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Sample records for water decomposition plant

  1. Nuclear driven water decomposition plant for hydrogen production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, G. H.; Brecher, L. E.; Farbman, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    The conceptual design of a hydrogen production plant using a very-high-temperature nuclear reactor (VHTR) to energize a hybrid electrolytic-thermochemical system for water decomposition has been prepared. A graphite-moderated helium-cooled VHTR is used to produce 1850 F gas for electric power generation and 1600 F process heat for the water-decomposition process which uses sulfur compounds and promises performance superior to normal water electrolysis or other published thermochemical processes. The combined cycle operates at an overall thermal efficiency in excess of 45%, and the overall economics of hydrogen production by this plant have been evaluated predicated on a consistent set of economic ground rules. The conceptual design and evaluation efforts have indicated that development of this type of nuclear-driven water-decomposition plant will permit large-scale economic generation of hydrogen in the 1990s.

  2. [Effects of aquatic plants during their decay and decomposition on water quality].

    PubMed

    Tang, Jin-Yan; Cao, Pei-Pei; Xu, Chi; Liu, Mao-Song

    2013-01-01

    Taking 6 aquatic plant species as test objects, a 64-day decomposition experiment was conducted to study the temporal variation patterns of nutrient concentration in water body during the process of the aquatic plant decomposition. There existed greater differences in the decomposition rates between the 6 species. Floating-leaved plants had the highest decomposition rate, followed by submerged plants, and emerged plants. The effects of the aquatic plant species during their decomposition on water quality differed, which was related to the plant biomass density. During the decomposition of Phragmites australis, water body had the lowest concentrations of chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. In the late decomposition period of Zizania latifolia, the concentrations of water body chemical oxygen demand and total nitrogen increased, resulting in the deterioration of water quality. In the decomposition processes of Nymphoides peltatum and Nelumbo nucifera, the concentrations of water body chemical oxygen demand and total nitrogen were higher than those during the decomposition of other test plants. In contrast, during the decomposition of Potamogeton crispus and Myriophyllum verticillatum, water body had the highest concentrations of ammonium, nitrate, and total phosphorus. For a given plant species, the main water quality indices had the similar variation trends under different biomass densities. It was suggested that the existence of moderate plant residues could effectively promote the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles in water body, reduce its nitrate concentration to some extent, and decrease the water body nitrogen load. PMID:23717994

  3. The Conceptual Design of an Integrated Nuclearhydrogen Production Plant Using the Sulfur Cycle Water Decomposition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farbman, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    A hydrogen production plant was designed based on a hybrid electrolytic-thermochemical process for decomposing water. The sulfur cycle water decomposition system is driven by a very high temperature nuclear reactor that provides 1,283 K helium working gas. The plant is sized to approximately ten million standard cubic meters per day of electrolytically pure hydrogen and has an overall thermal efficiently of 45.2 percent. The economics of the plant were evaluated using ground rules which include a 1974 cost basis without escalation, financing structure and other economic factors. Taking into account capital, operation, maintenance and nuclear fuel cycle costs, the cost of product hydrogen was calculated at $5.96/std cu m for utility financing. These values are significantly lower than hydrogen costs from conventional water electrolysis plants and competitive with hydrogen from coal gasification plants.

  4. Water Limitation and Plant Inter-specific Competition Reduce Rhizosphere-Induced C Decomposition and Plant N Uptake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Plants can affect soil organic matter decomposition and mineralization through litter inputs, but also more directly through root-microbial interactions (rhizosphere effects). Depending on resource availability and plant species identity, these rhizosphere effects can be positive or negative. To...

  5. Thermochemical water decomposition processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Thermochemical processes which lead to the production of hydrogen and oxygen from water without the consumption of any other material have a number of advantages when compared to other processes such as water electrolysis. It is possible to operate a sequence of chemical steps with net work requirements equal to zero at temperatures well below the temperature required for water dissociation in a single step. Various types of procedures are discussed, giving attention to halide processes, reverse Deacon processes, iron oxide and carbon oxide processes, and metal and alkali metal processes. Economical questions are also considered.

  6. Phlogopite Decomposition, Water, and Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, N. M.; Fegley, B., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Venus is a hot and dry planet with a surface temperature of 660 to 740 K and 30 parts per million by volume (ppmv) water vapor in its lower atmosphere. In contrast Earth has an average surface temperature of 288 K and 1-4% water vapor in its troposphere. The hot and dry conditions on Venus led many to speculate that hydrous minerals on the surface of Venus would not be there today even though they might have formed in a potentially wetter past. Thermodynamic calculations predict that many hydrous minerals are unstable under current Venusian conditions. Thermodynamics predicts whether a particular mineral is stable or not, but we need experimental data on the decomposition rate of hydrous minerals to determine if they survive on Venus today. Previously, we determined the decomposition rate of the amphibole tremolite, and found that it could exist for billions of years at current surface conditions. Here, we present our initial results on the decomposition of phlogopite mica, another common hydrous mineral on Earth.

  7. Plant decomposition in wetlands: effects of hydrologic variation in a re-created everglades.

    PubMed

    Serna, Alexandra; Richards, Jennifer H; Scinto, Leonard J

    2013-01-01

    The effects of water depth and flow on marsh plant litter decomposition and soil chemistry were measured in the Loxahatchee Impoundment Landscape Assessment (LILA) facility (Boynton Beach, FL), where macrocosms mimic Everglades ridge-and-slough landscape features. Experiments were conducted in two macrocosms that differed in flow but had ridge, shallow slough, and deep slough habitats that differed in water depth. Decomposition of three common Everglades species, Crantz, Torr., and Aiton, were measured using litter bags incubated in the macrocosms under both wet and dry conditions. Litter decomposition was similar among flow treatments and habitats but differed by species and between wet and dry conditions. Decomposition rates from fastest to slowest were > > litter had more total P than the other two species, confirming the importance of P availability in controlling decomposition in the Everglades. Planted species had no effect on soil nutrient content during the ~4 yr of plant growth. Average water velocities of ~0.5 cm s attained in the flow treatment had no effect on decomposition or soil chemistry. The plant species used in this study are major contributors to Everglades' organic soils, so their decomposition rates can be used to parameterize models for how restoration manipulations will affect soil-building processes and to predict the temporal sequence of landscape responses to these manipulations. The results suggest that longer periods and flows greater than studied here may be necessary to see restoration effects on soil building processes. PMID:23673849

  8. Hydrogen production by the decomposition of water

    DOEpatents

    Hollabaugh, Charles M.; Bowman, Melvin G.

    1981-01-01

    How to produce hydrogen from water was a problem addressed by this invention. The solution employs a combined electrolytical-thermochemical sulfuric acid process. Additionally, high purity sulfuric acid can be produced in the process. Water and SO.sub.2 react in electrolyzer (12) so that hydrogen is produced at the cathode and sulfuric acid is produced at the anode. Then the sulfuric acid is reacted with a particular compound M.sub.r X.sub.s so as to form at least one water insoluble sulfate and at least one water insoluble oxide of molybdenum, tungsten, or boron. Water is removed by filtration; and the sulfate is decomposed in the presence of the oxide in sulfate decomposition zone (21), thus forming SO.sub.3 and reforming M.sub.r X.sub.s. The M.sub.r X.sub.s is recycled to sulfate formation zone (16). If desired, the SO.sub.3 can be decomposed to SO.sub.2 and O.sub.2 ; and the SO.sub.2 can be recycled to electrolyzer (12) to provide a cycle for producing hydrogen.

  9. Nutrient-enhanced decomposition of plant biomass in a freshwater wetland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodker, James E.; Turner, Robert Eugene; Tweel, Andrew; Schulz, Christopher; Swarzenski, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    We studied soil decomposition in a Panicum hemitomon (Schultes)-dominated freshwater marsh located in southeastern Louisiana that was unambiguously changed by secondarily-treated municipal wastewater effluent. We used four approaches to evaluate how belowground biomass decomposition rates vary under different nutrient regimes in this marsh. The results of laboratory experiments demonstrated how nutrient enrichment enhanced the loss of soil or plant organic matter by 50%, and increased gas production. An experiment demonstrated that nitrogen, not phosphorus, limited decomposition. Cellulose decomposition at the field site was higher in the flowfield of the introduced secondarily treated sewage water, and the quality of the substrate (% N or % P) was directly related to the decomposition rates. We therefore rejected the null hypothesis that nutrient enrichment had no effect on the decomposition rates of these organic soils. In response to nutrient enrichment, plants respond through biomechanical or structural adaptations that alter the labile characteristics of plant tissue. These adaptations eventually change litter type and quality (where the marsh survives) as the % N content of plant tissue rises and is followed by even higher decomposition rates of the litter produced, creating a positive feedback loop. Marsh fragmentation will increase as a result. The assumptions and conditions underlying the use of unconstrained wastewater flow within natural wetlands, rather than controlled treatment within the confines of constructed wetlands, are revealed in the loss of previously sequestered carbon, habitat, public use, and other societal benefits.

  10. Hydrogen production by the decomposition of water

    DOEpatents

    Hollabaugh, C.M.; Bowman, M.G.

    A process is described for the production of hydrogen from water by a sulfuric acid process employing electrolysis and thermo-chemical decomposition. The water containing SO/sub 2/ is electrolyzed to produce H/sub 2/ at the cathode and to oxidize the SO/sub 2/ to form H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ at the anode. After the H/sub 2/ has been separated, a compound of the type M/sub r/X/sub s/ is added to produce a water insoluble sulfate of M and a water insoluble oxide of the metal in the radical X. In the compound M/sub r/X/sub s/, M is at least one metal selected from the group consisting of Ba/sup 2 +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, Sr/sup 2 +/, La/sup 2 +/, and Pb/sup 2 +/; X is at least one radical selected from the group consisting of molybdate (MoO/sub 4//sup 2 -/), tungstate (WO/sub 4//sup 2 -/), and metaborate (BO/sub 2//sup 1 -/); and r and s are either 1, 2, or 3 depending upon the valence of M and X. The precipitated mixture is filtered and heated to a temperature sufficiently high to form SO/sub 3/ gas and to reform M/sub r/X/sub s/. The SO/sub 3/ is dissolved in a small amount of H/sub 2/O to produce concentrated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, and the M/sub r/X/sub s/ is recycled to the process. Alternatively, the SO/sub 3/ gas can be recycled to the beginning of the process to provide a continuous process for the production of H/sub 2/ in which only water need be added in a substantial amount. (BLM)

  11. Highly consistent effects of plant litter identity and functional traits on decomposition across a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Makkonen, Marika; Berg, Matty P; Handa, I Tanya; Httenschwiler, Stephan; van Ruijven, Jasper; van Bodegom, Peter M; Aerts, Rien

    2012-09-01

    Plant litter decomposition is a key process in terrestrial carbon cycling, yet the relative importance of various control factors remains ambiguous at a global scale. A full reciprocal litter transplant study with 16 litter species that varied widely in traits and originated from four forest sites covering a large latitudinal gradient (subarctic to tropics) showed a consistent interspecific ranking of decomposition rates. At a global scale, variation in decomposition was driven by a small subset of litter traits (water saturation capacity and concentrations of magnesium and condensed tannins). These consistent findings, that were largely independent of the varying local decomposer communities, suggest that decomposer communities show little specialisation and high metabolic flexibility in processing plant litter, irrespective of litter origin. Our results provide strong support for using trait-based approaches in modelling the global decomposition component of biosphere-atmosphere carbon fluxes. PMID:22732002

  12. Device for removing heat of decomposition in a steam power plant heated by nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect

    Emsperger, W.; Werker, E.

    1980-12-02

    Device for removing heat of decomposition in a steam power plant heated by nuclear energy and having a steam generator with a water-steam separating tank connected downstream of the steam generator in travel direction of the steam generated thereby includes a start-up circulatory loop for the steam power plant connected to the steam generator and including the water-steam separating tank therein, the start-up circulatory loop being formed of a feed water line and an outlet line from the water-steam separating tank and further including an externally cooled heat exchanger connected therein for removing after-heat.

  13. Metal-induced decomposition of perchlorate in pressurized hot water.

    PubMed

    Hori, Hisao; Sakamoto, Takehiko; Tanabe, Takashi; Kasuya, Miu; Chino, Asako; Wu, Qian; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2012-10-01

    Decomposition of perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)) in pressurized hot water (PHW) was investigated. Although ClO(4)(-) demonstrated little reactivity in pure PHW up to 300°C, addition of zerovalent metals to the reaction system enhanced the decomposition of ClO(4)(-) to Cl(-) with an increasing order of activity of (no metal)≈Al < Cu < Zn < Ni < Fe: the addition of iron powder led to the most efficient decomposition of ClO(4)(-). When the iron powder was added to an aqueous ClO(4)(-) solution (104 μM) and the mixture was heated at 150°C, ClO(4)(-) concentration fell below 0.58 μM (58 μg L(-1), detection limit of ion chromatography) in 1 h, and Cl(-) was formed with the yield of 85% after 6 h. The decomposition was accompanied by transformation of the zerovalent iron to Fe(3)O(4). This method was successfully used in the decomposition of ClO(4)(-) in a water sample contaminated with this compound, following fireworks display at Albany, New York, USA. PMID:22840541

  14. Hydrogen peroxide deposition and decomposition in rain and dew waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Vicky; Anglica Rubio, M.; Lissi, Eduardo A.

    Peroxides and hydrogen peroxide were determined by a fluorometric method in dew and rain collected in the atmosphere of Santiago of Chile city. The measured peroxides comprise hydrogen peroxide (the main component) and peroxides not decomposed by catalase. The collected natural peroxides readily decompose in the natural matrix, rendering difficult an estimation of the values present in real-time. In order to establish the kinetics of the process and the factors that condition their decomposition, the kinetics of the decay at several pHs and/or the presence of metal chelators were followed. The kinetics of hydrogen peroxide decomposition in the water matrix was evaluated employing the natural peroxides or hydrogen peroxide externally added. First-order kinetics was followed, with half decay times ranging from 80 to 2300 min. The addition of Fe(II) in the micromolar range increases the decomposition rate, while lowering the pH (<3) notably reduces the rate of the process. The contribution of metals to the decomposition of the peroxides in the natural waters was confirmed by the reduction in decomposition rate elicited by its treatment with Chelex-100. Dew and rain waters were collected in pre-acidified collectors, rendering values considerably higher than those measured in non-treated collectors. This indicates that acidification can be proposed as an easy procedure to stabilize the samples, reducing its decomposition during collection time and the time elapsed between collection and analysis. The weighted average concentration for total peroxides measured in pre-treated collectors was 5.4 ?M in rains and 2.2 ?M in dews.

  15. Kinetics of the pyrolytic and hydrothermal decomposition of water hyacinth.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guang'en; Strong, P James; Wang, Hailong; Ni, Wuzhong; Shi, Weiyong

    2011-07-01

    The kinetics of water hyacinth decomposition using pyrolysis and hydrothermal treatment was compared. With pyrolysis, initial vaporization occurred at 453 K as determined by thermogravimetric analysis, while initial solubilisation occurred at 433 K with subcritical hydrothermal treatment. The "kinetic triplet" was determined for the ranges of 423-483 K (range I) and 473-553 K (range II) using the Coats-Redfern method for both treatments. The calculated activation energies for ranges I and II were 110 and 116 kJ/mol for conventional pyrolysis and 145 and 90 kJ/mol for hydrothermal treatment. The similar activation energies for the two temperature ranges observed for pyrolysis implied that only hemicellulose decomposition occurred. For hydrothermal treatment, both hemicellulose and cellulose decomposition occurred in temperature range II, in which a notable lower activation energy was observed. This implied hydrothermal treatment was more suitable for conversion lignocellulosic biomass under these conditions. PMID:21558054

  16. Method for thermochemical decomposition of water

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Bernard M.; Schreiner, Felix

    1977-01-11

    Water is thermochemically decomposed to produce hydrogen by the following sequence of reactions: KI, NH.sub.3, CO.sub. 2 and water in an organic solvent such as ethyl or propyl alcohol are reacted to produce KHCO 3 and NH.sub.4 I. The KHCO.sub.3 is thermally decomposed to K.sub.2 CO.sub.3, H.sub.2 O and CO.sub.2, while the NH.sub.4 I is reacted with Hg to produce HgI.sub.2, NH.sub.3 and H.sub.2. The K.sub.2 CO.sub.3 obtained by calcining KHCO.sub.3 is then reacted with HgI.sub.2 to produce Hg, KI, CO and O.sub.2. All products of the reaction are recycled except hydrogen and oxygen.

  17. Decomposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2014-01-01

    A cornerstone of ecosystem ecology, decomposition was recognized as a fundamental process driving the exchange of energy in ecosystems by early ecologists such as Lindeman 1942 and Odum 1960). In the history of ecology, studies of decomposition were incorporated into the International Biological Program in the 1960s to compare the nature of organic matter breakdown in various ecosystem types. Such studies still have an important role in ecological studies of today. More recent refinements have brought debates on the relative role microbes, invertebrates and environment in the breakdown and release of carbon into the atmosphere, as well as how nutrient cycling, production and other ecosystem processes regulated by decomposition may shift with climate change. Therefore, this bibliography examines the primary literature related to organic matter breakdown, but it also explores topics in which decomposition plays a key supporting role including vegetation composition, latitudinal gradients, altered ecosystems, anthropogenic impacts, carbon storage, and climate change models. Knowledge of these topics is relevant to both the study of ecosystem ecology as well projections of future conditions for human societies.

  18. Contrasting effects of plant species traits and moisture on the decomposition of multiple litter fractions.

    PubMed

    Riggs, Charlotte E; Hobbie, Sarah E; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Savage, Jessica A; Wei, Xiaojing

    2015-10-01

    Environmental variation in moisture directly influences plant litter decomposition through effects on microbial activity, and indirectly via plant species traits. Whether the effects of moisture and plant species traits are mutually reinforcing or counteracting during decomposition are unknown. To disentangle the effects of moisture from the effects of species traits that vary with moisture, we decomposed leaf litter from 12 plant species in the willow family (Salicaceae) with different native habitat moisture preferences in paired mesic and wetland plots. We fit litter mass loss data to an exponential decomposition model and estimated the decay rate of the rapidly cycling litter fraction and size of the remaining fraction that decays at a rate approaching zero. Litter traits that covaried with moisture in the species' native habitat significantly influenced the decomposition rate of the rapidly cycling litter fraction, but moisture in the decomposition environment did not. In contrast, for the slowly cycling litter fraction, litter traits that did not covary with moisture in the species' native habitat and moisture in the decomposition environment were significant. Overall, the effects of moisture and plant species traits on litter decomposition were somewhat reinforcing along a hydrologic gradient that spanned mesic upland to wetland (but not permanently surface-saturated) plots. In this system, plant trait and moisture effects may lead to greater in situ decomposition rates of wetland species compared to upland species; however, plant traits that do not covary with moisture will also influence decomposition of the slowest cycling litter fraction. PMID:26009245

  19. Stoichiometry of Microbial Decomposition Priming in Plant Litter and Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, D.; Qiao, N.

    2011-12-01

    Microbial priming is accelerated conversion of plant residues and soil organic carbon to CO2. It is caused by small additions of labile carbon and nitrogen compounds, but microbial stoichiometry suggests that this description is incomplete. The temperature dependence of soil organic carbon cycling models may be related to diffusion of labile resources to microbial cells. Incomplete treatment of stoichiometrically significant elements in these models may also limit their ability to predict carbon fluxes if plant species, diseases or defoliators are affected by climate changes. We explore this by incubating decomposable substrates (leaves, wood, humus and mineral soil) with resources added as dissolved inorganic nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate separately), phosphorus and sugar, added in different amounts and proportions. We measure CO2 production by infrared absorption. Contribution of sugar to CO2 production is assessed by mass spectrometry. High concentrations for each resource are 16X the low, and middle concentrations are 4X the low. The ratios are centered on 200:10:1. We explore C:N:P resource ratios and additions over wide ranges; subsequently to examine narrower ranges of interest. For C:N:P incubations, C and N effects are always significant on CO2 production, with P in only half of the treatments. Literature suggests that leaf-litter decomposition is stimulated by N (occasionally P) additions, but results for soils have been mixed. We find N to be inhibitory only when added in "stoichiometic excess" to added C. Stimulation of microbial respiration is generally strongest with C:N:P additions in "Redfield-like" ratios, but the response is far below linear. Humus has a stronger response to C than do leaves and wood. This is consistent with a chronic energy limitation for soil microbes, even where their environments contain large amounts of total C. For all substrates, the addition of N as nitrate leads to significantly more CO2 than the same amount of ammonium-N. This result was unexpected because nitrate must be reduced (at metabolic cost) before it can be utilized in cells. Possible explanations include relatively less mobility of ammonium in the environment, and enzyme syntheses being more inhibited by ammonium. At least, it suggests that studies treating ammonium and nitrate as equivalent N sources miss important aspects of microbial metabolism. In incubations with only P as an added resource, CO2 production was stimulated in all substrates except leaf, but only with much larger P additions compared to the C:N:P incubations. Previous studies have shown that leaf decomposition can be stimulated by added P, but among these 4 substrates, we suggest that leaves have the highest amounts of available P relative to C. Further studies will be presented, including microbial community assessment by PCR-DGGE. Thus far, we see that stimulation of microbial respiration is greatest when C is added above cellular stoichiometric ratios for N and P, emphasizing energy costs associated with microbial growth and exoenzyme synthesis. In addition, the most effective C:N:P resource ratios for decomposition vary widely among substrates. These results can contribute to the development of decomposition and soil organic carbon models with greater biological realism. .

  20. Plant Water Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomley, David

    1982-01-01

    Some simple field investigations on plant water relations are described which demonstrate links between physiological and external environmental factors. In this way, a more complex picture of a plant and how it functions within its habitat and the effects the environment has on it can be built up. (Author/JN)

  1. Effects of hydrology on short term plant decomposition and nutrient content in a re-created Everglades wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serna, A.; Richards, J.; Scinto, L.

    2012-12-01

    The effect of water depth and flow on tissue nutrients and decomposition rates of marsh plant species, and soil chemistry in vegetated plots was measured in the Loxahatchee Impoundment Landscape Assessment (LILA) facility in Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. The LILA facility consists of replicated wetland macrocosms that mimic Everglades ridge-and-slough landscape features. The experiments were conducted in two macrocosms that each had three habitats at different water depths (ridge, shallow slough and deep slough) but differed in flow. Decomposition rates of three common Everglades species, Cladium jamaicense (sawgrass), Eleocharis cellulosa (spikerush), and Nymphaea odorata (white water lily), were measured using litter bags incubated during both a wet and dry condition. Litter bag losses were more pronounced under wet conditions, and decomposition rates were not affected by the hydrologic conditions in this experiment, but rather by litter nutrient content and species. Litter nutrient (TC, TN, TP) concentrations varied over time. Species rich in the limiting nutrient (P) in the ecosystem decomposed faster. Therefore, N. odorata decomposed faster than C. jamaicense and E. cellulosa, confirming the importance of P availability in controlling microbial processes in the Everglades. Planted species had no effect on soil nutrient content over the 3 yrs period of plant growth in these plots. Our results have contributed to defining potential flow targets for restoration in Florida's Everglades by showing that average water velocities of 0.5 cm s-1 may not be sufficient to drive ecosystem changes in decomposition rates for the native species and soil chemistry.

  2. Hydrogen production by water decomposition using a combined electrolytic-thermochemical cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farbman, G. H.; Brecher, L. E.

    1976-01-01

    A proposed dual-purpose power plant generating nuclear power to provide energy for driving a water decomposition system is described. The entire system, dubbed Sulfur Cycle Water Decomposition System, works on sulfur compounds (sulfuric acid feedstock, sulfur oxides) in a hybrid electrolytic-thermochemical cycle; performance superior to either all-electrolysis systems or presently known all-thermochemical systems is claimed. The 3345 MW(th) graphite-moderated helium-cooled reactor (VHTR - Very High Temperature Reactor) generates both high-temperature heat and electric power for the process; the gas stream at core exit is heated to 1850 F. Reactor operation is described and reactor innards are illustrated. A cost assessment for on-stream performance in the 1990's is optimistic.

  3. Hydroxyl radicals from secondary organic aerosol decomposition in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Haijie; Arangio, Andrea M.; Lakey, Pascale S. J.; Berkemeier, Thomas; Liu, Fobang; Kampf, Christopher J.; Brune, William H.; Pöschl, Ulrich; Shiraiwa, Manabu

    2016-02-01

    We found that ambient and laboratory-generated secondary organic aerosols (SOA) form substantial amounts of OH radicals upon interaction with liquid water, which can be explained by the decomposition of organic hydroperoxides. The molar OH yield from SOA formed by ozonolysis of terpenes (α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene) is ˜ 0.1 % upon extraction with pure water and increases to ˜ 1.5 % in the presence of Fe2+ ions due to Fenton-like reactions. Upon extraction of SOA samples from OH photooxidation of isoprene, we also detected OH yields of around ˜ 0.1 %, which increases upon addition of Fe2+. Our findings imply that the chemical reactivity and aging of SOA particles is strongly enhanced upon interaction with water and iron. In cloud droplets under dark conditions, SOA decomposition can compete with the classical H2O2 Fenton reaction as the source of OH radicals. Also in the human respiratory tract, the inhalation and deposition of SOA particles may lead to a substantial release of OH radicals, which may contribute to oxidative stress and play an important role in the adverse health effects of atmospheric aerosols.

  4. Hydroxyl radicals from secondary organic aerosol decomposition in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, H.; Arangio, A. M.; Lakey, P. S. J.; Berkemeier, T.; Liu, F.; Kampf, C. J.; Pöschl, U.; Shiraiwa, M.

    2015-11-01

    We found that ambient and laboratory-generated secondary organic aerosols (SOA) form substantial amounts of OH radicals upon interaction with liquid water, which can be explained by the decomposition of organic hydroperoxides. The molar OH yield from SOA formed by ozonolysis of terpenes (α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene) is ~ 0.1 % upon extraction with pure water and increases to ~ 1.5 % in the presence of Fe2+ ions due to Fenton-like reactions. Our findings imply that the chemical reactivity and aging of SOA particles is strongly enhanced upon interaction with water and iron. In cloud droplets under dark conditions, SOA decomposition can compete with the classical H2O2 Fenton reaction as the source of OH radicals. Also in the human respiratory tract, the inhalation and deposition of SOA particles may lead to a substantial release of OH radicals, which may contribute to oxidative stress and play an important role in the adverse health effects of atmospheric aerosols.

  5. Decomposition of Glycerine by Water Plasmas at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayuki, Watanabe; Narengerile

    2013-04-01

    High concentration of aqueous glycerine was decomposed using a direct current (DC) plasma torch at atmospheric pressure. The torch can generate the plasma with water as the plasma-supporting gas in the absence of any additional gas supply system and cooling devices. The results indicated that 5 mol% glycerine was completely decomposed by water plasmas at arc powers of 0.55~1.05 kW. The major products in the effluent gas were H2 (68.9%~71.1%), CO2 (18.9%~23.0%), and CO (0.2%~0.6%). However, trace levels of formic acid (HCOOH) and formaldehyde (HCHO) were observed in the liquid effluent. The results indicated that the water plasma waste treatment process is capable of being an alternative green technology for organic waste decomposition.

  6. Elevated CO2 and plant species diversity interact to slow root decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    De Graaff, Marie-Anne; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Rula, Kelly L; Six, Johan W U A; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; Classen, Aimee T

    2011-01-01

    Changes in plant species diversity can result in synergistic increases in decomposition rates, while elevated atmospheric CO2 can slow the decomposition rates; yet it remains unclear how diversity and changes in atmospheric CO2 may interact to alter root decomposition. To investigate how elevated CO2 interacts with changes in root-litter diversity to alter decomposition rates, we conducted a 120-day laboratory incubation. Roots from three species (Trifolium repens, Lespedeza cuneata, and Festuca pratense) grown under ambient or elevated CO2 were incubated individually or in combination in soils that were exposed to ambient or elevated CO2 for five years. Our experiment resulted in two main findings: (1) Roots from T. repens and L. cuneata, both nitrogen (N) fixers, grown under elevated CO2 treatments had significantly slower decomposition rates than similar roots grown under ambient CO2 treatments; but the decomposition rate of F. pratense roots (a non-N-fixing species) was similar regardless of CO2 treatment. (2) Roots of the three species grown under ambient CO2 and decomposed in combination with each other had faster decomposition rates than when they were decomposed as single species. However, roots of the three species grown under elevated CO2 had similar decomposition rates when they were incubated alone or in combination with other species. These data suggest that if elevated CO2 reduces the root decomposition rate of even a few species in the community, it may slow root decomposition of the entire plant community.

  7. Soil organic matter decomposition follows plant productivity response to sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Peter; Jensen, Kai; Megonigal, James Patrick

    2015-04-01

    The accumulation of soil organic matter (SOM) is an important mechanism for many tidal wetlands to keep pace with sea-level rise. SOM accumulation is governed by the rates of production and decomposition of organic matter. While plant productivity responses to sea-level rise are well understood, far less is known about the response of SOM decomposition to accelerated sea-level rise. Here we quantified the effects of sea-level rise on SOM decomposition by exposing planted and unplanted tidal marsh monoliths to experimentally manipulated flood duration. The study was performed in a field-based mesocosm facility at the Smithsonian Global Change Research Wetland, a micro tidal brackish marsh in Maryland, US. SOM decomposition was quantified as CO2 efflux, with plant- and SOM-derived CO2 separated using a stable carbon isotope approach. Despite the dogma that decomposition rates are inversely related to flooding, SOM mineralization was not sensitive to varying flood duration over a 35 cm range in surface elevation in unplanted mesocoms. In the presence of plants, decomposition rates were strongly and positively related to aboveground biomass (p≤0.01, R2≥0.59). We conclude that rates of soil carbon loss through decomposition are driven by plant responses to sea level in this intensively studied tidal marsh. If our result applies more generally to tidal wetlands, it has important implications for modeling carbon sequestration and marsh accretion in response to accelerated sea-level rise.

  8. Plants mediate soil organic matter decomposition in response to sea level rise.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Peter; Jensen, Kai; Megonigal, James Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Tidal marshes have a large capacity for producing and storing organic matter, making their role in the global carbon budget disproportionate to land area. Most of the organic matter stored in these systems is in soils where it contributes 2-5 times more to surface accretion than an equal mass of minerals. Soil organic matter (SOM) sequestration is the primary process by which tidal marshes become perched high in the tidal frame, decreasing their vulnerability to accelerated relative sea level rise (RSLR). Plant growth responses to RSLR are well understood and represented in century-scale forecast models of soil surface elevation change. We understand far less about the response of SOM decomposition to accelerated RSLR. Here we quantified the effects of flooding depth and duration on SOM decomposition by exposing planted and unplanted field-based mesocosms to experimentally manipulated relative sea level over two consecutive growing seasons. SOM decomposition was quantified as CO2 efflux, with plant- and SOM-derived CO2 separated via ?(13) CO2 . Despite the dominant paradigm that decomposition rates are inversely related to flooding, SOM decomposition in the absence of plants was not sensitive to flooding depth and duration. The presence of plants had a dramatic effect on SOM decomposition, increasing SOM-derived CO2 flux by up to 267% and 125% (in 2012 and 2013, respectively) compared to unplanted controls in the two growing seasons. Furthermore, plant stimulation of SOM decomposition was strongly and positively related to plant biomass and in particular aboveground biomass. We conclude that SOM decomposition rates are not directly driven by relative sea level and its effect on oxygen diffusion through soil, but indirectly by plant responses to relative sea level. If this result applies more generally to tidal wetlands, it has important implications for models of SOM accumulation and surface elevation change in response to accelerated RSLR. PMID:26342160

  9. Plant roots alter microbial potential for mediation of soil organic carbon decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, M.; Shi, S.; Herman, D.; He, Z.; Zhou, J.

    2014-12-01

    Plant root regulation of soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition is a key controller of terrestrial C-cycling. Although many studies have tested possible mechanisms underlying plant "priming" of decomposition, few have investigated the microbial mediators of decomposition, which can be greatly influenced by plant activities. Here we examined effects of Avena fatua roots on decomposition of 13C-labeled root litter in a California grassland soil over two simulated growing-seasons. The presence of plant roots consistently suppressed rates of litter decomposition. Reduction of inorganic nitrogen (N) concentration in soil reduced but did not completely relieve this suppressive effect. The presence of plants significantly altered the abundance, composition and functional potential of microbial communities. Significantly higher signal intensities of genes capable of degrading low molecular weight organic compounds (e.g., glucose, formate and malate) were observed in microbial communities from planted soils, while microorganisms in unplanted soils had higher relative abundances of genes involved in degradation of some macromolecules (e.g., hemicellulose and lignin). Additionally, compared to unplanted soils, microbial communities from planted soils had higher signal intensities of proV and proW, suggesting microbial osmotic stress in planted soils. Possible mechanisms for the observed inhibition of decomposition are 1) microbes preferentially using simple substrates from root exudates and 2) soil drying by plant evapotranspiration impairing microbial activity. We propose a simple data-based model suggesting that the impacts of roots, the soil environment, and microbial community composition on decomposition processes result from impacts of these factors on the soil microbial functional gene potential.

  10. Properties of Soil Pore Space Regulate Pathways of Plant Residue Decomposition and Community Structure of Associated Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Negassa, Wakene C.; Guber, Andrey K.; Kravchenko, Alexandra N.; Marsh, Terence L.; Hildebrandt, Britton; Rivers, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Physical protection of soil carbon (C) is one of the important components of C storage. However, its exact mechanisms are still not sufficiently lucid. The goal of this study was to explore the influence of soil structure, that is, soil pore spatial arrangements, with and without presence of plant residue on (i) decomposition of added plant residue, (ii) CO2 emission from soil, and (iii) structure of soil bacterial communities. The study consisted of several soil incubation experiments with samples of contrasting pore characteristics with/without plant residue, accompanied by X-ray micro-tomographic analyses of soil pores and by microbial community analysis of amplified 16S–18S rRNA genes via pyrosequencing. We observed that in the samples with substantial presence of air-filled well-connected large (>30 µm) pores, 75–80% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO2 emission constituted 1,200 µm C g-1 soil, and movement of C from decomposing plant residue into adjacent soil was insignificant. In the samples with greater abundance of water-filled small pores, 60% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO2 emission constituted 2,000 µm C g-1 soil, and the movement of residue C into adjacent soil was substantial. In the absence of plant residue the influence of pore characteristics on CO2 emission, that is on decomposition of the native soil organic C, was negligible. The microbial communities on the plant residue in the samples with large pores had more microbial groups known to be cellulose decomposers, that is, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes, while a number of oligotrophic Acidobacteria groups were more abundant on the plant residue from the samples with small pores. This study provides the first experimental evidence that characteristics of soil pores and their air/water flow status determine the phylogenetic composition of the local microbial community and directions and magnitudes of soil C decomposition processes. PMID:25909444

  11. Properties of soil pore space regulate pathways of plant residue decomposition and community structure of associated bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Negassa, Wakene C.; Guber, Andrey K.; Kravchenko, Alexandra N.; Marsh, Terence L.; Hildebrandt, Britton; Rivers, Mark L.

    2015-07-01

    Physical protection of soil carbon (C) is one of the important components of C storage. However, its exact mechanisms are still not sufficiently lucid. The goal of this study was to explore the influence of soil structure, that is, soil pore spatial arrangements, with and without presence of plant residue on (i) decomposition of added plant residue, (ii) CO₂ emission from soil, and (iii) structure of soil bacterial communities. The study consisted of several soil incubation experiments with samples of contrasting pore characteristics with/without plant residue, accompanied by X-ray micro-tomographic analyses of soil pores and by microbial community analysis of amplified 16S–18S rRNA genes via pyrosequencing. We observed that in the samples with substantial presence of air-filled well-connected large (>30 µm) pores, 75–80% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO₂ emission constituted 1,200 µm C g⁻¹ soil, and movement of C from decomposing plant residue into adjacent soil was insignificant. In the samples with greater abundance of water-filled small pores, 60% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO₂ emission constituted 2,000 µm C g⁻¹ soil, and the movement of residue C into adjacent soil was substantial. In the absence of plant residue the influence of pore characteristics on CO₂ emission, that is on decomposition of the native soil organic C, was negligible. The microbial communities on the plant residue in the samples with large pores had more microbial groups known to be cellulose decomposers, that is, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes, while a number of oligotrophic Acidobacteria groups were more abundant on the plant residue from the samples with small pores. This study provides the first experimental evidence that characteristics of soil pores and their air/water flow status determine the phylogenetic composition of the local microbial community and directions and magnitudes of soil C decomposition processes.

  12. Atmospheric water vapor as driver of litter decomposition during rainless seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirks, I.; Navon, Y.; Kanas, D.; Dumbur, R.; Grnzweig, Jos

    2010-05-01

    Litter production in many drought-affected ecosystems coincides with the beginning of an extended season of no or limited rainfall. Because of lack of moisture litter decomposition during such periods has been largely ignored so far, despite potential importance for the overall decay process in such ecosystems. To determine drivers and extent of litter decay in rainless periods a litterbag study was conducted in Mediterranean shrublands, dwarf shrublands and grasslands. Heterogeneous local and common straw litter was left to decompose in open and shaded patches of various field sites in two study regions. Fresh local litter lost 4-18% of its initial mass over about 4 months without rainfall, which amounted to 15-50% of total annual decomposition. Lab incubations and changes in chemical composition suggested that litter was degraded by microbial activity, enabled by absorption of water vapor from the atmosphere. High mean relative humidity of 85% was measured during 8-9 h of most nights, but the possibility of fog deposition or dew formation at the soil surface was excluded. Over 95% of the variation in mass loss and changes in litter nitrogen were explained by characteristics of water-vapor uptake by litter. Photodegradation induced by the intense solar radiation was an additional mechanism of litter decomposition as indicated by lignin dynamics. Lignin loss from litter increased with exposure to ultraviolet radiation and with initial lignin concentration, together explaining 90-97% of the variation in lignin mass change. Results indicate that water vapor is a driver of litter decay which has been ignored so far. Water-vapor absorption presumably enables microbial degradation, which, together with solar radiation and litter quality, controls decomposition and changes in litter chemistry during rainless seasons. Warmer and drier conditions as a consequence of climate change will result in enhanced drying of litter layers also outside currently classified drylands. In addition, land-use change, e.g. logging, and fire open up plant canopies and significantly enhance dehydration of litter. With a large part of the land area affected by climate change, land-use change and/or fire, drying of litter layers is probably already a common phenomenon and might be more so in the future. Therefore, absorption of water vapor might play a role in decomposition and nutrient cycling in an increasing number of ecosystems.

  13. Labile soil carbon inputs mediate the soil microbial community composition and plant residue decomposition rates

    SciTech Connect

    De Graaff, Marie-Anne; Classen, Aimee T; Castro Gonzalez, Hector F; Schadt, Christopher Warren

    2010-01-01

    Root carbon (C) inputs may regulate decomposition rates in soil, and in this study we ask: how do labile C inputs regulate decomposition of plant residues, and soil microbial communities? In a 14 d laboratory incubation, we added C compounds often found in root exudates in seven different concentrations (0, 0.7, 1.4, 3.6, 7.2, 14.4 and 21.7 mg C g{sup -1} soil) to soils amended with and without {sup 13}C-labeled plant residue. We measured CO{sub 2} respiration and shifts in relative fungal and bacterial rRNA gene copy numbers using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Increased labile C input enhanced total C respiration, but only addition of C at low concentrations (0.7 mg C g{sup -1}) stimulated plant residue decomposition (+2%). Intermediate concentrations (1.4, 3.6 mg C g{sup -1}) had no impact on plant residue decomposition, while greater concentrations of C (> 7.2 mg C g{sup -1}) reduced decomposition (-50%). Concurrently, high exudate concentrations (> 3.6 mg C g{sup -1}) increased fungal and bacterial gene copy numbers, whereas low exudate concentrations (< 3.6 mg C g{sup -1}) increased metabolic activity rather than gene copy numbers. These results underscore that labile soil C inputs can regulate decomposition of more recalcitrant soil C by controlling the activity and relative abundance of fungi and bacteria.

  14. Manganese Cycling in a Long-term Plant Litter Decomposition Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiluweit, M.; Nico, P. S.; Kleber, M.; Bougoure, J.; Harmon, M. E.; Pett-Ridge, J.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is predicted to affect the chemical composition of plant litter, and global warming may increase microbial and enzymatic activity, with uncertain consequences for litter decomposition rates in soils. This uncertainty has highlighted the need to better understand the controls on litter decomposition rates and pathways. A key controlling processes that is poorly understood is the coupling between decomposition pathways and the inorganic resources available in fresh litter or the underlying soil. For example, a strong correlation was established between the concentration of manganese (Mn) in needle litter and the degradation of litter lignocellulose across boreal forest ecosystems, suggesting that litter decomposition proceeds more efficiently in the presence of Mn. There is good reason to assume that this is due to the critical role of Mn(III)-ligand complexes acting as potent oxidizers in the fungal decomposition of lignocellulose. Here we investigated how litter decomposing organisms redistribute and repurpose the Mn inherently present in fresh plant litter in order to enhance decomposition. For this purpose, we used two 7-year litter decomposition time series collected at sites at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest with widely differing decomposition rates. Spatially-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy and wet-chemical extractions were used to track pathways of microbially-mediated Mn transport and associated changes in its speciation in each annual litter layer. The cycling of Mn and other metal cations (e.g., Ca and Fe) was then related to changes in the litter chemistry as documented by 13C TMAH and FTIR. Our results show that, as litter decomposition progresses, reduced Mn in the vascular system of fresh needles is transformed into oxidized forms concentrated in Mn oxide precipitates. This transformation of Mn into more reactive forms proceeds faster at the site of greater decomposition. Our imaging data suggests that during this process Mn is redistributed from the vascular system of fresh needles towards lignocellulose-rich cell walls that are being decomposed by fungi.

  15. Emissions of volatile organic compounds during the decomposition of plant litter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Christopher M.; Monson, Russell K.; Fierer, Noah

    2010-09-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted during plant litter decomposition, and such VOCs can have wide-ranging impacts on atmospheric chemistry, terrestrial biogeochemistry, and soil ecology. However, we currently have a limited understanding of the relative importance of biotic versus abiotic sources of these VOCs and whether distinct types of litter emit different types and quantities of VOCs during decomposition. We analyzed VOCs emitted by microbes or by abiotic mechanisms during the decomposition of litter from 12 plant species in a laboratory experiment using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Net emissions from litter with active microbial populations (non-sterile litters) were between 0 and 11 times higher than emissions from sterile controls over a 20-d incubation period, suggesting that abiotic sources of VOCs are generally less important than biotic sources. In all cases, the sterile and non-sterile litter treatments emitted different types of VOCs, with methanol being the dominant VOC emitted from litters during microbial decomposition, accounting for 78 to 99% of the net emissions. We also found that the types of VOCs released during biotic decomposition differed in a predictable manner among litter types with VOC profiles also changing as decomposition progressed over time. These results show the importance of incorporating both the biotic decomposition of litter and the species-dependent differences in terrestrial vegetation into global VOC emission models.

  16. Metal/metalloid fixation by litter during decomposition affected by silicon availability during plant growth.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Jrg

    2013-03-01

    Organic matter is known to accumulate high amounts of metals/metalloids, enhanced during the process of decomposition by heterotrophic biofilms (with high fixation capacity for metals/metalloids). The colonization by microbes and the decay rate of the organic matter depends on different litter properties. Main litter properties affecting the decomposition of organic matter such as the nutrient ratios and the content of cellulose, lignin and phenols are currently described to be changed by silicon availability. But less is known about the impact of silicon availability during plant growth on elemental fixation during decay. Hence, this research focuses on the impact of silicon availability during plant growth on fixation of 42 elements during litter decay, by controlling the litter properties. The results of this experiment are a significantly higher metal/metalloid accumulation during decomposition of plant litter grown under low silicon availability. This may be explained by the altered litter properties (mainly nutrient content) affecting the microbial decomposition of the litter, the microbial growth on the litter and possibly by the silicon double layer, which is evident in leaf litter with high silicon content and reduces the binding sites for metals/metalloids. Furthermore, this silicon double layer may also reduce the growing biofilm by reducing the availability of carbon compounds at the litter surface and has to be elucidated in further research. Hence, low silicon availability during plant growth enhances the metal/metalloid accumulation into plant litter during aquatic decomposition. PMID:23228909

  17. [Decomposition of different plant litters in Loess Plateau of Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Zhou, Jian-Bin; Dong, Yan-Jie; Xia, Zhi-Min; Chen, Zhu-Juin

    2012-12-01

    Taking the litters of species Hippophae rhamnoides, Medicago sativa, Populus simonii, Robinia pseudoacaci, Salix psammophila, and Stipa bungeana in the Loess Plateau of Northeast China as test objects, and by using mesh bags, this paper studied the dynamic changes of the litters mass, carbon, and nitrogen during decomposition after buried in the field in semiarid region. The litters buried were from one, two, or three of the plant species, and mixed thoroughly with equal proportion of masses. During decomposition, the mass loss rate, total carbon and nitrogen release rates, and total soluble carbon and nitrogen contents of different litters were higher at the early than at the later decomposition stage. After 412 d decomposition, the average mass loss rate of the litters was in the order of mixed litters of three plant species > mixed litters of two plant species > one plant species litter. By the end of this experiment, the average release rates of the litter total carbon and nitrogen ranked as one plant species litter > mixed litters of two plant species > mixed litters of three plant species, the litter soluble organic carbon content was mixed litters of two plant species > mixed litters of three plant species > one plant species litter, while the litter soluble total nitrogen content was mixed litters of three plant species > mixed litters of two plant species > one plant species litter. Correlation analysis showed that the litter mass loss rate had definite correlation with the litter soluble organic matter, especially soluble organic carbon. From the viewpoint of mass loss rate, the mixture of the litters of P. simonii, H. rhamnoide, and M. sativa was the optimum. It was suggested that in the process of returning farmland into forestland and grassland in the gully and valley region of Loess Plateau, it would be required to rationally increase plant species diversity to improve soil fertility. PMID:23479871

  18. Researching power plant water recovery

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-01

    A range of projects supported by NETl under the Innovations for Existing Plant Program are investigating modifications to power plant cooling systems for reducing water loss, and recovering water from the flue gas and the cooling tower. This paper discusses two technologies showing particular promise condense water that is typically lost to evaporation, SPX technologies' Air2Air{sup trademark} condenses water from a cooling tower, while Lehigh University's process condenses water and acid in flue gas. 3 figs.

  19. Water treatment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mixon, J.A.

    1982-09-28

    A water treatment plant comprises a generally horizontal cylindrical tank and an upstanding cylindrical tank usually having a diameter less than the horizontal tank and being integrally attached to and intersecting an end wall portion thereof. The horizontal tank includes a transverse partition and a longitudinal partition which extends from an intermediate portion of the transverse partition to the upstanding tank and divides the first tank into an aeration chamber, a sludge holding chamber and a purifying or chlorine contact chamber. The second tank comprises a clarifying chamber including an upper portion having influent and effluent pipe means and skimming means and a bottom portion having a circular bottom surface, an outlet and scraper means for moving sediment into the outlet for recirculation either to the aeration chamber or to the sludge holding chamber.

  20. Changes in bacterial and eukaryotic communities during sewage decomposition in Mississippi River water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial decay processes are one of the mechanisms whereby sewage contamination is reduced in the environment. This decomposition process involves a highly complex array of bacterial and eukaryotic communities from both sewage and ambient waters. However, relatively little is kn...

  1. Plants Regulate Soil Organic Matter Decomposition in Response to Sea Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megonigal, P.; Mueller, P.; Jensen, K.

    2014-12-01

    Tidal wetlands have a large capacity for producing and storing organic matter, making their role in the global carbon budget disproportionate to their land area. Most of the organic matter stored in these systems is in soils where it contributes 2-5 times more to surface accretion than an equal mass of minerals. Soil organic matter (SOM) sequestration is the primary process by which tidal wetlands become perched high in the tidal frame, decreasing their vulnerability to accelerated sea level rise. Plant growth responses to sea level rise are well understood and represented in century-scale forecast models of soil surface elevation change. We understand far less about the response of soil organic matter decomposition to rapid sea level rise. Here we quantified the effects of sea level on SOM decomposition rates by exposing planted and unplanted tidal marsh monoliths to experimentally manipulated flood duration. The study was performed in a field-based mesocosm facility at the Smithsonian's Global Change Research Wetland. SOM decomposition rate was quantified as CO2 efflux, with plant- and SOM-derived CO2 separated with a two end-member ?13C-CO2 model. Despite the dogma that decomposition rates are inversely related to flooding, SOM mineralization was not sensitive to flood duration over a 35 cm range in soil surface elevation. However, decomposition rates were strongly and positively related to aboveground biomass (R2?0.59, p?0.01). We conclude that soil carbon loss through decomposition is driven by plant responses to sea level in this intensively studied tidal marsh. If this result applies more generally to tidal wetlands, it has important implications for modeling soil organic matter and surface elevation change in response to accelerated sea level rise.

  2. Linking predation risk, herbivore physiological stress and microbial decomposition of plant litter.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Oswald J; Bradford, Mark A; Strickland, Michael S; Hawlena, Dror

    2013-01-01

    The quantity and quality of detritus entering the soil determines the rate of decomposition by microbial communities as well as recycle rates of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) sequestration. Plant litter comprises the majority of detritus, and so it is assumed that decomposition is only marginally influenced by biomass inputs from animals such as herbivores and carnivores. However, carnivores may influence microbial decomposition of plant litter via a chain of interactions in which predation risk alters the physiology of their herbivore prey that in turn alters soil microbial functioning when the herbivore carcasses are decomposed. A physiological stress response by herbivores to the risk of predation can change the C:N elemental composition of herbivore biomass because stress from predation risk increases herbivore basal energy demands that in nutrient-limited systems forces herbivores to shift their consumption from N-rich resources to support growth and reproduction to C-rich carbohydrate resources to support heightened metabolism. Herbivores have limited ability to store excess nutrients, so stressed herbivores excrete N as they increase carbohydrate-C consumption. Ultimately, prey stressed by predation risk increase their body C:N ratio, making them poorer quality resources for the soil microbial pool likely due to lower availability of labile N for microbial enzyme production. Thus, decomposition of carcasses of stressed herbivores has a priming effect on the functioning of microbial communities that decreases subsequent ability to of microbes to decompose plant litter. We present the methodology to evaluate linkages between predation risk and litter decomposition by soil microbes. We describe how to: induce stress in herbivores from predation risk; measure those stress responses, and measure the consequences on microbial decomposition. We use insights from a model grassland ecosystem comprising the hunting spider predator (Pisuarina mira), a dominant grasshopper herbivore (Melanoplus femurrubrum),and a variety of grass and forb plants. PMID:23524884

  3. Decomposition and decoloration of synthetic dyes using hot/liquid (subcritical) water.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Somayeh Daneshvar; Asghari, Feridoun Salak; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2010-03-01

    We have studied the decomposition and decoloration of 4-(2-Hydroxynaphthylazo) benzenesulfonic acid sodium salt (AO7, acid dye) as a model for textile wastes by using a flow-type subcritical water system. The operating temperature was ranged from 180 to 374 degrees C at 10-25 MPa at a wide range of residence time. The pressure (up to 25 MPa) did not affect the decomposition reactions. AO7 completely decomposed at higher temperatures and or longer residence times. The main products from decomposition of AO7 were found to be 2-naphthalenol, phenol, 1,1'-Binaphthalene-2,2'-diol, and N-(phenylmethylene)benzenamine. In order to identify the decomposition pathways, the products were also individually treated under a batch type subcritical water conditions. We found that 2-naphthalenol underwent to further decomposition to 1,1'-Binaphthalene-2,2'-diol during the subcritical water reaction. Other decomposition products resulted from the decomposition of directly AO7. Kinetic model of the subcritical water reaction was developed by considering major products. The kinetic constants obtained from the proposed reaction pathway showed good agreement with experimental results. PMID:19948352

  4. LITTER DECOMPOSITION IN A SIERRA NEVADA RIPARIAN MEADOW AS A FUNCTION OF PLANT SPECIES, DISTANCE FROM STREAM EDGE, AND GRAZING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A key process in nutrient cycling is decomposition of plant litter and the potential resulting increase in soil nutrient levels. We compare the decomposition rate (k-value yr-1) of four riparian graminoids as influenced by plant species, distance from stream edge (2.5, 20, and 50 m), and grazi...

  5. Plant Diversity Impacts Decomposition and Herbivory via Changes in Aboveground Arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Ebeling, Anne; Meyer, Sebastian T.; Abbas, Maike; Eisenhauer, Nico; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lange, Markus; Scherber, Christoph; Vogel, Anja; Weigelt, Alexandra; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

    2014-01-01

    Loss of plant diversity influences essential ecosystem processes as aboveground productivity, and can have cascading effects on the arthropod communities in adjacent trophic levels. However, few studies have examined how those changes in arthropod communities can have additional impacts on ecosystem processes caused by them (e.g. pollination, bioturbation, predation, decomposition, herbivory). Therefore, including arthropod effects in predictions of the impact of plant diversity loss on such ecosystem processes is an important but little studied piece of information. In a grassland biodiversity experiment, we addressed this gap by assessing aboveground decomposer and herbivore communities and linking their abundance and diversity to rates of decomposition and herbivory. Path analyses showed that increasing plant diversity led to higher abundance and diversity of decomposing arthropods through higher plant biomass. Higher species richness of decomposers, in turn, enhanced decomposition. Similarly, species-rich plant communities hosted a higher abundance and diversity of herbivores through elevated plant biomass and C:N ratio, leading to higher herbivory rates. Integrating trophic interactions into the study of biodiversity effects is required to understand the multiple pathways by which biodiversity affects ecosystem functioning. PMID:25226237

  6. Properties of soil pore space regulate pathways of plant residue decomposition and community structure of associated bacteria

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Negassa, Wakene C.; Guber, Andrey K.; Kravchenko, Alexandra N.; Marsh, Terence L.; Hildebrandt, Britton; Rivers, Mark L.

    2015-07-01

    Physical protection of soil carbon (C) is one of the important components of C storage. However, its exact mechanisms are still not sufficiently lucid. The goal of this study was to explore the influence of soil structure, that is, soil pore spatial arrangements, with and without presence of plant residue on (i) decomposition of added plant residue, (ii) CO₂ emission from soil, and (iii) structure of soil bacterial communities. The study consisted of several soil incubation experiments with samples of contrasting pore characteristics with/without plant residue, accompanied by X-ray micro-tomographic analyses of soil pores and by microbial community analysis ofmore » amplified 16S–18S rRNA genes via pyrosequencing. We observed that in the samples with substantial presence of air-filled well-connected large (>30 µm) pores, 75–80% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO₂ emission constituted 1,200 µm C g⁻¹ soil, and movement of C from decomposing plant residue into adjacent soil was insignificant. In the samples with greater abundance of water-filled small pores, 60% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO₂ emission constituted 2,000 µm C g⁻¹ soil, and the movement of residue C into adjacent soil was substantial. In the absence of plant residue the influence of pore characteristics on CO₂ emission, that is on decomposition of the native soil organic C, was negligible. The microbial communities on the plant residue in the samples with large pores had more microbial groups known to be cellulose decomposers, that is, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes, while a number of oligotrophic Acidobacteria groups were more abundant on the plant residue from the samples with small pores. This study provides the first experimental evidence that characteristics of soil pores and their air/water flow status determine the phylogenetic composition of the local microbial community and directions and magnitudes of soil C decomposition processes.« less

  7. Hydrothermal decomposition of liquid crystal in subcritical water.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xuning; He, Wenzhi; Li, Guangming; Huang, Juwen; Lu, Shangming; Hou, Lianjiao

    2014-04-30

    Treatment of liquid crystal has important significance for the environment protection and human health. This study proposed a hydrothermal process to decompose the liquid crystal of 4-octoxy-4'-cyanobiphenyl. Experiments were conducted with a 5.7 mL stainless tube reactor and heated by a salt-bath. Factors affecting the decomposition rate of 4-octoxy-4'-cyanobiphenyl were evaluated with HPLC. The decomposed liquid products were characterized by GC-MS. Under optimized conditions i.e., 0.2 mL H2O2 supply, pH value 6, temperature 275°C and reaction time 5 min, 97.6% of 4-octoxy-4'-cyanobiphenyl was decomposed into simple and environment-friendly products. Based on the mechanism analysis and products characterization, a possible hydrothermal decomposition pathway was proposed. The results indicate that hydrothermal technology is a promising choice for liquid crystal treatment. PMID:24632487

  8. Water filtration using plant xylem.

    PubMed

    Boutilier, Michael S H; Lee, Jongho; Chambers, Valerie; Venkatesh, Varsha; Karnik, Rohit

    2014-01-01

    Effective point-of-use devices for providing safe drinking water are urgently needed to reduce the global burden of waterborne disease. Here we show that plant xylem from the sapwood of coniferous trees--a readily available, inexpensive, biodegradable, and disposable material--can remove bacteria from water by simple pressure-driven filtration. Approximately 3 cm(3) of sapwood can filter water at the rate of several liters per day, sufficient to meet the clean drinking water needs of one person. The results demonstrate the potential of plant xylem to address the need for pathogen-free drinking water in developing countries and resource-limited settings. PMID:24587134

  9. Water Filtration Using Plant Xylem

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Valerie; Venkatesh, Varsha; Karnik, Rohit

    2014-01-01

    Effective point-of-use devices for providing safe drinking water are urgently needed to reduce the global burden of waterborne disease. Here we show that plant xylem from the sapwood of coniferous trees – a readily available, inexpensive, biodegradable, and disposable material – can remove bacteria from water by simple pressure-driven filtration. Approximately 3 cm3 of sapwood can filter water at the rate of several liters per day, sufficient to meet the clean drinking water needs of one person. The results demonstrate the potential of plant xylem to address the need for pathogen-free drinking water in developing countries and resource-limited settings. PMID:24587134

  10. [Litter decomposition of dominant plant species in successional stages in mid-subtropical zone].

    PubMed

    Song, Xin-zhang; Ma, Jiang Hong; Yu, Shu-quan; Ma, Yuan-dan; Zhou, Guo-mo; Dou, Rong-peng; Guo, Pei-pei

    2009-03-01

    The litters of seven tree species representing the dominant plant species in three main successional stages in subtropical China, i.e., Pinus massoniana in early successional forests, Schima superba and Cinnamanun camphora in transitional forests, and Castanopsis eyeri, Cyclobalanopsis gracilis, Cyclobalanopsis glauca, and Michelia chapensis in late successional forests, were collected, and their decomposition rates were measured with litterbags. The results showed that M. chapensls and C. gracilis had the highest litter decomposition rate (k = 1.12 and 0.89, respectively), followed by C. camphora and S. superba (k = 0.61 and 0.55, respectively), and P. massoniana (k = 0.51), indicating that there was a trend of litter decomposition rate being increased with succession stage. Litter decomposition rate had significant correlations with the litter' s initial P, N, and lignin contents, lignin/N ratio (P < 0.01), and C/N ratio (P < 0.05), suggesting that the initial P, N, and lignin contents and lignin/N ratio of leaf litter could be the good indictors of litter decomposition rate. PMID:19637588

  11. Isotopic ((13)C) fractionation during plant residue decomposition and its implications for soil organic matter studies.

    PubMed

    Schweizer; Fear; Cadisch

    1999-07-01

    Carbon isotopic fractionations in plant materials and those occurring during decomposition have direct implications in studies of short-and longer-term soil organic matter dynamics. Thus the products of decomposition, the evolved CO(2) and the newly formed soil organic matter, may vary in their (13)C signature from that of the original plant material. To evaluate the importance of such fractionation processes, the variations in (13)C signatures between and within plant parts of a tropical grass (Brachiaria humidicola) and tropical legume (Desmodium ovalifolium) were measured and the changes in (13)C content (signatures) during decomposition were monitored over a period of four months. As expected the grass materials were less depleted in (13)C (-11.4 to -11.9 per thousand) than those of the legume (-27.3 to -25.8 per thousand). Root materials of the legume were less (1.5 per thousand) depleted in (13)C compared with the leaves. Plant lignin-C was strongly depleted in (13)C compared with the bulk material by up to 2.5 per thousand in the legume and up to 4.7 per thousand in the grass. Plant materials were subsequently incubated in a sand/nutrient-solution/microbial inoculum mixture. The respiration product CO(2) was trapped in NaOH and precipitated as CaCO(3), suitable for analysis using an automated C/N analyser coupled to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Significant depletion in (13)C of the evolved CO(2) was observed during the initial stages of decomposition probably as a result of microbial fractionation as it was not associated with the (13)C signatures of the measured more decomposable fractions (non-acid detergent fibre and cellulose). While the cumulative CO(2)-(13)C signatures of legume materials became slightly enriched with ongoing decomposition, the CO(2)-C of the grass materials remained depleted in (13)C. Associated isotopic fractionation correction factors for source identification of CO(2-)C varied with time and suggested errors of 2-19% in the estimation of the plant-derived C at 119 days of incubation in a soil of an intermediate (-20.0 per thousand) (13)C signature. Analysis of the residual material after 119 days of incubation showed little or no change in the (13)C signature partly due to the incomplete decomposition at the time of harvesting. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:10407311

  12. Connecting plant-microbial interactions above and belowground: a fungal endophyte affects decomposition.

    PubMed

    Lemons, Alisha; Clay, Keith; Rudgers, Jennifer A

    2005-10-01

    Mutualisms can strongly affect the structure of communities, but their influence on ecosystem processes is not well resolved. Here we show that a plant-microbial mutualism affects the rate of leaf litter decomposition using the widespread interaction between tall fescue grass (Lolium arundinaceum) and the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum. In grasses, fungal endophytes live symbiotically in the aboveground tissues, where the fungi gain protection and nutrients from their host and often protect host plants from biotic and abiotic stress. In a field experiment, decomposition rate depended on a complex interaction between the litter source (collected from endophyte-infected or endophyte-free plots), the decomposition microenvironment (endophyte-infected or endophyte-free plots), and the presence of mesoinvertebrates (manipulated by the mesh size of litter bags). Over all treatments, decomposition was slower for endophyte-infected fescue litter than for endophyte-free litter. When mesoinvertebrates were excluded using fine mesh and litter was placed in a microenvironment with the endophyte, the difference between endophyte-infected and endophyte-free litter was strongest. In the presence of mesoinvertebrates, endophyte-infected litter decomposed faster in microenvironments with the endophyte than in microenvironments lacking the endophyte, suggesting that plots differ in the detritivore assemblage. Indeed, the presence of the endophyte in plots shifted the composition of Collembola, with more Hypogastruridae in the presence of the endophyte and more Isotomidae in endophyte-free plots. In a separate outdoor pot experiment, we did not find strong effects of the litter source or the soil microbial/microinvertebrate community on decomposition, which may reflect differences between pot and field conditions or other differences in methodology. Our work is among the first to demonstrate an effect of plant-endophyte mutualisms on ecosystem processes under field conditions. PMID:16001218

  13. Temperature and plant species control over litter decomposition in Alaskan tundra

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbie, S.E.

