February. We further investigate the anticorrelation on a regional scale and find that the strong anticorrelation occurs generally in the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone). The seasonal cycle of the cirrus ice water content is also highly anticorrelated to water vapor (r = -0.91) and our results support the hypothesis that the total water at 100 hPa is roughly constant. Temperature acts as a main regulator for balancing the partition between water vapor and cirrus clouds. Thus, to a large extent, the depleting water vapor in the TTL during DJF is a manifestation of cirrus formation.

Flury, T.; Wu, D. L.; Read, W. G.



Correlation among cirrus ice content, water vapor and temperature in the TTL as observed by CALIPSO and Aura/MLS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water vapor in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) has a local radiative cooling effect. As a source for ice in cirrus clouds, however, it can also indirectly produce infrared heating. Using NASA A-Train satellite measurements of CALIPSO and Aura/MLS we calculated the correlation of water vapor, ice water content and temperature in the TTL. We find that temperature strongly controls water vapor (correlation r=0.94) and cirrus clouds at 100 hPa (r=-0.9). Moreover we observe that the cirrus seasonal cycle is highly (r=-0.9) anticorrelated with the water vapor variation in the TTL, showing higher cloud occurrence during December-January-February. We further investigate the anticorrelation on a regional scale and find that the strong anticorrelation occurs generally in the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone). The seasonal cycle of the cirrus ice water content is also highly anticorrelated to water vapor (r=-0.91) and our results support the hypothesis that the total water at 100 hPa is roughly constant. Temperature acts as a main regulator for balancing the partition between water vapor and cirrus clouds. Thus, to a large extent, the depleting water vapor in the TTL during DJF is a manifestation of cirrus formation.

Flury, T.; Wu, D. L.; Read, W. G.



Novel wireless health monitor with acupuncture bio-potentials obtained by using a replaceable salt-water-wetted foam-rubber cushions on RFID-tag.  


This paper proposes a bio-potential measurement apparatus including a wireless device for transmitting acupuncture bio-potential information to a remote control station for health conditions analysis and monitor. The key technology of this system is to make replaceable foam-rubber cushions, double-side conducting tapes, chip and antenna on the radio frequency identification (RFID) tag. The foam-rubber cushions can be wetted with salt-water and contact with the acupuncture points to reduce contact resistance. Besides, the double-side conducting tapes are applied to fix foam-rubber cushions. Thus, one can peel the used cushions or tapes away and supply new ones quickly. Since the tag is a flexible plastic substrate, it is easy to deploy on the skin. Besides, the amplifier made by CMOS technology on RFID chip could amplify the signals to improve S/N ratio and impedance matching. Thus, cloud server can wirelessly monitor the health conditions. An example shows that the proposed system can be used as a wireless health condition monitor, the numerical method and the criteria are given to analyze eleven bio-potentials for the important acupunctures of eleven meridians on a person's hands and legs. Then a professional doctor can know the performance of an individual and the cross-linking effects of the organs. PMID:25227072

Lin, Jium-Ming; Lu, Hung-Han; Lin, Cheng-Hung



Impact of the analytical blank in the uncertainty evaluation of the copper content in waters by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.  


Chemical analysts use analytical blanks in their analyses, but seldom is this source of uncertainty evaluated. Generally, there is great confusion. Although the numerical value of the blank, in some situations, can be negligible, its source of uncertainty cannot be. This article discusses the uncertainty contribution of the analytical blank using a numerical example of the copper content in waters by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicate that the uncertainties of the analytical blank can contribute up to 50% when the blank sample is considered in this analysis, confirming its high impact. This effect can be primarily observed where the analyte concentration approaches the lower range of the analytical curve. Even so, the blank is not always computed. Therefore, the relevance of the analytical blank can be confirmed by uncertainty evaluation. PMID:22649945

de Oliveira, Elcio Cruz; Monteiro, Maria Inês Couto; Pontes, Fernanda Veronesi Marinho; de Almeida, Marcelo Dominguez; Carneiro, Manuel Castro; da Silva, Lílian Irene Dias; Alcover Neto, Arnaldo



Road salt turning Twin Cities lakes into dead seas By JOSEPHINE MARCOTTY, Star Tribune  

E-print Network

Road salt turning Twin Cities lakes into dead seas By JOSEPHINE MARCOTTY, Star Tribune March 23 in lakes and streams around the Twin Cities -- road salt. The fish, bugs and other wildlife that live, a primary ingredient in salt, and what it will take to keep urban waters healthy. But the far more difficult

Minnesota, University of


The Salt or Sodium Chloride Content of Feeds  

E-print Network

feed lo%, rlce bran 15%. molasses 14% ground cottorbeed feed No. 6 8%, ground rlce hulls 8%, alfalfa 22116 Corn 20%, alfalfa meal 39%, oats lo%, molasses 30%, salt 1 % 22120 Corn 15%, oats 35% alfalfa and molasses 257 ............. meal 15 Yo...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Lomanitz, S. (Sebastian)



Geophysical surveys for monitoring coastal salt water intrusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical surveys have been exploited in a coastal forest reserve, at the mouth of the river Bradano in South Italy (Basilicata, southern Italy, N 40°22', E 16°51'), to investigate the subsurface saltwater contamination. Forest Reserve of Metapontum is a wood of artificial formation planted to protect fruit and vegetable cultivations from salt sea-wind; in particular it is constituted by a back dune pine forest mainly composed of Aleppo Pine trees (Pinus halepensis) and domestic pine trees (Pinus pinea). Two separate geophysical field campaigns, one executed in 2006 and a second executed in 2008, were performed in the forest reserve; in particular, electrical resistivity tomographies, resistivity and ground penetrating radar maps were elaborated and analyzed. In addition, chemical and physical analyses on soil and waters samples were performed in order to confirm and integrate geophysical data. The analyses carried out allowed an accurate characterization of salt intrusion phenomenon: the spatial extension and depth of the saline wedge were estimated. Primary and secondary salinity of the Metapontum forest reserve soil occurred because of high water-table and the evapo-transpiration rate which was much higher than the rainfall rate; these, of course, are linked to natural factors such as climate, natural drainage patterns, topographic features, geological structure and distance to the sea. Naturally, since poor land management, like the construction of river dams, indiscriminate extraction of inert from riverbeds that subtract supplies sedimentary, the alteration of the natural water balance, plays an important role in this process. The obtained results highlighted that integrated geophysical surveys gave a precious contribute for better evaluating marine intrusion wedge in coastal aquifers and providing a rapid, non-invasive and low cost tool for coastal monitoring.

Loperte, A.; Satriani, A.; Simoniello, T.; Imbrenda, V.; Lapenna, V.



The Effect of Salt Water on Rice.  

E-print Network

sati To carr: me needs n eight ounce bott r glass, a i two so11 (1) Silver Nitra )lye 130.6 ystalized 2 ounces distilled water or (1i;solve 8.b grams in 1000 cc. water. (2) Potassium Chromate. Dissolve 19 grains in 4 ounces tlistil r 1 gm. in 100...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)



Water Content of the Oceanic Lithosphere at Hawaii from FTIR Analysis of Peridotite Xenoliths  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although water in the mantle is mostly present as trace H dissolved in minerals, it has a large influence on its melting and rheological properties. The water content of the mantle lithosphere beneath continents is better constrained by abundant mantle xenolith data than beneath oceans where it is mainly inferred from MORB glass analysis. Using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, we determined the water content of olivine (Ol), clinopyroxene (Cpx) and orthopyroxene (Opx) in spinel peridotite xenoliths from Salt Lake Crater, Oahu, Hawaii, which are thought to represent fragments of the Pacific oceanic lithosphere that was refertilized by alkalic Hawaiian melts. Only Ol exhibits H diffusion profiles, evidence of limited H loss during xenolith transport to the surface. Water concentrations (Ol: 9-28 ppm H2O, Cpx: 246-566 ppm H2O, Opx: 116-224 ppm H2O) are within the range of those from continental settings but higher than those from Gakkel ridge abyssal peridotites. The Opx H2O contents are similar to those of abyssal peridotites from Atlantic ridge Leg 153 (170-230 ppm) but higher than those from Leg 209 (10- 14 ppm). The calculated bulk peridotite water contents (94 to 144 ppm H2O) are in agreement with MORB mantle source water estimates and lower than estimates for the source of Hawaiian rejuvenated volcanism (approx 540 ppm H2O) . The water content of Cpx and most Opx correlates negatively with spinel Cr#, and positively with pyroxene Al and HREE contents. This is qualitatively consistent with the partitioning of H into the melt during partial melting, but the water contents are too high for the degree of melting these peridotites experienced. Melts in equilibrium with xenolith minerals have H2O/Ce ratios similar to those of OIB

Peslier, Anne H.; Bizmis, Michael



Actual evapotranspiration assessment by means of a coupled energy/hydrologic balance model: Validation over an olive grove by means of scintillometry and measurements of soil water contents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryA coupled energy/hydrologic model was applied to simulate the exchange of energy and water in the soil-plant-atmosphere system (SPA). The model, which uses a "two-source" approach to estimate the energy fluxes, and the "force-restore" approach to represent the water balance, was validated by means of evapotranspiration measurements collected via scintillometry and soil moisture measurements collected via time domain reflectometry (TDR) in a Sicilian olive grove. The comparison between measured and estimated fluxes values at an hourly scale showed good agreement. Additional comparisons on a daily timescale confirmed the model's applicability for quantifying crop water requirements. Also in terms of daily evapotranspiration and soil water content values, the obtained results confirmed the model's applicability for those practical applications aiming to quantify the crop water requirement. Moreover, further studies should be conducted to test the feasibility of using this model for long term simulations over a broad range of conditions.

Cammalleri, C.; Agnese, C.; Ciraolo, G.; Minacapilli, M.; Provenzano, G.; Rallo, G.




EPA Science Inventory

The objectives were to estimate aluminum (Al) oral bioavailability under conditions that model its consumption in drinking water, and to test the hypotheses that stomach contents and co-administration of the major components of hard water affect Al absorption. Rats received intra...


Reduction of salt in pork sausages by the addition of carrot fibre or potato starch and high pressure treatment.  


The combined effect of high pressure processing (HPP) (400, 600 and 800 MPa) and carrot fibre (CF) and potato starch (PS) on low salt (1.2%) pork sausages was investigated and compared with high (1.8%) salt sausages. Sausages had a marked increase in whitening with increasing content of fibre or starch, pressure level, and process temperature. The degree of redness was mainly affected by pressure level and heat treatment. An important finding regarding salt reduction was that the use of starch or fibre had more impact on textural properties than the level of salt since Young's modulus and strain at fracture were mainly affected by formulation and HPP. Water binding capacity of low salt sausages was improved to the same level as high salt sausages with HPP and addition of CF or PS particularly by the addition of PS which produced sausages with better sensory properties than CF. The sensory analysis showed that this approach is promising for producing low salt sausages. PMID:22682686

Grossi, Alberto; Søltoft-Jensen, Jakob; Knudsen, Jes Christian; Christensen, Mette; Orlien, Vibeke




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fourteen (14) flour blends of two natural wild type wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) flours, `Nuplains¿ and `Centura¿, blended with one waxy flour sample were characterized and processed to Asian salted noodles. The flour amylose content ranged from <1% to 29%. Damaged starch contents were 10.4%, 7.0%, ...


Quantification of water content and speciation in natural silicic glasses (phonolite, dacite, rhyolite) by  

E-print Network

, rhyolite) by confocal microRaman spectrometry A. Di Muroa, , B. Villemanta , G. Montagnacb , B. ScailletcRaman spectrometry are discussed for alkaline (phonolite) and calcalkaline (dacite and rhyolite) silicic glasses


Effects of soil water content on soil respiration in forests and cattle pastures of eastern Amazonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of soil water content on efflux of CO2 from soils has been described by linear, logarithmic, quadratic, and parabolic functions of soil water expressed as matric potential, gravimetric and volumetric water content, water holding capacity, water-filled pore space, precipitation indices, and depth to water table. The effects of temperature and water content are often statistically confounded. The objectives

Eric A. Davidson; Louis V. Verchot; J. Henrique Cattânio; Ilse L. Ackerman; J. E. M. Carvalho



Xylem Water Content and Wood Density in Spruce and Oak Trees Detected by High-Resolution Computed Tomography1  

PubMed Central

Elucidation of the mechanisms involved in long-distance water transport in trees requires knowledge of the water distribution within the sapwood and heartwood of the stem as well as of the earlywood and latewood of an annual ring. X-ray computed tomography is a powerful tool for measuring density distributions and water contents in the xylem with high spatial resolution. Ten- to 20-year-old spruce (Picea abies L. KARST.) and oak (Quercus robur) trees grown in the field were used throughout the experiments. Stem and branch discs were collected from different tree heights, immediately deep frozen, and used for the tomographic determinations of spatial water distributions. Results are presented for single-tree individuals, demonstrating heartwood and sapwood distribution throughout their entire length as well as the water relations in single annual rings of both types of wood. Tree rings of the sapwood show steep water gradients from latewood to earlywood, whereas those of the heartwood reflect water deficiency in both species. Although only the latest two annual rings of the ringporous species are generally assumed to transport water, we found similar amounts of water and no tyloses in all rings of the oak sapwood, which indicates that at least water storage is important in the whole sapwood. PMID:11598217

Fromm, Jörg H.; Sautter, Irina; Matthies, Dietmar; Kremer, Johannes; Schumacher, Peter; Ganter, Carl



Electromyogram as a measure of heavy metal toxicity in fresh water and salt water mussels  

SciTech Connect

The response of bivalves to heavy metals and other toxins has usually been determined by observing valve position. Since mussels close their valves to avoid noxious stimuli, experimental delivery of chemicals ins uncertain. To obtain constant results plastic spacers can be employed to hold the valves apart. This obviates valve position as an index of response and some other method is required. Electromyography of intact mussels is one such index, giving a simple, effective, and quantitative measurement of activity. Experiments are reported in this article on the effects of added mercury on salt water and fresh water species.

Kidder, G.W. III [Illinois State Univ., Normal, IL (United States)]|[Mt. Desert Island Biological Lab., Salsbury Cove, ME (United States); McCoy, A.A. [Mt. Desert Island Biological Lab., Salsbury Cove, ME (United States)]|[Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States)



Geophysical methods to support correct water sampling locations for salt dilution gauging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve water management design, particularly in irrigation areas, it is important to evaluate the baseline state of the water resources, including canal discharge. Discharge measurements, using salt dilution gauging, are a traditional and well-documented technique. The complete mixing of salt used for dilution gauging is required for reliable measurements; this condition is difficult to test or verify and, if not fulfilled, is the largest source of uncertainty in the discharge calculation. In this paper, a geophysical technique (FERT, Fast Electrical Resistivity Tomography) is proposed for imaging the distribution of the salt plume used for dilution gauging at every point along a sampling cross-section. In this way, it is possible to check whether complete mixing has occurred. If the mixing is not complete, the image created by FERT can also provide guidance for selecting water-sampling locations in the sampling cross-section. A water multi-sampling system prototype for the simultaneous sampling of canal water at different points within the cross-section, aimed to potentially take into account concentration variability, is also proposed and tested. Preliminary results of a single test with salt dilution gauging and FERT in a real case are reported. The results show that imaging the passage of the salt plume is possible by means of geophysical controls and that this can potentially help in the selection of water sampling points.

Comina, C.; Lasagna, M.; De Luca, D. A.; Sambuelli, L.



[Vegetation influence on nutrients distribution in pore water of salt marsh sediment].  


The variations of nutrients in pore water of salt marsh sediment were surveyed in the middle intertidal zone of Chongming Dongtan during August 2007 to May 2008 to identify plant impact on nutrients distribution. The results show that NH4(+) -N and PO4(3-) -P concentrations are lower in pore water of Spartina alterniflora and Phragmites australis zones than in bare flat, and specially, NH4(+) -N concentrations in summer and autumn decrease by one more orders of magnitude. Compared to winter, nutrients concentrations are obviously higher during the period of plant growth, and plant biomass is clearly correlative to nitrogen and phosphorus. Vegetation growth influences nitrogen content intensively. NH4(-) -N concentrations in Spartina alterniflora and Phragmites australis zones are 44.21 and 74.38 micromol x L(-1) respectively, distinctly lower than that in bare flat and Scirpus mariquete zone (340.14 and 291.87 micromol x L(-1) respectively). Moreover, NO(x)(-) -N concentration is one to two order(s) of magnitude lower than NH4(+) -N, and its highest value exists in Phragmites australis zone (5.94 micromol x L(-1)). The results of molecule diffusive flux of nutrients in the surface sediment-overlying water interface indicate that marsh sediment is the source for SiO3(2-) -Si, NH4(+) -N and PO4(3-) -P, and the rank for NO(x)(-) -N (NO3(-) -N + NO2(-) -N), and NO(x)(-) -N flux from overlying water to sediment [16.23 micromol x (m2 x h)(-1)] is higher than NH4(+) -N flux from sediment to overlying water [15.53 micromol x (m2 x h)(-1)]. Vegetation growth accommodates nutrient structure of the estuarine ecosystem by affecting sediment-water interface mass flux and nutrient ratios in pore water and overlying water. PMID:20063731

Wang, Wei-Wei; Li, Dao-Ji; Gao, Lei




EPA Science Inventory

Salt marshes provide water purification as an important ecosystem service in part by storing, transforming and releasing nutrients. This service can be quantified by measuring nutrient fluxes between marshes and surface waters. Many processes drive these fluxes, including photosy...


Modeling of salt-water migration through spod-podzolic soils under the field and laboratory conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assessment of highly mineralized water influence on soils is an important issue in the contemporary world. Various regions with different conditions are exposed to salt-affected soils forming. Salinization of soils is a complex process of the chemical and physical properties changes. Therefore the chain of the laboratory and field experiments should be done in order to assess the main factors promoting highly mineralized water migration. In addition to it modelling is a good way to understand and evaluate main chemical and physical transformations in soils. The chain of experiments was done to assess salt water movement in spod-podzolic soils under field and laboratory conditions. The main goals were to evaluate the rate of salt water movement through soils and to estimate velocity of the desalinization process. Field experiment was conducted on spod-podzolic soils of Kaliningrad region. There were 4 sites measuring 20*25 cm watering with salt water in amount of 5 liters per each area. The mineralization of the solution was 100 g/l. In addition to the salt affected sites, 2 non polluted grounds were assessed too. Soils samples were collected in the period of 1 week, 1 month, 3 month and 1 year after the spill had been done. The samples were taken each 10 cm 110 cm deep and in double repeatability. Main chemical and physical parameters, such as volume water content, pH, conductivity, amount of calcium ion, magnesium, sodium, and chlorite in soils etc. were measured in each sample. The second experiment was conducted to evaluate the rate of soils solutions transformation under the laboratory conditions. Organic horizon was taken from the field and was stuffed in columns with 1.0 g/cm3 density. There were 16 columns with 4 cm diameter. 14 columns were showered with salt water with the same mineralization as in the field experiment. The amount of salt water injected in columns was 104 mm per one sample which is equal to the salt water volume spilled per one area in the previous experiment. Also there were 2 columns as a verification variant contained pure soil. Each column was washed off with different amount of distilled water. The total volume of the pure solution was equal to the mean amount of the annual precipitation in the region of the field experiment. The main physical and chemical properties were measured in soils samples as well in the first experiment. In addition to it the complex assessment of soil's water were made. The experiments revealed the fast rate of salinization-desalinization processes in spod-podzolic soils of the coniferous areas in Kaliningrad region. The maximum values of conductivity were observed at the end of 1 week period and made up more than 2000 mSm/cm in top soils horizons. Furthermore the desalinization of the soils took place in both field and laboratory experiments a year after the spill. The reported study was partially supported by RFBR, research project No 12-05-31088 mol_a.

Ronzhina, Tatiana



Effect of chloride content of molten nitrate salt on corrosion of A516 carbon steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion behavior of A516 carbon steel was evaluated to determine the effect of the dissolved chloride content in molten binary Solar Salt. Corrosion tests were conducted in a molten salt consisting of a 60-40 weight ratio of NaNO and KNO at 400{sup o}C and 450{sup o}C for up to 800 hours. Chloride concentrations of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 wt.%

Robert W. Bradshaw; W. Miles Clift



First data on the uranium content in water of the Yenisei River basin in the area affected by the operation of Rosatom plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is devoted to investigating the content of uranium isotopes in water of the Yenisei River and its tributaries within\\u000a the territories affected by the operation of Rosatom plants (mining chemical combine, and electrochemical plant). Long-term\\u000a monitoring of the 238U content by mass spectrometry carried out in two institutes of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

A. Ya. Bolsunovskii; A. M. Zhizhaev; A. I. Saprykin; A. G. Degermendzhi; A. I. Rubailo



Renal arteriolar injury by salt intake contributes to salt memory for the development of hypertension.  


The role of salt intake in the development of hypertension is prominent, but its mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Our aim was to examine the effect of transient salt intake during the prehypertensive period in hypertensive model animals. Dahl salt-sensitive rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats were fed from 6 to 14 weeks with low-salt (0.12% NaCl), normal-salt (0.8% NaCl), high-salt (7% NaCl), or high-sodium/normal-chloride diet and returned to normal-salt diet for 3 months. Rats in the high-salt group saw elevations in blood pressure (BP) not only during the treatment period but also for the 3 months after returning to normal-salt diet. We named this phenomenon salt memory. Renal arteriolar injury was found in the high-salt group at the end of experiment. Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed from 6 to 14 weeks with high-salt diet with angiotensin receptor blocker, vasodilator, calcium channel blocker, and calcium channel blocker+angiotensin receptor blocker and returned to normal-salt diet. Although BP was suppressed to control levels by vasodilator or calcium channel blocker, elevated renal angiotensin II and renal arteriolar injury were observed, and salt memory did not disappear because of sustained renal arteriolar injury. Calcium channel blocker+angiotensin receptor blocker suppressed renal arteriolar injury, resulting in the disappearance of salt memory. Cross-transplantation of kidneys from Dahl salt-sensitive rats on high salt to control rats caused increase of BP, whereas control kidneys caused reduction in BP of hypertensive rats, inducing the central role of the kidney. These results suggest that renal arteriolar injury through BP and renal angiotensin II elevation plays important roles in the development of salt memory for hypertension. PMID:24980670

Oguchi, Hideyo; Sasamura, Hiroyuki; Shinoda, Kazunobu; Morita, Shinya; Kono, Hidaka; Nakagawa, Ken; Ishiguro, Kimiko; Hayashi, Kaori; Nakamura, Mari; Azegami, Tatsuhiko; Oya, Mototsugu; Itoh, Hiroshi



Effects of harvest date, irrigation level, cultivar type and fruit water content on olive mill wastewater generated by a laboratory scale 'Abencor' milling system.  


Olive mill wastewaters (OMW) were obtained at laboratory scale by milling olives from four cultivars grown at different irrigation levels and harvested at different times. Samples were compared based on wastewater quantity, pH, suspended matter, salinity, organic load, total phenols, NPK, and phytotoxicity. Principal component analysis discriminated between harvest times, regardless of olive cultivar, indicating substantial influence of fruit ripeness on OMW characteristics. OMW properties were affected both by the composition and the extraction efficiency of fruit water. As the fruit water content increased, the concentrations of solutes in the fruit water decreased, but the original fruit water composed a larger portion of the total wastewater volume. These contradicting effects resulted in lack of correlation between fruit water content and OMW properties. The significant effects shown for fruit ripeness, irrigation and cultivar on OMW characteristics indicate that olive horticultural conditions should be considered in future OMW management. PMID:22226593

Aviani, I; Raviv, M; Hadar, Y; Saadi, I; Dag, A; Ben-Gal, A; Yermiyahu, U; Zipori, I; Laor, Y



Enhancement of Cyanobacterial Salt Tolerance by Combined Nitrogen 1  

PubMed Central

Presence of certain nitrogenous compounds in the growth medium significantly enhanced the salt tolerance of the fresh-water cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain L-31 as well as the brackish water cyanobacterium Anabaena torulosa. Among these, nitrate, ammonium, and glutamine were most effective followed by glutamate and aspartate. These nitrogenous compounds also inhibited Na+ influx in both Anabaena spp. with the same order of effectiveness as that observed for protection against salt stress. The inhibition of Na+ influx on addition of the nitrogenous substances was rapid; nitrate and ammonium inhibited Na+ influx competitively. Proline and glycine did not affect Na+ influx and also had no influence on the salt tolerance of either Anabaena sp. The observed protection was not consequent to a stimulatory effect of combined nitrogen on growth per se. Uptake of NO3? and NH4+ increased during salt stress but was not correlated with growth. Intracellular levels of NO3? and NH4+ were found to be inadequate to constitute a major component of the internal osmoticum. The results suggest that inhibition of Na+ influx by combined nitrogen is a major mechanism for protection of cyanobacteria against salt stress. PMID:16666516

Reddy, Bontha R.; Apte, Shree K.; Thomas, Joseph




EPA Science Inventory

Production ecology in southern California coastal salt marshes was investigated by harvesting macrophytes and monitoring environmental factors (substrate salinity, pH, nitrogen, redox, water content, temperature, and tide level) at four locations--Sweetwater River Estuary, Los Pe...


Diclofenac Salts. V. Examples of Polymorphism among Diclofenac Salts with Alkyl-hydroxy Amines Studied by DSC and HSM  

PubMed Central

Nine diclofenac salts prepared with alkyl-hydroxy amines were analyzed for their properties to form polymorphs by DSC and HSM techniques. Thermograms of the forms prepared from water or acetone are different in most cases, suggesting frequent examples of polymorphism among these salts. Polymorph transition can be better highlighted when analysis is carried out by thermo-microscopy, which in most cases made it possible to observe the processes of melting of the metastable form and re-crystallization of the stable one. Solubility values were qualitatively related to the crystal structure of the salts and the molecular structure of the cation.

Fini, Adamo; Cavallari, Cristina; Ospitali, Francesca



A Discussion of the Water Content of Vermiculite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected chemical and diffraction analyses from the literature, supplemented by thermal and thermogravimetric analyses and infrared absorption observations, are utilized to construct a rational model of the water arrangement in natural vermiculites. A super cell is arranged by simple modification of the Hendricks water nets to accom- modate the somewhat higher water contents, indicated by weight loss analyses, and the

W. F. Bradley; J. M. SERRATOSA



46 CFR 46.10-45 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. 46.10-45 Section 46.10-45...Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. (a) Passenger vessels required...Great Lakes voyages, shall not submerge in salt water the subdivision load line...



46 CFR 46.10-45 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. 46.10-45 Section 46.10-45...Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. (a) Passenger vessels required...Great Lakes voyages, shall not submerge in salt water the subdivision load line...



A New Way to Measure Cirrus Ice Water Content by Using Ice Raman Scatter with Raman Lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High and cold cirrus clouds mainly contain irregular ice crystals, such as, columns, hexagonal plates, bullet rosettes, and dendrites, and have different impacts on the climate system than low-level clouds, such as stratus, stratocumulus, and cumulus. The radiative effects of cirrus clouds on the current and future climate depend strongly on cirrus cloud microphysical properties including ice water content (IWC) and ice crystal sizes, which are mostly an unknown aspect of cinus clouds. Because of the natural complexity of cirrus clouds and their high locations, it is a challenging task to get them accurately by both remote sensing and in situ sampling. This study presents a new method to remotely sense cirrus microphysical properties by using ice Raman scatter with a Raman lidar. The intensity of Raman scattering is fundamentally proportional to the number of molecules involved. Therefore, ice Raman scattering signal provides a more direct way to measure IWC than other remote sensing methods. Case studies show that this method has the potential to provide essential information of cirrus microphysical properties to study cloud physical processes in cirrus clouds.

Wang, Zhien; Whiteman, David N.; Demoz, Belay; Veselovskii, Igor



Some characteristics of protein precipitation by salts.  


The solubilities of lysozyme, alpha-chymotrypsin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied in aqueous electrolyte solution as a function of ionic strength, pH, the chemical nature of salt, and initial protein concentration. Compositions were measured for both the supernatant phase and the precipitate phase at 25 degrees C. Salts studied were sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, and sodium phosphate. For lysozyme, protein concentrations in supernatant and precipitate phases are independent of the initial protein concentration; solubility can be represented by the Cohn salting-out equation. Lysozyme has a minimum solubility around pH 10, close to its isoelectric point (pH 10.5). The effectiveness of the three salts studied for precipitation were in the sequence sulfate > phosphate > chloride, consistent with the Hofmeister series. However, for alpha-chymotrypsin and BSA, initial protein concentration affects the apparent equillibrium solubility. For these proteins, experimental results show that the compositions of the precipitate phase are also affected by the initial protein concentration. We define a distribution coefficient kappa(e) to represent the equilibrium ratio of the protein concentration in the supernatant phase to that in the precipitate phase. When the salt concentration is constant, the results show that, for lysozyme, the protein concentrations in both phases are independent of the initial protein concentrations, and thus kappa(e) is a constant. For alpha-chymotrypsin and BSA, their concentrations in both phases are nearly proportional to the initial protein concentrations, and therefore, for each protein, at constant salt concentration, the distribution coefficient kappa(e) is independent of the initial protein concentration. However, for both lysozyme and alpha-chymotrypsin, the distribution coefficient falls with increasing salt concentration. These results indicate that care must be used in the definition of solubility. Solubility is appropriate when the precipitate phase is pure, but when it is not, the distribution coefficient better describes the phase behavior. PMID:18601066

Shih, Y C; Prausnitz, J M; Blanch, H W



A comparison of the coupled fresh water-salt water flow and the Ghyben-Herzberg sharp interface approaches to modeling of transient behavior in coastal aquifer systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A quasi-three dimensional finite difference model which simulates coupled, fresh water and salt water flow, separated by a sharp interface, is used to investigate the effects of storage characteristics, transmissivity, boundary conditions and anisotropy on the transient responses of such flow systems. The magnitude and duration of the departure of aquifer response from the behavior predicted using the Ghyben-Herzberg, one-fluid approach is a function of the ease with which flow can be induced in the salt water region. In many common hydrogeologic settings short-term fresh water head responses, and transitional responses between short-term and long-term, can only be realistically reproduced by including the effects of salt water flow on the dynamics of coastal flow systems. The coupled fresh water-salt water flow modeling approach is able to reproduce the observed annual fresh water head response of the Waialae aquifer of southeastern Oahu, Hawaii. ?? 1986.

Essaid, H.I.



Corrosion of aluminides by molten nitrate salt  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion of titanium-, iron-, and nickel-based aluminides by a highly aggressive, oxidizing NaNO{sub 3}(-KNO{sub 3})-Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} has been studied at 650{degree}C. It was shown that weight changes could be used to effectively evaluate corrosion behavior in the subject nitrate salt environments provided these data were combined with salt analyses and microstructural examinations. The studies indicated that the corrosion of relatively resistant aluminides by these nitrate salts proceeded by oxidation and a slow release from an aluminum-rich product layer into the salt at rates lower than that associated with many other types of metallic materials. The overall corrosion process and resulting rate depended on the particular aluminide being exposed. In order to minimize corrosion of nickel or iron aluminides, it was necessary to have aluminum concentrations in excess of 30 at. %. However, even at a concentration of 50 at. % Al, the corrosion resistance of TiAl was inferior to that of Ni{sub 3}Al and Fe{sub 3}Al. At higher aluminum concentrations, iron, nickel, and iron-nickel aluminides exhibited quite similar weight changes, indicative of the principal role of aluminum in controlling the corrosion process in NaNO{sub 3}(-KNO{sub 3})-Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} salts. 20 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Tortorelli, P.F.; Bishop, P.S.