    1996-11-01

    This study compared effects of increased temperature and litter from different Alaskan tundra plant species on cycling of carbon and nitrogen through litter and soil in microcosms. Warming between 4{degrees} and 10{degrees}C significantly increased rates of soil and litter respiration, litter decomposition, litter nitrogen release, and soil net nitrogen mineralization. Thus, future warming will directly increase rates of carbon and nitrogen cycling through litter and soil in tundra. In addition, differences among species` litter in rates of decomposition, N release, and effects on soil net nitrogen mineralization were sometimes larger than differences between the two temperature treatments within a species. Thus, changes in plant community structure and composition associated with future warming will have important consequences for how elements cycle through litter and soil in tundra. In general, species within a growth form (graminoids, evergreen shrubs, deciduous shrubs, and mosses) were more similar in their effects on decomposition than were species belonging to different growth forms, with gramminoid litter having the fastest rate and litter of deciduous shrubs and mosses having the slowest rates. Differences in rates of litter decomposition were more related to carbon quality than to nitrogen concentration. Increased abundance of deciduous shrubs with future climate warming will promote carbon storage, because of their relatively large allocation to woody stems that decompose slowly. Changes in moss abundance will also have important consequences for future carbon and nitrogen cycling, since moss litter is extremely recalcitrant and has a low potential to immobilize nitrogen. 82 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Differential contribution of soil biota groups to plant litter decomposition as mediated by soil use

    PubMed Central

    Falco, Liliana B.; Sandler, Rosana V.; Coviella, Carlos E.

    2015-01-01

    Plant decomposition is dependant on the activity of the soil biota and its interactions with climate, soil properties, and plant residue inputs. This work assessed the roles of different groups of the soil biota on litter decomposition, and the way they are modulated by soil use. Litterbags of different mesh sizes for the selective exclusion of soil fauna by size (macro, meso, and microfauna) were filled with standardized dried leaves and placed on the same soil under different use intensities: naturalized grasslands, recent agriculture, and intensive agriculture fields. During five months, litterbags of each mesh size were collected once a month per system with five replicates. The remaining mass was measured and decomposition rates calculated. Differences were found for the different biota groups, and they were dependant on soil use. Within systems, the results show that in the naturalized grasslands, the macrofauna had the highest contribution to decomposition. In the recent agricultural system it was the combined activity of the macro- and mesofauna, and in the intensive agricultural use it was the mesofauna activity. These results underscore the relative importance and activity of the different groups of the edaphic biota and the effects of different soil uses on soil biota activity. PMID:25780777

  15. Differential contribution of soil biota groups to plant litter decomposition as mediated by soil use.

    PubMed

    Castro-Huerta, Ricardo A; Falco, Liliana B; Sandler, Rosana V; Coviella, Carlos E

    2015-01-01

    Plant decomposition is dependant on the activity of the soil biota and its interactions with climate, soil properties, and plant residue inputs. This work assessed the roles of different groups of the soil biota on litter decomposition, and the way they are modulated by soil use. Litterbags of different mesh sizes for the selective exclusion of soil fauna by size (macro, meso, and microfauna) were filled with standardized dried leaves and placed on the same soil under different use intensities: naturalized grasslands, recent agriculture, and intensive agriculture fields. During five months, litterbags of each mesh size were collected once a month per system with five replicates. The remaining mass was measured and decomposition rates calculated. Differences were found for the different biota groups, and they were dependant on soil use. Within systems, the results show that in the naturalized grasslands, the macrofauna had the highest contribution to decomposition. In the recent agricultural system it was the combined activity of the macro- and mesofauna, and in the intensive agricultural use it was the mesofauna activity. These results underscore the relative importance and activity of the different groups of the edaphic biota and the effects of different soil uses on soil biota activity. PMID:25780777

  16. Glucose and fructose decomposition in subcritical and supercritical water: Detailed reaction pathway, mechanisms, and kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Kabyemela, B.M.; Adschiri, T.; Malaluan, R.M.; Arai, K.

    1999-08-01

    The authors are developing a new catalyst-free process of cellulose decomposition in supercritical water. In their initial study on the cellulose decomposition in supercritical water, the main products of cellulose decomposition were found to be oligomers of glucose (cellobiose, cellotriose, etc.) and glucose at short residence times (400 C, 25 MPa, 0.05 s). The kinetics of glucose at these conditions can be useful in understanding the reaction pathways of cellulose. Experiments were performed on the products of glucose decomposition at short residence times to elucidate the reaction pathways and evaluate kinetics of glucose and fructose decomposition in sub- and supercritical water. The conditions were a temperature of 300--400 C and pressure of 25--40 MPa for extremely short residence times between 0.02 and 2 s. The products of glucose decomposition were fructose, a product of isomerization, 1,6-anhydroglucose, a product of dehydration, and erythrose and glyceraldehyde, products of C-C bond cleavage. Fructose underwent reactions similar to glucose except that it did not form 1,6-anhydroglucose and isomerization to glucose is negligible. The mechanism for the products formed from C-C bond cleavage could be explained by reverse aldol condensation and the double-bond rule of the respective enediols formed during the Lobry de Bruyn Alberda van Ekenstein transformation. The differential equations resulting from the proposed pathways were fit to experimental results to obtain the kinetic rate constants.

  17. Rhizosphere impacts on peat decomposition and nutrient cycling across a natural water table gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, A. L.; Finzi, A.

    2014-12-01

    High latitude forest and peatland soils represent a major terrestrial carbon store sensitive to climate change. Warming temperatures and increased growing-season evapotranspiration are projected to reduce water table (WT) height in continental peatlands. WT reduction increases peat aerobicity and facilitates vascular plant and root growth. Root-associated microbial communities are exposed to a different physical and chemical environment than microbial communities in non-root associated "bulk" peat, and therefore have distinct composition and function within the soil system. As the size of the peatland rhizosphere impacts resources available to the microbial communities, transitions from a root-free high water table peatland to a root-dominated low WT peatland may alter seasonal patterns of microbial community dynamics, enzyme production, and carbon storage within the system. We used a natural water table gradient in Caribou Bog near Orono, ME to explore the influence of species composition, root biomass, and rhizosphere size on seasonal patterns in microbial community structure, enzyme production, and carbon mineralization. We quantified root biomass across the water table gradient and measured microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, C mineralization, N mineralization, and exoenzyme activity in root-associated and bulk peat samples throughout the 2013 growing season. Microbial biomass was consistently higher in rhizosphere-associated soils and peaked in the spring. Microbial biomass CN and enzyme activity was higher in rhizosphere-associated soil, likely due to increased mycorrhizal abundance. Exoenzyme activity peaked in the fall, with a larger relative increase in enzyme activity in rhizosphere peat, while carbon mineralization rates did not demonstrate a strong seasonal pattern. The results suggest that rhizosphere-associated peat sustains higher and more variable rates of enzyme activity throughout the growing season, which results in higher rates of carbon mineralization driven by increased microbial biomass. Increases in vascular plant abundance and root biomass may therefore increase overall rates of carbon mineralization and peat decomposition within peatland systems and influence the nature of the peatland carbon store.

  18. Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

  19. Waste Water Plant Operators Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Coordinating Council for Occupational Education, Olympia.

    This manual for sewage treatment plant operators was prepared by a committee of operators, educators, and engineers for use as a reference text and handbook and to serve as a training manual for short course and certification programs. Sewage treatment plant operators have a responsibility in water quality control; they are the principal actors in…

  20. Plant transpiration distillation of water

    SciTech Connect

    Virostko, M.K.; Spielberg, J.I.

    1986-01-01

    A project using solar energy and the transpiration of plants for the distillation of water is described. Along with determining which of three plants thrived best growing in a still, the experiment also revealed that the still functioned nearly as well in inclement weather as in fair weather.

  1. Structural changes of plant residues during decomposition in a compost environment.

    PubMed

    Dresbll, Dorte Bodin; Magid, Jakob

    2006-05-01

    The degradation of plant material during composting was investigated qualitatively by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quantitatively by chemical methods. Decomposition of Miscanthus (Miscanthus oogiformis L.), hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw was observed by placing litterbags containing these materials in compost piles. Hemp and Miscanthus straw were more stable than wheat straw, but the two materials differed in the way they were degraded despite similar chemical compositions. Hemp straw was broken down in more flexible structures compared to the rigid breakdown of Miscanthus straw. It was concluded that the anatomical arrangement of the tissue is just as important as the content of recalcitrant compounds in determining decomposition rate. Thus, when using composted plant materials as growing medium, the choice of material must depend not only on nutritional quality but also on structural quality. This study indicated that hemp material might be a good structural component in a compost to be used as a growing medium. PMID:15990291

  2. Photogeneration of active formate decomposition catalysts to produce hydrogen from formate and water

    DOEpatents

    King, Jr., Allen D. (Athens, GA); King, Robert B. (Athens, GA); Sailers, III, Earl L. (Athens, GA)

    1983-02-08

    A process for producing hydrogen from formate and water by photogenerating an active formate decomposition catalyst from transition metal carbonyl precursor catalysts at relatively low temperatures and otherwise mild conditions is disclosed. Additionally, this process may be expanded to include the generation of formate from carbon monoxide and hydroxide such that the result is the water gas shift reaction.

  3. Succession of bacterial populations during plant residue decomposition in rice field soil.

    PubMed

    Rui, Junpeng; Peng, Jingjing; Lu, Yahai

    2009-07-01

    The incorporation of rice residues into paddy fields strongly enhances methane production and emissions. Although the decomposition processes of plant residues in rice field soil has been documented, the structure and dynamics of the microbial communities involved are poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to determine the dynamics of short-chain fatty acids and the structure of bacterial communities during residue decomposition in a rice field soil. The soil was anaerobically incubated with the incorporation of rice root or straw residues for 90 days at three temperatures (15, 30, and 45 degrees C). The dynamics of fatty acid intermediates showed an initial cumulative phase followed by a rapid consumption phase and a low-concentration quasi-steady state. Correspondingly, the bacterial populations displayed distinct successions during residue decomposition. Temperature showed a strong effect on the dynamics of bacterial populations. Members of Clostridium (clusters I and III) were most dominant in the incubations, particularly in the early successions. Bacteroidetes and Chlorobi were abundant in the later successions at 15 and 30 degrees C, while Acidobacteria were selected at 45 degrees C. We suggest that the early successional groups are responsible for the decomposition of the easily degradable fraction of residues, while the late successional groups become more important in decomposing the less-degradable or resistant fraction of plant residues. The bacterial succession probably is related to resource availability during residue decomposition. The fast-growing organisms are favored at the beginning, while the slow-growing bacteria are better adapted in the later stages, when substrate availability is limiting. PMID:19465536

  4. Hydroxide decomposition of dimethylsulfoniopropionate to form dimethylsulfide. [in sea water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacey, John W. H.; Blough, Neil V.

    1987-01-01

    The kinetics of DMS production resulting from reaction of OH(-) with DMSP were investigated as a function of hydroxide concentration and temperature. The reaction was first-order with respect to DMSP and OH(-). The second order rate constant at 20+/-1 C is 0.0044/M/sec. The activation energy for this reaction is 14.4 kcal/mode. The investigation indicates that the rate of reaction of DMSP with OH(-) is very slow at the pH of seawater, suggesting that DMSP, which may be a major precursor of DMS in seawater, decomposes in the ocean by other mechanisms. A bacterium which produces DMS from DMSP quantitatively at rates many orders of magnitude higher than indicated by OH(-1) decomposition has been cultured, suggesting that enzymatic processes accelerate the production of DMS from DMSP in seawater.

  5. Water quality time series for Big Melen stream (Turkey): its decomposition analysis and comparison to upstream.

    PubMed

    Karakaya, N; Evrendilek, F

    2010-06-01

    Big Melen stream is one of the major water resources providing 0.268 [corrected] km(3) year(-1) of drinking and municipal water for Istanbul. Monthly time series data between 1991 and 2004 for 25 chemical, biological, and physical water properties of Big Melen stream were separated into linear trend, seasonality, and error components using additive decomposition models. Water quality index (WQI) derived from 17 water quality variables were used to compare Aksu upstream and Big Melen downstream water quality. Twenty-six additive decomposition models of water quality time series data including WQI had R (2) values ranging from 88% for log(water temperature) (P < or = 0.001) to 3% for log(total dissolved solids) (P < or = 0.026). Linear trend models revealed that total hardness, calcium concentration, and log(nitrite concentration) had the highest rate of increase over time. Tukey's multiple comparison pointed to significant decreases in 17 water quality variables including WQI of Big Melen downstream relative to those of Aksu upstream (P < or = 0.001). Monitoring changes in water quality on the basis of watersheds through WQI and decomposition analysis of time series data paves the way for an adaptive management process of water resources that can be tailored in response to effectiveness and dynamics of management practices. PMID:19444637

  6. Carbon isotopic fractionation during decomposition of plant materials of different quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, I.; Mahieu, N.; Cadisch, G.

    2003-09-01

    Changes in isotopic 13C composition of solid residues and CO2 evolved during decomposition of C3 and C4 plant materials were monitored over 10 months to determine carbon isotopic fractionation at successive stages of biodegradation. We selected plant materials of different chemical quality, e.g., Zea mays (leaves, stems, coarse roots, and fine roots), Lolium perenne (leaves and roots), Pinus pinaster (needles), and Cocos nucifera (coconut shell) and also characterized these by solid-state 13C NMR. Roots were more lignified than aerial parts of the same species. Lignin was always depleted in 13C (up to 5.2) as compared with cellulose from the same sample. Proteins were enriched in 13C in C3 plants but depleted in maize. Cumulative CO2 evolved fitted a double-exponential model with two C pools of different lability. During early stages of decomposition, the CO2-C released was usually 13C depleted as compared with the initial substrate but enriched at posterior stages. Consequently, with ongoing decomposition, the solid residue became 13C depleted, which could only partly be explained by an accumulation of lignin-C. The extension of the initial 13C depleted CO2-C phase was significantly correlated with the labile substrate C content, acid-detergent soluble fraction, and total N, pointing to a direct influence of plant quality on C isotopic dynamics during early stages of biodegradation. This isotopic fractionation can also lead to an underestimation of the contribution of plant residues to CO2-C when incubated in soils. We discuss possible implications of these mechanisms of 13C fractionation in ecosystems.

  7. Kinetics of glucose epimerization and decomposition in subcritical and supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Kabyemela, B.M.; Adschiri, Tadafumi; Malaluan, R.M.; Arai, Kunio

    1997-05-01

    Glucose decomposition kinetics in subcritical and supercritical water were studied for the temperatures 573, 623, and 673 K, pressures between 25 and 40 MPa, and residence times between 0.02 and 2 s. Glucose decomposition products were fructose, saccharinic acids, erythrose, glyceraldehyde, 1,6-anhydroglucose, dihydroxyacetone, pyruvaldehyde, and small amounts of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. Fructose was also studied and found to decompose to products similar to those of glucose, except that its epimerization to glucose was negligibly low and no formation of 1,6-anhydroglucose was detected. The authors concluded that only the forward epimerization of glucose to fructose was important. The glucose decomposition pathway could be described in terms of a forward epimerization rate, r{sub gf}, a fructose to decomposition products rate, r{sub f}, and a glucose to decomposition products rate, r{sub g}. A kinetic model based on this pathway gave good correlation of the experimental data. In the subcritical region, r{sub g}, r{sub f}, and r{sub gf} showed only small changes with pressure at a given temperature. In the supercritical region, the rate of glucose decomposition decreased with pressure at a given temperature. The reason for this decrease was mainly due to the decrease in r{sub gf}. The pressure effect in the supercritical region shows that there is a shift among the kinetic rates, which can lead to higher selectivity for glucose when decomposing cellulosic materials.

  8. Thermochemical processes for hydrogen production by water decomposition. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Perlmutter, D.D.

    1980-08-01

    The principal contributions of the research are in the area of gas-solid reactions, ranging from models and data interpretation for fundamental kinetics and mixing of solids to simulations of engineering scale reactors. Models were derived for simulating the heat and mass transfer processes inside the reactor and tested by experiments. The effects of surface renewal of solids on the mass transfer phenomena were studied and related to the solid mixing. Catalysis by selected additives were studied experimentally. The separate results were combined in a simulation study of industrial-scale rotary reactor performance. A study was made of the controlled decompositions of a series of inorganic sulfates and their common hydrates, carried out in a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA), a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), and a Differential Thermal Analyzer (DTA). Various sample sizes, heating rates, and ambient atmospheres were used to demonstrate their influence on the results. The purposes of this study were to: (i) reveal intermediate compounds, (ii) determine the stable temperature range of each compound, and (iii) measure reaction kinetics. In addition, several solid additives: carbon, metal oxides, and sodium chloride, were demonstrated to have catalytic effects to varying degrees for the different salts.

  9. Thermochemical water decomposition. [hydrogen separation for energy applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    At present, nearly all of the hydrogen consumed in the world is produced by reacting hydrocarbons with water. As the supply of hydrocarbons diminishes, the problem of producing hydrogen from water alone will become increasingly important. Furthermore, producing hydrogen from water is a means of energy conversion by which thermal energy from a primary source, such as solar or nuclear fusion of fission, can be changed into an easily transportable and ecologically acceptable fuel. The attraction of thermochemical processes is that they offer the potential for converting thermal energy to hydrogen more efficiently than by water electrolysis. A thermochemical hydrogen-production process is one which requires only water as material input and mainly thermal energy, or heat, as an energy input. Attention is given to a definition of process thermal efficiency, the thermodynamics of the overall process, the single-stage process, the two-stage process, multistage processes, the work of separation and a process evaluation.

  10. Effects of electron acceptors on soluble reactive phosphorus in the overlying water during algal decomposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinzhi; Jiang, Xia; Zheng, Binghui; Niu, Yuan; Wang, Kun; Wang, Wenwen; Kardol, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Endogenous phosphorus (P) release from sediments is an important factor to cause eutrophication and, hence, algal bloom in lakes in China. Algal decomposition depletes dissolved oxygen (DO) and causes anaerobic conditions and therefore increases P release from sediments. As sediment P release is dependent on the iron (Fe) cycle, electron acceptors (e.g., NO3 (-), SO4 (2-), and Mn(4+)) can be utilized to suppress the reduction of Fe(3+) under anaerobic conditions and, as such, have the potential to impair the release of sediment P. Here, we used a laboratory experiment to test the effects of FeCl3, MnO2, and KNO3 on soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentration and related chemical variables in the overlying water column during algal decomposition at different algal densities. Results showed that algal decomposition significantly depleted DO and thereby increased sediment Fe-bound P release. Compared with the control, addition of FeCl3 significantly decreased water SRP concentration through inhibiting sediment P release. Compared with FeCl3, addition of MnO2 has less potential to suppress sediment P release during algal decomposition. Algal decomposition has the potential for NO3 (-) removal from aquatic ecosystem through denitrification and by that alleviates the suppressing role of NO3 (-) on sediment P release. Our results indicated that FeCl3 and MnO2 could be efficient in reducing sediment P release during algal decomposition, with the strongest effect found for FeCl3; large amounts of NO3 (-) were removed from the aquatic ecosystem through denitrification during algal decomposition. Moreover, the amounts of NO3 (-) removal increased with increasing algal density. PMID:26263882

  11. Reconciling Phylogeny and Function During Plant Litter Decomposition by High-Throughput Functional Metagenomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyyssonen, M.; Weihe, C.; Goulden, M.; Treseder, K. K.; Martiny, J.; Martiny, A.; Allison, S. D.; Brodie, E. L.

    2012-12-01

    Integrating information on microbial diversity and functionality with ecosystem processes may be critical to predicting how ecosystems respond to environmental change. While theoretical models can be used to link microbial processes to environmental responses and rates, accurate predictions of ecosystem functioning would benefit from detailed information on microbial community composition and function. In this study, our aim was to identify functional traits involved in plant litter decomposition, a model process for carbon cycling, from decomposing plant litter. The overall goal is then to link these traits with individual microbial taxa and use this information to build predictive trait-based models of ecosystem responses to global change. In order to identify activities involved in plant litter decomposition we used automated high-throughput assays for functional screening of metagenomic fosmid libraries prepared from decomposing plant litter. Litter was collected over 15 month period from a global change field experiment undergoing rainfall and nitrogen manipulations. We identified over 600 cellulose, hemicellulose, chitin and starch hydrolyzing clones following screening of over 300,000 clones. The frequency of positive clones was ten times lower during dry season but no significant differences in hit rates were observed between different treatments. The positive clones were shotgun sequenced on the Illumina sequencing platform and the identified hydrolytic genes were shown to represent variety bacterial taxonomic groups including Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes.

  12. Plant Species Rather Than Climate Greatly Alters the Temporal Pattern of Litter Chemical Composition During Long-Term Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongfu; Chen, Na; Harmon, Mark E.; Li, Yuan; Cao, Xiaoyan; Chappell, Mark A.; Mao, Jingdong

    2015-10-01

    A feedback between decomposition and litter chemical composition occurs with decomposition altering composition that in turn influences the decomposition rate. Elucidating the temporal pattern of chemical composition is vital to understand this feedback, but the effects of plant species and climate on chemical changes remain poorly understood, especially over multiple years. In a 10-year decomposition experiment with litter of four species (Acer saccharum, Drypetes glauca, Pinus resinosa, and Thuja plicata) from four sites that range from the arctic to tropics, we determined the abundance of 11 litter chemical constituents that were grouped into waxes, carbohydrates, lignin/tannins, and proteins/peptides using advanced 13C solid-state NMR techniques. Decomposition generally led to an enrichment of waxes and a depletion of carbohydrates, whereas the changes of other chemical constituents were inconsistent. Inconsistent convergence in chemical compositions during decomposition was observed among different litter species across a range of site conditions, whereas one litter species converged under different climate conditions. Our data clearly demonstrate that plant species rather than climate greatly alters the temporal pattern of litter chemical composition, suggesting the decomposition-chemistry feedback varies among different plant species.

  13. Plant Species Rather Than Climate Greatly Alters the Temporal Pattern of Litter Chemical Composition During Long-Term Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongfu; Chen, Na; Harmon, Mark E; Li, Yuan; Cao, Xiaoyan; Chappell, Mark A; Mao, Jingdong

    2015-01-01

    A feedback between decomposition and litter chemical composition occurs with decomposition altering composition that in turn influences the decomposition rate. Elucidating the temporal pattern of chemical composition is vital to understand this feedback, but the effects of plant species and climate on chemical changes remain poorly understood, especially over multiple years. In a 10-year decomposition experiment with litter of four species (Acer saccharum, Drypetes glauca, Pinus resinosa, and Thuja plicata) from four sites that range from the arctic to tropics, we determined the abundance of 11 litter chemical constituents that were grouped into waxes, carbohydrates, lignin/tannins, and proteins/peptides using advanced (13)C solid-state NMR techniques. Decomposition generally led to an enrichment of waxes and a depletion of carbohydrates, whereas the changes of other chemical constituents were inconsistent. Inconsistent convergence in chemical compositions during decomposition was observed among different litter species across a range of site conditions, whereas one litter species converged under different climate conditions. Our data clearly demonstrate that plant species rather than climate greatly alters the temporal pattern of litter chemical composition, suggesting the decomposition-chemistry feedback varies among different plant species. PMID:26515033

  14. Plant Species Rather Than Climate Greatly Alters the Temporal Pattern of Litter Chemical Composition During Long-Term Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongfu; Chen, Na; Harmon, Mark E.; Li, Yuan; Cao, Xiaoyan; Chappell, Mark A.; Mao, Jingdong

    2015-01-01

    A feedback between decomposition and litter chemical composition occurs with decomposition altering composition that in turn influences the decomposition rate. Elucidating the temporal pattern of chemical composition is vital to understand this feedback, but the effects of plant species and climate on chemical changes remain poorly understood, especially over multiple years. In a 10-year decomposition experiment with litter of four species (Acer saccharum, Drypetes glauca, Pinus resinosa, and Thuja plicata) from four sites that range from the arctic to tropics, we determined the abundance of 11 litter chemical constituents that were grouped into waxes, carbohydrates, lignin/tannins, and proteins/peptides using advanced 13C solid-state NMR techniques. Decomposition generally led to an enrichment of waxes and a depletion of carbohydrates, whereas the changes of other chemical constituents were inconsistent. Inconsistent convergence in chemical compositions during decomposition was observed among different litter species across a range of site conditions, whereas one litter species converged under different climate conditions. Our data clearly demonstrate that plant species rather than climate greatly alters the temporal pattern of litter chemical composition, suggesting the decomposition-chemistry feedback varies among different plant species. PMID:26515033

  15. Complementary symbiont contributions to plant decomposition in a fungus-farming termite

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai; Chen, Zhensheng; Otani, Saria; Nygaard, Sanne; Nobre, Tania; Klaubauf, Sylvia; Schindler, Philipp M.; Hauser, Frank; Pan, Hailin; Yang, Zhikai; Sonnenberg, Anton S. M.; de Beer, Z. Wilhelm; Zhang, Yong; Wingfield, Michael J.; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J. P.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Korb, Judith; Aanen, Duur K.; Wang, Jun; Boomsma, Jacobus J.; Zhang, Guojie

    2014-01-01

    Termites normally rely on gut symbionts to decompose organic matter but the Macrotermitinae domesticated Termitomyces fungi to produce their own food. This transition was accompanied by a shift in the composition of the gut microbiota, but the complementary roles of these bacteria in the symbiosis have remained enigmatic. We obtained high-quality annotated draft genomes of the termite Macrotermes natalensis, its Termitomyces symbiont, and gut metagenomes from workers, soldiers, and a queen. We show that members from 111 of the 128 known glycoside hydrolase families are represented in the symbiosis, that Termitomyces has the genomic capacity to handle complex carbohydrates, and that worker gut microbes primarily contribute enzymes for final digestion of oligosaccharides. This apparent division of labor is consistent with the Macrotermes gut microbes being most important during the second passage of comb material through the termite gut, after a first gut passage where the crude plant substrate is inoculated with Termitomyces asexual spores so that initial fungal growth and polysaccharide decomposition can proceed with high efficiency. Complex conversion of biomass in termite mounds thus appears to be mainly accomplished by complementary cooperation between a domesticated fungal monoculture and a specialized bacterial community. In sharp contrast, the gut microbiota of the queen had highly reduced plant decomposition potential, suggesting that mature reproductives digest fungal material provided by workers rather than plant substrate. PMID:25246537

  16. Complementary symbiont contributions to plant decomposition in a fungus-farming termite.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Michael; Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai; Chen, Zhensheng; Xu, Luohao; Otani, Saria; Nygaard, Sanne; Nobre, Tania; Klaubauf, Sylvia; Schindler, Philipp M; Hauser, Frank; Pan, Hailin; Yang, Zhikai; Sonnenberg, Anton S M; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Zhang, Yong; Wingfield, Michael J; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; de Vries, Ronald P; Korb, Judith; Aanen, Duur K; Wang, Jun; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Zhang, Guojie

    2014-10-01

    Termites normally rely on gut symbionts to decompose organic matter but the Macrotermitinae domesticated Termitomyces fungi to produce their own food. This transition was accompanied by a shift in the composition of the gut microbiota, but the complementary roles of these bacteria in the symbiosis have remained enigmatic. We obtained high-quality annotated draft genomes of the termite Macrotermes natalensis, its Termitomyces symbiont, and gut metagenomes from workers, soldiers, and a queen. We show that members from 111 of the 128 known glycoside hydrolase families are represented in the symbiosis, that Termitomyces has the genomic capacity to handle complex carbohydrates, and that worker gut microbes primarily contribute enzymes for final digestion of oligosaccharides. This apparent division of labor is consistent with the Macrotermes gut microbes being most important during the second passage of comb material through the termite gut, after a first gut passage where the crude plant substrate is inoculated with Termitomyces asexual spores so that initial fungal growth and polysaccharide decomposition can proceed with high efficiency. Complex conversion of biomass in termite mounds thus appears to be mainly accomplished by complementary cooperation between a domesticated fungal monoculture and a specialized bacterial community. In sharp contrast, the gut microbiota of the queen had highly reduced plant decomposition potential, suggesting that mature reproductives digest fungal material provided by workers rather than plant substrate. PMID:25246537

  17. Photocatalytic Decomposition of Water: Next Generation Fuel Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanks, Keegan

    2010-10-01

    Photocatalysis of hydrogen from water has been vastly concerned with using a Pt/Ru co-catalyst for the generation of hydrogen from water and molecular co-catalysts with hydrocarbon precursors. This process contains separate nucleation sites and proves to have a limited efficency. Molecular and nanoparticle co-catalysts have also been considered showing an improvement in the applicability of this water-splitting process to produce a clean and renewable fuel from a simple and green reaction process. Recent research has vastly improved the feasibility of the nanoparticle co-catalyst based process as a clean and reliable resource for fuel. I present herein a theoretical application of composite nanoparticles using transition metal semiconductors. I propose the composite nanostructures as the catalylst and the co-catalyst in one nanoparticle rather than an expensive Pt co-catalyst and molecular catalyst combo. With this approach, our goal is to develop a single beaker synthesis of these nanoparticles and place them in water under artificial sunlight in our newly developed laboratories here on campus to characterize the nanoparticles and analyze the efficency of hydrogen generation.

  18. Daily water level forecasting using wavelet decomposition and artificial intelligence techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Youngmin; Kim, Sungwon; Kisi, Ozgur; Singh, Vijay P.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable water level forecasting for reservoir inflow is essential for reservoir operation. The objective of this paper is to develop and apply two hybrid models for daily water level forecasting and investigate their accuracy. These two hybrid models are wavelet-based artificial neural network (WANN) and wavelet-based adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (WANFIS). Wavelet decomposition is employed to decompose an input time series into approximation and detail components. The decomposed time series are used as inputs to artificial neural networks (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for WANN and WANFIS models, respectively. Based on statistical performance indexes, the WANN and WANFIS models are found to produce better efficiency than the ANN and ANFIS models. WANFIS7-sym10 yields the best performance among all other models. It is found that wavelet decomposition improves the accuracy of ANN and ANFIS. This study evaluates the accuracy of the WANN and WANFIS models for different mother wavelets, including Daubechies, Symmlet and Coiflet wavelets. It is found that the model performance is dependent on input sets and mother wavelets, and the wavelet decomposition using mother wavelet, db10, can further improve the efficiency of ANN and ANFIS models. Results obtained from this study indicate that the conjunction of wavelet decomposition and artificial intelligence models can be a useful tool for accurate forecasting daily water level and can yield better efficiency than the conventional forecasting models.

  19. Decomposition of isoquinoline and quinoline by supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Ogunsola, O M

    2000-06-30

    The ability of supercritical water (SCW) to decompose heterocyclic compounds (quinoline and isoquinoline) has been explored in this study. The results obtained suggest that water acts as a chemical reagent above its critical point (374 degrees C and 22.1 MPa). Significant proportions of isoquinoline and quinoline were removed during the reaction with SCW. The response of these compounds to pyrolysis was also compared with their reaction with SCW. Both compounds were relatively more reactive in the presence of SCW than during pyrolysis. Because of the different positions of N atom in the two compounds, they reacted with SCW differently. Breaking of C-N bonds during SCW reaction was by hydrogenation and hydrocracking, while pyrolysis was due to thermocracking mainly. PMID:10794913

  20. The generation of hydrogen by the thermal decomposition of water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    Development of an approach to the evaluation of the thermal efficiency of the process of water splitting to produce hydrogen. A way of viewing thermochemical processes - both overall and step-by-step is suggested, and some recent work on a process evaluation technique is described which provides internal checks on the thermodynamic data and calculates, in addition to the efficiency, many important process parameters.

  1. Radiolytic decomposition of multi-class surfactants and their biotransformation products in sewage treatment plant effluents.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, M; Gehringer, P; Eschweiler, H; Barcel, D

    2007-01-01

    Electron beam irradiation (EBI), as one of the most efficient advanced oxidation processes, was applied to the treatment of sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent, with the objective of evaluating the effectiveness of radiolytic decomposition of multi-class surfactants. Target compounds, included several high-volume surfactant groups, such as alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEOs) and their biotransformation products, linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), alkyl sulfates (AS), alkylether sulfates (AES), coconut diethanol amides (CDEA), alcohol ethoxylates (AEO) and polyethylene glycols (PEGs). EBI treatment of STP effluent (total concentration of APEO-derived compounds 265mugl(-1), being APE(2)C the most abundant by-degradation products) resulted in efficient decomposition of all alkylphenolic compounds; elimination of 94% longer ethoxy chain nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEO, n(EO)=3-15) was obtained when 3kGy were applied. Slightly less efficient decomposition of short ethoxy chain oligomers (NPEO(1) and NPEO(2)) was observed, resulting in disappearance of about 80% of the initially present compounds. LC-MS analysis of treated wastewater suggested that the mechanism of EBI degradation of APEOs is a combination of two parallel pathways: a progressive shortening and oxidation of the ethoxy chain, which resulted in a formation of short ethoxy chain oligomers and APECs and central fission that resulted in formation of PEGs. Decomposition of APECs at 1kGy initially yielded APs, which were subsequently eliminated applying higher radiation doses. With a radiation dose of 2kGy about 95% of NPE(1)C and 97% of NPE(2)C were decomposed. Similar elimination rates were obtained for octylphenolic compounds. Radiolytic treatment applied was also very effective in removing PEGs formed as by-products from APEO degradation, as well as in decomposing other surfactants, such as linear LAS, AS and AES. PMID:16808959

  2. Carbon availability triggers the decomposition of plant litter and assimilation of nitrogen by an ectomycorrhizal fungus

    PubMed Central

    Rineau, F; Shah, F; Smits, M M; Persson, P; Johansson, T; Carleer, R; Troein, C; Tunlid, A

    2013-01-01

    The majority of nitrogen in forest soils is found in organic matter–protein complexes. Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) are thought to have a key role in decomposing and mobilizing nitrogen from such complexes. However, little is known about the mechanisms governing these processes, how they are regulated by the carbon in the host plant and the availability of more easily available forms of nitrogen sources. Here we used spectroscopic analyses and transcriptome profiling to examine how the presence or absence of glucose and/or ammonium regulates decomposition of litter material and nitrogen mobilization by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus. We found that the assimilation of nitrogen and the decomposition of the litter material are triggered by the addition of glucose. Glucose addition also resulted in upregulation of the expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in oxidative degradation of polysaccharides and polyphenols, peptidases, nitrogen transporters and enzymes in pathways of the nitrogen and carbon metabolism. In contrast, the addition of ammonium to organic matter had relatively minor effects on the expression of transcripts and the decomposition of litter material, occurring only when glucose was present. On the basis of spectroscopic analyses, three major types of chemical modifications of the litter material were observed, each correlated with the expression of specific sets of genes encoding extracellular enzymes. Our data suggest that the expression of the decomposition and nitrogen assimilation processes of EMF can be tightly regulated by the host carbon supply and that the availability of inorganic nitrogen as such has limited effects on saprotrophic activities. PMID:23788332

  3. Carbon availability triggers the decomposition of plant litter and assimilation of nitrogen by an ectomycorrhizal fungus.

    PubMed

    Rineau, F; Shah, F; Smits, M M; Persson, P; Johansson, T; Carleer, R; Troein, C; Tunlid, A

    2013-10-01

    The majority of nitrogen in forest soils is found in organic matter-protein complexes. Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) are thought to have a key role in decomposing and mobilizing nitrogen from such complexes. However, little is known about the mechanisms governing these processes, how they are regulated by the carbon in the host plant and the availability of more easily available forms of nitrogen sources. Here we used spectroscopic analyses and transcriptome profiling to examine how the presence or absence of glucose and/or ammonium regulates decomposition of litter material and nitrogen mobilization by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus. We found that the assimilation of nitrogen and the decomposition of the litter material are triggered by the addition of glucose. Glucose addition also resulted in upregulation of the expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in oxidative degradation of polysaccharides and polyphenols, peptidases, nitrogen transporters and enzymes in pathways of the nitrogen and carbon metabolism. In contrast, the addition of ammonium to organic matter had relatively minor effects on the expression of transcripts and the decomposition of litter material, occurring only when glucose was present. On the basis of spectroscopic analyses, three major types of chemical modifications of the litter material were observed, each correlated with the expression of specific sets of genes encoding extracellular enzymes. Our data suggest that the expression of the decomposition and nitrogen assimilation processes of EMF can be tightly regulated by the host carbon supply and that the availability of inorganic nitrogen as such has limited effects on saprotrophic activities. PMID:23788332

  4. Theoretical study of the decomposition of formamide in the presence of water molecules.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vinh Son; Orlando, Thomas M; Leszczynski, Jerzy; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2013-03-28

    Formamide (NH2CHO, FM) has been considered an active key precursor in prebiotic chemistry on early Earth. Under certain conditions such as dry lagoons, FM can decompose to produce reactants that lead to formation of more complex biomolecules. Specifically, FM decomposition follows many reactive channels producing small molecules such as H2, CO, H2O, HCN, HNC, NH3, and HNCO with comparable energy barriers in the range of 73-82 kcal/mol. Due to the likely presence of water on prebiotic Earth and the intrinsic presence of water following FM decomposition, we explore the effects of water oligomers, (H2O)n with n = 1-3, on its dehydration, dehydrogenation, and decarbonylation reactions using quantum chemical computations. Geometries are optimized using MP2/aug-cc-pVxZ calculations (x = D,T), and relative energies are evaluated using coupled-cluster theory CCSD(T) with the aug-cc-pVxZ basis sets (x = D, T, Q). Where possible the coupled-cluster energies are extrapolated to the complete basis set limit (CBS). Water classically acts as an efficient bifunctional catalyst for decomposition. With the presence of one water molecule, the dehydration pathway leading to HCN is favored. When two and three water molecules are involved, dehydration remains energetically favored over other channels and attains an energy barrier of ~30 kcal/mol. PMID:23461351

  5. Stage efficiency in the analysis of thermochemical water decomposition processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conger, W. L.; Funk, J. E.; Carty, R. H.; Soliman, M. A.; Cox, K. E.

    1976-01-01

    The procedure for analyzing thermochemical water-splitting processes using the figure of merit is expanded to include individual stage efficiencies and loss coefficients. The use of these quantities to establish the thermodynamic insufficiencies of each stage is shown. A number of processes are used to illustrate these concepts and procedures and to demonstrate the facility with which process steps contributing most to the cycle efficiency are found. The procedure allows attention to be directed to those steps of the process where the greatest increase in total cycle efficiency can be obtained.

  6. Method of generating hydrogen by catalytic decomposition of water

    DOEpatents

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Dorris, Stephen E. (LaGrange Park, IL); Bose, Arun C. (Pittsburgh, PA); Stiegel, Gary J. (Library, PA); Lee, Tae-Hyun (Naperville, IL)

    2002-01-01

    A method for producing hydrogen includes providing a feed stream comprising water; contacting at least one proton conducting membrane adapted to interact with the feed stream; splitting the water into hydrogen and oxygen at a predetermined temperature; and separating the hydrogen from the oxygen. Preferably the proton conducting membrane comprises a proton conductor and a second phase material. Preferable proton conductors suitable for use in a proton conducting membrane include a lanthanide element, a Group VIA element and a Group IA or Group IIA element such as barium, strontium, or combinations of these elements. More preferred proton conductors include yttrium. Preferable second phase materials include platinum, palladium, nickel, cobalt, chromium, manganese, vanadium, silver, gold, copper, rhodium, ruthenium, niobium, zirconium, tantalum, and combinations of these. More preferably second phase materials suitable for use in a proton conducting membrane include nickel, palladium, and combinations of these. The method for generating hydrogen is preferably preformed in the range between about 600.degree. C. and 1,700.degree. C.

  7. Decomposition dynamics and structural plant components of genetically modified Bt maize leaves do not differ from leaves of conventional hybrids.

    PubMed

    Zurbrügg, Corinne; Hönemann, Linda; Meissle, Michael; Romeis, Jörg; Nentwig, Wolfgang

    2010-04-01

    The cultivation of genetically modified Bt maize has raised environmental concerns, as large amounts of plant residues remain in the field and may negatively impact the soil ecosystem. In a field experiment, decomposition of leaf residues from three genetically modified (two expressing the Cry1Ab, one the Cry3Bb1 protein) and six non-transgenic hybrids (the three corresponding non-transformed near-isolines and three conventional hybrids) was investigated using litterbags. To elucidate the mechanisms that cause differences in plant decomposition, structural plant components (i.e., C:N ratio, lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose) were examined. Furthermore, Cry1Ab and Cry3Bb1 protein concentrations in maize leaf residues were measured from harvest to the next growing season. While leaf residue decomposition in transgenic and non-transgenic plants was similar, differences among conventional cultivars were evident. Similarly, plant components among conventional hybrids differed more than between transgenic and non-transgenic hybrids. Moreover, differences in senescent plant material collected directly from plants were larger than after exposure to soil for 5 months. While the concentration of Cry3Bb1 was higher in senescent maize leaves than that of Cry1Ab, degradation was faster, indicating that Cry3Bb1 has a shorter persistence in plant residues. As decomposition patterns of Bt-transgenic maize were shown to be well within the range of common conventional hybrids, there is no indication of ecologically relevant, adverse effects on the activity of the decomposer community. PMID:19609704

  8. PLANT WATER STATUS INFLUENCES OZONE SENSITIVITY OF BEAN PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were conducted in a controlled environment chamber to determine the association between plant water status and ozone sensitivity. Bean plants were subjected to various water stress regimes for 4 to 10 days using a semipermeable membrane system which controlled plant water...

  9. High Phosphate Concentrations Accelerate Bacterial Peptide Decomposition in Hypoxic Bottom Waters of the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhanfei; Liu, Shuting

    2016-01-19

    Despite extensive studies of the development and dynamics of hypoxia in coastal oceans, factors controlling the decomposition rates and pathways of labile organic matter (OM) in hypoxic waters are not well understood. Here we investigate peptide decomposition in a stratified water column in the hypoxic region of the northern Gulf of Mexico by conducting on-deck incubation experiments amended with tetrapeptide ala-val-phe-ala (AVFA), a fragment of RuBisCO. Our results show that decomposition efficiency of AVFA was limited by the availability of soluble reactive phosphorus (Pi) in the surface water (<0.3 μM), as it was greatly enhanced after Pi addition to the incubation water. In contrast, peptide decomposition rate in the subsurface water, enriched with Pi (0.4-1.2 μM), was twice as high as that in the surface water, concomitant with the development of fast-growing bacteria during the incubation. Consistent with the Growth Rate Hypothesis, these results indicate that a high level of Pi is crucial in stimulating the growth of bacterial strains with high RNA contents and thus faster OM decomposition in marine environments. This high decomposition potential of OM in subsurface hypoxic waters presents a positive feedback on hypoxia formation in Pi-enriched coastal subsurface waters, as a higher OM decomposition rate leads to rapid consumption of dissolved oxygen (DO). PMID:26650147

  10. (Plant growth with limited water)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The work supported by DOE in the last year built on our earlier findings that stem growth in soybean subjected to limited water is inhibited first by a physical limitation followed in a few hours by metabolic changes that reduce the extensibility of the cell walls. With time, there is modest recovery in extensibility and a 28kD protein accumulates in the walls of the growth-affected cells. A 31kD protein that was 80% similar in amino acid sequence also was present but did not accumulate in the walls of the stem cells. Explorations of the mRNA for these proteins showed that the mRNA for the 28kD protein increased in the shoot in response to water deprivation but the mRNA for the 31kD protein did not accumulate. In contrast, the roots continued to grow and the mRNA for the 31kD protein accumulated but the mRNA for the 28kD protein was undetectable. We also explored how growth occurs in the absence of an external water supply. We found that, under these conditions, internal water is mobilized from surrounding nongrowing or slowly growing tissues and is used by rapidly growing cells. We showed that a low water potential is normally present in the enlarging tissues and is the likely force that extracts water from the surrounding tissues. We found that it involved a gradient in water potential that extended from the xylem to the outlying cells in the enlarging region and was not observed in the slowly growing basal tissue of the stems of the same plant. The gradient was measured directly with single cell determinations of turgor and osmotic potential in intact plants. The gradient may explain instances of growth inhibition with limited water when there is no change in the turgor of the enlarging cells. 17 refs.

  11. Bacterial and fungal colonization and decomposition of submerged plant litter: consequences for biogenic silica dissolution.

    PubMed

    Alfredsson, Hanna; Clymans, Wim; Stadmark, Johanna; Conley, Daniel; Rousk, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    We studied bacterial and fungal colonization of submerged plant litter, using a known Si-accumulator (Equisetum arvense), in experimental microcosms during one month. We specifically addressed the microbial decomposer role concerning biogenic silica (bSiO2) dissolution from the degrading litter. To vary the rates and level of microbial colonization, the litter was combined with a range of mineral nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) supplements. Overall microbial growth on plant litter increased with higher levels of N and P. There was a tendency for higher relative bacterial than fungal stimulation with higher nutrient levels. Differences in microbial colonization of litter between treatments allowed us to test how Si remineralization from plants was influenced by microbial litter decomposition. Contrary to previous results and expectations, we observed a general reduction in Si release from plant litter colonized by a microbial community, compared with sterile control treatments. This suggested that microbial growth resulted in a reduction of dissolved Si concentrations, and we discuss candidate mechanisms to explain this outcome. Hence, our results imply that the microbial role in plant litter associated Si turnover is different from that commonly assumed based on bSiO2 dissolution studies in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26790464

  12. Bacterial and fungal colonization and decomposition of submerged plant litter: consequences for biogenic silica dissolution

    PubMed Central

    Alfredsson, Hanna; Clymans, Wim; Stadmark, Johanna; Conley, Daniel; Rousk, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    We studied bacterial and fungal colonization of submerged plant litter, using a known Si-accumulator (Equisetum arvense), in experimental microcosms during one month. We specifically addressed the microbial decomposer role concerning biogenic silica (bSiO2) dissolution from the degrading litter. To vary the rates and level of microbial colonization, the litter was combined with a range of mineral nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) supplements. Overall microbial growth on plant litter increased with higher levels of N and P. There was a tendency for higher relative bacterial than fungal stimulation with higher nutrient levels. Differences in microbial colonization of litter between treatments allowed us to test how Si remineralization from plants was influenced by microbial litter decomposition. Contrary to previous results and expectations, we observed a general reduction in Si release from plant litter colonized by a microbial community, compared with sterile control treatments. This suggested that microbial growth resulted in a reduction of dissolved Si concentrations, and we discuss candidate mechanisms to explain this outcome. Hence, our results imply that the microbial role in plant litter associated Si turnover is different from that commonly assumed based on bSiO2 dissolution studies in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26790464

  13. Decomposition of Phragmites australis rhizomes in artificial land-water transitional zones (ALWTZs) and management implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhen; Cui, Baoshan; Zhang, Yongtao

    2015-09-01

    Rhizomes are essential organs for growth and expansion of Phragmites australis. They function as an important source of organic matter and as a nutrient source, especially in the artificial land-water transitional zones (ALWTZs) of shallow lakes. In this study, decomposition experiments on 1- to 6-year-old P. australis rhizomes were conducted in the ALWTZ of Lake Baiyangdian to evaluate the contribution of the rhizomes to organic matter accumulation and nutrient release. Mass loss and changes in nutrient content were measured after 3, 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 days. The decomposition process was modeled with a composite exponential model. The Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationships between mass loss and litter quality factors. A multiple stepwise regression model was utilized to determine the dominant factors that affect mass loss. Results showed that the decomposition rates in water were significantly higher than those in soil for 1- to 6-year-old rhizomes. However, the sequence of decomposition rates was identical in both water and soil. Significant relationships between mass loss and litter quality factors were observed at a later stage, and P-related factors proved to have a more significant impact than N-related factors on mass loss. According to multiple stepwise models, the C/P ratio was found to be the dominant factor affecting the mass loss in water, and the C/N and C/P ratios were the main factors affecting the mass loss in soil. The combined effects of harvesting, ditch broadening, and control of water depth should be considered for lake administrators.

  14. Accelerating the degradation of green plant waste with chemical decomposition agents.

    PubMed

    Kejun, Sun; Juntao, Zhang; Ying, Chen; Zongwen, Liao; Lin, Ruan; Cong, Liu

    2011-10-01

    Degradation of green plant waste is often difficult, and excess maturity times are typically required. In this study, we used lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose assays; scanning electron microscopy; infrared spectrum analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis to investigate the effects of chemical decomposition agents on the lignocellulose content of green plant waste, its structure and major functional groups and the mechanism of accelerated degradation. Our results showed that adding chemical decomposition agents to Ficus microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust reduced the contents of lignin by 0.53%-11.48% and the contents of cellulose by 2.86%-7.71%, and increased the contents of hemicellulose by 2.92%-33.63% after 24 h. With increasing quantities of alkaline residue and sodium lignosulphonate, the lignin content decreased. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, after F. microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust was treated with chemical decomposition agents, lignocellulose tube wall thickness increased significantlyIncreases of 29.41%, 3.53% and 34.71% were observed after treatment with NaOH, alkaline residue and sodium lignosulphonate, respectively. Infrared spectroscopy showed that CO and aromatic skeleton stretching absorption peaks were weakened and the C-H vibrational absorption peak from out-of-plane in positions 2 and 6 (S units) (890-900 cm(-1)) was strengthened after F. microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust was treated with chemical decomposition agents, indicating a reduction in lignin content. Several absorption peaks [i.e., C-H deformations (asymmetry in methyl groups, -CH(3)- and -CH(2)-) (1450-1460 cm(-1)); Aliphatic C-H stretching in methyl and phenol OH (1370-1380 cm(-1)); CO stretching (cellulose and hemicellulose) (1040-1060 cm(-1))] that indicate the presence of a chemical bond between lignin and cellulose was reduced, indicating that the chemical bond between lignin and cellulose had been partially broken. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that NaOH, alkaline residue and sodium lignosulphonate can reduce the relative crystallinity of lignocellulose in F. microcarpa var. pusillifolia by 2.64%, 13.24%, 12.44%, respectively. The C-H vibrational absorption peak from out-of-plane in positions 2 and 6 (S units) comes from the vibration of the sugar anomeric carbon. Because lignin is a phenolic, not carbohydrate polymer, the relative absorption intensity of this peak should be stronger at lower lignin contents. Compared to CK, the peak intensities increased in treatments T1, T5 and T9, indicating reduced lignin contents and increased sugar contents after CDA treatment. PMID:21763065

  15. Plant inter-species effects on rhizosphere priming of soil organic matter decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pausch, Johanna; Zhu, Biao; Cheng, Weixin

    2015-04-01

    Living roots and their rhizodeposits can stimulate microbial activity and soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition up to several folds. This so-called rhizosphere priming effect (RPE) varies widely among plant species possibly due to species-specific differences in the quality and quantity of rhizodeposits and other root functions. However, whether the RPE is influenced by plant inter-species interactions remains largely unexplored, even though these interactions can fundamentally shape plant functions such as carbon allocation and nutrient uptake. In a 60-day greenhouse experiment, we continuously labeled monocultures and mixtures of sunflower, soybean and wheat with 13C-depleted CO2 and partitioned total CO2 efflux released from soil at two stages of plant development for SOM- and root-derived CO2. The RPE was calculated as the difference in SOM-derived CO2 between the planted and the unplanted soil, and was compared among the monocultures and mixtures. We found that the RPE was positive under all plants, ranging from 43% to 136% increase above the unplanted control. There were no significant differences in RPE at the vegetative stage. At the flowering stage however, the RPE in the soybean-wheat mixture was significantly higher than those in the sunflower monoculture, the sunflower-wheat mixture, and the sunflower-soybean mixture. These results indicated that the influence of plant inter-specific interactions on the RPE is case-specific and phenology-dependent. To evaluate the intensity of inter-specific effects on priming, we calculated an expected RPE for the mixtures based on the RPE of the monocultures weighted by their root biomass and compared it to the measured RPE under mixtures. At flowering, the measured RPE was significantly lower for the sunflower-wheat mixture than what can be expected from their monocultures, suggesting that RPE was significantly reduced by the inter-species effects of sunflower and wheat. In summary, our results clearly demonstrated that inter-species interactions can significantly modify rhizosphere priming on SOM decomposition.

  16. The Litter Decomposition and Leaching (LIDEL) model: modeling plant litter decomposition to CO2, dissolved organic matter and microbial products through nitrogen and lignin controls on microbial carbon use efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, E. E.; Parton, W. J.; Soong, J.; Cotrufo, M. F.; Paustian, K.

    2014-12-01

    Litter decomposition links terrestrial primary productivity to soil organic matter (OM) dynamics, by determining the quantity and chemical characteristics of plant-derived material entering the soil system. The controls on and products of litter decomposition form a foundation for the role of terrestrial ecosystems in global C cycling (i.e. as sinks or sources), by determining the contribution of plant productivity to atmospheric CO2 through respiration versus to soil OM as direct plant or biologically processed material. We identified two areas in need of theoretical development in litter decomposition models. First, current litter decomposition models are generally based on litter mass loss and CO2 flux, an approach which does not consider leaching and the generation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from litter decomposition. Second, new hypotheses for the role of variable microbial carbon use efficiency (CUE) have important implications for the form and quantity of litter decomposition products- specifically, respiration of CO2 versus the formation of microbes, microbial products, and DOM. We propose the Litter Decomposition and Leaching (LIDEL) model as a new theoretical approach to litter decomposition that 1) includes explicit modeling of DOM as a litter decomposition product, and 2) dynamically links substrate chemistry with variable CUE and the generation of DOM and other litter decomposition products. We parameterized the model using Bayesian calibration, based on a random-walk Metropolis Hastings within Gibbs Sampling Markov Chain-Monte Carlo algorithm. This Bayesian analysis uses litter decomposition and leaching experimental data for five litter types that vary by lignin and nitrogen content. By separating the dynamics of lignin versus microbial products as well as CO2 versus DOM partitioning during litter decomposition, the LIDEL model clarifies the linkage between litter chemistry, microbial CUE, and SOM inputs from litter. We suggest the LIDEL model can be implemented in ecosystem models such as DAYCENT, as a better representation of above and below ground litter decomposition.

  17. Species and tissue type regulate long-term decomposition of brackish marsh plants grown under elevated CO2 conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Joshua A.; Cherry, Julia A.; McKee, Karen L.

    2016-02-01

    Organic matter accumulation, the net effect of plant production and decomposition, contributes to vertical soil accretion in coastal wetlands, thereby playing a key role in whether they keep pace with sea-level rise. Any factor that affects decomposition may affect wetland accretion, including atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Higher CO2 can influence decomposition rates by altering plant tissue chemistry or by causing shifts in plant species composition or biomass partitioning. A combined greenhouse-field experiment examined how elevated CO2 affected plant tissue chemistry and subsequent decomposition of above- and belowground tissues of two common brackish marsh species, Schoenoplectus americanus (C3) and Spartina patens (C4). Both species were grown in monoculture and in mixture under ambient (350-385 μL L-1) or elevated (ambient + 300 μL L-1) atmospheric CO2 conditions, with all other growth conditions held constant, for one growing season. Above- and belowground tissues produced under these treatments were decomposed under ambient field conditions in a brackish marsh in the Mississippi River Delta, USA. Elevated CO2 significantly reduced nitrogen content of S. americanus, but not sufficiently to affect subsequent decomposition. Instead, long-term decomposition (percent mass remaining after 280 d) was controlled by species composition and tissue type. Shoots of S. patens had more mass remaining (41 ± 2%) than those of S. americanus (12 ± 2%). Belowground material decomposed more slowly than that placed aboveground (62 ± 1% vs. 23 ± 3% mass remaining), but rates belowground did not differ between species. Increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration will likely have a greater effect on overall decomposition in this brackish marsh community through shifts in species dominance or biomass allocation than through effects on tissue chemistry. Consequent changes in organic matter accumulation may alter marsh capacity to accommodate sea-level rise through vertical accretion.

  18. Plant water relations I: uptake and transport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants, like all living things, are mostly water. Water is the matrix of life, and its availability determines the distribution and productivity of plants on earth. Vascular plants evolved structures that enable them to transport water long distances with little input of energy, but the hollow trach...

  19. Quality assessment of plant transpiration water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macler, Bruce A.; Janik, Daniel S.; Benson, Brian L.

    1990-01-01

    It has been proposed to use plants as elements of biologically-based life support systems for long-term space missions. Three roles have been brought forth for plants in this application: recycling of water, regeneration of air and production of food. This report discusses recycling of water and presents data from investigations of plant transpiration water quality. Aqueous nutrient solution was applied to several plant species and transpired water collected. The findings indicated that this water typically contained 0.3-6 ppm of total organic carbon, which meets hygiene water standards for NASA's space applications. It suggests that this method could be developed to achieve potable water standards.

  20. Efficient decomposition of environmentally persistent perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals using zerovalent iron in subcritical water.

    PubMed

    Hori, Hisao; Nagaoka, Yumiko; Yamamoto, Ari; Sano, Taizo; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Kutsuna, Shuzo; Osaka, Issey; Arakawa, Ryuichi

    2006-02-01

    Decomposition of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and related chemicals in subcritical water was investigated. Although PFOS demonstrated little reactivity in pure subcritical water, addition of zerovalent metals to the reaction system enhanced the PFOS decomposition to form F-ions, with an increasing order of activity of no metal approximately equal Al < Cu < Zn < Fe. Use of iron led to the most efficient PFOS decomposition: When iron powder was added to an aqueous solution of PFOS (93-372 microM) and the mixture was heated at 350 degrees C for 6 h, PFOS concentration in the reaction solution fell below 2.2 microM (detection limit of HPLC with conductometric detection), with formation of F-ions with yields [i.e., (moles of F- formed)/(moles of fluorine content in initial PFOS) x 100] of 46.2-51.4% and without any formation of perfluorocarboxylic acids. A small amount of CHF3 was detected in the gas phase with a yield [i.e., (moles of CHF3)/(moles of carbon content in initial PFOS) x 100] of 0.7%, after the reaction of PFOS (372 microM) with iron at 350 degree C for 6 h. Spectroscopic measurements indicated that PFOS in water markedly adsorbed on the iron surface even at room temperature, and the adsorbed fluorinated species on the iron surface decomposed with rising temperature, with prominent release of F- ions to the solution phase above 250 degrees C. This method was also effective in decomposing other perfluoroalkylsulfonates bearing shorter chain (C2-C6) perfluoroalkyl groups and was successfully applied to the decomposition of PFOS contained in an antireflective coating agent used in semiconductor manufacturing. PMID:16509356

  1. Water Treatment Technology - General Plant Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on general plant operations provides instructional materials for seven competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: water supply regulations, water plant

  2. MINI PILOT PLANT FOR DRINKING WATER RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Supply & Water Resources Division (WSWRD) has constructed 2 mini-pilot plant systems used to conduct drinking water research. These two systems each have 2 parallel trains for comparative research. The mini-pilot plants are small conventional drinking water treatment ...

  3. Water-Conserving Plant-Growth System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, Thomas W.; Brown, Christopher S.

    1993-01-01

    Report presents further information about plant-growth apparatus described in "Tubular Membrane Plant-Growth Unit" (KSC-11375). Apparatus provides nutrient solution to roots of seedlings without flooding. Conserves water by helping to prevent evaporation from plant bed. Solution supplied only as utilized by seedlings. Device developed for supporting plant growth in space, also has applications for growing plants with minimum of water, such as in arid environments.

  4. [Mixed-Spectral Spatial Information Decomposition Model of Water Hyperspectral Inversion].

    PubMed

    Pan, Bang-long; Wang, Xian-hua; Zhu, Jin; Yi, Wei-ning; Fang, Ting-yong

    2015-03-01

    The effect of Mixed-hyperspectral in the water is difficult in quantitative remote sensing of water. Studies have shown that the only scalar spectrum information is difficult to solve the problem of complex mixed spectra of water. Besides the spectral information, spatial distribution of information is one of the obvious characteristics of the broad waters pollution, and can be used as a useful complement to the remote sensing information and facilitate water complex spectral unmixing. Taking Chaohu as an example, the paper applies the HJ-1A HSI hyperspectral data and the supplemental surface spectral measurement data to discuss the mixed spectra of lake water by spatial statistics and genetic algorithm theory. By using the spatial variogram of geostatistics to simulate the distribution difference of two adjacent pixels, the space-informational decomposition model of mixed spectral in lake water is established by co-kriging genetic algorithm, which is a improved algorithm applying the spatial variogram function of neighborhood pixel as the constraint of the objective function of the genetic algorithm. Finally, the model inversion results of suspended matter concentration are verified. Compared with the conventional spectral unmixing model, the results show the correlation coefficient of the predicted and measured value of suspended sediment concentration is 0.82, the root mean square error 9.25 mg x L(-1) by mixed spectral space information decomposition model, so the correlation coefficient is increased by 8.9%, the root mean square error reduced by 2.78 mg x L(-1), indicating that the model of suspended matter concentration has a strong predictive ability. Therefore, the effective combination of spatial and spectral information of water, can avoid inversion result distortion due to weak spectral signal of water color parameters, and large amount of calculation of information extraction because of the high spectral band numbers, and also provides an effective way to solve spectral mixture model of complex water and improve the accuracy of model inversion. PMID:26117889

  5. Plant responses to water stress

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Rup Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial plants most often encounter drought stress because of erratic rainfall which has become compounded due to present climatic changes.Responses of plants to water stress may be assigned as either injurious change or tolerance index. One of the primary and cardinal changes in response to drought stress is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is being considered as the cause of cellular damage. However, recently a signaling role of such ROS in triggering the ROS scavenging system that may confer protection or tolerance against stress is emerging. Such scavenging system consists of antioxidant enzymes like SOD, catalase and peroxidases, and antioxidant compounds like ascorbate, reduced glutathione; a balance between ROS generation and scavenging ultimately determines the oxidative load. As revealed in case of defence against pathogen, signaling via ROS is initiated by NADPH oxidase-catalyzed superoxide generation in the apoplastic space (cell wall) followed by conversion to hydrogen peroxide by the activity of cell wall-localized SOD. Wall peroxidase may also play role in ROS generation for signaling. Hydrogen peroxide may use Ca2+ and MAPK pathway as downstream signaling cascade. Plant hormones associated with stress responses like ABA and ethylene play their role possibly via a cross talk with ROS towards stress tolerance, thus projecting a dual role of ROS under drought stress. PMID:22057331

  6. Water complexes of cytochrome P450: insights from energy decomposition analysis.

    PubMed

    Thellamurege, Nandun; Hirao, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    Water is a small molecule that nevertheless perturbs, sometimes significantly, the electronic properties of an enzyme's active site. In this study, interactions of a water molecule with the ferric heme and the compound I (Cpd I) intermediate of cytochrome P450 are studied. Energy decomposition analysis (EDA) schemes are used to investigate the physical origins of these interactions. Localized molecular orbital EDA (LMOEDA) implemented in the quantum chemistry software GAMESS and the EDA method implemented in the ADF quantum chemistry program are used. EDA reveals that the electrostatic and polarization effects act as the major driving force in both of these interactions. The hydrogen bonding in the Cpd IH?O complex is similar to that in the water dimer; however, the relative importance of the electrostatic effect is somewhat larger in the water dimer. PMID:23752465

  7. Dynamics of microbial communities during decomposition of litter from pioneering plants in initial soil ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esperschtz, J.; Zimmermann, C.; Dmig, A.; Welzl, G.; Buegger, F.; Elmer, M.; Munch, J. C.; Schloter, M.

    2012-10-01

    In initial ecosystems concentrations of all macro- and micronutrients can be considered as extremely low. Plant litter therefore strongly influences the development of a degraders' food web and is an important source for C and N input into soil in such ecosystems. In the present study, a 13C litter decomposition field experiment was performed for 30 weeks in initial soils from a post-mining area near the city of Cottbus (Germany). Two of this regions' dominant but contrasting pioneering plant species (Lotus corniculatus L. and Calamagrostis epigejos L.) were chosen to investigate the effects of litter quality on the litter decomposing microbial food web in initially nutrient-poor substrates. The results clearly indicate the importance of litter quality, mainly the amount of N stored in the litter material and its bioavailability for the degradation process and the development of microbial communities in the detritusphere and bulk soil. Whereas the degradation process of the L. corniculatus litter which had a low C/N ratio was fast and most pronounced changes in the microbial community structure were observed 1-4 weeks after litter addition, the degradation of the C. epigejos litter material was slow and microbial community changes mainly occurred at between 4 and 30 weeks after litter addition to the soil. However for both litter materials a clear indication for the importance of fungi for the degradation process was observed both on the abundance level as well as on the level of 13C incorporation (activity).

  8. Dynamics of microbial communities during decomposition of litter from pioneering plants in initial soil ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esperschütz, J.; Zimmermann, C.; Dümig, A.; Welzl, G.; Buegger, F.; Elmer, M.; Munch, J. C.; Schloter, M.

    2013-07-01

    In initial ecosystems, concentrations of all macro- and micronutrients can be considered as extremely low. Plant litter therefore strongly influences the development of a degrader's food web and is an important source for C and N input into soil in such ecosystems. In the present study, a 13C litter decomposition field experiment was performed for 30 weeks in initial soils from a post-mining area near the city of Cottbus (Germany). Two of this region's dominant but contrasting pioneering plant species (Lotus corniculatus L. and Calamagrostis epigejos L.) were chosen to investigate the effects of litter quality on the litter decomposing microbial food web in initially nutrient-poor substrates. The results clearly indicate the importance of litter quality, as indicated by its N content, its bioavailability for the degradation process and the development of microbial communities in the detritusphere and soil. The degradation of the L. corniculatus litter, which had a low C / N ratio, was fast and showed pronounced changes in the microbial community structure 1-4 weeks after litter addition. The degradation of the C. epigejos litter material was slow and microbial community changes mainly occurred between 4 and 30 weeks after litter addition to the soil. However, for both litter materials a clear indication of the importance of fungi for the degradation process was observed both in terms of fungal abundance and activity (13C incorporation activity)

  9. DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PLANT ADVISOR - USER DOCUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) Advisor is a software application which has been designed to provide assistance in the evaluation of drinking water treatment plants. Specifically, this program, which is based on the source document Interim Handbook Optimizing Water Trea...

  10. Changes in bacterial and eukaryotic communities during sewage decomposition in Mississippi river water.

    PubMed

    Korajkic, Asja; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; McMinn, Brian R; Baeza, Yoshiki Vazquez; VanTeuren, Will; Knight, Rob; Shanks, Orin C

    2015-02-01

    Microbial decay processes are one of the mechanisms whereby sewage contamination is reduced in the environment. This decomposition process involves a highly complex array of bacterial and eukaryotic communities from both sewage and ambient waters. However, relatively little is known about how these communities change due to mixing and subsequent decomposition of the sewage contaminant. We investigated decay of sewage in upper Mississippi River using Illumina sequencing of 16S and 18S rRNA gene hypervariable regions and qPCR for human-associated and general fecal Bacteroidales indicators. Mixtures of primary treated sewage and river water were placed in dialysis bags and incubated in situ under ambient conditions for seven days. We assessed changes in microbial community composition under two treatments in a replicated factorial design: sunlight exposure versus shaded and presence versus absence of native river microbiota. Initial diversity was higher in sewage compared to river water for 16S sequences, but the reverse was observed for 18S sequences. Both treatments significantly shifted community composition for eukaryotes and bacteria (P<0.05). Data indicated that the presence of native river microbiota, rather than exposure to sunlight, accounted for the majority of variation between treatments for both 16S (R=0.50; P>0.001) and 18S (R=0.91; P=0.001) communities. A comparison of 16S sequence data and fecal indicator qPCR measurements indicated that the latter was a good predictor of overall bacterial community change over time (rho: 0.804-0.814, P=0.001). These findings suggest that biotic interactions, such as predation by bacterivorous protozoa, can be critical factors in the decomposition of sewage in freshwater habitats and support the use of Bacteroidales genetic markers as indicators of fecal pollution. PMID:25463929

  11. Radiolytic decomposition and corrosion of a heavy-water blanket for accelerator driven transmutation Modeling and experimental tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikov, I. A.; Aleksandrov, V. V.; Makarov, V. M.; Volk, V. I.; Vakhrushin, A. Yu; Kazaritsky, V. D.

    The concept of a chemical-engineering complex and its operation stability is described for a radioactive-waste separation and transmutation plant. In the framework of the plant, this chemical complex runs in a closed cycle with a nuclear transmutation reactor driven by a 1 GeV-100 mA class accelerator. Heavy water provides circulation of materials to be transmuted in the reactor blanket and transports the irradiated suspension to and from the chemical-engineering complex for reprocessing and further disposal of transmutation products. Modeling and experimental tests of radiolytic decomposition and corrosion were made in order to evaluate the operation stability of the desired separation and transmutation cycle. Preliminary calculations were made for some methods to suppress gas evolution from water (deuterium) solutions with thorium and transuranium nuclides or from suspensions of their oxides at a pressure of 10 MPa, a temperature of 285C and radiation doses up to 510 7 Gy. The results were checked experimentally. Also the change in size of the suspended particles during irradiation was measured. Additionally, corrosion rates of zirconium alloy tubes were estimated from experiments under the same conditions.

  12. Response of plants to water stress

    PubMed Central

    Osakabe, Yuriko; Osakabe, Keishi; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tran, Lam-Son P.

    2014-01-01

    Water stress adversely impacts many aspects of the physiology of plants, especially photosynthetic capacity. If the stress is prolonged, plant growth, and productivity are severely diminished. Plants have evolved complex physiological and biochemical adaptations to adjust and adapt to a variety of environmental stresses. The molecular and physiological mechanisms associated with water-stress tolerance and water-use efficiency have been extensively studied. The systems that regulate plant adaptation to water stress through a sophisticated regulatory network are the subject of the current review. Molecular mechanisms that plants use to increase stress tolerance, maintain appropriate hormone homeostasis and responses and prevent excess light damage, are also discussed. An understanding of how these systems are regulated and ameliorate the impact of water stress on plant productivity will provide the information needed to improve plant stress tolerance using biotechnology, while maintaining the yield and quality of crops. PMID:24659993

  13. Wetlands: water, wildlife, plants, & people

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandas, Stephen; Farrar, Frank, (artist)

    1996-01-01

    Wetlands are part of all our lives. They can generally be described as transitional areas between land and deepwater habitats. There are many different kinds of wetlands, and they can be found in many different habitat types, from forests to deserts; some are maintained by saltwater, others by freshwater. This poster shows general types of diverse wetlands and demonstrates how people and wetlands can benefit by living together. The diversity of plants and animals is shown in cartooned pictures. As with plants and animals, there are many different common names for the various wetland types. The common names used on this poster were used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in the publication "Wetlands-Status and Trends in the Conterminous United States, Mid-1970's to Mid-1980's." Estuarine wetland types--salt marshes and mangrove swamps--are labeled in red letters. The estuary is where ocean saltwater and river freshwater mix. The estuary is labeled in orange letters. The inland wetland types-inland marshes and wet meadows, forested wetlands, and shrub wetlands-are labeled in yellow. Other wetlands are present in rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. The water bodies associated with these wetlands are labeled in black. The poster is folded into 8.5" x 11" panels; front and back panels can easily be photocopied.

  14. Photoassisted water decomposition by ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate ceramics with anomalous photovoltaic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Y.; Sato, K.; Sato, K.; Miyama, H.

    1986-06-19

    Ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics with the polarization vector defined perpendicular to surface were employed, with and without Pt deposition, as photocatalysts for water decomposition under conditions in which either the positive or negative polar surface was irradiated with Xe light. The activity of H/sub 2/ formation was 10-40 times higher for the positive than for the negative polar surface. It was shown that PZT is a useful photocatalyst and the activity differences between the oppositely polarized surfaces are associated with the inherent anomalous photovoltaic effects of the ferroelectrics.

  15. Species and tissue type regulate long-term decomposition of brackish marsh plants grown under elevated CO2 conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Joshua A; Cherry, Julia A; Mckee, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    Organic matter accumulation, the net effect of plant production and decomposition, contributes to vertical soil accretion in coastal wetlands, thereby playing a key role in whether they keep pace with sea-level rise. Any factor that affects decomposition may affect wetland accretion, including atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Higher CO2 can influence decomposition rates by altering plant tissue chemistry or by causing shifts in plant species composition or biomass partitioning. A combined greenhouse-field experiment examined how elevated CO2 affected plant tissue chemistry and subsequent decomposition of above- and belowground tissues of two common brackish marsh species, Schoenoplectus americanus (C3) and Spartina patens (C4). Both species were grown in monoculture and in mixture under ambient (350-385 μL L-1) or elevated (ambient + 300 μL L-1) atmospheric CO2 conditions, with all other growth conditions held constant, for one growing season. Above- and belowground tissues produced under these treatments were decomposed under ambient field conditions in a brackish marsh in the Mississippi River Delta, USA. Elevated CO2 significantly reduced nitrogen content of S. americanus, but not sufficiently to affect subsequent decomposition. Instead, long-term decomposition (percent mass remaining after 280 d) was controlled by species composition and tissue type. Shoots of S. patens had more mass remaining (41 ± 2%) than those of S. americanus (12 ± 2 %). Belowground material decomposed more slowly than that placed aboveground (62 ± 1% vs. 23 ± 3% mass remaining), but rates belowground did not differ between species. Increases in atmospheric CO2concentration will likely have a greater effect on overall decomposition in this brackish marsh community through shifts in species dominance or biomass allocation than through effects on tissue chemistry. Consequent changes in organic matter accumulation may alter marsh capacity to accommodate sea-level rise through vertical accretion.

  16. Effects of polyacrylamide, biopolymer, and biochar on decomposition of soil organic matter and 14C-labeled plant residues as determined by enzyme activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud Awad, Yasser; Ok, Young Sik; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    Application of polymers for the improvement of aggregate structure and reduction of soil erosion may alter the availability and decomposition of plant residues. In this study, we assessed the effects of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM), synthesized biopolymer (BP), and biochar (BC) on the decomposition of 14C-labeled maize residue in sandy and sandy loam soils. Specifically, PAM and BP with or without 14C-labeled plant residue were applied at 400 kg ha-1, whereas BC was applied at 5000 kg ha-1, after which the soils were incubated for 80 days at 22 oC. Initially, plant residue decomposition was much higher in untreated sandy loam soil than in sandy soil. Nevertheless, the stimulating effects of BP and BC on the decomposition of plant residue were more pronounced in sandy soil, where it accounted for 13.4% and 23.4% of 14C input, respectively, whereas in sandy loam soil, the acceleration of plant residue decomposition by BP and BC did not exceed 2.6% and 14.1%, respectively, compared to untreated soil with plant residue. The stimulating effects of BP and BC on the decomposition of plant residue were confirmed based on activities of ?-cellobiohydrolase, ?-glucosidase, and chitinase in both soils. In contrast to BC and BP, PAM did not increase the decomposition of native or added C in both soils.

  17. Water protection in coke-plant design

    SciTech Connect

    G.I. Alekseev

    2009-07-15

    Wastewater generation, water consumption, and water management at coke plants are considered. Measures to create runoff-free water-supply and sewer systems are discussed. Filters for water purification, corrosion inhibitors, and biocides are described. An integrated single-phase technology for the removal of phenols, thiocyanides, and ammoniacal nitrogen is outlined.

  18. Effects of water flow regulation on ecosystem functioning in a Mediterranean river network assessed by wood decomposition.

    PubMed

    Abril, Meritxell; Muñoz, Isabel; Casas-Ruiz, Joan P; Gómez-Gener, Lluís; Barceló, Milagros; Oliva, Francesc; Menéndez, Margarita

    2015-06-01

    Mediterranean rivers are extensively modified by flow regulation practises along their courses. An important part of the river impoundment in this area is related to the presence of small dams constructed mainly for water abstraction purposes. These projects drastically modified the ecosystem morphology, transforming lotic into lentic reaches and increasing their alternation along the river. Hydro-morphologial differences between these reaches indicate that flow regulation can trigger important changes in the ecosystem functioning. Decomposition of organic matter is an integrative process and this complexity makes it a good indicator of changes in the ecosystem. The aim of this study was to assess the effect caused by flow regulation on ecosystem functioning at the river network scale, using wood decomposition as a functional indicator. We studied the mass loss from wood sticks during three months in different lotic and lentic reaches located along a Mediterranean river basin, in both winter and summer. Additionally, we identified the environmental factors affecting decomposition rates along the river orders. The results revealed differences in decomposition rates between sites in both seasons that were principally related to the differences between stream orders. The rates were mainly related to temperature, nutrient concentrations (NO2(-), NO3(2-)) and water residence time. High-order streams with higher temperature and nutrient concentrations exhibited higher decomposition rates compared with low-order streams. The effect of the flow regulation on the decomposition rates only appeared to be significant in high orders, especially in winter, when the hydrological characteristics of lotic and lentic habitats widely varied. Lotic reaches with lower water residence time exhibited greater decomposition rates compared with lentic reaches probably due to more physical abrasion and differences in the microbial assemblages. Overall, our study revealed that in high orders the reduction of flow caused by flow regulation affects the wood decomposition indicating changes in ecosystem functioning. PMID:25721144

  19. Regulation of Water in Plant Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowles, Richard V.

    2010-01-01

    Cell water relationships are important topics to be included in cell biology courses. Differences exist in the control of water relationships in plant cells relative to control in animal cells. One important reason for these differences is that turgor pressure is a consideration in plant cells. Diffusion and osmosis are the underlying factors…

  20. Influence of water potential on decomposition of soil organic matter in high elevation meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, C. L.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; Berhe, A.

    2013-12-01

    High elevation meadows of the Sierra Nevada, California are defined by the presence of a high water table throughout the growing season. This definition takes into account the natural drawdown of most meadow systems during the summer months to within a few feet of the surface. The cyclic drawdown/recharge of the meadow water table, as well as local hydrologic gradient that exists in most meadow systems (ranging from xeric to hydric) impose important controls on organic matter storage and decomposition in these systems. In this study we incubated soils from the xeric, mesic and hydric regions of a subalpine Sierra Nevada meadow at five different water potentials and measured the CO2 flux at intervals over one year. We found that the cumulative carbon mineralization was greatest at the lowest (0.1 bar) and highest (4 bar) water potentials, across all regions of the meadow, suggesting a microbial response threshold that is reached as the soil dries. Soils from the hydric meadow regions showed the largest response to extreme drying of the soil. These results highlight the importance of soil moisture in regulating soil respiration in these systems and different levels of microbial activity when these soils are wet vs. dry. While normal conditions in these systems keep water potentials low (< 0.2 bar), future drought conditions can potentially increase the level of dryness in the meadows to the point where rapid carbon loss can be expected.

  1. Evaluation of water hammer events in light water reactor plants

    SciTech Connect

    Uffer, R.A.; Banerjee, S.; Buckholz, F.B.; Frankel, M.; Kasahara, M.; Miller, L.C.; Silvester, A.G.

    1982-07-01

    This document presents the results of an evaluation of water hammer events in LWR power plants. The evaluation was based upon reports of actual events, typical plant design drawings and operating procedures. Included in this report are design and operating recommendations for the prevention or mitigation of water hammer occurrence.

  2. Stability of Supported Platinum Sulfuric Acid Decomposition Catalysts for use in Thermochemical Water Splitting Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel M. Ginosar; Lucia M. Petkovic; Anne W. Glenn; Kyle C. Burch

    2007-03-01

    The activity and stability of several metal oxide supported platinum catalysts were explored for the sulfuric acid decomposition reaction. The acid decomposition reaction is common to several sulfur based thermochemical water splitting cycles. Reactions were carried out using a feed of concentrated liquid sulfuric acid (96 wt%) at atmospheric pressure at temperatures between 800 and 850 C and a weight hour space velocity of 52 g acid/g catalyst/hr. Reactions were run at these high space velocities such that variations in kinetics were not masked by surplus catalyst. The influence of exposure to reaction conditions was explored for three catalysts; 0.1-0.2 wt% Pt supported on alumina, zirconia and titania. The higher surface area Pt/Al2O3 and Pt/ZrO2 catalysts were found to have the highest activity but deactivated rapidly. A low surface area Pt/TiO2 catalyst was found to have good stability in short term tests, but slowly lost activity for over 200 hours of continuous operation.

  3. CHROMOPHORIC DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER (CDOM) DERIVED FROM DECOMPOSITION OF VARIOUS VASCULAR PLANT AND ALGAL SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chromophoric dissolved organic (CDOM) in aquatic environments is derived from the microbial decomposition of terrestrial and microbial organic matter. Here we present results of studies of the spectral properties and photoreactivity of the CDOM derived from several organic matter...

  4. A Trip to the Water Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laskey, Marilyn

    Produced for primary and intermediate grades, this student booklet provides a study of where water comes from, how we get clean water, and the operations of a water treatment plant. Photographs, a few line drawings, a minimum of narrative, and a glossary of terms make up its content. A related document is the teacher's guide, SE 016 490. This work

  5. A Trip to the Water Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laskey, Marilyn

    Produced for primary and intermediate grades, this student booklet provides a study of where water comes from, how we get clean water, and the operations of a water treatment plant. Photographs, a few line drawings, a minimum of narrative, and a glossary of terms make up its content. A related document is the teacher's guide, SE 016 490. This work…

  6. Effect of Oxygen Gas on the Decomposition of Dye by Pulsed Discharge in Water Droplet Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nose, Taisuke; Yokoyama, Yuzo; Nakamura, Akira; Minamitani, Yasushi

    Effect of O2 on the decolorization of indigo carmine and on the production of dissolved species such as NO2-, NO3-, O3 and H2O2 in the treatment water by pulsed discharge in water droplet spray was investigated by controlling the O2/N2 ratios as carrier gases in the reactor. The decolorization rate gradually increased with rise in O2 ratio, which reached a constant value in the range of 50% to 90% O2 ratio and decreased in pure O2. The maximum value was about 2 times as high as that of 20% O2 ratio. The decolorization efficiency was not affected by gas flow rate in the range of 4 L/min to 50 L/min. NO2- in the treatment water was only detected in pure N2, but NO3- was produced in O2/N2. NO2- added to the treatment water was not oxidized in pure N2, but was perfectly converted to NO3- in O2/N2. These results implied that hydroxyl radical produced in gas phase does not directly contribute to the oxidation of substances in water. O3 concentration gradually increased with rise in O2 ratio, whereas H2O2 concentration decreased. In the range of 50 to 80% O2 ratio, O3 and H2O2 concentrations were approximately constant value, similar to the trend of decolorization rate. Moreover rate constants on various gas mixing ratio of O2/N2 were determined from the kinetics study. These results suggested that hydroxyl radical produced in the treatment water by the chain reactions of O3 and hydroperoxy radical (HO2) plays an important role of the decomposition of molecules in water.

  7. Examining an underappreciated control on lignin decomposition in soils? Effects of reactive manganese species on intact plant cell walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiluweit, M.; Bougoure, J.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Kleber, M.; Nico, P. S.

    2011-12-01

    Lignin comprises a dominant proportion of carbon fluxes into the soil (representing up to 50% of plant litter and roots). Two lines of evidence suggest that manganese (Mn) acts as a strong controlling factor on the residence time of lignin in soil ecosystems. First, Mn content is highly correlated with litter decomposition in temperate and boreal forest soil ecosystems and, second, microbial agents of lignin degradation have been reported to rely on reactive Mn(III)-complexes to specifically oxidize lignin. However, few attempts have been made to isolate the mechanisms responsible for the apparent Mn-dependence of lignin decomposition in soils. Here we tested the hypothesis that Mn(III)-oxalate complexes may act as a perforating 'pretreatment' for structurally intact plant cell walls. We propose that these diffusible oxidizers are small enough to penetrate and react with non-porous ligno-cellulose in cell walls. This process was investigated by reacting single Zinnia elegans tracheary elements with Mn(III)-oxalate complexes in a continuous flow-through microreactor. The uniformity of cultured tracheary elements allowed us to examine Mn(III)-induced changes in cell wall chemistry and ultrastructure on the micro-scale using fluorescence and electron microscopy as well as synchrotron-based infrared and X-ray spectromicroscopy. Our results show that Mn(III)-complexes substantially oxidize specific lignin components of the cell wall, solubilize decomposition products, severely undermine the cell wall integrity, and cause cell lysis. We conclude that Mn(III)-complexes induce oxidative damage in plant cell walls that renders ligno-cellulose substrates more accessible for microbial lignin- and cellulose-decomposing enzymes. Implications of our results for the rate limiting impact of soil Mn speciation and availability on litter decomposition in forest soils will be discussed.

  8. Succession of Phylogeny and Function During Plant Litter Decomposition (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Brodie, Eoin

    2013-03-01

    Eoin Brodie of Berkeley Lab on "Succession of phylogeny and function during plant litter decomposition" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  9. Aquatic Plant Water Quality Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA, as stated in the Clean Water Act, is tasked with developing numerical Aquatic Life Critiera for various pollutants found in the waters of the United States. These criteria serve as guidance for States and Tribes to use in developing their water quality standards. The G...

  10. The catalytic decomposition of silver coated cinnamyl alcohol during water exposure and the formation of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahle, S.; Hfft, O.; Vil, W.; Maus-Friedrichs, W.

    2014-03-01

    Metastable Induced Electron Spectroscopy, Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (He I), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry are employed to study the interaction of water with Ag nanoparticles on cinnamyl alcohol films. The films have been prepared on Au(111) substrates by thermal evaporation. The water adsorption does not result in any chemical interaction with the silver nanoparticles at all, but the cinnamyl alcohol changes its chemical structure significantly. While water molecules induce a reduction of the organic groups, the film thickness seems to decrease. Thus, a decomposition of the cinnamyl alcohol films is proposed. Since no effects are observed during water interaction with pure cinnamyl alcohol films at all, a catalytic reaction appears to take place. No decomposition is found for cinnamyl alcohol adsorbed on a closed silver film, indicating that Ag nanoparticles are required for this catalytical decomposition. The MIES and UPS spectra indicate the existence of a closed metallic film directly after silver adsorption on cinnamyl alcohol, while they suggest the presence of silver nanoparticles after the exposure to water. The formation of silver nanoparticles therefore seems to happen concurrently to the catalytic decomposition of cinnamyl alcohol.

  11. Hydroelectric plant integrated with foul waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragiacomo, P.; Scornaienchi, N. M.

    2005-09-01

    The foul water plant, the object of this work, involves the energy exploitation of the waters from two torrents and the foul water of a town in Southern Italy. The plant layout is such that it enables, moreover, the use of the same hydraulic works to supply irrigation water in the summer to farmers who work near the proposed mini-power station. With the aim of also carrying out an economic financial evaluation, the technical choices have been economically quantified and the outcome of these analyses have provided positive indications.

  12. Water/Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water and Sewage Works, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This article summarizes in tabular form the U.S. and Canadian programs for classification of water and wastewater treatment plant personnel. Included are main characteristics of the programs, educational and experience requirements, and indications of requirement substitutions. (CS)

  13. Drinking Water Plant Lecture-Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vestling, Martha M.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a simple way to demonstrate the principles involved in a drinking water plant. This demonstration developed for a general public lecture can be used in chemistry and biology courses for an ecological and environmental emphasis. (HM)

  14. Labile compounds in plant litter reduce the sensitivity of decomposition to warming and altered precipitation.

    PubMed

    Suseela, Vidya; Tharayil, Nishanth; Xing, Baoshan; Dukes, Jeffrey S

    2013-10-01

    Together, climate and litter quality strongly regulate decomposition rates. Although these two factors and their interaction have been studied across species in continent-scale experiments, few researchers have studied how labile and recalcitrant compounds interact to influence decomposition, or the climate sensitivity of decomposition, within a litter type. Over a period of 3 yr, we studied the effects of warming and altered precipitation on mass loss and compound-specific decomposition using two litter types that possessed similar heteropolymer chemistry, but different proportions of labile and recalcitrant compounds. Climate treatments immediately affected the mass loss of the more recalcitrant litter, but affected the more labile litter only after 2 yr. After 3 yr, although both litter types had lost similar amounts of mass, warming (c. 4°C) and supplemental precipitation (150% of ambient) together accelerated the degradation of alkyl-carbon and lignin only in the more recalcitrant litter, highlighting the role of initial litter quality in determining whether the chemistry of litter residues converges or diverges under different climates. Our finding that labile compounds in litter reduce the climate sensitivity of mass loss and the decomposition of recalcitrant matrix is novel. Our results highlight the potential for litter quality to regulate the effect of climatic changes on the sequestration of litter-derived carbon. PMID:23822593

  15. Suppressing NOM access to controlled porous TiO2 particles enhances the decomposition of target water contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Suppressing access of natural organic matter (NOM) to TiO2 is a key to the successful photocatalytic decomposition of a target contaminant in water. This study first demonstrates simply controlling the porous structure of TiO2 can significantly improve the selective oxidation.

  16. Water treating plant design and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Caudle, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    Produced water must be treated to remove oil and solids and to control corrosion. Treating plants to do this consist of one or more processes such as skimming/settling, flotation, filtration, coalescence, and chemical treating. Design considerations and problems with these processes are discussed. Data from several sources are used to illustrate the performance of several treating plants. 8 refs.

  17. Water management and productivity in planted forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nettles, J. E.

    2014-09-01

    As climate variability endangers water security in many parts of the world, maximizing the carbon balance of plantation forestry is of global importance. High plant water use efficiency is generally associated with lower plant productivity, so an explicit balance in resources is necessary to optimize water yield and tree growth. This balance requires predicting plant water use under different soil, climate, and planting conditions, as well as a mechanism to account for trade-offs in ecosystem services. Several strategies for reducing the water use of forests have been published but there is little research tying these to operational forestry. Using data from silvicultural and biofuel feedstock research in pine plantation ownership in the southeastern USA, proposed water management tools were evaluated against known treatment responses to estimate water yield, forest productivity, and economic outcomes. Ecosystem impacts were considered qualitatively and related to water use metrics. This work is an attempt to measure and compare important variables to make sound decisions about plantations and water use.

  18. Study type and plant litter identity modulating the response of litter decomposition to warming, elevated CO2, and elevated O3: A meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Kai; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Wanqin; Peng, Yan; Fang, Junmin; Wu, Fuzhong

    2015-03-01

    Plant litter decomposition is one of the most important ecosystem carbon flux processes in terrestrial ecosystems and is usually regarded as sensitive to climate change. The goal of the present study was to examine the effects of changing climate variables on litter decomposition. By synthesizing data from multiple terrestrial ecosystems, we quantified the response of the litter decomposition rate to the independent effects of warming, elevated carbon dioxide (CO2), elevated ozone (O3), and the combined effects of elevated CO2 + elevated O3. Across all case studies, warming increased the litter decomposition rate significantly by 4.4%, but this effect could be reduced as a result of the negatively significant effects of elevated CO2 and elevated CO2 + elevated O3. The combined effects of elevated CO2 + elevated O3 decreased the litter decomposition rate significantly, and the magnitude appeared to be higher than that of the elevated CO2 per se. Moreover, the study type (field versus laboratory), ecosystem type, and plant litter identity and functional traits (growth form and litter form) were all important moderators regulating the response of litter decomposition to climate warming and elevated CO2 and O3. Although litter decomposition rate may show a moderate change as a result of the effects of multiple changing climate variables, the process of litter decomposition would be strongly altered due to the differing mechanisms of the effects of each climate change variable, suggesting that the global carbon cycle and biogeochemistry could be substantially affected.

  19. A method to determine plant water source using transpired water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menchaca, L. B.; Smith, B. M.; Connolly, J.; Conrad, M.; Emmett, B.

    2007-04-01

    A method to determine the stable isotope ratio of a plant's water source using the plant's transpired water is proposed as an alternative to standard xylem extraction methods. The method consists of periodically sampling transpired waters from shoots or leaves enclosed in sealed, transparent bags which create a saturated environment, preclude further evaporation and allow the progressive mixing of evaporated transpired water and un-evaporated xylem water. The method was applied on trees and shrubs coexisting in a non-irrigated area where stable isotope ratios of local environmental waters are well characterized. The results show Eucalyptus globulus (tree) and Genista monspessulana (shrub) using water sources of different isotopic ratios congruent with groundwater and soil water respectively. In addition, tritium concentrations indicate that pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) switch water source from soil water in the winter to groundwater in the summer. The method proposed is particularly useful in remote or protected areas and in large scale studies related to water management, environmental compliance and surveillance, because it eliminates the need for destructive sampling and greatly reduces costs associated with laboratory extraction of xylem waters from plant tissues for isotopic analyses.

  20. Optimal reliable design and operation of water distribution systems through decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostfeld, Avi

    2012-10-01

    Reliability in general, and in water distribution systems in particular, is a measure of probabilistic performance. A system is said to be reliable if it functions properly for a given time interval and within boundary conditions. Although water distribution system reliability has attracted considerable research attention over the last three decades, there is still no consensus on what reliability measures or evaluation methodologies should be used for the design/operation of water distribution systems. No system is perfectly reliable. In every system undesirable eventsfailurescan cause a decline or interruption in system performance. Failures are of a stochastic nature and are the result of unpredictable events that occur in the system itself and/or in its environs. A least cost design problem with normal design loadings will result in the cheapest system, but this system will have minimum residual capacity. However, if an increased loading (i.e., higher than the normal design) is implemented, the system's capacity will be increased, thus improving its residual capacity. Finding this "virtual increased loading," which results in a minimum cost residual system capacity that sustains a required reliability level, is the essence of the proposed methodology, which follows decomposition. The methodology is demonstrated on two example applications of increasing complexity. The main limitation of the suggested method for further extensions to real sized water distribution systems is the computational effort associated with the computation of the "inner" problem. Exploring the required computational burden divided between the "outer" and "inner" problems is a major challenge for future elaborations of this approach.

  1. Analytical, toxicological and kinetic investigation of decomposition of the drug diclofenac in waters and wastes using gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Bojanowska-Czajka, A; Kciuk, G; Gumiela, M; Borowiecka, S; Nałęcz-Jawecki, G; Koc, A; Garcia-Reyes, J F; Ozbay, D Solpan; Trojanowicz, M

    2015-12-01

    The radiolytic decomposition of the drug diclofenac (DCF), and in limited extent, also two other widely used drugs, ibuprofen and carbamazepine, was examined using liquid chromatography (LC) methods. The efficiency of DCF decomposition was examined in function of the absorbed dose of gamma radiation, and also in the presence of selected scavengers of radicals, which are commonly present in natural waters and wastes. Three different tests were employed for the monitoring of toxicity changes in the irradiated DCF solutions. The LC/mass spectrometry (MS) was used for the determination of products of DCF radiolysis. Using pulse-radiolysis method with the spectrophotometric detection, the rate constant values were determined for reactions of DCF with the main products of water radiolysis: hydroxyl radicals (1.24 ± 0.02) × 10(10) M(-1) s(-1) and hydrated electrons (3.1 ± 0.2) × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). Their values indicate that both oxidative and reductive processes in radiolytic decomposition of DCF can take place in irradiated diluted aqueous solutions of DCF. The possibility of decomposition of all examined analytes was investigated in samples of river water and hospital waste. Compared to the previous studies, the conducted measurements in real samples were carried out at the concentration levels, which are close to those reported earlier in environmental samples. Graphical abstract ᅟ. PMID:26308920

  2. Continuous Monitoring of Plant Water Potential

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Nick L.; Trickett, Edward S.; Ceresa, Anthony; Barrs, Henry D.

    1986-01-01

    Plant water potential was monitored continuously with a Wescor HR-33T dewpoint hygrometer in conjunction with a L51 chamber. This commercial instrument was modified by replacing the AC-DC mains power converter with one stabilized by zener diode controlled transistors. The thermocouple sensor and electrical lead needed to be thermally insulated to prevent spurious signals. For rapid response and faithful tracking a low resistance for water vapor movement between leaf and sensor had to be provided. This could be effected by removing the epidermis either by peeling or abrasion with fine carborundum cloth. A variety of rapid plant water potential responses to external stimuli could be followed in a range of crop plants (sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., var. Hysun 30); safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L., var. Gila); soybean (Glycine max L., var. Clark); wheat (Triticum aestivum L., var. Egret). These included light dark changes, leaf excision, applied pressure to or anaerobiosis of the root system. Water uptake by the plant (safflower, soybean) mirrored that for water potential changes including times when plant water status (soybean) was undergoing cyclical changes. PMID:16664805

  3. Effect of water vapor on the thermal decomposition process of zinc hydroxide chloride and crystal growth of zinc oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Onda, Ayumu; Yanagisawa, Kazumichi; Kishi, Akira; Masuda, Yasuaki

    2011-03-15

    Thermal decomposition process of zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC), Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O, prepared by a hydrothermal slow-cooling method has been investigated by simultaneous X-ray diffractometry and differential scanning calorimetry (XRD-DSC) and thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) in a humidity-controlled atmosphere. ZHC was decomposed to ZnO through {beta}-Zn(OH)Cl as the intermediate phase, leaving amorphous hydrated ZnCl{sub 2}. In humid N{sub 2} with P{sub H{sub 2O}}=4.5 and 10 kPa, the hydrolysis of residual ZnCl{sub 2} was accelerated and the theoretical amount of ZnO was obtained at lower temperatures than in dry N{sub 2}, whereas significant weight loss was caused by vaporization of residual ZnCl{sub 2} in dry N{sub 2}. ZnO formed by calcinations in a stagnant air atmosphere had the same morphology of the original ZHC crystals and consisted of the c-axis oriented column-like particle arrays. On the other hand, preferred orientation of ZnO was inhibited in the case of calcinations in 100% water vapor. A detailed thermal decomposition process of ZHC and the effect of water vapor on the crystal growth of ZnO are discussed. -- Graphical abstract: Thermal decomposition process of zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC), Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O, has been investigated by novel thermal analyses with three different water vapor partial pressures. In the water vapor atmosphere, the formation of ZnO was completed at lower temperatures than in dry. Display Omitted highlights: > We examine the thermal decomposition of zinc hydroxide chloride in water vapor. > Water vapor had no effects on its thermal decomposition up to 230 {sup o}C. > Water vapor accelerated the decomposition of the residual ZnCl{sub 2} in ZnO. > Without water vapor, a large amount of ZnCl{sub 2} evaporated to form the c-axis oriented ZnO.

  4. Water vapor recovery from plant growth chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, R. J.; Newbold, D. D.; Colton, R. H.; Mccray, S. B.

    1991-01-01

    NASA is investigating the use of plant growth chambers (PGCs) for space missions and for bases on the moon and Mars. Key to successful development of PGCs is a system to recover and reuse the water vapor that is transpired from the leaves of the plants. A design is presented for a simple, reliable, membrane-based system that allows the recovery, purification, and reuse of the transpired water vapor through control of temperature and humidity levels in PGCs. The system is based on two membrane technologies: (1) dehumidification membrane modules to remove water vapor from the air, and (2) membrane contactors to return water vapor to the PGC (and, in doing so, to control the humidity and temperature within the PGC). The membrane-based system promises to provide an ideal, stable growth environment for a variety of plants, through a design that minimizes energy usage, volume, and mass, while maximizing simplicity and reliability.

  5. Layerwise decomposition of water dynamics in reverse micelles: A simulation study of two-dimensional infrared spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Rajib; Furtado, Jonathan; Bagchi, Biman

    2013-10-01

    We present computer simulation study of two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR) of water confined in reverse micelles (RMs) of various sizes. The present study is motivated by the need to understand the altered dynamics of confined water by performing layerwise decomposition of water, with an aim to quantify the relative contributions of different layers water molecules to the calculated 2D-IR spectrum. The 0-1 transition spectra clearly show substantial elongation, due to inhomogeneous broadening and incomplete spectral diffusion, along the diagonal in the surface water layer of different sized RMs. Fitting of the frequency fluctuation correlation functions reveal that the motion of the surface water molecules is sub-diffusive and indicate the constrained nature of their dynamics. This is further supported by two peak nature of the angular analogue of van Hove correlation function. With increasing system size, the water molecules become more diffusive in nature and spectral diffusion almost completes in the central layer of the larger size RMs. Comparisons between experiments and simulations establish the correspondence between the spectral decomposition available in experiments with the spatial decomposition available in simulations. Simulations also allow a quantitative exploration of the relative role of water, sodium ions, and sulfonate head groups in vibrational dephasing. Interestingly, the negative cross correlation between force on oxygen and hydrogen of O-H bond in bulk water significantly decreases in the surface layer of each RM. This negative cross correlation gradually increases in the central water pool with increasing RMs size and this is found to be partly responsible for the faster relaxation rate of water in the central pool.

  6. (Plant growth with limited water)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    When water is in short supply, soybean stem growth is inhibited by a physical limitation followed in a few hours by metabolic changes that reduce the extensibility of the cell walls. The extensibility then becomes the main limitation. With time, there is a modest recovery in extensibility along with an accumulation of a 28kD protein in the walls of the growth-affected cells. A 3lkD protein that was 80% similar in amino acid sequence also was present but did not accumulate in the walls of the stem cells. In the stem, growth was inhibited and the mRNA for the 28kD protein increased in response to water deprivation but the mRNA for the 3 1 kD protein did not. The roots continued to grow and the mRNA for the 28kD protein did not accumulate but the mRNA for the 3lkD protein did. Thus, there was a tissuespecific response of gene expression that correlated with the contrasting growth response to low water potential in the same seedlings. Further work using immunogold labeling, fluorescence labeling, and western blotting gave evidence that the 28kD protein is located in the cell wall as well as several compartments in the cytoplasm. Preliminary experiments indicate that the 28kD protein is a phosphatase.

  7. Water treatment plants assessment at Talkha power plant.

    PubMed

    El-Sebaie, Olfat D; Abd El-Kerim, Ghazy E; Ramadan, Mohamed H; Abd El-Atey, Magda M; Taha, Sahr Ahmed

    2002-01-01

    Talkha power plant is the only power plant located in El-Mansoura. It generates electricity using two different methods by steam turbine and gas turbine. Both plants drew water from River Nile (208 m3 /h). The Nile raw water passes through different treatment processes to be suitable for drinking and operational uses. At Talkha power plant, there are two purification plants used for drinking water supply (100 m3/h) and for water demineralization supply (108 m3/h). This study aimed at studying the efficiency of the water purification plants. For drinking water purification plant, the annual River Nile water characterized by slightly alkaline pH (7.4-8), high annual mean values of turbidity (10.06 NTU), Standard Plate Count (SPC) (313.3 CFU/1 ml), total coliform (2717/100 ml), fecal coliform (0-2400/100 ml), and total algae (3 x 10(4) org/I). The dominant group of algae all over the study period was green algae. The blue green algae was abundant in Summer and Autumn seasons. The pH range, and the annual mean values of turbidity, TDS, total hardness, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates, nitrites, fluoride, and residual chlorine for purified water were in compliance with Egyptian drinking water standards. All the SPC recorded values with an annual mean value of 10.13 CFU/1 ml indicated that chlorine dose and contact time were not enough to kill the bacteria. However, they were in compliance with Egyptian decree (should not exceed 50 CFU/1 ml). Although the removal efficiency of the plant for total coliform and blue green algae was high (98.5% and 99.2%, respectively), the limits of the obtained results with an annual mean values of 40/100 ml and 15.6 org/l were not in compliance with the Egyptian decree (should be free from total coliform, fecal coliform and blue green algae). For water demineralization treatment plant, the raw water was characterized by slightly alkaline pH. The annual mean values of conductivity, turbidity, and TDS were 354.6 microS/cm, 10.84 NTU, and 214.6 mg/I, respectively. There was an increase in the results of conductivity, turbidity, total hardness, and TDS in carbon filter effluent which was attributed to the desorption of adsorbed ions on the carbon media. The removal efficiencies of turbidity, total hardness, and TDS indicated the high efficiency of the cationic filter. The annual removal efficiencies of conductivity, turbidity, chloride, and TDS proved the efficiency of the anionic filter for removing the dissolved and suspended ions. All of the recorded values of the pH, conductivity, turbidity, chlorides, hardness, and TDS of the mixed bed effluent indicated that the water at this stage was of high quality for boiler feed. The study recommended adjustment of coagulant and residual chlorine doses as well as contact time, and continuous monitoring and maintenance of the different units. PMID:17216967

  8. Microbial functional diversity associated with plant litter decomposition along a climatic gradient.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Chen; Steinberger, Yosef

    2012-08-01

    Predicted changes in climate associated with increased greenhouse gas emissions can cause increases in global mean temperature and changes in precipitation regimes. These changes may affect key soil processes, e.g., microbial CO(2) evolution and biomass, mineralization rates, primary productivity, biodiversity, and litter decomposition, which play an important role in carbon and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Our study examined the changes in litter microbial communities and decomposition along a climatic gradient, ranging from arid desert to humid Mediterranean regions in Israel. Wheat straw litter bags were placed in arid, semi-arid, Mediterranean, and humid Mediterranean sites. Samples were collected seasonally over a 2-year period in order to evaluate mass loss, litter moisture, C/N ratio, bacterial colony-forming units (CFUs), microbial CO(2) evolution and biomass, microbial functional diversity, and catabolic profile. Decomposition rate was the highest during the first year of the study at the Mediterranean and arid sites. Community-level physiological profile and microbial biomass were the highest in summer, while bacterial CFUs were the highest in winter. Microbial functional diversity was found to be highest at the humid Mediterranean site, whereas substrate utilization increased at the arid site. Our results support the assumption that climatic factors control litter degradation and regulate microbial activity. PMID:22430507

  9. 5. Water treatment plant, view to N, berm in foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Water treatment plant, view to N, berm in foreground - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  10. 6. Water treatment plant, view NE, berm in foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Water treatment plant, view NE, berm in foreground - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  11. 10. Water treatment plant, view to S. 1965 addition is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Water treatment plant, view to S. 1965 addition is in the foreground - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  12. 8. Water treatment plant, view to SE, berm in foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Water treatment plant, view to SE, berm in foreground covering settling tank - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  13. 3. Water treatment plant, view to W, detail of door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Water treatment plant, view to W, detail of door area - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  14. 14. Water treatment plant interior view of chlorination room. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Water treatment plant interior view of chlorination room. View to N - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  15. 7. Water treatment plant, view to E, berm in foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Water treatment plant, view to E, berm in foreground covering settling tank - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  16. 2. Water treatment plant entrance, view to W Fort ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Water treatment plant entrance, view to W - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  17. 4. Water treatment plant, view to NW, berm in foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Water treatment plant, view to NW, berm in foreground - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  18. 13. Water treatment plant interior view of tanks in control ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Water treatment plant interior view of tanks in control room. View to SW - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  19. DECOMPOSITION OF TRIHALOACETIC ACIDS AND FORMATION OF THE CORRESPONDING TRIHALOMETHANES IN DRINKING WATER. (R826834)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The decomposition of trihaloacetic acids [bromodichloroacetic acid (BDCAA), dibromochloroacetic acid (DBCAA), tribromoacetic acid (TBAA)], and the formation of the corresponding trihalomethanes [bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), tribromomethane (TBM)] w...

  20. Diagenetic processes near the sediment-water interface of Long Island Sound. I. Decomposition and nutrient element geochemistry (S,N,P)

    SciTech Connect

    Aller, R.C.

    1980-12-01

    Selected early diagenetic reactions associated with the decomposition of organic matter in estuarine deposits of Long Island Sound are examined with particular emphasis on undstanding the role of benthic macroorganisms together with the depositional environment in controlling the decomposition of surface sediments and in determining the flux of solutes between sediment and overlying water.

  1. Streambank plants vital to water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, H.

    1989-08-01

    Studies of plants suitable for stabilizing streambanks are described. Sediments caused by soil erosion in Northern California's mountain meadows clog drinking water reservoirs, reduce fish populations, and block hydroelectric dams. Studies of the effect of seasonal climate change on root growth, photosynthesis, and water use of willows and grasses using a below-ground periscope and portable photosynthesis are described. In addition, studies to evaluate the seasonal effect of livestock grazing are in progress.

  2. Moisture drives surface decomposition in thawing tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks Pries, Caitlin E.; Schuur, E. A. G.; Vogel, Jason G.; Natali, Susan M.

    2013-07-01

    Permafrost thaw can affect decomposition rates by changing environmental conditions and litter quality. As permafrost thaws, soils warm and thermokarst (ground subsidence) features form, causing some areas to become wetter while other areas become drier. We used a common substrate to measure how permafrost thaw affects decomposition rates in the surface soil in a natural permafrost thaw gradient and a warming experiment in Healy, Alaska. Permafrost thaw also changes plant community composition. We decomposed 12 plant litters in a common garden to test how changing plant litter inputs would affect decomposition. We combined species' tissue-specific decomposition rates with species and tissue-level estimates of aboveground net primary productivity to calculate community-weighted decomposition constants at both the thaw gradient and warming experiment. Moisture, specifically growing season precipitation and water table depth, was the most significant driver of decomposition. At the gradient, an increase in growing season precipitation from 200 to 300 mm increased mass loss of the common substrate by 100%. At the warming experiment, a decrease in the depth to the water table from 30 to 15 cm increased mass loss by 100%. At the gradient, community-weighted decomposition was 21% faster in extensive than in minimal thaw, but was similar when moss production was included. Overall, the effect of climate change and permafrost thaw on surface soil decomposition are driven more by precipitation and soil environment than by changes to plant communities. Increasing soil moisture is thereby another mechanism by which permafrost thaw can become a positive feedback to climate change.

  3. The interaction between decomposition, net N and P mineralization and their mobilization to the surface water in fens.

    PubMed

    Geurts, Jeroen J M; Smolders, Alfons J P; Banach, Artur M; van de Graaf, Jan P M; Roelofs, Jan G M; Lamers, Leon P M

    2010-06-01

    Worldwide, fens and peat lakes that used to be peat-forming systems have become a significant source of C, N and P due to increased peat decomposition. To test the hypothesis that net nutrient mineralization rates may be uncoupled from decomposition rates, we investigated decomposition and net mineralization rates of nutrients in relation to sediment and pore water characteristics. We incubated 28 non-calcareous peat sediments and floating fen soils under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. We also tried to find a simple indicator to estimate the potential nutrient mobilization rates from peat sediments to the water layer by studying their relation with sediment and pore water characteristics in 44 Dutch non-calcareous peat lakes and ditches. Decomposition rates were primarily determined by the organic matter content, and were higher under aerobic conditions. However, highly decomposed peat sediments with low C:P and C:N ratios still showed high net nutrient mineralization rates. At Fe:PO(4) ratios below 1molmol(-1), PO(4) mobilization from the sediment to the water layer was considerable and linearly related to the pore water PO(4) concentration. At higher ratios, there was a strong linear correlation between the Fe:PO(4) ratio and PO(4) mobilization. Hence, measuring Fe and PO(4) in anaerobic sediment pore water provides a powerful tool for a quick assessment of internal PO(4) fluxes. Mobilization of mineral N was largely determined by diffusion. Total sediment Fe:S ratios gave an important indication of the amount of Fe that is available to immobilize PO(4). Pore water Fe concentrations decreased at ratios <1molmol(-1), whereas pore water PO(4) concentrations and PO(4) mobilization to the water layer increased. As PO(4) mobilization rates from the sediment to the water layer contribute to almost half of the total P load in Dutch peat lakes and fens, it is of pivotal importance to examine the magnitude of internal fluxes. Dredging of the nutrient-rich upper sediment layer will only be a useful restoration measure if both the influx of P-rich water and its internal mobilization from the newly exposed, potentially more reactive peat layer are sufficiently low. PMID:20392472

  4. Plant Water Uptake in Drying Soils1

    PubMed Central

    Lobet, Guillaume; Couvreur, Valentin; Meunier, Flicien; Javaux, Mathieu; Draye, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, investigations on root water uptake have evolved toward a deeper integration of the soil and roots compartment properties, with the goal of improving our understanding of water acquisition from drying soils. This evolution parallels the increasing attention of agronomists to suboptimal crop production environments. Recent results have led to the description of root system architectures that might contribute to deep-water extraction or to water-saving strategies. In addition, the manipulation of root hydraulic properties would provide further opportunities to improve water uptake. However, modeling studies highlight the role of soil hydraulics in the control of water uptake in drying soil and call for integrative soil-plant system approaches. PMID:24515834

  5. A new conceptual model on the fate and controls of fresh and pyrolized plant litter decomposition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leaching of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from fresh and pyrolyzed aboveground plant inputs to the soil is a major pathway by which decomposing aboveground plant material contributes to soil organic matter formation. Understanding how aboveground plant input chemical traits control the partiti...

  6. Atomic decomposition of the protein solvation free energy and its application to amyloid-beta protein in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Song-Ho; Ham, Sihyun

    2011-07-01

    We report the development of an atomic decomposition method of the protein solvation free energy in water, which ascribes global change in the solvation free energy to local changes in protein conformation as well as in hydration structure. So far, empirical decomposition analyses based on simple continuum solvation models have prevailed in the study of protein-protein interactions, protein-ligand interactions, as well as in developing scoring functions for computer-aided drug design. However, the use of continuum solvation model suffers serious drawbacks since it yields the protein free energy landscape which is quite different from that of the explicit solvent model and since it does not properly account for the non-polar hydrophobic effects which play a crucial role in biological processes in water. Herein, we develop an exact and general decomposition method of the solvation free energy that overcomes these hindrances. We then apply this method to elucidate the molecular origin for the solvation free energy change upon the conformational transitions of 42-residue amyloid-beta protein (A?42) in water, whose aggregation has been implicated as a primary cause of Alzheimer's disease. We address why A?42 protein exhibits a great propensity to aggregate when transferred from organic phase to aqueous phase.

  7. Decomposition of atrazine traces in water by combination of non-thermal electrical discharge and adsorption on nanofiber membrane.

    PubMed

    Vanraes, Patrick; Willems, Gert; Daels, Nele; Van Hulle, Stijn W H; De Clerck, Karen; Surmont, Pieter; Lynen, Frederic; Vandamme, Jeroen; Van Durme, Jim; Nikiforov, Anton; Leys, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    In recent decades, several types of persistent substances are detected in the aquatic environment at very low concentrations. Unfortunately, conventional water treatment processes are not able to remove these micropollutants. As such, advanced treatment methods are required to meet both current and anticipated maximally allowed concentrations. Plasma discharge in contact with water is a promising new technology, since it produces a wide spectrum of oxidizing species. In this study, a new type of reactor is tested, in which decomposition by atmospheric pulsed direct barrier discharge (pDBD) plasma is combined with micropollutant adsorption on a nanofiber polyamide membrane. Atrazine is chosen as model micropollutant with an initial concentration of 30 μg/L. While the H2O2 and O3 production in the reactor is not influenced by the presence of the membrane, there is a significant increase in atrazine decomposition when the membrane is added. With membrane, 85% atrazine removal can be obtained in comparison to only 61% removal without membrane, at the same experimental parameters. The by-products of atrazine decomposition identified by HPLC-MS are deethylatrazine and ammelide. Formation of these by-products is more pronounced when the membrane is added. These results indicate the synergetic effect of plasma discharge and pollutant adsorption, which is attractive for future applications of water treatment. PMID:25482844

  8. RECYCLING OF WATER IN POULTRY PROCESSING PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were conducted on recycling chiller water in a poultry processing plant. The recycling system must be provided with the capability of removing solids and controlling the microbial population. UV was used to control the microbial population. For this control to be effectiv...

  9. CHEMICAL DOSER FOR AGUACLARA WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design procedure for the nonlinear chemical doser will be validated and extended over a wide range of flow rates. The doser will be tested in several full-scale municipal water treatment plants. We will also generate improved design algorithms for rapid mix, flocculation,...

  10. WATER REUSE IN A PAPER REPROCESSING PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project was undertaken to determine the feasibility of water reuse in a paper reprocessing plant with the goal being to 'close the loop' or to demonstrate zero discharge technology. Before the project began, Big Chief Roofing Company at Ardmore, OK, was discharging 7.89 1/se...

  11. [Effects of snow cover on water soluble and organic solvent soluble components during foliar litter decomposition in an alpine forest].

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Ya; Yang, Wan-Qin; Li, Han; Ni, Xiang-Yin; He, Jie; Wu, Fu-Zhong

    2014-11-01

    Seasonal snow cover may change the characteristics of freezing, leaching and freeze-thaw cycles in the scenario of climate change, and then play important roles in the dynamics of water soluble and organic solvent soluble components during foliar litter decomposition in the alpine forest. Therefore, a field litterbag experiment was conducted in an alpine forest in western Sichuan, China. The foliar litterbags of typical tree species (birch, cypress, larch and fir) and shrub species (willow and azalea) were placed on the forest floor under different snow cover thickness (deep snow, medium snow, thin snow and no snow). The litterbags were sampled at snow formation stage, snow cover stage and snow melting stage in winter. The results showed that the content of water soluble components from six foliar litters decreased at snow formation stage and snow melting stage, but increased at snow cover stage as litter decomposition proceeded in the winter. Besides the content of organic solvent soluble components from azalea foliar litter increased at snow cover stage, the content of organic solvent soluble components from the other five foliar litters kept a continue decreasing tendency in the winter. Compared with the content of organic solvent soluble components, the content of water soluble components was affected more strongly by snow cover thickness, especially at snow formation stage and snow cover stage. Compared with the thicker snow covers, the thin snow cover promoted the decrease of water soluble component contents from willow and azalea foliar litter and restrain the decrease of water soluble component content from cypress foliar litter. Few changes in the content of water soluble components from birch, fir and larch foliar litter were observed under the different thicknesses of snow cover. The results suggested that the effects of snow cover on the contents of water soluble and organic solvent soluble components during litter decomposition would be controlled by litter quality. PMID:25898600

  12. The impact of the invasive shrub Lonicera maackii on the decomposition dynamics of a native plant community.

    PubMed

    Poulette, Megan M; Arthur, Mary A

    2012-03-01

    Invasive plants may have variable effects within a given environment depending on their interactions with the dominant native species, yet little research has examined such species-species interactions within a site. Savanna trees with nonoverlapping canopies offer an ideal opportunity to assess associated changes in the ecosystem processes that result from interactions between an invasive species and different native tree species. We examined the influence of the exotic invasive shrub Lonicera maackii on decomposition dynamics under three native tree species: Fraxinus quadrangulata, Quercus muehlenbergii, and Carya ovata. Litter decomposition rates and litter C and N were evaluated over two years using single- and mixed-species litterbags (L. maackii and individual tree species litter); microarthropod abundance was measured at 6 weeks using Tulgren funnels. Litter from the invasive L. maackii decomposed and lost N more rapidly than the litter of the three native tree species. The rate at which L. maackii decomposed depended on its location, with L. maackii litter decomposing and losing N more rapidly under C. ovata than under the other two native tree species. Mixing L. maackii with the native species' litter did not accelerate litter mass loss overall but did result in synergistic N losses at variable times throughout the experiment, further highlighting the variable interaction between native species and L. maackii. Nitrogen loss was significantly higher than expected in mixtures of C. ovata + L. maackii litter at 6 weeks, in F. quadrangulata + L. maackii litter at 12 weeks, and in Q. muehlenbergii + L. maackii litter at 24 weeks. If the effects of invasive species on certain ecosystem processes, such as litter decomposition, are strongly influenced by their association with native species, this could suggest the need for a more nuanced understanding of the vulnerability of ecosystem processes to invasions of L. maackii and potentially other invasive species. PMID:22611844

  13. The impact of uranium mine contamination of soils on plant litter decomposition.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Ana C; Rodrigues, Dina; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P; Gonçalves, Fernando; Duarte, Armando C; Pereira, Ruth

    2014-11-01

    As part of a tier 3 risk assessment performed for a uranium mining area, the ability of soils with different degrees of metal contamination to degrade organic matter was assessed using litter bags filled with leaves of Quercus robur, Pinus pinaster, Salix atrocinerea, or a mixture of the three species. Litter bags were exposed at different sites within the mine area and at a reference area for 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Biomass loss, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), carbon (C) and total fatty acid, total phenolic, and ergosterol contents were assessed for each litter bag retrieved from the field. The decomposition of litter at each site seemed to be governed by a complex interaction of many different factors. After 12 months of exposure, leaves from the most contaminated sites were distinguishable from those from the reference site. In the reference site, the greatest percentages of biomass loss were attained by Q. robur and P. pinaster leaves. These species displayed the second highest and the lowest C-to-N ratios, respectively. In addition, the high P content of the litter from these two species may have favored microbial colonization. The results suggest that the decomposition of P. pinaster and Q. robur leaves may have been favored at the reference site by the high abundance of both species at this site and the subsequent adaptation of the microbial community to their litter. Our study shows that different species of leaf litter should be used to discriminate between contaminated sites with different levels of contamination. PMID:24823679

  14. Water transport in plants obeys Murray's law.

    PubMed

    McCulloh, Katherine A; Sperry, John S; Adler, Frederick R

    2003-02-27

    The optimal water transport system in plants should maximize hydraulic conductance (which is proportional to photosynthesis) for a given investment in transport tissue. To investigate how this optimum may be achieved, we have performed computer simulations of the hydraulic conductance of a branched transport system. Here we show that the optimum network is not achieved by the commonly assumed pipe model of plant form, or its antecedent, da Vinci's rule. In these representations, the number and area of xylem conduits is constant at every branch rank. Instead, the optimum network has a minimum number of wide conduits at the base that feed an increasing number of narrower conduits distally. This follows from the application of Murray's law, which predicts the optimal taper of blood vessels in the cardiovascular system. Our measurements of plant xylem indicate that these conduits conform to the Murray's law optimum as long as they do not function additionally as supports for the plant body. PMID:12607000

  15. Chemical manipulation of plant water use.

    PubMed

    Helander, Jonathan D M; Vaidya, Aditya S; Cutler, Sean R

    2016-02-01

    Agricultural productivity is dictated by water availability and consequently drought is the major source of crop losses worldwide. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is elevated in response to water deficit and modulates drought tolerance by reducing water consumption and inducing other drought-protective responses. The recent identification of ABA receptors, elucidation of their structures and understanding of the core ABA signaling network has created new opportunities for agrochemical development. An unusually large gene family encodes ABA receptors and, until recently, it was unclear if selective or pan-agonists would be necessary for modulating water use. The recent identification of the selective agonist quinabactin has resolved this issue and defined Pyrabactin Resistance 1 (PYR1) and its close relatives as key targets for water use control. This review provides an overview of the structure and function of ABA receptors, progress in the development of synthetic agonists, and the use of orthogonal receptors to enable agrochemical control in transgenic plants. PMID:26612713

  16. VIEW OF BUILDING 124, THE WATER TREATMENT PLANT, LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BUILDING 124, THE WATER TREATMENT PLANT, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT WATER SUPPLY, TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM HAS OPERATED CONTINUOUSLY SINCE 1953 - Rocky Flats Plant, Water Treatment Plant, West of Third Street, north of Cedar Avenue, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  17. A class-information-based penalized matrix decomposition for identifying plants core genes responding to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Xing; Liu, Jian; Gao, Ying-Lian; Mi, Jian-Xun; Ma, Chun-Xia; Wang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    In terms of making genes expression data more interpretable and comprehensible, there exists a significant superiority on sparse methods. Many sparse methods, such as penalized matrix decomposition (PMD) and sparse principal component analysis (SPCA), have been applied to extract plants core genes. Supervised algorithms, especially the support vector machine-recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE) method, always have good performance in gene selection. In this paper, we draw into class information via the total scatter matrix and put forward a class-information-based penalized matrix decomposition (CIPMD) method to improve the gene identification performance of PMD-based method. Firstly, the total scatter matrix is obtained based on different samples of the gene expression data. Secondly, a new data matrix is constructed by decomposing the total scatter matrix. Thirdly, the new data matrix is decomposed by PMD to obtain the sparse eigensamples. Finally, the core genes are identified according to the nonzero entries in eigensamples. The results on simulation data show that CIPMD method can reach higher identification accuracies than the conventional gene identification methods. Moreover, the results on real gene expression data demonstrate that CIPMD method can identify more core genes closely related to the abiotic stresses than the other methods. PMID:25180509

  18. Mass transfer in fuel cells. [electron microscopy of components, thermal decomposition of Teflon, water transport, and surface tension of KOH solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. D., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Results of experiments on electron microscopy of fuel cell components, thermal decomposition of Teflon by thermogravimetry, surface area and pore size distribution measurements, water transport in fuel cells, and surface tension of KOH solutions are described.

  19. Pt/TiO2 (Rutile) Catalysts for Sulfuric Acid Decomposition in Sulfur-Based Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Petkovic; D. M. Ginosar; H. W. Rollins; K. C. Burch; P. J. Pinhero; H. H. Farrell

    2008-04-01

    Thermochemical cycles consist of a series of chemical reactions to produce hydrogen from water at lower temperatures than by direct thermal decomposition. All the sulfur-based cycles for water splitting employ the sulfuric acid decomposition reaction. This work reports the studies performed on platinum supported on titania (rutile) catalysts to investigate the causes of catalyst deactivation under sulfuric acid decomposition reaction conditions. Samples of 1 wt% Pt/TiO2 (rutile) catalysts were submitted to flowing concentrated sulfuric acid at 1123 K and atmospheric pressure for different times on stream (TOS) between 0 and 548 h. Post-operation analyses of the spent catalyst samples showed that Pt oxidation and sintering occurred under reaction conditions and some Pt was lost by volatilization. Pt loss rate was higher at initial times but total loss appeared to be independent of the gaseous environment. Catalyst activity showed an initial decrease that lasted for about 66 h, followed by a slight recovery of activity between 66 and 102 h TOS, and a period of slower deactivation after 102 h TOS. Catalyst sulfation did not seem to be detrimental to catalyst activity and the activity profile suggested that a complex dynamical situation involving platinum sintering, volatilization, and oxidation, along with TiO2 morphological changes affected catalyst activity in a non-monotonic way.