Effect of initial hydrogen content of a titanium alloy on susceptibility to hot-salt stress-corrosion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V alloy was tested in four conditions: mill annealed (70 ppM H), duplex annealed (70 ppM H), vacuum annealed to an intermediate (36 ppM) and a low (9 ppM H) hydrogen level. Material annealed at 650 C (duplex condition) exhibited resistance to hot-salt stress corrosion superior to that exhibited by material in the mill-annealed condition. Reduction of the alloy hydrogen content from 70 to as low as 9 ppM did not influence resistance to hot-salt stress corrosion embrittlement or cracking.

Gray, H. R.



Water Solubility of Polymers with Salt: the Hofmeister Series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed temperature gradient microfluidic devices that allow high throughput, low sample volume assays to be performed on the folding of thermoresponsive polymers and proteins. These macromolecular systems are insoluble at high temperatures, but become hydrated and unfold as the temperature is decreased in a process analogous to the cold denaturation of proteins. Our assays enable highly precise measurements to be made rapidly of the physical behavior of the polymers. The device is specifically used to obtain data on poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) and alpha-elastin at multiple concentrations in the presence of a variety of ions. The results indicate that the folding process follows the Hofmeister series. This series, which dates back to 1888, is a rank ordering of anions and cations based upon their ability to salt-out or salt-in proteins. It had been historically believed that ions affect macromolecule solubility indirectly through their interactions with bulk water. This idea has been largely disproved by a variety of characterization techniques over the last decade. A new theory to explain the mechanism of the Hofmeister effect, however, still needs to be developed. Microfluidic assays in combination with vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy allowed us to develop a model based solely on the direct interaction of the ions with a macromolecule and its first hydration shell. In fact, the protein folding properties can be related to a few simple factors: an ion's hydration entropy, its effect on the surface tension of an aqueous interface, and its ability to interact directly with binding sights on a protein.

Cremer, Paul



[Virtual water content of livestock products in China].  


The paper expatiated the virtual water content concept of livestock products and the study meaning on developing virtual water trade of livestock products in China, then summarized the calculation methods on virtual water and virtual water trade of livestock products. Based on these, the paper analyzed and researched every province virtual water content of livestock products in details, then elicited various situation of every province virtual water content of livestock products in China by year. Moreover, it compared virtual water content of livestock products with local water resources. The study indicated the following results: (1) The virtual water content of livestock products is increasing rapidly in China recently, especially poultry eggs and pork. (2) The distribution of virtual water content of livestock products is not balanced, mainly lies in North China, East China and so on; (3) The increasing production of livestock in Beijing City, Tianjin City, Hebei, Nei Monggol, Liaononing, Jilin, Shandong, Henan and Ningxia province and autonom ous region will bring pressure to local water shortage. PMID:16767973

Wang, Hong-rui; Wang, Jun-hong



Experimental techniques to determine salt formation and deposition in supercritical water oxidation reactors  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) is an emerging technology for destroying aqueous organic waste. Feed material, containing organic waste at concentrations typically less than 10 wt % in water, is pressurized and heated to conditions above water`s critical point where the ability of water to dissolve hydrocarbons and other organic chemicals is greatly enhanced. An oxidizer, is then added to the feed. Given adequate residence time and reaction temperature, the SCWO process rapidly produces innocuous combustion products. Organic carbon and nitrogen in the feed emerge as CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}; metals, heteroatoms, and halides appear in the effluent as inorganic salts and acids. The oxidation of organic material containing heteroatoms, such as sulfur or phosphorous, forms acid anions. In the presence of metal ions, salts are formed and precipitate out of the supercritical fluid. In a tubular configured reactor, these salts agglomerate, adhere to the reactor wall, and eventually interfere by causing a flow restriction in the reactor leading to an increase in pressure. This rapid precipitation is due to an extreme drop in salt solubility that occurs as the feed stream becomes supercritical. To design a system that can accommodate the formation of these salts, it is important to understand the deposition process quantitatively. A phenomenological model is developed in this paper to predict the time that reactor pressure begins to rise as a function of the fluid axial temperature profile and effective solubility curve. The experimental techniques used to generate effective solubility curves for one salt of interest, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, are described, and data is generated for comparison. Good correlation between the model and experiment is shown. An operational technique is also discussed that allows the deposited salt to be redissolved in a single phase and removed from the affected portion of the reactor. This technique is demonstrated experimentally.

Chan, J.P.C.; LaJeunesse, C.A.; Rice, S.F.



ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY The effects of tree establishment on water and salt dynamics  

E-print Network

ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY The effects of tree establishment on water and salt dynamics in naturally salt an imprint on salt accumulation and distribution patterns. We explored how the conversion of native grasslands to oak plantations affected the abundance and distribution of salts on soils and groundwater

Nacional de San Luis, Universidad


Peptide salt bridge stability: From gas phase via microhydration to bulk water simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The salt bridge formation and stability in the terminated lysine-glutamate dipeptide is investigated in water clusters of increasing size up to the limit of bulk water. Proton transfer dynamics between the acidic and basic side chains is described by DFT-based Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations. While the desolvated peptide prefers to be in its neutral state, already the addition of a single water molecule can trigger proton transfer from the glutamate side chain to the lysine side chain, leading to a zwitterionic salt bridge state. Upon adding more water molecules we find that stabilization of the zwitterionic state critically depends on the number of hydrogen bonds between side chain termini, the water molecules, and the peptidic backbone. Employing classical molecular dynamics simulations for larger clusters, we observed that the salt bridge is weakened upon additional hydration. Consequently, long-lived solvent shared ion pairs are observed for about 30 water molecules while solvent separated ion pairs are found when at least 40 or more water molecules hydrate the dipeptide. These results have implications for the formation and stability of salt bridges at partially dehydrated surfaces of aqueous proteins.

Pluha?ová, Eva; Marsalek, Ondrej; Schmidt, Burkhard; Jungwirth, Pavel



High pressure processing alters water distribution enabling the production of reduced-fat and reduced-salt pork sausages.  


High pressure processing (HPP) was used to explore novel methods for modifying the textural properties of pork sausages with reduced-salt, reduced-fat and no fat replacement additions. A 2×7 factorial design was set up, incorporating two pressure levels (0.1 or 200MPa) and seven fat levels (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30%). Sausages treated at 200MPa exhibited improved tenderness at all fat levels compared with 0.1MPa treated samples, and the shear force of sausages treated at 200MPa with 15 or 20% fat content was similar to the 0.1MPa treated sausages with 30% fat. HPP significantly changed the P2 peak ratio of the four water components in raw sausages, resulting in improved textural properties of emulsion-type sausages with reduced-fat and reduced-salt. Significant correlations were found between pH, color, shear force and water proportions. The scanning and transmission micrographs revealed the formation of smaller fat globules and an improved network structure in the pressure treated sausages. In conclusion, there is potential to manufacture sausages with reduced-fat and reduced-salt by using HPP to maintain textural qualities. PMID:25553411

Yang, Huijuan; Han, Minyi; Bai, Yun; Han, Yanqing; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong



Inhibition of palmito polyphenoloxidase by halide salts.  


The inhibitory properties of halide salts on palmito polyphenoloxidase (PPO) are described. Halide salts have the same inhibitory effect on the two forms of palmito PPO separated by hydrophobic chromatography. Fluoride and chloride ions showed a non-competitive, mixed type inhibition while bromide and iodide ions were found to be non-competitive inhibitors. A study of the Ki for the different halide salts showed that the smaller F- ion is a stronger inhibitor than I- and Br- and that Cl- has the highest Ki value. This suggests that the active site of the palmito PPO is not easily accessible. The inhibition by chloride and fluoride ion was found to be pH-dependent. The inhibitory effects of these ions increased with a decrease in pH. It is suggested that halide ions (X) could bind to either the protonated enzyme (EH) or the protonated substrate-enzyme complex (EHS) to yield inactive forms EHX and EHSX, respectively. PMID:9795866

Robert, C; Rouch, C; Cadet, F



Water Content of Lunar Alkali Feldspar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A report of the first estimate of lunar water from alkali feldspar, which is ~2–3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. We estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+bulk Moon) of 100–1000 ppm.

Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Hauri, E. H.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.



The MODIS Vegetation Canopy Water Content product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation water stress drives wildfire behavior and risk, having important implications for biogeochemical cycling in natural ecosystems, agriculture, and forestry. Water stress limits plant transpiration and carbon gain. The regulation of photosynthesis creates close linkages between the carbon, water, and energy cycles and through metabolism to the nitrogen cycle. We generated systematic weekly CWC estimated for the USA from 2000-2006. MODIS measures the sunlit reflectance of the vegetation in the visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared. Radiative transfer models, such as PROSPECT-SAILH, determine how sunlight interacts with plant and soil materials. These models can be applied over a range of scales and ecosystem types. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were used to optimize the inversion of these models to determine vegetation water content. We carried out multi-scale validation of the product using field data, airborne and satellite cross-calibration. An Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) of the product is under evaluation by NASA. The CWC product inputs are 1) The MODIS Terra/Aqua surface reflectance product (MOD09A1/MYD09A1) 2) The MODIS land cover map product (MOD12Q1) reclassified to grassland, shrub-land and forest canopies; 3) An ANN trained with PROSPECT-SAILH; 4) A calibration file for each land cover type. The output is an ENVI file with the CWC values. The code is written in Matlab environment and is being adapted to read not only the 8 day MODIS composites, but also daily surface reflectance data. We plan to incorporate the cloud and snow mask and generate as output a geotiff file. Vegetation water content estimates will help predicting linkages between biogeochemical cycles, which will enable further understanding of feedbacks to atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. It will also serve to estimate primary productivity of the biosphere; monitor/assess natural vegetation health related to drought, pollution or diseases; improve irrigation scheduling by reducing over-watering and under-watering. These estimates will also allow researchers to identify wildfire behavior/risk: drives ignition probability and burning efficiency; to be used as an indicator of soil moisture and Leaf Area Index.

Ustin, S. L.; Riano, D.; Trombetti, M.



Advances in understanding damage by salt crystallization.  


The single most important cause of the deterioration of monuments in the Mediterranean basin, and elsewhere around the world, is the crystallization of salt within the pores of the stone. Considerable advances have been made in recent years in elucidating the fundamental mechanisms responsible for salt damage. As a result, new methods of treatment are being proposed that offer the possibility of attacking the cause of the problem, rather than simply treating the symptoms. In this Account, we review the thermodynamics and kinetics of crystallization, then examine how a range of technological innovations have been applied experimentally to further the current understanding of in-pore crystallization. We close with a discussion of how computer modeling now provides particularly valuable insight, including quantitative estimates of both the interaction forces between the mineral and the crystal and the stresses induced in the material. Analyzing the kinetics and thermodynamics of crystal growth within the pores of a stone requires sensitive tools used in combination. For example, calorimetry quantifies the amount of salt that precipitates in the pores of a stone during cooling, and dilatometric measurements on a companion sample reveal the stress exerted by the salt. Synchrotron X-rays can penetrate the stone and identify the metastable phases that often appear in the first stages of crystallization. Atomic force microscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy permit study of the nanometric liquid film that typically lies between salt and stone; this film controls the magnitude of the pressure exerted and the kinetics of relaxation of the stress. These experimental advances provide validation for increasingly advanced simulations, using continuum models of reactive transport on a macroscopic scale and molecular dynamics on the atomic scale. Because of the fundamental understanding of the damage mechanisms that is beginning to emerge, it is possible to devise methods for protecting monuments and sculptures. For example, chemical modification of the stone can alter the repulsive forces that stabilize the liquid film between the salt and mineral surfaces, thereby reducing the stress that the salt can generate. Alternatively, molecules can be introduced into the pores of the stone that inhibit the nucleation or growth of salt crystals. Many challenges remain, however, particularly in understanding the complex interactions between salts, the role of metastable phases, the mechanism of crack initiation and growth, and the role of biofilms. PMID:20214404

Espinosa-Marzal, Rosa M; Scherer, George W



Wind effects on water and salt loss in playa lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory behind wind stress induced setup of water surface slope on a playa lake is reviewed. Due to the low gradient of the bottom in most playa lakes (1-20 cm km -1), the advance and retreat of lake waters due to wind stress can expose or cover many square kilometers. It is even possible for the surface slope to exceed the bottom slope and thereby create a "roving" lake. Such water movements can transport lake water over undersaturated "shore" sediments and water can therefore infiltrate and be lost without an increase in lake salinity. This case is demonstrated with data from Lake George, New South Wales, Australia. Such wind effects need to be examined for their relation to the diagenesis of sediments, the composition of the bitterns, and the salt budget of playa lakes.

Torgersen, T.



Salting the landscapes in Transbaikalia: natural and technogenic factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salting the soils, surface and subsurface waters is widespread in Transbaikalia. Hearths of salting occur within intermountain depressions of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic age both in the steppe arid and forest humid landscapes. Total water mineralization reaches 80 g/dm3 in lakes and 4-5 g/dm3 in subsurface waters. The waters belong to hydrocarbonate sodium and sulfate sodium types by chemical composition. The soda type of waters is widely spread through the whole area. Sulfate waters are found in several hearths of salting. Deposition of salts takes place in some lakes. Mirabilite and soda depositions are most commonly observed in muds of salt lakes. Deposition of salts occurs both as a result of evaporative concentrating and during freezing out the solvent. In the winter period, efflorescences of salts, where decawater soda is main mineral, are observed on ice surface. Solonchaks are spread in areas of shallow ground waters (1-2m). Soil salting is most intense in the lower parts of depressions, where surface of ground waters is at depth 0.5-1.0m. In soil cover of solonchaks, salt horizon is of various thicknesses, and it has various morphological forms of occurrence, i.e. as thick deposits of salts on soil surface and salting the surficial horizons. The soil has low alkaline reaction of medium and is characterized by high content of exchangeable bases with significant content of exchangeable sodium in the absorbing complex. Total amount of salts varies from 0.7 to 1.3%. Their maximal quantity (3.1%) is confined to the surficial layer. Sulfate-sodium type of salting is noted in the solonchak upper horizons and sulfate-magnesium-calcium one in the lower ones (Ubugunov et al, 2009). Formation of salting hearths is associated with natural and technogenic conditions. The Mesozoic depressions of Transbaikalia are characterized by intense volcanism. Covers of alkaline and moderately alkaline basalts that are enriched in potassium, sodium, carbon dioxide, fluorine, chlorine, sulphur, strontium, lithium, molybdenum, nickel, and vanadium are widely spread there. Geochemical habit of basalts largely determines chemical compositions of waters and mineral formations in hearths of salting. Unloading the fissure-vein waters that evacuate solute from the Jurassic-Cretaceous volcanogenic-sedimentary deposits greatly effects chemical composition in some hearths of salting. Irrigation systems in many intermountain depressions influence the salting hearth formation. The associated secondary salting occurs as spots in the areas, where ground water surface reaches foot of loams during irrigation. Salting the landscapes takes out big areas of fertile lands from agricultural use, threatens with breakdowns at enterprises of thermal energetic that consume water as heat carrier.

Peryazeva, E. G.; Plyusnin, A. M.; Chinavlev, A. M.



Experimental Demonstration of the Stabilization of Colloids by Addition of Salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a general non-Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek method to stabilize colloids in liquids. By this method, colloidal particles that initially form unstable suspension and sediment from the liquid are stabilized by the addition of salt to the suspending liquid. Yet, the salt is not expected to adsorb or directly interact with the surface of the colloids. For the method to work, the liquid should be a mixture, and the salt needs to be antagonistic such that each ion is preferentially solvated by a different component of the mixture. The stabilization may depend on the salt content, mixture composition, or distance from the mixture's coexistence line.

Samin, Sela; Hod, Manuela; Melamed, Eitan; Gottlieb, Moshe; Tsori, Yoav



Quantum Calculations on Salt Bridges with Water: Potentials, Structure, and Properties  

SciTech Connect

Salt bridges are electrostatic links between acidic and basic amino acids in a protein; quantum calculations are used here to determine the energetics and other properties of one form of these species, in the presence of water molecules. The acidic groups are carboxylic acids (aspartic and glutamic acids); proteins have two bases with pK above physiological pH: one, arginine, with a guanidinium basic group, the other lysine, which is a primary amine. Only arginine is modeled here, by ethyl guanidinium, while propionic acid is used as a model for either carboxylic acid. The salt bridges are accompanied by 0-12 water molecules; for each of the 13 systems, the energy-bond distance relation, natural bond orbitals (NBO), frequency calculations allowing thermodynamic corrections to room temperature, and dielectric constant dependence, were all calculated. The water molecules were found to arrange themselves in hydrogen bonded rings anchored to the oxygens of the salt bridge components. This was not surprising in itself, but it was found that the rings lead to a periodicity in the energy, and to a 'water addition' rule. The latter shows that the initial rings, with four oxygen atoms, become five member rings when an additional water molecule becomes available, with the additional water filling in at the bond with the lowest Wiberg index, as calculated using NBO. The dielectric constant dependence is the expected hyperbola, and the fit of the energy to the inverse dielectric constant is determined. There is an energy periodicity related to ring formation upon addition of water molecules. When 10 water molecules have been added, all spaces near the salt bridge are filled, completing the first hydration shell, and a second shell starts to form. The potentials associated with salt bridges depend on their hydration, and potentials assigned without regard to local hydration are likely to cause errors as large as or larger than kBT, thus suggesting a serious problem if these potentials are used in Molecular Dynamics simulations.

Liao, Sing; Green, Michael E.



Transpiring wall supercritical water oxidation reactor salt deposition studies  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has teamed with Foster Wheeler Development Corp. and GenCorp, Aerojet to develop and evaluate a new supercritical water oxidation reactor design using a transpiring wall liner. In the design, pure water is injected through small pores in the liner wall to form a protective boundary layer that inhibits salt deposition and corrosion, effects that interfere with system performance. The concept was tested at Sandia on a laboratory-scale transpiring wall reactor that is a 1/4 scale model of a prototype plant being designed for the Army to destroy colored smoke and dye at Pine Bluff Arsenal in Arkansas. During the tests, a single-phase pressurized solution of sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) was heated to supercritical conditions, causing the salt to precipitate out as a fine solid. On-line diagnostics and post-test observation allowed us to characterize reactor performance at different flow and temperature conditions. Tests with and without the protective boundary layer demonstrated that wall transpiration provides significant protection against salt deposition. Confirmation tests were run with one of the dyes that will be processed in the Pine Bluff facility. The experimental techniques, results, and conclusions are discussed.

Haroldsen, B.L.; Mills, B.E.; Ariizumi, D.Y.; Brown, B.G. [and others



Potential water-quality effects from iron cyanide anticaking agents in road salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-soluble iron cyanide compounds are widely used as anticaking agents in road salt, which creates potential contamination of surface and groundwater with these compounds when the salt dissolves and is washed off roads in runoff. This paper presents a summary of available information on iron cyanide use in road salt and its potential effects on water quality. Also, estimates of

M. G. Paschka; R. S. Ghosh; D. A. Dzombak



17O NMR and Raman spectra of water with different calcium salts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

17O NMR and Raman spectra of water with different calcium salts have been measured. Different water samples were prepared by adding nano-materials, calcium gluconate, calcium citrate and calcium chloride into distilled water. Both 17O NMR and Raman spectra of different water samples were recorded. The effects of temperature and time on 17O NMR line-width of different water samples were analyzed as well. The experimental results showed that Raman spectra of water with these four calcium salts were almost the same as those for distilled water when the temperature increased to 40 °C. The 17O NMR line-width of distilled water decreased from 76.8 Hz to 46.9 Hz and 65.8 Hz after nano-materials and calcium chloride were added, respectively. Besides, the 17O NMR line-width of distilled water increased from 76.8 Hz to 131.6 Hz after calcium citrate was added, while the 17O NMR line-width of distilled water increased from 76.8 Hz to 77.2 Hz after calcium gluconate was added. The 17O NMR line-width of water with calcium chloride increased while the other three water samples were nearly stable as the temperature increased from 30 °C to 85 °C. The 17O NMR line-width of water with nano-materials kept steady while the 17O NMR line-width of the other three water samples all increased in 42 days.

Yan, Ying; Ou, Xiao-xia; Zhang, Hui-ping



Analysis of salt effects on solubility of noble gases in water using the reference interaction site model theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed robust and very efficient algorithms for solving the reference interaction site model (RISM) equations for salt solutions in the bulk and near a solute atom of noble gases. The theory of dielectric consistency recently developed for solutions at finite salt concentrations is employed in the formalism. The change in water structure in the bulk caused by addition

Masahiro Kinoshita; Fumio Hirata



Water content and structure in malignant and benign skin tumours  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of the low frequency region of Raman spectra enables determination of water structure. It has been previously demonstrated by various techniques that water content and possibly also the water structure is altered in some malignant tumours. To further elucidate possible change in water structure in tumours we performed NIR FT Raman spectroscopy on biopsies from selected benign and malignant skin tumours (benign: seborrheic keratosis, pigmented nevi; malignant: malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma). We did not observe any differences in water content between malignant and benign skin tumours with an exception of seborrheic keratosis, in which the water content was decreased. Increase in the tetrahedral (free) water was found in malignant skin tumours and sun-damaged skin relative to normal young skin and benign skin tumours. This finding may add to the understanding of molecular alterations in cancer.

Gniadecka, M.; Nielsen, O. F.; Wulf, H. C.



Effects of salt secretion on psychrometric determinations of water potential of cotton leaves.  


Thermocouple psychrometers gave lower estimates of water potential of cotton leaves than did a pressure chamber. This difference was considerable for turgid leaves, but progressively decreased for leaves with lower water potentials and fell to zero at water potentials below about -10 bars. The conductivity of washings from cotton leaves removed from the psychrometric equilibration chambers was related to the magnitude of this discrepancy in water potential, indicating that the discrepancy is due to salts on the leaf surface which make the psychrometric estimates too low. This error, which may be as great as 400 to 500%, cannot be eliminated by washing the leaves because salts may be secreted during the equilibration period. Therefore, a thermocouple psychrometer is not suitable for measuring the water potential of cotton leaves when it is above about -10 bars. PMID:16656895

Klepper, B; Barrs, H D



Verification of Ground Penetrating Radar for Soil Water Content Measuring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatially distributed water at the land surface is a vital natural resource for human being and ecosystems. Soil water content at vadose zone at regional scale controls exchange of moisture and energy between Earth surface and atmosphere, at the catchment scale - the separation of precipitation into infiltration, runoff and evapotranspiration, at the field scale - plant growing, at the small plot scale - pathway of water flow through soil profile. Hydrologist, agronomists, soil scientists and others looking for technology providing soil water content measurements across a range of spatial range. Ground penetrating radar is not destructive method of measurement for diverse application was tested in the field for mapping a spatial distribution of soil water content during infiltration event at chestnut soil of Saratov Region, Russia. A Common-MidPoint method was used to calibrate GPR OKO with a 400 MHz antenna. At experimental plot of 50x50 m a range of 36 boreholes equipped by vertical access tubes (10 distance between) for TDR PR2 with 4 predefined depths of soil moisture measurements was prepared. TDR PR2 equipment used for measurements was calibrated on special experimental setup with soil from plot. Data sets of parallel measurements of soil water content by TDR at 4 depths of borehole locations and GPR at trace lines along ranges of boreholes were used to produce soil water content maps with geo-statistical methods. Keywords: GPR, TDR, soil water content

Ermolaeva, O.; Zeiliguer, A.



Interferometric tomography of fuel cells for monitoring membrane water content  

E-print Network

We have developed a system that uses two 1D interferometric phase projections for reconstruction of 2D water content changes over time in situ in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system. By modifying the filtered ...

Waller, Laura


First data on the uranium content in water of the Yenisei River basin in the area affected by the operation of Rosatom plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is devoted to investigating the content of uranium isotopes in water of the Yenisei River and its tributaries within the territories affected by the operation of Rosatom plants (mining chemical combine, and electrochemical plant). Long-term monitoring of the 238U content by mass spectrometry carried out in two institutes of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences first revealed the multiple excess of 238U over the background content in different areas of the Yenisei River basin, such as the region of the Yenisei River near the effluents of the mining and chemical combine (MCC), and the territories of the Bol'shaya Tel' and Kan rivers. In these regions, the 238U content in water reaches 2.1-4.0 ?g/l, which exceeds its content upstream from the MCC (0.3-0.6 ?g/l) by almost an order of magnitude. The studies of the isotopic composition of uranium in water samples, which were carried out at the Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, showed the presence of a technogenic isotope of uranium 236U in the samples from the Bolshaya Tel' River and revealed the deviation of the isotope ratio 238U/235U (167 ± 3 and 177 ± 3) from the equilibrium natural ratio (238U/235U = 138). These facts attest to the technogenic origin of part of the uranium in water of the Bol'shaya Tel' River connected with the activity of MCC. The excess uranium content in the Kan River requires additional studies to ascertain the fraction of uranium of technogenic origin connected with the activity of the electrochemical plant (ECP) (Fig. 1, Table 4).

Bolsunovskii, A. Ya.; Zhizhaev, A. M.; Saprykin, A. I.; Degermendzhi, A. G.; Rubailo, A. I.



Salicylic Acid Alleviates the Adverse Effects of Salt Stress in Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii Seedlings by Activating Photosynthesis and Enhancing Antioxidant Systems  

PubMed Central

Background Salt stress is a major factor limiting plant growth and productivity. Salicylic acid (SA) has been shown to ameliorate the adverse effects of environmental stress on plants. To investigate the protective role of SA in ameliorating salt stress on Torreya grandis (T. grandis) trees, a pot experiment was conducted to analyze the biomass, relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll content, net photosynthesis (Pn), gas exchange parameters, relative leakage conductivity (REC), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) of T. grandis under 0.2% and 0.4% NaCl conditions with and without SA. Methodology/Principal Findings The exposure of T. grandis seedlings to salt conditions resulted in reduced growth rates, which were associated with decreases in RWC and Pn and increases in REC and MDA content. The foliar application of SA effectively increased the chlorophyll (chl (a+b)) content, RWC, net CO2 assimilation rates (Pn), and proline content, enhanced the activities of SOD, CAT and POD, and minimized the increases in the REC and MDA content. These changes increased the capacity of T. grandis in acclimating to salt stress and thus increased the shoot and root dry matter. However, when the plants were under 0% and 0.2% NaCl stress, the dry mass of the shoots and roots did not differ significantly between SA-treated plants and control plants. Conclusions SA induced the salt tolerance and increased the biomass of T. grandis cv. by enhancing the chlorophyll content and activity of antioxidative enzymes, activating the photosynthetic process, and alleviating membrane injury. A better understanding about the effect of salt stress in T. grandis is vital, in order gain knowledge over expanding the plantations to various regions and also for the recovery of T. grandis species in the future. PMID:25302987

Du, Xuhua; Tang, Hui; Shen, Chaohua; Wu, Jiasheng



Geophysical methods to support correct water sampling locations for salt dilution gauging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve water management design, particularly in irrigation areas, it is important to evaluate the baseline state of the water resources, including canal discharge. Salt dilution gauging is a traditional and well-documented technique in this respect. The complete mixing of salt used for dilution gauging is required; this condition is difficult to test or verify and, if not fulfilled, is the largest source of uncertainty in the discharge calculation. In this paper, a geophysical technique (FERT, fast electrical resistivity tomography) is proposed for imaging the distribution of the salt plume used for dilution gauging at every point along a sampling cross section. With this imaging, complete mixing can be verified. If the mixing is not complete, the image created by FERT can also provide a possible guidance for selecting water-sampling locations in the sampling cross section. A water multi-sampling system prototype aimed to potentially take into account concentration variability is also proposed and tested. The results reported in the paper show that FERT provides a three-dimensional image of the dissolved salt plume and that this can potentially help in the selection of water sampling points.

Comina, C.; Lasagna, M.; De Luca, D. A.; Sambuelli, L.



Ammonium salts of polymaleic acids and use as corrosion inhibitors in water-in-oil emulsions  

SciTech Connect

The subject invention relates to salts of polymaleic acids having a molecular weight between 200 and 1500 and to their use in preventing the corrosion of metal caused by hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide in water-in-oil emulsions such as crude oil.

Oppenlaender, K.; Barthold, K.; Stork, K.



Conversion of an Aziridine to an Oxazolidinone Using a Salt and Carbon Dioxide in Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A convenient, inexpensive, environment friendly, and regioselective conversion of an aziridine to an oxazolidinone is developed by using iodide salt and CO[2] in water. A description is provided, on the way in which this series of experiments will show students how to change experimental conditions to obtain mainly one desired regiosomer of a…

Wallace, Justin R.; Lieberman, Deborah L.; Hancock, Matthew T.; Pinhas, Allan R.



MFR PAPER 1255 Use of Salt (NaCI) Water to Reduce Mortality of Chinook Salmon  

E-print Network

MFR PAPER 1255 Use of Salt (NaCI) Water to Reduce Mortality of Chinook Salmon Smolts, Oncorhynchus salmon and trout by capturing them at an upriver dam, transporting them around a series of dams gairdneri. However, the mortality of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, immediately following


Single Location Doublet Well to Reduce Salt-Water Encroachment: Phase I-Numerical Simulation  

E-print Network

C. E. Jacob received patents in 1965 for a single location well doublet that would produce fresh water overlying salt-water without upconing of the heavier salt-water and pollution of the fresh water zone. No known evaluation of the concept...

Reddell, D. L.


Soil water content and infiltration in agroforestry buffer strips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry practices are receiving increased attention in temperate zones due to their environmental and economic benefits.\\u000a To test the hypothesis that agroforestry buffers reduce runoff by increased infiltration, water use, and water storage; profile\\u000a water content and soil water infiltration were measured for a Putnam soil (fine, smectitic, mesic Vertic Albaqualf). The watershed\\u000a was under no-till management with a corn

Stephen H. Anderson; Ranjith P. Udawatta; Tshepiso Seobi; Harold E. Garrett



Salt Tracer and Area-Velocity Water Discharge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students spend a 50-minute class (or longer) measuring water discharge of a local stream. They use two different techniques: the traditional area-velocity method and a salt-tracer method. In the classroom, each student using Excel or Kaleidagraph to calculate discharge from field measurements. They summarize their results in an essay, and assess differences between the two techniques and potential sources of error. Designed for a geomorphology course Designed for an introductory geology course Addresses student fear of quantitative aspect and/or inadequate quantitative skills

Riihimaki, Catherine


The Effect of Salt Stoichiometry on Protein-Salt Interactions Determined by Ternary Diffusion in Aqueous Solutions  

E-print Network

The Effect of Salt Stoichiometry on Protein-Salt Interactions Determined by Ternary Diffusion of salt stoichiometry on the transport properties of lysozyme-salt aqueous mixtures. We find that the two cross-diffusion coefficients are very sensitive to salt stoichiometry. One of the cross

Annunziata, Onofrio


Correlation among cirrus ice content, water vapor and temperature in the TTL as observed by CALIPSO and Aura\\/MLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water vapor in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) has a significant radiative cooling effect on the Earth's climate system. As a source for cirrus clouds, however, it can also indirectly produce infrared heating. The amount of water vapor in the TTL is strongly controlled by temperature (correlation r=0.94) with a seasonal cycle of ~1-2 ppm vmr in amplitude at 100

T. Flury; D. L. Wu; W. G. Read



Salts drive controllable multilayered upright assembly of amyloid-like peptides at mica/water interface.  