  20. Prediction of the Maximum Temperature for Life Based on the Stability of Metabolites to Decomposition in Water

    PubMed Central

    Bains, William; Xiao, Yao; Yu, Changyong

    2015-01-01

    The components of life must survive in a cell long enough to perform their function in that cell. Because the rate of attack by water increases with temperature, we can, in principle, predict a maximum temperature above which an active terrestrial metabolism cannot function by analysis of the decomposition rates of the components of life, and comparison of those rates with the metabolites’ minimum metabolic half-lives. The present study is a first step in this direction, providing an analytical framework and method, and analyzing the stability of 63 small molecule metabolites based on literature data. Assuming that attack by water follows a first order rate equation, we extracted decomposition rate constants from literature data and estimated their statistical reliability. The resulting rate equations were then used to give a measure of confidence in the half-life of the metabolite concerned at different temperatures. There is little reliable data on metabolite decomposition or hydrolysis rates in the literature, the data is mostly confined to a small number of classes of chemicals, and the data available are sometimes mutually contradictory because of varying reaction conditions. However, a preliminary analysis suggests that terrestrial biochemistry is limited to environments below ~150–180 °C. We comment briefly on why pressure is likely to have a small effect on this. PMID:25821932

  1. A hydrologic retention system and water quality monitoring program for a human decomposition research facility: concept and design.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Jeffrey R; Thies, Monte L; Bytheway, Joan A; Lutterschmidt, William I

    2015-01-01

    Forensic taphonomy is an essential research field; however, the decomposition of human cadavers at forensic science facilities may lead to nutrient loading and the introduction of unique biological compounds to adjacent areas. The infrastructure of a water retention system may provide a mechanism for the biogeochemical processing and retention of nutrients and compounds, ensuring the control of runoff from forensic facilities. This work provides a proof of concept for a hydrologic retention system and an autonomous water quality monitoring program designed to mitigate runoff from The Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science (STAFS) Facility. Water samples collected along a sample transect were analyzed for total phosphorous, total nitrogen, NO3-, NO2-, NH4, F(-), and Cl(-). Preliminary water quality analyses confirm the overall effectiveness of the water retention system. These results are discussed with relation to how this infrastructure can be expanded upon to monitor additional, more novel, byproducts of forensic science research facilities. PMID:25041409

  2. Visible light-sensitive ZnGe oxynitride catalysts for the decomposition of organic pollutants in water.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianhui; Cui, Yanjuan; Wang, Xinchen

    2010-05-01

    A ZnGe oxynitride semiconductor was prepared by a solid-state reaction using GeO(2) and ZnO under NH(3) flow. The catalyst was used as a visible-light photocatalyst for the decomposition of organic compounds in polluted water. The physicochemical properties of the synthesized ZnGe oxynitride photocatalysts were characterized by several techniques, and aqueous photocatalytic activity was evaluated via the decomposition of model organic compounds including Rhodamine B, Methyl orange, Methylene blue, 4-chlorophenol, and salicylic acid. The results demonstrate that ZnGe oxynitride can photocatalytically oxidize organic pollutants in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation, suffering no obvious catalyst deactivation during reaction testing. The possible active species in the photocatalytic process are also discussed. PMID:20387874

  3. Decomposition analysis of water footprint changes in a water-limited river basin: a case study of the Haihe River basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Y.; Yang, Z. F.; Yin, X. A.

    2014-05-01

    Decomposition analysis of water footprint (WF) changes, or assessing the changes in WF and identifying the contributions of factors leading to the changes, is important to water resource management. Instead of focusing on WF from the perspective of administrative regions, we built a framework in which the input-output (IO) model, the structural decomposition analysis (SDA) model and the generating regional IO tables (GRIT) method are combined to implement decomposition analysis for WF in a river basin. This framework is illustrated in the WF in Haihe River basin (HRB) from 2002 to 2007, which is a typical water-limited river basin. It shows that the total WF in the HRB increased from 4.3 1010 m3 in 2002 to 5.6 1010 m3 in 2007, and the agriculture sector makes the dominant contribution to the increase. Both the WF of domestic products (internal) and the WF of imported products (external) increased, and the proportion of external WF rose from 29.1 to 34.4%. The technological effect was the dominant contributor to offsetting the increase of WF. However, the growth of WF caused by the economic structural effect and the scale effect was greater, so the total WF increased. This study provides insights about water challenges in the HRB and proposes possible strategies for the future, and serves as a reference for WF management and policy-making in other water-limited river basins.

  4. Gasification characteristics of an activated carbon catalyst during the decomposition of hazardous waste material in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumura, Yukihiko; Nuessle, F.W.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    Recently, carbonaceous materials including activated carbon were proven to be effective catalysts for hazardous waste gasification in supercritical water. Using coconut shell activated carbon catalyst, complete decomposition of industrial organic wastes including methanol and acetic acid was achieved. During this process, the total mass of the activated carbon catalyst changes by two competing processes: a decrease in weight via gasification of the carbon by supercritical water, or an increase in weight by deposition of carbonaceous materials generated by incomplete gasification of the biomass feedstocks. The deposition of carbonaceous materials does not occur when complete gasification is realized. Gasification of the activated carbon in supercritical water is often favored, resulting in changes in the quality and quantity of the catalyst. To thoroughly understand the hazardous waste decomposition process, a more complete understanding of the behavior of activated carbon in pure supercritical water is needed. The gasification rate of carbon by water vapor at subcritical pressures was studied in relation to coal gasification and generating activated carbon.

  5. [Effects of brackish water irrigation on soil enzyme activity, soil CO2 flux and organic matter decomposition].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian-qian; Wang, Fei; Liu, Tao; Chu, Gui-xin

    2015-09-01

    Brackish water irrigation utilization is an important way to alleviate water resource shortage in arid region. A field-plot experiment was set up to study the impact of the salinity level (0.31, 3.0 or 5.0 g · L(-1) NaCl) of irrigated water on activities of soil catalase, invertase, β-glucosidase, cellulase and polyphenoloxidase in drip irrigation condition, and the responses of soil CO2 flux and organic matter decomposition were also determined by soil carbon dioxide flux instrument (LI-8100) and nylon net bag method. The results showed that in contrast with fresh water irrigation treatment (CK), the activities of invertase, β-glucosidase and cellulase in the brackish water (3.0 g · L(-1)) irrigation treatment declined by 31.7%-32.4%, 29.7%-31.6%, 20.8%-24.3%, respectively, while soil polyphenoloxidase activity was obviously enhanced with increasing the salinity level of irrigated water. Compared to CK, polyphenoloxidase activity increased by 2.4% and 20.5%, respectively, in the brackish water and saline water irrigation treatments. Both soil microbial biomass carbon and microbial quotient decreased with increasing the salinity level, whereas, microbial metabolic quotient showed an increasing tendency with increasing the salinity level. Soil CO2 fluxes in the different treatments were in the order of CK (0.31 g · L(-1)) > brackish water irrigation (3.0 g · L(-1)) ≥ saline water irrigation (5.0 g · L(-1)). Moreover, CO2 flux from plastic film mulched soil was always much higher than that from no plastic film mulched soil, regardless the salinity of irrigated water. Compared with CK, soil CO2 fluxes in the saline water and brackish water treatments decreased by 29.8% and 28.2% respectively in the boll opening period. The decomposition of either cotton straw or alfalfa straw in the different treatments was in the sequence of CK (0.31 g · L(-1)) > brackish water irrigation (3.0 g · L(-1)) > saline water treatment (5.0 g · L(-1)). The organic matter decomposition rate in the plastic film mulched soil was significantly higher than that in the no plastic film mulched soil. 125 days after incubation, the recovery rates of cotton straw and alfalfa straw were 39.7% and 46.5% with saline water irrigation, 36.3% and 36.5% with brackish water irrigation, and 30.5% and 35.4% with CK, respectively. In conclusion, brackish water drip irrigation had a significant adverse effect on soil enzyme activities, which decreased soil microbial biomass, soil CO2 flux and soil organic matter decomposition, and subsequently deteriorated the soil biological characteristics in oasis farmland. PMID:26785557

  6. Gasification characteristics of an activated carbon catalyst during the decomposition of hazardous waste materials in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumura, Yukihiko; Nuessle, F.W.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1996-10-01

    Recently, carbonaceous materials were proved to be effective catalysts for hazardous waste decomposition in supercritical water. Gasification of the carbonaceous catalyst itself is also expected, however, under supercritical conditions. Thus, it is essential to determine the gasification rate of the carbonaceous materials during this process to determine the active lifetime of the catalysts. For this purpose, the gasification characteristics of granular coconut shell activated carbon in supercritical water alone (600-650{degrees}C, 25.5-34.5 MPa) were investigated. The gasification rate at subatmospheric pressure agreed well with the gasification rate at supercritical conditions, indicating the same reaction mechanism. Methane generation under these conditions is via pyrolysis, and thus is not affected by the water pressure. An iodine number increase of 25% was observed as a result of the supercritical water gasification.

  7. Plant water relations II: how plants manage water deficit and why it matters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The availability of fresh water is possibly the greatest limitation to our ability to feed the growing human population (9 billion people forecast by 2050 and 11 billion by 2100). This Teaching Tool examines why water is so critical for plant growth and particularly their food production (primarily ...

  8. Mechanism and Mitigation of the Decomposition of an Oxorhenium Complex-Based Heterogeneous Catalyst for Perchlorate Reduction in Water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinyong; Chen, Xi; Wang, Yin; Strathmann, Timothy J; Werth, Charles J

    2015-11-01

    A biomimetic heterogeneous catalyst combining palladium nanoparticles and an organic ligand-coordinated oxorhenium complex on activated carbon, Re(hoz)2-Pd/C, was previously developed and shown to reduce aqueous perchlorate (ClO4(-)) with H2 at a rate ?100 times faster than the first generation ReOx-Pd/C catalyst prepared from perrhenate (ReO4(-)). However, the immobilized Re(hoz)2 complex was shown to partially decompose and leach into water as ReO4(-), leading to an irreversible loss of catalytic activity. In this work, the stability of the immobilized Re(hoz)2 complex is shown to depend on kinetic competition between three processes: (1) Re(V)(hoz)2 oxidation by ClO4(-) and its reduction intermediates ClOx(-), (2) Re(VII)(hoz)2 reduction by Pd-activated hydrogen, and (3) hydrolytic Re(VII)(hoz)2 decomposition. When Re(V)(hoz)2 oxidation is faster than Re(VII)(hoz)2 reduction, the Re(VII)(hoz)2 concentration builds up and leads to hydrolytic decomposition to ReO4(-) and free hoz ligand. Rapid Re(V)(hoz)2 oxidation is mainly promoted by highly reactive ClOx(-) formed from the reduction of ClO4(-). To mitigate Re(hoz)2 decomposition and preserve catalytic activity, ruthenium (Ru) and rhodium (Rh) were evaluated as alternative H2 activators to Pd. Rh showed superior activity for reducing the ClO3(-) intermediate to Cl(-), thereby preventing ClOx(-) buildup and lowering Re complex decomposition in the Re(hoz)2-Rh/C catalyst. In contrast, Ru showed the lowest ClO3(-) reduction activity and resulted in the most Re(hoz)2 decomposition among the Re(hoz)2-M/C catalysts. This work highlights the importance of using mechanistic insights from kinetic and spectroscopic tests to rationally design water treatment catalysts for enhanced performance and stability. PMID:26422179

  9. Decomposition analysis of water footprint changes in a water-limited river basin: a case study of the Haihe River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Y.; Yang, Z. F.; Yin, X. A.

    2013-12-01

    Decomposition analysis of water footprint (WF) changes, or assessing the changes in WF and identifying the contributions of factors leading to the changes, is important to water resource management. However, conventional studies focus on WF from the perspective of administrative region rather than river basin. Decomposition analysis of WF changes from the perspective of the river basin is more scientific. To address this perspective, we built a framework in which the input-output (IO) model and the Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA) model for WF could be implemented in a river basin by computing IO data for the river basin with the Generating Regional IO Tables (GRIT) method. This framework is illustrated in the Haihe River Basin (HRB), which is a typical water-limited river basin. It shows that the total WF in the HRB increased from 4.3 1010 m3 in 2002 to 5.6 1010 m3 in 2007, and the agriculture sector makes the dominant contribution to the increase. Both the WF of domestic products (internal) and the WF of imported products (external) increased, and the proportion of external WF rose from 29.1% to 34.4%. The technological effect was the dominant contributor to offsetting the increase of WF; however, the growth of WF caused by the economic structural effect and the scale effect was greater, so the total WF increased. This study provides insights about water challenges in the HRB and proposes possible strategies for the future, and serves as a reference for WF management and policy making in other water-limited river basins.

  10. Problems of Terminology in the Teaching of Plant Water Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbeer, Philip A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Recommends use by teachers of new terminology regarding plant water relations. Includes definitions and Greek symbols for the following terms: water potential, water potential of cell, osmotic potential, matric potential, and pressure potential. (CS)

  11. Water reuse for electric utility and cogeneration plants -- important considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, K.A.; Tvedt, T.J. Jr.

    1998-12-31

    Electric utility and cogeneration (Cogen) plants offer numerous possibilities for the reuse of water in both boiler and cooling systems. However, these plants have specific water quality requirements. Careful evaluation of potential sources of reuse water is needed and water treatment processes must be tailored to the site specific needs of a particular plant, These needs vary based on the design of the plant and often on the geographic location. This paper describes the water quality needs in electric utility and cogeneration facilities and the opportunities for reuse waters to fulfill these needs.

  12. A theoretical study of water adsorption and decomposition on low-index spinel ZnGa2O4 surfaces: correlation between surface structure and photocatalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Jia, Chuanyi; Fan, Weiliu; Yang, Fei; Zhao, Xian; Sun, Honggang; Li, Pan; Liu, Li

    2013-06-11

    Water adsorption and decomposition on stoichiometrically perfect and oxygen vacancy containing ZnGa2O4 (100), (110), and (111) surfaces were investigated through periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results demonstrated that water adsorption and decomposition are surface-structure-sensitive processes. On a stoichiometrically perfect surface, the most stable molecular adsorption that could take place involved the generation of hydrogen bonds. For dissociative adsorption, the adsorption energy of the (111) surface was more than 4 times the energies of the other two surfaces, indicating it to be the best surface for water decomposition. A detailed comparison of these three surfaces showed that the primary reason for this observation was the special electronic state of the (111) surface. When water dissociated on the (111) surface, the special Ga3c-4s and 4p hybridization states at the Fermi level had an obvious downshift to the lower energies. This large energy gain greatly promoted the dissociation of water. Because the generation of O(3c) vacancy defects on the (100) and (110) surfaces could increase the stability of the dissociative adsorption states with few changes to the energy barrier, this type of defect would make the decomposition of water molecules more favorable. However, for the (111) surface, the generation of vacancy defects could decrease the stability of the dissociative adsorption states and significantly increase their energy barriers. Therefore, the decomposition of water molecules on the oxygen vacancy defective (111) surface would be less favorable than the perfect (111) surface. These findings on the decomposition of H2O on the ZnGa2O4 surfaces can be used toward the synthesis of water-splitting catalysts. PMID:23682995

  13. Bacterial communities associated with the decomposition of Fucus vesiculosus in transitional waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Patrcia; Lopes, Marta Lobo; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Gomes, Newton C. M.; Quintino, Victor

    2012-09-01

    In this work we study the temporal and spatial patterns of the bacterial communities associated with the decomposition of Fucus vesiculosus and a control substrate in a transitional ecosystem. Leaf-bags with 5 mm mesh-size and containing the experimental substrates were placed in three areas, euhaline, mesohaline and limnetic, covering the full salinity gradient. The substrates were submerged at day 0 and three replicates were randomly collected per site, at days 3, 7, 15, 30 and 60. The complexity and structural changes of the bacterial communities inhabiting F. vesiculosus and the control substrates were assessed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bacterial community fingerprints showed no significant differences between areas only at day 3, for both substrates. The bacterial community associated with F. vesiculosus showed significant differences over time in the euhaline and mesohaline areas but not in the limnetic area. A different trend was observed for the artificial substrate. Comparing the bacterial communities of F. vesiculosus and the artificial substrate, the results indicated that the significant differences between the two substrates were detected from day 7 in the euhaline area and only later, at day 15, in the other areas. These results are coherent with the fastest decomposition rate of the alga in the euhaline area, where it occurs naturally, and the slowest in the limnetic area, where it does not naturally exists.

  14. Cadaver decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, David O.; Yellowlees, David; Tibbett, Mark

    2007-01-01

    A dead mammal (i.e. cadaver) is a high quality resource (narrow carbon:nitrogen ratio, high water content) that releases an intense, localised pulse of carbon and nutrients into the soil upon decomposition. Despite the fact that as much as 5,000 kg of cadaver can be introduced to a square kilometre of terrestrial ecosystem each year, cadaver decomposition remains a neglected microsere. Here we review the processes associated with the introduction of cadaver-derived carbon and nutrients into soil from forensic and ecological settings to show that cadaver decomposition can have a greater, albeit localised, effect on belowground ecology than plant and faecal resources. Cadaveric materials are rapidly introduced to belowground floral and faunal communities, which results in the formation of a highly concentrated island of fertility, or cadaver decomposition island (CDI). CDIs are associated with increased soil microbial biomass, microbial activity (C mineralisation) and nematode abundance. Each CDI is an ephemeral natural disturbance that, in addition to releasing energy and nutrients to the wider ecosystem, acts as a hub by receiving these materials in the form of dead insects, exuvia and puparia, faecal matter (from scavengers, grazers and predators) and feathers (from avian scavengers and predators). As such, CDIs contribute to landscape heterogeneity. Furthermore, CDIs are a specialised habitat for a number of flies, beetles and pioneer vegetation, which enhances biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems.

  15. Cadaver decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Carter, David O; Yellowlees, David; Tibbett, Mark

    2007-01-01

    A dead mammal (i.e. cadaver) is a high quality resource (narrow carbon:nitrogen ratio, high water content) that releases an intense, localised pulse of carbon and nutrients into the soil upon decomposition. Despite the fact that as much as 5,000 kg of cadaver can be introduced to a square kilometre of terrestrial ecosystem each year, cadaver decomposition remains a neglected microsere. Here we review the processes associated with the introduction of cadaver-derived carbon and nutrients into soil from forensic and ecological settings to show that cadaver decomposition can have a greater, albeit localised, effect on belowground ecology than plant and faecal resources. Cadaveric materials are rapidly introduced to belowground floral and faunal communities, which results in the formation of a highly concentrated island of fertility, or cadaver decomposition island (CDI). CDIs are associated with increased soil microbial biomass, microbial activity (C mineralisation) and nematode abundance. Each CDI is an ephemeral natural disturbance that, in addition to releasing energy and nutrients to the wider ecosystem, acts as a hub by receiving these materials in the form of dead insects, exuvia and puparia, faecal matter (from scavengers, grazers and predators) and feathers (from avian scavengers and predators). As such, CDIs contribute to landscape heterogeneity. Furthermore, CDIs are a specialised habitat for a number of flies, beetles and pioneer vegetation, which enhances biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:17091303

  16. BARIUM AND RADIUM IN WATER TREATMENT PLANT WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water treatment plants at nine locations (10 plants) in Illinois and Iowa were studied to determine the characteristics and disposal practices for the sludge, brine, and backwash water containing radium (Ra) and/or barium (Ba). The treatment processes in these ten plants include ...

  17. Improvement of water treatment at thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, B. M.; Bushuev, E. N.; Larin, A. B.; Karpychev, E. A.; Zhadan, A. V.

    2015-04-01

    Prospective and existing technologies for water treatment at thermal power plants, including pretreatment, ion exchange, and membrane method are considered. The results obtained from laboratory investigations and industrial tests of the proposed technologies carried out at different thermal power plants are presented. The possibilities of improving the process and environmental indicators of water treatment plants are shown.

  18. 12. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes and pump ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes and pump in heater room. View to W - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  19. 11. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes, stairs, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes, stairs, and pump in pump room. View to SW - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  20. Reusing water in CPI plants. [Chemical Process Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Rosain, R.M.

    1993-04-01

    Increasing regulatory pressure for expanded wastewater treatment, waste minimization, and direct water conservation have forced many chemical process industries (CPI) plants to look seriously at water reuse. Many companies are finding that water reuse, in some form, can be cost-effective for existing plants, can open up previously closed opportunities for new plant siting and, in some cases, can even increase product quality and plant reliability. This article presents a systematic approach to evaluating water reuse for a CPI plant. It briefly reviews the major water reuse issues, and then discusses establishing a plant information database, evaluating water reuse strategies and technical options, developing and selecting water reuse alternatives, implementing a reuse plan, and measuring success.

  1. A Greener Arctic: Vascular Plant Litter Input in Subarctic Peat Bogs Changes Soil Invertebrate Diets and Decomposition Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krab, E. J.; Berg, M. P.; Aerts, R.; van Logtestijn, R. S. P.; Cornelissen, H. H. C.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-change-induced trends towards shrub dominance in subarctic, moss-dominated peatlands will most likely have large effects on soil carbon (C) dynamics through an input of more easily decomposable litter. The mechanisms by which this increase in vascular litter input interacts with the abundance and diet-choice of the decomposer community to alter C-processing have, however, not yet been unraveled. We used a novel 13C tracer approach to link invertebrate species composition (Collembola), abundance and species-specific feeding behavior to C-processing of vascular and peat moss litters. We incubated different litter mixtures, 100% Sphagnum moss litter, 100% Betula leaf litter, and a 50/50 mixture of both, in mesocosms for 406 days. We revealed the transfer of C from the litters to the soil invertebrate species by 13C labeling of each of the litter types and assessed 13C signatures of the invertebrates Collembola species composition differed significantly between Sphagnum and Betula litter. Within the 'single type litter' mesocosms, Collembola species showed different 13C signatures, implying species-specific differences in diet choice. Surprisingly, the species composition and Collembola abundance changed relatively little as a consequence of Betula input to a Sphagnum based system. Their diet choice, however, changed drastically; species-specific differences in diet choice disappeared and approximately 67% of the food ingested by all Collembola originated from Betula litter. Furthermore, litter decomposition patterns corresponded to these findings; mass loss of Betula increased from 16.1% to 26.2% when decomposing in combination with Sphagnum, while Sphagnum decomposed even slower in combination with Betula litter (1.9%) than alone (4.7%). This study is the first to empirically show that collective diet shifts of the peatland decomposer community from mosses towards vascular plant litter may drive altered decomposition patterns. In addition, we showed that although species-specific differences in Collembola feeding behavior appear to exist, species are very plastic in their diet. This implies that changes in C turnover rates with vegetation shifts, might well be due to diet shifts of the present decomposer community rather than by changes in species composition.

  2. Machine vision extracted plant movement for early detection of plant water stress.

    PubMed

    Kacira, M; Ling, P P; Short, T H

    2002-01-01

    A methodology was established for early, non-contact, and quantitative detection of plant water stress with machine vision extracted plant features. Top-projected canopy area (TPCA) of the plants was extracted from plant images using image-processing techniques. Water stress induced plant movement was decoupled from plant diurnal movement and plant growth using coefficient of relative variation of TPCA (CRV[TPCA)] and was found to be an effective marker for water stress detection. Threshold value of CRV(TPCA) as an indicator of water stress was determined by a parametric approach. The effectiveness of the sensing technique was evaluated against the timing of stress detection by an operator. Results of this study suggested that plant water stress detection using projected canopy area based features of the plants was feasible. PMID:14674430

  3. Agar-block microcosms for controlled plant tissue decomposition by aerobic fungi.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Jonathan S; Jacobson, K Brook

    2011-01-01

    The two principal methods for studying fungal biodegradation of lignocellulosic plant tissues were developed for wood preservative testing (soil-block; agar-block). It is well-accepted that soil-block microcosms yield higher decay rates, fewer moisture issues, lower variability among studies, and higher thresholds of preservative toxicity. Soil-block testing is thus the more utilized technique and has been standardized by American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) (method D 1413-07). The soil-block design has drawbacks, however, using locally-variable soil sources and in limiting the control of nutrients external (exogenous) to the decaying tissues. These drawbacks have emerged as a problem in applying this method to other, increasingly popular research aims. These modern aims include degrading lignocellulosics for bioenergy research, testing bioremediation of co-metabolized toxics, evaluating oxidative mechanisms, and tracking translocated elements along hyphal networks. Soil-blocks do not lend enough control in these applications. A refined agar-block approach is necessary. Here, we use the brown rot wood-degrading fungus Serpula lacrymans to degrade wood in agar-block microcosms, using deep Petri dishes with low-calcium agar. We test the role of exogenous gypsum on decay in a time-series, to demonstrate the utility and expected variability. Blocks from a single board rip (longitudinal cut) are conditioned, weighed, autoclaved, and introduced aseptically atop plastic mesh. Fungal inoculations are at each block face, with exogenous gypsum added at interfaces. Harvests are aseptic until the final destructive harvest. These microcosms are designed to avoid block contact with agar or Petri dish walls. Condensation is minimized during plate pours and during incubation. Finally, inoculum/gypsum/wood spacing is minimized but without allowing contact. These less technical aspects of agar-block design are also the most common causes of failure and the key source of variability among studies. Video publication is therefore useful in this case, and we demonstrate low-variability, high-quality results. PMID:21339715

  4. Survival strategies of plants during water stress

    SciTech Connect

    Scheuermann, R.; Stuhlfauth, T.; Sueltemeyer, D.; Fock, H.

    1989-04-01

    Fluorescence and gas exchange of bean, maize, sunflower and wooly foxglove were simultaneously measured at 250 {mu}mol quanta/m{sup 2}/s. Under severe water stresses conditions about 40% of the photochemical energy was converted to heat at PS II. This is interpreted as a protective mechanism against photoinhibitory damage when net CO{sub 2} uptake is reduced by about 70%. After {sup 14}CO{sub 2} gas exchange, only in bean was a homogeneous distribution of radioactivity over the leaf observed. In all other plants we found a patchy distribution of regions with either an intensive or a reduced gas exchange. We conclude that CO{sub 2}-recycling (photorespiration and reassimilation) behind closed stomata also contributed to energy dissipation under severe stress conditions.

  5. Temporal Dynamics of Abiotic and Biotic Factors on Leaf Litter of Three Plant Species in Relation to Decomposition Rate along a Subalpine Elevation Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jianxiao; Yang, Wanqin; He, Xinhua

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between abiotic (soil temperature and number of freeze-thaw cycles) or biotic factors (chemical elements, microbial biomass, extracellular enzymes, and decomposer communities in litter) and litter decomposition rates were investigated over two years in subalpine forests close to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. Litterbags with senescent birch, fir, and spruce leaves were placed on the forest floor at 2,704 m, 3,023 m, 3,298 m, and 3,582 m elevation. Results showed that the decomposition rate positively correlated with soil mean temperature during the plant growing season, and with the number of soil freeze-thaw cycles during the winter. Concentrations of soluble nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) had positive effects but C:N and lignin:N ratios had negative effects on the decomposition rate (k), especially during the winter. Meanwhile, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), N (MBN), and P (MBP) were positively correlated with k values during the first growing season. These biotic factors accounted for 60.0% and 56.4% of the variation in decomposition rate during the winter and the growing season in the first year, respectively. Specifically, litter chemistry (C, N, P, K, lignin, C:N and lignin:N ratio) independently explained 29.6% and 13.3%, and the microbe-related factors (MBC, MBN, MBP, bacterial and fungal biomass, sucrase and ACP activity) explained 22.9% and 34.9% during the first winter and the first growing season, respectively. We conclude that frequent freeze-thaw cycles and litter chemical properties determine the winter decomposition while microbe-related factors play more important roles in determining decomposition in the subsequent growing season. PMID:23620803

  6. 27. CUSHMAN POWER PLANT NO. 1, WATER CURVE SPILLWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. CUSHMAN POWER PLANT NO. 1, WATER CURVE - SPILLWAY OVERFLOW CHANNEL. July 1928. Reference BT-109 - Cushman No. 1 Hydroelectric Power Plant, Spillway, North Fork of Skokomish River, 5 miles West of Hood Canal, Hoodsport, Mason County, WA

  7. A theoretical study on decomposition of formic acid in sub- and supercritical water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagasaki, Takuma; Saito, Shinji; Ohmine, Iwao

    2002-10-01

    The mechanisms of the dissociation of formic acid in subcritical and supercritical water are investigated theoretically. In this dissociation, water molecules around a formic acid play a role of a catalyst by transferring a proton along their locally formed hydrogen bond network. There are two channels of the dissociation, that is, the dehydration (HCOOH→CO+H2O) starting from the trans-formed formic acid and the decarboxylation (HCOOH→CO2+H2) from the cis-formed formic acid. The effects of hydration on these channels in sub- and supercritical water are analyzed by calculating the free energy and analyzing the water molecular coordination by the Monte Carlo method and molecular dynamics calculations. It is found that the hydration is stronger in the decarboxylation (via the cis-path) than in the dehydration (via the trans-path). The number of "catalytic" water molecules coordinated to the cis-formed formic acid, leading to decarboxylation, in supercritical is almost the same as that in subcritical water. On the other hand, the catalytic water molecular coordination on the trans-formed formic acid, leading to the dehydration, is found to be much more reduced in supercritical water than that in subcritical water. These facts manifest how the decarboxylation becomes more favorable than the dehydration in supercritical water, whereas both dissociation channels are equally probable in subcritical water.

  8. To prevent the occurrence of black water agglomerate through delaying decomposition of cyanobacterial bloom biomass by sediment microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-Li; Jiang, He-Long; Cai, Hai-Yuan

    2015-04-28

    Settlement of cyanobacterial bloom biomass (CBB) into sediments in eutrophic lakes often induced the occurrence of black water agglomerate and then water quality deterioration. This study investigated the effect of sediment microbial fuel cell (SMFC) on CBB removal in sediments and related water pollution. Sediment bulking and subsequent black water from decomposition of settled CBB happened without SMFC, but were not observed over 100-day experiments with SMFC employment. While CBB in sediments improved power production from SMFC, the removal efficiency of organic matters in CBB-amended sediments with SMFC was significantly lower than that without SMFC. Pyrosequencing analysis showed higher abundances of the fermentative Clostridium and acetoclastic methanogen in CBB-amended bulk sediments without SMFC than with SMFC at the end of experiments. Obviously, SMFC operation changed the microbial community in CBB-amended sediments, and delayed the CBB degradation against sediment bulking. Thus, SMFC could be potentially applied as pollution prevention in CBB-settled and sensitive zones in shallow lakes. PMID:25621829

  9. Investigation of the loss mechanisms of hydroxyl radicals in the decomposition of organic compounds using plasma generated over water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Nozomi; Ando, Mizuki; Yasuoka, Koichi

    2015-11-01

    Many types of plasma processes have been investigated as potential agents for decomposing persistent organic compounds in water using hydroxyl radicals (•OH), and a wide range of energy efficiency in the reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) has been observed. In this study, loss mechanisms of •OH that limit the energy efficiency were investigated using a plasma generated over an acetic acid solution. Various experiments, including the analysis of the decomposition process, a parametric study, and a numerical simulation, revealed that there are two main loss mechanisms: (i) a self-quenching reaction that generates hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and (ii) a reaction of •OH with H2O2 and hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2•). In the solution, •OH reacts with these scavengers rather than target compounds. A pulsed plasma with a low current density, low repetition rate, and short pulse duration can be utilized to achieve high efficiency.

  10. Aquaporins: Highly Regulated Channels Controlling Plant Water Relations1

    PubMed Central

    Chaumont, François; Tyerman, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth and development are dependent on tight regulation of water movement. Water diffusion across cell membranes is facilitated by aquaporins that provide plants with the means to rapidly and reversibly modify water permeability. This is done by changing aquaporin density and activity in the membrane, including posttranslational modifications and protein interaction that act on their trafficking and gating. At the whole organ level aquaporins modify water conductance and gradients at key “gatekeeper” cell layers that impact on whole plant water flow and plant water potential. In this way they may act in concert with stomatal regulation to determine the degree of isohydry/anisohydry. Molecular, physiological, and biophysical approaches have demonstrated that variations in root and leaf hydraulic conductivity can be accounted for by aquaporins but this must be integrated with anatomical considerations. This Update integrates these data and emphasizes the central role played by aquaporins in regulating plant water relations. PMID:24449709

  11. [Litter decomposition and soil faunal diversity of two understory plant debris in the alpine timberline ecotone of western Sichuan in a snow cover season].

    PubMed

    He, Run-lian; Chen, Ya-mei; Deng, Chang-chun; Yan, Wan-qin; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In order to understand the relationship between litter decomposition and soil fauna diversity during snow cover season, litterbags with plant debris of Actinothuidium hookeri, Cystopteris montana, two representative understory plants in the alpine timberline ecotone, and their mixed litter were incubated in the dark coniferous forest, timberline and alpine meadow, respectively. After a snow cover season, the mass loss and soil fauna in litterbags were investigated. After decomposition with a snow cover season, alpine meadow showed the highest mass loss of plant debris in comparison with coniferous forest and timberline, and the mass loss of A. hookeri was more significant. The mixture of two plants debris accelerated the mass loss, especially in the timberline. A total of 968 soil invertebrates, which belonged to 5 classes, 10 orders and 35 families, were captured in litterbags. Acarina and Collembola were the dominant groups in plant debris. The numbers of individuals and groups of soil faunal communities in litter of timberline were higher than those of alpine meadow and dark coniferous forest. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that the groups of soil animals were related closely with the average temperature, and endemic species such as Isoptera and Geophilomorpha were observed only in coniferous forest, while Hemiptera and Psocoptera only in.the alpine meadow. The diversity of soil faunal community was more affected by plant debris varieties in the timberline than in the coniferous forest and alpine meadow. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the average temperature and snow depth explained 30.8% of the variation of litter mass loss rate, soil animals explained 8.3%, and altogether explained 34.1%. Snow was one of the most critical factors impacting the decomposition of A. hookeri and C. montana debris in the alpine timberline ecotone. PMID:26211052

  12. PHOTOREACTIVITY OF CHROMOPHORIC DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER (CDOM) DERIVED FROM DECOMPOSITION OF VARIOUS VASCULAR PLANT AND ALGAL SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in aquatic environments is derived from the microbial decomposition of terrestrial and microbial organic matter. Here we present results of studies of the spectral properties and photoreactivity of the CDOM derived from several organi...

  13. Carbon Assimilation Pathways, Water Relationships and Plant Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etherington, John R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses between-species variation in adaptation of the photosynthetic mechanism to cope with wide fluctuations of environmental water regime. Describes models for water conservation in plants and the role of photorespiration in the evolution of the different pathways. (CW)

  14. Dynamics of phosphorus-iron-sulfur at the sediment-water interface influenced by algae blooms decomposition.

    PubMed

    Han, Chao; Ding, Shiming; Yao, Lei; Shen, Qiushi; Zhu, Chungang; Wang, Yan; Xu, Di

    2015-12-30

    This study addresses the previously unknown effects of algae blooms on the dynamics of phosphorus (P), iron (Fe) and sulfur (S) across a lacustrine sediment-water interface (SWI). A mesocosm experiment was conducted in-situ to investigate these effects based on two recently-developed diffusive gradients in thin-films techniques (DGT). Soluble P, Fe(II), and S(-II) exhibited similar changing trends in a water column subject to the algae addition. Peak concentrations appeared on day 7 of the 16-day experiment. The lowest Eh occurred at the experiment's midway point indicating a strong algae degradation. A maximum increase in DGT-labile S appeared on day 8 near the SWI, while the DGT-labile P and Fe exhibited persistent increases almost to the end of experiment. Significantly positive correlations of labile P were observed switching from between labile Fe and labile S in sediments, suggesting a significant change in original Fe-coupled dynamics of P under algae decomposition. Apparent fluxes were calculated based on DGT profiles where a simultaneous release of P and S occurred from degraded algae, resulting in bidirectional diffusion fluxes from sediment to overlying water. In contrast, sediment acted as a major source of labile Fe due to added depth and apparently positive fluxes. PMID:26207579

  15. The analysis and composition of fatty material produced by the decomposition of herring in sea water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, R.C.; Erickson, E.T.

    1933-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of calcium and magnesium salts of fatty acids derived from herring buried under sea water, and discusses some geochemical possibilities related to the origin of petroleum in sedimentary deposits.

  16. Detection of Plant Water Content with Needle-Type In-Situ Water Content Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayanagi, Hitoshi; Miki, Norihisa

    A needle-type water content sensor with a polyethersulfone (PES) polymer membrane was developed for the low-invasive, direct in-situ measurement of plant water content (PWC) in prior work. In this paper we demonstrate a measurement of plant water stress that represents the demand for water of the plant and greatly affects its sweetness. We inserted the sensor into a stalk of strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) and soil. The variation in both the plant and the soil water content were successfully detected, which revealed the delay between variation in the plant water stress and soil water content after irrigation. Such delay could only be detected by the proposed sensor that could directly measure the variation of PWC in situ and continuously. The experiments also showed the variation in the signals as a function of detection sites and suggested that the detection sites of plant water stress need to be considered when the sensor is applied to irrigation culture.

  17. Measuring Plant Water Status: A Simple Method for Investigative Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Donald H.; Anderson, Jay E.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a method suitable for quantitative studies of plant water status conducted by high school or college students and the calculation of the relative water content (RWC) of a plant. Materials, methods, procedures, and results are discussed, with sample data figures provided. (CS)

  18. BENEFICIAL DISPOSAL OF WATER PURIFICATION PLANT SLUDGES IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the disposal of waste alum sludge from a water treatment plant to a municipal wastewater treatment plant and is submitted in fulfillment of Grant No. 803336-01 by Novato Sanitary District and North Marin County Water Distr...

  19. GARRETT A. MORGAN WATER TREATMENT PLANT, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM BERM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GARRETT A. MORGAN WATER TREATMENT PLANT, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM BERM OF WEST SHOREWAY, SHOWING DIVISION AVENUE PUMPING STATION (AT LEFT), FILTRATION PLANT (CENTER), AND CHEMICAL HOUSE (IN SHADOW AT RIGHT). - Division Avenue Pumping Station & Filtration Plant, West 45th Street and Division Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  20. INTEGRATED STEEL PLANT POLLUTION STUDY FOR TOTAL RECYCLE OF WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an engineering study of five integrated U.S. steel plants to determine how each might ultimately achieve total recycle of water. The plants represent a broad cross section of plant-specific factors (e.g., size, age, location, and available space) that ...

  1. Air-cooled condensers eliminate plant water use

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtz, W.; Peltier, R.

    2008-09-15

    River or ocean water has been the mainstay for condensing turbine exhaust steam since the first steam turbine began generating electricity. A primary challenge facing today's plant developers, especially in drought-prone regions, is incorporating processes that reduce plant water use and consumption. One solution is to shed the conventional mindset that once-through cooling is the only option and adopt dry cooling technologies that reduce plant water use from a flood to a few sips. A case study at the Astoria Energy plant, New York City is described. 14 figs.

  2. The effect of metal salts on the decomposition of sweet sorghum bagasse in flow-through liquid hot water.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiang; Zhuang, Xinshu; Yuan, Zhenhong; Qi, Wei; Wang, Qiong; Tan, Xuesong

    2011-02-01

    The impact of the metal salts NaCl, KCl, CaCl(2), MgCl(2), FeCl(3), FeCl(2), and CuCl(2), particularly the latter, on the decomposition of hemicellulose and lignin from sweet sorghum bagasse in liquid hot water pretreatment processing was studied in an attempt to enhance the recovery of sugars. Transition metal chlorides significantly enhanced the hemicellulose removal compared to the alkaline earth metal chlorides and alkaline metal chlorides, contributing to the formation of a saccharide-metal cation intermediate complex. FeCl(2) greatly increased xylose degradation and about 60% xylan was converted into non-saccharide products. In contrast, an excellent total and monomeric xylose recovery was obtained after the CuCl(2) pretreatment. Most of the lignin was deposited on the surface of the residual solid with droplet morphologies after this pretreatment, and about 20% was degraded into monomeric products. The total recovery of sugars from sweet sorghum bagasse with 0.1% CuCl(2) solution pretreatment and 48 h enzymatic digestibility, reached 90.4%, which is superior to the recovery using hot water pretreatment only. PMID:21071212

  3. Plant experience with temporary reverse osmosis makeup water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Polidoroff, C.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric (PG and E) Company's Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP), which is located on California's central coast, has access to three sources of raw water: creek water, well water, and seawater. Creek and well water are DCPP's primary sources of raw water; however, because their supply is limited, these sources are supplemented with seawater. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the temporary, rental, reverse osmosis systems used by PG and E to process DCPP's raw water into water suitable for plant makeup. This paper addresses the following issues: the selection of reverse osmosis over alternative water processing technologies; the decision to use vendor-operated temporary, rental, reverse osmosis equipment versus permanent PG and E-owned and -operated equipment; the performance of DCPP's rental reverse osmosis systems; and, the lessons learned from DCPP's reverse osmosis system rental experience that might be useful to other plants considering renting similar equipment.

  4. A thermochemical data bank for cycle analysis. [water decomposition for hydrogen production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carty, R.; Funk, J.; Conger, W.; Soliman, M.; Cox, K.

    1976-01-01

    The use of the computer program PAC-2 to produce a thermodynamic data bank for various materials used in water-splitting cycles is described. The sources of raw data and a listing of 439 materials for which data are presently available are presented. This paper also discusses the use of the data bank in conjunction with two other programs, CEC-72 and HYDRGN. The integration of these three programs implement an evaluation procedure for thermochemical water splitting cycles. CEC-72 is a program used to predict the equilibrium composition of the various chemical reactions in the cycle. HYDRGN is a program which is used to calculate changes in thermodynamic properties, work of separation, amount of recycle, internal heat regeneration, total thermal energy and process thermal efficiency for a thermochemical cycle.

  5. Effect of Electrolytes on the Decomposition of Dye by Pulsed Discharge in Air Spraying Water Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nose, Taisuke; Yokoyama, Yuzo; Minamitani, Yasushi

    Effect of electrolytes on the decolorization of indigo carmine and on the production of H2O2 by pulsed discharge in air spraying water droplets was performed in sodium chloride and magnesium sulfate solutions. Peak voltage of the discharge decreased with increasing solution conductivity, but peak current and discharge energy increased. Decolorization rate and decolorization efficiency of indigo carmine and the yield of H2O2 decreased with increasing chloride and sulfate ion concentrations. It was found that the decolorization of indigo carmine and the production of H2O2 are affected by the ion concentration even in the case of discharge in air spraying water droplets. However it was less effective than that of discharge in water. Chloride ion was more effective than sulfate ion regarding the decrease of decolorization rate and the production of H2O2. Decolorization rate of indigo carmine was strongly related to the production of H2O2. These results also indicated that decolorization of indigo carmine depends on the production of hydroxyl radical.

  6. Water resource management planning guide for Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, J.E.; Stephenson, D.E.; Steele, J.L. and Co., Aiken, SC . Savannah River Lab.); Gordon, D.E. and Co., Aiken, SC . Savannah River Plant)

    1988-10-01

    The Water Resource Management Planning Guide provides an outline for the development of a Savannah River Plant Water Resource Management Plan (WRMP) to protect, manage, and monitor the site's water resources. The management plan is based on three principle elements: (1) protection of the water quality, (2) management of the water quantity, and (3) monitoring of the water quality and quantity. The plan will assure that changes in water quality and quantity are identified and that corrective action is implemented as needed. In addition, water management activities within and between Savannah River Plant (SRP) organizations and departments will be coordinated to ensure the proper management of water resources. This document is intended as a guide to suggest goals and objectives that will provide a basis for the development of a water resource plan for SRP. Planning should be flexible rather than rigid, and the plan outlines in this document was prepared to be modified or updated as conditions necessitate. 16 refs., 12 figs.

  7. A molecular dynamics study of model SI clathrate hydrates: the effect of guest size and guest-water interaction on decomposition kinetics.

    PubMed

    Das, Subhadip; Baghel, Vikesh Singh; Roy, Sudip; Kumar, Rajnish

    2015-04-14

    One of the options suggested for methane recovery from natural gas hydrates is molecular replacement of methane by suitable guests like CO2 and N2. This approach has been found to be feasible through many experimental and molecular dynamics simulation studies. However, the long term stability of the resultant hydrate needs to be evaluated; the decomposition rate of these hydrates is expected to depend on the interaction between these guest and water molecules. In this work, molecular dynamics simulation has been performed to illustrate the effect of guest molecules with different sizes and interaction strengths with water on structure I (SI) hydrate decomposition and hence the stability. The van der Waals interaction between water of hydrate cages and guest molecules is defined by Lennard Jones potential parameters. A wide range of parameter spaces has been scanned by changing the guest molecules in the SI hydrate, which acts as a model gas for occupying the small and large cages of the SI hydrate. All atomistic simulation results show that the stability of the hydrate is sensitive to the size and interaction of the guest molecules with hydrate water. The increase in the interaction of guest molecules with water stabilizes the hydrate, which in turn shows a slower rate of hydrate decomposition. Similarly guest molecules with a reasonably small (similar to Helium) or large size increase the decomposition rate. The results were also analyzed by calculating the structural order parameter to understand the dynamics of crystal structure and correlated with the release rate of guest molecules from the solid hydrate phase. The results have been explained based on the calculation of potential energies felt by guest molecules in amorphous water, hydrate bulk and hydrate-water interface regions. PMID:25767053

  8. INFLUENCE OF DECOMPOSITION ON CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PLANT-AND MANURE-DERIVED DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER AND SORPTION TO GOETHITE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorption of dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in maintaining the fertility and quality of soils in agricultural ecosystems. Few studies have examined the effects of decomposition on DOM sorption and chemical characteristics. This study investigated the sorption to goethite of ...

  9. CHANGES IN MASS AND CHEMISTRY OF PLANT ROOTS DURING LONG-TERM DECOMPOSITION ON A CHIHUAHUAN DESERT WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    We studied the spatial and temporal patterns of decomposition of roots of a desert sub-shrub, a herbaceous annual, and four species of perennial grasses at several locations on nitrogen fertilized and unfertilized transects on a Chihuahuan Desert watershed for 3.5 years. There we...

  10. Oxidative decomposition of p-nitroaniline in water by solar photo-Fenton advanced oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian-Hui; Sun, Sheng-Peng; Fan, Mao-Hong; Guo, Hui-Qin; Lee, Yi-Fan; Sun, Rui-Xia

    2008-05-01

    The degradation of p-nitroaniline (PNA) in water by solar photo-Fenton advanced oxidation process was investigated in this study. The effects of different reaction parameters including pH value of solutions, dosages of hydrogen peroxide and ferrous ion, initial PNA concentration and temperature on the degradation of PNA have been studied. The optimum conditions for the degradation of PNA in water were considered to be: the pH value at 3.0, 10 mmol L(-1) H(2)O(2), 0.05 mmol L(-1) Fe(2+), 0.072-0.217 mmol L(-1) PNA and temperature at 20 degrees C. Under the optimum conditions, the degradation efficiencies of PNA were more than 98% within 30 min reaction. The degradation characteristic of PNA showed that the conjugated pi systems of the aromatic ring in PNA molecules were effectively destructed. The experimental results indicated solar photo-Fenton process has more advantages compared with classical Fenton process, such as higher oxidation power, wider working pH range, lower ferrous ion usage, etc. Furthermore, the present study showed the potential use of solar photo-Fenton process for PNA containing wastewater treatment. PMID:17889432

  11. Resistance to Water Flow in the Sorghum Plant 1

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Wayne S.; Ritchie, Joe T.

    1980-01-01

    Knowledge of the location and magnitude of the resistance to water flow in a plant is fundamental for describing whole plant response to water stress. The reported magnitudes of these resistances vary widely, principally because of the difficulty of measuring water potential within the plant. A number of interrelated experiments are described in which the water potential of a covered, nontranspiring leaf attached to a transpiring sorghum plant (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) was used as a measure of the potential at the root-shoot junction. This allowed a descriptive evaluation of plant resistance to be made. The water potentials of a covered, nontranspiring leaf and a nonabsorbing root in solution, both attached to an otherwise actively transpiring and absorbing plant, were found to be similar. This supported the hypothesis that covered leaf water potential was equilibrating at a point shared by the vascular connections of both leaves and roots, i.e. the nodal complex of the root-shoot junction or crown. The difference in potential between a covered and exposed leaf together with calculated individual leaf transpiration rates were used to evaluate the resistance between the plant crown and the exposed leaf lamina called the connection resistance. There was an apparent decrease in the connection resistance as the transpiration rate increased; this is qualitatively explained as plant capacitance. Assuming that the covered leaf water potential was equal to that in the root xylem at the point of water absorption in the experimental plants with relatively short root axes, calculated radial root resistances were strongly dependent on the transpiration rate. For plants with moderate to high transpiration rates the roots had a slightly larger resistance than the shoots. PMID:16661138

  12. Formate ion decomposition in water under UV irradiation at 253.7 nm.

    PubMed

    Talu, Gonca F; Diyamandoglu, Vasil

    2004-07-15

    Formate ion (HCO2-) occurs in natural waters as a result of photooxidation of humic substances. Under UV irradiation, as applied in water purification (253.7 nm), formate ion decomposed following split-rate pseudo-zero-order kinetics (k1 and k2 are initial and final rate constants, respectively). In the presence of dissolved oxygen (DO), it was found that (a) k1 < k2, (b) k1 and k2 increased with initial formate ion concentration ([HCO2-]0 = (1.73-38.3) x 10(-5) mol L(-1)) and absorbed UV intensity (Ia = (1.38-3.99) x 10(-6) mol quanta L(-1) s(-1)), and (c) k1 and k2 were relatively insensitive to initial pH (pHo = 5.41-8.97) in buffer-free solutions. Both rate constants decreased with increasing carbonate alkalinity ((0-1.0) x 10(-3) mol L(-1)) and k1 was virtually unchanged in phosphate buffer at pH0 between 5.25 and 9.92. Carbonate buffer lowered the rate of formate ion decay, possibly due to scavenging of OH* radicals. Initial rate constant k1 slightly increased with temperature (15-35 degrees C), while k2 remained unchanged. The reaction pH increased rapidly during irradiation of buffer-free NaHCO2 solution to approach an equilibrium level as [HCO2-] reached the method detection level (MDL). The pH profile of buffer-free formate ion decay was estimated using closed-system equilibrium analysis. DO utilization during UV irradiation was 0.5 mol of O2/mol of HCO2-, while nonpurgeable organic carbon (NPOC) measurements on kinetic samples closely followed the HCO2- profile, thus strongly suggesting the transformation of HCO2- -C to CO2 in the presence of DO. In DO-free water, k1 > k2 was observed. Furthermore, k(1,DO FREE) > k(1,DO) (k(1,DO) = k1) and k(2,DO FREE) < k(2,DO) (k(2,DO) = k2). The effect of dual acid solutions on HCO2- decay was examined in a mixture of NaHCO2 and sodium oxalate (Na2C2O4). HCO2- decomposed readily until [HCO2-] approximately equal to MDL but at a lower rate than in buffer-free HCO2- solutions, while C2O4(2-) remained virtually unchanged. C2O4(2-) decay commenced following near complete conversion of HCO2-. PMID:15298210

  13. The crystallization water of gypsum rocks is a relevant water source for plants.

    PubMed

    Palacio, Sara; Azorn, Jos; Montserrat-Mart, Gabriel; Ferrio, Juan Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Some minerals, like gypsum, hold water in their crystalline structure. Although still unexplored, the use of such crystallization water by organisms would point to a completely new water source for life, critical under dry conditions. Here we use the fact that the isotopic composition of free water differs from gypsum crystallization water to show that plants can use crystallization water from the gypsum structure. The composition of the xylem sap of gypsum plants during summer shows closer values to gypsum crystallization water than to free soil water. Crystallization water represents a significant water source for organisms growing on gypsum, especially during summer, when it accounts for 70-90% of the water used by shallow-rooted plants. Given the widespread occurrence of gypsum in dry lands throughout the Earth and in Mars, these results may have important implications for arid land reclamation and exobiology. PMID:25130772

  14. Water use, productivity and interactions among desert plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ehleringer, J.R.

    1992-11-17

    Water plays a central role affecting all aspects of the dynamics in aridland ecosystems. Productivity, stability, and competitive interactions among ecosystem components within aridlands are key processes related directly to water in deserts. The ecological studies in this project revolve around one fundamental premise: that integrated aspects of plant metabolism provide insight into the structure and function of plant communities and ecosystems. While it is difficult to extrapolate from instantaneous physiological observations to higher scales, such as whole plant performance or to interactions between plants as components of ecosystems, several key aspects of plant metabolism are scalable. Analyses of stable isotopic composition in plant tissues at natural abundance levels provide a useful tool that can provide insight into the consequences of physiological processes over temporal and spatial scales. Some plant processes continuously fractionate among light and heavy stable isotopic forms of an element; over time this results in integrated measures of plant metabolism. For example, carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthesis results in leaf carbon isotopic composition that is a measure of the set-point for photosynthetic metabolism and of water-use efficiency. Thus it provides information on the temporal scaling of a key physiological process. In contrast, hydrogen is not fractionated during water uptake through the root. Soil water availability in shallow, deep, and/or groundwater layers vary spatially; therefore hydrogen isotope ratios of xylem sap provide a direct measure of the water source currently used by a plant. The longer-term record of carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios is recorded annually in xylem tissues (tree rings). The research in this project addresses variation in stable isotopic composition of aridland plants and its consequences for plant performance and community-level interactions.

  15. Phase field modelling of spinodal decomposition in the oil/water/asphaltene system.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Gyula I; Kvamme, Bjørn

    2015-08-21

    In this paper the quantitative applicability of van der Sman/van der Graaf type Ginzburg-Landau theories of surfactant assisted phase separation [van der Sman et al., Rheol. Acta, 2006, 46, 3] is studied for real systems displaying high surfactant concentrations at the liquid-liquid interface. The model is applied for the water/heptane/asphaltene system (a model of heavy crude oil), for which recent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations provide microscopic data needed to calibrate the theory. A list of general requirements is set up first, which is then followed by analytical calculations of the equilibrium properties of the system, such as the equilibrium liquid densities, the adsorption isotherm and the interfacial tension. Based on the results of these calculations, the model parameters are then determined numerically, yielding a reasonable reproduction of the MD density profiles. The results of time-dependent simulations addressing the dynamical behaviour of the system will also be presented. It will be shown that the competition between the diffusion and hydrodynamic time scales can lead to the formation of an emulsion. We also address the main difficulties and limitations of the theory regarding quantitative modelling of surfactant assisted liquid phase separation. PMID:26185915

  16. Application of 2D-Nonlinear Shallow Water Model of Tsunami by using Adomian Decomposition Method

    SciTech Connect

    Waewcharoen, Sribudh; Boonyapibanwong, Supachai; Koonprasert, Sanoe

    2008-09-01

    One of the most important questions in tsunami modeling is the estimation of tsunami run-up heights at different points along a coastline. Methods for numerical simulation of tsunami wave propagation in deep and shallow seas are well developed and have been widely used by many scientists (2001-2008). In this paper, we consider a two-dimensional nonlinear shallow water model of tsunami given by Tivon Jacobson is work [1]. u{sub t}+uu{sub x}+{nu}u{sub y} -c{sup 2}(h{sub x}+(h{sub b}){sub x}) {nu}{sub t}+u{nu}{sub x}+{nu}{nu}{sub y} = -c{sup 2}(h{sub y}+(h{sub b}){sub y}) h{sub t}+(hu){sub x}+(h{nu}){sub y} = 0 g-shore, h is surface elevation and s, t is time, u is velocity of cross-shore, {nu} is velocity of along-shore, h is surface elevation and h{sub b} is function of shore. This is a nondimensionalized model with the gravity g and constant reference depth H factored into c = {radical}(gH). We apply the Adomian Decompostion Method (ADM) to solve the tsunami model. This powerful method has been used to obtain explicit and numerical solutions of three types of diffusion-convection-reaction (DECR) equations. The ADM results for the tsunami model yield analytical solutions in terms of a rapidly convergent infinite power series. Symbolic computation, numerical results and graphs of solutions are obtained by Maple program.

  17. Ozone decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Batakliev, Todor; Georgiev, Vladimir; Anachkov, Metody; Rakovsky, Slavcho

    2014-01-01

    Catalytic ozone decomposition is of great significance because ozone is a toxic substance commonly found or generated in human environments (aircraft cabins, offices with photocopiers, laser printers, sterilizers). Considerable work has been done on ozone decomposition reported in the literature. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the literature, concentrating on analysis of the physico-chemical properties, synthesis and catalytic decomposition of ozone. This is supplemented by a review on kinetics and catalyst characterization which ties together the previously reported results. Noble metals and oxides of transition metals have been found to be the most active substances for ozone decomposition. The high price of precious metals stimulated the use of metal oxide catalysts and particularly the catalysts based on manganese oxide. It has been determined that the kinetics of ozone decomposition is of first order importance. A mechanism of the reaction of catalytic ozone decomposition is discussed, based on detailed spectroscopic investigations of the catalytic surface, showing the existence of peroxide and superoxide surface intermediates. PMID:26109880

  18. Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Stephen W.; Morrow, Charles W.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Dwyer, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane distillation (MD) systems may be a technology that can use the low temperature waste heat (<100 F) to treat water. By their nature, they operate at low temperature and usually low pressure. This study investigates the use of MD to recover water from typical power plants. It looks at recovery from three heat producing locations (boiler blow down, steam diverted from bleed streams, and the cooling water system) within a power plant, providing process sketches, heat and material balances and equipment sizing for recovery schemes using MD for each of these locations. It also provides insight into life cycle cost tradeoffs between power production and incremental capital costs.

  19. [A field study of tundra plant litter decomposition rate via mass loss and carbon dioxide emission: the role of biotic and abiotic controls, biotope, season of year, and spatial-temporal scale].

    PubMed

    Pochikalov, A V; Karelin, D V

    2014-01-01

    Although many recently published original papers and reviews deal with plant matter decomposition rates and their controls, we are still very short in understanding of these processes in boreal and high latiude plant communities, especially in permafrost areas of our planet. First and foremost, this is holds true for winter period. Here, we present the results of 2-year field observations in south taiga and south shrub tundra ecosystems in European Russia. We pioneered in simultaneous application of two independent methods: classic mass loss estimation by litter-bag technique, and direct measurement of CO2 emission (respiration) of the same litter bags with different types of dead plant matter. Such an approach let us to reconstruct intra-seasonal dynamics of decomposition rates of the main tundra litter fractions with high temporal resolution, to estimate the partial role of different seasons and defragmentation in the process of plant matter decomposition, and to determine its factors under different temporal scale. PMID:25771676

  20. Use of reclaimed water for power plant cooling.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-10-16

    Freshwater demands are steadily increasing throughout the United States. As its population increases, more water is needed for domestic use (drinking, cooking, cleaning, etc.) and to supply power and food. In arid parts of the country, existing freshwater supplies are not able to meet the increasing demands for water. New water users are often forced to look to alternative sources of water to meet their needs. Over the past few years, utilities in many locations, including parts of the country not traditionally water-poor (e.g., Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, and North Carolina) have needed to reevaluate the availability of water to meet their cooling needs. This trend will only become more extreme with time. Other trends are likely to increase pressure on freshwater supplies, too. For example, as populations increase, they will require more food. This in turn will likely increase demands for water by the agricultural sector. Another example is the recent increased interest in producing biofuels. Additional water will be required to grow more crops to serve as the raw materials for biofuels and to process the raw materials into biofuels. This report provides information about an opportunity to reuse an abundant water source -- treated municipal wastewater, also known as 'reclaimed water' -- for cooling and process water in electric generating facilities. The report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Innovations for Existing Plants research program (Feeley 2005). This program initiated an energy-water research effort in 2003 that includes the availability and use of 'nontraditional sources' of water for use at power plants. This report represents a unique reference for information on the use of reclaimed water for power plant cooling. In particular, the database of reclaimed water user facilities described in Chapter 2 is the first comprehensive national effort to identify and catalog those plants that are using reclaimed water for cooling.

  1. Lignocellulose decomposition by microbial secretions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems is contingent upon the natural resistance of plant cell wall polymers to rapid biological degradation. Nevertheless, certain microorganisms have evolved remarkable means to overcome this natural resistance. Lignocellulose decomposition by microorganisms com...

  2. Mixing Effects of Understory Plant Litter on Decomposition and Nutrient Release of Tree Litter in Two Plantations in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lei; Hu, Ya-Lin; Lin, Gui-Gang; Gao, Yong-chao; Fang, Yun-Ting; Zeng, De-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Understory vegetation plays a crucial role in carbon and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems; however, it is not clear how understory species affect tree litter decomposition and nutrient dynamics. In this study, we examined the impacts of understory litter on the decomposition and nutrient release of tree litter both in a pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) and a poplar (Populus xiaozhuanica) plantation in Northeast China. Leaf litter of tree species, and senesced aboveground materials from two dominant understory species, Artemisia scoparia and Setaria viridis in the pine stand and Elymus villifer and A. sieversiana in the poplar stand, were collected. Mass loss and N and P fluxes of single-species litter and three-species mixtures in each of the two forests were quantified. Data from single-species litterbags were used to generate predicted mass loss and N and P fluxes for the mixed-species litterbags. In the mixture from the pine stand, the observed mass loss and N release did not differ from the predicted value, whereas the observed P release was greater than the predicted value. However, the presence of understory litter decelerated the mass loss and did not affect N and P releases from the pine litter. In the poplar stand, litter mixture presented a positive non-additive effect on litter mass loss and P release, but an addition effect on N release. The presence of understory species accelerated only N release of poplar litter. Moreover, the responses of mass loss and N and P releases of understory litter in the mixtures varied with species in both pine and poplar plantations. Our results suggest that the effects of understory species on tree litter decomposition vary with tree species, and also highlight the importance of understory species in litter decomposition and nutrient cycles in forest ecosystems. PMID:24143184

  3. Decommissioning a boiling water reactor nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Oak, H.D.; Holter, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to develop plans for and evaluate the costs and safety of conceptually decommissioning a reference boiling water reactor (BWR) nuclear power plant.

  4. MICROORGANISMS AND HIGHER PLANTS FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Batch experiments were conducted to compare the waste water treatment efficiencies of plant-free microbial filters with filters supporting the growth of reeds (Phragmites communis), cattail (Typha latifolia), rush (Juncus effusus), and bamboo (Bambusa multiplex). The experimental...

  5. 3. INTERIOR OF THE WATER FILTRATION PLANT SHOWING REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR OF THE WATER FILTRATION PLANT SHOWING REMAINS OF THE FILTRATION APPARATUS. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  6. 1. VIEW OF THE WATER FILTRATION PLANT FROM THE ACCESS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF THE WATER FILTRATION PLANT FROM THE ACCESS ROAD, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  7. Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  8. COMPUTER COST MODELS FOR POTABLE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of computer programs have been developed which calculate costs for specific unit treatment processes used in water treatment plants. The programs contained in this report are as follows: chlorination, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and granular activated carbon adsorption. Tab...