Surface-assisted self-assembly of amyloid-like peptides has received considerable interest in both amyloidosis research and nanotechnology in recent years. Despite extensive studies, some controlling factors, such as salts, are still not well understood, even though it is known that some salts can promote peptide self-assemblies through the so-called "salting-out" effect. However, they are usually noncontrollable, disordered, amorphous aggregates. Here, we show via a combined experimental and theoretical approach that a conserved consensus peptide NH2-VGGAVVAGV-CONH2 (GAV-9) (from representative amyloidogenic proteins) can self-assemble into highly ordered, multilayered nanofilaments, with surprising all-upright conformations, under high-salt concentrations. Our atomic force microscopy images also demonstrate that the vertical stacking of multiple layers is highly controllable by tuning the ionic strength, such as from 0 mM (monolayer) to 100 mM (mainly double layer), and to 250 mM MgCl2 (double, triple, quadruple, and quintuple layers). Our atomistic molecular dynamics simulations then reveal that these individual layers have very different internal nanostructures, with parallel ?-sheets in the first monolayer but antiparallel ?-sheets in the subsequent upper layers due to their different microenvironment. Further studies show that the growth of multilayered, all-upright nanostructures is a common phenomenon for GAV-9 at the mica/water interface, under a variety of salt types and a wide range of salt concentrations. PMID:23650355

Dai, Bin; Kang, Seung-gu; Huynh, Tien; Lei, Haozhi; Castelli, Matteo; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Ruhong



Salt spray differentially affects water status, necrosis, and growth in coastal sandplain heathland species.  


Sandplain heathlands are disturbance-dependent plant communities that occur infrequently in coastal areas of the northeastern United States. We hypothesize that salt spray plays a role in maintaining the composition of the heathland community by excluding salt-intolerant species close to the ocean. We examined the distributions of Solidago nemoralis, Myrica pensylvanica, Pinus rigida, and Quercus spp. in heathlands and conducted greenhouse studies to determine whether different levels of salt spray tolerance explain patterns found in the field. We found that common heathland forb and shrub species grow closer to the ocean than successional woody species. In greenhouse experiments, these species differ in their water status, necrosis, and growth responses to salt spray. The tree species P. rigida and Q. rubra are more susceptible to salt spray than the common heathland species M. pensylvanica. Our results suggest that salt spray may prevent tree species in heathlands from growing close to the ocean and therefore might be an important factor in maintaining the characteristic community composition of these dwarf shrublands in coastal habitats. PMID:21659219

Griffiths, Megan E; Orians, Colin M



Bile Salt Degradation by Nonfermentative Clostridia  

PubMed Central

Eight strains of nonfermentative clostridia were characterized on the basis of their intracellular nicotine adenine dinucleotide- and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSDH) content, ability to deconjugate taurocholate, growth characteristics, and metabolic products, including utilization of lactate and pyruvate. Two cultures of Clostridium sporosphaeroides (representing one strain obtained from two different sources), one strain of Clostridium irregularis, four strains of an unnamed species (Clostridium group SPH-1), and one strain of an unnamed species (Clostridium group P) were studied. Both cultures of C. sporosphaeroides contained low amounts of 7?-HSDH; C. irregularis contained only a low amount of 3?-HSDH. All four strains of Clostridium SPH-1 contained both 12?- and 7?-HSDH in the ratio of approximately 10:1. The strain of Clostridium group P contained only 12?-HSDH and was devoid of any other bile salt oxidoreductases. The enzyme preparation from Clostridium group P was useful in spectrophotometric quantitative studies of 12?-OH groups. Correlation of bile salt degradative activities with other phenotypic tests for characterization of and differentiation among such organisms is discussed. Images PMID:921266

Mahony, David E.; Meier, C. Elizabeth; Macdonald, Ian A.; Holdeman, Lillian V.



Estimation of water turnover rates of captive West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) held in fresh and salt water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) to move between fresh and salt water raises the question of whether manatees drink salt water. Water turnover rates were estimated in captive West Indian manatees using the deuterium oxide dilution technique. Rates were quantified in animals using four experimental treatments: (1) held in fresh water and fed lettuce (N=4), (2) held in salt water and fed lettuce (N=2), (3) acutely exposed to salt water and fed lettuce (N=4), and (4) chronically exposed to salt water with limited access to fresh water and fed sea grass (N=5). Animals held in fresh water had the highest turnover rates (145+/-12 ml kg-1 day-1) (mean +/- s.e.m.). Animals acutely exposed to salt water decreased their turnover rate significantly when moved into salt water (from 124+/-15 to 65+/-15 ml kg-1 day-1) and subsequently increased their turnover rate upon re-entry to fresh water (146+/-19 ml kg-1 day-1). Manatees chronically exposed to salt water had significantly lower turnover rates (21+/-3 ml kg-1 day-1) compared with animals held in salt water and fed lettuce (45+/-3 ml kg-1 day-1). Manatees chronically exposed to salt water and fed sea grass had very low turnover rates compared with manatees held in salt water and fed lettuce, which is consistent with a lack of mariposia. Manatees in fresh water drank large volumes of water, which may make them susceptible to hyponatremia if access to a source of Na+ is not provided.

Ortiz, R. M.; Worthy, G. A.; Byers, F. M.



Mineralogical and Anthropogenic Controls of Stream Water Chemistry in Salted Watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyses of major cation and anion concentrations in stream water and soil solutions from two salted (regular applications of winter road deicing salt) watersheds located in the northeastern United States indicate that both mineralogical and anthropogenic factors are important in controlling water chemistry. The relatively stable concentrations of calcium and magnesium, as well as their possible weathering paths identified by mass-balance models, indicate that the weathering of feldspars and the dissolution of carbonates are the primary sources for these two cations in the small, salted Centennial Lake Watershed (CLW, 1.95 km 2). However, the relatively stable and lower concentrations of sodium and chloride in soil solutions, and their fluctuating and higher concentrations in stream water from the CLW, indicate that road deicing salt is the primary source for these ions in stream water. Furthermore, positive correlations between calcium and sulfur concentrations and magnesium and sulfur concentrations in soil solutions, as well as positive correlations between sulfur and iron concentrations in soil compositions, indicate that both the dissolution of gypsum and the oxidation of pyrite into hematite are the primary sources of sulfate in the CLW. Analyses of water chemistry from the related and much larger Delaware River Watershed (DRW, 17560 km 2) show that sodium and chloride concentrations have increased steadily due to the regular application of winter deicing salt over the 68 years for which data are available. The more rapid increase of stream water chloride concentrations, relative to the increase in sodium, also results in the steady decline of Na+/Cl-molar ratios in the DRW over that time. In addition, the reduction of sulfate and increase of bicarbonate concentration since 1980 in DRW stream water may be attributed to the decline of sulfate levels in atmospheric deposition resulting from enhanced national and state environmental regulations and a shift in local economic activity away from heavy industry. There also are more periods of low silica stream water concentrations in the DRW than in the past, perhaps as a result of recent increases in summer water temperatures due to global climate change. The combined results of this study illustrate the many changing anthropogenic factors that can control stream water chemistry in salted watersheds and that these factors need to be taken into account when considering future water quality regulations and policy.

Sun, H.; Alexander, J.; Gove, B.; Chakowski, N.; Husch, J.



Effect of moisture content of concrete on water uptake  

SciTech Connect

The penetration of water and non-polar hexane in Portland cement mortar prisms with different initial moisture contents was investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR). The amount of water in gel pores strongly affects the penetration of water in much larger capillary pores. Water penetration is reduced by the self-sealing effect as characterized by non-sq roott dependence of capillary uptake and penetration depth. This is explained by the ongoing redistribution of water from capillaries into gel pores which results in internal swelling and loss of continuity of the capillary pore system; a correlation was observed between the amount of redistributed water and departure from sq roott behaviour. A descriptive model is used to explain the dependence of water uptake and penetration on moisture content. For increasing initial moisture contents up to a critical value equivalent to equilibrium with a relative humidity between 65 and 80%, less penetrating water is able to redistribute. Thus more penetrating water is in larger capillaries with less viscous resistance; uptake and penetration depth increase. Above the critical initial moisture content, uptake and penetration depth decrease towards zero. This is explained by (a) an overall reduction in capillary pressure because transport takes places in fewer and larger pores and (b) an increase in viscous resistance due to the connection of penetrating capillary water with pores already containing water. Less capillary pore space is available for transport. The surface region of concrete placed in contact with water is not instantaneously saturated. Water content increases with time depending on the degree of surface saturation. A new transition coefficient for capillary suction gamma is defined for the calculation of surface flux.

Rucker-Gramm, P. [Concrete Concepts Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH Brandes, Lay, Rucker, Fraunhoferstrasse 30b, 80469 Muenchen (Germany); Beddoe, R.E., E-mail: [Centre for Building Materials, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Baumbachstr. 7, 81245 Muenchen (Germany)



Changes in water content and distribution in Quercus ilex leaves during progressive drought assessed by in vivo 1H magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

Background Drought is a common stressor in many regions of the world and current climatic global circulation models predict further increases in warming and drought in the coming decades in several of these regions, such as the Mediterranean basin. The changes in leaf water content, distribution and dynamics in plant tissues under different soil water availabilities are not well known. In order to fill this gap, in the present report we describe our study withholding the irrigation of the seedlings of Quercus ilex, the dominant tree species in the evergreen forests of many areas of the Mediterranean Basin. We have monitored the gradual changes in water content in the different leaf areas, in vivo and non-invasively, by 1H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using proton density weighted (?w) images and spin-spin relaxation time (T2) maps. Results ?w images showed that the distal leaf area lost water faster than the basal area and that after four weeks of similar losses, the water reduction was greater in leaf veins than in leaf parenchyma areas and also in distal than in basal leaf area. There was a similar tendency in all different areas and tissues, of increasing T2 values during the drought period. This indicates an increase in the dynamics of free water, suggesting a decrease of cell membranes permeability. Conclusions The results indicate a non homogeneous leaf response to stress with a differentiated capacity to mobilize water between its different parts and tissues. This study shows that the MRI technique can be a useful tool to follow non-intrusively the in vivo water content changes in the different parts of the leaves during drought stress. It opens up new possibilities to better characterize the associated physiological changes and provides important information about the different responses of the different leaf areas what should be taken into account when conducting physiological and metabolic drought stress studies in different parts of the leaves during drought stress. PMID:20735815



Caspase-like enzymatic activity and the ascorbate-glutathione cycle participate in salt stress tolerance of maize conferred by exogenously applied nitric oxide.  


Salinity stress causes ionic stress (mainly from high Na? and Cl? levels) and osmotic stress (as a result of inhibition of water uptake by roots and amplified water loss from plant tissue), resulting in cell death and inhibition of growth and ultimately adversely reducing crop productivity. In this report, changes in root nitric oxide content, shoot and root biomass, root H?O? content, root lipid peroxidation, root cell death, root caspase-like enzymatic activity, root antioxidant enzymatic activity and root ascorbate and glutathione contents/redox states were investigated in maize (Zea mays L. cv Silverking) after long-term (21 d) salt stress (150 mM NaCl) with or without exogenously applied nitric oxide generated from the nitric oxide donor 2,2'-(Hydroxynitrosohydrazano)bis-ethane. In addition to reduced shoot and root biomass, salt stress increased the nitric oxide and H?O? contents in the maize roots and resulted in elevated lipid peroxidation, caspase-like activity and cell death in the roots. Altered antioxidant enzymatic activities, along with changes in ascorbate and glutathione contents/redox status were observed in the roots in response to salt stress. The detrimental effects of salt stress in the roots were reversed by exogenously applied nitric oxide. These results demonstrate that exogenously applied nitric oxide confers salt stress tolerance in maize by reducing salt stress-induced oxidative stress and caspase-like activity through a process that limits accumulation of reactive oxygen species via enhanced antioxidant enzymatic activity. PMID:22476534

Keyster, Marshall; Klein, Ashwil; Ludidi, Ndiko



Salinization of Mirror Lake by Road Salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The salinization of Mirror Lake in the White Mountains of New Hampshire has been ongoing steadily since Interstate 93 (I-93)\\u000a was built through the NE subcatchment of the lake in the fall and winter of 1969–1970. Salt added to I-93 during winter as\\u000a a deicer has been transported to the lake by different quantified, hydrologic pathways, but primarily from the

Gene E. Likens; Donald C. Buso



Structure of a salt-amphiphile-water solution and the mechanism of salting out  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salting out of amphiphiles from aqueous solution is a process of central importance in aqueous solution chemistry and of major application in the concentration of macromolecules and the crystallization of proteins. Despite its importance, our understanding of the mechanism is poor, there being no direct experimental evidence to support the several competing explanations in the literature. Using neutron diffraction with isotope substitution, we report a structural study of the effect of adding a simple salting out agent (NaCl) to a dilute solution of an amphiphile (t-butanol). The results show clearly that the anion is central to driving the changes in association of the amphiphile through the formation of an anion bridge between the polar ends of neighboring alcohol molecules. This further exposes the nonpolar surface of the amphiphile and suggests that further association may then occur through hydrophobic interaction. The mechanism uncovered is both different from those currently in the literature and relatively simple, and offers a possible route forward to understanding the variation in salting out efficacy of different ions as indicated by the Hofmeister or lyotropic series.

Bowron, D. T.; Finney, J. L.



Water swellable clay composition and method to maintain stability in salt contaminated water  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of drilling comprising contacting an earthen formation with a rotary drilling bit to form a salt contaminated drill hole and circulating a drilling fluid in the drill hole to cool and lubricate the drill bit during rotation and to lift drill cuttings of the drill hole. The drilling fluid becomes contaminated with salt contaminated water. The improvement described here comprises adding a water swellable montmorillonite clay composition to the drilling fluid. The composition comprises a water swellable montmorillonite clay, xanthan gum in an amount of 0.1% to 20% based on the weight of water swellable montmorillonite clay, and at least one other, water soluble gum selected from the group consisting of guar gum, dextran gum, locust bean gum, and mixtures thereof in an amount of 4.0% to 10% based on the weight of water swellable clay.

Alexander, W.



Water sorption by the calcium chloride\\/silica gel composite: The accelerating effect of the salt solution present in the pores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of isothermal water sorption by the CaCl2\\/silica gel composite initiated by a small stepwise pressure rise over the sample has been investigated at a constant underlying\\u000a plate temperature of 35°C. The initial portion of the kinetic curves is consistent with Fick’s diffusion model: the amount\\u000a of sorbed water increases in proportion to the square root of the sorption

D. S. Ovoshchnikov; I. S. Glaznev; Yu. I. Aristov



Ra-Po-Pb isotope systematics in waters of Sambhar Salt Lake, Rajasthan (India): geochemical characterization and particulate reactivity.  


The Sambhar Salt Lake hydrological system, including river waters, groundwaters, evaporating pans and sub-surface brines, has been analyzed for the salt content (TDS) and naturally occurring radionuclides (210Po, 210Pb and 226,228Ra). The abundance of these radionuclides and their activity ratios show a wide variation in different hydrological regimes, which helps to geochemically characterize the lake system. A significantly lower Ra to total dissolved solids (TDS) ratio in the brines (by two to three orders of magnitude), when compared to the groundwaters and river waters, suggests removal of dissolved Ra by co-precipitation with Ca-Mg minerals at an early stage of the brine evolution. The concentration of Ra in evaporating lake/pan waters saturates at a value of about 10 mBq L (-1) [corrected] over the salinity range of 100-370gL(-1); attributable to its equilibration with the clay minerals. The two distinct regimes, saline lake system (lake water, evaporating pans and sub-surface brines) and groundwaters have been identified based on their differences in the distribution of 226,228Ra isotopes. This observation points to the conclusion that the groundwaters and the lake brines are not intimately coupled in terms of their origin and evolution. The abundances of 210Po and 210Pb along with their activity ratios (210Po/210Pb) are markedly different among the surface lake waters/evaporating pans, sub-surface lake brines and groundwaters. These differences are explained in terms of different geochemical behaviour of these nuclides in presence of algae and organic matter present in these water regimes. PMID:19019503

Yadav, D N; Sarin, M M



Groundwater Contamination by Road Salt: Steady-State Concentrations in East Central Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The average steady-state contamination of groundwater by road salt in the suburban area around Boston, on the assumption that current rates of application of salt will continue, is about 160 milligrams of sodium chloride per liter of water (100 milligrams of chloride per liter). This value is compared with values of 50 to 100 milligrams of chloride per liter found

Edwin E. Huling; Thomas C. Hollocher



Natural Salt Pollution and Water Supply Reliability in the Brazos River Basin  

E-print Network

rights allocations, and water supply contracts, (2) facility expansions and construction of new water supply projects, and (3) projects and strategies for dealing with salt pollution. Consideration of water quality as well as quantity is important...

Wurbs, Ralph A.; Karama, Awes S.; Saleh, Ishtiaque; Ganze, C. Keith


Disorders of Water and Salt Metabolism Associated with Pituitary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disorders of water and sodium homeostasis are very common problems en- countered in clinical medicine. Disorders of water metabolism are divided into hyperosmolar and hypoosmolar states, with hyperosmolar disorders charac- terized by a deficit of body water in relation to body solute, and hypoosmolar disorders characterized by an excess of body water in relation to total body solute. Because sodium

Jennifer A. Loh; Joseph G. Verbalis



Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt.

Eric V. Novotny; Dan Murphy; Heinz G. Stefan



Feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging to predict moisture content of porcine meat during salting process.  


The feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging technique (1000-2500 nm) for predicting moisture content (MC) during the salting process of porcine meat was assessed. Different spectral profiles including reflectance spectra (RS), absorbance spectra (AS) and Kubelka-Munk spectra (KMS) were examined to investigate the influence of spectroscopic transformations on predicting moisture content of salted pork slice. The best full-wavelength partial least squares regression (PLSR) models were acquired based on reflectance spectra (Rc(2)=0.969, RMSEC=0.921%; Rc(2)=0.941, RMSEP=1.23%). On the basis of the optimal wavelengths identified using the regression coefficient, two calibration models of PLSR and multiple linear regression (MLR) were compared. The optimal RS-MLR model was considered to be the best for determining the moisture content of salted pork, with a Rc(2) of 0.917 and RMSEP of 1.48%. Visualisation of moisture distribution in each pixel of the hyperspectral image using the prediction model display moisture evolution and migration in pork slices. PMID:24444926

Liu, Dan; Sun, Da-Wen; Qu, Jiahuan; Zeng, Xin-An; Pu, Hongbin; Ma, Ji



Effects of Salts of the Hofmeister Series on the Hydrogen Bond Network of Water  

PubMed Central

The effect of salts on water behavior has been a topic of interest for many years; however, some recent reports have suggested that ions do not influence the hydrogen bonding behavior of water. Using an effective two-state hydrogen bonding model to interpret the temperature excursion infrared response of the O-H stretch of aqueous salt solutions, we show a strong correlation between salt effects on water hydrogen bonding and the Hofmeister order. These data clearly show that salts do have a measurable impact on the equilibrium hydrogen bonding behavior of water and support models which explain Hofmeister effects on the basis of solute charge density. PMID:19847287

Vanderkooi, Jane M.



Influence of salts, including amino acids, on the rate and outcome of the in-water prebiotic reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most prebiotic reactions are hypothesized to have occurred in water. However, organic compounds in general are not water-soluble. This has created a great problem for prebiotic chemistry. However, it has been shown recently that many organic materials which are not soluble in water are still capable of reacting in water, often at faster rates than in the organic solvents. This has provided a new era in the study of the prebiotic reactions. Simulated prebiotic reactions are typically performed in water. However, presence of inorganic salts and the amino acids was ubiquitous in the aqueous media on the prebiotic Earth. We thus address the influence of common salts and selected water-soluble amino acids on the rate and outcome of selected prebiotic reactions in water. We focus on Diels-Alder (DA) reaction and multicomponent Passerini reaction (PR), as models for other prebiotic reactions. Some of the results came from our laboratory, and others are from the literature. DA reaction is influenced by salts and by selected water-soluble amino acids, but generally not to a large extent. The PR is also influenced by salts, but not dramatically. However, concentrations of salts and amino acids could have been extremely high in various local niches on the early Earth, and the influence of such concentrations on these prebiotic reactions awaits further study.

Kolb, Vera M.



Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water  


A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants-containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid. 6 figs.

Tsai, S.P.



Models for coupling of salt and water transport; Proximal tubular reabsorption in Necturus kidney  

PubMed Central

Models for coupling of salt and water transport are developed with two important assumptions appropriate for leaky epithelia. (a) The tight junction is permeable to both sale and water. (b) Active Na transport into the lateral speces is assumed to occur uniformly along the length of the channel. The proposed models deal specifically with the intraepithelial mechanism of proximal tubular resbsorption in the Necturus kidney although they have implications for epithelial transport in the gallbladder and small intestine as well. The first model (continuous version) is similar to the standing gradient model devised by Diamond and Bossert but used different boundary conditions. In contrast to Diamond and Bossert's model, the predicted concentration profiles are relatively flat with no sizable gradients along the interspace. The second model (compartment version) expands Curran's model of epithelial salt and water transport by including additional compartments and considering both electrical and chemical driving forces for individual Na and Cl ions as well as hydraulic and osmotic driving forces for water. In both models, ion and water fluxes are investigated as a function of the transport parameters. The behavior of the models is consistent with previously suggested mechanisms for the control of net transport, particularly during saline diuresis. Under all conditions the predicted ratio of net solute to solvent flux, or emergent concentration, deviates from exact isotonicity (except when the basement membrane has an appreciable salt reflection coefficient). However, the degree of hypertonicity may be small enough to be experimentally indistinguishable from isotonic transport. PMID:1104761

Sackin, H; Boulpaep, EL



The water, deuterium, gas and uranium content of tektites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The water content, deuterium concentration of the water, total gas and uranium contents were determined on tektite samples and other glass samples from Texas, Australia, Philippine Islands, Java, French Indo-China, Czechoslovakia, Libyan Desert, Billiton Island, Thailand, French West Africa, Peru, and New Mexico. The water content ranges from 0.24 per cent for the Peru tektite, to 0.0002 per cent for a moldavite. The majority of the tektites have less than 0.05 per cent water, and average 0.005 per cent H2O by weight. No other gases were detected, the lower detection limit being about 1 p.p.m. by weight. The deuterium content of the water in tektites is in the same range as that in terrestrial waters, and varies from 0.010 mole per cent to 0.0166 mole per cent deuterium. The uranium content is about from 1 to 3 p.p.m. The possible origin of tektites is discussed. The experimental data presented favour their being originally terrestrial, but produced by some catastrophic event. An extra-terrestrial source is not ruled out. ?? 1958.

Friedman, I.



Design of Phosphonium-Type Zwitterion as an Additive to Improve Saturated Water Content of Phase-Separated Ionic Liquid from Aqueous Phase toward Reversible Extraction of Proteins  

PubMed Central

We designed phosphonium-type zwitterion (ZI) to control the saturated water content of separated ionic liquid (IL) phase in the hydrophobic IL/water biphasic systems. The saturated water content of separated IL phase, 1-butyl-3-methyimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, was considerably improved from 0.4 wt% to 62.8 wt% by adding N,N,N-tripentyl-4-sulfonyl-1-butanephosphonium-type ZI (P555C4S). In addition, the maximum water content decreased from 62.8 wt% to 34.1 wt% by increasing KH2PO4/K2HPO4 salt content in upper aqueous phosphate buffer phase. Horse heart cytochrome c (cyt.c) was dissolved selectively in IL phase by improving the water content of IL phase, and spectroscopic analysis revealed that the dissolved cyt.c retained its higher ordered structure. Furthermore, cyt. c dissolved in IL phase was re-extracted again from IL phase to aqueous phase by increasing the concentration of inorganic salts of the buffer solution. PMID:24013379

Ito, Yoritsugu; Kohno, Yuki; Nakamura, Nobuhumi; Ohno, Hiroyuki



Surface tension measurements show that chaotropic salting-in denaturants are not just water-structure breakers.  

PubMed Central

Since the salting-in agents guanidinium chloride, urea, and lithium perchlorate increase the surface tension of water, the salting-in phenomenon does not reflect easier cavity formation in water. Therefore, these salting-in agents must be directly contributing to the solvation of a solute such as benzene in water, probably by a direct solvation interaction. The increased surface-tension effects do not overbalance these solvation effects since they are smaller than the large surface-tension increases with lithium chloride, a typical salting-out agent. The salting-in agent tetra-n-butylammonium chloride differs in that it lowers the surface tension of water. Thus, it probably contributes both to easier cavity formation and to direct solvation of the substrate. The previous findings that most salting-in agents switch to become salting-out agents in other polar solvents such as ethylene glycol and formamide but that tetra-n-butylammonium chloride does not switch in these solvents can be understood in terms of relative polarities. PMID:2153285

Breslow, R; Guo, T



Direct solvation of glycoproteins by salts in spider silk glues enhances adhesion and helps to explain the evolution of modern spider orb webs.  


The evolutionary origin of modern viscid silk orb webs from ancient cribellate silk ancestors is associated with a 95% increase in diversity of orb-weaving spiders, and their dominance as predators of flying insects, yet the transition's mechanistic basis is an evolutionary puzzle. Ancient cribellate silk is a dry adhesive that functions through van der Waals interactions. Viscid threads adhere more effectively than cribellate threads because of the high extensibility of their axial silk fibers, recruitment of multiple glue droplets, and firm adhesion of the viscid glue droplets. Viscid silk's extensibility is permitted by the glue's high water content, so that organic and inorganic salts present in viscid glue droplets play an essential role in contributing to adhesion by sequestering the atmospheric water that plasticizes the axial silk fibers. Here, we provide direct molecular and macro-scale evidence to show that salts also cause adhesion by directly solvating the glycoproteins, regardless of water content, thus imparting viscoelasticity and allowing the glue droplets to establish good contact. This "dual role" of salts, plasticizing the axial silk indirectly through water sequestration and directly solvating the glycoproteins, provides a crucial link to the evolutionary transition from cribellate silk to viscid silk. In addition, salts also provide a simple mechanism for adhering even at the extremes of relative humidity, a feat eluding most synthetic adhesives. PMID:24588057

Sahni, Vasav; Miyoshi, Toshikazu; Chen, Kelley; Jain, Dharamdeep; Blamires, Sean J; Blackledge, Todd A; Dhinojwala, Ali



Concentration and precipitation of NaCl and KCl from salt cake leach solutions by electrodialysis  

SciTech Connect

Electrodialysis was investigated for cost-effective recovery of salt from salt cake leach solutions. (Salt cake is a waste stream generated by the aluminum industry during treatment of aluminum drosses and scrap.) We used a pilot-scale electrodialysis stack of 5 membrane pairs, each with an effective area of 0.02 m{sup 2}. The diluate stream contained synthetic NaCl, KCl,mixtures of NaCl and KCl, and actual salt cake leach solutions (mainly NaCl and KCl, with small amounts of MgCl{sub 2}). We concentrated and precipitated NaCl and KCl salts from the concentrate steam when the initial diluate stream concentration was 21.5 to 28.8 wt% NaCl and KCl. We found that water transferring through the membranes was a significant factor in overall efficiency of salt recovery by electrodialysis.

Sreenivasarao, K; Patsiogiannis, F.; Hryn, J.N.



Simultaneous measurement of unfrozen water content and ice content in frozen soil using gamma ray attenuation and TDR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

freezing temperature of water in soil is not constant but varies over a range determined by soil texture. Consequently, the amounts of unfrozen water and ice change with temperature in frozen soil, which in turn affects hydraulic, thermal, and mechanical properties of frozen soil. In this paper, an Am-241 gamma ray source and time-domain reflectometry (TDR) were combined to measure unfrozen water content and ice content in frozen soil simultaneously. The gamma ray attenuation was used to determine total water content. The TDR was used to determine the dielectric constant of the frozen soil. Based on a four-phase mixing model, the amount of unfrozen water content in the frozen soil could be determined. The ice content was inferred by the difference between total water content and unfrozen water content. The gamma ray attenuation and the TDR were both calibrated by a gravimetric method. Water contents measured by gamma ray attenuation and TDR in an unfrozen silt column under infiltration were compared and showed that the two methods have the same accuracy and response to changes of water content. Unidirectional column freezing experiments were performed to apply the combined method of gamma ray attenuation and TDR for measuring unfrozen water content and ice content. The measurement error of the gamma ray attenuation and TDR was around 0.02 and 0.01 m3/m3, respectively. The overestimation of unfrozen water in frozen soil by TDR alone was quantified and found to depend on the amount of ice content. The higher the ice content, the larger the overestimation. The study confirmed that the combined method could accurately determine unfrozen water content and ice content in frozen soil. The results of soil column freezing experiments indicate that total water content distribution is affected by available pore space and the freezing front advance rate. It was found that there is similarity between the soil water characteristic and the soil freezing characteristic of variably saturated soil. Unfrozen water content is independent of total water content and affected only by temperature when the freezing point is reached.

Zhou, Xiaohai; Zhou, Jian; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang; Stauffer, Fritz



Calcium and bromide contents of natural waters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The linear relation observed in a log Ca++ versus log Br - plot for subsurface Cl- waters is attributed to ultrafiltration by shale of sea water and fresh water that have passed through sedimentary rocks since their formation. Reactions between these solutions and sedimentary minerals, particularly dolomitization, must have contributed additional Ca+ + to solution.

Anderson, R.J.; Graf, D.L.; Jones, B.F.



[Near infrared spectroscopy study on water content in turbine oil].  


Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with successive projections algorithm (SPA) was investigated for determination of water content in turbine oil. Through the 57 samples of different water content in turbine oil scanned applying near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, with the water content in the turbine oil of 0-0.156%, different pretreatment methods such as the original spectra, first derivative spectra and differential polynomial least squares fitting algorithm Savitzky-Golay (SG), and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were applied for the extraction of effective wavelengths, the correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used as the model evaluation indices, accordingly water content in turbine oil was investigated. The results indicated that the original spectra with different water content in turbine oil were pretreated by the performance of first derivative + SG pretreatments, then the selected effective wavelengths were used as the inputs of least square support vector machine (LS-SVM). A total of 16 variables selected by SPA were employed to construct the model of SPA and least square support vector machine (SPA-LS-SVM). There is 9 as The correlation coefficient was 0.975 9 and the root of mean square error of validation set was 2.655 8 x 10(-3) using the model, and it is feasible to determine the water content in oil using near infrared spectroscopy and SPA-LS-SVM, and an excellent prediction precision was obtained. This study supplied a new and alternative approach to the further application of near infrared spectroscopy in on-line monitoring of contamination such as water content in oil. PMID:24555360

Chen, Bin; Liu, Ge; Zhang, Xian-Ming



Improvement of water vapor adsorption ability of natural mesoporous material by impregnating with chloride salts for development of a new desiccant filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is the development of a new adsorbent for the desiccant material which can be regenerated by the domestic\\u000a exhaust heat by using natural mesoporous material, Wakkanai siliceous shale. To improve this shale’s performance to adsorb\\/desorb\\u000a the water vapor, lithium chloride, calcium chloride or sodium chloride was supported into the mesopores by impregnating with\\u000a each chloride

Saya Nakabayashi; Katsunori Nagano; Makoto Nakamura; Junya Togawa; Asami Kurokawa


Mineral and Microbial Contents of Bottled and Tap Water in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is essential to health however its purity, potability and the mineral content is important for consumption by humans. This study aim to determine the clinically important levels of minerals in bottled water and to determine the microbiological content of commercially available bottled waters and tap water from 5 regions of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Commercially available bottled mineral waters were

Kawther F. Abed; Suaad S. Alwakeel


Estimating foliar water content of winter wheat with hyperspectral image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimates of vegetation water content are of great interest for assessing vegetation water status in agriculture and forestry, and have been used for drought assessment. This study focuses on the retrieval of foliar water content with hyperspectral data at canopy level. The hyperspectral image used in this study was acquired by the airborne operative modular imaging spectrometer (OMIS) at Demonstration Site for Precision Agriculture in Xiaotangshan area, Beijing, on April 26th, 2001. 40 image spectra were extracted to correspond to the quasi-synchronous meansurements of foliar water content (FWC). The image spectra of winter wheat were utilized to validate the sensitivity of the existing and novel water indices and parameters of three water absorption features in NIR and SWIR regions. Correlation analysis showed that, NDWI(860,1241) and NDWI(860,1200) both had significant linear relationships with FWC (R2 were 0.4124 and 0.4042 respectively). Red edge position (REP) could reflect indirectly the variations of wheat FWC to some extent. Significant linear relationships were also found between WI(820,1600) and FWC, and between WI(900,1200) and FWC, while no relationship was shown between the traditional WI(900,970) and FWC. The derived depth of water absorption centered around 2078nm, namely AD2078, had the highest linear correlation with FWC (R2 is 0.4551) , much higher than those parameters derived from the two water absorption around 1175 and 1409. In the end, AD2078 was applied to OMIS image to map the foliar water content. The value range of the inverted foliar water content ranged from 69.39 to 78.35%, which was quite close to that of the field measurements (70.72-78.12%). The distribution of the FWC map was quite consistent with growth status of winter wheat.

Zhang, Xia; Jiao, Quanjun; Wu, Di; Zhang, Bing; Gao, Lianru



Occupational asthma induced by chromium salts.  


Five patients with asthma related to exposure to chromium salts, in their work area, are presented. All of them were non atopics and presented a history of contact dermatitis, with positive patch tests to potassium dichromate, previous to the onset of bronchial asthma. Solutions of K2Cr2O5 were prepared in normal saline at 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/ml for skin prick tests (SPT) and bronchial provocation tests (BPT). Immediate cutaneous reaction by SPT was negative for controls and patients. BPT were performed by the tidal breathing method, with positive results in all subjects. A negative response was recorded in 4 control unexposed asthmatics. An attempt to inhibit BPT with sodium cromoglycate was unsuccessful. The diversity of reactions (immediate, dual and late) registered in BPT, support that bronchial reactivity can be induced specifically by inhalation of chromium salts. The data of follow-up indicates a good prognosis, provided that patients remain out of exposure. The lack of facts suggesting an IgE-mediated reaction puts forward for consideration other pathophysiologic mechanisms. PMID:2816656

Olaguibel, J M; Basomba, A



Permeability alteration due to salt precipitation driven by drying in the context of CO 2 injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injection of large quantities of CO2 for underground geological storage in shallow or deep saline aquifers will lead to a strong water desaturation of the near wellbore because of drying mechanisms. Even the capillary trapped water can be removed by thermodynamical transfert of water vapour in the CO2 phase. In this context, drying mechanisms can precipitate the salt present in

Y. Peysson; B. Bazin; C. Magnier; E. Kohler; S. Youssef



Copper ions interfere with the reduction of the water-soluble tetrazolium salt-8.  


Metabolic activity as a measure of cell viability is frequently determined using the water-soluble tetrazolium salt 2-(2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium monosodium salt (WST-8), commercially available as CCK-8 reagent. In this study, CCK-8 was investigated with respect to its suitability for investigating nano- and microscale copper oxide (CuO NP and CuO MP) as well as water-soluble copper chloride (CuCl2). The results were compared to cell number and colony forming ability. Our data demonstrate that the CCK-8 assay overestimates the loss of metabolic activity by CuCl2 and CuO NP, because of interference by copper ions with the reduction of the dye. PMID:24380418

Semisch, Annetta; Hartwig, Andrea



Responses of common and successional heathland species to manipulated salt spray and water availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal sandplain heathlands are a rare plant community in the northeastern United States. Salt spray and water availability are likely important factors determining heathland distribution. Field surveys and manipulative experiments were performed to examine heathland species' responses to salt spray and water availability. We surveyed field distributions of four typical heathland species: Solidago puberula, Solidago rugosa, Gaylussacia baccata, and Myrica




Kinematics and dynamics of salt tectonics driven by progradation  

SciTech Connect

Scaled physical models illustrate the importance of progradation as a trigger for salt tectonics and formation of allochthonous sheets. Regional extension and contraction were excluded in the models. In our experiments, prograding wedges above a tabular, buoyant salt layer with a flat base expelled the salt basinward, forming the following structures proximally to distally: (1) sigmoidally distorted initially planar wedges, (2) relict salt pillows and salt welds, (3) basinward-dipping expulsion rollover and crestal graben, (4) rollover syncline, (5) landward-facing salt-cored monocline, and (6) distal inflated salt layer. This deformation zone amplified and advanced basinward during progradation; however, no diapiric salt structures formed. Over a buoyant salt layer whose basement had steps facing landward, progradation initially formed a broad anticline where salt flow was restricted across each basement step. Distal aggradation pinned the anticline and enhanced differential loading. The anticline actively pierced its crest, which had been thinned by faulting and erosion. Thereafter, the diapir grew passively, locally sourcing allochthonous salt sheets. This deformation cycle repeated over each basement step so that the age, amplitude, complexity, and maturity of salt-related structures decreased basinward. As each allochthonous salt sheet was buried and evacuated by sediment loading, arcuate peripheral normal faults formed along the sheet`s trailing edge, detached wrench faults formed along its lateral edges, and active piercement at its leading edge allowed the sheet to break out and climb stratigraphic levels. This process formed a multitiered complex of salt sheets that migrated basin-ward with time. Restorations of examples from various salt tectonic provinces support our model results.

Ge, Hongxing; Jackson, M.P.A.; Vendeville, B.C. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)



Mechanisms of water-salt metabolism disturbances in dogs subjected to six month hypokinesia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water-salt metabolism in dogs during prolonged restricted motor activity (hypokinesia) was investigated. It was found that hydration occurred and fluid was redistributed between the extra- and intra-cellular sectors. Also, electrolyte excretion rose, and magnetism and calcium metabolism changed significantly. It is concluded that the forces caused by muscle strain proper (which was decreased under conditions of hypokinesia) influence the state of bone metabolism.

Korolkov, V. I.; Kovalenko, Y. A.; Krotov, V. P.; Ilyushko, N. A.; Kondratyeva, V. A.; Kondratyev, Y. I.



Design and Implementation of a Low-Cost Non-Destructive System for Measurements of Water and Salt Levels in Food Products Using Impedance Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IQMA and the DTA have developed a low-cost system to determinate the contents of water and salt in food products as cured ham or pork loin using non-destructive methods. The system includes an electronic equipment that allows the implementation of impedance spectroscopy and an electrode. The electrode is a concentric needle which allows carrying out tests in a non-destructive way. Preliminary results indicate that there is a correlation between the water and salt contents and the module and phase of the impedance of the food sample in the range of 1 Hz to 1 MHz.

Masot, Rafael; Alcañiz, Miguel; Fuentes, Ana; Campos, Franciny; Barat, José M.; Gil, Luis; Labrador, Roberto H.; Soto, Juan; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón



Proteins induced by salt stress in tomato germinating seeds  

SciTech Connect

Salt effects on protein synthesis in tomato germinating seeds were investigated by two-dimensional polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis of proteins labeled in vivo with ({sup 35}S)-Methionine. Seeds germinating in NaCl were analyzed at three germination stages (4mm long radicals, 15mm long radicles and expanding cotyledons) and compared to those germinating in water. At the first germination stage several basic proteins of M.W. 13Kd, 16Kd, 17Kd and 18Kd were detected in only salt germinating seeds. Other basic proteins of M.W. 12Kd, 50Kd and 54Kd were salt-induced at the second and third stage of germination. One 14Kd acid protein is observed in every assayed stage and shows several phosphorylated forms. The levels of expression of these proteins are directly correlated to assayed NaCl concentrations. All of these proteins, except 17Kd, are also induced by abscisic acid (ABA) in the same germination stages. A cooperative effect on the synthesis of these proteins is observed when both ABA and NaCl are present.

Torres-Shumann, S.; Godoy, J.A.; del Pozo, O.; Pintor-Toro, J.A. (Instituto Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia, Sevilla (Spain))




E-print Network

NEAR SURFACE WATER CONTENT ESTIMATION USING GPR DATA: INVESTIGATIONS WITHIN CALIFORNIA VINEYARDS S ( Detailed estimates of water content are necessary for variety of hydrogeological inves to obtain sufficient information about the spatial variation of water content within the root zone using

Rubin, Yoram


Sodium Content of Community Water Supplies in California  

PubMed Central

The amount of sodium ion in water used for ingestion may be critical in effective use of a low sodium dietary regimen. Waters containing not over 20 mg of sodium per liter are provided for in the sodium restricted diets set forth by the American Heart Association. For diets containing more than 500 mg of sodium a day, waters of greater sodium content may be used if proper dietary adjustments are made. While assessment of the long-term average sodium content of a community water supply is difficult, the determined values for sodium lend to classification within range categories. The larger community water supplies in California are presented within several range categories of sodium content. The more commonly used water softeners add sodium to water. The sodium-restricted patient should be cautioned against their use. Similar consideration should probably be given to water supplies of retirement communities where the potential for disorders requiring sodium restriction is greater than in the general population. PMID:5673988

Steinkamp, Ruth C.; Young, Clarence L.; Nyhus, Dolores; Greenberg, Arnold E.



Determination of Soil Water Content From Terrestrial Gamma Radiation Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural gamma radiation emitted by the soil and measured at the surface with a gamma ray spectrometer is a function of the radioactive activity of the soil and the linear attenuation coefficient. The dependence of the linear attenuation coefficient on soil water content is explored for selected soil water profiles by numerical integration. These soil water profiles were generalized distributions based on gravimetric measurements over a sandy soil at the Central Experimental Farm in Ottawa. A comprehensive analysis of the measurements showed that inhomogeneous water distribution accounted for a 1.8% error in the count rate compared to a 2.6% error associated with random count rate fluctuation and instrument error. The depth of the soil layer contributing to natural gamma radiation at the surface depends also on the water content; 90% of the total radiation is contributed by a dry soil of depth 0.18 m, compared to 0.14 m for a soil with a fractional water content of 0.2. The total expected error in the measurement over the range of soil water encountered (0.03-0.24) is shown to be 0.033 for the 0.10-m layer and 0.025 for the 0.25-m layer.

Loijens, H. S.



[Application study of the thermal infrared emissivity spectra in the estimation of salt content of saline soil].  


Studying of soil salinization is of great significance for agricultural production in arid area oasis, thermal infrared remote sensing technology provides a new technology and method in this field. Authors used Fourier transform infrared spectrometer to measure the oasis saline soil in field, employed iterative spectrally smooth temperature/emissivity separation algorithm (ISSTES) to separate temperature and emissivity, and acquired the thermal infrared emissivity data of the saline soil. Through researching the emissivity spectral feature of saline soil, and concluded that soil emissivity will reduce with the increasing of salt content from 8 to 13 microm, so emissivity spectra is more sensitive to salt factor from 8 to 9.5 microm. Then, analyzed the correlation between original emissivity spectra and its first derivative, second derivative and normalized ratio with salt content, the result showed that they have a negative correlation relationship between soil emissivity and salt content, and the correlation between emissivity first derivative and salt content is highest, reach to 0.724 2, the corresponding bands are from 8.370 745-8.390 880 microm. Finally, established the quadratic function regression model, its determination coefficient is 0.741 4, and root mean square error is 0.235 5, the result explained that the approach of using thermal infrared emissivity to retrieve the salt content of saline soil is feasible. PMID:23387157

Xia, Jun; Tashpolat, Tiyip; Mamat, Sawut; Zhang, Fei; Han, Gui-Hong



Process for separating ammonia and acid gases from waste waters containing fixed ammonia salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water purification process is described for the removal of ammonia and optionally one or more acid gases from waste waters such as coke-plant or coal conversion waste waters. The process involves adding lime to these waste waters in amounts sufficient to react with fixed ammonia salts present in the waste water and to enable substantial amounts of the ammonia

W. J. Didycz; D. Glassman; E. E. Maier; G. T. Saniga



Parameter sensitivity to climate and landscape variability of a simple, lumped salt and water balance model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A salt and water balance model is developed to represent salinity generation following land use changes in Western Australia. The model consists of five interconnecting stores: (i) Dry, Wet and Subsurface unsaturated Stores, (ii) a transient Stream zone Store and (iii) a saturated Groundwater Store. The salinity generation process in Western Australia is highly dependent on annual rainfall, potential energy for evaporation, salt fall and land use history of a catchment. We selected six experimental catchments with different land use histories across a climatic gradient to test the model and assess parameter sensitivity. The model was successful in representing the streamflow and salinity generation processes of all catchments. In the process of application, we classified the model parameters into three sets: (i) "known", (ii) "fixed" and (iii) "variable". The "known" parameter set is calculated a priori from catchment attributes. The "fixed" set comprises regionalised parameters that remain unchanged across all catchments once calibrated in one catchment. The "variable" set of seven physically meaningful parameters were calibrated at one catchment, estimated a priori for other catchments and then subsequently adjusted for best fit. The "variable" set represents: (i) the depth (d), spatial distribution (b, c), relationship of the lateral hydraulic conductivity with moisture content (ia) and vertical conductivity (Kuv) of the top soil, (ii) lateral conductivity (Kll) of the groundwater system, and (iii) salt release (Cu) from top soil. Sensitivity analyses of key model parameters show that the relationship of the top soil lateral hydraulic conductivity with soil moisture content (ia) is the most sensitive parameter. Other sensitive parameters include the depth of the top soil and its spatial distribution (d, b, c).

Bari, M. A.; Smettem, K. R. J.



Ground Water Chemistry Evolution Under Unsaturated Zone Sulfate Salt Dissolution in a Great Basin Lacustrine Aquifer, Western United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfate and chloride ions in combination with stable isotopes of water turned out to be a powerful tool to decipher the complex aquifer geochemistry in the Fernley Basin aquifer system, in the western Great Basin of the Western United States. The results permitted identifying the underlying hydrologic processes and conceptualizing a three-dimensional model of basin geochemistry. The primary causes of high total dissolved solids (TDS) in this lacustrine sediment aquifer system are dissolution of unsaturated zone Na-SO4 salts by infiltrating irrigation water. By irrigating an area of 2,185 hectares between 0.5 and 1.3 million metric tons of salts were washed into the underlying aquifer, increasing aquifer TDS from pre-irrigation values of about 600 mg/l to more than 5000 mg/l. Irrigation also raised the ground water table which adds to unsaturated zone salt dissolution. The high TDS ground water eventually discharges into the Truckee River, which is the only source of surface water for Pyramid Lake, a large hydrologically closed lake. At present most of the unsaturated zone salts beneath the irrigated areas have been dissolved. About 25 years' worth of water quality records from nine municipal wells show that the historically high TDS ground water is now gradually diluted by continued application of low TDS irrigation water. Due to the complex interaction of salt dissolution, mixing and dilution, the Fernley aquifer system is now characterized by three water types: 1) about 150 mg/l TDS mixed-cation- HCO3 river water; 2) 500 to 3000 mg/l TDS Na-Cl water and 3) 250 to 5000 mg/l TDS Na-SO4 water. Mixing of these three water types results in wide ranges of ground water chemistry. Mixing was identified between low TDS river water and high TDS Na-SO4 ground waters, and Na-SO4 and Na-Cl ground waters. Deep well samples from the central part of the basin indicate that the pre-irrigation ambient Na-Cl ground water type at depth has been mixed with Na-SO4 water in the upper 200 m of the aquifer, which is now discharging north into the Truckee River. A smaller source of high TDS water is ambient Na-Cl ground water flowing through a fault zone into the Truckee River at the northeastern basin periphery. Discharge of these two high TDS ground water sources are evident in the Truckee River's water chemistry during the low streamflow season.

Bohm, B.; Thomas, J.; Dahan, O.; Ralston, J.; McKay, A.



Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings  

SciTech Connect

Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt.

Spence, R.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Fedorov, V.V.; Downing, D.J.



Salt-Ice Grains from Enceladus' Plumes: Frozen Samples of Subsurface Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compositional measurements by Cassini's dust detector (CDA) of ice particles emitted from Saturn's active moon Enceladus into the E ring are presented. Our detection of sodium salts within the grains provides evidence for mineral enriched liquid water deep below the moon's icy surface (Postberg et al., Nature 2009). In nearly all particles we found sodium (Na) in varying concentrations. Most spectra also show potassium (K) in lower abundance. In particles that are particularly sodium rich, sodium salts (like NaCl and NaHCO3) are identified as Na bearing components. This is only plausible if the plume source is liquid water that is or has been linked to an ocean in contact with the rocky material of Enceladus' core. The abundance of minerals as well as the inferred basic pH of those grains exhibit a compelling similarity with the predicted composition of an Enceladus ocean (Zolotov, GRL 2007). The Na-rich ice particles expelled through the plumes into the E ring are frozen droplets of a salt-water reservoir possibly still in contact with a large ocean. Together with recent measurement of Enceladian plume vapor by Cassini-INMS (Waite et al., Nature 2009) and Earth bound spectroscopy (Schneider et al., Nature 2009), a detailed compositional picture of both gas and solid phases of the plume is at hand for the first time. The results provide strict constraints for plume models which have to include gas and grain production as well as their subsequent ejection into the E ring. The observations now produce a consistent picture of plume mechanics based on evaporation of liquid water as the main plume driver but also involving other processes. Violently erupting geysers from water in the cracks close to the surface can be ruled out, whereas large evaporating water surfaces deep below the ice crust provide the most plausible scenarios.

Postberg, Frank; Kempf, S.; Schmidt, J.; Brilliantov, N.; Beinsen, A.; Abel, B.; Buck, U.; Srama, R.



Stability of the powdered dosage form prepared by unsealing the capsules: water vapor sorption and discoloration of the powdery contents of clorazepate dipotassium capsules.  


The hygroscopicity of the contents of clorazepate dipotassium (Mendon) capsules (CM) was investigated by storage at various relative humidities (RHs). The CM adsorbed water vapor significantly at more than 75% RH. At the same time, a marked discoloration of CM from white to yellow was also observed during storage. On the basis of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy, the discoloration seemed to be due to the change in clorazepate dipotassium to nordiazepam and other substances. It was found that, when opening of the Mendon capsule is necessary to prepare the powdered dosage form, the CM should be stored below 60% RH to avoid the adsorption of water vapor and discoloration. PMID:11068694

Hanawa, T; Ohta, T; Kimura, F; Tsuchiya, T; Ikoma, R; Uchida, T; Suzuki, M; Nakajima, S



Geomicrobiology and hopanoid content of sulfidic subsurface vent biofilms, Little Salt Spring, Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfide-rich, oxygen-poor environments are widespread in the subsurface and were prevalent at the earth's surface during critical intervals in the geologic past. Modern microbial communities in sulfidic niches have the potential to shed light on the biogeochemistry and biosignatures of anoxia and euxinia in earth history. Caves and sinkholes provide rare windows into microbially-dominated, sulfidic subsurface environments that are otherwise difficult and expensive to access. Little Salt Spring (Sarasota County, Florida) is a cover-collapse sinkhole lake with oxic surface water and anoxic, sulfidic bottom water (Alvarez Zarikian 2005). The site is famous for excellent preservation of human and animal archaeological remains (Clausen 1979), and its microbiology has never been investigated. Abundant white biofilms develop seasonally at a warm vent that feeds into the anoxic bottom water at 73 m depth below the water surface. The biofilms are of interest both as potential sources of biomarker compounds and because of their likely role in sulfuric acid production and limestone dissolution (speleogenesis). Biofilm samples were collected by expert science divers and investigated using microscopy, nucleic acid, and lipid analytical methods. Microscopy of the live biofilm revealed clusters of microbial filaments with holdfasts and dendritic, sulfur-rich colonial structures similar to those described in the 1960s for Thiobacterium, a sulfur-oxidizing genus with undetermined phylogeny. A 16S rDNA library constructed from the biofilm was split into three main phylotypes, with multiple clones representing (1) a Betaproteobacterial clade with no cultivated representatives, (2) filamentous Epsilonproteobacteria, and (3) a major bacterial lineage without named isolates (OP11/OD2). A full cycle rRNA approach is currently underway to link 16S rDNA phylotypes with specific populations in the biofilm. We confirmed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) that abundant filamentous cells with holdfasts are Epsilonproteobacteria. Additional FISH experiments will target the Betaproteobacterial and OP11/OD2 phylotypes retrieved by cloning. Based on HPLC-MS analyses, the biofilm contains at least 5 membrane hopanoid structures distinct from the suite of hopanoids present in sinking organic particles from the photic zone of the sinkhole. Future efforts will be aimed at linking hopanoid structures to specific sulfur-oxidizing populations and to geochemical parameters such as sulfide and oxygen concentrations. References Alvarez Zarikian,C. A., P. K. Swart, J. A. Gifford, P. L. Blackwelder, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 225, 134 (2005). Clausen, C. J., A. D. Cohen, C. Emiliani, J. A. Holman, J. J. Stipp, Science 203, 609 (1979).

Yang, E.; Schaperdoth, I.; Albrecht, H.; Freeman, K. H.; Macalady, J. L.



Stomach contents of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Scottish waters  

E-print Network

Stomach contents of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Scottish waters M.B. Santos*P , G bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) stranded and by-caught around Scotland (UK) between 1990 and 1999¢nus), and also cephalopods. INTRODUCTION Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus, Montagu 1821) have a wide

Pierce, Graham


Estimation of salt water upconing using a steady-state solution for partial completion of a pumped well.  


A new steady-state analytical solution to the two-dimensional radial-flow equation was developed for drawdown (head) conditions in an aquifer with constant transmissivity, no-flow conditions at the top and bottom, constant head conditions at a known radial distance, and a partially completed pumping well. The solution was evaluated for accuracy by comparison to numerical simulations using MODFLOW. The solution was then used to estimate the rise of the salt water-fresh water interface (upconing) that occurs under a pumping well, and to calculate the critical pumping rate at which the interface becomes unstable, allowing salt water to enter the pumping well. The analysis of salt water-fresh water interface rise assumed no significant effect on upconing by recharge; this assumption was tested and supported using results from a new steady-state analytical solution developed for recharge under two-dimensional radial-flow conditions. The upconing analysis results were evaluated for accuracy by comparison to those from numerical simulations using SEAWAT for salt water-fresh water interface positions under mild pumping conditions. The results from the equation were also compared with those of a published numerical sharp-interface model applied to a case on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. This comparison indicates that estimating the interface rise and maximum allowable pumping rate using the analytical method will likely be less conservative than the maximum allowable pumping rate and maximum stable interface rise from a numerical sharp-interface model. PMID:23336341

Garabedian, Stephen P



Characterization of bile salt uptake by Giardia lamblia.  


We have shown previously that Giardia lamblia takes up conjugated bile salt in vitro, and have now investigated the mechanism by which this occurs. Uptake of sodium taurocholate (TC) and glycocholate (GC) with respect to time had an initial exponential component followed by a linear component, consistent with a combination of both active and passive transport processes. The presence of an active transport process was further supported by experiments which showed that bile salt uptake: (i) was concentration dependent (apparent Km's for TC and GC were 0.21 and 0.63 mM, respectively); (ii) was competitively inhibitable; (iii) was reduced by the metabolic inhibitor sodium fluoride (50 mM) and low temperature (4 degrees C). Bile salt was not taken up by glutaraldehyde-fixed parasites, indicating that bile salt was not merely being adsorbed on to the parasite surface. Differential centrifugation of lyzed parasites following exposure to radiolabelled GC, showed that the majority of bile salt was located in the cytosol fraction (76%) with a relatively minor component associated with cell membrane, indicating that bile salt had been internalized. Bile salt analysis of extracts of parasites and culture medium indicated that GC had not been metabolized by Giardia. Thus, like the mammalian ileum, Giardia appears to take up conjugated bile salts by active and passive transport processes. Conjugated bile salts are known to promote encystation and thus these uptake mechanisms may constitute an important survival mechanism for the parasite enabling it to complete its life cycle. PMID:8847170

Halliday, C E; Inge, P M; Farthing, M J



16/05/12 3:57 PMWATER: Floating robots use GPS-enabled smartphones to track water flow, help water management Page 1 of 4  

E-print Network

moves, such as the spread of pollutants, the migration of salmon or the mixture of salt and fresh water16/05/12 3:57 PMWATER: Floating robots use GPS-enabled smartphones to track water flow, help water management Page 1 of 4


Pharmaceutical salt formation guided by phase diagrams.  

E-print Network

??Salt formation is frequently employed to improve the solubility and bioavailability of pharmaceutical compounds. Solid-Liquid-Equilibrium (SLE) phase diagram that serves as the foundation for designing… (more)

Lam, Ka Wing



Corrosion of Mullite by Molten Salts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interaction of molten salts of different Na2O activities and mullite is examined with furnace and burner tests. The more-acidic molten salts form small amounts of Al2O3; the more-basic molten salts form various Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2 compounds. The results are interpreted using the Na2O-Al203-SiO2 ternary phase diagram, and some possible diffusion paths are discussed. The generally higher melting points of Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2 compounds lead to better behavior of mullite in molten salts, as compared to SiO2-protected ceramics such as SiC. Mullite-coated SiC is discussed, and the corrosion behavior is evaluated.

Jacobson, Nathan S.; Lee, Kang N.; Yoshio, Tetsuo



Ecosystem-groundwater interactions under changing land uses: Linking water, salts, and carbon across central Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although most ecosystems display a one-way connection with groundwater based on the regulation of deep water drainage (recharge), this link can become reciprocal when the saturated zone is shallow and plants take up groundwater (discharge). In what context is the reciprocal link most likely? How is it affected by land use changes? Has it consequences on salt and carbon cycling? We examine these questions across a precipitation gradient in the Pampas and Espinal of Argentina focusing on three vegetation change situations (mean annual rainfall): afforestation of humid (900-1300 mm) and subhumid grassland (700-900 mm/yr of rainfall), annual cultivation of subhumid grasslands (700-800 mm/yr), and annual cultivation of semiarid forests (500-700 mm). Humid and subhumid grasslands have shallow (< 5 m deep) groundwater tables that are poorly consumed by grasses but highly used by planted trees, as evidenced by satellite canopy temperatures, soil moisture and water table level records, and sapflow measurements. Groundwater contributions enhance carbon uptake in plantations compared to grasslands as suggested by aboveground biomass measurements and satellite vegetation indexes from sites with and without access to groundwater. Where rainfall is <1100 mm, grassland afforestation switches water fluxes to groundwater from positive (net recharge) to negative (net discharge) causing a salt accumulation process in soils and groundwater that is ultimately limited by the tolerance to salinity of tree species. Cultivation with corn and soybean can lead to groundwater consumption in the driest belt of subhumid grassland. Up to five-fold yield increases in lowlands vs. uplands during the driest years indicate a dramatic impact of groundwater use on carbon uptake and groundwater salinization suggests a recharge-to- discharge switch. In dry forests groundwater is not accessible (> 15 m deep) and recharge under natural conditions is null. The establishment of crops, however, triggers the onset of recharge, as evidenced by vadose zones getting wetter and leached of atmospheric chloride. Cropping may cause water table raises leading to a two-way coupling of ecosystems and groundwater in the future, as it has been documented for similar settings in Australia and the Sahel. In the Pampas land use change interacts with groundwater consumption leading to higher carbon uptake (humid and subhumid grasslands) and salt accumulation (subhumid grasslands). In the Espinal (semiarid forest) land use change currently involves a one-way effect on groundwater recharge that may switch to a reciprocal connection if regional water table raises occur. Neglecting the role of groundwater in flat sedimentary plains can obscure our understanding of carbon and salt cycling and curtail our attempts to sustain soil and water resources under changing land uses.

Jobbagy, E. G.; Nosetto, M. D.; Santoni, C. S.; Jackson, R. B.



Water repellency and critical soil water content in a dune sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessments of water repellency of soils are commonly made on air-dried or oven-dried samples, without considering the soil water content. The objectives of this study were to examine the spatial and temporal variability of soil water content, actual water repellency over short distances, and the variations in critical soil water contents. Between 22 April and 23 November 1999, numerous samples

Louis W. Dekker; Stefan H. Doerr; Klaas Oostindie; Apostolos K. Ziogas; Coen J. Ritsema



Density Oscillations in a Nanoscale Water Film on Salt: Insight from Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics  

E-print Network

or accelerate the boiling of water. Under ambient conditions, thin film water covers most surfaces and common point of 75% NaCl, crystals are covered in a thin film of water believed to be about 1 nm thick or so.2Density Oscillations in a Nanoscale Water Film on Salt: Insight from Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics


Water Dynamics in Salt Solutions Studied with Ultrafast Two-Dimensional Infrared (2D IR)  

E-print Network

Water Dynamics in Salt Solutions Studied with Ultrafast Two-Dimensional Infrared (2D IR RECEIVED ON FEBRUARY 3, 2009 C O N S P E C T U S Water is ubiquitous in nature, but it exists as pure water infrequently. From the ocean to biology, water molecules interact with a wide variety of dissolved species

Fayer, Michael D.


UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This water sampling and analysis plan describes planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in Salt Lake City, Utah. This plan identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for routine monitoring of ground water, sediments, and surface waters at monitoring stations on the site.




Statistical analysis of nitrate in ground water, West Salt River Valley, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Accurate estimates of the nitrate concentrations in ground water in west Salt River Valley are needed to better manage ground water affected by nitrate. Statistical analyses were done to establish the best statistical method to produce these estimates. Three sets of ground-water data for different time periods --1975-77, 1980-85, and 1986-90--were used to analyze spatial and temporal variations in concentrations of nitrate in ground water. The use of inverse-distance squared weighting, radial-basis function, kriging, and cokriging were evaluated for estimating nitrate concentrations in ground water. From an analysis of the cross-validation results, cokriging maps resulted in the best estimates, and they were accepted as being the most reliable. Cross-validation results also indicated that nitrate cokriged best with magnesium for 1975-77 and 1986-90 and with calcium for 1980-85. Kriging results consistently were almost as reliable as any of the cokriging results. Because of the difficulties inherent in the cokriging process, kriging, although not optimal, was the fastest way to obtain reasonably good results. In 1980-85, cokriged nitrate concentrations exceeded 20 milligrams per liter in a 12-square-kilometer area in Phoenix and Glendale and exceeded 10 milligrams per liter in a 280-square-kilometer area that extended to the Salt River. In 1986-90, nitrate concentrations along the entire reach of the Salt River in west Salt River Valley were less than 10 milligrams per liter and were smaller probably as a result of recharge from the Salt and Gila Rivers in 1982. Farther north in Phoenix and Glendale, the area in which nitrate concentrations exceeded 10 milligrams per liter expanded to 490 square kilometers for 1986-90. In Buckeye Valley, nitrate concentrations exceeded 10 milligrams per liter in an area of 300 square milometers for 1980-85 from the Gila River in the early 1980's but possibly could be an artifact of the different data distributions associated with each data set. In the Phoenix area, cokriged nitrate concentrations for 1975-77 exceeded 10 milligrams per liter in a 290-square-kilometer area and exceeded 20 milligrams per liter in a 1.4-square- kilometer area.