  9. GARRETT A. MORGAN WATER TREATMENT PLANT, LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM BERM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GARRETT A. MORGAN WATER TREATMENT PLANT, LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM BERM OF WEST SHOREWAY. DIVISION AVENUE PUMPING STATION AT RIGHT. NEW PUMPING STATION, NEARING COMPLETION, AT LEFT. - Division Avenue Pumping Station & Filtration Plant, West 45th Street and Division Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  10. GARRETT A. MORGAN WATER TREATMENT PLANT, LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM BERM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GARRETT A. MORGAN WATER TREATMENT PLANT, LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM BERM OF WEST SHOREWAY, SHOWING (CLOCKWISE FROM LEFT) CHEMICAL BUILDING, PUMPING STATION, FILTRATION/ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, AND FLOCCULATION BUILDING (IN FOREGROUND). - Division Avenue Pumping Station & Filtration Plant, West 45th Street and Division Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  11. 7. ONE OF THREE CIRCULATING WATER PUMPS FOR STEAM PLANT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ONE OF THREE CIRCULATING WATER PUMPS FOR STEAM PLANT, LOCATED ON FIRST FLOOR UNDER TURBINE DECK. VIEW OF PUMP LOCATED FARTHEST NORTH. November 13, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. Global distribution of plant-extractable water capacity of soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunne, K.A.; Willmott, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Plant-extractable water capacity of soil is the amount of water that can be extracted from the soil to fulfill evapotranspiration demands. It is often assumed to be spatially invariant in large-scale computations of the soil-water balance. Empirical evidence, however, suggests that this assumption is incorrect. In this paper, we estimate the global distribution of the plant-extractable water capacity of soil. A representative soil profile, characterized by horizon (layer) particle size data and thickness, was created for each soil unit mapped by FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)/Unesco. Soil organic matter was estimated empirically from climate data. Plant rooting depths and ground coverages were obtained from a vegetation characteristic data set. At each 0.5?? ?? 0.5?? grid cell where vegetation is present, unit available water capacity (cm water per cm soil) was estimated from the sand, clay, and organic content of each profile horizon, and integrated over horizon thickness. Summation of the integrated values over the lesser of profile depth and root depth produced an estimate of the plant-extractable water capacity of soil. The global average of the estimated plant-extractable water capacities of soil is 8??6 cm (Greenland, Antarctica and bare soil areas excluded). Estimates are less than 5, 10 and 15 cm - over approximately 30, 60, and 89 per cent of the area, respectively. Estimates reflect the combined effects of soil texture, soil organic content, and plant root depth or profile depth. The most influential and uncertain parameter is the depth over which the plant-extractable water capacity of soil is computed, which is usually limited by root depth. Soil texture exerts a lesser, but still substantial, influence. Organic content, except where concentrations are very high, has relatively little effect.

  13. Decomposition techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Sample decomposition is a fundamental and integral step in the procedure of geochemical analysis. It is often the limiting factor to sample throughput, especially with the recent application of the fast and modern multi-element measurement instrumentation. The complexity of geological materials makes it necessary to choose the sample decomposition technique that is compatible with the specific objective of the analysis. When selecting a decomposition technique, consideration should be given to the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sample, elements to be determined, precision and accuracy requirements, sample throughput, technical capability of personnel, and time constraints. This paper addresses these concerns and discusses the attributes and limitations of many techniques of sample decomposition along with examples of their application to geochemical analysis. The chemical properties of reagents as to their function as decomposition agents are also reviewed. The section on acid dissolution techniques addresses the various inorganic acids that are used individually or in combination in both open and closed systems. Fluxes used in sample fusion are discussed. The promising microwave-oven technology and the emerging field of automation are also examined. A section on applications highlights the use of decomposition techniques for the determination of Au, platinum group elements (PGEs), Hg, U, hydride-forming elements, rare earth elements (REEs), and multi-elements in geological materials. Partial dissolution techniques used for geochemical exploration which have been treated in detail elsewhere are not discussed here; nor are fire-assaying for noble metals and decomposition techniques for X-ray fluorescence or nuclear methods be discussed. ?? 1992.

  14. Optical fluorescence biosensor for plant water stress detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Jenny P. C.; Liew, O. W.; Li, B. Q.; Asundi, A. K.

    2007-05-01

    Precision farming in arable agriculture and horticulture allows conservative use of resources that are applied according to plant needs. The growing concern for sustainability in crop production has accentuated the significance of our work to develop a rapid, sensitive and non-destructive spectroscopic method for real-time monitoring of plant water stress. Elucidation of crop water status before the onset of irreversible cellular damage is critical for effective water management to ensure maximum crop yield and profit margin. A two-component bio-sensing system comprising transgenic 'Indicator Plants' and a spectrometer-linked stereoscopic microscope was developed to detect early signs of water stress before the permanent wilting point is reached. The 'Indicator Plants' are transgenic Petunia hybrida genetically engineered with a drought-responsive promoter-linked enhanced green fluorescent protein marker gene (EGFP). No EGFP fluorescence was detected prior to induction of dehydration stress. Fluorescence emission intensity increased with dehydration period and was found mainly in the stems, leaf veins and leaf tips. While fluorescence emission above endogenous background was detectable after 2 hours of water stress treatment, the plants reached permanent wilting point after 6 hours, showing that our system was able to detect water stress prior to plant entry into the stage of irreversible damage. Future work will be geared towards overcoming biological and instrument-related difficulties encountered in our initial detection system.

  15. [Disinfection of sewage waters from rendering plants with peracetic acid].

    PubMed

    Meyer, E

    1976-01-01

    In our experiments, peracetic acid--known in commerce as "Wolfasteril" was tested as a new and efficient disinfectant to disinfect sewage waters from rendering plants. Peracetic acid was used in experiments in concentration of 0.1 to 1.0% for 30 sec. to 60 min. As a comparative agent, 5% chloramine was used. Results obtained in preliminary and main experiments proved that peracetic acid is fully appropriate to disinfect biologically cleaned sewage waters in rendering plants. Sewage waters supplying the main stream has to pass mostly a short section after having left the water clarifier. Consequently, the concentration of 1% peracetic acid acting for 30 sec. is the optimum one. The recommendation of this application norm for peracetic acid in water clarifiers from rendering plants being at least suitable in controlling disasters. PMID:1033220

  16. OZONATION AND BIOLOGICAL STABILITY OF WATER IN AN OPERATING WATER TREATMENT PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozonation of drinking water may adversely affect the biological stability of the inished water. his study was designed assess the effect of ozone as a preoxidant on the nutrient status of water treated in a full-scale water treatment plant. he study was conducted over a ten week ...

  17. DOSE CONTROLLER FOR AGUACLARA WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The expected results include a proven design for a gravity powered dose controller that works for calcium hypochlorite or aluminum sulfate solutions. The dose controller will be coupled with plant flow rate measuring systems that have compatible relationships between flow rate...

  18. Prediction of the effects of nutrient loadings from a power plant at Perryman on the water quality of the Bush River estuary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K.A.; Dwyer, R.L.; Turner, M.A.

    1986-10-01

    A water-quality model consisting of a one-dimensional Hydraulic Module coupled with a Water Quality Module was used to assess the effects of increased nutrient loadings from the proposed Perryman Power Plant on the dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll-a concentrations in the Bush River estuary. The Hydraulic Module represented the longitudinal water movement (and physical transport of associated constituents) among 12 spatial segments. The Water Quality Module represented the biological processes affecting nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorophyll-a, and dissolved oxygen in each segment (e.g., photosynthesis, nutrient uptake, decomposition).

  19. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CROP BIOMASS IMPACTS ITS DECOMPOSITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the interaction between plant components and their subsequent decomposition provides insights on how plant quality differences may influence carbon (C) sequestration within a given management system. Our hypothesis was that decomposition is a function of biochemical composition when al...

  20. Case history advanced coatings for water treatment plant components

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, L.D.; Kumar, A.

    2008-12-15

    Components of water treatment plants (WTPs) are susceptible to corrosion from constant immersion in water. A case history of corrosion and proximity to chlorine problems and their treatment at an Army WTP is presented. Solutions included using high micro-silica restoration mortar and advanced coal tar epoxy coatings.

  1. INORGANIC CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT RESIDUALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study obtained field data on the inorganic contaminants and constituents in residuals produced by Water Treatment Plants (WTPs). Eight WTPs were studied based on treatment technology, contamination or suspected contamination of raw water, and efficiency in the removal of cont...

  2. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents a long term performance study of two iron removal water treatment plants to remove arsenic from drinking water sources. Performance information was collected from one system located in midwest for one full year and at the second system located in the farwest...

  3. On photochemistry of water in solid Xe: Thermal and light-induced decomposition of HXeOH and HXeH and formation of H2O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khriachtchev, Leonid; Tanskanen, Hanna; Pettersson, Mika; Rsnen, Markku; Ahokas, Jussi; Kunttu, Henrik; Feldman, Vladimir

    2002-04-01

    A photochemical study of water (H2 16O, H2 18O, D2 16O, and D2 18O) in solid Xe is described. The water-Xe samples were irradiated at 193 nm and then annealed at 40-50 K, which led to formation of various isotopomers of Xe-containing molecules, HXeOH and HXeH. This diffusion-controlled formation of HXeH and HXeOH consumes the main part of hydrogen atoms generated in the matrix during photolysis. Both photodecomposition profiles and ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectra of HXeOH and HXeH feature a broad absorption band of these species around 240 nm corresponding to the transition to the repulsive excited states. It is also found that HXeOH and HXeH molecules can be thermally destroyed in similar time scales of 10 min at about 54 and 66 K, respectively. This clear difference between the decomposition temperatures for HXeOH and HXeH suggests the intrinsic basis of the decomposition process, which possibly occurs over the barriers of the bending coordinates. The absence of strong H-D isotope effect in this thermal decomposition indicates that tunneling of hydrogen is not essentially involved in the process at these temperatures. However, the local disorder of a Xe matrix seems to produce inhomogeneous broadening of the activation energies of the decomposition as indicated by the observed nonexponential decay kinetics. Upon photolysis and annealing of the H2O-Xe samples, monomeric and complexed hydrogen peroxide is formed originating, at least partially, from water clusters stabilized in solid Xe. In addition, we report the vibrational data on various isotopomers of HXeH, HXeOH, H2O, OH, and OH⋯H2O isolated in solid Xe.

  4. Plants for water recycling, oxygen regeneration and food production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    During long-duration space missions that require recycling and regeneration of life support materials the major human wastes to be converted to usable forms are CO2, hygiene water, urine and feces. A Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) relies on the air revitalization, water purification and food production capabilities of higher plants to rejuvenate human wastes and replenish the life support materials. The key processes in such a system are photosynthesis, whereby green plants utilize light energy to produce food and oxygen while removing CO2 from the atmosphere, and transpiration, the evaporation of water from the plant. CELSS research has emphasized the food production capacity and efforts to minimize the area/volume of higher plants required to satisfy all human life support needs. Plants are a dynamic system capable of being manipulated to favour the supply of individual products as desired. The size and energy required for a CELSS that provides virtually all human needs are determined by the food production capacity. Growing conditions maximizing food production do not maximize transpiration of water; conditions favoring transpiration and scaling to recycle only water significantly reduces the area, volume, and energy inputs per person. Likewise, system size can be adjusted to satisfy the air regeneration needs. Requirements of a waste management system supplying inputs to maintain maximum plant productivity are clear. The ability of plants to play an active role in waste processing and the consequence in terms of degraded plant performance are not well characterized. Plant-based life support systems represent the only potential for self sufficiency and food production in an extra-terrestrial habitat.

  5. Plants for water recycling, oxygen regeneration and food production.

    PubMed

    Bubenheim, D L

    1991-10-01

    During long-duration space missions that require recycling and regeneration of life support materials the major human wastes to be converted to usable forms are CO2, hygiene water, urine and feces. A Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) relies on the air revitalization, water purification and food production capabilities of higher plants to rejuvenate human wastes and replenish the life support materials. The key processes in such a system are photosynthesis, whereby green plants utilize light energy to produce food and oxygen while removing CO2 from the atmosphere, and transpiration, the evaporation of water from the plant. CELSS research has emphasized the food production capacity and efforts to minimize the area/volume of higher plants required to satisfy all human life support needs. Plants are a dynamic system capable of being manipulated to favour the supply of individual products as desired. The size and energy required for a CELSS that provides virtually all human needs are determined by the food production capacity. Growing conditions maximizing food production do not maximize transpiration of water; conditions favoring transpiration and scaling to recycle only water significantly reduces the area, volume, and energy inputs per person. Likewise, system size can be adjusted to satisfy the air regeneration needs. Requirements of a waste management system supplying inputs to maintain maximum plant productivity are clear. The ability of plants to play an active role in waste processing and the consequence in terms of degraded plant performance are not well characterized. Plant-based life support systems represent the only potential for self sufficiency and food production in an extra-terrestrial habitat. PMID:11537696

  6. Investigating water transport through the xylem network in vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hae Koo; Park, Joonghyuk; Hwang, Ildoo

    2014-04-01

    Our understanding of physical and physiological mechanisms depends on the development of advanced technologies and tools to prove or re-evaluate established theories, and test new hypotheses. Water flow in land plants is a fascinating phenomenon, a vital component of the water cycle, and essential for life on Earth. The cohesion-tension theory (CTT), formulated more than a century ago and based on the physical properties of water, laid the foundation for our understanding of water transport in vascular plants. Numerous experimental tools have since been developed to evaluate various aspects of the CTT, such as the existence of negative hydrostatic pressure. This review focuses on the evolution of the experimental methods used to study water transport in plants, and summarizes the different ways to investigate the diversity of the xylem network structure and sap flow dynamics in various species. As water transport is documented at different scales, from the level of single conduits to entire plants, it is critical that new results be subjected to systematic cross-validation and that findings based on different organs be integrated at the whole-plant level. We also discuss the functional trade-offs between optimizing hydraulic efficiency and maintaining the safety of the entire transport system. Furthermore, we evaluate future directions in sap flow research and highlight the importance of integrating the combined effects of various levels of hydraulic regulation. PMID:24609652

  7. Naegleria fowleri in cooling waters of power plants.

    PubMed

    Cerva, L; Kasprzak, W; Mazur, T

    1982-01-01

    Six strains of nonvirulent and three strains of virulent variants of Naegleria fowleri amoebae were isolated from the examined cooling water samples from 9 power plants. The virulent variants were obtained solely from effluents discharged from power plants with a closed-circuit cooling N. fowleri was not detected outside the reach of the thermal pollution. A disinfection of out-flowing cooling water seems to be an unnecessary investment in our climate. Warm discharge water should under no conditions be used directly for sports and recreational purposes. PMID:7119430

  8. Spinodal Decomposition and Order-Disorder Transformation in a Water-Quenched U-6wt%Nb Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiung, L; Zhou, J

    2006-09-12

    A combinative approach of microhardness testing, tensile testing, and TEM microstructural analysis has been employed to study phase stability and aging mechanisms of a water-quenched U-6wt%Nb (WQU6Nb) alloy subjected to different aging schedules that include artificial aging of WQ-U6Nb at 200 C, natural aging of WQ-U6Nb at ambient temperatures for 15 to18 years, and accelerative aging of the naturally aged (NA) alloy at 200 C. During the early stages of artificial aging at 200 C, the microhardness values continuously increase as a result of the development of a fine-scale compositional modulation (wavelength: 3 nm) caused by spinodal decomposition. Coarsening of the modulated structure occurs after prolonged aging of WQ-U6Nb at 200 C for 16 hours, which leads to a decrease of microhardness. Phase instability has also been found to occur in the NA alloy, in which the formation of partially ordered phase domains resulting from an atomic-scale spinodal modulation (wavelength: 0.5 nm) renders the appearance of antiphase domain boundaries (APBs) in TEM images. Although 18-year natural aging does not cause a significant change in hardness, it affects dramatically the aging mechanism of WQ-U6Nb subjected to the accelerative aging at 200 C. The result of microhardness measurement shows that the hardness values continuously increase until after aging for 239 hours, and the total hardness increment is twice in magnitude than that in the case of the artificial aging of water-quenched alloy at 200 C. The anomalous increment of hardness for the accelerative aging of NA alloy can be attributed to the precipitation of an ordered U{sub 3}Nb phase. It is accordingly concluded that the long-term natural aging at ambient temperatures can detour the transformation pathway of WQ U-6Nb alloy; it leads to the order-disorder transformation and precipitation of ordered phase in the alloy.

  9. Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-08-19

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were evaluated. The first type consisted of geographical areas where specific conditions can generate demand vulnerabilities. These conditions include high projected future water consumption by thermoelectric power plants, high projected future water consumption by all users, high rates of water withdrawal per square mile (mi{sup 2}), high projected population increases, and areas projected to be in a water crisis or conflict by 2025. The second type of demand indicator was plant specific. These indicators were developed for each plant and include annual water consumption and withdrawal rates and intensities, net annual power generation, and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. The supply indictors, which are also area based, include areas with low precipitation, high temperatures, low streamflow, and drought. The indicator data, which were in various formats (e.g., maps, tables, raw numbers) were converted to a GIS format and stored, along with the individual plant data from the CPPDB, in a single GIS database. The GIS database allowed the indicator data and plant data to be analyzed and visualized in any combination. To determine the extent to which a plant would be considered 'vulnerable' to a given demand or supply concern (i.e., that the plant's operations could be affected by water shortages represented by a potential demand or supply indicator), criteria were developed to categorize vulnerability according to one of three types: major, moderate, or not vulnerable. Plants with at least two major demand indicator values and/or at least four moderate demand indicator values were considered vulnerable to demand concerns. By using this approach, 144 plants were identified as being subject to demand concerns only. Plants with at least one major supply indicator value and/or at least two moderate supply indicator values were considered vulnerable to supply concerns. By using this approach, 64 plants were identified as being subject to supply concerns only. In addition, 139 plants were identified as subject to both demand and supply concerns. Therefore, a total of 347 plants were considered subject to demand concerns, supply concerns, or both demand and supply concerns.

  10. USE of mine pool water for power plant cooling.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Kupar, J. M .; Puder, M. G.

    2006-11-27

    Water and energy production issues intersect in numerous ways. Water is produced along with oil and gas, water runs off of or accumulates in coal mines, and water is needed to operate steam electric power plants and hydropower generating facilities. However, water and energy are often not in the proper balance. For example, even if water is available in sufficient quantities, it may not have the physical and chemical characteristics suitable for energy or other uses. This report provides preliminary information about an opportunity to reuse an overabundant water source--ground water accumulated in underground coal mines--for cooling and process water in electric generating facilities. The report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), which has implemented a water/energy research program (Feeley and Ramezan 2003). Among the topics studied under that program is the availability and use of ''non-traditional sources'' of water for use at power plants. This report supports NETL's water/energy research program.

  11. Water relations of riparian plants from warm desert regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, S.D.; Devitt, Dale A.; Cleverly, James R.; Busch, David E.

    1998-01-01

    Riparian plants have been classified as 'drought avoiders' due to their access to an abundant subsurface water supply. Recent water-relations research that tracks water sources of riparian plants using the stable isotopes of water suggests that many plants of the riparian zone use ground water rather than stream water, and not all riparian plants are obligate phreatophytes (dependent on ground water as a moisture source) but may occasionally be dependent of unsaturated soil moisture sources. A more thorough understanding of riparian plant-water relations must include water-source dynamics and how those dynamics vary over both space and time. Many rivers in the desert Southwest have been invaded by the exotic shrub Tamarix ramosissima (saltcedar). Our studies of Tamarix invasion into habitats formerly dominated by native riparian forests of primarily Populus and Salix have shown that Tamarix successfully invades these habitats because of its (1) greater tolerance to water stress and salinity, (2) status as a facultative, rather than obligate, phreatophyte and, therefore, its ability to recover from droughts and periods of ground-water drawdown, and (3) superior regrowth after fire. Analysis of water- loss rates indicate that Tamarix-dominated stands can have extremely high evapotranspiration rates when water tables are high but not necessarily when water tables are lower. Tamarix has leaf-level transpiration rates that are comparable to native species, whereas sap-flow rates per unit sapwood area are higher than in natives, suggesting that Tamarix maintains higher leaf area than can natives, probably due to its greater water stress tolerance. Tamarix desiccates and salinizes floodplains, due to its salt exudation and high transpiration rates, and may also accelerate fire cycles, thus predisposing these ecosystems to further loss of native taxa. Riparian species on regulated rivers can be exposed to seasonal water stress due to depression of floodplain water tables and elimination of annual floods. This can potentially result in a community shift toward more stress- tolerant taxa, such as Tamarix, due to the inability of other riparian species to germinate and establish in the desiccated floodplain environment. Management efforts aimed at maintaining native forests on regulated rivers and slowing the spread of Tamarix invasion must include at least partial reintroduction of historical flow regimes, which favor the recruitment of native riparian species and reverse long-term desiccation of desert floodplain environments.

  12. Tips for Teaching Plant Water Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Virginia

    1993-01-01

    Presents two techniques involving simple and inexpensive demonstrations: (1) explains how pressure inside cells gives them mechanical strength, and (2) shows how water can be pulled up stems. Both can be adapted to suit a variety of levels of instruction. (PR)

  13. Wetlands: Water, Wildlife, Plants, and People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandas, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Describes wetlands and explains their importance to man and ecology. Delineates the role of water in wetlands. Describes how wetlands are classified: estuarine, riverine, lacustrine, palustrine, and marine. Accompanying article is a large, color poster on wetlands. Describes an activity where metaphors are used to explore the functions of

  14. Water Relations of Cotton Plants under Nitrogen Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Radin, John W.; Ackerson, Robert C.

    1981-01-01

    Nitrogen nutrition exerted a strong effect on stomatal sensitivity to water stress in cotton. In well-watered plants grown with 0.31 millimolar N in the nutrient solution, stomata closed at a water potential of -9 bars even though the wilting point was below -15 bars. For each doubling of nutrient N level, the water potential for stomatal closure decreased by about 2 bars. Elevated intercellular CO2 concentrations caused only slight stomatal closure regardless of N nutrition. Exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) greatly increased stomatal sensitivity to elevated CO2 concentrations. Plants subjected to water stress gave the following responses: (a) decreased stomatal conductance at ambient external CO2 concentration; (b) increased stomatal sensitivity to elevated CO2 concentrations; (c) decreased mesophyll conductance to CO2; and (d) increased endogenous ABA content. All of these responses to stress occurred at a higher water potential in N-deficient plants than in normal plants. The results show that N nutrition and water stress interact to control ABA accumulation and the events regulated by that accumulation. PMID:16661608

  15. [Mercury dynamics of several plants collected from the water-level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir area during flooding and its impact on water body].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Cheng; Sun, Rong-guo; Wang, Ding-yong

    2014-12-01

    Submerged plants are a major source for the abnormal elevation of methylmercury in reservoir. Several specific plants (Echinochloa crusgalli, Cynodondactylon and Corn stover) were collected and inundated in a simulated aquatic environment in the laboratory for investigating the mercury (Hg) dynamics in plants and the release process into water, aiming to find out the properties of Hg dynamics of plants under inundation conditions and its impact on water body in the Water-Level Fluctuation Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The results showed that the contents of total mercury in several plants were in the range of 9. 21-12.07 ng x g(-1), and the percentage content of methylmercury (MeHg) was about 1%-2%. The content of total mercury (THg) in plants gradually decreased, by 35.81%-55.96%, whereas that of the dissolved mercury (DHg) increased sharply, by 103.23% -232.15%, which indicated an emission of Hg from plants to water in the process of decomposition. Furthermore, the state of inundation provided sufficient conditions for the methylation process in plants and therefore caused an increase of the content of methylmercury in the plant residues, which was 3.04-6.63 times as much as the initial content. The concentration of dissolved methylmercury (DMeHg) in the overlying water also increased significantly by 14.84- 16.05 times compared with the initial concentration. Meanwhile, the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the overlying water was significantly and negatively correlated with DMeHg. On the other hand, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the overlying water was significantly and positively correlated with DMeHg. During the whole inundation period, the increase of DHg in the overlying water accounted for 41.74% -47.01% of the total amount of THg emission, and there was a negative correlation between the content of THg in plant residues and that of DHg in the overlying water. PMID:25826925

  16. Electrochemical continuous decomposition of chloroform and other volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons in water using a column type metal impregnated carbon fiber electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Sonoyama, Noriyuki; Sakata, Tadayoshi

    1999-10-01

    Trihalomethane and other chlorinated hydrocarbons are known to be toxic to human health. However, removal of these compounds from water is not easy. The authors attempted continuous electrochemical decomposition of chloroform that is the main compound of trihalomethanes and some toxic chlorinated hydrocarbons in water using a metal-impregnated CFE, concentration of chloroform in 0.5 M K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (the supporting electrolyte) solution was decreased from 0.23m mol/L to below the limit of detection of their analysis system (1 ppm) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The main product of electrolysis was methane. This high efficiency, determined by the chemical yield, hardly changed at a flow rate of 20 mL/min at a Ag-impregnated CFE. At a flow rate of 1 mL/min, chloroform was degraded with a decomposition efficiency of almost 100% even in the solution without the supporting electrolyte, whereas at a higher flow rate, the efficiency for the decomposition of chloroform decreased with a decrease in the concentration of the supporting electrolyte. Tetrachloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and 1,1,2-trichloroethane were also decomposed at a Ag-impregnated CFE with an efficiency of almost 100%.

  17. An index for plant water deficit based on root-weighted soil water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jianchu; Li, Sen; Zuo, Qiang; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2015-03-01

    Governed by atmospheric demand, soil water conditions and plant characteristics, plant water status is dynamic, complex, and fundamental to efficient agricultural water management. To explore a centralized signal for the evaluation of plant water status based on soil water status, two greenhouse experiments investigating the effect of the relative distribution between soil water and roots on wheat and rice were conducted. Due to the significant offset between the distributions of soil water and roots, wheat receiving subsurface irrigation suffered more from drought than wheat under surface irrigation, even when the arithmetic averaged soil water content (SWC) in the root zone was higher. A significant relationship was found between the plant water deficit index (PWDI) and the root-weighted (rather than the arithmetic) average SWC over root zone. The traditional soil-based approach for the estimation of PWDI was improved by replacing the arithmetic averaged SWC with the root-weighted SWC to take the effect of the relative distribution between soil water and roots into consideration. These results should be beneficial for scheduling irrigation, as well as for evaluating plant water consumption and root density profile.

  18. Plants Clean Air and Water for Indoor Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Wolverton Environmental Services Inc., founded by longtime government environmental scientist B.C. "Bill" Wolverton, is an environmental consulting firm that gives customers access to the results of his decades of cutting-edge bioremediation research. Findings about how to use plants to improve indoor air quality have been published in dozens of NASA technical papers and in the book, "How to Grow Fresh Air: 50 Houseplants That Purify Your Home or Office." The book has now been translated into 12 languages and has been on the shelves of bookstores for nearly 10 years. A companion book, "Growing Clean Water: Nature's Solution to Water Pollution," explains how plants can clean waste water. Other discoveries include that the more air that is allowed to circulate through the roots of the plants, the more effective they are at cleaning polluted air; and that plants play a psychological role in welfare in that people recover from illness faster in the presence of plants. Wolverton Environmental is also working in partnership with Syracuse University, to engineer systems consisting of modular wicking filters tied into duct work and water supplies, essentially tying plant-based filters into heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Also, the company has recently begun to assess the ability of the EcoPlanter to remove formaldehyde from interior environments. Wolverton Environmental is also in talks with designers of the new Stennis Visitor's Center, who are interested in using its designs for indoor air-quality filters

  19. Woodland Decomposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, J.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines the role of the main organisms involved in woodland decomposition and discusses some of the variables affecting the rate of nutrient cycling. Suggests practical work that may be of value to high school students either as standard practice or long-term projects. (CW)

  20. [Plant growth with limited water]. Performance report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    When water is in short supply, soybean stem growth is inhibited by a physical limitation followed in a few hours by metabolic changes that reduce the extensibility of the cell walls. The extensibility then becomes the main limitation. With time, there is a modest recovery in extensibility along with an accumulation of a 28kD protein in the walls of the growth-affected cells. A 3lkD protein that was 80% similar in amino acid sequence also was present but did not accumulate in the walls of the stem cells. In the stem, growth was inhibited and the mRNA for the 28kD protein increased in response to water deprivation but the mRNA for the 3 1 kD protein did not. The roots continued to grow and the mRNA for the 28kD protein did not accumulate but the mRNA for the 3lkD protein did. Thus, there was a tissuespecific response of gene expression that correlated with the contrasting growth response to low water potential in the same seedlings. Further work using immunogold labeling, fluorescence labeling, and western blotting gave evidence that the 28kD protein is located in the cell wall as well as several compartments in the cytoplasm. Preliminary experiments indicate that the 28kD protein is a phosphatase.

  1. Study of the dynamics of Zn, Fe, and Cu in the soil-plant system during leaf litter decomposition using isotopic compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichat, S.; Fekiacova, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Litter decomposition is a key process in the cycle of the elements in the soil-plant system. We have investigated the dynamics of three essential micronutrients (Zn, Fe, and Cu) in the vegetal cover, litter, organic horizons, and upper soil horizon (0-2 and 5-10 cm) using both element concentrations and isotopic compositions. The study was conducted on the O3HP (Oak Observatory at the Haute-Provence Observatory) experimental field site in southern France. O3HP is located far from pollution sources. It has been a fallow land for 70 years with the tree cover represented mainly by oak trees (Quercus pubescens). The soil is a thin layer of Calcisol developed under Mediterranean climate. The area has been subdivided in four zones as a function of plant cover. The results for two of these zones, dominated by respectively Poaceae and Genista hispanica, are reported here. We found that the concentrations of the three elements increase from the Ol to the Of horizon. Copper concentration in the Of horizon is close to that of the soil, whereas it is lower for Fe and Zn. For isotopic compositions, the behavior of the three elements is, however, different, which suggests different processes of redistribution for these elements. An enrichment in light Fe isotopes was observed from the Ol to the Of horizon, the latter having an isotopic composition similar to that of the soil. Zinc isotopic compositions are also similar in the Of horizon and the soil but they are isotopically heavier than in the Ol horizon. For Cu, the O horizons are isotopically heavier than the soil, with Of being the heaviest horizon. In addition, for Cu and Zn, the profiles in the O-horizons in the Poaceae-dominated and Genista hispanica-dominated areas are similar but their values are offset, suggesting an influence of the vegetal cover. The increase in concentration for Cu, Zn and Fe with age/depth in the O horizons is in agreement with what is commonly observed in litter-bag experiments, e.g. 1,2. Two mechanisms have been invoked to explain this phenomenon: 1) addition of metals by aerial dust and wet deposition or 2) absorption of metals from the soil by organisms that develop on the litter. Our vertical profiles of isotopic compositions in the O horizons show that the first hypothesis is unlikely. Instead, they suggest a downward transfer of isotopically light metals from the fresh litter to the base of the O horizon. In addition, the assumption of an upward transfer of isopically heavy Cu and Zn from the upper soil horizon to the Of horizon is needed to fully explain the profiles we observed. 1 Lomander and Johansson (2001) Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 132, 165-184 2 Scheid et al. (2009) Eur. J. Soil Sci. 60, 613-621

  2. Strategies of Plant Water Use under Stochastic Hydrologic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vico, G.; Albertson, J.; Katul, G.; Porporato, A.; Ridolfi, L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2003-12-01

    Recent papers on ecohydrology have discussed how a "tragedy of the commons" effect, in which the competitive evolutionary outcome is lower than the ecosystem optimum (e.g. maximum productivity), may arise in plants because of a trade-off between resource-uptake rate and resource efficiency. Using simple deterministic and stochastic models of soil water balance and ecosystem response to water stress, we investigate how efficient water-use strategies can evolve and persist against more aggressive but less efficient strategies of water use. Survival of plants and coexistence of different species is discussed in relation to their drought tolerance and water use efficiency, under conditions of temporal and spatial environmental variability

  3. Water use, productivity and interactions among desert plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ehleringer, J.R.

    1992-11-17

    Productivity, stability, and competitive interactions among ecosystem components within aridlands are key processes related directly to water in deserts. This project assumes that integrated aspects of plant metabolism provide insight into the structure and function of plant communities and ecosystems. While it is difficult to extrapolate from instantaneous physiological observations to higher scales, such as whole plant performance or to the interactions between plants as components of ecosystems, several key aspects of plant metabolism are scalable. Analyses of stable isotopic composition in plant tissues at natural abundance levels provide a useful tool that can provide insight into the consequences of physiological processes over temporal and spatial scales. Some plant processes continuously fractionate among light and heavy stable isotopic forms of an element; over time this results in integrated measures of plant metabolism. For example, carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthesis results in leaf carbon isotopic composition that is a measure of the set-point for photosynthetic metabolism and of water-use efficiency. Thus it provides information on the temporal scaling of a key physiological process.

  4. Water use, productivity and interactions among desert plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ehleringer, J.R.

    1992-11-17

    Productivity, stability, and competitive interactions among ecosystem components within aridlands are key processes related directly to water in deserts. This project assumes that integrated aspects of plant metabolism provide insight into the structure and function of plant communities and ecosystems. While it is difficult to extrapolate from instantaneous physiological observations to higher scales, such as whole plant performance or to the interactions between plants as components of ecosystems, several key aspects of plant metabolism are scalable. Analyses of stable isotopic composition in plant tissues at natural abundance levels provide a useful tool that can provide insight into the consequences of physiological processes over temporal and spatial scales. Some plant processes continuously fractionate among light and heavy stable isotopic forms of an element; over time this results in integrated measures of plant metabolism. For example, carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthesis results in leaf carbon isotopic composition that is a measure of the set-point for photosynthetic metabolism and of water-use efficiency. Thus it provides information on the temporal scaling of a key physiological process.

  5. Foliar water uptake: a common water acquisition strategy for plants of the redwood forest.

    PubMed

    Limm, Emily Burns; Simonin, Kevin A; Bothman, Aron G; Dawson, Todd E

    2009-09-01

    Evaluations of plant water use in ecosystems around the world reveal a shared capacity by many different species to absorb rain, dew, or fog water directly into their leaves or plant crowns. This mode of water uptake provides an important water subsidy that relieves foliar water stress. Our study provides the first comparative evaluation of foliar uptake capacity among the dominant plant taxa from the coast redwood ecosystem of California where crown-wetting events by summertime fog frequently occur during an otherwise drought-prone season. Previous research demonstrated that the dominant overstory tree species, Sequoia sempervirens, takes up fog water by both its roots (via drip from the crown to the soil) and directly through its leaf surfaces. The present study adds to these early findings and shows that 80% of the dominant species from the redwood forest exhibit this foliar uptake water acquisition strategy. The plants studied include canopy trees, understory ferns, and shrubs. Our results also show that foliar uptake provides direct hydration to leaves, increasing leaf water content by 2-11%. In addition, 60% of redwood forest species investigated demonstrate nocturnal stomatal conductance to water vapor. Such findings indicate that even species unable to absorb water directly into their foliage may still receive indirect benefits from nocturnal leaf wetting through suppressed transpiration. For these species, leaf-wetting events enhance the efficacy of nighttime re-equilibration with available soil water and therefore also increase pre-dawn leaf water potentials. PMID:19585154

  6. Optimal plant water-use strategies under stochastic rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzoni, Stefano; Vico, Giulia; Katul, Gabriel; Palmroth, Sari; Porporato, Amilcare

    2014-07-01

    Plant hydraulic traits have been conjectured to be coordinated, thereby providing plants with a balanced hydraulic system that protects them from cavitation while allowing an efficient transport of water necessary for photosynthesis. In particular, observations suggest correlations between the water potentials at which xylem cavitation impairs water movement and the one at stomatal closure, and between maximum xylem and stomatal conductances, begging the question as to whether such coordination emerges as an optimal water-use strategy under unpredictable rainfall. Here mean transpiration is used as a proxy for long-term plant fitness and its variations as a function of the water potentials at 50% loss of stem conductivity due to cavitation and at 90% stomatal closure are explored. It is shown that coordination between these hydraulic traits is necessary to maximize , with rainfall patterns altering the optimal range of trait values. In contrast, coordination between ecosystem-level conductances appears not necessary to maximize . The optimal trait ranges are wider under drier than under mesic conditions, suggesting that in semiarid systems different water use strategies may be equally successful. Comparison with observations across species from a range of ecosystems confirms model predictions, indicating that the coordinated functioning of plant organs might indeed emerge from an optimal response to rainfall variability.

  7. Macroscopic modeling of plant water uptake: soil and root resistances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Tomas; Votrubova, Jana; Dohnal, Michal; Dusek, Jaromir

    2014-05-01

    The macroscopic physically-based plant root water uptake (RWU) model, based on water-potential-gradient formulation (Vogel et al., 2013), was used to simulate the observed soil-plant-atmosphere interactions at a forest site located in a temperate humid climate of central Europe and to gain an improved insight into the mutual interplay of RWU parameters that affects the soil water distribution in the root zone. In the applied RWU model, the uptake rates are directly proportional to the potential gradient and indirectly proportional to the local soil and root resistances to water flow. The RWU algorithm is implemented in a one-dimensional dual-continuum model of soil water flow based on Richards' equation. The RWU model is defined by four parameters (root length density distribution, average active root radius, radial root resistance, and the threshold value of the root xylem potential). In addition, soil resistance to water extraction by roots is related to soil hydraulic conductivity function and actual soil water content. The RWU model is capable of simulating both the compensatory root water uptake, in situations when reduced uptake from dry layers is compensated by increased uptake from wetter layers, and the root-mediated hydraulic redistribution of soil water, contributing to more natural soil moisture distribution throughout the root zone. The present study focusses on the sensitivity analysis of the combined soil water flow and RWU model responses in respect to variations of RWU model parameters. Vogel T., M. Dohnal, J. Dusek, J. Votrubova, and M. Tesar. 2013. Macroscopic modeling of plant water uptake in a forest stand involving root-mediated soil-water redistribution. Vadose Zone Journal, 12, 10.2136/vzj2012.0154.

  8. Animal or Plant: Which Is the Better Fog Water Collector?

    PubMed Central

    Nrgaard, Thomas; Ebner, Martin; Dacke, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Occasional fog is a critical water source utilised by plants and animals in the Namib Desert. Fog basking beetles (Onymacris unguicularis, Tenebrionidae) and Namib dune bushman grass (Stipagrostris sabulicola, Poaceae) collect water directly from the fog. While the beetles position themselves optimally for fog water collection on dune ridges, the grass occurs predominantly at the dune base where less fog water is available. Differences in the fog-water collecting abilities in animals and plants have never been addressed. Here we place beetles and grass side-by-side in a fog chamber and measure the amount of water they collect over time. Based on the accumulated amount of water over a two hour period, grass is the better fog collector. However, in contrast to the episodic cascading water run-off from the grass, the beetles obtain water in a steady flow from their elytra. This steady trickle from the beetles' elytra to their mouth could ensure that even short periods of fog basking while exposed to predators will yield water. Up to now there is no indication of specialised surface properties on the grass leafs, but the steady run-off from the beetles could point to specific property adaptations of their elytra surface. PMID:22509331

  9. Drinkable rocks: plants can use crystallization water from gypsum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacio, Sara; Azorín, José; Montserrat-Martí, Gabriel; Ferrio, Juan Pedro

    2015-04-01

    Some minerals hold water in their crystalline structure. Such is the case of gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O), a rock forming mineral present in the arid and semi-arid regions of the five continents, including the dry most areas of the planet. Gypsum is also extensively found on Mars, where it constitutes a targeted substrate for the search of life. Under natural conditions and depending on the temperature, pressure, and dissolved electrolytes or organics, gypsum may lose crystallization water molecules, becoming bassanite (i.e. hemihydrate: CaSO4•½H2O) or anhydrite (CaSO4). As crystallization water can account for up to 20.8% of gypsum weight, it has been suggested that it could constitute a relevant source of water for organisms, particularly during summer. This suggestion is consistent with the phenology observed in some shallow-rooted plants growing on gypsum, which remain active when drought is intense, and with the increased soil moisture of gypsum soils during summer as compared to surrounding non-gypsum soils. Here we use the fact that the isotopic composition of free water differs from gypsum crystallization water to show that plants can use crystallization water from the gypsum structure. The composition of the xylem sap of gypsum plants during summer shows closer values to gypsum crystallization water than to free soil water. Crystallization water represents a significant water source for organisms growing on gypsum, especially during summer, when it accounts for 70-90% of the water used by shallow-rooted plants. These results significantly modify the current paradigm on water use by plants, where water held in the crystalline structure of mineral rocks is not regarded as a potential source. Given the existence of gypsum on the surface of Mars and its widespread occurrence on arid and semi-arid regions worldwide, our results have important implications for exobiology, the study of life under extreme conditions and arid land reclamation.

  10. Plant Response to Differential Soil Water Content and Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, A. B.; Dara, A.; Kamai, T.; Ngo, A.; Walker, R.; Hopmans, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Root-zone soil water content is extremely dynamic, governed by complex and coupled processes such as root uptake, irrigation, evaporation, and leaching. Root uptake of water and nutrients is influenced by these conditions and the processes involved. Plant roots are living and functioning in a dynamic environment that is subjected to extreme changes over relatively short time and small distances. In order to better manage our agricultural resources and cope with increasing constraints of water limitation, environmental concerns and climate change, it is vital to understand plants responses to these changes in their environment. We grew chick pea (Cicer arietinum) plants, in boxes of 30 x 25 x 1 cm dimensions filled with fine sand. Layers of coarse sand (1.5 cm thick) were embedded in the fine-sand media to divide the root growth environment into sections that were hydraulically disconnected from each other. This way, each section could be independently treated with differential levels of water and salinity. The root growth and distribution in the soil was monitored on daily bases using neutron radiography. Daily water uptake was measured by weighing the containers. Changes of soil water content in each section of the containers were calculated from the neutron radiographs. Plants that part of their root system was stressed with drought or salinity showed no change in their daily water uptake rate. The roots in the stressed sections stayed turgid during the stress period and looked healthy in the neutron images. However the uptake rate was severely affected when the soil in the non-stressed section started to dry. The plants were then fully irrigated with water and the water uptake rate recovered to its initial rate shortly after irrigation. The neutron radiographs clearly illustrated the shrinkage and recovery of the roots under stress and the subsequent relief. This cycle was repeated a few times and the same trend could be reproduced. Our results show that plants' response to water- or salinity-stress ranges from full compensation to severe reduction in transpiration, depending on the availability of water in their surrounding soil. Results of applying different treatments of salinity and drought will be shown. Available models of root water uptake will be employed to simulate the obtained results.

  11. Do rock fragments participate to plant water and mineral nutrition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korboulewsky, Nathalie; Tétégan, Marion; Besnault, Adeline; Cousin, Isabelle

    2010-05-01

    Rock fragments modify soil properties, and can be a potential reservoir of water. Besides, recent studies showed that this coarse soil fraction is chemically active, release nutrients, and could therefore be involved in biogeochemical nutrient cycles. However, these studies carried out on rock fragments, crushed pebbles or mineral particles do not answer the question whether the coarse soil fraction has significant nutritive functions. Only a couple of studies were conducted on plants, one on grass and the other on coniferous seedlings. This present work attempted to assess if pebbles may act as water and nutrient sources for poplar saplings, a deciduous species. Remoulded soils were set up in 5 L-pots with three percentages of pebbles: 0, 20, and 40% in volume. We used, as substrate either fine earth or sand (quartz), and as rock fragments either calcareous or inert pebbles (quartz). Additional modalities were settled with sand mixed with 20 and 40% pebbles enriched with nutrients. Both fine earth and calcareous pebbles were collected from the Ap horizon of a calcareous lacustrine limestone silty soil located in the central region of France. After cleaning, all pebbles were mixed to reach a bulk density in pots of 1.1 g/cm3 for the fine earth and 1.5 g/cm3 for the sand. Ten replicates were settled per modality, and one cutting of Populus robusta was planted in each. The experiment was conducted under controlled conditions. All pots were saturated at the beginning of the experiment, then irrigated by capillarity and controlled to maintain a moderate water stress. Growth and evapotranspiration were followed regularly, while water stress status was measured by stomatal conductivity every day during two drying periods of 10 days. After three months, plants were collected, separated in below- and above-ground parts for biomass and cation analysis (Ca, Mg, K). Results showed that pebbles can participate to plant nutrition, but no reduction of water stress was observed. Indeed, plants' water stress increased along the drying periods but no significant difference of stomatal conductivity was measured between modalities. This indicates that water stored in the porosity of calcareous pebbles had no influence on the plant water status, suggesting that this reserve is either too low or not accessible for poplar saplings. Besides, the presence of pebbles reduced the growth (plant height and biomass), and even more the proportion of pebbles was high. This dilution effect was the main effect on plant development observed in this experiment. However at moderate pebbles proportion, mineralomass of plants grown with or without 20% calcareous pebbles were similar, and higher than that of modalities with quartz pebbles. In addition, plants had a biomass 16% higher when grown with calcareous pebbles than with quartz pebbles. These results indicate that plants access nutrients from pebbles and that growth conditions were significantly better in pots with calcareous compared to quartz pebbles at moderate proportion (20%). For modalities with 40% pebbles, no difference was found between calcareous and quartz pebbles when mixed with fine earth. However, plant biomass grown in sand were 2.5 to 3 times higher when mixed with 20 and 40% enriched pebbles respectively, than biomass of plants grown on sand only. These results suggest that plants access nutrients from pebbles, especially those adsorbed, but at higher proportion (40%) the detrimental effects of rock fragments (such as limitation of root development can mask their nutritional value. This study strengthen the hypothesis that coarse soil fraction may act as a nutrients source. The concept of an inert stone matrix that, from the plant point of view, only dilutes ecological functions of the soil, must be revised.

  12. Water, plants, and early human habitats in eastern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Magill, Clayton R.; Ashley, Gail M.; Freeman, Katherine H.

    2013-01-01

    Water and its influence on plants likely exerted strong adaptive pressures in human evolution. Understanding relationships among water, plants, and early humans is limited both by incomplete terrestrial records of environmental change and by indirect proxy data for water availability. Here we present a continuous record of stable hydrogen-isotope compositions (expressed as ?D values) for lipid biomarkers preserved in lake sediments from an early Pleistocene archaeological site in eastern AfricaOlduvai Gorge. We convert sedimentary leaf- and algal-lipid ?D values into estimates for ancient source-water ?D values by accounting for biochemical, physiological, and environmental influences on isotopic fractionation via published waterlipid enrichment factors for living plants, algae, and recent sediments. Reconstructed precipitation and lake-water ?D values, respectively, are consistent with modern isotopic hydrology and reveal that dramatic fluctuations in water availability accompanied ecosystem changes. Drier conditions, indicated by less negative ?D values, occur in association with stable carbon-isotopic evidence for open, C4-dominated grassland ecosystems. Wetter conditions, indicated by lower ?D values, are associated with expanded woody cover across the ancient landscape. Estimates for ancient precipitation amounts, based on reconstructed precipitation ?D values, range between approximately 250 and 700 mmy?1 and are consistent with modern precipitation data for eastern Africa. We conclude that freshwater availability exerted a substantial influence on eastern African ecosystems and, by extension, was central to early human proliferation during periods of rapid climate change. PMID:23267102

  13. Water, plants, and early human habitats in eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Magill, Clayton R; Ashley, Gail M; Freeman, Katherine H

    2013-01-22

    Water and its influence on plants likely exerted strong adaptive pressures in human evolution. Understanding relationships among water, plants, and early humans is limited both by incomplete terrestrial records of environmental change and by indirect proxy data for water availability. Here we present a continuous record of stable hydrogen-isotope compositions (expressed as ?D values) for lipid biomarkers preserved in lake sediments from an early Pleistocene archaeological site in eastern Africa--Olduvai Gorge. We convert sedimentary leaf- and algal-lipid ?D values into estimates for ancient source-water ?D values by accounting for biochemical, physiological, and environmental influences on isotopic fractionation via published water-lipid enrichment factors for living plants, algae, and recent sediments. Reconstructed precipitation and lake-water ?D values, respectively, are consistent with modern isotopic hydrology and reveal that dramatic fluctuations in water availability accompanied ecosystem changes. Drier conditions, indicated by less negative ?D values, occur in association with stable carbon-isotopic evidence for open, C(4)-dominated grassland ecosystems. Wetter conditions, indicated by lower ?D values, are associated with expanded woody cover across the ancient landscape. Estimates for ancient precipitation amounts, based on reconstructed precipitation ?D values, range between approximately 250 and 700 mm y(-1) and are consistent with modern precipitation data for eastern Africa. We conclude that freshwater availability exerted a substantial influence on eastern African ecosystems and, by extension, was central to early human proliferation during periods of rapid climate change. PMID:23267102

  14. Combined plant for electricity generation and water production

    SciTech Connect

    Lazzeri, L.

    1996-11-01

    Combined plants for the production of electricity and water are becoming quite common in the Gulf area; different possible configuration are as follows: (a) conventional boilers plant with steam turbine and backpressure feeding to the desalination units; and (b) gas turbine plants with intermediate Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) with and without steam turbine. In particular the latter scheme has been widely used and a particular application shall be described in some detail hereinafter. Also some discussion about the basic cycle thermodynamics shall be given in some detail.

  15. Rates of litter decomposition and soil respiration in relation to soil temperature and water in different-aged Pinus massoniana forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wenfa; Ge, Xiaogai; Zeng, Lixiong; Huang, Zhilin; Lei, Jingpin; Zhou, Benzhi; Li, Maihe

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the soil carbon dynamics and cycling in terrestrial ecosystems in response to environmental changes, we studied soil respiration, litter decomposition, and their relations to soil temperature and soil water content for 18-months (Aug. 2010-Jan. 2012) in three different-aged Pinus massoniana forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China. Across the experimental period, the mean total soil respiration and litter respiration were 1.94 and 0.81, 2.00 and 0.60, 2.19 and 0.71 mol CO2 m(-2) s(-1), and the litter dry mass remaining was 57.6%, 56.2% and 61.3% in the 20-, 30-, and 46-year-old forests, respectively. We found that the temporal variations of soil respiration and litter decomposition rates can be well explained by soil temperature at 5 cm depth. Both the total soil respiration and litter respiration were significantly positively correlated with the litter decomposition rates. The mean contribution of the litter respiration to the total soil respiration was 31.0%-45.9% for the three different-aged forests. The present study found that the total soil respiration was not significantly affected by forest age when P. masonniana stands exceed a certain age (e.g. >20 years old), but it increased significantly with increased soil temperature. Hence, forest management strategies need to protect the understory vegetation to limit soil warming, in order to reduce the CO2 emission under the currently rapid global warming. The contribution of litter decomposition to the total soil respiration varies across spatial and temporal scales. This indicates the need for separate consideration of soil and litter respiration when assessing the climate impacts on forest carbon cycling. PMID:25004164

  16. Rates of Litter Decomposition and Soil Respiration in Relation to Soil Temperature and Water in Different-Aged Pinus massoniana Forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Lixiong; Huang, Zhilin; Lei, Jingpin; Zhou, Benzhi; Li, Maihe

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the soil carbon dynamics and cycling in terrestrial ecosystems in response to environmental changes, we studied soil respiration, litter decomposition, and their relations to soil temperature and soil water content for 18-months (Aug. 2010Jan. 2012) in three different-aged Pinus massoniana forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China. Across the experimental period, the mean total soil respiration and litter respiration were 1.94 and 0.81, 2.00 and 0.60, 2.19 and 0.71 mol CO2 m?2 s?1, and the litter dry mass remaining was 57.6%, 56.2% and 61.3% in the 20-, 30-, and 46-year-old forests, respectively. We found that the temporal variations of soil respiration and litter decomposition rates can be well explained by soil temperature at 5 cm depth. Both the total soil respiration and litter respiration were significantly positively correlated with the litter decomposition rates. The mean contribution of the litter respiration to the total soil respiration was 31.0%45.9% for the three different-aged forests. The present study found that the total soil respiration was not significantly affected by forest age when P. masonniana stands exceed a certain age (e.g. >20 years old), but it increased significantly with increased soil temperature. Hence, forest management strategies need to protect the understory vegetation to limit soil warming, in order to reduce the CO2 emission under the currently rapid global warming. The contribution of litter decomposition to the total soil respiration varies across spatial and temporal scales. This indicates the need for separate consideration of soil and litter respiration when assessing the climate impacts on forest carbon cycling. PMID:25004164

  17. Biogeochemistry of Decomposition and Detrital Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderman, J.; Amundson, R.

    2003-12-01

    Decomposition is a key ecological process that roughly balances net primary production in terrestrial ecosystems and is an essential process in resupplying nutrients to the plant community. Decomposition consists of three concurrent processes: communition or fragmentation, leaching of water-soluble compounds, and microbial catabolism. Decomposition can also be viewed as a sequential process, what Eijsackers and Zehnder (1990) compare to a Russian matriochka doll. Soil macrofauna fragment and partially solubilize plant residues, facilitating establishment of a community of decomposer microorganisms. This decomposer community will gradually shift as the most easily degraded plant compounds are utilized and the more recalcitrant materials begin to accumulate. Given enough time and the proper environmental conditions, most naturally occurring compounds can completely be mineralized to inorganic forms. Simultaneously with mineralization, the process of humification acts to transform a fraction of the plant residues into stable soil organic matter (SOM) or humus. For reference, Schlesinger (1990) estimated that only 0.7% of detritus eventually becomes stabilized into humus.Decomposition plays a key role in the cycling of most plant macro- and micronutrients and in the formation of humus. Figure 1 places the roles of detrital processing and mineralization within the context of the biogeochemical cycling of essential plant nutrients. Chapin (1991) found that while the atmosphere supplied 4% and mineral weathering supplied no nitrogen and <1% of phosphorus, internal nutrient recycling is the source for >95% of all the nitrogen and phosphorus uptake by tundra species in Barrow, Alaska. In a cool temperate forest, nutrient recycling accounted for 93%, 89%, 88%, and 65% of total sources for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and calcium, respectively ( Chapin, 1991). (13K)Figure 1. A decomposition-centric biogeochemical model of nutrient cycling. Although there is significant external input (1) and output (2) from neighboring ecosystems (such as erosion), weathering of primary minerals (3), loss of secondary minerals (4), atmospheric deposition and N-fixation (5) and volatilization (6), the majority of plant-available nutrients are supplied by internal recycling through decomposition. Nutrients that are taken up by plants (7) are either consumed by fauna (8) and returned to the soil through defecation and mortality (10) or returned to the soil through litterfall and mortality (9). Detritus and humus can be immobilized into microbial biomass (11 and 13). Humus is formed by the transformation and stabilization of detrital (12) and microbial (14) compounds. During these transformations, SOM is being continually mineralized by the microorganisms (15) replenishing the inorganic nutrient pool (after Swift et al., 1979). The second major ecosystem role of decomposition is in the formation and stabilization of humus. The cycling and stabilization of SOM in the litter-soil system is presented in a conceptual model in Figure 2. Parallel with litterfall and most root turnover, detrital processing is concentrated at or near the soil surface. As labile SOM is preferentially degraded, there is a progressive shift from labile to passive SOM with increasing depth. There are three basic mechanisms for SOM accumulation in the mineral soil: bioturbation or physical mixing of the soil by burrowing animals (e.g., earthworms, gophers, etc.), in situ decomposition of roots and root exudates, and the leaching of soluble organic compounds. In the absence of bioturbation, distinct litter layers often accumulate above the mineral soil. In grasslands where the majority of net primary productivity (NPP) is allocated belowground, root inputs will dominate. In sandy soils with ample rainfall, leaching may be the major process incorporating carbon into the soil. (11K)Figure 2. Conceptual model of carbon cycling in the litter-soil system. In each horizon or depth increment, SOM is represented by three pools: labile SOM, slow SOM, and passive SOM. Inputs include aboveground litterfall and belowground root turnover and exudates, which will be distributed among the pools based on the biochemical nature of the material. Outputs from each pool include mineralization to CO2 (dashed lines), humification (labile?slow?passive), and downward transport due to leaching and physical mixing. Communition by soil fauna will accelerate the decomposition process and reveal previously inaccessible materials. Soil mixing and other disturbances can also make physically protected passive SOM available to microbial attack (passive?slow). There exists an amazing body of literature on the subject of decomposition that draws from many disciplines - including ecology, soil science, microbiology, plant physiology, biochemistry, and zoology. In this chapter, we have attempted to draw information from all of these fields to present an integrated analysis of decomposition in a biogeochemical context. We begin by reviewing the composition of detrital resources and SOM (Section 8.07.2), the organisms responsible for decomposition ( Section 8.07.3), and some methods for quantifying decomposition rates ( Section 8.07.4). This is followed by a discussion of the mechanisms behind decomposition ( Section 8.07.5), humification ( Section 8.07.6), and the controls on these processes ( Section 8.07.7). We conclude the chapter with a brief discussion on how current biogeochemical models incorporate this information ( Section 8.07.8).

  18. Effect of Power Plant Cooling Water Discharge upon Water Quality in the Tokyo Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitahara, Kouichi; Wada, Akira; Uehara, Yoshikazu; Fukuoka, Ippei; Kawanaga, Mitsuhito; Takano, Tairyu

    Water quality in the Tokyo Bay is controlled by the load input from rivers, seawater currents, temperature variation, photosynthetic processes and others. On the other hand, 23.5 GJ/s of heat, as of 1995, is discharged into the Bay as cooling water effluent from thermal power plants along the coast. Low temperature water of bottom layers is pumped up and utilized as cooling water in thermal power plants. Although the intake and discharge of cooling water may influence water quality of coastal and inner bay areas where power plants are sited, few quantitative evaluations of the effects of cooling water on the water quality have been made yet. In the present study, we report a result of computations to predict the effects of cooling water discharge on the water quality of the Tokyo Bay in the summer, based on a "primary ecological model" for two thermal conditions: the current heat discharge of 23.5 GJ/s, and a heat discharge of 28.9 GJ/s which is expected in the future. Flow and water temperature distribution data, computed by Kitahara et al.(2003), were used to run the model. It was concluded that except in the vicinities of outlet points, water quality of the Tokyo Bay in the summer might be little changed by the future increase of 5.4 GJ/s of heat discharge.

  19. Assessing the water quality index of water treatment plant and bore wells, in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, M K; Bassin, J K

    2010-04-01

    Water quality monitoring exercise was carried out with water quality index (WQI) method by using water characteristics data for bore wells and a water treatment plant in Delhi city from December 2006 to August 2007. The water treatment plant received surface water as raw water, and product water is supplied after treatment. The WQI is used to classify water quality as excellent, good, medium, bad, and very bad. The National Sanitation Foundation WQI procedure was used to calculate the WQI. The index ranges from 0 to 100, where 100 represents an excellent water quality condition. Water samples were collected monthly from a bore well in Nehru Camp (site 1), a bore well in Sanjay Gandhi pumping station (site 2), and water treatment plant in Haiderpur (site 3). Five parameters were analyzed, namely, nitrate, pH, total dissolved solids, turbidity, and temperature. We found that the WQI was around 73-80 in site 3, which corresponds to "good," and it decreased to 54.32-60.19 and 59.93-70.63 in site 1 and site 2, respectively, indicating that these bore wells were classified as "medium" quality. PMID:19343515

  20. Stomatal Behavior and Water Relations of Waterlogged Tomato Plants

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Kent J.; Hsiao, Theodore C.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of waterlogging the soil on leaf water potential, leaf epidermal conductance, transpiration, root conductance to water flow, and petiole epinasty have been examined in the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Stomatal conductance and transpiration are reduced by 30% to 40% after approximately 24 hours of soil flooding. This is not due to a transient water deficit, as leaf water potential is unchanged, even though root conductance is decreased by the stress. The stomatal response apparently prevents any reduction in leaf water potential. Experiments with varied time of flooding, root excision, and stem girdling provide indirect evidence for an influence of roots in maintaining stomatal opening potential. This root-effect cannot be entirely accounted for by alterations in source-sink relationships. Although 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, the immediate precursor of ethylene, is transported from the roots to the shoots of waterlogged tomato plants, it has no direct effect on stomatal conductance. Ethylene-induced petiole epinasty develops coincident with partial stomatal closure in waterlogged plants. Leaf epinasty may have beneficial effects on plant water balance by reducing light interception. PMID:16662706

  1. Mathematics for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators. Water and Wastewater Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Dept. of Environmental Protection, Pierre.

    This booklet is intended to aid the prospective waste treatment plant operator or drinking water plant operator in learning to solve mathematical problems, which is necessary for Class I certification. It deals with the basic mathematics which a Class I operator may require in accomplishing day-to-day tasks. The book also progresses into problems

  2. 2. VIEW OF THE WATER FILTRATION PLANT LOOKING SOUTHEAST. A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF THE WATER FILTRATION PLANT LOOKING SOUTH-EAST. A SET OF FOUR EVENLY SPACED CONCRETE WALLS JUT OUT FROM THE NORTHEAST FACADE OF THE BUILDING. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  3. SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR SUBJECTING PLANTS TO WATER STRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A system was evaluated for growing plants at reproducible levels of water stress. Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were grown in vermiculite, transferred to a semipermeable membrane system that encased the root vermiculate mass, and then placed into nutrient solutions to which vario...

  4. Simulating Leaf Area of Corn Plants at Contrasting Water Status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An exponential decay function was fitted with literature data to describe the decrease in leaf expansion rate as leaf water potential decreases. The fitted function was then applied to modify an existing leaf area simulation module in a soil-plant-atmosphere continuum model in order to simulate leaf...

  5. 7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL CONVEYOR; IN THE DISTANCE IS THE FREQUENCY CHANGER HOUSE, WHICH IS ATTACHED TO SWITCH HOUSE NO. 1; LOOKING WEST. - Commonwealth Electric Company, Fisk Street Electrical Generating Station, 1111 West Cermak Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  6. Classroom Techniques to Illustrate Water Transport in Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakrim, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The transport of water in plants is among the most difficult and challenging concepts to explain to students. It is even more difficult for students enrolled in an introductory general biology course. An easy approach is needed to demonstrate this complex concept. I describe visual and pedagogical examples that can be performed quickly and easily…

  7. STUDY OF MICROBIAL AEROSOLS EMITTED FROM A WATER RECLAMATION PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the occurrence of selected microorganisms in the air in the vicinity of the O'Hare Water Reclamation Plant (OWRP), Des Plaines, Illinois. The contribution of the OWRP to ambient microbial aerosols was determined by comparing base...

  8. Classroom Techniques to Illustrate Water Transport in Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakrim, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The transport of water in plants is among the most difficult and challenging concepts to explain to students. It is even more difficult for students enrolled in an introductory general biology course. An easy approach is needed to demonstrate this complex concept. I describe visual and pedagogical examples that can be performed quickly and easily

  9. PILOT PLANT PROJECT FOR REMOVING ORGANIC SUBSTANCES FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes research on the European practice of preozonation of water to modify naturally occurring organics, followed by bacteria activated carbon (BAC) adsorption to remove trihalomethane precursors. A 100-gal/min pilot plant was designed, constructed and operated to...

  10. Tragedy of the commons in plant water use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zea-Cabrera, Eduardo; Iwasa, Yoh; Levin, Simon; RodrGuez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2006-06-01

    In this paper we address the following question: how can efficient water use strategies evolve and persist when natural selection favors aggressive but inefficient individual water use? A tragedy of the commons, in which the competitive evolutionary outcome is lower than the ecosystem optimum (in this case defined as maximum productivity), arises because of (1) a trade-off between resource uptake rate and resource use efficiency and (2) the open access character of soil water as a resource. Competitive superiority is determined by the lowest value of the steady state soil moisture, which can be minimized by increasing water uptake or by increasing drought tolerance. When the competing types all have the same drought tolerance, the most aggressive water users exclude efficient ones, even though they produce a lower biomass when in monoculture. However, plants with low water uptake can exclude aggressive ones if they have enough drought tolerance to produce a lower steady state soil moisture. In that case the competitive superior is also the best monoculture, and there is no tragedy of the commons. Spatial segregation in soil moisture dynamics favors the persistence of conservative water use strategies and the evolution of lower maximum transpiration rates. Increasing genetic relatedness between competing plants favors the evolution of conservative water use strategies. Some combinations of soil moisture spatial segregation and intensity of kin selection may favor the evolution and maintenance of multiple types of plant water use. This occurs because a cyclical pattern of species replacement can arise where no single type can exclude all other types.