Long, Andy E.; Brown, James G.; Gellenbeck, Dorinda J.



Salts on Europa's surface detected by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer. The NIMS Team.  


Reflectance spectra in the 1- to 2.5-micrometer wavelength region of the surface of Europa obtained by Galileo's Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer exhibit distorted water absorption bands that indicate the presence of hydrated minerals. The laboratory spectra of hydrated salt minerals such as magnesium sulfates and sodium carbonates and mixtures of these minerals provide a close match to the Europa spectra. The distorted bands are only observed in the optically darker areas of Europa, including the lineaments, and may represent evaporite deposits formed by water, rich in dissolved salts, reaching the surface from a water-rich layer underlying an ice crust. PMID:9596573

McCord, T B; Hansen, G B; Fanale, F P; Carlson, R W; Matson, D L; Johnson, T V; Smythe, W D; Crowley, J K; Martin, P D; Ocampo, A; Hibbitts, C A; Granahan, J C



Salts on Europa's surface detected by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reflectance spectra in the 1- to 2.5-micrometer wavelength region of the surface of Europa obtained by Galileo's Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer exhibit distorted water absorption bands that indicate the presence of hydrated minerals. The laboratory spectra of hydrated salt minerals such as magnesium sulfates and sodium carbonates and mixtures of these minerals provide a close match to the Europa spectra. The distorted bands are only observed in the optically darker areas of Europa, including the lineaments, and may represent evaporite deposits formed by water, rich in dissolved salts, reaching the surface from a water-rich layer underlying an ice crust.

McCord, T.B.; Hansen, G.B.; Fanale, F.P.; Carlson, R.W.; Matson, D.L.; Johnson, T.V.; Smythe, W.D.; Crowley, J.K.; Martin, P.D.; Ocampo, A.; Hibbitts, C.A.; Granahan, J.C.



Rise and fall of road salt contamination of water-supply springs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A storage pile of de-icing agent consisting principally of sodium chloride was placed in the recharge area of two springs, and remained there for 2 years. Water flow is through fractures in rocks with low matrix permeability, along a hydraulic gradient developed along fracture zones. Salt contamination in the springs was noticed about 1 year after the salt was placed. When the

Eberhard Werner; Richard S. diPretoro



Nasal Salt Excretion and the Possible Function of the Cloaca in Water Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secretion of concentrated salt solutions from the nasal region was observed in several terrestrial birds and reptiles. In the secreted fluid potassium usually exceeded sodium concentrations, with chloride and bicarbonate as the major anions. It is suggested that the extrarenal excretion of salts is related to the reabsorption of water in the cloaca, that it is necessary for the production

Knut Schmidt-Nielson; Arieh Borut; Ping Lee; Eugene Crawford Jr.



Chloride dynamics in a restored urban stream and the influence of road salts on water quality  

EPA Science Inventory

Understanding the connection between road salts and water quality is essential to assess the implications for human health and ecosystem services from these widely used de-icers. Preliminary analysis identified a probable connection between road salt application and a stream wat...


Water Calibration Measurements for Neutron Radiography: Application to Water Content Quantification in Porous Media  

SciTech Connect

Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 2 mm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector / scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media.

Kang, Misun [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Cheng, Chu-lin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Perfect, Edmund [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Horita, Juske [Texas Tech University (TTU); Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL



Water calibration measurements for neutron radiography: Application to water content quantification in porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 0.2 cm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector/scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media.

Kang, M.; Bilheux, H. Z.; Voisin, S.; Cheng, C. L.; Perfect, E.; Horita, J.; Warren, J. M.



Performance evaluation of TDT soil water content and watermark soil water potential sensors  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study evaluated the performance of digitized Time Domain Transmissometry (TDT) soil water content sensors (Acclima, Inc., Meridian, ID) and resistance-based soil water potential sensors (Watermark 200, Irrometer Company, Inc., Riverside, CA) in two soils. The evaluation was performed by compar...



E-print Network

DERIVING PROGNOSTIC EQUATIONS FOR CLOUD FRACTION AND LIQUID WATER CONTENT Vincent E. Larson1 1-negative everywhere and is normalized. Gregory et al. (2002), Wilson and Gregory (2003), and Bushell et al. (2003 that accounts for how liquid water varies with both total water content and temperature. The variable s has



E-print Network

PHOSPHORUS CONTENT OF WATERS ALONG THE WEST COAST OF FLORIDA Marine Biological Laboratory WOODS PHOSPHORUS CONTENT OF WATERS ALONG THF WEST COAST OF FLORIDA Herbert Wo Graham, Fishery Biologist, John Mo, 195U #12;ABSTRACT The distribution of inorganic and total phosphorus in the waters along the west


Ice crystallization in ultrafine water-salt aerosols: nucleation, ice-solution equilibrium, and internal structure.  


Atmospheric aerosols have a strong influence on Earth's climate. Elucidating the physical state and internal structure of atmospheric aqueous aerosols is essential to predict their gas and water uptake, and the locus and rate of atmospherically important heterogeneous reactions. Ultrafine aerosols with sizes between 3 and 15 nm have been detected in large numbers in the troposphere and tropopause. Nanoscopic aerosols arising from bubble bursting of natural and artificial seawater have been identified in laboratory and field experiments. The internal structure and phase state of these aerosols, however, cannot yet be determined in experiments. Here we use molecular simulations to investigate the phase behavior and internal structure of liquid, vitrified, and crystallized water-salt ultrafine aerosols with radii from 2.5 to 9.5 nm and with up to 10% moles of ions. We find that both ice crystallization and vitrification of the nanodroplets lead to demixing of pure water from the solutions. Vitrification of aqueous nanodroplets yields nanodomains of pure low-density amorphous ice in coexistence with vitrified solute rich aqueous glass. The melting temperature of ice in the aerosols decreases monotonically with an increase of solute fraction and decrease of radius. The simulations reveal that nucleation of ice occurs homogeneously at the subsurface of the water-salt nanoparticles. Subsequent ice growth yields phase-segregated, internally mixed, aerosols with two phases in equilibrium: a concentrated water-salt amorphous mixture and a spherical cap-like ice nanophase. The surface of the crystallized aerosols is heterogeneous, with ice and solution exposed to the vapor. Free energy calculations indicate that as the concentration of salt in the particles, the advance of the crystallization, or the size of the particles increase, the stability of the spherical cap structure increases with respect to the alternative structure in which a core of ice is fully surrounded by solution. We predict that micrometer-sized particles and nanoparticles have the same equilibrium internal structure. The variation of liquid-vapor surface tension with solute concentration is a key factor in determining whether a solution-embedded ice core or vapor-exposed ice cap is the equilibrium structure of the aerosols. In agreement with experiments, we predict that the structure of mixed-phase HNO3-water particles, representative of polar stratospheric clouds, consists of an ice core surrounded by freeze-concentrated solution. The results of this work are important to determine the phase state and internal structure of sea spray ultrafine aerosols and other mixed-phase particles under atmospherically relevant conditions. PMID:24820354

Hudait, Arpa; Molinero, Valeria



Effects of water content on the actuation performance of ionic polymer-metal composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experiment on the effects of water content on the actuation performance of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs). Specifically, Nafion 117 sandwiched by platinum electrodes was actuated by AC voltage for 2 h. Because the water molecules in Nafion 117 evaporated into the air, the change of the actuation performance of IMPCs with decreasing water content was investigated.

Cheng-Chia Yeh; Wen-Pin Shih



Effect of beating processing, as a means of reducing salt content in frankfurters: a physico-chemical and Raman spectroscopic study.  


Structural changes, L(?)-value, cooking yield changes and textural properties of pork frankfurters containing 1% or 2% salt, produced by the two methods were studied by Raman spectroscopy and texture profile analysis. Increasing salt content from 1% to 2% increased the L(?)-value, cooking yield and hardness, and decreased (p<0.05) the C-H stretching and CH2 and CH3 bending vibrations, but did not affect the changes of secondary structures, tryptophan or tyrosine residues. Compared with the chopping, the beating increased L(?)-value, cooking yield and hardness of the frankfurters in both salt concentrations. It also resulted in an increase in ?-sheets, accompanied by a significant (p<0.05) decrease in ?-helix content, a greater exposure of tyrosine residues to the polar environment and a decrease in the CH stretching and CH2 and CH3 bending vibrations. The results showed that the beating process enabled lowering of the salt content while improving the L(?)-value, cooking yield and hardness of the frankfurters. PMID:24960638

Kang, Zhuang-Li; Wang, Peng; Xu, Xing-Lian; Zhu, Chao-Zhi; Li, Ke; Zhou, Guang-Hong



The water, deuterium, gas and uranium content of tektites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water content, deuterium concentration of the water, total gas and uranium contents were determined on tektite samples and other glass samples from Texas, Australia, Philippine Islands, Java, French Indo-China, Czechoslovakia, Libyan Desert, Billiton Island, Thailand, French West Africa, Peru, and New Mexico. The water content ranges from 0.24 per cent for the Peru tektite, to 0.0002 per cent for

Irving Friedman



Potential water-quality effects from iron cyanide anticaking agents in road salt  

SciTech Connect

Water-soluble iron cyanide compounds are widely used as anticaking agents in road salt, which creates potential contamination of surface and groundwater with these compounds when the salt dissolves and is washed off roads in runoff. This paper presents a summary of available information on iron cyanide use in road salt and its potential effects on water quality. Also, estimates of total cyanide concentrations in snow-melt runoff from roadways are presented as simple mass-balance calculations. Although available information does not indicate a widespread problem, it also is clear that the water-quality effects of cyanide in road salt have not been examined much. Considering the large, and increasing, volume of road salt used for deicing, studies are needed to determine levels of total and free cyanide in surface and groundwater adjacent to salt storage facilities and along roads with open drainage ditches. Results could be combined with current knowledge of the fate and transport of cyanide to assess water-quality effects of iron cyanide anticaking agents used in road salt.

Paschka, M.G.; Ghosh, R.S.; Dzombak, D.A.



Comparison between stomach contents of Antarctic minke whale and krill sampled by RMT net in the Ross Sea and its adjacent waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparison between stomach contents of the minke whale and the net sampling using the multiple rectangular mid-water trawl (RMT (1+8)M) were conducted in the meso-scale area. In the Ross Sea and the adjacent waters from late of December 2004 to mid of February 2005, a cooperative survey between JARPA and R\\/V Kaiyo Maru was conducted. The Antarctic minke whales



Microbially mediated CH 4 consumption and N 2 O emission is affected by elevated CO 2 , soil water content, and composition of semi-arid grassland species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated CO2 affects plant productivity, but also water availability and plant species composition in semi-arid grasslands, thereby potentially\\u000a causing complex effects on CH4 consumption and N2O emission. We studied the effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration (400 vs 780 ?L L?1), water content (15 vs 20% gravimetric soil moisture), and composition of semi-arid grassland species (perennial grasses\\u000a Bouteloua gracilis, Hesperostipa comata, and

Feike A. Dijkstra; Jack A. Morgan; Daniel R. LeCain; Ronald F. Follett



Dehalogenation of halogenated fumigants by polysulfide salts.  


Halogenated fumigants are among the most heavily used pesticides in agriculture. Because of their high mobility and toxicological characteristics, the contamination of air or groundwater by these compounds has been a great environmental concern. In this study, we investigated dehalogenation of several halogenated fumigants by polysulfides. The reaction of polysulfides and methyl iodide (MeI), 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), and chloropicrin (CP) was very rapid. When the initial fumigant and polysulfide concentrations were both 0.2 mM, the observed 50% disappearance time values (DT50) of MeI, cis-1,3-D, and trans-1,3-D were 27.2, 29.6, and 102 h, respectively. When the initial polysulfide concentration was 1.0 mM, the corresponding DT50 values were only 2.2, 1.6, and 3.8 h. Under similar conditions, the reaction with CP was even more rapid than with the other fumigants. In 0.2 mM polysulfide solution, more than 90% of the spiked CP disappeared in 1 h after the initiation of the reaction. The reaction between fumigants and polysulfides also progressed at enhanced rates when the polysulfide solution was initially purged with nitrogen. Analysis of reaction kinetics and initial products suggests that the reaction is SN2 nucleophilic substitution for MeI and 1,3-D but likely reductive dehalogenation for CP. Given the high reactivity of polysulfide salts toward halogenated fumigants, this reaction may be used as a pollution mitigation strategy, such as for disposal of fumigant wastes, treatment of fumigant-containing wastewater, and cleanup of fumigant residues in environmental media. PMID:16848538

Bondarenko, S; Zheng, W; Yates, S R; Gan, J



Environmental aspects of produced-water salt releases in onshore and coastal petroleum-producing areas of the conterminous U.S. - a bibliography  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Environmental effects associated with the production of oil and gas have been reported since the first oil wells were drilled in the Appalachian Basin in Pennsylvania and Kentucky in the early to mid-1800s. The most significant of these effects are the degradation of soils, ground water, surface water, and ecosystems they support by releases of suspended and dissolved hydrocarbons and co-produced saline water. Produced water salts are less likely than hydrocarbons to be adsorbed by mineral phases in the soil and sediment and are not subject to degradation by biologic processes. Sodium is a major dissolved constituent in most produced waters and it causes substantial degradation of soils through altering of clays and soil textures and subsequent erosion. Produced water salts seem to have the most wide-ranging effects on soils, water quality, and ecosystems. Trace elements, including boron, lithium, bromine, fluorine, and radium, also occur in elevated concentrations in some produced waters. Many trace elements are phytotoxic and are adsorbed and may remain in soils after the saline water has been flushed away. Radium-bearing scale and sludge found in oilfield equipment and discarded on soils pose additional hazards to human health and ecosystems. This bibliography includes studies from across the oil- and natural-gas-producing areas of the conterminous United States that were published in the last 80 yrs. The studies describe the effects of produced water salts on soils, water quality, and ecosystems. Also included are reports that describe (1) the inorganic chemistry of produced waters included in studies of formation waters for various purposes, (2) other sources of salt affecting water quality that may be mistaken for produced water effects, (3) geochemical and geophysical techniques that allow discrimination of salt sources, (4) remediation technologies designed to repair damage caused to soils and ground water by produced water salts, and (5) contamination by naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM)at oilfield sites.

Otton, James K.



The influence of road salts on water quality in a restored urban stream (Columbus, OH)  

EPA Science Inventory

Understanding the connection between road salts and water quality is essential to assess the implications for human health and ecosystem services. To assess the effects of the restoration on water quality, surface and ground water have been monitored at Minebank Run, MD since 20...


46 CFR 45.77 - Salt water freeboard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(b) When the displacement at the summer load waterline cannot be certified, the addition in inches to the minimum freeboard in fresh water may be obtained by multiplying 0.25 by the summer draught in feet measured from the top of the keel to the center of the load line...



Water Uptake of Mars Salt Analogs: An Investigation of Stable Aqueous Solutions on Mars Using Raman Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand the formation of briny aqueous solutions on Mars, a salt analog was developed to closely match the cation and anion concentrations as reported by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory aboard the Phoenix Lander. The salt analog contained magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, perchlorate, chloride, sulfate, and carbonate ions. The salt analog was developed to fully encompass the correct anion and cation concentration and is referred to as 'Instant Mars.' Using Raman microscopy, we have studied phase transitions of the analogs in an environmental cell. Phase transitions were monitored using Raman spectroscopy in combination with optical microscopy while samples were in a controlled water vapor and temperature environment. Salt analog solutions were nebulized to generate 20 ?m particles (on average) that were deposited onto a quartz wafer. The particles undergo visual transformations as the relative humidity (RH) is increased and the presence of aqueous phase salts is confirmed by Raman spectra. Perhaps even more interesting is a liquid water phase particle can persist at lower RH values than the humidity at which the aqueous phase first appeared. This hysteresis effect is due to kinetic inhibition of salt nucleation and can result in metastable, supersaturated salt solutions existing at RH values as low as 10%. With measured humidity values at the Phoenix Lander site varying from 0-100% in a diurnal cycle, it seems likely that aqueous, briny solutions can form in Martian environmental conditions. Microscope images illustrating water uptake at 243K of an 'Instant Mars' particle. As the RH increases, a visual change (size and darkness) is apparent.

Nuding, D.; Gough, R. V.; Tolbert, M. A.



Salts and nutrients present in regenerated waters induce changes in water relations, antioxidative metabolism, ion accumulation and restricted ion uptake in Myrtus communis L. plants.  


The use of reclaimed water (RW) constitutes a valuable strategy for the efficient management of water and nutrients in landscaping. However, RW may contain levels of toxic ions, affecting plant production or quality, a very important aspect for ornamental plants. The present paper evaluates the effect of different quality RWs on physiological and biochemical parameters and the recovery capacity in Myrtus communis L. plants. M. communis plants were submitted to 3 irrigation treatments with RW from different sources (22 weeks): RW1 (1.7 dS m(-1)), RW2 (4.0 dS m(-1)) and RW3 (8.0 dS m(-1)) and one control (C, 0.8 dS m(-1)). During a recovery period of 11 weeks, all plants were irrigated with the control water. The RW treatments did not negatively affect plant growth, while RW2 even led to an increase in biomass. After recovery, only plants irrigated with RW3 showed some negative effects on growth, which was related to a decrease in the net photosynthesis rate, higher Na accumulation and a reduction in K levels. An increase in salinity was accompanied by decreases in leaf water potential, relative water content and gas exchange parameters, and increases in Na and Cl uptake. Plants accumulated Na in roots and restricted its translocation to the aerial part. The highest salinity levels produced oxidative stress, as seen from the rise in electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation. The use of regenerated water together with carefully managed drainage practices, which avoid the accumulation of salt by the substrate, will provide economic and environmental benefits. PMID:25394799

Acosta-Motos, José R; Alvarez, Sara; Barba-Espín, Gregorio; Hernández, José A; Sánchez-Blanco, María J



Effect of water in salt repositories. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Additional results confirm that during most of the consolidation of polycrystalline salt in brine, the previously proposed rate expression applies. The final consolidation, however, proceeds at a lower rate than predicted. The presence of clay hastens the consolidation process but does not greatly affect the previously observed relationship between permeability and void fraction. Studies of the migration of brine within polycrystalline salt specimens under stress indicate that the principal effect is the exclusion of brine as a result of consolidation, a process that evidently can proceed to completion. No clear effect of a temperature gradient could be identified. A previously reported linear increase with time of the reciprocal permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine was confirmed, though the rate of increase appears more nearly proportional to the product of sigma rather than sigma 2/ (sigma is the uniaxial stress normal to the interface and is the hydraulic pressure drop). The new results suggest that a limiting permeability may be reached. A model for the permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine is developed that is reasonably consistent with the present results and may be used to predict the permeability of bedded salt. More measurements are needed, however, to choose between two limiting forms of the model.

Baes, C.F. Jr.; Gilpatrick, L.O.; Kitts, F.G.; Bronstein, H.R.; Shor, A.J.



[Fluoride content in well water in rural areas in Morocco].  


The aim of our study was to determine fluorides (F-) content in the well water consumed as drinking water by some Moroccan populations in rural areas. All samples were collected between April and October 2011. Measurements were performed by an ion selective electrode. Thirty wells spread to cover most of the country and locally chosen based on the number of inhabitants who consume its water. All wells were in rural areas. The mean (+/- SD) of F- was 1.84 +/- 1.6 mg/L with a range from 0.42 to 8.95 mg/L Concentrations of F- in phosphate regions were higher than those found in other regions. More than half of the samples exceeded the current standard. Our study showed that water of some Moroccan regions is naturally rich in F-exposing people who consume it at high risk of fluorosis. PMID:25223146

El Jaoudi, R; El Cadi, M Ait; Bouslimane, Y; Fekhaoui, M; Bouklouze, A; Cherrah, Y



Vertical Profiles of Soil Water Content as Influenced by Environmental Factors in a Small Catchment on the Hilly-Gully Loess Plateau  

PubMed Central

Characterization of soil water content (SWC) profiles at catchment scale has profound implications for understanding hydrological processes of the terrestrial water cycle, thereby contributing to sustainable water management and ecological restoration in arid and semi-arid regions. This study described the vertical profiles of SWC at the small catchment scale on the hilly and gully Loess Plateau in Northeast China, and evaluated the influences of selected environmental factors (land-use type, topography and landform) on average SWC within 300 cm depth. Soils were sampled from 101 points across a small catchment before and after the rainy season. Cluster analysis showed that soil profiles with high-level SWC in a stable trend (from top to bottom) were most commonly present in the catchment, especially in the gully related to terrace. Woodland soil profiles had low-level SWC with vertical variations in a descending or stable trend. Most abandoned farmland and grassland soil profiles had medium-level SWC with vertical variations in varying trends. No soil profiles had low-level SWC with vertical variations in an ascending trend. Multi-regression analysis showed that average SWC was significantly affected by land-use type in different soil layers (0–20, 20–160, and 160–300 cm), generally in descending order of terrace, abandoned farmland, grassland, and woodland. There was a significant negative correlation between average SWC and gradient along the whole profile (P<0.05). Landform significantly affected SWC in the surface soil layer (0–20 cm) before the rainy season but throughout the whole profile after the rainy season, with lower levels on the ridge than in the gully. Altitude only strongly affected SWC after the rainy season. The results indicated that land-use type, gradient, landform, and altitude should be considered in spatial SWC estimation and sustainable water management in these small catchments on the Loess Plateau as well as in other complex terrains with similar settings. PMID:25313829

Wang, Bing; Wen, Fenxiang; Wu, Jiangtao; Wang, Xiaojun; Hu, Yani



Salt tectonics on Venus  

SciTech Connect

The discovery of a surprisingly high deuterium/hydrogen ratio on Venus immediately led to the speculation that Venus may have once had a volume of surface water comparable to that of the terrestrial oceans. The authors propose that the evaporation of this putative ocean may have yielded residual salt deposits that formed various terrain features depicted in Venera 15 and 16 radar images. By analogy with models for the total evaporation of the terrestrial oceans, evaporite deposits on Venus should be at least tens to hundreds of meters thick. From photogeologic evidence and in-situ chemical analyses, it appears that the salt plains were later buried by lava flows. On Earth, salt diapirism leads to the formation of salt domes, anticlines, and elongated salt intrusions - features having dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 km. Due to the rapid erosion of salt by water, surface evaporite landforms are only common in dry regions such as the Zagros Mountains of Iran, where salt plugs and glaciers exist. Venus is far drier than Iran; extruded salt should be preserved, although the high surface temperature (470/sup 0/C) would probably stimulate rapid salt flow. Venus possesses a variety of circular landforms, tens to hundreds of kilometers wide, which could be either megasalt domes or salt intrusions colonizing impact craters. Additionally, arcurate bands seen in the Maxwell area of Venus could be salt intrusions formed in a region of tectonic stress. These large structures may not be salt features; nonetheless, salt features should exist on Venus.

Wood, C.A.; Amsbury, D.



Lorentz Force on Sodium and Chlorine Ions in a Salt Water Solution Flow under a Transverse Magnetic Field  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is shown that, by applying elementary concepts in electromagnetism and electrochemistry to a system consisting of salt water flowing in a thin rectangular pipe at an average velocity v[subscript A] under the influence of a transverse magnetic field B[subscript 0], an electromotive force generator can be conceived. In fact, the Lorentz force…

De Luca, R.



Sugar and water contents of honey with dielectric property sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dielectric properties of pure yellow locust, jujube and rape flower honey and their water-adulterated products with water content from 18% to 42.6% were measured with open-ended coaxial-line probe technology and a network analyzer from 10 to 4500MHz at 25°C. Dielectric constants of pure honeys and water-added honey samples decreased monotonically with increasing frequency, and increased with increasing water content.

Wenchuan Guo; Xinhua Zhu; Yi Liu; Hong Zhuang



Fluid-loading solutions and plasma volume: Astro-ade and salt tablets with water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluid loading with salt and water is a countermeasure used after space flight to restore body fluids. However, gastrointestinal side effects have been frequently reported in persons taking similar quantities of salt and water in ground-based studies. The effectiveness of the Shuttle fluid-loading countermeasure (8 gms salt, 0.97 liters of water) was compared to Astro-ade (an isotonic electrolyte solution), to maintain plasma volume (PV) during 4.5 hrs of resting fluid restriction. Three groups of healthy men (n=6) were studied: a Control Group (no drinking), an Astro-ade Group, and a Salt Tablet Group. Changes in PV after drinking were calculated from hematocrit and hemoglobin values. Both the Salt Tablet and Astro-ade Groups maintained PV at 2-3 hours after ingestion compared to the Control Group, which had a 6 percent decline. Side effects (thirst, stomach cramping, and diarrhea) were noted in at least one subject in both the Astro-ade and Salt Tablet Groups. Nausea and vomiting were reported in one subject in the Salt Tablet Group. It was concluded that Astro-ade may be offered as an alternate fluid-loading countermeasure but further work is needed to develop a solution that is more palatable and has fewer side effects.

Fortney, Suzanne M.; Seinmann, Laura; Young, Joan A.; Hoskin, Cherylynn N.; Barrows, Linda H.



Salt Marsh Sediment Biogeochemical Response to the Deep Water Horizon BP Oil Spill (Skiff Island, LA, and Cat Island, Marsh Point, and Salt Pan Island, MS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large scale impact of the Deep Water Horizon BP Oil Spill on biological communities can be better predicted by developing an understanding of how carbon loading from the spill is affecting the microbial and biological communities of salt marshes along the Mississippi and Louisiana Gulf Coast. Sediment biogeochemical processes that degrade enriched carbon pools through sulfate reduction are primarily responsible for the biological breakdown of spilled hydrocarbons (Shin et al., 2000). Determination of sulfide concentration in contaminated areas, therefore, allows for an assessment of the oil spill impact on salt marsh at Skiff Island, LA, and Marsh Point, Cat Island, and Salt Pan Island, MS. As a result of carbon loading, porewater hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentrations are expected to show an increase in the largely anoxic wetland sediment, making the sediment more toxic and inhospitable to marsh vegetation (Alber et al., 2008). High sulfide levels due to carbon loading in hydrocarbon contaminated salt marshes cause microbial activity to increase at the plant rhizospere, leading to plant browning and die back (Eldridge and Morse 2000). Preliminary analysis of the Marsh Point study area was conducted in Fall 2010. Sediment cores indicated that sulfate reducing bacteria are significantly more active in contaminated sediments, producing sulfide concentrations 20x higher than in non-contaminated sediments. The difference in the sediment biogeochemistry between the contaminated site and non-contaminated site at Marsh Point, MS indicated that the effects of hydrocarbon contamination on sulfur cycling in salt marshes should be more spatially explored. In Fall 2011, the study was expanded to include Skiff Island, LA, and Cat Island, and Salt Pan Island, MS in addition to Marsh Point, MS. Sediment electrode profiles (H2S, O2, pH, and Eh), degree of hydrocarbon contamination (GC), grain size analysis, microbial community substrate level carbon utilization profiles, and total organic carbon results will be presented on these four locations in order to explore the potential sedimentary geochemical processes impacting salt marsh dieback, which may be enhanced as a result of the Deep Water Horizon BP Oil Spill.

Guthrie, C. L.; McNeal, K. S.; Mishra, D. R.; Blakeney, G. A.



The structure and terahertz dynamics of water confined in nanoscale pools in salt solutions.  


The behaviour of liquid water below its melting point is of great interest as it may hold clues to the properties of normal liquid water and of water in and on the surfaces of biomolecules. A second critical point, giving rise to a polyamorphic transition between high and low density water, may be hidden in the supercooled region but cannot be observed directly. Here it is shown that water can be locked up in nano-pools or worm-like structures using aqueous LiCl salt solutions and can be studied with terahertz spectroscopies. Very high dynamic range ultrafast femtosecond optical Kerr effect (OKE) spectroscopy is used to study the temperature-dependent behaviour of water in these nano-pools on timescales from 10 fs to 4 ns. These experiments are complemented by temperature-dependent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusion measurements, concentration-dependent Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) measurements, and temperature-dependent rheology. It is found that liquid water in the nanoscale pools undergoes a fragile-to-strong transition at about 220 K associated with a sharp increase in the inhomogeneity of translational dynamics. PMID:22457964

Turton, David A; Corsaro, Carmelo; Candelaresi, Marco; Brownlie, Angela; Seddon, Ken R; Mallamace, Francesco; Wynne, Klaas



Deliquescence behavior of internally mixed clay and salt aerosols by optical extinction measurements.  


Internal mixtures of montmorillonite, a clay component of mineral dust, with sodium chloride or ammonium sulfate were studied optically using cavity ring down spectroscopy. The effects of the addition of the clay to the optically observed deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) and water uptake of these salts were considered by investigating a series of different salt mass fractions. In most cases, montmorillonite alters the hygroscopic properties, lowering the DRH in comparison to the pure salt, and causes the particles to transition from solid to liquid at a lower relative humidity than is expected based on the salt alone. Predictions based on volume-weighted mixing rules were not accurate for most measurements around the DRH. We attribute deviations from theory to changes in the Gibbs free energy of the system caused by disturbances in the ion-ion interactions and lattice structure allowing water uptake prior to the DRH of the salt. Our optical results contradict some current measurements in the literature that suggest little change in the hygroscopic behavior of salts when insoluble mineral dust components are added. PMID:22512807

Attwood, Alexis Rae; Greenslade, Margaret E



Remote Sensing of Vegetation Water Content using Shortwave Infrared Reflectance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetation water content is an important biophysical parameter for estimation of soil moisture from microwave radiometers. The Soil Moisture Experiments in 2004 (SMEX04) and 2005 (SMEX05) had an objective of developing and testing algorithms for a vegetation water content (VWC) data product using sh...


Water content, porosity and cement content as parameters controlling strength of artificially cemented silty soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present study aims to assess the strength controlling parameters of a fine grained soil molded at three distinct water contents considering four distinctive cement amounts and three distinguishing dry unit weights to show that the effect of diverse soil structures formed during compaction of fine grained soils at distinct water contents, the porosity of the specimens and the amount of

Nilo Cesar Consoli; Daniela Aliati Rosa; Rodrigo Caberlon Cruz; Amanda Dalla Rosa



Does Water Content or Flow Rate Control Colloid Transport in Unsaturated Porous Media?  

SciTech Connect

Mobile colloids can play an important role in contaminant transport in soils: many contaminants exist in colloidal form, and colloids can facilitate transport of otherwise immobile contaminants. In unsaturated soils, colloid transport is, among other factors, affected by water content and flow rate. Our objective was to determine whether water content or flow rate is more important for colloid transport. We passed negatively charged polystyrene colloids (220 nm diameter) through unsaturated sand-filled columns under steady-state flow at different water contents (effective water saturations Se ranging from 0.1 to 1.0, with Se = (? – ?r)/(?s – ?r)) and flow rates (pore water velocities v of 5 and 10 cm/min). Water content was the dominant factor in our experiments. Colloid transport decreased with decreasing water content, and below a critical water content (Se < 0.1), colloid transport was inhibited, and colloids were strained in water films. Pendular ring and water film thickness calculations indicated that colloids can move only when pendular rings are interconnected. The flow rate affected retention of colloids in the secondary energy minimum, with less colloids being trapped when the flow rate increased. These results confirm the importance of both water content and flow rate for colloid transport in unsaturated porous media and highlight the dominant role of water content.

Thorsten Knappenberger; Markus Flury; Earl D. Mattson; James B. Harsh




EPA Science Inventory

Using cokriging, estimates and estimation variances of the gravimetric moisture content (GMC) were made using one and two additional random functions: the bare soil surface temperature and the percent sand content. Various measures of the differences and quality of the estimates ...


Iodine content in drinking water and other beverages in Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the variation in iodine content in drinking water in Denmark and to determine the difference in iodine content between organic and non-organic milk. Further, to analyse the iodine content in other beverages.Design and setting: Tap water samples were collected from 41 evenly distributed localities in Denmark. Organic and non-organic milk was collected at the same time (twice

LB Rasmussen; EH Larsen; L Ovesen



The effect of ultrasonic salting on protein and water-protein interactions in meat.  


The aim of this study was to assess the effect of power ultrasound (US) treatment (4.2, 11 or 19 W cm(-2) for 10, 25 or 40 min) on water-protein interactions during the salting of pork. All US treatments increased the protein extraction above that of the control (p<0.001), with the exception of 4.2 W cm(-2) for 10 and 25 min. Differential scanning calorimetry indicated myosin denaturation at the surface of the sample treated with the highest power (19 W cm(-2), 40 min). There was no effect on water binding capacity assessed by centrifuge, however, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance T21 relaxation was increased by 19 W cm(-2) (p<0.05). No changes to the meat matrix were evident by light microscopy. Findings indicate that US salting could be a surface phenomenon which can accelerate mass transfer and extract protein but denature myosin at high power inputs. Potential could exist for US to enhance conventional curing techniques. PMID:24206713

McDonnell, C K; Allen, P; Morin, C; Lyng, J G



Plant Response to Differential Soil Water Content and Salinity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Root-zone soil water content is extremely dynamic, governed by complex and coupled processes such as root uptake, irrigation, evaporation, and leaching. Root uptake of water and nutrients is influenced by these conditions and the processes involved. Plant roots are living and functioning in a dynamic environment that is subjected to extreme changes over relatively short time and small distances. In order to better manage our agricultural resources and cope with increasing constraints of water limitation, environmental concerns and climate change, it is vital to understand plants responses to these changes in their environment. We grew chick pea (Cicer arietinum) plants, in boxes of 30 x 25 x 1 cm dimensions filled with fine sand. Layers of coarse sand (1.5 cm thick) were embedded in the fine-sand media to divide the root growth environment into sections that were hydraulically disconnected from each other. This way, each section could be independently treated with differential levels of water and salinity. The root growth and distribution in the soil was monitored on daily bases using neutron radiography. Daily water uptake was measured by weighing the containers. Changes of soil water content in each section of the containers were calculated from the neutron radiographs. Plants that part of their root system was stressed with drought or salinity showed no change in their daily water uptake rate. The roots in the stressed sections stayed turgid during the stress period and looked healthy in the neutron images. However the uptake rate was severely affected when the soil in the non-stressed section started to dry. The plants were then fully irrigated with water and the water uptake rate recovered to its initial rate shortly after irrigation. The neutron radiographs clearly illustrated the shrinkage and recovery of the roots under stress and the subsequent relief. This cycle was repeated a few times and the same trend could be reproduced. Our results show that plants' response to water- or salinity-stress ranges from full compensation to severe reduction in transpiration, depending on the availability of water in their surrounding soil. Results of applying different treatments of salinity and drought will be shown. Available models of root water uptake will be employed to simulate the obtained results.

Moradi, A. B.; Dara, A.; Kamai, T.; Ngo, A.; Walker, R.; Hopmans, J. W.



Fracture of porous materials induced by crystallization of salt  

E-print Network

The penetration of salt into porous materials is known to have deleterious effects, often resulting in fracture. The damage process begins with a saline solution penetrating the porous network by way of capillary action. ...

Katzoff, Golda Y



Overexpression of a miR393-Resistant Form of Transport Inhibitor Response Protein 1 (mTIR1) Enhances Salt Tolerance by Increased Osmoregulation and Na+ Exclusion in Arabidopsis thaliana.  


Soil salinity is a common environmental stress factor that limits agricultural production worldwide. Plants have evolved different strategies to achieve salt tolerance. miR393 has been identified as closely related to biotic and abiotic stresses, and targets F-box genes that encode auxin receptors. The miR393-TIR1/AFB2/AFB3 regulatory module was discovered to have multiple functions that manipulate the auxin response. This study focused on miR393 and one of its targets, TIR1, and found that they played potential roles in response to salt stress. Our results showed that overexpression of a miR393-resistant TIR1 gene (mTIR1) in Arabidopsis clearly enhanced salt stress tolerance, which led to a higher germination rate, less water loss, reduced inhibition of root elongation, delayed senescence, decreased death rate and stabilized Chl content. These plants accumulated more proline and anthocyanin, and displayed enhanced osmotic stress tolerance. The expression of some salt stress-related genes was altered, and sodium content can be reduced in these plants under salt stress. We proposed that highly increased auxin signaling by overexpression of mTIR1 may trigger auxin-mediated downstream pathways to enhance plant salt stress resistance by osmoregulation and increased Na(+) exclusion. PMID:25336111

Chen, Zhehao; Hu, Lingzhi; Han, Ning; Hu, Jiangqin; Yang, Yanjun; Xiang, Taihe; Zhang, Xujia; Wang, Lilin



A three dimensional two-phase debris flow model: Reduction to one free model parameter by linking rheology to grain size distribution and water content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attempts to model debris flow material either as a granular or as a viscous matter can not account for the wide range of debris flow processes, leading to the development of two-phase models with one phase accounting for the fluid and the other for the grains. Within this group of models, depth-averaged approaches are wide-spread, but since the rheology of true material is sensitive to pressure and shear gradient, three dimensional simulations are necessary to predict flows in complex geometries. Phase interaction can be modelled by solving the Navier-Stokes equation system for each phase and linking the phases with drag force models. However, this is a numerically expensive way that introduces a number of free parameters because too little is known about drag of non-spherical grains in non-Newtonian fluids. The approach proposed here solves one phase-averaged Navier-stokes equation system by applying the Volume of Fluid method, while still allowing to account for the sensitivity of the local rheology to pressure and shear in dependency to phase concentrations. One phase with a Herschel-Bulkley rheology represents the interstitial fluid and can mix with a second phase with the Coulomb-viscoplastic rheology of Pudasaini (Birte et al. 2013) that represents the gravel. A third phase is kept separate and represents the air. This setup allows modelling key properties of debris flow processes like run out or impact in high detail. By linking the Herschel Bulkley parameters to water content, clay mineral proportion and grain size distribution (Kaitna et al. 2007, Yu et al. 2013), and the parameters of the Coulomb-viscoplastic rheology to the angle of repose of the gravel, a reduction to one free model parameter was achieved. The resulting model is tested with laboratory experiments for its capability to reproduce the sensitivity of debris flow material to water content and channel curvature. Existing large scale flume experiments are used to corroborate the model and demonstrate its sensitivity to smooth or rough channel bed conditions, and a simulation of a large scale debris flow breaker is presented to show its applicability for practical problems.

von Boetticher, Albrecht; McArdell, Brian; Rickenmann, Dieter; Hübl, Johannes; Scheidl, Christian



Numerical Simulations of Road Salt Impact at a Municipal Water Supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloride concentrations at major water supply wells within the Regional Municipality of Waterloo in Ontario have been increasingly rapidly over the past 20 years. If present trends continue, drinking water limits may be reached within the next decade. Road salt has been identified as the prime source of the contamination, and various remediation strategies are being investigated. As part of

M. L. Bester; E. O. Frind; J. W. Molson



Pure water injection into porous rock with superheated steam and salt in a solid state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of geothermal fields require injection of fluid into the hot rock to maintain pressure and productivity. The presence of solid salt in porous space may cause an unexpected change in the characteristics of the reservoir and produced fluids, and dramatically affect the profitability of the project. We consider an injection problem of pure water into high temperature geothermal reservoir, saturated with superheated vapour and solid salt. Pure water moves away from injection point and dissolves solid salt. When salty water reaches the low-pressure hot domain, water evaporation occurs and, consequently, salt precipitates. We develop a simplified analytical model of the process and derive the similarity solutions for a 1-D semi-infinite reservoir. These solutions are multi-valued and describe the reduction in permeability and porosity due to salt precipitation at the leading boiling front. If the parameters of the system exceed critical values, then similarity solution ceases to exist. We identify this mathematical behaviour with reservoir sealing in the physical system. The TOUGH2-EWASG code has been used to verify this hypothesis and investigate the precipitate formation for an idealized bounded 1-D geothermal system of a length of 500 m with water injection at one extreme and fluid extraction at the other one. Both boundaries are kept at constant pressure and temperature. The result for the semi-infinite numerical model show that the monotonic grow of the solid salt saturation to reach asymptotic similarity solution generally occurs over a very large length starting from the injection point. Reservoir sealing occurs if solid salt at the initial state occupies a considerable part of the porous space. Numerical experiments for the bounded 500 m system demonstrate that a small amount of salt is enough to get reservoir sealing. Generally, salt tend to accumulate near the production well, and salt plug forms at the elements adjacent to the extraction point. This type of simulation studies can be applied to Hot Dry Rock systems to investigate the effects of dissolution/precipitation of solid salt, if present in the system, on the feasibility of the project.

Montegrossi, G.; Tsypkin, G.; Calore, C.



Physiological and molecular mechanisms of salt and water homeostasis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.  


Intracellular salt and water homeostasis is essential for all cellular life. Extracellular salt and water homeostasis is also important for multicellular organisms. Many fundamental mechanisms of compensation for osmotic perturbations are well defined and conserved. Alternatively, molecular mechanisms of detecting salt and water imbalances and regulating compensatory responses are generally poorly defined for animals. Throughout the last century, researchers studying vertebrates and vertebrate cells made critical contributions to our understanding of osmoregulation, especially mechanisms of salt and water transport and organic osmolyte accumulation. Researchers have more recently started using invertebrate model organisms with defined genomes and well-established methods of genetic manipulation to begin defining the genes and integrated regulatory networks that respond to osmotic stress. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is well suited to these studies. Here, I introduce osmoregulatory mechanisms in this model, discuss experimental advantages and limitations, and review important findings. Key discoveries include defining genetic mechanisms of osmolarity sensing in neurons, identifying protein damage as a sensor and principle determinant of hypertonic stress resistance, and identification of a putative sensor for hypertonic stress associated with the extracellular matrix. Many of these processes and pathways are conserved and, therefore, provide new insights into salt and water homeostasis in other animals, including mammals. PMID:23739341

Choe, Keith P



[Bio-oil production from biomass pyrolysis in molten salt].  


In order to investigate the effects of pyrolysis conditions on bio-oil production from biomass in molten salt, experiments of biomass pyrolysis were carried out in a self-designed reactor in which the molten salt ZnCl2-KCl (with mole ratio 7/6) was selected as heat carrier, catalyst and dispersion agent. The effects of metal salt added into ZnCl2-KCl and biomass material on biomass pyrolysis were discussed, and the main compositions of bio-oil were determined by GC-MS. Metal salt added into molten salt could affect pyrolysis production yields remarkably. Lanthanon salt could enhance bio-oil yield and decrease water content in bio-oil, when mole fraction of 5.0% LaCl3 was added, bio-oil yield could reach up to 32.0%, and water content of bio-oil could reduce to 61.5%. The bio-oil and char yields were higher when rice straw was pyrolysed, while gas yield was higher when rice husk was used. Metal salts showed great selectivity on compositions of bio-oil. LiCl and FeCl2 promoted biomass to pyrolyse into smaller molecular weight compounds. CrCl3, CaCl2 and LaCl3 could restrain second pyrolysis of bio-oil. The research provided a scientific reference for production of bio-oil from biomass pyrolysis in molten salt. PMID:21650030

Ji, Dengxiang; Cai, Tengyue; Ai, Ning; Yu, Fengwen; Jiang, Hongtao; Ji, Jianbing



Soil-Water Characteristic Curve Modeling at Low Water Content: Empirical and Semi-Empirical Approaches  

E-print Network

Soil-Water Characteristic Curve Modeling at Low Water Content: Empirical and Semi model, the Modified Kovacs (MK) model for the determination of soil-water characteristic curve at the low water contents of two horizons of a soil from Burkina Faso. Combining terms from capillary state

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Salting out the polar polymorph: analysis by alchemical solvent transformation.  


We computationally examine how adding NaCl to an aqueous solution with ?- and ?-glycine nuclei alters the structure and interfacial energy of the nuclei. The polar ?-glycine nucleus in pure aqueous solution develops a melted layer of amorphous glycine around the nucleus. When NaCl is added, a double layer is formed that stabilizes the polar glycine polymorph and eliminates the surface melted layer. In contrast, the non-polar ?-glycine nucleus is largely unaffected by the addition of NaCl. To quantify the stabilizing effect of NaCl on ?-glycine nuclei, we alchemically transform the aqueous glycine solution into a brine solution of glycine. The alchemical transformation is performed both with and without a nucleus in solution and for nuclei of ?-glycine and ?-glycine polymorphs. The calculations show that adding 80 mg/ml NaCl reduces the interfacial free energy of a ?-glycine nucleus by 7.7 mJ/m(2) and increases the interfacial free energy of an ?-glycine nucleus by 3.1 mJ/m(2). Both results are consistent with experimental reports on nucleation rates which suggest: J(?, brine) < J(?, brine) < J(?, water). For ?-glycine nuclei, Debye-Hu?ckel theory qualitatively, but not quantitatively, captures the effect of salt addition. Only the alchemical solvent transformation approach can predict the results for both polar and non-polar polymorphs. The results suggest a general "salting out" strategy for obtaining polar polymorphs and also a general approach to computationally estimate the effects of solvent additives on interfacial free energies for nucleation. PMID:24410227

Duff, Nathan; Dahal, Yuba Raj; Schmit, Jeremy D; Peters, Baron



Salting out the polar polymorph: Analysis by alchemical solvent transformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We computationally examine how adding NaCl to an aqueous solution with ?- and ?-glycine nuclei alters the structure and interfacial energy of the nuclei. The polar ?-glycine nucleus in pure aqueous solution develops a melted layer of amorphous glycine around the nucleus. When NaCl is added, a double layer is formed that stabilizes the polar glycine polymorph and eliminates the surface melted layer. In contrast, the non-polar ?-glycine nucleus is largely unaffected by the addition of NaCl. To quantify the stabilizing effect of NaCl on ?-glycine nuclei, we alchemically transform the aqueous glycine solution into a brine solution of glycine. The alchemical transformation is performed both with and without a nucleus in solution and for nuclei of ?-glycine and ?-glycine polymorphs. The calculations show that adding 80 mg/ml NaCl reduces the interfacial free energy of a ?-glycine nucleus by 7.7 mJ/m2 and increases the interfacial free energy of an ?-glycine nucleus by 3.1 mJ/m2. Both results are consistent with experimental reports on nucleation rates which suggest: J(?, brine) < J(?, brine) < J(?, water). For ?-glycine nuclei, Debye-Hückel theory qualitatively, but not quantitatively, captures the effect of salt addition. Only the alchemical solvent transformation approach can predict the results for both polar and non-polar polymorphs. The results suggest a general "salting out" strategy for obtaining polar polymorphs and also a general approach to computationally estimate the effects of solvent additives on interfacial free energies for nucleation.

Duff, Nathan; Dahal, Yuba Raj; Schmit, Jeremy D.; Peters, Baron



Detection of Alkylaminium Salts in Particulate Matter by Ion Chromatography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smog chamber experiments were conducted to determine how amines react to form particles, specifically amine salts, in the atmosphere. All of the experiments were performed in a smog chamber at University of California Riverside's College of Engineering Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT). A Particle Into Liquid Sampler Ion Chromatograph (PILS-IC) was used to determine the concentration of the amine salts formed during the experiment. It became apparent that the amines (trimethylamine, diethylamine, and butylamine) behave differently in the presence of oxidants. The oxidants used were N2O5 and hydroxyl, both under varying levels of humidity (0 - 40%). By order of decreasing amount, the amines that produced the highest concentration of amine salts were: diethylamine, butylamine, and trimethylamine. It was also discovered that the hydroxyl radical had a higher tendency to oxidize the carbon side chain of the amine, rather than form the salt as in the case of N2O5.

Praske, E.; Lee, S. A.; Tang, X.; Cocker, D. R.; Silva, P. J.; Purvis-Roberts, K. L.



Water Dynamics in Divalent and Monovalent Concentrated Salt Chiara H. Giammanco, Daryl B. Wong, and Michael D. Fayer*  

E-print Network

Water Dynamics in Divalent and Monovalent Concentrated Salt Solutions Chiara H. Giammanco, Daryl B, United States ABSTRACT: Water hydrogen bond dynamics in concentrated salt solutions are studied using causes a shift in absorption frequency relative to that of the OD stretch absorption in bulk pure water

Fayer, Michael D.



E-print Network

MONITORING OF SALT-INDUCED DEFORMATIONS IN POROUS SYSTEMS BY MICROSCOPIC SPECKLE PATTERN porosity distribution, and its negligible humidity expansion. The glass sam- ples, soaked with salt: electronic speckle pattern interferometry, deformation measurement, salt crys- tallization, phase transition

Hinsch, Klaus


Consumer control of salt marshes driven by human disturbance.  


Salt marsh ecosystems are widely considered to be controlled exclusively by bottom-up forces, but there is mounting evidence that human disturbances are triggering consumer control in western Atlantic salt marshes, often with catastrophic consequences. In other marine ecosystems, human disturbances routinely dampen (e.g., coral reefs, sea grass beds) and strengthen (e.g., kelps) consumer control, but current marsh theory predicts little potential interaction between humans and marsh consumers. Thus, human modification of top-down control in salt marshes was not anticipated and was even discounted in current marsh theory, despite loud warnings about the potential for cascading human impacts from work in other marine ecosystems. In spite of recent experiments that have challenged established marsh dogma and demonstrated consumer-driven die-off of salt marsh ecosystems, government agencies and nongovernmental organizations continue to manage marsh die-offs under the old theoretical framework and only consider bottom-up forces as causal agents. This intellectual dependency of many coastal ecologists and managers on system-specific theory (i.e., marsh bottom-up theory) has the potential to have grave repercussions for coastal ecosystem management and conservation in the face of increasing human threats. We stress that marine vascular plant communities (salt marshes, sea grass beds, mangroves) are likely more vulnerable to runaway grazing and consumer-driven collapse than is currently recognized by theory, particularly in low-diversity ecosystems like Atlantic salt marshes. PMID:18577090

Bertness, Mark D; Silliman, Brian R



Water resources, salinity and salt yields of the rivers of the Bolivian Amazon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the first time that the water resources, the salinity and the yields of the upper basins of the Madera River have been reported. Formed by the confluence of the Beni and Mamore, the Madera is one of the world's largest rivers: 17,000 m 3s -1, approximately half the discharge of the Congo River. It has a dissolved discharge close to that of the Congo River: 1 ts -1 of ions. Likewise, the Beni and the Mamore Rivers, are also classified as large rivers, greater than the Volga River, the largest in Europe, and the Niger River, the second largest in Africa. The amounts of water involved are considerable. The average dissolved content of these rivers, 57-61 mg l -1 respectively, is relatively low to medium. Many types of water, classified according to their ionic compositions, have been characterized in the Andes, the Amazon Plain, and in the main drainage axis. The slightly mineralized black water of the plain seems the most unique type. Recycling of water vapor in the Amazon Basin is confirmed by the low chloride and sodium contents of the water in the plain. Thus the importance of this phenomenon in the genesis of rainfall throughout the basin is emphasized. The contribution of the Upper Madera River to the Amazon River is 9.7% of the water and 10.9% of ionic load.

Roche, Michel-Alain; Jauregui, Carlos Fernandez




SciTech Connect

Systems to safely analyze for tritium in moisture collected from glovebox atmospheres are being developed for use at Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities. Analysis results will guide whether the material contains sufficient tritium for economical recovery, or whether it should be stabilized for disposal as waste. In order to minimize potential radiation exposures that could occur in handling and diluting high-tritium-content water, SRS sought alternatives to the process laboratory's routine analysis by liquid-scintillation counting. The newer systems determine tritium concentrations by measuring bremsstrahlung radiation induced by low-energy beta interactions. One of the systems determines tritium activity in liquid streams, the other determines tritium activity in water vapor. Topics discussed include counting results obtained by modeling and laboratory testing and corrections that are made for low-energy photon attenuation.

Diprete, D; Raymond Sigg, R; Leah Arrigo, L; Donald Pak, D



Computational and experimental platform for understanding and optimizing water flux and salt rejection in nanoporous membranes.  

SciTech Connect

Affordable clean water is both a global and a national security issue as lack of it can cause death, disease, and international tension. Furthermore, efficient water filtration reduces the demand for energy, another national issue. The best current solution to clean water lies in reverse osmosis (RO) membranes that remove salts from water with applied pressure, but widely used polymeric membrane technology is energy intensive and produces water depleted in useful electrolytes. Furthermore incremental improvements, based on engineering solutions rather than new materials, have yielded only modest gains in performance over the last 25 years. We have pursued a creative and innovative new approach to membrane design and development for cheap desalination membranes by approaching the problem at the molecular level of pore design. Our inspiration comes from natural biological channels, which permit faster water transport than current reverse osmosis membranes and selectively pass healthy ions. Aiming for an order-of-magnitude improvement over mature polymer technology carries significant inherent risks. The success of our fundamental research effort lies in our exploiting, extending, and integrating recent advances by our team in theory, modeling, nano-fabrication and platform development. A combined theoretical and experimental platform has been developed to understand the interplay between water flux and ion rejection in precisely-defined nano-channels. Our innovative functionalization of solid state nanoporous membranes with organic protein-mimetic polymers achieves 3-fold improvement in water flux over commercial RO membranes and has yielded a pending patent and industrial interest. Our success has generated useful contributions to energy storage, nanoscience, and membrane technology research and development important for national health and prosperity.

Rempe, Susan B.



Soil water, salt, and groundwater characteristics in shelterbelts with no irrigation for several years in an extremely arid area.  


This paper is based on long-term monitoring data for soil water, salt content, and groundwater characteristics taken from shelterbelts where there has been no irrigation for at least 5 years. This study investigated the distribution characteristics of soil water and salt content in soils with different textures. The relationships between soil moisture, soil salinity, and groundwater level were analyzed using 3 years of monitoring data from a typical oasis located in an extremely arid area in northwest China. The results showed that (1) the variation trend in soil moisture with soil depth in the shelterbelts varied depending on soil texture. The soil moisture was lower in sandy and loamy shelterbelts and higher in clay shelterbelts. (2) Salinity was higher (about 3.0 mS cm(-1)) in clay shelterbelts and lower (about 0.8 mS cm(-1)) in sandy shelterbelts. (3) There was a negative correlation between soil moisture in the shelterbelts and groundwater level. Soil moisture decreased gradually as the depth of groundwater table declined. (4) There was a positive correlation between soil salinity in the shelterbelts and the depth of groundwater table. Salinity increased gradually as groundwater levels declined. PMID:23943241

Zhao, Xinfeng; Xu, Hailiang; Zhang, Peng; Fu, Jinyi; Bai, Yuan



Reversible inactivation of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase by Angeli's salt.  


Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLDH) is a key component of 3 mitochondrial ?-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes including pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, and branched chain amino acid dehydrogenase complex. It is a pyridine-dependent disulfide oxidoreductase that is very sensitive to oxidative modifications by reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of DLDH modification by RNS derived from Angeli's salt. Studies were conducted using isolated rat brain mitochondria that were incubated with varying concentrations of Angeli's salt followed by spectrophotometric enzyme assays, blue native gel analysis, and 2-dimensional gel-based proteomic approaches. Results show that DLDH could be inactivated by Angeli's salt in a concentration dependent manner and the inactivation was a targeting rather than a random process as peroxynitrite did not show any detectable inhibitory effect on the enzyme's activity under the same experimental conditions. Since Angeli's salt can readily decompose at physiological pH to yield nitroxyl anion (HNO) and nitric oxide, further studies were conducted to determine the actual RNS that was responsible for DLDH inactivation. Results indicate that it was HNO that exerted the effect of Angeli's salt on DLDH. Finally, two-dimensional Western blot analysis indicates that DLDH inactivation by Angeli's salt was accompanied by formation of protein s-nitrosothiols, suggesting that s-nitrosylation is likely the cause of loss in enzyme's activity. Taken together, the present study provides insights into mechanisms of DLDH inactivation induced by HNO derived from Angeli's salt. PMID:23139597

Yan, Liang-Jun; Liu, Li; Forster, Michael J



Determination of the Thermal Properties of Sands as Affected by Water Content, Drainage/Wetting, and Porosity Conditions for Sands With Different Grain Sizes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely recognized that liquid water, water vapor and temperature movement in the subsurface near the land/atmosphere interface are strongly coupled, influencing many agricultural, biological and engineering applications such as irrigation practices, the assessment of contaminant transport and the detection of buried landmines. In these systems, a clear understanding of how variations in water content, soil drainage/wetting history, porosity conditions and grain size affect the soil's thermal behavior is needed, however, the consideration of all factors is rare as very few experimental data showing the effects of these variations are available. In this study, the effect of soil moisture, drainage/wetting history, and porosity on the thermal conductivity of sandy soils with different grain sizes was investigated. For this experimental investigation, several recent sensor based technologies were compiled into a Tempe cell modified to have a network of sampling ports, continuously monitoring water saturation, capillary pressure, temperature, and soil thermal properties. The water table was established at mid elevation of the cell and then lowered slowly. The initially saturated soil sample was subjected to slow drainage, wetting, and secondary drainage cycles. After liquid water drainage ceased, evaporation was induced at the surface to remove soil moisture from the sample to obtain thermal conductivity data below the residual saturation. For the test soils studied, thermal conductivity increased with increasing moisture content, soil density and grain size while thermal conductivity values were similar for soil drying/wetting behavior. Thermal properties measured in this study were then compared with independent estimates made using empirical models from literature. These soils will be used in a proposed set of experiments in intermediate scale test tanks to obtain data to validate methods and modeling tools used for landmine detection.

Smits, K. M.; Sakaki, T.; Limsuwat, A.; Illangasekare, T. H.



Effect of water content on partial ternary phase diagram water-in-diesel microemulsion fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction of water in the fuel gave a significant effect to the reduction of pollutant such as NOx emission. In this work, water/diesel microemulsion fuels were prepared using compositional method by mixing water and diesel in the presence of non-ionic surfactant and co-surfactant. The effects of water composition on the partial ternary phase diagram were studied at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% (w/w). The physical stability of the microemulsion was investigated at 45°C over a period of one month. The optimum formulae obtained were diesel/T80/1-penthanol/water 60:20:15:5 wt% (System 1), 55:20:15:10 wt% (System 2), 50:20:15:15 wt% (System 3) and 45:20:15:20 wt% (System 4). Physicochemical characterizations of optimum formulae were studied. The results showed that water content has a significant effect to the formation of microemulsion, its stability, droplet size and viscosity.

Mukayat, Hastinatun; Badri, Khairiah Haji; Raman, Ismail Ab.; Ramli, Suria



Factors affecting properties of pork sausage patties made with reduced salt contents  

E-print Network

in processed meats (Rust and Olson, 1982). Phosphates are known to increase water-holding capacity, stabilize meat emulsions, improve juiciness and tenderness, and maintain flavor of processed meat products (Ellinger, 1972). 8rotsky and Everson (1973...-frozen patties resulted in higher pH values, increased fry1ng y1elds, greater ju1c1ness scores, improved bind and also inhibited the formation of off-flavor and rancid1ty. Higher NaCl content also elevated pH values, increased frying yields and juiciness...

Matlock, Robert Gerard



A Dash of Salt  

E-print Network

tx H2O | pg. 18 A Texas A&M researcher is assessing the impact of using moderately saline water for irrigating urban landscapes in West Texas and southern New Mexico. A DASH OF SALT Researcher assesses salinity impacts on grasses, trees... and shrubs A Dash of Salt Story by Danielle Supercinski { } tx H2O | pg. 19 ?The primary purpose of using moderately saline water for irrigation, including reclaimed water, is to conserve potable [drinkable] water,? said Dr. Seiichi Miyamoto, a...

Supercinski, Danielle



Comparison of Vegetation Water Content Estimates From WindSat and MODIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Determination of soil moisture content by microwave remote sensing is important for quantifying the global energy, water and biogeochemical cycles. Vegetation water content (VWC, kg m-2) is one of the important parameters for retrieval of soil moisture using passive microwave radiometers. Liquid w...


Geoelectrical and hydrochemical investigations for characterizing the salt water intrusion in the Khanasser valley, northern Syria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated approach of geoelectrical and hydrochemical investigation surveys was proposed for indicating contact regions between saline and fresh groundwater in the Khanasser valley region, northern Syria. The qualitative and quantitative interpretations of 34 vertical electrical soundings (VES) enable to characterize the salt water intrusion laterally and vertically. The established iso-apparent resistivity maps for different AB/2 spacings obviously indicate the presence of a lowresistivity (less than 4 Ohm·m) zone related to the salt water intrusion in the Quaternary and Paleogene deposits. The different hydrochemical and geophysical parameters, such as electrical resistivity, total dissolved solids (TDS) and major ions concentrations used to characterize the salt water intrusion gave almost similar results in locating and mapping the different boundaries of the groundwater salinity. The proposed approach is useful for mapping the interface between different groundwater qualities, and can be therefore used to successfully characterize the salt water intrusion phenomenon in other semi-arid regions. The application of such an approach is a powerful tool and can be used for water resource management in the water scarce areas.

Asfahani, Jamal; Abou Zakhem, Boulos



Electrodialysis technology for salt recovery from aluminum salt cake  

SciTech Connect

Electrodialysis technology for recovering salt from aluminum salt cake is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Salt cake, a slag-like aluminum-industry waste stream, contains aluminum metal, salt (NaCl and KCl), and nonmetallics (primarily aluminum oxide). Salt cake can be recycled by digesting with water and filtering to recover the metal and oxide values. A major obstacle to widespread salt cake recycling is the cost of recovering salt from the process brine. Electrodialysis technology developed at Argonne appears to be a cost-effective approach to handling the salt brines, compared to evaporation or disposal. In Argonne's technology, the salt brine is concentrated until salt crystals are precipitated in the electrodialysis stack; the crystals are recovered downstream. The technology is being evaluated on the pilot scale using Eurodia's EUR 40-76-5 stack.

Hryn, J. N.; Krumdick, G.; Graziano, D.; Sreenivasarao, K.



Salt feedback on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.  