  11. Effect of paste water content on APFBC plant efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A.; Domeracki, W.; Horazak,; Rehmat, A.

    1994-06-01

    In the search for a more efficient, less costly, and more environmentally responsible method for generating electrical power from coal, research and development has turned to advanced pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) and coal gasification technologies. A logical extension of this work is the second-generation PFBC plant, which incorporates key components of each of these technologies. In this new type of plant, coal is devolatilized/carbonized before it is injected into the PFB combustor bed, and the low-Btu fuel gas produced by this process is burned in a gas turbine topping combustor. By integrating coal carbonization with PFB coal/char combustion, gas turbine inlet temperatures of 1260{degrees}C (2300{degrees}F) and higher can be achieved. When operated with a dry coal-fed 871{degrees}C (1600{degrees}F) carbonizer and integrated with a conventional 16.5-MPa gage/538{degrees}C/538{degrees}C/8.5-kPa Hg (2400-psig/1000{degrees}F/1000{degrees}F/2.5-in. Hg) steam cycle, a plant electrical generating efficiency of 46.2 percent is predicted. Despite a loss in plant efficiency, first-generation PFB plants have been built with coal/water paste fuel systems because they offer advantages of simplicity and lower capital costs. The performance of second-generation PFB plants operating with coal paste water contents of 25 and 30 percent are presented in the paper.

  12. Plant Morphological and Biochemical Responses to Field Water Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Burke, John J.; Hatfield, Jerry L.

    1987-01-01

    Activity of glutathione reductase has been related to stress tolerance; however, these enzyme assays are generally conducted at 25C. Foliage temperature varies greatly in the field in response to soil water availability and ambient conditions and this may affect enzyme response. This study was conducted to determine the effect of changing foliage temperature on glutathione reductase activity of wheat under field conditions. Wheat leaf glutathione reductase was purified and the temperature response of the enzyme was determined at 2.5C intervals between 12.5 and 45C. These data, in conjunction with continuous measurements of field-grown wheat foliage temperatures, were used to compare the temperature-related changes in potential glutathione reductase activities in water stressed and control plants. Assuming saturating substrate levels, the results indicate that early in the season the daily potential enzyme activity of the irrigated and stressed plants could never have reached the daily activity predicted from the 25C (room temperature) measurements. Later in the season, the daily potential activity of the irrigated plants was lower, and the daily potential activity of the stressed plants was higher, than the activities predicted from the 25C determinations. These results suggest that a better understanding of the regulation of plant metabolism will be obtained by linking continuous temperature measurements of plant foliage with enzyme responses to temperature. PMID:16665639

  13. Nano-sized Mn3O4 and ?-MnOOH from the decomposition of ?-cyclodextrin-Mn: 2. The water-oxidizing activities.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Mostafalu, Ramin; Ho?y?ska, Ma?gorzata; Ebrahimi, Foad; Kaboudin, Babak

    2015-11-01

    Nano-sized Mn oxides contain Mn3O4, ?-MnOOH and Mn2O3 have been prepared by a previously reported method using thermal decomposition of ?-cyclodextrin-Mn complexes. In the next step, the water-oxidizing activities of these Mn oxides using cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate as a chemical oxidant are studied. The turnover frequencies for ?-MnO(OH) and Mn3O4 are 0.24 and 0.01-0.17 (mmol O2/mol Mns), respectively. Subsequently, water-oxidizing activities of these compounds are compared to the other previously reported Mn oxides. Important factors affecting water oxidation by these Mn oxides are also discussed. PMID:25779749

  14. Simulated acid rain alters litter decomposition and enhances the allelopathic potential of the invasive plant Wedelia trilobata (Creeping Daisy)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive species and acid rain cause global environmental problems. Limited information exists, however, concerning the effects of acid rain on the invasiveness of these plants. For example, creeping daisy, an invasive exotic allelopathic weed, has caused great damage in southern China where acid ra...

  15. [Methods for determining plant water source in thin soil region: a review].

    PubMed

    Nie, Yun-peng; Chen, Hong-song; Wang, Ke-lin

    2010-09-01

    Plant water source depends on the distribution of available water in the environment, and the capability of plants in capturing water. In dry season, the soil water in thin soil region cannot satisfy the demand of normal plant growth, and whether the plants can use the water stored in weathered bedrock is the key for them to maintain their normal water consumption. This paper reviewed the research methods for determining the plant water source in thin soil region, including investigating and analyzing the characteristics of root growth and distribution, monitoring the changes of water content at various depths below ground surface, monitoring and analyzing the seasonal variation of plant water status, and identifying the plant water source by stable isotope techniques. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods and their potential applications in tracing plant water source in karst region of Southwest China were discussed. PMID:21265170

  16. Impacts of Soil Warming and Plant Rhizosphere on Root Litter Decomposition at Different Soil Depths in a Mediterranuan Grassland Lysimeter Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, B.; Hicks Pries, C.; Castanha, C.; Curtis, J. B.; Porras, R. C.; Torn, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate understanding of soil carbon cycling is critical for predicting climate-ecosystem feedbacks. Decomposition of root litter and its transformation into soil organic matter (SOM) are critical processes of soil carbon cycling. We aim to study the impacts of soil warming and plant rhizosphere on the fate of 13C-labeled roots buried at two soil depths using a field lysimeter facility at Hopland, California. The lysimeters contain soil columns of 38-cm diameter and 48-cm depth (0-15 cm A-horizon, and 15-48 cm B-horizon, Laughlin soil series) sown with annual grasses dominated by Avena barbata. The experiment has three treatments (planted-ambient, planted-warming (+4C), and unplanted-ambient). In February 2014, 13C-labeled A. fatua roots were added to two depths (8-12 and 38-42 cm). We measured root-derived 13C in respired CO2 collected at the soil surface and in leachate dissolved organic carbon (DOC) collected from the lysimeters during the growing season and in soil harvested in August 2014. We found (1) soil temperature at two depths (10- and 40-cm) have been elevated by 40.2C in the warmed compared to the ambient lysimeters; (2) surface (10-cm) volumetric soil moisture followed this order (unplanted-ambient > planted-ambient > planted-warming), while subsurface (40-cm) soil moisture showed little variation among treatments; (3) ecosystem respiration was enhanced by soil warming during the early growing season (March 15th and April 5th) when soil moisture was not limiting (>20%), while it was suppressed by soil warming during the late growing season (May 7th) when soil moisture was limiting (<20%), and was not significantly different among treatments towards the end of growing season (May 20th); and (4) aboveground plant biomass increased 25% with soil warming. More data including 13C values of ecosystem respiration, DOC loss, and harvested soil samples, as well as soil nutrient supply rates, microbial biomass and community structure will be presented during the meeting. Overall, these results suggest that the impact of soil warming and plant rhizosphere on ecosystem carbon cycling is dependent on season (or soil moisture level) in this Mediterranean grassland ecosystem.

  17. Optimal Thermolysis Conditions for Soil Carbon Storage on Plant Residue Burning: Modeling the Trade-Off between Thermal Decomposition and Subsequent Biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Kajiura, Masako; Wagai, Rota; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    Field burning of plant biomass is a widespread practice that provides charred materials to soils. Its impact on soil C sequestration remains unclear due to the heterogeneity of burning products and difficulty in monitoring the material's biodegradation in fields. Basic information is needed on the relationship between burning conditions and the resulting quantity/quality of residue-derived C altered by thermal decomposition and biodegradation. In this study, we thermolyzed residues (rice straw and husk) at different temperatures (200-600C) under two oxygen availability conditions and measured thermal mass loss, C compositional change by solid-state C NMR spectroscopy, and biodegradability of the thermally altered residues by laboratory aerobic incubation. A trade-off existed between thermal and microbial decomposition: when burned at higher temperatures, residues experience a greater mass loss but become more recalcitrant via carbonization. When an empirical model accounting for the observed trade-off was projected over 10 to 10 yr, we identified the threshold temperature range (330-400C) above and below which remaining residue C is strongly reduced. This temperature range corresponded to the major loss of O-alkyl C and increase in aromatic C. The O/C molar ratios of the resultant residues decreased to 0.2 to 0.4, comparable to those of chars in fire-prone field soils reported previously. Although the negative impacts of biomass burning need to be accounted for, the observed relationship may help to assess the long-term fate of burning-derived C and to enhance soil C sequestration. PMID:25602338

  18. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or adjustment. Water produced from this process should require little processing for use, depending on the end application. Test Series II water quality was not as good as that obtained in Test Series I; however, this was believed to be due to a system upset that contaminated the product water system during Test Series II. The amount of water that can be recovered from flue gas with the LDDS is a function of several variables, including desiccant temperature, L/G in the absorber, flash drum pressure, liquid-gas contact method, and desiccant concentration. Corrosion will be an issue with the use of calcium chloride as expected but can be largely mitigated through proper material selection. Integration of the LDDS with either low-grade waste heat and or ground-source heating and cooling can affect the parasitic power draw the LDDS will have on a power plant. Depending on the amount of water to be removed from the flue gas, the system can be designed with no parasitic power draw on the power plant other than pumping loads. This can be accomplished in one scenario by taking advantage of the heat of absorption and the heat of vaporization to provide the necessary temperature changes in the desiccant with the flue gas and precipitates that may form and how to handle them. These questions must be addressed in subsequent testing before scale-up of the process can be confidently completed.

  19. Study on the TOC concentration in raw water and HAAs in Tehran's water treatment plant outlet.

    PubMed

    Ghoochani, Mahboobeh; Rastkari, Noushin; Nabizadeh Nodehi, Ramin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Nasseri, Simin; Nazmara, Shahrokh

    2013-01-01

    A sampling has been undertaken to investigate the variation of haloacetic acids formation and nature organic matter through 81 samples were collected from three water treatment plant and three major rivers of Tehran Iran. Changes in the total organic matter (TOC), ultraviolet absorbance (UV254), specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) were measured in raw water samples. Haloacetic acids concentrations were monitored using a new static headspace GC-ECD method without a manual pre-concentration in three water treatment plants. The average concentration of TOC and HAAs in three rivers and three water treatment plants in spring, summer and fall, were 4, 2.41 and 4.03 mg/L and 48.75, 43.79 and 51.07 μg/L respectively. Seasonal variation indicated that HAAs levels were much higher in spring and fall. PMID:24283403

  20. Anticipated and abnormal plant transients in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, P.L.; Brockett, G.F.; Majumdar, D.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents the papers of a conference which was based on the need to integrate the nuclear, fluid flow, and heat transfer technologies with the reactor control systems, the safety systems, operator actions, maintenance, management and the economic considerations of a given nuclear power plant. Topics considered include the significance of operational transients (e.g., risk assessment, economic impacts), the plant transient experience base (e.g., the US NRC, the French program, German plants, the Swedish RKS program, Taipower experience), the anatomy of selected operational transients (e.g., Ginna steam generator tube rupture, cooling system malfunction), specific experience in operational transients (e.g., the underrated events, licensing requirements), current issues in operational transients (e.g., pressurized thermal shock, station blackouts), analytical methods for transient simulation (e.g., the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 computer code, ALMOD4), analytical methods assessment by comparison to data, pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant transient analysis, boiling water reactor (BWR) plant transient analysis, modeling methods and analysis, Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of transient accident risks, transient management strategies, and human factors.

  1. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Mohamed Darwish; Diego Acevedo; Jessica Knight

    2003-09-01

    This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system, which is powered by the waste heat from low pressure condensing steam in power plants. The desalination is driven by water vapor saturating dry air flowing through a diffusion tower. Liquid water is condensed out of the air/vapor mixture in a direct contact condenser. A thermodynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production efficiency of 4.5% based on a feed water inlet temperature of only 50 C. An example is discussed in which the DDD process utilizes waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant to produce 1.51 million gallons of fresh water per day. The main focus of the initial development of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower. A detailed mathematical model for the diffusion tower has been described, and its numerical implementation has been used to characterize its performance and provide guidance for design. The analysis has been used to design a laboratory scale diffusion tower, which has been thoroughly instrumented to allow detailed measurements of heat and mass transfer coefficient, as well as fresh water production efficiency. The experimental facility has been described in detail.

  2. Long-Distance Water Transport in Aquatic Plants.

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, O.

    1993-01-01

    Acropetal mass flow of water is demonstrated in two submerged angiosperms, Lobelia dortmanna L. and Sparganium emersum Rehman by means of guttation measurements. Transpiration is absent in truly submerged plants, but the presence of guttation verifies that long-distance water transport takes place. Use of tritiated water showed that the water current arises from the roots, and the main flow of water is channeled to the youngest leaves. This was confirmed by measurement of guttation, which showed the highest rates in young leaves. Guttation rates were 10-fold larger in the youngest leaf of S. emersum (2.1 [mu]L leaf-1 h-1) compared with the youngest leaf of L. dortmanna (0.2 [mu]L leaf-1 h-1). This is probably due to profound species differences in the hydraulic conductance (2.7 x 10-17 m4 Pa-1 s-1 for S. emersum and 1.4 x 10-19 m4 Pa-1 s-1 for L. dortmanna). Estimates derived from the modified Hagen-Poiseuille equation showed that the maximum flow velocity in xylem vessels was 23 to 84 cm h-1, and the required root pressure to drive the flow was small compared to that commonly found in terrestrial plants. In S. emersum long-distance transport of water was shown to be dependent on energy conversion in the roots. The leaves ceased to guttate when the roots were cooled to 4[deg]C from the acclimatization level at 15[deg]C, whereas the guttation was stimulated when the temperature was increased to 25[deg]C. Also, the guttation rate decreased significantly when vanadate was added to the root medium. The observed water transport is probably a general phenomenon in submerged plants, where it can act as a translocation system for nutrients taken up from the rich root medium and thereby assure maximum growth. PMID:12232030

  3. Water Treatment Pilot Plant Design Manual: Low Flow Conventional/Direct Filtration Water Treatment Plant for Drinking Water Treatment Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual highlights the project constraints and concerns, and includes detailed design calculations and system schematics. The plant is based on engineering design principles and practices, previous pilot plant design experiences, and professional experiences and may serve as ...

  4. Chemical Properties, Decomposition, and Methane Production of Tertiary Relict Plant Litters: Implications for Atmospheric Trace Gas Production in the Early Tertiary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavitt, J. B.; Bartella, T. M.; Williams, C. J.

    2006-12-01

    Throughout the early Tertiary (ca. 65-38 Ma) Taxodiaceae-dominated (redwood) wetland forests occupied the high latitudes and were circumpolar in their distribution. Many of these forests had high standing biomass with moderate primary productivity. The geographic extent and amount of Tertiary coals and fossil forests throughout Arctic Canada suggests large areas of wetland forests that may have cycled substantial quantities of carbon, particularly methane until they were replaced by cold tolerant Pinus, Picea, and Larix following climatic cooling associated with the Terminal Eocene Event. To test this hypothesis we compared physiochemical properties, decomposition, and trace gas production of litter from extant Metasequoia, Pinus, Picea, and Larix. Initial results from plantation-grown trees indicate Metasequoia litter is a better source of labile organic substrate than pinaceous litter. Metasequoia litter contained the least lignin and highest amounts of water-soluble compounds of the four litter types studied. Analysis of the lignin structure using cupric oxide oxidation indicates that Metasequoia lignin is enriched in 4'-hydroxyacetophenone and 4'- Hydroxy-3'-methoxyacetophenone relative to the pinaceous litter. In a 12-month decomposition study using litterbags, average litter mass loss was greater for Metasequoia litter (62%) compared to the pinaceous species (50%). Moreover, Metasequoia litter incubated under anoxic conditions produced nearly twice as much CO2 (ca. 4.2 umol/g.day) and CH4 (2.1 umol/g.day) as the pinaceous litter (2.4 umol/g.day for CO2; 1.2 umol/g.day for CH4). Our results support the idea of greater decomposability and palatability of Metasequoia litter as compared to Larix, Picea, or Pinus. Provided that the biochemical properties of Metasequoia have remained relatively stable through geologic time, it appears that early Tertiary Metasequoia-dominated wetland forests may have had higher microbial driven trace gas production than the Pinaceae-dominated forests that replaced them in the late Tertiary.

  5. Practical Application of Iterative Decomposition of Water and Fat with Echo Asymmetry and Least-Squares Estimation (IDEAL) Imaging in Minimizing Metallic Artifacts

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Park, Jai Soung; Paik, Sang Hyun; Lee, Hae Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and the least-squares estimation (IDEAL) is a recently developed method for robust separation of fat and water with very high signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) efficiency. In contrast to conventional fat-saturation methods, IDEAL is insensitive to magnetic field (B0 and B1) inhomogeneity. The aim of this study was to illustrate the practical application of the IDEAL technique in reducing metallic artifacts in postoperative patients with metallic hardware. The IDEAL technique can help musculoskeletal radiologists make an accurate diagnosis particularly in musculoskeletal imaging by reducing metallic artifacts, enabling the use of contrast enhancement, improving SNR performance, and providing various modes of MR images with one scan parameter. PMID:22563271

  6. Changes in water quality in the Owabi water treatment plant in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akoto, Osei; Gyamfi, Opoku; Darko, Godfred; Barnes, Victor Rex

    2014-09-01

    The study was conducted on the status of the quality of water from the Owabi water treatment plant that supplies drinking water to Kumasi, a major city in Ghana, to ascertain the change in quality of water from source to point-of-use. Physico-chemical, bacteriological water quality parameters and trace metal concentration of water samples from five different treatment points from the Owabi water treatment plant were investigated. The raw water was moderately hard with high turbidity and colour that exceeds the WHO guideline limits. Nutrient concentrations were of the following order: NH3 < NO2 - < NO3 - < PO4 3- < SO4 2- and were all below WHO permissible level for drinking water in all the samples at different stages of treatment. Trace metal concentrations of the reservoir were all below WHO limit except chromium (0.06 mg/L) and copper (0.24 mg/L). The bacteriological study showed that the raw water had total coliform (1,766 cfu/100 mL) and faecal coliform (257 cfu/100 mL) that exceeded the WHO standard limits, rendering it unsafe for domestic purposes without treatment. Colour showed strong positive correlation with turbidity (r = 0.730), TSS (r ≥ 0.922) and alkalinity (0.564) significant at p < 0.01. The quality of the treated water indicates that colour, turbidity, Cr and Cu levels reduced and fall within the WHO permissible limit for drinking water. Treatment process at the water treatment plant is adjudged to be good.

  7. Significance of Plant Root Microorganisms in Reclaiming Water in CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Greene, Catherine; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Kliss, Mark H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Since many microorganisms demonstrate the ability to quickly break down complex mixtures of waste and environmental contaminants, examining their potential use for water recycling in a closed environment is appealing. Water contributes approximately 90 percent of the life sustaining provisions in a human space habitat. Nearly half of the daily water requirements will be used for personal hygiene and dish washing. The primary contaminants of the used "gray" water will be the cleansing agents or soaps used to carry out these functions. Reclaiming water from the gray water waste streams is one goal of the NASA program, Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS). The microorganisms of plane roots are well documented to be of a beneficial effect to promote plant growth. Most plants exhibit a range of bacteria and fungi which can be highly plant-specific. In our investigations with lettuce grown in hydroponic culture, we identified a microflora of normal rhizosphere. When the roots were exposed to an anionic surfactant, the species diversity changed, based on morphological characteristics, with the numbers of species being reduced from 7 to 2 after 48 hours of exposure. In addition, the species that became dominant in the presence of the anionic surfactant also demonstrated a dramatic increase in population density which corresponded to the degradation of the surfactant in the root zone. The potential for using these or other rhizosphere bacteria as a primary or secondary waste processor is promising, but a number of issues still warrant investigation; these include but are not limited to: (1) the full identification of the microbes, (2) the classes of surfactants the microbes will degrade, (3) the environmental conditions required for optimal processing efficiency and (4) the ability of transferring the microbes to a non-living solid matrix such as a bioreactor.

  8. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2004-09-01

    An innovative Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) process was recently described where evaporation of mineralized water is driven by diffusion within a packed bed. The energy source to drive the process is derived from low pressure condensing steam within the main condenser of a steam power generating plant. Since waste heat is used to drive the process, the main cost of fresh water production is attributed to the energy cost of pumping air and water through the packed bed. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A combined thermodynamic and dynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3'' Hg. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower and direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. An experimental DDD facility has been fabricated, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. Direct contact condensers with and without packing have been investigated. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is significantly enhanced when packing is added to the direct contact condensers.

  9. Hot water geothermal development: opportunities and pilot plant results

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, G.K.

    1982-08-01

    It has been projected that up to 11,000 MW of geothermal electric capacity may be on line in the United States by the year 2000. The majority of this capacity will come from hot water geothermal plants, as dry steam resources are limited. Currently, no commercial hot water geothermal capacity exists in the U.S., although, substantial capacity does exist in other countries. Large hot, high temperature resources exist in Southern California's Imperial Valley. Early research work has led to the technical success of a 10 MW unit at Brawley, and to the construction of second generation pilot unit at the Salton Sea resource.

  10. Modeling Halophytic Plants in APEX for Sustainable Water and Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeRuyter, T.; Saito, L.; Nowak, B.; Rossi, C.; Toderich, K.

    2013-12-01

    A major problem for irrigated agricultural production is soil salinization, which can occur naturally or can be human-induced. Human-induced, or secondary salinization, is particularly a problem in arid and semi-arid regions, especially in irrigated areas. Irrigated land has more than twice the production of rainfed land, and accounts for about one third of the world's food, but nearly 20% of irrigated lands are salt-affected. Many farmers worldwide currently seasonally leach their land to reduce the soil salt content. These practices, however, create further problems such as a raised groundwater table, and salt, fertilizer, and pesticide pollution of nearby lakes and groundwater. In Uzbekistan, a combination of these management practices and a propensity to cultivate 'thirsty' crops such as cotton has also contributed to the Aral Sea shrinking nearly 90% by volume since the 1950s. Most common agricultural crops are glycophytes that have reduced yields when subjected to salt-stress. Some plants, however, are known as halophytic or 'salt-loving' plants and are capable of completing their life-cycle in higher saline soil or water environments. Halophytes may be useful for human consumption, livestock fodder, or biofuel, and may also be able to reduce or maintain salt levels in soil and water. To assess the potential for these halophytes to assist with salinity management, we are developing a model that is capable of tracking salinity under different management practices in agricultural environments. This model is interdisciplinary as it combines fields such as plant ecology, hydrology, and soil science. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) model, Agricultural Policy/Environmental Extender (APEX), is being augmented with a salinity module that tracks salinity as separate ions across the soil-plant-water interface. The halophytes Atriplex nitens, Climacoptera lanata, and Salicornia europaea are being parameterized and added into the APEX model database. Field sites in the Central Kyzylkum and Khorezm regions of Uzbekistan are being characterized in the model, where halophytes are being grown and plant, soil, and water data are being collected for model verification. This presentation will discuss the plant and site parameterizations as well as preliminary progress on developing and applying the APEX salinity module for modeling the salt cycle through soil, water, and halophytes under different management practices.

  11. Planted floating bed performance in treatment of eutrophic river water.

    PubMed

    Bu, Faping; Xu, Xiaoyi

    2013-11-01

    The objective of the study was to treat eutrophic river water using floating beds and to identify ideal plant species for design of floating beds. Four parallel pilot-scale units were established and vegetated with Canna indica (U1), Accords calamus (U2), Cyperus alternifolius (U3), and Vetiveria zizanioides (U4), respectively, to treat eutrophic river water. The floating bed was made of polyethylene foam, and plants were vegetated on it. Results suggest that the floating bed is a viable alternative for treating eutrophic river water, especially for inhibiting algae growth. When the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) varied from 6.53 to 18.45 mg/L, total nitrogen (TN) from 6.82 to 12.25 mg/L, total phosphorus (TP) from 0.65 to 1.64 mg/L, and Chla from 6.22 to 66.46 g/m(3), the removal of COD, TN, TP, and Chla was 15.3%-38.4%, 25.4%-48.4%, 16.1%-42.1%, and 29.9 %-88.1%, respectively. Ranked by removal performance, U1 was best, followed by U2, U3, and U4. In the floating bed, more than 60% TN and TP were removed by sedimentation; plant uptake was quantitatively of low importance with an average removal of 20.2% of TN and 29.4% of TP removed. The loss of TN (TP) was of the least importance. Compared with the other three, U1 exhibited better dissolved oxygen (DO) gradient distributions, higher DO levels, higher hydraulic efficiency, and a higher percentage of nutrient removal attributable to plant uptake; in addition, plant development and the volume of nutrient storage in the C. indica tissues outperformed the other three species. C. indica thus could be selected when designing floating beds for the Three Gorges Reservoir region of P. R. China. PMID:23737127

  12. Warm water aquaculture using waste heat and water from zero discharge power plants in the Great Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Heckmann, R.A.; Winget, R.N.; Infanger, R.C.; Mickelsen, R.W.; Hendersen, J.M.

    1984-01-31

    Two series of experiments were completed to determine (a) toxicity of waste water from power plants on warm water fish and (b) multiple use of waste heat and water for aquatic animal and plant production. All three types of waste water from a typical coal-fired power plant are acceptable for growing catfish and tilapia following aeration. This growth was compared with fish raised in spring water. Closed, recirculating polyculture systems using evaporation pond water operated efficiently for plant (duckweed) and animal (fish and freshwater prawns) production. Duckweed is an excellent supplement for fish feed. Tilapia and freshwater prawns grew rapidly in the tanks containing duckweed only. 10 references, 13 tables.

  13. (Metabolic mechanisms of plant growth at low-water potentials)

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    For the year 1989, the progress made on this DOE sponsored research will be described by considering the questions presented in the original proposal and describing the work on each one. We used soybean seedlings grown in vermiculite in a dark, humid environment because they are convenient to grow, undergo most of the physiological changes induced by low water potentials in large plants, and have exposed growing regions on which molecular experiments can be done.

  14. Trade-Offs in Resource Allocation Among Moss Species Control Decomposition in Boreal Peatlands

    SciTech Connect

    Turetsky, M. R.; Crow, S. E.; Evans, R. J.; Vitt, D. H.; Wieder, R. K.

    2008-01-01

    We separated the effects of plant species controls on decomposition rates from environmental controls in northern peatlands using a full factorial, reciprocal transplant experiment of eight dominant bryophytes in four distinct peatland types in boreal Alberta, Canada. Standard fractionation techniques as well as compound-specific pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry were used to identify a biochemical mechanism underlying any interspecific differences in decomposition rates. We found that over a 3-year field incubation, individual moss species and not micro-environmental conditions controlled early stages of decomposition. Across species, Sphagnum mosses exhibited a trade-off in resource partitioning into metabolic and structural carbohydrates, a pattern that served as a strong predictor of litter decomposition. Decomposition rates showed a negative co-variation between species and their microtopographic position, as species that live in hummocks decomposed slowly but hummock microhabitats themselves corresponded to rapid decomposition rates. By forming litter that degrades slowly, hummock mosses appear to promote the maintenance of macropore structure in surface peat hummocks that aid in water retention. Many northern regions are experiencing rapid climate warming that is expected to accelerate the decomposition of large soil carbon pools stored within peatlands. However, our results suggest that some common peatland moss species form tissue that resists decomposition across a range of peatland environments, suggesting that moss resource allocation could stabilize peatland carbon losses under a changing climate.

  15. Removal of fluoride contamination in water by three aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Sukalpa; Mukherjee, Joydeep; Mukherjee, Somnath

    2016-03-01

    Phytoremediation, popularly known as 'green technology' has been employed in the present investigation to examine the potential of fluoride removal from water by some aquatic plants. Fluoride contamination in drinking water is very much prevalent in different parts of the world including India. Batch studies were conducted using some aquatic plants e.g., Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipes, and Spirodela polyrhiza which profusely grow in natural water bodies. The experimental data exhibited that all the above three aquatic floating macrophytes could remove fluoride to some relative degree of efficiency corresponding to initial concentration of fluoride 3, 5, 10, 20 mg/l after 10 days exposure time. Result showed that at lower concentration level i.e., 3 mg/L removal efficiency of Pistia stratiotes (19.87%) and Spirodela polyrhiza (19.23%) was found to be better as compared to Eichhornia crassipes (12.71%). Some of the physiological stress induced parameters such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, total protein, catalase, and peroxidase were also studied to explore relative damage within the cell. A marginal stress was imparted among all the plants for lower concentration values (3 mg/L), whereas at 20 mg/l, maximum damage was observed. PMID:26247406

  16. Decomposition in northern Minnesota peatlands

    SciTech Connect

    Farrish, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    Decomposition in peatlands was investigated in northern Minnesota. Four sites, an ombrotrophic raised bog, an ombrotrophic perched bog and two groundwater minerotrophic fens, were studied. Decomposition rates of peat and paper were estimated using mass-loss techniques. Environmental and substrate factors that were most likely to be responsible for limiting decomposition were monitored. Laboratory incubation experiments complemented the field work. Mass-loss over one year in one of the bogs, ranged from 11 percent in the upper 10 cm of hummocks to 1 percent at 60 to 100 cm depth in hollows. Regression analysis of the data for that bog predicted no mass-loss below 87 cm. Decomposition estimates on an area basis were 2720 and 6460 km/ha yr for the two bogs; 17,000 and 5900 kg/ha yr for the two fens. Environmental factors found to limit decomposition in these peatlands were reducing/anaerobic conditions below the water table and cool peat temperatures. Substrate factors found to limit decomposition were low pH, high content of resistant organics such as lignin, and shortages of available N and K. Greater groundwater influence was found to favor decomposition through raising the pH and perhaps by introducing limited amounts of dissolved oxygen.

  17. 77 FR 3009 - Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors..., ``Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors.''...

  18. Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight; Venugopal Jogi

    2005-09-01

    This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A dynamic analysis of heat and mass transfer demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3 Hg. The optimum operating condition for the DDD process with a high temperature of 50 C and sink temperature of 25 C has an air mass flux of 1.5 kg/m{sup 2}-s, air to feed water mass flow ratio of 1 in the diffusion tower, and a fresh water to air mass flow ratio of 2 in the condenser. Operating at these conditions yields a fresh water production efficiency (m{sub fW}/m{sub L}) of 0.031 and electric energy consumption rate of 0.0023 kW-hr/kg{sub fW}. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data. Recently, it has been recognized that the fresh water production efficiency can be significantly enhanced with air heating. This type of configuration is well suited for power plants utilizing air-cooled condensers. The experimental DDD facility has been modified with an air heating section, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is enhanced when air is heated prior to entering the diffusion tower. Further analytical analysis is required to predict the thermal and mass transport with the air heating configuration.

  19. Foulant Characteristics Comparison in Recycling Cooling Water System Makeup by Municipal Reclaimed Water and Surface Water in Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Xu; Jing, Wang; Yajun, Zhang; Jie, Wang; Shuai, Si

    2015-01-01

    Due to water shortage, municipal reclaimed water rather than surface water was replenished into recycling cooling water system in power plants in some cities in China. In order to understand the effects of the measure on carbon steel corrosion, characteristics of two kinds of foulant produced in different systems were studied in the paper. Differences between municipal reclaimed water and surface water were analyzed firstly. Then, the weight and the morphology of two kinds of foulant were compared. Moreover, other characteristics including the total number of bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, iron bacteria, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), protein (PN), and polysaccharide (PS) in foulant were analyzed. Based on results, it could be concluded that microbial and corrosive risk would be increased when the system replenished by municipal reclaimed water instead of surface water. PMID:25893132

  20. Foulant characteristics comparison in recycling cooling water system makeup by municipal reclaimed water and surface water in power plant.

    PubMed

    Ping, Xu; Jing, Wang; Yajun, Zhang; Jie, Wang; Shuai, Si

    2015-01-01

    Due to water shortage, municipal reclaimed water rather than surface water was replenished into recycling cooling water system in power plants in some cities in China. In order to understand the effects of the measure on carbon steel corrosion, characteristics of two kinds of foulant produced in different systems were studied in the paper. Differences between municipal reclaimed water and surface water were analyzed firstly. Then, the weight and the morphology of two kinds of foulant were compared. Moreover, other characteristics including the total number of bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, iron bacteria, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), protein (PN), and polysaccharide (PS) in foulant were analyzed. Based on results, it could be concluded that microbial and corrosive risk would be increased when the system replenished by municipal reclaimed water instead of surface water. PMID:25893132

  1. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY COAGULATION/FILTRATION AND LIME SOFTENING PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents a long term performance (one year) study of 3 water treatment plants to remove arsenic from drinking water sources. The 3 plants consisted of 2 conventional coagulation/filtration plants and 1 lime softening plant. The study involved the collecting of weekly...

  2. Stable isotopes in plant physiology: using water isotopes to study water fluxes in a temperate forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlein, C.; Wolf, A.; Caylor, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    Drought has profound consequences on vegetation, including decreases in instantaneous carbon uptake; damage that limits future uptake for the life of the plant; mortality that can lead to large sources of carbon to the atmosphere; and shifts in biogeography that alter future potential for carbon uptake and capacitance. These processes are largely absent from global models, for lack of understanding in how co-occurring plants compete for water, weak understanding of how plant hydraulics is coordinated to minimize risk of drought, and few empirical data to constrain superior models of these processes. Here we present the results of a large-scale field experiment at Silas Little Experimental Forest (NJ), where rainwater was diverted from a 10m^2 area around selected trees from two different species (either oak or pine trees) and either re-injected (control plots), discarded (drought plots) or replaced by isotopically labeled water (isotope plots). We sampled heavily the drought plots and collected valuable information on tree hydraulics under drought conditions, such as water potentials of soil, leaf and stem, photosynthetic rate or sap flow. At the isotope plots, we followed the injected water within the injection trees and the surrounding ones. In particular, using an innovative setup for in-situ measurement paired with a laser spectrometer, we studied the isotopes effects within the tree xylem, which gave us a better understanding of water uptake by the roots and its transport to the leaves. By tracking the labeled water in the surrounding trees, we were also able to quantify the importance of plant competition for water availability below ground. We show here the importance of understanding all the phases of the water transport in the biosphere to help constraining climate models.

  3. Association of water spectral indices with plant and soil water relations in contrasting wheat genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Mario; Reynolds, Matthew P.; Klatt, Arthur R.

    2010-01-01

    Spectral reflectance indices can be used to estimate the water status of plants in a rapid, non-destructive manner. Water spectral indices were measured on wheat under a range of water-deficit conditions in field-based yield trials to establish their relationship with water relations parameters as well as available volumetric soil water (AVSW) to indicate soil water extraction patterns. Three types of wheat germplasm were studied which showed a range of drought adaptation; near-isomorphic sister lines from an elite/elite cross, advanced breeding lines, and lines derived from interspecific hybridization with wild relatives (synthetic derivative lines). Five water spectral indices (one water index and four normalized water indices) based on near infrared wavelengths were determined under field conditions between the booting and grain-filling stages of crop development. Among all water spectral indices, one in particular, which was denominated as NWI-3, showed the most consistent associations with water relations parameters and demonstrated the strongest associations in all three germplasm sets. NWI-3 showed a strong linear relationship (r2 >0.6–0.8) with leaf water potential (ψleaf) across a broad range of values (–2.0 to –4.0 MPa) that were determined by natural variation in the environment associated with intra- and inter-seasonal affects. Association observed between NWI-3 and canopy temperature (CT) was consistent with the idea that genotypes with a better hydration status have a larger water flux (increased stomatal conductance) during the day. NWI-3 was also related to soil water potential (ψsoil) and AVSW, indicating that drought-adapted lines could extract more water from deeper soil profiles to maintain favourable water relations. NWI-3 was sufficiently sensitive to detect genotypic differences (indicated by phenotypic and genetic correlations) in water status at the canopy and soil levels indicating its potential application in precision phenotyping. PMID:20639342

  4. Soil Water Sensor Needs for the Evaluation of Hydraulic Lift in Crop Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydraulic lift (HL) in plants is defined as the process by which water is redistributed from wet soil zones to drier soil zones through the plant root system in response to gradients in water potential. Water is released into the dry soil when plant transpiration is low (night) and reabsorbed by th...

  5. 78 FR 35330 - Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide (RG), 1.68, ``Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants... Initial Test Programs (ITPs) for light water cooled nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please refer...

  6. Organic halogens in unpolluted waters and large bodies of water receiving bleach plant effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Grimvall, A.; Jonsson, S.; Karlsson, S.; Savenhed, R.; Boren, H. )

    1991-05-01

    In this paper the authors review and update recently performed studies of organic halogens in unpolluted waters and two large bodies of water receiving bleach plant effluents---Lake Vattern in Sweden and the Baltic Sea. All water samples contained measurable amounts of adsorbable organic halogens (AOX); the highest concentrations (up to 200 {mu}g Cl/L) were observed in humic lakes not exposed to any industrial discharges. Analysis of chlorophenols revealed that there is a long-distance transport ({gt} 100 km) of chloroguaiacols from bleach plants to remote parts of receiving waters. However, there was no evidence of chlorinated organics from bleach plants accumulating over several years in the water phase. One chlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and its methylated analogue, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole, were also detected in surface waters considered to be unpolluted. Mass balance calculations showed that different processes in terrestrial environments make large contributions of AOX; enzyme-mediated chlorination of humic substances is a plausible explanation to the widespread occurrence of organic halogens.

  7. Measurement of the initial phase of ozone decomposition in water and wastewater by means of a continuous quench-flow system: application to disinfection and pharmaceutical oxidation.

    PubMed

    Buffle, Marc-Olivier; Schumacher, Jochen; Salhi, Elisabeth; Jekel, Martin; von Gunten, Urs

    2006-05-01

    Due to a lack of adequate experimental techniques, the kinetics of the first 20s of ozone decomposition in natural water and wastewater is still poorly understood. Introducing a continuous quench-flow system (CQFS), measurements starting 350 ms after ozone addition are presented for the first time. Very high HO. to O3 exposures ratios (Rct=integralHO.dt/integralO3dt) reveal that the first 20s of ozonation present oxidation conditions that are similar to ozone-based advanced oxidation processes (AOP). The oxidation of carbamazepine could be accurately modeled using O3 and HO. exposures measured with CQFS during wastewater ozonation. These results demonstrate the applicability of bench scale determined second-order rate constants for wastewater ozonation. Important degrees of pharmaceutical oxidation and microbial inactivation are predicted, indicating that a significant oxidation potential is available during wastewater ozonation, even when ozone is entirely decomposed in the first 20s. PMID:16624368

  8. Beyond hypoxia: occurrence and characteristics of black blooms due to the decomposition of the submerged plant Potamogeton crispus in a shallow lake.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qiushi; Zhou, Qilin; Shang, Jingge; Shao, Shiguang; Zhang, Lei; Fan, Chengxin

    2014-02-01

    Organic matter-induced black blooms (hypoxia and an offensive odor) are a serious ecosystem disasters that have occurred in some large eutrophic shallow lakes in China. In this study, we investigated two separate black blooms that were induced by Potamogeton crispus in Lake Taihu, China. The main physical and chemical characteristics, including color- and odor-related substances, of the black blooms were analyzed. The black blooms were characterized by low dissolved oxygen concentration (close to 0 mg/L), low oxidation-reduction potential, and relatively low pH of overlying water. Notably higher Fe2+ and sigmaS(2-) were found in the black-bloom waters than in waters not affected by black blooms. The black color of the water may be attributable to the high concentration of these elements, as black FeS was considered to be the main substance causing the black color of blooms in freshwater lakes. Volatile organic sulfur compounds, including dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide, were very abundant in the black-bloom waters. The massive anoxic degradation of dead Potamogeton crispus plants released dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide, which were the main odor-causing compounds in the black blooms. The black blooms also induced an increase in ammonium nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus levels in the overlying waters. This extreme phenomenon not only heavily influenced the original lake ecosystem but also greatly changed the cycling of Fe, S, and nutrients in the water column. PMID:25076519

  9. IMPACT OF PLANT DENSITY AND MICROBIAL COMPOSITION ON WATER QUALITY FROM A FREE WATER SURFACE CONSTRUCTED WETLAND

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: To determine the effects of plant density and microbial community composition associated with wetland plants from different wetland pond on water quality of a free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland. Methods & Results: Water chemistry was monitored weekly for nitrate, orthophosphate and s...

  10. Introduction to Chemistry for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators. Water and Wastewater Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Dept. of Environmental Protection, Pierre.

    Presented are basic concepts of chemistry necessary for operators who manage drinking water treatment plants and wastewater facilities. It includes discussions of chemical terms and concepts, laboratory procedures for basic analyses of interest to operators, and discussions of appropriate chemical calculations. Exercises are included and answer

  11. Is the U.S. experience replicable? A decomposition of U.S. water use since 1950

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debaere, P.

    2014-12-01

    Blue water withdrawals in the United States since 1950 show a remarkable pattern. After doubling between 1950 and 1980, water use slightly declined in spite of a doubling in GDP, 30 percent population growth and a 70 percent increase in per capita GDP since 1980. We relate this remarkable pattern to the changing long-term structural changes of the U.S. economy as it became a service economy, experiencing a decrease in relative share of manufacturing and a secular decline in agriculture. Drawing on Leontief (1970)'s seminal analysis, we decompose the U.S. water use in terms of scale, composition and technology. We find that about 1/3 of water saving can be attributed to shifting final demand by domestic and foreign buyers for U.S. products; slightly more than a 1/3 relates to the changing input output structure that characterizes U.S. production, and less than 1/3 is to be attributed to water productivity gains related to improvements in technology. In addition, our estimates indicate that the vast majority of the water productivity gains due to technological improvements stem from gains in water/KWh in electricity generation. Finally, while globalization and the growing water content of net imports increased for the U.S. since 1950, they by no means overturn the increased water saving due to changing sectoral composition of the U.S. economy.

  12. Removal of fluoride from water by five submerged plants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Gao, Jingqing; Liu, Yang; Ba, Kun; Chen, Shaohua; Zhang, Rinqin

    2012-08-01

    Studies were conducted on the bioconcentration of fluoride (F(-)) in five submerged plants species. Ceratophyllum demersum, Hydrilla verticillata, Potamogeton malaianus, Myriophyllum verticillatum and Elodea nuttallii were all able to remove F(-) from water to some degree of efficiencies. At 5-20 mg F(-)/L culture solution, C. demersum had the best F(-)-removal performance, E. nuttallii had the poorest F(-)-removal performance among these plants. The relative growth rate (RGR) of the five species varied in different concentrations of F(-), of which C. demersum had the highest RGR. Its RGR decreased by 26.3 %, 63.2 % and 73.7 % from controls at 5, 10 and 20 mg F/L, respectively. PMID:22722597

  13. Life Cycle Assesment of Daugavgriva Waste Water Treatment Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romagnoli, F.; Sampaio, F.; Blumberga, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the assessment of the environmental impacts caused by the treatment of Riga's waste water in the Daugavgriva plant with biogas energy cogeneration through the life cycle assessment (LCA). The LCA seems to be a good tool to assess and evaluate the most serious environmental impacts of a facility The results showed clearly that the impact category contributing the most to the total impact -eutrophicationcomes from the wastewater treatment stage. Climate change also seems to be a relevant impact coming from the wastewater treatment stage and the main contributor to the Climate change is N2O. The main environmental benefits, in terms of the percentages of the total impact, associated to the use of biogas instead of any other fossil fuel in the cogeneration plant are equal to: 3,11% for abiotic depletation, 1,48% for climate change, 0,51% for acidification and 0,12% for eutrophication.

  14. (Metabolic mechanisms of plant growth at low water potentials)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The work supported by DOE showed that water-limitation inhibits plant growth first by imposing a physical limitation that is followed in a few h by metabolic changes leading to reduced wall extensibility in the enlarging cells. After the wall extensibility decreased, a 28kD protein accumulated particularly in the walls of the growth-affected cells. Antibodies were used to identify cDNA for the protein. The base sequence of the cDNA was typical of an enzyme rather than known structural components of walls. The sequence was identical to one published by another laboratory at the same time and encoding a protein that accumulates in vacuoles of depodded soybean plants.

  15. Influence of solar radiation and biotic interactions on bacterial and eukaryotic communities associated with sewage decomposition in ambient water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sewage and ambient water both consist of a highly complex array of bacteria and eukaryotic microbes. When these communities are mixed, the persistence of sewage-derived pathogens in environmental waters can represent a significant public health concern. Solar radiation and biot...

  16. Influence of Solar Radiation and Biotic Interactions on Bacterial and Eukaryotic Communities Associated with Sewage Decomposition in Ambient Water - Poster

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sewage and ambient water both consist of a highly complex array of bacteria and eukaryotic microbes. When these communities are mixed, the persistence of sewage-derived pathogens in environmental waters can represent a significant public health concern. Solar radiation and biotic...

  17. Solar water heating for apple packing plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    The objective was to build a solar collector system to augment the usage of natural gas to heat water. 960 square feet of collector were constructed, using copper sheet, copper tube, aluminum frames, tempered glass glazing, and plywood backs. These were mounted on the roof of the packing plant and piped with the help of professional plumbers. Material costs exceeded the budget by a third, and the target of collecting 800 Btu's/ft/sup 2/ of collector per day was missed by collecting only one quarter of that amount for the month of December.

  18. Human pharmaceuticals, antioxidants, and plasticizers in wastewater treatment plant and water reclamation plant effluents.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Mary A; Pedersen, Joel A; Park, Heesu; Castaneda-Jimenez, Angelica; Stenstrom, Michael K; Suffet, I H Mel

    2007-02-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the presence of unregulated organic chemicals in reclaimed water using complementary targeted and broad spectrum approaches. Eleven of 12 targeted human pharmaceuticals, antioxidants, and plasticizers, and 27 tentatively identified non-target organic chemicals, were present in secondary effluent entering tertiary treatment trains at a wastewater treatment plant and two water reclamation facilities. The removal of these compounds by three different tertiary treatment trains was investigated: coagulant-assisted granular media filtration (California Title-22 water, 22 CCR 60301-60357; Barclay [2006]), lime clarification/reverse osmosis (lime/ RO), and microfiltration-reverse osmosis (MF/RO). Carbamazepine, clofibric acid, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, p-toluenesulfonamide, caffeine, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and N-butyl benzenesulfonamide (N-BBSA) were present at low to high nanogram-per-liter levels in Title 22 water. The lime/RO product waters contained lower concentrations of clofibric acid, ibuprofen, caffeine, BHA, and N-BBSA (<10 to 71 ng/L) than their Title 22 counterparts. The MF/RO treatment reduced concentrations to levels below their detection limits, although BHT was present in MF/RO product water from one facility. The presence of the target analytes in two surface waters used as raw drinking water sources and a recharged groundwater was also examined. Surface waters used as raw drinking water sources contained caffeine, BHA, BHT, and N-BBSA, while recharged groundwater contained BHT, BHA, and N-BBSA. Nontarget compounds in recharged groundwater appeared to be attenuated with increased residence time in the aquifer. PMID:17370841

  19. The impact of water use fees on dispatching and water requirements for water-cooled power plants in Texas.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Kelly T; Blackhurst, Michael F; King, Carey W; Webber, Michael E

    2014-06-17

    We utilize a unit commitment and dispatch model to estimate how water use fees on power generators would affect dispatching and water requirements by the power sector in the Electric Reliability Council of Texas' (ERCOT) electric grid. Fees ranging from 10 to 1000 USD per acre-foot were separately applied to water withdrawals and consumption. Fees were chosen to be comparable in cost to a range of water supply projects proposed in the Texas Water Development Board's State Water Plan to meet demand through 2050. We found that these fees can reduce water withdrawals and consumption for cooling thermoelectric power plants in ERCOT by as much as 75% and 23%, respectively. To achieve these water savings, wholesale electricity generation costs might increase as much as 120% based on 2011 fuel costs and generation characteristics. We estimate that water saved through these fees is not as cost-effective as conventional long-term water supply projects. However, the electric grid offers short-term flexibility that conventional water supply projects do not. Furthermore, this manuscript discusses conditions under which the grid could be effective at "supplying" water, particularly during emergency drought conditions, by changing its operational conditions. PMID:24832169

  20. Kinetic model for the chlorination of power plant cooling waters

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.D.; Qualls, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    Concern over the environmental effects of chlorination has prompted efforts to minimize the amount of chlorine necessary to prevent fouling of power-plant condensers. Kinetic expressions are developed for the short-term reactions of chlorine consumption by organic substances in natural freshwater. These expressions were developed to use in a kinetic model to predict the free and total available chlorine discharged in cooling water. This model uses commonly available water-quality data. It assumes that most of the chlorine-consuming substances are: (1) NH/sub 3/, (2) chloramine-forming organic-N, and (3) humic substances. It uses the Morris-Wei model of chlorine-ammonia reactions. Chloramine formation from organic-N was represented by a model compound, glycylglycine.

  1. Rapid In Situ Identification of Source Water and Leaf Water in a Variety of Plant Species and Functional Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Still, C. J.; Hu, J.; Berkelhammer, M. B.; Barnard, H. R.; Rahn, T.; Hsiao, G.; Raudzens Bailey, A.; Noone, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    Plant rooting distributions and use of soil water resources are important determinants of ecological and hydrological function. The isotope composition of plant xylem water can be used to infer soil water source variations, in particular differences among species and plant functional types. We report here on dynamics in the oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of plant and soil water pools and fluxes within the Manitou Experimental Forest in the Colorado Rockies. For this work, we used multiple in situ laser-based spectroscopic analyzers to collect isotope data on soil water, leaf water, stem water, transpiration water, and canopy vapor from multiple heights in the canopy. Using an Induction Module - Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy system, which extracts and analyzes soil and plant samples in a few minutes, we measured soil and plant water isotopic composition from multiple soil depths and plant species at several points throughout the growing season. Stem (source) water isotopic composition varied greatly among the various plant species and functional types (pine trees, shrubs, forbs, grasses), broadly in agreement with expected plant rooting depths. The steady-state isotopic composition of leaf transpiration, another proxy of source water, was also consistent with this variation by plant functional type and rooting depth. Leaf water generally followed these patterns, but pine needles exhibited dramatic isotopic gradients along the needle length, with hydrogen isotope gradients of close to 100 per mil from leaf base to tip. We also introduced an isotopic label in two pines of different sizes (that were previously instrumented with sapflow probes and dendrometers) to further identify the pathways and pace of water flow though the trees. These results demonstrate the complex interactions between multiple source and fluxes of water, and that simple ecosystem isotope models, while generally valid, require careful evaluation as high-frequency and in situ isotopic data become more widely available.

  2. Has the plant genetic variability any role in models of water transfer in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardieu, F.

    2012-04-01

    Water transfer in the SPAC is essentially linked to environmental conditions such as evaporative demand or soil water potential, and physical parameters such as soil hydraulic capacity or hydraulic conductivity. Models used in soil science most often represent the plant via a small number of variables such as the water flux that crosses the base of the stem or the root length (or area) in each soil layer. Because there is an increasing demand for computer simulations of plants that would perform better under water deficit, models of SPA water transfer are needed that could better take into account the genetic variability of traits involved in plant hydraulics. (i) The water flux through the plant is essentially limited by stomata, which present a much higher resistance to water flow than those in the soil - root continuum. This can lead to unexpected relations between flux, leaf water potential and root hydraulic conductance. (ii) A large genetic variability exists within and between species for stomatal control, with important consequences for the minimum soil water potential that is accessible to the plant. In particular, isohydric plants that maintain leaf water potential in a narrow range via stomatal control have a higher (nearer to 0) 'wilting point' than anisohydric plants that allow leaf water potential to reach very low values. (iii) The conductivity for water transfer in roots and shoots is controlled by plants via aquaporins. It largely varies with time of the day, water and nutrient status, in particular via plant hormones and circadian rhythms. Models of SPA water transfer with a time definition of minutes to hour should probably not ignore this, while those with longer time steps are probably less sensitive to changes in plant hydraulic conductivity. (iv) The "dogma" that dense root systems provide tolerance to water deficit is profoundly affected when the balance "H2O gain vs C investment" is taken into account. At least three programmes of recurrent selection for drought tolerance have resulted in a decrease in root biomass. Overall, it is now crucial to take into account the rapid progress in plant hydraulics in SPA models of water transfer. Several projects aim at this objective, in particular the EU project DROPS that gathers geneticists, plant modellers and soil modellers.

  3. Rehydration versus Growth-induced Water Uptake in Plant Tissues.

    PubMed

    Molz, F J; Klepper, B; Peterson, C M

    1973-05-01

    Experiments show that the rate of water uptake by living tissues external to mature xylem of cotton stems (Gossypium hirsutum L. Auburn 7-683) is very similar to the corresponding curves for leaf tissue. In both cases one obtains a two-phase curve with phase I corresponding to passive rehydration and phase II pertaining to active growth.A theory of water movement in plant tissue first proposed by Philip allows one to make a more rigorous distinction than made previously between phase I and phase II. This theory is applied explicitly to water uptake by leaf disks and results in a simple expression for the time required for phase I completion. Because the time required varies as the square of the disk radius, it is essential to use a standad disk size in water uptake studies of a particular tissue.Additional analysis indicates that clear temporal distinction cannot be made between phase I and phase II. Different portions of the leaf disk rehydrate at significantly different rates, resulting in a grey zone with phase I and phase II occurring simultaneously in different parts of the disk. PMID:16658427

  4. Mitigation of microbial corrosion in Ras Budran water injection plant

    SciTech Connect

    Khattab, N.M.

    1995-12-01

    The Oil Company is water flooding Ras Budran field with Gulf of Suez water as a secondary means of oil recovery. Mitigation of microbial corrosion in Ras Budran water treatment plant is achieved by the continuous chlorination and weekly slugging of two types of biocides alternatively. Three years from commissioning, water quality started deteriorating at the offshore platforms in terms of high H{sub 2}S, iron contents, counts and corrosion rates. The main cause was attributed to the adhering property of sessile sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) that could neither be controlled by corrosion inhibitor nor biocide treatment. In accordance, a cleaning and sterilization program was established for the piggable section of the sub sea injection line. This paper also presents the recent failure experienced in the remaining unpiggable section of the injection line. Diagnosis and analysis revealed that microbial corrosion was the main contributor to the failure due to the lack of pigging facility and the inability of removing the complex biofilms in which sessile bacteria grow, and rendering the applied biocides ineffective. For further confirmation intelligent pigging of the intact pipeline was run. Results showed that the line is in good condition internally with no significant corrosion.

  5. Climate and ET: Does Plant Water Requirements Increase during Droughts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fipps, G.; Bonaiti, G.; Swanson, C.

    2012-04-01

    With the expected rise in global warming and increased frequency of extreme climate variability in the coming decades, conservation and efficient use of water resources is essential and must make use of the most accurate and representative data available. Historically, governmental and private organizations have used estimates of plant water use estimated from a variety of methods for long-term water planning, for designing hydraulic structures, and for establishing regulatory guidance and conservation programs intended to reduce water waste. In recent years, there has been an expansion of agricultural weather station networks which report daily ETo (potential evapotranspiration) and commercial irrigation controllers with instrumentation which calculate real-time ETo from weather parameters. Efforts are underway to use this more precise information for regional water planning and ETo is routinely used for designing and implementing drought response programs. The year 2011 marked the driest year on record in the State of Texas. Compounding the lack of rainfall was record heat during the summer of 2011. In 2011, real-time ETo (reference evapotranspiration) data in Texas was 30 to 50% higher than historic averages. The implications are quite serious, as most current water planning and drought contingency plans do not take into consideration increases in ET during such periods, and irrigation planning and capacity sizing are based on historic averages of consumptive use. This paper examines the relationship between ET and climate during this extreme climatic event. While the solar radiation was near normal levels, temperature and wind was much higher and dew points much lower than norms. The variability and statistical difference between long term average ETo and ETo measurements (from 2006 to 2011) for selected weather stations of the Texas ET Network.

  6. Examples of Savannah River water dilution between the Savannah River Plant and the Beaufort-Jasper and Port Wentworth water-treatment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, D.W.

    1983-01-12

    A substantial dilution of the river water occurs between the Savannah River Plant (SRP) and the two treatment plants. This dilution results from inflow of surface and groundwater and from direct rainfall. The amount of dilution was estimated to be approximately 20% and 54% down to the Port Wentworth and Beaufort-Jasper plants, respectively.

  7. Numerical simulation of the thermal conditions in a sea bay water area used for water supply to nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolov, A. S.

    2013-07-15

    Consideration is given to the numerical simulation of the thermal conditions in sea water areas used for both water supply to and dissipation of low-grade heat from a nuclear power plant on the shore of a sea bay.

  8. Integral water treatment plant modeling: improvements for particle processes.

    PubMed

    Lawler, Desmond F; Nason, Jeffrey A

    2005-09-01

    An update of research on particle behavior in water treatment plants first performed 25 years ago under the direction of Charles O'Melia is provided. The earlier work involved mathematical modeling of the changes in particle size distributions in the flocculation and sedimentation processes in water treatment plants. The current model includes corrections for short-range interactions between particles as they approach one another. These corrections severely reduce the expected collision frequency between particles that are very different in size and, therefore, substantially change the model predictions. Both experimental and field measurements of particle size distributions are provided; such measurements were unavailable in the earlier work and represent a touchstone to reality for the modeling efforts. The short-range model successfully fits experimental results for flocculation when the mechanism of particle destabilization is charge neutralization. However, the model does not account for the creation of new solids by precipitation either when hydrolyzing salts of aluminum or iron are added for particle destabilization by "sweep floc" destabilization or lime is added to remove calcium and magnesium as calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide in softening. The flocculent sedimentation model yields results that are in strong qualitative agreement with typical field measurements. PMID:16190185

  9. Effect of textile waste water on tomato plant, Lycopersicon esculentum.

    PubMed

    Marwari, Richa; Khan, T I

    2012-09-01

    In this study Sanganer town, Jaipur was selected as study area. The plants of Lycopersicon esculentum var. K 21(Tomato) treated with 20 and 30% textile wastewater were analyzed for metal accumulation, growth and biochemical parameters at per, peak and post flowering stages. Findings of the study revealed that chlorophyll content was most severely affected with the increase in metal concentration. Total chlorophyll content showed a reduction of 72.44% while carbohydrate, protein and nitrogen content showed a reduction of 46.83, 71.65 and 71.65% respectively. With the increase in waste water treatment the root and shoot length, root and shoot dry weight and total dry weight were reduced to 50.55, 52.06, 69.93, 72.42, 72.10% respectively. After crop harvesting, the fruit samples of the plants treated with highest concentration of textile waste water contained 2.570 mg g(-1)d.wt. of Zn, 0.800 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cu, 1.520 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cr and 2.010 mg g(-1) d.wt. Pb. PMID:23734449

  10. The decomposition of the Faroe-Shetland Channel water masses using Parametric Optimum Multi-Parameter analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, C.; Berx, B.; Austin, W. E. N.

    2016-01-01

    The Faroe-Shetland Channel (FSC) is an important conduit for the poleward flow of Atlantic water towards the Nordic Seas and, as such, it plays an integral part in the Atlantic's thermohaline circulation. Mixing processes in the FSC are thought to result in an exchange of properties between the channel's inflow and outflow, with wider implications for this circulation; the nature of this mixing in the FSC is, however, uncertain. To constrain this uncertainty, we used a novel empirical method known as Parametric Optimum Multi-Parameter (POMP) analysis to objectively quantify the distribution of water masses in the channel in May 2013. This was achieved by using a combination of temperature and salinity measurements, as well as recently available nutrient and δ18O measurements. The outcomes of POMP analysis are in good agreement with established literature and demonstrate the benefits of representing all five water masses in the FSC. In particular, our results show the recirculation of Modified North Atlantic Water in the surface layers, and the pathways of Norwegian Sea Arctic Intermediate Water and Norwegian Sea Deep Water from north to south for the first time. In a final step, we apply the mixing fractions from POMP analysis to decompose the volume transport through the FSC by water mass. Despite a number of caveats, our study suggests that improved estimates of the volume transport of Atlantic inflow towards the Arctic and, thus, the associated poleward fluxes of salt and heat are possible. A new prospect to more accurately monitor the strength of the FSC branch of the thermohaline circulation emerges from this study.

  11. Supercritical water oxidation of polyvinyl alcohol and desizing wastewater: influence of NaOH on the organic decomposition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Shuzhong; Guo, Yang; Xu, Donghai; Gong, Yanmeng; Tang, Xingying

    2013-08-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol is a refractory compound widely used in industry. Here we report supercritical water oxidation of polyvinyl alcohol solution and desizing wastewater with and without sodium hydroxide addition. However, it is difficult to implement complete degradation of organics even though polyvinyl alcohol can readily crack under supercritical water treatment. Sodium hydroxide had a significant catalytic effect during the supercritical water oxidation of polyvinyl alcohol. It appears that the OH- ion participated in the C-C bond cleavage of polyvinyl alcohol molecules, the CO2-capture reaction and the neutralization of intermediate organic acids, promoting the overall reactions moving in the forward direction. Acetaldehyde was a typical intermediate product during reaction. For supercritical water oxidation of desizing wastewater, a high destruction rate (98.25%) based on total organic carbon was achieved. In addition, cases where initial wastewater was alkaline were favorable for supercritical water oxidation treatment, but salt precipitation and blockage issues arising during the process need to be taken into account seriously. PMID:24520696

  12. Simulating Plant Water Stress and Phenology in Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests: Plant Hydraulics and Trait-Driven Trade-Offs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Medvigy, D.; Powers, J. S.; Becknell, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Seasonally dry tropical forests account for over 40% of the forested area in tropical and subtropical regions. Previous studies suggest that seasonal water stress is one main driver of phenology and related vegetation dynamics in seasonally dry tropical forests. Species that coexist in seasonally dry tropical forests have different plant traits, experience different degrees of plant water stress and show distinctive phenological patterns. However, the observed diversity in plant phenology and related vegetation dynamics is poorly represented in current dynamic vegetation models. In this study, we employ a new modeling approach to enhance our model skills in seasonally dry tropical forests. First, we implement a new plant hydraulic module under the framework of a state-of-the-art dynamic vegetation model, Ecosystem Demography 2 (ED2). Second, we link plant water stress with several key coordinated plant traits. Unlike previous models, the updated ED2 does not prescribe leaf phenology (deciduous or evergreen) and plant water stress is not determined by empirical water stress factors or by soil moisture alone. Instead, the model tracks more mechanistic indicators of plant water stress like leaf water potential, accounts for different abilities to tolerate water stress among plant functional types and predicts dry season leaf deciduousness and related vegetation dynamics. The updated model is then tested with in-situ meteorological data and long-term ecological observations. We also perform numerical experiments to explore the possible biases of ignoring the observed diversity in seasonally dry tropical forests. We find that (i) variations of several key plant traits (specific leaf area, wood density, turgor loss point and rooting depth) can account for the observed distinctive phenological patterns as well as inter-annual variations in vegetation growth among species. (ii) Ignoring the trait-driven trade-offs and diversity in seasonality would introduce significant amount of biases in model predictions of ecosystem energy and water fluxes.