The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is a central element in the control of the salt and water balance of the body and arterial blood pressure. The activity of the RAAS is controlled by the protease renin, which is released from renal juxtaglomerular epithelioid cells (JGE cells) into the circulation. Renin release is regulated by a complex interplay of several locally acting hormones or mechanisms and longer feedback loops one of which involves salt intake. Acute NaCl loads or longer lasting high salt intakes suppress plasma renin activity, whereas reductions in NaCl intake stimulate it. Because the activation of the RAAS conserves the salt content of the body, a classical feedback loop between salt intake/body salt content and renin is established. Despite of its important role for body fluid homeostasis, the precise signaling pathways connecting salt intake with the synthesis and release of renin are only incompletely understood. Four putative controllers of the salt-dependent regulation of the RAAS have been suggested: (1) the macula densa mechanism which adjusts renin release in response to changes in the renal tubular salt concentration; (2) salt-dependent changes in the arterial blood pressure; (3) circulating salt-dependent hormones, particularly the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP); and (4) renal sympathetic nervous activity, which is regulated by extracellular volume and arterial blood pressure. In this review, the role of these known controllers of the RAAS will be discussed with special emphasis on their relative contributions to the salt-dependent regulation of the RAAS at different time frames. PMID:25502115

Schweda, Frank



Ice Particle Impact on Cloud Water Content Instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Determining the total amount of water contained in an icing cloud necessitates the measurement of both the liquid droplets and ice particles. One commonly accepted method for measuring cloud water content utilizes a hot wire sensing element, which is maintained at a constant temperature. In this approach, the cloud water content is equated with the power required to keep the sense element at a constant temperature. This method inherently assumes that impinging cloud particles remain on the sensing element surface long enough to be evaporated. In the case of ice particles, this assumption requires that the particles do not bounce off the surface after impact. Recent tests aimed at characterizing ice particle impact on a thermally heated wing section, have raised questions about the validity of this assumption. Ice particles were observed to bounce off the heated wing section a very high percentage of the time. This result could have implications for Total Water Content sensors which are designed to capture ice particles, and thus do not account for bouncing or breakup of ice particles. Based on these results, a test was conducted to investigate ice particle impact on the sensing elements of the following hot-wire cloud water content probes: (1) Nevzorov Total Water Content (TWC)/Liquid Water Content (LWC) probe, (2) Science Engineering Associates TWC probe, and (3) Particle Measuring Systems King probe. Close-up video imaging was used to study ice particle impact on the sensing element of each probe. The measured water content from each probe was also determined for each cloud condition. This paper will present results from this investigation and attempt to evaluate the significance of ice particle impact on hot-wire cloud water content measurements.

Emery, Edward F.; Miller, Dean R.; Plaskon, Stephen R.; Strapp, Walter; Lillie, Lyle




Microsoft Academic Search

Sandplain heathlands are disturbance-dependent plant communities that occur infrequently in coastal areas of the northeastern United States. We hypothesize that salt spray plays a role in maintaining the composition of the heathland community by excluding salt- intolerant species close to the ocean. We examined the distributions of Solidago nemoralis, Myrica pensylvanica, Pinus rigida, and Quercus spp. in heathlands and conducted




[Vasopressinergic neurons in rats during ontogenesis: reaction to salt-loading and its modulation by noradrenergic afferents].  


Salt-loading in adult mammals stimulates vasopressin secretion by vasopressinergic neurons of the supraoptic nucleus that is under control by a number of hormones and neurotransmitters including noradrenalin. This study was aimed to determine at what period of ontogenesis the vasopressinergic neurons begin to respond to salt-loading and when the noradrenergic control of this process is switched on. Rats on the 21st embryonic day (E), the 3rd postnatal day (P) and P13 were salt-loaded, sometimes under simultaneous treatment with prasozin, an inhibitor of al -adrenoreceptors. Thereafter, the hypothalamic nuclei of the animals were processed for immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization. Salt-loading provoked increased synthesis of vasopressin mRNA and, most probably, vasopressin itself in rats in all studied age groups. Under salt-loading, the intraneuronal content of vasopressin increased significantly at E21 and P3, whereas it did not change at P13. No change in the intracellular contents of vasopressin mRNA and vasopressin was observed in foetuses following salt-loading and treatment with prasozin though the same treatment provoked an increase of both parameters at P3. These data show that noradrenalin provides an inhibitory control of vasopressin expression at least since P3. Thus, vasopressinergic neurons begin to respond to salt-loading at the since P3. Thus, life by the increased expression of vasopressin that is postnatally under the inhibitory control by noradrenalin. PMID:17926913

Abramova, M A; Ugriumov, M V; Calas, A




EPA Science Inventory

Pervaporation has emerged as an economically viable alternative technology for the dehydration of organic solvents, removal of organic compounds from water and organic/organic separations. Development of a membrane system with suitable flux and selectivity characteristics plays a...


Ultra fast cooling of hot steel plate by air atomized spray with salt solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, the applicability of air atomized spray with the salt added water has been studied for ultra fast cooling (UFC) of a 6 mm thick AISI-304 hot steel plate. The investigation includes the effect of salt (NaCl and MgSO4) concentration and spray mass flux on the cooling rate. The initial temperature of the steel plate before the commencement of cooling is kept at 900 °C or above, which is usually observed as the "finish rolling temperature" in the hot strip mill of a steel plant. The heat transfer analysis shows that air atomized spray with the MgSO4 salt produces 1.5 times higher cooling rate than atomized spray with the pure water, whereas air atomized spray with NaCl produces only 1.2 times higher cooling rate. In transition boiling regime, the salt deposition occurs which causes enhancement in heat transfer rate by conduction. Moreover, surface tension is the governing parameter behind the vapour film instability and this length scale increases with increase in surface tension of coolant. Overall, the achieved cooling rates produced by both types of salt added air atomized spray are found to be in the UFC regime.

Mohapatra, Soumya S.; Ravikumar, Satya V.; Jha, Jay M.; Singh, Akhilendra K.; Bhattacharya, Chandrima; Pal, Surjya K.; Chakraborty, Sudipto



Effect of higher water vapor content on TBC performance  

SciTech Connect

Coal gasification, or IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle), is one pathway toward cleaner use of coal for power generation with lower emissions. However, when coal-derived synthesis gas (i.e., syngas) is burned in turbines designed for natural gas, turbine manufacturers recommend 'derating,' or lowering the maximum temperature, which lowers the efficiency of the turbine, making electricity from IGCC more expensive. One possible reason for the derating is the higher water vapor contents in the exhaust gas. Water vapor has a detrimental effect on many oxidation-resistant high-temperature materials. In a turbine hot section, Ni-base superalloys are coated with a thermal barrier coating (TBC) allowing the gas temperature to be higher than the superalloy solidus temperature. TBCs have a low thermal conductivity ceramic top coating (typically Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}, or YSZ) and an oxidation-resistant metallic bond coating. For land-based gas turbines, the industry standard is air plasma sprayed (APS) YSZ and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) sprayed NiCoCrAlY bond coatings. To investigate the role of higher water vapor content on TBC performance and possible mitigation strategies, furnace cycling experiments were conducted in dry O{sub 2} and air with 10% (typical with natural gas or jet fuel) or 50 vol% water vapor. Cycle frequency and temperature were accelerated to one hour at 1100 C (with 10 minute cooling to {approx}30 C between each thermal cycle) to induce early failures in coatings that are expected to operate for several years with a metal temperature of {approx}900 C. Coupons (16 mm diameter x 2 mm thick) of commercial second-generation single crystal superalloy CMSX4 were HVOF coated on both sides with {approx}125 {micro}m of Ni-22wt%Co-17Cr-12Al either with 0.7Y or 0.7Y-0.3Hf-0.4Si. One side was then coated with 190-240 {micro}m of APS YSZ. Coatings were cycled until the YSZ top coating spalled. Figure 2 shows the results of the initial phase of experiments. Compared to dry O{sub 2}, the addition of 10% water vapor decreased the lifetime of MCrAlY by {approx}30% for the conventional CMSX4 substrates. Higher average lifetimes were observed with Hf in the bond coating, but a similar decrease in lifetime was observed when water vapor was added. The addition of Y and La to the superalloy substrate did not change the YSZ lifetime with 10% water vapor. However, increasing water vapor content from 10 to 50% did not further decrease the lifetime of either bond coating with the doped superalloy substrate. Thus, these results suggest that higher water vapor contents cannot explain the derating of syngas-fired turbines, and other factors such as sulfur and ash from imperfect syngas cleanup (or upset conditions) need to be explored. Researchers continue to study effects of water vapor on thermally grown alumina scale adhesion and growth rate, and are looking for bond coating compositions more resistant to oxidation in the presence of water vapor.

Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Haynes, James A [ORNL




SciTech Connect

This research evaluated the removal of inorganic contaminants by a variety of amendments and mixtures of amendments in fresh and salt water. A series of removal and retention batch experiments was conducted to identify the best treatment for metal removal. Metal removal by the amendments was evaluated by calculating the partition coefficient and percent removal. Retention of metals by the amendments was evaluated in retention (desorption) studies in which residue from the removal studies was extracted with 1 M MgCl{sub 2} solution. The results indicated that phosphate amendments, some organoclays (e.g., OCB-750), and the biopolymer, chitosan, are very effective in removal and retention of metals in both fresh and salt water. These amendments are being evaluated further as components in the development of active caps for sediment remediation.

Knox, A; Michael Paller, M



Warming, salting and origin of the Tyrrhenian Deep Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data collected from 1996 to 2001 down to 3,500 m in the Tyrrhenian sub-basin with ship-handled and moored instruments show 5-year T and S trends (0.016 °C\\/yr, 0.008\\/yr) that are the largest ever evidenced in Mediterranean deep waters. This is not consistent with the usual hypothesis that Tyrrhenian Deep Water (TDW) is a mixture of eastern water flowing from the

J.-L. Fuda; G. Etiope; C. Millot; P. Favali; M. Calcara; G. Smriglio; E. Boschi



Dissipation behavior of organophosphorus pesticides during the cabbage pickling process: residue changes with salt and vinegar content of pickling solution.  


In this experiment, the behavior of 10 pesticides in three different cabbage pickling treatments has been studied. The brine used for pickling was made up with different salt and vinegar contents to determine the influence of different pickling solutions on pesticide dissipation and distribution. A modified QuECHERS and SPE method was established for the analysis of the pesticides in the cabbage and brine. It was found that different pesticides showed different dissipation patterns and finally represented dissimilar residue levels in the cabbage and brine. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the distinctions of these pesticides between each treatment and proved that salt content and pH value had certain influence on the dissipation and distribution of these pesticides during the pickling process. The data from this experiment would help to control pesticide residues in pickled cabbage and prevent potential risk to human health and environmental safety. PMID:23402557

Lu, Yuele; Yang, Zhonghua; Shen, Luyao; Liu, Zhenmin; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Diao, Jinling



Apoplastic barrier development and water transport in Zea mays seedling roots under salt and osmotic stresses.  


The development of apoplastic barriers was studied in Zea mays seedling roots grown in hydroculture solution supplemented with 0-200 mM NaCl or 20 % polyethylene glycol (PEG). Casparian bands in the endodermis of both NaCl- and PEG-treated roots were observed closer to the root tip in comparison with those of control roots, but the cell wall modifications in the endodermis and exodermis induced by salt and osmotic stresses differed. High salinity induced the formation of a multiseriate exodermis, which ranged from several cell layers to the entire cortex tissue but did not noticeably influence cell wall suberization in the endodermis. In contrast, osmotic stress accelerated suberization in both the endodermis and exodermis, but the exodermis induced by osmotic stress was limited to several cell layers in the outer cortex adjacent to the epidermis. The hydrostatic hydraulic conductivity (L p) had decreased significantly after 1 day of PEG treatment, whereas in NaCl-treated roots, L p decreased to a similar level after 5 days of treatment. Peroxidase activity in the roots increased significantly in response to NaCl and PEG treatments. These data indicate that salt stress and osmotic stress have different effects on the development of apoplastic barriers and water transport in Z. mays seedling roots. PMID:24965373

Shen, Jie; Xu, Guoxin; Zheng, Hui Qiong



Dielectric mixing models for water content determination in woody biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to determine the dielectric constant of woody biomass at different water contents and describe its\\u000a behavior with a dielectric mixing model. The use of the model for determination of water content is also verified. Dielectric\\u000a constants were calculated from the travel times of electromagnetic waves with a center frequency of 555 MHz through collected\\u000a biomass

Ana Paz; Eva Thorin; Clarke Topp



A route to explain water anomalies from results on an aqueous solution of salt  

E-print Network

In this paper we investigate the possibility to detect the hypothesized liquid-liquid critical point of water in supercooled aqueous solutions of salts. Molecular dynamics computer simulations are conducted on bulk TIP4P water and on an aqueous solution of sodium chloride in TIP4P water, with concentration c = 0.67 mol/kg. The liquid-liquid critical point is found both in the bulk and in the solution. Its position in the thermodynamic plane shifts to higher temperature and lower pressure for the solution. Comparison with available experimental data allowed us to produce the phase diagrams of both bulk water and the aqueous solution as measurable in experiments. Given the position of the liquid-liquid critical point in the solution as obtained from our simulations, the experimental determination of the hypothesized liquid-liquid critical point of water in aqueous solutions of salts appears possible.

D. Corradini; M. Rovere; P. Gallo



Conformational preferences of N,N-dimethylsuccinamate as a function of alkali and alkaline earth metal salts: experimental studies in DMSO and water as determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy.  


The fraction of gauche conformers of N,N-dimethylsuccinamic acid (1) and its Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), and N(Bu)4(+) salts were estimated in DMSO and D2O solution by comparing the experimental vicinal proton-proton couplings determined by (1)H NMR spectroscopy with those calculated using the Haasnoot, de Leeuw, and Altona (HLA) equation. In DMSO, the gauche preferences were found to increase with decreasing Ahrens ionic radius of the metal counterion. The same trend was not seen in D2O, where the gauche fraction for all of the metallic salts were estimated to be approximately statistical or less. This highlights the importance of metal chelation on the conformation of organic molecules in polar aprotic media, which has implications for protein folding. PMID:24506581

Lai, Holden W H; Liu, Albert Tianxiang; Emenike, Bright U; Carroll, William R; Roberts, John D



Salt marsh retreat induced by wind waves: experiments, field and modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Edge erosion of salt marshes due to surface waves and tide forcing is likely the chief mechanism that models marsh boundaries and by which salt marshes in worldwide areas are being lost. To address this problem, an experimental investigation in a laboratory flume and field measurements collected in the lagoon of Venice were conducted to understand the main processes controlling marsh edge retreat with a focus on the erosion mechanisms caused by the impact of wind waves in the case of various tidal levels. A physical model reproducing a salt marsh bank was built inside a long wave current flume where random surface waves have been generated according to a given wave spectrum. The physical model was constructed with the original soil of salt marshes from the Venice Lagoon, while the wave climate was reproduced according to field measurements. In order to reveal the effect of vegetation on bank stability, two identical banks were built but for the inclusion of halophytic plants. A first set of experiments was conducted reproducing only tidal waves, a second set with wind waves superimposed to the tide. A third set o f experiments were aimed to investigate the dynamic impact and transmission of the waves on and within the bank. The following quantities were collected during the experiments: water content and pore water pressure inside the bank, water levels and velocities at various distances from the bank, dynamic pressures on the bank edge surface and internal pressure fluctuations due to wave impact. Bank geometry profile and bottom topography at different times have also been collected to characterize the erosion rate with time and the evolution of bank retreat. Two types of mass failures were observed during the experiments: slides and toppling failures. The latter were most frequently observed failures, consisting in the toppling of blocks and were often the consequence of the presence of deep tension cracks. In most cases the impact of wind waves caused the overturning of the block. In both the unvegetated and vegetated experiments, mass failures occurred in the first part of the experiment whereas the remaining part was characterized by particle by particle erosion. Effect of vegetation lead to a delay in block failures due the presence of roots, although the total eroded volume differed slightly between the two scenarios. The field measurements were aimed at quantifying the erosion characteristics of marsh soil and the wave climate close to the bank edge during a moderate wind event. Several pressure transducers installed 0.15 m above the bed and adequately spaced were used to collect wave height and wave direction with respect to the edge of the marsh. Then, on the base of experimental and field evidence, a new toppling model is proposed and test against laboratory data: a block of cohesive material at incipient failing condition is attached to the underlying layer and identified by the presence of tension crack; it behaves as a dynamical system subjected to several forces, until the tensile strength of the material is exceed. Test of the model showed its capability at reproducing the failure process and it highlighted which are the most crucial conditions in promoting the failure of a bank edge subjected to wave attack and tide forcing.

Solari, L.; Francalanci, S.; Bendoni, M.; Cappietti, L.



Salt stable lubricant for water base drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

A water base drilling fluid having enhanced lubricating properties in the presence of polyvalent cations comprising a mixture of (1) water; (2) finely divided inorganic solids; (3) an alkanolamide of a saturated fatty acid having 8 to 20 carbon atoms, or triglycerides thereof, and (4) an alkanolamide of an unsaturated fatty acid having 18 carbon atoms, or triglycerides thereof.

Kercheville, J.D.



Method for excluding salt and other soluble materials from produced water  


A method for reducing the salinity, as well as the hydrocarbon concentration of produced water to levels sufficient to meet surface water discharge standards. Pressure vessel and coflow injection technology developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is used to mix produced water and a gas hydrate forming fluid to form a solid or semi-solid gas hydrate mixture. Salts and solids are excluded from the water that becomes a part of the hydrate cage. A three-step process of dissociation of the hydrate results in purified water suitable for irrigation.

Phelps, Tommy J. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Tsouris, Costas (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Palumbo, Anthony V. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Riestenberg, David E. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; McCallum, Scott D. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN



Non-destructive detection of water stress and estimation of relative water content in maize  

E-print Network

Non-destructive detection of water stress and estimation of relative water content in maize Arthur on controlled seven day experiments using greenhouse-grown maize. Fifty plants were randomly assigned to two of relative water content in maize, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L12403, doi:10.1029/2009GL038906. 1. Introduction

Gitelson, Anatoly


[The new method monitoring crop water content based on NIR-Red spectrum feature space].  


Moisture content is an important index of crop water stress condition, timely and effective monitoring of crop water content is of great significance for evaluating crop water deficit balance and guiding agriculture irrigation. The present paper was trying to build a new crop water index for winter wheat vegetation water content based on NIR-Red spectral space. Firstly, canopy spectrums of winter wheat with narrow-band were resampled according to relative spectral response function of HJ-CCD and ZY-3. Then, a new index (PWI) was set up to estimate vegetation water content of winter wheat by improveing PDI (perpendicular drought index) and PVI (perpendicular vegetation index) based on NIR-Red spectral feature space. The results showed that the relationship between PWI and VWC (vegetation water content) was stable based on simulation of wide-band multispectral data HJ-CCD and ZY-3 with R2 being 0.684 and 0.683, respectively. And then VWC was estimated by using PWI with the R2 and RMSE being 0.764 and 0.764, 3.837% and 3.840%, respectively. The results indicated that PWI has certain feasibility to estimate crop water content. At the same time, it provides a new method for monitoring crop water content using remote sensing data HJ-CCD and ZY-3. PMID:25358162

Cheng, Xiao-juan; Xu, Xin-gang; Chen, Tian-en; Yang, Gui-jun; Li, Zhen-hai



Flocculation of Clay and Organic Matter in Turbid Salt Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment transport and deposition in estuaries and tidal flats are often dominated by the aggregation of clay and organic matter into composite particles or “flocs”. The stability of the flocs is important in determining the distance over which the sediment is transported and the areas to which the sediment is deposited. During floc transport from riverine to oceanic environments, stability is determined by suspended sediment concentrations, sediment types, organic matter type, fluid flow rates and small scale turbulence. In a series of laboratory experiments, interactions between clay sediments and organic matter were evaluated within a flow column that was filled with saline water. The focus of this investigation was on changes in floc size, density and strength as flow velocities and turbulent stresses were altered. Significant changes in the floc shape, consolidation, density and behavior were determined for flow rates and Reynolds numbers that are common to riverine environments. The variability in floc composition was also shown to influence bulk sediment properties: heat transport, acoustic propagation and shear strength, while sediments were entrained in high-density suspensions and low-density deposits.

Reed, A. H.; Yin, H.; Zhang, G.; Tan, X.; Furukawa, Y.



"Sweating meteorites"—Water-soluble salts and temperature variation in ordinary chondrites and soil from the hot desert of Oman  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The common appearance of hygroscopic brine ("sweating") on ordinary chondrites (OCs) from Oman during storage under room conditions initiated a study on the role of water-soluble salts on the weathering of OCs. Analyses of leachates from OCs and soils, combined with petrography of alteration features and a 11-month record of in situ meteorite and soil temperatures, are used to evaluate the role of salts in OC weathering. Main soluble ions in soils are Ca2+, SO42-, HCO3-, Na+, and Cl-, while OC leachates are dominated by Mg2+ (from meteoritic olivine), Ca2+ (from soil), Cl- (from soil), SO42- (from meteoritic troilite and soil), and iron (meteoritic). "Sweating meteorites" mainly contain Mg2+ and Cl-. The median Na/Cl mass ratio of leachates changes from 0.65 in soils to 0.07 in meteorites, indicating the precipitation of a Na-rich phase or loss of an efflorescent Na-salt. The total concentrations of water-soluble ions in bulk OCs ranges from 600 to 9000 ?g g-1 (median 2500 ?g g-1) as compared to 187-14140 ?g g-1 in soils (median 1148 ?g g-1). Soil salts dissolved by rain water are soaked up by meteorites by capillary forces. Daily heating (up to 66.3 °C) and cooling of the meteorites cause a pumping effect, resulting in a strong concentration of soluble ions in meteorites over time. The concentrations of water-soluble ions in meteorites, which are complex mixtures of ions from the soil and from oxidation and hydrolysis of meteoritic material, depend on the degree of weathering and are highest at W3. Input of soil contaminants generally dominates over the ions mobilized from meteorites. Silicate hydrolysis preferentially affects olivine and is enhanced by sulfide oxidation, producing local acidic conditions as evidenced by jarosite. Plagioclase weathering is negligible. After completion of troilite oxidation, the rate of chemical weathering slows down with continuing Ca-sulfate contamination.

Zurfluh, Florian J.; Hofmann, Beda A.; Gnos, Edwin; Eggenberger, Urs



Corrosion of SiC by Molten Salt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced ceramic materials considered for wide range of applications as in gas turbine engines and heat exchangers. In such applications, materials may be in corrosive environments that include molten salts. Very corrosive to alloys. In order to determine extent of problem for ceramic materials, corrosion of SiC by molten salts studied in both jet fuel burners and laboratory furnaces. Surface of silicon carbide corroded by exposure to flame seeded with 4 parts per million of sodium. Strength of silicon carbide decreased by corrosion in flame and tube-furnace tests.

Jacobson, Nathan S.; Smialek, James L.



Acid generation upon thermal concentration of natural water: the critical water content and the effects of ionic composition.  


Thermal evaporation of a variety of simulated pore waters from the region of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, produced acidic liquids and gases during the final stages of evaporation. Several simulated pore waters were prepared and then thermally distilled in order to collect and analyze fractions of the evolved vapor. In some cases, distillates collected towards the end of the distillation were highly acidic; in other cases the pH of the distillate remained comparatively unchanged during the course of the distillation. The results suggest that the pH values of the later fractions are determined by the initial composition of the water. Acid production stems from the hydrolysis of magnesium ions, especially at near dryness. Near the end of the distillation, magnesium nitrate and magnesium chloride begin to lose water of hydration, greatly accelerating their thermal decomposition to form acid. Acid formation is promoted further when precipitated calcium carbonate is removed. Specifically, calcium chloride-rich pore waters containing moderate (10-20 ppm) levels of magnesium and nitrate and low levels of bicarbonate produced mixtures of nitric and hydrochloric acid, resulting in a precipitous drop in pH to values of 1 or lower after about 95% of the original volume was distilled. Waters with either low or moderate magnesium content coupled with high levels of bicarbonate produced slightly basic fractions (pH 7-9). If calcium was present in excess of bicarbonate, waters containing moderate levels of magnesium produced acid even in the presence of bicarbonate, due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate. Other salts such as halite and anhydrite promote the segregation of acidic vapors from residual basic solids. The concomitant release of wet acid gas has implications for the integrity of the alloys under consideration for containers at the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. Condensed acid gases at very low pH, especially mixtures of nitric and hydrochloric acid, are capable of corroding even alloys, such as nickel-based Alloy 22, which are considered to be corrosion-resistant under milder conditions. PMID:19748152

Pulvirenti, April L; Needham, Karen M; Adel-Hadadi, Mohamad A; Marks, Charles R; Gorman, Jeffrey A; Shettel, Donald L; Barkatt, Aaron



Stimulation of Fibroblast Proliferation by Insoluble Gadolinium Salts  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to assess insoluble salts containing gadolinium (Gd3+) for effects on human dermal fibroblasts. Responses to insoluble Gd3+ salts were compared to responses seen with Gd3+ solubilized with organic chelators, as in the Gd3+-based contrast agents (GBCAs) used for magnetic resonance imaging. Insoluble particles of either Gd3+-phosphate or Gd3+-carbonate rapidly attached to the fibroblast cell surface and stimulated proliferation. Growth was observed at Gd3+ concentrations between 12.5 and 125 ?M, with toxicity at higher concentrations. Such a narrow window did not characterize GBCA stimulation. Proliferation induced by insoluble Gd3+ salts was inhibited in the presence of antagonists of mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathways (similar to chelated Gd3+) but was not blocked by an antibody to the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (different from chelated-Gd3+). Finally, high concentrations of the insoluble Gd3+ salts failed to prevent fibroblast lysis under low-Ca2+ conditions while similar concentrations of chelated-Gd3+ were effective. In conclusion, while insoluble Gd3+ salts are capable of stimulating fibroblast proliferation, one should be cautious in assuming that GBCA dechelation must occur in vivo to produce the profibrotic changes seen in association with GBCA exposure in the subset of renal failure patients that develop nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. PMID:21882070

Bleavins, Katherine; Perone, Patricia; Naik, Madhav; Rehman, Muneeb; Aslam, Muhammad N.; Dame, Michael K.; Meshinchi, Sasha; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Varani, James



Differential Growth Response to Salt Stress Among Selected Ornamentals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of salt tolerance in herbaceous perennials was performed with mature potted plants under greenhouse conditions. Six herbaceous perennial species were evaluated for their tolerance to aqueous solutions of various sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations over a 21 day period by measuring growth, water transpiration, and leaf nutrient content. Potential exists for utilization of these species in somewhat challenging saline environments

Seok Hyun Eom; Timothy L. Setter; Antonio DiTommaso; Leslie A. Weston



A dynamic model of the Aral Sea water and salt balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Aral Sea is shrinking rapidly since the 1960s mainly because of the diversion of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers for irrigation purposes. Since then, the evaporation became the most important component of the water balance of the Sea and led to a concentration of the remaining salts. In this article, we investigate through a coupled mathematical model

Francois Benduhn; Philippe Renard



Sugar and water contents of honey with dielectrc property sensing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The dielectric properties of pure yellow locust, jujube and rape flower honey and their water-adulterated products with water content from 18% to 42.6% were measured with open-ended coaxial-line probe technology and a network analyzer from 10 to 4500 MHz at 25oC. Dielectric constants of pure honeys ...


Towards mapping attenuation and water content in the Transition Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mantle transition zone is suggested to play a significant role in water storage due to the high solubility of H2O in transition zone minerals. However, quantifying the water content of the transition zone has proven difficult. Previous investigations of the transition zone using a variety of techniques have identified variations in water content globally, associated melt at 400 km, and variable thickness. The resulting water distribution models indicate substantially different Earth models and subsequent seismic responses. Water enhances attenuation with minimal change to seismic wave speed in the transition zone. Taken in combination with correlated temperature induced wave speed / attenuation reductions, the water content and temperature in the transition zone can be inferred. Using upper mantle seismic phases that propagate within the transition zone, we can isolate the effects of attenuation, or anelasticity, and seismic wave speeds. Synthetic seismograms at high frequency, around 1 Hz, from models with a "wet" transition zone show a distinct amplitude reduction and phase delay. Conversely, models with melt on top of the transition zone produce a delayed, secondary arrival with an upper mantle moveout velocity. These diagnostic arrivals, based on synthetic seismic responses, are best identified at the end of the triplicated 660 km branch. Full modeling of the seismic phases from the transition zone will enable a mapping of water content and temperature, while deciphering how water is distributed and transported throughout the mantle.

Savage, B. K.



Thermal Dewatering (TDW) to Reduce the Water Content of Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal dewatering describes the process whereby a heating plate and heat supply unit are incorporated into a filter press system to improve separation of water from sludge. The performance of our thermal dewatering system for both wastewater and waterworks sludge was measured and compared with mechanical dewatering in terms of water content, dewatering velocity, cake specific resistance, and energy consumption.

Jung Eun Lee



A decision support model to assess vulnerability to salt water intrusion in the great bend prairie aquifer of Kansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A relatively simple ground water decision support system (DSS) was developed to assist in identifying salt water vulnerable areas and in developing management policies to prevent salt water intrusion in central Kansas. The DSS is based on a combination of numerical modeling sensitivity analyses, multiple regression analyses, and classification procedures derived from our knowledge of the area. Six ground water salinity models are proposed to evaluate irrigation well permit applications. The choice of model depends on the availability of site-specific data. The DSS takes advantage of GIS database management procedures, and is applied to an actual salt water intrusion problem site in south-central Kansas. This approach can help local ground water management districts make better decisions on protecting ground water use in salt water vulnerable areas.

Sophocleous, M.; Ma, T.



Tracking rates of ecotone migration due to salt-water encroachment using fossil mollusks in coastal South Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the rate of migration of coastal vegetation zones in response to salt-water encroachment through paleoecological\\u000a analysis of mollusks in 36 sediment cores taken along transects perpendicular to the coast in a 5.5 km2 band of coastal wetlands in southeast Florida. Five vegetation zones, separated by distinct ecotones, included freshwater\\u000a swamp forest, freshwater marsh, and dwarf, transitional and fringing

Evelyn E. Gaiser; Angelikie Zafiris; Pablo L. Ruiz; Franco A. C. Tobias; Michael S. Ross



Characterization of salt-water intrusion in the lower Esino Valley, Italy using a three-dimensional numerical model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A seawater-intrusion study was conducted at an oil-refinery site located on the coast in the lower Esino Valley, Italy. A\\u000a steady-state density-dependent flow model was used in order to understand the position of the freshwater\\/salt-water interface,\\u000a as influenced by the hydrogeologic structure and the presence of industrial activities and a river. Collected data and model\\u000a results showed that in a

Luca Alberti; Vincenzo Francani; Ivana La Licata



Oxy-combustion of high water content fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the issues of global warming and the energy crisis arouse extensive concern, more and more research is focused on maximizing energy efficiency and capturing CO2 in power generation. To achieve this, in this research, we propose an unconventional concept of combustion - direct combustion of high water content fuels. Due to the high water content in the fuels, they may not burn under air-fired conditions. Therefore, oxy-combustion is applied. Three applications of this concept in power generation are proposed - direct steam generation for the turbine cycle, staged oxy-combustion with zero flue gas recycle, and oxy-combustion in a low speed diesel-type engine. The proposed processes could provide alternative approaches to directly utilize fuels which intrinsically have high water content. A large amount of energy to remove the water, when the fuels are utilized in a conventional approach, is saved. The properties and difficulty in dewatering high water content fuels (e.g. bioethanol, microalgae and fine coal) are summarized. These fuels include both renewable and fossil fuels. In addition, the technique can also allow for low-cost carbon capture due to oxy-combustion. When renewable fuel is utilized, the whole process can be carbon negative. To validate and evaluate this concept, the research focused on the investigation of the flame stability and characteristics for high water content fuels. My study has demonstrated the feasibility of burning fuels that have been heavily diluted with water in a swirl-stabilized burner. Ethanol and 1-propanol were first tested as the fuels and the flame stability maps were obtained. Flame stability, as characterized by the blow-off limit -- the lowest O2 concentration when a flame could exist under a given oxidizer flow rate, was determined as a function of total oxidizer flow rate, fuel concentration and nozzle type. Furthermore, both the gas temperature contour and the overall ethanol concentration in the droplets along the spray were measured in the chamber for a stable flame. The experimental results indicate significant preferential vaporization of ethanol over water. Modeling results support this observation and indicate that the vaporization process is best described as the distillation limit mode with enhanced mass transfer by convection. Further, the influence of preferential vaporization on flame stability was investigated. A procedure was developed to evaluate the extent of preferential vaporization and subsequent flame stability of a fuel in aqueous solution. Various water soluble fuels were analyzed via this procedure in order to identify a chemical fuel showing strong preferential vaporization. t-Butanol was identified as having excellent physical and chemical properties, indicating stronger preferential vaporization than ethanol. Flame stability tests were run for aqueous solutions of both t-butanol and ethanol under identical flow conditions. Flame stability was characterized by the blow-off limit. In each comparison, the energy contents in the two solutions were kept the same. For the experiments under high swirl flow conditions (100% swirl flow), 12.5 wt% t-butanol has slightly lower blow-off limits than 15 wt% ethanol, and 8.3 wt% t-butanol has much lower blow-off limits than 10 wt% ethanol. For the experiments under a low swirl flow condition (50% swirl/50% axial flow), 12.5 wt% t-butanol has a much lower blow-off limit than 15 wt% ethanol. The time to release the fuel from a droplet was also calculated for both ethanol and t-butanol. For the same size droplet, the time to release t-butanol is much shorter than that of ethanol under the same conditions. Faster release of the fuel from water enhances flame stability, which is consistent with the experimental results. For the oxy-combustion characteristics of low-volatility fuel with high water content, glycerol was chosen as the fuel to study. It is found that self-sustained flame can be obtained for glycerol solution with concentration as high as 60 wt%, when burned in pure O2. However, the flame is lifted far away f

Yi, Fei


Salt tectonics and structural styles in the deep-water province of the Cabo Frio Region, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

SciTech Connect

The Cabo Frio region, offshore Rio de Janeiro, lies between two of the most prolific Brazilian oil provinces, the Campos and Santos basins. Major geologic features have been identified using a multidisciplinary approach integrating seismic, gravity, petrographic, and borehole data. The Cabo Frio frontier region is characterized by marked changes in stratigraphy and structural style and is unique among the Brazilian marginal basins. Major geologic features include the deflection of the coastline and pre-Aptian hings line from northeast to east; a large east-striking offshore graben related to salt tectonics; a northwest-trending lineament extending from oceanic crust to the continent; basement-involved landward-dipping (antithetic) normal faults in shallow water; a stable platform in the southern Campos Basin; a thick sequence of postbreakup intrusive and extrusive rocks; and, near the Santos Basin, a mobilized sequence of deep-water postrift strata affected by landward-dipping listric normal faults. These faults are unusual in salt-related passive margins in that they dip landward, apparently detach on the Aptian salt, and show large late Tertiary offsets. Locally, the older sequences do not show substantial growth in the downthrown blocks. South of the Rio de Janeiro coast, a phenomenal landward-dipping fault system detaches blocks of the Albian platform to the north and, to the south, coincides with the depositional limit of the Albian platform. Two end-member processes of salt tectonics in the Cabo Frio region result in either synthetic or antithetic basal shear along the fault weld under the overburden: (1) thin-skinned processes, in which the listric faults were caused by salt flow in response to gravity forces related to massive clastic progradation from the continent; and (2) thick-skinned processes, in which faulting was indirectly triggered by diastrophic causes or disequilibrium in the basement topography.

Mohriak, W.U.; Macedo, J.M.; Castellani, R.T. [Petroleo Brasileiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)] [and others



Influence of soil properties on trace element availability and plant accumulation in a Mediterranean salt marsh polluted by mining wastes: Implications for phytomanagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were to determine the factors which control metal and As phytoavailability in the different microenvironments (Sand Dunes, Salt Flat, Dry River and Shrubs) present at a Mediterranean salt marsh polluted by mining wastes. We performed a field study following a plot sampling survey. The analyses of soil parameters (pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon contents,

H. M. Conesa; A. María-Cervantes; J. Álvarez-Rogel; M. N. González-Alcaraz



Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of water content in the subsurface  

SciTech Connect

Previous theoretical and experimental studies indicated that surface nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has the potential to provide cost-effective water content measurements in the subsurface and is a technology ripe for exploitation in practice. The objectives of this investigation are (a) to test the technique under a wide range of hydrogeological conditions and (b) to generalize existing NMR theories in order to correctly model NMR response from conductive ground and to assess properties of the inverse problem. Twenty-four sites with different hydrogeologic settings were selected in New Mexico and Colorado for testing. The greatest limitation of surface NMR technology appears to be the lack of understanding in which manner the NMR signal is influenced by soil-water factors such as pore size distribution, surface-to-volume ratio, paramagnetic ions dissolved in the ground water, and the presence of ferromagnetic minerals. Although the theoretical basis is found to be sound, several advances need to be made to make surface NMR a viable technology for hydrological investigations. There is a research need to investigate, under controlled laboratory conditions, how the complex factors of soil-water systems affect NMR relaxation times.

J. Hendricks; T. Yao; A. Kearns



Substantiation of causes for damage of water-wall tubes of an external salt compartment of a high-pressure boiler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The damageability for water-wall tubes of an external salt compartment of a TPE-208 boiler is analyzed. The general cause for tube damage is the intensive underslime corrosion of the inner surface, which is caused by a local increase in the salt concentration in boiler water. The experiment-calculated method showed that continuous bleeding from an external cyclone being the first in water downstream causes a substantial increase in the concentration of salts (more than by a factor of three) and scale-forming agents within a contour of the loop of a distant cyclone in comparison with the variant of bleeding from a loop being the second in water downstream.

Fedorov, A. I.



Osmotically unresponsive water fraction on proteins: Non-ideal osmotic pressure of bovine serum albumin as a function of pH and salt concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

How much does protein-associated water differ in colligative properties (freezing point, boiling point, vapor pressure and osmotic behavior) from pure bulk water? This question was approached by studying the globular protein bovine serum albumin (BSA), using changes in pH and salt concentration to alter its native structural conformation and state of aggregation. BSA osmotic pressure was investigated experimentally and analyzed

Gary D. Fullerton; Kalpana M. Kanal; Ivan L. Cameron



Solvation of actinide salts in water using a polarizable continuum model.  


In order to determine how actinide atoms are dressed when solvated in water, density functional theory calculations have been carried out to study the equilibrium structure of uranium plutonium and thorium salts (UO2(2+), PuO2(2+), Pu(4+), and Th(4+)) both in vacuum as well as in solution represented by a conductor-like polarizable continuum model. This information is of paramount importance for the development of sensitive nanosensors. Both UO2(2+) and PuO2(2+) ions show coordination number of 4-5 with counterions replacing one or two water molecules from the first coordination shell. On the other hand, Pu(4+), has a coordination number of 8 both when completely solvated and also in the presence of chloride and nitrate ions with counterions replacing water molecules in the first shell. Nitrates were found to bind more strongly to Pu(IV) than chloride anions. In the case of the Th(IV) ion, the coordination number was found to be 9 or 10 in the presence of chlorides. Moreover, the Pu(IV) ion shows greater affinity for chlorides than the Th(IV) ion. Adding dispersion and ZPE corrections to the binding energy does not alter the trends in relative stability of several conformers because of error cancelations. All structures and energetics of these complexes are reported. PMID:25563344

Kumar, Narendra; Seminario, Jorge M




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Modeling root zone soil water content at watershed scales is important for both the strategic and tactical management of water resources, but detailed soil physical and hydraulic property data required by most physically-based soil water models are generally not available over large land areas. Wit...


Salt tectonics driven by differential sediment loading: Stability analysis and finite element experiments  

E-print Network

1 Salt tectonics driven by differential sediment loading: Stability analysis and finite element University of Leeds Leeds LS2 9JT United Kingdom e-mail: Short running title: Salt salt layer drives salt deformation and has a significant impact on the structural evolution

Beaumont, Christopher


Ion Secretion by Salt Glands of Desert Iguanas (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) Lisa C. Hazard*  

E-print Network

22 Ion Secretion by Salt Glands of Desert Iguanas (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) Lisa C. Hazard* DepartmentCl-secreting salt glands of many birds and reptiles, the nasal salt glands of lizards can secrete potassium as well iguana, Dipsosaurus dorsalis. Lizards were given combinations of ions for several days, and secreted salt

Hazard, Lisa C.


Effects of road-deicing salt (NaCl) and saline water on water quality in the Urmia area, northwest of Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased application of road salt for winter maintenance has resulted in increased concentration of deicer constituents in\\u000a the environment. The runoffs from the deicing operation have a deteriorating effect on water quality. The existence of salt\\u000a super saturated Urmia lake and easy access to it, causes Urmia municipality to over use the super saturated water of this\\u000a lake and salt

Nosrat Aghazadeh; Majid Nojavan; Asghar Asghari Mogaddam


Real-time monitoring of changes of adsorbed and crystalline water contents in tablet formulation powder containing theophylline anhydrate at various temperatures during agitated granulation by near-infrared spectroscopy.  


Real-time monitoring of adsorbed water content (FW) and hydrate formation of theophylline anhydrate (THA) in tablet formulation during agitated granulation was investigated by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. As the wet-granulation process of THA tablet formulation involves change in pseudo-polymorphs between THA and theophylline monohydrate (THM), the pharmaceutical properties of THA tablet depend on the degree of hydration during granulation. After mixing of the powder materials (4 g) containing THA, and excipients and the addition of 600 ?L of binding water, the powder was kneaded at 27°C, 40°C, and 50°C and then dried. The mixing, granulating, and drying processes were monitored using NIR. The calibration models to predict THM and total water contents during granulation in THA tablet formulation were obtained by partial least-squares regression. The FW in the formulation was determined by subtracting THM from the water content. The results of the THA formulation powder bed during granulation by NIR monitoring indicated that the transformation pathway of the THA powder was THA ? THM ? THA at 27°C and 40°C, but that at 50°C was THA ? THA ? THA. The pharmaceutical properties, such as tablet porosity, hardness, tablet disintegration time, and dissolution rate of the final THA tablet products, were affected by the degree of crystalline transformation during granulation. PMID:24832393

Otsuka, Makoto; Kanai, Yoshinori; Hattori, Yusuke



Impact of diurnal variation in vegetation water content on radar backscatter of maize during water stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microwave emission and backscatter of vegetated surfaces are influenced by vegetation water content (VWC), which varies in response to availability of soil moisture in the root zone. Understanding the influence of diurnal VWC dynamics on radar backscatter will improve soil moisture retrievals using microwave remote sensing, and will provide insight into the potential use for radar to directly monitor vegetation water status. The goal of this research is to investigate the effect of diurnal variation in VWC of an agricultural canopy on backscatter for different radar configurations. Water stress was induced in a corn (Zea mays) canopy near Citra, Florida, between September 1 and October 20, 2013. Diurnal destructive samples from the canopy were collected to determine leaf, stalk and total VWC. Water stress was quantified by calculating the evaporation deficit and measuring the soil water tension. The water-cloud model was used to model the influence of VWC and soil moisture variations on backscatter for a range of frequencies, polarizations and incidence angles. Furthermore, radar backscatter time series was simulated to show the effect of water stress on the diurnal variation in backscatter due to VWC. Results of this study show the very significant effects that VWC dynamics have on radar backscatter. We also highlight the potential for vegetation and soil water status monitoring using microwave remote sensing.

van Emmerik, Tim; Steele-Dunne, Susan; Judge, Jasmeet; van de Giesen, Nick



Calculation of amorphous silica solubilities at 25?? to 300??C and apparent cation hydration numbers in aqueous salt solutions using the concept of effective density of water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The solubility of amorphous silica in aqueous salt solutions at 25?? to 300??C can be calculated using information on its solubility in pure water and a model in which the activity of water in the salt solution is defined to equal the effective density. pe, of "free" water in that solution. At temperatures of 100??C and above, pe closely equals the product of the density of the solution times the weight fraction of water in the solution. At 25??C, a correction parameter must be applied to pe that incorporates a term called the apparent cation hydration number, h. Because of the many assumptions and other uncertainties involved in determining values of h, by the model used here, the reported numbers are not necessarily real hydration numbers even though they do agree with some published values determined by activity and diffusion methods. Whether or not h is a real hydration number, it would appear to be useful in its inclusion within a more extensive activity coefficient term that describes the departure of silica solubilities in concentrated salt solutions from expected behavior according to the model presented here. Values of h can be calculated from measured amorphous silica solubilities in salt solutions at 25??C provided there is no complexing of dissolved silica with the dissolved salt, or if the degree of complexing is known. The previously postulated aqueous silica-sulfate complexing in aqueous Na2SO4 solutions is supported by results of the present effective density of water model. ?? 1983.

Fournier, R.O.; Marshall, W.L.



Using aliphatic alcohols as gaseous tracers in determination of water contents and air-water interfacial areas in unsaturated sands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new type of gaseous tracer utilizing nontoxic aliphatic alcohols for the determination of water content and air-water interfacial area is tested on unsaturated sands of low water content. Alcohol vapors are generated at room temperature and passed through the experimental sand column. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) of these vapors are obtained by monitoring their effluent concentrations using GC-FID. The retardation factor with respect to each vapor transport process is obtained by optimizing BTCs data using the CXTFIT program in the reverse problem mode. The water content and the interfacial area are subsequently calculated from their retardation factors by both equilibrium and nonequilibrium transport models. Experimental results indicate that the pentanol tracer is feasible in the determination of water content at conditions when the degree of water saturation is low. In the determination of air-water interfacial area, decanol is selected due to its interfacial adsorption characteristics. By comparing to interfacial areas from theoretical predictions as well as other conventional tarcer methods, the ones determined from the decanol tracer tests are found to be close to the true interfacial areas when the water content is low.

Sung, Menghau; Chen, Bi-Hsiang



Collimated neutron probe for soil water content measurements  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A collimated neutron probe was designed to enable mesurements in specific directions from the access tube. To determine the size and shape of soil volume affecting the neutron counts, experiments were conducted to evaluate: 1) the vertical distance of soil above and below the probe that influences neutron counts; 2) the horizontal distance away from the probe into the soil that influences neutron counts; 3) the angle of soil viewed by the probe from the collimator; and 4) the three-dimensional thermal-neutron density field. The vertical distance was ~0.5m, the horizontal distance was ~0.2m, and the angle of soil viewed by the probe from the collimator was ~120??. Thermal neutrons detected from distances or angles larger than these values influence the determination of relative water content by 5% or less. -from Authors

Klenke, J.M.; Flint, A.L.



Effect of salts on formation and stability of vitamin E-enriched mini-emulsions produced by spontaneous emulsification.  


Emulsion-based delivery systems are being utilized to incorporate lipophilic bioactive components into various food, personal care, and pharmaceutical products. This study examined the influence of inorganic salts (NaCl and CaCl2) on the formation, stability, and properties of vitamin E-enriched emulsions prepared by spontaneous emulsification. These emulsions were simply formed by titration of a mixture of vitamin E acetate (VE), carrier oil (MCT), and nonionic surfactant (Tween 80) into an aqueous salt solution with continuous stirring. Salt type and concentration (0-1 N NaCl or 0-0.5 N CaCl2) did not have a significant influence on the initial droplet size of the emulsions. On the other hand, the isothermal and thermal stabilities of the emulsions depended strongly on salt levels. The cloud point of the emulsions decreased with increasing salt concentration, which was attributed to accelerated droplet coalescence in the presence of salts. Dilution (2-6 times) of the emulsions with water appreciably improved their thermal stability by increasing their cloud point, which was mainly attributed to the decrease in aqueous phase salt levels. The isothermal storage stability of the emulsions also depended on salt concentration; however, increasing the salt concentration decreased the rate of droplet growth, which was the opposite of its effect on thermal stability. Potential physicochemical mechanisms for these effects are discussed in terms of the influence of salt ions on van der Waals and electrostatic interactions. This study provides important information about the effect of inorganic salts on the formation and stability of vitamin E emulsions suitable for use in food, personal care, and pharmaceutical products. PMID:25343750

Saberi, Amir Hossein; Fang, Yuan; McClements, David Julian



Water contents of Roberts Victor xenolithic eclogites: primary and metasomatic controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A suite of eclogites from the Roberts Victor kimberlite has been extensively characterized in terms of petrology and geochemical compositions (Gréau et al. in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 75(22):6927-6954, 2011; Huang et al. in Lithos 142-143:161-181, 2012a). In the present study, the water contents of eclogitic garnet and omphacite were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Garnet does not contain measureable OH in any sample. The water content of omphacite in the studied eclogites ranges from 211 to 1,496 ppm. Mantle metasomatism has modified the water content of some of the eclogites, while others retain water contents characteristic of their original environment. The OH contents of the metasomatized eclogites may be mainly controlled by the H2O fugacity and mineral compositions. The OH contents of the non-metasomatized samples are interpreted to be more sensitive to their mantle equilibration temperature, pressure, and the local fugacities of H2O and O2. The calculated water content of the metasomatic medium is similar to that of carbonatitic-kimberlitic melts/fluids. Eclogites contain more water than peridotites recorded in the literature (341 ± 161 vs 122 ± 54 ppm) and represent an important water reservoir in the lithospheric mantle wherever they occur. This is an important parameter to be considered in the interpretation of mantle processes and geophysical data such as seismic wave speeds and electrical conductivity, and in geodynamic modeling.

Huang, Jin-Xiang; Li, Pei; Griffin, William L.; Xia, Qun-Ke; Gréau, Yoann; Pearson, Norman J.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.



Achieving biological nitrogen removal via nitrite by salt inhibition.  


The principal aim of this paper is to develop and evaluate an approach to obtain nitrogen removal bypassing nitrate. The method is based on the addition of sodium chloride (NaCI), selective inhibitor of nitrite oxidizers, to influent. Validation of the new method was conducted on laboratory-scale experiments applying the SBR activated sludge process to domestic wastewater with low C/N ratio. With the aerobic-anoxic sequence, three parallel SBRs achieving complete nitrification-denitrification are dosed by a certain concentration of NaCI to influent. The high nitrite accumulation, depending on the salinity in the influent and the application duration of salt, was obtained in SBRs treating saline wastewater. Optimum dosage and application duration of salt, which interact to determine the performance and stabilization of nitrite accumulation, were determined by experiment. In order to evaluate the method, the response of the biological treatment system to salt concentration was also explored. The repeatability of the method was further verified under various operational conditions. Microbial population tests supported the presumption that nitrite oxidizers are inhibited by salt addition and washed out of the system. The presented method is valuable to offer a solution to realize nitrogen removal via nitrite under normal conditions. PMID:16749447

Cui, Y W; Peng, Y Z; Peng, C Y; Gan, X Q; Ye, L



Depassivation of aged Fe0 by inorganic salts: implications to contaminant degradation in seawater.  


In this study, aged (iron oxide coated) Fe(0) was applied to the degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in seawater. It was found that while the aged Fe(0) was inactive with regard to TCE degradation in Milli-Q water, more than 95% of the TCE present was degraded in real and synthetic seawater solutions after exposure to aged Fe(0) for 21 days. Results with individual salts from the synthetic seawater revealed that no significant TCE degradation was observed in the presence of Na2SO4, CaCl2, and NaHCO3. Partial TCE degradation (28.4%) was observed in 500 mM NaCl after 21 days, while a similar extent of degradation to that found in the seawater solutions was observed in 50 mM solutions of magnesium salts (MgCl2 and MgSO4). Results of open circuit potential analysis suggested that the Fe(0) corrosion potential was not a key determinant of extent of TCE reduction since the corrosion potential decreased to levels similar to that of Fe(0)/Fe(2+) in the presence of all salts examined. Lower final pH values and higher dissolved Fe(II) concentrations were observed in the presence of magnesium salts compared to other salts. Formation of the surface complex >FeOMg(+) was identified as being critical to protonation of surface sites, reductive dissolution of the passivating Fe(III) oxyhydroxide layer coating the underlying Fe(0) and enhancement in extent of TCE reduction. These findings provide insight into the molecular-scale mechanism of depassivation of aged Fe(0) by inorganic salts with particular implications for the Fe(0)-mediated degradation of contaminants in saline natural waters such as seawater and saline groundwaters. PMID:23751097

Liu, Tongxu; Li, Xiaomin; Waite, T David



Lithium in the brines of Fish Lake Valley and Columbus Salt Marsh, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analyses of waters-from springs in Nevada have led to the identification of an area containing anomalous amounts of lithium northwest of the Clayton Valley-area. Fish Lake Valley and Columbus Salt Marsh contain waters having, relatively high lithium and potassium concentrations. At least a part of these waters is probably derived from the leaching of Tertiary rocks containing saline minerals. The high-lithium waters at Columbus Salt Marsh could be derived not only by the leaching of rocks with a high soluble lithium ands, potassium content but also by subsurface outflow from Fish Lake Valley.

Smith, C.L.; Meier, Allen L.; Downey, H.D.



Structure and phase equilibria of mixtures of the complex salt hexadecyltrimethylammonium polymethacrylate, water and different oils.  


This work reports on phase diagrams for mixtures of a complex salt formed by a cationic surfactant and an oppositely charged polyelectrolyte, hexadecyltrimethylammonium polymethacrylate, in binary mixtures with water and in ternary mixtures containing water and organic solvents of different polarity ('oils'): decanol, octanol, p-xylene and cyclohexane. The liquid crystalline structures formed were identified by small angle X-ray scattering measurements, which also provided information about changes in the size of the aggregates as a function of the system composition. These results are analysed in comparison with others previously reported [Bernardes et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 110 (2006) 10332-10340] for the analog complex formed with polyacrylate and, in general, reveal that the presence of an extra methylene group in the polymer chain does not produce significant changes in the complex phase diagrams nor in the structure of the liquid crystalline phases formed. Additionally, the obtained results confirm once more the approach used to analyze these kinds of systems formed by polymer and oppositely charged surfactant. PMID:18022181

Bernardes, Juliana Silva; Loh, Watson



Salt-enhanced removal of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol from aqueous solutions by adsorption on activated carbon.  


2-Ethyl-1-hexanol has extensive industrial applications in solvent extraction, however, in view of its potential pollution to environment, the removal and recovery of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is considered an essential step toward its sustainable use in the future. In this work, we report the removal of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol from aqueous solutions containing salts in high concentrations by adsorption on a coal-based activated carbon. Adsorption thermodynamics showed that the experimental isotherms were conformed well to the Langmuir equation. Also it was found that inorganic salts, i.e. MgCl2 and CaCl2 in high concentration significantly enhanced the adsorption capacity from 223 mg/g in the deionized water to 277 mg/g in a saline water. This phenomenon of adsorption enhancement could be ascribed to the salt-out effect. Kinetic analysis indicated that adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order equation and the adsorption rate constants increase with the salt concentration. The dynamic breakthrough volume and adsorbed amount of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol were significantly elevated when the salt is present in the water. The dynamic saturated adsorption amount increased from 218.3mg/g in the deionized water to 309.5mg/g in a salt lake brine. The Tomas model was well applied to predict the breakthrough curves and determine the characteristics parameters of the adsorption column. PMID:24144367

Chang, Ganggang; Bao, Zongbi; Zhang, Zhiguo; Xing, Huabin; Su, Baogen; Yang, Yiwen; Ren, Qilong



Cloud Water Content Sensor for Sounding Balloons and Small UAVs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lightweight, battery-powered sensor was developed for measuring cloud water content, which is the amount of liquid or solid water present in a cloud, generally expressed as grams of water per cubic meter. This sensor has near-zero power consumption and can be flown on standard sounding balloons and small, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The amount of solid or liquid water is important to the study of atmospheric processes and behavior. Previous sensing techniques relied on strongly heating the incoming air, which requires a major energy input that cannot be achieved on sounding balloons or small UAVs.

Bognar, John A.



Flexibility windows in faujasite with explicit water and methanol extra-framework content.  


We present geometric simulations on a zeolite framework (faujasite) with extra-framework methanol and water contents explicitly present. We distinguish the intrinsic flexibility window of the framework from the newly defined extrinsic window limited by host-guest steric interactions. The extrinsic flexibility window can be limited not only in compression, but also in expansion, as the beta-cages in a maximally expanded framework lack the flexibility to adapt bulky contents such as a combination of methanol and water molecules. Our simulations suggest a reinterpretation of extra-framework content nominally refined as water sites in compression experiments. PMID:25470761

Wells, Stephen A; Leung, Ka Ming; Edwards, Peter P; Sartbaeva, Asel



Water content and the conversion of phytochrome regulation of lettuce dormancy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an effort to determine which biological reactions can occur in relation to the water content of seeds, the regulation of lettuce seed dormancy by red and far red light was determined at various hydration levels. Far red light had an inhibiting effect on germination for seeds at all moisture contents from 4 to 32% water. Germination was progressively stimulated by red light as seed hydration increased from 8 to 15%, and reached a maximum at moisture contents above 18%. Red light was ineffective at moisture contents below 8%. Seeds that had been stimulated by red light and subsequently dried lost the enhanced germinability if stored at moisture contents above 8%. The contrast between the presumed photoconversion of phytochrome far red-absorbing (Pfr) to (Pr) occurring at any moisture content and the reverse reaction occurring only if the seed moisture content is greater than 8% may be explained on the basis of the existence of unstable intermediates in the Pr to Pfr conversion. Our results suggest that the initial photoreaction involved in phytochrome conversion is relatively independent of water content, while the subsequent partial reactions become increasingly facilitated as water content increases from 8 to 18%.

Vertucci, C. W.; Vertucci, F. A.; Leopold, A. C.



[Water-soluble inorganic salts in ambient aerosol particles in Tangshan].  


To investigate the levels, seasonal variation and size distributions of water soluble inorganic components, samples were collected with an Andersen cascade sampler in Tangshan from Sep. 2010 to Aug. 2011, and were analyzed by IC. The results showed that the secondary inorganic components (SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+)) were the major contributors to PM9 and PM2.1, accounting for 68% and 77% of the total water soluble salts in PM9 and PM2.1, respectively. The total concentrations of these three ions in spring, summer, autumn, and winter were 35.0, 84.7, 67.3 and 61.6 microg x m(-3) in PM9, and 23.2, 64.8, 52.7 and 49.6 microg x m(-3) in PM2.1. About 70%, 75% and 94% of SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+) were found in the fine mode of aerosol, respectively. Ca2+ and Mg2+ were unimodal and mostly concentrated in the coarse mode. Those results indicated that the pollution caused by atmospheric particles is serious in Tangshan. It is urgent to control the anthropogenic emissions sources, such as vehicle emission, coal and biomass burning. Meanwhile, it is necessary to strengthen the greening and reinforce the management of the road construction. PMID:23798095

Miao, Hong-Yan; Wen, Tian-Xue; Wang, Li; Li, Xing-Ru; Wang, Yue-Si



Pesticide Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Adding Salting Out Agents  

PubMed Central

Phase segregation in aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of four hydrophilic ionic liquids (ILs): 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate (CnC1im C1SO4, n = 2 and 4), tributylmethyl phosphonium methylsulfate (P4441 C1SO4) and methylpyridinium methylsulfate (C1Py C1SO4) and two high charge density potassium inorganic salts (K2CO3 and K2HPO4) were determined by the cloud point method at 298.15 K. The influence of the addition of the selected inorganic salts to aqueous mixtures of ILs was discussed in the light of the Hofmeister series and in terms of molar Gibbs free energy of hydration. The effect of the alkyl chain length of the cation on the methylsulfate-based ILs has been investigated. All the solubility data were satisfactorily correlated to several empirical equations. A pesticide (pentachlorophenol, PCP) extraction process based on the inorganic salt providing a greater salting out effect was tackled. The viability of the proposed process was analyzed in terms of partition coefficients and extraction efficiencies. PMID:24145747

Moscoso, Fátima; Deive, Francisco J.; Esperança, José M. S. S.; Rodríguez, Ana



Functionalization of cotton fabrics by radiation induced grafting of quaternary salt to impart antibacterial property  

Microsoft Academic Search

High energy gamma radiation has been used to covalently link polymer chains of a quaternary ammonium salt containing monomer, viz. [2-(Acryloyloxyethyl)]trimethylammonium chloride (AETC) to cotton fabric by mutual radiation grafting using 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA) monomer as the grafting facilitator. Grafting yield was found to increase with the radiation dose and monomer concentration. The grafted samples have been characterized for water

N. K. Goel; Virendra Kumar; M. S. Rao; Y. K. Bhardwaj; S. Sabharwal



Effect of salt stress in the regulation of anthocyanins and color of hibiscus flowers by digital image analysis.  


The effect of salt stress (200 mM NaCl for 28 days) on physiological characteristics of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, such as abscisic acid (ABA) content, electrolyte leakage, and photochemical efficiency in leaves, and its influence on biomass production, anthocyanin composition, and color expression of flowers were evaluated. Salinity significantly increased electrolyte leakage and ABA content in leaves and reduced the flower fresh weight. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were lower in salt stress condition, compared to control. Moreover, salt stress negatively affected the content of anthocyanins (mainly cyanidin-3-sophoroside), which resulted in a visually perceptible loss of color. The detailed anthocyanin composition monitored by HPLC-DAD-MS and the color variations by digital image analysis due to salt stress showed that the effect was more noticeable at the basal portion of petals. A forward stepwise multiple regression was performed for predicting the content of anthocyanins from appearance characteristics obtained by image analysis, reaching R-square values up to 0.90. PMID:25005605

Trivellini, Alice; Gordillo, Belén; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco J; Borghesi, Eva; Ferrante, Antonio; Vernieri, Paolo; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; González-Miret, M Lourdes; Heredia, Francisco J



Microscopic mechanism for the effect of adding salt on electrospinning by molecular dynamics simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adding salts into polymer solution has been found to modulate the fiber structure and significantly improve the solution spinnability in electrospinning. However, the mechanisms have not been fully understood. This work adopted molecular dynamics method to investigate the dynamic behavior of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)/water droplet with or without dissolved NaCl salt under high-voltage electric field. Our simulation results agreed with the previous experimental reports well. We observed that some daughter droplets detach from the mother droplet due to the ions evaporation and hydration effect, which significantly accelerates the water evaporation and hence improves the solution spinnability. We also observed that some sodium ions are always coordinated with the ether oxygen group in the PEO chain. When these ions are accelerated by the electric field, the PEO chain segments follow the motion of the ions, inevitably stretching the chain and improving the fiber morphology.

Wang, Bing-Bing; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Tian-Hu