  13. Effects of livestock watering sites on alien and native plants in the Mojave Desert, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.L.; Matchett, J.R.; Berry, K.H.

    2006-01-01

    Increased livestock densities near artificial watering sites create disturbance gradients called piospheres. We studied responses of alien and native annual plants and native perennial plants within 9 piospheres in the Mojave Desert of North America. Absolute and proportional cover of alien annual plants increased with proximity to watering sites, whereas cover and species richness of native annual plants decreased. Not all alien species responded the same, as the alien forb Erodium cicutarium and the alien grass Schismus spp. increased with proximity to watering sites, and the alien annual grass Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens decreased. Perennial plant cover and species richness also declined with proximity to watering sites, as did the structural diversity of perennial plant cover classes. Significant effects were focused within 200 m of the watering sites, suggesting that control efforts for alien annual plants and restoration efforts for native plants should optimally be focused within this central part of the piosphere gradient.

  14. A partition-limited model for the plant uptake of organic contaminants from soil and water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiou, C.T.; Sheng, G.; Manes, M.

    2001-01-01

    In dealing with the passive transport of organic contaminants from soils to plants (including crops), a partition-limited model is proposed in which (i) the maximum (equilibrium) concentration of a contaminant in any location in the plant is determined by partition equilibrium with its concentration in the soil interstitial water, which in turn is determined essentially by the concentration in the soil organic matter (SOM) and (ii) the extent of approach to partition equilibrium, as measured by the ratio of the contaminant concentrations in plant water and soil interstitial water, ??pt (??? 1), depends on the transport rate of the contaminant in soil water into the plant and the volume of soil water solution that is required for the plant contaminant level to reach equilibrium with the external soil-water phase. Through reasonable estimates of plant organic-water compositions and of contaminant partition coefficients with various plant components, the model accounts for calculated values of ??pt in several published crop-contamination studies, including near-equilibrium values (i.e., ??pt ??? 1) for relatively water-soluble contaminants and lower values for much less soluble contaminants; the differences are attributed to the much higher partition coefficients of the less soluble compounds between plant lipids and plant water, which necessitates much larger volumes of the plant water transport for achieving the equilibrium capacities. The model analysis indicates that for plants with high water contents the plant-water phase acts as the major reservoir for highly water-soluble contaminants. By contrast, the lipid in a plant, even at small amounts, is usually the major reservoir for highly water-insoluble contaminants.

  15. Growth stimulation of gram (Cicer arietinum) plant by water soluble carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Shweta; Sonkar, Sumit Kumar; Sarkar, Sabyasachi

    2011-03-01

    Water soluble carbon nanotubes (wsCNTs) show enhancement of the growth rate of common gram (Cicer arietinum) plants. Treating plants with up to 6.0 ?g mL(-1) of wsCNT shows an increased growth rate in every part of the plant including the roots, shoots and also in branching. The noticeable difference between the wsCNT treated and controlled gram is the water uptake; in the former it is dramatically enhanced, suggesting better water absorption and retention related to enhanced growth. This work shows that unlike CNTs, wsCNTs are non-toxic to plant cells that conserve water transport in plants. PMID:21253651

  16. [Characteristics of dissolved organic carbon release under inundation from typical grass plants in the water-level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir area].

    PubMed

    Tan, Qiu-Xia; Zhu, Boi; Hua, Ke-Ke

    2013-08-01

    The water-level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) exposes in spring and summer, then, green plants especially herbaceous plants grow vigorously. In the late of September, water-level fluctuation zone of TGR goes to inundation. Meanwhile, annually accumulated biomass of plant will be submerged for decaying, resulting in organism decomposition and release a large amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). This may lead to negative impacts on water environment of TGR. The typical herbaceous plants from water-level fluctuation zone were collected and inundated in the laboratory for dynamic measurements of DOC concentration of overlying water. According to the determination, the DOC release rates and fluxes have been calculated. Results showed that the release process of DOC variation fitted in a parabolic curve. The peak DOC concentrations emerge averagely in the 15th day of inundation, indicating that DOC released quickly with organism decay of herbaceous plant. The release process of DOC could be described by the logarithm equation. There are significant differences between the concentration of DOC (the maximum DOC concentration is 486.88 mg x L(-1) +/- 35.97 mg x L(-1) for Centaurea picris, the minimum is 4.18 mg x L(-1) +/- 1.07 mg x L(-1) for Echinochloacrus galli) and the release amount of DOC (the maximum is 50.54 mg x g(-1) for Centaurea picris, the minimum is 6.51 mg x g(-1) for Polygonum hydropiper) due to different characteristics of plants, especially, the values of C/N of herbaceous plants. The cumulative DOC release quantities during the whole inundation period were significantly correlated with plants' C/N values in linear equations. PMID:24191546

  17. Efficient taste and odour removal by water treatment plants around the Han River water supply system.

    PubMed

    Ahn, H; Chae, S; Kim, S; Wang, C; Summers, R S

    2007-01-01

    Seven major water treatment plants in Seoul Metropolitan Area, which are under Korea Water Resources Corporation (KOWACO)'s management, take water from the Paldang Reservoir in the Han River System for drinking water supply. There are taste and odour (T&O) problems in the finished water because the conventional treatment processes do not efficiently remove the T&O compounds. This study evaluated T&O removal by ozonation, granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment, powder activated carbon (PAC) and an advanced oxidation process in a pilot-scale treatment plant and bench-scale laboratory experiments. During T&O episodes, PAC alone was not adequate, but as a pretreatment together with GAC it could be a useful option. The optimal range of ozone dose was 1 to 2 mg/L at a contact time of 10 min. However, with ozone alone it was difficult to meet the T&O target of 3 TON and 15 ng/L of MIB or geosmin. The GAC adsorption capacity for DOC in the three GAC systems (F/A, GAC and O3 + GAC) at an EBCT of 14 min is mostly exhausted after 9 months. However, substantial TON removal continued for more than 2 years (>90,000 bed volumes). GAC was found to be effective for T&O control and the main removal mechanisms were adsorption capacity and biodegradation. PMID:17489399

  18. Water and Plant Cells: Notes on a Teaching Scheme for O-Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenville, H. W.

    1983-01-01

    Offers suggestions for teaching some aspects of water economy in plants. These include diffusion/osmosis, water transport, the part played by turgor in structural support, and its implications for plant organs or whole plants. Several practical demonstrations/experiments are also described. (JN)

  19. Solar geoengineering, atmospheric water vapor transport, and land plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, Ken; Cao, Long

    2015-04-01

    This work, using the GeoMIP database supplemented by additional simulations, discusses how solar geoengineering, as projected by the climate models, affects temperature and the hydrological cycle, and how this in turn is related to projected changes in net primary productivity (NPP). Solar geoengineering simulations typically exhibit reduced precipitation. Solar geoengineering reduces precipitation because solar geoengineering reduces evaporation. Evaporation precedes precipitation, and, globally, evaporation equals precipitation. CO2 tends to reduce evaporation through two main mechanisms: (1) CO2 tends to stabilize the atmosphere especially over the ocean, leading to a moister atmospheric boundary layer over the ocean. This moistening of the boundary layer suppresses evaporation. (2) CO2 tends to diminish evapotranspiration, at least in most land-surface models, because higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations allow leaves to close their stomata and avoid water loss. In most high-CO2 simulations, these effects of CO2 which tend to suppress evaporation are masked by the tendency of CO2-warming effect to increase evaporation. In a geoengineering simulation, with the warming effect of CO2 largely offset by the solar geoengineering, the evaporation suppressing characteristics of CO2 are no longer masked and are clearly exhibited. Decreased precipitation in solar geoengineering simulations is a bit like ocean acidification - an effect of high CO2 concentrations that is not offset by solar geoengineering. Locally, precipitation ultimately either evaporates (much of that through the leaves of plants) or runs off through groundwater to streams and rivers. On long time scales, runoff equals precipitation minus evaporation, and thus, water runoff generated at a location is equal to the net atmospheric transport of water to that location. Runoff typically occurs where there is substantial soil moisture, at least seasonally. Locations where there is enough water to maintain runoff are typically locations where there is sufficient water to maintain plant growth. This work aims at: (i) Identifying the geographical distribution of sensitivity of modeled-NPP to changes in CO2, temperature, and various parameters related to the hydrological cycle; (ii) Geographically partitioning changes in modeled-NPP to changes in CO2, temperature, and hydrological variables (and a non-linear interaction term).

  20. Small-scale Geothermal Power Plants Using Hot Spring Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosha, T.; Osato, K.; Kiuchi, T.; Miida, H.; Okumura, T.; Nakashima, H.

    2013-12-01

    The installed capacity of the geothermal power plants has been summed up to be about 515MW in Japan. However, the electricity generated by the geothermal resources only contributes to 0.2% of the whole electricity supply. After the catastrophic earthquake and tsunami devastated the Pacific coast of north-eastern Japan on Friday, March 11, 2011, the Japanese government is encouraging the increase of the renewable energy supply including the geothermal. It needs, however, more than 10 years to construct the geothermal power plant with more than 10MW capacity since the commencement of the development. Adding the problem of the long lead time, high temperature fluid is mainly observed in the national parks and the high quality of the geothermal resources is limited. On the other hand hot springs are often found. The utilisation of the low temperature hot water becomes worthy of notice. The low temperature hot water is traditionally used for bathing and there are many hot springs in Japan. Some of the springs have enough temperature and enthalpy to turn the geothermal turbine but a new technology of the binary power generation makes the lower temp fluid to generate electricity. Large power generators with the binary technology are already installed in many geothermal fields in the world. In the recent days small-scale geothermal binary generators with several tens to hundreds kW capacity are developed, which are originally used by the waste heat energy in an iron factory and so on. The newly developed binary unit is compact suitable for the installation in a Japanese inn but there are the restrictions for the temperature of the hot water and the working fluid. The binary power unit using alternatives for chlorofluorocarbon as the working fluid is relatively free from the restriction. KOBELCO, a company of the Kobe Steel Group, designed and developed the binary power unit with an alternative for chlorofluorocarbon. The unit has a 70 MW class electric generator. Three units have been installed in Obama Hot Spring area, Nagasaki Prefecture, where about 15,000 tonnes of hot water are produced in a day and more than 35% of the hot water flow directly to the sea. Another demonstration experiments are also conducted in several hot spring areas. In this study we will review several examples to utilise low temperature hot springs in Japan. Binary Power Unit at Obama (Fujino, 2013)

  1. Phase I: the pipeline-gas demonstration plant. Demonstration plant engineering and design. Volume 18. Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    1981-05-01

    Contract No. EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the US Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coals into clean pipeline quality gas. The project is currently in the design phase (Phase I). This phase is scheduled to be completed in June 1981. One of the major efforts of Phase I is the process and project engineering design of the Demonstration Plant. The design has been completed and is being reported in 24 volumes. This is Volume 18 which reports the design of Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment. The objective of the Waste Water Treatment system is to collect and treat all plant liquid effluent streams. The system is designed to permit recycle and reuse of the treated waste water. Plant Section 2700 is composed of primary, secondary, and tertiary waste water treatment methods plus an evaporation system which eliminates liquid discharge from the plant. The Waste Water Treatment Section is designed to produce 130 pounds per hour of sludge that is buried in a landfill on the plant site. The evaporated water is condensed and provides a portion of the make-up water to Plant Section 2400 - Cooling Water.

  2. Decomposition of saltmeadow cordgrass (Spartina patens) in Louisiana coastal marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foote, A.L.; Reynolds, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    In Louisiana, plant production rates and associated decomposition rates may be important in offsetting high rates of land loss and subsidence in organic marsh soils. Decomposition of Spartina patens shoot and leaf material was studied by using litter bags in mesohaline marshes in the Barataria and Terrebonne basins of coastal Louisiana. Spartina patens decomposed very slowly with an average decay constant of 0.0007, and approximately 50% of the material remained after 2 years in the field. Material at the Barataria site decomposed faster than did Terrebonne material with trend differences apparent during the first 150 days. This difference might be explained by the higher content of phosphorus in the Barataria material or a flooding period experienced by the Barataria bags during their first 10 days of deployment. Nitrogen and carbon content of the plant material studied did not differ between the two basins. We detected no consistent significant differences in decomposition above, at, or below sediment/water level. Because S. patens is the dominant plant in these marshes, and because it is so slow to decompose, we believe that S. patens shoots are an important addition to vertical accretion and, therefore, marsh elevation.

  3. Mathematical modelling of plant water and nutrient uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roose, Tiina

    2010-05-01

    In this presentation I will describe a model of plant water and nutrient uptake and how to translate this model and experimental data from the single root scale to the root branching structure scale. The model starts at the single root scale and describes the water and nutrient movement in the soil using Richards' equation (water uptake) and diffusion-convection equation (nutrient uptake). The water and nutrient uptake in the single root scale model is represented by boundary conditions. In the case of nutrient uptake this has the form of a non-linear Michaelis-Menten uptake law and in the case of water this is given by a soil-xylem pressure difference boundary condition. The flow of water in the xylem is modeled as Poiseuille flow. We solve the single root scale models using the analytic approximate technique of asymptotic expansions similar to Oseen expansions known from fluid dynamics. We will then discuss how to use the analytic expression to estimate the water and nutrient uptake by growing root branching systems. We model the growth of the root system using a dynamic population model to describe the branching and elongation of roots in the branching system. This root branching population model results in a hyperbolic equation similar to age dependent population models and it can be solved fully analytically using the method of characteristics. Thus we have a fully analytic description of the root branching system evolution. We use this branching model to estimate the nutrient uptake in a scenario when the competition between subbranches is small, i.e., as it is in the case of phosphate, potassium and arsenic. We compare our approximate analytic model to a full 3d simulation of the root system phosphate uptake and find that the analytic model almost perfectly reproduces the 3d numerical model. In addition the analytic model can be included in larger field/catchment/climate scale models something which is not practically possible with the numerical simulations due to their high computational burden. As a further development of the analytic model we extend it to take into account more details about the root morphology, such as the branching angle between roots, to calculate the evolution of the soil moisture and nutrient concentration profiles due to surface fertilisation and rainfall events. Using this model we are able to determine the relationship between the rainfall events and fertiliser movement into the soil profile. We find that there is a critical rate of rainfall below which the fertilizer (or pollutant) movement into the deeper layers of the soil is impeded due to the development of a slowly varying fluid saturation profile.

  4. Detritus quality controls macrophyte decomposition under different nutrient concentrations in a eutrophic shallow lake, North China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Cui, Baoshan; Yang, Qichun; Tian, Hanqin; Lan, Yan; Wang, Tingting; Han, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Macrophyte decomposition is important for carbon and nutrient cycling in lake ecosystems. Currently, little is known about how this process responds to detritus quality and water nutrient conditions in eutrophic shallow lakes in which incomplete decomposition of detritus accelerates the lake terrestrialization process. In this study, we investigated the effects of detritus quality and water nutrient concentrations on macrophyte decomposition in Lake Baiyangdian, China, by analyzing the decomposition of three major aquatic plants at three sites with different pollution intensities (low, medium, and high pollution sites). Detritus quality refers to detritus nutrient contents as well as C:N, C:P, and N:P mass ratios in this study. Effects of detritus mixtures were tested by combining pairs of representative macrophytes at ratios of 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75 (mass basis). The results indicate that the influence of species types on decomposition was stronger than that of site conditions. Correlation analysis showed that mass losses at the end of the experimental period were significantly controlled by initial detritus chemistry, especially by the initial phosphorus (P) content, carbon to nitrogen (C:N), and carbon to phosphorus (C:P) mass ratios in the detritus. The decomposition processes were also influenced by water chemistry. The NO(3)-N and NH(4)-N concentrations in the lake water retarded detritus mass loss at the low and high pollution sites, respectively. Net P mineralization in detritus was observed at all sites and detritus P release at the high pollution site was slower than at the other two sites. Nonadditive effects of mixtures tended to be species specific due to the different nutrient contents in each species. Results suggest that the nonadditive effects varied significantly among different sites, indicating that interactions between the detritus quality in species mixtures and site water chemistry may be another driver controlling decomposition in eutrophic shallow lakes. PMID:22848699

  5. Detritus Quality Controls Macrophyte Decomposition under Different Nutrient Concentrations in a Eutrophic Shallow Lake, North China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia; Cui, Baoshan; Yang, Qichun; Tian, Hanqin; Lan, Yan; Wang, Tingting; Han, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Macrophyte decomposition is important for carbon and nutrient cycling in lake ecosystems. Currently, little is known about how this process responds to detritus quality and water nutrient conditions in eutrophic shallow lakes in which incomplete decomposition of detritus accelerates the lake terrestrialization process. In this study, we investigated the effects of detritus quality and water nutrient concentrations on macrophyte decomposition in Lake Baiyangdian, China, by analyzing the decomposition of three major aquatic plants at three sites with different pollution intensities (low, medium, and high pollution sites). Detritus quality refers to detritus nutrient contents as well as C?N, C?P, and N?P mass ratios in this study. Effects of detritus mixtures were tested by combining pairs of representative macrophytes at ratios of 75?25, 50?50 and 25?75 (mass basis). The results indicate that the influence of species types on decomposition was stronger than that of site conditions. Correlation analysis showed that mass losses at the end of the experimental period were significantly controlled by initial detritus chemistry, especially by the initial phosphorus (P) content, carbon to nitrogen (C?N), and carbon to phosphorus (C?P) mass ratios in the detritus. The decomposition processes were also influenced by water chemistry. The NO3-N and NH4-N concentrations in the lake water retarded detritus mass loss at the low and high pollution sites, respectively. Net P mineralization in detritus was observed at all sites and detritus P release at the high pollution site was slower than at the other two sites. Nonadditive effects of mixtures tended to be species specific due to the different nutrient contents in each species. Results suggest that the nonadditive effects varied significantly among different sites, indicating that interactions between the detritus quality in species mixtures and site water chemistry may be another driver controlling decomposition in eutrophic shallow lakes. PMID:22848699

  6. Occurrence, molecular characterization and antibiogram of water quality indicator bacteria in river water serving a water treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Okeke, Benedict C; Thomson, M Sue; Moss, Elica M

    2011-11-01

    Water pollution by microorganisms of fecal origin is a current world-wide public health concern. Total coliforms, fecal coliforms (Escherichia coli) and enterococci are indicators commonly used to assess the microbiological safety of water resources. In this study, influent water samples and treated water were collected seasonally from a water treatment plant and two major water wells in a Black Belt county of Alabama and evaluated for water quality indicator bacteria. Influent river water samples serving the treatment plant were positive for total coliforms, fecal coliforms (E. coli), and enterococci. The highest number of total coliform most probable number (MPN) was observed in the winter (847.5 MPN/100 mL) and the lowest number in the summer (385.6 MPN/100 mL). Similarly E. coli MPN was substantially higher in the winter (62.25 MPN/100 mL). Seasonal variation of E. coli MPN in influent river water samples was strongly correlated with color (R(2)=0.998) and turbidity (R(2)=0.992). Neither E. coli nor other coliform type bacteria were detected in effluent potable water from the treatment plant. The MPN of enterococci was the highest in the fall and the lowest in the winter. Approximately 99.7 and 51.5 enterococci MPN/100 mL were recorded in fall and winter seasons respectively. One-way ANOVA tests revealed significant differences in seasonal variation of total coliforms (P<0.05), fecal coliforms (P<0.01) and enterococci (P<0.01). Treated effluent river water samples and well water samples revealed no enterococci contamination. Representative coliform bacteria selected by differential screening on Coliscan Easygel were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis. E. coli isolates were sensitive to gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulfamethazole, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, cefixime, and nitrofurantoin. Nonetheless, isolate BO-54 displayed decreased sensitivity compared to other E. coli isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern can be employed in microbial source tracking. PMID:21920587

  7. Impact of drought on U.S. steam electric power plant cooling water intakes and related water resource management issues.

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmell, T. A.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-04-03

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements their overall research effort by evaluating water availability at power plants under drought conditions. While there are a number of competing demands on water uses, particularly during drought conditions, this report focuses solely on impacts to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet. Included are both fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. One plant examined also uses biomass as a fuel. The purpose of this project is to estimate the impact on generation capacity of a drop in water level at U.S. steam electric power plants due to climatic or other conditions. While, as indicated above, the temperature of the water can impact decisions to halt or curtail power plant operations, this report specifically examines impacts as a result of a drop in water levels below power plant submerged cooling water intakes. Impacts due to the combined effects of excessive temperatures of the returned cooling water and elevated temperatures of receiving waters (due to high ambient temperatures associated with drought) may be examined in a subsequent study. For this study, the sources of cooling water used by the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet were examined. This effort entailed development of a database of power plants and cooling water intake locations and depths for those plants that use surface water as a source of cooling water. Development of the database and its general characteristics are described in Chapter 2 of this report. Examination of the database gives an indication of how low water levels can drop before cooling water intakes cease to function. Water level drops are evaluated against a number of different power plant characteristics, such as the nature of the water source (river vs. lake or reservoir) and type of plant (nuclear vs. fossil fuel). This is accomplished in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4, the nature of any compacts or agreements that give priority to users (i.e., which users must stop withdrawing water first) is examined. This is examined on a regional or watershed basis, specifically for western water rights, and also as a function of federal and state water management programs. Chapter 5 presents the findings and conclusions of this study. In addition to the above, a related intent of this study is to conduct preliminary modeling of how lowered surface water levels could affect generating capacity and other factors at different regional power plants. If utility managers are forced to take some units out of service or reduce plant outputs, the fuel mix at the remaining plants and the resulting carbon dioxide emissions may change. Electricity costs and other factors may also be impacted. Argonne has conducted some modeling based on the information presented in the database described in Chapter 2 of this report. A separate report of the modeling effort has been prepared (Poch et al. 2009). In addition to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet, this modeling also includes an evaluation of power production of hydroelectric facilities. The focus of this modeling is on those power plants located in the western United States.

  8. Effect on growth and nickel content of cabbage plants watered with nickel solutions.

    PubMed

    Christensen, O B

    1979-07-01

    Chinese cabbage plants were watered with different concentrations of NiCl2 solutions and the effect on growth and uptake of nickel in the plants were studied. No toxic effect on plant growth was observed. A higher content of nickel was found in the plants exposed to more concentrated nickel solutions. Nickel contamination and its clinical consequences are discussed. PMID:498768

  9. Photocatalytic decomposition of bisphenol A in water using composite TiO2-zeolite sheets prepared by a papermaking technique.

    PubMed

    Fukahori, Shuji; Ichiura, Hideaki; Kitaoka, Takuya; Tanaka, Hiroo

    2003-03-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalyst and zeolite adsorbent were made into a paper-like composite by a papermaking technique using pulp and ceramic fibers as sheet matrix. The photocatalytic performance for the degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) dissolved in water was investigated under UV irradiation. The TiO2 sheet prepared was easier to handle than the original TiO2 powders in aqueous media. The TiO2 sheet could decompose the BPA under UV irradiation, although at a lower degradation efficiency than the TiO2 suspension. The TiO2-free zeolite sheet could not remove the BPA from water completely because of its adsorption equilibrium. Furthermore, the composite TiO2-zeolite sheets exhibited a higher efficiency for BPA removal than the zeolite-free TiO2 sheets, the efficiency of the former being equivalent to that of the TiO2 suspension. The enhancement in removal efficiency was not attributed to the simple adsorption of BPA on zeolite but rather to the synergistic effect obtained through the combined use of TiO2 photocatalyst and zeolite adsorbent in the paper-like composite sheet, which is believed to accelerate the BPA photodegradation in water. PMID:12666940

  10. Rangeland - plant responses to elevated CO{sub 2}. Final report, October 1988--October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    Research is described on plant (tallgrass) response to elevated carbon dioxide. Variables addressed include biomass production, as well as water use efficiency, photosynthetic capacity, decomposition, nutrient cycling, and forage quality.

  11. Plant response to environmental conditions: assessing potential production, water demand, and negative effects of water deficit

    PubMed Central

    Tardieu, François

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews methods for analyzing plant performance and its genetic variability under a range of environmental conditions. Biomass accumulation is linked every day to available light in the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) domain, multiplied by the proportion of light intercepted by plants and by the radiation use efficiency. Total biomass is cumulated over the duration of the considered phase (e.g., plant cycle or vegetative phase). These durations are essentially constant for a given genotype provided that time is corrected for temperature (thermal time). Several ways of expressing thermal time are reviewed. Two alternative equations are presented, based either on the effect of transpiration, or on yield components. Their comparative interests and drawbacks are discussed. The genetic variability of each term of considered equations affects yield under water deficit, via mechanisms at different scales of plant organization and time. The effect of any physiological mechanism on yield of stressed plants acts via one of these terms, although the link is not always straightforward. Finally, I propose practical ways to compare the productivity of genotypes in field environments, and a “minimum dataset” of environmental data and traits that should be recorded for that. PMID:23423357

  12. 18 CFR 420.51 - Hydroelectric power plant water use charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... plant water use charges. 420.51 Section 420.51 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER... Use Charges § 420.51 Hydroelectric power plant water use charges. (a) Annual base charges. Owners of... increased hydraulic head are in effect. (3) Charges for the use of any facilities such as pipe...

  13. 18 CFR 420.51 - Hydroelectric power plant water use charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... plant water use charges. 420.51 Section 420.51 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER... Use Charges § 420.51 Hydroelectric power plant water use charges. (a) Annual base charges. Owners of... increased hydraulic head are in effect. (3) Charges for the use of any facilities such as pipe...

  14. 18 CFR 420.51 - Hydroelectric power plant water use charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... plant water use charges. 420.51 Section 420.51 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER... Use Charges § 420.51 Hydroelectric power plant water use charges. (a) Annual base charges. Owners of... increased hydraulic head are in effect. (3) Charges for the use of any facilities such as pipe...

  15. 18 CFR 420.51 - Hydroelectric power plant water use charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... plant water use charges. 420.51 Section 420.51 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER... Use Charges § 420.51 Hydroelectric power plant water use charges. (a) Annual base charges. Owners of... increased hydraulic head are in effect. (3) Charges for the use of any facilities such as pipe...

  16. 77 FR 73056 - Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...) is issuing for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1259, ``Initial Test Programs for Water... considers acceptable for Initial Test Programs (ITPs) for light water cooled nuclear power plants....

  17. Tomato Plants Ectopically Expressing Arabidopsis CBF1 Show Enhanced Resistance to Water Deficit Stress1

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Tsai-Hung; Lee, Jent-turn; Charng, Yee-yung; Chan, Ming-Tsair

    2002-01-01

    A DNA cassette containing an Arabidopsis C repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding factor 1 (CBF1) cDNA and a nos terminator, driven by a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, was transformed into the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) genome. These transgenic tomato plants were more resistant to water deficit stress than the wild-type plants. The transgenic plants exhibited growth retardation by showing dwarf phenotype, and the fruit and seed numbers and fresh weight of the transgenic tomato plants were apparently less than those of the wild-type plants. Exogenous gibberellic acid treatment reversed the growth retardation and enhanced growth of transgenic tomato plants, but did not affect the level of water deficit resistance. The stomata of the transgenic CBF1 tomato plants closed more rapidly than the wild type after water deficit treatment with or without gibberellic acid pretreatment. The transgenic tomato plants contained higher levels of Pro than those of the wild-type plants under normal or water deficit conditions. Subtractive hybridization was used to isolate the responsive genes to heterologous CBF1 in transgenic tomato plants and the CAT1 (CATALASE1) was characterized. Catalase activity increased, and hydrogen peroxide concentration decreased in transgenic tomato plants compared with the wild-type plants with or without water deficit stress. These results indicated that the heterologous Arabidopsis CBF1 can confer water deficit resistance in transgenic tomato plants. PMID:12376629

  18. Newly observed several peroxides from the gas phase ozonolysis of isoprene using a flow tube reactor and the water vapor effect on their formation and decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, D.; Chen, Z.; Zhao, Y.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, one has been paying more and more attention to the formation of hydrogen peroxide and organic peroxides in the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) because peroxides play important roles, such as reservoir of OH, HO2 and RO2 radicals, intermediate of Criegee radical chemistry and contributor to secondary organic aerosol. However, to the best of our knowledge, in the reaction of ozone with VOCs, only several small peroxides such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide (HMHP), and methyl hydroperoxide (MHP) were separately identified, and their yields varied widely between different studies. Moreover, the information on the formation mechanism of peroxides in the ozonolysis of VOCs was mostly from a speculation rather than experimental evidence. Notably, a static chamber was employed in most of the previous studies, potentially resulting in the decomposition and heterogeneous reaction of peroxides on the chamber walls within an experiment time of tens of minutes to several hours, and possibly missing the details about the generation of peroxides. In the present study, we have used a flow quartz tube reactor to investigate the formation of peroxides in the ozonolysis of isoprene at various relative humidities (RH). A variety of peroxides have been detected on the tens of seconds of time scale using an online high performance liquid chromatography coupled with post-column derivatization using p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and fluorescence detection. Our experimental results show that in addition to the three peroxides mentioned previously, more four ones, those are peroxyacetic acid (PAA) and three unknown peroxides, have been found. Furthermore, the total yield of the three small peroxides (H2O2, HMHP and MHP) is found to be similar to the result of literature; while for PAA and three unknown peroxides, they highlight a combined molar yield, for example, ~ 40% at 5% RH, much higher than that of the three small peroxides. Opposite to the previous conclusion that the peroxide yield would be positively correlated with RH, the yields of PAA and three unknown peroxides detected in the present study decreased with the RH increase. We tentatively assign these unknown peroxides to be hydroxyl hydroperoxides, which are produced by the reaction of different Criegee radicals with water. We used a box model coupled with the MCM v3.2 mechanism to simulate the reaction processes of the ozone-initiated oxidation of isoprene, adding the reaction between the gaseous water (and water dimer) and Criegee radicals and the decomposition of water-assisted hydroxyl hydroperoxides. We find that this modified mechanism would better explain the variation of peroxides with the RH increase, implying that molecular water and water cluster should be involved in the production and removal of peroxides in the future model.

  19. Turion morphological responses to water nutrient concentrations and plant density in the submerged macrophyte Potamogeton crispus

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Chang; You, Wenhua; Xie, Dong; Yu, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Asexual propagules are the dominant means of propagation in most submerged macrophytes. To improve the understanding of how water nutrient concentrations and population density influence the turion production of Potamogeton crispus L., the turions were planted in mesocosms with three water nutrient conditions (ambient lake water, high P and high N) and two plant density levels (4 and 15?turions m?2). After a 9-month experiment, the +P in the water column significantly increased the total turion number per plant under both of the plant density treatments. However, the +N in the water column did not affect the turion number per plant under low plant density. The +P in the water and high plant density significantly reduced the turion individual biomass. An examination of 3210 turion individuals from all treatments revealed that the increased water nutrient concentrations and plant density impacted the turion size by producing different stem diameters of individual turions. Most of the scale leaf morphological traits of the turions were significantly increased under higher water nutrients, but these traits were similar between the different plant density treatments. These results demonstrate that the water P concentration interacts with plant density, affecting both the production and traits of turions. PMID:25399866

  20. TOXICITY TESTS OF EFFLUENTS WITH MARSH PLANTS IN WATER AND SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods are described for toxicity testing of water and sediment with the rooted marsh plants, Echinochloa crusgalli var. crusgalli and var. zelavensis (freshwater) and Spartina alterniflora (estuarine). ive industrial effluents, a sewage treatment plant effluent and a herbicide ...

  1. Water quality investigation of Kingston Fossil Plant dry ash stacking

    SciTech Connect

    Bohac, C.E.

    1990-04-01

    Changing to a dry ash disposal systems at Kingston Fossil Plant (KFP) raises several water quality issues. The first is that removing the fly ash from the ash pond could alter the characteristics of the ash pond discharge to the river. The second concerns proper disposal of the runoff and possibly leachate from the dry ash stack. The third is that dry ash stacking might change the potential for groundwater contamination at the KFP. This report addresses each of these issues. The effects on the ash pond and its discharge are described first. The report is intended to provide reference material to TVA staff in preparation of environmental review documents for new ash disposal areas at Kingston. Although the investigation was directed toward analysis of dry stacking, considerations for other disposal options are also discussed. This report was reviewed in draft form under the title Assessment of Kingston Fossil Plant Dry Ash Stacking on the Ash Pond and Groundwater Quality.'' 11 refs., 3 figs., 18 tabs.

  2. Optimization of conventional water treatment plant using dynamic programming.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Khezri Seyed; Bahareh, Ghafari; Elahe, Dadvar; Pegah, Dadras

    2015-12-01

    In this research, the mathematical models, indicating the capability of various units, such as rapid mixing, coagulation and flocculation, sedimentation, and the rapid sand filtration are used. Moreover, cost functions were used for the formulation of conventional water and wastewater treatment plant by applying Clark's formula (Clark, 1982). Also, by applying dynamic programming algorithm, it is easy to design a conventional treatment system with minimal cost. The application of the model for a case reduced the annual cost. This reduction was approximately in the range of 4.5-9.5% considering variable limitations. Sensitivity analysis and prediction of system's feedbacks were performed for different alterations in proportion from parameters optimized amounts. The results indicated (1) that the objective function is more sensitive to design flow rate (Q), (2) the variations in the alum dosage (A), and (3) the sand filter head loss (H). Increasing the inflow by 20%, the total annual cost would increase to about 12.6%, while 20% reduction in inflow leads to 15.2% decrease in the total annual cost. Similarly, 20% increase in alum dosage causes 7.1% increase in the total annual cost, while 20% decrease results in 7.9% decrease in the total annual cost. Furthermore, the pressure decrease causes 2.95 and 3.39% increase and decrease in total annual cost of treatment plants. PMID:23625909

  3. Plant responses to water stress: role of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Kar, Rup Kumar

    2011-11-01

    Responses of plants to water stress may be assigned as either injurious change or tolerance index. One of the primary and cardinal changes in response to drought stress is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is being considered as the cause of cellular damage. However, recently a signaling role of such ROS in triggering the ROS scavenging system that may confer protection or tolerance against stress is emerging. Such scavenging system consists of antioxidant enzymes like SOD, catalase and peroxidases, and antioxidant compounds like ascorbate, reduced glutathione; a balance between ROS generation and scavenging ultimately determines the oxidative load. As revealed in case of defence against pathogen, signaling via ROS is initiated by NADPH oxidase-catalyzed superoxide generation in the apoplastic space (cell wall) followed by conversion to hydrogen peroxide by the activity of cell wall-localized SOD. Wall peroxidase may also play role in ROS generation for signaling. Hydrogen peroxide may use Ca2+ and MAPK pathway as downstream signaling cascade. Plant hormones associated with stress responses like ABA and ethylene play their role possibly via a cross talk with ROS towards stress tolerance, thus projecting a dual role of ROS under drought stress. PMID:22057331

  4. Water relations, nutrient content and developmental responses of Euonymus plants irrigated with water of different degrees of salinity and quality.

    PubMed

    Gmez-Bellot, Mara Jos; Alvarez, Sara; Castillo, Marco; Ban, Sebastin; Ortuo, Mara Fernanda; Snchez-Blanco, Mara Jess

    2013-07-01

    For 20weeks, the physiological responses of Euonymus japonica plants to different irrigation sources were studied. Four irrigation treatments were applied at 100% water holding capacity: control (electrical conductivity (EC)<0.9dSm(-1)); irrigation water normally used in the area (irrigator's water) IW (EC: 1.7dS m(-1)); NaCl solution, NaCl (EC: 4dS m(-1)); and wastewater, WW (EC: 4dS m(-1)). This was followed by a recovery period of 13weeks, when all the plants were rewatered with the same amount and quality of irrigation water as the control plants. Despite the differences in the chemical properties of the water used, the plants irrigated with NaCl and WW showed similar alterations in growth and size compared with the control even at the end of the recovery period. Leaf number was affected even when the EC of the irrigation water was of 1.7dS m(-1) (IW), indicating the salt sensitivity of this parameter. Stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthesis (Pn), as well as stem water potential (?stem), were most affected in plants irrigated with the most saline waters (NaCl and WW). At the end of the experiment the above parameters recovered, while IW plants showed similar values to the control. The higher Na(+) and Cl(+) uptake by NaCl and WW plants led them to show osmotic adjustment throughout the experiment. The highest amount of boron found in WW plants did not affect root growth. Wastewater can be used as a water management strategy for ornamental plant production, as long as the water quality is not too saline, since the negative effect of salt on the aesthetic value of plants need to be taken into consideration. PMID:23306649

  5. Comparison of Austenite Decomposition Models During Finite Element Simulation of Water Quenching and Air Cooling of AISI 4140 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, K.; Prasanna Kumar, T. S.

    2014-08-01

    An indigenous, non-linear, and coupled finite element (FE) program has been developed to predict the temperature field and phase evolution during heat treatment of steels. The diffusional transformations during continuous cooling of steels were modeled using Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Komogorov equation, and the non-diffusion transformation was modeled using Koistinen-Marburger equation. Cylindrical quench probes made of AISI 4140 steel of 20-mm diameter and 50-mm long were heated to 1123 K (850 °C), quenched in water, and cooled in air. The temperature history during continuous cooling was recorded at the selected interior locations of the quench probes. The probes were then sectioned at the mid plane and resultant microstructures were observed. The process of water quenching and air cooling of AISI 4140 steel probes was simulated with the heat flux boundary condition in the FE program. The heat flux for air cooling process was calculated through the inverse heat conduction method using the cooling curve measured during air cooling of a stainless steel 304L probe as an input. The heat flux for the water quenching process was calculated from a surface heat flux model proposed for quenching simulations. The isothermal transformation start and finish times of different phases were taken from the published TTT data and were also calculated using Kirkaldy model and Li model and used in the FE program. The simulated cooling curves and phases using the published TTT data had a good agreement with the experimentally measured values. The computation results revealed that the use of published TTT data was more reliable in predicting the phase transformation during heat treatment of low alloy steels than the use of the Kirkaldy or Li model.

  6. 18 CFR 420.51 - Hydroelectric power plant water use charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydroelectric power plant water use charges. 420.51 Section 420.51 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Hydroelectric Power Water Use Charges § 420.51 Hydroelectric...

  7. [In-situ remediation of polluted water body by planting hydrophytes].

    PubMed

    Fang, Yun-Ying; Yang, Xiao-E; Chang, Hui-Qing; Pu, Pei-Min

    2008-02-01

    In an experimental enclosure system, floating plant Eichhornia crassipes was planted in summer and submersed plant Elodea nutalli was planted in winter to reestablish water ecosystem, and to investigate the effects of the hydrophytes on the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from polluted water body and the improvement of water transparency. The results showed that compared with the control and native pond water, the water body planted with hydrophytes had a low level of nutrients. E. crassipes had a fast growth, with its covered area increased from 100 m2 to 470 m2 in the first 15 days, and to 65% of the water area after 44 days. The total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, CODMn and chlorophyll a decreased to a lower level, and the water transparency increased significantly, reaching to a depth of 1.7-1.8 m (i.e., to the bottom of the pond). After October, the total phosphorus kept on about 0.1 mg L(-1). Due to the increased water transparency, E. nutalli became the dominant species and covered 1/3 of the water area, playing an important role in purifying water quality, keeping water physicochemical properties in good status, and improving water transparency. It was concluded that planting hydrophytes in polluted water body could efficiently reduce its nutrients level and control the overgrowth of algae, being an important way in improving the water quality of eutrophicated water body. PMID:18464651

  8. Decomposition in Arctic terrestrial environments

    SciTech Connect

    Laursen, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    The principal goal of this research unit is to further elucidate the rate and quality of microbial decomposition within cold, wet, Arctic tundra peat soils found in water tract systems of Foothills Province terrain (8-10{degree}) on the north slope of Alaska. Research objectives include demonstration of of four hypotheses. A positive correlation exists between the rate of decomposing litter and the viable microbial (fungal) biomass, as measured by ARP activities and direct counts, associated with that litter. In Arctic tundra peat soil systems, there exists a positive correlation between the presence and abundance of viable mycelial biomass and the enzymatic potential for degradative activity as measured by the presence of cellulase, peroxidase, chitinase and protease enzymes produced by the miocrobial community. Substrate quality, as defined by lignin to cellulose ratios, influences the rate of natural litter decomposition. The lignin to total nitrogen ratio describes an inverse correlation to decomposition rates of litter.

  9. RESIDUE COMPOSITION AND DECOMPOSITION OF SHOOT AND ROOTS AMONG C3 AND C4 SPECIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding decomposition of plant residue is vital to understanding C and N cycling, both in terms of plant nutrient needs and global C balance. The rate of residue decomposition reflects decomposition of the degrading substrates. Roots typically constitute less than half the total plant biomass,...

  10. Basic Study on Estimating Water Stress of a Plant Using Vibration Measurement of Leaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Motoaki; Sugimoto, Tsuneyoshi; Hosoya, Hiroshi; Ohaba, Motoyoshi; Shibusawa, Sakae

    2013-07-01

    A new noninvasive method for estimating the water stress of a plant was proposed. In order to investigate this method, we first examined the characteristic frequency of an individual leaf picked from the plant, and obtained the result that its characteristic frequency decreased in proportion to the reduction in the water content of the leaf. Next, we applied this method to a leaf on a branch and confirmed the same tendency when the water stress was increased by stopping the water supply of a plant cultured in water. From these results, it was suggested that the water stress of the plant could be estimated from the vibration measurement of the leaf. Lastly, the relationship between the water potential of the leaf and its elastic constant was discussed with the soil-plant-atmosphere-continuum model (SPAC model), and Young's modulus of a tomato leaf was roughly estimated.

  11. Hydrogen iodide decomposition

    DOEpatents

    O'Keefe, Dennis R.; Norman, John H.

    1983-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen iodide is decomposed to form hydrogen and iodine in the presence of water using a soluble catalyst. Decomposition is carried out at a temperature between about 350.degree. K. and about 525.degree. K. and at a corresponding pressure between about 25 and about 300 atmospheres in the presence of an aqueous solution which acts as a carrier for the homogeneous catalyst. Various halides of the platinum group metals, particularly Pd, Rh and Pt, are used, particularly the chlorides and iodides which exhibit good solubility. After separation of the H.sub.2, the stream from the decomposer is countercurrently extracted with nearly dry HI to remove I.sub.2. The wet phase contains most of the catalyst and is recycled directly to the decomposition step. The catalyst in the remaining almost dry HI-I.sub.2 phase is then extracted into a wet phase which is also recycled. The catalyst-free HI-I.sub.2 phase is finally distilled to separate the HI and I.sub.2. The HI is recycled to the reactor; the I.sub.2 is returned to a reactor operating in accordance with the Bunsen equation to create more HI.

  12. Dynamic aspects of soil water availability for isohydric plants: Focus on root hydraulic resistances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couvreur, V.; Vanderborght, J.; Draye, X.; Javaux, M.

    2014-11-01

    Soil water availability for plant transpiration is a key concept in agronomy. The objective of this study is to revisit this concept and discuss how it may be affected by processes locally influencing root hydraulic properties. A physical limitation to soil water availability in terms of maximal flow rate available to plant leaves (Qavail) is defined. It is expressed for isohydric plants, in terms of plant-centered variables and properties (the equivalent soil water potential sensed by the plant, ?s eq; the root system equivalent conductance, Krs; and a threshold leaf water potential, ?leaf lim). The resulting limitation to plant transpiration is compared to commonly used empirical stress functions. Similarities suggest that the slope of empirical functions might correspond to the ratio of Krs to the plant potential transpiration rate. The sensitivity of Qavail to local changes of root hydraulic conductances in response to soil matric potential is investigated using model simulations. A decrease of radial conductances when the soil dries induces earlier water stress, but allows maintaining higher night plant water potentials and higher Qavail during the last week of a simulated 1 month drought. In opposition, an increase of radial conductances during soil drying provokes an increase of hydraulic redistribution and Qavail at short term. This study offers a first insight on the effect of dynamic local root hydraulic properties on soil water availability. By better understanding complex interactions between hydraulic processes involved in soil-plant hydrodynamics, better prospects on how root hydraulic traits mitigate plant water stress might be achieved.

  13. Iterative Decomposition of Water and Fat with Echo Asymmetry and Least-Squares Estimation (IDEAL) Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Biomarker for Symptomatic Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Takasu, Miyuki; Kaichi, Yoko; Tani, Chihiro; Date, Shuji; Akiyama, Yuji; Kuroda, Yoshiaki; Sakai, Akira; Awai, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate the effectiveness of iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to discriminate between symptomatic and asymptomatic myeloma in lumbar bone marrow without visible focal lesions. Materials and Methods The lumbar spine was examined with 3-T MRI in 11 patients with asymptomatic myeloma and 24 patients with symptomatic myeloma. The fat-signal fraction was calculated from the ratio of the signal intensity in the fat image divided by the signal intensity of the corresponding ROI in the in-phase IDEAL image. The t test was used to compare the asymptomatic and symptomatic groups. ROC curves were constructed to determine the ability of variables to discriminate between symptomatic and asymptomatic myeloma. Results Univariate analysis showed that ?2-microglobulin and bone marrow plasma cell percent (BMPC%) were significantly higher and fat-signal fraction was significantly lower with symptomatic myeloma than with asymptomatic myeloma. Areas under the curve were 0.847 for ?2;-microglobulin, 0.834 for fat-signal fraction, and 0.759 for BMPC%. Conclusion The fat-signal fraction as a biomarker for multiple myeloma enables discrimination of symptomatic myeloma from asymptomatic myeloma. The fat-signal fraction offers superior sensitivity and specificity to BMPC% of biopsy specimens. PMID:25706753

  14. Belowground Water Dynamics Under Contrasting Annual and Perennial Plant Communities in an Agriculturally-Dominated Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, G.; Asbjornsen, H.; Helmers, M. J.; Shepherd, G. W.

    2005-12-01

    The conversion from grasslands and forests to row-crops in the Midwest has affected soil water cycling because plant characteristics are one of the main parameters determining soil storage capacity, infiltration rates, and surface runoff. Little is known, however, about the extent of modification of soil water dynamics under different plant communities. To address this important issue, we are documenting soil water dynamics under contrasting perennial and annual plant communities in an agriculturally-dominated landscape. Measurements of soil moisture and depths of uptake of source water were obtained for six vegetative cover types (corn and soybean field, brome pasture, degraded savanna, restored savanna, and restored prairie) at the Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge in Prairie City, Iowa. The depths of uptake of soil water were determined on the basis of oxygen isotope composition of soil water and stem water. Measurements were performed once a month during an entire growing season. Preliminary results indicate that soil water present under the different vegetation types show similar profiles with depth during the dry months. Soil water in the upper 5 cm is enriched in oxygen-18 by about 5 per mil relative to soil water at 100 cm. Our preliminary results also indicate that the isotopic composition of stem water from annual plants is typically higher by about 2 per mil relative to that of stem water from perennial plants during the dry period. Whereas the oxygen isotopic composition for corn stem water is -5.49 per mil, that for elm and oak stem water is -7.62 and -7.51 per mil, respectively. The higher isotope values for corn suggest that annual crop plants are withdrawing water from shallower soil horizons relative to perennial plants. Moreover, our preliminary data suggest lower moisture content in soil under annual plant cover. We propose that the presence of deeper roots in the perennial vegetation allows these plants to tap into deeper water sources when soil moisture is low at shallow depths.

  15. Nitrogen limitation of microbial decomposition in a grassland under elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Hu, S; Chapin, F S; Firestone, M K; Field, C B; Chiariello, N R

    2001-01-11

    Carbon accumulation in the terrestrial biosphere could partially offset the effects of anthropogenic CO2 emissions on atmospheric CO2. The net impact of increased CO2 on the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems is unclear, however, because elevated CO2 effects on carbon input to soils and plant use of water and nutrients often have contrasting effects on microbial processes. Here we show suppression of microbial decomposition in an annual grassland after continuous exposure to increased CO2 for five growing seasons. The increased CO2 enhanced plant nitrogen uptake, microbial biomass carbon, and available carbon for microbes. But it reduced available soil nitrogen, exacerbated nitrogen constraints on microbes, and reduced microbial respiration per unit biomass. These results indicate that increased CO2 can alter the interaction between plants and microbes in favour of plant utilization of nitrogen, thereby slowing microbial decomposition and increasing ecosystem carbon accumulation. PMID:11196641

  16. Engineering the use of green plants to reduce produced water disposal volume.

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchman, R.; Mollock, G. N.; Negri, M. C.; Settle, T.

    1998-01-29

    In 1990, the Laboratory began an investigation into biological approaches for the reduction of water produced from oil and gas wells. In the spring of 1995, the Company began an on-site experiment at an oil/gas lease in Oklahoma using one of these approaches. The process, known as phytoremediation, utilizes the ability of certain salt tolerant plants to draw the produced water through their roots, transpire the water from their leaves, and thereby reduce overall water disposal volumes and costs. At the Company experimental site, produced water flows through a trough where green plants (primarily cordgrass) have been planted in pea gravel. The produced water is drawn into the plant through its roots, evapotranspirates and deposits a salt residue on the plant leaves. The plant leaves are then harvested and used by a local rancher as cattle feed. The produced water is tested to assure it contains nothing harmful to cattle. In 1996, the Company set up another trough to compare evaporation rates using plants versus using an open container without plants. Data taken during all four seasons (water flow rate, temperature, pH, and conductivity) have shown that using plants to evapotranspirate produced water is safe, more cost effective than traditional methods and is environmentally sound.

  17. Georgia-Pacific Palatka Plant Uses Thermal Pinch Analysis and Evaluates Water Reduction in Plant-Wide Energy Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    2002-12-01

    This OIT BestPractices Case Study describes the methods and results used in a plant-wide assessment at a Georgia-Pacific paper mill in Palatka, FL. Assessment personnel recommended several projects, which, if implemented, have the potential to save the plant more than 729,000 MMBtu per year and $2.9 million per year. In addition, the plant could reduce water use by 2,100 gallons per minute.

  18. Management intensity alters decomposition via biological pathways

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wickings, Kyle; Grandy, A. Stuart; Reed, Sasha; Cleveland, Cory

    2011-01-01

    Current conceptual models predict that changes in plant litter chemistry during decomposition are primarily regulated by both initial litter chemistry and the stage-or extent-of mass loss. Far less is known about how variations in decomposer community structure (e.g., resulting from different ecosystem management types) could influence litter chemistry during decomposition. Given the recent agricultural intensification occurring globally and the importance of litter chemistry in regulating soil organic matter storage, our objectives were to determine the potential effects of agricultural management on plant litter chemistry and decomposition rates, and to investigate possible links between ecosystem management, litter chemistry and decomposition, and decomposer community composition and activity. We measured decomposition rates, changes in litter chemistry, extracellular enzyme activity, microarthropod communities, and bacterial versus fungal relative abundance in replicated conventional-till, no-till, and old field agricultural sites for both corn and grass litter. After one growing season, litter decomposition under conventional-till was 20% greater than in old field communities. However, decomposition rates in no-till were not significantly different from those in old field or conventional-till sites. After decomposition, grass residue in both conventional- and no-till systems was enriched in total polysaccharides relative to initial litter, while grass litter decomposed in old fields was enriched in nitrogen-bearing compounds and lipids. These differences corresponded with differences in decomposer communities, which also exhibited strong responses to both litter and management type. Overall, our results indicate that agricultural intensification can increase litter decomposition rates, alter decomposer communities, and influence litter chemistry in ways that could have important and long-term effects on soil organic matter dynamics. We suggest that future efforts to more accurately predict soil carbon dynamics under different management regimes may need to explicitly consider how changes in litter chemistry during decomposition are influenced by the specific metabolic capabilities of the extant decomposer communities.

  19. Estimating spatially distributed soil water content at small watershed scales based on decomposition of temporal anomaly and time stability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, W.; Si, B. C.

    2015-07-01

    Soil water content (SWC) at watershed scales is crucial to rainfall-runoff response. A model was used to decompose spatiotemporal SWC into time-stable pattern (i.e., temporal mean), space-invariant temporal anomaly, and space-variant temporal anomaly. This model was compared with a previous model that decomposes spatiotemporal SWC into spatial mean and spatial anomaly. The space-variant temporal anomaly or spatial anomaly was further decomposed using the empirical orthogonal function for estimating spatially distributed SWC. These two models are termed temporal anomaly (TA) model and spatial anomaly (SA) model, respectively. We aimed to test the hypothesis that underlying (i.e., time-invariant) spatial patterns exist in the space-variant temporal anomaly at the small watershed scale, and to examine the advantages of the TA model over the SA model in terms of estimation of spatially distributed SWC. For this purpose, a SWC dataset of near surface (0-0.2 m) and root zone (0-1.0 m) from a small watershed scale in the Canadian prairies was analyzed. Results showed that underlying spatial patterns exist in the space-variant temporal anomaly because of the permanent controls of "static" factors such as depth to the CaCO3 layer and organic carbon content. Combined with time stability analysis, the TA model improved estimation of spatially distributed SWC over the SA model because the latter failed to capture the space-variant temporal anomaly which accounted for non-negligible amounts of spatial variance in SWC. The outperformance was greater when SWC deviated from intermediate conditions, especially for dry conditions. Therefore, the TA model has potential to construct a spatially distributed SWC at watershed scales from remote sensed SWC.

  20. Estimating spatially distributed soil water content at small watershed scales based on decomposition of temporal anomaly and time stability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, W.; Si, B. C.

    2016-02-01

    Soil water content (SWC) is crucial to rainfall-runoff response at the watershed scale. A model was used to decompose the spatiotemporal SWC into a time-stable pattern (i.e., temporal mean), a space-invariant temporal anomaly, and a space-variant temporal anomaly. The space-variant temporal anomaly was further decomposed using the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) for estimating spatially distributed SWC. This model was compared to a previous model that decomposes the spatiotemporal SWC into a spatial mean and a spatial anomaly, with the latter being further decomposed using the EOF. These two models are termed the temporal anomaly (TA) model and spatial anomaly (SA) model, respectively. We aimed to test the hypothesis that underlying (i.e., time-invariant) spatial patterns exist in the space-variant temporal anomaly at the small watershed scale, and to examine the advantages of the TA model over the SA model in terms of the estimation of spatially distributed SWC. For this purpose, a data set of near surface (0-0.2 m) and root zone (0-1.0 m) SWC, at a small watershed scale in the Canadian Prairies, was analyzed. Results showed that underlying spatial patterns exist in the space-variant temporal anomaly because of the permanent controls of static factors such as depth to the CaCO3 layer and organic carbon content. Combined with time stability analysis, the TA model improved the estimation of spatially distributed SWC over the SA model, especially for dry conditions. Further application of these two models demonstrated that the TA model outperformed the SA model at a hillslope in the Chinese Loess Plateau, but the performance of these two models in the GENCAI network (˜ 250 km2) in Italy was equivalent. The TA model can be used to construct a high-resolution distribution of SWC at small watershed scales from coarse-resolution remotely sensed SWC products.

  1. Coupled Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Analysis of Water Along the Soil-Plant- Atmosphere Continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z.; Webb, E. A.; Longstaffe, F. J.

    2008-12-01

    The oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of water within a plant vary with transpiration rates and the isotopic composition of soil water. Both of these parameters are affected by temperature and relative humidity. A controlled-temperature, growth-chamber experiment was conducted to determine the relationships among temperature, relative humidity, soil water evaporation and plant-water isotope composition in cattails and horsetails. Typha, a cattail species that grows in wetland conditions, and Equisetum, a horsetail species that prefers dry soils, were each grown in four chambers at 15, 20, 25 and 30 degrees Celsius. The oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of watering water, soil water, vapour in the growth chambers and plant water from the leaves and stems were analyzed throughout the eight-month long artificial growing season. Although the oxygen isotope composition of the watering water remained constant, the soil water, atmospheric vapour and plant water were progressively enriched in oxygen-18 and deuterium in each of the four chambers from low to high temperatures as a result of increasing evaporation. The oxygen isotope composition of plant water along the length of a single stem or leaf was increasingly enriched in the heavier isotopes towards the apex. There was no significant difference in the magnitude of this trend between species. These results indicate that the isotopic composition of plant water is primarily controlled by environmental conditions. The oxygen isotope composition of the water vapour in the growing chamber increased with temperature, consistent with equilibration between the vapour and the oxygen-18 enriched soil and plant water reservoirs. The magnitude and interaction of these variables, as measured for these modern samples of cattails and horsetails, should be useful in calibrating paleoclimate proxies based on fossilized plant materials (e.g., cellulose, phytoliths).

  2. Efficacy of aqueous plant extract in disinfecting water of different physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Kirui, J K; Kotut, K; Okemo, P O

    2015-09-01

    This study explored the possibility of disinfecting water using aqueous extracts of medicinal plants. Seven medicinal plants used by Samburu herbalists for the treatment of stomach illnesses were investigated for water disinfection. Aqueous extracts of the dried powdered plant material were directly used to treat the water samples collected. Efficacy of water treatment with medicinal plants expressed as percentage reduction in bacterial colonies revealed that Acacia nilotica extract with a mean percentage reduction of 99.86% was the most effective at reducing the number of bacterial colonies. Albizia anthelmintica extract with a mean of 9.47% was the least effective at reducing the number of bacterial colonies. The study also revealed a possible interaction between plant extracts and water source (P<0.05, df=54). The results obtained in this study point out a possibility of using aqueous extracts from A. nilotica in disinfecting water of different physicochemical properties. PMID:26322770

  3. [Pilot-scale study on riparian mixed plant zones treating polluted river water].

    PubMed

    Li, Rui-hua; Guan, Yun-tao; He, Miao; Hu, Hong-yin; Jiang, Zhan-peng

    2006-04-01

    The polluted river water is treated with pilot-scale riparian zones of no aquatic plant, Vetiveria zizanioides + submerged plants, and weed+ Typha angustifolia L. + Phragmites communis. It is shown that the vegetation water zones are better than the no vegetation water zone and Vetiveria zizanioides + submerged plants zone is the best in improving water quality. The average removals of the Vetiveria zizanioides + submerged plant zone is 43.5% COD, 71.1% ammonia and 69.3% total phosphorus respectively. The dissolved oxygen (DO) and temperature of effluents from the three water zones are also investigated. It shows that DO of effluent from the vegetation zones are more stable than that of effluent from the no vegetation zone, and the temperature of the effluent from the vegetation zones are lower than that from the no vegetation zones. The submerged plants have special role in water quality improvement, and should be studied further. PMID:16767981

  4. Water relations in the interaction of foliar bacterial pathogens with plants.

    PubMed

    Beattie, Gwyn A

    2011-01-01

    This review examines the many ways in which water influences the relations between foliar bacterial pathogens and plants. As a limited resource in aerial plant tissues, water is subject to manipulation by both plants and pathogens. A model is emerging that suggests that plants actively promote localized desiccation at the infection site and thus restrict pathogen growth as one component of defense. Similarly, many foliar pathogens manipulate water relations as one component of pathogenesis. Nonvascular pathogens do this using effectors and other molecules to alter hormonal responses and enhance intercellular watersoaking, whereas vascular pathogens use many mechanisms to cause wilt. Because of water limitations on phyllosphere surfaces, bacterial colonists, including pathogens, benefit from the protective effects of cellular aggregation, synthesis of hygroscopic polymers, and uptake and production of osmoprotective compounds. Moreover, these bacteria employ tactics for scavenging and distributing water to overcome water-driven barriers to nutrient acquisition, movement, and signal exchange on plant surfaces. PMID:21438680

  5. Volatilization of selenium from astragalus plants irrigated with selenium-laden water. Open file report

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, D.J.; Lujan, M.J.; Ary, T.S.

    1989-01-01

    Living plants of Astragalus bisulcatus and Atriplex canescens were irrigated with solutions containing selenium to investigate the plants' ability to selectively remove selenium from selenium-contaminated water. The plants were grown from seed in an indoor environment and harvested for analysis at the end of a typical 7-month growing season. Of the total selenium applied to soil in which the plants were grown, only about 1% was incorporated in plant tissues of Astragalus, but approximately 18% of applied selenium was dissipated into the air from the living plants. Atriplex plants did not absorb or dissipate detectable amounts of selenium.

  6. Evaluation of Effectiveness Technological Process of Water Purification Exemplified on Modernized Water Treatment Plant at Otoczna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanowska, Joanna; Jakubus, Monika

    2014-12-01

    The article presents the work of the Water Treatment Plant in the town of Otoczna, located in the Wielkopolska province, before and after the modernization of the technological line. It includes the quality characteristics of the raw water and treated water with particular emphasis on changes in the quality indicators in the period 2002 -2012 in relation to the physicochemical parameters: the content of total iron and total manganese, the ammonium ion as well as organoleptic parameters(colour and turbidity). The efficiency of technological processes was analysed, including the processes of bed start up with chalcedonic sand to remove total iron and manganese and ammonium ion. Based on the survey, it was found that the applied modernization helped solve the problem of water quality, especially the removal of excessive concentrations of iron, manganese and ammonium nitrogen from groundwater. It has been shown that one year after modernization of the technological line there was a high reduction degree of most parameters, respectively for the general iron content -99%, general manganese - 93% ammonia - 93%, turbidity - 94%. It has been proved, that chalcedonic turned out to be better filter material than quartz sand previously used till 2008. The studies have confirmed that the stage of modernization was soon followed by bed start-up for removing general iron from the groundwater. The stage of manganese removal required more time, about eight months for bed start-up. Furthermore, the technological modernization contributed to the improvement of the efficiency of the nitrification process.

  7. Geographic, technologic, and economic analysis of using reclaimed water for thermoelectric power plant cooling.

    PubMed

    Stillwell, Ashlynn S; Webber, Michael E

    2014-04-15

    Use of reclaimed water-municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent-in nonpotable applications can be a sustainable and efficient water management strategy. One such nonpotable application is at thermoelectric power plants since these facilities require cooling, often using large volumes of freshwater. To evaluate the geographic, technologic, and economic feasibility of using reclaimed water to cool thermoelectric power plants, we developed a spatially resolved model of existing power plants. Our model integrates data on power plant and municipal wastewater treatment plant operations into a combined geographic information systems and optimization approach to evaluate the feasibility of cooling system retrofits. We applied this broadly applicable methodology to 125 power plants in Texas as a test case. Results show that sufficient reclaimed water resources exist within 25 miles of 92 power plants (representing 61% of capacity and 50% of generation in our sample), with most of these facilities meeting both short-term and long-term water conservation cost goals. This retrofit analysis indicates that reclaimed water could be a suitable cooling water source for thermoelectric power plants, thereby mitigating some of the freshwater impacts of electricity generation. PMID:24625241

  8. Temperature, oxygen, and vegetation controls on decomposition in a James Bay peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philben, Michael; Holmquist, James; MacDonald, Glen; Duan, Dandan; Kaiser, Karl; Benner, Ronald

    2015-06-01

    The biochemical composition of a peat core from James Bay Lowland, Canada, was used to assess the extent of peat decomposition and diagenetic alteration. Our goal was to identify environmental controls on peat decomposition, particularly its sensitivity to naturally occurring changes in temperature, oxygen exposure time, and vegetation. All three varied substantially during the last 7000 years, providing a natural experiment for evaluating their effects on decomposition. The bottom 50 cm of the core formed during the Holocene Climatic Optimum (~7000-4000 years B.P.), when mean annual air temperature was likely 1-2C warmer than present. A reconstruction of the water table level using testate amoebae indicated oxygen exposure time was highest in the subsequent upper portion of the core between 150 and 225 cm depth (from ~2560 to 4210 years B.P.) and the plant community shifted from mostly Sphagnum to vascular plant dominance. Several independent biochemical indices indicated that decomposition was greatest in this interval. Hydrolysable amino acid yields, hydroxyproline yields, and acid:aldehyde ratios of syringyl lignin phenols were higher, while hydrolysable neutral sugar yields and carbon:nitrogen ratios were lower in this zone of both vascular plant vegetation and elevated oxygen exposure time. Thus, peat formed during the Holocene Climatic Optimum did not appear to be more extensively decomposed than peat formed during subsequent cooler periods. Comparison with a core from the West Siberian Lowland, Russia, indicates that oxygen exposure time and vegetation are both important controls on decomposition, while temperature appears to be of secondary importance. The low apparent sensitivity of decomposition to temperature is consistent with recent observations of a positive correlation between peat accumulation rates and mean annual temperature, suggesting that contemporary warming could enhance peatland carbon sequestration, although this could be offset by an increasing contribution of vascular plants to the vegetation.

  9. A Series RCL Circuit Theory for Analyzing Non-Steady-State Water Uptake of Maize Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jie; Yu, Gui-Rui; Nakayama, Keiichi

    2014-10-01

    Understanding water uptake and transport through the soil-plant continuum is vital for ecosystem management and agricultural water use. Plant water uptake under natural conditions is a non-steady transient flow controlled by root distribution, plant configuration, soil hydraulics, and climatic conditions. Despite significant progress in model development, a mechanistic description of transient water uptake has not been developed or remains incomplete. Here, based on advanced electrical network theory (RLC circuit theory), we developed a non-steady state biophysical model to mechanistically analyze the fluctuations of uptake rates in response to water stress. We found that the non-steady-state model captures the nature of instantaneity and hysteresis of plant water uptake due to the considerations of water storage in plant xylem and coarse roots (capacitance effect), hydraulic architecture of leaf system (inductance effect), and soil-root contact (fuse effect). The model provides insights into the important role of plant configuration and hydraulic heterogeneity in helping plants survive an adverse environment. Our tests against field data suggest that the non-steady-state model has great potential for being used to interpret the smart water strategy of plants, which is intrinsically determined by stem size, leaf size/thickness and distribution, root system architecture, and the ratio of fine-to-coarse root lengths.

  10. Estimating plant available water for general crop simulations in ALMANAC/APEX/EPIC/SWAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Process-based simulation models ALMANAC/APEX/EPIC/SWAT contain generalized plant growth subroutines to predict biomass and crop yield. Environmental constraints typically restrict plant growth and yield. Water stress is often an important limiting factor; it is calculated as the sum of water use f...

  11. A series RCL circuit theory for analyzing non-steady-state water uptake of maize plants.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jie; Yu, Gui-Rui; Nakayama, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    Understanding water uptake and transport through the soil-plant continuum is vital for ecosystem management and agricultural water use. Plant water uptake under natural conditions is a non-steady transient flow controlled by root distribution, plant configuration, soil hydraulics, and climatic conditions. Despite significant progress in model development, a mechanistic description of transient water uptake has not been developed or remains incomplete. Here, based on advanced electrical network theory (RLC circuit theory), we developed a non-steady state biophysical model to mechanistically analyze the fluctuations of uptake rates in response to water stress. We found that the non-steady-state model captures the nature of instantaneity and hysteresis of plant water uptake due to the considerations of water storage in plant xylem and coarse roots (capacitance effect), hydraulic architecture of leaf system (inductance effect), and soil-root contact (fuse effect). The model provides insights into the important role of plant configuration and hydraulic heterogeneity in helping plants survive an adverse environment. Our tests against field data suggest that the non-steady-state model has great potential for being used to interpret the smart water strategy of plants, which is intrinsically determined by stem size, leaf size/thickness and distribution, root system architecture, and the ratio of fine-to-coarse root lengths. PMID:25335512

  12. Common mycorrhizal networks provide a potential pathway for the transfer of hydraulically lifted water between plants.

    PubMed

    Egerton-Warburton, Louise M; Querejeta, Jos Ignacio; Allen, Michael F

    2007-01-01

    Plant roots may be linked by shared or common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs) that constitute pathways for the transfer of resources among plants. The potential for water transfer by such networks was examined by manipulating CMNs independently of plant roots in order to isolate the role(s) of ectomycorrhizal (EM) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) networks in the plant water balance during drought (soil water potential -5.9 MPa). Fluorescent tracer dyes and deuterium-enriched water were used to follow the pathways of water transfer from coastal live oak seedlings (Quercus agrifolia Nee; colonized by EM and AMF) conducting hydraulic lift (HL) into the roots of water-stressed seedlings connected only by EM (Q. agrifolia) or AMF networks (Q. agrifolia, Eriogonum fasciculatum Benth., Salvia mellifera Greene, Keckiella antirrhinoides Benth). When connected to donor plants by hyphal linkages, deuterium was detected in the transpiration flux of receiver oak plants, and dye-labelled extraradical hyphae, rhizomorphs, mantles, and Hartig nets were observed in receiver EM oak roots, and in AMF hyphae of Salvia. Hyphal labelling was scarce in Eriogonum and Keckiella since these species are less dependent on AMF. The observed patterns of dye distribution also indicated that only a small percentage of mycorrhizal roots and extraradical hyphae were involved with water transfer among plants. Our results suggest that the movement of water by CMNs is potentially important to plant survival during drought, and that the functional ecophysiological traits of individual mycorrhizal fungi may be a component of this mechanism. PMID:17350936

  13. Improvement of growth rate of plants by bubble discharge in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahata, Junichiro; Takaki, Koichi; Satta, Naoya; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Fujio, Takuya; Sasaki, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    The effect of bubble discharge in water on the growth rate of plants was investigated experimentally for application to plant cultivation systems. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea), radish (Raphanus sativus var. sativus), and strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) were used as specimens to clarify the effect of the discharge treatment on edible parts of the plants. The specimens were cultivated in pots filled with artificial soil, which included chicken manure charcoal. Distilled water was sprayed on the artificial soil and drained through a hole in the pots to a water storage tank. The water was circulated from the water storage tank to the cultivation pots after 15 or 30 min discharge treatment on alternate days. A magnetic compression-type pulsed power generator was used to produce the bubble discharge with a repetition rate of 250 pps. The plant height in the growth phase and the dry weight of the harvested plants were improved markedly by the discharge treatment in water. The soil and plant analyzer development (SPAD) value of the plants also improved in the growth phase of the plants. The concentration of nitrate nitrogen, which mainly contributed to the improvement of the growth rate, in the water increased with the discharge treatment. The Brix value of edible parts of Fragaria × ananassa increased with the discharge treatment. The inactivation of bacteria in the water was also confirmed with the discharge treatment.

  14. A Series RCL Circuit Theory for Analyzing Non-Steady-State Water Uptake of Maize Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Jie; Yu, Gui-Rui; Nakayama, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    Understanding water uptake and transport through the soil-plant continuum is vital for ecosystem management and agricultural water use. Plant water uptake under natural conditions is a non-steady transient flow controlled by root distribution, plant configuration, soil hydraulics, and climatic conditions. Despite significant progress in model development, a mechanistic description of transient water uptake has not been developed or remains incomplete. Here, based on advanced electrical network theory (RLC circuit theory), we developed a non-steady state biophysical model to mechanistically analyze the fluctuations of uptake rates in response to water stress. We found that the non-steady-state model captures the nature of instantaneity and hysteresis of plant water uptake due to the considerations of water storage in plant xylem and coarse roots (capacitance effect), hydraulic architecture of leaf system (inductance effect), and soil-root contact (fuse effect). The model provides insights into the important role of plant configuration and hydraulic heterogeneity in helping plants survive an adverse environment. Our tests against field data suggest that the non-steady-state model has great potential for being used to interpret the smart water strategy of plants, which is intrinsically determined by stem size, leaf size/thickness and distribution, root system architecture, and the ratio of fine-to-coarse root lengths. PMID:25335512

  15. RESPONSES OF WETLAND PLANTS TO EFFLUENTS IN WATER & SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Responses of two wetland vascular plants, Echinochloa crusgalli and Sesbania macrocarpa, exposed to effluents from a coke plant, a pulp mill, a wastewater treatment plant, and the herbicide, hexazinone, were measured in three types of tests: seed germination and early growth, see...

  16. POWER PLANT COOLING WATER CHLORINATION IN NORTHERN CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A survey was conducted of chlorination practices at five power plants owned and operated by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company. Frequency and duration of chlorination varied significantly from plant to plant and was controlled analytically by the orthotolidine and/or amperometr...

  17. Evaluation of Irrigation Methods for Highbush Blueberry. I. Growth and Water Requirements of Young Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted in a new field of northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. 'Elliott') to determine the effects of different irrigation methods on growth and water requirements of uncropped plants during the first 2 years after planting. The plants were grown on mulched, raised beds...

  18. Chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator of plant water status in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various methods exist for the measurement of plant water status. Plant breeders value methods that are fast and inexpensive lending themselves to the efficient evaluation of large segregating populations. Chlorophyll fluorescence is a parameter commonly measured by plant physiologists when studying ...

  19. ONE MGD ION EXCHANGE PLANT FOR REMOVAL OF NITRATE FROM WELL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A full scale 1 mgd demonstration plant, using ion exchange, for removal of nitrate from well water was built at McFarland, California. The plant has been performing satisfactorily in the semi-automatic mode since October 1983. Full automation of the plant was completed in June 19...

  20. The Impact of Soil Water Repellency on Hydrological Properties of Soil, the Plant Growing Environment, Irrigation Efficiency and Water Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Demie; Kostka, Stanley; Boerth, Thomas; McMillan, Mica; Ritsema, Coen; Dekker, Louis; Oostindie, Klaas; Stoof, Cathelijne; Wesseling, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Soil water repellency causes at least temporal changes in the hydrological properties of a soil. These changes, among other things, often result in suboptimal growing conditions, reduced crop performance, and/or increased irrigation requirements. Water repellency in soil is more wide spread than previously thought and has been identified in many soil types under a wide array of climatic conditions and cropping systems worldwide. (Dekker et al., 2005) The reduction or loss of soil wettability caused by soil water repellency leads to drastically different hydrological behavior (Dekker et al. 2009), and reduces the ability of the soil to function as expected. Consequences of soil water repellency include increased runoff and preferential flow, reduced plant available water, reduced irrigation efficiency, suboptimal crop performance, increased requirement for water and other inputs, and increased potential for non-point source pollution. (Dekker et al., 2001) This presentation consolidates information on basic hydrological and soil system functions as they relate to the plant growth environment, irrigation efficiency and water conservation, and shows the differences between what happens in soils affected by varying levels of soil water repellency compared to wettable soils or soils where soil surfactants have been used to restore/optimize wettability. The impact on irrigation efficiency and the plant growth environment is also discussed. The conclusion is that the impact of soil water repellency compromises hydrological properties and the plant growth environment in a wider range of conditions than previously recognized and, therefore, deserves consideration in the management of soil and water in crop systems.

  1. Plant nitrogen uptake drives responses of productivity to nitrogen and water addition in a grassland

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Xiao-Tao; Dijkstra, Feike A.; Kong, De-Liang; Wang, Zheng-Wen; Han, Xing-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Increased atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition and altered precipitation regimes have profound impacts on ecosystem functioning in semiarid grasslands. The interactions between those two factors remain largely unknown. A field experiment with N and water additions was conducted in a semiarid grassland in northern China. We examined the responses of aboveground net primary production (ANPP) and plant N use during two contrasting hydrological growing seasons. Nitrogen addition had no impact on ANPP, which may be accounted for by the offset between enhanced plant N uptake and decreased plant nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). Water addition significantly enhanced ANPP, which was largely due to enhanced plant aboveground N uptake. Nitrogen and water additions significantly interacted to affect ANPP, plant N uptake and N concentrations at the community level. Our observations highlight the important role of plant N uptake and use in mediating the effects of N and water addition on ANPP. PMID:24769508

  2. The synthesis, activity, stability and the charge transfer identification of Ag:AgBr/γ-Al2O3 photocatalyst for organic pollutant decomposition in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shan; Si, Zhichun; Weng, Duan

    2015-12-01

    Highly stable Ag:AgBr/γ-Al2O3 photo-catalyst was obtained by dispersing AgBr sol on hollow γ-Al2O3 microsphere. Metallic Ag nanoparticles were in situ generated on AgBr crystals by a photo-reduction method. The activity of catalyst was characterized by MO and phenol decomposition. The light irradiation response, the life times of the photo-induced charges, and the charge separation and transition were determined by the UV-vis diffuse reflection spectra, open circuit voltage decay spectra and transient photocurrent responses. The as-prepared Ag:AgBr/γ-Al2O3 catalyst can response to visible light irradiation. Charge separation was clarified to correlate with electrons transferring from Ag to AgBr surface and the consequent reaction with ads-O2 to generate rad O2- species. It was found that the rad O2- rather than rad OH played a dominant role in the photocatalytic oxidation of MO and phenol in water. However, the electrons trended to transfer from AgBr to Ag intrinsically without light irradiation. Therefore, the electron transfer between Ag and AgBr reaching the dynamic equilibrium was the key factor for obtaining a high stable Ag/AgBr catalyst which can be obtained by optimizing the Ag:AgBr ratio. Loading amount of Ag:AgBr on γ-Al2O3 was optimized to 30 wt.% and the metallic Ag content was stabilized at 9 wt.% of Ag:AgBr catalyst.

  3. Optimal plant water use across temporal scales: bridging eco-hydrological theories and plant eco-physiological responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzoni, S.; Vico, G.; Palmroth, S.; Katul, G. G.; Porporato, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    In terrestrial ecosystems, plant photosynthesis occurs at the expense of water losses through stomata, thus creating an inherent hydrologic constrain to carbon (C) gains and productivity. While such a constraint cannot be overcome, evolution has led to a number of adaptations that allow plants to thrive under highly variable and often limiting water availability. It may be hypothesized that these adaptations are optimal and allow maximum C gain for a given water availability. A corollary hypothesis is that these adaptations manifest themselves as coordination between the leaf photosynthetic machinery and the plant hydraulic system. This coordination leads to functional relations between the mean hydrologic state, plant hydraulic traits, and photosynthetic parameters that can be used as bridge across temporal scales. Here, optimality theories describing the behavior of stomata and plant morphological features in a fluctuating soil moisture environment are proposed. The overarching goal is to explain observed global patterns of plant water use and their ecological and biogeochemical consequences. The problem is initially framed as an optimal control problem of stomatal closure during drought of a given duration, where maximizing the total photosynthesis under limited and diminishing water availability is the objective function. Analytical solutions show that commonly used transpiration models (in which stomatal conductance is assumed to depend on soil moisture) are particular solutions emerging from the optimal control problem. Relations between stomatal conductance, vapor pressure deficit, and atmospheric CO2 are also obtained without any a priori assumptions under this framework. Second, the temporal scales of the model are expanded by explicitly considering the stochasticity of rainfall. In this context, the optimal control problem becomes a maximization problem for the mean photosynthetic rate. Results show that to achieve maximum C gains under these unpredictable rainfall conditions, plant hydraulic traits (xylem and stomatal response to water availability) and morphological features (leaf and sapwood areas) must be coordinated - thus providing an ecohydrological interpretation of observed coordination (or homeostasis) among hydraulic traits. Moreover, the combinations of hydraulic traits and responses to drought that are optimal are found to depend on both total rainfall and its distribution during the growing season. Both drier conditions and more intense rainfall events interspaced by longer dry periods favor plants with high resistance to cavitation and delayed stomatal closure as soils dry. In contrast, plants in mesic conditions benefit from cavitation prevention through earlier stomatal closure. The proposed ecohydrological optimality criteria can be used as analytical tools to interpret variability in plant water use and predict trends in plant productivity and species composition under future climates.

  4. Prevention and mitigation of steam-generator water-hammer events in PWR plants

    SciTech Connect

    Han, J.T.; Anderson, N.

    1982-11-01

    Water hammer in nuclear power plants is an unresolved safety issue under study at the NRC (USI A-1). One of the identified safety concerns is steam generator water hammer (SGWH) in pressurized-water reactor (PWR) plants. This report presents a summary of: (1) the causes of SGWH; (2) various fixes employed to prevent or mitigate SGWH; and (3) the nature and status of modifications that have been made at each operating PWR plant. The NRC staff considers that the issue of SGWH in top feedring designs has been technically resolved. This report does not address technical findings relevant to water hammer in preheat type steam generators. 10 figures, 2 tables.

  5. The use of soil electrical resistivity to monitor plant and soil water relationships in vineyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brillante, L.; Mathieu, O.; Bois, B.; van Leeuwen, C.; Lvque, J.

    2014-10-01

    Soil water availability deeply affects plant physiology. In viticulture it is considered as a major contributor to the "terroir" expression. The assessment of soil water in field conditions is a difficult task especially over large surfaces. New techniques, are therefore required to better explore variations of soil water content in space and time with low disturbance and with great precision. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) meets these requirements, for applications in plant sciences, agriculture and ecology. In this paper, possible techniques to develop models that allow the use of ERT to spatialise soil water available to plants are reviewed. An application of soil water monitoring using ERT in a grapevine plot in Burgundy (north-east of France) during the vintage 2013 is presented. We observed the lateral heterogeneity of ERT derived Fraction of Transpirable Soil Water (FTSW) variations, and differences in water uptake depending on grapevine water status (leaf water potentials measured both at predawn and at solar noon and contemporary to ERT monitoring). Active zones in soils for water movements were identified. The use of ERT in ecophysiological studies, with parallel monitoring of plant water status, is still rare. These methods are promising because they have the potential to reveal a hidden part of a major function of plant development: the capacity to extract water from the soil.

  6. The use of soil electrical resistivity to monitor plant and soil water relationships in vineyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brillante, L.; Mathieu, O.; Bois, B.; van Leeuwen, C.; Lvque, J.

    2015-03-01

    Soil water availability deeply affects plant physiology. In viticulture it is considered a major contributor to the "terroir" effect. The assessment of soil water in field conditions is a difficult task, especially over large surfaces. New techniques are therefore required in order to better explore variations of soil water content in space and time with low disturbance and with great precision. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) meets these requirements for applications in plant sciences, agriculture and ecology. In this paper, possible techniques to develop models that allow the use of ERT to spatialise soil water available to plants are reviewed. An application of soil water monitoring using ERT in a grapevine plot in Burgundy (north-east France) during the vintage 2013 is presented. We observed the lateral heterogeneity of ERT-derived fraction of transpirable soil water (FTSW) variations, and differences in water uptake depend on grapevine water status (leaf water potentials measured both at predawn and at solar noon and contemporary to ERT monitoring). Active zones in soils for water movements were identified. The use of ERT in ecophysiological studies, with parallel monitoring of plant water status, is still rare. These methods are promising because they have the potential to reveal a hidden part of a major function of plant development: the capacity to extract water from the soil.

  7. Basic dye decomposition kinetics in a photocatalytic slurry reactor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun-Hsing; Chang, Hung-Wei; Chern, Jia-Ming

    2006-09-01

    Wastewater effluent from textile plants using various dyes is one of the major water pollutants to the environment. Traditional chemical, physical and biological processes for treating textile dye wastewaters have disadvantages such as high cost, energy waste and generating secondary pollution during the treatment process. The photocatalytic process using TiO2 semiconductor particles under UV light illumination has been shown to be potentially advantageous and applicable in the treatment of wastewater pollutants. In this study, the dye decomposition kinetics by nano-size TiO2 suspension at natural solution pH was experimentally studied by varying the agitation speed (50-200 rpm), TiO2 suspension concentration (0.25-1.71 g/L), initial dye concentration (10-50 ppm), temperature (10-50 degrees C), and UV power intensity (0-96 W). The experimental results show the agitation speed, varying from 50 to 200 rpm, has a slight influence on the dye decomposition rate and the pH history; the dye decomposition rate increases with the TiO2 suspension concentration up to 0.98 g/L, then decrease with increasing TiO2 suspension concentration; the initial dye decomposition rate increases with the initial dye concentration up to a certain value depending upon the temperature, then decreases with increasing initial dye concentration; the dye decomposition rate increases with the UV power intensity up to 64 W to reach a plateau. Kinetic models have been developed to fit the experimental kinetic data well. PMID:16563618

  8. Optimization Under Uncertainty for Water Consumption in a Pulverized Coal Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Juan M. Salazara; Stephen E. Zitney; Urmila M. Diwekara

    2009-01-01

    Pulverized coal (PC) power plants are widely recognized as major water consumers whose operability has started to be affected by drought conditions across some regions of the country. Water availability will further restrict the retrofitting of existing PC plants with water-expensive carbon capture technologies. Therefore, national efforts to reduce water withdrawal and consumption have been intensified. Water consumption in PC plants is strongly associated to losses from the cooling water cycle, particularly water evaporation from cooling towers. Accurate estimation of these water losses requires realistic cooling tower models, as well as the inclusion of uncertainties arising from atmospheric conditions. In this work, the cooling tower for a supercritical PC power plant was modeled as a humidification operation and used for optimization under uncertainty. Characterization of the uncertainty (air temperature and humidity) was based on available weather data. Process characteristics including boiler conditions, reactant ratios, and pressure ratios in turbines were calculated to obtain the minimum water consumption under the above mentioned uncertainties. In this study, the calculated conditions predicted up to 12% in reduction in the average water consumption for a 548 MW supercritical PC power plant simulated using Aspen Plus. Optimization under uncertainty for these large-scale PC plants cannot be solved with conventional stochastic programming algorithms because of the computational expenses involved. In this work, we discuss the use of a novel better optimization of nonlinear uncertain systems (BONUS) algorithm which dramatically decreases the computational requirements of the stochastic optimization.

  9. Optimization under Uncertainty for Water Consumption in a Pulverized Coal Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Juan M. Salazar; Stephen E. Zitney; Urmila Diwekar

    2009-01-01

    Pulverized coal (PC) power plants are widely recognized as major water consumers whose operability has started to be affected by drought conditions across some regions of the country. Water availability will further restrict the retrofitting of existing PC plants with water-expensive carbon capture technologies. Therefore, national efforts to reduce water withdrawal and consumption have been intensified. Water consumption in PC plants is strongly associated to losses from the cooling water cycle, particularly water evaporation from cooling towers. Accurate estimation of these water losses requires realistic cooling tower models, as well as the inclusion of uncertainties arising from atmospheric conditions. In this work, the cooling tower for a supercritical PC power plant was modeled as a humidification operation and used for optimization under uncertainty. Characterization of the uncertainty (air temperature and humidity) was based on available weather data. Process characteristics including boiler conditions, reactant ratios, and pressure ratios in turbines were calculated to obtain the minimum water consumption under the above mentioned uncertainties. In this study, the calculated conditions predicted up to 12% in reduction in the average water consumption for a 548 MW supercritical PC power plant simulated using Aspen Plus. Optimization under uncertainty for these large-scale PC plants cannot be solved with conventional stochastic programming algorithms because of the computational expenses involved. In this work, we discuss the use of a novel better optimization of nonlinear uncertain systems (BONUS) algorithm which dramatically decreases the computational requirements of the stochastic optimization.

  10. Mechanics of water collection in plants via morphology change of conical hairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Fuyu; Komatsubara, Satoshi; Shigezawa, Naoki; Morikawa, Hideaki; Murakami, Yasushi; Yoshino, Katsumi; Yamanaka, Shigeru

    2015-03-01

    In an arid area like the Namib Desert, plants and animals obtain moisture needed for life from mist in the air. There, some plants have hairs or fibrous structures on their leaf surface that reportedly collect fresh water from the air. We examined the morphology and function of leaf hairs of plants during water collection under different circumstances. We studied the water collecting mechanics of several plants having fibrous hairs on their leaves: tomato, balsam pear, Berkheya purpurea, and Lychnis sieboldii. This plant was selected for detailed investigation as a model because this plant originated from dry grassland near Mount Aso in Kyusyu, Japan. We found a unique feature of water collection and release in this plant. The cone-shaped hairs having inner microfibers were reversibly converted to crushed plates that were twisted perpendicularly in dry conditions. Microfibers found in the hairs seem to be responsible for water storage and release. Their unique reciprocal morphological changes, cone-shaped hairs transformed into perpendicularly twisted shapes, depend on the moisture level in the air, and water stored during wet external conditions was released onto the leaf in drier conditions. These morphological changes were recorded as a movie. Simulations explained the formation of the twisted structure. In theoretical analyses, twisted structures were found to give higher mechanical strength. Similar phenomena were found in the other plants described above. These findings pave the way to new bioinspired technology for alleviating global water shortages.

  11. The effects of temperature on decomposition and allelopathic phytotoxicity of boneseed litter.

    PubMed

    Al Harun, Md Abdullah Yousuf; Johnson, Joshua; Uddin, Md Nazim; Robinson, Randall W

    2015-07-01

    Decomposition of plant litter is a fundamental process in ecosystem function, carbon and nutrient cycling and, by extension, climate change. This study aimed to investigate the role of temperature on the decomposition of water soluble phenolics (WSP), carbon and soil nutrients in conjunction with the phytotoxicity dynamics of Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. monilifera (boneseed) litter. Treatments consisted of three factors including decomposition materials (litter alone, litter with soil and soil alone), decomposition periods and temperatures (5-15, 15-25 and 25-35C (night/day)). Leachates were collected on 0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60th days to analyse physico-chemical parameters and phytotoxicity. Water soluble phenolics and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) increased with increasing temperature while nutrients like SO4(-2) and NO3(-1) decreased. Speed of germination, hypocotyl and radical length and weight of Lactuca sativa exposed to leachates were decreased with increasing decomposition temperature. All treatment components had significant effects on these parameters. There had a strong correlation between DOC and WSP, and WSP content of the leachates with radical length of test species. This study identified complex interactivity among temperature, WSP, DOC and soil nutrient dynamics of litter occupied soil and that these factors work together to influence phytotoxicity. PMID:26141872

  12. WATER REUSE IN A WET PROCESS HARDBOARD MANUFACTURING PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Superior Fiber Products, Inc., a manufacturer of smooth on one side wet process hardboard, undertook a project to eliminate any discharge of process water through a program of increasing process water reuse. All but wash up water and some pump seal leak water discharges were elim...

  13. BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND DECOMPOSITION AMONG SEVERAL C3 AND C4 SPECIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding decomposition of plant residue is vital to understanding the cycling of C, N, S and P, both in terms of plant nutrient needs and global change. The rate of residue decomposition reflects decomposition of the degrading substrates. Composition data (e.g. lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose,...

  14. Generation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) at two advanced water treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Lou, Jie-Chung; Huang, Chien-Er; Han, Jia-Yun; Huang, Yu-Jen

    2010-03-01

    A sampling program was conducted to investigate the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) at two advanced water treatment plants in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. The results in this study can be used as a reference for the operational control of water treatment plants and the setting of regulations in Taiwan. Samples of drinking water were collected from two advanced water treatment plants from June 2007 to April 2008. Changes in the concentration of dissolved organic carbon, the trihalomethane formation potential, and the haloacetic acids formation potential were measured in raw water samples. Variations in the concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAA(5)) in finished drinking water were evaluated. The major species of HAA(5) were in the order of dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid and the THM was of trichloromethane. DOC was strongly related to DBPs in raw water. In this investigation, the removal efficiency of DBPs in Plant A (ultrafiltration/reverse osmosis system) exceeded that in Plant B (ozonation/biological activated carbon system). Both advanced water treatment plants greatly improved the quality of drinking water. PMID:19238566

  15. Modeling Plant-Scale Root Zone Water Dynamics in an Oak Savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Miller, G.; Rubin, Y.; Baldocchi, D.

    2007-12-01

    Study of water exchange between soil, plants, and the atmosphere in response to seasonal or periodic droughts is critical to modeling the hydrologic cycle and biogeochemical processes in water-controlled ecosystems. The difficulties in such studies arise from insufficient understanding of the complex interactions between the various processes and their scale-dependence. The purpose of our study is to establish and calibrate a plant biophysical model that couples plant-soil and plant-atmospheric interactions to calculate the water exchange through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum at a plant scale (~10 m2), with the regulation of root water uptake and evaporative fluxes by water deficits and climatic conditions explicitly considered. The complexity required for modeling water dynamics at the plant scale is investigated in this study. We start with coupling a big-leaf biophysical model with a bucket soil water balance model, with soil water loss regulated by soil water availability in a linear fashion. The alternative biophysical models with increasing complexities include the dual-source model that divide the canopy into shaded and sunlit parts and a multi-layer 1-D model with sophisticated radiation transfer and energy balance modules. The level of detail in subsurface water dynamics is adjusted by changing the dimensionality of the Richard's equation. The impact of soil water availability on water loss is modified to a nonlinear pattern as desired. The models are calibrated and compared using a cluster of measurements collected on single trees, which includes multiple soil moisture probes that monitor soil moisture profile vertically and laterally and sap flow sensors at different tree heights for measuring tree transpiration. This study forms the basis for scaling up the water dynamics to a stand scale (~100 to ~10000 m2) or other larger scales.

  16. Wheat streak mosaic: A classic case of plant disease impact on soil water content and crop water-use efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this article, we describe the relationship between wheat streak mosaic (WSM) severity and soil water content as a prime example of the effect of a plant disease on soil water status and its implications for irrigated agriculture. The present study was part of a larger investigation which included...

  17. Wheat Streak Mosaic: A classic case of plant disease impact on soil water content and crop water-use efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this article, we describe the relationship between wheat streak mosaic (WSM) severity and soil water content as a prime example of the effect of a plant disease on soil water status and its implications for irrigated agriculture. The present study was part of a larger investigation which included...

  18. Water impacts of CO2 emission performance standards for fossil fuel-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Talati, Shuchi; Zhai, Haibo; Morgan, M Granger

    2014-10-21

    We employ an integrated systems modeling tool to assess the water impacts of the new source performance standards recently proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for limiting CO2 emissions from coal- and gas-fired power plants. The implementation of amine-based carbon capture and storage (CCS) for 40% CO2 capture to meet the current proposal will increase plant water use by roughly 30% in supercritical pulverized coal-fired power plants. The specific amount of added water use varies with power plant and CCS designs. More stringent emission standards than the current proposal would require CO2 emission reductions for natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) plants via CCS, which would also increase plant water use. When examined over a range of possible future emission standards from 1100 to 300 lb CO2/MWh gross, new baseload NGCC plants consume roughly 60-70% less water than coal-fired plants. A series of adaptation approaches to secure low-carbon energy production and improve the electric power industry's water management in the face of future policy constraints are discussed both quantitatively and qualitatively. PMID:25229670

  19. Withdrawal and consumption of water by thermoelectric power plants in the United States, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diehl, Timothy H.; Harris, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of 2005 and 2010 EIA-reported water use indicated that withdrawal and consumption declined 18 percent and 34 percent, respectively. Alternative water types (types other than freshwater) accounted for approximately 25 percent of all withdrawals in 2010, most of which occurred at plants with once-through cooling systems using saline and brackish tidal waters. Differences among withdrawal and consumption coefficients based on EIA-reported water use for 2005 and 2010 and heat-budget model results for 2010 reveal opportunities for improving consistency and accuracy of reporting of water-use information at the plant scale.

  20. Plant water relations as affected by heavy metal stress: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Barcelo, J.; Poschenrieder, C. )

    1990-01-01

    Metal toxicity causes multiple direct and indirect effects in plants which concern practically all physiological functions. In this review the effects of excess heavy metals and aluminum on those functions which will alter plant water relations are considered. After a brief comment on the metal effects in cell walls and plasma-lemma, and their consequences for cell expansion growth, the influences of high meal availability on the factors which regulate water entry and water exit in plants are considered. Emphasis is placed on the importance of distinguishing between low water availability in mine and serpentine soils and toxicity effects in plants which may impair the ability of a plant to regulate water uptake. Examples on water relations of both plants grown on metalliferous soil and hydroponics are presented, and the effects of metal toxicity on root growth, water transport and transpiration are considered. It is concluded that future research has to focus on the mechanisms of metal-induced inhibition of both root elongation and morphogenetic processes within roots. In order to understand the relation between metal tolerance and drought resistance better, further studies into metal tolerance mechanisms at the cell wall, membrane and vacuolar level, as well as into the mechanisms of drought resistance of plants adapted to metalliferous soils are required. 135 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Coupled Soil-Plant Water Dynamics During Drought-Rewetting Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkmann, T. H.; Haberer, K.; Gessler, A.; Weiler, M.

    2013-12-01

    The predicted climate and land-use changes could have dramatic effects on the water balance of the soil-vegetation system, particularly under frequent drought and subsequent rewetting conditions. Yet, estimation of these effects and associated consequences for the structure and functioning of ecosystems, groundwater recharge, drinking water availability, and the water cycle is currently impeded by gaps in our understanding of the spatiotemporal dynamics of soil water in the rooted soil horizons, the dynamics and driving physiological processes of plant water acquisition, and the transpiration from plant leaves under changing environmental conditions. Combining approaches from the disciplines of plant ecophysiology and soil and isotope hydrology, this work aims to fill this gap by quantitatively characterizing the interaction between plant water use - as affected by rooting patterns and ecophysiology of different plant functional groups - and the water balance of variably complex ecosystems with emphasis on drought and rewetting phases. Results from artificial drought and subsequent rewetting in field experiments using isotopically and dye (Brilliant Blue FCF) labeled water conducted on plots of various surface cover (bare soil, grass, beech, oak, vine) established on luvisol on loess in southwestern Germany are presented. Detailed spatiotemporal insights into the coupled short-term (hours to days) dynamics of soil and plant water during the experiments is facilitated by the application of newly developed techniques for high-frequency in-situ monitoring of stable isotope signatures in both pore water and transpired water using commercial laser-based spectrometers in conjunction with plant ecophysiological, soil physical state, and dye staining observations. On the one hand, the spatiotemporal patterns of plant water uptake are assessed and related to morphological and physiological traits driving plant water uptake, functional adaptations of plants to changes of soil water availability, and intra- and interspecies competition for water resources access. On the other hand, the effects of vegetation cover on infiltration, preferential flow paths characteristics, and soil water storage in the rooted soil horizons are investigated. The results of the experiments and the developed methodology will contribute to an improved understanding of ecosystem response and adaptation to drought and short-term changes in environmental conditions.

  2. Development of a Water Treatment Plant Operation Manual Using an Algorithmic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Counts, Cary A.

    This document describes the steps to be followed in the development of a prescription manual for training of water treatment plant operators. Suggestions on how to prepare both flow and narrative prescriptions are provided for a variety of water treatment systems, including: raw water, flocculation, rapid sand filter, caustic soda feed, alum feed,…

  3. Water deficit stress - host plant nutrient accumulations and associations with phytophagous arthropods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to making otherwise arable regions less, or nonarable, from lack of life-sustaining water, water deficit also affects the extent to which crops are afflicted by arthropod pests. This chapter focuses on the effects of water deficit stress on physical and nutritional aspects of host plants...

  4. Water Use and Drought Resistance of Turfgrass and Ornamental Landscape Plant Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenghini, Jacob Cody

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, turfgrass was estimated to cover approximately 20 million ha of urbanized land. That area is increasing with rapid urbanization, stressing the importance of water conservation in the lawn and landscape industry. Turfgrasses have been identified for replacement by presumably more water-efficient ornamental plant species to conserve water.…

  5. Water Use and Drought Resistance of Turfgrass and Ornamental Landscape Plant Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenghini, Jacob Cody

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, turfgrass was estimated to cover approximately 20 million ha of urbanized land. That area is increasing with rapid urbanization, stressing the importance of water conservation in the lawn and landscape industry. Turfgrasses have been identified for replacement by presumably more water-efficient ornamental plant species to conserve water.

  6. Development of a Water Treatment Plant Operation Manual Using an Algorithmic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Counts, Cary A.

    This document describes the steps to be followed in the development of a prescription manual for training of water treatment plant operators. Suggestions on how to prepare both flow and narrative prescriptions are provided for a variety of water treatment systems, including: raw water, flocculation, rapid sand filter, caustic soda feed, alum feed,

  7. Geratology and decomposition of Spartina versicolor in a brackish Mediterranean marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez, Margarita; Sanmartí, Neus

    2007-08-01

    Most studies on plant decomposition in salt marshes have been carried out in Spartina-dominated marshes in North America. In contrast, few have focused on marshes in Mediterranean systems. Moreover, research into litter decay in estuarine systems has been conducted with plant material collected before natural senescence and death. Here we followed the growth, senescence, leaf fall, and nutrient dynamics of Spartina versicolor to examine litter decay in a Mediterranean coastal system. We studied the dynamics of fungi, meiofauna and algae associated with detached S. versicolor litter, and the effect of the microenvironment (above and underneath wracks of dead Spartina) on decomposition. The exponential decay coefficient rate ( k, day -1) was higher for leaves attached to standing plants (0.0019) than after leaf abscission (0.0002-0.001). The decomposition rate of detached leaves was highly variable and depended on the position of the litter. The large differences in decomposition rates between the two experimental conditions indicate that the microenvironment affected the associated litter community during the initial phase of decay. Water availability and high temperatures over the sediment surface increased the density of meiofauna and epiphyton and decreased fungal biomass during the first 20 days of the experiment. Fungal biomass was at the lower end of reported values, probably as a result of the drier conditions and high salinity in the Mediterranean marsh. Spartina versicolor detritus acted as a nutrient sink by immobilizing large amounts of N and P for at least one year.

  8. A process integration approach to industrial water conservation: a case study for a Chinese steel plant.

    PubMed

    Tian, J R; Zhou, P J; Lv, B

    2008-03-01

    A systematic approach to optimizing water network has traditionally been utilized to exam and plan water conservation in industrial processes. In the present case study, water-pinch technology was used to analyze and optimize the water network of a steel plant near China's Zhangjiakou city. A system design was developed and a limiting constraint (Cl(-) concentration) was identified based on investigations of water quality then the minimum freshwater and wastewater targets were determined without considering water losses. The analysis was then extended by calculating the additional input of freshwater required to balance the actual water losses. A nearest-neighbor algorithm (NNA) was used to distribute the freshwater and recycled water among each of the plant's operations. The results showed that with some reconstruction of the water network, the flow rates of freshwater and wastewater could be decreased by 57.5% and 81.9%, respectively. PMID:17482751

  9. Study on the TOC concentration in raw water and HAAs in Tehran’s water treatment plant outlet

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A sampling has been undertaken to investigate the variation of haloacetic acids formation and nature organic matter through 81 samples were collected from three water treatment plant and three major rivers of Tehran Iran. Changes in the total organic matter (TOC), ultraviolet absorbance (UV254), specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) were measured in raw water samples. Haloacetic acids concentrations were monitored using a new static headspace GC-ECD method without a manual pre-concentration in three water treatment plants. The average concentration of TOC and HAAs in three rivers and three water treatment plants in spring, summer and fall, were 4, 2.41 and 4.03 mg/L and 48.75, 43.79 and 51.07 μg/L respectively. Seasonal variation indicated that HAAs levels were much higher in spring and fall. PMID:24283403

  10. Plant water use efficiency over geological time--evolution of leaf stomata configurations affecting plant gas exchange.

    PubMed

    Assouline, Shmuel; Or, Dani

    2013-01-01

    Plant gas exchange is a key process shaping global hydrological and carbon cycles and is often characterized by plant water use efficiency (WUE - the ratio of CO2 gain to water vapor loss). Plant fossil record suggests that plant adaptation to changing atmospheric CO2 involved correlated evolution of stomata density (d) and size (s), and related maximal aperture, amax . We interpreted the fossil record of s and d correlated evolution during the Phanerozoic to quantify impacts on gas conductance affecting plant transpiration, E, and CO2 uptake, A, independently, and consequently, on plant WUE. A shift in stomata configuration from large s-low d to small s-high d in response to decreasing atmospheric CO2 resulted in large changes in plant gas exchange characteristics. The relationships between gas conductance, gws , A and E and maximal relative transpiring leaf area, (amax ?d), exhibited hysteretic-like behavior. The new WUE trend derived from independent estimates of A and E differs from established WUE-CO2 trends for atmospheric CO2 concentrations exceeding 1,200 ppm. In contrast with a nearly-linear decrease in WUE with decreasing CO2 obtained by standard methods, the newly estimated WUE trend exhibits remarkably stable values for an extended geologic period during which atmospheric CO2 dropped from 3,500 to 1,200 ppm. Pending additional tests, the findings may affect projected impacts of increased atmospheric CO2 on components of the global hydrological cycle. PMID:23844085

  11. Alternative schemes for production of chilled water and cogeneration of electricity at Ashley Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    William Tao Associates, Inc. (TAO) evaluated alternative systems for the generation of Chilled Water at Ashley Plant. The generation of chilled water is necessary for several reason; initially as a source of revenue for St. Louis Thermal Energy Corporation (SLTEC), but more importantly as a necessary component of the Trash-to-Energy Plant proposed north of Ashley Plant. The chilled water system provides a base load for steam generated by the Trash-to-Energy Plant. The benefits include reduced tip-fees to the City of St. Louis, lower cost of energy to customers of both the district steam system and the proposed chilled water system, and will result in lower energy and operating costs for the system than if individual services are provided. This symbiotic relationship is main advantage of the Trash-to-Energy system. TAO provided preliminary engineering of the chilled water line route. The basic assumptions of an initial load of 10,000 tons with an ultimate load of 20,000 tons at a temperature difference of 16{degree}F remain. The findings of the pipeline study, although not incorporated into this document, remain valid. Assumptions include the following: An initial design load of 6000 tons which has the capability of growing to 20,000 tons; Incremental costs of steam generated by Ashley Plant and the Trash-to-Energy plant; The turbine room at Ashley Plant is suitable for gut rehab except for turbines No. 7 and No. 9 which should remain operational; and Daily chilled water flow and annual load profile. The paper describes the findings on 8 alternative chiller systems. Additional studies were performed on the following: chilled water storage; low-pressure absorption chiller for balancing plant steam loads; economizer cycle for chiller system; auxiliary equipment energy source; variable flow water pumps; and comparison to satellite chilled water plant study.

  12. Assessment of the suitability of agricultural waste water for geothermal power plant cooling in the Imperial Valley. 1: Water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, W. F.

    1981-09-01

    Evaluation of the quality of agricultural waste water is the first step in assessing the suitability of agricultural waste water for geothermal power plant cooling. Samples of agricultural waste water from the New and Alamo rivers located in the Imperial Valley of California were analyzed. Determinations of standard water quality parameters, solids content, and inorganic compositions of the solids were made. The results are compared with data on samples of irrigation water and steam condensate also obtained from sites in the Imperial Valley. The data were evaluated in relation to cooling tower operation, waste generation, and waste disposal.

  13. Transport Membrane Condenser for Water and Energy Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Dexin Wang

    2012-03-31

    The new waste heat and water recovery technology based on a nanoporous ceramic membrane vapor separation mechanism has been developed for power plant flue gas application. The recovered water vapor and its latent heat from the flue gas can increase the power plant boiler efficiency and reduce water consumption. This report describes the development of the Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) technology in details for power plant flue gas application. The two-stage TMC design can achieve maximum heat and water recovery based on practical power plant flue gas and cooling water stream conditions. And the report includes: Two-stage TMC water and heat recovery system design based on potential host power plant coal fired flue gas conditions; Membrane performance optimization process based on the flue gas conditions, heat sink conditions, and water and heat transport rate requirement; Pilot-Scale Unit design, fabrication and performance validation test results. Laboratory test results showed the TMC system can exact significant amount of vapor and heat from the flue gases. The recovered water has been tested and proved of good quality, and the impact of SO{sub 2} in the flue gas on the membrane has been evaluated. The TMC pilot-scale system has been field tested with a slip stream of flue gas in a power plant to prove its long term real world operation performance. A TMC scale-up design approach has been investigated and an economic analysis of applying the technology has been performed.

  14. COMMUNITY RESPIRATION OF DECOMPOSING PLANTS IN OREGON ESTUARINE MARSHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Community respiration rates in air and water were measured as indicators of the decomposition rate of dead plant tissue from nine stands of plants in two Oregon estuarine marshes. Respiration rates were low and relatively constant from November to February; during warmer periods ...

  15. New coal plant technologies will demand more water

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, R.; Shuster, E.; McNemar, A.; Stiegel, G.J.; Murphy, J.

    2008-04-15

    Population shifts, growing electricity demand, and greater competition for water resources have heightened interest in the link between energy and water. The US Energy Information Administration projects a 22% increase in US installed generating capacity by 2030. Of the 259 GE of new capacity expected to have come on-line by then, more than 192 GW will be thermoelectric and thus require some water for cooling. Our challenge will become balancing people's needs for power and for water. 1 ref., 7 figs.

  16. Microbial As(III) Oxidation in Water Treatment Plant Filters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic exists in two oxidation states in water - arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)]. As(III) is relatively mobile in water and difficult to remove by arsenic-removal treatment processes. Source waters that contain As(III) must add a strong oxidant such as free chlorine or p...

  17. PACKAGE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS. VOLUME 1. A PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many small and rural water systems have both cost and quality problems. Their unit costs tend to be higher because of the small number of connections they service. As shown by the Community Water Supply Survey of 1969 many small systems have trouble meeting minimal drinking water...

  18. Water uptake efficiency of a maize plant - A simulation case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, Félicien; Leitner, Daniel; Bodner, Gernot; Javaux, Mathieu; Schnepf, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Water uptake by plant roots is a complex mechanism controlled by biological and physical properties of the soil-plant-atmosphere system and affects a major component of the water cycle, transpiration. This uptake of water by plants is one of the major factors of plant development. Since water uptake occurs at the roots, root architecture and hydraulic properties both play a crucial role in plant productivity. A fundamental understanding of the main processes of water uptake will enable better breeding of drought resistant plants and the improvement of irrigation strategies. In this work we analyzed the differences of root water uptake between idealized genotypes of a plant using mathematical modelling The numerical simulations were performed by the R-SWMS software (Javaux et al., 2008). The model describes 3-D water movement in soil by solving Richard's equation with a sink term representing root uptake. Water flow within the root xylem network and between soil and root is modelled based on water pressure gradients and calculated according to Doussan's model. The sink term is calculated by integration of local uptakes within rooted representative elementary volumes of soil. The plant water demand is described by a boundary condition at the base of the shoot. We compare the water uptake efficiency of three types of root system architectures of a maize plant. Two are actual architectures from genotypes showing significant differences regarding the internodal distance, the root growth rate and the insertion angle of their primary roots. The third one is an ideotype according to Lynch of the maize plant designed to perform better in one dry environment. We generated with RootBox five repetitions of these three root systems with the same total root volume and simulated two drought scenarios at the flowering stage (lack of water at the top or at the bottom of the soil domain). We did these simulations for two distinct distributions of local conductivities of root segments based on literature values. This numerical experiment shows significantly different behaviors of the root systems in terms of dynamics of the water uptake, duration of the water stress or cumulative transpiration. The ranking of the maize architectures varied according to the considered drought scenario. The performance of a root system depends on the environment and on its hydraulic architecture suggesting that we always need to take the genotype-environment interaction into account for recommending breeding options. This study also shows that an ideotype must be built for one specific environment: the one we created experienced difficulties to transpire when placed in different conditions it has been designed for. By mathematical simulation we increased the understanding of the most important underlying processes governing water uptake in a root system.

  19. [Decomposition of herbaceous species in reservoir riparian region of Three Gorges Reservoir under flooding condition].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qing-Ye; Xie, Zong-Qiang; Yang, Lin-Sen; Xiong, Gao-Ming; Li, Zhao-Jia; Fan, Da-Yong

    2014-08-01

    A total of 10 annuals and perennials of herbaceous species were investigated in reservoir riparian region of Three Gorges Reservoir. The correlations between the plants' nutrient release rate and the substrate composition and structural matter were studied under flooding condition. The decomposition rates of different species differed substantially, with the maximum of Alternanthera philoxeroides (decomposition rate constant k = 0.0228 d(-1)) and the minimum of Microstegium vimineum (k = 0.0029 d(-1)). There was no significant difference in k between annuals and perennials. There was no significant difference in nitrogen and phosphorus contents between annuals and perennials. Paspalum paspaloides and Bidens pilosa released more nutrients into the water than the other species. A. philoxeroides had a higher potential to release nitrogen while it had little effect on water phosphorus compared with the other species. Total N, P contents in the water were negatively correlated with the plants' decomposition rate, initial C content, C:N ratio, lignin:N ratio, and positively correlated with initial contents of K, Ca and N in plants. PMID:25509072

  20. On the flow and water quality in the Tokyo Bay including effect of cooling water for the Power Generating Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitahara, Kouichi; Wada, Akira; Uehara, Yoshikazu; Fukuoka, Ippei; Kawanaga, Mitsuhito; Takano, Tairyu

    Driving forces of seawater current in the Tokyo Bay have several factors including the tide, the density structure, the river inflow and others. On the other hand, many power plants of total output of 185.4 MW (as of 1995) are located along the coast of the bay, together with a large number of factors which load the sea area with cooling water and heat. Although these facilities might be considered to affect water current in the bay, few studies have been made on the effects which these artificial inputs may exert on water current. The present study reports computation results, using a 3-dimentional current model on effects of water intake and effluent by a possibly increasing number of power plants on the current in the bay. It was concluded that an additional power plant output of 103.1 MW (corresponding to increase of cooling water by 30% and of heat load by 20% from the present levels) might bring about only slight changes except for altered water current and temperature in the vicinities of power plants of which power output were increased. Average temperature rise of 0.1 C was also predicted in the surface water throughout the bay.

  1. Decomposition of Sodium Tetraphenylborate

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-11-20

    The chemical decomposition of aqueous alkaline solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the determination of additives and/or variables which influence NaTBP decomposition. This document describes work aimed at providing better understanding into the relationship of copper (II), solution temperature, and solution pH to NaTPB stability.

  2. Modeling terrestrial carbon and water dynamics across climatic gradients: does plant trait diversity matter?

    PubMed

    Pappas, Christoforos; Fatichi, Simone; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Plant trait diversity in many vegetation models is crudely represented using a discrete classification of a handful of 'plant types' (named plant functional types; PFTs). The parameterization of PFTs reflects mean properties of observed plant traits over broad categories ignoring most of the inter- and intraspecific plant trait variability. Taking advantage of a multivariate leaf-trait distribution (leaf economics spectrum), as well as documented plant drought strategies, we generate an ensemble of hypothetical species with coordinated attributes, rather than using few PFTs. The behavior of these proxy species is tested using a mechanistic ecohydrological model that translates plant traits into plant performance. Simulations are carried out for a range of climates representative of different elevations and wetness conditions in the European Alps. Using this framework we investigate the sensitivity of ecosystem response to plant trait diversity and compare it with the sensitivity to climate variability. Plant trait diversity leads to highly divergent vegetation carbon dynamics (fluxes and pools) and to a lesser extent water fluxes (transpiration). Abiotic variables, such as soil water content and evaporation, are only marginally affected. These results highlight the need for revising the representation of plant attributes in vegetation models. Probabilistic approaches, based on observed multivariate whole-plant trait distributions, provide a viable alternative. PMID:26389742

  3. Paraheliotropism can protect water-stressed bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants against photoinhibition.

    PubMed

    Pastenes, Claudio; Porter, Victor; Baginsky, Cecilia; Horton, Peter; Gonzlez, Javiera

    2004-12-01

    In order to estimate the importance of leaf movements on photosynthesis in well-watered and water-stressed field grown bean cultivars (Arroz Tuscola (AT), Orfeo INIA (OI), Bayos Titan (BT), and Hallados Dorado (HD)), CO2 assimilation, leaf temperature, and capacity for the maximum quantum yield recovery, measured as Fv/Fm, were assessed. Leaf water potential was lower in water-stressed compared to control plants throughout the day. Water status determined a decrease in the CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance as light intensity and temperature increased up to maximal intensities at midday. Both parameters were lower in stressed compared to control plants. Even though high light intensity and water-stress induced stomatal closure is regarded as a photoinhibitory condition, the recovery of variable to maximal fluorescence (Fv/Fm) after 30min of darkness was nearly constant in both water regimes. In fact, higher values were observed in OI and AT when under stress. Photochemical and non-photochemical fluorescence quenching resulted in minor changes during the day and were similar between watered and stressed plants. It is concluded that paraheliotropism, present in the four bean cultivars, efficiently protects stressed plants from photoinhibition in the field and helps maintain leaf temperatures far below the ambient temperatures, however, it may also be responsible for low CO2 assimilation rates in watered plants. PMID:15658802

  4. Water balance altered in cucumber plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Sun, Guomei; Liu, Xiaokang; Zhai, Luchong; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is caused by the infection and growth of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum in the xylem of host plants. The physiological responses of cucumbers that are infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) was studied in pot and hydroponic experiments in a greenhouse. The results showed that although water absorption and stem hydraulic conductance decreased markedly in infected plants, large amounts of red ink accumulated in the leaves of infected cucumber plants. The transpiration rate (E) and stomatal conductance (gs) of the infected plants were significantly reduced, but the E/gs was higher than healthy plants. We further found that there was a positive correlation between leaf membrane injury and E/gs, indicating that the leaf cell membrane injury increased the non-stomatal water loss from infected plants. The fusaric acid (FA), which was detected in the infected plant, resulted in damage to the leaf cell membranes and an increase in E/gs, suggesting that FA plays an important role in non-stomatal water loss. In conclusion, leaf cell membrane injury in the soil-borne Fusarium wilt of cucumber plants induced uncontrolled water loss from damaged cells. FA plays a critical role in accelerating the development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants. PMID:25579504

  5. Water balance altered in cucumber plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Sun, Guomei; Liu, Xiaokang; Zhai, Luchong; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is caused by the infection and growth of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum in the xylem of host plants. The physiological responses of cucumbers that are infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) was studied in pot and hydroponic experiments in a greenhouse. The results showed that although water absorption and stem hydraulic conductance decreased markedly in infected plants, large amounts of red ink accumulated in the leaves of infected cucumber plants. The transpiration rate (E) and stomatal conductance (gs) of the infected plants were significantly reduced, but the E/gs was higher than healthy plants. We further found that there was a positive correlation between leaf membrane injury and E/gs, indicating that the leaf cell membrane injury increased the non-stomatal water loss from infected plants. The fusaric acid (FA), which was detected in the infected plant, resulted in damage to the leaf cell membranes and an increase in E/gs, suggesting that FA plays an important role in non-stomatal water loss. In conclusion, leaf cell membrane injury in the soil-borne Fusarium wilt of cucumber plants induced uncontrolled water loss from damaged cells. FA plays a critical role in accelerating the development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants. PMID:25579504

  6. Responses of wetland plants to effluents in water and sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, G.E.; Weber, D.E.; Nguyen, M.T.; Esry, L.K.

    1991-01-01

    Responses of two wetland vascular plants, Echinochloa crusgalli and Sesbania macrocarpa, exposed to effluents from a coke plant, a pulp mill, a wastewater treatment plant, and the herbicide, hexazinone, were measured in three types of tests: seed germination and early growth, seedling survival and growth in hydroponic culture, and seedling survival and growth in sand and synthetic sediments with clay, silt, and sand, 3, 5, 7.5, or 10% organic contents. There was no effect of effluents or herbicide on germination and survival was affected only by the herbicide. When compared to controls, growth rates were reduced significantly in all tests except for E. crusgalli exposed to effluent from a wastewater treatment plant. There, the effluent stimulated growth in sediments. Increasing concentrations of organic matter in sediments had little effect on toxicity of effluents, but did cause reduced effects of hexazinone.

  7. Physiological, anatomical and leaf hydraulic effects on leaf water ?18O enrichment in different plant species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahmen, A.; Arndt, S. K.; Dawson, T. E.

    2007-12-01

    Stable oxygen isotope ratios (?18O) of plant and source waters are valuable tools in the analysis of water and carbon fluxes at leaf, plant, and ecosystem scales. Recent improvements in mechanistic models have significantly advanced the understanding of isotopic leaf water enrichment, which is an important source of ?18O variability in plants and ecosystems. However, the marked variability in leaf water ?18O values that have been reported for different plant species hampers efforts to interpret and then apply data on leaf water ?18O values for studies conducted at the ecosystem scale. To improve the understanding and application of ?18O values in leaf water, we tested the interplay of physiological, morphological, anatomical and leaf hydraulic properties as drivers of leaf water ?18O values across 17 Eucalyptus species growing in a common garden. We observed large differences in leaf water ?18O across the 17 species. These differences were only partly driven by physiological and leaf morphological differences across species. A sensitivity analysis using state-of-the-art leaf water enrichment models showed that the parameter - effective path length - (L) is of critical importance for the variability of leaf water ?18O across different species. The data show that L can be related to a suite of leaf properties that include physiology, anatomy and hydraulics. Consequently, consideration of leaf properties will significantly improve the interpretation of ?18O values in leaf water across different plant species and will therefore help in the application of ?18O values in carbon and water cycle assessments at both the plant and the ecosystem scale.

  8. Seismicity and seismic response of the Soviet-designed VVER (Water-cooled, Water moderated Energy Reactor) reactor plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, D.C.; Gvildys, J.; Wang, C.Y.; Spencer, B.W.; Sienicki, J.J.; Seidensticker, R.W.; Purvis, E.E. III

    1989-01-01

    On March 4, 1977, a strong earthquake occurred at Vrancea, Romania, about 350 km from the Kozloduy plant in Bulgaria. Subsequent to this event, construction of the unit 2 of the Armenia plant was delayed over two years while seismic features were added. On December 7, 1988, another strong earthquake struck northwest Armenia about 90 km north of the Armenia plant. Extensive damage of residential and industrial facilities occurred in the vicinity of the epicenter. The earthquake did not damage the Armenia plant. Following this event, the Soviet government announced that the plant would be shutdown permanently by March 18, 1989, and the station converted to a fossil-fired plant. This paper presents the results of the seismic analyses of the Soviet-designed VVER (Water-cooled, Water moderated Energy Reactor) plants. Also presented is the information concerning seismicity in the regions where VVERs are located and information on seismic design of VVERs. The reference units are the VVER-440 model V230 (similar to the two units of the Armenia plant) and the VVER-1000 model V320 units at Kozloduy in Bulgaria. This document provides an initial basis for understanding the seismicity and seismic response of VVERs under seismic events. 1 ref., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Spatial and temporal evaluations of estrogenic activity in tap water served by a water plant in Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qiang; Cao, Wen-Cheng; Xu, Liang; Chen, Yong-Zhe; Yun, Luo-Jia; Liu, Ai-Lin; Zhang, Jing; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the spatial and temporal characteristics of estrogenic activities in tap water served by a water plant in Wuhan, China. Tap water samples were monthly collected from the three sampling sites with different distances of distribution network from the plant during April 2010-March 2011: Min (less than 0.1km), Mid (approximately 4km) and Max (approximately 8km). Estrogenic activities of solid phase-extracted tap waters were measured by using recombinant yeast assay incorporated with and without exogenous metabolic activation system (rat liver S9 fractions) and expressed as 17?-estradiol equivalents (EEQ). Pro-estrogenic and estrogenic activity in tap water ranged from 151.4 to 1395.6pg EEQ/L and 35.2 to 1511pg EEQ/L, respectively. Average pro-estrogenic activity (680.3pg EEQ/L) was significantly higher than estrogenic activity (412.8pg EEQ/L) throughout the whole year. The pro-estrogenic activity significantly increased with the extending of distribution network, and was also statistically correlated with water temperature and pH. However, pro-estrogenic and estrogenic activity was not altered across four seasons. Our results suggest that the pro-estrogenic and estrogenic chemicals are present in tap water served by the water plant. PMID:23466145

  10. Invertebrate grazers affect metal/metalloid fixation during litter decomposition.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Jrg; Brackhage, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Plant litter and organic sediments are main sinks for metals and metalloids in aquatic ecosystems. The effect of invertebrates as key species in aquatic litter decomposition on metal/metalloid fixation by organic matter is described only for shredders, but for grazers as another important animal group less is known. Consequently, a laboratory batch experiment was conducted to examine the effect of invertebrate grazers (Lymnaea stagnalis L.) on metal/metalloid fixation/remobilization during aquatic litter decomposition. It could be shown that invertebrate grazers facilitate significantly the formation of smaller sizes of particulate organic matter (POM), as shown previously for invertebrate shredders. The metal/metalloid binding capacity of these smaller particles of POM is higher compared to leaf litter residuals. But element enrichment is not as high as shown previously for the effect by invertebrate shredders. Invertebrate grazers enhance also the mobilization of selected elements to the water, in the range also proven for invertebrate shredders but different for the different elements. Nonetheless invertebrate grazers activity during aquatic litter decomposition leads to a metal/metalloid fixation into leaf litter as part of sediment organic matter. Hence, the effect of invertebrate grazers on metal/metalloid fixation/remobilization contrasts partly with former assessments revealing the possibility of an enhanced metal/metalloid fixation. PMID:25063962

  11. Toxicity tests of effluents with marsh plants in water and sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, G.E.; Weber, D.E.; Simon, T.L.; Brashers, L.K.

    1991-01-01

    Methods are described for toxicity testing of water and sediment with two varieties of the freshwater marsh plant Echinochloa crusgalli (Linneaus) Palisot de Beauvois (Poaceae), and complex effluents. Two tests are described: a seed germination and early seedling growth test in water, and a survival and seedling growth test in natural and synthetic sediments. Effects of effluents from a sewage treatment plant, tannery, textile mill, pulp and paper mill, coking plant and sewage treatment plant included inhibition of germination, chlorophyll synthesis and growth. The tests with rooted marsh plants were sensitive to pollutants and detected toxicity of a range of pollutants in water and sediment. Synthetic sediments similar to natural sediments allowed toxicity tests to be done under carefully controlled conditions of particle size distribution, organic content, pH, electrode potential (Eh) and cation exchange capacity (CEC).

  12. IMPACTS OF COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS ON LOCAL GROUND-WATER SYSTEMS: WISCONSIN POWER PLANT IMPACT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative techniques for simulating the impacts of a coal-fired power plant on the ground-water system of a river flood-plain wetland were developed and tested. Effects related to the construction and operation of the cooling lake and ashpit had the greatest impact. Ground-wat...

  13. A co-beneficial system using aquatic plants: bioethanol production from free-floating aquatic plants used for water purification.

    PubMed

    Soda, S; Mishima, D; Inoue, D; Ike, M

    2013-01-01

    A co-beneficial system using constructed wetlands (CWs) planted with aquatic plants is proposed for bioethanol production and nutrient removal from wastewater. The potential for bioethanol production from aquatic plant biomass was experimentally evaluated. Water hyacinth and water lettuce were selected because of their high growth rates and easy harvestability attributable to their free-floating vegetation form. The alkaline/oxidative pretreatment was selected for improving enzymatic hydrolysis of the aquatic plants. Ethanol was produced with yields of 0.14-0.17 g-ethanol/ g-biomass in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation mode using a recombinant Escherichia coli strain or a typical yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Subsequently, the combined benefits of